Library Exhibit Curriculum Resources

Library Exhibit Curriculum Resources
ShirleyM.Wright
MemorialLibraryActivities
TripVenue#1
• SketchinganArtifact
• WisconsinArchaeological
TimelineScavengerHunt
Sketchingan
artifact
KeyTerms
artifact: any object that was made,
modified, or used by people.
ceramics:pottery,firedclay.
Ceramicswereusedfordishes,as
cookingpots,forstoringthings,
etc.
potsherd:abrokenfragmentofa
wholeceramicpot.
temper:amaterialthatis
intentionallyaddedtoclaytomake
iteasiertosculpt.Addingtemper
toclaypreventsapotfrom
explodingduringthefiringprocess
becauseitallowstheclayto
expand.Commontempersfoundin
Wisconsinprehistoricpottery
includecrushedrock,sand,shell,
and“grog”(brokenpiecesofpots
crushedupandusedastemperfor
otherpots.)
Objectives
Studentswilllearntomake
observationsandinferencesabout
authenticartifactsfromWisconsin.
Theywillcomparetools,pastand
present,todevelopideasabouthow
peoplemayhaveusedtoolstosubsist
(makealiving)inWisconsinfor
thousandsofyears.
Method
Studentswillsketchanartifactfromthe
ShirleyM.Wrightlibrarydisplayand
answerquestionsabouttheobjectof
theirchoosing.
Materials
Associatedworksheet,writingutensils,
clipboard,attachedartifactguidefound
inthelibraryexhibit.
Procedure
Tostarttheactivity,orientthestudents
tothedisplaycase.Givethemabrief
explanationofwhatisinthecase:
• anillustratedtimelineofpast
peopleswholivedinWisconsin
isfoundonthetopshelf.
• anintroductiontoexcavation
andthearchaeologicalprocessis
onthebottomleft.
• andanexplanationofthe
Mississippiansitesin
Trempealeaucanbefoundonthe
bottomright.
Grades: K-4
Subject Areas: Social Studies
Duration: one class period
Group Size: 2-3 students
Setting: Shirley M. Wright Library
Standards met: Social Studies: B.4.1,
D.4.5, Literacy: W.4.2b, W.4.2d
Associated materials: Sketching an
artifact worksheet, artifact exhibit guide
Background
Backgroundandtimelineofpast
peopleswhohaveinhabitedWisconsin
http://mvac.uwlax.edu/PreEurope
anPeople/
Aguidetovarioustypesofprojectile
points:
http://mvac.uwlax.edu/pastcultures/point-guide/
Explainthatanartifactissomething
thatwasmadeorusedbyaperson.
Workingingroupsof2-3,studentswill
spendafewminuteslookingatthe
artifactsinthecase.Pointoutseveral
1
andaskthestudentstohypothesize
abouthowtheartifactsmayhavebeen
used.
Nowsplittheclassinhalf.Onegroup
willcompletethefirstactivitylisted
belowandtheotherwillworkonthe
second.Thiswillallowmorespacein
frontofthedisplay.Onceeachgroup
hasfinishedtheiractivity,swapthe
groupssoeachstudentwillgetachance
todoboth.
1. Activity1:Askthegroupsto
chooseanartifact(excludingthe
bottomleftsection).Haveeach
studentsketchanobjectfromthe
displayontotheirworksheets
andcompletetheaccompanying
questionswiththeirpartners
basedontheirobservations.
2. Activity2:Usingthesecond
includedworksheet,have
studentstrytomatchimagesof
moderntoolswithancientones.
Givethemabout20minutesto
completethisactivity.
Reconveneasaclassandchoseafew
groupstopresentwhattheylearned
abouttherartifact.Letthemexplain
theirhypothesesaboutthepurposesfor
whichtheartifactmayhavebeenused.
Usetheincludedartifactdescriptionto
helpexplainanyquestions.Youcan
alsofindthismountedabovethe
exhibit.
2
SketchinganArtifact
Drawtheartifact. Name________________________________
Backgroundabouttheartifact(usetheinformationfromthedisplay):
Whichcultureperiodisitfrom?(circleone)PaleoIndianArchaic
WoodlandOneotaMississippianContactContemporary
Howoldistheartifact?_______________________________________________________________
Describetheartifact:
Color___________________________________________________________________________________
Shape__________________________________________________________________________________
Whatisitstexture?Doesitlookroughorsmooth?Isitbumpy?
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Isitwholeorabrokenpiece?_______________________________________________________
Use:
Whatdoyouthinkitwasusedfor?_________________________________________________
Whomighthaveusedit?_____________________________________________________________
Haveyoueverseenanobjectlikethisbefore?_____________________________________
Isitlikeanythingweusetoday?_____________________________________________________
3
Modernvs.AncientTechnologies.
Matchthemodernandancienttoolsthatmighthavebeenusedforthesame
tasks.
4
ArtifactDescriptions
1. Spokeshave(forstraighteningarrowshafts),
spokeshave/gravertool(forincisingbone)
2. Hidescraper1
3. Clovisspearpoint(13,000yearsold)
4. Dovetailspearpoint(9,000yearsold)
5. BifacemadeofCochranechert2
6. Fullygroovedaxehead1&4
7. Nuttingstoneforcrackingnuts
8. Charredhickorynuts
9. Stonedrill
10. Raddatzside-notchedpoint
(5,000yearsold)
11. Durstpoint(3,000yearsold)
12. Copperpointandrawcopper
13. MiddleWoodlandpotterysherds(rockerstamped[topleft],
dentatestamped[topright],cord-wrappedstickwithnodes
orbosses[bottom]
14. Mattingneedleformakingcattailandreedmats
15. Sheetcopperandrolledcopperbead
16. Waubesaspearpoint(2,500yearsold)
17. Snyderspearpoint(1,800yearsold)
18. Madisontriangulararrowhead(1,300yearsold)1
19. Stonedrill
20. HidescrapermadeofKnifeRiverFlintfromNorthDakota1
21. Silicifiedsandstonebifaceandstoneflakes
22. HixtonsilicifiedsandstoneMadisonTriangulararrowheads1
23. HidescrapermadeofHixtonsilicifiedsandstone1
24. Sandstonebarabraderforstraighteningarrowshafts
25. Stonecelt(ungroovedaxehead)
26. Oneotatool-trailedpottery(700yearsold)
27. Catlinite(pipestone)pipefragmentwithbirdtaildesign2
1
3
28. Catliniteprojectilepoint
29. Charredcornkernels
30. Copperbirdpendant2
31. Stonedrillbit
32. Historiccatlinitepipewithcross-hatcheddesign
33. Jesuitring(replica)recoveredfromPerrotStatePark
excavations(1700s)
34. Kaolinpipe
35. Metalfurtradeknife
36. Historictradebeads(reproductions,1700s-1800s)
37. Frenchgunflints
38. Furtradeera“voyageurcup”madeofwoodwithturtledesign
39. CatfishDaysbutton
40. PerrotStateParkwoodplaque
41. GreatRiverStateParkTrailpatch
42. Charredcorncob
43. StonehoemadeofMillCreekchertand
hoere-sharpeningflake
44. SquashseedsandMississippiRiverclamshell
45. Mississippianpotterysherds(blackburnishedorpolished
sherd[topleft]andred-slippedorpaintedsherds[bottomleft
andright]importedtoTrempealeaufromCahokia
46. MississippianknifemadeofHighRidgechertfromMissouri
47. Stone(lithic)coreandlargeflaketoolmadeofCrescentHills
BurlingtonchertfromMissouriandimportedtoTrempealeau
48. Shellbeadandstonemicro-drillsformakingshellbeads
49. FlakesofSte.Genevieve(“rootbeerchert”)andMillCreek
chertfromtheAmericanBottomimportedtoTrempealeau
50. AvarietyoffinelycraftedMississippianprojectilepoints[trinotchedvarietyontheleft]
51. Mississippianstonecelt(axe)foundnearTrempealeauHotel3
OnloanfromJohnEbersold
2OnloanfromToddLakey
OnloanfromKimGanz
4FoundbyEmeryMcDonah
5
Wisconsin
Archaeological
Timeline
ScavengerHunt
Objectives
Studentswilllearnabouttheprocessof
useanddisposalofobjects,whichisa
majorcomponentofwhat
archaeologistsstudy.Studentswill
reconstructaceramicpotteryvessel
usingsherds(small,brokenpiecesof
pottery)todemonstrate:
1. howsomepotscanbereconstructed
oncethey’vebeendiscoveredby
archaeologists;and
2. thatevensmallpiecesofobjectsare
significantandcantellusalotabout
thepast.
Studentswillidentifychangesinthe
lifestyles,diet,technology,andtools
thatpeopleusedovertime.Theywill
relateobjectsfromtheirlivestothoseof
theirpeersandthenmakecomparisons
withartifactsusedbyancientpeople.
Theywilldiscusshowcultural
differencesareoftenrelatedtodifferent
lifestyles.
Grades: K-4
Subject Areas: Science, Social Studies
Duration: three 45-minute class periods
Group Size: Part 2: 2-3 students
Settings: (1) classroom, (2) Shirley M.
Wright Memorial Library
Standards met: Science: D.4.2, E.4.7,
H.4.1; C.4.2, E.4.8, Social Studies: A.4.4,
B.4.1, B.4.4, E.4.2, E.4.7, E.4.13, Literacy:
RI.4.7, W.4.1a-d
Associated materials: Wisconsin
Archaeological Timeline worksheet, Ancient
Pottery example sheet, clipboards
Materials
Part1:paper,smallceramicflowerpots
foreachstudent(youcangetapackof3
for$1attheDollarStore),markersor
paint,anoldpillowcase,ahammer,scotch
tape.
Part2-3:Associatedworksheet,accessto
achalkorwhiteboardforextension
discussion,clipboardsorotherhard
surfacestowriteon.(optional)
Background
Archaeologistsstudythehumanpastby
discoveringobjectsleftbehindbypeople.
These“artifacts”(anythingmadeorused
byaperson)cantellusalotaboutthe
kindsofactivitiesthatpeopleengagedin,
andcaneventellusaboutthetimeofyear
asitewasoccupied.Formore
backgroundabouttheprocessof
archaeology,visitthislink
http://mvac.uwlax.edu/ProcessArch/on
theMississippiValleyArchaeology
Center’s(MVAC’s)website.
KeyTerms:
artifact:anartifactissomethingthat
wasmade,modified,orusedby
people.
feature:ahuman-mademarkonthe
landscapethatindicateswhere
thingslikeagarbagedump,
storagepit,housestain,or
fireplaceonceexisted.
archaeologist:ascientistwhostudies
thehumanpastbyexaminingthe
things(e.g.,artifacts,features)that
peopleleftbehindorthrewway.
culture:asetoflearnedbeliefs,
values,andbehaviors—awayof
life—sharedbymembersofa
society.
ceramics:pottery,firedclay.
Ceramicswereusedfordishes,as
1
hypothesis:aneducatedguessthatis
testablebyexperimentation.
temper:amaterialthatis
intentionallyaddedtoclaytomakeit
easiertosculpt.Addingtemperto
claypreventsapotfromexploding
duringthefiringprocessbecauseit
allowstheclaytoexpand.Common
tempersfoundinWisconsin
prehistoricpotteryincludecrushed
rock,sand,shell,and“grog”(broken
piecesofpotscrushedupandusedas
temperforotherpots.)
Procedure
Thisisathree-partactivityconsistingofa
1. preliminaryactivitytobe
completedintheclassroom.
2. secondarypartthatwilltakeplace
attheShirleyM.WrightMemorial
Libraryexhibitspace.
3. finalextensiontobeperformed
afteryouarebackinthe
classroom.
PART1
Fortheinitialpartoftheactivity,students
willindividuallydecorateflowerpots
usingmarkersorpaint,smashthem,and
thentrytoputthembacktogether.This
partoftheactivityisintendedtohelpthe
studentsrealizethatpotsherdsarepieces
ofalargerpotteryvessel,andwillprovide
somecontextforthestudentstobetter
understandtheartifactsinthelibrary
displaycaseandforwhatpurpose(s)they
mayhavebeenused.
Introducetheactivitybyshowing
picturesofancientpottery.Askthe
studentswhy(forwhatpurposes)people
mighthaveusedthepots.Showpictures
ofmodernpotsandpans,dishwareand
tupperwareandexplainthatancient
peopleusedpotsinthesamewayweuse
thesemoderncontainerstoday.
Tostarttheactivity,giveeachstudenta
small(2”)flowerpotandapieceofpaper.
1. Askthemwhowillusetheirpot:a
family,apublicfiguresuchasa
mayororacelebrity?
2. Askhowtheywilldecoratetheir
pot:withsymbolsthathavemeaning
tothemortoothers,orwith
geometricdesigns?
Tellthemtosketchtheirchosendesignon
paper.Aftertheyhavesketchedtheir
design,letyourstudentsdecoratetheir
ownflowerpotinanywaytheywouldlike
withmarkersorpaint.
Whenthepotsarecompletedanddry,
haveeachstudentbringyoutheirpot.
Placethepotinapillowcaseandgently
tapwithahammertobreakinto5-10
pieces.Givethebrokenpiecesbacktothe
student.Tellthestudentstoimaginethat
1,000yearshavepassedandthattheyare
archaeologistsdiggingthesitewhere
thesepotsherdsarefound.Askthemif
theythinktheycouldputthepotback
togetherfromitspieces.Givethemsome
scotchtapeandletthemgiveitatry.
Instructthemtotapebothsidesofthe
pot,ontheinsideandoutside,sothatit
staystogether.
After10minutesorhowevermuchtime
youfeelisappropriateforyourgroup,
havethestudentspausefordiscussion.
Asktheirthoughtsabouttheactivity.
Wasithardoreasy?Woulditbeeasieror
moredifficulttoputthepottogetherif
someofthepiecesweremissing?How
aboutifpiecesoftheirpotandtheir
neighbor’spotweremixedtogether?
Wouldthatmakeitmoredifficultto
figureoutwhichpiecesgowithwhich
pot?Whatcluesmighthelpyoutoknow
theshapeofthepotifyouonlyhadone
piece?Explainthatarchaeologistsrarely
findcompletepotsandoftenonlyfinda
fewpiecesofit.
2
PART2
Beginwithapreliminarydiscussionto
introducethemeaningoftheterm
“artifacts”andtheirsignificancefor
archaeologicalresearch.Thiscouldeven
bedoneonthewaytothelibrary.Ask
studentstonameobjectsortoolstheyuse
everyday.Giveanexplanationof
artifactsasobjectsthatareleftbehindby
people-thingsthathumansmade,
modifiedorused-themaincluesthat
archaeologistsunearthtolearnabout
howancientpeoplelived.
OnceattheShirleyM.WrightMemorial
Library,orientthestudentstothedisplay
caseandexplainthatthetoolsandpieces
ofpotteryinthetimelinesectionofthe
exhibit(topshelf)wereusedbypeople
thatlivedinTrempealeauandotherareas
ofWisconsinthousandsofyearsago.
Distributetheworksheetsandclipboards
andinstructthestudentstosplitinto
groupsof2or3.Givethemabout15
minutestoworkwiththeirpartner(s)to
choose2cultureperiodsections
(PaleoIndian,Archaic,Woodland,
Mississippian,OneotaorHistoricContact)
ofthetimelineandwriteordrawartifacts
fromthecaseorimagesfromthe
illustrationfortwoofthecategorieson
theworksheet.Withtheirpartner(s),
havethestudentsanswerthequestionsin
the“Discuss”sectionoftheworksheet.
Afterabout15minutes,orhoweverlong
youfeelisappropriateforyourclass,go
overthequestionsinthe“Discuss”
section.Weretheredifferencesbetween
theartifactsinthetwoperiodsthateach
studentchose?Whathypothesesdidthe
studentsformulateforwhyartifacts
mighthavechangedovertime?
Givethestudents5-7moreminutesto
completethe“Thinkaboutit”sectionwith
theirpartner(s).Thendiscussthe
questionsasaclass.Explainthatcultural
differencessuchasethnicity,
neighborhood,family,likesanddislikes
canshapeaperson’sidentityandimpact
choicespeoplemake(forexamplewhat
foodstoeat,whattoolsyouuse,etc.).
Thisgroupdiscussioncouldtakeplaceon
thewaybacktotheclassroom.
PART3:
Whenyouhavereturnedtothe
classroom,perhapseventhenextday,
makeatimelineonthewhiteboardor
chalkboardwithacolumnheadingfor
eachsectionofthetimelineintheexhibit
(PaleoIndian,Archaic,Woodland,
Mississippian,Oneota,Contactand
Today)androwslabeledwiththe
“Activities”ontheworksheet.Havethe
studentstakeouttheirsheetsandwrite
theiranswersfromtheirownpaperson
theboardforthecultureperiodsthey
chosefromthetimeline.Contributeideas
asaclasstothe“Today”sectionbasedon
theanswersthatthestudentprovidedin
the“ThinkAboutIt”worksheetsection.
Discussthechangesovertimeasaclass:
materialtype,style,foodsources,
technologiesetc.Thinkaboutwhythese
changesmighthaveoccurred(i.e:
availabilityofnewmaterials,changein
climate,inventionsofnewtechnologies,
changesinlifestyle,theshiftfromlifeon
themove[nomadichunter-gatherers]to
lifeinvillagesandlatercities[settled
cultivatorsoragriculturists]).Givean
exampleofchangesthathavehappened
inrecentyears,likeDVDsreplacingVHS
tapes,orsmartphonesreplacingflip
phonesorlandlines.
3
WisconsinArchaeologicalTimelineScavengerHunt:
Name:__________________________________________________
Standinfrontofthedisplaycaseinthelibrary.Lookattheillustrationandobjectsinthetimeline(onthe
topshelf).Choosetwotimeperiodsfromthetimeline.Writeintheculturename(ie:PaleoIndian,Archaic,
Woodland,Mississippian,Oneota,Contact)anddate,andrecordthediet,toolsandmaterialsthatwere
usedbypeoplefromthoseperiodsinthetablebelow.
Writeeach
culturenameto
theright
Whatdidthey
eat?
Whattoolsdid
theyuse(for
exampleto
hunt)?
Whatmaterials
didtheyuseto
maketools?
Arethereany
newinventions
ortechnologies
inthisperiod?
4
Discuss:
Comparethedifferencesinartifactsthatyourecorded.Didtheobjectschangethroughtime?Inwhatways?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Whydoyouthinktheobjectspeopleusedmighthavechangedthroughtime?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Thinkaboutit:
Insomewaysancientpeoplewerejustlikeyou!Theycooked,ate,storedfood,andworeclothing.Share
someoftheobjectsortoolsyouuseinyourlifetodothefollowingtasks:
Whatdoyou
Whatnew
eat?
technologies
doyouusein
yourdaily
life?
Whattoolsdo Fromwhat
youuse?
materials
arethese
toolsmade?
of?
Discusswithapartnertheobjectsyouchosefortheseactivities.Comparetheobjectsyouchosetoyour
partner’s.Aretheyallthesame?_______________________________________________________________________________________
Peoplefromdifferentplaces,cultures,andbackgroundsoftenusedifferenttoolstodothesametypesof
activities.Whataresomereasonsthethingsyouusemightbedifferentfromotherstudents?____________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
5
AncientPotteryExampleSheet:ancientcookingpots,dishes,tupperware
Rimofsmalljarwithpunctates(punched
holes)
Redseedjarthatisshell-tempered(the
clayismixedwithbrokenshells)
Apieceofared-slippedbowl.Redslipisa
distinctivesignofMississippianculture.
FrenchFork-Incisedbodysherd,madein
LouisianaorMississippiandcarriedto
Trempealeauwhereitwasfound.
Rimofacookingvessel.Theoutsidehasa
darkcolorbecauseitwasplacedinafire
forcooking.
Red-slippedfineware.Finewarewas
well-madepotteryandprobablyusedfor
specialoccasionsinthewayweuse“fine
china”forThanksgivingorChristmas.
6
All photos courtesy of the Trempealeau Archaeology and Mississippian Initiative Projects.
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