State of Indian Agriculture 2012-13 (English)

State of Indian Agriculture 2012-13 (English)
State of Indian Agriculture
2012-13
Government of India
Ministry of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
Directorate of Economics and Statistics
New Delhi
State of Indian Agriculture 2012-13
Contents
Pages
List of Tables
vi
List of Boxes
viii
List of Figures
ix
List of Annexures
xi
List of Abbreviations/Acronyms
1.
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
1
Crop Production
1
Rates of Growth in Area, Production and Yield
2
Growth of Agriculture Sector
6
Regional Variations in Growth
7
Capital Formation in Agriculture
7
Land and Water
9
Irrigation and Water Use Efficiency
13
Inputs for Agricultural Growth
13
Seed and Planting Material
13
Integrated Nutrients Management (INM)
14
Integrated Pest Management
16
Mechanization
16
Labour and Agricultural Wages
17
Agriculture Credit and Insurance
17
Agricultural Extension Services
18
Agricultural Prices and Markets
19
xiii
The Way Forward
21
2.
Natural Resource Management
23
Land & Land Use
23
Challenges
24
Policies & Programmes
24
Way Forward
25
Soil
26
Challenges
26
iii
Policies & Programmes
26
Water Resources
27
Challenges
28
Programmes & Schemes
30
The Way Forward
31
Climate Change
32
Challenges
32
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
32
Drought management
33
Way forward
34
3.
Farm Inputs and Management
35
Seeds and Planting Material
35
Integrated Nutrient Management
42
Integrated Pest Management
48
Farm Machinery and Equipment
51
Labour and Agricultural Wages
55
Agricultural Credit
56
Insurance
60
Extension Services
62
4.
Agricultural Production and Programmes
72
Agricultural Production
72
Programmes and Special Initiatives in Crop Sector
83
National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
83
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
86
Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA)
90
Horticulture: The Growth Driver of Indian Agriculture
91
The Way Forward
98
5.
Agricultural Prices and Markets
99
Agricultural Prices
99
Agricultural Price Policy and MSP
103
Market Intervention and Price Support Schemes
104
Procurement of foodgrains
105
Agricultural Marketing
108
iv
Challenges
111
Way Forward
111
India in Global Agricultural Trade
112
6.
Post-Harvest Management and Value Addition
117
Food Processing Sector
117
Plan Schemes
121
National Mission on Food Processing (NMFP)
126
Challenges
127
The Way Forward
127
7.
Agricultural Research and Education
128
Natural Resource Management
128
Crop Science
130
Horticulture
134
Animal Science
135
Fisheries
139
Agricultural Engineering
143
Agricultural Education
148
8.
Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries
153
Dairying and Livestock Production
153
Challenges
154
The Way Forward
155
Feed and Fodder for Livestock
157
Challenges
158
The way forward
158
Meat and Poultry Sector
159
Challenges
160
The Way Forward
160
Fisheries Sector
160
Challenges
161
The Way Forward
161
163
Annexures
v
List of Tables
Sl. Title
No.
Page
No.
1.1
Production of major crops during the recent years 2
1.2
All India Average Annual Growth Rates of Area, Production and Yield of Principal Crops
3
1.3
Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture & Allied Sectors at constant (2004-05) prices
8
1.4
Distribution of Number of Holdings and Area Operated in India as per Agriculture Census 2010-11
10
1.5
Size Group wise distribution of Average Holdings in the country
11
1.6
Cropping Pattern in India (Area in Million Hectares)
12
3.1
Requirement & Availability of Certified/Quality Seeds of Hybrids
35
3.2
Consumption of Fertilizers in terms of NPK nutrients in India
43
3.3
Consumption of Fertilizers in India
43
3.4
Soil Testing Laboratories sanctioned under National Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility 46
3.5
Bio-pesticides usage
48
3.6
Quality of Pesticides available in the Indian markets
50
3.7
Wage Increase in Agriculture & Non-Agriculture Sector during 2001-11
56
3.8
Institutional credit to Agriculture
57
3.9
Sources of credit to Agriculture Sector
60
4.1
Production of Foodgrains in Recent years
74
4.2
Production of Rice in the Eastern States
74
4.3
Value of Export of Horticulture Commodity
94
4.4
Status of APMC Acts Reforms with respect to Horticulture Produce
96
5.1
Contribution of different groups Food in Inflation ( all segments)
100
5.2
Minimum Support Prices of some of the Major Crops for 2012-13
103
5.3
Central Issue Prices of foodgrains
107
5.4
Top 10 Agricultural exports 113
5.5
Top 10 Agricultural imports
114
vi
6.1
Contribution and Growth of Food Processing Industries 118
6.2
Sector-wise Number of Registered Processing Units
119
6.3
Foreign Direct Investment in Food Processing Sector from April 2007 to May 2012
120
6.4
Persons Employed under Registered Food Processing Industries
120
6.5
Capital Investment in Registered Food Processing Industries
121
8.1
Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGRs) in Production of Milk, Egg, Wool and Meat at All-India Level (%)
154
vii
List of Boxes
Sl. Title
No.
Page
No.
2.1
Land Use in India
23
2.2
Soil Survey Status: SLUSI
27
3.1
Plant Genome Savior Community Awards
37
3.2
Innovative Steps: Farm Crop Management System
63
3.3
Kisan Call Centre (KCC)
66
3.4
Farmers’ Portal
66
4.1
Krishi Karman Awards
73
4.2
Best Practices in Rice Cultivation
75
4.3
Best Practices in Wheat Cultivation
76
4.4
Best Practices adopted in pulses
79
4.5
Best Practices in Oilseeds Cultivation
80
4.6
Best Practices and Achievements in Cotton
82
4.7
Best Practices in Jute Cultivation
83
4.8
Salient Features of the Revised MMA Scheme
90
4.9
Protected Cultivation
93
4.10
Salient achievements under NHM & HMNEH
97
5.1
Reforms in Agricultural Produce Markets Committee (APMC) Act
108
6.1
Components of Food Safety Schemes
123
6.2
Human Resource Development in Food Processing Sector
123
6.3
Achievements of IICPT
124
6.4
Achievements of the NMPPB
124
6.5
Functions and Objectives of the IGPB 125
7.1
Multiple use of water for increasing water productivity – a Case study
130
7.2
Rapeseed mustard in rice fallow in Manipur - A success story
130
7.3
Breeding of high value marine tropical finfish, silver pompano, Trachinotus blochii
142
7.4
Introduction of Trout farming in Sikkim
142
7.5
Fish based production system in seasonally flooded wetlands
143
7.6
Equipment and Technologies developed for aiding Mechanisation
143
7.7
National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM)
149
viii
List of Figures
Sl. Title
No.
Page
No.
1.1(a) All India Average Annual Growth Rates in Area, Production and Yield of major crops during the 11th Plan
4
1.1(b) All India Average Annual Growth Rates in Yield of major crops during the 10th and 11th Plan.
4
1.2
Growth Rates by Economic Activity
6
1.3
Annual Average Growth Rates of Gross State Domestic Product from Agriculture 2007-08 to 2011-12 (at 2004-05 prices)
7
1.4
Rates of growth in Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture Sector
9
1.5
Average size of operational holdings as per different Agriculture Census
11
1.6
Crop-Wise Share (%) in Area
12
1.7
State wise Fertilizer consumption, Kg/Ha
15
2.1Total degraded Land
26
2.2(a) Irrigated Area & Sources of Irrigation
27
2.2(b) Percent of Irrigated Area under different crops
28
2.3
Potential created and utilized in respect of major & medium projects
28
3.1
Applications Received for Registration of Varieties at PPV&FRA 37
3.2
Crop-wise - Registration Certificates issued
37
3.3
Nos. of seed samples received and analyzed
38
3.4
Requirement & availability of seeds in India
39
3.5
Production and Consumption of Seeds in India
39
3.6
Potential benefits of various traits incorporated in the GM crops
40
3.7
Farm Power availability and average yield of foodgrains in India 51
3.8
Number of agricultural tractors and combine harvesters in India 52
3.9
Popular Agricultural Equipment
53
4.1
Share in Value of Projects, Total Value `27447 Crore
87
4.2
Share in Projects, Total Project 5768
87
4.3
Growth Trend in Horticulture Production
91
4.4
Share in Production 92
4.5
Growth in area, production and productivity of fruits
92
ix
4.6
Growth in area, production and productivity of vegetables 93
4.7
Per capita availability of F & V
95
5.1
Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of Food Articles
99
5.2
Trend in Inflation in Food Articles
100
5.3
Per cent Share of Proteins Food, Sugar and Edible Oils in total Food (articles plus products) Inflation
101
5.4 (a) Production, Procurement and procurement as % of production of wheat
105
5.4 (b) Production, Procurement and procurement as % of production of Rice
105
5.5
Uzhawar Santhai in Tamil Nadu
109
5.6
Agricultural Trade as percent of GDP
113
6.1
Growth in FPI, Manufacturing & General Index (Cumulative)
119
x
List of Annexure
Sl. Title
No.
Page
No.
1.1:
Plan-wise Growth Rates (%) by Economic Activity
163
1.2:
Plan Wise GDP Share (%) to Total Economy by Economic Activity
165
1.3:
Plan Wise and Year Wise Share (%) of Public & Private Sector in Gross Capital Formation (GCF)
167
1.4:
Plan Wise and Year Wise share (%) of GCF/Investment
169
1.5:
All India Average Annual Growth Rates of Area, Production and Yield of Principal Crops
171
2.1:
Land Use Classification
172
2.2:
Agriculture Land by use in India
173
2.3:
Trends in Cropping Pattern in India
174
3.1:
All-India Consumption of Fertilizers in Terms of Nutrients (N, P & K)
175
3.2:
Fertilizer Consumption per Hectare in Agricultural Land in Selected Countries
176
3.3:
Consumption of Electricity for Agricultural Purposes
177
3.4:
State-wise Consumption of Electricity for Agriculture purpose in 2009-10
178
3.5:
State-wise Number of Kisan Credit Cards issued up to 31st March 2012
180
3.6:
Production and Consumption of Seed, Fertilizer and Pesticides in India
181
3.7:
State-wise Consumption of Fertilizers
182
3.8:
State-wise Estimated Consumption of Fertiliser per Hectare
184
3.9:
Crop-wise Distribution of Certified/ Quality Seeds
186
3.10:
Flow of Institutional Credit to Agriculture Sector
188
3.11:
National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), Season wise Cumulative up to 2011-12
189
4.1:
All India Estimates of Area of Foodgrains
191
4.2:
All India Estimates of Production of Foodgrains
193
4.3:
All India Estimates of Yields of Foodgrains
195
4.4:
Area under Commercial Crops
197
4.5:
Production of Commercial Crops
198
4.6:
Yield of Commercial Crops
199
4.7:
All India Estimates of Area under Horticulture Crops
200
xi
4.8:
All India Estimates of Production of Horticulture Crops
203
4.9:
Per Capita Net Availability of Foodgrains (Grams Per Day) in India
207
4.10:
Per capita Consumption of Conventional Food Items
208
4.11:
Per capita Consumption of Emerging Food Items
209
4.12:
Percentage Composition of Consumer Expenditure
210
5.1:
Minimum Support Prices
211
5.2:
Top 10 Agricultural Exports Items
212
5.3:
Top 10 Agricultural Import Items
213
6.1:
List of ICAR/DARE Institutions
214
6.2:
List of Agricultural Universities
217
7.1:
Production of Milk, Eggs, Wool and Meat- All India
220
xii
List of Abbreviations/Acronyms
Abbreviation
Meaning
A.I.
Artificial Insemination
AAGR
Average Annual Growth Rate
AAS
Agro-Meteorological Advisory Service
ACA
Additional Central Assistance Scheme
ACABC
Agri-Clinics and Agri-Business Centres
ADB
Asian Development Bank
ADWDRS
Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme
AFC
Agricultural Finance Corporation
AGDP
Agriculture Gross Domestic Product
AIC
Agricultural Insurance Company
AICRP
All India Co-ordinated Research Project
AICVIP
All India Co-ordinated Vegetable Improvement Project
AIR
All India Radio
Al
Aluminium
AMDP
Accelerated Maize Development Programme
AMFUs
Agro-Met Field Units
AMIGS
Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardization
Scheme
AMIS
Agricultural Market Information System
APMC
Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee
ARU
Audience Research Unit
ASEAN
Association of South East Asian Nations
ATMA
Agriculture Technology Management Agency
AU
Agricultural University
AWS
Automatic Weather Stations
BB
Bacterial Blight
BCM
Billion Cubic Meters
BGREI
Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India
BIMSTEC
Bengal Initiative
Cooperation
BISA
Borlaug Institute of South Asia
BMC
Bulk Milk Cooler
BPD
Business Planning and Development (units)
BRICS
Brazil, Russia, India, China & South Africa
for
xiii
Multi-Sectoral
Technical
and
Economic
Bt
Bacillus thuringenesis
BTT
Block Technology Team
Ca
Calcium
CA
Controlled Atmosphere
CAA&A
Controller of Aid Accounts & Audit
CACP
Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices
CAFTs
Centre of Advanced Faculty Training
CAGR
Compound Annual Growth Rates
CAV
Chicken Anaemia Virus
CAZRI
Central Arid Zone Research Institute
CBA
Capture Based Aquaculture
CCEA
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
CDAP
Comprehensive District Agriculture Plan
CECA
Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement
CEO
Chief Executive Officer
CEPA
Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement
CFBs
Corrugated Fibreboard Boxes
CFDO
Central Fodder Development Organization
CFSPF
Central Fodder Seed Production Farm
CGMS
Cytoplasmic Male Sterility
CIAE
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
CIB&RC
Central Insecticides Board & Registration Committee
CIFE
Central Institute of Fisheries Education
CIFRI
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute
CIFT
Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
CIL
Central Insecticides Laboratory
CIMMYT
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre
CIPMCs
Central Integrated Pest Management Centers
CLRDV
Cotton Leaf Roll Dwarf Virus
CMTP
Central Minikit Testing Programme
CMU
Central Monitoring Unit
CORD-M
Centre for Organizational Research & Development in Management
CRICOT
Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology
CRIDA
Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture
CRRI
Central Rice Research Institute
CSC
Central Seed Committee
xiv
CSO
Central Statistical Organisation
CSSRI
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
CSTLs
Central Seed Testing Laboratories
CSWCRTI
Central Soil and water Conservation Research and Training Institute
CT
Computed Tomography
CV
Coefficient of Variation
CWWG
Crop Weather Watch Group
DAAPs
District Agriculture Action Plans
DAC
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
DADF
Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries
DAP
Di-ammonium Phosphate
DARE
Department of Agricultural Research and Extension
DCFR
Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research
DCFR
Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research
DDP
Desert Development Programme
DEDS
Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme
DES
Directorate of Economics and Statistics
DFQF
Duty Free Quota Free
DG
Director General
DHA
Docosahexaenoic Acid
DIVA
Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals
DLC
District Level committees
DNA
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
DPAP
Drought Prone Area Programme
DPPQ&S
Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage
DPQS
Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production
and Distribution of Quality Seeds
DSS
Decision Support System
DVCF
Dairy Venture Capital Fund
DWM
Directorate of Water Management
DWSR
Directorate of Weed Science Research
EAPs
Externally Aided Projects
EDP
Entrepreneurship Development Programmes
EFTA
European Free Trade Agreement
EOI
Expression of Interest
EOU
Export Oriented Unit
xv
EPA
Eicosapetaenoic Acid
EPCG
Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme
EPD
Electronic Data Processing
ERFS
Extended Range Forecast System
ESVHD
Establishment and Strengthening of existing Veterinary Hospitals and
Dispensaries
et al.
Et alii (and others)
ETT
Embryo Transfer Technology
EXIM
Export Import
F&V
Fruit and Vegetables
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization
FASAL
Forecasting Agricultural Output using Space, Agro meteorology and
Land based observations
FCO
Fertilizer Control Order
FDI
Foreign Direct Investment
Fe
Iron
FFDA
Fish Farmers Development Authority
FFSs
Farmers’ Field Schools
FI
Financial Institution
FICCI
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Fig.
Figure
FLD
Frontline demonstration
FM
Frequency Modulation
FMD
Foot & Mouth Disease
FPI
Food Direct Investment
FPO
Farmer Producer Organizations
FPT
Field Progeny Testing
FPTC
Food Processing Training Centres
FQCL
Fertilizer Quality Control Laboratories
FTAs
Free Trade Agreements
FYM
Farm Yard Manure
FYP
Five Year Plan
GAPs
Good Agricultural Practices
GBPUAT
Govind Ballabh Pantnagar University of Agriculture and Technology
GCF
Gross Capital Formation
GDP
Gross Domestic Product
xvi
GHGs
Green House Gases
GHP
Good Hygiene Practices
GHP
Good Horticultural Practice
GIS
Geographical Information System
GM
Genetically modified
GME
Green Mussel Extract
GMP
Good Manufacturing Practices
GOI
Government of India
GPS
Ground Positioning System
GR
Gypsum Requirement
GSDP
Gross State Domestic Product
GTZ
German Technical Cooperation
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
HMNEHS
Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States
HRD
Human Resource Development
HSADL
High Security Animal Disease Laboratory
HSIIC
Haryana State Industrial & Infrastructure Development Corporation
Ltd.
HYVs
High Yielding Varieties
IBSA
India, Brazil, South Africa
ICAR
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICAR
India Council of Agricultural Research
ICAR RCER
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region
ICAR RCGOA
ICAR Research Complex for Goa
ICAR RCNEH
ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill region
ICICI
Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India
ICRISAT
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
ICT
Information and Communication Technology
ICT
Information and Communication Technology
IDA
International Development Agency
IDWG
Inter-Departmental Working Group
IFAD
International Fund for Agriculture Development
IFS
Integrated Farming System
IGPB
Indian Grape Processing Board
IICPT
Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology
IIPR
Indian Institute of Pulses Research
xvii
IISS
Indian Institute of Soil Science
IMD
Indian Metrological Department
IPM
Integrated Pest Management
IPM
Integrated Pest Management
IPPC
International Plant Protection Convention
IPR
Intellectual Property Rights
IPRs
Intellectual Property Rights
IQR
Individual Quick Freeze
IRIWI
International Research Initiative for Wheat Improvement
ISO
International Organisation of Standardization
ISOPOM
Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize
ITDP
Integrated Tribal Development Programme
ITDP
Institute of Transportation and Development Policy
IVF
In vitro Fetilization
IVLP
Institute Village Linking Programme
IVR
Interactive Voice Response
IVRI
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
IWDP
Integrated Wastelands Development Programme
IWM
Integrated Water Management
IWMP
Integrated Watershed Management Programme
JBE-SSD
Juvenile Bycatch Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device
JFMCs
Joint Forest Management Committees
JICA
Japan International Cooperation Agency
JRF
Junior Research Fellowship
K
Potassium
KCC
Kisan Call Centre/Kisan Credit Cards
kg
kilogram
KVASU
Kerala Veterinary and Animal Science University
KVK
Krishi Vigyan Kendra
LAMP
Loop Assisted Amplification
LPA
Long Period Average
LTFE
Long Term Fertilizer Experiment
LWO
Locust Warning Organization
MA
Modified Atmosphere
MANAGE
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management
MAS
Molecular marker-assisted selection
xviii
MAS
Markers Assisted Selection
MBM
Meat-cum-Bone Meal
MF
Military Farms
MFPS
Mega Food Parks Scheme
Mg
Magnesium
MGNREGA
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
MGNREGA
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
mha
Million hectares
MIP
Market Intervention Price
MIS
Market Intervention Scheme
MMA
Macro Management of Agriculture
MNAIS
Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
Mo
Molybdenum
MOA
Ministry of Agriculture
MOET
Multi Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology
MOFPI
Ministry of Food Processing Industries
MOP
Muriate of Potash
MOU
Memorandum of Understanding
MPFD
Madhya Pradesh Forest Department
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRIN
Market Research Information Network
MRP
Mixed Recall period
MSN
Micro and Secondary Nutrients
MSP
Minimum Support Price/Minimum Standard Protocol
MT
Metric Tonnes
MTCs
Model Training Courses
N
Nitrogen
NAARM
National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
NAAS
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
NABARD
National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development
NABARD
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
NABL
National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories
NADRS
National Animal Disease Reporting System
NAE
Niche Area of Excellence
NAFED
National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation
NAIP
National Agricultural Innovative Project
xix
NAIS
National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
NAMA
Non Agricultural Market Access
NAPCC
National Action Plan on Climate Change
NARP
National Agricultural Research Project
NARS
National Agricultural Research System
NAS
National Accounts Statistics
NBAGR
National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources
NBFGR
National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources
NBSSLUP
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning
NBSSLUP
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning
NCAP
National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research
NCDC
National Cooperative Development Corporation
NCIPM
National Center for Integrated Pest Management
NCR
National Capital Region
NDC
National Development Council
NDDB
National Dairy Development Board
NE
North-East
NeGP-A
National e Governance Plan in Agriculture
NEPZ
North Eastern Plain Zone
NFSM
National Food Security Mission
NGO
Non-Governmental Organization
NHM
National Horticulture Mission
NIASM
National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management
NIC
Nation Informatics Centre
NIC
National Industrial Classification
NICRA
National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture
NIFTEM
National Institute
Management
NIPHM
National Institute of Plant Health Management
NISAGENET
National Information System on Agricultural Education Network in
India
NLAs
National Level Agencies
NMAM
National Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation
NMPPB
National Meat and Poultry Processing Board
NMPS
National Mission for Protein Supplements
NMSA
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
of
xx
Food
Technology,
Entrepreneurship
&
NMSA
National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture
NPCBB
National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding
NPIL
National Pesticides Investigational Laboratory
NPMSH&F
National Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility
NPPTI
National Plant Protection Training Institute
NPRR
National Pesticide Reference Repository
NPSD
New Policy on Seed Development
NPV
Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses
NRC
National Research Centre
NRC
National Research Centre
NRCAF
National Research Centre for Agroforestry
NRCE
National Research Centre on Equines
NRM
Natural Research Management
NSC
National Seeds Corporation
NSRTC
National Seed Research and Training Centre
NSS
National Sample Survey
NSSO
National Sample Survey Organisation
NTIs
Nodal Training Institutes
NWDPRA
National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas
NWPZ
North Western Plain Zone
OECD
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OFT
On Farm Trial
OFT
On-Farm Trial
OPAE
Oil Palm Area Expansion
OPDP
Oil Palm Development Programme
OPex
Neutraceutical Oyster Peptide
OPP
Oilseeds Development Programme
OTS
One Time Settlement
P
Prosperous
PACS
Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
PAG
Pregnancy Associated Glycoprotein
PCP
Pentachlorophenol
PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction
PDADMAS
Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance
PDC
Project Directorate on Cattle
xxi
PDFMD
Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease
PDFSR
Project Directorate on Farming System Research
PDP
Professional Development Programme
PDS
Public Distribution System
PFDC
Precision Farming Development Centre
PG
Post Graduation
PHM
Post Harvest Management
PHTM
Post Harvest Technology and Management
PKS
Polyketide Synthase
PMTs
Project Management Teams
PNA
Peptide Nucleic Acids
PPP
Public Private Partnerships
PPR
Peste des Petits Ruminants
PPR
Peste des Petits Ruminants
PPRC
Paddy Processing Research Centre
PPV&FR
Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights
PQSs
Plant Quarantine Stations
PRAP
Participatory Action Research Programme
PSCs
Phytosanitary certificates
PSS
Price Supports Scheme
PTAs
Preferential Trading Agreements
PUFAs
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
PZ
Peninsular Zone
QTL
Quantitative Trait Loci
R& D
Research and Development
R&D
Research and Development
RADP
Rainfed Area Development Programme
RBH
Rural Business Hubs
RC
Registration Committee
RDIMS
RKVY Database and Management Information System
RFID
Radio Frequency Identification
RIDF
Rural Infrastructure Development Fund
RKVY
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna
RPQS
Regional Plant Quarantine Stations
RPTLs
Regional Pesticides Testing Laboratories
RRBs
Regional Rural Banks
xxii
RSFP&D
Regional Stations for Forage Production and Demonstration
RTPCR
Rapid or Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
RT-PCR
Reverse Transcription Polymer Chain Reaction
RVP & FPR
Soil Conservation in the Catchments of River Valley Project & Flood
Prone River
SAARC
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SAMCs
State Meteorological Centres
SAMETI
State Agricultural Management & Extension Training Institutes
SAS
Statistical Analysis System
SAU
State Agricultural University
SAUs
State Agricultural Universities
SCH
Single Cross Hybrids
SDA
Scheduled Desert Area
Se
Selenium
SEWP
State Extension Work Plan
SFCI
State Farms Corporation of India
SHPIs
Self Help Promoting Institutions
Si
Silicon
SKUAS&T
Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology
SKUAST
Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology
SLC
State Level committees
SLSC
State Level Sanctioning Committee
SLUB
State Land Use Board
SME
Small and Medium Enterprises
SMI
Soil Moisture Indicator
SMS
Short Message Service
SNPs
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
SOC
Soil Organic Carbon
SRF
Senior Research Fellowship
SRI
System of Rice Intensification
SRR
Seed Replacement Rates
SSCAs
State Seed Certification Agencies
SSCs
State Seed Corporations
SSGs
States Specific Grants
SSM
Special Safeguard Mechanism
STCCS
Short Term Cooperative Credit Structure
xxiii
STCR
Soil Test and Crop Response
STLs
Soil Testing Laboratories/Seed Testing Laboratories
SW
South West
TAR
Technology Assessment and Refinement
TERI
The Energy & Resources Institute
TFGs
Tenant Farmers Groups
TMNE
Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture in North
Eastern States including Sikkim
TMO
Technology Mission on Oilseeds
TN
Tamil Nadu
TPDS
Targeted Public Distribution Scheme
TVEs
Town and Village Enterprises
UG
Under Graduate
UNESCAP
United Nation Economic and Social Commision for Asia and the Pacific
UP
Uttar Pradesh
URP
Uniform recall Period
UT
Union Territory
VAT
Value Added Tax
VMC
Vessel Management Cell
VNN
Viral Nervous Necrosis
WB
West Bengal
WBCIS
Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme
WDPs
Watershed Development Programmes
WDPSCA
Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas
WFP
World Food Programme
WHO
World Health Organisation
WIGISAT
Wine Grape Insuring Structuring Automation Tool
WPI
Wholesale Price Index
WTO
World Trade Organisation
XDR
Special Drawing Rights
xxiv
CHAPTER 1
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
1.1 India accounts for only about 2.4 % of the
world’s geographical area and 4 % of its water
resources, but has to support about 17 % of
the world’s human population and 15 % of the
livestock. Agriculture is an important sector of
the Indian economy, accounting for 14% of the
nation’s GDP, about 11% of its exports, about
half of the population still relies on agriculture
as its principal source of income and it is a source
of raw material for a large number of industries.
Accelerating the growth of agriculture production
is therefore necessary not only to achieve an
overall GDP target of 8 per cent during the 12th
Plan and meet the rising demand for food, but
also to increase incomes of those dependent on
agriculture to ensure inclusiveness.
Crop Production
1.2 During 2011-12, there was record production
of foodgrains at 259.32 million tonnes, of which
131.27 million tonnes was during Kharif season
and 128.05 million tonnes during the Rabi season.
Of the total foodgrains production, production of
cereals was 242.23 million tonnes and pulses 17.09
million tonnes. As per 2nd advance estimates for
2012-13, total foodgrains production is estimated
at 250.14 million tonnes (124.68 million tonnes
during Kharif and 125.47 million tonnes during
Rabi seasons). The 6.59 million tonnes (about
5.02 per cent) decline in kharif production has
been on account of late onset of monsoon and
deficient rainfall in several states affecting kharif
production in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat,
Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan,
Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The production of
rice (both kharif and rabi) is estimated at 101.8
million tonnes, pulses at 17.58 million tonnes,
oilseeds at 29.46 million tonnes, sugarcane at
334.54 million tonnes and cotton at 33.80 million
bales (of 170 kg. each). Though, production of
rice, sugarcane and cotton during kharif 2012-13
has been lower than that of the last year, these are
better than the average production during the
last five years. Production of coarse cereals has
been severely affected by the deficient monsoon
in Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra
and Rajasthan, with the result that the overall
production of Coarse Cereals has been lower
by 3.95 million tonnes as compared to kharif
2011-12. Production of jute is estimated at 10.56
million bales (of 180 kg each) which is marginally
lower than that of last year (10.74 million bales).
Production of the major crops since 2007-08 till
2012-13 (second estimates) is given in Table 1.1.
1.3 The delayed onset and deficient first half
of South-West monsoon in 2012 had adverse
impact on Kharif crop area coverage and yields.
There has been significant improvement in the
rainfall situation in August and September, 2012,
resulting in good soil moisture conditions and
improved prospects for rabi crops for 2012-13.
State/UT governments have been advised to
take advantage of the good soil moisture and
target for significantly higher rabi production so
as to make good for the loss of production in the
kharif season. ICAR has developed technology
for high yielding and pest resistant varieties of
crops suitable for different agro-climatic zones.
States/UTs have been advised to use the high
yielding and pest resistant varieties of crops and
popularize the use of agricultural machinery
in farm operations to overcome the problem of
labour shortage. Further, integration of fodder
component in the State Agricultural Plans,
extension services through KVKs/ATMAs and
allocation of at least 25% of the funds under RKVY
to promote the livestock and fisheries sector has
been recommended.
2
State of Indian Agriculture
Table 1.1:
Production of major crops during the recent years (million tonnes/bales)
Crop
Rice
Season
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Final
2nd Adv
Estimates Estimates
Kharif
82.66
84.91
75.92
80.65
92.75
90.69
Rabi
14.03
14.27
13.18
15.33
12.56
11.11
Total
96.69
99.18
89.10
95.98
105.31
101.80
Wheat
Rabi
78.57
80.68
80.80
86.87
94.88
92.30
Coarse Cereals
Kharif
31.89
28.54
23.83
33.08
32.46
28.51
Rabi
8.86
11.49
9.72
10.32
9.58
9.96
Total
40.75
40.03
33.55
43.40
42.04
38.47
Kharif
114.55
113.45
99.75
113.73
125.21
119.19
Rabi
101.46
106.45
103.70
112.52
117.02
113.37
Total
216.01
219.90
203.45
226.25
242.23
232.56
Kharif
6.40
4.69
4.20
7.12
6.06
5.48
Rabi
8.36
9.88
10.46
11.12
11.03
12.09
Total
14.76
14.57
14.66
18.24
17.09
17.57
Kharif
120.96
118.14
103.95
120.85
131.27
124.68
Rabi
109.82
116.33
114.15
123.64
128.05
125.47
Total
230.78
234.47
218.10
244.49
259.32
250.15
Kharif
20.71
17.81
15.73
21.92
20.69
19.45
Rabi
9.04
9.91
9.15
10.56
9.11
10.01
Total
29.75
27.72
24.88
32.48
29.80
29.46
348.19
285.03
292.30
342.38
361.04
334.54
Cotton*
25.88
22.28
24.02
33.00
35.20
33.80
Jute & Mesta**
11.21
10.37
11.82
10.62
11.40
11.13
Total Cereals
Pulses
Foodgrains
Oilseeds
Sugarcane
* (million bales of 170 kg each), ** (million bales of 180 kg each)
Rates of Growth in Area, Production and sunflower and mesta has have witnessed a
negative growth during the 11th Plan. Yields
Yield
1.4 Given the limitations in the expansion of
acreage, the main source of long-term output
growth is improvement in yield. A comparative
picture in average annual growth rates of area,
production and yield of different crops for two
periods, 2002-03 to 2006-07 (the 10th Plan period)
and 2007-08 to 2011-12 (the 11th Plan period) is
given in Table 1.2. The area under jowar, bajra,
small millets, ground nuts, rapeseed and mustard,
of all the major crops have recorded positive
growth during the 11th Plan period. Average
Annual Growth Rates in area, production and
yields of major crops at all India level during
11th Plan and a comparison of annual average
growth in yield rates during the 10th and 11th
Plan periods are depicted in Fig. 1.1 (a) and
1.1 (b) respectively. Impressive rates of growth
(more than 4 percent per annum) in production
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
3
were observed in the case of wheat, bajra, maize,
coarse cereals, gram, tur, total pulses, groundnut,
sesamum, soyabean, total oilseeds and cotton.
The increases in production in the case of wheat,
bajra, maize, groundnut and total oilseeds can
mainly be attributed to increase in yields, where
as the growth in production in the case of gram,
tur, total pulses, soyabean and cotton is driven
by a combination of both expansion in area and
increase in productivity/yield.
Table 1.2:
All India Average Annual Growth Rates of Area, Production and Yield of Principal
Crops
Crops
Rice
Average Annual Growth (%)
Average Annual Growth (%)
10th Plan (2002-03 to 2006-07)
11th Plan (2007-08 to 2011-12)
Area
Area
Production
Yield
Production
Yield
-0.39
1.25
1.17
0.18
2.69
2.41
Wheat
1.30
1.11
-0.32
1.31
4.64
3.29
Jowar
-2.84
-0.89
2.07
-5.71
-3.00
3.26
Bajra
1.67
17.12
7.28
-1.38
7.84
8.64
Maize
3.77
4.02
-0.15
2.16
8.90
6.47
Ragi
-5.52
-2.67
0.40
0.41
8.11
6.66
Small Millets
-5.03
-2.49
2.32
-4.42
-0.13
4.08
Barley
-0.28
-1.21
-0.90
0.61
6.32
4.64
Coarse Cereals
-0.26
2.55
1.75
-1.59
5.68
7.27
Total Cereals
0.07
1.21
0.74
-0.03
3.79
3.76
Gram
3.60
4.70
0.28
2.32
4.62
2.27
Tur
1.38
1.06
-0.41
3.13
4.84
1.51
Total Pulses
1.31
2.66
0.65
1.36
4.28
2.78
Total Foodgrains
0.29
1.29
0.59
0.19
3.80
3.55
Sugarcane
3.98
4.90
0.66
0.04
0.99
0.87
Groundnut
-1.65
3.61
4.32
-0.86
15.82
13.91
Sesamum
0.98
3.64
0.51
2.42
8.28
5.30
R&M
7.32
11.55
3.24
-1.69
-0.37
0.76
Sunflower
14.04
13.83
0.37
-18.74
-14.46
6.20
Soyabean
5.80
12.26
6.18
4.00
7.71
3.90
Total Nine Oilseeds
3.55
7.99
3.53
-0.07
5.54
5.32
Cotton
0.57
20.01
19.40
5.97
10.46
3.93
Jute
-1.82
-0.38
1.49
0.47
1.26
0.62
Mesta
-3.85
-2.44
1.45
-7.00
-5.94
0.80
Jute & Mesta
-2.15
-0.58
1.45
-0.59
0.62
1.12
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture.
4
State of Indian Agriculture
Fig. 1.1 (a): All India Average Annual Growth Rates in Area, Production and
Yield of major crops during the 11th Plan
Area
Production
Yield
16
12
8
4
-16
Jute
Cotton
Total Nine Oilseeds
Soyabean
Sunflower
R&M
Sesamum
Groundnut
Sugarcane
Total Pulses
Tur
Gram
Total Foodgrains
-12
Total Cereals
-8
Coarse Cereals
Maize
Bajra
Jowar
Wheat
-4
Rice
0
-20
A perusal of the rates of growth in yield reveals
that most of the crops have recorded higher
growth during the 11th Plan than that during the
10th Plan. However, sugarcane, and rapeseed &
mustard, soybean and cotton recorded lower rates
of growth in yield during the 11th plan than that of
the 10th Plan. Growth in yields of sugarcane and
rapeseed & mustard suggest that their yields seem
to have attained the plateau and need renewed
research to boost their productivity levels.
10 Plan
11 Plan
Gram
Total Pulses
Fig. 1.1 (b): All India Average Annual Growth Rates in Yield of
major crops during the 10th and 11th Plan
20
16
8
4
Cotton
Total Nine Oilseeds
Soyabean
R&M
Groundnut
Sugarcane
Total Foodgrains
Tur
Total Cereals
Coarse Cereals
Maize
-4
Wheat
0
Rice
Percent
12
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
Horticulture
1.5 The horticulture sector has been a driving
force in stimulating a healthy growth trend in
Indian agriculture. India is currently producing
257.2 million tonnes of horticulture produce from
an area of 23 million ha. Over the last decade, the
area under horticulture grew by about 3.8% per
annum but production rose by 7.6% per annum.
The higher growth rate in horticulture was
brought about by improvement in productivity
of horticulture crops, which increased by about
28% between 2001-02 and 2011-12. The special
thrust given to the sector, especially after the
introduction of the Horticulture Mission for
North East & Himalayan States (HMNEH) and
the National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in the
Xth Plan has borne positive results. Given the
increasing pressure on land, the focus of growth
strategy is on raising productivity by supporting
high density plantations, protected cultivation,
micro irrigation, quality planting material,
rejuvenation of senile orchards and thrust on
post harvest management, to ensure that farmers
do not lose their produce in transit from farm
gate to the consumer’s plate.
Livestock Sector
1.6 The agriculture sector in India is
predominantly part of a mixed crop-livestock
farming system. The livestock sector supplements
income of the farmers, provides employment,
draught power and manure. The development of
livestock sector is more inclusive and can result
in a sustainable agriculture system. India is the
largest producer of milk in the world, estimated
production of milk in 2011-12 is 127.9 million
tonnes and the second largest producer of fish
in the world with estimated production of 8.85
million tonnes during 2011-12. The rate of growth
in livestock sector has also been higher than that
in the crop sector in the recent years.
Major Schemes for Accelerating Agricultural
Production
1.7 In order to increase the agricultural growth
rates, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY),
launched in August 2007, incentivizes the states
5
to increase public investment in agriculture and
allied sectors taking agro climatic conditions,
natural resource issues and technology into
account and integrating livestock, poultry
and fisheries more fully while providing
more flexibility and autonomy to the states in
planning and execution of the schemes. It has
become the principal instrument for increasing
the states’ investment in the agriculture sector
which now includes several commodity specific
measures namely Bringing Green Revolution
to the Eastern Region of India (BGREI), Special
Initiative for Pulses and Oilseeds, Accelerating
Fodder Production, Creating Vegetable Clusters,
Initiatives for Nutritional Security through
Intensive Millet Promotion (INSIMP), Oil Palm
Development, Protein Supplements, Rainfed
Area Development Programme and the Saffron
Mission. Beside RKVY, National Food Security
Mission (NFSM) and the National Horticulture
Mission (NHM) have also emerged as the path
breaking interventions which have helped
in achieving record production of cereals,
pulses, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables and spices
during 2010-11 and 2011-12. With the focused
interventions under the National Food Security
Mission supported by other programs and
schemes and conducive price policy regime,
target of 20 million tonnes of additional food
grains production has been exceeded during the
11th five year plan. Not only has the demand been
completely met particularly for the cereals, the
buffer and strategic reserves are at levels that are
more than double their set limit. There is a record
export of cereals that has gained not only huge
foreign remittance but has also stabilized global
food economy through increased availability and
reasonable price. To reduce over exploitation of
natural resources in the north-west region and to
increase the productivity of rice, wheat, maize and
pulses, BGREI has started involving promotion
of innovative production technologies and
agronomical practices addressing the underlying
key constraints of different agro-climatic sub
regions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI),
laser land leveling; hybrid rice technologies and
line transplanting of rice seedlings etc. are being
promoted under this initiative.
6
State of Indian Agriculture
1.8 Apart
from
population
pressure,
notwithstanding recent surge in productivity
and production of cereal crops, there is a need to
bridge the yield gaps in low productivity regions
by effective technology dissemination which
can be combined with an efficient supply and
service system, strengthening and reorienting
agricultural R&D, reducing regional disparities,
targeting rain fed areas and emphasizing
development of high potential, resource rich
states in eastern India.
1.9 Ensuring stability in food systems through
optimal combination of food procurement, stocks
and trade, in co-ordination with price movements
needs to be given emphasis to improve economic
conditions of farmers. Besides enhancing the
production and productivity of our agriculture,
there is a need to diversify into high value items
– fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products to
meet the changing dietary preferences and to
realize higher income for the farmers. Towards
this end Government is giving special emphasis
to the production of pulses, oil seeds and fruits
and vegetables, in which we are short of our
requirements.
Growth of Agriculture Sector
1.10 As per the Central Statistics Office (CSO)
revised estimates (released on 31st January 2013
of Gross Domestic Product, agriculture and
allied sectors grew at 3.6 per cent during 201112, recording an average rate of growth of 3.6
per cent per year during the 11th Plan (2007-12).
Further, as per the advance estimates released by
CSO on 7th February, 2013, agriculture and allied
sectors are estimated to grow at 1.8 per cent
during 2012-13 as against 3.6 per cent during the
last year. The rates of growth of the economy and
the agriculture and allied sectors since 2007-08
are given in Fig. 1.2.
Fig. 1.2: Growth Rates (%) by Economic Activity
8.0
9.3
2009-10
9.3
8.6
6.7
6.0
6.2
6.3
5.8
5.8
3.9
3.6
2.0
total Economy
0.0
Agriculture, forestry &
fishing
0.8
0.1
2011-12 (RE)
8.8
7.9
4.0
-2.0
2010-11 (QE)
5.4
3.2
2.7
0.4
-0.3
Agriculture, incl. livestock
10.0
2008-09
Fishing
2007-08
1.8
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
Regional Variations in Growth
7
(7.4%), Jharkhand (6.0%) and Karnataka (5.6%),
was much higher than that of Punjab (1.6%),
Maharashtra (2.0%), Tamil Nadu (2.2%) West
Bengal (2.8%), Uttar Pradesh (3.3%) and Haryana
(3.3%). High coefficient of variation (>2) was
observed in the case of Himachal Pradesh and
Maharashtra. The average annual growth rates
(percent) of gross state domestic product from
agriculture during 2007-08 to 2011-12 (at 2004-05
prices) are given in Fig. 1.3.
1.11 The Indian Agriculture growth pattern has
been very diverse at the state level. As agriculture
is a state subject, the overall performance of the
agriculture sector in India largely depends on
what happens at the state level. There is a wide
variation in the performance of different states.
During the 11th Plan (i.e. 2007-08 to 2011-12) the
growth performance of agriculture in Madhya
Pradesh (7.6%), Chhatisgarh (7.6%), Rajasthan
Fig. 1.3: Annual Average Growth Rate (%) of Gross State Domestic Product
from Agriculture 2007-08 to 2011-12 (at 2004-05 prices)
Growth Rate
Coefficient of Variation
20.0
16.7
10.0
7.6 7.6 7.4
8.3
6.0 5.6
4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7
1.0
1.8 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.9
Chattisgarh
5.0
Madhya Pr.
percent
15.0
2.4 2.5
0.5
3.9 3.3 3.3
2.7 2.5
2.8 2.7
2.2 2.0 2.0 1.6
1.7
1.0 1.2 0.7
0.9
1.3 1.1
-0.7
-2.4
Kerala
Himachal Pr.
Punjab
Maharashtra
J&K
Tamil Nadu
Uttarakhand
West Bengal
Uttar Pradesh
Haryana
Odisha
Bihar
Gujarat
Assam
Andhra Pr.
Karnataka
Jharkhand
-5.0
Rajasthan
0.0
Source: Central Statistics Office, NAD.
Capital Formation in Agriculture
1.12 Investment or capital formation is one of
the basic requirements for growth of any sector.
Even though the Gross Capital Formation (GCF)
in agriculture & allied sectors as percentage of
agricultural GDP has increased from 14.9 per
cent in 2006-07 to 19.8 per cent in 2011-12 (Table
1.3), when compared with the overall capital
formation in the economy which is about 40 per
cent of the GDP, capital formation in agriculture
sector is much lower. Further, the share of public
sector capital formation in agriculture & allied
sectors has come down from 25 per cent in 200607 to about 15 per cent in 2011-12 where as that of
private sector has gone up from 75 per cent to 85
per cent. In fact during the first four years of the
11th Five Year Plan, capital formation in public
sector in agriculture as per cent of agricultural
GDP has come down from 3.5 per cent in 2007-08
8
State of Indian Agriculture
to 3.0 per cent in 2011-12. While a higher share
of private sector investment in agriculture is a
welcome feature, public sector investment is
critical as it is generally found to accelerate private
investment. However, from 2006-07 to 2010-11 an
inverse relationship is observed between growth
in public sector and private sector investment
(Fig. 1.4). This may be partly due to the fact that
some investment contributed by the public sector
gets accounted for under the private sector due
to the classification of capital formation under
the National Accounts System on the basis of
the ownership of the assets created or classified
as financial transfers from the public sector if no
assets have been created or classified under Public
Table 1.3:
Year
Administration such as the expenditure on soil &
water conservation, watershed management etc.
This calls for a detailed study about the nature
and quality of investment in agriculture and its
impact on agricultural GDP, the relationship
between public and private investment in
agriculture and their resource use efficiency.
Investment in irrigation, rural roads, power,
telecommunication, marketing infrastructure,
research and extension services generally tend
to result in high growth of the agricultural sector
and reduction in poverty. Given scarce fiscal
resources, agriculture investment strategy should
be guided by efficient and equitable resource use
with high pay offs.
Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture & Allied Sectors at constant (2004-05) prices
GDP from
Agriculture &
Allied Sectors
at 2004-05 prices
(Rs crore)
GCF in Agriculture & Allied
Sectors at 2004-05 prices (Rs crore)
GCF in Agriculture & Allied
Sectors as % of GDP from
Agriculture & Allied Sectors
Public
Sector
Private
sector
Total
Public
Sector
Private
sector
Total
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
2004-05
565426
16187
59909
76096
2.9
10.6
13.5
2005-06
594487
19940
66664
86604
3.4
11.2
14.6
2006-07
619190
22987
69070
92057
3.7
11.2
14.9
2007-08
655080
23255
82484
105741
3.5
12.6
16.1
2008-09
655689
20572
106555
127127
3.1
16.3
19.4
2009-10
660987
22693
110469
133162
3.4
16.7
20.1
2010-11
713477
19918
111306
131224
2.8
15.6
18.4
2011-12
739495
22095
124483
146578
3.0
16.8
19.8
Source: Central Statistics Office, National Accounts Division
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
9
Fig. 1.4: Rates of growth (%) in Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture
(including Animal Hushandary) Sector
PUBLIC
PRIVAtE
totAL
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
2011-12
2010-11
2009-10
2008-09
2007-08
-10.0
2006-07
-5.0
2005-06
0.0
-15.0
Land and Water
1.13 The progressive fragmentation of land
holdings, degrading natural resource base
and emerging concerns of climate change are
escalating pressure on land and water. Land
and water resources being finite, increased
agricultural production and a diversified food
basket to meet the requirement of the increasing
population with higher per capita income, has
to emanate from the same limited net sown
area by increasing productivity with an optimal
use of available water and land resources.
Natural resources viz. arable land, water,
soil, biodiversity (plant, animal and microbial
genetic resources) are rapidly shrinking due to
demographic and socio-economic pressures,
monsoon disturbances, increasing frequencies of
floods and droughts. Overuse of marginal lands,
imbalanced fertigation, deteriorating soil health,
diversion of agricultural land to nonagricultural
uses, depleting aquifers & irrigation sources,
salinization of fertile lands and water-logging are
pressing challenges requiring urgent attention.
For making agriculture sustainable to meet the
country’s food requirement, a prudent land use
policy, water availability and soil health have
to be maintained at levels that are conducive to
pursue agricultural activities with higher level of
productivity.
1.14 Land degradation is major threat to our
food and environmental security. As per estimates
of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (2010),
out of total geographical area of 328.73 mha,
about 120.40 mha is affected by various kind of
land degradation resulting in annual soil loss of
about 5.3 billion tonnes through erosion. This
includes water and wind erosion (94.87 mha),
water logging (0.91 mha), soil alkalinity/sodicity
(3.71 mha), soil acidity (17.93 mha), soil salinity
(2.73 mha) and mining and industrial waste (0.26
mha). Besides, water and wind erosions are wide
spread across the country. As much as 5.3 billion
tonnes of soil gets eroded every year. Of the soil
so eroded, 29% is permanently lost to sea, 10%
is deposited in reservoirs reducing their storage
capacity and rest 61% gets shifted from one place
to another. Significant increase in use of chemical
fertilizers particularly in the north-western part
10
State of Indian Agriculture
of the country coupled with imbalanced nutrient
application, non-judicious use of pesticides,
intensive cropping system, and decline in soil biodiversity and depletion of organic matter in soil
are areas of concern requiring urgent attention.
1.15 Furthermore, climate change is likely to
impact agricultural land use and production due
to less availability of water for irrigation,
higher frequency and intensity of inter and intraseasonal droughts and floods, low soil organic
matter, soil erosion, less availability of energy,
coastal flooding etc. could impact agricultural
growth adversely. For proper management of
natural resources and to ensure sustainable
agriculture growth in the country, there is need
for a land use policy which should be integrated
with all developmental programmes for the
holistic development of rural areas, natural
resource management and eco-restoration.
Considering skewed ownership of land, it is
necessary to strengthen implementation of laws
relating to land reforms, with particular reference
to tenancy laws and leasing, distribution of ceiling
surplus land and wasteland, providing adequate
access to common property and wasteland
resources and consolidation of holdings.
Computerization of land records, formulation of
Table 1.4:
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
policy on diversion of agricultural land for nonagricultural uses, updating of land and soil survey
maps, finalization of an enabling frame work for
involvement of private sector in natural resource
management, and encouraging Public Private
Partnership in land and watershed development
programmes are urgently required.
1.16 The land reforms agenda has not gone
beyond the imposition of land ceilings even
though the incidences of tenancy are too high
in most parts of the country. Substantial chunks
of scarce land remain untilled because of
landowners’ reluctance to lease out land for fear
of losing its ownership. A significant per cent of
the tenants are landless and marginal farmers.
These tenants would benefit from leasing-in since
it would help them to expand their miniscule
holdings and allow better use of their labour
resources. There is a need to urgently address the
issue of legalizing land leasing.
1.17 Provisional results of Agriculture Census
2010-11, are available for all States/UTs. Details
of number, area and average size of operational
holdings in the country as per available data of
various Agriculture Censuses are given in tables
1.4 & 1.5 respectively.
Distribution of Number of Holdings and Area Operated in India as per Agriculture
Census 2010-11
Size Group
Marginal
(Below 1.00 ha.)
Small
(1.00-2.00 ha.)
Semi-Medium
(2.00-4.00 ha.)
Medium
(4.00-10.00 ha.)
Large
(Above 10.00 ha.)
All holdings
Number of
Area
holdings
operated (in
(in million) million ha.)
Average
operated
area per
holding (ha.)
0.38
Percentage
of holdings
to total
holdings
67.04
Percentage
of area
operated to
total area
22.25
92.4
35.4
24.7
35.1
1.42
17.93
22.07
13.8
37.5
2.71
10.05
23.59
5.9
33.7
5.76
4.25
21.18
1.0
17.4
17.38
0.73
10.92
137.8
159.2
1.16
100.00
100.00
Note: Total may not tally due to rounding off.
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
Table 1.5:
11
Size Group wise distribution of Average Holdings in the country
Sl. Size Groups
No
1 Marginal
(Below 1 ha.)
2 Small
(1-2 ha.)
3 Semi-Medium
(2-4 ha.)
4 Medium
(4-10 ha.)
5 Large
(Above 10 ha)
All Size Classes
(Area in ha.)
197071
0.40
197677
0.39
198081
0.39
198586
0.39
199091
0.39
199596
0.40
200001*
0.40
200506*
0.38
201011P
0.38
1.44
1.42
1.44
1.43
1.43
1.42
1.42
1.38
1.42
2.81
2.78
2.78
2.77
2.76
2.73
2.72
2.68
2.71
6.08
6.04
6.02
5.96
5.90
5.84
5.81
5.74
5.76
18.1
17.57
17.41
17.21
17.33
17.21
17.12
17.08
17.38
2.28
2.00
1.84
1.69
1.55
1.41
1.33
1.23
1.16
Note: Total may not tally due to rounding off. *excludes Jharkhand
P: Provisional.
Source: Agriculture Census 2010-11.
1.18 Increasing demand for industrialization,
urbanization, housing and infrastructure is
forcing conversion of agricultural land to non –
agricultural uses; the scope for expansion of the
area available for cultivation is limited. As per
Agriculture Census 2010-11, small and marginal
holdings of less than 2 hectare account for 85 per
cent of the total operational holdings and 44 per
cent of the total operated area. The average size
of holdings for all operational classes (small &
marginal, medium and large) have declined over
the years and for all classes put together it has
come down to 1.16 hectare in 2010-11 from 2.82
hectare in 1970-71 as can be seen from Fig. 1.5.
Fig. 1.5: Average size of operational holdings as per different Agriculture Censuses
3.00
2.82
Average size (in 'ha.)
2.50
2.00
2.00
1.84
1.69
1.55
1.41
1.50
1.33
1.23
1.16
2005-06
2010-11
1.00
0.50
0.00
1970-71
1976-77
1980-81
1985-86
1990-91
1995-96
Reference Year
2000-01
12
State of Indian Agriculture
1.19 As per the land use statistics, the acreage
under different crops and the cropping pattern
during the last two decades is given in the
following Table. While the net sown area has
come down from 143 million hectares in 199091 to 140 million hectares in 2009-10, the gross
cropped area has gone up by 6 million ha, from
186 to 192 million ha during the same period due
Table 1.6:
to increase in the cropping intensity from 130 to
137 per cent. 22 per cent of the acreage is under
paddy which has remained stable during the
last two decades. Area under wheat has slightly
increased from 13 per cent in 1990-91 to 15 per
cent in 2009-10. Area under coarse cereals has
come down significantly from 19.5 per cent to
14.5 per cent during this period.
Cropping Pattern in India (Area in Million Hectares)
Years
1990-91
2003-04
2009-10(p)
Total Area Under Crops
185.74
189.67
192.20
Net area sown
143.00
140.71
140.02
Cropping Intensity (percent)
129.89
134.80
137.26
Area under Food Crops
141.03
142.12
141.06
Area under Non-Food Crops
44.71
47.55
51.14
Net Irrigated area
48.02
57.05
63.26
TOTAL/Gross Irrigated Area
63.20
78.04
86.42
Fig. 1.6: Crop-Wise Share (%) in Area
100%
90%
24.1
25.1
26.6
4.1
4.2
5.2
70%
13.5
13.8
60%
3.6
1.3
2.1
4.9
1.7
2.4
80%
50%
40%
13.4
19.5
12.9
16.5
14.9
5.4
1.7
2.4
12.5
14.5
30%
Cotton
Oilseeds
Fruits & Vegetables
Condiments & Spices
Sugarcane
Pulses
Coarse Cereals
12.9
14.2
14.9
23
22.3
22
1990-91
2003-04
2009-10
20%
10%
Non-Food Crops
Wheat
Rice
0%
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
Irrigation and Water Use Efficiency
1.20 Water is a scarce natural resource,
fundamental to life, livelihood, food security
and sustainable development. Water demand
is increasing rapidly due to population growth,
urbanization and changing lifestyle. Owing
to increasing demand of water for domestic,
industrial and energy uses, there is a severe
constraint in the availability of water for
agriculture. Climate change might complicate
further the existing temporal and spatial variation
in availability of water. Extreme events like floods
and droughts are occurring more frequently and
affecting livelihood and food security. Low water
use efficiency, poor maintenance of irrigation
systems and poor recovery of water charges are
some of the major problems associated with the
management of water resources in the country.
Inadequate and sub-optimal pricing of both
power and water is promoting the misuse of
groundwater. The decline in the water table across
the country is a matter of serious concern. There
is a need to promote participatory management
of aquifers to ensure sustainable and equitable
use of water. Promotion of micro-irrigation
techniques, alignment of cropping pattern with
the availability of water and greater involvement
and empowerment of Water Users associations in
the command areas could lead to improvement
in water use efficiency.
1.21 The ultimate irrigation potential in the
country is estimated at about 140 million hectares.
Of this, about 58.5 million hectare is from major
and medium irrigation sources, and 81.5 million
hectare is from minor irrigation sources (about
64.1 million hectare from groundwater irrigation
and 17.4 million hectare from surface water).
Groundwater provides about 70 percent of
irrigation and 80 per cent of the drinking water
supplies. The widening gap (about 15 %) between
irrigation potential created and that being utilized
is also a matter of concern. This gap needs to be
narrowed within the shortest possible time.
1.22 Inefficient water use in irrigation is also
leading to environmental degradation via water
logging and induced salinity. Micro-irrigation
technologies like drip and trickle systems, surface
13
and subsurface drip tapes, micro-sprinklers,
sprayers, micro-jets, spinners, rotors, bubblers,
etc. have great potential in improving water use
efficiency. However, despite wide promotion,
only about 0.5 million hectare are currently
under micro-irrigation (NAAS 2009). Modern
techniques such as micro-irrigation, watershed
management,
rainwater
harvesting
and
groundwater recharging are vital in utilizing the
existing resources and expanding the irrigation
system in a viable manner. Major investment in
research and development that enhance water
use efficiency is required. Extension services
that reach out to farmers to help boost the speed
of technology-adoption as well as develop
specialized skills and knowledge related to water
application are necessary.
Inputs for Agricultural Growth
1.23 To enhance productivity, easy and reliable
access to inputs such as quality seeds, fertilizers,
pesticides, access to suitable technology tailored
for specific needs, the presence of support
infrastructure and innovative marketing systems
to aggregate and market the output from
large number of small holdings efficiently and
effectively are necessary. Use of high yielding
varieties/hybrids as in the case of Bt cotton and
maize, economy in input use, and cost effective
farming techniques such as System of Rice
Intensification (SRI) are necessary to improve
farm productivity.
Seed and Planting Material
1.24 Quality seeds and planting materials are
the key agricultural inputs, which determine the
productivity of the crops. The efficacy of other
agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides
and irrigation is largely determined by the quality
of the seed used. It is estimated that quality of
seed accounts for 20-25% of productivity. Hence
timely availability of quality seeds at affordable
prices to farmers is necessary for achieving higher
agricultural productivity and production. The
varied agro climatic conditions of the country
are suitable for cultivation of large number of
crops and varieties. This necessitates production
of quality seeds and planting materials for a
14
huge range of crops for achieving the targeted
production. The organized sector comprising of
both the private and public sector accounts for
about 15 to 20% of the total seed distributed in
the country. The remaining portion is contributed
by the unorganized sector comprising mainly of
farm-saved seeds. Prudent mechanism for seed
certification, testing, labeling and enforcement
is necessary to maintain seed quality. Varietal
development, plant variety protection, seed
production, quality assurance, creation of
infrastructure for seeds, transgenics, import of
planting material, export of seeds and promotion
of domestic seed industry are necessary for a
vibrant seed industry. An enabling environment
for speedy trial and evaluation of imported seeds
for the betterment of agriculture production in
the country is necessary. The Seeds Bill, 2004 has
been introduced in the Parliament to overcome the
limitation of Seeds Act 1966, and provides for the
regulation of seed quality and planting material
of all agricultural, horticultural and plantation
crops with the view to ensure availability of
true to type seeds to Indian farmers; curb sale of
spurious and poor quality seeds; protection of
rights of farmers, increase private participation
in seed production, distribution and seed testing;
liberalize imports of seeds and planting material,
and align with World Trade Organization (WTO)
commitments and international standards,
needs to be enacted with utmost urgency. The
seed multiplication ratio from Breeder seed to
Foundation seed and from Foundation seed to
Certified seed needs to be addressed by all the
seed producing agencies, both in public and
private sectors. Comprehensive and authentic
database on seed production and distribution
in India by public and private sectors needs to
be built for the benefit of all the stakeholders.
There is need to ensure adequate and timely
availability of seed through appropriate tie ups
with NSC, SFCI, State Seed Corporations etc.,
popularize Good Agricultural Practices (GAP),
enhance Seed Replacement Ratio to 20-25% in
pulses and 20% in case of groundnut, popularize
new farming techniques like ridge-furrow
sowing, deep ploughing, zero seed drill and seed
State of Indian Agriculture
treatment for enhancing agricultural production
in the country.
Integrated Nutrients Management (INM)
1.25 Chemical fertilizers are the immediate
source of nutrients in soils. Consumption of
nitrogenous (N), phosphatic (P) potassic (K)
fertilizers has increased from 1.1 million tones in
1966-67, the year preceding the green revolution
to 27.7 million tonnes in 2011-12. The all-India
average consumption of fertilizers has increased
from 105.5 kg per ha in 2005-06 to 144 kg per ha
in 2011-12. However, our consumption is much
lower than that in Bangladesh (118), Pakistan
(205) and China (396). The world average
consumption of fertilizer was 107 kg per hectare
in 2009. Further, very high variability has been
observed in fertilizer consumption across the
states and crops. While per hectare consumption
is 243.56 kg in Punjab and 266.11 kg in Andhra
Pradesh, it is comparatively low in MP (88.36 kg/
ha), Orissa (56.52 kg/ha), Rajasthan (62.35 kg/ha)
and Himachal Pradesh (55.18 kg/ha) and below
5 kg/ha in some of the North Eastern States.
1.26 With a view to encourage balanced use
of fertilizers, government introduced Nutrient
Based Subsidy (NBS) policy from April 2010
where under a fixed rate of subsidy is announced
on nutrients, namely, nitrogen (N), phosphate
(P), potash (K) and sulphur (S). Price of urea is
administratively decided whereas prices of other
fertilizers are market determined. Consequently,
price of urea is much lower than that of other
fertilizers. This has resulted in excessive use of
urea, thereby distorting the balanced norms of
fertilizer application. Balanced fertilization would
have ensured adequate availability of nutrients
in soil to meet the requirement of plants at critical
stages of growth. This calls for promoting soil
test based balanced and judicious use of chemical
fertilizers in conjunction with organic sources of
nutrients to sustain and improve soil health and
its productivity. Further, lack of awareness about
soil testing and intensive agriculture is leading
to widespread deficiency of micronutrients such
as zinc, iron, manganese and boron. Similarly,
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
15
Fig. 1.7 : State wise Fertilizer consumption, Kg/Ha
imbalanced NPK application, rising multi
nutrient deficiency and lack of application of
organic manure are leading to reduction in
carbon content in the soil. Soil Organic Carbon
(SOC) is central to soil health as it influence soil
structure, water retention, microbial activities,
soil aeration and nutrient retention. Depletion
in soil organic carbon is leading to poor fertilizer
use efficiency (FUE) of the soil which on average
is estimated to be 33% for N; 15% for P; 20% for
K and micronutrients as against 50% for N; 30%
for P and 50% for K with the best management
practices. Intensive agriculture, while increasing
food production, has at the same time caused
second generation problems in respect of
nutrient imbalance including greater mining of
soil nutrients, depletion of soil fertility, emerging
deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients,
decline of the water table and quality of water,
decreasing organic carbon content, and overall
deterioration in soil health. Government is
promoting Integrated Nutrient Management
(INM), advocating soil test based balanced and
judicious use of chemical fertilizers in conjunction
with organic sources of nutrients for improving
soil fertility. Introduction of customized fertilizers
on the basis of soil testing and the agronomic
multi-locational trials which are crop specific and
area specific are recommended. Promotion of
INM which includes soil test based balanced and
judicious use of chemical fertilisers in conjunction
with bio-fertilisers, and organic manures like
FYM, compost, vermi-compost, green manure,
Fruit and Vegetable Waste Compost, MSW
compost etc.; use of complex fertilisers (NPK)
and customized fertilisers which are considered
to be agronomically better and more balanced
fertilisers in place of straight fertilizers; use of
fertilisers fortified with micro-nutrients; use of
Bio-fertilisers - phosphate solubilizing bacteria;
Azospirillum, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium;
potash mobilizing biofertilizers which can
supplement upto 20-25% of chemical fertilizers
(NPK). In this context seed supplying agencies
16
may consider provision of bio-fertilisers and seed
treating material along with seed packets.
Integrated Pest Management
1.27 The protection of crops from depredations
of pests and diseases is a sine qua non for higher
agricultural productivity, increased farm incomes
and enhanced food security for the nation. This
is especially significant for a nation like India
which is faced with rising demand for food and
agricultural produce for a growing population.
In a scenario where agricultural productivity
in India is below global bench marks and per
capita availability of agricultural farm land is
diminishing, risk of production loss upto 30%
from incursion of pests and diseases needs to
be averted. It is noteworthy that use of chemical
pesticides in India is very low and estimated
at only 381 grams per hectare (technical grade
pesticide) when compared to the global average of
500 grams of technical grade pesticide per hectare.
Information provided by State Governments
reveal that around 90 million hectares of cropped
area is within the ambit of pesticides usage
leaving out significant swathes of agricultural
land in the country where pesticides are not
being applied to crops. Different estimates show
that more than 50% of consumption of pesticides
is garnered by insecticides, whereas herbicides
and fungicides together contribute about 3040% of total pesticide consumption. The usage of
chemical pesticides which had fallen drastically
since 1991 has witnessed a revival during the 11th
Five Year Plan. Bio-pesticides usage has shown a
steady increase in the last two decades to reach a
consumption level of more than 6000 MTs during
2011-2012 as per information provided by the
States. Among the crops, cotton, rice, vegetables
and fruits account for the largest share of pesticide
consumption in the country.
1.28 It is evident from the above that while
spread and dosage of pesticide application in
the country is low, yet in the context of rising
concerns centered around hazards associated with
pesticides residues in food and environment, there
is a need to adopt strategies and practices that are
consistent with principles of good agricultural
State of Indian Agriculture
practices. Recognizing the imperative of safe
and judicious use of pesticides, the Government
of India and the State Governments have been
trying actively to promote Integrated Pest
Management. IPM advocates adoption of cultural
and mechanical tools and need based application
of bio-control agents and bio-pesticides, while
safe and judicious use of chemical pesticides is
recommended only as a measure of last resort.
IPM is being promoted by the Government
of India and State Governments primarily
through training and demonstrations in farmers
field schools, capacity building programmes
for extension personnel and support to State
Governments for setting up of Bio-control and
Bio-pesticides testing laboratory facilities.
1.29 Whereas efforts are being made to control
pests and diseases in crops, it is equally important
in the liberalized global trade environment to
shore up our defences against introduction of
exotic pests and diseases into the country through
agricultural imports which have the potential
to threaten agricultural/ horticultural crops
and bio-security of the country. The quarantine
regulatory framework is built around the Plant
Quarantine Order 2003 which has laid down
agricultural commodity and country specific
phytosanitary treatments for imports into the
country. The regulatory responsibilities are
primarily discharged through Plant Quarantine
Stations established in all regions of the country
manned by technical personnel and equipped
with laboratory facilities.
Mechanization
1.30 Availability of adequate farm power is very
crucial for timely farm operations, increasing
land and labour efficiency, increasing production
and productivity and reducing crop produce
losses. Farm mechanization can also address
the issues of scarcity of farm labour during peak
agricultural seasons like sowing and harvesting.
It has been observed that farm power availability
and foodgrain yield have a direct relationship.
States with higher farm power availability have,
in general, more productivity.
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
17
1.31 The tractor density in India is about 16
tractors for 1,000 hectares, as against the world
average of 19 tractors and that in USA 27
tractors per one thousand hectare of cropped
area. The increasing threat to natural resources,
notably land and water, has further necessitated
switching over to machine assisted resourceconservation techniques such as zero-tillage,
raised-bed planting, precision farming, etc. Even
though farm mechanization is increasing in India,
it is mostly region specific. The decreasing trend
in operational land holdings is an impediment
in the growth of agricultural mechanization.
Small and marginal farmers who cultivate
about 85 per cent of the holdings and account
for nearly 44 per cent of the total cultivates area
cannot afford high cost agricultural machines.
High cost of mechanization and lower credit
worthiness results in the ‘exclusion’ of majority
of small and marginal farmers in India from
the benefit of farm mechanization The use
of farm machinery is also dependent on the
availability of other infrastructural services in
the rural areas. Mechanization of small and noncontiguous group of lands is found to be against
‘economies of scale’ especially for activities like
land preparation and harvesting, thereby making
individual ownership of agricultural machinery
uneconomical. In order to make farm equipments
and machines available to the farmers at affordable
cost, Farm Machinery Banks can be established to
custom hire the machines and equipments to the
farmers. This will, besides increasing the power
availability, help in removing the disparity in
availability the farm power among various states
and reduce the drudgery associated with various
farm operations.
strategy involving (i) compression of the supply–
chain by linking producers and markets; (ii)
promoting processing in production catchments
to add value before the produce is marketed;
and (iii) developing small-scale processing
refrigerated chambers or cold storage using
conventional and non conventional sources
is required to reduce post harvest losses. This
would require greater attention to post-harvest
engineering research and development.
1.32 Recognizing the need to spread the
benefits of agricultural mechanization among
all strata of farmers, Department of Agriculture
& Cooperation is integrating the components
of agricultural mechanization under various
schemes and programmes through promotion
of ‘Custom Hiring Centre’ for agricultural
machinery.
1.33 It has been estimated that about 18 to 25%
losses occur in the entire food supply–chain from
production to consumption. A three pronged
Labour and Agricultural Wages
1.34 Agriculture is a labour intensive activity.
Cost of cultivation data shows that labour accounts
for more than 40 percent of the total variable cost of
production in most cases. Therefore, availability
of labour to work in agriculture is crucial in
sustaining agricultural production. Agricultural
wages have traditionally been low, due to low
productivity, large disguised unemployment
in agriculture sector, and lack of sufficient
employment opportunities elsewhere. However,
in recent years there has been a perceptible
change in this trend due to economic growth and
adoption of employment generation policy like
the MGNREGA and increase in minimum wages
under the Minimum Wages Act. The average daily
wages for agricultural field labour for ploughing
and harvesting at all India level have increased
at the rate of 8.7 per cent and 9.2 per cent per
annum during 2001-02 to 2010-11 respectively
as against the average wages paid for industries
covered under Annual Survey of Industries (ASI)
at 6.3 per cent per annum. However, agricultural
wages, in general, are still much lower than the
industrial wages. With skill development this gap
will narrow down, putting further pressure on
availability and cost of agricultural labour. This
further strengthens the necessity for agricultural
mechanization in a manner that is inclusive and
suitable for Indian conditions.
Agriculture Credit and Insurance
1.35 Agriculture Credit plays an important
role in improving agricultural production,
productivity and mitigating the distress of
farmers. Government has taken several measures
for improving agricultural credit flow to farmers.
18
As against the credit flow target of Rs.4,75,000
crore for the year 2011-12, achievement has been
Rs.511029 crore, 107% of the target. The target of
credit flow for the year 2012-13 has been fixed
at Rs.5,75,000 crore and achievement as at end
September, 2012 is Rs. 2,39,629 crore. Crop loans
up to a principal amount of Rs.3 lakh are being
provided effectively at 4 per cent per annum
with an interest subvention of 4 per cent for
timely repayment of loans. Further, the benefit of
interest subvention has been extended to small
and marginal farmers having Kisan Credit Card
for a further period up to six month post harvest
against negotiable warehouse receipt for keeping
their produce in warehouses to avoid any distress
sale. The limit of collateral free farm loan has been
increased from Rs.50,000 to Rs.1,00,000. A Revival
Package for Long Term Cooperative Credit
Structure (LTCCS) is also under consideration
of the Government in consultation with State
Governments.
1.36 Over the years, there has been a
significant increase in the share of formal
financial institutions (commercial banks, RRBs
and cooperatives) in the total credit availed by
cultivator households. The formal financial
institutions accounted for about 66 per cent of the
total credit to cultivator households by the early
1990s. However, the share of formal institutional
credit to agriculture witnessed some reversal
during the period between 1991 and 2002 which
was partly due to a contraction in rural branch
network in the 1990s, and partly due to the
general rigidities in procedures and systems
of institutional sources of credit. The regional
distribution of agricultural credit by commercial
banks, both in terms of quantum of credit and the
number of accounts, has been skewed. There is
a significant concentration in the southern states
(Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil
Nadu) followed by the northern and western
states. In contrast, the share of the eastern (Bihar,
Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal) and the
north-eastern states has been low. Further, nearly
three quarters of the farmer households still do
not have access to the formal credit system and
have no means to insure themselves against
income shocks. This leaves them vulnerable to
the informal money lenders.
State of Indian Agriculture
1.37 With a view to encourage the farmers
to adopt progressive farming practices, high
value inputs and higher technology and to
stabilize farm incomes, insurance coverage in
the event of failure of the notified crops as a
result of natural calamities, pests and diseases,
the National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
(NAIS) has been introduced in the country from
Rabi 1999-2000 season. Under the scheme, at
present, 10% subsidy in premium is available
to small & marginal farmers which is shared by
the Central and respective State Government on
50 : 50 basis along with claims for normal sum
insured & indemnity level for food and oilseed
crops. To improve further and make the NAIS
easier & more farmer friendly, Modified National
Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS) has
been implemented on pilot basis in 50 districts
from Rabi 2010-11 season. Besides the NAIS and
MNAIS, Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance
Scheme (WBCIS) and Pilot Coconut Palm
Insurance Scheme (CPIS) are being implemented
by the government. Despite the various schemes
launched by the government from time to time,
agriculture insurance coverage in terms of area,
number of farmers and value of agricultural
output insured is very small as compared to
the total number of holdings/farmers (137.8
million as per agriculture census 2010-11), the
total cultivated area (159.2 million hectares) and
the value of agricultural output. A broader base
both in terms of area covered and crops insured
is necessary for the viability of the schemes.
Agricultural Extension Services
1.38 Over the years, extension system in the
country has been exposed to multiple challenges.
Farmers’ needs in terms of information and
technology support have become more complex
due to rapid pace of developments in the field
of agriculture. Climate-change, depleting natural
resources, scarcity of labour and volatile market
forces are some of the concerns that have put
tremendous pressure both on the farmers as well
as extension system in the context of increasing
the productivity, profitability and sustainability
of Agriculture. Rebuilding an agricultural
extension system that is capable of adapting to
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
19
the changing agriculture scenario within the
country and globally remains a big challenge.
Efficacious extension services are being provided
by organising farmers into groups (FIG, CIG,
FACs, Producer Companies etc.); reaching out
to the farmers directly by ensuring availability
of dedicated functionaries under ATMA and
establishing convergence not only between
research & extension but also among extension
functionaries under different schemes and putting
in place extensive and integrated 5-tiered use of
ICT tools & mass media. Quality of services being
provided through Kisan Call Centres (KCCs) has
been enhanced significantly with use of latest
state of the art tools, dissemination of information
about new schemes & programmes and effective
supervision & greater involvement of State
Governments. The success story on production of
foodgrain, pulses, vegetables, and fruits during
last three years is an eloquent testimony of the
way extension machinery worked in tandem with
other programmatic interventions (e.g. RKVY,
NHM, NFSM, MMA etc.) and has succeeded in
propagating technologies and providing timely
information to farmers.
constraints, transport bottlenecks and local taxes
influence the retail prices trends across the major
markets and consumption centres.
Agricultural Prices and Markets
1.39 Food and agricultural commodity prices
in India are primarily determined by domestic
demand and supply factors. Market micro
infrastructure, the systems and procedures of
commodities trading and players determine the
market efficiency. It has been observed that there
is wide spread imperfection in the agricultural
produce markets. There is general opaqueness
and poor price transmission mechanism.
Consequently, there is a wide gap between the
prices received by the farmers and the prices paid
by the consumer. At times, the farmers are not able
to receive a price to cover his cost of production
while the consumers are paying an abnormally
high price for the same commodity. This is a major
concern for the policy makers. High food inflation
with an inadequate supply response, aggravated
by logistic and market-related constraints are
other areas requiring attention. Imperfect market
conditions, restrictions on the movement of
agricultural commodities due to infrastructural
1.40 The principal factors behind the higher levels
of inflation in the recent period are constraints in
production and distribution especially in high
value items such as pulses, fruits and vegetables,
milk and dairy products, egg, meat and fish.
Increase in prices can be attributed to both supply
and demand factors. The per capita availability
of some of the items such as cereals and pulses
has been declining resulting in some pressure on
their prices. In the case of fruits and vegetables,
milk, egg, meat and fish, prices have gone up
despite an increase in per capita availability. This
is due to a changing pattern in the demand of the
households for high value items with increasing
income levels. Market imperfections also add to
these trends by restricting the price transmission.
These include lack of infrastructure facilities like
efficient transport facilities, storage, processing,
marketing and credit facilities. When growth
picks up at low income levels the demand for
food items would increase as income elasticity
of demand for food is higher at lower levels
of income. Thus, lower per capita availability
of foodgrains and structural shortage of key
agricultural commodities like oilseeds and pulses
combined with the rising demand have kept food
price inflation high. This process has got further
accentuated by spikes in global food prices through
international transmission. Rising international
prices of oil also impacted the cost of production
of agriculture through increase in input costs of
fertilizers, transportation and a general rise in the
cost of all other inputs and services. Increase in
cost of production results in increasing the MSP
of agricultural commodities which also influences
market sentiments. The enduring solution to
price inflation lies in increasing productivity,
keeping the cost of production under control and
removing market imperfections through reforms
and infrastructure improvements. The wide
variations in market fees, commission charges,
lack of grading, standardization and packaging
facilities are resulting in higher marketing
transaction costs and low price realization by the
farmers in regulated markets. This has resulted
20
into fragmented supply chains with large
intermediations. Establishment of an effective
system of grading and marking of agriculture
produce is necessary for an electronic agricultural
marketing exchange.
1.41 Contract farming has considerable
potential in terms farmers’ access to modern
technology, quality inputs and marketing
support
through
contractual
agreement
between processing and/or marketing firms for
production support at predetermined prices. It
is necessary that direct marketing and contract
farming is promoted to facilitate enhanced
share of producers in consumer’s rupee.
Development
of
agricultural
marketing
infrastructure is the foremost requirement for
the growth of comprehensive and integrated
agricultural marketing system in the country.
The development of alternative and competitive
marketing channels is necessary to induce
competition in the existing marketing systems
and to facilitate farmers to sell their produce at
remunerative prices. Creation of scientific storage
nearer to farm is necessary to avoid wastage and
deterioration of the produce.
1.42 Many of the States are yet to adopt
the model Agricultural Produce Marketing
Committee (APMC) Act suggested by the
Central government in 2003. The APMC Acts of
non-reformed States do not allow the processor
to directly buy the agricultural produce from
agriculturists outside the market yard. This leads
to long intermediation and high marketing cost,
which result into lower share of farmers of the
rupee paid by consumers and consumers also do
not get fresh produce at reasonable prices. Many
of the States that have amended their APMC
Acts have not done so strictly on the lines of
the Model law circulated by the Centre. Much
needed provision for permitting the out-ofmandi transactions and the matter of exemption
of market fee on horticultural perishables being
pursued by the Department with States, do not
find place in the amended statutes in several
States. The Department is working towards an
integrated nationwide market for agricultural
produce.
State of Indian Agriculture
1.43 Multiple intermediaries, high market
taxes ranging from 13% to 15.5% ad-valorem
besides other market charges, poor marketing
infrastructure and access are some of the
reasons for high retail prices and these need to
be rationalized. States should waive off market
fee on fruit and vegetables under the APMC Act
to ensure unhindered trade in the perishable
commodities. There is a need for a Central
legislation to ensure barrier free movement of
agriculture commodities across the country to
develop an integrated national market.
1.44 In the context of foodgrains policy,
concern has been raised about simultaneous
occurrence of high food inflation and large
foodgrains stocks in our granaries. The various
commodity wise stocks limit notified also
discourages investment in storage facilities.
The stock limits and movement of agricultural
commodities across the country need to be freed
so as to facilitate an integrated national market
for agricultural produce across the country.
Besides improving storage facilities, there is a
need to redesign the mechanics of procurement
and release of foodgrains to the market to ensure
that the impact on prices is substantial in the
desired direction. In a large number of markets in
several states, such as Bihar, eastern UP, Orissa,
Assam, M.P. and Chhattisgarh where surpluses
are emerging, there is a need to extend the price
support mechanism for effective procurement
operations and to strengthen the market
infrastructure.
1.45 The Prime Minister’s Economic Advisory
Council (PMEAC) has also stressed in its
recent Economic Outlook report the need for
agricultural reforms. The areas that have been
identified for urgent attention include the
reduction and rationalization of input subsidies,
ensuring glitch-free marketing of farm produce
and liberalizing tenancy arrangements. The
time schedule for rationalizing fertilizer subsidy
through the nutrient-based subsidy regime
calls for decontrolling the prices of urea, the
most consumed fertilizer. Inefficiency in power
generation and huge transmission losses are
not letting to remove subsidies on power for
agricultural purposes. The Council has also
Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges
21
recommended for removing subsidies on canal
water to improve water use efficiency and called
for encouraging involvement of consumers in
water and power distribution.
during the lean season at much higher prices.
This is partly due to smallholders need for cash
and partly due to lack of adequate technologies
and facilities for post harvest handling, storage
and processing. This coupled with poor market
information and weak market integration,
adds to supply distortion and price volatility.
To increase and stabilize supplies and thereby
mitigate price volatility, improved infrastructural
services, particularly for transportation, storage
and processing, pro-smallholder innovations in
credit flow, organisation of producers and other
stakeholders in the agriculture value chain with
clear roles and responsibilities in cooperatives
which can provide an array of services from
provision of inputs to enhancing market access,
financial services, technologies and information.
The Way Forward
1.46 While there has been a significant increase in
production of foodgrains and other agri-produce
in the recent past, there are formidable challenges,
e.g. a decline in the average size of land holding,
dwindling water resources and inefficient water
use, the adverse impact of climate change,
shortage of farm-labour, poor and inefficient
marketing infrastructure, and increasing costs
and uncertainties associated with volatility in
international markets. The main determinants
of agriculture growth would be: (a) viability
of farm enterprise and returns to investment
that depend on productive infrastructure, such
as soil and water conservation and expansion
and improvement of irrigation systems, market
access, prices and risk; (b) availability and
dissemination of appropriate technologies that
depend on quality of research and extent of skill
development; (c) plan expenditure on agriculture
and in infrastructure which together with policy
must aim to improve functioning of markets and
more efficient use of natural resources; and (d)
governance in terms of institutions that make
possible better delivery of services like credit,
quality inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides
and farm machinery. In addition, certain regional
imbalances must be clearly addressed. As the
domestic supply of pulses, oilseeds and fruits
and vegetables fall short of the demand, there is a
need for crop diversification towards these high
value crops. From the point of both food security
and sustainability, extension of green revolution
to low productivity areas in the Eastern Region
where there is ample ground water and surplus
labour needs much higher emphasis. Equally
important would be the development of suitable
technologies and crop varieties particularly for
rain-fed area, as 55 per cent of cropped area is
rain-fed.
1.47 Most of the smallholders sell their produce
immediately after harvest, invariably realizing
lower prices and later buy the commodities
1.48 KCC is an innovative tool of credit delivery
to meet the production credit requirement of the
farmers in a timely and convenient manner. All
eligible farmers should be brought within the
umbrella of KCC in time bound manner and it
should be made single product catering the all
credit needs of farmers. The National Agricultural
Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and modified NAIS
(MNAIS) provide risk coverage of the crops on
the basis of their yield. While the unit area for
MNAIS is village/village panchayat, NAIS also
allows notification of village as the unit area.
However, many States notify a larger unit area
such as Block, Taluk and Tehsil. The larger
unit area does not cover the risk of individual
farmers effectively because of larger variations
in the yield in the unit area. The States are
reluctant to notify a smaller unit area (such as a
village) because of increased requirements of the
minimum number of crop cutting experiments
that has to be undertaken which is both costly
and time consuming affair. The States need
to deploy additional manpower and provide
adequate training to the personnel engaged in
the crop cutting experiments to ensure accurate
and timely availability of yield data for effective
implementation of the insurance schemes. Use
of modern technology such as remote sensing
through satellite imagery may be deployed to
reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of crop
cutting experiments.
22
1.49 To sum up, the thrust areas for the
agriculture sector include enhancing public
sector investment particularly in research and
technology transfer along with institutional
reforms to make it more accountable towards
delivery, conservation of land, water and
biological resources, development of rain fed
agriculture, development of minor irrigation
and water use efficiency, timely and adequate
availability of inputs -seeds, fertilizers, pesticides,
developing efficient marketing infrastructure,
increasing flow of credit particularly to the small
and marginal farmers.
1.50 Improved performance at farm level will
result in improved food security and improved
farm livelihoods only if other components in the
value-chain such as infrastructure supporting
State of Indian Agriculture
agricultural upstream and downstream activities,
including transport, storage, processing and
marketing facilities for agricultural products
are also developed simultaneously. Continuous
innovation to improve productivity and
competitiveness of the agriculture sector are
necessary to create jobs, generate income and
alleviate rural poverty. From the government’s
side, enabling policies and institutions in a variety
of domains - from R&D to trade and markets, from
natural resource governance to collective action
by agricultural producers, agricultural extension
and rural advisory services are necessary to bring
knowledge, technologies, and services to farmers
and entrepreneurs. Investment in relevant public
goods which works both as a catalyst of, and
complements to, private investment in agriculture
is necessary.
CHAPTER 2
Natural Resource Management
2.1 Land, water resources, soil and biodiversity
which are the natural resources for agriculture
are under considerable strain. India’s total gross
cropped area is about 192.2 million hectares
and the net sown area is 140 million ha. Over
the last three to four decades, net sown area
remains stagnant and possibility of increasing it
is minimal due to increasing demand on land for
other purposes. The ultimate irrigation potential
of the country is estimated to be about 140 million
ha out of which about 76 million ha is met by
surface water and remaining 64 million hectare
from ground water sources. Presently, about 63
million ha (45%) of cropped area, is reported to
be irrigated.
2.2 The demand for meeting food and water for
a growing population from a shrinking natural
resource base has shifted focus to enhance
agricultural production in a sustainable manner.
The progressive fragmentation of land holdings,
degrading natural resource base and emerging
concerns of climate change will further escalate
pressure on land and water. Land and water
resources being finite, increased production has
to come from the same restricted net sown area
by increasing productivity. Thus, increase in
agricultural production will mainly come from
enhancement in farm productivity with optimal
use of available water and land resources.
2.3 Agriculture production is mainly dependent
on natural resources e.g. land, water, soil,
biodiversity (plant, animal and microbial genetic
resources), along with air and sunlight. But these
natural resources are rapidly shrinking due to
demographic and socio-economic pressures,
monsoonal disturbances, increasing frequencies
of floods and droughts etc. Overuse of marginal
lands, imbalanced fertigation, deteriorating
soil health, diversion of agricultural land to
nonagricultural uses, misuse of irrigation
water, depleting aquifers & irrigation sources,
salinization of fertile lands and water-logging
continue apace. During the last three decades
while considerable emphasis has been laid on
development of natural resources (land, water and
perennial biomass), negligible attention towards
sustainable socio-economic management of these
resources have reached to unprecedented levels.
For making agriculture sustainable, to meet
country’s food requirement, soil health and water
availability are to be maintained at levels that
would re-assure farmers to pursue agricultural
activities with higher level of productivity.
Land & Land Use
2.4 Land use classification based on different
type of uses indicate that a little more than half
of total land mass of 328.73 million hectare in
the country is used for agriculture. This includes
140.02 million ha net sown area under cultivation
and 26.17 million ha for non-agricultural uses.
Over the years there is a gradual increase in area
under non-agricultural uses. During the last
decade (1999-2000 to 2009-10), area under nonagricultural uses has increased by 2.57 million ha
(11%). During the same period cultivable land
has marginally declined by 1.4 million ha (0.8%)
and net sown area has declined by 1.04 million
ha (0.7%). As a normal process, of urbanization
and development, while area under nonagricultural uses is increasing, measures taken by
government, has reclaimed land for cultivation
from degraded/culturable waste land category.
The net cultivated area increased significantly
by about 18% from 119 million ha in 1950-51
Box 2.1: Land Use in India
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Forest area: 70 million ha (21.2%)
Non-agricultural uses: 26.17 million ha (8%)
Barren & uncultivable: 16.78 million ha (5.1%)
Culturable waste: 12.86 million ha (3.9%)
Permanent pastures: 10.15 million ha (3.1%)
Miscellaneous tree crops: 3.35 million ha (1%)
Fallow land: 26.24 million ha (8%)
Agricultural land: 182.46 million ha (55.5%)
Net Sown Area: 140.02 million ha (42.6%)
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics
24
to 140 million ha in 1970-71 and since then it is
more or less stable at 140 million ha, where as
the cropping intensity has increased from 111%
to 137% during the same period.
2.5 During 2010-2011, food grains accounted for
the largest share of about 65% of gross cropped
area. During the last decade (2000-2001 to 20102011) the area under cereals, pulses and oil seeds
have increased by about 5.7 million ha, 6 million
ha and 4 million ha respectively. However, during
the same period the area under coarse cereals
has declined by about 2.6 million ha. Analysis
of the shift in area under various crops (in gross
cropped area) reveals that share of jowar, bajra,
ragi, barley has continuously declined, whereas
area under pulses, rice, fodder, tobacco has more
or less remained at the same level and share of
maize, wheat, sugarcane, condiments and spices,
fruits & vegetables, oilseeds, tea, coffee and
fibers has increased when compared to 1950-51
levels. During the last 10 years there is no drastic
change in cropping pattern, while year to year
fluctuations are being observed. However there
is a gradual increase in area under fruits and
vegetables by about 1.6 million ha during the
same period.
Challenges
2.6 Land Fragmentation: Increasing human
and animal population has reduced availability
of land over the decades. Per capita availability of
land has declined from 0.89 hectare in 1951 to 0.32
hectare in 2001 and is projected to further slide
down to 0.20 hectare in 2035. As far as agricultural
land is concerned, per capita availability of land
has declined from 0.5 hectare in 1951 to 0.18
hectare in 2001 and is likely to decline further.
The average land holding size which was about
1.33 ha in 2000-01 has declined to 1.16 ha during
2010-11.
2.7 Diversion of Agricultural Land: There
has been an increase in putting agricultural
land into non agricultural uses to accommodate
developmental activities like industries, housing,
transport, irrigation, recreational facilities etc.
It has been estimated that during the period
1950-51 to 2009-10, the percentage of land used for
State of Indian Agriculture
non agricultural purposes over reporting area has
increased from 3.3 to 8.6%. During the last decade
(1999-2000 to 2009-10), area under non-agricultural
uses has increased by 2.57 million ha i.e. by 11%.
Due to large demand of land for infrastructure,
more and more fertile land is being diverted. States
where proportion of land under non agricultural
uses is higher than all India average(%) are West
Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Bihar including Jharkhand,
Sikkim, Assam, Tripura, Goa, Andhra Pradesh,
Kerala, UP, Haryana and UTs like Chandigarh,
Delhi, Pudduchery and Daman & Diu.
2.8 Unwanted Crop Diversification: Apart
from the diversion of lands from cultivation
to nonagricultural uses and damage due to
industrial waste, pollution, water extraction by
the industries, townships etc., there is a tendency
for diversified intensive agriculture for higher
economic gains based on market demands in
areas not conducive to agro-climatic conditions.
There is a need for shift in land use and cropping
patterns in accordance to the climatic parameters,
land characteristics and water availability
scenarios.
2.9 Climate Change: Climate Change is
likely to impact agricultural land use and
production due to less availability of water for
irrigation, higher frequency and intensity of inter
and intra-seasonal droughts and floods, low soil
organic matter, soil erosion, less availability of
energy, coastal flooding etc. Observations of Inter
Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reaffirms that the adverse impact of climate
change due to rising temperature and extreme
weather events on the food production systems
could impact agricultural growth adversely.
Policies & Programmes
2.10 National Policy for Farmers, 2007 (NPF,
2007) emphasizes on protection and improvement
of land, water, biodiversity and genetic resources
for sustained productivity. Reflection of NPF,
2007 is evident in the proposed draft Land
Acquisition, Relief and Rehabilitation Bill, 2011
where in minimum acquisition of agricultural
land for non-agricultural use is recommended.
Natural Resource Management
2.11 Various
Watershed
Development
Programmes (WDPs) are being implemented by
Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Rural
Development for development of degraded
lands. These programmes are National Watershed
Development Project for Rainfed Areas
(NWDPRA), Soil Conservation in the Catchments
of River Valley Project & Flood Prone River (RVP
& FPR), Reclamation and Development of Alkali
& Acid Soils (RADAS), Watershed Development
Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDPSCA)
and
Integrated
Watershed
Management
Programme (IWMP). Under these WDPs, since
inception till end of Eleventh Five Year Plan, an
area of about 58 million ha has been developed.
25
2.14 Land Reform: Considering skewed
ownership of land, it is necessary to strengthen
implementation of laws relating to land reforms,
with particular reference to tenancy laws and
leasing, distribution of ceiling surplus land
and wasteland, providing adequate access to
common property and wasteland resources and
consolidation of holdings. Allaying the fears of
a farmer regarding possible alienation from his
own land because of leasing it out to the retailer/
processor requires the freeing up of land lease
markets. Legalizing lease markets also protects
the interests of the retailer/processor, and enables
him to undertake larger investments. Registration
of land deeds and the computerization of land
records will bring about greater transparency
and reliability, improve the marketability of land
and enhance access of farmers to institutional
credit that requires pledging of collaterals.
2.15 Computerization of Land Records: Land
and soil surveys should be completed and
inventory of land resources should be prepared
in each State so that resource allocation is based
on a reliable data base. A “soil to satellite”
approach needs to be promoted along with
computerization of land records for availability
of easier, accurate and transparent information
on land and land uses.
Way Forward
2.12 Incentivize Conservation Agriculture:
Conservation Agriculture can be ensured by
incentivizing sustainable farm operations
through power connectivity, additional input
subsidy, low premium on crop insurance etc.
2.13 Land Use Policy: For proper management
of natural resources and to ensure sustainable
agriculture growth in the country, there is need
for a land use policy. As per Seventh Schedule of
the Constitution of India, Land and Water falls
under the purview of State Governments and it
is for the States to bring about suitable legislation
for regulating conversion of agricultural land for
non- agricultural purposes. Land use planning
should be integrated with all developmental
programmes, especially MGNREGA for holistic
rural development, natural resource management
and eco-restoration.
2.16 Policy on Diversion and Fragmentation
of land: Productive agricultural land should not
be diverted for industrialization or urbanization.
In case of extreme national need, it could be
stipulated that Industries who are provided
with agricultural or other lands for development
projects should compensate for treatment and
full development of equivalent degraded/waste
lands elsewhere. Considering the small size of
land holding, it is not possible to reap the benefits
of economies of scale. Hence, there is need for
aggregation of land through contract farming,
cooperative farming, collective farming etc.
To achieve this farmer producer organization,
farmer industry partnership, farmer-farmer
partnership with enabling provisions in policies
and reforms be encouraged to scale up input
application, bringing in higher investment and
reap the benefit of collective bargaining power of
small and marginal farmers.
26
State of Indian Agriculture
2.17 Public Private Partnership: In the present
scenario Public Private Partnership in land
and watershed development programmes is
not only indispensable but also need of the
hour. An enabling frame work is required for
involvement of Private Sector in natural resource
management.
Soil
2.18 Traditionally Indian soils are divided into
four major groups namely: (1) red, (2) black,
(3) alluvial, and (4) laterite. Based on depth, clay
content and other soil parameters, a variety of
soil types within these soil groups are available.
The land surface in the country is predominantly
covered with red soils (105.5 million ha), black
soils (73.5 million ha), alluvial soils (58.4 million
ha), laterite soils (11.7 million ha), desert soils (30
million ha) and hills & tarai soils (26.8 million
ha).
Challenges
2.19 Soil health is fundamental for agricultural
sustainability. State of soil health is governed by
a number of physical, chemical and biological
attributes/processes. Major issues of soil health
are:
•
•
Physical degradation caused by compaction,
crusting, excessive cultivation or puddling,
water logging and soil erosion
Chemical degradation caused by wide
nutrient gap between nutrient demand and
supply, high nutrient turnover in soil plant
system coupled with low and imbalanced
fertiliser use, emerging deficiencies of
secondary and micronutrients, poor nutrient
use efficiencies, insufficient input of organic
sources, acidification and aluminium
toxicity in acid soils, salinity and alkalinity
•
Biological degradation due to organic matter
depletion and loss of soil fauna and flora,
and;
•
Soil pollution from industrial wastes,
excessive use of pesticides and heavy metal
contamination.
• Nature takes about 300 years to form only 1 cm of top
soil
• 5.3 billion tonnes of soil gets eroded annually
• Soil loss is about 16.4 t/ha/year.
2.20 Physical Degradation: Land degradation
is a major threat to our food and environmental
security. As per estimates of Indian Council
of Agricultural Research (2010), out of total
geographical area of 328.73 million ha, about
120.40 million ha is affected by various kind of
land degradation resulting in annual soil loss
of about 5.3 billion tonnes through erosion.
This includes water and wind erosion (94.87
million ha), water logging (0.91 million ha), soil
alkalinity/sodicity (3.71 million ha), soil acidity
(17.93 million ha), soil salinity (2.73 million ha)
and mining and industrial waste (0.26 million ha).
Water erosion is wide spread across the country,
whereas wind erosion affects Rajasthan and J&K.
Water logged areas are mostly found in Uttar
Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar & Andhra Pradesh. Saline
and alkaline tracts are mostly seen in Rajasthan,
Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. Acid soils are
prominent in MP, Chhattisgarh, Arunachal,
Mizoram, Meghalaya, Bihar and Jharkhand.The
details of soil fertility status of Indian soil, soil
testing laboratories and measures to improve soil
health are given in Chapter 3.
Fig. 2.1: Total Degraded Land (120.4 million)
2.3%
0.2%
3.1%
Water & Wind
erosion
Water logged
14.9%
Alkali/Sodic soil
0.7%
Acid Soil
78.8%
Saline soil
Mining/Industria
l waste
Policies & Programmes
2.21 Soil Survey: Soil and Land Use Survey of
India (SLUSI) under Deptt. of Agriculture and
Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture has been
Natural Resource Management
27
Survey type
Box 2.2: Soil Survey Status: SLUSI
Survey type
Rapid Reconnaisance Survey
(1:50 K)
Achievement
(million ha)
253.0
Detailed Soil Survey
(1:5 K/8 K or larger)
13.5
Land Degradation Mapping
(1:50 K)
45.0
Soil Resource Mapping (1:50 K)
45.9
engaged in conducting soil survey of the country
since 1958 for National land based developmental
programme. Soil survey aims at generating
scientific database on soil and land resources for
planning and implementation of soil and water
conservation (through watershed programmes)
for natural resource management. Database is
being generated to meet the needs for planning
at
National/State/Basin/District/Catchment
and Village/micro-watershed levels. Rapid
Reconnaisance Survey (RRS) is to demarcate and
identify priority watersheds in the catchment
areas on 1:50K scale based on either sediment
yield index or runoff generation potential index.
Detailed Soil Survey (DSS) is to generate detailed
information on soil and land characterization of
the priority areas using cadastral map (1:4K/1:8K)
or large scale aerial photograph/satellite images
(1:10k to 1:20k) for micro level developmental
planning. The survey is an established tool
to identify various morphological, physical,
chemical and mineralogical properties of soils in
a systematic way through examination of soils
in the field and in the laboratory. The soils are
classified and interpreted based on the potentials
and limitation of the database for various utility
purposes such as, land capability classification,
soil hydrological grouping, suitable cropping
pattern and soil fertility.
Water Resources
2.22 The average annual rainfall in the country
has been estimated to be about 1170 millimeters
(mm). The total of average annual rainfall, snowfall
Achievement
(million ha)
Annual Precipitation
(Including snowfall)
4000 BCM
Average Annual Availability
1869 BCM
Estimated Utilizable Water
Resources
1123 BCM
(i) Surface Water
690 BCM
(ii) Ground Water
433 BCM
Per Capita Water Availability
(2001) in cubic meter
1820 CM
Source: Ministry of Water Resources
and glacier melt in terms of volume works out to
about 4000 billion cubic meters (bcm). However,
due to losses through evaporation and evapotranspiration, water availability has been assessed
to be about 1869 bcm. Even available water cannot
be fully utilized due to topographical constraints
and hydrological features and utilizable water is
estimated to be about 1123 bcm (comprising of 690
bcm surface water and 433 bcm replenishable
ground water. Large temporal and spatial
variations are observed in rainfall and hence in the
water availability. Most of the water is available
during the monsoon period and that too, through
a few spells of intense rainfall, resulting in floods
in major river systems. Area irrigated through
different sources of irrigation and per cent of
irrigated area under different crops are given in
the following figures. There is a need to bring
more cropped area under assured irrigation to
increase agriculture productivity and production.
Fig. 2.2(a): Irrigated Area and Sources of
Irrigation
Irrigated Area - 63.25 MHaa
5.88
Canals (26%)
10.09
9
16.7
28.94
Tanks (3%)
1.64
4
Tubewells (46%
%)
Dug wells (16%
%)
others (9%)
28
State of Indian Agriculture
Fig. 2.2 (b): Per cent of irrigated area under
different crops
% of Irrigated Area
Paddy
4.1
Wheat
4.5
Jowar
8.6
1
28.4
Bajra
5
Maize
4.5
Pulses
2.3
Sugarcane
0.9
Fruits &Veg
0.8
30.3
Oilseeds
Cotton
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics
Challenges
2.23 Regional Imbalance: There is huge
temporal and spatial variation in rainfall and
water availability in the country. Most of the water
is available during monsoon period and that too,
through few spells of intense rainfall, resulting
in floods in major rivers. While average annual
rainfall of the country is about 1170 mm, average
rainfall in North East Region is as high as 10000
mm per year whereas some parts of Western
Rajasthan receive annual rainfall of about 100
mm only. The basin wise availability of water
is also quite varied as the Ganga-Brahmaputra
river basin contributes to more than 50% of total
annual water availability, whereas, about 15%
each is only available in Southern and Western
basins.
2.24 Sub-optimal Utilization of Created
Facilities: The sub-optimal utilization of created
facilities is another major challenge. Only about 85
per cent of created potential has been put into use.
This gap has only been increasing over time. It is
necessary to provide infrastructure for ensuring
last mile connectivity in developed commands for
optimal utilization of potential created.
Fig. 2.3: Potential created and utilized respect of major & medium project
50
45
40
Irr.Pot (MHa)
35
Created
Utilised
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Plan Periods
Source: Ministry of Water Resources
Natural Resource Management
2.25 Poor Water-use Efficiency: The present
level of efficiency of irrigation system in India
is relatively low and there is considerable scope
for improvement. It is observed that irrigation
Source: Ministry of Water Resources
2.26 Ground Water Depletion: Despite huge
contribution of ground water in agriculture
growth, it is heading for crisis and needs urgent
attention. Due to unregulated use and heavy
subsidies on power, there has been a tendency
of excess withdrawal of this precious resource.
Decline in water level is observed mostly in
northern, north western and eastern parts of the
country in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Punjab and
Haryana. Decline in water level has also been
observed in parts of Tamil Nadu and Andhra
Pradesh. Decline in water level of more than 2
m, which is considered to be significant is seen
in parts of Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, and
western Uttar Pradesh, western Andhra Pradesh
and North West part of Tamil Nadu. Out of
5842 numbers of assessed administrative units
(Blocks/Taluks/Mandals/Districts), 802 units
are Over-exploited, 169 units are Critical, 523
units are Semi-critical.
29
efficiencies from surface water sources varies in
the range of 35 to 40% only, where as for ground
water, it is about 65-75%.
30
2.27 Competing Demand: The demand
for water for various purposes is increasing
due to population growth, urbanization and
industrialization. Presently agriculture sector is
using about 83% of available water resources, but
due to demand from other sectors availability
may decline to 68% in 2050.
2.28 Water Logging and Soil Salinity: Another
challenge relates to over-use of surface water
which has resulted in drainage problems causing
water logging in some areas. Problem of water
logging is very often observed in canal irrigation
system and also in areas of poor drainage
resulting in accumulation of water.
2.29 Climate Change: Although precise
quantitative assessment of impact of climate
change on water resources is yet to be made,
various reports indicate that climate change
could result in further intensification of temporal
and spatial variation in the availability of water
and extreme events of flood and drought.
Programmes & Schemes
2.30 Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme
(AIBP): Major & medium irrigation projects
are capital-intensive in nature. Accelerated
Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) was
launched by MoWR, Government of India
during 1996-97 to provide financial assistance
to State Governments for accelerating the pace
of irrigation development in the country. So far
Irrigation potential created from major/medium
projects and minor irrigation schemes is about 8
million ha.
2.31 Command Area Development Programme
(CADP): The Centrally Sponsored Command
Area Development (CAD) Programme was
launched in 1974-75 by MoWR for development
of adequate delivery system of irrigation water
up to farmers’ field with an objective to bridge the
gap between potential created and utilised and
to enhance water use efficiency and production
and productivity of crops per unit of land and
water for improving socio-economic condition
of farmers. So far 314 projects with a CCA of
28.95 Million ha have been included under the
programme.
State of Indian Agriculture
2.32 Repair, Renovation & Restoration (RRR)
of Water Bodies: Repair Renovation & Restoration
of Water Bodies (RRR) were taken up under both
domestic and external support (World Bank)
with an outlay of Rs.1250 crore and Rs.1500
crore respectively during XI Plan by MoWR. The
objective of the Scheme is to restore and augment
storage capacities of water bodies, and to recover
and extend their lost irrigation potential. Under
the domestic support 3341 Water bodies were
taken up against which 694 water bodies have
been completed. The evaluation of the scheme
indicates that the storage capacity in the tanks
have been enhanced in the range of 50-85%.
2.33 Artificial Recharge to Ground Water
through dugwells: Ministry of Water Resources
launched a scheme on “Artificial Recharge to
Ground Water through Dug Wells” in 6 States,
namely, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan,
Tamil Nadu, Gujarat & Madhya Pradesh during
XI Plan with the objective to recharge rain runoff
generated in agricultural fields through existing
dugwells in areas underlain by hard rock terrain
and having majority of Overexploited, Critical
and Semi-critical assessment units. By the end of
2010-11 about 95000 dugwell recharge structures
have been completed.
2.34 National Mission on Micro Irrigation:
National Mission on Micro Irrigation was
launched in June 2010 as a continuation of the
Micro Irrigation Scheme which was initiated in
March, 2005-06. Drip and Sprinkler technologies
are being promoted to supply water at the root
zone as per requirements. Micro irrigation is
instrumental in not only enhancing efficiency
of water application but also in precision
application of fertilizers & plant nutrients. By
the end of 2011-12, about 3 million ha area has
been covered under drip & sprinkler irrigation.
Major impediments in the implementation of
National Mission on Micro Irrigation (NMMI)
are initial cost of installation of MI system and
lack of awareness of benefits of the system.
Most of the farmers in the country are small and
marginal farmers. Inspite of subsidy provided
by both Central and State Governments, they
find it difficult to install the MI system because
of high cost of equipment. Inspite of extension/
Natural Resource Management
promotion activities undertaken as part of the
implementation of NMMI scheme, farmers are
not aware of the increase in the production and
productivity and saving of water and power
with the installation of MI system. Moreover,
water and power in many states is provided
free for agriculture activities. Hence, farmers are
not impressed by the fact that installation of MI
system leads to saving of power and water.
2.35 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY):
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
gives flexibility to state in taking up needbased interventions including infrastructure
development for increasing production and
productivity in agriculture sector. Substantial
resources are being invested with special
emphasis on water resource development and
management by the States under RKVY. During
XI Plan about 20% of the total cost has been
invested for natural resource management and
irrigation development.
The Way Forward
2.36 Reducing Gap between Potential Created
and Utilized: The gap between irrigation potential
created and utilized should be minimized through
better on-farm water management, suitable
agronomic measures like better cropping pattern
and cropping alignment, participatory water
management etc.
2.37 Improving Water use Efficiency: Microirrigation systems and laser leveling, have
potential of enhancing 80 to 90 % irrigation
and water use efficiency, are essential to derive
maximum income, livelihood, employment
and food security. Micro-irrigation needs to be
expanded at a faster rate to increase water use
31
efficiency. But looking into the difficulties of
small and marginal farmers to afford the cost of
equipments inspite of being subsidized, there
is need for policy relook as far as subsidy for
MI system to small and marginal farmers are
concerned. There is also a need for policy relook
towards free power supply by some states to
agriculture sector.
2.38 Addressing
Problems
of
Overexploitation of Ground Water: Sustainable
groundwater development and management in
overexploited regions needs to be addressed by
artificial recharge of groundwater and rainwater
harvesting, conjunctive use of surface water and
groundwater, management of poor/marginal
quality groundwater, water conservation,
regulation of groundwater development etc.
Separation of feeders for domestic and agricultural
purposes and its timely & regulated supply for
irrigation could help in conserving groundwater
use. A gradual withdrawal of water guzzling
crops from overexploited regions of the country
is need of the hour.
2.39 Irrigation Development in Eastern & NE
Region: In East and North East India ground
water resources are under-utilized to the tune of
58-82% and these regions are also blessed with
sufficient rainfall. In Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Orissa, parts of Jharkhand, Eastern Uttar Pradesh
and West Bengal, other coastal regions and
pockets, a battery of shallow and deep tube-wells
may be installed on priority basis for drawl of
ground water during the Rabi season which will
also act as a sink for subsequent floods.
2.40 Creating Secondary Storages in Tail end
of Canal Commands: During monsoon period,
reservoirs are at peak storage level. Availability
of water in canal system is unrestricted and
water is available in plenty even at tail end of the
system. This water if stored in secondary storage
structures constructed at feasible locations of
tail end of canal system, would help in making
water available during dry spells and also create
additional storage thereby reducing impact of
floods to a certain extent.
2.41 Measures to Control Water Logging & Soil
Salinity: Apart from lining of canals, wherever
32
required there is a need for drainage development
either through surface/sub surface/bio drainage
or a combined approach followed by appropriate
agronomic measures.
2.42 Emphasis on Awareness Generation &
Training: Training and awareness of farmers
towards proper use of irrigation water in critical
stages of crop growth under different soil and
environment conditions is very essential.
Climate Change
2.43 Climate Change refers to statistical
variations in properties of the climate system such
as changes in global temperatures, precipitation,
etc., due to natural or human drivers over a
long period of time. Climate change could
drastically alter the distribution and quality of
natural resources thereby adversely affecting
livelihood security of people. Observations of
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) indicate that adverse impact of climate
change due to rising temperatures and extreme
weather events on food production system could
impact agricultural growth. Consistent warming
trends and more frequent and intense extreme
weather events are being observed across India
in recent decades. Several areas have been
identified as risk prone due to impact of climate
change like coastal areas, Indo-Gangetic plains
and the drought and flood prone regions of the
country. Besides production from crops and
livestock, fresh water and marine ecosystem is
also likely to be affected due to warming of sea
surface temperatures. Such climatic fluctuations
could adversely affect agricultural sustainability
resulting in unforeseen situational shortages
which could also impact other economic sectors.
Challenges
2.44 Climate change is likely to significantly alter
the dynamics of extreme events such as tropical
cyclones, associated storm surges and extreme
rainfall events; possibly increasing their frequency
and intensity. Low lying regions, including small
islands, will face highest exposure to rising sea
levels, which will increase risk of floods bringing
more cultivable area under submergence and
State of Indian Agriculture
degradation. Vulnerability of India in the event
of climate change is more pronounced due to
its ever increasing dependency on agriculture,
excessive pressure on natural resources and
poor coping mechanisms. While in the short
run impact might not be severe, most crops are
likely to witness yield decline after 2020 when
temperature threshold limit of many crops might
get breached.
2.45 A one degree Celsius rise in mean
temperature is likely to affect wheat yield in the
heartland of green revolution. There is already
evidence of negative impacts on yield of wheat
and paddy in parts of India due to increased
temperatures, increasing water stress and
reduction in number of rainy days.
2.46 Crop specific simulation studies, though
not conclusive due to inherent limitations,
project a significant decrease in cereal production
by the end of this century. Parts of western
Rajasthan, southern Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka, Northern
Andhra Pradesh, and Southern Bihar are likely to
be more vulnerable in times of extreme events.
2.47 Irrigation requirements in arid and
semiarid regions are estimated to increase by
10% for every 10°C rise in temperature. Rise in
sea level is likely to have adverse effects on the
livelihoods of fisher and coastal communities.
National
Mission
Agriculture (NMSA)
for
Sustainable
2.48 NMSA is one of the eight Missions under
National Action Plan on Climate Change
(NAPCC). It seeks to address issues on ‘Sustainable
Agriculture’ in the context of risks associated
with climate change by devising appropriate
adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring
food security, enhancing livelihood opportunities
and contributing to economic stability at National
Level.
2.49 NMSA seeks to transform Indian agriculture
into a climate resilient production system through
suitable adaptation and mitigation measures in
domains of both crops and animal husbandry.
These measures would be mainstreamed in
Natural Resource Management
research and development activities, absorption
of improved technology and best practices,
creation of physical and financial infrastructure
and institutional frame work, facilitating access
to information and promoting capacity building.
While promotion of dryland agriculture would
receive prime importance by way of developing
suitable drought and pest resistant crop varieties
and ensuing adequacy of institutional support,
Mission for sustainable agriculture would also
expand its coverage to rainfed areas for integrating
farming systems with livestock and fisheries, so
that agricultural production continues to grow in
a sustainable manner.
2.50 NMSA indentifies 10 key dimensions for
promoting suitable agricultural practices, which
will be realized by implementing a Programme
of Action (PoA) that covers both adaptation and
mitigation measures through four functional
areas, namely, Research and Development,
Technologies,
Products
and
practices,
Infrastructure and Capacity building. While
recognizing role of modern technologies and
research in promoting sustainability of agriculture
production this Mission also emphasizes on
need to harness traditional knowledge and
agricultural heritage for in-situ conservation of
genetic resources.
2.51 Sustainable agricultural production shall
continue to remain key to ensure food and
livelihood security and would require a multifunctional/multi-tier institutional mechanism for
ensuring convergence and establishing linkage at
all levels. NMSA, therefore, proposes to formulate
policies of national importance in consultation
with the States in National Development
Council. Similarly, for deliberating cross cutting
issues with other Missions as well as Ministries/
Departments, an Inter Ministerial Coordination
Committee, chaired by Cabinet Secretary is
recommended. An intra-Ministerial Platform
will function in Ministry of Agriculture and its
collaborative efforts with relevant Departments,
NGO’s, Civil Society, Knowledge Institutions
and other stakeholders would be coordinated by
Secretary, Agriculture and Co-operation.
33
Drought management
2.52 The Department of Agriculture &
Cooperation is the nodal department for
coordination of relief efforts necessitated by
drought. The Crisis Management Group on
drought headed by the Central Drought Relief
Commissioner reviews situation with the
representatives of all the Line Departments, as
and when warranted. A Crisis Management
Plan is released annually to guide and formulate
the Contingency Plan for all the sectors linked
with the impact of drought to mitigate the impact
of drought situation. State Governments are also
advised to prepare district-wise contingency
plans accordingly. The Control Room of the
Department collects information on rainfall,
drinking water, etc to monitor the drought
situation and liaises with the Central Ministries/
Department & the States. In case of severe drought
situation in the country, the National Crisis
Management Committee (NCMC) under the
Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary also reviews
the situation and takes necessary decisions to
mitigate the drought situation. Separate Ministerlevel and Secretary level committees are in place
to tackle the situation.
2.53 There is a Crop Weather Watch Group
(CWWG) representing concerned Central
Ministries/Departments under DAC which meets
on regular basis to take stock of rainfall, weather
forecast, progress of sowing, crop health, level of
water in the major water reservoirs in the country,
etc. Deliberation of CWWG is coordinated by the
National Crop Forecasting Centre (NCFC) in the
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation. The
inputs information received on rainfall and its
forecast, water storage in reservoirs, pest control,
inputs availability, crop sowing status and prices
are shared among the members of the Group for
formulating strategy to meet the contingencies.
The findings of CWWG and IMD reports are
deliberated and the requirements for agricultural
and allied sectors are assessed and appropriate
actions taken by the Central Government. The
State Governments are also advised suitably and
their efforts are supplemented from the Central
resources, whenever the situation warrants
34
for immediate intervention for mitigating the
hardships of agricultural sector.
Current Status
2.54 National
Mission
for
Sustainable
Agriculture (NMSA) was accorded ‘in principle’
approval by PM’s Council on Climate Change
(PMCCC) on 23.09.2010. Ministry of Agriculture,
has thereafter, initiated a process of restructuring
its ongoing Schemes/Programmes for making
Indian agriculture climate resilient by embedding
and mainstreaming various adaptation measures
identified in NMSA onto relevant programmes,
converging programmes with identical goals
and discontinuing programmes which have lost
relevance.
2.55 NMSA as a restructured Mission for XII
plan shall cater to 5 Mission Deliverables focusing
areas like rainfed area development, resource
conservation, water use efficiency and soil health
management. Remaining Mission Deliverables
State of Indian Agriculture
will be addressed by other Missions/Schemes
including those by DARE and DAHD&F.
Planning Commission has accorded its inprinciple approval for implementing/launching
NMSA during XII Plan.
Way Forward
2.56 Long term drought proofing strategies
and development plans to enable appropriate
coping mechanism during extended dry periods,
particularly in the rainfed areas, need to be
formulated suitable to specific agro ecology, social
factors and available infrastructure to minimize
the risk. Apart from conserving moisture and
creating water bodies to meet the life saving
irrigation during critical dry spells, there is need
to focus on safety nets, varietal improvement
for drought tolerant crops/plants, water saving
technologies, supplementary livelihood support
activities like animal husbandry, agro-forestry,
small scale agro-processing units etc to mitigate
the risk of crop failure.
CHAPTER 3
Farm Inputs and Management
3.1 Agricultural production is essentially an
outcome of the interplay of the natural resources
such as land, water, soil, biodiversity; with the
plant genetic material i.e. the seed and use of
other agricultural inputs like chemical fertilizers,
organic manure, pesticides, farm machinery and
equipments, labour, credit and insurance; pricing
policy and marketing infrastructure. Chapter two
was devoted to natural resources. This chapter
highlights the present state of agricultural inputs
like seeds and planting materials, fertilizers,
pesticides, farm machinery and equipment, credit
etc, which determine agricultural productivity
and production.
Seeds and Planting Material
3.2 Seed quality is an important aspect that
determines the output of a variety. Seed quality
is administered through seed certification, seed
testing, seed labeling and seed law enforcement
during the stages of production, processing and
packaging of seeds. Presently, seed certification
is carried out by 24 State Seed Certification
Agencies. To ensure the quality of seeds, State
Governments appoint Seed Inspectors under
Seeds Act, 1966 and the Seeds (Control) Order,
1983. These inspectors draw the sample from
seed packets being sold in the market and send
the same to the notified seed testing laboratories
for quality checking. If any seed is found substandard or any seed dealer contravenes the
provisions of the Seeds Act or Seeds Rules, legal
proceedings can be initiated against such seed
dealers or distributors.
Hybrid Seeds
3.3 Hybrid seeds in cross pollinated crops give
higher yield, hence, greater emphasis is given
to hybrid seeds to improve crops productivity.
The crop wise and State wise requirements,
production and availability of hybrid seed
during each of last three years and current year
as reported by the State Governments is given in
Table 3.1. It shows that availability has been by
and large higher than the requirement all these
years:
Table: 3.1: Requirement & Availability of Certified/Quality Seeds of Hybrids
(Quantity in million tonnes)
S.
No.
Crop
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
(KHARIF-2012)
Req.
Av.
Req.
Av.
Req.
Av.
Req.
Av.
1
Paddy
2.9
5.3
9.8
10.9
9.9
9.2
28.8
28.8
2
Maize
62.7
61.1
75.4
92.2
101.7
142.1
73.7
77.0
3
Jowar
17.2
19.9
11.5
13.9
13.1
13.9
12.1
12.5
4
Bajra
22.4
19.7
21.9
26.0
24.6
28.4
23.0
25.9
5
Sunflower
4.0
6.4
5.8
6.3
7.0
9.6
2.5
2.7
6
Castor
3.7
5.0
2.5
3.1
3.4
4.5
4.0
4.3
7
Cotton
1.1
15.8
14.5
15.6
19.5
22.5
22.2
25.2
8
TOTAL
124.3
133.4
141.6
168.1
179.1
230.1
166.3
176.4
Req: Requirement Av. Availability
36
State of Indian Agriculture
3.4 Certified/quality seeds accounts for about
30 percent of the total seeds used in the country.
There are significant variations across crops
and states in the proportion of certified/quality
seeds used. Thus, there is a need to enhance the
Seed Replacement Ratio. Further, presently, SRR
has a major component of Truthfully Labelled
seeds (TL). This Department has been giving
high emphasis to Seed Replacement Ratio
(SRR) of major crops. Besides strengthening of
seed production chain, efforts are underway
to enhance supply and use of certified seeds,
particularly of oilseeds. Bt. cotton is the only
transgenic crop in the country under commercial
cultivation. Besides, an impressive improvement
in the productivity of Bt. Cotton, by 15% to 30%
as compared to Non-Bt. Cotton, there has been a
significant reduction in the usages of insecticide,
from 46% in 2001 to 21% during 2009 - 2010 due
to the adoption of transgenic technology.
3.5 The varied agro climatic conditions of
the country are suitable for cultivation of large
number of crops and varieties. Though India
produces quality seeds of a huge number of
crops grown across the country during different
seasons, its share of global seed market is less than
2%. The National Seed Policy envisages a 10%
share of global market in the coming decade.
Planting Materials
3.6 Productivity and quality of horticultural
crops depends to a large extent on the availability
and quality of planting material and rootstocks.
With a view to boost the availability and quality of
planting material, the Department of Agriculture
and Cooperation has taken several initiatives,
some of which are listed below:
•
Establishment
of
strong
nursery
infrastructure for mass multiplication of
varieties/rootstocks in commercial fruit
crops.
•
Establishment of mother blocks of improved
varieties for mass multiplications of disease
free quality planting material.
•
Establishment of rootstocks bank to mitigate
problems related to biotic and abiotic
stress.
•
Implementing agencies to procure planting
material only from accredited nurseries.
•
Import of polyembryonic/clonal rootstocks
and planting material of improved varieties
of fruit crops, especially for establishment of
mother/scion/root stock blocks to enhance
capability of production of adequate
quantities of planting material required for
new plantation.
•
Tree Canopy Management to enhance
production and productivity of horticulture
crops
•
Establishing clusters of excellence of
horticultural crops all across the country.
Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’
Rights
3.7 Legislation for Protection of Plant Varieties
and Farmers’ Rights was enacted in 2001, which
provides for the establishment of sui generis
and an effective system for protection of plant
varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders
and to encourage the development of new
varieties. PPV&FRA registers plant varieties to
protect plant breeders’ rights. It also provides for
protection of rights of the farmers in respect of
their contribution made in conserving, improving
and making available plant genetic resources. A
total of 57 crop species have been notified for
registration purposes by the Authority. Linkage
with private seed industry is very important
and as of now 67 private companies has applied
for registration for protection under the Act.
Application received for registration of varieties –
year wise and registration certificates issued cropwise are given at Fig. 3.1 & 3.2, respectively.
Farm Inputs and Management
37
Fig. 3.1: Applications Received for Registration of Varieties at PPV&FRA
1600
1400
TTotal Applicattions 3866
1361
1735
1200
1000
800
600
432
547
688
1110
1021
541
297
400
200
0
0 2011 2012*
2007 2008 2009 2010
Public
Private
Farmer
Year-wise (2007-12)
Fig 3.2: Crop-wise - Registration Certificates issued
p 19
Black gram, 11 Chick pea,
Wheat, 558
Cotton, 34
Sorghum, 22
Field pea, 220
Sesame, 2
m, 20
Green gram
Rice, 27
Jute, 7
Pigon pea, 13
Kidney bean,, 5
Lentil, 10
Pearl M
Millet, 27
Maize, 63
Box 3.1: Plant Genome Savior Community Awards
The Authority has instituted the “Plant
Genome Savior Community Award/Reward
and Recognition” as a national activity under
the National Gene Fund constituted by the
Government of India. Certificates have been
awarded to the farmers/communities for their
efforts in conservation and preservation of plant
genetic resources. Five communities/farmers were
recognised in 2007-08 and four in 2008-09. In 200910 this scope was broadened to support and reward
farmers, communities of farmers, particularly
the tribal and rural communities engaged in
conservation, improvement and preservation of
genetic resources of economic plants and their
wild relatives, particularly in areas identified
as agro-biodiversity hot spots. Accordingly, the
“Plant Genome Savior Community Award” was
instituted from 2009-10. For 2009-10 two farming
Communities from Odisha and Karnataka and
for 2010-11, four communities were conferred the
“Plant Genome Savior Community Awards”. Seven
applicants were given certificates of recognition for
their noteworthy work.
38
State of Indian Agriculture
National Seed Research and Training
Centre (NSRTC)
3.8 National Seed Research and Training Centre
(NSRTC) located at Varanasi is the Central Seed
Testing Laboratory (CSTL) under Seeds Act and
also a Referral laboratory for courts in India.
The Centre is responsible for testing the seed
samples received from the Notified State Seed
Testing Laboratories across the Country under
5% re-testing programme to maintain uniformity
between results of Central Seed Testing
Laboratory and Notified State Seed Testing
Laboratories. Details of samples received and
tested during 2007 to 2012 are shown below:-
Fig. 3.3: Nos. of seed samples received and analysed
15978
11856
2009-10
13859
12,262
2012-13 up to
June,2012
2011-12
2010-11
4086
7235
2007-08
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2008-09P
Total Nos. of Seed Samples received and analysed
Central Sector Scheme in Seed Sector
National Seed Mission
3.9 Since 2005-06, the Department of Agriculture
& Cooperation is implementing a Central Sector
Scheme “Development and Strengthening of
Infrastructure Facilities for Production and
Distribution of Quality Seeds” (DPQS) to
address the gap in infrastructure and to increase
availability of quality seeds for different crops
through various interventions. The objective
of the scheme is to ensure production and
multiplication of high yielding certified and
quality seeds of all crops in sufficient quantities
and to make the same available to farmers
across the country on time and at an affordable
prices. While the requirement of certified seeds
has grown steadily for the last seven years, the
availability has surpassed the requirement for
the last seven years, as can be seen from Fig. 3.4.
3.10 A need was felt, in the current scenario,
to upgrade and expand the existing scheme
‘Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure
Facilities for Production and Distribution of
Quality Seeds’ (DPQS) into a National Mission with
a focused, time bound and integrated approach to
further improve the availability of quality seeds
to the farmers. Hence, it is proposed to launch a
Mini-Mission on “Seeds and Planting Material”
under the new Centrally Sponsored Scheme
“National Mission on Agricultural Extension and
Technology” during Twelfth Five Year Plan. The
Mission includes seed planning, seed production,
varietal replacement, seed infrastructure, quality
control, specific interventions for seed PSUs,
contingency planning, assistance to private
sector, international cooperation, etc.
Farm Inputs and Management
39
Fig. 3.4: Requirement & availability of seeds in India
(Unit Lakh Qtl.)
128.76
148.18
2006-2007
207.28
250.35
107.08
140.51
150
2005-2006
200
110.83
132.27
250
180.74
194.31
300
249.12
279.72
350
315.18
328.57
400
330.41
353.62
Availability
290.76
321.36
Requirement
100
50
2012-2013
(upto
Dec.,12
2011-2012
2010-2011
2009-2010
2008-2009
2007-2008
2004-2005
0
Source: DAC, Seeds Division
Fig. 3.5: Production and Consumption of Seeds in India
(Unit lakh Qtls.)
Production of Breader seed
Production of Foundation seeds
1.19
1.19
1.05
21.86
277.34
17.53
257.11
10.50
126.75
0.69
0.43
10.00
1.00
7.40
86.27
5.91
100.00
283.85
Distribution of certified/quality seeds
0.10
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, DAC
2011-12
2010-11
2009-10
2005-06
2000-01
0.01
40
State of Indian Agriculture
Genetic Modification in Agriculture
3.11 A Genetically Modified crop contains a
gene or genes of a different species artificially
inserted in its genome when the inserted gene
sequence comes from an unrelated plant or from
a completely different species, it is also known
as transgene and the resulting GM crop as a
transgenic crop. 3.12 Conventional plant breeding involves
exchange of genes between two plants to produce
a hybrid for a desired trait by crosspollination.
GM technology is similar to conventional plant
breeding in terms of the objective of generating
more useful and productive crop varieties
containing new combination of genes, but it
expands the possibilities by enabling introduction
of useful genes not just from within the crop species
or from closely related plants, but from a wide
range of other organisms. It allows the transfer of
one or more genes, in a controlled and predictable
way than is achievable in conventional breeding.
GM crop plants can therefore incorporate the
desired traits more quickly and more reliably
than through conventional methods.
3.13 GM crops have been developed to
incorporate various traits such as insect pest
resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance,
altered nutritional profile, enhanced storage life
etc. The benefits of their use include increased
crop yields, reduction in farm costs and thereby
increase in farm profit as well as protection of the
environment. Research is focused on a second
generation of GM crops that feature increased
nutritional and/or industrial traits such as easy
processability. These varieties are expected to
bring in more direct benefits to consumer such
as correction of dietary deficiencies. Figure 3.6
summarizes the potential benefits of various
traits incorporated in the GM crops.
Fig. 3.6: Potential benefits of various traits incorporated in the GM crops
Potential Benefits
Traits
Pest resistance
Cheaper
Improved
farming
food
More
food
Herbicide resistance
Availability of more
crops
Better quality
products
St
( ld/ d
ht
Increased nutrition
Improvement in
health
Plant pharmaceuticals
Reduced use of
chemicals and
herbicides
3.14 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
and products thereof including GM crops are
regulated products in India under the ‘Rules
for the Manufacture, Use/Import/Export and
Storage of Hazardous Micro Organisms/
Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells
notified by the Ministry of Environment and
Forests vide Notification No. 621 in Official
Gazette of Govt. of India on December 5, 1989
under the provisions of the ‘Environment
Farm Inputs and Management
(Protection) Act’, 1986. This has been done to
ensure sound application of biotechnology
making it possible to accrue benefits arising from
modern biotechnology while minimizing the
risks to environment and human health.
3.15 These rules and regulations commonly
referred to as ‘Rules 1989’ and cover areas
of research as well as large scale applications
of GMOs and its products. These rules and
regulations are implemented by Ministry of
Environment and Forests (MoEF), Department of
Biotechnology (DBT) and State Governments. For
the development of GM crops at the laboratory
stage, confined multi-location trials for generation
of biosafety data known as Biosafety Research
Trials – I and Biosafety Research Trials-II (BRL-I
and BRL-II) require prior approval of the RCGM
and the GEAC set up under the Rules, 1989.
The compliance of the regulatory procedures
during GM crop field trials is monitored by the
Monitoring–cum Evaluation Committee (MEC).
The agronomic performance of the GM crops
is also evaluated under the Indian Council of
Agriculture & Research (ICAR) testing system.
The GEAC takes into consideration the findings
of the biosafety and agronomic studies as well as
recommendations of the RCGM, ICAR and MEC
before according approval for environmental
release. Only those transgenic crops which are
found to be safe for human consumption as well
as the environment are approved for commercial
release.Thus, release of GM crops and products
is the mandate of the Ministry of Environment &
Forests.
3.16 The global area under 25 GM crops in 2011
was 1600 lakh hectares cultivated by 29 countries,
thus indicating farmer acceptance globally.
Soybean is the leading GM crop occupying
754 lakh ha, followed by maize (510 lakh ha),
cotton (247 lakh ha) and canola (82 lakh ha).
Other prominent GM crops occupying less than
1.0 lakh ha area are Potato, sugar beet, alfalfa,
papaya, squash, potato, tomato, poplar and sweet
pepper. Among top ten countries, USA is leading
by occupying 690 lakh ha cultivating eight GM
crops (Maize, soybean, cotton, canola, sugar beet,
alfalfa, papaya and squash) followed by Brazil
(303 lakh ha – Soybean, maize, cotton), Argentina
41
(237 lakh ha – Soybean, maize, cotton), India (106
lakh ha – Cotton), China (39 lakh ha – Cotton,
papaya, poplar, tomato, sweet pepper), Canada
(104 lakh ha – Canola, maize, soybean and sugar
beet), Paraguay (28 lakh ha – Soybean), Pakistan
(26 lakh ha-Cotton), South Africa (23 lakh haMaize, soybean, cotton) and Uruguay (13 lakh
ha-Soybean, maize).
Status of GM in India
3.17 Bt. cotton is the only GM crop being
cultivated in India. Considering the successful
cultivation of Bt cotton in India, which resulted in
more than 50% reduction of insecticide usage on
cotton and about 30-60% increase in productivity
over 10 years, a record export of 129 lakh bales
worth about Rs.21, 000 crores and the absence of
any credible scientific evidence of any negative
bio-safety effects, a positive view is being taken
for GM crop research and development for the
country. The Government of India through
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee
(GEAC), Ministry of Environment and Forests
approved commercial cultivation of Bt cotton in
2002 which confers resistance to Lepidopteron
pests of cotton. Bt cotton was initially approved
for the Central (Gujarat, Maharashtra & Madhya
Pradesh) and South (Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh & Karnataka) zone states in 2002 and
later on in North Zone states (Punjab, Haryana
& Rajasthan) from the year 2005-06. It may be
mentioned that spread of cultivation of Bt cotton
in India is outcome of farmers’ spontaneous
response to success of Bt cotton in controlling
pest and diseases, enhanced yield resulting in
higher economic return. . Introduction of Bt
cotton has played a catalytic role in enhancing
cotton production and productivity in India.
Challenges and Way Forward
3.18 The challenges confronting the seed sector
is to make available quality seeds and planting
materials having good genetic potential at an
affordable price and across the country to the
farmers to enable them harvest maximum yield
under the given agro-climatic conditions. In
pursuance to this challenge, effort is being made
to produce quality seeds with the collective efforts
42
of Public and Private sector seed producing
agencies, however, it cannot be said that enough
is being done. There is need to develop better
varieties/hybrids/planting materials, which
will be able to manifest itself even under the
challenging agro-climatic conditions. We have
to adopt new technologies available for fast
tracking the development of quality varieties/
planting materials like, Genetic Modification,
Tissue Culture etc. to address this concern. These
technologies enable development, production of
planting materials, varieties/hybrids, with better
genetic potential in the shortest possible time
and maintain uniformity of quality across the
production line.
3.19 Genetic Modification helps in attacking/
addressing multiple problems at the same time,
like addressing the problems of productivity,
stress tolerance, pests and disease tolerance
simultaneously by combining genes responsible
for higher productivity with genes responsible
for stress tolerant and or genes responsible for
disease/pests tolerance. Momentum for the
development of GM technology in the country
has somewhat slowed down due to opposition
from certain quarters on safety issues, however,
there is need to address these concerns through
adoption of appropriate measures for safety and
safeguards and move ahead with the technology
for meeting the challenges facing the country.
3.20 It is also a fact that in many crops, the leading
varieties being cultivated are more than 20 years
old, though, every year new varieties are being
released. This indicates that the concerns of the
farmers are not being adequately addressed by
R&D set up in the country. The State Agricultural
Universities, ICAR and its Institutions and also
the Private sector involved in development of
new varieties/hybrids/planting materials, have
to address this issue in a more concerted manner
to make its impact pronounced on agricultural
production.
3.21 The seed multiplication ratio from Breeder
seed to Foundation seed and from Foundation
seed to Certified seed, needs to be addressed by
all the seed producing agencies, both in Public
and Private Sector. Comprehensive and authentic
State of Indian Agriculture
database on seed production and distribution
in India by public and private sectors needs to
be built for the benefit of information of all the
stakeholders. The seed chain and the norms for
quality control have to be scrupulously followed
by all the States/UTs to ensure maintenance of
quality of seeds being sold to the farmers. The
provision of subsidy for seeds for newer and
older variety needs to be rationalized. The issue
of seed certification and distribution of certified
seeds is largely dependent on the sumptuous
implementation of the provisions of Seed Act by
the States. The seed certification agencies and seed
inspectors have to be more vigilant to check sale
of spurious seeds in the market. Accreditation
of horticultural nurseries is gaining importance
with the increasing demand for supply of
quality planting materials of horticultural crops.
Accreditation of nurseries therefore needs to be
speeded up.
3.22 The States needs to prepare long term Seed
Plan for the State keeping in mind the agroclimatic conditions, farmer’s economic status and
desire to adopt quality seeds, SRR of the crop,
State’s crop calendar, contingent situation arising,
etc., in order to ensure availability of quality seed
at the right time to the farmers. Often, it is seen
that States do not have adequate Seed Plan, as a
result of which the farmers are forced to fall back
on ‘farm-saved’ seeds or Truthfully Labelled
Seeds. This is not a viable option for enhancing
productivity and production. Step has been taken
in consultation with the State Governments to
prepare Seed Plan for 5 years.
Integrated Nutrient Management
3.23 Chemical fertilizers are the immediate
source of nutrients in soils. Consumption
of nitrogenous (N), phosphatic (P), potassic
(K) fertilizers has increased from 1.1 million
tonnes in 1966-67, the year preceding the green
revolution to 28.1 million tonnes in 2010-11, but
in 2011-12 it came down to 27.7 million tonnes, a
decline of 1.3 per cent over the previous year. It
is observed that while consumption of urea has
increased from 16.6 million tonnes in 2010-11 to
17.3 million tonnes in 2011-12, an increase of 4.5
Farm Inputs and Management
43
per cent, consumption of both phosphatic and
potassic fertilizers have declined during 201112 over the previous year, the decline was much
steeper in case of potassic fertilizers. The obvious
reason for this high uses of urea and lower uses of
phosphatic and potassic fertilizers are the relative
prices of these fertilizers. While urea continues to
be under statutory price control and its price has
been revised on 1st November, 2012 at Rs. 5360/per MT, the other two are market determined and
are experiencing much higher prices than that
of urea. The all-India average consumption of
fertilizers has also remained stable at 144 kg per
ha in 2011-12 when compared with the previous
year. Very high variability has however, been
observed in fertilizer consumption among the
states. While per hectare consumption is 243.56
kg in Punjab and 266.11 kg in Andhra Pradesh,
it is comparatively low in MP (88.36 kg/ha),
Orissa (56.52 kg/ha), Rajasthan (62.35 kg/ha)
and Himachal Pradesh (55.18 kg/ha) and below
5 kg/ha in some of the North Eastern States.
Table: 3.2: Consumption of Fertilizers in terms of NPK nutrients in India
S. No
1.
1991-92
2000-01
2005-06
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Nitrogenous(N)
80.46
109.2
127.23
155.8
165.58
173.02
Phosphatic (P)
33.21
42.15
52.04
72.74
80.5
79.15
Potassic(K)
13.61
15.67
24.13
36.32
35.14
25.25
127.28
167.02
203.4
264.86
281.22
277.43
69.84
89.63
105.5
135.76
144.14
144.35
1991-92
2000-01
2005-06
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Consumption of Fertilizers
(Lakh Tones)
Total (N+P+K)
2.
Consumption of Fertilizer,
(Kg/Ha)
Source: State Governments
Table: 3.3: Consumption of Fertilizers in India
S. No
Consumption of Fertilizers
(lakh tones)
1.
Urea
140.04
191.86
222.97
266.73
281.12
295.65
2.
DAP
45.18
58.84
67.64
104.92
108.70
101.91
3.
MOP
17.01
18.29
27.31
46.34
39.32
30.29
4.
NPK Complex
32.21
47.80
66.94
80.25
97.64
103.95
5.
SSP
31.65
28.60
27.56
26.51
38.25
47.46
Source: State Governments
3.24 To ensure adequate availability of
fertilizers, the Department of Agriculture
and Cooperation (DAC) in consultation with
Department of Fertilizers make an assessment
of the requirement for major fertilizers namely,
Urea, DAP, MOP and Complex fertilizers before
each cropping season viz. Kharif (1 April to 30
September) and Rabi season (1 October to 31
March) in consultation with all the states and
concerned agencies. Requirement of fertilizers
is assessed on the basis of requirements of N,
P & K nutrients, which is calculated after the
44
comparison of consumption in last season visà-vis recommended dose. Gross Cropped Area,
Irrigated Area and Cropping Pattern are also
taken into account while calculating the total
requirements of N, P & K nutrients.
3.25 Further, to ensure the availability of
adequate quantity and proper quality of fertilizers
to farmers, fertilizer was declared as an essential
commodity under Essential Commodities Act,
1957. Fertilizer (Control) Order (FCO), 1985 was
promulgated to regulate the price, quality and
distribution of fertilizers in the country. The
FCO provides for compulsory registration of
fertilizer manufacturers, importers and dealers;
the specification of all fertilizers manufactured
or imported and sold in the country; regulation
of the manufacture of fertilizer mixtures; packing
and marking on the fertilizer bags; appointment
of enforcement agencies; setting up of quality
control laboratories and prohibition on the
manufacture and import and sale of non-standard
or spurious or adulterated fertilizers.
3.26 Government introduced Nutrient Based
Subsidy (NBS) policy for phosphate (P) and
potash (K) fertilizers with effect from April, 2010.
Under NBS policy, a fixed rate of subsidy (on Rs.
per kg. basis) is announced on nutrients, namely,
nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K) and
sulphur (S) by the Department of Fertilizer on
annual basis. Any variant of the fertilizers covered
under the subsidy scheme with micronutrients
namely Boron and Zinc, is eligible for a separate
per tonne subsidy to encourage their application
along with primary nutrients. At present, 21
grades of P&K fertilizers, namely, DAP, MAP,
TSP, MOP, Ammonium Sulphate, SSP and 15
grades of N P K complex fertilizers are covered
under the NBS policy. MRPs of P&K fertilizers
have been left open and fertilizer manufacturers/
marketers are free to fix the MRP of P & K
fertilizers.
Balanced Use of Fertilizers
3.27 Balanced fertilization is normally defined
as the timely application of all essential plant
nutrients (which include primary, secondary
State of Indian Agriculture
and micronutrients) in readily available form, in
optimum quantities and in the right proportion,
through the correct method, suitable for specific
soil/crop conditions. Balanced fertilization aims
at ensuring adequate availability of nutrients in
soil to meet the requirement of plants at critical
stages of growth and thus ensuring adequate soil
humus to improve physio-chemical and biological
properties of the soil. An imbalanced use of
fertilizers is one of the reasons for a decline in the
crop response ratio. This calls for promoting soil
test based balanced and judicious use of chemical
fertilizers in conjunction with organic sources of
nutrients to sustain and improve soil health and
its productivity.
3.28 MRPs of DAP, MOP and various grades
of complex fertilizers have risen sharply in last
two years whereas MRP of urea has remained
fixed. The impact of sharp rise in MRPs of P&K
fertilizers has been the inclination of farmers
to use more urea irrespective of the presence
(deficiency/sufficiency) of nitrogen in the soil.
This is leading to imbalance in the NPK ratio and
a decline in the marginal response of agricultural
productivity to additional usage of fertilizer in
the country.
3.29 Soil testing capacity of various Mobile/
Static Soil Testing Laboratories is about one
crore per year, however, number of land holding
is about 13.8 crores, therefore, to deliver site
specific recommendations for balanced use of
fertilizers, there is a need to increase soil testing
capacity in the country. Further, even though
some farmers are getting their soil tested for
nutrient availability/deficiency, but there still
exists a lack of awareness on the part of farmers
to go for the right composition of fertilizers based
on soil requirements. Most of the soil testing is
taking place as a result of the campaigns run by
the State Government under various schemes.
3.30 Intensive agriculture is experiencing
widespread deficiency of micronutrients
particularly of Zinc followed by Iron, Manganese,
Boron, etc. Hence, there is a greater need to
redress the issue of micronutrient deficiency in
the soil and its timely supply to the farmers.
Farm Inputs and Management
3.31 Soil organic carbon is important for the
function of ecosystems and agro-ecosystems
having a major influence on the physical structure
of the soil, the soil’s ability to store water (water
holding capacity), and the soil’s ability to form
complexes with metal ions and supply nutrients.
Loss of soil organic carbon can, therefore, lead
to a reduction in soil fertility. Further, due to
depletion of soil organic carbon, microbial
population in the soil also decreases which results
into less fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of the soil.
Imbalanced NPK application, nutrient deficiency
and non-application of organic manure also
results in a reduction in soil carbon content.
Site Specific vs Area Specific Approach to
Customized Fertilizers
3.32 Customized fertilizers are soil specific and
crop specific. So far 31 such fertiliser has been
notified. These fertilizers are formulated on the
basis of soil test results and multi location trials.
Owing to lack demand on the part of the farmers
coupled with commercial and economical
constraints particularly problem in the
procurement of raw material, many manufacturers
are not coming forward to produce customized
fertilizers. On the other side, there is debate
on the site specific vs area specific approach of
customized fertilizers. Soil test based site specific
nutrient management is aimed to ensure balance
fertilization in the country. India, presently, has
13.8 crore land holdings and the fertility status
varies even from plot to plot due to variation in
types of crops grown and input used. It is not
possible to analyze each and every farmers field
for the purpose. Hence, fertilizers companies are
preparing customized fertilizer grades based
on nutrient indexing. In this approach, larger
the area of nutrient indexing, higher will be the
deviation from site specificity. While site specific
recommendation based on nutrient indexing at
village level may not be feasible presently, district
level nutrient indexing, on the other hand, will
also be equally erroneous. Indian Institute of
45
Soil Science, Bhopal is generating geo-referenced
soil fertility maps of different districts based on
nutrient index values at block level. The district
soil testing laboratories and fertilizer companies
should generate such maps at regular interval
to recommend customize grades at block and if
possible at taluka level. While developing grades
of customized fertilizers, one should consider the
whole cropping system taking due cognizance of
residuals effects on subsequent crop.
Strategies for Promotion of Balanced use of
Fertilizers
Promotion of Soil Testing/Soil Health
Cards
3.33 With average fertilizer consumption at
144.14 kg per hectare, India is using much less
quantities of chemical fertilizers compared to
other developing countries. But imbalanced use
of chemical fertilizers coupled with low addition
of organic matter and neglect of micro and
secondary nutrients over the years has resulted
in nutrient deficiency and deterioration of soil
health in many parts of the country, particularly
in the intensively cultivated Indo-Gangetic
plains. Government is promoting Integrated
Nutrient Management (INM) advocating soil test
based balanced and judicious use of chemical
fertilizers in conjunction with organic sources of
nutrients for improving soil fertility. A National
Project on Management of Soil Health & Fertility
(NPMSH&F) was launched during 2008-09 to
promote soil test based balanced and judicious
use of fertilizers for improving soil health and
its productivity. NPMSH&F provides assistance
for setting up new static/mobile Soil Testing
Laboratories (STLs), strengthening of existing
STLs, training of STL staff/extension officers/
farmers, field demonstration on balanced use of
fertilizers, promoting use of organic manure, soil
amendments and micro nutrients etc. In addition
similar funds are available under other flagship
schemes of MoA such as RKVY.
46
State of Indian Agriculture
Table: 3.4: Soil Testing Laboratories sanctioned under National Project on Management of Soil
Health & Fertility
Sl. No
Component/year
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Total
1.
New Static STLs
42
66
16
0
124
2.
New Mobile STLs
44
62
10
2
118
3.
Strengthening of existing STLs
39
107
9
15
170
4.
Total
125
235
35
17
412
5.
Under RKVY total No. STLs &
MSTLs of laboratories
407
6.
Total (4 + 5)
819
STLs : Soil Testing Laboratories
3.34 Looking at the fact that there is lack of
awareness for soil testing among farmers so it is
imperative that we go for alternative strategies
for dissemination of recommended dose of
fertilizers. International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI) has developed ICT tool for Nutrient
Manager which is tailored for rice production
in major rice growing countries or regions. Each
Nutrient Manager tool provides a field specific
fertilizers guidelines based on information
obtained from the response to questions about
rice growing conditions in the field like season
of rice growing, method of rice establishment,
type of variety, duration of crops, total yield of
rice typically attainable, method to manage the
crop residue at harvest of previous rice crops,
soil texture, application of organic material
etc. This is in advance stage of testing in Tamil
Nadu. DAC will endeavor in the coming years to
promote these types of alternative strategies.
Promotion of Customized and Fortified
Fertilizers
3.35 The customized fertilizers are soil specific,
crop specific and area specific. These fertilizers
are formulated on the basis of soil testing and the
agronomic multi-locational trials. These fertilizers
besides carrying the major nutrients also contain
the secondary and micro nutrient. So far thirty
one such fertilizers have been notified under
clause 20B of the Fertilizer (Control) Order, 1985.
Deficiency of micro nutrient is also prevalent
in soil in many parts of the country. In order to
encourage the use of micro nutrient and also the
balance application of fertilizers, eleven grades
of fortified fertilizers have so far been notified in
the Fertilizer Control Order 1985. Under the NBS
scheme government also provides assistance on
fertilizers fortified with Zinc and Boron.
Increasing Soil Organic Carbon
3.36 Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is central to soil
health due to its influence on soil structure, water
retention, microbial activities, soil aeration, and
nutrient retention. It is the organic forms of C
and not the source of nutrient which is important
for soil-plant continuum. Hence, Bio-organic
fertilizer merits consideration. Indian soils are, in
general, poor in organic C, which is further going
down with every intensification of agriculture.
Incorporation of organic C in inorganic fertilizer
formulation leads to this category of product.
MSW, Farm Yard Manure, Press-mud, Peat,
humic acid, molasses, gums, green manures
etc. can be used in combination of inorganic
formulations to provide both binding action
as well as precious organic C to soil. Further,
organic manure contains population of useful
soil metabolites that in turn encourage growth of
useful microorganisms present in the soil. This
enables a better utilization of nutrients by the
plant, and also better absorption of nutrients from
chemical fertilizers. Further, increased C in soil
also provide suitable atmosphere for the microbial
activity in the soil. The microbial population
can further be improved with the application of
biofertilizers for NPK & Zn. Promotion of green
manuring is essential and quick way to increase
Farm Inputs and Management
organic carbon. Farmers should take at least one
green manuring crop once in every two years.
In all rice fields, cultivation of green manuring
plants as an intercrop is highly recommended
(like one row of sesbania after every 10-15 rows
of rice which can be incorporated into field after
30-35 days) to achieve the best productivity. Use
of crop straw and weed biomass as mulch-wheat
and rice straw can also be used with dung and
cattle urine to increase Organic Carbon.
Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE)
3.37 The fertilizer use efficiency on average is
reported to be 33% for N; 15% for P; 20% for K and
micronutrients. Even with the best management
practices it has not been possible to achieve more
than 50% for N; 30% for P and 50% for K. Rest
of amount either get volatilized or get leached/
fixed in the soil in complex forms, hence resulting
into to the economical loss.
3.38 Application of biofertilizers viz N fixing
Rhizobium for legume crops, Azopirillum
and Azotobacter for non-legminous crops;
P Solubilizing bacteria for phosphorus
solubilization, K mobilizing bacteria for K uptake
and for secondary nutrient Zn, Zinc solubilising
bacteria alongwith chemical fertilizers can
increase the fertilizer use efficiency. Further,
management practices such as split application,
placement of fertilizers at crop root, use of sloe
release N fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors,
and inclusion of legume crops in crop rotation
can enhance fertilizer use efficiency. Promotion
of plantation of fertilizer trees on bunds is a long
practice to conserve Nitrogen in the soil. There is
a large pool of N-fixing trees which can be used as
fertilizer trees on bunds without compromising
on space and yields of crops. Encouraging mixed/
intercropping of pulses in intensively cultivated
areas is another well established practice to
enhance fertilizer use efficiency. ICAR and State
Agricultural Universities need to come forward
on making state specific/area specific package
of practices, in form of consolidated and easily
understandable handouts in local languages, to
increase Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE).
3.39 Production of urea in granulated form or
47
coated (with sulphur or neem)/fortified Urea/
Briquetted urea can also improve the efficiency
in the use of urea. The use of naked prills needs
to be discouraged and undersize prills (below 1.8
mm) should be prohibited. Being a key element
for soil health, needs to be improved in the soil
as C content, and its absolute amount applied
may not be very significant considering fertiliser
use pattern. However, being integrated with
inorganic formulation, it improves microclimate
at rhizosphere. While FYM/compost etc requires
application rates in terms of tonnes per hectare,
approach of micro-application of C at root zone
caters to immediate need and one bag of urea
along with four bags of compost can decrease
the loses of nitrogen. Urea manufacturers need
to produce 50% of neem coated urea and there is
a need to increase R&D efforts on part of ICAR
and State Agriculture Universities (SAUs) in this
direction to develop these types of new products
in collaboration with fertilizer industry.
Quality Control of Fertilizers
3.40 In order to check the quality of the fertilizers
sold in the country, at present there are 74 Fertilizer
Quality Control Laboratory working under the
control of different State Governments. Since
quality testing is a statutory requirement under
the Fertilizer Control Order, 1985, it is imperative
to maintain all the instruments and equipment
and to ensure supply of quality chemicals and
glass-wares for the analysis. Further, there
should be adequate FQTL to ensure that all the
dealers in the country are covered for fertilizer
samples to be tested for quality checks. There is a
need to develop or nominate reputed agencies as
referral laboratories to improve quality of testing
of fertilizers in the country.
Organic Farming
3.41 The benefits of organic produce in terms
of health and nutrition are well known. Bringing
more farmers/farmers’ groups under organic
farming, production of on-farm organic inputs
and proper organic management of such farms
need to be encouraged to increase the quantity
and quality of the produce and bring down its
prices. Further, proper marketing strategies need
48
State of Indian Agriculture
to be explored to ensure remunerative prices to
the farmers for their produce. ICAR and other
research institutes should also undertake R&D for
development of crop and area specific package of
practices to be adopted by the farmers. Similarly,
SAUs should develop courses on organic farming
for its promotion and development.
Integrated Pest Management
3.42 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is
an eco-friendly approach which uses cultural,
mechanical and biological tools and techniques
for keeping pest population below economic
threshold levels. This approach attaches a high
premium on the efficacy of bio-control agents
and bio-pesticides. However, need based and
judicious use of chemical pesticides is permitted.
With this objective, IPM helps in maximizing
crop protection with minimum input costs,
minimizing pollution in soil, water and air
reducing occupational health hazards, conserving
ecological equilibrium and reducing pesticide
residue loads in food.
3.43 There are 31 Central Integrated Pest
Management Centres (CIPMCs) located in
28 States and one Union Territory. CIPMCs
undertake following activities:1. Surveillance and monitoring of insect
pests and diseases.
2. Augmentation and
natural enemies.
conservation
of
3. Production and releases of bio-control
agents.
4. Human resources development through
Farmers Field Schools (FFSs), season
long training programmes etc.
3.44 During 2011-12, a total of 7.96 lakh hectares
was covered for pest monitoring activity.
Similarly, the area coverage for augmentation
and conservation of ‘friendly insects’ during
2011-12 was 7.60 lakhs hectares. During the same
period, 1760 million bio-control agents were
released which was the highest during the 11th
Plan period. Bio-pesticides usage has displayed
a resolutely upward trend during the previous
plan period as is evident from the table below:
Table 3.5: Bio-pesticides usage
Year
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Total
Bio-pesticides
1873.00
1459.00
3366.00
5151.00
6506.00
18355.00
Sources: Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine
and Storage
3.45 During 2011-12, 724 Farmers Field Schools
(FFS) have been organized during kharif and
rabi seasons in different parts of the country
in which 21720 farmers were given training
and demonstration of the IPM approach. As of
now, 77 Crop specific package of practices have
been prepared to help farmers and extension
functionaries adopt IPM approach to combat
pests and diseases in an environmentally friendly
manner. However, the challenge is in periodic
updation and improvement of these package
of practices so that prescription to farmers and
extension functionaries are in tune with new
knowledge and innovation. An important issue
that confronts the sector relates to devising ways
and means to enhance relevance and acceptability
of package of practices among farmers in different
agro-climate zones characterized by regional
variations in farming traditions, practices and
crop cycles. There is also a need to assure farmers
that management solutions offered for control
of pests and diseases conform to principles and
standards of good Agricultural Practices.
3.46 IPM approach is being promoted at present
chiefly through the centrally funded and managed
CIPMCs and by State Governments under
RKVY. However, the challenge is in promoting
greater harmony and coordination among
implementing agencies, expansion of coverage
in a planned manner and establishment of long
term commitments with farming communities
to promote the entire gamut of activities that
constitute an IPM approach.
3.47 It is evident that use of bio-control agents
in combating pests is on the rise, yet significant
Farm Inputs and Management
challenges posed by short shelf life, standardization
and quality, storage and transportation need to
be addressed by agricultural research institutions
in the near future. Quality of bio-pesticides,
particularly in relation to threat of lacing with
chemical pesticides is an emerging problem in
different parts of the country. Infrastructure
for laboratory analysis of bio-pesticides remain
inadequate in the country.
3.48 An import issue stems from inexact
pest surveys, delays in transmission of pest
sureveillance data and consequent advisories on
adoption of mitigating measures. The time lag
in providing advice is often responsible for nonrecommended usage in terms of dosage, time
period and schedule of applications, and type of
pesticides to be used. This has implications on
cost of cultivation , efficacy of treatment as also
on residue status.
3.49 The Central Insecticides Board and
Registration Committee constituted under the
Insecticides Act of 1968 has been mandated
to advise Central and State Governments on
technical matters related to pesticides. The
Registration Committee which is a statutory
body under the Insecticides Act, 1968 receives
applications for registration of pesticides for
import, indigenous manufacture, exports, etc. The
Registration Committee has granted registration
to 241 active ingredients and 443 pesticide
formulations. The Registration Committee has
registered a total of 18 microbial bio-pesticides
and three botanicals. During the 11th Plan period,
the Registration Committee on an average have
been issuing 3257 certificates of registration of
pesticides each year. However, the year 2012-13
has seen an unprecedented number of applications
for registration of pesticides in the country. The
number of applications for registration up to
November, 2012 during financial year 201213 alone is 10726 against an average receipt of
4019 applications every year during the 11th
Plan period. This has caused enormous strain
on the existing resources of the Registration
Committee, often delaying introduction of newly
invented, efficacious, low dose, safer pesticides
into the country. Paucity of experts in toxicology
has delayed swift evaluation of pesticides
49
registration proposals. The Computerized
Registration of Pesticides(CROP) which has
been made operational recently requires further
improvement and strengthening.
3.50 The Directorate of Plant Protection,
Quarantine and Storage, Faridabad under the
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation is the
nodal agency for plant quarantine and export
certification. To facilitate exports and imports
of agricultural commodities, an important
e-governance initiative has been undertaken with
the launch of the Plant Quarantine Information
System (PQIS) in April 2011. The PQIS aims to
reduce lead time in processing of import permits,
release orders for import consignments and
phytosanitary certificates for exports. Since April,
2011, 61175 import permits, 160,628 import release
orders and 452,395 phytosanitary certificates
have been issued online using the PQIS. The
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation is
coordinating with the Customs Authorities in
the integration of PQIS with the Electronic Data
Interchange system being currently in use in the
Customs Department to further facilitate imports
and exports of agricultural commodities through
a single window clearance system.
3.51 Qualitative and quantitative improvements
in infrastructure and manpower is imperative
at Plant Quarantine Stations in the country to
curb possibility of detection quarantine pests
and pesticides residues in Indian agriculture
export consignments and wood packaging
material. Technical audits and inspections of
Pest Control Operation by licencing authorities
under the Directorate of Plan Protection and
Storage require greater attention.However, a far
daunting challenge is in establishing an Export
Quality Assurance System that links together
farmers, exporters, logistic support providers,
pest control operators, Plant Quarantine and
Customs Officials.
3.52 With the gradual phasing out and
abandonment of Methyl Bromide fumigation in
many countries as a treatment option against
pests of quarantine concern, agricultural imports
into India may face increasing difficulties in the
absence of equally effective alternatives
50
State of Indian Agriculture
3.53 To ensure that only good quality pesticides
are available to farmers, 68 State Pesticides Testing
Laboratories (under the State Governments)
and 2 Regional Pesticides Testing Laboratories
at Chandigarh and Kanpur, and a Central
Table 3.6:
Year
Insecticides Laboratory at Faridabad (under the
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation)
have been established. The following table will
shed some light on quality of pesticides available
in the Indian markets:
Quality of Pesticides available in the Indian markets
No. of samples analyzed Pesticides found mis-branded Percentage of mis-branded samples
2008-09
47420
1839
3.8
2009-10
59005
1989
3.4
2010-11
59331
1742
2.9
2011-12
62092
2137
3.4
Source: Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage Faridabad.
3.54 So far, only 4 out of 68 State Pesticides
Testing Laboratories have been accredited by
the NABL. Both Regional Pesticides Testing
Laboratories are accredited by NABL, whereas
the Chemistry and Bio Assay Divisions of the
Central Insecticides Laboratories have been
accredited for testing of chemical pesticides and
bio-pesticides respectively. Efforts are being
made to improve standard of infrastructure
and laboratory practices in remaining labs for
them to be accredited in the near future. Lack of
accredited and well-equipped laboratories in the
States is an important issue which has a direct
bearing on the quality of pesticides available to
farmers. Infrastructure for testing quality and
composition of bio-pesticides, particularly to
investigate presence of chemical pesticides, is
deficient in States. In cases of misbranding of
pesticides, prosecutions in States also tend to
take a long time.
Way forward
3.55 To assist farmers and extension workers in
the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
approach, package of practices for 77 major crops
have been developed so far. However, many of
these package of practices need to be reviewed and
updated regularly to accommodate new scientific
knowledge and experiences. Recommendations
to be credible and relevant to farmers in different
agro-climatic zones with varying crop cycles and
agronomic practices, there is a need to evaluate
and incorporate scientific knowledge available
with State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) in
the package of practices. Efforts should be made
for GAP certification for the package of practices
for quality assurance of our agricultural produce
in domestic markets and greater acceptability in
foreign markets.
3.56 The law (The Insecticides Act of 1968)
requires pesticides to be registered before its
import, manufacture, distribution and sale
is permitted in the country. The process of
registration inter alia involves validation of
claims on efficacy of the agrochemical against
pests and diseases associated with specific crops.
The statutory authority under the law while
granting registration to a pesticide also approves
a set of guidelines for usage and precautions to
be followed. However, the prescription for usage
are sometimes not adhered to by farmers resulting
in non-recommended use of pesticides on crops
for which information or evidence of technical
evaluation for efficacy and pesticides residue
is not available with the statutory registration
authority. The issue of usage of pesticides in
non-recommended crops needs to be examined
in much greater detail, and in this venture SAUs
and ICAR Institutes may be in a position to
provide valuable insights.
3.57 Surveillance of crops to detect early signs
of build up of pests and diseases is crucial for
Farm Inputs and Management
the success of IPM. For timely and effective
intervention in the face of an emerging pest/
diseases situation, it is necessary for the
surveillance data to be interpreted by technical
experts and advisories issued in real time. Delay
in issuing an advisory could lead to a breach of the
economic threshold level of the pest leading to loss
in production and quality. To reduce the lead time
between surveillance and intervention, a system
of e-pest surveillance needs to be introduced.
State Governments like Orissa and Maharashtra,
besides some agricultural universities are already
piloting various techniques and models which
needs to be encouraged and scaled up.
3.58 Pesticides play a significant role in
agricultural production and as such farmers
invest significant sums in management of pests.
Therefore, it is imperative that the quality of
pesticides is assured for which the system of
collection of samples requires improvement,
infrastructure for analysis of pesticides
samples particularly bio-pesticides, plant
growth regulators etc. need upgradation and
accreditation,
and
prosecution
agencies
sufficiently sensitized for swift and effective
action. A joint mechanism also needs to be
developed with the Customs Department to
facilitate sampling and analysis of pesticide
consignments imported into the country.
51
Farm Machinery and Equipment
3.59 Farm mechanization and availability
of adequate farm power are crucial for timely
farm operations, handling the crop produce,
increasing production and productivity and
reducing post harvest losses. With the increase
in intensity of cropping, the turnaround time is
drastically reduced, which demands availability
of adequate power for timely farm operations
so that land is made available for subsequent
crop. Similarly for precision farming, increasing
area under irrigation, conservation tillage, straw
management and diversification of agriculture,
more power is required for water lifting and
precision placement/application of agricultural
inputs such as seed, fertilizer, irrigation water,
plant protection chemicals etc. Greater degree of
farm mechanization can also address the issues of
scarcity of farm labour during peak agricultural
seasons like sowing and harvesting that are now
becoming predominant with the implementation
of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).
3.60 A positive relationship has been observed
between farm power availability and average
yields of food grain as is evident from the figure
3.7. States with higher availability of farm power
have, in general, higher productivity as compared
to the others as shown in figure 3.7.
Fig. 3.7: Farm Power availability and average yield of foodgrains in India during 1951-2011
Source: FICCI-YES Bank-2009 Source: ICAR
52
State of Indian Agriculture
Growth in Farm Mechanization
3.61 The adoption of agricultural mechanization
in India is increasing continuously. In 2007
India had 3.149 million agricultural tractors and
0.477 million combine harvesters and threshers.
From Figure 3.8 it is clear that the country is
experiencing rapid growth in the use of tractors
while the use of combine harvesters and threshers
is showing steady growth. This demonstrates
an increasing awareness and popularity of
mechanized farming in the country. At present in
India tractors are being used for tillage on about
22.78% of the total cultivable area.
Fig. 3.8: Number of agricultural tractors and combine harvesters in India
Source : FAOSTAT
3.62 Presently, India is the largest manufacturer
of tractors in the world in terms of numbers,
(5,35,210 in 2011-12), accounting for about onethird of the global production. Power tillers
are becoming popular in lowland flooded rice
fields and hilly terrains. Steady growth has been
observed in manually operated tools, animal
operated implements, and equipments operated
by mechanical and electrical power sources.
In manually operated equipment, the number
of sprayers has almost doubled since 1992.
After liberalization and with development of
prototypes of machines, manufacturing got a big
boost particularly in Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Some of
the popular agricultural equipments are shown
below:
Farm Inputs and Management
53
Figure 3.9: Popular Agricultural Equipments
(a) Self Propelled Vertical conveyor
(b) Straw Baler reaper cum binder
(c) Self Propelled Power Weeder
(d) Aeroblast Sprayer
(e) Self Propelled Combine Harvester
(f) Power Tiller
54
State of Indian Agriculture
Challenges
and
Constraints
Mechanizing Small Farms
for
3.63 Even though the adoption of farm
mechanization is increasing in India, it is mostly
region specific. Farm mechanization has a very
low growth rate in regions such as hilly and
sloppy land. The decreasing trend in operational
land holding is also obstructing the growth
of agricultural mechanization. High costs of
machines and maintenance, non-availability
of appropriate agricultural machines and
equipment that cater to and suit the requirements
of small scale farms, non-availability of and or
difficulty in getting bank credit and small land
holding are some of the factors that hinder farm
mechanization and force farmers to follow the
traditional ways of agricultural operations. The
use of farm machinery is also dependent on
infrastructure and services available in the rural
areas.
3.64 Though, India is one of the top countries
in agricultural production, in terms of farm
mechanization, it is behind the world average.
For instance, the tractor density of India is
about 16 tractors for 1,000 hectares, while the
world average is 19 tractors and that of USA is
27. Clearly, there is significant opportunity for
mechanization of agriculture. However, this
sector faces some key challenges such as:
•
•
Indian agriculture requires customized
farm machinery and equipment suiting to
the requirements of different regions of the
country which have highly diverse farm size
& soil types.
Skewed and seasonal usage of machines
results in low economic viability of the
machines and this call for innovative
solutions for scaling up usage.
assisted resource-conservation techniques such
as zero-tillage, raised-bed planting, precision
farming, etc. Farm mechanization has now
become more imperative while mitigating the
effect of climate change by readjusting crop
sowing schedules. The climate change-driven
early onset of summers in the northern states
has often resulted in a decline in wheat yields.
This loss can be averted by sowing wheat early,
which is possible only if the previous paddy crop
is harvested mechanically and wheat is planted
with zero-till seed drills that do not require
ploughing the land.
3.66 Mechanization small and non-contiguous
group of lands is against ‘economies of scale’
especially in organizations like land preparation
and harvesting. With continued shrinkage in
average farm size, more and more farms will
fall into the adverse category thereby making
individual ownership of agricultural machinery
progressively more uneconomical. Moreover,
farm mechanization is capital intensive and
thus it remains beyond the reach of small and
marginal farmers. Custom Hiring Centres are the
options to make farm equipments and machines
available to the farmers within easy reach and at
affordable cost. This will not only increase the
power availability but also help in removing the
disparity in availability of farm power among
various states thereby increasing the productivity
of farm besides reducing drudgery associated
with various farm operations.
3.67 The custom hiring of agricultural machine is
being practiced successfully through cooperative
societies in Punjab, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh. The successful modes of custom hiring
centres can be replicated in the other part of the
country.
Farm Mechanization as Services
Ensuring Quality of Agricultural Machines
and Equipments
3.65 Farm mechanization saves time and labour,
cuts down crop production costs, reduces postharvest losses and boosts crop output and farm
incomes. The current scenario of increasing threat
to natural resources, notably land and water, has
further necessitated switching over to machine
3.68 To cope up with the ever increasing
demand for testing of newly developed
agricultural machines and equipments, in
addition to four FMT&TI , the DAC has
authorized 28 State Agricultural Universities
(SAUs)/ICAR Institutions including 3 State
Farm Inputs and Management
Agriculture Departments as Testing Centers
for testing and certifying certain categories of
agricultural machinery and equipments. Now
the DAC is actively considering introduction
of new and innovative systems by involving
private sectors such as self certification in case
of reputed manufactures, initially for tractors,
combine harvesters and power tillers. Gradually
this system will be introduced for all other
agricultural machines and equipments.
Value Addition of Agricultural Produce
3.69 Post harvest processing is an emerging area
of interest for mechanized operations. The present
levels of post production losses are 2.8-10 % in
durables, 6.8-12.5% in semi-perishables and 5.818% in perishable products (CIPHET Ludhiana).
About 50% of these losses could be prevented
using appropriate post harvest approaches. So
there is still large scope for mechanization in post
harvest processing of agricultural commodities
3.70 In India, agro-marketing is a largely
unorganized and inefficient; as high as 18 to
25% loss occur in the entire food supply–chain
from production to consumption. Markets for
value-added and processed commodities are
consistently increasing with increasing demands
by consumers of these products. Low-cost
improved technologies are required to unleash
potential and market efficiency and remain
competitive simultaneously. New opportunities
have emerged with the opening of the trade,
therefore, issues related to sanitary and phytosanitary measures would need to be addressed
appropriately. A three –pronged strategy is needed
to reduce post harvest losses-(a) compress supply
–chain by linking producers and markets;(b)
promote processing in production catchments
to add value before being marketed ; and (c)
develop small-scale processing refrigerated
chambers or cold storage using conventional
and non conventional sources. And these would
require research for agro-commodities, especially
post-harvest engineering. More focus would be
given to primary and secondary levels of value
–addition and processing.
55
Developing Low Cost, Light Weight Multipurpose Farm Equipments
3.71 About 85% farmers are having less than
2 hectares cultivated land and their livelihoods
depend on agriculture. Thus, it is necessary
to focus on these small farmers by introducing
& developing low cost, light weight, multi
–purpose farm equipments. Precision farming
in horticultural crops requires development for
semi-mechanized nursery raising technology
and improved horticultural tools.
Way Forward
3.72 Recognizing the need to spread the
benefits of agricultural mechanization among all
strata of farmers’ especially small and marginal
farmers, the Department of Agriculture &
Cooperation is integrating the components
of agricultural mechanization under various
schemes and programmes aiming at catalyzing an
accelerated but inclusive growth of agricultural
mechanization in India by promoting ‘Custom
Hiring Centre’ for agricultural machinery.
Labour and Agricultural Wages
3.73 Agriculture is a labour intensive activity.
Cost of cultivation data shows that labour accounts
for more than 40 percent of the total variable cost of
production in most cases. Therefore, availability
of labour to work in agriculture is crucial in
sustaining agricultural production. Agricultural
wages have been traditionally low due to low
productivity, large disguised unemployment in
agriculture due to lack of sufficient employment
opportunities elsewhere. However, in recent
years there is a perceptible change in this trend
due to rapid economic growth and adoption of
policies for employment generation including
promotion of self employment opportunities.
Wage levels in the agricultural sector have
increased considerably during recent years. A
table indicating the average daily wages for
agricultural field labour for ploughing and
harvesting at all India level and the average
wages paid for industries covered under Annual
Survey of Industries (ASI) is given below which
56
State of Indian Agriculture
shows that percentage increase in average wage
for agriculture (ploughing and harvesting) is
higher than percentage increase in average wage
for industrial workers covered by ASI during the
decade 2001-2002 to 2010-11.
Table: 3.7: Wage Increase in Agriculture & Non-Agriculture Sector during 2001-11
(Wage in Rs. per day)
Occupation
2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 201002
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
Ploughing
69.9
71.5
73.8
72.3
76.3
81.8
91.4 102.9 120.9 145.5
Harvesting
56.3
58.0
60.1
62.0
65.0
68.5
75.2
NonAgriculture
Sector
(Industry
Covered by
ASI)
87.1 102.8 122.5
152.4 158.8 165.6 168.6 174.8 185.8 206.0 224.7 247.7
NA
CAGR
during
2001- 2011
8.5%
9%
6.3%
Source: Labour Bureau & CSO.
3.74 It is observed from the above table that
average daily wages for agricultural field labour
for ploughing and harvesting at all India level
have increased at higher rates, (8.5 per cent and
9 per cent per annum respectively) during 200102 to 2010-11 as against the average wages paid
for industries covered under Annual Survey
of Industries (ASI) (6.3 per cent per annum).
However, agricultural wages, in general, are
still much lower than the industrial wages. With
skill development, this gap will narrow down,
putting further pressure on availability and cost
of agricultural labour.
Agricultural Credit
3.75 Agriculture is a dominant sector of our
economy and credit plays an important role in
increasing agriculture production. Availability
and access to adequate, timely and low cost credit
from institutional sources is of great importance
especially to small and marginal farmers.
Along with other inputs, credit is essential for
establishing sustainable and profitable farming
systems. Experience has shown that easy access
to financial services at affordable cost positively
affects the productivity, asset formation, income
and food security of the rural poor.
3.76 The Government of India has initiated
several policy measures to improve the
accessibility of farmers to the institutional sources
of credit. The emphasis of these policies has been
on progressive institutionalization for providing
timely and adequate credit support to all farmers
with particular focus on small and marginal
farmers and weaker sections of society to enable
them to adopt modern technology and improved
agricultural practices for increasing agricultural
production and productivity. These policy
measures have resulted in significant increase in
the share of institutional credit. Progress in regard
to flow of agricultural credit is given below:
Farm Inputs and Management
57
Table 3.8: Institutional Credit to Agriculture
(Rs. in Crore)
Year
Target
Short Term Credit
2004-05
105000
74064
51245
125309
2005-06
141000
105350
75136
180486
2006-07
175000
138455
90945
229400
2007-08
225000
183519
66066
254658
2008-09
280000
210461
91447
287149
2009-10
325000
276656
107858
384514
2010-11
375000
335550
132741
468291
2011-12
475000
396158
114871
511029
Major Initiatives to Increasing Flow of
Credit
3.77 Farm credit package: Government of
India in its Farm Credit Package announced
in June 2004, advised banks to double credit to
agriculture sector in three years, i.e., by 200607. In the annual budgets, Government of India
announces targets for credit to agriculture to
ensure adequate credit flow to the sector. The
flow of agriculture credit since 2003-04 has
consistently exceeded the target. Agriculture
credit flow has increased from Rs.86981 crore in
2003-04 to Rs. 468291 crore in 2010-11. The target
for the 2011-12 was fixed at Rs.475000 crore and
achievement is Rs.511029 crore forming more
than 107% of the target. The target of credit flow
for the year 2012-13 has been fixed at Rs. 575000
crore and achievement as on September, 2012 is
Rs. 239629 crore.
3.78 Interest
Subvention
to
Farmers:
Government of India announced an interest
subvention scheme in 2006-07 to enable banks
to provide short term credit to agriculture (crop
loan) upto Rs.3 lakh at 7% interest to farmers.
Further, to incentivise prompt repayment, in the
Union Budget for 2009-10, Government of India
announced an additional interest subvention of
1% to those farmers who repay their short term
crop loans promptly and on or before due date.
This was subsequently raised to 2% in 201011 and 3% in 2011-12 and 2012-13 also. Thus,
Long Term Credit
Total Credit
farmers, who promptly repay their crop loans,
are extended loans at an effective interest rate of
4% p.a.
3.79 Extension of Interest Subvention Scheme
to Post Harvest Loans: In order to discourage
distress sale by farmers and to encourage them
to store their produce in warehousing against
warehouse receipts, the benefit of interest
subvention scheme has been extended to small
and marginal farmers having Kisan Credit Card
for a further period of upto six month post harvest
on the same rate as available to crop loan against
negotiable warehouse receipt for keeping their
produce in warehouses.
3.80 Collateral Free Loans: The limit of
collateral free farm loan has been increased from
Rs.50,000 to Rs.1,00,000.
3.81 Relief in Event of Occurrence of Natural
Calamities: Reserve Bank has put in place a
mechanism to address situations arising out of
natural calamities. The banks have been issued
necessary guidelines for undertaking necessary
credit relief measures in event of occurrence of
natural calamities. The guidelines, inter alia,
contain directions to banks to ensure that the
meetings of District Consultative Committees or
State Level Bankers’ Committees are convened at
the earliest to evolve a co-ordinated action plan
for implementation of the relief programme in
collaboration with the State/district authorities.
Banks have been advised to provide conversion/
58
reschedulement of loans and consider
moratorium period of at least one year in all cases
of restructuring. To enhance awareness, the banks
are also required to give adequate publicity to their
disaster management arrangements, including
the helpline numbers. Further, the banks have
been advised not to insist for additional collateral
security for such restructured loans.
3.82 Interest Subvention for Loan Restructured
in the Drought Affected States in 2012: The
standing guidelines of Reserve Bank of India
(RBI) provide for rescheduling of short term
crop loans upon declaration of natural calamity
including drought. Such rescheduling of crop
loans converts them into term loans for which
normal rate of interest are applicable. Due to
deficient rainfall this year in some parts of the
country. The Government has decided that in
cases where such loan are restructured due to
drought, the interest subvention of 2% which is
already available for short term crop loans will
continue to be available for the current financial
year on the full restructured amount.
3.83 Kisan Credit Card Scheme : Kisan Credit
Card Scheme for farmers was introduced in 199899 to enable the farmers to purchase agricultural
inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.
The Kisan Credit Card Scheme is in operation
throughout the country and is implemented by
Commercial Banks, Coop. Banks and RRBs. The
scheme has facilitated in augmenting credit flow
for agricultural activities. The scope of the KCC
has been broad-based to include term credit and
consumption needs. All farmers including Small
farmers, Marginal farmers, Share croppers,
oral lessee and tenant farmers are eligible to be
covered under the Scheme. The card holders are
also covered under Personal Accident Insurance
Scheme (PAIS) against accidental death/
permanent disability. Further, KCC scheme has
been refined on the basis of suggestions made by
a Working Group (Bhasin Working Group) and
it has been decided to convert Kisan Credit Card
into a Smart Card cum Debit Card and revised
guidelines have been issued by NABARD. Some
of the major features of the revised guidelines are
as under:
State of Indian Agriculture
•
Flexi KCC with simple assessment prescribed
for marginal farmers.
•
Validity of KCC for 5 years.
•
For crop loans, no separate margin need to
be insisted as the margin is in-built in scale
of finance.
•
No withdrawal in the account to remain
outstanding for more than 12 months; no
need to bring the debit balance in the account
to zero at any point of time.
•
Interest subvention/incentive for prompt
repayment to be available as per the
Government of India and/or State
Government norms.
•
No processing fee up to a limit of Rs. 3.00
lakh.
•
One time documentation at the time of first
availment and thereafter simple declaration
(about crops raised/proposed) by farmer.
•
KCC cum SB account instead of farmers
having two separate accounts. The credit
balance in KCC cum SB account to be allowed
to fetch interest at saving bank rate.
•
Disbursement through various delivery
channels, including ICT driven channels
like ATM/PoS/Mobile handsets.
3.84 Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern
India (BGREI) : Financing Agricultural
Investments in the Eastern Region – Concessional
Refinance Support: In order to support
the banking system finance key investments,
NABARD has introduced a concessional
refinance scheme in the year 2011-12, with an
objective to accelerate investments in agriculture
to enhance production and productivity of crops
in the Eastern region (Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand,
Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal and Eastern
Uttar Pradesh) by incentivising the banks. Under
the scheme, NABARD provides 100% refinance to
banks at a concessional rate of 7.5% p.a. provided
certain minimum targets are achieved by the
bank in financing these key investments. Four
activities viz, Water Resources development,
Land development, Farm Equipments (including
Farm Inputs and Management
tractor financing on group mode basis) and Seed
Production are covered.
3.85 Revival Package for Short Term
Cooperative Credit Structure: The Government
is implementing a package for revival of Shortterm Rural Cooperative Credit Structure with
financial outlay of Rs. 13,596 crore in the country.
The Revival Package is aimed at reviving/
strengthening the Short-term Rural Cooperative
Credit Structure (CCS) and make it a wellmanaged and vibrant medium to serve the
credit needs of rural India, especially the small
and marginal farmers. It seeks to (a) provide
financial assistance to bring the system to an
acceptable level of health; (b) introduce legal
and institutional reforms necessary for their
democratic, self-reliant and efficient functioning;
and (c) take measures to improve the quality of
management.
3.86 SHG Bank Linkage-: SHG-Bank Linkage
model, continues to be the dominant model in
the Indian micro finance context with nearly 7.96
million SHGs catering to 100 million households
saving with the formal banking system to the
tune of Rs.6,551 crore. Over the years, the SHGBank Linkage programme has emerged as a
viable model for financial inclusion of hitherto
un reached poor households particularly in rural
hinterlands. Despite the achievements, there are
issues like skewed growth, intra state variations in
implementation, credit widening and deepening,
role of Micro Finance Institute (MFIs), etc.
3.87 Joint Liability Groups: The JLG mode
of financing serves as collateral substitute for
loans to be provided to the target group i.e.
small, marginal, tenant farmers, oral lessees,
share croppers, etc. It builds mutual trust and
confidence between the bank and the target group
and minimizes the risks in the loan portfolio
for the banks through group dynamics, cluster
approach, peer education and credit discipline.
The objective of the JLG mode of financing is to
59
provide food security to vulnerable section by
enhanced agriculture production, productivity
and livelihood promotion. JLGs can also easily
serve as a conduit for technology transfer,
facilitating common access to market information,
training and technology dissemination in
activities like soil testing, training and assessing
input requirements, etc. During the year 2011-12,
various banks had disbursed a loan of Rs.1,700.39
crore to 1,91,662 JLGs taking the cumulative loans
disbursed to Rs.2,845.68 crore for 3,32,707 JLGs.
Concessional refinance is provided subject to
condition of minimum 70% lending against credit
potential for the identified activities assessed on
the basis of projections made in the Potential
Linked Plans. The commercial banks are required
to achieve the minimum lending level of 70%
while the RRBs and Co-operative Banks are
required to achieve the minimum lending level
of 50% of the Overall lending Target/Potential
assessed. The norms were revised during 2011-12
being the first year of the scheme, to 50% in case
of Commercial Banks and 25% in case of RRBs
and Co-operative Banks. Support to the banks for
(a) Forming and linking of Joint Liability Groups
(JLGs) (b) Awareness programmes for promoting
the scheme (c) Organizing sensitization meets for
the branch officials of implementing banks and
(d) Training and capacity building of identified
entrepreneurs is also offered under the scheme.
In partial modification of the Scheme, Tractor
Financing under group mode to Self Help Groups
(SHGs)/Joint Liability Groups (JLGs) were also
considered for concessional refinance by the
banks, provided tractors are financed to;
a) An existing Self Help Group (SHG) which
is at least two years old
b) A new Joint Liability Group (JLG),
provided the number of land owning
farmers in the group is not less than five
and every member is a Small Farmer
(SF) or a Marginal Farmer (MF)
60
State of Indian Agriculture
Table 3.9:
(per cent)
Sources of credit to Agriculture Sector
Sources of Credit
1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2002
92.7
81.3
68.3
36.8
30.6
38.9
69.7
49.2
36.1
16.1
17.5
26.8
7.3
18.7
31.7
63.2
66.3
61.1
Cooperatives Societies/Banks
3.3
2.6
22
29.8
30
30.2
Commercial Banks
0.9
0.6
2.4
28.8
35.2
26.3
Unspecified
-
-
-
-
3.1
-
100
100
100
100
100
100
Non-Institutional
of which
Money Lenders
Institutional
of which
Total
3.88 Over the years, there has been a
significant increase in the share of formal
financial institutions (commercial banks, RRBs
and cooperatives) in the total credit availed by
cultivator households. The formal financial
institutions accounted for about 66 per cent of the
total credit to cultivator households by the early
1990s [Table 3.6]. However, the share of formal
institutional credit to agriculture witnessed some
reversal during the period between 1991 and 2002
which was partly due to a contraction in rural
branch network in the 1990s, and partly due to
the general rigidities in procedures and systems
of institutional sources of credit. The regional
distribution of agricultural credit by commercial
banks, both in terms of quantum of credit and the
number of accounts, has been skewed. There is
a significant concentration in the southern states
(Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil
Nadu) followed by the northern and western
states. In contrast, the share of the eastern (Bihar,
Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal) and the
north-eastern states has been low. Further, nearly
three quarters of the farmer households still do
not have access to the formal credit system and
have no means to insure themselves against
income shocks. This leaves them vulnerable to
the informal money lenders.
Insurance
3.89 With a view to provide insurance coverage
and financial support to the farmers in the
event of failure of any of the notified crop as a
result of natural calamities, pests and diseases,
to encourage the farmers to adopt progressive
farming practices, high value in-puts and
better technology in agriculture and to help to
stabilize farm incomes, particularly in disaster
years, National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
(NAIS) has been introduced in the country from
Rabi 1999-2000 season in place of erstwhile
Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme (CCIS)
which was implemented from Kharif 1985 to
Kharif 1999. The scheme is available to all the
farmers – loanee and non-loanee - irrespective of
their size of holding. Loanee farmers are covered
on compulsory basis in a notified area for notified
crops whereas for non-loanee farmers the scheme
is voluntary.
3.90 The Scheme envisages coverage of all the
food crops (cereals, millets and pulses), oilseeds
and annual commercial/horticultural crops, in
respect of which past yield data is available for
adequate number of years. The premium rates
are ranging between 1.5% and 3.5% per cent of
sum insured for food and oilseed crops. In the
case of commercial/horticultural crops and for
higher sum insured & indemnity than that of
normal, actuarial rates are being charged. Under
the scheme, at present, 10% subsidy in premium
is available to small & marginal farmers which
is shared by the Central and respective State
Farm Inputs and Management
Government on 50 : 50 basis along with claims
for normal sum insured & indemnity level for
food and oilseed crops.
3.91 The Agriculture Insurance Company of
India Ltd. (AIC) is the Implementing Agency
(IA) of the Scheme. It is a yield guarantee
scheme operating on “Area Approach” basis.
The implementing States/UTs can notify any
unit area of insurance i.e. block, mandal, tehsil,
circle, phirka, gram panchayat etc. keeping
in view the availability of past yield data and
capacity of the State to undertake requisite
number of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) in
each notified areas for assessment of crop loss.
The State Government/UT Administration is
required to notify areas/crops well in advance of
the crop season, issue the necessary notification/
instructions to all financial institutions and
provide past yield data.
3.92 If the actual average yield per hectare
of the insured crop for the defined area (on
the basis of requisite number of Crop Cutting
Experiments) in the insured season, falls short
of specified Threshold yield, all the insured
farmers growing that crop in the defined area are
deemed to have suffered shortfall in their yield.
The scheme provides coverage against such
contingency. The indemnity claims are worked
out by the Implementing Agency i.e. Agriculture
Insurance Company (AIC) of India Ltd., on the
basis of yield data, based on requisite number
of Crop Cutting Experiments, furnished by the
implementing State/UT. The claims are released
to banks and the banks in turn credit the amount
in the account of the beneficiary farmers and
display the particulars of beneficiaries on their
notice board.
3.93 Indemnity claims are worked out on the
basis of the following formula:
Shortfall in yield
× Sum Insured for the farmer.
threshold yield
Where shortfall = Threshold Yield – Actual Yield
for the Defined Area.
3.94 Financial liabilities towards claims above
100% of premium in case of Food Crops & Oilseeds
along with 10% premium subsidy to small and
61
marginal farmers, Bank Service charges and
20% of administrative and operational expenses
are borne by the Government and shared on
50:50 basis by the Central Government and the
respective State Governments. All claims in case
of annual horticultural/commercial crops and
higher sum insured and indemnity levels for
food crops and oilseeds are being paid by the
implementing agency.
Progress of Crop Insurance Programme
3.95 At present, NAIS is being implemented
by the 24 States and 2 Union Territories namely
Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Sikkim, Tamil
Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and
Puducherry.
3.96 Progress of the scheme can be measured
in terms of farmers/area covered, sum insured,
premium collected, claims paid and farmers
benefited. During the last twenty five crop seasons
(i.e. from Rabi 1999-2000 to Rabi 2011-12), 1930
lakh farmers have been covered over an area of
2915 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to
Rs. 2555309 crore. Claims to the tune of about
Rs. 24528 crore have become payable against
the premium income of about Rs. 7698 crore
benefiting about 505 lakh farmers. State-wise
business statistics of NAIS are at Annexure.
3.97 The Modified NAIS has been implemented
in 50 districts and 44 districts during Rabi 2011-12
and Kharif 2012 seasons respectively. From Rabi
2010-11 to Rabi 2011-12 (three seasons), 15.38
lakh farmers have been covered over an area of
16.57 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to
Rs. 3865 crore. Claims to the tune of about Rs. 112
crore have become payable against the premium
of about Rs. 323 crore benefiting about 1.45 lakh
farmers. State-wise business statistics of Modified
National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (MNAIS)
are at Annexure.
3.98 The Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme
(WBCIS) is being implemented in 230 districts in
62
16 States. From Kharif 2007 to Rabi 2011-12, 243
lakh farmers have been covered over an area of
338 lakh hectares insuring a sum amounting to
Rs. 42888.99 crore. Claims to the tune of about
Rs. 117.91 crore have become payable against the
premium of about Rs. 2291.75 crore benefiting
about 122 lakh farmers. State-wise business
statistics of WBCIS are at Annexure.
3.99 The Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme
(CPIS) is being implemented on pilot basis in
selected states/areas. From 2009-10 to 2012-13,
48715 farmers have been covered over an area
of 25389 hectares, insuring 27.66 lakh palms for
a sum amounting to Rs. 269.53 crore. Claims to
the tune of about Rs. 153.23 lakh have become
payable against the premium of about Rs. 146.45
lakh benefiting about 3385 farmers. State-wise
business statistics of CPIS are at Annexure.
3.100 All the above said schemes are demand
driven and no state-wise allocation/release is
made under these schemes. Funds are released to
the implementing agency who in turn settles the
claims of farmers and provide premium subsidy
as per provisions of the schemes.
The Way Forward – Yield Index Crop
Insurance
3.101 The National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
(NAIS) and modified NAIS (MNAIS) provide
risk coverage of the crops on the basis of their
yield. While the unit area for MNAIS is village/
village panchayat, NAIS also allows notification
of village as the unit area. However, many States
notify a larger unit area such as Block, Taluk and
Tehsil. The larger unit area does not cover the
risk of individual farmers that effectively because
of larger variations in the yield in the unit area.
The States are reluctant to notify a smaller unit
area (such as a village) because of increased
requirements of the minimum number of crop
cutting experiments that has to be undertaken
which is both costly and time consuming affair.
The States need to deploy additional manpower
and provide adequate training to the personnel
engaged in the crop cutting experiments to
ensure accurate and timely availability of yield
data for effective implementation of the insurance
schemes. Use of modern technology such as
State of Indian Agriculture
remote sensing through satellite imagery may
be deployed to reduce the cost and improve the
accuracy of crop cutting experiments.
3.102 Under the weather based insurance
scheme, the crops are insured against adverse
weather conditions. However, successful
implementation of a weather based insurance
product requires adequate number of automatic
weather stations to be set up to capture the
weather data accurately. At present, there are
only about 3,000 automatic weather stations
(including the weather stations set up by the
private companies). However, about 10,000
automatic weather stations would be required
to properly implement weather based crop
insurance scheme in the entire country. India
Meteorological Department (IMD), agricultural
universities, the private sector and insurance
companies need to work closely to set up
required number of automatic weather stations
in the country for successful implementation of
the weather based crop insurance scheme.
Extension Services
3.103 The process of technology transfer in
India has been a mix of field extension carried
out by line departments, anchored by frontline
extension systems of the ICAR Institutes and
SAUs, Commodity Boards, NGOs and voluntary
organizations. Recently, Farmers’ Consortiums
under different nomenclature have also emerged
with this mandate. But most of them have not
been able to reach out to the broad spectrum of
clientele, who need problem solving, relevant
technologies and ground level advisories.
These efforts have however not been sufficient
in the context of food security concerns. New
initiatives viz. ever increasing ICT interventions;
growing emphasis on people’s participation
and democratic decentralization; increasing role
of NGOs; growing thrust on entrepreneurship
development and multiplicity of facilitating
and consultancy services required by different
stakeholders are bound to play a catalytic role.
Realizing the fact that Public extension services
in India need to be geared up, particularly in
addressing the emerging technological and
knowledge needs,concerted efforts have been
Farm Inputs and Management
63
made in the recent past to strengthen the system
by suitably revising and revamping the ongoing
Schemes of the Department of Agriculture and
Cooperation.
Support to State Extension Programmes for
Extension Reforms
3.104 The Scheme is currently in operation in
614 districts of 28 states & 3 UTs. The scheme
essentially focuses on institutionalizing key
reforms. The extension support to farmers
under the scheme is provided through a ‘basket
of activities’ called the ATMA Cafeteria, which
covers activities that are to be implemented at
both State and District levels. State level activities
include preparation of State Extension Work
Plan (SEWP), support for up-grading state level
training institutions, such as, State Agricultural
Management & Extension Training Institutes
(SAMETI), human resource development of
extension functionaries, organization of various
agriculture related activities including monitoring
and evaluation. District level activities are
further categorized into four groups; namely: (i)
Farmer Oriented Activities; (ii) Farm Information
Dissemination
Activities;
(iii)
ResearchExtension-Farmer Activities, and (iv) Innovative
Activities. Based on SREP, and the Block Action
Plans jointly firmed up by the Block Technology
Team (BTT) and BFAC, the District Agriculture
Action Plans (DAAPs) are prepared annually. At
the State Headquarter, district plans are collated
and a State Extension Work Plan (SEWP) is
approved by Inter-Departmental Working Group
(IDWG) headed by the Agriculture Production
Commissioner/Secretary (Agriculture) of the
State. The State Extension Work Plan (SEWP)
approved by IDWG is further put up to State
Level Sanctioning Committee for approval and
Government of India for release of funds.
3.105 The status of implementation of Extension
Reforms Scheme is as under:
•
Over 215.15 lakh farmers have been benefited
so far since inception of the scheme through
various extension activities viz.:
•
Over 15.53 lakh farmers benefited through
Exposure Visits;
•
Over 49.55 lakh farmers through various
training programmes at different levels;
•
Over 22.92 lakh
Demonstrations; and
farmers
through
Box 3.2: Innovative Steps: Farm Crop
Management System (FCMS): Tamilnadu
To implement farm level interventions through
micro level planning and execution by the
Departments viz., Agriculture, Horticulture,
Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Marketing
and TNAU, a specially developed software
package “Farm Crop Management System” has
been developed. FCMS is being implemented
in six districts of TamilNadu on Pilot basis Viz;
Trichy,Coimbatore, Erode, Vellore, Virudhunagar
and Tiruvarur.
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) are being
distributed to collect detailed data base on field,
inform availability of inputs such as seeds,
fertilizers, pesticides, bio-pesticides etc., record
biometric observations of crops at critical stages to
arrive estimated yield, pest and disease outbreak,
improved cultivation technologies, individual
based insurance settlement and linkages for
marketing of harvested crops. The data will be used
to narrow down the yield gap and to facilitate the
farmers for easy access to information like weather,
input availability, farm based interventions,
market intelligence and scheme benefits besides
knowing details of their own farm plan and inputs
requirement.
FCMS is being implemented in six districts of
TamilNadu on Pilot basis Viz; Trichy, Coimbatore,
Erode, Vellore, Virudhunagar and Tiruvarur.
64
State of Indian Agriculture
•
Over 115.72 lakh farmers through
KissanMelas/Field days and Kissan
Goshties.
•
Over 1.10 lakh Farmers Interest Groups
(FIG’s) have been mobilized.
•
Over 41,149 Farm Schools have been set up on
the field of Progressive/Awardeesfarmers.
3.106 The Government has been trying its
utmost to strengthen the institution of ATMA. In
fact, National Mission on Agricultural Extension
and Technology proposed to be launched during
XII Plan which will focus on disseminating timely
information and appropriate technologies to the
farmers through the structure of ATMA and
Block Technology Teams.
Establishment of Agri-Clinics and AgriBusiness Centres
3.107 Launched in 2002, the Scheme on
Establishment of Agri-Clinics and Agri-Business
Centres (ACABC) was aimed to strengthen the
extension services and to tap the potential of
unemployed agriculture graduates in order to
provide them self employment opportunities.
Under the scheme, free training and handholding
support is provided to unemployed agriculture
graduates so as to enable them with required
knowledge, skill and orientation towards agripreneurship. Needed support is also extended to
the trained graduates for developing a bankable
agri-business project and for availing loans
from a commercial bank at concessional rates.
A provision of back ended capital subsidy and
interest subsidy to them on the loans availed of
for Agri- venture establishment was also made in
the year 2006. The Scheme is being implemented
by Government of India through National
Institute of Agricultural Extension Management
(MANAGE) and the National Bank for Agriculture
and Rural Development (NABARD). MANAGE
coordinates and implements the training and
handholding support through a network of
72 Nodal Training Institutes (NTIs) identified
through a well designed process of screening and
assessment. NABARD looks after the credit part
of the scheme by refinancing the agri-business
loans granted by commercial banks to the trained
graduates and release of subsidy thereon.
3.108 Ever since its launch in the year 2002,
a total of 29,413 candidates have been trained
under the scheme out of which 11009 have
established their ventures August,2012. This
shows that the scheme has invoked tremendous
interest in the unemployed agriculture graduates
towards entrepreneurship in the rural areas. UP,
Maharashtra and Bihar have exhibited remarkable
achievement in the numbers of candidates
that enrolled for ACABC training. States like
Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh, and J&K have also exhibited a modest
progress. Overall progress in the establishment
of agri ventures by trained graduates was 38%
(approx.) since its inception. The previous year’s
success rate was 53 %. A higher success rate
during coming years is anticipated.
3.109 Many factors contribute to the
development of agripreneurs through ACABC
Scheme including level of agricultural
development in the State, awareness in
prospective candidates about the ACABC scheme
and infrastructure facilities available. Thus,
the need for efficient support organizations to
monitor the activities of small enterprises was
felt. Moreover, prediction of the future demand,
introduction of modern technologies, cost control
and business expansion are the important areas,
where entrepreneurs need regular support.
Major revisions were made in the Scheme during
2010-11 to accommodate these concerns.
3.110 The revised training cost per trainee is now
limited to Rs.35,000 by proportionately raising the
limits under different components and adding the
new area of hands on industry training. In order
to incentivize most successful agripreneurs under
that scheme an element of refresher training has
been introduced in the revised Scheme format.
This training of about 3-5 days duration would
be conducted in specialized Institutions like
SAUs/ICAR Institutes/IIMs/IITs/CSIR Institutes/
DST Institutes/Private Institutions. Similarly,
NABARD has been given support to organize
sensitization training and workshops to motivate
the bankers across the country to provide credit
Farm Inputs and Management
to agripreneurs for establishing ventures. The
initial Interest and Capital Subsidy pattern of
the Scheme has been replaced with a Composite
Subsidy (36% for general and 44% for women,
SC/ST & NE) in place of earlier Interest + Capital
Subsidy to make the assessment simpler. The
benefit of Subsidy shall be limited for the project
cost up to Rs. 20 lakh (plus 5 lakh for extremely
successful individuals) for individual projects and
project cost up to Rs.100 lakh for a group project
(established by a group comprising of minimum
of five individuals) of trained candidates under
the Scheme. In order to ensure that the provisions
made under the revised Scheme are gainfully
utilized and Scheme achieves the desired success
rates, sufficient checks and balances, and an
effective monitoring mechanism has been put
in place with the active involvement of all the
stakeholders including MANAGE, NABARD,
Banks, State Functionaries, SAUs and ICAR.
65
for the purpose of extension. They have the
advantage of reaching a wide audience at a
very low cost. Under this Scheme, the existing
infrastructure of Doordarshan (DD) and All India
Radio (AIR) is being utilized to make the farmers
aware of modern technologies and researches
related to agriculture and allied areas. A 30 minute
programme is being telecast five to six days a
week through National, 18 Regional Kendras
and 180 High Power/Low Power Transmitters
of Doordarshan. Similarly, 96 Rural FM Radio
Stations of All India Radio are being utilized to
broadcast 30 minutes of programme for farmers
6 days a week. For telecasting success stories,
innovations and for popularization of changesetting technology and farming practices through
the Saturday slot of Doordarshan’s National
Channel, DAC is producing films, which would
consciously project inter-alia positive aspects of
agriculture in India.
Focused Advertisement Campaign
3.112 The Department of Agriculture &
Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture has
launched a ‘Focused Advertisement Campaign’
to create awareness of assistances available
under various schemes. At the national level
this is being implemented by way of short
advertisements Audio & Video Spots of 30 – 60
seconds duration. The spots are broadcast/
telecast through AIR, DD and private channels
operating at the national and regional level during
news, serials, and entertainment programmes
having maximum viewership.
Use of Media in Reaching up to the
Farmers
3.111 The Central Sector Scheme ‘Mass Media
Support to Agriculture Extension’ has been
launched during the Tenth Plan Period to enable
a revamping of the extension services in the
country by using electronic media i.e the wide
network of Doordarshan and All India Radio
for transfer of technology and information to the
farmers. The primary objective of the Scheme is
to use Television and Radio with their massive
penetration as a vehicle that could be exploited
3.113 Following Spots are currently being
telecast.
•
Farm School (Munim)
•
Farm School (Sass Bahoo)
•
Kisan Credit Card
•
National Horticulture Mission
•
Accelerated Pulse Production Programme
(A3P)
•
Judicious use of Fertilizers
•
Poorvi Bharat Haritkranti.
66
State of Indian Agriculture
•
Kisna Call Centre (Husband & Wife)
•
Kisan Call Centre (Sass Bahoo)
•
2 Audio spots on Kisan Call Centres
3.114 The spots have been telecast through
DD National and 25 Regional Kendras of DD as
well as 21 private channels operating at National
& Regional level. To monitor the campaign, a
soft ware has been developed with the help of
NIC. All the Channels are uploading the prelogs
(time band of 20 min) and post logs. IP TVs have
also been installed to monitor the campaign. A
‘Focused Publicity Campaign Committee’ has
been formed in DAC and regular meetings of
the committee are being held to monitor the
programme. A proposal has already been initiated
to get the feedback of the campaign through
Audience Research Unit (ARU) of Doordarshan.
the National Informatics Centre) covering both
the headquarters and its field offices/directorates.
The important portals include SEEDNET,
DACNET, AGMARKNET (prices and arrivals in
Mandis), RKVY (RashtriyaKrishiVikasYojana),
ATMA, NHM (National Horticulture Mission),
INTRADAC, NFSM (National Food Security
Mission) and APY (Acreage, Productivity and
Yield).Direction have been issued getting online
data entry done right from the District level, so
as to expedite generation of requisite queries &
reports in an efficient manner.
Box 3.3: Kisan Call Centre (KCC)
The Kisan Call Centre (KCC) initiative aims to
provide information to the farming community
through toll-free telephone lines (telephone No.
18001801551 ). Recently KCCs have been further
revamped by consolidation and appointing a new
service provider for KCC to set up state of the art
KCCs at 14 identified locations. The restructured
KCCs are now more professional with the following
technological innovations:
(a) Voice/Media Gateways (IPPBX based
decentralized system).
(b) Dedicated MPLS leased line network with
dedicated bandwidth.
(c) SMS to caller farmers providing a gist of
advisories given to them on phone.
(d) Voice mail system for recording farmer’s
queries during idle time of KCC or during
call lines busy, with provision for call back to
the caller.
ICT Interventions in Agriculture
Development of Portals
3.115 DAC has developed 80 portals,
applications and websites in collaboration with
Box 3.4: Farmers’ Portal
This portal aims to serve as One Stop Shop for all
farmers for accessing information on agricultural
activities. Besides giving links to appropriate
pages of the 80 portals already developed so
far, the Farmers’ Portal links the location of the
farmer (from his Block) with NARP (National
Agricultural Research Project) Zone that he
belongs to. Thereafter, all information related to
the crops grown in that area (coupled with agroclimatic conditions in that region) is provided to
the farmer using a graphical interface. Farmers can
get information about package of practices; crop/
seed varieties; common pests; dealer network for
seeds, fertilizers&pesticides; machinery and tools;
agro-met advisories etc. Data for most States has
been entered in one language, but the portal will
be launched after the data is updated and entered
both in English and in the vernacular language of
the State.
Farm Inputs and Management
67
National E-Governance Plan in Agriculture Some Successful State Initiatives
(NeGP-A)
e-Krishi Kiran Programme (Soil Health
3.116 The Mission Mode Project has been
Card Project) of the State of Gujarat
th
introduced during last phase of the 11 plan to
achieve rapid development of agriculture in India
through the use of ICT for ensuring timely access
to agriculture related information for the farmers
of the country. There are a number of current IT
initiatives/schemes undertaken or implemented
by DAC which are aimed at providing
information to the farmers on various activities
in the agriculture value chain. These initiatives
will be integrated so that farmers would be able
to make proper and timely use of the available
information. Such information is intended to be
provided to farmers through multiple channels
including Common Service Centers, Internet
Kiosks and SMSs. 12 clusters of services have been
identified and the project has been sanctioned for
implementation in 7 States i.e. Assam, Himachal
Pradesh, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya
Pradesh and Maharashtra. The services include
Information on Pesticides, Fertilizers& Seeds,
Soil Health; Information on crops, farm machinery,
training and Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs);
Weather advisories; Information on prices,
arrivals, procurement points, and providing
interaction platform; Electronic certification for
exports & import; Information on marketing
infrastructure; Monitoring implementation/
evaluation of schemes & program; Information
on fishery inputs; Information on irrigation
infrastructure; Drought Relief and Management;
Livestock Management.
Agrisnet
3.117 Under this Scheme, funds are provided
to State/UTs for computerization down to Block
level. Funds to 26 states have been released
under AGRISNET to achieve the objective of
providing computers up to Block level. State
specific software packages have been developed
to disseminate information to the farmers.
Availability of requisite hardware and locally
suitable software packages has resulted in quick
retrieval of data, dissemination of information to
farmers and provision of farmer centric services
to farmers.
3.118 The e-Krishi Kiran Programme (Soil
Health Card Program) implemented by the
Government of Gujarat is an online program
of technology transfer with an individual farm
condition in focus. It helps making transfer of
technology more scientific, precise, easy, and
need based. The Soil Health Card System is a
web based information system designed to run
on internet and intranet (Gujarat State Wide Area
Network). This is a repository of agricultural
information for the benefit of farmers, agricultural
scientists and decision makers. The Soil Health
Card System is a unique information initiative of
its kind for the benefit of farmers at the grass-root
level.
3.119 The system can generate recommendation
of the fertilizers needed for a particular crop
based on a nutrition status of farmer’s soil on the
basis of low, medium, high soil fertility rating.
It can generate recommendation of the possible
alternative crops to a farmer for better crop
production based on his cropping practice and
weather condition in his area considering the facts
like moisture availability index, available water
capacity, and length of growing period, surplus
water and supplementary irrigation. The system
can generate state wise district wise, taluka wise
and individual farmer wise model action plans
for crop production.
Agrisnet Project in the State of West Bengal 3.120 Some ICT Services provided by State of
West Bengal are given below:
G2C Services
•
Availability
of
Quality
Fertilizer
(Manufacturers/Dealer wise) with MRP
•
Soil Health Card which includes fertilizer
recommendation for the crops according to
soil test result
•
Information on Weather to the farmers
(Data on daily weather forecast, rainfall,
68
State of Indian Agriculture
different district. Samples are also received
from outside state as referee sample.
temperature, evaporation, wind direction,
dew etc.)
•
Soil Survey and Soil Conservation
related Statistics (Landuse, Landform,
Soil Information – Basic information on
the soil with soil classification based on
approximation ( a modern nomenclature of
soil class).
•
Availability of Pesticide
Dealer wise) with MRP
•
Availability
of
farm
mechanization
equipment/tools in the locality
(Maufacturer/
•
Fertilizer Input Management: This module
focuses on the demand and supply of
fertilizers for a particular range of District
from the Fertilizer Manufacturers. It also
ensures that the allotted quantities of
different fertilizers are made available
within stipulated time.
•
Fertilizer Licensing System: This module
emphasizes on online FRC application.
This application is meant for the selling
and storage of all permissible fertilizers in
Orissa for Manufacturer, wholesalers, Retail
Dealers, Pool Handling Agencies, Importers
etc. FRC is given to the applicant online.
G2B Services
•
Information on subsidy under various
schemes (on seed, fertilizer. pesticides, farm
mechanization etc.)
•
District wise Sales Report of Fertilizer of
each manufacturer for a duration
•
Crop wise requirement of Fertilizer in
coming Seasons (Rabi/Khariff)
•
District wise sales reports of seeds (of
different crops and variety).
Challenges
3.122 The Extension system in India is
faced with multiple challenges in terms of its
capacity, resources and outreach to cater to the
fast emerging and diversified needs of Indian
agriculture, particularly with respect to the
following emerging issues
•
Agrisnet: Odisha
Depleting soil and water resources
•
3.121 Some of the important modules developed
by State of Orissa are given below.
Increasing climate variability
•
Farm Mechanisation: This module provides
the targets and achievements of farm
implements and machinery distributed to
the beneficiaries of Odisha with relevant
details.
Meeting food security with limited land and
water resources
•
Slackening growth in rainfed areas causing
widespread distress.
•
•
•
Pesticide Quality Control: The software
enables the Pesticide testing laboratory to
test the quality of the drawn samples of
pesticides received from different offices
and also checks the percentage of required
active ingredients and the expiry date of the
pesticides, As a result, the sample is treated
as standard or Non-standard.
Fertilizer Quality Control: This module lays
down the detailed procedure for sampling
and chemical analysis of each Fertilizer
sample drawn by Fertilizer Inspector from
3.123 Major challenges before the agricultural
extension system in the country revolve around
the following areas:
i.
Understaffed extension
ii.
Insufficient planning at district level and
below
iii. Lack of integration of KVKs with
ATMA
iv. Public sector technology generation
often fails to take into account farmer’s
needs, perceptions and location –specific
conditions for each crop
Farm Inputs and Management
v.
69
with the other staff in agriculture and allied
departments through institution of Block
Technology Team under ATMA.
Feeding India’s growing population,
meeting diversified food basket and
needs of food security
vi. Productivity of rainfed agriculture has
lagged, causing widespread distress
•
Supplementing the Extension workforce by
augmenting the progress under Agri Clinics
and Agri Business Centres (ACABC) Scheme
and the Diploma in Agricultural Extension
Services for Input Dealers (DAESI) (being
implemented by MANAGE)
•
Filling of the vacant posts in agriculture and
allied areas by States and earmarking at least
30 % manpower exclusively for extension
apart from converging the extension
functionaries under different schemes of the
GoI viz. NFSM, NHM, INSIMP,CROPSAP,
NAIS etc. at district and block level with
the manpower under ATMA for integrated
extension delivery.
•
Providing a display board in each village
indicating the name of the extension worker
assigned to the Panchayat and his/her
contact number apart from details of main
schemes (including their major components,
eligibility, subsidy pattern etc.) applicable in
that area.
•
Close monitoring of farmer-oriented
activities like Training & Exposure Visits
(outside and within the State), Farm Schools,
Demonstrations (agriculture and allied
sectors), Mobilization & Capacity Building
of Farmers’ Interest Groups, Commodity
Interest Groups etc., Extension Activities
like KisanMela, Exhibitions, Field Days and
Farmers-Scientists Interactions, skill training
of rural youth etc.
•
Bringing in Convergence between Research
and Extension system strictly in keeping
with joint initiatives of the Department of
Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) and
the Department of Agricultural Research
and Education (DARE).
•
Greater involvement of Farmers’ Advisory
Committeesin from Block to State level in
keeping with ATMA Guidelines. Moving to
the regime of group based extension.
vii. Lack of support to knowledge intensive
alternatives for rain-fed farming.
viii. Inadequate efforts at linking small
producers to markets though aggregation
of produce through groups
The Way forward
3.124 There is an emergent need to restructure
and strengthen the extension system in the
country to meet the challenges highlighted above.
However, this restructuring and strengthening
of agricultural extension machinery has to be
a judicious mix of extensive physical outreach
of personnel, enhancement in quality through
domain experts & regular capacity building,
interactive methods of information dissemination,
Public Private Partnership and pervasive &
innovative use of ICT/Mass Media. The extension
personnel not only need to be deployed, but it
also needs to be ensured that they are physically
present in their assigned Panchayats on due days
and actually mingle with the farmers to provide
customised solutions based on local needs.
Entrepreneurs in private sector, agri-business
companies and experts in NGOs also need to be
involved in a big way.
3.125 The Extension approach therefore has to
be a combination of strategies for augmenting
the workforce to support the delivery of
extension services to the farmers together with
adopting innovative approaches for managing
the extension system in the country. Salient
strategies proposed are outlines below:
Augmenting Extension Workforce
•
Positioning the dedicated manpower for
extension supported by the Government of
India to the extent of 90%for about 21000
posts under the modified ATMA Scheme
2010. Firm backward and forward linkages
70
State of Indian Agriculture
Extension Strategy
•
Promoting the use of hand-held
devices for on the spot data entry
and its subsequent updation through
innovative technologies like voice
recognition for farm level planning and
farmer empowerment. This experiment
has been successfully tried in 6 districts
of Tamil Nadu.
•
Strengthening the Kisan Call Centres
(KCC) Scheme with more number of
agents to receive and answer farmers’
calls and integration of innovative
technologies and better management for
ensuring quality of services.
Internet & Common Service Centres
(fifth tier).
•
Integrated web-portal for farmers has
been prepared.
• Apart from augmenting the use of
Mass Media in extension delivery
through conventional resources of
print and electronic media, providing
support of innovative electronic
resources viz. LCD or Pico Projectors
(with laptop) at Block in the country
for projection of short low cost short
films focussed on specific themes.
•
Promoting Community Radio Stations
(CRS) in a big way to expand the reach
of localised technologies to the farmers
located within a radius of 20 to 50
Kilometres.
•
National e-Governance Plan Agriculture
is being implemented in Phase-1 in 7
seven States.
3.126 Apart from making efforts to ensure
optimal strength of extension workers to have
deep penetration and direct reach to the farmers,
it would be appropriate to advert to the overall
extension strategy. We need to adopt a multiprolonged approach as given below:
5
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Tiered Mass Media Campaign
i)TV/Radio
ii)
Newspaper
iii) Pamphlets/Leaflets
iv) SMS/inward voice calls in Kisan Call
Centres
v)
• Bringing out low cost publications
for the farmers in a farmer friendly
manner preferably in local language
and making them available up to
village level.
Path-breaking methods such as Kala
Jathas, Extension Buses etc.,already
tried successfully, to deliver the
message effectively and informally
in an interactive manner.
Induction Training & Refresher Courses for
Extension Workers And Deployment of Domain
Experts:
•
Providing training and capacity building
to extension workers at induction level
and during service at periodic intervals
as per technological developments and
emerging needs of the farmers.
•
Mainstreaming the alternative domain
experts viz. retired scientists, department
officials, agribusiness experts who have
actually proved their specialization and
acceptability to the farmers in a particular
crop/enterprise. Institutionalising a
system of Certified Crop Advisors who
can evolve as Domain Experts.
•
Ensuring proper mobility of the scientists
along with extension workers for field
visits for programme monitoring or
extension activities.
Innovative and Pervasive Use of ICT:
•
Reaching out to the farmers, possibly
through customised ICT services viz.
SMS, IVRS and Voice Recognitiontailor
made to the needs of a Commodity
Interest Group or specific agro-climatic
area. Dissemination of information has
been firmly established in the States
of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra
Farm Inputs and Management
71
extension services at the village level and to
further federate the ongoing CIGs/SHGs.
Public Private Partnership
Strengthening the two modes of public-private
partnership promoted through the existing
Schemes on ACABC & DAESI as outlined in
the para 4.1 above. The provision of 10% of the
expenditure of activities to be done only through
the non-Governmental sector as per Modified
ATMA Guidelines needs to be operationalized
by all the States for harnessing the capacity
available with private sector.
•
The time-lag between technology generation
and dissemination needs to be minimized
by devising suitable mechanism.
•
Strengthen media and e-resources through
publications such as newsletters, books,
manuals, leaflets, brochures, technology
hand outs, etc.; media coverage of extension
programmes; development of cyber
extension platforms and extension portal;
content development cyber extension,
production of AV and interactive aids, etc.
•
Strengthening market intelligence, EDP and
consultation through EDP packages, project
report preparations and consultancies,
industry and enterprise relations and
partnership, establishing local market
network on prices, establishing value chain
demonstration units, etc.
•
Strengthening
continuing
education
programmes through open and distance
learning for farmers and entrepreneurs
with online courses, conducting certificate
courses for farmers, entrepreneurs input
dealers, extension agencies, etc.
3.127 Some other measures which can
strengthen the public extension services include
the following:
•
All the institutions involved in extension
activities should better target their
beneficiaries; characterize the requirements
of each beneficiary group; and customize
their extension services, so that they become
total solution providers to target groups.
•
Extension activities to emphasize sustainable
natural resource management including
indigenous knowledge systems.
•
Documentation,
rationalization
and
institutionalization and popularization of
contemporary farmer innovations.
•
Promote CIGs/SHGs in order to fill gaps in
CHAPTER 4
Agricultural Production and Programmes
4.1 With about 2.5% of global land resources, 4%
of water resources and 17% of global population
living in India, achieving food security by
increasing agricultural production has to be at the
core of India’s agricultural development strategy.
Situation assumes greater significance with the
increasing population and growing economic
prosperity. The government has launched a
number of programmes for increasing production
of agricultural commodities. Many new initiatives
have been taken to widen the food basket keeping
in view the demand and nutritional requirements
of the population. Higher attention to Eastern
Region, millets, pulses and fodder crops, national
mission on protein supplement, setting up of Peri
urban vegetable production clusters are some of
these initiatives taken up for implementation
during the year.
Agricultural Production
4.2 Despite high dependence of Indian
agriculture on monsoon rains (June to September),
there has been a significant jump in production
of food grains and other crops over the past
five years. During 2011-12, there was a record
production of foodgrains at 259.32 million tonnes,
comprising of 131.27 million tonnes during Kharif
season and 128.05 million tonnes during the
Rabi season. Of the total foodgrains production,
production of cereals was 242.23 million tonnes
and pulses 17.09 million tonnes. As per 2nd
advance estimates for 2012-13, total foodgrains
production is estimated at 250.14 million tonnes
which is 9.18 million tonnes or 3.54 per cent lower
than that of of last year . The decline in kharif
production (from 131.27 million tonnes in 201112 to 124.68 million tonnes in 2012-13) has been
Agricultural Production and Programmes
on account of late onset of monsoon and deficient
rainfall in several states affecting the production
in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
and West Bengal. Production of coarse cereals has
been severely affected by the deficient monsoon
in Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra and
Rajasthan. There was a significant improvement
in the rainfall situation in September, 2012,
signaling better soil moisture conditions and
bright prospects for ensuing rabi crops. As per
the 2nd advance estimates, foodgrains production
during rabi season is estimated at 125.47 million
tonnes. Though this is marginally lower than
the final (rabi) estimate of 128.05 million tonnes
during the last year, in the past improvements
have been reported in subsequent estimates
and it is expected that the country would finally
harvest a higher production in the rabi season and
bridge the shortfall in kharif production during
2012-13. Table 4.1 gives the details of production
of foodrains in the recent years.
4.3 Krishi Karman Awards were given to
the States (Box 4.1) by the President of India,
Shri Pranab Mukherji on 15th January, 2013 in
recognition of their commendable efforts in
achieving the record production in 2011-12.
Box 4.1: Krishi Karman Awards
‘Krishi Karman Awards’ were instituted for the
first time by the Ministry of Agriculture in different
categories – Total Foodgrains for large, medium
and small States, Wheat, Rice, Coarse Cereals and
Pulses during the year 2010-11. During the year
2011-12, in addition to Krishi Karman Awards,
‘Commendation Awards’ were also included for
those States who achieved higher production and
productivity over their previous five years highest
but could not get Krishi Karman Award. Besides,
‘Agriculture Minister’s Krishi Karman Awards
for Progressive Farmers’ were also instituted from
the year 2011-12 to reward one male and one female
farmer in each of the eight Krishi Karman Award
winning States.
Krishi Karman Awards for foodgrains comprised
cash prize of Rs. 2.00 crore for each State, a Trophy
and Citation; for individual crop category Rs. 1.00
crore, a Trophy and Citation; and for Commendation
Awardee States a Citation plus cash of Rs. 25.00
73
lakh for improvement of work environment to
Agriculture Departments of Awardee States.
Besides, Awardee Farmers were given a Citation
plus cash award of Rs. 1.00 lakh to improve their
infrastructure development.
Following awards were presented on 15th January,
2012 by the Hon’ble President of India:
(A) ‘Krishi Karman Awards, 2011-12:
Total Foodgrains Production:
Category-I (> 10 million tonnes) – Madhya
Pradesh.
Category-II (< 10 to 1 million tonnes) – Tamil
Nadu.
Category-III (> 1 million tonne) – Manipur
and Nagaland.
Individual Crops:
Rice - Bihar
Wheat - Haryana
Pulses – Jharkhand
Coarse cereals – Uttar Pradesh
(B) ‘Commendation Awards:
Total Foodgrains:
Category-I - Punjab and Rajasthan.
Category-II - Gujarat and Uttarakhand.
Category-III - Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and
Mizoram.
Individual Crops:
Wheat - Himachal Pradesh.
Pulses - West Bengal and Assam.
(C) ‘Agriculture Minister’s Krishi Karman
Awards’ for Progressive Farmers:
Madhya Pradesh: Shri Gambhir Singh for
Wheat and Smt. Radha Bai Dubey for Gram.
Tamil Nadu: Thiru P. Solaimalai and Thirumati
T. Amalarani for Rice.
Manipur: Shri Nongmaithem Ibomcha Meetei
and Smt. Nongmeikapam (O) Shyamashakhi
Devi for Rice.
Nagaland:
Shri
Ghoshito
and
Smt.
Kezhawetuou Yhome for Rice.
Bihar: Shri Sumant Kumar and Smt. Shanti
Devi for Rice.
Haryana: Shri Ram Kumar and Smt. Anita for
Wheat.
Jharkhand: Shri Damodar Chaudhary and Smt.
Seemu Sardar for Arhar.
Uttar Pradesh: Shri Jhabbu Lal for Maize and
Smt. Sharda Devi for Bajra.
74
State of Indian Agriculture
Table 4.1:
Crop
Production of Foodgrains in Recent years
Target
Add Prodn
under NFSM
Rice
10th plan
200607
10th
Plan
Ave.
(million tonnes)
11th plan
200809
200708
200910
increase over
base
201011
201112
11th
Plan
Ave.
Tml
year
10th
Plan
Ave.
10
93
86
97
99
89
96
105
97
12
11
Wheat
8
76
70
79
81
81
87
95
85
19
15
Pulses
2
14
13
15
15
15
18
17
16
3
3
Total
Food
Grains
20
217
202
231
235
218
245
259
238
42
36
Contribution of Eastern India
4.4 A heartening aspect of the production of
food grains in 2011-12 is the contribution from the
Eastern Indian States of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and
Chhattisgarh in which a new initiative, ‘Bringing
Green Revolution to Eastern India’ has been
started since 2010-11 with focused attention on
Table 4.2:
improving the productivity of rice based cropping
system. Table 4.2 gives details of the increase
in production in the recent years as against the
normal production of rice in the Eastern Indian
States. Eastern states, in general have recorded
much higher increases in production of rice than
that witnessed in the all India average in the recent
years. The increase in production is primarily on
account of increase in yield.
Production of Rice in the Eastern States.
(Lakh Tonnes)
State
1
Normal
2010-11
2011-12
% Difference
Final
Col. 3/2
Col. 4/3
6
2
3
4
5
Assam
29.31
47.37
45.16
61.62
(-) 4.66
Bihar
42.52
31.02
71.63
-27.05
130.90
Chhattisgarh
47.96
61.59
60.28
28.42
(-) 2.12
Jharkhand
25.84
11.10
31.31
-57.04
182.04
Odisha
62.37
68.28
58.07
9.48
(-) 14.95
Uttar Pradesh
115.59
119.92
140.22
3.75
16.93
West Bengal
102.45
130.46
146.06
27.34
11.96
Total
426.04
469.74
552.73
10.26
17.67
ALL-India
940.20
959.80
1053.11
2.08
9.72
Agricultural Production and Programmes
Commodity Outlook
4.5 In the increasingly gloablized world, it
is important to keep track of developments
elsewhere in the world so as to guard against the
excessive price volatility seen in global markets
in recent times and seize an opportunity for the
farmers to realize better returns for their produce
through suitable trade policies that link them to
the global markets. It is important therefore to
look at the food situation in a holistic manner
covering all aspects ranging from production,
consumption, prices, stocks and trade. Towards
this end a study has been commissioned by the
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation to
National Council of Applied Economic Research
(NCAER) to develop Agricultural Outlook and
Situation Analysis in the short and the medium
terms.
4.6 Presently, main crop based food items: cereals
(specifically rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize and
overall coarse grains), pulses (gram, tur), selected
fruits and vegetables (banana, potato, onion),
sugarcane and edible oils (groundnut, rapeseed/
mustard, soybean) are monitored under the
study with respect to their production, trade,
stocks, prices and consumption both at national
and global levels. Milk is also considered in the
analysis. Two short term forecasts published so
far under the study for the quarters ending June
2012 and September 2012 are available on the
web site http://nfsm.gov.in.
Crop wise Situation
Rice
4.7 Rice is an important food crops of India in
term of area, production and consumer preference.
India is the second largest producer and consumer
of rice in the world, accounting for 22.3% of global
production. As a result of various initiatives such
as introduction of better crop varieties, intensive
application of inputs, irrigation and price
support and procurement operation taken by the
government, the production and productivity of
rice has increased from 96.7 million tonnes and
2202 kg per hectare in 2007-08 to 105.31 million
tonnes and 2393 kg per hectare respectively in
2011-12. Although yield differentials within the
75
country are significant - yield of rice in Bihar has
been less than half of the yield in Punjab, however,
there have been significant improvements in the
recent years. Rice yield in Bihar increased from
1.6 tonnes in 2009-10 to 2.2 tonnes per hectare in
2011-12. However, our paddy yield (3.38 tonnes/
ha) is much lower than that of our neighbors
such as China (6.55 tonnes/ha), Bangladesh
(4.18), Indonesia (5.01) and Vietnam (5.32) as per
FAO estimates for 2010. Government is creating
enabling environment for farmers to adopt
suitable technologies and agronomic practices,
incentivizing production of location specific
hybrid rice seed and hazard tolerant varieties
against abiotic and biotic stresses, and promoting
infrastructural development for marketing.
4.8 Some of the technical innovative and
economically viable interventions evolved by the
research institutions are direct seeded rice method
used in rainfed upland/lowland/irrigated areas,
transplanted rice cultivation (TRC) in rainfed
lowland/irrigated areas, Alternate Wetting and
Drying (AWD) in irrigated areas with good
water management practices, System of Rice
Intensification (SRI) under leveled & well drained
soil with assured source of irrigation, integrated
crop management through seed treatment, low
seed rate, seedlings age & no. per hill, wider
spacing, need based nutrient application, weed
management, Intermittent irrigation, IPM etc.
and promotion of new varieties.
4.9 Several programmes such as National Food
Security Mission (NFSM) launched during 200708, Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India
(BGREI) during 2010-11 are being implemented
to increase the production and productivity of
rice in the country.
Box 4.2: Best Practices in Rice Cultivation
System of Rice Intensification (SRI): About 1
million hectares of total rice planting is covered
by SRI technique. System has been adopted
with modifications in different areas and new
developments are being researched for appropriate
rice trans-planter.
Line Transplanting in Orissa and Eastern UP
under BGREI: An area of 2.75 lakh ha is covered
under BGREI program where under farmers have
76
State of Indian Agriculture
achieved an average yield of 3.75 tonnes/ha which
is double the normal yields in Orissa.
Boro Rice area in Assam: Boro rice area in Assam
is increasing at the rate of almost 2 lakh ha every
year. Unlike the ahu and Sali rice season, boro rice
season is relatively risk free and farmers have a
good control over water, which encourages them to
adopt input-intensive rice production to obtained
higher yield. The average productivity of Boro rice
is 2.22 tonne/ha as against 0.9 and 1.52 tonne/ha
for ahu and Sali rice respectively. Deep water areas
can be brought under Boro rice
Hybrid Rice Area in Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh
and Uttar Pradesh: Yield gains are more in stress
areas, with an average yield of 4.8 tonne/ha hybrid
rice has potential to leap frog development in the
Eastern Region.
Adoption of Direct Seeded Rice in Punjab and
Haryana: Area in Punjab: 20, 000 ha, Average yield
of Direct seeded 4.1 tonne/ha.
Area in Haryana: 10,000 ha, Average
yield
Direct
seeded
4.3
tonne/ha.
Wheat
4.10 The area under wheat has increased from
27.99 million hectares in 2006-07 to 29.86 million
hectares in 2011-12. The production of wheat in the
country has increased from 75.81 million tonnes in
2006-07 to an all time record high of 94.88 million
tonnes in 2011-12. The average annual growth rates
in respect of area, production and yield during
1990-91 to 1999-2000 were 1.62%, 4.52% and 2.87%,
respectively but declined to 0.57 per cent, 1.39 per
cent and 0.73 per cent respectively during 200001 to 2010-11. The increase in production has been
due to increase in area with irrigations facilities,
seed treatment, better varieties, rust management
and management of optimum time of sowing
to escape terminal heat stress. The productivity
of wheat which was 2602 kg/hectare in 2004-05
has increased to 3177 kg/hectare in 2011-12. The
major increase in the productivity of wheat has
been observed in the states of Haryana, Punjab,
Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In order
to sustain the present level of productivity and
production, certain key areas such as increased
seed replacement rate along with varietal
replacement with rust resistant ones and resistance
to different biotic and abiotic stresses including
multi stress tolerant cultivars need to be addressed
on priority basis. Technological interventions such
as maintaining optimum sowing time, avoiding
terminal heat stress period, avoiding early sowing
in mid hills to break green bridge to contain rusts,
Box 4.3 :Best Practices in Wheat Cultivation
Managing Optimum sowing time & seed
treatment
No early sowing in Oct in mid hills; Optimum sowing time in
November; In summer season in Leh/Ladakh sowing to be
maintained in March/April.
Managing spacing between rows
Reducing row to row spacing from 20 to 18 cm with same seed
rate recommended in Haryana; 10% yield increase reported.
Adopting of Resource Conservation
Technologies (RCT) & Conservation
Agriculture; use of Zero Till Seed Drill
and Laser Land Leveller.
Adoption of RCTs and CA practices led to reduced cost of
cultivation,
Varietal
replacement
for
rust
management; special focus on rust
management through immediate varietal
replacement in higher hills of Northern
India.
Replacement of varieties with rust resistant ones in NWPZ,
NEPZ and CZ; In higher hills introduction of new varieties after
testing under the supervision of the State Agriculture Dept &
SAU.
Surveillance at regular intervals for rusts
by DAC and DWR experts.
Surveillance at regular intervals in Higher and mid hills; Revisiting
the matter of rust epidemiology change if any; Surveillance in
plains of NWPZ and NEPZ at regular intervals by DAC & DWR
(ICAR) experts; creating awareness. CZ & PZ are also being
monitored by DAC & DWR experts at regular intervals.
Agricultural Production and Programmes
cultivating rust resistant varieties like DPW-62150, PBW-550, DBW-17 etc. in plains of NWPZ and
testing & popularizing rust resistant varieties like
HS-375 & VL-832 in higher hills in summer season
cultivation, adoption of Conservation Agriculture
Practices including Resource Conservation
Technologies(RCT) including Zero tillage, revising
rust epidemiology in higher hills, management of
adequate spacing between rows to augment yield
and weed & nutrient management are practiced.
Coarse Cereals
4.11 Coarse Cereals comprises crops like
jowar, bajra, ragi, other small millets (kudo,
kutiki, sanwa, foxtail) and maize, which have
traditionally been the main components of the
food basket of the poor in India. These crops are
grown predominantly in the rainfed regions of
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat. There
has been a decline in the area coverage under
coarse cereals from 29.03 million hectares in 200405 to 26.42million hectares in 2011-12. However,
the productivity of coarse cereals has increased
significantly from 1153 kg per hectare in 2004-05
to 1591 kg per hectare in 2011-12. The increase
in productivity has been observed in almost all
the major coarse cereals producing States in the
country. Total production of coarse cereals which
was 33.46 million tonnes in 2004-05 increased to
the so far highest level of 43.40 million tonnes in
2010-11 but declined marginally to 42.04 million
tonnes in 2011-12 mainly on account of shift
in area to other competing crops. The average
annual growth rate of area under coarse cereals
continues to be negative, though the decline in the
last decade has been at a slower pace as compared
to 1990s. The average annual growth rate of
yield of coarse cereal during 2000-01 to 2011-12
has been significantly higher at 4.56% leading to
considerable improvement in production.
4.12 Millet crops are grown in arid and semiarid areas under low rainfall (200-600 mm),
where fine cereals like wheat and rice cannot
be grown profitably. Millets have more food,
feed and fodder values. These crops are more
environments friendly and resilient to climate
77
changes. A majority of millet grains contain
higher protein, fiber, calcium and minerals than
wheat and rice. Therefore, these are now also
being called as “Nutri-cereals”.
4.13 Maize is the major coarse cereals accounting
for a little more than half of the production of
coarse cereals. In order to promote production
of Maize, Accelerated Maize Development
Programme (AMDP) a sub-scheme of Integrated
Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize
(ISOPOM) is under implementation from 2004.
There has been an increase in the area coverage
under Maize from 7.89 million hectares in 2006-07
to 8.78 million hectares in 2011-12. Productivity of
Maize has also increased significantly from 1912
kg per hectare in 2006-07 to 2478 kg per hectare
in 2011-12. The total production of Maize has
increased from 15.10 million tonnes in 2006-07 to
21.76 million tonnes in 2011-12.
4.14 Non-adoption of the recommended doses
of inputs due to high risk under the rainfed
agro-climatic regions, non-availability of high
yielding varieties, quality seeds particularly of
small millets, lack of assured procurement under
MSP and poor resource base of the farmers who
largely grow these crops are the limiting factors
in increasing the area and production of coarse
cereals. With a view to inhence the production
and productivity of coarse cereals, interventions
like promoting production of high yielding
varieties/hybrid seeds through public and
private sectors, organizing demonstrations with
cluster approach and supplying subsidized inputs
like fertilizers, bio-fertilizers, micro-nutrients
and plant protection support including seed
treatment up to two hectare per farmer; creation
of institutional infrastructure for value addition,
demonstration of technology and entrepreneurship
development, setting up small processing units
for value addition etc are promoted by the
Government under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
(RKVY) through the “Initiative for Nutritional
Security through Intensive Millets Promotion
(INSIMP)”. In order to meet the requirement of
Refinement/Retrofitting and demonstration of
post-harvest technologies, capacity building of
entrepreneurs, market linkages between producer
78
and processors, two commodity–wise Centre of
Excellence (CoE) for Sorghum and Pearl Millet
have been operationalised at the Directorate of
Sorghum Research (DSR), Hyderabad and CSS
Hisar Agriculture University, Hisar. Third CoE
for small Millet is being established at University
of Agriculture Sciences, Bengaluru. These Centers
have developed large number of bakery and other
food products and organize consumer awareness
campaigns and training programmers for the
entrepreneurs.
Pulses
4.15 Being rich in protein, pulses not only form
a vital part of the human diet, but also play a
crucial role in balancing the dietary proteins.
India holds the first rank in pulses production
and consumption in the world. India grows the
largest varieties of pulses in the world accounting
for about 32% of the area and 23% of the world
production. The important pulse crops are
chickpea (48%), pigeon pea (16%), urdbean (9%),
mungbean (7%), lentil (6%) and field pea (4%).
The major pulse producing states are Madhya
Pradesh (24%), Maharashtra (15%), Uttar Pradesh
(12%), Rajasthan (12%) and Andhra Pradesh
(9%), which together account for 72% of the total
production. An estimated amount of 30 to 147
kg/ha Biological nitrogen is fixed by different
pulse crops in the soils in which they are grown.
4.16 Pulses production has registered a
remarkable increase from 14.76 million tonnes in
2007-08 to a record level of 18.24 million tonnes
in 2010-11. The production of pulses is estimated
marginally lower at 17.09 million tonnes in 201112. The increase in total production of pulses has
been on account of improvement in production
levels of tur, urad and moong. The average annual
growth rate of area and production of pulses has
been significantly higher during 2000-01 to 201011 as compared to the last decade. Productivity
of pulses has increased from 625 kg per hectare in
2007-08 to 699 kg per hectare in 2011-12. A major
increase in the productivity of pulses has been
noticed in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
However, the average productivity of pulses
State of Indian Agriculture
in India is less than the average productivity of
890 Kg/ha in world. Among the major pulses
producing countries, the highest average yield
of pulses has been recorded at 4219 Kg/ha in
France, followed by 1936 Kg/ha in Canada and
1882 Kg/ha in USA in 2010.
4.17 Cultivation of pulses is mostly (85% of the
area) under rainfed condition, on marginal lands,
on low fertile soil by resource poor farmers. Non
availability of High Yielding Variety, low Seed
Replacement Rate (SRR), high susceptibility to
pests especially Helicover-pa armigera, inadequate
market linkage are the primary reasons for low
yield of pulses. With a view to minimize the
problem and ensure protective irrigation at the
critical stage of plant development sprinkler set,
mobile rain gun, pump set, etc. are distributed to
farmers for efficient use of water from Dug well,
Pond and Polythene lining pond. Further, the
seed multiplication ratio (SRR) has been increased
to 22.51% in 2010-11 from 10.41% in 2006-07. To
provide proper market infrastructure, the market
linked extension support through Small Farmers
Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) under 60000
Pulses village programme is being implemented.
Moreover, the Minimum Support Prices (MSPs)
of Pulses have been increased substantially to
incentivize farmers to increase the production and
productivity of pulses. Research institutes like
ICAR, IIPR, SAUs besides ICARDA and ICRISAT
are making efforts to evolve varieties resistant to
Helicoverpa. Emphasis is also being given on area
expansion through promoting pulses cultivation
in rice fallows, intercropping of pulses with
oilseeds, cotton, cereals etc., productivity
enhancement through A3P demonstrations,
INM, IPM & popularization/promotion of the
high yielding varieties/hybrids.
4.18 Under the National Food Security
Mission (NFSM) from Rabi 2007-08, Accelerate
Pulses Production Programme (A3P) is being
implemented to accelerate the production of Pulses,
particularly Red gram, Green gram, Black gram,
Chick pea and Lentil by promoting production and
protection technologies. Integrated Development
of 60000 Pulse Villages is implemented in selected
watershed areas in major pulses growing states by
Agricultural Production and Programmes
providing funds for in-situ moisture conservation,
new farm ponds with polythene lining and
or dug wells. The special plan to achieve 19+
Million Tonnes of Pulses production is also under
79
implementation during Kharif 2012-13. Some of
the best practices implemented during the 11th
Plan are given in Box 4.4.
Box 4.4: Best Practices adopted in pulses
Distribution of certified seed
Distributed 28.00 lakh qtls of certified seeds of pulses.
Integrated Nutrient Management
Advocated balanced use of micro nutrients in 39.00 lakh ha.
Integrated Pest Management
Conducted IPM in about 23.00 lakh ha area.
Demonstration on latest production
and protection technologies
Demonstrated about 18.00 lakh ha area under various pulses.
Capacity building (Farmers training)
Trained 15.00 lakh farmers.
Yield gains
Yield gain for different pulses crops were recorded upto three
times the normal yields. A document detailing impact on yields
as a result of the promotional program has been published for the
year 2010-11. The publication is available at http://nfsm.gov.in.
Oilseeds
4.19 The consumption of edible oils is rising
continuously,
outstripping
the
domestic
production resulting in huge imports. During
2011-12, the country imported about 9.2 million
tonnes of edible oils which was about half of
its domestic requirement. Edible oil demand
is projected to reach 16.64 million tonnes by
the terminal year (2016-17) of the XII plan. This
would require 59 million tonnes of oilseeds
production provided the proportion of different
oilseeds remains constant in the coming years.
Production of oilseeds during 2011-12 was
29.80 million tonnes which was slightly less
than the 32.48 million tonnes recorded in 201011. Oilseed cultivation is undertaken across the
country in about 26 million ha on marginal lands,
dependent on monsoon rains, nearly 72% of area
under oilseeds is rainfed and with low levels of
input usage. Among the major oilseed growing
States, highest yield in 2011-12 of oilseed crops
was recorded by Tamil Nadu State (2479 kg/ha)
followed by Gujarat (1608 kg/ha) and Haryana
(1394 kg/ha). Similarly, States which are having
lower yield levels of oilseed crops are Assam (557
kg/ha), Chhattisgarh (550 kg/ha) and Odisha
(661 kg/ha).
4.20 An integrated approach involving
introduction of new production technologies,
better supply of inputs and extension service
support for marketing, post-harvest technologies
is adopted. Supply of quality seeds (certified)
of improved cultivars, varietal replacements,
increasing the area under irrigation and/or
providing protective irrigation, improving water
use efficiency by adopting improved irrigation
techniques and sprinkler irrigation and water
saving devices, infrastructure provision (shallow
tube wells) for exploitation of ground water (high
water table areas) using low cost equipment and
technology, integrated nutrient management
(INM) with emphasis on bio-fertilizers, sulphur
and micro-nutrients based cropping system,
integrated management of pests and diseases
limiting oilseeds productivity in different agroecologies, selective mechanization (e.g., improved
planters, groundnut digger and decorticator,
safflower harvester, etc.) to improve efficiency
and overcome drudgery in oilseeds production,
effective transfer of technology to narrow the gap
(30 to 70%) between realizable and realized yield
gap are some of the initiatives being taken by
the Government to increase the production and
productivity of oilseeds in the country. Some of
the best practices being undertaken in oilseeds
are given in Box 4.5.
80
State of Indian Agriculture
Box 4.5: Best Practices in Oilseeds Cultivation
Practices adopted
Results achieved
1) Use of sprinkler irrigation under Increase in yield, saving of water, Increased area under crop
irrigation
with available existing water
2) Use of HDPE pie to increase the water Judicious use of water, save money, reduced labour cost for
use efficiency
irrigation, yield advantage
3) Use of polythene mulch in groundnut 40% savings in water for irrigation, reduced weed intensity,
cultivation in selected situations/ reduced incidence of sucking pest and 23-50% increase in yield.
regions.
4) Use of Thiawan Sprayer
Reduced labour cost, efficient application of plant protection
chemicals.
5) Organization of Farmers Field School Efficient transfer of improved cultivation practices for increasing
(FFS)
the yield.
6) Use of Drip irrigation for Oil Palm
Increase in yield, saving of water, Increased area under crop
with available existing water, reducing conveyance, percolation
and evaporation losses compared to flood and basin irrigation
methods.
7) Intercropping in Oil Palm
Generation of additional income during gestation period
8) Harvesting of fully ripen Fresh Fruit Achievement of maximum oil extraction ratio.
bunches of Oil Palm
Sugarcane
4.21 Sugarcane is the most important cash
crop in India, which is widely cultivated in subtropical and tropical region. Tropical regions in
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and part of Madhya
Pradesh account for about 45% of the total area
and about 55% of the total sugarcane production
in the country, with average productivity of
about 83 tonnes per hectare . Sub-tropical region
comprising of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, West Bengal and North
Eastern States account for about 55% of area and
about 45% of the total sugarcane production
with an average productivity of about 56 tonnes
per hectare. Sugarcane contributes about 4.4%
of the value of output from crop sector and it
occupies about 2.4% of India’s gross cropped
area. Sugarcane is cultivated in about 5 million
hectares and India holds the second position in
production of sugar after Brazil.
4.22 The area under sugarcane has declined
from 5.06 million hectares in 2007-08 to 4.17 ha in
2009-10 but increased thereafter and reached to
5.04 million hectares in 2011-12 . The increase in
area coverage under sugarcane has been observed
in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra
and Karnataka. Production of sugarcane after
attaining a record level of 355.52 million tonnes
during 2006-07, declined in the subsequent years
but has started witnessing an increasing trend in
recent years. The total production of sugarcane
during 2011-12 was 361.04 million tonnes and is
estimated at 334.541 million tonnes during 201213. Yield of sugarcane was recorded at 71.67
tonnes per hectares during the last year (201112). This year the yield is estimated (2nd estimate)
at 66.08 tonne per hectare.
4.23 Development of high yielding varieties of
sugarcane which are tolerant to biotic and a-biotic
stress, strengthening of seed production and
cluster approach to transfer of technologies with
modern tools, propagation of micro irrigation
system like drip irrigation/rain-gun sprinkler
and adoption of improved method of irrigation
i.e. furrow and skip furrow irrigation instead of
flood irrigation, strengthening of seed production
programme through tissue culture, single eye
bud and poly bag technology, chip bud method,
moisture conservation practices through trash
mulching and foliar spray with urea & MOP,
introduction of partial mechanization so as to
Agricultural Production and Programmes
reduce cost of cultivation, Integrated Nutrient
Management including organic, bio-fertilizer
and micro elements, Integrated Pest management
(IPM) enabling bio agents as well as wooly aphid
managements, popularizing improved method of
planting like trench method, paired row, ring pit,
single bud plantation and ratoon management,
are considered necessary for increasing the
production and productivity of sugarcane.
4.24 Department of Agriculture is implementing
Sustainable Development of Sugarcane Based
cropping Systems Areas (SUBACS) to give more
flexibility to States. The Programme is focusing on
widening the quality cane seed availability to the
cane growers locally by rearing of seed nurseries
at the farmers field, establishment of tissue
culture, bio-agent lab, transfer of technology like
varietal performance, biotic and abiotic stress
management, integrated insect- pest and disease
management, integrated nutrient management,
planting techniques through demonstration at
the farmers field, promotion of mechanization
in sugarcane, soil sustainability through micronutrients , drip irrigation , soil and seed treatment
material through chemicals and heat therapy etc
to increase the production and productivity of
sugarcane in the country.
4.25 Further, best practices such as trench method
and single bud plantation in Punjab, ring pit and
trench method of planting in Haryana, trench
method of planting in U.P., Bihar & Uttarakand,
ratoon management in U.P., Uttarakhand,
Maharashtra and Gujarat, and wider row spacing
with paired row along with drip irrigation in
Maharashtra and Karnataka are practiced.
Cotton
4.26 India is second largest cotton producer,
consumer and exporter of cotton in the world. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra,
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the major cotton
producing states. During the last decade the
area, production and productivity of cotton have
grown at 3.14%, 11.66% and 8.25% respectively.
During 2011-12 a record area of 12.18 lakh hectare
was sown, major increase in area were noticed
in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Bt
81
cotton area occupies 11.14 million hectares, 91.5%
of the total area under cotton and seems to be the
widely accepted technology among farmers. As
per the 2nd advance estimate, cotton production
during 2012-13 is estimated at 33.80 million bales
(of 170 kg each) as against 35.20 million bales in
2011-12.Yield of cotton (590 kg lint/ha) in India is
however, substantially below the world average
of 745 kg lint/ha. Even in states like Punjab,
Haryana and Rajasthan with 100% irrigation,
better soil, Bt cotton hybrid seed and high
input farming have not been able to boost yield
comparable to international level. Considering
the extent of area and the number of farmers
involved in cotton cultivation, it is imperative to
enhance productivity of cotton, to improve the
socio-economic condition of the people engaged
with the cotton cultivation.
4.27 Development of GM cotton varieties
suitable for high density planting system,
fabrication & validation of available cotton hand
picker, increasing yield especially under rainfed
conditions, revival of deshi and ELS cotton
area and production, to maintain Bt resistance
management, continuous follow up of on line pest
monitoring and advisory services and creation
of custom hiring centers are some of the issues
requiring attention to increase the production
and productivity of cotton.
4.28 In order to increase the production and yield
of cotton, technical interventions such as front
line demonstration of production technology,
Integrated
Pest
Management,
Insecticide
Resistance Management (IRM), use of modern
farm implements are under operation which have
shown an impressive impact on yield of cotton.
4.29 Department of Agriculture is implementing
the Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC). With
a view to increase production, productivity and
improve the quality of cotton. The TMC consists
of Four Mini-Missions. MM-I on research which
is being implemented by ICAR, MM-II for
enhancing production and productivity of cotton
which is being implemented by Department
of Agriculture & Cooperation, MM-III on the
development of market infrastructure and MM-IV
on modernization of ginning/pressing factories
are being dealt by the Ministry of Textiles.
82
State of Indian Agriculture
4.30 Under Mini Mission II assistance is
provided for various interventions, like
production & distribution of certified seeds,
training of farmers & extension officials, Farmers
Field School, Front Line Demonstrations, supply
of Pheromone traps/bio-agents/bio-pesticides/
drip/sprinkler/sprayers, Bt cotton management
strategies, pest monitoring and surveillance,
etc. Some of the best practices followed and the
results thereof are listed in Box 4.6.
Box 4.6: Best Practices and Achievements in Cotton
Management of Bt refugea
Large scale awareness on importance of Bt refugea planting with
same non Bt hybrid seeds, alternate crops like pigeon peas helped
to maintain resistance development for last ten years.
Use of neem based pesticides, MSKE, Decline in pesticides spray from 15 to 6 numbers in north, 20 to 8
bio-pesticides, organic chemicals, in south and 12 to 6 in Central zone.
pheromone traps, bio-agents
Promotion of trap, boarder crops, eco This helped to increase the natural enemies of cotton pests in
feast crops, bird patches etc
the field.
Adoption of Insecticide resistance IRM-IPM program has resulted in a reduction in insecticide
management strategies
consumption by 30%, and reduced the number of sprays by 15%.
Large scale drip adoption in cotton
Drip/sprinkler set beneficiaries reported increasing number of
irrigation and savings in water by more than 35% and increase
in yield by 25%
On line pest monitoring
Farmers are getting weekly advisory & pest management alert
through SMS
Intercropping cotton with pulses & Intercropping of green gram (moong) in cotton in 1:1, 1:2 or 2:1
oilseeds
ratios was found advantageous from yield and economic point of
view in Punjab and Haryana. The net returns were higher due to
additional yield of green gram (4qtl/ha) for intercropped cotton.
In north western Rajasthan, intercropping of green gram in
paired rows of cotton brought about higher net monetary returns
over sole cotton crop
Jute
4.31 Jute is an important natural fiber crop next
to cotton in India. Jute is mainly grown in eastern
and north-eastern states namely West Bengal,
Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Meghalaya, Nagaland
and Tripura. India is the largest producer of
Jute accounting for about 62.2 percent of world
production and 59.3 per cent of the total area in
the World.
4.32 With marginal fluctuations, the area under
jute and mesta in the country has been hovering
at around 0.90 million hectares during 2004-05
to 2011-12. However, there has been an increase
in the productivity of jute and mesta from 2019
kg. per hectare in 2004-05 to 2268 kg. per hectare
in 2011-12. The production of jute & mesta is
estimated at 11.13 million bales (of 180 kg each) in
2012-13 (2nd estimate), which is marginally lower
as compared to their production during 2011-12
(11.40 million bales).
4.33 The state of West Bengal contributes the
maximum area to the tune of 74.6 per cent of the
country’s total jute area and about 81.6 per cent
of the country’s jute production. Mesta is grown
in the country in about 12 states, but the major
mesta growing states are Andhra Pradesh, Orissa,
Bihar, Tripura, Meghalaya and West Bengal.
Andhra Pradesh is the main mesta growing state
sharing about 31.3 per cent of the country’s total
area which is about 1.14 lakh ha and nearly 41.5
per cent of the country’s total production of 7.3
lakh bales.
4.34 Jute is grown mainly in the Eastern and
North-Eastern States but Jute Seed is produced in
Agricultural Production and Programmes
far off places like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
etc. Accordingly, very often timely availability of
good quality seed at reasonable price becomes a
problem. Drought at the early stage and flood at
the later stage is a common feature in Jute areas.
Therefore, there is a need to develop some more
suitable location specific varieties to counter
this adverse and erratic weather behavior. The
existing retting facility is inadequate to get better
quality fibre. Alternative method of retting is
needed. Ribbon retting which has been tried on
experimental basis requires further improvement
for its acceptability by the farmers as it does not
appear to be cost effective.
4.35 Production of Jute seed particularly of
new varieties, line sowing need to be taken up in
83
jute growing States. Use of herbicides for weed
control to reduce the manual weeding operations
should be adopted of jute needs to be adopted.
4.36 Realizing the problems of the jute economy
and the need to make it more competitive, a
Centrally Sponsored Scheme JuteTechnology
Mission (JTM) was launched jointly by the
Ministry of Textiles and Ministry of Agriculture
(Department of Agriculture & Cooperation)
in 2006-07. Out of four Mini-Missions, MiniMission-II to increase the productivity and to
improve the quality of fiber is implemented by the
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC)
through Directorate of Jute Development (DJD)
in seven States viz. Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya,
Orissa, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
Box 4.7: Best Practices in Jute Cultivation
Use of high yielding new varieties
Increases both the production and productivity of the crop
Line sowing by seed drill
Increases the productivity of the crop.
Application of herbicides
Reduces the cost involved in weeding operations
Programmes and Special Initiatives in Crop
Sector
National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
4.37 The National Food Security Mission is
presently under implementation in 482 Districts
of 19 States of the country with a view to enhance
the production of Rice, Wheat and Pulses through
area expansion and productivity enhancement;
restoring soil fertility and productivity; creating
employment opportunities; and enhancing farm
level economy to restore confidence of farmers.
The basic strategy of the mission is to promote
and extend improved technologies i.e., seed,
micronutrients, soil amendments, Integrated
Pest Management, Farm Machinery and resource
conservation technologies along with capacity
building of farmers with effective monitoring and
better management in the high potential districts
in order to bridge the yield gaps. Implementation
of Mission in the 11th Plan has not only achieved
the targeted food grains production but has also
widened the base of food grains production with
significant contribution from low productivity
Districts.
4.38 During the 12th Plan, it is proposed to
include coarse cereals as well in the Mission.
Emphasis would be on promotion of technologies
adopting cropping system approach in identified
clusters.
Initiative for Nutritional Security through
Intensive Millet Promotion (INSIMP)
4.39 Millets crops comprising of bajra, Jowar,
Ragi and small millets like Sanwa, Kodo, Kutki,
Proso and foxtail are highly nutritious. Besides,
these crops respond better both under adverse
and favorable conditions and require less water
in comparison to crop like paddy and wheat.
The scheme provides support for supply of
technology demonstration kits comprising
of micro-nutrients, bio-fertilizers, DAP, urea,
potash and pesticides including weedicides up to
a maximum area of 2 ha/farmer, seed mini kits
for 0.4 ha area for every one ha of area covered
under scheme, seed production of new varieties/
hybrids which are released during last 5 years,
hand holding and farmers training, installation
of pre-processing and processing small units,
awareness campaign and research needs. Scheme
84
also envisage provision for setting up Centre of
Excellence on value addition in millet.
4.40 Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern
India (BGREI): BGREI is under operation in
seven states of UP, Jharkhand, Bihar, West
Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Chhattisgarh with
an objective to increase the productivity of rice
based cropping system by intensive cultivation
through promotion of recommended agriculture
technology and package of practices by addressing
the underlying constraints of different agro
climatic sub regions. The activities carried out
under the programme include demonstrations on
Rice/Wheat; creation of asset building activities
focusing on water management work such as
construction of shallow tube wells, dug well/
bore wells and water pumpsets; promotion of
farm implements such as drum seeder, zero till
seed drills; and site specific activities.
4.41 Accelerated
Pulses
Production
Programme (A3P): A3P has been initiated under
National Food Security Mission from Kharif
2010, where in, farmers in one million hectares of
potential pulses areas are involved in intensive
promotion of pulses through village level block
demonstration of production and protection
technologies. It enable the farmers of the A3P
areas to avail Seed Mini kits, Integrated Nutrient
Management, Integrated pest management
components free of cost up to 2 hectares of area
of individual farmers.
4.42 Sugarcane Based Cropping Systems
(SUBACS): Sustainable development of SUBACS
is implemented in 22 States/Union Territories and
provides higher flexibility to states to implement
the programmes on the basis of their priorities
and requirements. The main thrust of the scheme
is on the transfer of improved technology to the
farmers through field demonstration, training of
farmers, supply of farm implements, enhancing
seed production and pest management.
4.43 Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC):
TMC was launched in 2000-2001 with the aim
of increasing the production and productivity,
and improving the quality of cotton. It consists of
Four Mini-Missions. MM-I on research is being
implemented by ICAR, while MM-II for enhancing
State of Indian Agriculture
production and productivity by Department of
Agriculture & Cooperation. The MM-III is on
the development of market infrastructure and
MM-IV on modernization of ginning/pressing
factories are being dealt by the Ministry of
Textiles. Increasing availability of quality seeds,
emphasis on production of extra long staples
cotton, covering more area under hybrids,
popularization of Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) methods, efficient use of water through drip
and sprinkler methods particularly in Central and
Southern Zones, transfer of technology through
field demonstrations and training of extension
workers, dealers and farmers are some of the
activities pursued under the Mission.
4.44 Jute Technology Mission (JTM): JTM was
launched in June 2006 for increasing production,
productivity and quality of jute and allied fibers.
It has four Mini Missions, Mini Mission-I on
research, implemented by ICAR, Mini MissionII on development/extension, implemented by
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Mini
Mission-III on marketing and Mini MissionIV on processing, utilization and industrial
aspects, implemented by Ministry of Textiles.
Production and supply of hybrid seeds, transfer
of technology through frontline demonstrations,
training of farmers, extension workers and
input dealers; establishment of seed de-linting
plants, establishment/strengthening of bio-agent
production units, plant protection measures like
Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM), IPM
demonstration, surveillance of diseases & pests
and supply of sprayers/pheromones/bio-agents/
bio-pesticides, supply of water saving devices like
sprinkler and drip irrigation equipment are some
of the activities undertaken under the Mission.
4.45 Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses,
Oilpalm and Maize (ISOPOM): ISOPOM is
being implemented from 1st April, 2004 for the
production of oilseeds, pulses, oilpalm and
maize. Pulses component of ISOPOM has been
merged with the National Food Security Mission
(NFSM) w.e.f.1.4.2010. The programme predominantly benefits small and marginal farmers,
and stipulates benefits of 16.20% to SCP and 8%
to STP and 30% to women farmers as per the
policy of the government.
Agricultural Production and Programmes
4.46 Oil Palm Development Programme
(OPDP): Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala, Goa, Gujarat, Orissa, Maharashtra
and Mizoram are implementing the Oil Palm
Development Programme (OPDP) under
ISOPOM with a view to augment the domestic
supply of edible oils and bridge the gap between
demand and supply. Under the scheme,
assistance is provided towards the cost of planting
material, cultivation inputs, installation of drip
irrigation system, diesel pump sets, training,
development of waste-land, extension and
publicity, frontline demonstrations, leaf-nutrients
analysis laboratories and testing of genotypes
under various environmental conditions. The
assistance provided under the scheme is shared
on 75:25 basis between Government of India and
State Governments except for the component of
drip irrigation for which States’ share is 10% for
all states except the states of Assam, Tripura &
Mizoram for which entire cost on installation of
drip irrigation system in oil palm plantation is
met by the Centre. Year-wise production of Fresh
Fruit Bunches (FFBs) & CPO since inception of
the ISOPOM is given in Annexure 4.
Oil Palm Area Expansion (OPAE) Sub-Scheme
under RKVY
4.47 Oil Palm Area Expansion (OPAE)
Programme for bringing 60,000 hectares in 8
identified states has been launched during 2011-12
under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). It is
estimated that an area of 28,288 hectares has been
achieved as fresh plantation under OPAE. OPAE
includes state specific targets for area expansion,
interventions, pattern of assistance, research and
development components, institutional linkages,
monitoring, initiatives for creating processing
facilities in needy states to augment the production
of palm oil after 4-5 years.
4.48 Major constraints reported in oil palm
plantations are as under:
•
Availability of planting material in the
country. The State Governments are
importing planting material from different
oil palm growing countries.
•
In India cultivation of oil palm is carried out
in small holdings and mostly dependent on
85
tube wells for irrigation.
•
Lack of proper package of practice for specific
sites, i.e. oil palm being exotic and new crop,
very little data/management practices are
available for its cultivation in various agroclimatic conditions of the country.
•
Synchronization of area expansion under
oil palm vis-à-vis creation of processing
facilities.
•
Variation in import duty on edible oils
on year to year basis results in major
fluctuations in oil palm FFBs prices in the
domestic markets.
•Oil Palm cultivation involves gestation period
of 4-5 years and, therefore, farmer’s risk
for cultivation of this crop is more than the
conventional agricultural and horticultural
crops. Further, pricing of FFBs being linked
to the landed cost of CPO, it is advisable to
have a long term pricing policy with counter
cyclic duty structure to encourage farmers to
go for cultivation of this crop.
4.49 Oil Palm is comparatively a new crop and
in the highest oil yielding perennial crop with
good planting material and irrigation facility.
With proper management, there is a potential of
20-30 MT fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) per ha after
attaining age of 5 years. This in turn is capable
of yielding 4-5 MT of palm oil and 0.4-0.5 MT
palm kernel oil (PKO). In comparative terms
yield of palm oil is 10-15 times the yield of edible
oil obtainable from traditional oilseeds. The
emphasis is required to be laid on the following
parameters to achieve success in implementation
of the programme.
•
Area expansion of oil palm in potential
States and enhanced assistance for planting
material, irrigation systems and critical
inputs for cultivation of oil palm.
•
Pursuance with the States for enactment of
oil palm Act to ensure marketing of oil palm
FFBs (Presently AP, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram
and Goa have enacted Oil Palm Act)
•
Establishment/maintenance of seed gardens
for smooth production and availability of oil
palm seed/sprouts within the country.
86
•
State of Indian Agriculture
Support for technology advancement under
Research and Development especially
for lowering gestation period of the crop
for developing dwarf and water resistant
varieties, curtailing transplanting period to
shorten gestation period and mechanization
for cultivation and harvesting, to develop
new hybrids through use of tissue culture
techniques etc
•
Water harvesting/water conservation and
irrigation systems including fertigation to
oil palm in different agro-ecological zones.
•
Development of location specific inter/
mixed cropping and other farming systems
to ensure return during gestation period of
the crop.
•Organic and Integrated Plant Nutrient
Management (IPNM) by regulating
plantation wastes in oil palm plantation.
•
Establishment of more Leaf Analysis Labs to
assess suitability of the areas for cultivation
of the oil palm in the state.
•
Emphasis on in country and abroad trainings
for staff as well as of farmers.
•
More infrastructural irrigation facilities to
be provided for bringing areas recovered
through Wasteland Development under
this crop.
•
Increase in number of demonstration plots
for popularization of oil palm crop.
•
Publicity among the farming community.
•
Ensure remunerative prices for oil palm
FFBs.
4.50 Department of Agriculture has launched
a Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm during
XII Plan to strengthen and focus on oilseeds
production so as to minimize the gap between
demand and supply of edible oils by way of
improving productivity of major oilseeds,
harnessing potential in niche areas, enhancing on
farm investment, resource conservation, speedy
introduction of new varieties and hybrids, supply
of quality seeds, to increase Seed Replacement
Rate (SRR) and Varietal Replacement Rate
(VRR), training and demonstrations, bring more
area under oil palm cultivation besides efforts to
maximize output from tree borne oilseeds.
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
4.51 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) was
launched in the XIth Plan against a backdrop
of faltering agriculture growth in the previous
decades. It was designed as a State Plan Scheme
with complete flexibility to the States to choose
projects specifically tailored to their conditions
for generating growth in agriculture and allied
sectors.
4.52 RKVY has two strategic objectives - first,
to encourage States to allocate more funds for
agriculture and allied sectors and second, to
incentivize States to generate additional growth in
agriculture and allied sectors by better planning
and undertaking appropriate growth oriented
projects, as a result of which, States’ allocation to
agriculture and allied sectors rose from Rs.8770
crore (4.88% of total plan expenditure) in the
base year of 2006-07, to Rs.29413 crore (6.82% of
States total plan expenditure) in the year 201112 (RE). Increase in overall growth in agriculture
and allied sectors during the XIth plan period
is a testimony of the scheme’s contribution to
stimulating growth by capitalizing agriculture
sector.
4.53 Assistance extended to the States under
RKVY has witnessed tremendous increase
over the years. Initiated with a relatively small
allocation of Rs. 1489.70 crore in the first year,
i.e., 2007-08, allocation for the Scheme has been
increasing year on year and in 2012-13, Rs. 9217.00
crore has been provided under the Scheme.
4.54 In the XI Five year Plan, Rs 27447 crores
has been sanctioned under RKVY for taking up
5768 projects across various sectors. Activity wise
share in value of projects and no. of projects are
shown in the following figure (Fig: 4.1). Details
of projects, including their progress, and targets,
expected outputs and outcomes, along with actual
achievements can be seen at www.rkvy.nic.in.
Agricultural Production and Programmes
Fig. 4.1: Share in value of projects, Total value Rs. 27447 crore
Fig. 4.2: Share in projects, Total Projects - 5768
87
88
State of Indian Agriculture
4.55 RKVY has managed to infuse agriculture
and allied sectors with steadily increasing public
investment. RKVY is a quantum jump in evolution
from the variegated schematic approach to a
completely new approach with emphasis on
regionally differentiated agricultural planning.
It envisages States to prepare comprehensive
District and State Agriculture Plans for taking up
projects which are best suited to local conditions
to catalyse existing production scenario for
achieving higher production in agriculture and
allied sectors, by ensuring required flexibility to
the States.
water management and better animal husbandry
practices like promoting elite breed of murrah
buffaloes and better community animal housing.
An Elite Murrah Buffalo
Wayside Market in Arunachal Pradesh
4.56 The range of interventions under RKVY
is varied keeping in view diverse needs and
requirements of the States. Therefore, while
Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and other North
East States have taken up projects on piggery,
enhancing market accessibility to farmers by
developing wayside market sheds, and area
expansion through land terracing and promotion
of off-season vegetable cultivation, Maharashtra
has been successful in managing onion price
fluctuations by promoting low cost onion storage
structures and tackling water stress by investing
extensively in farm ponds. Tamil Nadu, West
Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Tripura have
been promoting System of Rice Intensification
(SRI) for increased productivity of paddy,
while several States like Andhra Pradesh have
promoted vegetable cultivation through pandals
and trellises. States like Haryana and Punjab
have concentrated on laying underground pipe
lines for irrigation to promote more efficient
4.57 While Jharkhand chose to increase
cropping intensity by creating water conservation
structures like loose boulder and pucca check
dams along with lift irrigation systems, Gujarat
has preferred to check salinity ingress in coastal
areas and reclaiming almost 70,000 ha of land
for cultivation. Kerala has addressed its labour
shortage by setting up custom hiring centres for
farm mechanization while Karnataka has set up
Telemetric Weather Stations at Taluka level for
rainfall forecast and farmer advisories.
4.58 RKVY format has also enabled launch
of new schemes/programmes keeping States’
flexibility and authority intact. Since 2010-11,
several sub-schemes have been introduced with
specific focus on promoting rice based cropping
system in Eastern India (Bringing Green
Revolution in Eastern India (BGREI), increasing
vegetable production and availability through
Vegetable Clusters, Coarse Cereals, Rainfed Area
Development Programme (RADP), Accelerated
Fodder Development Programme (AFDP) etc. In
all, nine special Programme/schemes are being
implemented as sub-schemes of RKVY, which
have very focused objectives and are under
implementation in States best suitable for these,
in the current financial year with a total allocation
of Rs.2675 crore.
4.59 While RKVY has many positive facets
which have enhanced focus on agriculture and
allied sectors by according required flexibility to
Agricultural Production and Programmes
89
the States for initiating innovative schemes, ease
of expenditure, ability to address local needs
etc., implementation of the scheme over the last
five years has also brought to the fore certain
shortcomings which need to be addressed.
development projects. Many a time projects
proposed under RKVY are not in tune with
priorities and developmental gaps identified
in Comprehensive District Agriculture Plan
(C-DAP) and State Agricultural Plan (SAP).
4.60 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY) has
greater acceptance among states as it provides
flexibility to formulate state-specific strategies.
However, RKVY has not effectively addressed
specific issues arising out of substantial and
growing share (about 83%)of small and marginal
land holdings in the country. Small land holdings
create adverse economies of scale necessitating
aggregation of farm produces through
appropriate institutional linkages at remunerative
rates, integrating agricultural marketing value
chain and creation of post-harvest & storage
facilities. While, fast growing sectors like Animal
Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (19%), Micro
Irrigation (15%) and Horticulture (9%) would
account for 43% of total XI Plan outlay under
RKVY, allocation in Marketing, Post Harvest
Management & Cooperatives remained a mere
6% during the same period. Besides, share in
project allocation in other key sub- sectors viz.
Natural Resource Management (5%), Seed (8%),
Nutrient and Pest Management (4%) etc. were
also marginal during XI Plan period.
4.62 A project under RKVY had an average
allocation of about Rs. 4.75 crore during XI Plan
Period. It is stated that flexibility to undertake any
project under RKVY is leading to thin spread of
resources supplemented by extended support to
existing central/state schemes, missing priorities
and continued prevalence of covering maximum
sub-sectors under this scheme.
Check Dam in Jharkhand
4.61 Evaluation conducted by National
Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) reveals
that notwithstanding flexibility and relative large
financial outlay, States have not been able to
invest adequately in agricultural infrastructure
4.63 Further, drawbacks were noticed in lack
of effective monitoring & evaluation of the
projects, weak linkages with Comprehensive
District Agriculture Plans (C-DAPs) and State
Agriculture Plans (SAPs), excessive expenditure
on “brick and mortar” instead of “soil and
water”, poor quality of Detailed Project Reports
(D PRs), minimal scrutiny of projects at State
Level Sanction Committee (SLSC) level, etc. In
order to address these and other shortcomings,
it is proposed to reorient RKVY during the XIIth
Plan period.
4.64 Accordingly, in the XII Plan, the entire
RKVY budget is proposed to be divided
in three streams viz. Production Growth,
Infrastructure & Assets, and Special schemes
of national importance in the ratio of 40:40:20.
This is expected to provide a more focussed and
planned approach to creation of infrastructure in
agriculture and allied sectors and attract private
investment as well. With substantial funds being
invested for capitalizing agriculture and allied
sectors under RKVY, it is felt that a continuous
process of concurrent monitoring and evaluation
needs to be ensured by the States. This would
provide an in-built mechanism that provides
continuous feedback on the performance of
schemes and provide valuable inputs/insights to
implementing agencies as well as policy makers
for mid-course correction and calibration to help
States maximise returns and benefits from RKVY
projects and investments.
4.65 RKVY model has received tremendous
response from the States and for the XII Plan
90
period, an allocation of Rs.63246 crore has been
made for RKVY which is nearly 50% of the total
allocation of Department of Agriculture. This in
itself is a pointer towards the importance that
Government of India (GoI) attaches to RKVY.
State of Indian Agriculture
Box 4.8: Salient Features of the Revised
MMAScheme
• The practice of allocating funds to States/UTs
Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA)
4.66 The Macro Management of Agriculture
(MMA) Scheme, a Centrally Sponsored
Scheme, was formulated in 2000-01 with the
objective to propagate specific interventions
for uniform development of agriculture in the
States. Initially, MMA consisted of 27 Centrally
Sponsored Schemes covering Cooperatives,
Crop Production, Watershed Development,
Horticulture, Fertilizers, Mechanization and
Seeds Production Programmes. With the launch
of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in
2005-06, schemes pertaining to horticulture
development were taken out of the purview of
MMA Scheme. The component relating to State
Land Use Board (SLUB) was also discontinued
w.e.f. 1st August, 2009.
4.67 In the year 2008-09, MMA was restructured
to improve its efficacy in supplementing/
complementing the efforts of the States towards
enhancement of agricultural production and
productivity. The role of the scheme was redefined
to avoid overlapping and duplication of efforts and
to make it more relevant to the present agricultural
scenario to achieve the twin objectives of food
security and improvement of livelihood system
for rural masses. At present the Revised MMA
scheme comprises 11 sub-schemes relating to crop
production and natural resource management. In
the XI Plan under Macro Management Scheme
12.07 lakh ha in watershed areas, 10.25 lakh ha in
river valleys and flood prone rivers, and 0.79 lakh
ha of alkali/acidic soils were developed and 15.17
lakh agricultural implements were distributed.
The scheme is proposed to be merged with RKVY
during XII Five Year Plan.
Challenges
4.68 The declining land-base for agricultural
operations, diminishing water tables, shortage
of farm-labour, increasing costs of inputs and
•
•
•
•
•
on historical basis was replaced by an allocation
criteria based on gross cropped area and area
under small and marginal holdings. Assistance
is provided to the States/UTs as 100% grant.
Subsidy structure was rationalized to make the
pattern of subsidy uniform under all the schemes
implemented by Department of Agriculture &
Cooperation. The revised subsidy norms indicate
the maximum permissible limit of assistance.
States may either retain the existing norms, or
increase them to a reasonable level provided
that the norms do not exceed the revised upper
limits specified.
Two new components were added namely,
(a) Pulses and oilseeds crop production
programmes for areas not covered under the
Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm
and Maize (ISOPOM), and, (b) “Reclamation of
Acidic Soil” along with the existing component
of “Reclamation of Alkali Soil”.
The permissible ceiling for new initiatives was
increased from 10% to 20% of the allocation.
At least 33% of the funds are earmarked for
small, marginal and women farmers.
Active participation of the Panchayati Raj
Institutions (PRIs) of all tiers is to be ensured in
the implementation of the Revised MMA scheme
including review, monitoring and evaluation at
district/sub-district levels.
uncertainties associated with prices/realisation
which impact the viability of farming are some of
the formidable challenges the agriculture sector
faces. Resource use efficiency to improve factor
productivity and ensuring natural resources
sustainability are necessary to reconcile the
conflicting demands of farmers and consumer.
While the country is presently self-sufficient
in cereals, it meets its domestic requirements
for pulses and edible oils through imports. The
working group for the 12th Five Year Plan has also
projected that the deficit between the domestic
demand and supply in the cases of pulses and
edible oils would continue even by the end of the
12th Plan. Despite the various efforts being made,
there is no technological breakthrough in pulses,
Agricultural Production and Programmes
the yields are still hovering around 600 Kg per
hectare. Pulses continue to be grown by small
and marginal farmers on marginal lands under
rainfed conditions. There is high variability in
their prices. On the prices front, even though
substantial increases have been made in the
MSP, due to weak procurement/price support
mechanism, farmers’ response in terms of
increase in acreage under pulses is lukewarm.
Nearly half of our domestic requirement of edible
oils is met through imports. Developing oil palm,
which have high oil contents, on large track of
lands suitable for its cultivation, can bridge the
gap between demand and supply of edible oils.
The Way Forward
4.69 Viability of farm enterprise is an important
issue. Resource use efficiency to obtain more
with the available resources and significant
breakthroughs in production technologies are
required to cope with increasing demands
particularly of pulses, oilseeds, fruits and
vegetables. Diversification of agricultural
production must be emphasised both through
input assistance and price support policies.
Although MSP for pulses and oilseeds have been
increased substantially in recent years, farmers
are still not encouraged enough to put in the
effort and resources required for the scale of
production that is required to do away with the
current imports of these commodities.
4.70 The regional imbalances in productivities
must be clearly addressed. There is a need for
more attention and resources to extend green
revolution to areas of low productivity in the
Eastern Region where there is ample ground
water, fertile land and surplus labour. Equally
important are rain-fed areas. Farm incomes
are central to sustaining agricultural growth.
Diversification towards higher value crops
and livestock can improve farm incomes and
accelerate agricultural growth.
4.71 Agriculture Census 2010-11 reveals that
the average size of an operational holding has
come down to 1.16 hectares. Small and marginal
farmers with farm sizes of less than 2 hectares
comprise 85% of all holdings and 44% of total
91
area. This vast majority of farmers has to be the
focus of our agricultural development policy.
Horticulture: The Growth Driver of Indian
Agriculture
4.72 The horticulture sector, with a wide array
of crops – ranging from fruits and vegetables to
orchids and nuts, mushrooms and honey - has
been a driving force in stimulating a healthy
growth trend in Indian agriculture. India is
currently producing 257.2 million tonnes of
horticulture produce from an area of 23 million
ha. What is significant is that over the last decade,
the area under horticulture grew by about 3.8%
per annum but production rose by 7.6% per
annum. The noteworthy feature is that higher
growth rate in horticulture was brought about
by improvement in productivity of horticulture
crops, which increased by about 28% between
2001-02 and 2011-12. This goes on to show that
the special thrust given to the sector, especially
after the introduction of the Horticulture Mission
for North East & Himalayan States (HMNEH)
and the National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in
the Xth Plan has borne positive results. Given the
increasing pressure on land, the focus of growth
strategy is on raising productivity by supporting
high density plantations, protected cultivation,
micro irrigation, quality planting material,
rejuvenation of senile orchards and thrust on
post harvest management, to ensure that farmers
do not lose their produce in transit from farm
gate to the consumer’s plate. The growth trend
of horticulture crops during past 10 years is
depicted in Fig. 4.3 below:
Fig. 4.3. Growth Trend in Horticulture
Production
92
State of Indian Agriculture
Share in production of horticulture crops is
depicted in Fig. 4.4.
Fig.4.4.Share in Production
(% of 257.2 million MT)
Spices
2.3%
Others
1.0%
Plantation
crops
6.4%
Fruits
29.7%
Vegetables
60.6%
Fruits
4.73 With a production of 76.4 million tonnes,
fruits accounts for about 30 per cent of the
total production of horticulture crops. The area
under fruit crops during 2011-12 was 6.7 million
ha, which is almost 29 per cent of area under
horticulture in India. The area under fruit crops
has increased from 4.0 million ha in 2001-02 to 6.7
million ha in 2011-12 with corresponding increase
in production from 43.0 to 76.4 million tonnes.
A large variety of fruits are grown in India. Of
these, banana, mango, citrus, papaya, guava,
grape, sapota, pomegranate, pineapple, aonla,
litchi, pear, plum, walnut, etc are important.
India accounts for 13 percent of the total world
production of fruits and leads the world in the
production of mango, banana, papaya, sapota,
pomegranate, acid lime and aonla.
4.74 The leading fruit growing states are
Maharashtra which accounts for 16.0 per cent of
production followed by Andhra Pradesh (13.0%),
Gujarat (10.0%), Karnataka (9.0%), Uttar Pradesh
(8.0%), Tamil Nadu (7.0%) and Bihar (5.0%), which
altogether contributes for about 68.0 percent of
the total fruit production in the country. Banana
is the major fruit accounting for 35 per cent of
total production followed by mango (21%), citrus
(11%), papaya (6%), guava (3.3%), grapes (3%),
apple (3%) and others (17.7%) in the country. It
may also be mentioned that in the Himalayan
states of Himachal and Jammu & Kashmir, the
GDP from apples, plums, pears and stone fruits
exceeds that of GDP from cereal crops.
4.75 Area, Production and Productivity of fruit
crops has registered significant increase during
the last ten years, as depicted in Figure. 4.5.
Fig. 4.5: Growth in area, production and productivity of fruits
90
76.4
80
70
60
50
43
2001-02
40
2011-12
30
20
10
4.01 6.7
10.72 11.4
0
Area(m.ha)
Production(m.MT) Productivity(MT/ha)
Agricultural Production and Programmes
Vegetables
4.76 Vegetables are also an important
constituent in horticulture sector which are
mostly low gestation and high income generating
crops. Many vegetables are now grown under
protected cultivation like green houses and
shade net houses with a scope for ‘off –season’
production, which fetches remunerative prices.
Vegetables occupied an area of 8.9 million ha
during 2011-12 with a total production of 155.9
million tonnes having average productivity of
17.4 tonnes/ha. Vegetable production registered
a quantum jump of 77 per cent between 2001-02
and 2011-12.
Box No. 4.9: Protected Cultivation
Protected cultivation involves the production of
crops under protective cover such as green house,
shade net houses, plastic tunnels, use of plastic
mulch etc. which enable to enhanced productivity
of crop per unit area. The Ultra-violet stabilized
cladding material on green houses help to harness
sunlight energy inside green houses which result
in good crop vigour and growth, hence yield.
Protected cultivation is being promoted as a thrust
area during XII Plan.
4.77 More than 40 kinds of vegetables belonging
to different groups are grown in India in tropical,
sub tropical and temperate regions. Important
vegetable crops grown in the country are potato,
tomato, onion, brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower,
peas, okra, chillies, beans, melons, etc. The
leading vegetables growing states are West
Bengal which accounts for 15% of production
followed by Uttar Pradesh (12%), Bihar (10%),
Andhra Pradesh (8%), Madhya Pradesh (6.5%),
Gujarat (6.4%), Tamil Nadu (5.8%), Maharashtra
(5.7%), Karnataka (5.0%) and Haryana (3%),
which altogether contributes about 83.4% of
the total vegetable production in the country.
Among vegetables, potato is the major vegetable
accounting for 27.0% followed by tomato (12%),
onion (11%), brinjal (8%), cabbage (5.4%),
cauliflower (4.7%), okra (4%), peas (2.5%) and
others (25.4%) in the country. India is the second
largest producer of vegetables after China and is
a leader in production of vegetables like peas and
93
okra. Besides, India occupies the second position
in production of brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower
and onion and third in potato and tomato in the
world. Vegetables such as potato, tomato, okra
and cucurbits are produced abundantly in the
country.
4.78 The trend in area, production and
productivity of vegetables are depicted in the
Figure 4.6 below:
Fig.4.6: Growth in area, production and
productivity of vegetables
180
155.9
160
140
120
100
88.62
2001-02
80
2011-12
60
40
20
6.16
14.4 17.52
8.9
0
Area(m.ha)
Production(m.MT)
Productivity(MT/ha)
Spices
4.79 India is the largest producer, consumer
and exporter of spices and spice products in
the world. Over 100 plant species are known to
yield spices and spice products among which
around 50 are grown in India. India is known as
the home of spices, producing a wide variety of
spices like black pepper, chillies, ginger, turmeric,
garlic, cardamom and a variety of tree and seed
spices. Major spice, producing states are Andhra
Pradesh (19%), Gujarat (15%), Rajasthan (14.7%),
Karnataka (8%), Madhya Pradesh (7.7%) and
Tamil Nadu (7%). The spice production in India
is currently estimated at 5.95 million tonnes from
an area of about 3.21 million ha.
4.80 The production of spices in the country has
registered a substantial increase over the last ten
years with average annual growth of 5.8%. Chilli
is the major spice crop occupying about 25% of
area under cultivation and contributing 22%
94
of total spice production in the country. Garlic
accounts for 8.0% of area with 21.0% share in
production, while turmeric accounts for 6.8% of
area with 19.6% share in production.
Flowers
4.81 India has made noticeable advance in the
production of flowers, particularly cut flowers,
which have a good potential for exports. During
2011-12, floriculture covered an area of 0.32
million ha with a production of 2.1 million tonnes
of loose flowers and 7507 million numbers of cut
flowers. This sector is generating higher income
and employment opportunities especially for
women.
State of Indian Agriculture
Growth in Exports
4.84 Not only have these impressive production
figures ensured a steady supply for the domestic
market, they have also made Indian horticulture
exports globally competitive. Over the last
decade, there has been a significant improvement
in export earnings in horticulture.
Table 4.3:
Value of Export of Horticulture
Commodity
Sl. Commodity
No.
Value
(Rs in crore)
2001-02
%
Change
2010-11
1.
Fresh
Fruits &
Vegetables
987.61
3944.46
299.4
2.
Floriculture
115.39
296.04
156.6
3.
Spices
1833.50
6840.71
273.1
4.
Cashew
2741.00
2809.00
2.5
Total
5677.50 13792.20
142.9
4.82 While India has been known for growing
traditional flowers such as jasmine, marigold,
chrysanthemum, tuberose and aster, the
commercial cultivation of cut flowers like roses,
orchids, gladiolus, carnation, gerbera, anthurium
and lilium has become popular in recent times.
The important flower growing states are West
Bengal, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, North East, etc. Major area is
devoted to production of marigold, jasmine, roses,
chrysanthemum, tuberose, etc. The area under
cut flowers having stems has increased manifold.
Orchids, anthurium, lilium, gerbera and seasonal
bulbous flowers are increasingly being grown
both for domestic and export markets.
4.85 The horticulture division is working closely
with Agricultural & Processed Food Export
Development (APEDA) and State Governments
to ensure that infrastructure and institutional
support for export is available so that farmers’
can leverage export markets for higher incomes.
Of the 60 agri export zones in the country 52 are
focusing on horticultural crops.
Plantation crops
Horticulture’s share in consumer spending
4.83 The term ‘plantation crops’ refers to
‘commercial crops’ which are cultivated on an
extensive scale in contiguous area. The leading
plantation crops covered in this report are coconut,
cashewnut, arecanut and cocoa as these are mainly
grow on the fields of small and marginal farmers.
This is in sharp contrast to tea, coffee and rubber
which are grown in large plantations owned by
corporates. Major plantation crops producing
states are Tamil Nadu (28%), Karnataka (26%),
Kerala (25.5%), Andhra Pradesh (8%) which all
together contributes about 87.5% of the plantation
crops production in the country.
4.86 While production of horticulture crops is
growing, the ‘demand’ side is also witnessing
a marked growth. As incomes rise and
consciousness about ‘healthy foods’ increases,
there is a significant change in the consumption
basket of consumers. Households are spending
significantly higher amounts of their expenditure
on food to the F&V category. However, it is
important to note that the availability of fruits
and vegetables has kept pace with the growing
demand. In the case of fruits, the per capita
availability increased from 114 grams/day in
2001-02 to 172 grams/day in 2011-12. Similarly,
the per capita availability of vegetables increased
Agricultural Production and Programmes
from 236 grams/day to 350 gram/day during
this period. Trend in per capita available of Fruits
and Vegetables is given Fig. 4.7 below:
Fig. 4.7: Per capita availability of F & V
95
which are involved in crop specific R & D. NRC,
Citrus is implementing a Technology Mission
on Citrus with NHM funding for addressing the
problems of citrus growers in Vidharbha region
of Maharashtra. NRC, Pomegranate is addressing
the problem of tackling bacterial blight disease.
Linking farmers with markets
4.89 The Planning Commission Committee on
the subject, headed by Dr Saumitra Chaudhry
recommended strengthening intuitional linkages
between producers and consumers, recognition of
the role of market intermediaries and supporting
their efforts in backward integration, policy
changes in APMC Acts to break the monopoly
of the existing players and fiscal incentives to
encourage investments in the sector.
Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Growth
in Horticulture
4.87 The major challenge for horticulture is to
sustain this growth in a manner which ensures
higher incomes for the primary producer by
ensuring better intuitional support mechanisms,
infrastructure and technology support for the
entire value chain – from pre –planting to Post
Harvest management. While the ICAR system
with its research institutions, National Research
Centres and State Agricultural Universities have
addressed issues relating to soil health, planting
material, new and adaptive varieties, the major
challenge for the DAC is to ensure higher returns
to the farmer by ensuring that what is produced
is not lost in transit on account of poor handling,
perishability and that the farmer is part of the
value chain.
Institutional support from ICAR
4.88 The Horticulture Division of the Indian
Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
under Department of Agricultural Research &
Education (DARE) addresses the research and
education related aspects of horticulture through
its Central Institutes, Directorates, National
Research Centres (NRCs), Directorate of Research
(DR) and All India Coordinated Research Projects
(AICRP). These include the NRC for Citrus,
Nagpur, NRC for Pomegranate, Sholapur, DR for
Cashew, Puthur, NRC for Orchids, DR for Grape
Institutional Support and Market Linkages
4.90 Three major initiatives of the DAC have the
potential to impact farmer’s incomes in a positive
manner. These include the Vegetable Initiative
for Urban Clusters (VIUC), support to Farmer
Interest Group (FIGs) and Farmer Producer
Organization (FPOs) for better integration with
markets and input suppliers and the Public Private
Partnership in Agriculture Development (PPP
IAD) for Intensive agricultural Development.
The salient feature of these is discussed below.
4.91 VIUC: Under the VIUC farmers living
in peri-urban areas are encouraged to take up
vegetable production in clusters to ensure primary
level aggregation and better co-ordination with
wholesalers and retailers. The idea is to support
farmers with all essential inputs – from credit to
seeds to soil nutrients – and assist them in primary
level aggregation, grading, sorting, packaging
and transport to the wholesale, and wherever
possible retail points as well. It encourages
farmers to have direct linkages with the large
aggregators or retailers so that the farmers get a
better value for their produce. The Small Farmers
Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC), an agency
supported by the DAC is assisting the NHM
division in implementing this initiative. It has
become so popular that many state governments
are requesting for additional cities to be brought
under its ambit.
96
State of Indian Agriculture
4.92 FPOs: VIUC encouraged the formation of
Farmer Interest Groups and Farmer Producer
Organizations by encouraging the formation
of cluster level Farmer Interest Groups (FIGs)
which were organized into FPOs. This strategy
was based on the clear understanding that given
the fragmented land holding pattern among
primary producers, it was necessary to adopt the
cluster based approach to achieve the economies
of scale and scope. The task was also assigned to
the SFAC.
4.93 PPP IAD for IAC: Another imitative which
complimented this effort was the initiative to
encourage partnerships with the corporate sector
in the agricultural sector. The core idea here was
to facilitate large scale integrated projects, led
by private sector players in the agriculture and
allied sectors, with aggregation of farmers, and
integration of agricultural supply chain.
APMC Reforms
4.94 APMC reforms are critical to the
development of a value chain in horticulture
produce, especially perishables. While production
has increased manifold- both in terms of volume
and value, the number of intermediaries has
remained ‘constant’ on account of the provisions
of the APMC Acts, most of which prescribe
ownership of a premises in the market yard as a
pre –condition to apply for a license. Many state
governments have agreed, in-principle, to amend
the Act and also introduce electronic auctions,
besides allowing the establishment of terminal
markets and electronic auction platforms. A snap
shot of reforms status, especially with reference
to horticulture produce is shown below:
Table 4.4:
Status of APMC Acts Reforms with
respect to Horticulture Produce
Status
i. APMC Act
mended.
States
Arunachal Pradesh,
Assam, Andhra Pradesh,
Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand,
Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Rajasthan,
Sikkim, Uttarakhand
ii. Partially
Modified
iii. Amendment
under process
iv. To be carried
out
v. No APMC Act
Chattisgarh, Delhi,
Karnataka, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland,
Odisha, Punjab, Tamil
Nadu, Tripura, West
Bengal.
Haryana,
Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar
Pradesh
Andman & Nicobar
Islands, Bihar, Dadar and
Nagar Haveli, Daman &
Diu, Kerala, Lakshadweep,
Manipur
Fiscal Incentives
4.95 The Report of planning commission
recommended that government continue the
Fiscal incentives for the horticulture sector to
signal the support for the sector. These include:
i.
Enhanced Subsidy : DAC has modified
its NHM/HMNEH/NHB schemes w. e.
f. 1.4.2010, by upward revision of credit
linked back ended subsidy from 25%
to 40% of the capital cost of a project
in general areas and from 33.33% to
55% in case of Hilly & scheduled areas,
in respect of units which adopt new
technologies.
ii.
Rural Infrastructure Development
Fund (RIDF) for warehousing: The
RIDF window has been opened to the
cold chain and warehousing sectors.
State government.
iii. Reduction of Excise Duty on Import
of Cold Storage Equipments: With
effect from 2011-12 full exemption
from excise duty has been extended
to air-conditioning equipment and
refrigeration panels for cold chain
infrastructure;
including
conveyor
belts.
iv. External Commercial Borrowing (ECB):
External Commercial Borrowing (ECB)
Agricultural Production and Programmes
can be raised for investments in new
projects, modernization/expansion of
existing production units in real sector –
industrial sector including infrastructure
sector for creating cold storages or cold
room facility, including farm level precooling, for preservation or storage of
agricultural/horticultural and allied
produce
Support for Cold Chain Development
4.96 The Planning Commission report also
reiterated the need to strengthen the cold
chain infrastructure in the country to address
post harvest losses which ranged from 6 to 18
percent as per the CIPHET report on the subject.
Likewise a study by the NSE had pointed out
the gap in cold storage capacity to the extent
of 37 m. MT. Moreover the distribution of cold
storages was skewed – both in terms of its
concentration in UP, Punjab, West Bengal, and
that nearly 80% capacity was for potato storage.
To address the issue of holistic development of
the cold chain sector in the country, the NCCD
was established with an initial corpus of Rs 25
crore from the government in 2011-12 in PPP
mode. NCCD particularly addresses issues
relating to cold chain management including
standards, protocols and HRD. While the General
Council of NCCD is headed by the Secretary
DAC, its members include growers association,
FPCs, co-operatives, corporate engaged in the
sector- including equipment suppliers, logistics
companies, industry bodies, resource institutions,
regulatory and development agencies, apex
intuitions, PSUs, state governments and Ministry
of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI). NCCD
has established four technical committees, viz.
(i) Technical Specification, Standards, Test
Laboratory and Product Certification Committee,
(ii) Training, HRD and R & D Committee, (iii)
Committee on Application of Non Conventional
Energy sources in Cold Chain Infrastructures,
and (iv) Committee on Supply Chain & Logistics
for Post Harvest Management & Marketing.
4.97 It is significant to mention that
government’s thrust to this sector has yielded
positive outcomes. It may be mentioned that of
97
the 30 million MT capacity, nearly 14 million
MT has been created between 2000 to 2011 on
account of interventions by HMNEH, National
Horticulture Board (NHB), APEDA, MoFPI and
Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and
Fisheries (DAHD&F).
Support for Horticulture Development
4.98 The major planned activities taken up
under NHM and HMNEH scheme included
programmes for production of planting material,
area expansion including high density planting,
rejuvenation of old and senile orchards,
protected cultivation, creation of water resources,
promotion of INM/IPM, which are basically
aimed at productivity improvement. Organic
farming and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
were promoted to enable chemical residue
free horticulture produce, besides addressing
environmental concerns of soil and land
degradation. Horticulture mechanization was
promoted to bring in efficiency in horticulture
production
and
harvesting
operations.
Production and productivity improvement
programmes were supplemented with creation
of infrastructure facilities for post harvest
management, processing and marketing.
Box 4.10: Salient achievements under
NHM & HMNEH
• Area Expansion in 27 lakh ha additional area.
• Setting of 3730 new nurseries for producing
quality planting material.
• Rejuvenation of 5 lakh ha of old and
unproductive orchards
• Construction of 5,55,000 Community tanks for
providing life saving irrigation.
• Setting up of 9100 units for post harvest
management.
• Setting up of 850 Markets for marketing of
horticulture produce.
• Setting up 91 food processing units for value
addition
Challenges
4.99 In consonance with increase in horticulture
production, sustaining the growth rate will be a
challenge which calls for various interventions
98
State of Indian Agriculture
aimed at productivity enhancement, availability
of quality planting material of improved high
yielding varieties, reducing post harvest losses of
perishable commodities, particularly fruits and
vegetables and creation of effective supply chain.
Developmental programmes on horticulture
are proposed to be continued during XII Plan
by subsuming the existing schemes of NHM,
HMNEH, NHB, Coconut Development Board
(CDB), Central Institute of Horticulture (CIH)
and National Bamboo Mission (NBM) under the
overall umbrella of NHM.
The Way Forward
4.100 Production and supply of quality planting
material will continue to be a high priority area
for horticulture development during XII Plan.
In this context, special emphasis will be laid
for establishment of Hi-tech nurseries having
provision for mother/scion blocks of improved
varieties, good quality rootstock banks and hitech green house. Besides, the following steps
will be taken:
•
•
Establishment of crop based Centre of
Excellence will be encouraged in each state
to server as a hub for supply of planting
material and dissemination of technology to
farmers.
Area expansion programme will be linked
to availability of quality planting material
through accredited nurseries and Tissue
Culture units. Importance will be given
for covering more area under F1 vegetable
hybrids and export oriented varieties of
ginger, turmeric & chillies. High density
planting and tree canopy management of
orchards, right from establishment stage, will
be given focus to derive better yield. Besides,
an integrated approach will be encourage
for taking up drip irrigation/mulching
and other support systems required for
cultivation of fruit and plantation crops.
•
Rejuvenation of old and unproductive
orchards will continue to be a focus area for
enhancing productivity, profitability and
sustainability.
•
Major thrust will be on protected cultivation,
particularly of high value crops, in green
house, shade net house, plastic mulching
etc.
•
Creation of infrastructure for post harvest
managements and value addition will also
continue to be a high priority area with
focus on creating cold chain networks.
•
Setting up of markets infrastructure will
be linked with reforms in APMC Act, for
permitting direct marketing of horticulture
produce.
•
Mobilization of farmers into producer
groups/organizations is another priority
area aimed at strengthening their negotiating
power, besides functioning as viable
farmer groups involved in production and
marketing of horticulture produce.
•
Human resource development will be given
thrust for capacity building of farmers,
horticulture entrepreneurs/supervisors and
field functionaries.
CHAPTER 5
Agricultural Prices and Markets
Agricultural Prices
5.1 Agricultural Prices mirror the health
of agriculture sector. Food and agricultural
commodity prices in India are primarily
determined by domestic demand and supply
factors. The nature of markets facing the
agricultural commodities and imperfections in
these markets influence the price transmission and
the final consumer prices. Inflation of food items
have become a major concern for policy makers
worldwide. In India, the recent food inflation is
largely due to an inadequate supply response
particularly of pulses, fruits & vegetables, milk,
egg, meat and fish due to increasing demand,
aggravated by various logistic and marketrelated constraints.
Food Articles
5.2 Data on wholesale prices show by and
large a continuous increase in Wholesale Price
Index (WPI) of food articles during the period
January 2012 to December, 2012. Indices of prices
of pulses, cereals and egg, meat and fish have
shown a substantial increase since March, 2012 as
can be seen from Fig. 5.1. Prices of vegetables as
expected have been subjected to high fluctuation
due to seasonal factors.
Fig. 5.1: Wholesale Price Index (WPI) of food articles (January to December, 2012)
ALL COMMODITIES
PULSES
FOOD ARTICLES
CEREALS
VEGETABLES
FRUITS
MILK
EGGS,MEAT & FISH
280
260
Index
240
220
200
180
160
Food Articles have a weight of 14.34 in the
wholesale price index. In food inflation, the
contribution of foodgrains (cereals and pulses)
Dec
Nov
Oct
Sep
Aug
Jul
Jun
May
Apr
Mar
Feb
12-Jan
Dec
Nov
Oct
Sep
Aug
Jul
Jun
May
Apr
Mar
Feb
11-Jan
140
is 28.5 percent, milk 22.6 percent and fruit &
vegetables 26.8 percent. Details are given in
Table 5.1.
100
State of Indian Agriculture
Table 5.1: Contribution of different groups Food
in Inflation ( all segments)
Items
Weight Weight in
Percent in
food group
Food Grains (Cereals +
Pulses)
Cereals
3.37
23.5
Pulses
0.72
5.0
Vegetables
1.74
12.1
Fruits
2.11
14.7
Milk
3.24
22.6
Eggs, Meat & Fish
2.41
16.8
Condiments & Spices
0.57
4.0
Other Food Articles
0.18
1.3
Total Food Articles
14.34
100.0
5.3 The rate of inflation in food articles was
hovering around 10% during March to July, 2012.
Thereafter it declined to a low of 6.7% in October,
2012 and have started increasing thereafter. In
December, 2012, rate of inflation in food articles
was recorded at 11.2%. Cereals, pulses, vegetables
and egg, meat and fish have recorded inflation in
double digit in December, 2012. as can be seen
from Fig.5.2.
5.4 Food products which comprise dairy,
canning, grain mills, sugar, edible oils etc account
for 9.97 per cent of the weight in the Wholesale
Price Index, have also been witnessing high rate
of inflation, close to 10 per cent since July, 2012.
Rate of inflation in sugar, khandsari & gur has
continuously been increasing since March 2012
and stood at 12.2 per cent in December, 2012.
5.5 The rise in per capita GDP by an average of
6 percent in the last five years implies an increase
in demand given that the income elasticity of
Fig. 5.2: Trend in Inflation in Food Articles
35.0
Percent
15.0
-5.0
-25.0
12-Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
ALL COMMODITIES
CEREALS
FRUITS & VEGETABLES
demand is usually more than unity for items
such as fruits and vegetables, milk and dairy
products, egg, meat and fish. Production would
have to catch up with demand growth to keep
the price rise in check. Small decline in supplies
can lead to sharp fluctuations in prices of these
commodities.
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
FOOD ARTICLES
PULSES
MILK
5.6 There is a strong linkage between high
rates of overall inflation in India and high rates
of food price inflation. The latter is inevitably
linked to shortages of supply caused by the
vagaries of the weather and other factors such
as logistics that cause a mismatch between the
supply and demand. On the demand side there
Agricultural Prices and Markets
101
is strong evidence to show that economic growth
in India especially in the rural areas has raised
employment and incomes. The higher disposable
income amongst the wage earning section of rural
India has possibly boosted demand for primary
food, creating pressure on prices. High rates of
food inflation have been followed by an increase
in inflation in non-food manufactured goods
primarily due to a rise in money wages.
5.7 Recent inflation and price rise of food items
is the effect of a complex interplay of demand
and supply forces conditioned by domestic and
international policies and market conditions.
Though short run supply shocks are responsible
for price rise the impact of long run demand
growth and relative inelasticity of long term
production due to low investments in production
capacity enhancement are equally responsible for
the current situation.
5.8 Food articles and food products together
have a weight of 24.31 per cent in the Wholesale
Price Index. During the period January to
December 2011, total food (articles plus products)
inflation accounted for 23.3 per cent of the overall
inflation. Protein items comprising of pulses,
milk and milk products, egg, meat and fish, and
fruits and vegetables accounted for 57.9 per cent
of the total food inflation during 2011 (January
- December). During the calendar year 2012
(January– December), share of food inflation in
total inflation is 29.8 per cent and proteins account
for 58.2 per cent of the total food inflation as can
be seen from Fig.5.3.
Fig. 5.3: Per cent Share of Protein Foods, Sugar and Edible oils in total Food
(Articles plus Products) Inflation
Pulses
Fruits and Vegetables
Milk & Milk Products
Eggs, Meat & Fish
SUGAR, KHANDSARI
EDIBLE OILS
90.0
4.7
70.0
25.2
23.4
40.0
30.0
11.7
5.2
9.6
9.5
20.3
19.5
22.4
25.9
24.2
10.9
23.4
0.0
5.5
-4.8
1.1
-0.8
1.2
-10.0
15.7
15.1
10.0
2011-12
18.4
2010-11
20.0
13.8
2009-10
Percent
50.0
10.8
14.8
18.3
9.7
7.6
7.8
2012(J-D)
60.0
16.0
2011 (J-D)
80.0
102
Challenges
5.9 In comparison to wholesale prices, retail
prices in different items display divergent trends
in different markets. Due to regional differences
in consumption patterns and supply conditions,
prices and their movements vary across the
major markets. Imperfect market conditions,
restrictions on the movement of agricultural
commodities due to infrastructural constraints,
transport costs and local taxes, etc. influence the
retail price trends across the major markets and
consumption centres. Differences in tastes and in
varieties consumed across the centres also pose
problems for comparison of retail prices.
5.10 The principal factors behind the higher
levels of inflation in the recent period are
constraints in production and distribution
especially in high value items such as pulses,
fruits and vegetables, milk and dairy products,
egg, meat and fish. Increase in prices can be
attributed to both supply and demand factors.
The per capita availability of some of the items
such as cereals and pulses have been declining
resulting in some pressure on their prices. In the
case of fruits and vegetables, milk, egg, meat and
fish, prices have gone up despite an increase in
per capita availability. This is due to a changing
pattern in the demand of the households for high
value items with increasing income levels. Supply
constraints are important in influencing the
recent price rise both globally and domestically.
Supply constraints are long term and short
term in nature. Long-term supply constraints
include for example: inelastic supply of land;
water; inadequate investments in key areas like
irrigation; land development; and R&D.
5.11 Short-term constraints are weather
fluctuations, lack of timely availability of inputs
like fertilizers, quality seed, credit and policy
environment, etc. Both long-term and shortterm factors have influenced the production
of agricultural output in the recent period.
Market imperfections also add to these trends by
restricting the price transmission. These include
lack of infrastructure facilities like efficient
transport facilities, storage, processing, marketing
and credit facilities.
State of Indian Agriculture
5.12 The Population of India increased from
1.03 to 1.21 billion during 2001-2011. Increasing
population in the face of a relatively constrained
supply of agricultural output has brought down
the per capita net availability of food grains from
510 grams per day in 1991 to 438.6 grams per
day in 2010. This is an indicator of constrained
supply in the face of increasing demand exerting
pressure on the prices of food commodities.
5.13 Substantial funds are being spent on various
welfare and employment oriented programmes
and the same are likely to increase significantly in
the near future. These programmes have infused
substantial amounts of liquidity and purchasing
power generating increased demand for food
items.
5.14 When growth picks up at wage earning
section of the population, the demand for food
items would increase as income elasticity of
demand for food is higher at lower levels of
income. Thus, lower per capita availability
of food grains and structural shortage of key
agricultural commodities like oilseeds and
pulses combined with the rising demand have
kept food price inflation high. This process has
got further accentuated by spikes in global food
prices through international transmission.
5.15 Rising international prices of oil also
impacted the cost of production of agriculture
through increase in input costs of fertilizers,
transportation and a general rise in the cost of
all other inputs and services. Increase in cost
of production results in increasing the MSP of
agricultural commodities which also influences
market sentiments.
5.16 In the recent years, particularly since the
commodity price hike of 2007-8, markets have
become highly volatile. International stocks of
key food items like cereals and animal feedstock
are reduced due to shocks in major producing
regions of Europe, Canada and Australia as also
due to rising demand in developing countries
putting upward pressure on prices. To some
extent, speculative activities in the commodity
markets also influence prices.
Agricultural Prices and Markets
103
Agricultural Price Policy and MSP
5.17 The Government fixes the Minimum
Support Prices (MSPs) of various agricultural
crops on the recommendations of the Commission
for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP), the views
of concerned State Governments and Central
Ministries/Departments as well as other factors
considered relevant for fixing MSP. MSP is in
the nature of a minimum guaranteed price for
the farmers offered by the Government for their
produce in case the market prices fall below that
level. If the market offers higher price than MSP,
the farmers are free to sell at that price.
5.18 The Government has announced the
Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) for 2012-13
Table 5.2:
Seasons. The MSP of Paddy (Common) has been
fixed at Rs. 1250 per quintal and of Paddy (Grade
A) at Rs. 1280 per quintal, which represents an
increase of Rs.170 per quintal over the last year’s
MSPs. MSPs of Cotton (Medium Staple) and
Cotton (Long Staple) have been raised by Rs.
800 per quintal and Rs. 600 per quintal and fixed
at Rs. 3600 per quintal and Rs. 3900 per quintal
respectively. MSP of wheat has been raised from
Rs.1285 per quintal during 2011-12 to Rs.1350 per
quintal during marketing session 2012-13. MSPs
of the major crops for 2012-13 seasons have been
announced by the government. The details are
given at Annexure. MSPs of some of the major
crops are as follows:
Minimum Support Prices of some of the Major Crops for 2012-13
Commodity
Variety
2011-12
(#) increase in
MSP 2011-12
over 2010-11
2012-13
(#) increase in
MSP 2012-13
over 2011-12
PADDY
Common
1080
80 (8.0)
1250
170 (15.7)
Grade ‘A’
1110
80 (7.8)
1280
170 (15.3)
COTTON
Medium Staple
2800ª
300 (12.0)
3600
800 (28.6)
Long Staple
3300ªª
300 (10.0)
3900
600 (18.2)
WHEAT
1285
165 (14.7)
1350
65 (5.05)
JUTE
1675
100 (6.3)
2200
525 (31.3)
SUGARCANE
145.00*
5.88 (4.2)
170.00*
25 (17.2)
# Figures in brackets indicate percentage increase.
• Fair and remunerative price.
5.19 Apart from its recommendations on
support prices for agricultural commodities,
the Commission, as per its Terms of Reference,
also gives non price recommendations in its
Price Policy Reports. In its 2012-13 Price Policy
Report for kharif crops while pointing out about
the trade distorting high taxes, mandi fees,
commission and cess levied by various States,
the Commission has highlighted about the need
to rationalize these on basic commodities like
paddy/rice. The Commission is of the view
that uniformity in the State level tax structure
in agricultural commodities is pre-requisite to
promote market efficiencies and a unified and
integrated national market free from any de facto
restrictions on movement of goods across the
States.
5.20 In its Price Policy Report for Rabi Crops of
2012-13 season the Commission has emphasized
about the need to impose an import tariff of 10
percent on oilseeds and also review the present
duty structure on oilseeds, raw and refined
oils and levy it as per economic rationality. The
Government has already approved to defreeze
the tariff values of all edible oils and notify their
tariff values on the basis of their prevailing
104
international prices which will have a positive
impact on the duty collected from import of edible
oils and also provide an even-field to the domestic
refining industry. Accordingly, the Government
has approved for enhancing import duty on crude
edible oil from zero to 2.5 percent.
Market Intervention and Price Support
Schemes
5.21 The Department of Agriculture &
Cooperation implements the Market Intervention
Scheme (MIS) for procurement of horticultural
commodities which are perishable in nature and
are not covered under the Price Support Scheme.
The objective of intervention is to protect the
growers of these commodities from making
distress sale in the event of a bumper crop
during the peak arrival period when the prices
tend to fall below economic levels and cost of
production. The condition is that there should be
either at least a 10 percent increase in production
or a 10 percent decrease in the ruling market
prices over the previous normal year. The Market
Intervention Scheme (MIS) is implemented at the
request of a state/UT government which is ready
to bear 50 percent of the loss (25 percent in case
of North-Eastern States), if any, incurred on its
implementation. The extent of total amount of
loss to be shared on a 50:50 basis between the
central government and the state government is
restricted to 25 percent of the total procurement
value which includes cost of the commodity
procured plus permitted overhead expenses.
Under the Scheme, in accordance with MIS
guidelines, a pre-determined quantity at a fixed
Market Intervention Price (MIP) is procured by
NAFED as the Central agency and the agencies
designated by the state government for a fixed
period or till the prices are stabilized above the
MIP whichever is earlier. The area of operation is
restricted to the concerned state only.
5.22 During the year 2011-12, the MIS has
been implemented in 6 States covering arecanut
(Karnataka for 12,000 MTs), apple (Himachal
Pradesh – 50,600 MTs), onion (Karnataka – 54,000
MTs), Turmeric (Karnataka – 12,400 MTs) and
potato (Uttar Pradesh – 1.00 lakh MTs). Further,
during the current year 2012-13 (as on 21.11.2012),
State of Indian Agriculture
the MIS is implemented in 3 States covering garlic
(Rajasthan – 60,000 MTs), chilly (Andhra Pradesh
– 52,000 MTs) and turmeric (Tamil Nadu – 35,000
MTs).
Price Supports Scheme (PSS)
5.23 The Department of Agriculture &
Cooperation implements the PSS for procurement
of oil seeds, pulses and cotton, through NAFED
which is the Central nodal agency, at the
Minimum Support Price (MSP) declared by the
government. NAFED undertakes procurement of
oil seeds, pulses and cotton under the PSS as and
when prices fall below the MSP. Procurement
under PSS is continued till prices stabilize at or
above the MSP. Losses, if any incurred by NAFED
in undertaking MSP operations are reimbursed
by the central government. Profit, if any, earned
in undertaking MSP operations is credited to the
central government.
5.24 Under the PSS during 2011-12 procurement
was made for milling copra in Andaman &
Nicobar for 343 MT (valuing Rs.182.76 lakh),
gram in Rajasthan for 6344 MTs (valuing
Rs.1449.6 lakh) and urad in Rajasthan for 1.568
MTs (valuing Rs.0.62 lakh). Further, during
the current year 2012-13 (as on 21.11.2012),
procurement is made for milling copra in Tamil
Nadu, Lakshadweep, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh
and Andaman Nicobar Ireland for 54,864 MTs
(valuing Rs.27980.73 lakh), ball copra in Kerala
and Karnataka for 7866 MTs (valuing Rs.4219.09
lakh), special grade milling copra in Andhra
Pradesh for 49 MTs (valuing Rs.21.44 lakh) and
urad in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan for 9265
MTs (valuing Rs.3983.86 lakh).
5.25 The Price Support Scheme (PSS) is
implemented by the Government of India
to ensure a minimum support price of the
produce to the farmers. The Government has
notified various agencies such as FCI, NAFED,
CWC, SFAC, etc., for this purpose. However, in
some places, the market prices of agricultural
produce remains below the MSP for variety of
reasons. These include weak infrastructure of
procurement agency, inadequate number of
procurement centres, restrictive trade policies
Agricultural Prices and Markets
105
and lack of adequate processing and marketing
facilities for the produce. The State Governments
need to actively collaborate with these agencies
to address these problems effectively. In case of
certain commodities like Copra, there is a need
to remove restrictions on export of coconut oil,
strengthen drying facilities and include supply
of coconut oil under the Public Distribution
System.
Procurement of Foodgrains
5.26 The main objectives of food management
are procurement of foodgrains from farmers at
remunerative prices, distribution of foodgrains to
consumers, particularly the vulnerable sections
of society at affordable prices and maintenance of
buffer stock for food security and price stability.
The Central Government extends price support to
paddy, coarse grains and wheat through the FCI
and State Agencies. All the foodgrains conforming
to the prescribed specifications offered for sale
at specified centres are bought by the public
procurement agencies at the Minimum Support
Price (MSP) inclusive of bonus announced, if
any. The farmers have the option to sell their
produce to FCI/State Agencies at the MSP or in
the open market as is advantageous to them. The
Government procurements of (i) wheat and (ii)
paddy during the last few years are shown in
Figures 5.4 (a) & 5.4 (b) below.
Fig. 5.4 (a): Production, Procurement and procurement as % of production of wheat
14.7
111.3
226.9
253.8
225.1
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
283.4
Per cent
32.6
27.9
45
40.6 40
35
30
25
381.5
20
15
10
5
0
2011-12
31.5
28.9
939.03
868.7
808
806.8
785.7
758
Procuremnt as % of Production
2010-11
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Procurement
2006-07
Production & Procurement in Lakh
tonnes
Production
Fig. 5.4 (b): Production, Procurement and procurement as % of production of Rice
991.8
966.9
800
36.0
34.4
1043.2
959.8
890.9
35.6
600
400
287.4
341.0
320.3
342.0
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
0
251.1
26.9
2007-08
200
29.7
1030.0 39.0 39
37
35
33.6
33
31
401.3 29
350.3
27
25
Per cent
933.6
2012-13
1000
Procurment as % of Production
2011-12
1200
Procurement
2006-07
Production & Procurement in lakh
tonnes
Production
106
5.27 In recent years there has been a high
procurement as percentage of production of rice
and wheat mainly because of high production
and surpluses of several agricultural commodities
even in deficit states like Bihar, Assam, Eastern
U.P. which have started generating surpluses of
certain cereals. The excessive built up of stocks
with FCI has been posing problems of storages
which have high carrying costs. The excessive
procurement by government has also not letting
the private trade to play its role particularly in
respect of two major cereals, namely wheat and
rice that account for over 75 per cent of total
food grain production in the country. Under the
present mechanism of procurement at MSP, prices
of these major agricultural commodities are to a
large extent exogenously determined defying the
market forces to bring equilibrium in the market.
Active participation by the private trade in terms
of volume and outreach is necessary. Further,
procurement is essentially undertaken of paddy
and wheat that too in a few states namely, Punjab,
Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Andhra Pradesh and to some extent in Madhya
Pradesh and Rajasthan. There have been reports
from the eastern states particularly Eastern Uttar
Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal that in
the absence of effective procurement mechanism,
market prices of paddy and wheat have ruled
below the MSP during the peak marketing
session.
5.28 So far as coarse grain is concerned, state
governments/agencies procure the coarse grains
at the MSP on behalf of the FCI/Government
of India and retain the quantity procured to the
extent of their requirement for the PDS and the
balance is delivered to the FCI by the State Govt.
In case there is a demand for coarse grains in some
other States, based on allocations issued by the
Department of Food & Public Distribution, FCI
moves this required quantity to that State. In case
there is no such requirement, it is disposed of by
FCI “as is where is basis” by open auction/tender.
The difference between the economic cost and
disposal/issue price is paid as subsidy to the State
Governments.
State of Indian Agriculture
Storage of Foodgrains
5.29 Total Storage capacity available with FCI
as on 30.09.2012 was 375.25 lakh MTs. However,
total storage capacity available with FCI and
State agencies for storage of Central Pool Stocks
is about 717 lakh MTs.
Constructions of godowns under Private
Entrepreneurs Guarantee (PEG) Scheme of
FCI
5.30 Due to the increased procurement of
foodgrains and to reduce the storage in Cover
and Plinth (CAP), the Government formulated
a Scheme for construction of storage godowns
through
private
entrepreneurs,
Central
Warehousing Corporation (CWC) and State
Warehousing Corporations (SWCs). Assessment
of additional storage needs under the scheme is
based on the overall procurement/consumption
and the storage space already available. For
the consuming areas, storage capacity is to be
created to meet four month’s requirement of
PDS and Other Welfare Schemes in a State. For
the procurement areas, the highest stock levels
in the last three years are considered to decide
the storage capacity required. Later this scheme
was extended to Decentralised Procuring (DCP)
States in 2009. FCI has already sanctioned
a total storage capacity of about 128.5 lakh
tonnes out of which a capacity of about 94
lakh tonnes has been sanctioned to the private
entrepreneurs. CWC and SWCs have been
sanctioned 6.6 lakh tonnes and 27.9 lakh tonnes
respectively. A capacity of about 60 lakh tonnes
is under construction. At present, about 31 lakh
MTs have been completed out of which 20.55
lakh MTs has been taken over and the balance is
expected to be taken over shortly. It is expected
that by March 2013, a cumulative capacity of
73 lakh MTs will be completed and taken over
under the scheme.
Warehousing Development and Regulatory
Authority (WDRA)
5.31 Warehousing
Development
and
Agricultural Prices and Markets
Regulatory Authority (WDRA) has been set
up by the Government of India under the
Warehousing (Development & Regulation Act),
2007 with the objective of development and
regulation of warehouses including registration
and accreditation of the warehouses intending
to issue negotiable warehouse receipts in the
country. The authority has so far notified 40
commodities for the purpose of Negotiable
Warehouse Receipts (NWRs) and 75 more
commodities including cereals, pulses, oil
seeds, spices, rubber, tobacco, coffee etc. and
26 perishable commodities for cold storage
and under process for being notified. So far
302 warehouses have been accredited out of
which 271 warehouses have been registered
with 10.55 lakh MTs storage capacity of Central
Warehousing Corporation, State Warehousing
Corporation and Private Organization.
Distribution of Foodgrains under Public
Distribution System (PDS)
5.32 The Department of Food & Public
Distribution makes allocations of food grains
under Targeted Public Distribution System
(TPDS) for 6.52 crore Below Poverty Line (BPL)
families including 2.43 crore Antyodaya Anna
Yojana (AAY) families on the basis of 1993-94
poverty estimates of the Planning Commission
and March 2000 population estimates of Registrar
General of India. Allocation of foodgrains for
Above Poverty Line (APL) category are made
depending upon the availability of foodgrains
in the Central Pool and past offtake. Presently,
these allocations range between 15 kg to 35 kg
per family per month in different States/UTs.
Central Issue Prices of Rice and Wheat
5.33 Wheat and rice are issued to the State
Governments/UT Administrations from the
Central Pool at the uniform Central Issue Prices
(CIP) for distribution under TPDS. The CIPs of
wheat and rice are subsidized and have remained
unchanged for BPL families since July, 2002. The
Central Issue Prices of wheat and rice are as
under:
107
Table 5.3:
Effective
from
Central Issue Prices of foodgrains
(Rs. per quintal)
Foodgrainswise
Scheme-wise
BPL
APL
AAY
1.7.2002 to Wheat
till date
415
610
200
1.7.2002 to Rice
till date
565
830
300
27.11.2007 Coarse
till date
grains
300
450
150
Export of Rice & Wheat
5.34 Export of wheat and non-basmati rice on
private account was banned w.e.f. 09.02.2007
and 01.04.2008 respectively. However, export of
rice and wheat has been allowed on diplomatic
considerations and humanitarian ground. The
Government, on 08.09.2011, permitted export of
non-basmati rice and 20 lakh tonnes of wheat
under Open General Licence (OGL) by private
parties out of privately held stocks through EDI
ports. As on 19.11.2012, a quantity of 77.25 lakh
tones of non-basmati rice and 35.95 lakh tones of
wheat have been exported under OGL. In view
of record production of foodgrains in the recent
years and comfortable stock position of wheat
and non-basmati rice in the Central Pool far in
excess of buffer norms/strategic reserve and
also to offload the excess stocks of wheat due
to constraints in storage space with FCI/State
Agencies, the government has on 03.07.2012
approved export of 2 million tonnes of wheat
from Central Pool Stocks through CPSUs of
the Department of Commerce at the cost to be
determined by individual tender subject to floor
price of US$228 per metric ton. The Government
has approved on 29.11.2012, the continuation of
the unrestricted export of wheat and non-basmati
rice, in view of the adequate availability of wheat
and non-basmati rice in the domestic market.
Further, with effect from 26.03.2012, export of 6.5
lakh tonnes of flour (Maida), Samolina (Rava/
Sooji), Whole meal Atta and resultant Atta on
private account allowed in the year 2009 has been
put on OGL up to 31.03.2012.
108
State of Indian Agriculture
Agriculture Marketing
5.35 Organised marketing of agricultural
commodities has been promoted in the country
through a network of regulated markets to ensure
reasonable gains to the farmers and consumers
by creating conducive market environment for
fair play of the forces of demand and supply.
There is huge variation in the density of regulated
markets in different parts of the country, which
varies from 103 sq km. in Punjab to 11215 sq km.
in Meghalaya. Such low density of market spread
in the States creates problem of market access for
small and marginal farmers. Moreover, these
state controlled regulated markets do not have
required facilities/amenities available therein
due to resource constraint.
5.36 There are wide variations of market fee
ranging 0.50% to 2.0% across states which are
levied from the buyers/traders on the sale of
notified agricultural produce for the services
provided by APMCs. In addition to this,
commission charges paid to the commission
agents vary from 1% to 2.5% in foodgrains, and 4%
to 8% in case of fruit and vegetables, resulting in
higher marketing transaction costs and low price
realization by the farmers in regulated markets.
This has resulted into fragmented supply chains
with large intermediations.
5.37 Large post-harvest losses of the produce
particularly of perishable produce such as fruits
and vegetables have remained a key concern,
though these have come down in the last decade.
A Study conducted by ICAR (2010) reveals that
the post-harvest losses of various commodities
are now lower as compared to that indicated by
Millennium Study (2004) and ranges from 3.96.0% of the value of output for cereals, 4.3-6.1%
for pulses, 5.8-18.0% for fruits and 6.8-12.4% for
vegetables. The ICAR Report indicates that total
post-harvest losses of agriculture commodities
have been estimated at about Rs 44,000 crore at
2009 wholesale prices.
Market Reforms Initiatives
5.38 Agriculture Marketing is a State subject. In
order to bring reforms in the sector, the Ministry
of Agriculture prepared a model Agricultural
Produce Marketing Committee (Development
and Regulation) (APMC) Act in 2003 and
circulated to all States and UTs for adoption.
The model Act, inter-alia, provides for direct
marketing, contract farming, establishment of
markets in private and cooperative sectors, etc.
So far, 16 State Governments have amended their
respective APMC Acts. The State-wise status of
APMC reforms are indicated in Box 5.1.
Box 5.1: Reforms in Agricultural Produce Markets Committee (APMC) Act
No.
Stage of Reforms
Name of States/Union Territories
1.
States/UTs where reforms to APMC Act has been Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa,
done.
Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka,
Maharashtra, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha,
Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand.
2.
States/UTs where reforms to APMC Act has been a) Direct Marketing: NCT of Delhi, and Madhya
done partially.
Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
b) Contract Farming: Chhattisgarh, Haryana,
Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Chandigarh.
3.
States/UTs where there is no APMC Act and Bihar (repealed on 1.9.2006), Kerala, Manipur,
hence not requiring reforms.
Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar
Haveli, Daman & Diu, and Lakshadweep.
4.
States/UTs where APMC Act already provides Tamil Nadu
for the reforms
5.
States/UTs where administrative
initiated for the reforms
action
is Meghalaya, Haryana, J&K, West Bengal,
Puducherry, NCT of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.
Agricultural Prices and Markets
5.39 In order to accelerate the pace of market
reforms, the Ministry of Agriculture has set
up a Committee of State Ministers in-charge of
Agricultural Marketing in 2010, with members
from the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana,
Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam, Odisha, Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab.
The Committee has been deliberating on various
issues of marketing reforms and has held seven
meetings so far. The Committee has submitted its
“First Report” to the Government in September,
2011, which has been circulated to all States and
UTs for implementation of its recommendations.
There is a strong need for taking pro-active
measures by the States to reform their existing
marketing systems.
Emerging Marketing Channels
5.40 In order to provide a higher share of
consumer prices to the farmers, there is a need to
reduce the multiple layers of intermediation by
providing alternative marketing channels. Several
States have taken the initiatives in this regards.
Farmers’ markets, like, ‘Apni Mandi’ (Punjab),
‘Kisan Mandi’ (Rajasthan), ‘Hadaspur Vegetable
Market’ (Pune), ‘Rythu Bazaars’ (Andhra
Pradesh), Uzhawar Santhai (Tamil Nadu) and
‘Krushak Bazaars’ (Orissa) have been established
as part of this initiative. The establishment of such
farmers’ markets has helped both consumers and
farmers.
Fig. 5.5: Uzhawar Santhai in Tamil Nadu
5.41 Contract farming has considerable
potential in our country where small and marginal
109
farmers can have access to modern technology,
quality inputs and marketing support through
contractual agreement between processing and/
or marketing firms for production support at
predetermined prices. It stipulates a commitment
on the part of the farmers to provide a specific
commodity in terms of quality & quantity as
determined by the purchaser and commitment
on the part of company to support the farmer
for production through quality inputs and
other technical support. Various agriculture
commodities including perishable fruits and
vegetables are being grown under contract
farming system in different States. The model
APMC Act has the provision to promote and to
facilitate contract farming.
5.42 Electronic mode of marketing of agriculture
produce is being promoted by National Spot
Exchange of India Ltd., where the farmers and
traders can sell farm produce, while upcountry
buyers, processors, exporters, and end-users
can buy the commodities electronically through
competitive bidding. It is a compulsory delivery
based platform, which enables the farmers and
traders to sell their produce electronically and to
realize the best possible price. However, success
of electronic trading depends on establishing
an effective system of grading and marking
of agriculture produce which requires special
attention of the States.
Empowering
Information
Farmers
with
Market
5.43 Market information is an important tool
in agricultural marketing system. In order to
provide regular and timely information of
prices of agricultural commodities prevailing in
Agricultural Produce Markets in the country, the
Ministry of Agriculture launched the ICT-based
Central Sector Scheme of Marketing Research and
Information Network (MRIN) in the year 2000.
The Scheme provides electronic connectivity to
important wholesale markets in the country for
collection and dissemination of price and marketrelated information. Presently, more than 3,000
markets from all over the country have been
linked to a central portal (http://agmarknet.nic.
in). These markets report the daily prices and
110
arrivals for more than 300 commodities and 2000
varieties from more than 1800 markets covering
nearly all the major agricultural and horticultural
produce. The States’ APMCs need to regularly
upload data on price and arrivals on this portal.
Some States e.g. Bihar and Kerala which do
not have APMCs are not able to report this
information for which alternative arrangements
are required to be made.
5.44 The information available on the portal
is in the public domain and can be instantly
accessed from anywhere in the world. Farmers
and stakeholders are accessing this information
throughout the country. Many agencies are using
the information to generate market intelligence
and making it available to various stakeholders
to support them in appropriate decision making.
Organizations like Reuters, Nokia, IKSL are
disseminating market price information through
SMS and voice based system.
Incentivizing Development of Agricultural
Marketing Infrastructure
5.45 Development of agricultural marketing
infrastructure is the foremost requirement for
the growth of comprehensive and integrated
agricultural marketing system in the country.
For the purpose, the Ministry of Agriculture is
implementing demand driven Plan Schemes by
providing assistance to entrepreneurs in the form
of back ended credit linked subsidy.
5.46 Considering the immediate need for
creation of storage capacities in rural and
remote areas, the ‘Grameen Bhandaran Yojana’
was launched in 2001 to provide assistance for
creation of scientific storage godowns with allied
facilities. Since inception of the scheme, 28,744
godown projects having a capacity of 328.97 lakhs
tonnes with a subsidy release of Rs.966.05 crore
have been sanctioned by NABARD and NCDC
all over the country up to 31st July, 2012. The
cost norms have been revised under the Scheme
from 20 October 2011 to encourage the creation
of additional warehousing capacity.
5.47 Though the scheme is being implemented
across the country, it is unevenly spread with
higher capacity creation in Madhya Pradesh,
State of Indian Agriculture
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and
Karnataka and low capacity creation in Tamil
Nadu, Rajasthan, Orissa, Bihar, Kerala and North
Eastern States. The ceiling for creation of storage
capacity of 18 lakh MT in a State/UT during
XI Plan also proved hurdle in expansion of the
scheme, which needs to be addressed in XII Plan,
along with other issues like rates of subsidy
particularly in North Eastern States, mandatory
requirement of loan from bank for State Agencies,
implementing procedures, etc.
5.48 With a view to induce large investment
in the development of marketing infrastructure
in the country; the Ministry launched the
scheme of “Development/Strengthening of
Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading
and Standardization” in 2004. Under the scheme,
investment subsidy is provided on the capital cost
of general or commodity specific infrastructure
for marketing of agricultural commodities and
for strengthening and modernization of existing
agricultural markets including wholesale, rural
and periodic markets. The scheme is reform
linked and is being implemented in only those
States/UTs which have amended the State
APMC Act by allowing setting up of agricultural
markets in private and cooperative sectors.
Under the scheme, back ended subsidy @ 25% of
capital cost of the project is provided. However,
subsidy is given @ 33.3% in case of NE States,
hilly areas and SC/ST entrepreneurs. Under the
Scheme 7853 projects have been sanctioned as on
31.07.2012 with subsidy of Rs. 842.64 crore.
5.49 Since the scheme is reform linked, the
scheme is not being implemented in nonreformed States which include major States
like Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
The non-reformed States, therefore, needs to be
persuaded to make necessary reforms in their
States to enable them to avail assistance under
the scheme. The scheme has not been received
very well by cooperative sector in the country,
except Gujarat. Moreover, the assistance is not
being availed under the Scheme by North Eastern
States. These issues including some other issues
like rates of subsidy, implementing procedures,
emphasis on grading and standardization, etc.
needs to be addressed in XII Plan.
Agricultural Prices and Markets
Standardization and Quality Certification
5.50 Grading of agricultural commodities has
three main purposes, namely, (a) to promote
common trade language and avoid need for
physical checking and handling at many points;
(b) to protect consumers by ensuring quality of
products he/she purchases; and (c) to protect
the producer from exploitation by ensuring
prices commensurate to the quality of produce.
The Agricultural Produce (Grading & Marking)
Act, 1937 provides for grading and marking of
agricultural commodities. Grade standards of
various agricultural commodities are framed and
notified in appropriate Grading and Marking
Rules for specific commodity. Till date, Grade
standards of 212 agricultural commodities have
been notified in 105 Commodity Grading and
Marking Rules. The Grade standards notified
under the provisions of the said Act are popularly
called ‘AGMARK Standards’. Grading and
marking under AGMARK is voluntary as per the
provisions of the Act. However, certification of
Blended Edible Vegetable Oils and Fat Spread
is mandatory under AGMARK as per the
provisions of ‘Regulations’ notified under Food
Safety and Standards Act, 2006. The quantity
and value of agricultural commodities certified
under AGMARK for domestic trade during the
year 2011-12 were 12.35 lakh MTs, valued at Rs.
12289.18 crore.
Challenges
5.51 Though the process of market reforms have
been initiated by different State Governments by
bringing amendments in the present APMC Act
on the lines of Model Act circulated during 2003,
but still many of the States are yet to adopt the
same and even those of the reformed states are yet
to adopt all provisions of Model Act uniformly.
It is therefore, necessary to complete the process
of market reforms early to provide the farmers
an option for alternate competitive marketing
channel for transaction of their agricultural
produce at remunerative prices. There is a need
for framing amended APMC Rules by all the
States/UTs for implementation of the provisions
of the Act.
111
5.52 Under the Essential Commodities Act,
1955 and also by administrative orders, the States
have been imposing restrictions on cross border
movement of specific commodities for trade
purpose, thus, hindering development of interstate trade for matching demand-supply. States
also notify various stock limits commoditywise, which do encourage investment in
storage facilities which is a crucial marketing
infrastructure. The stock limits and movement
of agricultural commodities across the country
need to be freed so as to facilitate a common
National Market of agricultural produce across
the country.
5.53 The present agricultural marketing
system in the country is marked by fragmented
supply chain which is dominated by multiple
market players resulting into high wastages
thus, adversely affecting efficient marketing. It
is necessary that direct marketing and contract
farming is promoted to facilitate enhanced share
of producers in consumer’s rupee.
5.54 There is a large difference between the
prices at retail level and those at wholesale level
due to multiple intermediaries and high taxes 13% to 15.5% advalorem apart from other Market
Charges which need to be rationalized. It is also
necessary that States may waive off market fee
on fruit and vegetables under the APMC Act to
ensure unhindered trade in those commodities.
There is a need to create an integrated national
market ensuring barrier free movement of
agriculture commodities from one state to
another.
The Way forward
5.55 The development of alternative and
competitive marketing channels is necessary to
induce competition in the existing marketing
systems and to facilitate sale of farm produce at
remunerative prices. There is a need for efficient
marketing system including creation of scientific
storage nearer to farm so that wastage and produce
deterioration are avoided. It is also necessary to
provide institutional credit requirement of the
farmers through various instruments like pledge
financing, negotiable warehousing receipt
112
system so that they are not compelled to sell the
produce at distress price. The present system of
agricultural marketing needs to evolve towards
establishment of unified national market for sale
of agricultural produce throughout the country
efficiently without any undesirable barriers.
5.56 Improvement of marketing linkages for
both farm produce and inputs necessitates a
strong private sector backed up by appropriate
policy and legislative frameworks and effective
government support services. Such services
may include provision of market infrastructure,
supply of market information, and agricultural
extension services to advise farmers on
marketing, capacity building in marketing;
development of marketing linkages between
farmers, agribusinesses and large retailers. Such
linkages can be developed through cooperatives,
contract farming or associations of stakeholders
representing different interest groups like
farmers, input suppliers, agricultural produce
processers, etc. to join together in associations to
promote their common goals. Government can
work as a catalyst for the formulation of such
associations to improve agricultural productivity,
processing, marketing, support services, farmmarket linkages, training and infrastructure.
5.57 With the help of Rural Infrastructure
Development Fund (RIDF), cold storage of
adequate capacity may be created in all the 660
district headquarters so that any perishable item
produced in the District can be stored there
without forcing a distress sale on the farmer and
not subjecting the product to perish.
India in Global Agricultural Trade
5.58 Despite substantial degree of economic
liberalisation since 1991, export of agricultural
products has remained highly regulated. Policies
on export of agricultural products have seen
frequent changes mostly to protect interest of
domestic consumers and industries. Indication
of increase in prices of agricultural products has
in many instances led to export restrictions to
the detriment of farmers in the absence of other
alternatives. The implication of such ambivalent
State of Indian Agriculture
trade policy has to be carefully considered in view
of the legitimate interest of the Indian farmers,
our increasing integration with world trade and
our commitment to international organizations
like the WTO.
5.59 Frequent changes in export policy measures
create a situation of uncertainty and undermine
credibility of the country as a reliable source of
agricultural produce for exports. Once a market
is created, a sudden declaration of ban erodes
such a reputation making it difficult to regain the
market developed by the exporters. Often there
are very small windows of opportunity in terms of
time and price for exports in today’s competitive
world commodity market. Uncertainty in policy
prevents realisation of such opportunities.
5.60 Such a restrictive export policy amounts
to penalising farmers and subsidising the
consumers. With more than required availability
of agricultural products, the time has come to do
away with ad hoc control measures, which harm
the interests of farmers including those who are
aimed to be protected through such measures.
5.61 A consistent policy environment is
necessary to adequately incentivise farmers to
invest more in productivity increasing techniques,
which will not only help the agriculture sector to
realise its true potential but also assist in meeting
the domestic demand. A stable trade policy on
agricultural commodities will provide the right
price signal and sufficient time to farmers to
respond to that.
5.62 Despite policy uncertainties, over the years
India has developed export competitiveness/
niche for certain specialized products like basmati
rice, oil meals, cotton, maize etc. India is among
the 15 leading exporters of agricultural products
in the world and has also emerged a significant
exporter having share of more than 5% of global
exports in certain crops like cotton, rice, eggs and
oil meals. As per United Nations Commodity
Trade Statistics Database (UNCOMTRADE)
2010, the global agricultural export trade was
USD 994.95 billion, out of which India’s share
was 1.63% at USD 16.26 billion. India’s share in
global agriculture trade is 1.48%.
Agricultural Prices and Markets
113
Trade in Agriculture
5.63 The Agricultural Exports as a percentage
of GDP increased from 1.6 percent in 2007-08 to
2.2 percent in 2011-12. The Agricultural imports
as a percentage of GDP also increased from 0.9
percent to 1.3 percent during the same period. The
share of India’s total Agricultural Exports and
Imports as a percentage of GDP improved from
2.5 percent to 3.5 percent during this period.
Fig. 5.6: Agricultural Trade as percent of GDP
Agri and Allied Products as a % of
GDP
Exports
Imports
Balance of Trade
Total Trade (Exp+Imp)
3.5
2.5
1.6
0.9 0.7
2007-08
1.5
1.0
0.2
2008-09
2009-10
Agricultural Exports and Imports
5.64 Agricultural exports increased from Rs.
120 thousand crore in 2010-11 to Rs.187 thousand
crore in financial year 2011-12 registering a growth
of nearly 55%. Increase in value of agricultural
exports during 2011-12 was primarily on account
of higher exports of cotton, marine products,
guar gum meal, basmati & non-basmati rice,
meat & meat preparations, spices, and oil meals.
Table 5.4:
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
1.5
1.4 1.2
0.6
2.6
2.6
2.5
1.1
2.2
1.3
0.5
2010-11
0.9
2011-12 (P)
During the same period export of tobacco, dairy&
poultry products, sugar and molasses registered
a decline. In 2011-12 over 2010-11the share of
agricultural exports in total exports increased
from 10.47% to 12.81%.
5.65 India’s top 10 agricultural export
commodities in terms of quantity and value for
the year 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 is given in
the Table 5.6.
Top 10 Agricultural exports
Item
Cotton Raw incl. waste
Marine products
Guargum Meal
Rice Basmati
Meat & Preparations
2009-10
Qty.
Value
1358
9537
710
9999
218
1133
2017
10890
6286
Qty. ‘000’ tonnes, Value: Rs. In crores.
2010-11
2011-12
Qty.
Value
Qty.
Value
1258
12981
2013
21623
801
11548
1032
16588
403
2806
707
16357
2186
10582
3212
15450
8776
14111
114
6
7
8
9
10
State of Indian Agriculture
Spices
Oil Meals
Sugar
Rice (other than
Basmati)
Other cereals
663
4671
45
140
6157
7832
110
365
749
6798
3241
96
7870
10846
10339
220
931
7436
2747
4099
13176
11762
8779
8668
2892
2973
3188
3596
4072
5479
Source: DG CI & S, Department of Commerce.
5.66 Compared to agricultural exports India’s
agricultural imports increased from Rs. 56
thousand crore in 2010-11 to Rs 85 thousand
crore in 2011-12 registering a growth of nearly
50%. Increase in value of agricultural imports
during this period was primarily on account of
imports of Vegetable oils, pulses, cashew nuts
Table 5.5:
5.67 India’s top 10 agriculture import
commodities for the year 2009-10, 2010-11and
2011-12 is given in the table below:
Top 10 Agricultural imports
S.
No. Item
1
2
3
4
Vegetable Oils fixed edible
Pulses
Cashew Nuts
Fruits & Nuts
(excl. Cashew nuts)
Sugar
Spices
Cotton raw & waste
Milk & Cream
Jute, raw
Cereal Preparation
5
6
7
8
9
10
raw, fruits and nuts, milk & cream and spices.
Share of agricultural imports in the total imports
increased from 3.53% in 2010-11 to 3.63% in
2011-12.
Qty. ‘000’ tonnes, Value: Rs. in crores.
2009-10
Qty.
Value
8034
26483
3510
9813
756
3048
2873
2551
153
171
8
63
41
5966
1432
1241
78
149
188
2010-11
Qty.
Value
6905
29860
2591
6980
504
2480
3684
1198
108
56
37
75
37
2787
1359
604
492
273
226
2011-12
Qty.
Value
8429
46242
3308
8767
809
5338
4519
997
124
78
63
181
46
3138
2102
1059
1038
449
300
Source: DGCI & S, Department of Commerce.
Regional Free Trade Agreements
5.68 India has been negotiating Free Trade
Agreements including liberalized trade in
agriculture goods to increase its trade. The main
developments during period under review have
been:
(i) Negotiations on PTAs/FTAs continued
to mark progress with European Union,
EFTA (Switzerland, Norway, Iceland
and Liechtenstein). MERCOSUR (Brazil,
Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay), Chile,
Israel, Indonesia, Australia, New
Zealand and Thailand.
(ii) ASEAN (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines,
Singapore,
Thailand,
Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and
Vietnam) Trade in Goods Agreement
Agricultural Prices and Markets
was signed on 13th August 2009. This
FTA became effective from 1st January
2010. India –South Korea Partnership
Agreement (CEPA) was concluded on
7th August 2009.
(iii) Trade in goods agreements under IndiaJapan CEPA and India-Malaysia CECA
were concluded during 2010-11 and
have become effective from 1st August
2011 and 1st July 2011 respectively.
(iv) Recently more tariff concession has been
provided to SAFTA LDCs (Bangladesh,
Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives) and
Non-LDCs (Sri Lanka and Pakistan).
Tariff on all agricultural products has
been reduced to zero for SAFTA LDCs.
Bangladesh will be major beneficiary of
this liberalization. Tariff on most of the
agricultural products has been reduced
to Non-LDCs of SAFTA. Pakistan will
be benefitted from this liberalization.
Multilateral Negotiations
5.69 India is a founder Member of the World
Trade Organization (WTO). As a Member, India
has to abide by WTO rules, including the rules
for agricultural trade as contained in the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the Agreement
on Agriculture and relevant provisions of other
WTO agreements.
5.70 The Agreement on Agriculture (AOA)
applies to basic agricultural products such as
wheat, milk and live animals; products derived
from them such as bread, butter and meat;
and all processed agricultural products. It also
applies to wines and spirits, tobacco products
and fibers. It does not apply, however, to fish
and fish products or forestry products. India’s
commitments and obligations are governed by
these rules and its schedule of commitments
notified to the WTO in 1995 after the Uruguay
Round of trade negotiations.
5.71 The rules and commitments relate, inter
alia, to tariffs, tariff quotas, domestic support to
farmers (such as market price support) and export
subsidies, and measures used to restrict exports
115
and imports. India has to file annual notifications
of its domestic support and export subsidies
and ad hoc notifications of any interim measures.
Tariffs on agricultural products have to be kept
within the ‘bound’ or ceiling levels committed
in India’s schedule of commitments to the WTO.
While no subsidies are prohibited under the
AOA, Members have to ensure that these are
within the limits to which they are entitled and
are in accordance with criteria specified in the
Agreement for various types of support.
Agriculture in the Doha Round of Trade
Negotiations
5.72 Agriculture is one of the subjects covered
in the Doha Round of trade negotiations in the
WTO which is underway since 2001. Other areas
are market access for non-agricultural products,
services, trade-related aspects of intellectual
property rights, rules (covering anti-dumping
and subsidies), trade facilitation, etc. These are
part of a ‘single undertaking’ which means that
nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.
5.73 The three main elements or “pillars”
of the Agreement on Agriculture (AOA) and
the negotiations are: (i) market access, (ii)
domestic support and (iii) export competition.
The negotiations are aimed at: substantial
improvements in market access; reductions
of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of
export subsidies; and substantial reductions in
trade-distorting domestic support. Special and
differential treatment for developing Members
is also intended to be an integral part of the
modalities.
5.74 The objective of the agriculture negotiations
is to reduce/cap/eliminate trade-distorting
domestic support and export subsidies and
increase market access through a reduction of
tariffs. The proposals being negotiated also include
special and differential treatment provisions for
developing countries that would, inter alia, allow
them to take minimal tariff cuts on sensitive tariff
lines so as to safeguard their food and livelihood
security and rural development needs. There is
also a proposal for a special safeguard mechanism
to enable developing countries to protect their
116
farmers from the effects of import surges or price
dips.
5.75 Doha Round of trade negotiations in the
World Trade Organization (WTO), launched in
November 2001, is essentially on hold currently.
The negotiations in the ‘Special Session’ of the
WTO’s Committee on Agriculture take place
on the basis of draft texts on modalities that are
brought by the chairperson of the Committee from
time to time. The version that is currently being
discussed was issued on 6 December 2008. Since
then hardly any progress has been made. Ten
issues- Blue box support for US, Cotton, Sensitive
Products, Tariff Capping for Non-Sensitive
Products, Tariff Quota Creation for Sensitive
Products/Non-Sensitive Products beyond 100%
duties, Tariff Simplification, Tropical Products
State of Indian Agriculture
& Diversification Products and Preservation of
Long Standing Preferences have been in square
brackets or otherwise annotated in the modalities
since December 2008.
The Way Forward
5.76 The FTAs and Multilateral Trade
Agreements need to be revisited after careful
analysis of their impact on the agriculture sector.
5.77 There is need to ensure an increased
consistency in our trade policy. Measures such
as export ban etc. should be the last recourse.
International markets once developed must be
protected and cultivated. Further, we need to
ensure that our imports do not adversely impact
the domestic production and returns to the
farmers.
CHAPTER 6
Post-Harvest Management And Value Addition
6.1 While increased productivity is an essential
component of a vibrant agricultural sector,
improved post-harvest handling and processing
is essential to ensure value addition, reduction
in wastage and good quality products reach the
markets. Too often, even when the yields are
high, producers lose income due to poor postharvest practices.
Food Processing Sector
6.2 Food processing aims to make food more
digestible, nutritious and extend the shelf life.
Due to the seasonal variations high levels of
wastage or shortages can arise if adequate
measures are not taken to preserve and store the
foods. Food processing covers all the processes
that food items go through from the farm to the
time it arrives on the consumer’s plate. It includes
basic cleaning, grading and packaging as in case
of fruits and vegetables and also alteration of
the raw material to a stage just before the final
preparation. Value addition processes to make
ready-to eat food like bakery products, instant
foods, flavored and health drinks, etc. are also
included in this definition.
6.3 Food processing offers an opportunity
for the creation of sustainable livelihoods and
economic development for rural communities.
Food processing has come a long way in the
last few decades. The ever changing lifestyles,
food habits and tastes of customers’ globally
have altered the dynamics of the industry.
The world food production and consumption
patterns are evolving with a change in the needs
of the customer. Food processing benefits all the
sections of the society. It helps the:
Farmers–get better returns, higher yield, and
lower the risks drastically,
Consumers-have access to a greater variety,
better prices and new products,
Economy-gets benefitted with new business
opportunities for the entrepreneurs and the work
force gets employment.
6.4 With a huge production base, India can
easily become one of the leading food suppliers to
the world while at the same time serving the vast
growing domestic market of over a billion people.
India’s large market size with growing incomes
and changing life styles also creates incredible
market opportunities for food producers, food
processors, machinery makers, food technologists
and service providers in this sector.
6.5 Growth in food processing sector is also
expected to open up a lot of opportunities for
players having strong linkages in the agri value
chain. Significant investment opportunities
are yet to be tapped in the areas of supply
chain management, cold storages, financing,
retailing and exports. Historically, agriculture
and FPI have been plagued by factors such as
low public investment, poor infrastructure,
inadequate credit availability and high levels of
fragmentation. However, in the last few years
there have been significant improvements on
almost all the fronts. The Indian food processing
sector’s higher rate of growth as compared to
the agriculture growth rate is indicative of its
low base, the increased availability of surpluses,
changing life styles, tastes and higher disposable
income with consumers.
6.6 Food processing sector which has been
identified as a thrust area for development needs
huge investments in logistics for supporting the
value chain from farm to plate. The enabling rules
of the game and policy regime will determine the
performance of the sector. Most food processing
enterprises have been exempted from industrial
licensing under the Industries (Development
and Regulation) Act, 1951 with the exception of
beer and alcoholic drinks and items reserved for
the small scale sector. For foreign investment,
automatic approval is given even up to 100
percent equity for a majority of processed foods.
118
State of Indian Agriculture
6.7 Effective post-harvest management allows
not only the minimization of losses but also
increases the value of the marketed agricultural
products by transforming the agricultural raw
materials. Good processing enables preservation
of product quality at every stage of the marketing
process. Attractive packaging makes the product
more appealing to consumers who are therefore
willing to pay more if the product offered is of
good quality and easy to use. The policy initiatives
of the government also include assistance for
opening up of Mega Food Park, Cold Chain
and development of Agri- export zones, skill
development and R&D activities. Apart from the
various schemes from the central government,
various state governments are implementing
their own food processing promotion policies
and schemes.
6.8 Food Processing Sector forms an important
segment of the Indian economy in terms of its
contribution to GDP. The sector contributes as
much as 9.0 to 10.0 per cent of GDP in Agriculture
and Manufacturing sector. During the last 5 years
ending 2010-11, FPI sector has been growing at an
Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR) of around
6 per cent as compared to around 4 per cent in
Agriculture and 9 per cent in Manufacturing.
Contribution of food processing sector in the
recent years has been significant as may be
gauged from the Table below:
Table 6.1: Contribution and growth of Food Processing Industries:
Contribution and Growth of FPI sector
S.
Description
No.
GDP at Factor Cost, Of
which…..
1 GDP Agriculture*
2 GDP Manufacturing
3 GDP - FPI
Growth (per cent)
4 GDP at factor cost
5 GDP Agriculture*
6 GDP manufacturing
7 GDP FPI
Share (per cent)
8 GDP FPI as a share of
GDP in Agriculture*
9 GDP FPI as a share of
GDP in Manufacturing
(GDP in Rs Crore)
2010-11
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
35,64,364
38,96,636
41,58,676
45,07,637
48,85,954
5,54,395
5,70,458
52,164
5,89,383
6,29,073
57,320
5,88,757
6,56,302
60,379
5,93,696
7,19,728
58,753
6,38,301
7,74,162
62,933
9.6
4.3
14.3
9.4
9.3
6.3
10.3
9.9
6.7
-0.1
4.3
5.3
8.4
0.8
9.7
-2.7
8.4
7.5
7.6
7.1
9.4
9.7
10.3
9.9
9.9
AAGR$
8.5
3.8
9.2
5.8
Average
9.8
9.1
9.1
9.2
8.2
8.1
8.7
Source: National Accounts Statistics, MOSPI
* Includes Milk, Egg, Fish but excludes Forestry &Logging, AAGR$: Five year Average Annual Growth Rate
6.9 Performance of this sector has improved
significantly in the recent years. Manufacturing
sector was generally growing at a higher
rate than FPI till 2009-10. Performance of FPI
improved substantially in 2010-11; almost at par
with manufacturing sector. In 2011-12, as per the
Index of Industrial Production (IIP), FPI has outperformed Manufacturing; while FPI grew at
15.1 per cent, manufacturing growth was close to
3.0 per cent.
Post-Harvest Management and Value Addition 119
Fig. 6.1: Growth in FPI, Manufacturing & General Index (Cumulative) during 2010-2012
(Source: Index of Industrial Production)
Table 6.2:
Sector-wise Number of Registered Food Processing Units
S.
No.
Year
Meat, Fish, Fruits,
Vegetables and Oils
Dairy
Grain Mill Other Food Beverages Total
Products Products
Products
1
1998-1999
4241
737
12164
5682
1029
23853
2
1999-2000
3819
795
12405
5810
1113
23942
3
2000-2001
3740
735
12446
5985
1082
23988
4
2001-2002
3454
865
12429
5688
1049
23485
5
2002-2003
3284
769
12856
5899
1008
23816
6
2003-2004
3352
912
12741
5757
1078
23840
7
2004-2005
3484
927
13639
6093
1219
25362
8
2005-2006
3549
1049
13893
6009
1225
25725
9
2006-2007
3459
1015
13880
6245
1160
25759
10
2007-2008
3667
1096
13805
6300
1351
26219
11
2008-2009
3580
1100
14599
6577
1362
27218
12
2009-2010
3697
1112
14673
6681
1316
27479
13
20102011(P)
4910
1493
18549
9071
1815
35838
(Source: Annual Survey of Industries), P: Provisional Results
120
State of Indian Agriculture
Table 6.3: Foreign Direct Investment in Food Processing Sector from April 2007 to May 2012
S. No.
Year (Apr-Mar)
FDI in Rs crore
FDI in US$ million
1
2007-08
279.01
70.17
2
2008-09
455.59
102.71
3
2009-10
1,314.23
278.89
4
2010-11
858.03
188.67
5
2011-12
826.16
170.21
6
2012-13 (Apr-August)
336.10
66.12
(Source: Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion)
6.10 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is
permissible for all the processed food products
up to 100% on automatic route except for beer/
alcoholic drinks and items reserved for Micro
Table 6.4:
and Small Enterprises (MSEs). For manufacture
of items reserved for MSEs, FDI is permissible
under automatic route up to 24 per cent.
Persons Employed under Registered Food Processing Industries
Year
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11(P)
Persons (In Lakh)
14.76
15.05
15.64
16.06
16.75
Growth (%)
6.09
1.96
3.87
2.71
4.30
AAGR $
3.79
Source: Annual Survey of Industries, MOSPI; P: Provisional Results; $: Average Annual Growth Rate.
Source: Annual Survey of Industries, MOSPI. *: Provisional Results
Post-Harvest Management and Value Addition 121
6.11 In terms of Investment, FP sector has
registered a positive growth in terms of Capital
Invested (fixed capital and physical working
capital). As per the ASI 2010-11(P), the Invested
Capital in FP Industry stood at Rs. 2,49,337 crore
growing at an AAGR of 22.17 per cent during
five years ending 2010-11.
Table 6.5:
Capital Investment* in Registered Food Processing Industries
Year
Invested Capital (Rs. crore)
Growth Rate
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11 (P)
AAGR
1,12,484
1,38,996
1,57,062
1,93,850
2,49,337
22.21
23.57
13.00
23.42
28.62
22.17
*Total of Fixed capital and Physical working capital. P: Provisional Results
Source: Annual Survey of Industries, MOSPI
Source: Annual Survey of Industries, MOSPI. *: Provisional Results
Plan Schemes
Scheme for Infrastructure Development
6.12 The creation of integrated and holistic
infrastructure is extremely important for the
food processing sector. Towards achieving this
end the Ministry of Food Processing Industries
(MOFPI) has been implementing a scheme for
the creation of modern enabling infrastructure
that can facilitate the growth of food processing
and an integrated cold chain mechanism for
handling perishable produce. The MOFPI
initiatives include launch of a number of schemes
for strengthening infrastructure in agro and food
processing sector. This includes Mega Food
Parks Scheme, the Scheme for Cold Chain, Value
Addition and Preservation Infrastructure and the
Scheme for Construction and Modernization of
Abattoirs.
122
Mega Food Parks Scheme (MFPS)
6.13 The Mega Food Parks Schemeaims to
accelerate the growth of the food processing
industry in the country by facilitating establishment
of strong food processing infrastructure backed
by an efficient supply chain. Under this scheme,
capital grant of 50 percent of the project cost
is provided in general areas and 75 per cent in
difficult & ITDP notified areas (with a ceiling of
Rs 50 crore). The grant is utilized towards creation
of common infrastructure in Central Processing
Centre (CPC) and Primary processing Centres
(PPCs) in the park. Such facilities are expected to
complement the processing activities of the units
proposed to be set up at the CPC in the Park.
Each Mega Food Park takes about 30-36 months
to be completed.
6.14 Out of 30 Mega Food Parks proposed
during the eleventh five year plan, the Ministry
has taken up 15 projects under the Scheme so far.
Among these, final approval has been accorded
to 15 Mega Food Parks in the states of Andhra
Pradesh, Punjab, Jharkhand, Assam, West Bengal,
Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat,
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Orissa,
Bihar and Karnataka. The total assistance from
the government to these projects is estimated at
Rs.750 crore. In addition to these, 15 new Mega
Food Parks have been recently approved by the
Government. The process of selection of 15 newly
approved Mega Food Parks is at an advance stage
of finalization.
Scheme for Cold Chain, Value Addition
and Preservation Infrastructure
6.15 The Scheme for Cold Chain, Value Addition,
and Preservation Infrastructure was approved
in 2008 with an objective to provide integrated
and complete cold chain, value addition and
preservation infrastructure facilities without
any break, for perishables from the farm gate to
the consumer. The assistance under the Scheme
includes financial assistance (grant-in-aid) of 50
percent of the total cost of plant and machinery
and technical civil works in General areas
and 75 percent for the NE region and difficult
areas subject to a maximum of Rs 10 crore. In
State of Indian Agriculture
the first phase, the Ministry has approved 10
integrated cold chain projects in 2008-09, which
are already being implemented in different parts
of the country. Out of the 10 projects, 9 have
started commercial operation. Substantive value
addition, reduction in wastage and enhancement
in farmers’ income is evident from concurrent
evaluation of the projects. In the second phase, 28
projects have been approved. In the 3rdup scaled
plan of the scheme, 25 projects were approved.
Further 146 new proposals have been received,
which are under evaluations.
Modernization of Abattoirs
6.16 The Ministry has approved 10 projects
in first phase which are at various stages of
progress. Two projects have been completed.
A proposal for up-scaling the scheme is under
consideration.
Scheme for Technology Upgradation,
Establishment, Modernization of Food
Processing Industries
6.17 Under the Scheme for Technology
Upgradation, Establishment, Modernization of
Food Processing Industries, financial assistance
is provided in the form of grants-in-aid for the
setting up of new food processing units as well
as Technological Upgradation and Expansion of
existing units in the country. The Ministry extends
financial assistance in the form of grant-in-aid to
entrepreneurs at 25 percent of the cost of Plant &
Machinery and Technical Civil Works subject to a
maximum of Rs. 50 lakhs in general areas or 33.33
percent subject to a maximum of Rs. 75 lakhs in
difficult terrains. The implementation process
of the Scheme has been made more transparent
and decentralized from 2007 onwards. Earlier all
the applications for such grants were received by
the Ministry through the State Nodal Agencies.
These applications were then centrally processed
and grants disbursed directly by the Ministry.
From 2007-08, the receipt of applications, their
appraisal, calculation of grant eligibility as well
as disbursement of funds has been completely
decentralized. Under the new procedure, an
entrepreneur or applicant can file an application
Post-Harvest Management and Value Addition with the neighborhood Bank branch or Financial
Intuition (FI). The Bank or FIs would then appraise
the application and calculate the eligible grant
amount as per the detailed guideline given to
them by the Ministry. The Banks and FIs appraise
the project and its recommendation for the release
of grant is transmitted to the Ministry through
an e-portal established for this purpose. After
the recommendation and requisite documents
are received from the Bank or FIs, the Ministry
sanctions the grant and transfers the funds
through the e-portal itself. This has resulted in
a faster sanction procedure and enlarged the
outreach of the Scheme.
6.18 In the Eleventh Five Year Plan, a total
allocation of Rs. 600 crore was provided.
The Ministry has utilized almost the entire
budget allocated under this scheme (excluding
NERegion) and has assisted 3229 Food Processing
Units during the Eleventh Plan. This scheme has
added a huge capacity to the food processing
industry which in turn has resulted in significant
reduction of wastages. The Scheme has since
been transferred to the states with the launching
of National Mission on Food Processing (NMFP)
on 1.4.2012.
Quality Assurance, Codex Standards and
Research and Development and Promotional
Activities
6.19 In the global market today, quality and
food safety gives a competitive edge which is an
important factor for the enterprises producing
processed foods and providing services. Apart
from domestic standards for food products,
processes and management practices, Codex
prescribes international standards for safety
and quality of food as well as codes of good
manufacturing practices, which are accepted
worldwide. Further, equal emphasis is required to
be accorded to R&D activities for the development
of innovative products, cost effective processes
and efficient technologies for the food processing
sector. The scheme for Food Safety Codex and
R&D has been successful in making a dent in this
area in the country.
123
Box 6.1: Components of Food Safety Schemes
(i)
Setting up/Up gradation of Food Testing
Laboratories (29 projects assisted in XI
Plan).
(ii) Implementation of HACCP/ISO/GMP/
GHP/Safety Management system in food
processing units (maximum grant Rs 15.00
Lakhs/Rs 20.00 Lakhs per project in general
area/difficult area, respectively). (20 Projects
assisted in XI Plan).
(iii) Research & Development in Food Processing
Sector. (50 projects assisted in XI Plan).
In order to promote R&D activities, the
Ministry of Food Processing through FICCI
is holding regular Workshops for bringing
together experts who are involved in
research, development, and innovation in
food products and technologies, with the
aim of industry-academia collaboration on
best practices in open innovation, product
design and commercialization
Human Resource Development
6.20 The human resource development is
very critical for sustained growth in the sector.
Extensive training and entrepreneurship
development is given top priority. (Box 6.2)
Box 6.2: Human Resource Development
in Food Processing Sector
i. Creation of infrastructural facilities for running
degree/diploma courses in food processing
(maximum grant Rs. 75.00 lakh per project).
(34 projects approved in XI Plan).
ii. Entrepreneurship Development Programmes
(EDP) (maximum grant Rs. 2.00 lakh per
th
Programme) (994 EDPs assisted during 11
Plan).
iii. Setting up of Food Processing Training
Centres (FPTC) (maximum grant Rs. 4.00
lakh/Rs. 15.00 lakh per project for single
line/multi line products). (159 Centres
assisted in XI Plan).
iv. Training at recognized national/state-level
institutes, etc. sponsored by MOFPI or other
training programme.
124
State of Indian Agriculture
Strengthening of Institutions
National Meat and Poultry Processing
Board (NMPPB)
Indian Institute of Crop Processing
6.22 The Government of India established the
Technology (IICPT) - A National Institute
National Meat and Poultry Processing Board on
with International Repute
19 Feb 2009. The Board is an autonomous body
6.21 Indian Institute of Crop Processing
Technology (IICPT) formerly known as Paddy
Processing Research Centre (PPRC), Thanjavur
is an autonomous organization under the
administrative control of MOFPI. It has been
in existence for the last three decades. As other
commodities such as millets, pulses and oil seeds
are gaining importance; it was decided in 2001 to
expand the mandate of this Institute to include
the above commodities also. In the Budget Speech
of 2006-07, the Hon’ble Union Finance Minister
announced the intention of the Government
to upgrade PPRC to a National Institute. The
institute is being upgraded to a national level
institute at a cost of Rs 88.49 crores.
Box 6.3: Achievements of IICPT
• IICPT has created World Class NABL Accredited
Food Testing Laboratory and High-tech research
laboratories viz. Food Microbiology Laboratory,
Food Product & Development Laboratory,Food
Packaging & Storage Laboratory and State of
the art teaching laboratories
• A Hi-tech, state of the art food processing
incubation cum training center with sales outlet
has been created. Equipments and machinery
are given on rental basis to stake holders.
• The Institute began offering formal degree
courses at bachelors, masters and doctoral
levels in food process engineering from 2009-10
academic years. In B. Tech program 40 students
are admitted every year, 10 students in students
in the M. Tech program and 5 in the Ph. D
programs.
• The Institute has signed MOUs with 12 National
and 10 International Institutions so far that
include University of Nebraska, Colorado State
University, McGill University andIllionois
Institute of Technology, Chicago.
• In the last 3+ year IICPT organized 25 National
and 3 International Seminars/Conferences/
Workshops, 25 Food Processing Expos, 276
Training Programs, 300+ Outreach Activities.
and would initially be funded by the Government
of India for 2 years and would be managed by the
industry itself. This industry-driven institution
has been launched to work as a National hub
for addressing all key issues related to the Meat
and Poultry processing sector for its systematic
and proper development. The Board serves as a
single window service provider for producers,
manufacturers and exporters of meat and meat
products, for promoting the meat industry as a
whole.
Box 6.4 : Achievements of the NMPPB
• The Board has setup a Food Testing Laboratory
at New Delhi. The Laboratory is equipped
with modern equipments to carry out physiochemical analysis of food, water and any organic
samples.
• The Board has so far conducted over 43 training
Programme in the year 2010-11 and 32 training
programmes in the year 2011-12 around the
country to train Butchers, Meat Workers &
Supervisors.
• The Board has organized 9 Industry meets viz.
at Meerut, Kanpur, Aligarh, Moradabad, Agra,
Kochi, Kolkata, Murshidabad and Hyderabad.
• NMPPB has organized first, second, third and
fourth “Mayor’s Conference” on June 07, 2011,
November 02, 2011, January 17-18, 2012, at
New Delhi and on 5th and 6th October 2012 at
Ahmednagarrespectively. The objective of the
Conference is to make the Mayors, Municipal
Commissioners and other Government officials
aware of the hygienic and safe techniques of
production, processing and sale of meat and
poultry products for domestic consumption.
Indian Grape Processing Board
6.23 The Union Government in 2009 gave its
approval for the establishment of the Indian Grape
Processing Board (IGPB) at Pune, Maharashtra
which is close to the principal grape growing and
processing areas in the country.
Post-Harvest Management and Value Addition Box 6.5: Functions and Objectives of the IGPB
• To focus on Research & Development, Extension,
and Quality upgradation, market research
and information, domestic and international
promotion of Indian wine.
• To foster sustainable development of Indian
Wine Industry
• To formulate a vision and action plan for the
growth of Indian Wine Sector including research
and development for quality upgradation in
new technologies/processes.
6.24 During three years of its existence, the
Board has focused on the promotion of “Wines
of India” in the domestic as well as international
market by participating in important and relevant
exhibitions, fairs, consumer awareness & training
programmes, undertaking advocacy work with
the various state governments/central ministries
on various issues related to taxes/levies and
promotion aspects.
6.25 IGPB is going to implement a traceability
programme “wine- net” for standards and quality
in wine sector. The board has also successfully
conducted its election to the new executive
committee in February 2012.
125
research institutions. NIFTEM was conceived
by MOFPI to create an international Center of
Excellence in the field of Food Sciences & Food
Technology. NIFTEM will grow into an apex
world class Institute to promote cooperation and
networking among existing institutions both
within the country and International bodies. It
has been set up to achieve the above objectives.
The Institute will offer high quality educational,
research and management programme specific
to the food industry, provide referral advise on
food standards, disseminate knowledge on the
food sector and provide business incubation
facility.
6.28 On 31st August, 2006 Government had
approved setting up of NIFTEM at Kundli,
Sonipat (Haryana) at a cost of Rs.244.60 crore.
NIFTEM has acquired 100 acres of land from
HSIIDC at a cost of Rs. 36.10crore. In April, 2011
Government has approved the revision of the
cost estimates to Rs.479.94 crore.
Mandate of NIFTEM
6.29 NIFTEM would work as Sector Promotion
Organization of the food processing sector. Major
objectives of NIFTEM drawn from its mandate
are:
National Institute of Food Technology, • Working as a ‘One Stop Solution Provider’
Entrepreneurship
&
Management
to all the problems of the sector.
(NIFTEM)
• Working for Skill Development and
6.26 For developing a vibrant food processing
Entrepreneurship Development for the
sector, India needs not only world-class food
sector.
technologists to undertake R&D in frontier areas,
develop new products, processes, technologies
and machineries, set food standards and protocol
testing, but also business leaders & managers well
versed with the requisite mix of food technologies,
management and entrepreneurship who can
exploit major opportunities in the expanding
global food trade.
6.27 In the emerging global scenario, there was
a need for setting up of an institution of global
excellence, which could cater to the needs of
the booming food processing sector , various
stakeholders such as entrepreneurs, industry,
exporters, policy makers, Government and other
•
Facilitating business incubation services
with its ultra-modern pilot plant for
processing of fruits and vegetables,
dairy, meat and grain processing.
•
Conducting Frontier Area Research for
development of the Sector.
•
Developing world class managerial
talent with advanced knowhow in food
science and technology.
•
Providing intellectual backing for
regulations which will govern food
126
State of Indian Agriculture
safety and quality and at the same time
foster innovation.
creation. Accordingly, National Mission on Food
Processing(NMFP) was launched as a centrally
sponsored scheme on 1st April, 2012.
•
Functioning as a knowledge repository in
food processing domain such as product 6.32 Besides continuing existing components/
information, production and processing schemes such as Technology Up-gradation/
Establishment/Modernisation
of
Food
technology, market trends, safety and
Processing Industries, Cold Chain, Value
quality standards, management practices Addition and Preservation Infrastructure for
among others.
Non-Horticultural Products, Modernization
•
Working for up gradation of SME food
processing clusters.
6.30 NIFTEM has signed an MOU with
Wageningen University, The Netherlands on
08.11.2011 on mutual cooperation in the field of
faculty/students exchange programme, research
and other subjects of common interest. It has
signed an MOU with Kansas State University,
USA on 29.08.2012 on mutual cooperation in the
field of faculty/students exchange Programme,
research and other subjects of common interest.
So far NIFTEM has conducted 19 Short Term
Training Programmes from July, 2011 to October,
2012. The process of conducting such short term
programmes is on. The Institute has commenced
first academic session with B. Tech. (Food
Technology & Management) and M. Tech. (Food
Technology & Management) w. e.f. 16.08.2012.
National Mission on Food Processing
(NMFP)
6.31 India enjoys a competitive advantage in
Food Processing sector given its huge production
base of a number of agricultural, dairy, fishing
and horticultural items. To ensure that this
sector gets the stimulus it deserves, Ministry
of Food Processing Industries (MOFPI)has
been implementing a number of schemes for
Infrastructure development, technology upgradation & modernization, human resources
development and R&D in the Food Processing
Sector. In the context of the 12th Five Year Plan,
it is felt that there is a need to decentralise the
implementation of schemes through involvement
of the states/UTs for better outreach,
supervision, monitoring and ensuring job
of Abattoirs, Human Resource Development
(HRD), Creation of Infrastructure Facilities for
Running Degree/Diploma/Certificate Courses in
Food Processing Technology, Entrepreneurship
Development Program (EDP), Food Processing
Training Centre (FPTC), Promotional Activities,
Organizing Seminar/Workshops, Conducting
Studies/Surveys, Support to Exhibitions/
Fairs, Advertisement & Publicity etc., the new
Components/Schemes proposed during the 12th
Plan are Creating Primary Processing Centres/
Collection Centres in Rural Areas, Modernization
of Meat Shops and Reefer vans.
Funding Pattern
6.33 NMFP is implemented as a new centrally
sponsored scheme with financial contribution of
Government of India and States/UTs in the ratio
of 75:25, except for North Eastern States, where
the ratio is 90:10. Further, in UTs administered
by Government of India it is funded 100% by
Government of India. This funding pattern is
applicable to all components of the scheme.
6.34 The NMFP contemplates establishment
of a National Mission as well as corresponding
Missions in the State and District level. The
proposed structure would be a three-tier structure
at National, State and District levels. However,
States would be at freedom to have mission
structure at District levels or otherwise. Funds
are to be transferred to the State Governments for
implementation of the schemes through the State
Missions. State Governments would be given
flexibility so that the schemes can be tailored to
the different requirements of different regions in
the country.
Post-Harvest Management and Value Addition 127
Challenges
The Way Forward
6.35 The most important challenges among
others in the sector include avoidance of the
significant wastage at every level and in value
addition. High food inflation, high post-harvest
wastage particularly in fruits and vegetables, low
level of processing etc are the main challenges in
the food processing sector. Addressing these core
concerns by reducing wastage of food, increasing
shelf life and enhancing value of agricultural
produce are some of the objectives of the food
processing industry. In terms of employment,
the contribution of the sector is significant.
According to the latest Annual Survey of
Industries (ASI) for 2010-11 (Provisional Results),
the total number of persons employed in the
food processing sector was about 16.75 lakhs.
The National Manufacturing Policy announced
on 4th November 2011 seeks to give special
attention to food processing industries to ensure
job creation. To promote industrial growth along
with the objective of inclusive growth the food
processing sector will get higher attention from
the Government.
6.36 MoFPI incurred an expenditure of
Rs 1596 crore on infrastructure and related
projects during XI plan which comes to around
Rs 319 crore per annum. Given the need for
wastage reduction, value addition and the high
employment potential of the sector, there is a
need to substantially step up the allocations
given the importance of the sector in terms of its
contribution to the economy. There is also a need
for greater involvement of state governments
for better outreach, supervision and monitoring.
Keeping this in view, government has already
launched centrally sponsored National Mission
on Food Processing on 1.4.2012. There is a need
for greater emphasis on creation of infrastructure
with full participation of state governments and
private sector. The main infrastructure schemes
are for setting up Food Parks and Cold Chains
are at present closed ended. This should be open
ended permitting the Ministry to fund all the
viable projects proposals received under these
schemes rather than limiting the number of
projects.
CHAPTER 7
Agricultural Research and Education
Natural Resource Management
7.1 The Indian Council of Agricultural
Research is engaged in developing technologies
for conservation, management and sustainable
utilization of the natural resources to ensure
food, nutritional and environmental security in
the country. The research programmes are being
carried out within the perspective of different
themes, viz; Soil Inventory and Characterization,
Soil-Water-Nutrient Management, Watershed
Management,
Resource
Conservation
Technologies,
Cropping/farming
System,
Agroforestry including Bio fuel Crops and
Climate Change on agriculture. Several location
specific cost effective NRM technologies (suiting
soil and climate) like crop diversification, resource
conservation technologies (zero tillage, bed
planting, laser leveling, SRI), soil reclamation/
amelioration measures, integrated soil-waternutrient management, water harvesting and
conservation, participatory watershed models,
micro irrigation, integrated farming system and
agroforestry models etc have been developed to
boost agricultural production and productivity
in the country.
7.2 Extension activities based on NRM
technologies are being popularized among the
farmers throughout the country through IVLP
programme, KVKs, State extension agencies
etc. Also conducting Front Line Demonstrations
(FLDs) on relevant technologies, imparting
trainings to farmers, Subject Matter Specialists
of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs), State Line
Departments/NGOs etc.; publishing popular
articles and technical bulletins in local languages
and organizing regional workshops etc.
7.3 Several NRM technologies like water
harvesting
and
recycling,
construction/
renovation of water bodies, watershed
management,
agroforestry/afforestation,
vermicomposting/enriched composting etc, are
being taken up under MGNREGA for generation of
rural livelihoods through creation of employment
generation. An extensive programme on ‘More
crop and income per drop of water “ under
central scheme on ‘Participatory Action Research
Programme’ (FPRAP) funded by Ministry of
Water Resources in participatory mode was
under operation for the conservation and better
utilization of rain water in rainfed areas. During
1st phase (2009-11), the technologies for improving
water use efficiency were demonstrated in 7
districts (Balangir, Kalahandi, Sonepur, Boudh,
Ganjam, Jagatsingpur, Kendrapara) of Odisha
on 478 farmers’ fields covering 160 ha area and
during second phase (2011-12) in 5 districts
(Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Dhenkanal, Puri and
Khurda) at 100 locations covering 5 agro-climatic
zones in Odisha. Also organised 22 one-day
farmers’ trainings (2040 farmers) during 20092012. A special programme on scaling up of
water productivity in Agriculture for livelihood
through teaching cum demonstration has also
been taken up during XI Plan period and 101724
farmers and 5824 trainers were trained all over
the country.
7.4 The Council is strengthening its mechanisms
of agro-advisories by setting up of Automatic
Weather Stations (AWS) in KVKs located in 100
vulnerable districts under National Initiative
on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA). Yet
another 150 AWS has been planned for the XII Plan.
The ICAR is preparing district level contingency
plans (300 districts completed) to provide an
action plan to the states in event of extreme
climatic events like drought, floods, heat & cold
wave. During 2011-12, 67 farmers’ awareness
programme and 41 trainers’ training programme
have been organized under NICRA. A District
Level Atlas of Climate Change Vulnerability for
the entire country for prioritizing investments
in R&D during XII Plan for climate resilient
agriculture have been finalized.
7.5 To address future challenges, sustainable
management of natural resources is vital as
agricultural development with positive growth
Agricultural Research and Education and long term sustainability cannot thrive on a
deteriorating natural resource base. Confronted
with widespread land degradation, ground
water imbalances, impaired soil health and
contamination of food and environmental
pollution etc., the situation is getting further
compounded with the recent climate change
impacts on agriculture. To have a holistic solution
to these emerging problems, the ICAR has set
priority research on abiotic stress management
(droughts, cold waves, floods, salinity , alkalinity,
acidity and nutritional disorders etc), climate
resilient agriculture, conservation agriculture
including organic farming, bio-industrial
watersheds, solid waste management, utilization
of waste/poor quality water and applications of
nanotechnology to enhance nutrient and water
use efficiency and development of bio-censors
for soil quality assessment etc.
Challenges
7.6 Land Degradation: Major problems are loss
of fertile soil and siltation of reservoirs and rivers.
Challenges lie in rehabilitation of degraded land.
ICAR institutes involved in research on the
above are CSWCRTI, Lucknow, CAZRI, Jodhpur,
NBSSLUP, Nagpur and NRCAF Jhansi.
7.7 Deterioration of Soil Health: Emergence
of multi-nutrient deficiencies, low nutrient use
efficiencies and nutrient response ratios are the
major problems which can be resolved through
enhancement of higher soil and crop productivity.
IISS, Bhopal including AICRPs on STCR, MSN,
LTFE and Network on Biofertilizers are involved
in countering this challenge.
7.8 Low farm productivity & Profitability of
Small Land Holdings: Resource poor farmers
with lack of irrigation facilities, low input use
efficiencies are encouraged to implement methods
for developing IFS for Enhancing productivity,
profitability and livelihood for small & marginal
farmers. PDFSR, Modipuram; ICAR- RCNEH,
Barapani; ICAR- RCGOA; ICAR RCER Patna;
CRIDA Hyderabad; CAZRI Jodhpur, ICAR
RC Goa, NRCAF Jhansi, AICRP on IFS and
Network on organic farming are engaged in this
endeavor.
129
7.9 Low Water Productivity: challenges of low
water use and irrigation efficiency, decline in
water table, secondary salinization, contamination
of ground water are met by augmenting water
productivity through IWM, ground water
recharge, multiple use of water and use of poor
quality water. DWM, Bhubaneswar including
AICRPs on Water Management and Ground
water utilization, CSSRI, Karnal, ICAR RCER
Patna; Project on Scaling up of water productivity
are involved in research in this area..
7.10 Productivity
of
Rainfed/Dryland
Agriculture: High risk farming due to low
and erratic rainfall, resource degradation are
mitigated through enhancing productivity
through alternate agriculture, supplementary
irrigation, judicious use of various inputs and
stress tolerant cultivars. CRIDA Hyderabad,
including AICRPs on Agro-metrology, Dryland
farming, CAZRI Jodhpur, NRCAF Jhansi
including AICRP on Agroforestry, CAZRI
Jodhpur are the major centres involved in this
research aspect.
7.11 Declining Factor Productivity of Intensive
Agriculture: Indiscriminate and imbalance use
of inputs are countered by sustaining higher
agriculture productivity through conservation
agriculture. PDFSR, Modipuram and DWSR
Jabalpur are addressing this challenge.
7.12 Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture:
Untimely/delayed rainfall, heat & cold waves,
cyclone, Tsunami and other forces of nature
are creating increasing challenges for existent
agricultural practices. The way towards meeting
these challenges by developing appropriate
technologies for climate resilient agriculture are
undertaken through Contingent Plans and Agroadvisories by CRIDA Hyderabad and NICRA
project.
7.13 Abiotic Stresses: Droughts, water logging,
salinity, alkalinity, acidity and nutritional
disorders etc are being addressed by developing
viable technologies for abiotic stress management.
At the new institute NIASM Baramati, CSSRI
Karnal and CRIDA Hyderabad.
130
State of Indian Agriculture
Box 7.1: Multiple use of water for increasing
water productivity – a Case study
Multiple use of water in the water harvesting
structures in terms of pisciculture in the pond, ondyke horticulture, vegetable cultivation, poultry
farming and honey bee culture on participatory
basis in Dhenkanal district of Orissa showed
positive impact on rural livelihood. The yield of
paddy within the command area was enhanced
by 120 % in comparison to 2.2 Mg/ha outside the
command area. The benefit cost ratio of the system
was 1.52 and overall water productivity of the
system was enhanced by 136 % over the farmers’
practices of 3.3 Rs/m3 water.
Multiple use of water in water harvesting structure
Box 7.2: Rapeseed mustard in rice fallow
in Manipur - A success story
Cropping intensity of Rice-fallow system in Manipur
could be increased by introducing zero till rapeseed
cultivation (M-27) in rabi using residual soil
moisture. During 2009-2010, a total area of 40 ha was
covered under zero tillage rapeseed cultivation by
100 farm families followed by 165 farm families in 65
ha during 2010-2011, yielding 7.1 to 10.80 q/ha.
Rapeseed mustard in rice fallow in Manipur
Crop Science
7.14 The All India Coordinated Research
Projects and various institutes of the ICAR
strived to develop new crop varieties which had
specific traits that improve yield and nutritional
quality and form part of the food security mission
of the country. These crop varieties along with
crop production technology for their cultivation
had inherent tolerance to various key pests and
diseases. The tolerance to drought, salinity and
acidity/alkalinity of soils was also imparted in
many of them.
Crop Variety Development
7.15 Five wheat varieties, viz., Pusa Suketi
(HS 507) for timely sown, irrigated and rain fed
condition of Northern Hills Zone, Pusa Prachi
(HI 1563) for high fertility, irrigated, late sown
conditions of North Eastern Plains Zone (Eastern
U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand, plains of West Bengal and
North-Eastern States), Pusa Gaurav (HI 8691) for
high fertility, irrigated, timely sown conditions
of Madhya Pradesh, Pusa Basant (HD 2985)
for cultivation under late and very late sown
conditions of North Eastern Plains Zone (NEPZ),
Pusa Bahar (HD 2967) for cultivation under
conditions of rainfed and restricted irrigation in
Peninsular Zone (PZ) and HD 3043 for restricted
irrigated conditions of North Western Plains Zone
(NWPZ) have been released and notified during
2012. Their seed multiplication and breeders seed
production of these six varieties are taken up.
7.16 Single cross maize hybrid 17l with yellow,
semi-dent grain with 21.93% for cultivation in
Zone-I (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu
& Kashmir and North Eastern Hill region)
was released. Vivek Maize Hybrid 39, single
cross, extra-early (85-90 days) for cultivation
in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu &
Kashmir and North Eastern Hill region with
yellow, semi-flint grain; Vivek Maize Hybrid
43, extra-early maturing (85-90 days), eastern
Uttar Pradesh and eastern states and in Central
Western India have been notified for cultivation.
7.17 Improvement of the elite Basmati was
continued to attain specific characteristics that
are in global demand.
Agricultural Research and Education 7.18 Moderately wilt resistant Pusa 5023 Kabuli
Chickpea, early maturing (135-140 days) variety
for Delhi state and NCR region extra bold seeded
(50g for 100 seeds), yield 2.5 t/ha, high protein
and good hydration capacity and thus easy to
cook; moderately wilt resistant Pusa 5028, for
Delhi state and NCR region, first desi extra bold
variety (41g for 100 seed), yield of 2.7t/ha, early
maturing variety (135-140 days), large brown
bold seeds having high protein content and is
fast to cook with faster hydration capacity.
7.19 VL Masoor 514, moderately resistant
to wilt and rust diseases, for rainfed hills of
Uttarakhand, bold seeded (100 seed weight
3.05 g), brown seed coat with minute spots and
globose flat seeded 21.13% protein content. VL
Masoor 133 Small seeded variety of lentil having
22.28% higher yield over VL Masoor 125 and
27.12% over PL 05 over three years of testing
in Uttarakhand hills under organic conditions.
It has 24.06% protein content, and was found
resistant to wilt and moderately rust diseases.
7.20 High-yielding medium-tall field pea
variety, VL Matar 47 with 142-155 days maturity,
for timely sown rainfed areas of Uttarakhand
hills with 21.04% protein content and resistant
to powdery mildew and moderately resistant to
rust diseases. Vivek Matar 11, the garden pea
variety, attractive long green curved pods with
high number of sweet and bold seeds per pod
and highly resistant to powdery mildew, 132155 days maturity, suitable for cultivation in
Uttarakhand hills and also for Himachal Pradesh
and Jammu & Kashmir.
7.21 Mustard varieties such as Pusa Mustard 26
(NPJ 113) with an yield of 1.6 t/ha, matures in
126 days, 37.6% oil in seeds and is tolerant to high
temperatures and salinity; for multiple cropping
systems particularly in rice and cotton belts of
Eastern UP and Eastern states of the country and
Central Western India; Pusa Mustard 27 (EJ 17)
matures in 118 days with seed yield of 1.53 t/
lha and 41.7% oil, moderately tolerant to high
temperatures at seedling as well as maturity
stage. It is suitable for multiple cropping systems
and can successfully fit in between the harvest
of kharif crops and sowing of wheat, vegetables
131
and sugarcane. It is a good substitute for toria
crop. Pusa Mustard 28 (NPJ-124) matures in 107
days, yield 1.99 t/ha, 41.5% oil and possesses
high temperature tolerance at seedling and grain
filling stage. It fits well in multiple cropping
systems. The work on ‘00’ lines in Brassica and
low glucosinolate content is in progress.
7.22 A total of 36 national explorations were
undertaken in 15 states and 2,713 accessions,
including 570 of wild species, were collected. In
the National Herbarium of Cultivated Plants,
321 herbarium specimens were added, making
specimens’ holdings total to 20,560. Germplasm
for long-term storage to the National Genebank
comprised 4,302 accessions of the orthodox seedspecies, 24 cryo-stored non-orthodox species, and
29 added to in- vitro Genebank. A total of 10,334
accessions were characterized and evaluated.
Two high-protein rice cultivars (crude grain
protein content, 15-16.41%),ARC 10063 and ARC
10075, identified from the stock of Asom Rice
Collections of the CRRI Rice Gene Bank have
been found to have an additional slow moving
globulin band. Three glutelin bands are highly
expressed in the high protein cultivars. They
showed higher activity of Nitrate Reductase
(NR) and Glutamic Dehydrogenase (GDH) at
seedling (one-week-old) and maximum tillering
stages (three-week-old). Forty-one clones of
Saccharum spontaneum, Erianthus rufipilus, E.
elephantinus and E. arundinaceus were collected
from West Bengal. S. spontaneum clones were
assembled from different habitats and also from
many morphotypes, excepting very tall types. S.
spontaneum accession IND101568 collected from
the hill slope at 1,270 msl near Kurseong is with
thick cane and broad leaves.
7.23 Microbial Genomic Resource Repository
possesses a total of 1,231 genomic DNA isolates
from bacterial, fungal, cyanobacterial and
actinomycetes cultures; 64 different cloning,
gene-silencing, Expression vectors and 92 gene
sequences. In addition to this, 188 environmental
samples, 6720 clones from genomic library of
Mesorhizobium cicero Ca 181 strain and different
strains of E. coli competent cells( DH5a, XL1 Blue,
JM107, JM109) and Agrobacterium spp. have been
preserved.
132
7.24 During the current year, 623 tonnes of
nucleus seed, 13038 tonnes of breeder seed, 10120
tonne of foundation seed, 13084 tonnes of certified
seed and 25141 tonnes of truthfully labelled
seeds were produced. Under the participatory
seed production programme 142 tons of quality
seed of different wheat varieties were produced.
Besides, 5240 tons, 396 lakhs of planting material
and 0.38 lakh of tissue culture plants of field crops
were produced. The hybrid seed production
technology for the first-ever Indian mustard
hybrid NRC Sankar Sarson (NRCHB 506) has
been standardized and seed yield of 2.4tonnes/
ha could be produced.
7.25 Many invasive pest species were a threat
to the country. Preparedness for the invasion of
Ug99 strain of black rust of wheat is complete by
introducing resistant genes into all the cultivated
wheat varieties for north-western plain zone
in addition to that in peninsular zone. Yellow
rust monitoring and management could reduce
its impact, in spite of its presence in certain
pockets. Cotton leaf roll dwarf virus (CLRDV) of
Luteovirideae family was identified for the first
time in Haryana and parts of Punjab. Eucalyptus
gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa was accidentally
introduced into India, and is a serious pest
on eucalyptus, threatening Indian paper
industry. Parasitoids Quadrastichus mendeli and
Selitrichodes kryceri (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera)
were imported from Israel for its biocontrol. Q.
mendeli could be established in all released areas
of eucalyptus plantations in Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Odisha, Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab.
The mitigation of Papaya mealy bug invasion
using the introduced exotic insect parasitoids as
well as those native ones have come up in huge
population due to conservation of agri-biodiversity
was complete in all the seven affected states. The
impact of utilization of the exotic parasitoids
of Papaya mealy bug in the last two years,
making the nation to save about Rs 1500 crores
by avoiding severe crop loss due to this invasive
pest. Accelerate pulse production programme of
the government was ably supported by effective
surveillance and electronic reporting so as to
contain them at initiation itself.. Integrated pest
State of Indian Agriculture
management using new generation chemical
synthetic pesticides along with biological control
agents (insects, nematodes, microbial pathogens
and antagonists) have provided support to
the nation in achieving the targeted food and
commodity production.
7.26 National Institute on Biotic Stress
Management at Raipur, Chhattisgarh and Indian
Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology at Ranchi,
Jharkhand are approved by the government the
plan and would be launched during this plan
period.
7.27 A winnower cum grader for threshed
paddy crop has been designed and fabricated and
mounted on castor wheels to make it movable.
Provision has been made for control of feed rate
and air-flow depending on the impurity level in
the harvested crop, so as to improve its cleaning
efficiency. Its performance has bee standardised.
7.28 A seed drill for sowing berseem seeds was
developed using fine fluted roller for metering of
berseem seeds. Spring loaded tines were used to
open furrow for sowing the seeds. The seed rate
for berseem seed was variable in the range of 4 to
30 kg/ha. Depth of sowing was controlled by the
hydraulic device of the tractor.
7.29 Small sized manually operated cotton
planter was developed for planting cotton seed
and an adjustable cultivator was designed and
developed for intercultural operation for narrow
spaced cotton crop and a fertilizer applicator has
been modified for equal distribution of fertilizer
from both tubes. Field efficiency of manually
operated small hand picker varied from 56 % to
100 % of the human labour.
7.30 In order to mechanize this labour intensive
operation, a tractor operated paired row sugarcane
cutter planter was designed and developed at
Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research. With
the help of this equipment, all the operations
involved in cane planting were accomplished in
a single pass of the equipment. The novel feature
of the newly developed planter is its sett cutting
mechanism. This mechanism facilitates free fall
of the cut setts without gaps.
Agricultural Research and Education 133
7.31 Irrigation scheduling is one of the activities
that aim at effective and efficient utilization of
water. In most of the farmers’ fields in India,
irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture is
not in practice. A simple and farmer-friendly
electronic soil moisture-indicating gadget which
has been named as ‘Soil Moisture Indicator (SMI)’
is developed.
crop ecologies are analysed for all major, minor,
secondary and micronutrients and crop varieties
are grown in these to assess their demand as
well as potential to yield higher than existing
varieties.
7.32 Research for tribal and hill region caters
to the agricultural research needs of the northwestern Himalayan states of Uttarakhand,
Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. Cold
tolerant phosphate solubilizing bacteria RT5RP2
and RT6RP were isolated from rhizoplane of wild
grass grown at 3100 & 3800 msl, respectively.
Eight cold tolerant bacterial strains have been
selected among the twelve elite strains for the
development of eight bacterial consortia were
developed.
7.35 RNAi technologies for management of
various crop diseases including nematodes,
molecular-marker assisted detection of crop
resistant genes against key pests (insect/mites/
diseases/nematodes etc.), exploitation of
conserved agro-biodiversity to enhance foodchain linked pest suppression strategies, classical
biological control by introduction of exotic
natural enemies to suppress invasive pests as
well as inundative biological control to reduce
pests in crops are
Enhanced Plant Protection Tools and
Techniques for Prevention of Crop Loss
7.33 Two patents, an improved process for
the enrichment of babchi drug from seeds
of Psoralea corylifolia, and the other process
enabling simultaneous detection of transgene
5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase
(cp4epsps) gene and CaMV 35S promoter in maize
utilizing novel primers in multiplex PCR, have
been granted.
7.36 Securing of the high crop productivity by
efficient post-harvest storage of commodities
and processed products of food and fodder crops
is to be major priority. The ICAR has taken up
research in this direction in their crop institutes.
Challenges
New Initiatives
Post-harvest Management of Commodities
Including Fodder
Efficiency of Natural Resource Utilization 7.37 The government has approved the
establishment of i) National Institute for Biotic
for Optimized Cost of Production
7.34 Responsive crop varieties to enhance
resource utilization efficiency is the major option
for reducing cost of cultivation. Indigenous on
farm resources along with application of soiltest based nutrients are required to support the
optimized production from such crop cultivars.
The production technologies of all newly
released and notified crop varieties are directed
in this manner. Crop productivity is challenged
by the need for quality agricultural inputs such
as seeds, fertilizers and other agrochemicals. The
states have to ensure the availability of quality
agrochemical inputs for various agro-ecologies so
as to increase crop productivity. Soils of various
Stress Management at Raipur (Chhattisgarh) and
ii) Indian Institute for Agricultural Biotechnology
at Ranchi (Jharkhand). These are being taken up
in XII Plan period.
Multitier Rice-Fish–Horticulture
Farming System in Odisha
based
7.38 The Central Rice Research Institute,
Cuttack, Odisha, has developed a viable multitier
rice-fish–horticulture based farming system
model of about 0.8 ha area for enhancing farm
productivity and income in substantial part
of 4 million ha of deep water areas (50-100 cm,
maximum 150cm, of water depth) in the country,
134
particularly in 3 m ha areas in the eastern India.
This technology includes field design and land
shaping and package of practices for different
components. Multitier rice-fish-horticulture
based farming system can annually produce
about 14-15 tonnes (t) of food crops, 1 t of fish
and prawn, 0.5-0.8 t of meat, 10,000-12,000 eggs
in addition to flowers and 3-5 t of animal feed
from one hectare farm area. the productivity of
food crops further increases to 16-17 t besides, 1012 t of fibre/fuel wood from eighth year onwards
due to addition of produce from perennial fruit
crops and agro-forestry components. The net
income in this system is around Rs 1,00,000/ha
in the first year. This will increase to Rs 1,50,000
or more from the eighth year onwards. This is a
bankable technology supported by NABARD in
the state.
Soil Moisture Indicator: a Handy Device to
save irrigation water
7.39 Irrigation scheduling is one of the activities
that aim at effective and efficient utilization of
water. In most of the farmers’ fields in India,
irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture is
not in practice. Sugarcane Breeding Institute,
Coimbatore has developed a simple and farmerfriendly electronic soil moisture-indicating
gadget which has been named as ‘Soil Moisture
Indicator (SMI)’.
State of Indian Agriculture
SMI - Soil Moisture Indicator
Horticulture
7.40 Horticulture research and
development has made rapid
strides in the last two decades in
terms of increased production,
productivity, availability and export
of horticultural produce. In many of
the states horticulture has emerged as
a prime mover of economy. However
production challenges have to be met
which includes production for food, nutrition
and health care for growing population in the
scenario of declining water, land and increasing
pressure of biotic and abiotic stresses.
Challenges
7.41 Genetic resource management and
development of improved varieties/hybrids of
fruits, vegetables, plantation crops, spices, cashew
and oil palm with high production potential,
biotic and abiotic resistance and export value
need to be undertaken, as also standardization
of techniques for rapid propagation of planting
material, agro-techniques, water management,
integrated plant nutrient management system
and integrated disease and pest management for
horticultural crops. Appropriate horticultural
based cropping systems for different agro
climatic areas have to be evaluated. Suitable post
harvest handling, storage and processing system,
product diversification and value addition have
to be developed.
7.42 Major challenges include production
of more for increasing population, tackling
declining land and water in the environment of
climate change, effective conservation of natural
resources and investment of more capital for
appropriate research and development.
Way Forward
7.43 Consumer preference determines the
economics of flower, fruit and spice production.
Therefore, there is a need to prioritize action
outlining the research, development and
extension, to make this sector a key driver in rural
Agricultural Research and Education and regional economic development. Demand
for high value produce is growing both in
domestic and overseas market at the same time,
competition is also increasing. New changes in
retailing participation of corporate sector means
that retailing will depend upon strategic alliance
and supply chain management. Strengthened
research on impact assessment of climate
change on horticultural crops using controlled
environmental facilities and simulation models,
analysis of past weather data and integration with
productivity changes (including extreme events)
is essential. Production, demand and supply of
commodities, economics and trade, sensitive
stages and process during crop development,
diversity and dynamics of major insects, microbes
and pathogens, intensification of studies on pest,
disease and weather relationships etc is required.
Therefore, sustainability will depend upon
improving competitiveness, reducing impact on
environment, quality assurance and food safety
and capability of communities engaged in this
sector to manage change.
Animal Science
Animal Genetic Resource Management
7.44 Whole-genome mapping of Indian water
buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was carried out and
assembly with more than 90 GB DNA sequence
data generated. 6 new breeds viz. four cattle breeds
(Binjharpuri, Ghumsuri, Khariar Motu cattle)
and two of buffalo breeds (Banni, Chilka buffalo)
were registered . Phenotypic characterization and
evaluation of hill cattle as well as Bundelkhandi
goat and goats of Uttrakhand was completed so
also for Spiti donkey. Genotypic characterization
of Indian horse breeds and phylogenetic tree
were prepared. The microsatellite genotyping of
50 individuals in each of the Bikaneri, Jaisalmeri,
Kachchhi and Mewari breed was carried out and
phylogenetic tree constructed.
7.45 A heat shock protein of 70 kDa (HSP70)
was detected in lymphocytes of control and heat
exposed broiler birds and four new proteins with
molecular weight of 35, 55, 173, 189 kDa were
found in heat exposed broiler birds. National FMD
Virus Repository was upgraded with latest/new
135
virus isolates and a total of 25 virus isolates were
added to the repository. At present the National
FMD virus Repository holds a total of 1712 isolates
(O-1102, A-276, C-15 and Asia 1-319).
Animal Production
7.46 Indian Livestock Feed Portal having
sequential information on livestock feeds and
feeding to serve single window reference was
developed. In vitro studies revealed that IGF-I
improves progesterone production from luteal
cells, thus improving embryonic survivability.
Using longer wavelength lights (red spectrum)
than incandescent lighting was found to improve
egg production in commercial layer flocks by
about 6.33%. Supplementation of protected
fat to high yielding dairy cows improved milk
yield (19.0lit vs 17.8 lit/cow/day), reproductive
efficiency and was found to be economical to
farmers. Areca sheath can be considered an
alternate source of dry fodder for livestock.
Improved varieties of ducks for egg purpose,
integrating with aquaculture in farmers’ pond
and community ponds were introduced. Dietary
supplementation of a combination of organic
chromium (chromium picolinate) 1 mg/kg and
Spirulina 2 g/kg was found effective in reducing
egg cholesterol content by about 20%. Collection
of semen from male ducks was standardized.
Hen housed egg production increased up to 72
wks of age in IWN and IWP layers strains and
was found to be 309.63 and 297 eggs, respectively.
Out of the four new heavy crosses (HC-1, HC-2,
HC-3and HC-4) developed utilizing rural and
broiler germplasm, the HC-3 and HC-4 weighed
1000 and 1100g, respectively at 7 wks of age and
crossed 2kg at 12 wks of age, which seemed to be
promising for backyard poultry. Quality protein
maize-based layer diet produced 3.3% higher egg
production and recorded 4.9% improvement in
feed conversion compared to normal maize in
White Leghorn layer chicken.
Animal Health
7.47 Loop Assisted Amplification (LAMP) was
developed for detection of FMD and Pasteurella
multocida. PCR for amplification of OMP 31
of Brucella using self designed primers was
136
standardized and successfully used on field
isolates. Real time PCR based sensitive diagnosis
for several diseases has been developed. A
diagnostic kit for diagnosis of Haemonchus
contortus infection was developed. Databank on
diseases was updated after suitable validation.
Post Harvest Management and Value-addition
7.48 On line system for monitoring Aflatoxin
M1 in milk using spore inhibition based - enzyme
substrate assay (SIB-ESA) was developed so
also a simple and Rapid Method for Cholesterol
Estimation in Ghee using o-Phthaldehyde (OPA)
Reagent. Method for Cholesterol Estimation in
Milk Fat using Enzymatic Diagnostic Kit was
developed. Fermented Butter Milk Drinks with
Enhanced Health Benefits and cheese based
functional foods using oats were developed.
Functional chicken meat pellets were prepared
incorporating 15% levels of processed soya
nuggets. The products can be safely stored till
3 months of frozen (-18 ºC) storage. New meat
products like mutton soup, mutton pickle and
enrobed eggs from meat of sheep were developed.
Goat milk and cream based biscuits containing
higher amount of medium chain fatty acids
were developed using pure goat milk, goat milk
cream, herbs, plant fibres and grains. Cured and
smoked products as restructured mutton blocks
and mutton ham were developed. Value added
products such as emulsion stuffed capsicum,
emulsion stuffed samosa, emulsion bonda and
emulsion omelet etc produced from spent hen
meat. Chocolate barfi, milk peda from camel
milk mawa and Lyophilized skim milk powder
and Rasogolla by mixing camel and buffalo milk
(1:1; 1.5:1 ratios) were prepared.
Technology Assessment, Refinement and Transfer
7.49 More than 1.8 lakhs chicks (day/6 weeks
old) were produced and provisioned to farmers
and development agencies. 1182 breeding broiler
rabbits were supplied to 64 clients of Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry states and 837
rabbits in Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab. More
than 800 piglets were produced and provisioned
to farmers and development agencies. Testing
of suitable temperate grasses and legumes for
highland pasture in collaboration with IGFRI,
State of Indian Agriculture
Jhansi and the State Departments of Animal
Husbandry for supporting Yak Husbandry
practices was initiated.
Partnership and Linkages
7.50 Full technical was extended and scientific/
laboratory support provided to the FMD Control
Programme being run by the Department of
Animal husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, GOI.
Diagnostic Reagents to the regional centres/
network units and vaccine manufacturing
companies were produced, standardized and
supplied.
Challenges
7.51 Genetic improvement and conservation of
indigenous cattle and buffaloes for higher milk
production are seen as major research issues so
also the establishment of open nucleus herds for
important indigenous breeds in their native tracts.
Genomics and marker assisted selection in cattle
and buffaloes, mechanization of equipments for
indigenous dairy products for small scale sector,
development of climate resilient housing and
shelters for improved dairy production, improving
buffalo productivity by assisted reproductive and
biotechnology tools and specific dairy products
(functional/nutraceutical/value added) are seen
as future challenges. Intensive Buffalo broiler, fat
lamb, goat fattening for higher meat production,
backyard and small scale pig, poultry and broiler
rabbit for meat production, effective disease
control and health management, epidemiology
and landscape genetics of infectious diseases,
disease forecasting models and economic impact
analysis in relation to disease control strategies,
evaluation of various non-conventional feed and
fodder resources including tree leaves for livestock
and precision livestock farming are also issue to
be addressed. Quality milk, meat, wool and other
products with value addition, development of cold
chain for proper biological product transport and
safer food products from livestock and poultry,
development of newer nutraceuticals and safer
health foods and epidemiology and landscape
genetics of infectious diseases, disease forecasting
models and economic impact analysis in relation to
disease control strategies also are to be catered to.
Agricultural Research and Education 137
Way Forward
•
7.52 In the field of Dairy production, processing
and value addition, genetic improvement and
conservation of indigenous cattle and buffaloes
for higher milk production, establishment of open
nucleus herds for important indigenous breeds in
their native tracts genomics and marker assisted
selection in cattle and buffaloes, mechanization
of equipments for indigenous dairy products
for small scale sector, development of climate
resilient housing and shelters for improved dairy
production, improving buffalo productivity by
assisted reproductive and biotechnology tools and
specific dairy products (functional/nutraceutical/
value added) are seen as researchable areas.
Up gradation of Bangalore campus
to Central Laboratory on FMD under
administrative control of PDFMD.
Successful spread of Artificial Insemination
in pig in Assam
7.55 The National Research Centre on Pig, Rani,
Guwahati, Assam has developed technology for
preservation of boar semen for extended period
(up to 7 days at 15O C). This has been done to
enable transport of semen from institute for
Artificial Insemination (AI) at far away villages.
New Inititatives
7.53 New Network Programmes of Brucellosis,
tuberculosis, paratuberculosis and leptospirosis,
neonatal mortality, emerging infectious diseases
and zoonosis, clinical nutrition for management
of important diseases of livestock and poultry,
nutritional interventions for control of infertility
and reproductive disorders in bovines and
veterinary Diagnostic imaging have made a
beginning.
7.54 Buffalo Genomics, Diagnostics & vaccines
and value addition projects will be taken up in
platform mode. A Directorate on Companion
Animal Research is being initiated. Further, upgradation/restructuring/renaming of institutes
is being undertaken as under:
•
Up gradation of HSADL, Bhopal to
Institute of Bio-security and AgriDefence
•Two Regional Centers for NBAGR
•
Merging CARI and PD-Poultry to
Institute of Poultry Sciences
•
Upgradation of NRC on
Directorate on Pig Research
•
Upgradation of PDC Meerut to Institute
on Cattle Research
•
Upgradation of PDADMAS to Indian
Institute Veterinary Epidemiology and
Disease Informatics
Pigs
to
The first successful delivery of a Ghungroo sow
was recorded on May 16th 2012. This happened
with the birth of 13 piglets in Goskata village in
Kokrajhar district of Assam, located about 220
kms from the institute. This feat was accomplished
in collaboration with the KVK, Gosaigaon under
Assam Agricultural University. Earlier, the
institute rendered AI services within the vicinity
138
of 65 Km radius, producing 1448 piglets at
farmers’ field. The highest litter size at birth of
19 piglets was observed under field conditions.
It is expected that increased number of superior
piglets born out of AI will increase the income
of pig farmers. The crossbred piglets produced
through AI are in great demand due to their
better growth rate. Recently, the Assam State
Institute of Rural Development has procured AI
born piglets from the villages adopted by NRCPig for distribution among the farmers. The AI
is becoming popular among the farmers and the
technology developed by NRC on Pig can be
transferred to the farmers’ field in collaboration
with state veterinary departments, KVks and
NGOs.
Athulya (ILM-1990) Layer Chickens - New
Hope for Poultry Farmers
State of Indian Agriculture
Conservation and Propagation of Elite
Murrah Germplasm Available as Champion
Bulls with Farmers
7.57 Out of approximately 55 million breedable
buffaloes in India, hardly 15% are bred through
Artificial Insemination (AI). This requires over
100,000 bulls for natural service and 50006000 bulls for frozen semen production. It is
difficult to find quality superior bulls to meet
this demand. Genetic improvement programme
warrants quality frozen semen production
from genetically superior bulls and adoption
of AI at large scale. Such bulls are rare, isolated
and scattered in the field with few progressive
farmers/NGOs and used to the limited extent
with natural service in the vicinity. This poses
the threat that in due course this invaluable
germplasm may get deleted from the gene pool.
7.56 The scientists of All India Coordinated
Research Project (AICRP) Unit on Poultry
Breeding under Indian Council of Agricultural
Research at Mannuthy, Kerala have developed
high producing heat tolerant Athulya strain
(ILM-90) cross of IWN and IWP lines of layer
chicken with desirable egg weight at Mannuthy
in coordination with Directorate on Poultry,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The beneficiary of
these chicks could get more eggs per bird and a
premium price (Rs. 4-5 more per 100 eggs) for the
larger eggs laid by the hens even from the early
laying period itself. The mortality was also low
during the laying period.
The Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes,
Hisar undertook a novel exercise in conservation
and propagation of such superior Murrah bulls
through semen collection and cryopreservation.
Besides obtaining history of pedigree and dam’s
production potential, a general examination
of bull for breed characteristics and breeding
soundness is made. Bulls are tested for infectious
diseases and those found fit/negative are
subjected to collection of semen at farmers’
doorsteps. The collected semen is examined for its
normalcy and is processed for freezing, tested for
post-thaw evaluation and stored frozen in semen
Agricultural Research and Education straws. This semen is made available to farmers
interested in improvement of their buffaloes. The
owner is paid remuneration or half the frozen
doses as per his consent. The program was started
in June 2008 with a National Champion Murrah
bull named ‘Gholu’ from village Didwadi in
Panipat, Haryana. So far, the semen from the 13
elite bulls, located in various parts of Haryana
and Punjab, has been collected, frozen stored and
sold to farmers. First Embryo Transfer Mithun Calf (Bharat)
7.58 World’s first ever mithun calf through
embryo transfer technology was born at the
National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani,
Nagaland on March 27, 2012. Embryo transfer
technology (ETT) being one of the best tools
for faster multiplication of quality germplasm,
the scientists were working to standardize the
techniques for mithun since last five years.
Mithun (Bos frontalis), a rare bovine of Southeast Asia is mainly confined in four different
States viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland,
Manipur and Mizoram of North-eastern Hill
region of India. Presently, the free range system
of mithun rearing in its natural habitat (forest)
results in inbreeding as well as crossbreeding
with the local cattle, thereby resulting in loss
of quality mithun germplasm. To address the
issue of inbreeding and crossbreeding, the
scientists of Animal Physiology section of the
institute have successfully applied the Artificial
Insemination (AI) technique both at farm and the
field (Khonoma village of Nagaland) level and
produced AI-born calves.
139
Fisheries
Marine Fisheries and Mariculture
7.59 In the year 2011, Marine Fisheries Census
2011 was completed. Resource map of stock
structure of key species was documented. A
model for chlorophyll based forecasting of
fish and potential yield was completed. A
National Fisheries Grid to strengthen National
Marine Information System was established.
Development of harvesting strategies for oceanic
natural resources like tuna, large pelagics and
squids was outlined. Pop up satellite tagging of
yellowfin tunas for the first time was conducted
in Indian waters. Adoption of combination of
chumming with live bait and use of artificial
lures and fresh baits and concerned efforts aimed
at deep swimming tunas has resulted in increase
of this fishery. Broodstock development, induced
breeding and larval production of the marine
finfish Cobia, Rachycentron canadum was achieved
for the first time in India. Successful breeding
and seed production of nine marine Ornamental
fishes .Amphiprion ocellaris, A. percula, A. sebae,
A. nigripes, A. frenatus, Premnas biaculeatus,
Pomacentrus ocaerulus, Chrysiptera cyanae and
Dascyllus aruanus was continued. Tissue culture
technology for in vitro production of pearls from
blacklip oyster Pinctada margaritifera was further
developed. Large scale spat production of clams
Paphia malabarica, Meretrix meretrix, Crassostrea
madrasensis and Pinctada margaritifera was
achieved in hatcheries. Open sea cage farming
of seabass, cobia and lobster were demonstrated.
Green Algal extract (CadalminTM GAe)
developed and launched. This is 100% vegetarian
nutraceutical from green algae for joint pains and
arthritis. Green Mussel extract (GME), another
nutraceutical from green mussel for joint pains
was developed.
Brachishwater Aquaculture
7.60 Major achievements were the technology
of sea bass breeding and culture which has been
standardized and commercialized through Rajiv
Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture, Myladthurai,
Tamil Nadu. Another breakthrough was in
breeding of pond reared Cobia, Rachydentrum
140
canadum. Seabass feed under the brand name
of BHETKI AHAR has been standardized and
commercialized. Breakthrough in breeding of
pond reared Cobia, Rachydentrum canadum.
Shrimp feed technology (Starter, grower and
Finisher) for Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus
indicus was commercialized through M/s Bismi
Feeds Ltd., Perunthottam, Tamil Nadu. Organic
Shrimp farming of Penaeus monodon with organic
inputs was also standardized for the production
levels of 1.5 t/ha/crop. An immunodot blot
test for WSSV “CIBA IMMUNODOT” was
developed for early detection of WSS virus in
shrimp. Nine patents have been applied for
various diagnostic kits and methods. A molecular
diagnostic kit based on reverse transcriptase
polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for early
detection of betanodavirus, the causative agent
of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in finfish was
developed.
Inland Fisheries
7.61 In 2011, digital map of inland water bodies
of the country using remote sensing satellite data
for the water bodies of 0.5 ha and above were
completed for 7 states. Software was developed
for catch estimation using visual basic and MS
Access. Fish stock characterization is in progress
along river Ganga, Brahmaputra and Narmada by
digital truss images for morphometery and DNA
sequencing. Impact of climate change in inland
open waters suggest that out of 14 major river
systems , four rivers are predicted to lose more
than 7% of fish species under climate warming
scenario as determined from the model predicted.
Elevated temperature showed Indian Major Carps
maturing and spawning as early as March .Isolation
of nine bacterial strains resistant to and capable of
degrading dichlorophenol, trichlorophenol and
pentacholoropheno l(PCP) was achieved. Out of 9
strains tested, 5 were strongly degrading PCP and
may have potential application in bioremediation.
Three strains could be identified.
Cold water Fisheries
7.62 Development of GIS based decision
support system for aquaculture in Kumaon
region of Uttarakhand was completed.
State of Indian Agriculture
Assessment of Mahseer fishery resources along
Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Uttrakhand, Maharashtra and J&K were done
using Truss network and molecular markers.
Phylogenic tree of population structure of cold
water fishes was constructed. Population genetic
analysis and genetic variability of common
and economically important Snow trout, Salmo
richardsonii is underway. 57 microsatellite
markers were developed, out of which 27 were
validated in different populations. Genetically
improved strain of mirror carp and Ropsa
scale carp were successfully bred after 2 yrs
of transplantation and release as Champa 1
and Champa 2 along hill region of Arunachal
Pradesh, Sikkim and Meghalaya. Feasibility
studies of growing Hungarian strain of common
carp and Chocolate mahseer in hilly regions in
mono and polyculture systems were conducted.
Seed production of golden mahseer, Tor putitora
was upgraded for commercialization. Water
requirement for maintenance of broodstock ,
grow out culture of trout and exotic carps in
culture system observed t 5lps water for rainbow
trout and 1lps for carps were studied. 10 % of
Trout stock in farms of Arunachal Pradesh and
Sikkim and 2% of Mahseer stock in Uttrakhand (
DCFR) were found to be infected by pathogenic
fungi, Saprolegnia parasitica and S. diclina. The
growth of fungi was found to be inhibited by use
of extract of Kali sarson and lemon grass.
Fisheries Technology
7.63 The institute developed a large mesh size
purse seine for small mechanized/trawl fishery
and a large mesh gillnets for large pelagic for
Lakshadweep. Rubber wood was introduced as
alternate material for traditional craft construction.
A juvenile Bycatch Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting
Device (JEE-SSD) was developed. Isolation of
bioactive and industrially compounds from fish
and fishery wastes was achieved. Nutraceutical
Oyster Peptide t (OPex) from edible oyster
(Crassostrea madrasensis) extracted was found to
have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antibacterial properties.Technology for control of
biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria in food
processing environment was developed. Design
and development of effluent treatment plants for
seafood processing units was conducted. A Solar
Agricultural Research and Education 141
Fish Dyers of different capacities for different
products was designed. Different value added
products, canned products, Vacuum packed
and modified atmospheric packed steaks was
developed.
broodstock center/hatchery. To attain
production target of 4, 00,000 tones from
coastal aquaculture by 2020-21 as per
NFDB by horizontal expansion to 3,00,000
ha and compound growth rate of 6.13%,
the sector needs research support In the
formation of two specified Farms
Fish Genetic Resources
7.64 The database on 2358 indigenous
finfishes with respect to their taxonomic, genetic
information, and biological data was developed.
‘Fish Karyobank” containing information on
karyomorphology, molecular markers and
nucleotide sequences of selected fish species was
developed. 1500 DNA Barcodes for more than 400
marine and freshwater fish species was developed.
DNA Barcoding was used for forensic application
to detect adulteration in fish products to resolve
legal dispute. Sperm cryopreservation protocol
was developed for 26 fish species and validated in
18 fish species. A tissue bank was established with
over 13.000 accessions from different fish species.
Live gene bank has been established in Lucknow
and Guwahati. Cell lines were developed from 5
fresh water and 2 marine fish sp. Establishment of
National Fish Museum was initiated. Monoclonal
antibody for three commercially important fish
for Sero-survellance of pathogens was achieved.
CbCystatin in a hypoxia tolerant Indian Catfish,
Clarias batrachus was identified.
7.65 The
constraints/challenges
growth of sector are as under:
affecting
•
Investment in deep sea fishing required
as this resource is estimated to hold
7% of the marine fish resources and
exploitation is insignificant so far
•
Policy decision and implementation
mechanism regarding deep sea fishing
to be put in place by the Govt.
•
Investment in Sea cage culture and
simultaneous proper legislation to come
into effect regarding site and number of
culture units (cages) to be established
along coastal belt so as not to create
pollution and other legal hazards in near
future
•
Non availability of National multispecies brackishwater Shrimp and finfish
•
Absence of proper environmental flow
in Indian rivers for sustenance of river
ecosystem
•
Near absence of proper water harvesting
mechanism and water recirculatory
system in hilly regions.
•
Non availability of Vessel Management
cell (VMC), which could look after
the upkeep of departmental Vessel.
A separate Vessel Management Cell
(VMC) at the Institute level is needed to
take care of repair and maintenance of
research vessels.
•The sector needs a centre for advanced
studies in policy planning and fishery
management which can undertake
research in social Science as livelihood,
socio-economic and trade issues and
act as advisory on policy planning.
Development of business models and
total factor productivity in fishery sector.
Assist state departments of fisheries in
formulation of comprehensive fisheries
and aquaculture policy.
7.66 Some of the new initiatives to enhance
the productivity and production of the fisheries
sector are listed below:
•
Demonstration of Capture based
aquaculture (CBA), wherein the
juveniles of wild fishes caught are reared
to marketable sizes in captivity.
•
The fishermen society ‘Sampradayaka
Meenugara Sangha, Byndoor Valaya’ of
Upunda village located at Byndoor
participated with the researchers from
CMFRI, Mangalore in community based
activity and earned a farm gate price
of ~Rs75,000 per cage by harvesting
the product during July, when the
mechanized fishing is banned.
142
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
State of Indian Agriculture
Introduction
of
Banana
Shrimp
Fenneropenaeus merguiensis in Gujarat.
Introduction of low density farming
system for Litopenaeus vannamei as
diverse candidate for Shrimp farming.
Estimation of environmental flow for
sustenance of river ecosystem.
Population
structure,
migratory
behavior and development of breeding
protocol for Hilsa.
Initiation of bringing medium carp,
Pengba
(Oesteobrama
belangeri),
endangered fish of Manipur into cultural
fold.
Successful breeding of minor carp Labeo
dero present in foot hills, in captivity.
Public aquarium to showcase rich fish
bio-diversity established at NBFCR,
Lucknow.
Developmental of ornamental fish
villages.
National brood bank development
initiated.
Box 7.3: Breeding of high value marine tropical
finfish, silver pompano, Trachinotus blochii
Successful breeding of silver pompano can be
considered as a milestone towards the development
of pompano aquaculture in the country. The
farming of pompano can be successfully carried out
in ponds, tanks and floating sea cages. The species
is able to acclimatize and grow well even at a lower
salinity of about 10 ppt and hence it is suited for
farming in the vast low saline and brackish waters
of our country besides its potential for sea cage
farming. In the Indian domestic market the current
price of pompano is about Rs.200/-per kg.
Silver pompano Trachinotus blochi
Pompano cannulation for breeding in captivity
21-45 days fingerlings of Pompano
Box 7.4: Introduction of Trout farming in Sikkim
DCFR, Bhimtal in association with Department
of Fisheries, Sikkim under the project entitled
“Sustainable Utilization of Mountain Fishery
Resources: A Partnership Mode”; made three (3)
trout breeding units functional for production of
sufficient rainbow trout seed. On farm training
programme on brood stock management, seed
production and transportation of green-eyed ova
have been organized since last four years. Seed
technology has been adopted by 199 private farmers
Brood Stock at State Trout Farm, Uttaray
Agricultural Research and Education during 2011-12 against only one private farmer
during 2008-09. 700 more farmers are schedule to
take seed production in coming years Seed thus
produced will be utilized in Farms as well as for
ranching in natural resources.
Breeding at Private Farm, Kuokhola
Box 7.5: Fish based production system in
seasonally flooded wetlands
CIFRI implemented fish based production system
in seasonally flooded wetlands of West Bengal. It
suggested for stocking of 6000 fingerlings/ha with
supplementary feeding in these wetlands during
flood period. The practices improved the water
productivity from 183 g/m32008-09 to 209 g/m3 by
2010-11 and the fish yield from 2540 kg/ha in 200809 to 3771 kg/ha
Fish haul from the seasonally flooded wetland
Agricultural Engineering
Farm Mechanization and Energy Management
7.67 Farm mechanization has played a critical
role in improving agricultural production as
well as productivity through timeliness of
field operations and by enabling proper and
efficient use of inputs. A number of successful
farm machineries have been developed and
143
commercialized during the past two decades
through the sustained efforts of R&D institutions
and industry. However, individual ownership of
farm machinery by small and marginal farmers,
which constitute the core of Indian agriculture,
often proves to be uneconomical, especially in
operations like land preparation and harvesting.
With continued shrinkage in average farm
holding size, custom hiring of farm machinery
is being increasingly practised. It implies the use
of various improved farm tools and equipment
to reduce drudgery and to enhance overall
productivity and production with the lowest cost
of production. The equipment and technologies
developed for aiding mechanisation of Indian
agriculture are given in Box 7.6.
Box 7.6: Equipment and Technologies
developed for aiding Mechanisation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Precision planter-cum-herbicide applicator
Seed-cum-fertilizer drill for hilly regions
Tractor-operated rear-mounted onion harvester
Animal-drawn farmyard manure spreader
Power-operated ribboner for jute
Tractor-operated 7-row multi-crop planter for
seed spices
Needle type tray seeder for vegetable nursery
Power weeder for rice SRI cultivation
Pedal-operated maize dehusker sheller
Power tiller-operated zero-till drill for hilly region
Palmyra tree climber
Hand-operated rotary areca nut peeler
Test rig for tractor roll-over protective structures
Solar-assisted heat pump dryer for high-value
crops
High solid biogas plant
Peeler for dehydrated garlic flakes
Cashew nut drum roasting machine
Automated flyer spinning machine
Rotating flat system for CIRCOT Minicard
Axial Flow Cotton Pre-cleaner
RFID Technology for Cotton Bale Tagging
Fibre segregator machine for coconut fibres
Digital radiography, CT and MRI
Groundnut kernel de-skinner
Continuous feed type Aloe vera gel extractor
Copra drier
144
Challenges
7.68 Farm mechanization is an issue that requires
immediate attention if the problems of human
labour shortage, drudgery in farm operations,
efficiency of input-use, tools and implements
suited to women farm workers, and climate
resilience are needed to be resolved expeditiously.
The challenges ahead are mechanization for
horticultural and livestock sectors, conservation
agriculture, hill agriculture and site-specific input
applications. Another set of challenges in farm
mechanization relates to enhancing the availability
of high quality farm machines through extensive
manufacturing, testing, and marketing, especially,
to mechanization-deficit regions.
7.69 Energy management in agriculture is
another major issue. Optimization of inputs,
including farm operations, should lead to
minimizing the energy intensity of Indian
agriculture. An important challenge is to ensure
proper matching of farm implements with primemovers for greater energy efficiency. The primemovers themselves need to be operated optimally.
Another challenge is to reduce the dependence of
Indian agriculture on conventional fuels through
substitution of conventional energy sources with
renewable sources for long term sustainability.
While the available solar technologies need to
be utilized to meet energy needs in agricultural
production and post harvest operations, the
surplus biomass needs to be efficiently converted
into biofuels to meet fuel needs of agricultural
operations. Algal fuels may hold the key to
making Indian agriculture energy neutral.
7.70 On-farm processing and value addition is
an issue that is associated with reduction in post
harvest losses and better farm income realization.
The challenges include creation of infrastructure
for conditioning, cleaning, grading, packaging,
and storage in production catchments and
transportation from production catchments to
market destinations. Available technologies now
permit primary and secondary processing of
agricultural produce in production catchments,
thereby, permitting the farm families and other
rural workers to enhance their employment and
income. The challenge is to adopt biorefinary
State of Indian Agriculture
approach for processing the whole agricultural
produce so as to derive the maximum benefit
including the environmental sustainability.
Way Forward
7.71 During the recent past, there has been a
spurt in seeking engineering inputs in agriculture
for reducing the cost of production, climate
resilience and enhanced farm income and rural
employment. Agricultural mechanization and post
harvest value addition are the major engineering
interventions sought by the stakeholders.
Besides, the needs for equipment for efficient
utilization of natural resources and energy
management have also been realized. CIAE has
formulated comprehensive programmes on Farm
Mechanization and Precision Farming and Energy
Management in Agriculture.
Expected Outcome/change in scenario
•
Reduced cost of agricultural production
•
Increased farm productivity
•
Successful models for custom hiring, rural
workshops for fabrication, repair and
maintenance activities at village/cluster
level.
•
Increased farmers’ income
•
Increased cropping intensity
•
Conservation
resources
•
Environmental sustainability
•
Greater climatic
agriculture
•
Conservation of non renewable energy in
farm operations
•
Increased use of renewable energy in
agriculture
•
Conservation of natural and input resources
•
In-house capacity created for research and
human resource development
•
Environmental sustainability
•
Greater climatic
agriculture
of
natural
resilience
resilience
and
input
of
Indian
of
Indian
Agricultural Research and Education Ongoing schemes
•
Post-harvest technology for production
of contamination free clean cotton and
standardization of ginning process and
machines
•
Mechanical processing, fibre utilization and
product development
•
Enhancement of quality and characterization
of cotton and other natural fibres, yarns and
textiles.
•
Use of Environment friendly agents &
water, energy and chemical conserving
technologies for cotton and blended textiles
•
Value addition to natural fibres based
biomass and byproducts
•
Entrepreneurship in cotton technologies
and human resource development
Success Stories
Novel Flexi Check Dam using Technical
Textile
7.72 A novel flexible check dam made of
rubber-textile composite has been developed for
application across watersheds and small rivulets.
Flexi dams, commonly known as rubber dams
are a special group of geo-system, and made from
technical textiles specially prepared from tailor
made textile-rubber composites as per the design
need. Rubber-fabric composite has been shaped
into a suitable water-proof and wrinkle-free dam
145
structure as per the size of each check dam. A
low cost inflation–deflation mechanism for the
rubber dam has also been developed along with
an appropriate installation method on concrete
structure. It has been successfully installed at
small watersheds in Odisha at five locations,
and shown that control of water flow and timely
storage of water by the rubber dam resulted in
increased crop production by 60% in the kharif
(monsoon), and 45% in rabi (winter) seasons.
Entrepreneurship on Briquetting Plant for
Agro-residues
7.73 Shri Gandhi has successfully established
the biomass briquetting plant (500 kg/h capacity)
at Mandideep, Bhopal district under the technical
guidance of CIAE, Bhopal. Presently he produces
about 3000 kg biomass briquettes per day basis
and sells to local industries for thermal application
using agro residues such as soybean straw and
pigeon pea stalk, lantana weed stalk and other
such weeds. This helps in gain of additional
money to farmers of nearby villages, who were
otherwise burning surplus agro-residues in the
field.
Intensive kusmi lac cultivation on semialata
for sustained lac cultivation
7.74 Shri Santosh Nirmal Horo raised a
plantation of semialata in an area of 0.2 ha with
2000 plants in Kharsidag village, Ranchi dist.
146
with technical support from IINRG, Ranchi. 35.0
kg of kusmi broodlac was inoculated in July 2008
on about 1264 semialata plants. 241 kg broodlac
and 15 kg scrapedlac was harvested from 1084
plants giving an output: input ratio of 6.89.
Subsequently, 40.0 kg of kusmi broodlac was
inoculated in July on 1202 semialata plants. A very
good crop (333 kg broodlac and 45 kg scraped lac)
was harvested giving a broodlac output: input
ratio of 8.325. This has improved farmers return.
State of Indian Agriculture
uses a tool known as On-Farm Trial (OFT).
The major thematic areas under which OFTs
were carried out in crop husbandry include for
example Varietal Evaluation, Integrated Nutrient
Management, Integrated Crop Management,
Integrated Disease Management, Integrated
Pest Management, Resource Conservation
Technologies, Weed Management, Integrated
Farming Systems, Post-Harvest Technology
and Value Addition, Improved Tools and
Farm Machinery, Seed and Planting Material
Production, and Improved Storage Techniques;
whereas in the case of livestock Production and
Management were Disease Management, Breed
Evaluation, and Nutrition Management; and
while in case of other enterprises were sericulture,
mushroom production, vinegar production,
vermin-composting and market led extension.
7.76 Frontline demonstration (FLD) is another
major mandated activity of KVKs, which aims at
demonstrating the production potential of crops,
livestock and other allied enterprises.
7.77 In order to create awareness among
farmers and other stakeholders on improved
agricultural technology, the KVKs organize large
number of extension programmes like field days,
exhibitions, kisan mela, kisan ghosthi and film
shows, besides other extension programmes like
scientists visits to farmers fields, group meetings
and discussions, workshops, lectures and use
of mass media for wider dissemination of farm
technologies.
Agricultural Extension
7.75 The ICAR has created a network of 630 Krishi
Vigyan Kendra to assess, refine and demonstrate
new technologies and products developed by the
National Agricultural Research System (NARS).
The KVKs are playing the role of intermediary
institutions to fine tune the research conducted,
often under controlled conditions, before its
adoption in farmer’s field. With the objective of
developing location specific technology modules,
the entire process is carried out in participatory
mode involving the farmers. The process of
Technology Assessment and Refinement (TAR)
7.78 Kisan Mobile Advisory is another initiative
in using Information and Communication
Technology for dissemination of need-based and
timely information to the farmers. The KVKs also
conducted programmes for capacity building of
farmers and extension personnel of district line
departments to update their knowledge and skills
and orient them on frontier areas of technological
developments. The other major contributions
of KVKs included: production and supply of
technological products; innovative technology
delivery mechanisms; following an institutional
approach for technology adoption through FIGs,
Farmer Clubs, etc.; special emphasis on women
empowerment; production of inputs at site like
Agricultural Research and Education seed and planting materials; emphasis on rural
entrepreneurial development like piggery rearing,
low cost mushroom production, bee keeping,
etc.; promotion of eco-friendly technologies like
IPM, Zero tillage, etc.; and promotion of resource
conservation technologies like laser leveling,
agro-forestry mode, etc.
7.79 In addition to these, there are several
success stories of KVKs covering paddy task
force- a solution to farm labour shortage, quality
protein maize, innovative approach in sericulture,
sweet potato based feeding system for pig, and
protected cultivation of vegetables in net-house.
147
•
Way Forward
7.81 The important measures that needs to be
strengthen KVKs are:
•
Strengthening
communication
and knowledge sharing through
establishment and maintenance of
technology museums, mobile field
services, village adoption programmes,
farmer field schools, Tele-Advisory
services, online agri video channel, SMS
based agri-advisory service, information
kiosks,
disaster
management
interventions, organising exhibitions,
field days, exposure visits, etc.
•
Strengthening KVKs with provision of
additional subject matter specialists in
the field of agri-business management,
conservation agriculture, agricultural
processing and value addition and
knowledge management.
•
Provision of additional building,
laboratory facilities and demonstration
units as per emerging requirements.
•
Strengthen media and e-resources
through
publications
such
as
newsletters, books, manuals, leaflets,
brochures, technology hand outs,
etc., media coverage of extension
programmes, development of cyber
extension platforms and extension
portal, content development cyber
extension, production of audio visual
and interactive aids, etc.
•
Strengthening market intelligence, EDP
and consultation through EDP packages,
project
report
preparations
and
consultancies, industry and enterprise
relations and partnership, establishing
local market network on prices,
establishing value chain demonstration
units, etc.
•
Strengthening continuing education
programmes through open and distance
Challenges
7.80 It has been observed that younger generation
is not interested in taking up agricultural and allied
enterprises as a livelihood option. Therefore, it is
a matter of concern how to inculcate interest in
agriculture and catch them young to retain in the
agriculture sector. Besides, the other issues being
faced are listed here under:
•
•
•
Acute shortage and exorbitant prices of
recommended Agro-inputs affecting the
technology transfer and applications
In the changing agricultural scenario,
marketing problems are dominating
over
the
production
problems.
Marketing support to farmers for
primary processing, storage, grading,
packing, certification, transportation
etc. is equally important for successful
technology transfer, adoption and
benefits to farmers at large.
KVKs are finding it difficult to up-scale
the assessed and refined technologies
which are found fit for adoption by
farmers on large scale.
•
Meeting the increasing expectations of
stakeholders with the existing manpower
and available infrastructure.
•
Provision of uninterrupted power
supply for E-connectivity and solving
bandwidth problems are necessary
for the use of ICTs by KVKs and other
outreach programmes of NARS.
Adequacy and continuity of staff in
KVKs is emerging as a bottleneck to
sustained progress.
148
State of Indian Agriculture
whey fruit juice beverage, curcuminenriched flavored milk, noni natural juice
and concentrate have been formulated.
Functional fermented dairy products
with synbiotics have been developed with
prolonged shelf life have been evaluated
in another centre at AAU, Anand.
learning for farmers and entrepreneurs
with online courses, conducting certificate
courses for farmers, entrepreneurs, input
dealers, extension agencies, etc.
•
•
Strengthening the monitoring and
coordination mechanism of KVKs by
establishing more number of Zonal
Project Directorates and Zonal Scientific
Advisory Panels.
•
In the centre on Conservation, Cultivation,
Processing and Quality Evaluation of
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, ecofriendly low-cost post-harvest processing
technology for storage, packaging of
raw drug material of different medicinal
aromatic plants has been standardized
for medicinal and aromatic plants. Large
scale commercial production of quality
seed/planting material true to the type
of medicinal and aromatic plants have
been produced and sold to the farmers
and growers.
•
In the sub-programme on Animal
Biotechnology – Molecular Diagnostics
For Emerging Avian Viral Diseases and
their Immunopathogensis, diagnostics
kits for avian viral diseases have been
developed and validation of chicken
anemia virus antibody detection kit has
been completed. For Marek’s disease
diagnosis kit is being validated.
•
Under two different programmes,
Quality Production in Fishes for Sustainable
Farming (GBPUAT, Pantnagar) and
Utilization of Inland Saline and Sodic Soil for
Aquaculture (CIFE, Mumbai), technology
for production of major freshwater
fishes for sustainable farming has been
standardized. The breeding season of
Indian major and exotic carps has been
prolonged by improved water quality and
feeding management. Inland saline water
resources are being used for aquaculture
and standardized technology for the
commercial farming of tiger shrimp
(Penaeus monodon) using inland-saline
water has been developed.
Impact assessment of KVK activities on
regular basis so that necessary changes
can be made in the ongoing programmes
for the benefit of farming community.
Agricultural Education
7.82 Niche Area of Excellence (NAE):
This programme is aimed at creating global
competitiveness in agricultural education and
research through excellence in teaching, research,
consultancy and other services in specific field.
Financial support to 30 ongoing sub-programmes
was provided in the year 211-12 and 20 new
Niche Area of Excellence were sanctioned in the
year 2011-12.
7.83 Some of the important initiatives/main
highlights being undertaken are as under:
•
In the centre on Integrated Centre for
Drought Resistance and Management
: Genetic Engineering for Developing
Crops-resistant to Drought, seven genes
for protein turnover and folding, 8
transcriptional activators and 8 genes
related to oxidative stress have been
validated. Novel genes have been
characterized and technology for creating
double haploids has been developed.
•
Under the programme, Microbial
Biotechnology for Imparting Resistance in
Plants against Insect Pests and Pathogens,
transgenic tomato plants with resistance
to leaf curl virus through transformation
with RNAi technology have been
developed.
•
In the centre on the Development of Agrobased Nutraceuticals for Health, agrobased neutraceuticals viz. maltodextrinenriched ice-cream, lycopene-enriched
7.84 A
few
technologies
have
been
commercialized. These are commercial utilization
of waste inland-saline areas and saline water
Agricultural Research and Education where crop productivity is very poor. The
following technologies were adopted by the
farmers: i. Latex agglutination based kit for
detecting chicken anaemia virus (CAV) infection,
ii. Latex agglutination based kit for detecting
Marek’s disease virus infection.
Entrepreneurship Development
7.85 Experiential learning is a novel courseware
aimed at promoting entrepreneurship, knowledge
and marketing skills through meaningful hands on
experience and working in project mode, through
end to end approach in product development. The
Council has provided financial support for the
establishment of 351 experiential learning units in
various agricultural universities. Out of these, 110
units were sanctioned in the last year. This subprogramme would help in transcending the mere
knowledge-imparting education with limited
practical training to experience-based behavioral
change through comprehensive practice sessions
involving all aspects of an agricultural enterprise,
from production to consumption.
National
Information
System
on
Agricultural Education Network in India
(NISAGENET)
7.86 In the NISAGENET system, all the 61 AUs
have been added and the system has been made
operational to enter/update and upload data
from their respective university/colleges. To
expedite data management activities from AUs,
3 Sensitization cum Training Workshops for the
Nodal Officers of the NISAGENET were organized.
A Reference Guide for Data Management has been
prepared and made available on website and also
distributed to the participants in the workshops.
The system is rich in many layers of information.
Many universities are also maintaining online
cells in their websites.
Box 7.7: National Academy of Agricultural
Research Management (NAARM)
The National Academy of Agricultural Research
Management (NAARM) was established by the
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
at Hyderabad in the year 1976, as the Central Staff
College of Agriculture. Initially its primary role was
149
to impart Foundation Training to the new entrants
of the Agricultural Research Service of ICAR. In
1979, it acquired its present name, and over the
years, it has grown as a full-fledged Academy with
a wider mandate to enhance the capacities of the
institutions under NARS at all levels in agricultural
research and education management, and carry out
research to provide policy support in critical areas of
organizational reform. In the Eleventh Plan period,
the Academy added a new dimension of Post
Graduate education in Agricultural Management
and Technology Management to develop a new
generation of leaders for meeting the challenges of
agricultural development in the 21st century.
National Agricultural Innovation Project
7.87 NAIP is a World Bank and Govt. of India
funded project being implemented by the ICAR
contributes to the sustainable transformation of
Indian agricultural sector from an orientation
of primary food self-sufficiency to one in which
a market orientation is equally important for
poverty alleviation and income generation. The
project is implemented through four components
involving 191 consortia leaders and 646 consortia
partners, adding up the number of participating
institutions to 837. The project is granted extension
till June, 2014.
7.88 With a view to create an enabling
environment for the management of change in
NARS, 43 sub-projects are taken up in component
1.Through the ten Business Planning and
Development Units (BPDs), 336 entrepreneurs
have been incubated, 83 technologies developed
by NARS have been commercialized and
a total revenue of Rs. 13.22 crore has been
generated. Some of the achievements in ICT
are operationalization of an online e-publishing
system for ICAR research journals, development
of a knowledge management platform Agropedia for aggregation and dissemination
of information, rice knowledge management
portal for providing complete rice information
from a single portal, Consortium for e-Resources
in Agriculture (CeRA) facilitating 24×7 online
access with approximately 3000 scholarly
journals from 7 major publishers and catering
to 134 institutions under NARS, creation of
150
group catalog “AgriCat” (http://www.agricat.
worldcat.org) of 12 major libraries for online access
by the researchers and students, implementation
of a general purpose statistical software package
(SAS) with all modules for the NARS, creation of
a new platform KVKnet (http://agropedialabs.
iitk.ac.in/extension/) and vKVK (http://www.
vkvk.in) as a knowledge network for KVK
scientists, starting of seven e-courses for the
Bachelor’s degree programmes in the discipline
of Agriculture, Horticulture, Veterinary Science,
Home Science, Fishery Science, Agricultural
Engineering and Dairy Technology, creation of
meta data & abstracts of 7486 and full text of 6000
of Ph. D. theses and setting up of nine media cells
in different parts of the country for improving
outreach and enhancing the brand image and
visibility of the ICAR/NAIP.
7.89 Total of 182 commodity price forecasts
for 36 commodities were disseminated for the
benefit of farmers across the country. The impact
study has revealed that due to timely preharvest forecast communications, the beneficiary
turmeric and cotton farmers additionally earned
Rs. 100 crore. A carbon tool kit for sustainable
agro forestry CDM projects has been developed.
7.90 A total of 361 scientists from NARS were
deputed for international trainings to global
institutions in frontier areas of sciences. Besides,
258 scientists have been trained abroad in the
consortia based programmes. An interactive
meeting with the scientists trained abroad has
paved the way for effective utilization of the
trained man power. Out of 88 national trainings
in frontier area of agricultural sciences, 63 have
been completed. Trained manpower is being used
to develop a center of excellence in respective
discipline besides being a Course Director/
Resource person for further training in India.
7.91 Research on production to consumption
system is covered by 51 consortia working across
the sub-sectors of Indian agriculture. Some of
the value chains identified include medicinal
and aromatic plants, bio-fuel crops, poultry,
fruits and vegetables, fisheries, food grains and
oilseeds, plantation crops, livestock products,
natural dyes and agro forestry. A good number
of consortia have developed market driven
State of Indian Agriculture
technologies, process protocols and products
which have shown positive impact in terms
of income and employment generation, value
addition and strengthening of weak chains.
Some of them are: i. Pashmina goat kid “Noori”
(born on 9th March 2012) developed by transfer
of cultured embryos in blastocyst stage to the
recipient goats through hand guided technique
is the first report in the world, ii. Clinical trials of
foxtail millet diabetic food on diabetic volunteers
revealed blood glucose reduction by 14-18%,
triglycerides and cholesterol reduction 8-10%,
LDL cholesterol reduction by 5% and HDL
cholesterol increase by 2-3%, iii. Process for
virgin coconut oil production by intermediate
moisture method, iv. Technologies for utilization
of defatted dried coconut meal using cold and
hot extruders, v. Anthocyanin-rich black carrot
(IPC 126) and beta-carotene + lycopene rich
red carrot (IPC 56) varieties identified for mass
multiplication and distribution to the farmers, vi.
Off season production technology of carnation for
sub-temperate conditions, vii. Standardization
of technology for production of natural ecopowders and production of 2000 kg of consumer
preferred 5 colours namely orange, pink, yellow,
blue and green, using basic sources Annatto, beet
root, marigold and indigo, viii. Identification
of Melia dubia and Dalbergia sissoo as potential
indigenous and fast growing pulp wood species
due to their high pulp recovery and acceptable
basic density, ix. A new method for production
of clarified sweet sorghum juice using filter aid
and vacuum filtration system, x. Process for
preparation of handmade/quality papers and
Micro Crystalline Cellulose Powder from banana
fibre, xi. Technology for production of cooked
and smoked pork sausage with the addition of
fermented bamboo shoot, xii. Development and
commercialization of the value added product
“Shelf stable sheep rumen crackles” from sheep
by-products and xiii. Dipstick based detection
kits for detection of Potato viruses viz. PVX, PVS,
PVM and PVY.
7.92 Sustained improvement in the incomes
and well-being of farm families mainly in
disadvantaged areas which have so far been left
behind in development is aimed in component
3 through 33 consortia operating in 102
Agricultural Research and Education disadvantaged districts out of 150 in the country.
Significant achievements are: i. Publication on
‘Selected livelihood options for disadvantaged
regions of India’ wherein the major interventions
described are: Integrated Rice-Fish-poultry
system, Rice-fish-vegetable system, Poultryfish-vegetable system, Pig- fish-vegetable
system, Fish- singhara - makhana system,
Hybrid maize in tribal districts of Rajasthan and
Gujarat, Utilization of upland fallows for maize
cultivation in Bastar, Cultivation of transplanted
redgram in Bidar, Maize based intercropping
in Jhabua, Conservation and strengthening of
local high value poultry race Kadaknath, Tuber
crop cultivation, Lac cultivation in Jharkhand,
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, Mushroom
cultivation, Pig rearing, Interventions on
goat, Vermi compost and Water resource
development, ii. Recommendation of IFS models
viz., Specialized Integrated Farming System
(SIFS) Model, Rice – Groundnut- Livestock:
model for small farmers, Livestock- Vegetables
model for landless community, Integrated
Redgram and Bengalgram – VermicompostingAzolla - and Poultry Farming System for Bidar
district, Sustainable Farming System Models for
Prioritized Micro-Water Sheds In Rainfed Areas of
Jharkhand, iii. Horizontal expansion of Integrated
Pig-Fish-Vegetable IFS module Integrated RiceFish-Vegetable IFS module in Assam, Rice –Fish
-Poultry Farming System for Wetland Clusters
in Tamil Nadu and Livelihood Security through
cultivation of vegetables and spices, iv. Selected
interventions
viz.,Geographical
Indication
Registration, Organic Farming Certification
Program, Livestock population growth, Desilting
of minor irrigation tanks for increasing storage
and improving soil fertility, Replacement of
Lantana with bamboo, Understand the nature
and go with proper technology – A success story
of Sokham Gaon, Natural Hatching of Kadaknath
Eggs, Impact of Mechanisation, Mitigating Water
Logging through Bio-drainage with Sugarcane
and Innovative way of raising vegetable nursery
under saline water situation, v. Through an
innovative service called ‘m-Krishi-Fisheries’,
vi. Land shaping for the low lying coastal areas
to farm pond, furrow and ridge, and paddy-cumfish culture, vii. Biodiversity survey for plant,
animal and fish landraces was undertaken in the
151
districts of Chamba, Udaipur and Adilabad and
seed chain of distinct landraces was identified
and developed, viii. Synergy with other
organizations, ix. Marketing and x. Sustainability
of Post Project Activities.
7.93 Sixty one sub-projects are operating in
frontier areas of basic and strategic research
like allele mining, genomics, bio-sensors, soil
organic carbon dynamics, abiotic stress, cryopreservation, climate change, off-season flowering
and fruiting in mango, input use efficiency, ethnic
and fermented foods, etc.
7.94 Overall, the project progress is satisfactory
as revealed through the performance indicators,
viz. development of 91 public private partnerships,
piloting of 50 rural industries, filing of 51 patent/
intellectual property protection applications,
publication of 181 research papers in high impact
peer reviewed journals, international training of
361 scientists in frontier areas of sciences and 258
scientists in the consortia, establishment of ten
BPDs, development of 69 production technologies,
80 processing technologies and 181 novel tools/
protocols/methodologies for research and
commercialization of 31 technologies.
Pashmina goat kid “Noori” born through hand
guided technique of transfer of cultured embryo
National Fund for Basic, Strategic
and Frontier Application Research in
Agriculture
Salient achievements
•
An autoclavable microencapsulation system
152
State of Indian Agriculture
with multistage break up two fluid nozzle
has been developed for microencapsulation
of sensitive food components which are
prone to contamination (microorganisms
and their products) including bacteriocins.
Microencapsulation of the probiotic species,
of yeast, Lactobacillus casei, and pediocin,
nisin, xylanase, pectinase and amylase has
been done.
•
A Patent has been obtained on Fermentation
vessel for conducting rumen gas production
studies in vitro.
•
Indigenous lab scale design and fabrication
of atmospheric pressure cold plasma reactor
with and without cooling system has
been developed for environment friendly
treatment of cotton fabrics for effective
dyeing and other qualities. Generation of
atmospheric pressure cold plasma could
also be achieved.
•
Argulus siamensis has been identified as
the most prevalent species followed by
A. japonicus causing the highly damaging
parasitic disease, argulosis, in Indian
aquaculture systems. A PCR based marker
for identification of the two species has been
developed.
•
Stem cell culture has been established using
pig bone marrow MSC lines. These cell
lines will be used for producing transgenic
pluripotent cells which in turn can be used
for development of transgenic pigs
•
A transgenic with the constitutive expression
of signaling gene BjEll1 available in the
plant itself in mustard substantially reduced
aphid infestation. A transgenic with a similar
gene BjEll2 showed resistance to Alternaria
blight, a fungal disease.
•
Level of expression of 5 genes, BMP 15,
GDF 9, MATER, ZAR 1 and IGFBP 1, were
identified as the markers for development
competence for oocytes to be used for in vitro
embryo production in buffaloes and help in
improving the in vitro production protocol.
•
A gene Lef-8 gene has been identified as a
marker for quick and correct identification
of insecticidal Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses
(NPVs) specific to different insect species.
•
Autotransgenic (that is with a gene of self)
fish of the species , Clarias batrachus (Indian
catfish magur), has been made with excess
production of growth hormone and faster
growth in confinement
•
Endrometrial epithelial, stromal and luteal
cell cultures of buffalo were established
which can be used to study prostaglandin
and progesterone production in buffalo.
Insulin, IGF 1 and nitric oxide were found
to be related to luteal functioning and
success of pregnancy. Pregnancy Associted
Glycoprotein 1 (PAG 1) gene, and, Oxytocin,
Estrogen & progesterone receptor genes have
been cloned. PAG 7 and PAG 11 proteins
have been purified which may be useful in
developing pregnancy diagnostics.
•
Ovule-specific promoter FM 1 has been
cloned from Arabidopsis and presence of
expression has been validated in sorghum.
Methodologies for screening the ovary
development process in transgenics was
developed. An unique target sequence of
the SERK 1 gene (on chromosome 6) for
RNAi silencing has been subcloned in an
appropriate vector and is being used in
transforming sorghum plants.
Intellectual Property
Management
and
Technology
IPR Portfolio
7.95 IPR portfolio of ICAR has increased in terms
of number of ICAR institutes undertaking IPR
protection activities, the number of forms of IPR
secured, and the number of IPR grants to ICAR.
While a total of 34 IPR protection applications (33
patents and 1 trademark) were filed by 11 ICAR
institutes in 2001, the corresponding figures have
risen by September, 2012 to 1621 IPR applications
(707 patents, 868 plant varieties, 21 Trademarks,
3 Designs, and 22 copyrights). A total of 143
patents (including 6 international patents),
registration of 298 plant varieties of notified crops,
21 trademarks, 22 copyrights and 3 designs have
been granted to ICAR for IP protection.
CHAPTER 8
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
8.1 The animal production system in India is
predominantly part of a mixed crop-livestock
farming system vital for livelihood security of
the farmers. In such systems, the livestock sector
supplements income of the farmers, provides
employment, draught power and manure etc.
The livestock production system assumes special
significance in the present context of sustained
economic growth, rising income, increasing
urbanization, changes in taste and preference
that have led to dietary changes reflecting the
growing demand for milk, meat, egg and fish. The
development of livestock sector is more inclusive
and can result in a sustainable agriculture
system.
Dairying and Livestock Production
Milk
8.2 India continues to be the largest producer of
milk in the world. The estimate of milk production
in 2011-12 is 127.9 million tonnes compared to
121.8 million tonnes in 2010-11and 53.9 million
tonnes in 1990-91. Per capita availability of milk
at national level has increased from 176 grams
per day in 1990-91 to 290 grams per day in 201112. Growth in milk production in 2011-12 was
about 5% over the previous year.
Meat
8.3 Total meat production from cattle, buffalo,
sheep, goat, pig and poultry at the all India level
increased from 4.01 million tonnes in 2007-08
to 5.5 million tonnes in 2011-12. Poultry meat
production from commercial poultry farms
were included in the production estimates of
meat from 2007-08 onwards. Growth in meat
production achieved in 2011-12 was about 13.25%
over previous year.
Wool
8.4 The estimated wool production at the
national level has increased to 44.7 million kg. in
2011-12 in comparison to 41.2 million kg. in 199091. Growth in wool production in 2011-12 was
about 4% over the previous year.
Egg
8.5 The estimate of total egg production for
the year 2011-12 was 66.4 billion numbers as
compared to 21.1 billion during 1990-91. Growth
in egg production in 2011-12 was about 5.44%
over the previous year.
Fish
8.6 India is the second largest producer of fish
in the world, contributing about 5.54 per cent
of global production. The total fish production
during 2011-12 is provisionally estimated at 8.85
million tonnes compared to 8.4 million tonnes in
2010-11 with a growth of about 5.3% per annum.
More than 60% of fish production is contributed
by the inland fisheries, the rest being from the
marine sector. The Gross Domestic Product from
the fisheries sector at current prices during 201011 was Rs. 62,594 crore which is 4.93 per cent of
the total GDP of agriculture & allied sectors.
8.7 During 2011-12, the volume of fish and fish
products exported was about 8,62,000 tonnes
worth about Rs.16,597.23 crore i.e. about US $ 3
billion. The export of fish and fish products has
more than doubled during the Eleventh Plan
period.
8.8 Growth in fishery sub-sector is next only
to poultry. The policy for fishery development
emphasizes inland fisheries, particularly
aquaculture in recent years, which has been
instrumental in increasing production, enhancing
exports and reducing the poverty of fishermen.
The four components of production, nutrition,
health and management in these sub-sectors
are supported through various schemes of the
Government.
154
State of Indian Agriculture
Table 8.1:
Milk
Eggs
Wool
Meat
Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGRs) in Production of Milk, Egg, Wool and
Meat at All-India Level (%)
1980-81 to 1989-90
5.6
8.06
3
-
1990-91 to 1999-00
4.2
4.2
1.7
-
2000-01 to 2010-11
4.2
5.6
-1.2
7.0 *
1980-81 to 2010-11
4.6
6.3
1.0
-
Note: *CAGR for meat production is for the year 2007-08 to 2010-11 Meat production data from 2007-08 is not
comparable with the previous years data as poultry meat production from commercial poultry farms was
included from 2007-08 onwards.
8.9 India has the world’s largest livestock
population, accounting for about half the
population of buffaloes and 1/6th of the goat
population. Such a large population of livestock
presents a challenge wherein existing productivity
levels are sustained by application of modern
science and technology, incentives and policies.
Plan Schemes
Livestock Health
8.10 High prevalence of various animal
diseases like Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD),
Paste des Petit Ruminants (PPR), Brucellosis,
Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza etc. is
a serious impediment to growth in the livestock
sector. The economic loss on account of FMD
is estimated to be more than Rs.20,000 crore
per annum (NCAP, Preliminary Report 2010).
Most of these animal diseases can be prevented
through timely immunization. The Department
of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries
(DADF) has initiated National Programmes
for prevention and control of FMD, PPR and
Brucellosis through the State Governments. The
FMD control programme initially started in 54
districts in 2003 has been expanded to 221 districts
and will be expanded to cover the entire country
in a phased manner. Similar programmes have
been initiated to control PPR and Brucellosis.
Shortages of vaccines and lack of proper cold
chain facility are among the major hindrances to
a faster implementation of these programmes.
Veterinary Support Services
8.11 India has a total of 10,094 veterinary
hospitals and polyclinics and 19,531 veterinary
dispensaries as on 01.04.2012. Most of these have
poor infrastructure and equipment. Further, the
technical manpower is inadequate (with about
25,000 veterinarians in government sector as
against the estimated requirement of about 67,000)
to support health programmes for the massive
livestock population. DADF has initiated a
programme for “Establishment and Strengthening
of existing Veterinary Hospitals and Dispensaries
(ESVHD)” to strengthen the veterinary services
at the field level. There is a need to strengthen
veterinary hospital facilities for timely diagnosis
and treatment of animal diseases. Emphasis
also needs to be given to strengthen the mobile
veterinary services to ensure door-step veterinary
support, particularly in inaccessible areas.
8.12 The present system of disease reporting is
slow. A computerized National Animal Disease
Reporting System (NADRS) linking Taluka,
Block, District and State Headquarters to a
Central Disease Reporting and Monitoring Unit
at the DADF in New Delhi has been initiated
in 2010-11. The software for the system is being
developed by NIC to ensure faster and reliable
disease reporting and processing of data which
will facilitate timely intervention for prevention
and containment of animal diseases.
Challenges
8.13 The main challenges confronting the
animal health sector include:
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries •
Veterinary hospitals, dispensaries
technical manpower are inadequate.
155
and
•The disease reporting is neither timely
nor complete which delays proper
interventions.
•
Inadequate availability of vaccines and lack
of cold storage infrastructure.
The Way Forward
8.14 The following measures will strengthen
the animal health sector:
production a Minimum Standard Protocol (MSP)
for semen production has been implemented
in all semen stations and 49 frozen semen bull
stations have been strengthened as per this MSP.
A central Monitoring Unit (CMU) has been
constituted for evaluation of one semen station
in two years. Thirty four semen stations in the
country have acquired ISO certification against
3 during 2004. MSP for progeny testing and
standard operating procedures for AI technicians
has also been formulated.
Challenges
•
Adequate veterinary disease diagnosis,
epidemiology, hospital infrastructure and
manpower need to be developed.
•
A strong programme for supply of sufficient
veterinary vaccines is necessary.
•
Small herd size and poor productivity
•
Inadequate availability of credit
Expeditious operationalization of NADRS
•
Poor access to organized markets deprive
farmers of proper milk price
•
Poor AI service net-work
•
Shortage of manpower and funds
•
Limited availability of quality breeding
bulls
•
Disease outbreaks: mortality & morbidity
•
Induction of crossbred animals in areas poor
in feed resources
•
Majority of grazing lands are either degraded
or encroached
•
Diversion of feed & fodder ingredients for
industrial use
•
Cattle and Buffalo Breeding
8.15 The objective of the scheme of ‘National
Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB)’
is to promote genetic upgradation of bovines
mainly through Artificial Insemination. Semen
production in the country has increased from 22
million straws in 1999-2000 to 63 million straws in
2011-2012 and number of Artificial Insemination
(AI) from 21.8 to 54 million per annum.
Conception rate increased from 20% to 35%. The
numbers of animals in milk has increased from 62
million during 2000 to 81.8 million during 201112. Crossbred cattle population has increased
from 20 million (1997) to 34 million (2007).
21,700 breeding bulls with high genetic merit
have been inducted for natural service in the
areas out of the coverage of AI services. About
36,385 Government stationary AI centres have
been assisted and equipped to function as mobile
AI centres and about 21,753 private mobile AI
centres have been established for delivery of AI
services. 11,615 Government stationary AI centres
are also operating. The dairy cooperatives are
also operating about 14,000 mobile AI centres. In
addition, the NGOs like BAIF and JK Trust are
operating about 6,000 mobile AI centres.
8.16 In order to improve the quality of semen
8.17 The challenges facing the dairy sector
include:
The Way Forward
8.18 Continuous support to the States is essential
for further genetic upgradation programmes
to meet the increasing demand for milk in the
country. There is further need to consolidate
and improve the breeding infrastructure created
under NPCBB and take up scientific programmes
like Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT), Multi
Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET),
Markers Assisted Selection (MAS), development
of semen sexing technology and use of sexed
semen for faster propagation of elite germplasm
156
and for increasing bovine productivity. There
is a need to upgrade the skill of the AI workers
to enable them to deliver livestock extension
services to the farmers apart from the AI service.
Dairying
8.19 Dairying is an important source of income
for millions of rural families and has assumed
an important role in providing employment
and income generating opportunities. The
Government of India and State Governments are
making strong efforts to increase the productivity
of milch animals and increase the per capita
availability of milk to meet the requirement. The
Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying
and Fisheries (DADF) has supported building
up cooperative infrastructure, revitalization of
sick dairy cooperative federations and extended
support for creation of infrastructure for
production of quality milk and milk products.
An important scheme being implemented by
the Department during 2012-13 is the Intensive
Dairy Development Programme (IDDP) for this
purpose. Through IDDP scheme, assistance is
provided to Dairy Milk Unions/Federations
for increasing milk production, procurement,
preservation, transportation and processing of
milk by developing dairy infrastructure at the
village and district level. This section highlights
the efforts made by the Government of India
through its schemes to increase production of
milk.
Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality &
Clean Milk Production
8.20 The scheme, introduced during October,
2003 aims at improvement of the quality of raw
milk produced at the village level by creating
awareness among dairy farmers and providing
basic testing and measurement equipments at
the Dairy Cooperative Society level for assisting
in collection and testing of milk based on which
payments are made to the farmers. Under the
scheme, there is a provision for training of
farmers on good milking practices, setting up of
Bulk Milk Cooler (BMC) at Dairy Cooperative
Society level and strengthening of laboratories
for testing of milk.
State of Indian Agriculture
Assistance to Cooperatives
8.21 The central sector scheme started in
1999-2000, aims at revitalizing the sick dairy
cooperative unions at the district level and
cooperative federations at the State level. The
rehabilitation plan is prepared by the National
Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in consultation
with the concerned State Dairy Federation and
District Milk Union. Since inception, Department
has approved 42 rehabilitation proposals of Milk
Unions so far in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Haryana, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala,
Maharashtra, Assam, Nagaland, Punjab, West
Bengal and Tamil Nadu at a total outlay of
Rs.310.91 crore and with a central share of
Rs.155.64 crore, against which an amount of Rs
116.49 crore of Central share has been released
under the scheme till 31st March, 2012.
Dairy Venture Capital Fund (DVCF)/Dairy
Entrepreneurship Development Scheme
(DEDS)
8.22 The Dairy/Poultry Venture Capital Fund
scheme was started in December, 2004. The
scheme DVCF was closed on 31.08.2010. Under
DVCF an amount of Rs 144.99 crore was released
to NABARD as revolving fund, against which
an amount of Rs 174.39 crore was disbursed as
Interest Free Loan by NABARD for sanctioning
18,184 dairy units till 31.08.2010.
8.23 The DVCF scheme was modified and
renamed as Dairy Entrepreneurship Development
Scheme (DEDS) from 1st September, 2010. Since
inception of DEDS an amount of Rs. 270.40 crore
has been released to NABARD, against which
NABARD has sanctioned 58,278 Dairy Units and
released back ended capital subsidy of Rs.238.32
crore till 30.09.2012
National Dairy Plan
8.24 National Dairy Plan-Phase I (NDP-I)
has been approved by Government of India
for implementation from 2011-12 to 2016-17
with a total investment of about Rs.2242 crore
comprising Rs.1584 crore as IDA credit, Rs.176
crore as Government of India share, Rs.282 crore
as share of End Implementing Agencies (EIAs)
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries that will implement the project in participating
States and about Rs.200 crore as the share
of NDDB and its subsidiaries for providing
technical and implementation support to the
project. The Board of the World Bank approved
the IDA credit of $350 million (Rs 1584 crore)
for the scheme on 15.3.2012. The Administrative
approval of the scheme has been issued by the
DADF on 16th March 2012. An outlay of Rs.130
crore has been provided under the budget of
DADF for 2012-13.
8.25 NDP–I envisages to contribute to
meeting the projected national demand of
150 million tonnes of milk by 2016-17 from
domestic production through productivity
enhancement, strengthening and expanding
village level infrastructure for milk procurement
and providing the producers with greater access
to markets. It is also envisaged that the project
would provide livelihood opportunities for the
farmers on terms that are fair and reasonable.
The main objectives of NDP-I are: a)
To launch a focused scientifically
planned multi-state initiative to lay
the path for new processes, supported
by appropriate policy and regulatory
measures leading to increasing the
productivity of milch animals and
thereby increase milk production to
meet the rapidly growing demand for
milk; and b)To provide rural milk producers with
greater access to the organised milkprocessing sector. Given the rapidly
increasing demand for milk, priority
in NDP-I would be given to areas with
higher potential in the 14 major milk
producing States contributing about 90%
of the country’s milk production; i.e., like
Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat,
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West
Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and
Kerala. 8.26 Fourteen major milk producing States in the
country will be eligible for funding under various
components based on the eligibility criteria which
157
will comprise geographical, technical, financial
and governance parameters. The benefits
accruing from NDP-I will be however across the
country through availability of superior quality
semen.
Feed and Fodder for Livestock
8.27 Availability of adequate quantity of
quality feed and fodder for livestock is essential
for sustaining the livestock productivity. Due
to increasing pressure on land for growing
food grains, oil seeds, and pulses, fodder
production generally gets lower priority. With
about 2.29% share of the land area of the world,
India is maintaining about 10.71% world’s
livestock. Further, on account of diversified use
of agriculture residues, the gap between the
demand and supply of fodder is increasing. The
NABCONS, and the National Institute of Animal
Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore have
estimated shortages of feed and fodder in the
country to be around 35 per cent or so. Availability
of feed resources also varies from area to area. At
present, fodder is being cultivated only on 4% of
grossed cropped area, which is not adequate to
meet the requirement of the livestock.
8.28 In order to bridge the gap in demand
and availability of fodder and feed, the DADF
is implementing a ‘Centrally Sponsored Fodder
and Feed Development Scheme (CSFFDS)’
during 2012-13. The CSFFDS includes 9 different
components under varying subsidy patterns for
assisting the States in practically all activities
pertaining to fodder development. Taking into
account the prevailing drought situation in some
states, a new component of “Establishment of
Fodder Banks” has been added for the year 201213 to procure surplus fodder from the farmers
in areas where rainfall has been satisfactory or
where irrigation facility is available and convert
the same to silage or fodder blocks for storage
and supply on cost plus basis to the deficient
areas. A relaxation has also been granted to the
Cooperatives, Milk Unions/Federations, and
the State Governments by enhancing the central
share for establishment of fodder block making
units to 75% of cost for these agencies for the year
2012-13.
158
Challenges
8.29 The main challenges in providing adequate
and quality feed and fodder for the livestock
include:
(i) While the number of livestock is
increasing, the grazing lands are
diminishing. The area available for
fodder cultivation is also limited.
(ii)The production and availability of
improved fodder seeds is inadequate
in the country compared to the
requirement.
(iii) Diversion of crop residues for other
industrial use aggravates the situation.
Diverse uses of agriculture crop residues
(paper industry, packaging, etc.) which
can be used as feed/fodder have
widened the gap between demand and
supply of feed and fodder.
(iv)There is lack of authentic data on
availability of feed and fodder.
(v) Lack of specific extension machinery
with
specialized
manpower
for
popularization of good fodder varieties
and for more efficient use of crop
residues is another constraint.
(vi)The area under coarse cereals which are
also used as feed has declined since last
30 years. Less coverage of area under
high yielding varieties of coarse cereals
is another reason for less availability of
coarse grains.
(vii) A substantial amount of crop residues
is burnt by the farmers after harvesting
main crops like wheat and paddy.
Steps taken by the Government
8.30 Besides revising the Centrally Sponsored
Scheme on Fodder and Feed Development in 2010,
the DADF has taken several steps in assisting the
States for augmenting the availability of feed
and fodder. Certain areas have been identified
requiring immediate interventions like increasing
the area under fodder using quality fodder seeds,
increasing availability of quality seeds and to
State of Indian Agriculture
develop common property and development of
waste land/grazing land etc. for production of
fodder using resources available under ongoing
programmes. States have also been assisted for
various post-harvest management interventions
to reduce the wastage of crop residues and its
enrichment in quality. Detailed advisories have
been issued to the States to increase availability
of fodder.
The way forward
8.31 The measures which can contribute
to increasing availability of fodder and feed
include:
(i)Optimum utilisation of cultivable land
and wasteland is required to grow fodder
as per the requirement of the farmers.
The forest department can play a major
role in augmenting fodder production
in the country. The degraded forest
areas, mostly under the Joint Forest
Management Committees (JFMCs),
can be used for assisting growth of
indigenous improved fodder varieties of
grasses, legumes, and trees under areaspecific silvi-pastoral systems. While
the JFMCs may first meet their own
requirements, the surplus can be stored
by converting to silage or fodder blocks
for supply to deficient areas.
(ii) Production of high yielding fodder seeds
and seeds for dual purpose crops need to
be upscaled by incentivizing production
of such seeds by having a buy-back
arrangement with the farmers, mainly
with the help of organized/cooperative
sector.
(iii) Wastage and alternative use of crop
residues may be discouraged through
a well laid out system of incentives and
disincentives.
(iv)There is a need for undertaking an
effective extension campaign for
efficient uitlisation and enrichment of
crop residues, growing fodder crops,
and post harvest interventions like
fodder densification, fodder and feed
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries enrichment, Azolla production, etc.
Effective dovetailing with ongoing
schemes like MGNREGA and RKVY
will be useful.
(v) It is necessary to popularize scientific
practices for management of feed like
ration balancing, utilization of wasted
crop residues as fodder and use of
feed supplements like Azolla and area
specific mineral mixture etc. to improve
quality of nutrition for the livestock.
(vi)There is a need to have a mechanism in
place for collection of reliable data on feed
and fodder particularly for cultivated
fodder production and production of
crop residues.
Meat and Poultry Sector
8.32 India has around 141 million goats and 71.6
million sheep. In terms of population, India ranks
second in the world in goats and third in sheep.
Poultry sector in India is broadly divided into
two sub-sectors; (i) highly organized commercial
sector and (ii) the unorganized sector which
generates supplementary income and provides
nutrition to the rearers. Further, small and
medium farmers are mostly engaged in contract
farming system under larger integrators. Needs
of organized and unorganized sectors of poultry
are different.
8.33 Under Centrally Sponsored Scheme,
‘Poultry Development’, the following three
components are funded by the Department:
(i) Assistance to State Poultry Farms
One time assistance is provided to strengthen
farms in terms of hatchery, brooding and rearing
houses, laying houses for birds with provision
for feed mill and their quality monitoring and
in-house disease diagnostic facilities and feed
analysis laboratory. Till date, 233 farms have
been assisted under the scheme since inception.
(ii) Rural Backyard Poultry Development
This component envisages supply of backyard
poultry to beneficiaries from Below Poverty
Line (BPL) families to enable them to gain
159
supplementary income and nutritional support.
Assistance to States have been provided to cover
over 3 lakh BPL beneficiary families between
2009-10 and 2011-12.
(iii) Poultry Estates
Entrepreneurship skills are to be improved
through an exploratory pilot project, ‘Poultry
Estates’ in two States. It is meant primarily for
educated, unemployed youth and small farmers
with some margin money, for making a profitable
venture out of various poultry related activities
in a scientific and bio-secure cluster approach.
Poultry Venture Capital Fund
8.34 The scheme provides finance through
NABARD for components like establishment of
poultry breeding farm with low input technology
birds, establishment of feed go-down, feed mill,
feed analytical laboratory, marketing of poultry
products, egg grading, packing and storage for
export capacity, retail poultry dressing unit, egg
and broiler carts for sale of poultry products
and central grower unit, etc. This scheme is
implemented on back-ended Capital Subsidy
mode at the rate of 33.3% for SC/ST beneficiaries
and for North East States and 25% for others.
Central Poultry Development Organizations
& Central Poultry Performance Testing
Centre
8.35 The four centres of the Central Poultry
Development Organizations are located at
Chandigarh (Northern Region), Bhubaneswar
(Eastern Region), Mumbai (Western Region)
and Bangalore (Southern Region) while one
Central Poultry Performance Testing Centre is at
Gurgaon, Haryana. These centres are promoting
the development of poultry through the following
measures:
•
Availability of quality chicks of identified
low-input technology poultry stocks.
•
Diversification into rearing of Duck, Emu
and Turkey (Southern Region), Japanese
Quail (Northern and Western region) and
Guinea fowl (Eastern region).
160
State of Indian Agriculture
•Training of trainers, farmers, women
beneficiaries, various public and private
sector poultry organizations, NGOs, Banks,
Cooperatives and foreign trainees etc.
•
Regular testing of various stocks available
in the country to assess their performance.
Challenges
8.36 The challenges facing the meat and poultry
sector include:
•
Availability of feed ingredients like maize
and soyabean is a major challenge, as poultry
feed constitutes nearly 70% of the cost of
production and availability of these feed
ingredients at a reasonable cost is essential
for sustaining the growth rate.
•
Pathogenic and emerging diseases namely
Avian Influenza often causes heavy losses
both in domestic market and international
trade.
•There is a need for realistic national
marketing intelligence to bridge the gap
between supply and demand of poultry &
poultry products.
•To meet the growing demand of sustainable
and safe production there is a huge demand
for trained and skilled manpower in poultry
sector.
•
Large size of target population to be
improved in terms of productivity with
application of science and technology pose
a formidable challenge.
•
Low level of processing and value addition
in animal products.
The Way Forward
8.37 The following measures are necessary
to strengthen the meat and poultry sector for
accelerated and sustainable growth:
•
Long-term
sustainable
production
measures have to be looked into to increase
the production of maize and soyabean.
Alternative feed resources have to be
explored.
•
Active surveillance, monitoring and control
in case of any outbreaks in rapid manner.
•
Network for a realistic national and global
poultry database and marketing intelligence
may be developed.
•
Sufficient trained manpower should be
developed in the existing institutions.
•
With growing urbanization and increasing
quality consciousness, the market for
scientifically produced meat products is
expected to grow rapidly. The market is
growing for ready-to-eat and semi-processed
meat products because of a changing socioeconomic scenario and increase in exports
to neighboring countries, especially the
Middle East.
•The mechanized slaughter houses produce
huge quantities of offal and digesta from
the slaughtered animals which could be
profitably utilized for production of value
added products, like Meat-cum-Bone Meal
(MBM), Tallow, Bone Chips, Pet Foods and
methane as a source of energy for value
addition in most of the modern plants.
•There is a need to support pig rearing in order
to improve sow productivity, growth rate of
piglets and feed conversion efficiency.
•
It is important to encourage proper utilization
of by-products of livestock slaughter for
higher income of livestock owners. The
environmental pollution and spread of
livestock diseases need to be prevented.
Fisheries Sector
8.38 Allocations made for the development of
fisheries sector through the Centrally Sponsored
Schemes and Central Sector Schemes are utilized
for implementation of both development and
welfare oriented schemes through the respective
states and UTs. In addition to the allocations made
through these schemes, assistance is provided to
States through other flagship programmes like
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) including
the National Mission for Protein Supplements
(NMPS).
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries 161
National Fisheries Development Board
houses, benefit of 4 lakh fishers under Savingcum-relief scheme and training of 31,648 fishers in
various fish farming and post harvest activities.
8.39 National Fisheries Development Board
(NFDB) has been established by the Government
in 2006 as a special purpose vehicle for accelerated
development of the fisheries and aquaculture
in a sustainable manner through upgradation
of production technologies, management
and utilization of resources, establishment of
infrastructure for post-harvest operations and
markets. NFDB has during the Eleventh Plan
Period invested nearly Rs.400 crore for various
developmental activities. It is proposed to
merge all Centrally Sponsored Schemes aimed
at growth and enhancement of production and
productivity in NFDB during Twelfth Plan to
provide greater focus and an integrated approach
to the development of fisheries and aquaculture
in the country.
8.44 The main challenges facing the fisheries
sector include:
Marine Fisheries Development Scheme
•
Shortage of quality and healthy fish seeds
and other critical inputs.
•
Lack of resource-specific fishing vessels.
•
Inadequate awareness about nutritional and
economic benefits of fish.
•
Inadequate extension staff for fisheries and
training for fishers and fisheries personnel.
•
Low utilization and productivity of water
bodies.
8.40 During Eleventh Five Year Plan, the
Marine Fisheries Development Scheme made
provision for development of 13 fishing harbors
and 4 fish landing centres, 4 fishing harbors were
repaired and renovated. In addition, 43 units of
post harvest infrastructure like ice plants, retail
outlets were created; 8,342 traditional crafts
motorized; 3,921 safety appliances provided;
40,993 KL of HSD provided to fishers with rebate;
3 deep sea resource-specific fishing vessels were
promoted; introduction of 88 intermediate crafts
was taken up and one new private fishing harbor
was funded under a Build, Operate and Transfer
(BOT) package.
Inland Fishery Development Scheme
Database Scheme
8.43 Under the scheme, inland water bodies are
surveyed and mapped in the States. Through a
pilot project, mapping of smaller water bodies
has been completed in the State of West Bengal.
Marine Fisheries Census was completed in all
maritime states and islands. Registration of
fishing vessels in all the coastal States and UTs
has been initiated and development of database
is under progress.
Challenges
The Way Forward
8.45 The following measures will help to further
strengthen the fisheries sector:
•
Schemes of integrated approach for enhancing
inland fish production and productivity with
forward and backward linkages right from
production chain and input requirements like
quality fish seeds and fish feeds and creation
of required infrastructure for harvesting,
hygienic handling, value addition and
marketing of fish.
•
Existing Fish Farmers Development
Authority (FFDAs) need to be revamped
and cooperative sectors, SHGs and youths
be actively involved in intensive aquaculture
activities.
8.41 Under the scheme, 99,689 ha area of fresh
water and 39,750 ha area of brackish water
were covered for aquaculture and 1,69,907 fish
farmers were provided assistance for freshwater
aquaculture and 28,171 fish farmers for brackish
water aquaculture during Eleventh Plan period.
Fishermen Welfare Scheme
8.42 Under the scheme, during Eleventh Plan
Period funds were released for coverage of 38
lakh fishers for insurance, construction of 31,400
162
State of Indian Agriculture
•
Large scale adoption of culture-based capture
fisheries and cage culture in reservoirs and
larger water bodies are to be taken up.
•
Sustainable exploitation of marine fishery
resources especially deep sea resources and
enhancement of marine fish production
through sea farming, mariculture, resource
replenishment programme like setting up of
artificial reefs etc. need to be taken up.
Measures taken to address Inflation in
Animal Products
8.46 Food inflation in the last two years has
been impacted largely by increase in prices of
animal products like milk, fish, meat and eggs.
Inflation for the broad group “eggs, meat and
fish” has generally been in double digits during
2011-2012. It has shown signs of moderation with
inflation at 13.28% for period ending October,
2012. Inflation of milk has been largely in double
digits during 2011-12 but has shown downward
trend during the current year, recording 6.35%
for period ending October, 2012.
8.47 The increase in inflation of protein rich
animal products was mainly due to increase in
their consumption on account of rising incomes
and also shifts in consumer preferences. This
is also reflected in per capita increase in their
consumption.
8.48 Government has taken various measures
during 2011-12 to increase production and to
moderate inflation in animal products. The
National Mission on Protein Supplements
(NMPS) has been launched as a component
of RKVY in 2011-12 for taking up activities to
promote production of animal based protein
through livestock development, dairy farming,
pig and goat rearing and fisheries. The allocation
for NMPS was Rs. 300 crore in 2011-12, which has
been increased to Rs. 500 crore during 2012-13.
To improve productivity in dairy sector, National
Dairy Plan – Phase I with an outlay of Rs. 2242
crore has been launched during March 2012 for
implementation during twelfth Five Year Plan
with the assistance of the World Bank. The State
Governments are also being requested to provide
greater allocation under RKVY for taking up
activities for promoting animal husbandry,
dairying and fisheries.
Annexure
163
Annexure. 1.1: Plan-wise Growth Rates (%) by Economic Activity
(at 2004-05 prices)
Year
Five Year Plan
Total
Economy
Agriculture,
forestry &
fishing
Agriculture,
incl.
livestock
Forestry &
logging
Fishing
2.3
1.5
1.6
-0.2
6.2
2.8
3.2
4.2
-5.4
5.5
1953-54
6.1
7.7
9.0
-3.2
2.1
1954-55
4.2
2.9
2.8
3.8
7.5
1955-56
2.6
-0.9
-1.5
4.0
8.1
Average
3.6
2.9
3.2
-0.2
5.9
Second Plan
(1956-61)
5.7
5.4
6.0
-0.7
11.1
-1.2
-4.5
-5.1
0.4
2.3
1958-59
7.6
10.1
11.2
-0.2
4.3
1959-60
2.2
-1.0
-1.5
3.5
0.9
1960-61
7.1
6.7
7.3
1.1
6.9
Average
4.3
3.3
3.6
0.8
5.1
Third Plan
(1961-66)
3.1
0.1
-0.3
4.0
2.8
2.1
-2.0
-2.1
0.2
-5.1
1963-64
5.1
2.3
1.9
5.8
9.3
1964-65
7.6
9.2
10.3
-1.7
10.0
1965-66
-3.7
-11.0
-13.5
13.4
0.0
Average
2.8
-0.3
-0.7
4.3
3.4
1966-67
Annual Plan
(1966-67)
1.0
-1.4
-2.3
4.9
3.6
1967-68
Annual Plan
(1967-68)
8.1
14.9
17.1
-0.4
4.3
1968-69
Annual Plan
(1968-69)
2.6
-0.2
-0.3
0.4
6.0
Average
3.9
4.4
4.8
1.6
4.7
Fourth Plan
(1969-74)
6.5
6.4
7.2
-0.3
2.4
5.0
7.1
7.4
4.9
2.6
1971-72
1.0
-1.9
-2.7
4.4
6.4
1972-73
-0.3
-5.0
-5.6
-0.9
2.7
1973-74
4.6
7.2
8.4
-2.8
2.9
Average
3.4
2.8
3.0
1.1
3.4
Fifth Plan
(1974-79)
1.2
-1.5
-2.8
8.7
7.6
9.0
12.9
14.2
2.8
6.1
1976-77
1.2
-5.8
-6.1
-3.3
-3.3
1977-78
7.5
10.0
12.5
-11.5
0.0
1978-79
5.5
2.3
2.0
5.4
4.8
4.9
3.6
4.0
0.4
3.1
1951-52
1952-53
1956-57
1957-58
1961-62
1962-63
1969-70
1970-71
1974-75
1975-76
First Plan
(1951-56)
Average
164
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11 (QE)
2011-12 (RE)
State of Indian Agriculture
Annual Plan
(1979-80)
Sixth Plan
(1980-85)
Average
Seventh Plan
(1985-90)
Average
Annual Plan
(1990-91)
Annual Plan
(1991-92)
Average
Eighth Plan
(1992-97)
Average
Ninth Plan
(1997-2002)
Average
Tenth Plan
(2002-07)
Average
Eleventh Plan
(2007-12)
Average
-5.2
-12.8
-13.4
-8.9
-0.7
7.2
5.6
2.9
7.9
4.0
5.5
4.2
4.3
3.5
10.2
6.1
5.7
5.3
12.9
4.6
-0.3
10.1
1.6
5.8
0.3
-0.4
-1.6
15.6
1.2
3.0
4.0
14.4
4.8
-0.1
10.8
1.5
6.3
0.2
-0.4
-1.7
16.8
0.4
3.1
4.3
-1.5
2.8
-1.9
-3.2
0.4
-0.7
0.6
-1.2
-1.8
-0.6
9.9
1.4
-1.3
1.8
0.9
-1.1
19.6
6.8
5.6
3.3
0.5
2.7
9.1
11.4
5.4
4.8
1.4
-2.0
-2.3
0.8
3.6
3.4
5.4
5.7
6.4
7.3
8.0
6.5
4.3
6.7
7.6
4.3
5.5
5.7
4.0
8.1
7.0
9.5
9.6
7.6
9.3
6.7
8.6
9.3
6.2
8.0
1.0
6.7
3.3
4.7
-0.7
9.9
4.8
-2.6
6.3
2.7
0.0
6.0
2.5
-6.6
9.0
0.2
5.1
4.2
2.4
5.8
0.1
0.8
7.9
3.6
3.7
1.0
7.1
3.2
4.7
-1.0
10.4
4.9
-3.0
7.1
2.4
-0.6
6.5
2.5
-8.1
10.8
0.1
5.5
4.1
2.5
6.3
-0.3
0.4
8.8
3.9
3.8
-0.3
-2.3
-0.5
2.7
-0.4
1.5
0.2
2.5
1.2
4.4
2.7
3.1
2.8
0.7
-1.1
2.1
1.8
3.3
1.3
1.4
1.9
2.9
2.2
2.4
2.1
4.2
8.5
11.2
6.3
5.2
8.1
7.9
1.7
-5.0
7.0
4.7
5.0
2.7
4.1
3.6
-2.0
5.9
6.6
3.6
5.8
2.7
3.2
5.4
1.8
3.8
Annexure
165
Annexure 1.2: Plan-wise GDP Share (%) to Total Economy by Economic Activity
(at 2004-05 prices)
Year
Agriculture,
forestry &
fishing
Agriculture,
incl. livestock
Forestry &
logging
Fishing
1950-51
51.9
41.8
14.3
1.0
1951-52
51.4
41.5
14.0
1.0
51.6
42.1
12.9
1.0
52.4
43.2
11.7
1.0
1954-55
51.7
42.6
11.7
1.0
1955-56
50.0
41.0
11.9
1.1
51.4
42.1
12.4
1.0
1956-57
49.9
41.1
11.1
1.1
1957-58
48.2
39.5
11.3
1.2
49.3
40.8
10.5
1.1
1959-60
47.8
39.3
10.6
1.1
1960-61
47.6
39.4
10.0
1.1
48.6
40.0
10.7
1.1
1961-62
46.3
38.1
10.1
1.1
1962-63
44.4
36.5
9.9
1.0
1952-53
1953-54
Five Year Plan
First Plan (1951-56)
Average
1958-59
Second Plan (1956-61)
Average
43.2
35.4
10.0
1.1
1964-65
43.9
36.3
9.1
1.1
1965-66
40.5
32.6
10.8
1.2
Average
43.7
35.8
10.0
1.1
1966-67
Annual Plan (1966-67)
39.6
31.5
11.2
1.2
1967-68
Annual Plan (1967-68)
42.0
34.2
10.3
1.1
1968-69
Annual Plan (1968-69)
40.9
33.2
10.1
1.2
Average
40.8
33.0
10.5
1.2
1969-70
40.9
33.4
9.4
1.1
1970-71
41.7
34.2
9.4
1.1
40.5
32.9
9.7
1.2
1972-73
38.6
31.2
9.7
1.2
1973-74
39.5
32.3
9.0
1.2
40.2
32.8
9.4
1.2
1974-75
38.5
31.1
9.7
1.3
1975-76
39.9
32.5
9.1
1.2
37.1
30.2
8.7
1.2
1977-78
38.0
31.6
7.2
1.1
1978-79
36.8
30.6
7.2
1.1
Average
38.1
31.2
8.4
1.2
Annual Plan (1979-80)
33.9
27.9
6.9
1.1
1963-64
1971-72
Third Plan (1961-66)
Fourth Plan (1969-74)
Average
1976-77
1979-80
Fifth Plan (1974-79)
166
State of Indian Agriculture
1980-81
35.7
29.8
6.3
1.1
1981-82
35.3
29.6
6.2
1.0
34.2
28.7
5.9
1.0
1983-84
35.0
29.5
5.3
1.1
1984-85
34.2
28.8
5.1
1.1
1982-83
Sixth Plan (1980-85)
34.9
29.3
5.7
1.1
1985-86
Average
32.9
27.7
4.9
1.1
1986-87
31.4
26.4
4.6
1.1
29.9
25.1
4.4
1.1
31.3
26.6
4.0
1.1
1987-88
Seventh Plan (1985-90)
1988-89
29.9
25.2
4.1
1.1
Average
31.1
26.2
4.4
1.1
1990-91
Annual Plan (1990-91)
29.5
24.9
3.9
1.1
1991-92
Annual Plan (1991-92)
28.5
24.0
3.8
1.1
Average
29.0
24.5
3.8
1.1
28.9
24.4
3.6
1.2
28.2
23.8
3.3
1.2
27.8
23.5
3.2
1.2
1995-96
25.7
21.7
3.0
1.2
1996-97
26.2
22.1
2.8
1.2
27.4
23.1
3.2
1.2
1997-98
24.5
20.6
2.8
1.2
1998-99
24.4
20.7
2.6
1.0
23.3
19.7
2.6
1.0
2000-01
22.3
18.8
2.5
1.0
2001-02
22.4
18.9
2.5
1.0
23.4
19.7
2.6
1.1
2002-03
20.1
16.7
2.4
1.0
2003-04
20.3
17.1
2.2
1.0
19.0
16.0
2.1
0.9
2005-06
18.3
15.5
1.9
0.9
2006-07
17.4
14.7
1.8
0.9
1989-90
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
Eighth Plan (1992-97)
Average
1999-00
Ninth Plan (1997-2002)
Average
2004-05
Tenth Plan (2002-07)
19.0
16.0
2.1
0.9
2007-08
Average
16.8
14.3
1.7
0.8
2008-09
15.8
13.4
1.6
0.8
14.6
12.3
1.5
0.8
14.5
12.3
1.4
0.7
14.1
12.0
1.4
0.7
15.2
12.9
1.5
0.8
2009-10
Eleventh Plan (2007-12)
2010-11
2011-12 (RE)
Average
Annexure
167
Annexure 1.3: Plan-wise and Year-wise Share (%) of
Public & Private Sector in Gross Capital Formation (GCF)
(2004-05 prices)
Plan Period
Year
(%) Share of Public
& Private GCF in
GCF of Agriculture
& Allied Sectors
Public
Third Plan
(1961-66)
Private
(%) Share of Public
& Private GCF in
GCF of Agriculture
Sector incl. livestock
Public
(%) Share of Public
& Private GCF in
GCF of Forestry &
logging Sector
Private
Public
Private
(%) Share of Public
& Private GCF in
GCF of Fishing
Sector
Public
Private
NA
1959-60
1960-61
44.6
55.4
44.0
56.0
97.7
2.3
0
100
1961-62
39.7
60.3
39.1
60.9
105.2
-5.2
0
100
1962-63
44.0
56.0
42.9
57.1
103.2
-3.2
0
100
1963-64
42.1
57.9
41.3
58.7
98.5
1.5
0
100
1964-65
38.9
61.1
38.2
61.8
96.1
3.9
0
100
1965-66
41.3
58.7
40.7
59.3
96.4
3.6
0
100
41.2
58.8
40.4
59.6
99.9
0.1
0
100
Average
Annual Plan
(1966-67)
1966-67
32.7
67.3
32.0
68.0
98.2
1.8
0
100
Annual Plan
(1967-68)
1967-68
27.9
72.1
27.0
73.0
95.1
4.9
0
100
Annual Plan
(1968-69)
1968-69
29.0
71.0
28.5
71.5
96.7
3.3
0
100
1969-70
28.4
71.6
27.8
72.2
105.2
-5.2
0
100
1970-71
32.4
67.6
31.7
68.3
98.3
1.7
0
100
1971-72
32.6
67.4
31.9
68.1
98.2
1.8
0
100
1972-73
39.8
60.2
39.5
60.5
98.1
1.9
0.0
100.0
1973-74
35.9
64.1
35.6
64.4
98.0
2.0
0.2
99.8
Average
Fourth Plan
(1969-74)
33.8
66.2
33.3
66.7
99.6
0.4
0.0
100.0
1974-75
32.7
67.3
32.4
67.6
98.4
1.6
0.4
99.6
1975-76
35.3
64.7
34.9
65.1
98.7
1.3
0.7
99.3
1976-77
40.2
59.8
39.7
60.3
98.7
1.3
0.7
99.3
1977-78
41.9
58.1
41.5
58.5
100.8
-0.8
0.6
99.4
1978-79
38.8
61.2
38.2
61.8
98.6
1.4
0.6
99.4
Average
Fifth Plan
(1974-79)
37.8
62.2
37.4
62.6
99.1
0.9
0.6
99.4
Annual Plan
(1979-80)
1979-80
40.4
59.6
39.8
60.2
98.6
1.4
0.6
99.4
Sixth Plan
(1980-85)
1980-81
49.2
50.8
48.5
51.5
99.0
1.0
1.3
98.7
1981-82
54.7
45.3
54.0
46.0
99.2
0.8
1.5
98.5
1982-83
51.2
48.8
50.3
49.7
99.1
0.9
1.6
98.4
1983-84
48.1
51.9
46.7
53.3
98.9
1.1
2.6
97.4
1984-85
Average
49.5
50.5
48.3
51.7
98.9
1.1
3.8
96.2
Average
50.5
49.5
49.6
50.4
99.0
1.0
2.2
97.8
Seventh Plan 1985-86
(1985-90)
1986-87
46.6
53.4
45.6
54.4
99.7
0.3
2.4
97.6
43.8
56.2
42.6
57.4
98.7
1.3
3.4
96.6
1987-88
35.8
64.2
35.0
65.0
98.0
2.0
1.8
98.2
1988-89
35.8
64.2
34.7
65.3
98.2
1.8
0.9
99.1
1989-90
31.0
69.0
29.5
70.5
98.3
1.7
0.9
99.1
168
State of Indian Agriculture
Average
38.6
61.4
37.5
62.5
98.6
1.4
1.9
98.1
Annual Plan
(1990-91)
1990-91
20.6
79.4
19.1
80.9
98.2
1.8
0.7
99.3
Annual Plan
(1991-92)
1991-92
26.0
74.0
24.4
75.6
98.4
1.6
0.6
99.4
1992-93
22.0
78.0
20.8
79.2
98.2
1.8
0.1
99.9
1993-94
27.0
73.0
26.1
73.9
98.0
2.0
0.4
99.6
1994-95
31.2
68.8
30.6
69.4
98.1
1.9
0.2
99.8
1995-96
31.5
68.5
31.0
69.0
98.0
2.0
0.2
99.8
1996-97
27.9
72.1
27.3
72.7
97.9
2.1
0.1
99.9
27.9
72.1
27.2
72.8
98.0
2.0
0.2
99.8
1997-98
22.1
77.9
21.2
78.8
97.4
2.6
0.1
99.9
1998-99
20.7
79.3
19.8
80.2
97.0
3.0
0.3
99.7
1999-00
15.0
85.0
14.6
85.4
95.2
4.8
-0.1
100.1
2000-01
15.2
84.8
14.8
85.2
95.5
4.5
0.0
100.0
2001-02
14.4
85.6
14.3
85.7
94.3
5.7
0.0
100.0
17.5
82.5
16.9
83.1
95.9
4.1
0.1
99.9
2002-03
14.0
86.0
14.2
85.8
94.6
5.4
0.0
100.0
2003-04
18.1
81.9
17.6
82.4
95.9
4.1
0.0
100.0
2004-05
21.3
78.7
22.1
77.9
95.9
4.1
0.0
100.0
2005-06
23.0
77.0
23.8
76.2
94.6
5.4
0.0
100.0
2006-07
25.0
75.0
25.9
74.1
96.5
3.5
0.0
100.0
Average
Eighth Plan
(1992-97)
Average
Ninth Plan
(1997-2002)
Average
Tenth Plan
(2002-07)
20.3
79.7
20.7
79.3
95.5
4.5
0.0
100.0
2007-08
22.0
78.0
22.9
77.1
97.0
3.0
0.0
100.0
2008-09
16.2
83.8
16.6
83.4
92.2
7.8
0.0
100.0
2009-10
17.3
82.7
18.0
82.0
94.6
5.3
0.0
100.0
2010-11
15.1
84.9
15.7
84.3
93.9
6.1
0.0
100.0
17.7
82.3
18.3
81.7
94.4
5.6
0.0
100.0
Average
Eleventh Plan
(2007-12)
2011-12
Average
(first four
years)
Annexure
169
Annexure 1.4: Plan-wise and Year-wise share (%) of GCF/Investment
(2004-05 prices)
Plan Period
Year
(%) Share of GCF in Agriculture & Allied
Sectors to GCF in the total Economy
Public
First Plan (1951-56)
Private
Total
23.5
7.3
16.1
1951-52
25.2
7.5
15.3
1952-53
26.6
6.7
13.0
1953-54
28.8
6.4
11.6
1954-55
24.3
6.5
13.7
1955-56
23.6
7.4
15.7
25.7
6.9
13.9
1956-57
21.0
7.9
18.9
1957-58
19.8
7.6
18.6
1958-59
21.6
6.6
15.0
1959-60
15.1
5.4
17.2
16.6
6.2
17.8
1960-61
14.5
18.7
18.8
6.8
17.5
1961-62
13.7
19.8
16.8
6.7
18.5
1962-63
13.1
19.4
16.0
7.1
19.6
1963-64
12.0
21.0
15.9
7.7
20.8
1964-65
11.7
20.4
15.8
7.7
21.5
1965-66
12.0
19.6
15.6
8.7
22.6
Average
Third Plan (1961-66)
(%) Share of
GCF in total
Economy to
GDP in total
Economy
1950-51
Average
Second Plan (1956-61)
(%) Share of
Agriculture &
Allied Sectors
GCF to GDP in
Agriculture &
Allied Sectors
Average
12.5
20.0
16.0
7.6
20.6
Annual Plan (1966-67)
1966-67
11.5
21.2
16.7
9.6
22.9
Annual Plan (1967-68)
1967-68
12.9
24.2
19.5
10.2
22.0
Annual Plan (1968-69)
1968-69
14.5
26.7
21.5
11.2
21.4
13.0
24.0
19.2
10.4
22.1
1969-70
14.3
24.1
20.2
10.5
21.2
1970-71
14.6
20.7
18.2
8.6
19.7
1971-72
14.1
19.6
17.4
9.4
21.9
1972-73
15.2
21.8
18.6
10.4
21.6
1973-74
14.3
19.9
17.4
9.6
21.7
14.5
21.2
18.4
9.7
21.2
1974-75
14.6
18.0
16.7
9.9
22.9
1975-76
14.1
22.9
18.8
9.0
19.1
1976-77
16.1
23.6
19.9
11.5
21.5
1977-78
16.9
19.6
18.4
11.0
22.8
1978-79
17.1
21.2
19.4
12.6
23.9
15.8
21.0
18.6
10.8
22.0
17.0
23.0
20.2
14.4
24.2
Average
Fourth Plan (1969-74)
Average
Fifth Plan (1974-79)
Average
Annual Plan (1979-80)
1979-80
170
Sixth Plan (1980-85)
State of Indian Agriculture
1980-81
17.0
20.0
18.4
11.6
22.5
1981-82
13.3
13.4
13.3
9.3
24.8
1982-83
11.9
15.9
13.6
9.8
24.8
1983-84
12.3
18.2
14.8
9.8
23.2
1984-85
11.0
15.0
12.7
9.0
24.1
13.1
16.5
14.6
9.9
23.9
1985-86
9.5
12.9
11.1
8.5
25.3
1986-87
8.5
14.4
11.1
9.1
25.7
1987-88
9.4
17.7
13.5
11.2
24.8
1988-89
8.1
13.6
11.0
9.0
25.6
Average
Seventh Plan (1985-90)
1989-90
Average
7.0
13.8
10.6
8.9
25.2
8.5
14.5
11.4
9.3
25.3
12.8
26.9
Annual Plan (1990-91)
1990-91
6.6
19.9
14.1
Annual Plan (1991-92)
1991-92
6.0
15.2
10.9
9.1
23.9
6.3
17.6
12.5
11.0
25.4
1992-93
6.5
16.1
12.2
11.0
26.1
1993-94
6.7
14.9
11.2
9.1
23.1
1994-95
6.3
10.9
8.9
8.1
25.3
1995-96
6.7
7.8
7.4
8.1
28.0
1996-97
6.8
9.9
8.8
7.9
23.6
6.6
11.9
9.7
8.8
25.2
1997-98
5.8
8.8
7.9
8.6
26.8
1998-99
5.7
9.8
8.5
9.2
26.4
1999-00
5.4
12.6
10.5
13.1
29.1
2000-01
5.1
12.4
10.2
11.9
26.0
2001-02
6.0
14.3
11.9
14.6
27.5
Average
Eighth Plan (1992-97)
Average
Ninth Plan (1997-2002)
Average
Tenth Plan (2002-07)
5.6
11.6
9.8
11.5
27.1
2002-03
5.7
12.2
10.5
14.2
27.2
2003-04
6.3
10.0
9.0
12.4
27.8
2004-05
6.7
7.3
7.2
13.5
35.8
2005-06
7.1
7.0
7.0
14.6
38.0
2006-07
7.1
6.4
6.6
14.9
39.3
Average
Eleventh Plan (2007-12)
6.6
8.6
8.1
13.9
33.6
2007-08
6.1
6.5
6.4
16.1
42.5
2008-09
4.8
9.3
8.1
19.4
37.8
2009-10
5.1
7.8
7.1
19.8
40.8
2010-11
4.5
8.1
7.2
20.1
40.4
5.1
7.9
7.2
18.8
40.4
2011-12
Average (first four years)
Annexure
171
Annexure. 1.5: All India Average Annual Growth Rates of Area,
Production and Yield of Principal Crops
Crops
Average Growth (%)
Average Growth (%)
11th Plan
(2002-03 to 2006-07)
12th Plan
(2007-08 to 2011-12)
Area
Rice
Production
Yield
Area
Production
Yield
-0.39
1.25
1.17
0.16
2.48
2.23
Wheat
1.30
1.11
-0.32
1.34
4.42
3.05
Jowar
-2.84
-0.89
2.07
-5.50
-2.93
3.09
Bajra
1.67
17.12
7.28
-1.55
7.40
8.36
Maize
3.77
4.02
-0.15
1.99
8.72
6.46
Ragi
-5.52
-2.67
0.40
0.95
8.86
6.90
Small Millets
-5.03
-2.49
2.32
-4.78
12.76
17.60
Barley
-0.28
-1.21
-0.90
0.79
6.19
4.29
Coarse Cereals
-0.26
2.55
1.75
-1.63
5.67
7.30
Total Cereals
0.07
1.21
0.74
-0.04
3.61
3.59
Gram
3.60
4.70
0.28
2.36
4.34
1.91
Tur
1.38
1.06
-0.41
3.28
4.83
1.33
Total Pulses
1.31
2.66
0.65
1.61
4.41
2.66
Total Foodgrains
0.29
1.29
0.59
0.24
3.65
3.35
Sugarcane
3.98
4.90
0.66
0.24
0.79
0.48
Groundnut
-1.65
3.61
4.32
-0.69
15.75
13.65
Sesamum
0.98
3.64
0.51
2.57
8.52
5.40
R&M
7.32
11.55
3.24
-1.63
0.05
1.18
14.04
13.83
0.37
-18.96
-14.98
5.82
Soyabea
5.80
12.26
6.18
4.14
7.82
3.88
Total Nine Oilseeds
3.55
7.99
3.53
0.02
5.67
5.36
Cotton
0.57
20.01
19.40
5.97
10.46
3.93
Jute
-1.82
-0.38
1.49
0.48
1.57
0.90
Mesta
-3.85
-2.44
1.45
-5.56
-5.43
-0.26
Jute & Mesta
-2.15
-0.58
1.45
-0.42
0.94
-0.26
Sunflower
Source: Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture. 172
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure. 2.1: Land Use Classification
(Area in thousand ha.)
Year
1950-51
Geographical
Area
328726
Agri. Land/
Cultivable
land/
Culturable
land/
Arable
land
Forests
Not available for
cultivation
Area
under
nonagricultural
uses
Barren
and unculturable
land
Other uncultivated land excluding
fallow land
Permanent
pastures
& other
grazing
lands
Land under
Misc. tree
crops &
groves (not
incl. in net
area sown)
Permanent
pastures
& other
grazing
lands
Fallow Lands
culturable
waste
land
Fallow
lands
other
than
current
fallows
Current
fallows
Total
cropped
area
189641
40482
9357
38160
6675
19828
22943
17445
10679
131893
1960-61
179689
54052
14840
35911
13966
4459
19212
11180
11639
152772
1970-71
182056
63830
16478
28128
13261
4367
17500
8728
10598
165791
1980-81
185156
67460
19596
19958
11989
3578
16744
9720
14826
172630
1990-91
185177
67805
21087
19389
11404
3818
14995
9662
13703
185742
1991-92
185000
67866
21465
19270
11299
3761
14994
9941
14672
182242
1992-93
184875
67981
21771
19122
11096
3781
14589
9672
14188
185618
1993-94
184734
68277
22210
18694
10966
3696
14409
9834
14376
186595
1994-95
184173
68603
22556
18463
11034
3732
14262
9969
13250
188053
1995-96
183623
68817
22362
19009
11064
3481
14098
10016
13831
187471
1996-97
184121
69103
22554
17964
10880
3655
14021
10192
13323
189502
1997-98
183972
69245
23138
17461
10845
3730
13943
10078
14275
189988
1998-99
184024
69215
23348
17524
10896
3679
13899
10106
13587
191649
1999-00
183873
69164
23598
17536
10845
3725
13742
10289
15053
188396
2000-01
183455
69843
23752
17483
10662
3445
13631
10267
14777
185340
2001-02
183551
69720
23912
17417
10528
3453
13520
10534
15344
188286
2002-03
183449
69821
24118
17520
10450
3443
13651
11967
22337
174108
2003-04
183132
69968
24513
17469
10484
3383
13241
11313
14487
189669
2004-05
182946
69960
24757
17471
10452
3364
13272
10878
14790
191119
2005-06(p)
182685
69994
24989
17334
10444
3391
13225
10696
14211
192756
2006-07(p)
182508
70002
25436
17290
10414
3364
13271
10516
15509
192408
2007-08(p)
182691
70020
25711
16990
10198
3413
13059
10329
14512
195138
2008-09(p)
182514
70034
26064
16798
10177
3356
12752
10286
14191
195357
2009-10(p)
182466
70042
26171
16783
10149
3351
12857
10484
15753
192197
(p) : Provisional except Geographical Area.
# : In 2002-03 there is significant decline in Total Cropped Area and Net Area Sown due to decline in net area sown in the States of Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Haryana.
This was mainly due to deficient rainfall.
Annexure
173
Annexure 2.2: Agriculture Land by use in India
Area in Million Hect.
(%) to the reported Area
1990-91
2003-04
2008-09
(p)
2009-10
(p)
1990-91
2003-04
2008-09
(p)
2009-10
(p)
I.
Geographical Area
328.73
328.73
328.73
328.73
II.
Reporting area for land
utilisation statistics
304.86
305.57
305.59
305.61
1.
Forests
67.81
69.97
70.03
70.04
22.24
22.90
22.92
22.92
2.
Not available for
cultivation
40.48
41.98
42.86
42.95
13.28
13.74
14.03
14.06
(A) Area under nonagricultural uses
21.09
24.51
26.06
26.17
6.92
8.02
8.53
8.56
(B)
Barren and
unculturable land
19.39
17.47
16.80
16.78
6.36
5.72
5.50
5.49
3.
Other uncultivated land
excluding fallow land
30.22
27.11
26.28
26.36
9.91
8.87
8.60
8.62
11.40
10.48
10.18
10.15
3.74
3.43
3.33
3.32
Land under Misc. tree
crops & groves not
included in net area
sown
3.82
3.38
3.36
3.35
1.25
1.11
1.10
1.10
(C) culturable waste land
15.00
13.24
12.75
12.86
4.92
4.33
4.17
4.21
4.
23.37
25.80
24.48
26.24
7.66
8.44
8.01
8.58
9.66
11.31
10.29
10.48
3.17
3.70
3.37
3.43
(A) Permanent pastures &
other grazing lands
(B)
Fallow lands
(A) Fallow lands other than
current fallows
(B)
Current fallows
13.70
14.49
14.19
15.75
4.49
4.74
4.64
5.15
5.
Net area sown
143.00
140.71
141.93
140.02
46.91
46.05
46.44
45.82
6.
Total cropped area
185.74
189.67
195.36
192.20
7.
Area Sown more than
once
42.74
48.96
53.43
52.18
8.
Cropping intensity
129.89
134.80
137.64
137.26
III. NET Irrigated area
48.02
57.05
63.74
63.26
IV. TOTAL/ Gross Irrigated
Area
63.20
78.04
88.87
86.42
174
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure: 2.3: Trends in Cropping Pattern in India
(%) Share Crop-wise
Years
Total Area Under Crops
Crop-wise Share in Area
Rice
Jowar
Bajra
Maize
Ragi
Wheat
Barley
Other Cereals & Small Millets
Total Cereals & Millets
Gram
Arhar
Other Pulses
Total Pulses
Total Foodgrains
Sugarcane
Total Condiments & Spices
Total Fruits & Vegetables
Other Food Crops
Total Food Crops
Groundnut
Castor Seed
Sesamum
Rapeseed & Mustared
Linseed
Coconut
Other Oilseeds
Total Oilseeds
Cotton
Jute
Other Fibres
Total Fibers
Indigo
Opium
Tobacco
Tea
Coffee
Fodder Crops
Other Non-Food Crops
Total Non-Food Crops
1990-91
185742
2003-04
189669
23.0
7.6
5.8
3.2
1.2
12.9
0.5
1.3
55.5
4.0
1.9
7.4
13.4
68.9
2.1
1.3
3.6
0.1
75.9
4.5
0.5
1.3
2.8
0.5
0.8
3.2
13.5
4.1
0.4
0.2
4.7
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
4.5
0.8
24.1
2008-09(p)
195357
22.3
5.0
5.8
3.8
0.9
14.2
0.4
0.6
53.0
3.7
1.8
7.3
12.9
65.9
2.4
1.7
4.9
0.1
74.9
3.3
0.4
1.0
2.7
0.2
1.0
5.2
13.8
4.2
0.5
0.1
4.8
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.2
4.6
1.1
25.1
23.1
3.9
4.5
4.2
0.8
14.3
0.4
0.5
51.6
4.1
1.7
6.4
12.2
63.8
2.5
1.6
5.2
0.1
73.2
3.2
0.4
1.0
3.1
0.2
1.0
6.4
15.2
4.8
0.4
0.1
5.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.2
4.4
1.2
26.8
2009-10(p)
192197
22.0
4.1
4.7
4.3
0.7
14.9
0.3
0.4
51.4
4.2
1.8
6.5
12.5
63.9
2.4
1.7
5.4
0.1
73.4
2.9
0.4
1.2
2.8
0.2
1.0
6.4
14.9
5.2
0.4
0.1
5.7
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.2
3.9
1.4
26.6
Annexure
175
Annexure. 3.1: All-India Consumption of Fertilisers in Terms of Nutrients (N, P & K)
(Thousand Tonnes)
Year
1
1950-51
1955-56
1960-61
1965-66
1970-71
1975-76
1980-81
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002.03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
N
2
58.7
107.5
210.0
574.8
1487.0
2148.6
3678.1
5660.8
5716.0
5716.8
7251.0
7386.0
7997.2
8046.3
8426.8
8788.3
9507.1
9822.8
10301.8
10901.8
11353.8
11592.7
10920.2
11310.2
10474.1
11077.0
11713.9
12723.3
13772.9
14419.1
15090.5
15580.0
16558.2
17300.3
P
3
K
4
6.9
13.0
53.1
132.5
462.0
466.8
1213.6
2005.2
2078.9
2187.0
2720.7
3014.2
3221.0
3321.2
2843.8
2669.3
2931.7
2897.5
2976.8
3913.6
4112.2
4798.3
4214.6
4382.4
4018.8
4124.3
4623.8
5203.7
5543.3
5514.7
6506.2
7274.0
8049.7
7914.3
10.3
29.0
77.3
228.0
278.3
623.9
808.1
850.0
880.5
1068.3
1168.0
1328.0
1360.5
883.9
908.4
1124.7
1155.8
1029.6
1372.5
1331.5
1678.7
1567.5
1667.1
1601.2
1597.9
2060.6
2413.3
2334.8
2636.3
3312.6
3632.4
3514.3
2525.5
Note : Figures upto 1982-83 relate to Feb-.Jan. and onwards to April-March.
Source: Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
Total
5
65.6
130.8
292.1
784.6
2177.0
2893.7
5515.6
8474.1
8644.9
8784.3
11040.0
11568.2
12546.2
12728.0
12154.5
12366.0
13563.5
13876.1
14308.1
16187.9
16797.5
18069.7
16702.3
17359.7
16094.1
16799.1
18398.3
20340.3
21651.0
22570.1
24909.3
26486.4
28122.2
27740.0
176
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure. 3.2: Fertiliser Consumption per Hectare in Agricultural Land in Selected Countries
(Kg./Hectare)
Country
1
Africa
Egypt
Morocco
South africa
N & C America
Canada
Mexico
USA
South America
Brazil
Chile
Asia
Bangladesh
China
India
Indonesia
Japan
Korea Rep
Malaysia
Nepal
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Turkey
Vietnam
Europe
Belarus
Denmark
France
Gemany
Netherlands
Poland
Russian Fedn.
Spain
UK
Ukraine
Oceania
Australia
New Zealand
World
N
2008
P2 Os
K2 O
Total
N
P2 Os
2009
K2 O
Total
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
321.6
21.7
27.4
50.9
12.4
12
15.5
5.1
7.4
388.1
39.2
46.8
323.4
22.1
27.1
40.7
12.5
11.8
10.8
5.2
7.2
375.0
39.8
46.1
34.8
37.6
62.3
11
6.5
17.1
3.4
7.2
16.8
49.3
51.2
96.3
36.8
45.1
66.7
12.1
5.4
22.5
5.2
6.1
24.7
54.1
56.6
113.9
36.4
148.7
46.5
62.3
53.7
51.7
136.6
262.6
37.3
150.6
49
62
46
52.1
132.3
264.6
140.0
271.2
89.1
(77.3)
9.5
85.7
38.4
(33.3)
6.0
38.2
19.6
(17.0)
155.5
395.1
147.1
(127.7)
134.4
270.3
91.9
(79.9)
35.0
90.1
42.9
(37.3)
18.9
35.7
21.4
(18.6)
188.3
396.0
156.1
(135.8)
66.8
90.8
172.7
66.1
3.2
142.6
75.1
49.2
46.2
100.5
10.3
75.6
51.5
23.3
3.2
30.6
22.7
15.7
13.4
63.8
23.2
54
57.2
92.7
0.4
1.2
31.7
19.3
3.6
39.4
100.3
220.4
281.5
182.2
6.9
174.4
129.5
84.2
63.3
203.8
69.3
83.3
175.4
68.8
3.4
163.4
78.3
64.6
58.1
123.6
12.9
66.3
50.1
30.3
3.4
40.4
20.7
12.6
23.8
62.3
18.8
65.1
58.5
92.3
0.4
1.1
23
8.7
2.6
31.2
101
214.6
284
191.4
7.1
204.9
122.1
86
84.5
217
98.2
78.9
108.1
127.8
224.1
81.0
11.5
42.4
151.7
22.0
41.1
7.1
15.2
14.4
29.9
31.6
4.1
9.1
21.8
5.2
137.1
13.3
20.1
14.8
32.7
31.6
2.7
10.9
34.3
4.7
276.4
99.3
143.5
156.9
286.8
144.2
18.3
62.4
207.8
31.9
93.6
78.8
106.7
129.2
224.8
76.1
12.1
47.2
166.6
21.0
41.3
7.0
20.9
19.4
32.1
27.2
4.3
18.8
29.4
5.7
129.5
14.4
21.5
29.9
30.3
32.4
2.8
15.9
43.2
2.2
264.3
100.1
149.0
178.4
287.2
135.7
19.2
81.9
239.2
28.9
18.8
565.1
64.4
18.4
560.2
22.2
4.8
196.7
15.3
42.1
1322.0
101.9
17.9
607.4
66.7
13.5
605.4
24.6
3.3
179.5
15.6
34.7
1392.3
106.9
( ) = Fertiliser Consumption per hectare of gross cropped area for 2008-09 and 2009-10
Source: ‘Fertiliser Statistics - 2010-11’ The Fertiliser Association of India, New Delhi.
Annexure
177
Annexure. 3.3: Consumption of Electricity for Agricultural Purposes
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Year
Consumption for
Agricultural Purposes
(GWh)
Total Consumption
(GWh)
1
2
17817
18234
20960
23422
29444
35267
38878
44056
50321
58557
63328
70699
79301
85732
84019
91242
97195
90934
84729
81673
84486
87089
88555
90292
99023
104182
107776
119492
3
95589
102344
114068
122999
135952
145613
160196
175419
190357
207645
220674
238569
259630
277029
280206
296749
309734
312841
316600
322459
339598
360937
386134
411887
455748
501977
527564
569618
Source: Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi. % Share of
Agricultural
Consumption to Total
Consumption
4
18.64
17.82
18.38
19.04
21.66
24.22
24.27
25.11
26.44
28.20
28.70
29.63
30.54
30.95
29.98
30.75
31.38
29.07
26.76
25.33
24.88
24.13
22.93
21.92
21.73
20.75
20.43
20.98
178
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure. 3.4: State-wise Consumption of Electricity for Agriculture purpose in 2009-10
Region
State/UT
Consumption
for Agriculture
Purpose (GWh)
Total Energy
Sold (GWh)
% Share of
Consumption
for Agriculture
1
2
3
4
5
Northern
Haryana
9190.03
22809.23
40.29
Himachal Pradesh
36.82
5814.51
0.63
Jammu & Kashmir
204.88
3538.71
5.79
Punjab
10469.31
31291.49
33.46
Rajasthan
12072.59
30622.78
39.42
7340.72
41625.1
17.64
Uttrakhand
298.10
6249.21
4.77
Chandigarh
1.02
1237.58
0.08
39.67
19295.84
0.21
Sub-Total
39653.14
162484.45
24.40
Gujarat
12813.60
49777.64
25.74
Madhya Pradesh
5985.65
22323.67
26.81
Chhattisgarh
1751.60
11311.42
15.49
Maharashtra
13264.22
77660.62
17.04
110.76
2657.63
4.17
Daman & Diu
2.49
1452.25
0.17
D. & N. Haveli
3.00
3329.74
0.09
33931.52
16813.17
20.11
Andhra Pradesh
18825.020
59677.44
31.54
Karnataka
12384.770
36198.33
34.21
266.00
13967.15
1.90
11951.00
57722.33
20.70
73.80
1920.96
3.84
0.00
25.48
0.00
43500.59
169511.69
25.66
794.01
6067.22
13.09
65.72
13082.67
0.50
Uttar Pradesh
Delhi
Western
Goa
Sub-Total
Southern
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Lakshadweep
Pondicherry
Sub-Total
Eastern
Bihar
Jharkhand
Annexure
179
Region
State/UT
Consumption
for Agriculture
Purpose (GWh)
Total Energy
Sold (GWh)
% Share of
Consumption
for Agriculture
1
2
3
4
5
Orissa
149.57
12227.86
1.22
1322.97
31455.00
4.21
A.& N. Islands
0.74
176.89
0.42
Sikkim
0.00
301.50
0.00
2333.01
63311.14
3.68
32.00
3257.00
0.98
Manipur
0.71
220.65
0.32
Meghalaya
0.63
898.42
0.07
Nagaland
0.00
225.00
0.00
39.73
494.46
8.04
Arunachal
Pradesh
0.00
311.00
0.00
Mizoram
0.50
191.33
0.26
Sub-Total
73.57
5597.86
1.31
119491.83
569618.31
20.98
West Bengal
Sub-Total
North Eastern
Assam
Tripura
Total (All India)
GWh: Giga Watt-hour
Source: Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi.
180
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure. 3.5: State-wise Number of Kisan Credit Cards issued up to 31st March 2012
Sr. No.
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
State/UT
2
Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Gujarat
Goa
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Karnataka
Kerala
MadhyaPradesh
Maharashtra
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Manipur
Nagaland
Orissa
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamil Nadu
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
West Bangal
A & N island
Chandigarh
Daman & Diu
New Delhi
D & N Haveli
Lakshdweep
Pondicherry
Jharkhand
Chhattisgarh
Uttarakhand
Other States
Breakup not available
for CBs (1998-99)
Total
Cooperative
Banks
3
4174481
21555
980
867574
1380880
5661
1298501
216528
54619
2098737
1713377
4174101
5719704
12116
2255
13532
3470
4182847
958837
3528806
3476
1936258
30087
6987941
1693611
4258
Regional Rural
Banks
4
2492510
276559
3368
1576268
296685
450755
86379
42267
1508086
544295
729573
384068
23095
10018
2082
1841
824902
187976
674592
395691
109090
4805204
719307
2303
7781
281079
1418490
383388
133
488978
427263
62838
43177233
17123823
Source : Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Credit Division.
Commercial
Banks
5
11975335
601327
27215
2418418
1885499
14731
1050678
309506
25126
3259689
1815367
2215845
4192079
60270
22685
32095
33828
1622269
1634445
2392440
10542
5259695
98541
8341164
1946905
3821
8302
1790
27186
3413
1331
78312
714272
379184
413514
47
188005
53064871
Total
6
18642326
899441
31563
4862260
3563064
20392
2799934
612413
122012
6866512
4073039
7119519
10295851
95481
34958
47709
39139
6630018
2781258
6595838
14018
7591644
237718
20134309
4359823
8079
8302
1790
29489
3413
1331
86226
1484329
2224937
859740
47
188005
0
113365927
Lakh Tonnes
Lakh Tonnes
Lakh Tonnes
Kg.
Phosphatic(P)
Potassic(K)
Total (N+P+K)
Per Hectare
Thousand
Tonnes
Soil
Conservation
(Cumulative)
Lakh Hactares
Area Covered Under
(Technical
Grade Material)
Consumption of Pesticides
Lakh Tonnes
Nitrogenous
(N)
-
46.20
94.94
180.69
16.78
47.99
115.92
4.36
43.58
89.63
167.02
15.67
42.15
109.20
86.27
5.91
42.69
4
200001
4.70
47.02
91.13
173.60
16.67
43.82
113.10
91.80
5.44
45.54
5
200102
Sources: 1) Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, New Delhi.
2) States/Uts Zonal Conference, Kharif & Rabi.
4.
3.
Consumption of Chemical Fertilisers
2.
87.98
Lakh Qtls.
Distribution
of Certified/
Quality Seeds
(iii)
4.66
Lakh Qtls.
Production of
Foundation
Seeds
51.13
(ii)
Thousand Qtls
Production of
Breeder Seeds
(i)
3
Seeds
2
1
19992000
1.
Unit
Programme
4.30
48.30
91.45
160.94
16.01
40.19
104.74
98.03
6.14
48.42
6
200203
5.55
41.00
88.05
167.99
15.98
41.24
110.77
108.59
6.50
61.82
7
200304
7.37
40.67
94.52
183.98
20.61
46.24
117.13
120.26
6.90
66.46
8
200405
8.67
39.77
105.50
203.40
24.13
52.04
127.23
126.75
7.40
68.64
9
200506
11.41
41.51
111.76
216.51
23.35
55.43
137.73
155.01
7.96
73.83
10
200607
7.34
43.63
115.27
225.70
26.36
55.15
144.19
179.05
8.22
91.96
11
200708
6.82
43.86
127.21
249.09
33.12
65.06
150.91
215.81
9.69
94.41
12
200809
13
200910
5.28
41.82
135.27
264.86
36.32
72.74
155.8
257.11
10.50
105.00
Annexure. 3.6: Production and Consumption of Seed, Fertilizer and Pesticides in India
7.49
55.54
146.32
281.22
35.14
80.50
165.58
277.34
17.53
119.21
14
201011
4.72
50.58
144.33
277.40
25.26
79.14
173.00
283.85
21.86
119.21
15
201112
Annexure
181
Lakshadweep
7
Goa
Daman & Diu
D&N Haveli
13
14
15
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Delhi
Chandigarh
20
21
22
23
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
18
19
Haryana
Punjab
16
17
North Zone
Sub-Total (West Zone)
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
11
12
0.00
1.86
74.50
31.32
115.40
2898.83
1358.19
961.88
4564.09
0.72
0.31
3.25
721.96
1478.60
315.83
941.82
Madhya Pradesh
Chhattisgarh
9
1101.60
3410.99
0.00
0.31
19.37
608.54
112.75
962.90
1707.12
3
N
Gujarat
10
8
West Zone
Sub-Total (South
Zone)
Pondicherry
A&N Islands
5
6
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
3
4
Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka
1
2
State/Zone
2
South Zone
1
Sl.
No.
0.00
0.36
24.18
10.90
29.65
1039.17
433.60
333.16
2596.34
0.45
0.13
3.14
316.50
1016.51
162.32
605.63
491.66
1832.91
0.00
0.27
5.04
263.70
58.18
629.85
5
K
0.00
0.13
12.99
11.02
10.26
323.50
73.83
60.65
987.04
0.04
0.02
2.71
34.75
570.35
58.99
113.72
206.46
1369.16
0.00
0.13
6.35
324.61
93.96
465.73
478.38
2009-10
875.87
4
P
0.00
2.35
111.67
53.24
155.31
4261.50
1865.62
1355.69
8147.47
1.21
0.46
9.10
1073.21
3065.46
537.14
1661.17
1799.72
6613.06
0.00
0.71
30.76
1196.85
264.89
2058.48
3061.37
6
Total
0.00
0.37
72.82
32.59
111.92
2951.01
1402.91
974.04
5093.65
0.72
0.42
3.32
870.39
1657.29
321.99
998.30
1241.22
3763.23
0.00
0.39
19.14
643.18
117.68
1016.21
1966.63
7
N
0.00
0.05
37.30
10.73
30.91
1097.49
435.17
335.95
2972.93
0.53
0.16
2.27
413.30
1126.37
171.19
741.11
518.00
2082.20
0.00
0.33
4.81
279.91
69.00
696.17
9
K
0.00
0.00
11.15
11.81
14.03
267.39
73.43
47.63
1085.74
0.03
0.03
1.79
34.95
671.68
68.99
128.33
179.94
1304.81
0.00
0.19
5.43
306.10
96.86
398.05
498.18
2010-11
1031.98
8
P
0.00
0.42
121.27
55.13
156.86
4315.89
1911.51
1357.62
9152.32
1.28
0.61
7.38
1318.64
3455.34
562.17
1867.74
1939.16
7150.24
0.00
0.91
29.38
1229.19
283.54
2110.43
3496.79
10
Total
Annexure. 3.7: State-wise Consumption of Fertilizers
0.00
0.35
66.13
32.80
123.78
3067.10
1416.56
1020.90
5129.57
0.60
0.06
3.06
913.49
1610.91
356.40
1061.75
1183.30
4028.31
0.00
0.37
14.61
684.56
135.54
1215.94
1977.29
11
N
0.00
0.22
28.65
9.70
32.31
1024.23
448.65
369.62
2776.07
0.41
0.01
2.67
416.11
1011.76
177.33
750.76
417.02
2216.60
0.00
0.37
3.90
316.39
66.16
786.76
13
K
0.00
0.01
5.29
8.93
10.34
116.42
52.85
37.53
701.60
0.00
0.00
1.89
26.18
399.48
61.84
79.47
132.74
1021.71
0.00
0.17
3.06
263.96
99.63
332.85
322.04
2011-12
1043.02
12
P
14
Total
0.00
0.58
100.07
51.43
166.43
4207.75
1918.06
1428.05
8607.24
1.01
0.07
7.62
1355.78
3022.15
595.57
1891.98
1733.06
7266.62
0.00
0.91
21.57
1264.91
301.33
2335.55
3342.35
(Thousand Tonnes)
182
State of Indian Agriculture
2
1
West Bengal
27
Arunachal Pradesh
Mizoram
Sikkim
33
34
35
15580.00
151.50
0.00
2.00
0.51
0.47
2.50
10.67
8.10
127.25
2011.44
730.69
292.29
94.03
894.43
5441.98
3
N
7274.04
56.56
0.00
2.41
0.22
0.31
0.83
1.01
3.03
48.75
917.21
467.34
148.59
53.84
247.44
5
K
3632.40
71.36
0.00
1.06
0.09
0.16
0.35
0.36
3.07
66.27
712.46
446.53
78.46
19.48
167.99
492.38
2009-10
1871.02
4
P
26486.44
279.42
0.00
5.47
0.82
0.94
3.68
12.04
14.20
242.27
3641.11
1644.56
519.34
167.35
1309.86
7805.38
6
Total
16558.23
162.24
0.00
2.05
0.52
0.77
3.03
5.10
8.01
142.76
1993.45
712.37
294.72
79.08
907.28
5545.66
7
N
8049.71
69.73
0.00
2.43
0.22
0.48
1.52
1.10
4.47
59.51
977.25
495.58
153.97
38.11
289.59
9
K
3514.27
80.41
0.00
1.12
0.09
0.17
0.48
0.30
3.46
74.79
617.87
363.87
89.15
9.01
155.84
425.44
2010-11
1947.60
8
P
28122.21
312.38
0.00
5.60
0.83
1.42
5.03
6.50
15.94
277.06
3588.57
1571.82
537.84
126.20
1352.71
7918.70
10
Total
17300.25
173.55
0.00
0.92
0.55
0.75
3.27
6.59
10.42
151.05
2241.20
831.99
323.41
118.02
967.78
5727.62
11
N
Source: Department of Agriculture and Coopration, INM Division. All India
Sub-Total(North East
Zone)
Meghalaya
Nagaland
31
32
Tripura
Manipur
29
30
Assam
28
North East Zone
Sub-Total (East Zone)
Jharkhand
Orissa
25
26
Bihar
24
East Zone
Sub-Total (North
Zone)
State/Zone
Sl.
No.
79.23
2525.45
7914.30
0.00
0.06
0.03
0.20
0.25
0.44
2.73
75.52
491.54
309.04
55.80
11.34
115.36
57.58
0.00
0.21
0.10
0.49
1.24
0.97
5.49
49.08
950.67
476.17
135.48
42.01
297.01
13
K
231.37
2011-12
1913.38
12
P
27740
310.36
0.00
1.19
0.68
1.44
4.76
8.00
18.64
275.65
3683.41
1617.20
514.69
171.37
1380.15
7872.37
14
Total
Annexure
183
2
1
Lakshadweep
7
Goa
Daman & Diu
D&N Haveli
13
14
15
Delhi
Chandigarh
22
23
Average (North Zone)
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
20
Uttarakhand
19
21
Punjab
Uttar Pradesh
17
18
Haryana
16
North Zone
Average (West Zone)
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
11
12
127.55
0.00
42.27
65.70
32.26
91.51
116.29
172.58
148.94
54.69
26.67
155.00
19.12
32.51
65.27
54.95
46.13
Madhya Pradesh
Chhattisgarh
9
90.12
97.21
0.00
22.14
553.43
104.65
40.84
74.58
125.83
3
N
Gujarat
10
8
West Zone
Average (South Zone)
Pondicherry
A&N Islands
5
6
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
3
Karnataka
2
4
Andhra Pradesh
1
South Zone
State/Zone
Sl.
No.
43.85
0.00
8.18
21.32
11.23
23.51
41.69
55.10
51.59
31.11
16.67
65.00
18.47
14.25
44.87
28.24
29.66
40.22
52.24
0.00
19.29
144.00
45.35
21.07
48.85
55.82
34.03
36.12
35.26
5
K
11.54
0.00
2.95
11.46
11.35
8.14
12.98
9.38
9.39
11.83
1.48
10.00
15.94
1.56
25.18
10.26
5.57
16.89
39.02
0.00
9.29
181.43
2009-10
64.56
4
P
182.94
0.00
53.41
98.48
54.83
123.16
170.96
237.05
209.92
97.63
44.82
230.00
53.53
48.33
135.32
93.45
81.37
147.23
188.47
0.00
50.71
878.86
205.82
95.94
159.55
225.65
6
Total
131.16
0.00
8.04
63.60
34.97
95.99
119.17
178.15
153.37
61.63
30.00
105.00
20.75
40.03
73.29
57.90
46.63
111.44
111.58
0.00
22.94
598.13
115.43
44.09
78.94
156.58
7
N
46.06
0.00
1.09
32.58
11.51
26.51
44.32
55.26
52.90
35.97
22.08
40.00
14.19
19.01
49.81
30.78
34.61
46.51
61.74
0.00
19.41
150.31
50.24
25.85
54.08
54.94
36.29
30.92
39.66
9
K
10.06
0.00
0.00
9.74
12.67
12.03
10.80
9.32
7.50
13.14
1.25
7.50
11.19
1.61
29.70
12.41
5.99
16.16
38.69
0.00
11.18
169.69
2010-11
82.16
8
P
187.29
0.00
9.13
105.91
59.15
134.53
174.28
242.73
213.76
110.73
53.33
152.50
46.13
60.64
152.81
101.09
87.23
174.10
212.01
0.00
53.53
918.13
220.60
106.23
163.94
278.41
10
Total
135.47
0.00
7.61
57.76
35.19
106.16
123.85
179.88
160.75
62.06
25.00
15.00
19.13
42.01
71.24
64.09
49.59
106.24
119.44
0.00
21.76
456.56
122.86
50.78
94.46
157.43
11
N
Annexure. 3.8: State-wise Estimated Consumption of Fertiliser per Hectare
2011-12
45.25
0.00
4.78
25.02
10.41
27.71
41.36
56.97
58.20
33.59
17.08
2.50
16.69
19.14
44.74
31.89
35.06
37.44
65.72
0.00
21.76
121.88
56.78
24.79
61.12
83.04
12
P
5.47
0.00
0.22
4.62
9.58
8.87
4.70
6.71
5.91
8.49
0.00
0.00
11.81
1.20
17.67
11.12
3.71
11.92
30.29
0.00
10.00
95.63
47.37
37.33
25.86
25.64
13
K
186.19
0.00
12.61
87.40
55.18
142.74
169.91
243.56
224.85
104.13
42.08
17.50
47.63
62.35
133.65
107.10
88.36
155.60
215.46
0.00
53.53
674.06
227.01
112.90
181.43
266.11
14
Total
( Kgs./Hectare)
184
State of Indian Agriculture
Jharkhand
Orissa
West Bengal
25
26
27
79.57
0.00
20.83
All India (Average)
Mizoram
Sikkim
34
35
1.88
27.37
Arunachal Pradesh
33
1.18
8.83
45.40
27.74
33.15
69.20
74.93
32.42
39.33
113.08
3
N
Average (North East Zone)
Meghalaya
Nagaland
31
32
Tripura
Manipur
29
30
Assam
28
North East Zone
Average (East Zone)
Bihar
2
State/Zone
24
East Zone
South Zone
1
Sl.
No.
2009-10
37.15
10.22
0.00
25.10
0.81
0.78
2.93
4.30
10.38
12.70
31.55
47.92
16.48
22.52
31.28
4
P
18.55
12.89
0.00
11.04
0.33
0.40
1.24
1.53
10.51
17.26
24.51
45.79
8.70
8.15
21.24
5
K
135.27
50.48
0.00
56.98
3.01
2.35
13.00
51.23
48.63
63.11
125.26
168.64
57.60
69.99
165.60
6
Total
86.15
27.01
0.00
16.67
1.88
1.58
9.02
21.89
25.92
34.83
72.42
74.75
32.36
56.53
121.12
7
N
2010-11
41.88
11.61
0.00
19.76
0.80
0.99
4.52
4.72
14.47
14.52
35.50
52.00
16.91
27.24
38.66
8
P
18.28
13.39
0.00
9.11
0.33
0.35
1.43
1.29
11.20
18.25
22.45
38.18
9.79
6.44
20.80
9
K
146.32
52.01
0.00
45.53
3.01
2.92
14.97
27.90
51.59
67.59
130.37
164.93
59.06
90.21
180.58
10
Total
90.01
28.90
0.00
7.48
1.99
1.54
9.73
28.28
33.72
36.85
81.42
87.30
35.51
84.36
129.19
11
N
2011-12
41.18
9.59
0.00
1.71
0.36
1.01
3.69
4.16
17.77
11.97
34.54
49.97
14.88
30.03
39.65
12
P
13.14
13.19
0.00
0.49
0.11
0.41
0.74
1.89
8.83
18.42
17.86
32.43
6.13
8.11
15.40
13
K
144.33
51.67
0.00
9.67
2.46
2.96
14.17
34.33
60.32
67.25
133.81
169.70
56.52
122.49
184.24
14
Total
Annexure
185
0.14
0.08
Arhar
Cowpea
5.16
0.29
0.03
0.25
0.60
0.01
0.10
Rapeseed & Mustard
Til
Sunflower
Soyabean
Linseed
Castorseed
2.09
Oilseeds Groundnut
Sub-Total (Pulses)
-
0.39
Moong
Others
0.38
25.67
Sub-Total (Cereals)
Urad
0.07
Barley
0.19
0.12
Ragi
Peas
1.65
Bajra
0.06
2.59
Jowar
Lentil
1.44
Maize
0.85
8.86
Paddy
Pulses Gram
10.94
2
1
Cereals Wheat
1983-84
Crops
0.21
0.01
1.23
0.55
0.08
0.77
6.72
3.29
0.03
0.08
0.49
0.62
0.65
0.31
0.08
1.03
35.35
0.05
0.15
1.68
3.46
1.50
14.47
14.04
3
1991-92
0.30
0.02
3.08
0.58
0.10
1.02
7.27
4.19
-
0.12
0.58
0.65
1.07
0.25
0.08
1.44
46.43
0.13
0.19
1.71
2.73
1.88
16.57
23.22
4
1996-97
0.26
0.02
4.99
0.48
0.16
0.86
5.25
4.69
0.07
0.05
0.64
0.83
0.97
0.31
0.29
1.53
65.56
0.50
0.14
1.80
2.20
2.75
25.58
32.59
5
2001-02
0.36
0.02
14.05
0.89
0.16
1.36
9.89
9.63
0.11
0.09
0.85
0.23
0.8
0.93
0.54
5.08
109.87
1.08
0.21
2.16
2.32
5.74
43.51
54.55
6
2006-07
0.42
0.02
16.52
0.92
0.22
1.71
14.43
12.57
0.16
0.10
1.18
1.34
1.40
1.10
0.56
6.73
123.80
1.27
0.27
1.90
2.38
5.80
48.93
63.25
7
2007-08
0.42
0.01
20.89
0.80
0.18
1.63
15.90
14.48
0.15
0.16
1.09
1.23
1.37
1.29
0.59
8.6
147.43
1.62
0.25
2.20
2.41
7.94
58.18
74.83
8
2008-09
Annexure. 3.9: Crop-wise Distribution of Certified/ Quality Seeds
0.29
0.01
28.44
0.76
0.18
2.09
18.86
19.69
0.28
0.20
1.37
1.29
1.61
2.07
0.55
12.32
165.15
1.77
0.05
1.74
2.24
7.74
60.95
90.66
9
2009-10
0.31
0.04
25.55
0.55
0.20
2.07
21.79
20.83
0.56
0.33
1.52
1.76
1.96
1.47
0.74
12.50
182.62
1.79
0.26
2.31
2.16
8.94
69.34
97.83
10
2010-11
0.69
0.02
36.84
0.22
0.23
2.49
17.83
19.19
0.25
0.28
1.94
1.77
1.72
1.36
0.66
11.21
184.52
3.80
0.23
5.00
1.99
8.70
70.11
94.69
11
2011-12
(Lakh Quintals)
186
State of Indian Agriculture
44.97
57.50
7.17
0.27
6.90
2.03
0.26
1.77
9.66
0.01
0.08
3
1991-92
73.27
6.94
0.25
6.69
3.18
0.25
2.93
12.53
-
0.16
4
1996-97
* Estimated
Source: Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Seeds Division
Grand Total
8.81
0.07
Others
Sub-Total (Other Misc.)
8.74*
Other Miscellaneous
Potato
1.91
0.01
Mesta/Others
Sub-Total (Fibers)
0.12
Jute
6.49
1.78
Fibres Cotton
Sub-Total (Oilseeds)
Others
0.05
2
1
Safflower
1983-84
Crops
91.80
6.56
0.23
6.33
2.89
0.06
0.21
2.62
12.10
0.01
0.07
5
2001-02
155.01
5.46
0.34
5.12
3.05
0.34
0.26
2.45
27.00
0.20
0.07
6
2006-07
179.05
5.72
0.37
5.35
2.63
0.50
0.24
1.89
34.33
0.01
0.08
7
2007-08
215.81
11.40
0.85
10.55
2.58
0.03
0.28
2.27
39.92
0.09
8
2008-09
257.11
18.91
0.23
18.68
2.65
0.02
0.27
2.36
50.71
0.01
0.07
9
2009-10
277.34
20.63
0.55
20.08
2.64
0.04
0.27
2.33
50.61
0.01
0.08
10
2010-11
283.85
18.38
1.70
16.68
3.36
0.21
0.63
2.52
58.40
0.01
0.07
11
2011-12
Annexure
187
2
1
Sub Total (A)
17303
12957
36860
87
46268
103
24733
3172
52827
83
27807
4219
20718
19513
28
14321
974
4190
33314
55
13486
3245
62045
80
33587
4854
23524
21536
39
15683
1077
4737
40509
41
17904
3777
18787
5
2001-02
69560
80
39774
6070
23636
23974
41
18670
1295
3968
45586
39
21104
4775
19668
6
2002-03
86981
84
52441
7581
26875
32004
27
26249
1493
4235
54977
57
26192
6088
22640
7
2003-04
125309
193
81481
12404
31231
51245
89
44688
2394
4074
74064
104
36793
10010
27157
8
2004-05
180485
382
125477
15223
39403
75136
314
67837
2511
4474
105350
68
57640
12712
34930
9
2005-06
229400
0
166485
20435
42480
90945
0
83283
3804
3858
138455
0
83202
16631
38622
10
2006-07
254658
0
181088
25312
48258
66066
0
58798
4099
3169
183519
0
122289
20715
40515
11
2007-08
301908
0
228951
26765
46192
91447
0
81133
4352
5962
210461
0
147818
22413
40230
12
2008-09
384514
0
285800
35217
63497
107858
0
95892
5415
6551
276656
0
189908
29802
56946
13
2009-10
Source: Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Credit Division. Grand Total
(A+B)
Other
Agencies
18443
2460
RRBs
Commercial
Banks
15870
Cooperative
Banks
18260
29
13036
749
3489
30
ST+MT/LT Credit
Sub Total (B)
Other
Agencies
8821
750
RRBs
Commercial
Banks
3356
28965
23905
Cooperative
Banks
II. MT/LT Total
11697
74
9622
Commercial
Banks
2423
16528
4
3
14771
2000-01
1999-2000
59
1710
RRBs
Other
Agencies
12514
Cooperative
Banks
I. Production (ST) Credit
1998-99
Particulars/
Agency
Annexure. 3.10: Flow of Institutional Credit to Agriculture Sector
468291
0
345877
44293
78121
15255
0
NA
6172
9083
107159
0
NA
38121
69038
14
2010-11
511029
0
368616
54450
87963
114871
0
101688
7049
6134
396158
0
266928
47401
81829
15
2011-12P
(Rs. in Crore)
188
State of Indian Agriculture
Rabi 2002-03
Rabi 2007-08
17
Year 2007-08
13398822
18442838
5044016
17912097
Kharif 2007
16
4977980
Year 2006-07
Rabi 2006-07
15
16722357
Year 2005-06
12934117
4048524
Rabi 2005-06
13
Kharif 2006
12673833
14
16218149
Kharif 2005
12
3531045
Year 2004-05
Rabi 2004-05
11
12687104
12392117
Kharif 2004
Year 2003-04
10
4421287
Rabi 2003-04
9
7970830
Kharif 2003
12095522
2326811
9768711
8
Year 2002-03
Kharif 2002
7
10652018
Year 2001-02
6
1955431
Rabi 2001-02
8696587
Kharif 2001
5
10501107
2091733
4
Year 2000-01
Rabi 2000-01
3
8409374
579940
Kharif 2000
Year 1999-2000
2
579940
3
Farmers
Insured
(no.)
Rabi 1999-2000
2
1
1
Season
S.
No.
28141903
7387156
20754747
27305875
7632882
19672994
27749455
7218417
20531038
29616638
5343244
24273394
18824177
6468663
12355514
19570173
4037824
15532349
16033583
3145873
12887710
16331252
3111423
13219829
780569
780569
4
Area
Insured
(ha.)
2447461
746664
1700796
2130168
654221
1475946
1859076
507166
1351910
1694482
377421
1317062
1116362
304949
811413
1126924
183755
943169
899997
149751
750246
850607
160268
690338
35641
35641
5
Sum
Insured
377
377
63838
14071
49766
57224
13150
44075
52911
9959
42951
51058
7173
43885
31670
5782
25889
31238
3178
28060
23637
2237
21400
17889
1955
15934
6
Farmer
Premium
83
83
2233
900
1333
1896
569
1327
1283
262
1022
1211
206
1005
1534
312
1222
2580
336
2243
2770
389
2381
2782
412
2370
7
GOI Share
in Premium
542
542
68303
15871
52432
61017
14288
46729
55477
10482
44995
53480
7585
45894
34739
6406
28333
36397
3850
32547
29177
3015
26162
23452
2779
20674
8
Premium
Collected
769
769
172540
81005
91536
229087
51596
177491
141022
33830
107192
119875
16059
103817
114974
49706
65268
201286
18855
182431
55819
6466
49354
128197
5949
122248
9
Claims
Payable
Annexure. 3.11: National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS),
Season wise Cumulative up to 2011-12
769
769
172453
81005
91448
229087
51596
177491
141022
33830
107192
119875
16059
103817
114974
49706
65268
201286
18855
182431
55819
6466
49354
128197
5949
122248
10
Claims Paid
3170471
1578608
1591863
4521941
1390430
3131511
3655253
980748
2674505
3447522
772779
2674743
3810394
2098125
1712269
5223563
926408
4297155
2195198
453325
1741873
4161949
526697
3635252
55288
55288
11
Farmers
Benefitted
(no.)
(Rs. in Lakh)
Annexure
189
Rabi 2009-10
21
Rabi 2011-12
5188712
192941848
16742997
291497118
22964286
7190212
15774075
24049915
6855237
17194678
33636635
7866818
25769817
26492657
8857495
17635162
4
Area
Insured
(ha.)
25530938
3399882
1051350
2348533
3439707
1069198
2370509
3849232
1087561
2761671
2681400
1114859
1566541
5
Sum
Insured
Source: Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Credit Division.
Total
Year 2011-12
25
Year 2010-11
11554285
4896958
17581075
Rabi 2010-11
23
Kharif 2011
12684117
Kharif 2010
22
24
23900036
Year 2009-10
5646964
18253072
Kharif 2009
20
6210620
19201595
Rabi 2008-09
19
12990975
3
Farmers
Insured
(no.)
Year 2008-09
2
Kharif 2008
1
18
Season
S.
No.
683222
92920
21492
71427
87534
19909
67625
102030
21457
80572
70897
23077
47820
6
Farmer
Premium
40894
6376
3761
2616
6718
4448
2270
6495
3639
2856
4933
3247
1686
7
GOI Share
in Premium
759779
100441
29013
71427
100969
28804
72165
115020
28735
86285
80764
29572
51192
8
Premium
Collected
2452758
163502
1867
161635
221720
57900
163820
515312
58611
456700
388655
150884
237771
9
Claims
Payable
2402589
153817
8
153810
211195
56654
154541
486089
39077
447012
388006
150234
237771
10
Claims Paid
50561374
1791201
14063
1777138
3319236
1068177
2251059
9013072
1042548
7970524
6196286
1977328
4218958
11
Farmers
Benefitted
(no.)
190
State of Indian Agriculture
560
Rabi/
Summer
7147
7563
Pulses
Kharif
Other Than
Tur
Gram
Rabi
3359
8469
6910
3439
101666
101197
Total
Tur (Arhar) Kharif
63639
38027
63864
37333
Kharif
Rabi
Cereals
6157
29341
7015
31054
Rabi
793
Total
Kharif
Coarse
Cereals
858
1758
1495
23184
Rabi
Barley
1529
6204
613
5591
9297
9794
4752
5043
27523
44802
4347
40456
22088
15283
3085
4
1998-99
24039
Kharif
Kharif
Ragi
Small
Millets
1657
9888
5762
Kharif
Kharif
Bajra
Maize
6321
10801
Total
Total
5204
5598
Kharif
Jowar
26696
Rabi
Rabi
Wheat
43447
3622
Rabi/
Summer
Total
20982
39825
Kharif
Total
Kharif
3140
15704
Rice
3
Autumn
2
1
1997-98
Winter
Season
Crops
6146
6367
3427
101988
38543
63445
29340
6845
22496
725
1411
1634
6422
695
5727
8897
10251
5425
4826
27486
45162
4213
40949
22374
15542
3033
5
19992000
5185
7026
3632
100700
36135
64565
30257
6395
23862
778
1424
1759
6611
624
5987
9829
9856
4993
4863
25731
44712
4009
40703
22673
14926
3103
6
2000-01
3043
6416
7395
3328
100771
37259
63512
29523
6630
22893
660
1311
1647
6582
648
5934
9529
9795
5322
4473
26345
44904
4285
40619
22255
15321
7
2001-02
2784
5906
6592
3359
93364
34752
58612
26992
6417
20575
702
1201
1415
6635
659
5976
7740
9300
5056
4243
25196
41176
3139
38037
20522
14731
8
2002-03
2696
7048
8168
3516
99988
36235
63753
30801
6279
24523
657
1191
1666
7343
753
6590
10612
9331
4868
4463
26595
42593
3362
39231
21700
14835
9
2003-04
6715
7799
3519
97315
36372
60943
29025
6447
22579
617
1101
1553
7430
836
6594
9233
9092
4994
4099
26383
41907
3543
38364
21187
14544
2633
10
2004-05
6926
7099
3581
99208
37173
62036
29065
6364
22701
630
1064
1534
7588
830
6758
9581
8667
4904
3763
26484
43660
4325
39335
21791
14987
2557
11
2005-06
Area (‘000 Hectare)
7494
7114
3562
100516
38521
61995
28708
6314
22394
646
1010
1177
7894
934
6960
9508
8473
4734
3738
27995
43814
4212
39601
23803
13500
2298
12
2006-07
7544
7764
3726
100435
38346
62088
28482
5866
22616
603
1039
1387
8117
999
7119
9571
7764
4264
3500
28039
43914
4442
39472
23622
13627
2224
13
2007-08
7893
6431
3378
100739
39103
61636
27450
6623
20826
706
905
1381
8174
1279
6895
8753
7531
4638
2893
27752
45537
4727
40810
24609
13971
2230
14
2008-09
Annexure. 4.1: All India Estimates of Area of Foodgrains
8169
7117
3466
98051
39128
58923
27675
6370
21305
624
831
1268
8262
1198
7063
8904
7787
4548
3239
28457
41918
4300
37618
21961
13573
2084
15
2009-10
9186
7953
4367
100270
40168
60102
8299
7183
4007
100293
39417
60876
5669
26422
20753
643
799
1176
8782
1401
7381
8777
6245
3625
2620
29865
44006
3883
40123
6286
17
2011-12
28339
22053
705
800
1286
8553
1271
7282
9612
7382
4310
3072
29069
42862
4814
38049
25203
11009
1837
16
2010-11
8925
5847
3794
96061
39074
56987
24467
5852
18615
755
692
1179
8359
1275
7084
7253
6229
3822
2407
29434
42159
3788
38372
18
2012-13*
Annexure
191
51179
49698
124068
Rabi
Total
123104
49866
73238
21116
11322
9794
5176
121048
45825
75223
20348
9690
10658
4505
48545
74235
22008
11286
10722
4870
122780
* As per 2nd Advance Estimates released on 08.02.2013.
125167
23501
73988
22871
74369
Total
Foodgrains Kharif
10349
13152
10506
12365
4683
Kharif
4802
Rabi
Pulses
Pulses
Rabi
Other Than
Gram
113860
45298
68563
20496
10546
9950
4639
123447
48010
75436
23458
11775
11683
4727
120078
47818
72260
22763
11446
11317
4731
121600
48884
72715
22391
11712
10680
4785
123708
51037
72671
23192
12516
10676
5022
124068
50490
73578
23633
12144
11490
4600
122834
51388
71446
22094
12285
9809
4393
121334
51828
69506
23282
12700
10582
4531
126671
54250
72421
26402
14082
12320
4897
124755
52689
72066
24462
13272
11190
4973
119922
53294
66628
23861
14220
9641
5295
192
State of Indian Agriculture
2440.1
Kharif
Rabi
Pulses
Other
Than
Tur
Gram
6132.2
1849.5
Kharif
90926.4
81998.9
179292.2
Rabi
Total
6800.7
2433.2
2707.9
188699.6
97773.2
97293.3
Kharif
Tur
(Arhar)
Cereals
6282.3
31335.4
5634.4
30397.8
Rabi
Total
1537.8
25053.1
1679.4
Rabi
Kharif
Barley
Coarse
Cereals
670.8
2608.1
11147.7
1609.0
9538.7
6955.6
24763.4
639.9
Kharif
Small
Millets
2086.8
10819.2
Total
Kharif
Ragi
9429.8
1389.4
Kharif
Maize
7644.4
Rabi/
Summer
Kharif
Bajra
3135.5
2565.6
7528.1
Rabi
Total
8415.4
5279.9
71287.5
86076.7
13356.6
72720.1
41765.8
26717.1
4237.2
4
1998-99
4962.5
Kharif
Jowar
82544.5
Total
66349.9
10014.6
Rabi/
Summer
Rabi
72529.9
Total
Kharif
Wheat
27993.1
39945.7
Winter
Kharif
4591.1
3
1997-98
Autumn
2
1
Rice
Season
Crops
5118.1
2122.4
2693.8
196383.2
95688.1
100695.1
30331.4
7116.8
23214.6
1447.0
618.2
2289.5
11509.6
1803.4
9706.2
5782.2
8684.9
3866.4
4818.5
76368.9
89682.9
12202.4
77480.5
45843.4
26983.9
4653.2
5
1999-2000
3855.4
2201.9
2246.3
185738.4
88101.3
97637.1
31081.0
6222.3
24858.7
1430.6
586.9
2731.7
12043.2
1823.6
10219.6
6759.2
7529.4
2968.1
4561.3
69680.8
84976.6
12198.2
72778.4
42662.5
25759.6
4356.3
6
2000-01
5473.0
2578.4
2259.8
199483.1
92249.1
107234.0
33376.8
6664.6
26712.2
1424.5
576.7
2374.6
13160.2
1911.9
11248.3
8284.0
7556.8
3328.2
4228.6
72766.3
93340.0
12818.2
80521.8
46167.8
29692.1
4661.9
7
2001-02
4236.8
1965.2
2185.8
163646.4
80574.3
83072.1
26065.4
6076.4
19989.0
1407.4
459.3
1315.7
11151.7
1879.3
9272.4
4718.9
7012.4
2789.7
4222.7
65760.8
71820.2
8737.1
63083.1
36237.3
23499.5
3346.3
8
2002-03
5717.5
3808.3
2356.4
198284.2
87448.9
110835.3
37602.0
5385.2
32216.8
1297.6
563.8
1965.7
14984.3
2249.9
12734.4
12109.3
6681.3
1837.7
4843.6
72156.2
88526.0
9907.5
78618.5
47176.2
27708.5
3733.8
9
2003-04
5469.4
2370.4
2346.9
185233.3
86641.2
98592.1
33464.7
7102.6
26362.1
1207.1
477.6
2432.4
14172.0
2695.6
11476.4
7931.3
7244.3
3199.9
4044.4
68636.9
83131.7
10901.7
72230.0
43195.5
25540.6
3493.9
10
2004-05
5599.9
2126.8
2738.0
195217.2
90208.6
105008.6
34069.3
7332.6
26736.7
1220.6
471.6
2353.6
14709.9
2554.0
12155.9
7684.0
7629.6
3558.0
4071.6
69354.5
91793.4
13521.5
78271.9
47922.0
26900.0
3449.9
11
2005-06
Production (‘000 Tonnes)
6333.7
2481.3
2314.1
203084.6
97303.8
105780.8
33922.6
8312.6
25610.0
1327.9
479.6
1443.6
15097.0
3540.7
11556.3
8423.7
7150.8
3444.0
3706.8
75806.7
93355.3
13184.5
80170.8
46720.6
27004.9
6445.3
12
2006-07
5748.6
3327.3
3075.9
216013.5
101416.0
114597.5
40750.4
8855.8
31894.6
1196.1
550.7
2152.2
18955.4
3848.7
15106.7
9970.1
7925.9
3811.0
4114.9
78570.2
96692.9
13990.0
82702.9
50495.6
25776.7
6430.6
13
2007-08
7060.2
2420.7
2265.5
219899.8
106404.2
113495.6
40037.9
11493.7
28544.2
1689.1
444.8
2039.9
19731.4
5610.9
14120.5
8887.1
7245.6
4193.7
3051.9
80679.4
99182.5
14231.1
84951.4
50535.5
27487.2
6928.7
14
2008-09
Annexure. 4.2: All India Estimates of Production of Foodgrains
103654.4
7475.9
1739.7
2464.6
203445.6
8221.1
4259.0
2861.1
226250.9
112475.0
113775.9
43397.1
99791.2
10315.2
9715.8
33081.8
1662.9
442.0
2193.5
21725.8
5088.4
16637.4
10369.9
7003.1
3564.0
3439.1
86874.0
95979.8
15285.8
80694.0
51690.7
25742.3
3261.1
16
2010-11
33549.1
23833.3
1354.7
381.9
1888.5
16719.5
4426.2
12293.3
6506.4
6698.2
3935.0
2763.2
80803.6
89092.9
13135.1
75957.8
45083.4
26316.9
4557.6
15
2009-10
7702.3
3403.8
2654.1
242234.4
117023.5
125210.9
42041.3
9578.0
32463.3
1618.7
451.5
1929.2
21759.4
5273.1
16486.3
10276.0
6006.5
2686.2
3320.3
94882.1
105311.0
12563.4
92747.6
17
2011-12
8567.8
2737.0
2745.1
232567.1
113372.8
119194.3
38467.3
9960.5
28506.8
1816.5
402.2
1784.9
21058.4
5464.4
15594.0
8148.9
5256.4
2679.6
2576.7
92298.8
101801.0
11113.5
90687.5
18
2012-13*
Annexure
193
90680.1
192263.0
Rabi
Total
12970.8
101582.9
Total
Kharif
203606.7
100692.4
102914.3
14907.1
9766.0
5141.1
2965.3
4
1998-99
209801.3
104290.0
105511.3
13418.1
8601.9
4816.2
3483.8
5
1999-2000
* As per 2nd Advance Estimates released on 08.02.2013.
Food
grains
4289.6
8681.2
Kharif
Pulses
2549.0
3
1997-98
Rabi
2
Rabi
1
Season
Pulses
Other
Than
Gram
Crops
196813.8
94728.5
102085.3
11075.4
6627.2
4448.2
2771.8
6
2000-01
212851.2
100779.0
112072.2
13368.1
8529.9
4838.2
3056.9
7
2001-02
174771.4
87548.3
87223.1
11125.0
6974.0
4151.0
2737.2
8
2002-03
213189.4
96189.4
117000.0
14905.2
8740.5
6164.7
3023.0
9
2003-04
198362.8
95053.4
103309.4
13129.5
8412.2
4717.3
2942.8
10
2004-05
208601.6
98728.2
109873.4
13384.4
8519.6
4864.8
2919.7
11
2005-06
Production (‘000 Tonnes)
217282.1
106705.9
110576.2
14197.5
9402.1
4795.4
3068.4
12
2006-07
230775.0
109774.3
121000.7
14761.5
8358.3
6403.2
2609.7
13
2007-08
234466.2
116284.4
118181.8
14566.4
9880.2
4686.2
2820.0
14
2008-09
218107.4
114112.0
103995.4
14661.8
10457.6
4204.2
2981.7
15
2009-10
244491.8
123595.8
120896.0
18240.9
11120.8
7120.1
2899.8
16
2010-11
259323.4
128054.6
131268.8
17089.0
11031.1
6057.9
3328.8
17
2011-12
250142.6
125466.3
124676.3
17575.5
12093.4
5482.1
3525.6
18
2012-13*
194
State of Indian Agriculture
803
979
Kharif
Rabi
Total
Coarse
Cereals
Kharif
Rabi
Pulses
Other Than
Tur
Gram
1772
Total
811
341
551
2196
Rabi
Kharif
1523
1958
Kharif
Tur
(Arhar)
Cereals
1030
Rabi
Barley
418
Kharif
1260
Kharif
1712
Total
Small
Millets
2482
Rabi/
Summer
Ragi
1637
Kharif
Maize
773
697
Total
Kharif
458
Rabi
Bajra
954
Kharif
1900
Total
Jowar
2765
Rabi/
Summer
2485
1821
Total
Kharif
Rabi
1904
Kharif
Wheat
1783
Winter
3
1462
2
1997-98
Autumn
1
Rice
Season
Crops
803
352
787
1856
2391
1536
1068
1020
1081
1940
449
1483
1797
2626
1706
748
859
660
1047
2590
1921
3073
1798
1891
1748
1373
4
1998-99
833
333
786
1926
2483
1587
1034
1040
1032
1997
438
1401
1792
2594
1695
650
847
713
998
2778
1986
2897
1892
2049
1736
1534
5
1999-2000
744
313
618
1844
2438
1512
1027
973
1042
1840
412
1553
1822
2921
1707
688
764
594
938
2708
1901
3042
1788
1882
1726
1404
6
2000-01
853
349
679
1980
2476
1688
1131
1005
1167
2160
440
1442
2000
2952
1896
869
771
625
945
2762
2079
2992
1982
2074
1938
1532
7
2001-02
717
298
651
1753
2319
1417
966
947
972
2006
383
930
1681
2851
1552
610
754
552
995
2610
1744
2783
1658
1766
1595
1202
8
2002-03
811
466
670
1983
2413
1739
1221
858
1314
1975
473
1180
2041
2987
1932
1141
716
377
1085
2713
2078
2947
2004
2174
1868
1385
9
2003-04
815
304
667
1903
2382
1618
1153
1102
1168
1958
434
1567
1907
3224
1740
859
797
641
987
2602
1984
3077
1883
2039
1756
1327
10
2004-05
808
300
765
1968
2427
1693
1172
1152
1178
1938
443
1534
1938
3076
1799
802
880
726
1082
2619
2102
3127
1990
2199
1795
1349
11
2005-06
Yield (Kg./Hectare)
845
349
650
2020
2526
1706
1182
1316
1144
2055
475
1226
1912
3793
1660
886
844
727
992
2708
2131
3130
2024
1963
2000
2804
12
2006-07
762
429
826
2151
2645
1846
1431
1510
1410
1985
530
1552
2335
3854
2122
1042
1021
894
1176
2802
2202
3149
2095
2138
1892
2892
13
2007-08
Annexure. 4.3: All India Estimates of Yield of Foodgrains
895
376
671
2183
2721
1841
1459
1735
1371
2394
491
1477
2414
4387
2048
1015
962
904
1055
2907
2178
3010
2082
2054
1968
3107
14
2008-09
915
244
711
2075
2649
1694
1212
1525
1119
2172
460
1489
2024
3694
1740
731
860
865
853
2839
2125
3055
2019
2053
1939
2186
15
2009-10
895
536
655
2256
2800
1893
1531
1641
1500
2357
553
1705
2540
4003
2285
1079
949
827
1119
2989
2239
3176
2121
2051
2338
1776
16
2010-11
928
474
662
2415
2969
2057
960
468
724
2421
2902
2092
1702
1572
1689
1531
2405
581
1514
2519
4287
2201
1124
844
701
1070
3136
2415
2934
2363
18
2012-13*
1591
1564
2516
565
1641
2478
3765
2234
1171
962
741
1267
3177
2393
3235
2312
17
2011-12
Annexure
195
1825
1627
1967
1391
634
743
497
633
4
1998-99
* As per 2nd Advance Estimates released on 08.02.2013.
1550
Rabi
Total
1366
567
Total
Kharif
702
Rabi
Foodgrains
408
Kharif
Pulses
531
3
1997-98
Rabi
2
Season
Pulses
Other Than
Gram
1
Crops
1704
2091
1441
635
760
492
673
5
1999-2000
1626
2067
1357
544
684
417
615
6
2000-01
1734
2076
1510
607
756
451
628
7
2001-02
1535
1933
1272
543
661
417
590
8
2002-03
1727
2004
1551
635
742
528
640
9
2003-04
1652
1988
1430
577
735
417
622
10
1715
2020
1511
598
727
456
610
11
2005-06
Yield (Kg./Hectare)
2004-05
1756
2091
1522
612
751
449
611
12
2006-07
1860
2174
1645
625
688
557
567
13
2007-08
1909
2263
1654
659
804
478
642
14
2008-09
1798
2202
1496
630
823
397
658
15
2009-10
1930
2278
1669
691
790
578
592
16
2010-11
2079
2430
1822
699
831
541
669
17
2011-12
2086
2354
1871
737
850
569
666
18
2012-13*
196
State of Indian Agriculture
3929.8
Sugarcane
4054.9
1025.4
177.1
848.3
9342.2
26198.6
10304.4
15894.2
4219.7
1035.3
188.7
846.6
8709.5
24258.1
8931.6
15326.5
1374.7
593.1
781.6
22883.4
8338.5
14544.9
6222.4
1288.1
814.7
473.4
438.5
593.1
6026.8
1560.2
480.1
781.6
6867.3
1058.5
5808.8
1999-2000
* As per 2nd Advance Estimates released on 08.02.2013.
1106.7
Jute &
Mesta
Total
906.2
200.5
Total
Total
Jute
26094.6
Total
Mesta
10630.9
Rabi
8868.0
15463.7
Kharif
749.4
793.9
1435.2
Rabi
Total
1431.8
682.4
641.3
Kharif
Total
Cotton
Total Nine
Oilseeds
Non Edible
Oilseeds
9555.0
9837.0
24659.4
Rabi
Total
24766.8
15211.8
6488.9
1824.7
1091.8
732.9
440.2
749.4
6513.2
1609.0
494.8
682.4
7396.0
1509.8
5886.2
1998-99
14822.4
Kharif
Edible
Oilseeds
1743.4
5986.1
Total
Kharif
Soyabean
590.5
1152.9
Kharif
619.8
Rabi
Sunflower
793.9
Rabi
Rabi
Linseed
Safflower
7041.0
Rabi
Rapeseed
& Mustard
520.9
1660.0
Kharif
Kharif
Nigerseed
Sesamum
641.3
7088.2
Total
Kharif
Castorseed
6064.9
1023.3
Kharif
Groundnut
1997-98
Rabi
Season
Crops
4315.7
1017.6
189.7
827.9
8534.4
22769.9
6989.5
15780.4
1659.5
579.9
1079.6
21110.4
6409.6
14700.8
6416.6
1073.8
654.7
419.1
424.8
579.9
4476.7
1720.0
439.9
1079.6
6558.6
853.4
5705.2
2000-01
4411.6
1047.2
174.1
873.1
9131.8
22636.3
7657.7
14978.6
1252.4
535.8
716.6
21383.9
7121.9
14262.0
6343.1
1176.8
867.5
309.3
404.3
535.8
5073.0
1670.6
478.0
716.6
6238.1
777.1
5461.0
2001-02
4520.3
1035.3
170.8
864.5
7669.6
21488.8
7137.0
14351.8
1033.3
450.1
583.2
20455.5
6686.9
13768.6
6105.5
1642.2
1110.3
531.9
369.5
450.1
4544.0
1444.4
414.4
583.2
5935.5
663.1
5272.4
2002-03
3938.4
1001.5
152.5
849.0
7597.9
23662.9
8452.1
15210.8
1193.7
476.5
717.2
22469.2
7975.6
14493.6
6554.7
2003.5
1392.8
610.7
363.9
476.5
5428.1
1700.3
431.7
717.2
5987.0
790.8
5196.2
2003-04
3661.5
915.7
141.8
773.9
8786.6
27523.3
10275.8
17247.5
1191.7
448.7
743.0
26331.6
9827.1
16504.5
7571.2
2160.6
1287.5
873.1
369.1
448.7
7316.4
1844.0
429.9
743.0
6640.4
854.1
5786.3
2004-05
4201.7
897.7
137.9
759.8
8677.1
27862.8
10494.4
17368.4
1301.0
436.8
864.2
26561.8
10057.6
16504.2
7707.5
2339.6
1420.2
919.4
364.6
436.8
7276.5
1723.2
414.4
864.2
6736.0
996.3
5739.7
2005-06
Area ( ‘000 Hectares)
5150.8
935.1
142.2
792.9
9144.5
26512.7
9742.7
16770.0
1064.9
436.5
628.4
25447.8
9306.2
16141.6
8328.7
2164.8
1304.4
860.4
377.0
436.5
6790.0
1703.2
469.0
628.4
5615.1
834.8
4780.3
2006-07
Annexure. 4.4: Area under Commercial Crops
5055.2
960.3
146.2
814.1
9413.7
26692.6
8743.3
17949.3
1254.8
467.9
786.9
25437.8
8275.4
17162.4
8881.7
1911.6
1149.7
761.9
320.3
467.9
5825.5
1799.1
407.6
786.9
6292.0
979.9
5312.1
2007-08
4415.4
900.9
115.3
785.6
9406.7
27557.7
9031.0
18526.7
1274.1
407.9
866.2
26283.7
8623.1
17660.6
9510.8
1812.8
1151.3
661.5
294.6
407.9
6298.1
1809.1
393.4
866.2
6164.9
879.1
5285.8
2008-09
4174.6
905.4
94.2
811.2
10131.7
25959.0
7988.1
17970.9
1076.9
342.0
734.9
24882.1
7646.1
17235.9
9734.7
1476.5
908.8
567.7
287.8
342.0
5588.0
1942.1
375.5
734.9
5477.5
861.5
4616.0
2009-10
4884.8
872.1
98.6
773.6
11235.0
27224.3
8995.9
18228.4
1239.6
359.2
880.3
25984.7
8636.7
17348.0
9601.0
929.0
613.7
315.3
243.8
359.2
6900.5
2083.2
371.0
880.3
5856.1
878.7
4977.4
2010-11
5037.7
904.6
95.6
809.0
12178.0
26308.1
7885.9
18422.2
1793.5
322.6
1470.9
24514.6
7563.3
16951.3
10109.1
731.9
471.7
260.2
250.4
322.6
5893.5
1901.5
364.4
1470.9
5263.8
947.7
4316.1
2011-12
5062.5
860.7
86.8
773.9
11773.0
26315.3
8256.2
18059.0
1600.1
303.7
1296.4
24715.1
7952.5
16762.6
10631.7
871.2
555.9
315.3
157.1
303.7
6196.7
1702.5
289.6
1296.4
4866.3
1042.8
3823.5
2012-13*
Annexure
197
Total
288720.0
9810.0
970.0
8840.0
12290.0
10550.0
1130.0
9420.0
11530.0
20710.3
8230.0
12480.3
1010.0
240.0
770.0
19700.3
7990.0
11710.3
7080.0
690.1
490.0
200.1
260.0
240.0
5790.0
479.9
150.3
770.0
5250.0
1450.0
3800.0
19992000
299320.0
* As per 2nd Advance Estimates released on 08.02.2013.
@ Thousand bales of 170 kgs each.
$ Thousand bales of 180 kgs each.
11020.0
279540.0
Total
1060.0
Sugarcane
Total
Mesta$
9960.0
10850.0
Jute & Mesta
Total
Total
Total
7179.9
21319.8
Rabi
Jute$
8949.9
24749.9
14139.9
15800.0
1110.3
270.0
840.3
23639.6
8679.9
14959.7
7140.0
950.1
710.0
240.1
240.0
270.0
5659.9
530.0
139.6
840.3
8980.0
2070.0
6910.0
1998-99
Kharif
Total
[email protected]
Total Nine Oilseeds
240.0
1070.0
Rabi
830.0
6939.9
20249.8
Rabi
Non Edible Oilseeds Kharif
13309.9
Kharif
Edible Oilseeds
889.6
Total
6460.0
650.0
Rabi
Kharif
120.0
239.6
Rabi
Kharif
Safflower
Sunflower
Soyabean
240.0
Rabi
Linseed
570.0
4699.9
Kharif
Sesamum
Rapeseed & Mustard Rabi
139.9
Kharif
830.0
Kharif
7370.4
Total
Nigerseed
1470.0
Rabi
Castorseed
5900.4
Kharif
Groundnut
1997-98
Season
Crops
295960.0
10560.0
1240.0
9320.0
9520.0
18439.9
6499.9
11940.0
1080.0
200.0
880.0
17359.9
6299.9
11060.0
5280.0
649.9
409.9
240.0
200.0
200.0
4190.0
520.0
110.0
880.0
6410.0
1500.0
4910.0
2000-01
297207.8
11678.3
1094.4
10583.9
9997.0
20662.3
7441.9
13220.4
861.7
209.1
652.6
19800.6
7232.8
12567.8
5962.7
679.5
524.4
155.1
220.6
209.1
5082.6
697.8
129.9
652.6
7027.5
1405.2
5622.3
2001-02
287383.2
11275.4
1001.7
10273.7
8623.7
14838.4
5862.4
8976.0
604.2
176.7
427.5
14234.2
5685.7
8548.5
4654.7
872.6
601.1
271.5
178.5
176.7
3879.8
441.3
86.2
427.5
4121.1
1026.3
3094.8
2002-03
233861.8
11172.9
921.3
10251.6
13729.0
25186.3
8514.1
16672.2
993.2
196.5
796.7
24193.1
8317.6
15875.5
7818.9
930.4
624.3
306.1
134.9
196.5
6291.4
782.1
108.9
796.7
8126.5
1267.0
6859.5
2003-04
237088.4
10272.3
873.0
9399.3
16428.6
24353.5
10204.3
14149.2
963.1
169.7
793.4
23390.4
10034.6
13355.8
6876.3
1186.7
755.6
431.1
173.6
169.7
7593.1
674.1
112.2
793.4
6774.4
1512.3
5262.1
2004-05
281171.8
10839.6
870.1
9969.5
18499.0
27977.9
11210.9
16767.0
1163.2
172.5
990.7
26814.7
11038.4
15776.3
8273.5
1439.0
983.2
455.8
228.6
172.5
8131.2
641.1
108.0
990.7
7993.3
1695.4
6297.9
2005-06
Production (000 Tonnes)
355519.7
11273.0
955.9
10317.1
22631.8
24289.4
10277.3
14012.1
930.2
167.9
762.3
23359.2
10109.4
13249.8
8850.8
1227.5
862.0
365.5
240.3
167.9
7437.8
618.4
120.9
762.3
4863.5
1569.3
3294.2
2006-07
Annexure. 4.5: Production of Commercial Crops
348187.9
11210.5
990.4
10220.1
25884.1
29755.3
9041.9
20713.4
1217.0
163.4
1053.6
28538.3
8878.5
19659.8
10968.2
1463.1
1000.3
462.8
224.5
163.4
5833.6
756.9
109.5
1053.6
9182.5
1820.1
7362.4
2007-08
285029.3
10365.3
730.9
9634.4
22276.2
27719.0
9911.0
17808.0
1340.2
169.2
1171.1
26378.7
9741.8
16636.9
9905.4
1158.0
800.9
357.1
189.2
169.2
7200.7
640.3
117.0
1171.1
7168.1
1551.0
5617.1
2008-09
292301.6
11817.4
587.0
11230.4
24021.8
24881.6
9153.2
15728.4
1162.7
153.7
1009.0
23719.0
8999.5
14719.5
9964.5
850.7
636.3
214.4
178.8
153.7
6608.1
588.4
99.9
1009.0
5428.5
1576.3
3852.2
2009-10
342381.6
10620.2
610.8
10009.4
33000.0
32479.0
10556.9
21922.0
1496.9
146.5
1350.3
30982.1
10410.4
20571.7
12736.4
651.1
459.2
191.8
150.4
146.5
8178.7
893.0
107.7
1350.3
8264.8
1622.0
6642.8
2010-11
361036.6
11398.6
663.0
10735.6
35200.0
29798.7
9107.6
20691.1
2447.4
152.5
2294.9
27351.3
8955.1
18396.2
12213.5
516.7
369.3
147.4
145.3
152.5
6603.7
810.3
98.1
2294.9
6963.7
1836.8
5126.9
2011-12
334540.5
11127.4
568.9
10558.5
33800.0
29465.2
10014.0
19451.2
1864.6
141.7
1722.9
27600.6
9872.3
17728.3
12957.0
581.0
409.5
171.5
86.8
141.7
7364.6
748.2
84.0
1722.9
5779.0
2011.4
3767.6
2012-13*
198
State of Indian Agriculture
406
564
510
Kharif
Rabi
Rabi
Rabi
Kharif
Rabi
Total
Sesamum
Rapeseed &
Mustard
Linseed
Safflower
Sunflower
71203
1722
986
1876
224
945
869
994
775
360
1231
954
908
983
1100
521
650
328
545
360
869
329
282
1231
1214
1371
1174
70934
1834
1078
2003
225
854
921
814
735
405
985
861
958
805
1138
536
601
423
593
405
961
308
313
985
764
1370
654
19992000
Yield (Kgs./Hect.)
68578
1868
1177
2026
190
810
930
757
651
345
815
822
983
752
823
605
626
573
471
345
936
302
250
815
977
1758
861
67370
2007
1131
2182
186
913
972
883
688
390
911
926
1016
881
940
577
604
501
546
390
1002
418
272
911
1127
1808
1030
63576
1960
1056
2139
191
691
821
625
585
393
733
696
850
621
762
531
541
510
483
393
854
306
208
733
694
1548
587
59380
2008
1087
2173
307
1064
1007
1096
832
412
1111
1077
1043
1095
1193
464
448
501
371
412
1159
460
252
1111
1357
1602
1320
64752
2019
1108
2186
318
885
993
820
808
378
1068
888
1021
809
908
549
587
494
470
378
1038
366
261
1068
1020
1771
909
66919
2173
1136
2362
362
1004
1068
965
894
395
1146
1010
1098
956
1073
615
692
496
627
395
1117
372
261
1146
1187
1702
1097
69022
2170
1210
2342
421
916
1055
836
874
385
1213
918
1086
821
1063
567
661
425
637
385
1095
363
258
1213
866
1880
689
68877
2101
1219
2260
467
1115
1034
1154
970
349
1339
1122
1073
1146
1235
765
870
607
701
349
1001
421
269
1339
1459
1857
1386
64553
2071
1141
2207
403
1006
1097
961
1052
415
1352
1004
1130
942
1041
639
696
540
642
415
1143
354
297
1352
1163
1764
1063
70020
2349
1121
2492
403
958
1146
875
1080
449
1373
953
1177
854
1024
576
700
378
621
449
1183
303
266
1373
991
1830
835
70091
2192
1115
2329
499
1193
1174
1203
1208
408
1534
1192
1205
1186
1327
701
748
608
617
408
1185
429
290
1534
1411
1846
1335
71667
2268
1248
2389
491
1133
1155
1123
1365
473
1560
1116
1184
1085
1208
706
783
566
580
473
1121
426
269
1560
1323
1938
1188
66082
2327
1180
2456
488
1120
1213
1077
1165
467
1329
1117
1241
1058
1219
667
737
544
553
467
1188
439
290
1329
1188
1929
985
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13*
* As per 2nd Advance Estimates released on 08.02.2013.
71133
Total
Sugarcane
952
1978
1792
Total
Mesta
Jute & Mesta
Total
Jute
817
Total
208
675
Rabi
Total
914
746
Total
Kharif
302
Cotton
Total Nine
Oilseeds
1294
Rabi
821
Total
Kharif
705
Rabi
Non Edible
Oilseeds
898
Kharif
Edible
Oilseeds
1079
Kharif
Soyabean
194
302
668
343
269
Kharif
1294
Kharif
1040
Total
Nigerseed
1437
Rabi
Castorseed
973
Kharif
Groundnut
1997-98 1998-99
Season
Crops
Annexure. 4.6: Yield of Commercial Crops
Annexure
199
Commodities
142
2009-10
2010-11
798
867
658
264
924
709
274
987
770
283
2011-12
329
324
441
737
922
134
1008
140
1016
149
117
1112
152
124
80
1083
156
109
84
1105
159
125
92
160
107
14
913
645
121
112
87
Others
84
112
82
114
52
97
83
Walnut *
Sapota
Pomegranate
81
117
2378
889
150
163
112
26
102
48
89
Plum
80
106
2297
Pineapple
96
2312
41
98
2309
80
Pear
83
2201
74
3
60
220
16
72
2154
72
205
19
116
20
68
2081
69
220
15
111
18
73
1970
65
204
106
Peach
58
1907
63
179
80
Passion Fruit
77
74
68
1623
1576
Mango
Papaya
60
176
68
78
54
58
54
167
65
Litchi
161
66
0
166
61
36
155
58
Jackfruit
155
Guava
52
Kiwi
48
Custardapple
Grapes
915
190
162
234
34
22
219
797
322
830
846
742
604
252
Citrus Total (i to iv)
708
570
227
157
683
535
231
147
563
499
201
( Mosambi)
619
475
193
(iv) Others
(iii) Sweet Orange
(ii) Mandarin
(i) Lime/Lemon
Citrus
Ber
466
Banana
136
2008-09
95
132
2007-08
67
132
2006-07
289
242
130
2005-06
Aonla
106
2004-05
Apple
106
2003-04
22
117
2002-03
884
158
169
111
26
104
49
20
16
123
2466
82
3
62
229
118
20
943
195
165
340
243
34
814
325
98
22
[email protected]
(Area in 000 Ha)
23
117
2001-02
Almond/Walnut *
Fruits
Annexure 4.7: All India Estimates of Area under Horticulture Crops
200
State of Indian Agriculture
568
5687
2006-07
561
5989
2007-08
600
6238
2008-09
612
6471
2009-10
6382
2010-11
334.8
740.0
Arecanut
Cashewnut
Plantation Crops
740.0
334.8
70
780.0
365.0
101
6744
820.0
364.3
118
Flowers Cut
106
6082
2037
Flowers Loose
6092
6156
1510
505
245
133
1524
276
-
614
131
1882
503
220
133
1485
285
-
554
Aromatic
Total
Others
1891
479
458
Watermelon
Tomato
207
239
Tapioca
132
132
Sweet Potato
Sitaphal/Pumpkin
Radish
305
303
1260
Peas
Potato
1337
-
425
496
-
Onion
Parma l(pointed
gourd)
329
347
357
239
843.4
381.1
130
262
7213
2247
546
245
123
1569
286
-
704
392
289
254
854.0
382.7
144
324
7581
2282
596
255
123
1743
297
-
768
396
302
249
868.0
386.6
166
397
7848
2414
566
270
123
1795
313
-
821
407
312
266
893
387
167
430
7980
2275
599
280
124
1828
348
-
834
432
349
310
923
400
183
509
7985
2299
634
232
119
1835
365
-
756
452
348
331
680
62
953
400
191
510
8495
1496
67
865
221
113
5
133
1863
370
-
1064
498
979
464
254
506
8989
1661
71
907
227
110
11
160
1907
408
-
1087
518
38
40
391
56
369
10
390
692
105
77
118
6705
2011-12
6
369
40
Okra
353
268
288
Muskmelon
255
255
35
270
234
Cucumber
Cauliflower
Carrot
Capsicum
502
258
Brinjal
Cabbage
75
560
5454
2005-06
Bottleguard
527
5155
2004-05
68
516
4767
2003-04
100
507
3905
2002-03
Beans
4127
2001-02
Bitterguard
Vegetables
Total Fruits
Commodities
991
476
272
531
9081
1681
72
933
244
111
11
162
1931
419
-
1014
535
39
44
399
64
10
397
705
108
79
122
6877
[email protected]
Annexure
201
84.60
39.90
88.10
84.60
Garlic
Mushroom
16593
16270
-
3220
508
163.00
19208
-
5155
2817
149.40
18445
-
* Includes walnut up to 2009-10, thereafter A & P of walnut is given separately.
$ includes mustard seeds area of 467.8 thousand Ha and 410.5 thousand MT
@ First Advance Estimates
Total
Honey
3220
2366
18708
-
508
Spice Total
163.00
Turmeric
Others $
19390
-
2447
185.00
10.00
58.00
62.50
60.80
Vanilla
Tamarind
60.80
237.00
223.10
107.00
151.00
216.50
85.10
107.10
46.00
48.00
Pepper
216.50
50.60
22.90
364.00
14.00
39.90
115.60
521.30
Nutmeg
Ginger
88.10
115.60
F.Greek
Fennel
526.60
526.60
Cumin
321.00
20207
-
2617
27
174.51
55.04
197.33
15.26
104.36
206.12
54.29
55.20
429.38
384.21
2.25
3
282.50
2.00
433.40
433.40
Clove
Coriander
3
20662
-
2629
27
181
55
239
15
109
166
47
68
429
397
20876
-
2464
181
58
9
196
16
108
165
43
51
377
360
4
767
90
17
3265
1895
46
2009-10
19
3
779
92
20
3217
1903
34
2008-09
3.32
81.93
19.29
3189.6
1903.2
31.8
2007-08
5.00
104.00
16.00
3206.9
1939.9
30.3
2006-07
18.00
3150
3282.9
2028.9
29.5
2005-06
Cinnamon/Tejpata
834.30
3147.0
1935.0
27.7
2004-05
Celery,Dill & Poppy
881.30
3102.3
1933.7
23.6
2003-04
808.17
881.30
Chillies (Dried)
102.70
2984.0
1893.0
16.2
2002-03
761.00
102.70
Cardamom
Ajwan
Spices
1893.0
2984.0
Coconut
16.2
2001-02
Total
Cocoa
Commodities
21824
-
2940
195
60
7
184
16
149
201
62
81
508
530
2
38
3
792
87
26
3306
1896
57
2010-11
23242
-
3212
219
58
7
200
17
155
242
100
94
594
558
2
33
3
805
89
35
3577
2071
63
2011-12
23639
-
3212
219
58
7
200
17
155
242
100
94
594
558
2
33
3
805
89
35
3666
2132
66
[email protected]
202
State of Indian Agriculture
(Production in 000 Tonnes)
Commodities
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 [email protected]
Fruits
Almond/Walnut*
114
114
121
121
149
150
177
173
193
14
4
4
Aonla
677
961
993
Apple
1158
1348
1522
1739
1814
1624
2001
1985
1777
2891
2203
1845
Banana
14210
13304
13857
16328
18888
20998 23823 26217 26470 29780 28455
30283
Ber
188
252
256
Citrus
(i) Lime/Lemon
2108
2272
2339
(ii) Mandarin
3255
3128
3227
(iii) Sweet Orange
( Mosambi)
1316
1232
1186
(iv) Others
784
1290
1331
Citrus Total (i to iv)
4789
5677
5787
5933
6139
7145
8015
8623
9638
7464
7922
8083
Custardapple
105
127
133
Grapes
1184
1248
1475
1565
1650
1685
1735
1878
881
1235
2221
2690
Guava
1716
1793
1831
1683
1737
1831
1981
2270
2572
2462
2510
2613
Jackfruit
540
1042
1032
Kiwi
1
6
6
Litchi
356
476
479
369
392
403
418
423
483
497
538
555
Mango
10020
12733
11490
11830
12663
13734 13997 12750 15027 15188 16196
17513
Papaya
2590
2147
1692
2535
2173
2482
2909
3629
3913
4196
4457
4745
Passion Fruit
97
98
Peach
92
91
90
Pear
300
294
317
Pineapple
1182
1172
1234
1279
1263
1362
1245
1341
1387
1415
1500
1542
Plum
32
72
69
Pomegranate
665
801
809
840
884
807
820
743
772
772
Annexure 4.8: All India Estimates of Production of Horticulture Crops
Annexure
203
Commodities
Sapota
Walnut
Others
Total Fruits
Vegetables
Beans
Bitterguard
Bottleguard
Brinjal
Cabbage
Capsicum
Carrot
Cauliflower
Cucumber
Muskmelon
Okra
Onion
Parmal(pointed
gourd)
Peas
Potato
Radish
Sitaphal/Pumpkin
Sweet Potato
Tapioca
Tomato
Watermelon
Others
Total
8001
5392
4444
3245
4210
2062
23161
1130
5426
7617
20127
84815
8348
5678
4891
3325
5252
-
2038
24456
1130
6516
7462
19526
88622
14342
88334
1179
5950
8126
1901
27926
3631
6268
-
4940
8477
5595
22544
101246
1179
7463
8825
1945
28788
3512
7761
-
4515
8601
6114
27481
111399
1067
7855
9820
2270
29175
3975
9433
-
5323
9365
5637
1094
9056
10303
2491
34658
4179
13900
-
5777
9678
5910
1120
9623
11149
2916
34391
4528
13565
-
6532
10378
6870
1095
8060
12433
3029
36577
4803
12159
-
6569
10563
7281
29146 31402 28006 31168
114993 128449 129077 133738
1067
8232
10055
2402
28600
4070
10847
-
5538
9453
5584
1151
866
1984
12634
8412
127
1153
7349
607
791
6259
17511
3517
3745
42339 41483
1878
2286
143
278
1047
1073
8076
8747
16826 18653
1436
1727
18526 19487
146554 156325
888
749
1354
11896
7949
65
953
6745
525
740
5784
15118
-
3913
42479
2309
282
1089
9944
19377
1793
19826
160291
1232
870
2052
12995
8603
131
1150
7464
674
811
6479
16817
-
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 [email protected]
594
913
921
1077
1114
1216
1258
1308
1347
1424
1426
1587
187
284
277
5202
4391
4991
5730
6715
6244
7321
7234
7201
5447
4991
5012
43115
45317
46063
50988
55505
59714 65764 68638 71709 74878 76424
80557
204
State of Indian Agriculture
Commodities
Aromatic
Flowers Cut #
Flowers Loose
Plantation Crops
Arecanut
Cashewnut
Cocoa
Coconut
Total
Spices
Ajwan
Cardamom
Chillies (Dried)
Cinnamon/Tejpata
Celery,Dill &
Poppy
Clove
Coriander
Cumin
F.Greek
Fennel
Garlic
Ginger
Nutmeg
Pepper
Vanilla
Tamarind
Turmeric
Others $
318.70
206.40
136.60
38.50
367.60
317.80
79.10
184.40
552.30
433
318.70
206.40
136.60
38.50
367.60
317.80
79.10
184.40
552.30
433
182.30
529.00
2343
70.60
172.30
134.80
64.20
27.60
436.10
305.90
847.80
409.3
439.2
460.0
535.0
6.4
8.5
8821.3 12178.2
9697.0 13160.9
17.30
17.30
1113.10 1113.10
409.3
460.0
6.4
8821.3
9697.0
16
15
1270
7
1
242
172
77
64
831
380
11
47
10.00
11.12
17.00
13.65
1233.00 1294.15
10.00
6.96
11.00
1.00
1.01
233.00 229.95
130.00 172.47
54.00
55.48
66.00
67.78
710.00 1068.50
377.00 390.08
12.00
11.37
69.00
47.01
0.00
185.00 182.08
836.00 794.19
11
178
821
11
481
695
12
10148
11336
452.0
483.1
483.3
476.0
544.0
579.4
620.0
665.0
10.0
10.2
10.2
10.6
8829.0 10190.1 10893.8 10148.3
9835.0 11262.8 12007.3 11299.9
1
237
156
57
57
834
385
8
51
0
185
793
10
16
1203
9
13
478
613
13
10824
11928
1
482
314
118
105
1058
702
11
52
1
206
993
22
16
1223
5
40
478
675
14
10840
12007
1
533
394
116
143
1228
756
13
41
1
203
1167
27
16
1276
5
33
681
725
13
14940
16359
1
533
394
116
143
1228
756
13
41
1
203
1167
27
16
1276
5
33
703
752
13
15347
16815
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 [email protected]
159
202
178
396
430
573
605
566
586
25571
20605
17930
20710
29210
37175 43644 47942 66671 69027 75066
75413
535
735
580
659
656
880
868
987
1021
1031
1652
1677
Annexure
205
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 [email protected]
3765
3765
5113
4001
3705
3953
4357
4145
4016
5350
5951
5951
40
40
40
40
35
37
37
37
41
10
10
10
10
52
51
65
65
65
145784 144380 153301 166938 182817 191813 211235 214716 223089 240427 257277
265877
* Includes walnut up to 2009-10, thereafter A & P of walnut is given separately.
# Flowers Cut in Lakh number
$ includes mustard seeds area of 467.8 thousand Ha and 410.5 thousand MT
@ First Advance Estimates
Commodities
Spice Total
Mushroom
Honey
Total
206
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure
207
Annexure 4.9 : Per Capita Net Availability of Foodgrains (Grams Per Day) in India
(As on 17.02.2012)
Year
1
1951
1956
1961
1966
1971
1976
1981
1985
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011(P)
Rice
Wheat
2
3
158.9
65.7
187.7
61.5
201.1
79.1
161.9
95.4
192.6
103.6
187.2
79.5
197.8
129.6
188.8
138.6
212.1
132.6
221.7
166.8
217.0
158.6
201.1
140.2
207.4
159.5
220.0
172.7
204.4
176.0
214.0
179.1
200.3
151.5
203.4
162.3
203.7
160.0
190.5
135.8
228.7
166.6
181.4
180.4
195.4
162.2
177.3
154.3
198.0
154.3
194.0
157.8
175.4
145.1
188.4
154.7
182.0
168.2
188.8
164.6
Other Cereals
4
109.6
111.2
119.5
102.6
121.4
107.4
89.9
87.9
86.8
80.0
58.9
86.6
67.1
64.9
62.0
72.9
62.4
63.4
59.0
56.2
63.4
46.7
69.3
59.4
60.5
55.5
54.1
63.9
51.4
70.0
Cereals
5
334.2
360.4
399.7
359.9
417.6
373.8
417.3
415.3
431.5
468.5
434.5
427.9
434.0
457.6
442.5
466.0
414.2
429.2
422.7
386.2
458.7
408.5
426.9
390.9
412.8
407.4
394.2
407.0
401.7
423.5
Gram
6
22.5
29.0
30.2
18.3
20.0
20.2
13.4
12.9
10.7
13.4
10.1
10.7
11.8
14.9
11.3
12.4
13.4
14.6
10.8
8.0
10.7
8.5
11.2
10.6
10.7
11.9
10.6
12.9
13.5
14.6
Pulses
7
60.7
70.3
69.0
48.2
51.2
50.5
37.5
38.1
41.1
41.6
34.3
36.2
37.2
37.8
32.7
37.1
32.8
36.5
31.8
30.0
35.4
29.1
35.8
31.5
32.5
35.5
41.8
37.0
35.4
39.4
Food Grains
8
394.9
430.7
468.7
408.1
468.8
424.3
454.8
453.4
472.6
510.1
468.8
464.1
471.2
495.5
475.2
503.1
447.0
465.7
454.4
416.2
494.1
437.6
462.7
422.4
445.3
442.8
436.0
444.0
437.1
462.9
P- Provisional
Notes:- The net availability of foodgrains is estimated to be Gross Production (-) seed, feed & wastage, (-) exports (+)
imports, (+/-) change in stocks.
The net availability of foodgrains divided by the population estimates for a particular year indicate per capita availability
of foodgrains in terms of kg/year. Net availability, thus worked out further divided by the number of days in a year I.e.,
365 days gives us net availability of foodgrains in terms of grams/day.
Figures in respect of per capita net availability given above are not strictly representative of actual level of consumption
in the country especially as they do not take in to account any change in stocks in possession of traders, producers and
consumers.
For calculation of per capita net availability the figures of net imports from 1981 to 1994 are based on imports and exports
on Government of India account only. Net imports from 1995 ownwards are the total exports and imports(on Government
as well as private accounts).
Cereals includes rice,wheat and other cereals. Pulses includes all kharif and rabi pulses
Foodgrains includes rice, wheat,other cereals and all pulses
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
208
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure. 4.10: Per capita Consumption of Conventional Food Items
Commodities
Year
Quantity in Kg
Qty. consumed per Annum
Rural
Urban
1993-94
82.61
62.42
2004-05
77.62
57.31
2009-10
74.70
56.64
1993-94
52.56
54.02
2004-05
50.98
53.05
2009-10
53.03
52.82
Coarse cereals
1993-94
27.86
12.53
2004-05
18.86
10.59
2009-10
10.34
4.60
All cereals
1993-94
163.03
128.97
2004-05
147.46
120.94
2009-10
138.08
114.05
All pulses & Pulse Products
1993-94
9.25
10.46
2004-05
8.64
9.98
2009-10
7.92
9.60
All edible oil
1993-94
4.50
6.81
2004-05
5.84
8.03
2009-10
7.74
9.95
Rice
Wheat
Source: NSSO, various rounds
Annexure
209
Annexure 4.11: Per capita Consumption of Emerging Food Items
Commodities
Year
Quantity in Kg/Litre/No.
Qty. consumed per Annum
Rural
Urban
1993-94
32.97
35.41
2004-05
35.53
38.57
2009-10
49.14
50.11
Milk (Litre)
1993-94
47.94
59.50
2004-05
46.11
62.05
2009-10
50.09
65.19
Eggs (No.)
1993-94
7.79
18.01
2004-05
12.29
20.93
2009-10
21.08
32.53
Fish (kg)
1993-94
2.19
2.43
2004-05
2.45
2.51
2009-10
3.27
2.90
Goat meat/Mutton (Kg)
1993-94
0.73
1.34
2004-05
0.57
0.85
2009-10
0.57
1.11
Chicken (kg)
1993-94
0.24
0.37
2004-05
0.61
1.03
2009-10
1.50
2.19
Fruits and Vegetables
Source: NSSO, various rounds
210
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure. 4.12: Percentage Composition of Consumer Expenditure
Item group
Rural
Urban
Share in total consumer
expenditure
Share in total consumer
expenditure
1987-88 1993-94 1999-00* 2004-05 2009-10 1987-88 1993-94 1999-00* 2004-05 2009-10
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
Cereal
26.3
24.2
22.2
18.0
15.6
15.0
14.0
12.4
10.1
9.1
Gram
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
Cereal
substitutes
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
Pulses &
products
4.0
3.8
3.8
3.1
3.7
3.4
3.0
2.8
2.1
2.7
Milk &
products
8.6
9.5
8.8
8.5
8.6
9.5
9.8
8.7
7.9
7.8
Edible oil
5.0
4.4
3.7
4.6
3.7
5.3
4.4
3.1
3.5
2.6
Egg fish &
meat
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.5
3.6
3.4
3.1
2.7
2.7
Vegetables
5.2
6.0
6.2
6.1
6.2
5.3
5.5
5.1
4.5
4.3
Fruits & nuts
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.6
2.5
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.1
Suger
2.9
3.1
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.6
1.5
1.5
Salt & spices
2.9
2.7
3.0
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.0
2.2
1.7
1.5
Beverages, ect.
3.9
4.2
4.2
4.5
5.6
6.8
7.2
6.4
6.2
6.3
64.0
63.2
59.4
55.0
53.6
56.4
54.7
48.1
42.5
40.7
Pan, tobacco,
intox.
3.2
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.2
2.6
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.2
Fuel & light
7.5
7.4
7.5
10.2
9.5
6.8
6.6
7.8
9.9
8.0
Clothing &
bedding
6.7
5.4
6.9
4.5
4.9
5.9
4.7
6.1
4.0
4.7
Footwear
1.0
0.9
1.1
0.8
1.0
1.1
0.9
1.2
0.7
0.9
14.5
17.3
19.6
23.4
24.0
23.2
27.5
31.3
37.2
37.8
Durable goods
3.1
2.7
2.6
3.4
4.8
4.1
3.3
3.6
4.1
6.7
Non-food total
36.0
36.8
40.6
45.0
46.4
43.6
45.3
51.9
57.5
59.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Food tatal
Misc. &
services
Total
expenditure
4
9
* URP estimates shown except for 1999-2000, for which only MRP estimates are available.
Source: NSSO Household Consumer Expenditure survery 2009-10.
10
11
Annexure
211
Annexure 5.1: Minimum Support Prices
(According to Crop Year)
Sl.
No.
1
Commodity
Variety
KHARIF CROPS Paddy
Common
Grade
‘A’
2
Jowar
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Bajra
Maize
Ragi
Arhar (Tur)
Moong
Urad
Cotton
10
Groundnut in
Shell
Sunflower Seed Soyabeen
Black
Yellow
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
#
$
ª
ªª
¶
¤
*
Hybrid
Maldandi
Medium Staple
Long Staple
Sesamum
Nigerseed
Rabi Crops Wheat
Barley
Gram
Masur (Lentil)
Rapeseed/
Mustard
Safflower
Toria
Other Crops Copra
Milling
(Calender Year) Ball
De-Husked
Coconut
(Calender Year)
Jute
Sugarcane
200809
(As on 26.12.2012)
(Rs. per quintal)
2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 (#) increase in
MSP 2011-12
over 2010-11
2012-13
(#) increase in
MSP 2012-13
over 2011-12
850$
880$
950$
980$
1000
1030
1080
1110
80(8.0)
80(7.8)
1250
1280
170(15.7)
170(15.3)
840
860
840
860
880
900
980
1000
100(11.4)
100(11.1)
1500
1520
520(53.1)
520(52.0)
840
840
915
2000
2520
2520
2500ª
3000ªª
840
840
915
2300
2760
2520
2500ª
3000ªª
880
880
965
3000¶
3170¶
2900¶
2500ª
3000ªª
980
980
1050
3200¶
3500¶
3300¶
2800ª
3300ªª
100(11.4)
100(11.4)
85(8.8)
200(6.7)
330(10.4)
400(13.8)
300(12.0)
300(10.0)
1175
1175
1500
3850
4400
4300
3600
3900
195(19.9)
195(19.9)
450(42.8)
650(20.3)
900(25.7)
1000(30.3)
800(28.6)
600(18.2)
2100
2100
2300
2700
400(17.4)
3700
1000(37.0)
2215
1350
1390
2215
1350
1390
2350
1400
1440
2800
1650
1690
450(19.1)
250(17.8)
250(17.4)
3700
2200
2240
900(32.1)
550(33.3)
550(32.5)
2750
2405
2850
2405
2900
2450
3400
2900
500(17.2)
450(18.4)
4200
3500
800(23.5)
600(20.7)
1080
680
1730
1870
1830
1100
750
1760
1870
1830
1120$
780
2100
2250
1850
1285
980
2800
2800
2500
165(14.7)
200(25.6)
700(33.3)
550(24.4)
650(35.1)
1350
980
3000
2900
3000
65(5.05)
0(0.00)
200(7.14)
100(3.57)
500(20.00)
1650
1735
1680
1735
1800
1780
2500
2425
700(38.9)
645(36.2)
2800
2970
300(12.00)
545(22.47)
3660
3910
988
4450
4700
1200
4450
4700
1200
4525
4775
1200
75(1.7)
75(1.6)
0(0.0)
5100
5350
1400
575(12.7)
575(12.0)
200(16.7)
1250
1375
1575
1675
81.18 129.84¤ 139.12¤ 145.00¤
100(6.3)
5.88(4.2)
2200
170.00¤
525(31.3)
25(17.2)
Figures in brackets indicate percentage increase.
An additional incentive bonus of Rs. 50 per quintal was payable over the Minimum Support Price(MSP).
Staple length (mm) of 24.5 - 25.5 and Micronaire value of 4.3 - 5.1
Staple length (mm) of 29.5 - 30.5 and Micronaire value of 3.5 - 4.3
Additional incentive at the rate of Rs. 500 per quintal of tur, urad and moong sold to procurement agencies
is payable during the harvest/arrival period of two months.
Fair and remunerative price.
Not announced.
212
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure 5.2: Top 10 Agricultural Exports Items
Qty. ‘000’ tonnes, Value: Rs. in crores
Sl.
No.
Item
1
Cotton Raw
incl. waste
2
2009-10
Qty.
2010-11
Value
Qty.
2011-12
Value
Qty.
Value
Percent
change
in
Value
during
2010-11
over
2009-10
Percent
change
in
Value
during
2011-12
over
2010-11
1358
9537
1258
12981
2013
21623
36.1
66.6
Marine
products
710
9999
801
11548
1032
16588
15.5
43.6
3
Guargum
Meal
218
1133
403
2806
707
16357
147.7
482.9
4
Rice Basmati
2017
10890
2186
10582
3212
15450
-2.8
46.0
5
Meat &
Preparations
6286
8776
14111
39.6
60.8
6
Spices
663
6157
749
7870
931
13176
27.8
67.4
7
Oil Meals
4671
7832
6798
10846
7436
11762
38.5
8.4
8
Sugar
45
110
3241
10339
2747
8779
9299.1
-15.1
9
Rice (other
than Basmati)
140
365
96
220
4099
8668
-39.7
3840.0
10
Other cereals
2892
2973
3188
3596
4072
5479
21.0
52.4
Source: DGCI & S
Annexure
213
Annexure 5.3: Top 10 Agricultural Import Items
Qty. ‘000’ tonnes, Value: Rs. in crores
Sl.
No.
Item
2009-10
Qty.
2010-11
Value
Qty.
2011-12
Value
Qty.
Value
Percent
change
in
Value
during
2010-11
over
2009-10
Percent
change
in
Value
during
2011-12
over
2010-11
1
Vegetable
Oils fixed
edible
8034
26483
6905
29860
8429
46242
12.8
54.9
2
Pulses
3510
9813
2591
6980
3308
8767
-28.9
25.6
3
Cashew Nuts
756
3048
504
2480
809
5338
-18.6
115.2
4
Fruits & Nuts
(excl. Cashew
nuts)
2873
3684
4519
28.2
22.7
5
Sugar
2551
5966
1198
2787
997
3138
-53.3
12.6
6
Spices
153
1432
108
1359
124
2102
-5.1
54.7
7
Cotton raw &
waste
171
1241
56
604
78
1059
-51.3
75.3
8
Milk &
Cream
8
78
37
492
63
1038
530.8
111.0
9
Jute, raw
63
149
75
273
181
449
83.2
64.5
10
Cereal
Preparation
41
188
37
226
46
300
20.2
32.7
Source: DGCI & S
214
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure: 6.1. List of ICAR/DARE Institutions
Deemed Universities
1
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
2
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
3
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar
4
Central Institute on Fisheries Education, Mumbai
Institutions
1
Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack
2
Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora
3
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur
4
Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry
5
Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow
6
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore
7
Central institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur
8
Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore
9
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi
10 Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore
11 Central Institute of Sub Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow
12 Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar
13 Central Institute of Arid Horticulture, Bikaner
14 Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi
15 Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla
16 Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum
17 Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod
18 Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair
19 Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut
20 Central Soil and Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Dehradun
21 Indian Institute of Soil Sciences, Bhopal
22 Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal
23 ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region including Centre of Makhana, Patna
24 Central Research Institute of Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad
25 Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur
26 ICAR Research Complex Goa
Annexure
27 ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani
28 National Institute of Abiotic Stress management, Malegaon, Maharashtra
29 Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal
30 Central Institute on Post harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana
31 Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi
32 Central Institute of Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai
33 National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata
34 Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute, New Delhi
35 Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan
36 Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom
37 Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hissar
38 National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore
39 Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar
40 Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi
41 Central Institute Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai
42
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore
43 Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin
44 Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubneshwar
45 National Academy of Agricultural Research & Management, Hyderabad
National Research Centres
1
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi
2
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi
3
National Research centre for Litchi, Muzaffarpur
4
National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur
5
National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune
6
National Research Centre for Banana, Trichi
7
National Research Centre Seed Spices, Ajmer
8
National Research Centre for Pomegranate, Solapur
9
National Research Centre on Orchids, Pakyong, Sikkim
10 National Research Centre Agroforestry, Jhansi
11 National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner
12 National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar
13 National Research Centre on Meat, Hyderabad
215
216
State of Indian Agriculture
14 National Research Centre on Pig, Guwahati
15 National Research Centre on Yak, West Kemang
16 National Research Centre on Mithun, Medziphema, Nagaland
17 National Centre for Agril. Economics & Policy Research, New Delhi
National Bureaux
1
National Bureau of Plant Genetics Resources, New Delhi
2
National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Micro-organisms, Mau, Uttar Pradesh
3
National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects , Bangalore
4
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur
5
National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal
6
National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow
In XI Plan (total 185) 45 Institutes; 6 National Bureaux; 4 Deemed to be Universites; 17 NRCs, 25 PDs;
61 AICRPs, 17 Networks and 10 other programmes
Annexure
217
Annexure: 6.2. List of Agricultural Universities
Andhra Pradesh
3
Assam
Bihar
Chhattisgarh
New Delhi (deemed
to be)
Gujarat
1
2
1
1
4
Haryana
deemed to be
Himachal Pradesh
3
2
J&K
2
Jharkhand
Karnataka
1
4
Kerala
3
Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural Univerwsity, Hyderabad
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati
Horticulture University, Venkataramanagudem near
Tadepalligudem, West Godawari
Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat
Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur
Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Samastipur
Indira Gandhi krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa-110012, New Delhi
Junagarh Agricultural University, Junagarh
Sardarkrushinagar-Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardar
Krushinagar, Banaskantha
Anand Agricultural University, Anand
Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari
Ch. Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar
Lala Lajpat rai Univ. of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana
Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry,
Solan, Nauni
Ch. Sarwan Kumar Krishi Viswa Vidalaya, Palampur
Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sceinces & Technology,
Jammu
Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sceinces & Technology
of Kashmir, Srinagar
Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka
University of Horticultural Sciences, Navanagar, Bagalkot,
Karnataka
Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikara, Trichur
Kerala University of animal Sciences, Directorate of Dair
development, Pattom, Thiruvantapuram
218
State of Indian Agriculture
Madhya Pradesh
3
Maharashtra
6
deemed to be
Manipur
Nagaland
Odisha
Punjab
1
1
1
2
Rajasthan
3
Tamil Nadu
Uttar Pradesh
2
9
deemed to be
Kerala University of Fisheries & Ocean Studies, Papangad, Kotchi,
kerala
Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur
Madhya Pradesh Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishvavidalaya, Civil
Lines, Jabalpur
Rajmata VRS Agri. University, Gwalior
Dr. Balaesahib Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidypapeeth, Dapoli,
Ratnagiri
Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishinagar, Akola
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri
Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani
Maharastra Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Nagpur
Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai-400061,
Maharashtra
Central Agri. University, Imphal
Nagaland University, Medizipherma, Nagaland
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneshwar
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & Animal Sciences University,
Ludhiana
Maharana Pratap Univ. of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur
Swami Keshwanand Rajastahn Agricultural University, Bikaner
Rajasthan Univ. of veterinary & Animal Sciences, Bijay Bhavan
Palace Complex, Bikaner
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
Tamil Nadu Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Chennai
Chandra Shekhar Azad Univeristy of Agriculture & technology,
Kanpur
Narendra Dev University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad
UP Pandit Deen Dyal Upadhaya Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Mathura
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture and
Technology, Meerut
Manyavar Shri Kanshiram Ji University of Agri. & Tech. Banda, UP
Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad-211007, Uttar Pradesh
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243122,
Uttar Pradesh
Annexure
219
Cus
Uttarakhand
2
West Bengal
deemed to be
Total
4
61
Banaras Hidu University, Varanasi, U.P.
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P.
Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology,
Pantnagar
University of Horticulture and Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia
Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Coach Bihar
West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata
Vishwa Bharti, Shantiniketan, West Bengal
In XI Plan 51 SAUs, 5 deemed to be Univ, 1 CAU, 4 CUs with Agri. Faculty
220
State of Indian Agriculture
Annexure 7.1: Production of Milk, Eggs, Wool and Meat- All India
Year
Milk
(Million Tonnes)
Eggs
(Million Nos.)
Wool
(Million Kgs.)
Meat
(Million Tonnes)
1950-51
17.0
1832
27.5
-
1955-56
19.0
1908
27.5
-
1960-61
20.0
2881
28.7
-
1968-69
21.2
5300
29.8
-
1973-74
23.2
7755
30.1
-
1979-80
30.4
9523
30.9
-
1980-81
31.6
10060
32.0
-
1981-82
34.3
10876
33.1
-
1982-83
35.8
11454
34.5
-
1983-84
38.8
12792
36.1
-
1984-85
41.5
14252
38.0
-
1985-86
44.0
16128
39.1
-
1986-87
46.1
17310
40.0
-
1987-88
46.7
17795
40.1
-
188-89
48.4
18980
40.8
-
1989-90
51.4
20204
41.7
-
1990-91
53.9
21101
41.2
-
1991-92
55.7
21983
41.6
-
1992-93
58.0
22929
38.8
-
1993-94
60.6
24167
39.9
-
1994-95
63.8
25975
40.6
-
1995-96
66.2
27198
42.4
-
1996-97
69.1
27496
44.4
-
1997-98
72.1
28689
45.6
-
1998-99
75.4
29476
46.9
1.9
1999-2000
78.3
30447
47.9
1.9
2000-2001
80.6
36632
48.4
1.9
2001-2002
84.4
38729
49.5
1.9
2002-2003
86.2
39823
50.5
2.1
Annexure
Year
221
Milk
(Million Tonnes)
Eggs
(Million Nos.)
Wool
(Million Kgs.)
Meat
(Million Tonnes)
2003-2004
88.1
40403
48.5
2.1
2004-2005
92.5
45201
44.6
2.2
2005-2006
97.1
46235
44.9
2.3
2006-2007
102.6
50663
45.1
2.3
2007-2008
107.9
53583
43.9
4.0
2008-2009
112.2
55562
42.8
4.3
2009-2010
116.4
60267
43.1
4.6
2010-2011
121.8
63024
43.0
4.8
2011-2012
127.9
66450
44.7
5.5
Note: Meat Production from Commercial Poultry Farm is included from 2007-08. - Data not available.
Source: Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement