Hiking - Scouts Canada
SCOUT MEETING SCHEDULE: WEEK 1
THEME: HIKING “A”
Date: ____________
Time
Activity
Program Details
15 mins.
Gathering Activity
Freezing Statues Game
Leader Responsible
See detail planning sheet
10 mins.
Opening Ceremony
Details can be found
in the Scout Leader’s
Handbook
20 mins.
Game
Corner Dodge Ball Game
See detail planning sheet
40 mins.
Skills
20 mins.
Game/Challenge
20 mins.
Patrol/Troop Meeting
10 mins.
Closing
See Scout Leader’s
Handbook
15 mins.
Leader Discussion Time
Review meeting and
discuss next week’s plans
Review compass
directions and map
symbol identification.
Reinforce with “Map
Challenge” activity.
See detail planning sheet.
Map Symbol Relay
See detail planning sheet
Contour line
demonstration.
See detail planning sheet
Badge Links:
Meeting Notes:
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
1
GAMES
Freezing Statues Game
Purpose
•
This game will help develop your Scouts’ ability to react quickly.
Equipment
All you’ll need is regular meeting hall space.
How
to
Play
•
Players must stand on a line. “IT” stands on another line in front of them 15-25 m away.
•
IT chooses a statue-like pose that all must assume when told to “freeze.”
•
IT turns her back, counts rapidly to five, calls “freeze” and then turns to face the players. While IT has been
counting, players may move forward. As soon as IT calls out “freeze”, everyone must obey.
•
Any Scouts IT spots moving, or in the wrong pose, must go back to the starting line.
•
Then, IT turns her back and starts counting again; players again move forward, and so on.
•
The first player to cross IT’s line, becomes the next IT.
Corner Dodge Ball Game
Purpose
•
This game is just for fun.
Equipment
•
You’ll need two or three soft rubber balls.
How
to
Play
•
Divide the troop into four groups with each group standing in a separate corner of the hall. One to three
players are in the centre of the hall armed with soft, rubber balls.
•
On a signal, players must move to a new corner. If they are hit by a ball while changing corners, they’re out.
When the next signal is given, players cannot run back to the corner they left on the previous change. This
ensures that players will alternately run along and across the hall.
•
The last player wins.
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
MAP & COMPASS
Compass
•
The compass needle always points North, right?
•
Wrong! The needle has two ends, and one points South.
•
Okay, the North end of the needle always points North, right?
•
Wrong! The compass needle points to Magnetic North, not True North. Trail navigation isn’t so precise
that hikers have to worry about this angle difference. It’s more important to know the compass points and
the direction you’re travelling on the map.
•
Review basic compass directions. Using a compass, have the Scouts move around, getting familiar with
how the needle swings. Though it swings, the needle always points North. Discuss the 16 compass points
and their relation to North.
Map Symbols
•
All Canadian topographic maps carry a graduated scale at the bottom of each sheet. This scale usually
shows the distance in both miles and kilometres. To use the scale, measure the route you’re travelling,
then compare it against the scale to determine distance. If it’s a straight route, a ruler or piece of paper
will be good for measuring. If your route curves, use a piece of string.
SCALE 1:50,000
1.25 inches to 1 Mile approximately
1
1/2
1000
1000
1
0
500
500
0
0
1000
1000
3 Miles
2
2000
2000
3000
3000
4000 Metres
4000 Yards
•
North is generally found at the top of the map, South at the bottom. Look on your map for the compass
symbol; this indicates North.
•
Topographic maps illustrate the vertical shape of the terrain by using contour lines and other map
symbols. Brown contour lines, which connect points of equal height throughout the area presented on
the map, show where you’ll encounter hills, valleys and plains. Each line is numbered to tell you the
height of the ground above sea level.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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Map & Compass
M.S.L.
Close Contour Lines
indicate a steep slope
158
When far apart they indicate a
gentle slope
150
Spot heights are heights between
Contour lines are shown thus:
125
100
75
158
50
25
0
M.S.L.
M.S.L.
•
The above drawing illustrates an imaginary hill rising from sea level to 158 m; this is how it would appear
on a map, and how it would appear in cross-section. Where lines are far apart, the ground slopes gently.
Where they appear close together, the hill is steep. When lines are crowded, they show a cliff. At the top of
a large hill, the map may give you a number called a “spot location.” This shows the altitude of the crest.
•
Map symbols are identified on all maps in the legend, which may appear in the margin or on the back.
These symbols tell you details of the terrain and the area.
•
The colours used are symbolic, too. Everything in black indicates the works of man—roads, railroads,
bridges, towns, boundaries and dams. Water, such as rivers, lakes and swamps, appears in blue. Valleys,
hills and mountains are brown. On some maps, woodland areas are shown in green, main highways in red.
•
Canadian topographic maps are relatively inexpensive.
Contact your local Natural Resources Office or write, phone or fax:
Canada Map Office
Natural Resources Canada
615 Booth St.
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0E9
1-613-952-7000 (Phone)
1-800-465-6277
1 800 661-6277 (Fax)
If you live in a large city, a local supplier will probably be able to provide the most popular maps.
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
MAP FEATURES
Cart Track
======
– – – – Buildings
Telephone Line
TTTT
Dual Highway
Trail or Portage
Power Line _ _ . _ _ _ . _ _
Railway - single
Windmill
Railway - multiple
Lighthouse
Railway - abandoned
Historical Site
+ + + +
Horizontal Control Point
Tower
Bench Mark
School
Boundary Marker
Bridge
Mine or Quarry
Lake or pond
Well
River
2 lane highway
======
Stream
C
Rapids
Cemetery
Church
Post Office
BLUE
Dam or Falls
P
Swamp
Spring
Orchard
Icefield
Index contour
Woods
Sand
Contour line
Depression
MAP DRAWING SESSION
•
Pass out the directions to each patrol or small group to complete individually.
•
With a piece of white paper, ruler and pencil, draw the following map.
•
Place the paper so the long sides are on the top and bottom.
•
The scale is 1 kilometre to one centimetre.
JUMPSTART: Week 1
5
•
Clear Lake is a large body of water covering about 1/5 of the paper, located in the centre of the map. It’s
roughly oval in shape and runs on a SW to NE axis. At its uppermost point, a small river runs two kilometres to the North. This river is fairly straight with three sets of rapids near its middle part. A small lake
(called Finger Lake) running East-to-West, joins the other end of the river. The river exits from the West
end of this lake. Finger Lake is shaped like a finger, and is 5 1/2 kilometres long and 1/2 kilometre wide.
A river enters Finger Lake from the East. This river (called Dog River) runs due East off the map.
•
A railroad comes onto the map from the South, due South of the southernmost point of Clear Lake. The
railroad line runs North, meeting Clear Lake at a hunting and fishing camp.
•
The camp consists of one large building sitting back from the water’s edge, and four smaller buildings
near the shore. A small orchard stands behind the large building. Two small springs are located just West
of the orchard. The railroad skirts around the Northwest side of Clear Lake, crossing the river at the
rapids, then running North to Finger Lake. At that point, it turns East running off the map.
•
A four-lane divided highway runs East-West immediately north of Finger Lake. The height of Clear Lake
averages 240.62 m, depending on the season. Three small islands huddle in a cluster on Clear Lake
immediately South of the river that joins it with Finger Lake.
•
A hydro line runs North-to-South immediately West of Clear Lake. The Southeast shore of
Clear Lake is swampy.
_ _ . _ _ _ . _ _ . _ _ _ . _ _ . _ _ _ . _ _
After drawing Clear Lake and area, check your maps against the following sketch.
6
N
240.62
Identify scale used
key
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
GAMES
Map Symbol Relay Game
Purpose
•
This game will reinforce topographic map symbols in the minds of your Scouts.
Equipment
•
Make copies of the map symbols for each team. Cut out into cards.
•
Give each team a description page.
How
to
Play
•
Place map symbol cards and the description page about 20 metres in front of each team.
•
At “Go!”, Scout #1 runs up, reads the first symbol description, finds the correct symbol and
places it on the description.
•
After completing this task, Scout #1 runs back to the line and Scout #2 runs up.
•
Continue until one team has finished.
•
Check to make sure the symbols are placed on the correct description.
(Map symbols and their descriptions are included in this package.)
Photocopy following two pages as required.
Note: Enlargement is suggested.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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8
Dual Highway
Buildings
Cart Track
Telephone Line
Trail or Portage
Power Line
Railway - single
Windmil
Railway - multiple
Lighthouse
Railway - abandoned
Historical Site
Horizontal Control Point
Tower
Bench Mark
School
Boundary Marker
Bridge
Mine or Quarry
Lake or pond
Well
River
2 lane highway
Stream
Cemetery
Rapids
Church
Dam or Falls
Post Office
Swamp
Spring
Orchard
Icefield
Index contour
Woods
Sand
Contour line
Depression
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
MAP SYMBOLS
======
C
------
_ _ . _ _ _ . _ _
TTTT
+ + + +
BLUE
======
– – – – JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
P
9
CONTOUR LINE DRAWING
•
This activity demonstrates contour lines.
•
Each patrol needs to have several different sized rocks, a basin of water and waterproof markers.
•
Dip a rock part way into water and mark the water line.
•
Then dip it 2 cm deeper, draw another line, and so on until the rock is completely marked.
•
This is an easy way to demonstrate contour lines.
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3 4
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
SCOUT MEETING SCHEDULE: WEEK 2
THEME: HIKING “A”
Date: ____________
Time
Activity
Program Details
15 mins.
Gathering Activity
Play Kim’s Game with
Personal First Aid
Kit items.
See detail planning sheet.
10 mins.
Opening Ceremony
Details can be found in the
Scout Leader’s Handbook
60 mins.
Skills
Discuss fire/ Food/water.
Make GORP or energy bars
See detail planning sheet.
20 mins.
Game/Challenge
Skin the Snake Game.
See detail planning sheet.
20 mins.
Patrol/Troop Meeting
Assign Personal First Aid
Kits for next week.
Review basic first aid.
See detail planning sheet.
10 mins.
Closing
See Scout Leader’s
Handbook
15 mins.
Leader Discussion Time
Review meeting & discuss
next week’s plans
Leader Responsible
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
1
GAMES
Kim’s Game—Personal First Aid Kit
•
Collect all items for a Personal First Aid Kit, as well as some unrelated objects. Spread them out on a table
and cover with a cloth. As Scouts arrive, ask them to look under the cover for only 10 seconds, then go off
and write down all the items they can remember. After everyone has arrived, call out aloud all the items
and see which ones your Scouts missed. Which objects would not belong in a Personal First Aid Kit?
•
Give your Scouts the following items found in a First Aid Kit. Challenge them to see who can pack them
into the smallest waterproof container. Review why each item is important. Check to be sure their kits
contain everything next week.
Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 - Scissors, small (9 cm)
Tweezers
1 - roll Cling (5 cm x 5 cm)
Sterile wipes
1 - Triangular bandage
Adhesive tape (1 cm x 2.5 cm)
10 - Adhesive bandages
2 - Knuckle bandages
2 - Fingertip bandages
2 - Latex gloves
3 - Gauze pads, (5 cm x 5 cm))
3 - Gauze pads, (7.5 cm x 7.5 cm)
1 - Compress bandage (5 cm x 5 cm)
BUILDING FIRES
•
Fire requires three basic element to burn: fuel, heat and oxygen. Fuel (example, wood) is a main ingredient,
but it needs heat to raise the temperature of the fuel until it will burn. Without oxygen a fire will die.
•
Think of a fire as something that must eat (fuel), breathe (oxygen) and keep warm (heat). Fires are
extinguished by starving (cutting off the wood supply), dousing with water (cooling them off) or
smothering them (not allowing air to get to the flame).
•
Before making fires or hiking on private property, be sure to get permission from the landowner. Check
with the local Department of Natural Resources (or Lands & Forests) office to see if you need a campfire
permit. Sometimes during dry seasons, fires are banned. In that case, use a small hiking stove for
your meal.
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Safety
•
•
•
•
•
•
Always have water available—preferably right beside the fire.
Don’t allow people to step over the fire; always walk around.
Never leave a fire unattended.
Make sure a fire is completely extinguished before leaving.
Don’t allow people to poke sticks in the fire, then wave them around.
NEVER use liquid fuel (Naphtha, gas, etc.) to start a fire.
Fire Pits
•
If you build a fire, use existing fire pits. If this is not possible, create a small fire site.
•
Your fire site should not be under trees as sparks will set leaves on fire.
•
Remove the sod to a depth of 10 cm. Place it in the shade and keep watered until replaced. Do your best to
burn all the wood pieces to ash.
•
After finished with your fire, make sure the fire is thoroughly drenched and the ashes stirred up. If you can
put your hand where the fire was burning and still not feel any heat, it’s safe to continue. Crush coals, then
gather and scatter the ashes. Stir the fire pit gently to mix any remaining ashes with the soil, replace the
sod, tramp down thoroughly, and water. Remove all trace of your fire site.
Fire Building
•
When gathering wood for your campfire, follow this rule: start small and work your way up.
•
Tinder is small, easily-lighted material that will ignite kindling (pieces of wood larger than tinder).
Kindling, in turn gets hot enough to light the main fuel (logs). This fuel then produces enough heat to
cook your meal.
•
Before starting, gather all the materials you think you’ll need to build your fire. Then, get twice that
amount—just in case. Tinder might include dead pine needles, dry leaves, bark, long dry grass, or small
tiny branches. Never remove bark from living trees and never use living branches for tinder. Don’t use
rotten wood (it crumbles), or green wood which bends but doesn’t break.
•
Remember that flames burn upward. Putting a match on top of twigs or other fuel, will usually lead to
failure. Flames must be under the fuel. Put your match in the lower-middle of the pile of twigs.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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Fire Building
•
The Tepee and Log Cabin are two quick and easy methods to build a fire. See illustrations below.
Figure 1
Figure 2
3
Tepee
Log Cabin
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JUMPSTART: Scouts: Hiking
Safety Tips When Cooking Over
a
Fire
1. Use oven mitts or leather gloves when handling hot pots.
2. Pour hot liquids or grease away from you. Don’t pour into a hand-held cup.
3. Remove pots from the fire when stirring or adding ingredients.
4. Don’t pass hot pots over another person, including ankles and feet!
5. Secure loose clothing and tie back long hair.
6. Keep water and baking soda on hand to put out fires. Use baking soda for grease fires, or smother
these with a pot lid.
7. Be careful with knives. Use a firm cutting surface, not your leg. Never cut towards your body.
8. Don’t let plastic bags touch hot pots and never hold plastic bags over the fire when adding
cooking ingredients. Remove the pot from the fire first.
WATER
•
Water is as essential for life as air, and more important than food.
•
Hikers lose a lot of water through perspiration, as well as salts that are vital for keeping muscles working
properly. A resting adult needs two litres of water a day; hikers will need considerably more. Hikers can
replace salts through sports drinks (“Gatorade”) and by munching on “GORP” (Trail Mix).
•
If you need to replenish your water supply while hiking, NEVER DRINK from a stream or lake. A popular,
but incorrect, myth says that water running down a rapid, or over a waterfall, is clean. An animal drinking
or urinating into water upstream will still contaminate the water downstream regardless of how many
rocks it spills over.
•
All water in the wilderness may contain bacteria or micro-organisms, such as Giardia. Therefore, only
drink water after it has been treated.
•
Two safe water purification methods involve boiling and using filters.
Boiling
•
After you’ve boiled water for ten minutes, all bacteria will be dead.
•
Disadvantages of this method include:
- One, large amounts of fuel are required to boil the water, and
- Two, you must wait for the water to cool before drinking. As well, water will often taste “flat” after it has
been boiled.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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Water Filters
•
Many filter types are available; be sure to purchase one that will trap micro-organisms as small as, or
smaller than, Giardia (.06 micron).
•
Effective water filters vary in cost and ease of use. Get yours at a local Scout Shop or outdoor store.
“GORP” AND ENERGY BARS
•
From an energy perspective, your body needs a balance of carbohydrates, fat and protein.
•
Carbohydrates can be either simple (sugars) or complex (starches). Food loaded with simple carbohydrates
can cause energy levels to rise quickly, then crash. Don’t be fooled by so-called health food bars; many are
held together by sugar syrup and chocolate coating and are simply repackaged candy.
•
Fats are full of energy, but are slow to convert during activity. Your body first burns available carbohydrates stored in muscles before moving on to its fat reserves. Protein helps your body rebuild muscle and
provides additional energy.
•
Health authorities recommend that the percentage of calories drawn from fat should be less than
30% in the food you eat.
Here’s How Some Common Energy Foods Compare:
Banana
Pretzels (1.5 oz)
Fig Cookie (4)
PowerBar
Snickers Bar
Total
Calories
% Calories
From Fat
100
166
200
225
280
2
10
14
9 (3 g)
42
% Calories
From
% Calories
From Protein
93
79
82
75 (42 g)
51
5
11
4
16 (11 g)
7
Carbohydrates
•
Fresh bananas are a favourite after-race food for runners, but they tend to turn black and mushy when
stored in the bottom of a pack. Pretzels have a low fat content, but often high salt level—due to the salty
coating. Fig cookies are also a favourite sport snack, but they can get crumbly on long trips. PowerBars
are a processed, low-salt sport food with added vitamins and minerals. People tend to either love or hate
the taste of different sport bars; as well the bars can become difficult to eat in cold weather.
•
Drink 200-400 mL of water or other fluids to help your stomach digest them.
•
Looking for a low-cost alternative to commercial sport bars that combines the goodness of natural foods?
Try the following recipes when planning your next outdoor trip.
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Bank Balls
•
It takes about two hours to make 24 balls or bars. They won’t melt in summer or turn rock-hard in winter.
•
Developed by Joe Banks of Rodale Press and tested by Rodale Press Staff Nutritionist and Registered
Dietitian, Anita Hirsh.
•
191 calories; 1g fat; 44 g carbohydrates; 4 g protein per ball.
Ingredients:
24 dried figs
1/3 cup honey
4 tbsp orange juice
2 tbsp lemon juice
2.5 cups flour
1/2 tsp baking soda
1/2 tsp baking powder
1 tbsp canola oil
2 egg whites
1/4 cup dark corn syrup
1 tsp lemon juice
1 cup oat bran
•
Combine figs, honey, orange juice and two tablespoons of lemon juice in a food processor.
•
Chop the ingredients into fine bits. Set aside.
•
Mix all other ingredients (except oat bran) in a large bowl. Beat with an electric mixer three to four
minutes at medium speed.
•
Add fig mixture and beat until blended. Roll 20 to 24 balls and coat with oat bran.
•
Place balls on pan and bake at 350˚F (170°C) for 10 minutes or until warm and a bit puffy.
•
Refrigerate to harden.
Gary’s Homemade Granola Crunch
(214 calories, 7 g fat, 34 g carbohydrates, 4 g protein per half cup serving)
BSA Scouter and long distance runner, Gary Kuhn, finds this an excellent recipe.
Ingredients:
4 cups oats
1/4 cup sunflower seeds
1/2 cup chopped pecans 1 tsp salt (optional)
4 tbsp honey
1 tsp vanilla
1 cup chopped dates
1/2 cup wheat germ
1 tsp cinnamon
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/3 cup vegetable oil
1/2 cup water
1 cup raisins
(Recipe continued on page 8)
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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Gary’s Homemade Granola Crunch
(continued)
•
Mix oats, wheat germ, sunflower seeds, cinnamon, pecans,
brown sugar and salt in a large bowl.
•
In another bowl, mix the oil, honey, water and vanilla.
•
Pour the liquid mixture over the dry ingredients and mix well.
•
Spread in a pan and bake at 300˚F (149°C) for 50-60 minutes,
stirring every 15 minutes.
•
The granola will brown as it cooks.
•
Cool on a wire rack and stir in raisins and dates.
•
Store in airtight container.
The recipe makes 20-24 half-cup servings.
“GORP”: Good Old-fashioned Raisins and Peanuts
•
“GORP” provides a mix of carbohydrates, energy, salt and taste for hikers.
•
There’s a thousand different varieties; you can tailor it to the time of year and individual taste.
•
Chocolate pieces will melt into a gluey mess in the summer. Large pieces of dried fruit may break your
teeth in the winter. Customize your GORP by mixing in dried fruit (such as bananas, apples and apricots)
along with pretzels, corn nuts, salted sunflower seeds and other treats.
•
Be careful not to overindulge; these foods are high in fibre.
•
Try tailoring the recipe below to meet your needs.
•
You can find all ingredients at the bulk food section of your local grocery store.
Ingredients:
50 ml - Smarties or M&M’s
50 ml - Chopped licorice
100 ml - Raisins
200 ml - Shredded coconut
50 ml - Cashews
150 ml - Chopped dried fruit
100 ml - Salted peanuts **
** Ask your Scouts about possible food allergies.
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
GAMES
Skin
the
Snake
Purpose
•
This game provides plenty of laughs.
Equipment
•
All you need is space at your regular meeting hall.
How
to
Play
•
Players must line up in a straight line behind each other. On a signal, players put their right hand
between their widely opened legs and take hold of the left hand of the player standing behind them. The
last player lies down and the file straddles over the Scout backward—the second last going down as soon
as they are past the last one, and so on.
•
Continue until all are players are lying down. Then Player #1 gets up and moves forward, followed by
Player #2, and so on. Players must keep hold of the other players’ hands at all times. Continue this action,
moving across the meeting space.
Basic First Aid
•
In patrols, briefly review “Basic First Aid” refering to the Fieldbook for Canadian Scouting; Safety Section.
Discuss the Following:
1. Scratches and bleeding
2. Burns and scalds
3. Sunburns
4. Poison Ivy and other rashes
5. Heat stroke and heat exhaustion
6. Sprains
7. Choking
8. Shock
9. Blisters
10. Nosebleeds
11. Fainting
12. Rabies
•
Remind your Scouts to bring in their Personal First Aid Kits next week.
•
Tell them to be prepared for a Skill-Testing Quiz.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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SCOUT MEETING SCHEDULE: WEEK 3
THEME: HIKING “A”
Date: ____________
Time
Activity
Program Details
15 mins.
Gathering Activity
Have Patrol Personal
Leaders check over
individual First Aid Kits.
See detail planning sheet,
week 2.
10 mins.
Opening Ceremony
Details can be found
in the Scout Leader’s
Handbook.
20 mins.
Game
“Fool Ball” with skill testing questions on First Aid.
See detail planning sheet.
40 mins.
Skills
Review hiking equipment.
See detail planning sheet.
20 mins.
Game/Challenge
Game: “16 Points”
See detail planning sheet.
20 mins.
Patrol/Troop Meeting
Discuss and demonstrate
how to pack.
See detail planning sheet.
10 mins.
Closing
See Scout Leader’s
Handbook.
15 mins.
Leader Discussion Time
Review meeting and
discuss next week’s plans
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Leader Responsible
1
GAMES
Fool Ball
Purpose
•
This game will develop the ability to react correctly, in the context of answering skill-testing questions.
Equipment
•
You’ll need one volleyball, room to form a circle, and a list of skill testing questions on first aid. (included)
How
to
Play
•
Layers form a circle with their hands clasped behind their backs. One player is the “fooler” who stands
in the centre of the circle with the volleyball. The “fooler” tries to trick the players by faking a throw at
them. If a player moves her hands on a fake throw, or misses a real throw, then she must leave the circle
to answer a skill testing question.
•
Change the “fooler” frequently, perhaps after failing to fool three players. The last player would take the
“fooler’s” place.
FIRST AID QUESTIONS
The following questions have been taken from the Fieldbook of Canadian Scouting (Safety Section).
Find the answers there. Feel free to develop your own questions.
1. How do you treat a bee sting?
2. How do you stop severe bleeding?
3. What is a sling used for?
4. Demonstrate how to make a sling.
5. After severe bleeding has stopped, what do you do?
6. List some objects that could cause puncture wounds.
7. How do you treat sunburn?
8. What are the symptoms of shock?
9. What is heat stroke?
10. What are the symptoms of heat stroke?
11. What is more dangerous, heat stroke or heat exhaustion?
12. How do you treat a puncture wound?
13. How do you treat shock?
14. What would cause shock?
15. How do you treat a blister on the hand?
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
16. How do you treat a blister on the foot?
17. What are the symptoms of heat exhaustion?
18. How do you stop a nosebleed?
19. How do you treat a sprain?
20. How does a sprain occur?
21. When should the first aider put on latex gloves?
22. What do you do for Poison Ivy rash?
23. What should you do if bitten by a wild animal?
24. What should you do if someone faints?
25. What is the purpose of first aid?
Equipment
1.
Review outdoor equipment.
2.
Have the items at the meeting and show them as you discuss each.
3.
Pass them around for everyone to see.
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Boots
Pack
Wide brimmed hat, neckerchief, sunglasses
Water bottle (1 litre)
Map and compass
Qaterproof matches, fire starters
Personal First Aid Kit
Knife
Rain gear
Extra clothing
Toilet paper and a zip lock bag
Whistle
Flashlight
Funscreen (SPF30 rating or higher)
Insect repellent
Food and drink
Eating utensils.
Extras
• Camera and film (or digital camera and extra batteries)
• Binoculars
• Resource information
• Nylon cord
• Extra tarp.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
3
Pack
•
You don’t require as large a pack for a Day-Hike as for an Overnight-Trek.
•
Day-Packs are just large enough to hold a day’s supply of needs; they’re usually soft and frameless.
Because your shoulders carry most of the weight, ensure that packs have adequate padding on the
shoulder straps.
•
Some packs have a waist belt. This is used to keep the pack from bouncing as you walk.
•
Encourage your Scouts to try on several varieties to be sure that the one they select will fit their shoulders comfortably.
•
Check for neat seams, waterproofing, ease of opening, quality buckles and storm flaps around the top.
•
Scouts Canada has a good variety of day packs for sale in their “Scout Shops”.
Boots
•
Boots are the most important piece of equipment that you will require.
•
Focus your footwear selection on comfort, durability and expected use. Boots that don’t fit properly will
turn a pleasant hike into tormenting agony.
•
Before buying boots, talk to experienced hikers about their choice. Take socks you plan to wear on a hike
with you to the store. Lace the boots on and try kicking your toe down into the boot. If your toes hit the
front of the boot, then they’ll become bruised when walking downhill.
•
Walk around in the boots. If your heel moves up and down, you’ll get blisters.
•
Check that the collar of the boot has a cutaway on the back for your tendon. If your boot pushes on, or
grabs, at your tendon, it will cause painful injury within several hours.
•
The tongue of the boot should be padded and sewn on three sides.
•
Look at the soles of the boot. Large, lugged soles are necessary for carrying a heavy pack and for walking
in rough terrain. If you plan to gradually increase the duration of your hiking trips, buy a durable boot.
•
Hikers are divided about whether to recommend leather or fabric.
•
Leather is more durable and can be waterproofed. It is also heavier and takes longer to dry than fabric
boots.
•
Fabric boots are light and easily dried. They often don’t provide enough ankle support for heavy loads, but
would be suitable for day hikes or weekend trips.
•
Regardless of which boots you purchase, make sure they are comfortable, provide proper ankle, toe and
heel support, and supply good traction.
Note: All boots (especially leather) require a break-in period. Start by gradually increasing the amount of
time and walking you do before the hike. Don’t wear new boots on a hike!
4
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Hat
and
Sunglasses
•
A wide brimmed hat, neckerchief and a pair of sunglasses will provide protection from the sun.
•
Just so you don’t lose your glasses when you take them off, tie a cord onto them and let them hang around
your neck.
•
Your hat should have a brim of at least 7.5 cm to keep the sun off your face and neck.
•
Hats and neckerchiefs also keep annoying insects from biting and buzzing around the top of your head and
your neck.
Map
•
and
Compass
Not only do you require these, but you must know how to use them.
(See Week 1, of this Jumpstart)
Waterproof Matches
and
Fire Starters
•
Your matches should be waterproofed in case you get caught in a storm or fall in a creek.
•
Purchase these at your local “Scout Shop” or take some time to make your own.
•
Fire starters are useful in rainy weather for starting fires with damp wood. Fire starters are available at
outdoor shops, but it’s easier to make your own. (See Week 4, of this Jumpstart)
Personal First Aid
•
kit
Scouts should have their own First Aid Kits. These are small, compact, Personal Kits not intended to be
used by the whole troop. A leader should carry a fully equipped kit on the hike.
Knife
•
From cutting rope and opening tin cans, to whittling kindling or cutting bologna, a pocket knife can be a
useful tool. Attach a lanyard to it and fasten the other end to your belt or pocket so you won’t lose it if the
knife drops. Keep your knife sharp and dry it thoroughly if it gets wet. Never walk while using your knife.
If passing a knife to someone else, pass it handle first, keeping the blade in control at all times.
Rain Gear
•
Even though the sky is clear, always carry rain gear. A rain suit will become your mobile shelter.
•
Don’t buy a K-Way jacket or poncho. Ponchos tend to fly up in wind and will drip onto your legs, making
your pants wet. K-Way is not waterproof, but water resistant; you may get wet. Manufacturers have not yet
developed the perfect rain gear that will keep you dry yet allow your internal moisture to pass through.
Rubberized or PVC-coated nylon is your best bet.
•
Although your clothing will become damp from sweat, you won’t be completely soaked from the rain.
Goretex material allows some “breathability” (ability to transfer sweat through the fabric), but it still
doesn’t keep a hiker dry.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
5
Extra Clothing
•
An extra pair of socks, a warm sweater or pullover and an extra pair of pants or shorts are all you really
need for a day hike.
•
Wool socks are the best as they absorb moisture and don’t get cold if they get wet.
•
Change socks if your feet get sweaty.
•
The pullover or pants are for a change in the weather.
Toilet Paper
and
Zip Lock Bag
•
Before leaving for your hike, call to find out if there are kybos available on the trail.
•
Each Scout should carry a small amount of toilet paper for use in an emergency.
•
Discuss with your Scouts the disposal of human waste using the cat-hole method. Select a location well
away from water and off the trail. Dig a small personal hole about 12-14 cm deep. After use, refill with the
soil and tamp down. Waste products will decompose in a short time helped by decay organisms in the top
layers of soil. Pack out the toilet paper in the plastic bag.
Whistle
•
Every Scout should carry a whistle and know the signal for emergency.
•
If a Scout becomes separated from the troop, three short blasts will signal distress.
•
The lost youth should listen for answering signal blasts and continue to signal until found.
•
Attach a lanyard to one end of the whistle. Either attach it to your belt, or hang it around your neck so
you always have it.
•
The Fox whistle is excellent because it always works whether cold, hot or wet. It’s available at outdoor
stores and “Scout Shops”.
Food
and
Drink
•
Scouts love to munch trail mix as they hike. Trail mixes can be easily made at home. Hiking burns up
calories, so a proper trail mix will include a good mix of fat and carbohydrate. (We covered trail mixes and
GORP in Week 2 of this Jumpstart.)
•
It’s extremely important to replace the water you lose when hiking.
•
Find out if fresh, safe drinking water is available on your trail. If it isn’t, every Scout should carry enough
water to last the day (2 L).
•
DO NOT drink from any natural water source, due to the presence of bacteria and micro-organisms
(Giardia), without purifying first.
•
For more details on water purification see Week 2 of this Jumpstart.
6
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Extras
Camera
and
Film
•
Leave it up to the Scouts’ personal choice if they want to carry a camera.
•
Perhaps you can nominate an “Official Photographer” to capture the troop’s memorable moments.
Binoculars
•
Binoculars will only be necessary if you plan to observe nature.
•
If this is the intent of the hike, share a set of binoculars among two or three members;
some binoculars are quite heavy.
Resource Information
•
Field guides for birds, animals, flowers and trees are useful to answer questions about natural life.
•
Have Scouts bring some paper and a pencil. Challenge them to sketch a plant they see, then look it up in the
field guide.
•
Perhaps the trail will have literature available that you can carry and follow as you hike.
Flashlight
•
Even if you are just going for the day, carry a flashlight for an emergency that could delay you until night.
•
Make sure it has fresh batteries and works.
Sunscreen
and Insect
Repellant
•
As the ozone layer thins, more people are concerned about skin cancer. UV rays can penetrate light cloud
cover, haze and fog. Insist that everyone apply a sunscreen of at least SPF30. A product with this rating will
block over 92% of the sun’s rays. Don’t forget your face and back of the neck.
•
Insects can make hiking in the woods more difficult. Look for products with 100% “DEET” to repel insects.
“DEET” can damage some nylons, plastics and synthetics, so be careful not to get it on these products.
Nylon Cord, Tarp
•
Although not necessary for a day hike, these items should always be carried as emergency supplies.
•
You can use a tarp for many things, including a temporary shelter or even a stretcher.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
7
GAMES
Sixteen Points Game
Purpose
•
This game will reinforce compass points.
Equipment
You’ll need 16 cards, each marked with one of the 16 points of a compass.
How
to
Play
•
Mark a large circle on the floor or ground. Place the 16 cards face down on a table or bench. Players take a
card and check to see what their compass point is. The person who has North, goes and stands anywhere on
the circle.
•
Upon hearing the command, “This is North. Find your place!” other players must try to take their appropriate place in the circle.
•
Play several times until the players become proficient. To challenge them further, take any bearing (e.g.
SSW) and place it on the circle, then ask everyone to find their place according to that bearing.
PACKING
In patrols, discuss how to pack your day pack. Using the diagram below as a guide, demonstrate packing.
Remember to include the following points.
•
Few packs are waterproofed. It’s useful to put a plastic bag inside your pack before filling to ensure the
contents stay dry.
•
When packing your bag, place the heaviest items close to the back and the lightest items on the bottom
and top.
•
Try to place items that you will need first on the top or in an accessible pocket.
•
Always put items back in the same place to avoid unzipping all the pockets each time you need an item.
•
Securely wrap all food so it doesn’t leak through your pack.
•
Water should be in leak-proof containers, either in an outside pocket or on top within easy access.
8
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
BACKPACKERS CHECKLIST
•
This checklist is offered as a near minimum for a safe and comfortable backpack outing. Using a sturdy backpack and sleeping bag the weight should be under 8 kg. You will need to add 750 gm - 1 kg per person per day
for dehydrated food and 1 kg per 1.2L for water. You should be able to pack in for a week carrying under 13 kg.
•
NOTE: It is not intended that this be considered as either the best or the only way to pack a bag. As you gain
experience you can shift around to suit your own ideas.
B. Carry On Person
o Knife*
o Medic Alert Bracelet
or Pendant (if used)
o Compass*
o Waterproof matches*
A. Flap Pocket
o Maps*
o Medical Allergies & Restrictions
o Fire Permit
o Identification
o Notebook*
o Pen
o Fishing & Hunting License
C. Upper Left Pocket
o Canteen* or
o Stove Fuel and or•
o Rain Gear•
D. Back Pocket
o Plastic Bowl
o Cup
o Tablespoon
o Matches*
o Lunch*
o Trail Snacks*
o Extra Glasses*
o Sun Glasses*
o Juice Crystals
o Plastic Glasses
o Rubber Bands
o Nylon Cord 10 m
o Toilet Kit: Toothbrush and paste, soap*, dish cloth, toilet paper*
paper towels or cloth
F. Upper Compartment
o Cook Kit
o Food
o
o Pot Tongs
o Stove•
o
o Grill
o Water Bag•
o
o Can Opener
o
o Condiment Kit: salt, pepper, milk, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tea,
G. Lower Left Pocket
o Sunburn Cream
o Chap Stick
o Medication
o Water Purifier
o Bug Repellent
o Repair Kit
o Needles—Thread
and Buttons
o Air Matt. Repair
o Flashlight*
o Ex. Batteries and
Bulb*
Tent or Tarp
Tube Tent or
Ground Cloth
Air Mattress
E. Upper Right Pocket
o Canteen• or
o Stove Fuel and or•
o Rain Gear•
o Foil for Stove
Windbreak•
cooking oil, flavourings
H. Lower Compartment
o Hat or Cap*
o Socks
o Underwear
o Hankies
o Trousers
o Shirts•
o Windbreaker*
o Gloves•
o Pajamas or Long Johns
o Socks Cap or Down Hood*•
o Wool Shirt or Down Jacket*•
o (Food, if not enough room in upper compartment)
o
o
o
o
Rain Gear*
Swim Suit*•
Bandana
Wash Basin
J. Stuff Bag
Stuff your sleeping bag and air pillow (if used). If your foam pad is narrow enough
and the stuff bag is big enough, the foam pad can be rolled in the stuff bag and the
sleeping bag stuffed into the centre or the foam pad can be carried on top of the
pack or under the flap.
I. Lower RightPocket
o First Aid Kit
these items on one
*Carry
day hikes. Hikers sometimes get lost and stay
out overnight or longer.
• Determined by weather
or location.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
9
SCOUT MEETING SCHEDULE: WEEK 4
THEME: HIKING “A”
Date: ____________
Time
Activity
Program Details
15 mins.
Gathering Activity
Hand out 'Low Impact
Hiking Quiz” Kits. See
detail planning sheet.
10 mins.
Opening Ceremony
Details can be found in
the Scout Leader’s Handbook.
20 mins.
Game
Dutch Compass game.
See detail planning sheet.
40 mins.
Skills
Review route, paperwork
and preparation. Read
Minimum Impact Fable.
See detail planning sheet.
20 mins.
Game/Challenge
Make fire starters or
waterproof matches.
See detail planning sheet.
20 mins.
Patrol/Troop Meeting
Review hike details.
Decide on lunch menu.
10 mins.
Closing
See Scout Leader’s
Handbook.
15 mins.
Leader Discussion Time
Review meeting and
discuss next week’s plans
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Leader Responsible
1
LOW IMPACT HIKING QUIZ
Answer True or False
1.
Low-impact camping standards suggest that cans and other metal containers be burned and then
buried. __ T __ F
2.
The maximum size of a party in wilderness areas should be ten to twelve persons. __ T
3.
It’s always a good idea to build a circle of stones to contain your cooking fire. __ T
4.
A cat-hole latrine should be dug in dry, sandy or gravel soil, at least 15 metres from water, camp, or
trails. __ T __ F
5.
Fish entrails should be tossed back into the lake or stream as food for the other fish. __ T
6.
Since backcountry is so wide and spacious, loud games, campfire programs, and vigorous activities are
unlikely to disturb others. __ T __ F
7.
If trails are muddy, it is acceptable to leave the established trail as long as you parallel it closely.
__ T __ F
8.
Wilderness hiking is a good opportunity to collect specimens of flowers, plants, and rock samples.
__ T __ F
9.
When breaking camp, always leave a pile of wood for the next camper. __ T
__ F
__ F
__ F
__ F
10. “Take nothing but pictures” is a good motto for low impact wilderness travellers. __ T
__ F
11. It is a good idea to repackage food and other items in lightweight, burnable or pack-out containers.
__ T __ F
12. When horses or pack animals are met on the trail, hikers should step off the lower side of the trail,
stand still, and talk quietly or not at all while the riders and animals pass. __ T __ F
13. Each wilderness area may have specific rules of its use, and permits are sometimes required for entry.
__ T __ F
14. Most typical Scout troops will need specialized training before qualifying for a wilderness or backcountry
camping experience. __ T __ F
15. When following a trail with switch-backs, it is acceptable to cut across the switch-backs when going
downhill. __ T __ F
16. While hiking, it is approved practice to scatter your orange and banana peels, or apple cores as you
walk. __ T __ F
17. Always use biodegradable soap for dishwashing and personal use. Spread your waste water at least 35 metres
feet away from water sources. __ T __ F
18. It is acceptable to feed birds and animals that are friendly in the wild. __ T
__ F
19. If you choose a route without trails, do not blaze trees, build cairns, paint on rocks, or leave messages
in the dirt. __ T __ F
20. It is better to make camp in a large meadow, rather than in the forest. __ T
__ F
2
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
LOW IMPACT HIKING QUIZ ANSWERS
1. False. If fires are permitted, burn flattened cans to remove food scraps, but always pack them out.
2. Generally true. In some wilderness areas the maximum size of a party is limited to as few as six persons.
A small group will allow cross-country trails to recover, reduce trampling in the campsite areas, produce
minimum impact on the land, and be less obvious to other campers and disruptive of wildlife.
3. False. Rocks are not needed to contain a fire if the ground has been suitably prepared. Smoke-stained
rocks are unsightly.
4. False. Latrines should be dug 10-14 cm deep in biologically active soil at least 65 metres from water,
camp or trails. Biologically active soil will assure the speedy decomposition of human waste.
5. False. Fish entrails should be buried in the latrine or burned in the fire. If returned to the lake or stream,
they are more likely to foul the water than to serve as food for other fish.
6. False. The key to backcountry enjoyment is to draw as little attention as possible to your group. Loud and
vigourous activity can disturb other campers, may do considerable damage to the environment, and can
disrupt wildlife.
7. False. Wait until muddy trails dry out. If this isn’t possible, walk through the mud. Never try to establish a
new trail. This can lead to a network of trails which will damage the environment.
8. False. Leave all flowers, plants, rock samples, and other natural features for the enjoyment of others.
If you pick flowers, seeds will not form and the plants will not reproduce themselves. Instead, practise
sketching the plant or take notes.
9. Generally False. “Leave no trace” in a wilderness site. Scatter your collected wood as naturally as possible. In an established site, it’s a courtesy to leave a supply of wood for the next campers. In many provincial parks it’s against the law to gather fallen wood. Check the rules first.
10.True. Pictures and memories are the best souvenirs of a wilderness experience. Leave the wilderness in
place for others to enjoy.
11.True. Repackaging food can save weight, space and the need for packing out bulky containers.
12.True. If hikers move to the lower part of the trail, horses are less likely to spook. This is particularly important if horses are tied together in pack trains. If one animal is spooked over the edge of the trail, it might
drag others with it.
13.True. Rules may vary from one wilderness area to the next. Permits are often required to (a) make sure
campers understand the rules, and (b) limit the number of persons in the area to reasonable sizes. Be
sure to check on rules and permits well in advance of your trip. This precaution will avoid the disappointment of being turned away at your trailhead.
14.True. Many Scouting camp activities are not appropriate for wilderness or backpack camping. Troops
often need special training. Traditional vigourous camp activities are more suited for established Scouting
or provincial camps.
15.False. Cutting across a switchback will compact the soil, destroy vegetation and establish a water run-off
which will cause more erosion. Always stay on the trail, whether going up or down hill.
16.False. Compost materials should not be scattered along the trail. It will only attract insects and animals.
Compost should either be buried 10-14 cm deep in biologically active soil at least 65 metres from water,
camp or trails, or packed out.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
3
17.True. Never wash dishes (or yourself) in natural bodies of water. Scattering your waste water 35 metres
from water sources will allow it to disburse through the soil before reaching the water table.
18.False. Feeding wild animals can not only alter their feeding habits and migration patterns, but also attract
wild animals to a site. “Garbage” feeders often become a menace to humans and either have to be shot
or captured and moved away. Avoid any wild animal that approaches; overly tame animals might have
rabies.
19.True. Other backcountry travellers may become confused by unanticipated markers. Signs of prior travel
reduces the wilderness experience for future travellers. Besides, graffiti is against the law. Blazed trees
can develop infection.
20.False.. Camping produces more ecological impact in a forest meadow, than in a forest.
GAMES
Dutch Compass
Purpose
•
This game will reinforce compass points.
Equipment
•
All you need is a Scout stave and markers for the compass points.
How
to
Play
•
Set out a circle about four meters across. Depending on the number of participants, place markers at compass points around the circle. Players must stand at the compass points, leaving North blank.
•
The leader stands in the centre of the circle holding the Scout stave upright with one end on the ground.
Calling out a compass point, the leader simultaneously releases the stave.
•
The player occupying the compass position called must run in and catch the stave before it hits the ground.
If successful, the Scout returns to her position and the leader calls out another compass position.
•
If the Scout fails to catch the stave, she must move to the original North position. Her empty position
becomes the new North.
•
Allow players a few seconds to figure out where they are on the compass, then, resume the action.
•
If they get too quick, either enlarge the circle or speed up the time you allow after misses.
4
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
SKILL SESSION
In patrols, distribute the Low Impact Wilderness Code. Read the Minimum Impact Fable out loud and have the
Scouts list all the actions that were wrong and why they were wrong.
MINIMUM IMPACT FABLE
•
Once upon a time there was a group of 12-year-old Scouts who organized an evening cookout in a very
remote area of their camp. They had never heard of minimal impact camping so they didn’t realize that they
were about to do things that were harmful to the environment.
•
While preparing the meal, one leader turned on a portable radio to entertain the troop. Several youth went
into the woods and gathered every stick of wood they could find for the fire. Another group lashed a table
between two trees so they would have a place to prepare food.
•
Since no dead wood lay on the ground (the wood gatherers had taken it all), the group cut down a few young
trees to make their table. They rationalized this by deciding that when they left the cookout site, they would
leave the lashed table behind for the next group.
•
The fire builders decided that they didn’t like the location of the established fire pit; so, they built a new one
beside a nearby lake. Carefully the Scouts scraped away the grass and leaves from their new fire pit and threw
the debris into the woods. Then they built and lit a huge campfire that would last all evening.
•
After dinner the youth dug a hole and buried all the garbage, including some aluminum foil and several cans
that had held part of their food. They threw all their used paper plates and foam cups into the fire.
•
After dinner the Scouts sat around the campfire for a long time, but they grew tired before the fire had completely burned itself out. “That’s okay,” they said, dousing the half-burned wood and other debris with water
until the fire was out. The youth left the charred wood for the next time they came to the site, or for anyone
else wanting to use it.
•
Before leaving, they put a sign on the lashed table saying,
•
“This table is courtesy of the ___________________ Scout Troop.”
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
5
ANSWERS TO THE MINIMUM IMPACT FABLE
WA = Wrong Action
R = Reason
WA: Portable radio
WA: A huge campfire.
R: R: Destroys the forest peace and disturbs
the wildlife.
WA: Gathered every stick of wood.
R: Dead wood is important for the environment. Insects and plants live on it.
It provides habitat and cover for small
mammals.
WA: Buried aluminum foil and several cans.
R: Never cut down living trees unless
instructed to do so by a forester.
WA: Leave the lashed table for the next group.
R: All lashing should be untied, string or
cord picked up, and sticks returned to
where they were gathered.
R: R: Use existing fire pits.
WA: Scraped away the grass and leaves. Threw
the debris into the woods.
R:
6
If necessary, use a shovel and dig to a
depth of 15 cm. Remove the sod carefully,
place in the shade, and keep watered.
After the fire pit has been cleaned up,
replace the sod and water again.
Foam cups when burned release CFCs
into the air. Try not to use paper plates or
foam cups; instead, carry dishes that can
be cleaned.
WA: Left the charred wood and debris.
WA: Built a new fire pit.
R: Aluminum foil and tin cans don’t decompose. Always carry out your garbage.
WA: Threw their foam cups into the fire
WA: Cut down live trees for the table.
R:
Keep the fire small.
Charred wood is actually a form of charcoal which rarely
disintegrates. Any trash left in the fire
should be removed and carried out. If the
fire had been small the troop could have
burned the wood to ash, which would
break down in the environment.
WA: Put a sign on the lashed table.
R: All lashing should be removed. Would
you want to advertise that you did all this
damage to the environment?
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
LOW IMPACT WILDERNESS CODE
1.
Pre-Trip Plans
• Take gear that blends into the environment.
• Take trash bags and use them.
• Keep the group size small.
• Prepare carefully. Carry everything you need with you. Do not rely on the natural environment for food
supplies or water. Package food in burnable, or pack-out, containers. Carry proper equipment, includ
ing adequate shelter, clothing, washing equipment, etc.
2.
Travel
• Stay on the trail.
• Avoid cutting across switchbacks.
• Let muddy trails dry out.
• Select hard ground for cross-country travel.
3.
Campsites and Shelters
• Use existing campsites. Keep heavy use to a confined area.
• Refrain from using natural materials for shelters, except in emergency situations.
• Do not dig trenches. Use a floored tent.
• Set up camp at least 65 metres from any stream, pond or lake.
• Leave the campsite in the same condition, if not better, that you found it.
4.
Fires
• Use a lightweight backpacking stove.
• Use an old fire circle in heavily-used areas.
• Where a fire pit is absent, dig to the mineral level of the soil, avoiding the burnable soil, roots and over hanging trees.
• Keep fires small.
• Use only dead wood for the fire.
• Burn wood to a white ash. Retrieve all non-burnables such as foil, tin cans, plastics, glass, etc.
• Make sure your fire is out.
5.
Sanitation
• Use existing outhouses.
• Bury human waste in a small cat-hole, 15-20 cm deep and 35 metres from open water.
• Never wash dishes, clothes or yourself in open water. Use a pan and pour waste water in a hole at
least 50 metres from water. Fill in hole before leaving camp.
• Use biodegradable soap.
• What you carry in, you must also carry out. Burn it, bash it, bag it, bring it back.
6.
Courtesy
• Because you are a guest in someone else’s home, act accordingly.
• Avoid making loud noises.
• Obey all fish, forestry, and game laws and property regulation signs.
• Hikers should step off the side of trails when horses pass.
• Leave wildflowers. Do not pick edible wild foods, except where they are abundant. Never pick near
built-up areas.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
7
WATERPROOF MATCHES AND FIRE STARTERS
Waterproof Matches
Want
to waterproof your matches?
•
One method involves packing matches into an old 35 mm film canister and including the striker with
them. Glue the striker on the inside of the top of the canister. Be careful to place the match heads away
from the striker or they could set themselves on fire as you walk!
•
Caution! It is not advised to dip wooden matches into hot melted paraffin; they could light and set the
wax on fire.
Fire Starters
Method 1:
•
Your troop can make fire starters using several methods. One involves tearing strips of waxed paper into
pieces about 8 cm wide and 10 cm long.
•
Place broken pieces of candle in the centre, roll up and twist the ends. To use, just light one end. The
paper will burn and ignite the candle, which will produce sufficient flame to get the fire going.
Method 2:
•
Another method involves using strips from the edge of computer paper—the kind with holes in it. Rip
these strips off by the kilometre, then rip them into pieces about 25 cm long. Take 10-15 lengths and line
up the holes.
•
Thread a piece of jute twine through the holes. At every third hole leave a larger loop. Leave at least
20-25 cm of twine at each end; use these as handles. Holding onto the handles, dip the entire length into a
double boiler of melted paraffin wax. Do this several times to make sure the paper is completely saturated.
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Place on a piece of waxed paper to set and dry. Once dry, cut through the paper at each of the larger loops.
This will give you three or four short fire starters, complete with wicks. These fire starters recycle paper,
and are extremely light.
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Warning! NEVER use liquid fuel (example, naphtha or gas) or explosive devices to start a fire.
8
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
PATROL MEETING
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Review your final hike details in patrols. Make sure everyone knows who plans to go and the equipment
they will bring.
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Decide on a lunch menu. Encourage your Scouts to select simple food for their first hike, using the
Canada Food Guide to provide variety.
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Gourmet cooking is best done at an established camp. Review the ingredients necessary to prepare each
meal. Don’t forget oven mitts for hot utensils.
PLANNING YOUR HIKE
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Consider a day hike on a well marked trail near your meeting place for your first hiking adventure.
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Explore a park that offers trails; take a city hike and investigate your own neighbourhood; or visit a nearby
provincial park or conservation area.
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Find a location that offers a chance to practise hiking in a safe manner—somewhere that lets you
experiment with all the details associated with longer hikes.
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Once you’ve picked a good area, take stock of your troop’s ability. Stay together. Knowing that most
people walk at a speed of about 3-5 km an hour, it’s far better if your Scouts cover a distance of 15-20
kilometres on their first hike, than walk 100 kilometres and be unable to move the next day! Is the trail
interesting?
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Does it have a natural history area, a lake to swim in, or historical landmarks? Study brochures of hiking
areas that interest you to determine what would appeal to your troop. Don’t forget to involve your Scouts.
They might know of a specific trail that they’d like to explore, or have heard about an interesting area.
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Hiking involves two separate actions: moving, and not moving. When planning the amount of time you’ll
need for your hike, remember to include at least 5 minute rest stops every hour, as well as time for lunch,
and more time to explore the area and return back with more rest stops. The terrain will have an effect on
the amount of time required for your hike, too. Walking 8 km with a 1,500 m rise demands more energy
than walking 24 km on flat land.
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Pick a hiking date and a rain date.
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Schedule your first date as soon as possible after finishing this JUMPSTART Series.
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Arrange transportation to and from the Trailhead.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
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PAPERWORK
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Arrange for permission from the landowner.
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Check if you need a Fire Permit.
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Send home details of the planned hike:
– Date/Rain Date
– Drop-Off
– Pick-Up Times
– Special equipment required
– Contact number for emergencies
– The leader’s name & phone number
– Permission Form to be signed and returned. See letter at end of this package.
– Physical Fitness Certificate Information
– Health Card Number
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Contact your group Committee Chair to let them know where you’re going.
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If you’re leaving your district, you must get permission from the group committee and the local council.
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Leave a list of names, including phone numbers of everyone going on the hike, with a designated
contact person.
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This person should be someone staying home the day you hike, as a contact if there is an emergency.
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This person’s job involves calling parents to keep them informed of changes to the planned event.
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Include this contact person’s name and phone number in the letter sent home to parents.
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JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
HIKING “A” DAY HIKE
Time
Activity
9:00 a.m.
Meet at High School. Make prior arrangements for
car pooling to help Scouts load their gear into cars
and leave. 9:45 a.m.
Arrive at Amazon Park. Unload cars and put on
packs. Review the route being taken and remind
everyone of the rules. Assign leader for the end
of the hiking line. Distribute the hiking activities.
See detail planning sheets.
Person Responsible
10:45 a.m.
Rest / Break
10:50 a.m.
Continue hike. Switch hike leaders.
11:50 a.m.
Arrive at lunch area. Make fires, cook lunch.
Rest and explore. See detail planning sheet for activities.
1:15 p.m.
Start hike back. Play “Hold the Front” as you’re
hiking. See detail planning sheet.
2:15 p.m.
Rest break. Switch hike leaders.
3:20 p.m.
Arrive back at cars. Load gear and drive
back to school.
4:30 p.m.
Arrive at school for pick-up.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
11
Before the Day
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Receive permission from the group committee for your hike.
Collect Scouts’ permission forms and money for lunch.
Arrange for car-pooling.
Make enough maps of the route to the trail for each driver.
Prepare hike activities and collect necessary resource material.
One leader should have a complete First Aid Kit.
At least one leader should be qualified for Standard First Aid.
Make up list of participants and leaders, with phone numbers, and deliver to contact person.
Check with the area you are planning to hike for: necessary permits or permission, fire permits and
permission to make fires, availability of fresh drinking water, location of kybos.
• Buy lunch food. Repackage it into smaller portions for easier carrying.
• Gather physical fitness certificates and necessary equipment like maps, compasses and cooking gear.
On the Day
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Meet at the school. Check that all participants are present.
Make sure all have their equipment.
Distribute lunch materials equally among the hikers.
Give each driver a map.
Load cars and leave.
Before Starting to Hike
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Everyone should take a drink of water.
Assign a hike leader and a leader at end of line (known as “the sweep”).
Distribute the hike challenges for completion as the hike progresses.
Remind everyone of the hiking rules.
Load up packs and set off.
During the Hike
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Set a reasonable pace — one that everyone can accomplish. Allow rest breaks every hour.
Ensure everyone has a drink, and a snack if they wish.
Check for blisters.
Check first activity.
Switch hike leaders when starting again.
Lunch Break
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Start fire as soon as possible to allow time for coals to form.
Prepare lunch and eat.
Pick up all litter and put fire out.
Remove all trace of your fire, unless you are at an established fire pit.
Do “Plant Scavenger Hunt” activity.
Allow at least 30 minutes of rest or quiet activity before starting hike back.
Check over other hike activities previously completed.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Return Hike
• After making sure everyone is present, start the hike back with a new hike leader.
Remember: The “Sweep” should always be in place during the hike.
• Play “Hold the Front” activity as you hike.
• Stop for a rest break after an hour of hiking.
Return Home
• Meet drivers at trailhead.
• Return group equipment (maps, compasses) to leader.
• Load up cars and drive back to school to meet parents.
HIKING ACTIVITIES
Alphabet Hunt
Find and identify items that correspond to each letter in the alphabet. Review during the rest stop.
Wildlife Detective
Search for wildlife clues while hiking. Try to identify “who dunnit.”
Use the list below as a guide.
Clue
“Who Dunnit”
Small hole
Work of mole or ground squirrel
Large hole
Fox or groundhog
Leaves of trees, shrubs or bark
eaten up at a fairly high level.
Possibly deer, goats or elk that can stand on their
hind legs to reach foliage.
Bark of tree eaten high up.
Porcupine
Piles of bark on the ground,
and holes in the tree.
Pilated woodpecker.
Series of small holes often in a
Sap sucker bird.
circle around a tree.
Bushes and trees cut down, and
Beaver
chewed through trunks.
Pile of seeds.
Squirrels, chipmunks storing place.
Claw marks on trees.
Possibly bears, or wildcats (like lynx and cougars)
marking their territory.
Holes in leaves
Insect damage.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
13
Plant Scavenger Hunt
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Divide the troop into small groups of four. Each person should locate the items on the list, remember
where they are and then take the members of their team to the location. Do not pick, or move, anything.
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Find something that corresponds to the following definitions.
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Something green.
Something golden.
Something that smells like a spice.
Something so thin you can see through it.
Something sharp.
Something sticky.
A smooth shiny leaf.
A fuzzy leaf.
Something triangular.
Something changing.
A valuable plant.
An insect ate most of this object.
Some object an insect tasted, then left.
Something soft.
A tiny seed.
A seed that floats in the air.
A hitchhiker.
Something very old.
Food for a squirrel.
Food for you.
Pebble or Stick Cribbage
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Each hiker selects 10 small pebbles or sticks. As the group hikes along the trail, the leader asks
questions related to objects sighted along the route.
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When someone gives the correct answer, all those who had the answer may discard a pebble or twig.
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The object of the game is for everyone to get rid of their pebbles or twigs.
Shape and Texture Hunt
As you hike, get your Scouts to point out items with each of the following textures.
spongy
hollow
hairy
sticky
slippery
curved
14
pointed
bumpy
smooth
circular
wet
sandy
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
Thirty Second Search
Give each Scout an area to search for the following items.
Each item has a 30-second time limit.
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Something smooth
A type of shelter
The most common colour
Something circular
Something really neat
The oldest thing
The youngest thing
Something with more than two colours
Something that is changing
Something you dislike
something hard
Your favourite thing
Something that has three or more
syllables in its name
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Something rough
A living thing
A dead thing
A source of food
Something brown
An object that starts with the letter “D”
Two identical things
The tallest thing
Something moist
Something with a strong smell
The loudest sound you can hear
Hold the Front
The leader asks specific questions of the first person in line.
With the first wrong answer, that person goes to the end of the line, while everyone else advances forward.
JUMPSTART Scouts: Hiking
15
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