Energy efficiency guide for religious buildings

Energy efficiency guide for religious buildings
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
Energy Efficiency
Guide for
Religious Buildings
* Manitoba Hydro is a licensee of the Trademark and Official Mark.
DISCLAIMER
The information contained in this pamphlet is published as a convenient reference
for Manitoba Hydro’s customers and is distributed without charge.
While every effort has been made to provide accurate and complete information,
Manitoba Hydro does not warrant the accuracy or efficacy of this information.
Manitoba Hydro will not be liable for any loss, costs, damage,
or injury whatsoever, resulting from the use of this material.
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Energy Efficiency Guide for Religious Buildings
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R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
HIGHLIGHTS
Energy audits of religious buildings show that 80 to
85 per cent of the energy used in a church is for heating
and ventilation. Operators of religious buildings can take
advantage of that finding to reduce their operating costs
by making sure their heating and ventilating equipment is
working as efficiently as possible, and by reducing heat loss
from their facilities.
Car plugs: 0.2%
Air conditioning: 0.7%
Cooking: 1.7%
Motors: 2.7%
Hot water: 2.7%
Misc.equipment: 3.2%
Lighting: 4.2%
The four most cost-effective approaches to reducing heat
loss are as basic as they are effective:
Ventilation: 7.8%
• weatherstripping and caulking around windows
Heating: 76.8%
• weatherstripping around doors
• insulating accessible attics and uninsulated,
unfinished walls
Energy use in
religious buildings
• installing setback thermostats that automatically reduce
heating and cooling only when areas are unoccupied.
These and other low or no-cost measures are discussed to
give operators of religious buildings a range of options they
can apply to reduce their energy bills while adding comfort
and attractiveness to their facility.
The section on lighting covers energy efficient lighting
that can add to the attractiveness of your facility and reap
modest energy savings in cases where you keep the lights
on from 35 to 40 hours a week.
Roofs, walls, cladding, and other parts of the building
envelope are also described in detail, to explain where to
seal, how much insulation is enough, the importance of
vapour barriers, and the energy efficiency of various wall
types, in case renovations or additions are in the works.
To help operators identify the most practical and costeffective measures for their facility, we have included
a section on performing a simple energy evaluation.
Fourteen detailed forms are provided, ready to be filled
in during a “walk-through” energy evaluation. This do-ityourself evaluation can help you identify the most practical
and cost-effective measures for improving the energy
efficiency of your facility. It can often make a more detailed
and expensive energy audit unnecessary.
The section on heating systems describes electric and
natural gas furnaces, steam boilers and hot water boilers,
and other systems typical of religious buildings. The section
includes technical details and checklists to help provide an
understanding of the operation of these systems and a
basis for ensuring their proper maintenance for maximum
efficiency. A well-maintained heating system saves energy
and money.
Heat pumps are also covered, since they are receiving
considerable attention as one of the most comfortable,
energy efficient, and environmentally friendly heating and
cooling systems available. Given the high initial cost of heat
pumps, and potential difficulties associated with installing
the required underground piping in confined urban or rocky
locations, operators are cautioned that heat pumps may
not be economically feasible even when they could replace
an existing heating system that has reached the end of its
useful life.
Energy Efficiency Guide for Religious Buildings
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Manitoba Hydro, as part of its Religious Buildings Initiative,
helps religious facilities improve their energy efficiency with
a fixed-rate loan that can be paid off conveniently on the
facility’s energy bill.
The loan can be used to apply Power Smart* technologies,
such as installing energy efficient windows and adding
insulation to above grade walls and attics or roofs, installing
car plug controllers, replacing standard lighting with energy
efficient lighting, and upgrading heating equipment to
high efficient units. More information on the loan and
Power Smart programs is provided in the appendices or
visit our website at hydro.mb.ca.
*Manitoba Hydro is a licensee of the Trademark and Official Mark.
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
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R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
Table of Contents
Energy Efficiency
Guide for
Religious Buildings
HIGHLIGHTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
SIMPLE LOW-COST WAYS
TO REDUCE ENERGY USE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Reduce operating time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Natural gas pilots in summer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Ventilation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Heating systems in summer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Car plugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Reduce operating temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Refrigerators and freezers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Heating systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Ventilation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Reduce operating losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Drafts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Insulation for walls and attics and
heating equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Appliances/equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
General water conservation priorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Fixtures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Toilets and urinals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Faucets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
How to determine the flow rate of faucets
and showers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Landscaping – best management practices. . . . . . . 11
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BUILDING ENVELOPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Air barrier systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials to use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mistakes to avoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How much is enough?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cladding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vapour barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moisture problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deterioration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How moisture accumulates in buildings . . . . . . . .
Handling moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wall types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Studs and drywall or plywood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precast concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Masonry – reinforced membranes . . . . . . . . . . . .
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HEATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General furnace maintenance tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural gas/propane – standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural gas/propane –mid-efficiency . . . . . . . . . .
Natural gas/propane –high-efficiency . . . . . . . . .
Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rooftop packaged units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basics of heat pump operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
Boiler systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steam boilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steam traps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steam or water hammer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot water boilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Building heating system replacement
requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Natural ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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LIGHTING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Incandescent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T8 fluorescent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal halide – probe-start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal halide – pulse-start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High pressure sodium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low pressure sodium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lighting ballasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving with parking lot controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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ENERGY AUDITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Types of audits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Do you need an audit to save energy?. . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conducting your own simple
walk-through evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseload calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Develop an energy efficiency plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy action plan ideas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heating effects of electrical equipment. . . . . . . . . . .
Heating effects of indoor lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lighting retrofit takes into account
interactive effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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APPENDICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Forms for performing a “walk-through”
energy evaluation of your religious facility . . . . .
1. General information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Electrical worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Natural gas/propane worksheet . . . . . . . . . .
4. Bulk fuel worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Envelope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Water system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Heating, ventilating & air conditioning
(HVAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. HVAC—temperature set back. . . . . . . . . . . .
10.HVAC—controls/fans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Office machines & equipment . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Appliances & equipment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. Miscellaneous equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.Landscaping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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B. Power Smart Illustrated Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
C. Manitoba Hydro’s Religious Building
Audit Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
D. Power Smart Programs for
Religious Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
E. Case study: Heat pumps prove feasible for
Calvary Baptist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
F. Improving the efficiency of a heating system. . . 56
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5
SIMPLE LOW-COST WAYS
TO REDUCE ENERGY USE
Here are nearly 100 tips on improving the energy
efficiency of your religious facility using low-cost or nocost approaches. Most of them are based on the three
R's: reducing operating time, reducing temperature, and
reducing operating losses.
Included is a special section on water conservation, since
unnecessary water use literally means pouring money down
the drain.
Occupancy
sensor. This
model senses
heat and motion
to sense an
occupant and
avoid turning
off lights at the
wrong time.
Reduce operating time
Usually the easiest way to reduce the operating time of any
device is to turn it off when it isn’t required.
Lights
Lower cost measures:
• Always turn off lights in storerooms and utility rooms
when you leave the room. Put up signs advising others
to do the same.
• Put up signs to encourage the last person to leave
washrooms and meeting rooms to turn off the lights.
• In rooms that are seldom used but always have lights
on, put up signs advising everyone to turn off the lights.
Another option is to install an occupancy sensor.
Higher cost measures:
• Install occupancy sensors that turn the lights off
when the room is unoccupied. But note that the
less expensive sensors, especially the ones that replace
light switches, may not be able to “see” the occupant
all the time and could turn off the lights at the wrong
time. Some occupancy sensors use heat and motion
to sense an occupant, but these are more expensive
and must be installed by an electrician. Power Smart
incentives are available for occupancy sensors.
Contact Manitoba Hydro for details, or visit our website
at hydro.mb.ca.
• Turn off exterior lights during the day. Control them with
a timer, a photocell switch, or a motion sensor.
6
• Where the lights in a room are controlled by a
breaker panel, consider installing a local light switch or
occupancy sensor. A less expensive alternative is to label
and colour-code all circuit breakers so everyone knows
which breakers control which lights.
Natural gas pilots in summer
Lower cost measures:
• If the furnace or boiler has a standing natural gas pilot,
turn it off in the spring when the heating season ends.
Natural gas pilots use as much as $5 to $10 worth of
gas a month.
• If there is a hot water tank that is not used during the
summer, turn it off and drain the tank.
These measures save money if there is someone in the
congregation who is willing to turn the pilot lights off and
re-light them again. If you have to call in a tradesperson to
relight the pilots, it may not be worthwhile, depending on
how many furnaces or boilers you have.
Ventilation systems
Lower cost measures:
• Ensure that washroom, gym, and kitchen exhaust fans
are turned off by the last person leaving the room. Turn
off general exhaust and supply fans in the late evenings
or during the day when they are not required.
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• In winter, de-stratification or ceiling fans should run all
the time on low. In summer they should be turned up
to medium or high to provide cooling, but only when the
room is occupied.
Higher cost measures:
• Exhaust fans in high humidity areas, such as showers,
can be controlled with a dehumidistat so they come on
only to reduce the humidity, then turn off. To ensure
fans are turned off when not required, connect them:
– in tandem with light switches
– to illuminated local manual switches
– to manual spring-wound or automatic timers
– to occupancy sensors or time clocks.
Reduce operating temperature
Refrigerators and freezers
Lower cost measures:
• The ideal temperature for refrigerators is 3˚C (37˚F).
If the temperature is lower, turn it up.
• The ideal temperature for a freezer is -18˚C (0˚F).
If the temperature is lower, turn it up.
• Keep freezers full. It is easier to keep a full freezer
at the correct temperature than a partially empty one.
Fill ice cream pails with water and keep them in a freezer
that is usually less than half full.
• Keep coils at the back clean.
Heating systems in summer
Lower cost measures:
• Turn off boilers and furnaces in spring and leave them
off until fall when the heating season starts.
• Turn off circulating pumps when not required.
• Turn off electric baseboards at the breaker when
not required.
• Turn off unit ventilators and vestibule heaters when not
required, to avoid overheating these areas.
Car plugs
Lower cost measures:
• Turn off car plug breaker(s) in the evening when staff
are leaving. Do not turn them back on until three
to four hours before staff go home the next day.
Note that a block heater reaches maximum heat in
three to four hours.
Higher cost measures:
• Cycle car plugs on and off during normal operating
hours.
• Ensure refrigerators and freezers are pulled away from
the wall so air can easily flow around the coils.
Heating systems
Lower cost measures:
• Manually turn the thermostat back or install an
automatic setback thermostat. Set back the temperature
to 16˚C (60˚F) or lower, if possible, in all areas during
unoccupied hours. The set back depends on the outside
temperature and how long it takes to bring the area back
to normal temperature. The furnace may not be able to
reheat the building in a reasonable amount of time if
the temperature is set too low. If it takes a long time to
reheat the building, use 16˚C (60˚F) and start heating
earlier. Setback thermostats can save at least one per
cent of the heating bill for every 1˚C the temperature
is lowered for an eight-hour period. Lowering the
temperature from 21˚C to 16˚C (70˚F to 60˚F)
overnight can save at least five per cent.
• Install an automatic timer with temperature controls.
Power Smart incentives are available for automatic
timers. Contact Manitoba Hydro for details, or visit
our website at hydro.mb.ca.
Programmable thermostat
for automatically setting
back temperature
• Install a flip flop timer that powers one or a group of
receptacles for, say, 15 minutes on and 15 minutes off.
CAUTION: This reduces block heater capacity by
50 per cent and can cause starting problems.
• Install a regular timer and have the car plugs come
on for only three to four hours a day.
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• In heating systems with circulating pumps, install a timer
or thermostat to shut off circulating pumps when not
required. Sometimes there are two circulating pumps
that run at the same time. Normally the second pump
was installed as a backup, but if a pump is not used
regularly it can seize up. The easiest way to ensure that
both pumps will work is to run both all the time, but this
is not the most energy efficient solution as both pumps
may run only partially loaded and therefore inefficiently.
Only one pump should run at any time. Either switch
the pumps manually on a daily basis or install a timer and
a relay to operate one pump for a day and then switch
to the other pump for a day. This ensures that both
pumps will be available, but only one pump is being used.
Both pumps may be needed on very cold days. Confirm
operation with a heating expert first.
• Ensure furnace and fan filters are kept clean.
• Ensure cooling coils and any reheat coils are also kept
clean. A clogged coil will reduce airflow and decrease
the effectiveness of the furnace.
Ventilation systems
The following measures, which apply to central air handling
systems and air conditioners, may require professional help
to ensure that you are maintaining adequate ventilation:
• Increase mixed air temperatures to reduce the volume
of outside air. Mixed air temperatures are normally set
at 13˚C (55˚F), but in some cases can be set as high as
16˚C to 18˚C (60˚F to 65˚F) without causing problems.
Reduce operating losses
Making energy efficient changes to the doors, windows,
and walls of a building can be expensive, particularly if you
have to hire someone to do the work.
To be certain that the energy saving measures will
be cost effective, conduct a detailed energy audit.
A detailed audit will give you a better idea of the actual
energy savings possible, and you will have a better idea
whether the costs justify the expense.
Drafts
Lower cost measures:
• Caulk and seal around doors and windows
– if you can see daylight
– if you can feel a draft
– if weather stripping is worn or missing.
• Prevent drafts from electrical outlets in exterior walls
by installing foam seals and plastic plugs.
Higher cost measures:
• Add a second pane of glass or plastic to the inside of all
single pane windows, particularly stained glass windows.
Ensure the glazing is well sealed. To protect stained glass
windows from vandalism, add a sheet of lexan to the
outside. Ensure that the window is well sealed on the
inside, to prevent condensation from forming as warm
moist air leaks from the interior.
• Block, insulate, and seal windows that are not required
for light or ventilation.
• Reduce discharge temperatures if there are preheat or
reheat coils. This may be useful if some areas tend to get
overheated. Reduce the discharge temperature to the
lowest possible to keep all heated areas comfortable.
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Energy Efficiency Guide for Religious Buildings
Running a continuous bead
of clear or paintable caulking
along the gap between window
trim and wall, trim and window
frame, and trim mitre joints.
Detailed instructions for
reducing air leakage by sealing,
caulking, and weatherstripping
are discussed in Power Smart
Guide No. 1. See Appendix B.
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Lights
Lower cost measures:
• Use lower wattage lamps if a lower light level is
acceptable.
Higher cost measures:
• Install energy efficient lamps and ballasts if lamps are
on for 40 hours or more per week.
• Replace regular T12 fluorescent lamps with T8
fluorescent lamps and electronic ballasts.
• Replace incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent
fixtures.
• Replace incandescent exit signs with LED exit signs.
Power Smart incentives are available for new LED exit
signs. Contact Manitoba Hydro for details, or visit our
website at hydro.mb.ca.
Exit sign illuminated by an
LED lamp. LEDs reduce
energy consumption
by roughly 90 per cent
over incandescent bulbs
and have a life of about
10 years, for reduced
maintenance. For details
contact Manitoba Hydro,
or visit our website at
hydro.mb.ca.
Adding insulation to
an accessible attic. The
second layer of fibre glass
batts are positioned at
right angles to the first
layer. Detailed instructions
on insulating attics are
presented in Power Smart
Illustrated Guide No. 3,
shown in Appendix B.
Insulation for walls and attics and heating equipment
Lower cost measures:
• Insulate accessible attics.
• Insulate uninsulated/unfinished walls.
• Insulate basements and crawlspaces.
• Insulate hot water pipes.
• Insulate hot water tanks.
• Insulate steam and hot water heating pipes.
• Insulate condensate return tanks in steam-heating
systems.
• Ensure dampers close tightly when fans are off
(repair as required) or insulate and seal the dampers
of unused exhaust fans.
Higher cost measures:
• Insulate finished walls
• Replace windows
• Replace doors.
Power Smart incentives are available for insulating attics,
roofs, above grade walls and upgrading windows.
Contact Manitoba Hydro for details, or visit our website
at www.hydro.mb.ca.
Appliances/equipment
When replacing or buying new appliances or equipment
purchase units with high EnerGuide ratings or
ENERGY STAR® labelling:
• refrigerators and freezers
• hot water tanks
• furnaces and boilers
•motors
• lamp fixtures
• office and computer equipment.
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Installing a water-saving
aerator on a faucet.
The device saves water
that would otherwise be
wasted when faucets are
left running while rinsing
vegetables or washing
hands. For more details,
see Power Smart Guide
No. 7, described in
Appendix B.
General water conservation priorities
Leaks
• Fix leaks. Schedule regular checks of all toilets and
other water-using devices. Scheduled maintenance of
fixtures is usually the most cost-effective method of
reducing water bills, as well as saving water heating costs.
As an added benefit, scheduled maintenance checks
may reveal other problems, reducing the chance of
disruptions or emergency maintenance incidents.
Fixtures
• As old fixtures need replacement, install fixtures that are
cost-effective and both water- and energy-efficient.
• Retrofit existing fixtures.
• Install flow control devices on faucets.
• Install early closure devices for flappers on toilets.
• Replace existing fixtures/appliances.
Toilets and urinals
• Reduce water use of toilets by installing toilet retrofit
devices. You may want to experiment with various
devices, such as early closure devices for flappers, using
identical toilets, to determine which will result in the
most reasonable investment. Consider water saved, ease
of installation, incidence of multiple flushing, cost, and
water saved per flush. Various retrofit devices may work
better in certain brands of toilets than in others. Payback
often occurs within one year.
• Target toilets in high traffic areas for replacement with
Ultra Low Flow toilets (six litres per flush). If it is not
obvious which toilets have the highest usage, install
count mechanisms.
• A slow leak can waste about 50 000 litres of water
per year. If hot water is leaking, repairing the leak will
also reduce energy costs. Leaking faucets can result in
stained wash basins and higher cleaning costs.
• Fix toilet leaks. To check for a toilet leak, put a non‑toxic
and non-staining dye in the toilet tank. Wait fifteen
minutes. If the dye seeps into the toilet bowl
(no flushing), you have a toilet leak. The most common
cause is a flapper that needs to be replaced.
• A toilet that continues to run after flushing can waste
up to 200 000 litres of water in a single year! At $2.16
for 1000 litres, the yearly water cost of a single toilet
leak could exceed $400.
• Determine flow rate of toilets in litres per flush. This is
sometimes noted between the seat attachments and the
tank; or note make, model, and year of manufacture. If
toilet was made before 1985, it uses more than 13 litres
Consider replacing toilets in high traffic areas with ultra low-flush toilets
to conserve water.
20 litres
10
13 litres
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per flush; significantly older toilets can use 20, 25,
or more litres per flush. Modern low-flow toilets use
six to 13.5 litres per flush.
Faucets
• Bathroom faucets are normally set to eight litres
per minute. Flow control devices can reduce this
to less than 3.5 litres per minute.
Flow control devices should be installed on faucets
with excessively high flows to reduce splashing, water
waste, and hot water energy costs. However, taps in
the janitor’s rooms or in the kitchen for filling pots
or pre-rinsing dishes should be left at full flow.
Note: Low flow aerators may not fit on all faucets.
• When replacing faucets, consider newer
technologies. Options that should be considered,
depending on the type of use and amount of use
of the faucet, are as follows: metering faucets that
deliver a measured quantity of water, self-closing
faucets that close as soon as the user releases the
knob, and automatic sensor-controlled faucets.
Some faucets are manufactured to limit the
maximum flow rate without using an aerator.
When considering payback for reducing water flow
at faucets and showers, water-heating costs may add
substantially to predicted savings.
How to determine the flow rate
of faucets and showers
Landscaping – best management
practices
• Reduce or eliminate lawns that are not used.
• Substitute junipers or other ground cover plants
that require minimal water and maintenance once
established.
• Use a 3-inch to 4-inch layer of mulch to cover bare
soil around groundcovers, trees, and shrubs to reduce
weeds and evaporation. Common mulch materials
are wood chips, straw, plastic, peat moss, dried grass
clippings, and bark.
• Use rain barrels with childproof lids to catch water
for landscaping needs.
• Mow regularly, but leave grass 2 1/2 inches to
three inches high.
• Do not over-fertilize or over-prune.
• Monitor for and fix leaks and broken sprinkler heads.
• Ensure your irrigation system is efficient. Rates of water
flow should be appropriate for each area.
• Control the application of water with moisture sensors
or timers.
• If possible, irrigate in the early morning to reduce
evaporation caused by heat and wind.
• Consider the use of a drip irrigation system rather
than sprinklers.
• Be sure hoses have shut-off nozzles.
1. Make a measuring pail. Use a 0.25-litre (1-cup)
measure to fill a 4-litre ice cream pail.
2. Mark the water level with a waterproof felt pen
every 500 ml (1/2 litre).
3. Run the faucet or shower at reasonable rate.
Fill the pail for 10 seconds.
4. Estimate, using the pen markings, how much
water filled the pail during that time.
5. Multiply the number of litres from Step 4 by six
to calculate the flow rate in litres per minute.
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BUILDING ENVELOPE
Energy needed to heat and cool buildings depends on
two major factors. The first is the building envelope –
roof, walls, windows and doors, and floor of the building.
The second is the building’s mechanical and electrical
equipment which provides the proper indoor environment.
This section explains how the building envelope affects
energy consumption.
The building envelope is what separates you from the wind
and the weather outside. Each part of the building envelope
has at least four basic systems. These are the systems that
can be improved to reduce energy consumption.
The four basic systems are as follows:
• air barrier
•insulation
Air barrier systems
Uncontrolled air leakage through the building envelope is
typically responsible for up to a third, or even more, of the
total heat loss of smaller buildings such as detached houses.
Air leakage out of the building is called exfiltration and
air leakage into the building is called infiltration, but the
common term to describe both is simply air leakage.
Air leakage can affect moisture accumulation in the walls
and ceiling, and temperature control inside the building,
as well as energy consumption.
Your building has an air barrier system to reduce
uncontrolled air leakage. Because heat loss due to air
leakage is a high percentage of your energy dollars, you
should retrofit and maintain what you can of your air barrier
system before tackling anything else.
• cladding and the waterproofing for roofs
• vapour barrier.
In many religious buildings it can be difficult or expensive
to make improvements to the air barrier or insulation
particularly if you have to remove the interior finish or open
an exterior wall to do it. But if you have a bare concrete or
poorly-insulated concrete block wall, adding insulation and
a new interior finish can be cost effective and reduce energy
consumption.
You should deal mainly with the first three systems to
reduce energy consumption, although you will probably
find it is easy to incorporate a vapour barrier, as we point
out later in this section.
It is especially important to control air leakage because it
affects the performance of the building in many different
ways. For example, if you install extra insulation without first
stopping all air leaks, you will probably start or increase a
problem of moisture accumulation in the walls and ceiling.
Adding insulation to a poorly insulated attic is usually
cost effective, but adding insulation to a flat roof should
be considered only when it is time to replace or rebuild
the roof.
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Materials to use
Strictly speaking, an “air barrier” is not something you
can buy from a store and apply to a building. You have to
build up an air barrier system during the construction or
renovation of a building.
Many different materials in a building can be converted
to become part of the air barrier system, as long as the
materials are reasonably impermeable to air leakage, such
as drywall, plywood, concrete, and many common
construction materials,
Leaks can be sealed with tape, caulking, or gaskets, as for
instance, gaskets around electrical switches and outlets.
You can now buy many different types of caulking which
are suitable for a variety of purposes and types of building
materials. Remember to ask if the caulking will set up like
rubber or a compressible gasket. You don’t want to have the
caulking still “liquid” when it is supposed to stay in place for
a long time.
Materials like acoustic sealants are NOT good for this
purpose because they don’t set up and are very messy.
Materials like mono, silicones, polysulphide, and urethanes
are better suited. For large holes and gaps, consider using
a plasticene-like electrical putty compound called “duct seal”
available from electrical wholesalers.
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Another question that should be asked is how well the
caulking stands up to cold and moisture. Do not use
caulking that will quickly become brittle and crack or shrink,
as it will lose its effectiveness. Make sure to use non-toxic
sealants in sensitive areas such as kitchens.
• should be in contact with, or sandwiched
between, solid materials on both faces to
prevent movement and possible tearing.
Being located between drywall or sheathings and
insulating batts or sheets may not supply adequate
protection and support
Where to seal
• must have the same life expectancy as the building,
or else you have to be able to repair it.
Leaks occur at joints between components, cracks in
materials, and openings such as those for electrical boxes.
When you find an air leak in a wall or ceiling you will
probably find there are several layers of construction.
At best only one of them will be damaged. This is the layer
where you will have to seal the leak. If you seal the wrong
layer of construction you won’t stop air leakage but only
direct it through some other crack or opening.
For example, if you find a leak at an electrical box in a
building that was sealed using polyethylene, it may not do
you any good to seal the drywall. Air will still leak through
the poly and past another crack through the drywall, at
the floor for instance. For some penetrations, the fixture
penetrating the wall or ceiling may move in relation to the
wall, creating an opening through which air can leak.
To fix a leak, the first thing to do is to figure out where the
leak is best sealed. What else makes up the air barrier?
What should you use to build up the air barrier?
Leakage through a building is affected by the wind and can
also be caused by the stack effect. In the stack effect, air is
drawn into the bottom half of a building through leaks in
the structure to replace air leaving through the upper half.
Unlike leaks caused by the wind, the stack effect causes
slow, steady leaks.
It may be possible to convert the building’s interior finish
to an air barrier, which can easily be caulked and repaired.
Pay special attention to the details of the building, such as
corners and joints with the ceiling and floor or partitions,
to make sure there are no leaks.
No matter what type of air barrier system you use,
consider the following four important points before you
start. The air barrier:
• should be continuous throughout the whole building
• must be fastened to the structure so that it can resist
high wind loads. Deflection of the poly between the
studs must be kept to a minimum to avoid tearing
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Mistakes to avoid
In recent years people have focused on “sealing the vapour
barrier” when they really meant “stopping all air leaks.”
This has worked for many cases, particularly wood frame
buildings, but there are many situations where the vapour
barrier has not remained sealed. The vapour barrier (or to
give it its proper name, the vapour retarder), may not be the
best material to seal. It may not be strong enough to remain
sealed after a prairie wind storm, or it may not be possible
to seal it around structural braces or metal ties in metal
buildings.
Polyethylene, a common vapour barrier, can be used in
wood frame buildings where it can be stapled and held
between the interior wall board and the insulation and studs.
For other types of construction it is best to use materials
such as wallboard, plywood, metal liner panels, or reinforced
membranes to serve as your vapour barrier. There are now
special membranes such as PermaBarrier by Grace, TFM
by Tremco, and other manufacturer’s products which can
be used to make an air barrier system for many types of
buildings.
Insulation
Insulation is installed to control “heat conduction” through
the building envelope. It is rated according to its resistance
to conduction. This is commonly called its R-value (RSI in
metric units).
If two different types of insulation have the same R‑value,
they will control heat conduction to the same extent. There
may be differences in the requirements for installation or
protection. One type of insulation may be more susceptible
to moisture or some other hazard. But there will be no
difference in thermal performance if each is installed and
protected according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Other factors such as durability and cost should be used to
determine preferences for insulation purchases.
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Cost of heat loss
R-value of insulation
An example to show the economics of adding more insulation
How much is enough?
The higher the R-value, the lower the heat loss. This
has important implications when determining how much
insulation is sufficient in a building.
All types of insulation must be carefully cut and closely
fitted around protrusions, like electrical boxes or structural
supports. Insulation should always be placed tight against
the air barrier system, as outlined in the previous section.
Suppose a wall has been built with an insulation level of
R-10 (see chart). You can reduce heat loss by 50 per cent
by adding an additional R-10, for a total of R-20. Upgrading
the insulation from R-20 to R-30 reduces heat loss by
another 16.7 per cent; from R-30 to R-40 by another
8.3 per cent and from R-40 to R-50 by another five
per cent. Each addition of insulation costs the same
(disregarding the extra space that would likely be required
to accommodate the additional insulation) but clearly the
value of each addition is not the same. Some judgment or
calculation has to be made to get the most economic level
of insulation.
Installation
Insulation must be held in place in walls and ceilings
so that it is not blown out by the wind or shifted if the
polyethylene billows.
If you are using fibreglass or other types of batt insulation,
be careful not to compress the batts too much. If this
happens, you allow air to circulate in the wall or ceiling
cavity and short-circuit the insulation.
14
Mistakes sometimes made when installing insulation. Circled
areas are locations where batts are often compressed, leaving
gaps that short-circuit the effectiveness of the insulation.
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Cladding
The cladding of the building protects interior elements from
weathering and exposure to sun and rain. Normally this
requires protection against wind gusts, sometimes with
a type of building paper.
The cladding itself need not be sealed. In fact it is best to
leave it unsealed so that any water or moisture trapped
inside the wall can be drained or vented to the exterior.
This is exactly what happens with hardboard, vinyl, or metal
siding. Some cladding systems, like brick or stucco, have
weep holes purposely drilled through the exterior to allow
moisture to drain. These must not be sealed.
Roofing
Many roofing systems actually shed water, while some can
be described technically as waterproofing. Whatever the
system, water should always be directed down and away
from the building.
Shingles are typically used on pitched roofs and membrane
systems are commonly used on flat roofs, but strictly
speaking, you should not allow a roof to be built totally flat.
The more slope, the less chance there is for ponding of
water on the roof which can eventually lead to leaks and
further damage.
Membrane systems installed in the conventional manner,
over the top of the insulation, are subject to deterioration
due to traffic, extremes of temperature, and solar radiation.
If you have a membrane system, generally referred to as
a built-up roof or BUR, and must use the roof to reach
equipment that needs maintenance, consider built up
walkways. However, BURs are fairly easy to repair.
A more recent innovation is the inverted roof system,
which places the roof membrane under the insulation.
Many insulation companies and roofing suppliers can
provide one of these systems. A ballast of gravel or paving
stones is often used to hold the insulation in place. Some
roofing products have a concrete layer bonded to the top
of the insulation to hold it in place.
Vapour barriers
Vapour barriers, or vapour retarders as they are correctly
called, are sometimes thought to be the only defense
against air leaks. This is because polyethylene is often used
in housing to provide air tightness, but it is not true that
poly is the only defense or even the best defense against
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air leaks. However, a vapour barrier is still needed
on the warm side of the insulation. This can be
poly or even two or three coats of an oil-based paint
(not latex).
Note that if the building uses drywall, plywood, or some
other system to stop all air leakage, vapour moves by
diffusion directly through the material. In contrast, air moves
through any opening, and will carry moisture with it, so it is
very important that an air barrier be well sealed and taped.
Moisture problems
If buildings have an enemy it can be defined in one word:
moisture. Moisture affects the thermal performance of the
building envelope by reducing the resistance of insulation.
Only a small amount of moisture in the insulation cuts the
R-value by far more than anyone thought just a few years
ago. This costs extra heating and cooling dollars. Moisture
problems are often very difficult to discover in the first
place, and may be even harder to track down and stop.
Deterioration
Moisture that accumulates in the building envelope can lead
to a variety of performance problems not directly related
to energy consumption but more serious. This is especially
true if the moisture attacks the building’s structural
integrity, such as when it rots structural members. Moisture
corrodes and rusts metal components in the wall. This may
become an unsightly nuisance or lead to failure of some
part of the structure.
Frost and ice can also accumulate in spaces within the walls
and ceiling of a building. Ice buildups can cause deformation
and deterioration of interior and exterior finishes. Icicles
hanging from the outside of the building may be a hazard
to occupants below. When the ice and frost melt in spring,
some of the melt-water may run back inside the building
where it is a nuisance and further hazard.
Masonry and brick buildings can suffer additional problems
with moisture. Efflorescence is the white marking that often
appears on these buildings. Caused by salt that makes up
part of the bricks, it is deposited on the surface by moisture.
Surface staining by other materials may also occur. Moisture
can cause cracking of the walls in brick and masonry
buildings, and also in stucco and wood veneer buildings.
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How moisture accumulates in buildings
Wall types
Moisture can get into the materials and assemblies of the
building from the outside and from the inside. Outside is
rain or snow and inside is humidity which can condense in
the walls and ceiling spaces. Moisture condensation occurs
due to air leakage, for the most part, but also due to vapour
diffusion, which is handled by the vapour barrier.
The most common wall designs for new construction or
renovations and additions fall into one of the following
categories:
Contrary to popular opinion, it is not absolutely necessary
to seal the vapour barrier, because this will allow an
increased amount of diffusion (a slow process) only over
a small area. It is far more important to control air leakage,
which may or may not be possible with the vapour barrier.
• metal buildings
Handling moisture
The most effective strategy is to prevent moisture from
accumulating in the first place. However, almost all buildings
have some form of moisture deposition or accumulation,
and it is impossible to achieve a 100 per cent perfect
building. As a result, there has to be some consideration
for handling the moisture.
A number of approaches are used to minimize condensation
in buildings. In retrofit situations these basically involve
reducing the amount of airflow through cracks and
openings, reducing the humidity level of indoor air, or
warming condensation surfaces to reduce or eliminate
the condensation.
To reduce indoor humidity levels, try using ventilation fans
to exhaust moist air from the building and bring in cold dry
air. Heat recovery could be part of the ventilation to reduce
energy costs.
Another strategy is passive ventilation using the wind
to induce air flow through ducts and planned openings,
or increasing natural ventilation through a chimney by
increasing its size.
Controlling moisture also helps prevent deterioration
of the building.
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• wood or metal studs with drywall or plywood
• precast concrete or sandwich panels
• masonry walls with reinforced membranes.
Such walls range from the expensive and durable to the
inexpensive and temporary. They include the four systems
discussed at the beginning of this section – an air barrier
system, insulation, cladding, and a vapour barrier.
Many of the problems associated with these designs happen
at joints with other assemblies and at intersections with
floors and ceilings.
Studs and drywall or plywood
Drywall is one of the most common materials in
construction, both for finish materials and as part of the
air barrier system.
Isolate any openings, such as electrical outlets, to prevent
air leakage at these points. Use rigid, airtight enclosures
around electrical outlets, or eliminate penetration through
the drywall or plywood by moving all services to interior
partitions.
With metal studs, thermal bridges can develop between
the interior and exterior faces of the wall because of the
low resistance of the studs. Consider using exterior rigid
insulation to keep the cold side of the studs warm. In such
an arrangement, plywood is often sealed to the outside
of the studs, and rigid insulation placed on the exterior
of the plywood. That leaves the stud space free for use
as a service race for plumbing and electrical. Ensure good
durable construction and inspect the plywood joints before
the stud system is enclosed, to make sure there are no air
leaks. With this kind of air barrier system there are fewer
seals between assemblies and usually fewer intersecting
partitions.
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Precast concrete
Masonry – reinforced membranes
Precast concrete is usually very expensive, but it also makes
one of the most durable walls. You can purchase the whole
wall as a system from a supplier or manufacturer (see the
Yellow Pages under Concrete).
Designs using masonry must accommodate the large
amount of air leakage through such systems, and the
tendency of block and brick systems to expand or contract.
Concrete block will shrink initially as the material dries out,
and clay-fired brick will expand slightly as the brick absorbs
moisture.
The wall will include all four systems mentioned at the front
of this section. Anchoring systems for precast concrete
panels, particularly large ones, are often widely spaced and
have to be engineered by a consultant.
Metal buildings
Metal buildings can be purchased in package form and easily
built up on site by local labour, with some assistance from
the supplier or general contractor.
Pay strict attention to the air barrier. Many manufacturers
use reinforced foil-backed insulation taped at the joints
between metal sections of walls. This has almost always
caused problems somewhere down the line when the tape
becomes unstuck or the foil gets punctured.
It is best to mechanically clamp the joints of wall sections
together or to cover the foil with drywall, plywood, or metal
and seal the covering layer, especially in areas with high
traffic or where the layer can be easily damaged.
Double gasket and sealing systems have been devised to
join separate sheet metal panels. The technique includes
sealing each fastener that penetrates the metal. Movement
joints must be designed into any metal system placed on the
exterior of the building.
Do not allow the insulation to be compressed between the
exterior siding and the purlins or metal beams. Ensure that
some type of stand-off is used to prevent squeezing the
insulation and reducing its effectiveness.
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Some of the newest techniques for sealing masonry or
other infill panels use reinforced bituminous membranes.
The membranes are usually applied as sheet materials, with
a thick piece of reinforcing fabric between two layers of
bitumen. The arrangement combines air impermeability
and the ability to bridge gaps with increased strength and
the capacity to handle movement. Similar membranes have
been in use on roofing for many years.
The concrete block walls of masonry buildings are
sometimes filled with insulation by pouring styrofoam beads,
for example, into the core of the blocks from the top of
the wall. Mortar used between the blocks can sometimes
interfere with the free flow of the insulation, leaving some
sections of the wall uninsulated, particularly toward the
bottom. Such buildings often consume enormous amounts
of energy, because the insulation is not continuous and
because the walls tend to collect moisture that wets the
insulation.
If you are retrofitting one of these buildings, consider the
blocks as the structure only. You will still have to apply an air
barrier system, a continuous layer of insulation on the inside
or outside, and a vapour barrier. You will also have to install
either an interior finish (which could act as the air barrier if
it is properly sealed) or exterior cladding.
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HEATING SYSTEMS
General furnace maintenance tips
There is an unlimited variety of ways to heat buildings.
The choice of systems is based on several factors. You need
an energy source (electricity, natural gas, propane, or fuel
oil) and a heat transfer medium (air, water, steam) that flows
through a heat delivery system (pipes or ducts).
Typically we use air or water as our heat transfer medium
because both are in abundant supply. The heat arrives in
the room through grilles and diffusers or convectors, unit
heaters, or radiators. Heat flow is always from warm to cool.
The rate is based on the temperature differences between
the hot side and the cool side, and the resistance to flow
created by walls, insulation, air films, and other building
components.
The basic heating system takes the heat from the heat
source and distributes it to the places that need it, using
fans and ducts for air-based systems or pumps and pipes
for water-based systems.
Furnaces
The furnace is a typical inexpensive heating unit. Furnaces
are widely available using electricity, natural gas, propane
or oil as a fuel source.
Furnaces come in various configurations to suit various
applications. They are inexpensive to own, operate and
maintain. Furnaces use air to distribute the heat to the
rooms they serve.
• Clean or replace furnace filters every three months.
• Clean heating and cooling coils on a regular basis.
• Clean filters and coils will help ensure the furnace
operates efficiently by maintaining the optimum air
flow and heat transfers.
• Check fan belts for cleanliness and tightness on the
pulley.
• Replace belts that are cracked or worn.
Furnaces rarely have capacities in excess of 200 000 Btu/h
(60 kW). Although furnaces are relatively inexpensive to
operate and maintain, they suffer from the drawback that
only one thermostat controls many rooms with different
heating or cooling requirements. Furnaces are generally
installed in mechanical or furnace rooms. Their efficiencies
vary depending on type, operation, and the fuel they use.
Electric
An electric furnace has an annual fuel utilization efficiency
(AFUE) of 100 per cent. Essentially 100 per cent of the
electrical energy supplied to the furnace is converted to
heat in the building.
Natural gas/propane – standard
Typical furnace
18
A standard natural gas/propane furnace with a standing
pilot has an annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of 55
to 65 per cent, despite a combustion efficiency of 75 to
80 per cent. This means that only 55 to 65 per cent of the
energy supplied to the furnace is realized as useable heat in
the building through an entire heating season. The AFUE
is lower than the combustion efficiency because heated
building air is constantly flowing out of the chimney through
the draft hood on the furnace. The efficiency is lowered
further by the standing pilot that operates generally
throughout the year (even though it may not be required
for the entire year). Note that standard furnaces are no
longer available on the market.
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Natural gas/propane –
mid-efficiency
A mid-efficiency natural gas/propane furnace has an annual
fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating of approximately
80 per cent.
The efficiency is improved over standard furnaces by
replacing the draft hood with a small fan. Known as an
induced draft fan, it runs only when the furnace is on.
This eliminates the constant flow of heated building air out
the chimney. The furnace also employs electronic ignition,
eliminating the standing pilot.
Natural gas/propane –
high-efficiency
High efficiency condensing natural gas/propane furnaces
are very popular as replacements for old, gravity vented
furnaces. They extract 90 to 95 per cent of the available
heat from the burned natural gas or propane. Efficiency is
further enhanced over a mid-efficient furnace by utilizing
a secondary heat exchanger which extracts the latent
heat from the water vapour in the flue gases produced
in the combustion process. The latent heat accounts for
eight per cent (propane) and 10 per cent (natural gas) of
the energy supplied to the furnace. The flue gases are then
vented outside and the condensed water vapour is drained
to a sewer.
High efficiency furnaces should not be installed in locations
where the temperature may drop below the freezing point.
There is a condensate trap on the furnace and the water
in the trap could freeze. The furnace will not operate if the
water in the trap freezes.
Oil
Older standard oil furnaces have an annual fuel utilization
efficiency (AFUE) rating of 60 to 70 per cent. This is due to
warm air constantly passing through the heat exchanger.
Older heat exchangers offer little resistance to air flow,
allowing room air to freely exit the building through the
chimney even when the furnace is not operating.
Newer mid-efficiency oil furnaces are equipped with more
efficient burners and offer more resistance to air flow when
the burner is not firing. The AFUE rating of these furnaces
is about 80 to 86 per cent.
High efficiency condensing oil furnaces have an AFUE rating
of about 86 to 90 per cent. They are expensive and not
commonly available.
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Unit heater
Unit heaters
Commercial unit heaters, a variation on residential style
furnaces, are available in standard-, mid-, and highefficiency models. They are popular for heating large rooms
with high ceilings.
A louvered diffuser on the discharge directs the air around
the room. Generally no ductwork is installed on the unit.
If ductwork is to be attached, the unit heater must be
certified to be installed with ductwork.
Unit heaters are economical to install and easy to relocate,
but have limited applications and do not provide for
ventilation. They are not allowed in some buildings and
some occupancies as a result of building code regulations.
Unit heaters are not allowed in assembly occupancies such
as meeting rooms or community halls. They are well suited
for storage areas, garages, and work shops.
Rooftop packaged units
Rooftop units have a seasonal efficiency rating between
60 and 80 per cent. Their rating depends on the type of
pilot, burner, unit location, cabinet insulation, and hours
of operation.
As the name suggests, rooftop units put the equipment on
the roof, freeing up valuable floor space. Rooftop equipment
for general space heating is usually supplied with an air
conditioning system, including ventilation. Rooftop heaters
with economizers use cool outside air instead of mechanical
cooling to provide free cooling during the cooler hours of
the day.
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
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Heat pumps
A heat pump uses refrigerant circuits to move or “pump”
heat from one location to another rather than using an
electric heating element or burning fossil fuels.
Heat pump systems can be used for space heating and
cooling, and water heating. An internal four-way reversing
valve redirects refrigerant flow and reverses the function of
the evaporator and condenser coils (a coil that absorbs heat
in one case rejects heat in the reversed position), depending
on whether the heat pump is in cooling or heating mode.
Typical rooftop units
Rooftop units distribute air through ductwork, normally
above the ceiling. They cost more than a furnace but
provide cooling and ventilation in a single packaged unit.
Installation costs are lower or the same as they are for
furnaces of similar capacity.
Ground source heat pumps have coefficient of performance
(COP) ratings between 2.0 and 3.0. As a result they can
produce 2.0 to 3.0 kilowatts of heat energy for every
kilowatt of electrical energy supplied to the unit. These
systems have a higher first cost (installed price) but lower
operating cost than conventional systems. Maintenance
costs may be slightly higher than for conventional heating
systems but is similar to costs for air conditioning systems.
Basics of heat pump operation
A heat pump is a refrigeration unit that moves heat
from one place to another, much the same as a kitchen
refrigerator moves heat from food inside the fridge to
the coils on the back.
The most popular type of heat pump in Manitoba is a
geothermal or ground source heat pump. It moves heat
into a facility from the earth (heating season) and into the
earth from the facility (cooling season).
Unlike a refrigerator, a heat pump can be reversed,
allowing heat to be moved into a facility in winter
(heating mode) and out of the facility in summer
(cooling mode).
In heating mode, on extremely cold winter days, an electric
auxiliary heater may be needed to provide additional heat,
depending on how the heat pump has been sized.
A system of
buried pipe carries
a heat transfer
fluid that picks
up heat from the
earth or releases
heat to it.
20
The pipe enters the building and
circulates the heat transfer fluid through
a heat exchanger in the heat pump
enclosure. Using a refrigeration process,
the heat pump removes heat from the
fluid or releases heat to it, depending on
whether the building is being heated or
air-conditioned.
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A fan in the heat pump
enclosure blows warm
or cool air through
ductwork to warm or
cool the building.
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
The outdoor piping system can be either open-loop or
closed-loop. An open-loop system takes advantage of the
heat retained in an underground body of water. The water
drawn from a well is circulated through a heat exchanger,
where heat is extracted. The water is discharged back to
the underground water body through a separate return or
injector well.
Closed-loop systems collect heat from the ground by
means of a continuous loop of buried piping. An antifreeze
solution, which has been chilled by the heat pump’s
refrigeration system to several degrees colder than the
outside soil, circulates through the piping, absorbing heat
from the surrounding soil.
For a case history on a heat pump installation for a religious
building, see Appendix E.
Boiler systems
A boiler converts fuel energy into a form that is suitable
to convey heat energy throughout a facility. In religious
buildings, the most common forms of heat energy
distributed from boilers are low pressure steam and hot
water.
The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating of older
natural draft fuel-fired boilers is 50 to 60 per cent—slightly
lower than the 55 to 65 per cent AFUE of a furnace. The
difference is because of greater heat loss from the high
temperature water stored in the boiler. Newer boilers with
electronic ignition and power vents or vent dampers have
higher AFUE ratings of 78 to 84 per cent.
Boilers can employ baseboard radiators, convection
radiators, and coils in air handlers to transfer heat to the
building via convection. Heat can also be transferred by
radiation through hot water tubing installed in a concrete
slab. A combination of all of these techniques can also be
used.
Steam boilers
A steam heating system uses the vapour phase of water
to transport heat from a boiler to the end heating device.
Steam is propelled through the supply pipe systems by the
pressure generated by the boiler.
Steam boiler systems heat water to a boiling point above
atmospheric pressure. The greater the pressure the higher
the boiling point and the higher the heat content. When
the steam reaches the point of use such as a radiator or coil,
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Typical steam boiler system fueled by natural gas. It boils water
under pressure to produce high-heat-content steam that
circulates to heat transfer devices such as radiators or coils
where the heat is needed. When the steam reaches the place
where the heat it carries is needed, it condenses to release the
heat. The condensate or water returns to the boiler to repeat
the cycle.
heat is removed from the steam and the steam condenses.
This condensate is normally returned to the boiler to be
used as boiler feed water.
Steam traps are installed in the system to discharge
condensation to the condensate return lines without
discharging steam. A steam system produces a high transfer
rate per unit of surface area at the terminal device allowing
the use of smaller devices and smaller piping. Less pumping
energy is required than for a hot water system, but system
maintenance is high owing to the number of distribution
system components such as steam traps and condensate
pumps. Steam systems are more susceptible to condensate
loss through steam and condensate leaks.
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
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Steam traps
Steam traps are installed to keep steam lines and equipment
free of condensate (water), air, and other gases. A steam
trap is a valve that discharges condensate and air from a
steam line or piece of equipment without discharging steam.
When starting up steam systems, lines and heating
equipment are full of air which must be flushed out. During
continuous operation a small amount of air and other gases,
which enter the system with the boiler feed water, must also
be vented.
Some steam traps have built in strainers to provide
protection from dirt and scale. Unless removed, this material
may cause the trap to jam in an open position, allowing the
free flow of steam into the condensate collection system.
The condensate discharged from the steam trap normally
flows by gravity to an atmospheric pressure return or
receiver tank. In some systems the condensate may go to
a flash tank first or to a drain. The condensate in the return
tank is then pumped to the boiler to be used again.
The steam trap has a tight fitting valve attached to a float,
inverted bucket, or bellows which rises when enough
condensate drips into the trap and fills it. When the level of
condensate in the trap is high enough to operate the float,
Steam trap that uses a float. Steam traps are designed to
release water and air from steam lines without releasing
steam. Often a key source of inefficiency, they must be
cleaned and checked regularly to ensure proper operation,
bucket or bellows, the valve opens and the pressure of the
steam in the line that the trap is attached to, pushes the
condensate into the condensate return line and then the
valve closes sealing the steam line once more. If the valve
or float/bellows operator are defective the valve will either
not seal properly and steam will constantly leak into the
condensate line wasting steam heat and money, or the valve
will not open properly and condensate will slowly build up
in the line and prevent the steam from heating the building
properly, increasing the opportunity for leaks and steam or
water hammer.
Best management practices for steam and condensate systems
Housekeeping
• Develop a steam trap maintenance program and
procedures.
• Check and maintain proper equipment operation.
• Check and correct steam and condensate leaks.
• Train operating personnel.
• Have the condition of the pipes checked regularly
by a qualified professional.
• Develop and maintain a chemical treatment program.
• Check control settings.
• Shut down equipment when not required.
• Shut down steam and condensate branch system
when not required.
Low cost opportunities
• Recover condensate if it presently goes to drain.
• Replace or repair leaking traps.
• Repair, replace, or add air vents.
• Insulate uninsulated flanges and fittings.
22
•
•
•
•
•
•
Insulate uninsulated piping.
Repair damaged insulation.
Remove unused steam and condensate piping.
Reduce steam pressure where possible.
Operate equipment in an efficient operating range.
Repipe system or relocate equipment to shorten
pipe lengths.
• Optimize location of control sensors.
Retrofit opportunities
• Upgrade insulation on piping to recommended
insulation thickness.
• Institute a steam trap replacement program.
• Optimize pipe sizes.
• Recover flash steam.
• Eliminate steam use where possible.
• Stage the depressurization of condensate.
• Recover heat from condensate.
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Steam or water hammer
The loud banging sound you hear when a boiler system
starts-up is caused by steam interacting with condensate
left in the pipe due to a sag in the pipe or an improperly
operating steam trap.
When steam meets this little puddle of condensate, two
things can happen. Either the steam causes the condensate
to violently evaporate, or the steam pushes the condensate
forward at speed until it meets a turn in the pipe or other
restriction and gives up some of its energy as a loud noise.
This noise, which sounds like a hammer hitting the pipe, is
called steam or water hammer. Steam or water hammer
can cause damage to steam traps and put extra pressure on
joints and connectors causing leaks.
To reduce steam or water hammer, ensure there are no
sags in the steam lines, the lines have the proper pitch to
allow condensate to flow freely to the condensate return
tank, and all steam traps are operating properly.
Water treatment
Water for use in steam or hot water heating systems must
be properly treated to avoid the problems inherent with
untreated water. The two principal problems which must be
overcome are scale and corrosion.
Scale is the deposit left behind by water as it is heated.
Scale consists mainly of calcium and magnesium
compounds. The presence of these compounds in water
constitutes the hardness of the water. A buildup of scale
on the inside of a boiler acts as a barrier to heat transfer
and can reduce boiler efficiency by as much as 40 per cent
with a 1/4-inch of scale.
The second problem that untreated water can cause is
corrosion of the tubes in the boiler as well as in steam lines,
water lines, and condensate tanks. Corrosion is primarily
caused by the presence of oxygen in the water, but the
acidity of the water, and the presence of carbon dioxide and
dissolved solids can also increase corrosion.
Typical hot water boiler system. It delivers heat where
it is needed by circulating hot water through radiators
or other “end-use” devices.
Hot water boilers
Hot water systems deliver energy from a boiler or heat
exchanger to the end-use heating device by circulating
water through a piping system.
In a typical system, hot water is pumped by an electric
circulating pump through coils or radiators where it heats
air that is drawn around the coils or radiators by natural
convection or by fans. The temperature of the water is
determined by the output capacity of the end-use heating
devices. Most heating systems require a supply temperature
of 60ºC (140ºF) to 80ºC (180ºF) although some systems
use water as high as 110ºC (230ºF). Water systems range
from complex high temperature units to the more familiar
two-pipe units found in many churches.
System efficiency is affected by four factors:
•
•
•
•
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boiler or heat exchanger efficiency
heat loss from the piping system
pumping energy required to maintain water flow
water temperature.
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
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Best management practices for hot water boilers
Boiler operation
• Regularly check water treatment procedures.
• Maintain the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the boiler
water suitably low.
• Operate at the lowest hot water temperature that still
meets distribution system requirements.
• Regularly check the efficiency of boilers.
• Regularly monitor and compare performance related data.
• Regularly monitor the boiler for excess air.
Boiler maintenance
Boilers should receive regular maintenance—never less
than once a year. Maintenance may be considered part of
preventive maintenance procedures. It should include the
following practices:
• Keep burners in proper adjustment.
• Check for and repair leaking flanges, valve stems, and pump
glands.
• Maintain tightness of all air ducting and flue gas breeching.
• Check for “hot spots” on the boiler casing that may indicate
deteriorating boiler insulation that should be repaired during
annual shutdown.
• Keep the fireside surfaces of boiler tubes clean.
• Replace or repair missing or damaged insulation.
• Replace boiler observation or access doors, and repair any
leaking door seals.
• Periodically calibrate measurement equipment and tune the
combustion control system.
Boiler retrofit opportunities
•
•
•
•
Reduce boiler excess air.
Install new boiler.
Upgrade burner.
Lower water temperature with an outdoor reset control.
Recommended specifications for replacement boilers and furnaces
1. Natural gas fired boilers
1.1.
1.2.
Commercial or residential size boilers with input ratings
less than 300 000 Btu/h must meet the following
requirements:
- Canadian Gas Association Standard CGA
P.2-1991 (Gas Fired Boilers)
- Minimum efficiency of 85 per cent (nearcondensing) or 90 per cent (condensing) AFUE
(Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency) in accordance
with ENERGY STAR® specifications for energy
efficiency
- Electronic ignition (no standing pilot)
- Induced draft fan or power vent
- Used primarily for space heat
- Condensing boiler must be designed to withstand
continuous operation with a return water
temperature not exceeding 49ºC (120ºF)
Commercial boilers with input ratings of greater than
or equal to 300 000 Btu/h must meet the following
requirements:
- Minimum combustion efficiency of 85 per cent
(near-condensing) or 90 per cent (condensing) as
per ANSI Z21.13/CSA 4.9 standards.
- Electronic ignition (no standing pilot)
- Induced draft fan OR power vent
- Used primarily for space heat
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- Condensing boiler must be designed to withstand
continuous operation with a return water
temperature not exceeding 49ºC (120ºF)
A Power Smart incentive is available for high efficiency
condensing boilers in new and renovation projects.
A Power Smart incentive is available for near condensing
boilers in renovation projects only.
2. Hot water boiler system controls
2.1
An indoor/outdoor (outdoor reset) control shall
automatically adjust the supply water temperature of the
system in relation to outdoor air temperature.
3. Natural gas furnaces
3.1 3.2
3.3 CSA approved high efficiency condensing ENERGY
STAR® certified natural gas furnaces only.
Minimum efficiency of 90 per cent AFUE in accordance
with ENERGY STAR® specifications for
energy efficiency
Used primarily for space heat
A Power Smart incentive is available for high efficiency
ENERGY STAR® certified furnaces.
4. Thermostatic controls
4.1 The supply of heating energy to each heating zone
shall be individually controlled by thermostatic controls
responding directly to temperature within each zone.
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Building heating system replacement
requirements
For projects involving replacement of existing building
heating systems, detailed and itemized load calculations
should be performed by an engineer registered with the
Association of Professional Engineers & Geoscientists of
Manitoba or by a contractor or technologist certified by
the Heating, Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Institute of
Canada (HRAI) or the Hydraulics Institute.
The Design Heating Load Calculations should be
determined in accordance with generally accepted
engineering standards as described in: ASHRAE
Handbook and Standards, HRAI Digest, Hydronics
Institute Manuals.
As a minimum, the Summary of Heating Loads (below)
should be completed and signed by the registered engineer
or the certified contractor or technologist responsible for
the calculations and equipment sizing.
SUMMARY OF HEATING LOADS
Heat loss in Btu/hr
1. Walls (above grade)
__________________
2. Walls (below grade)
__________________
3. Floor slab edge(s) or grade beam (if applicable)
__________________
4. Floor slab remainder (if applicable) __________________
5. Roof/attic __________________
6. Windows __________________
7. Doors __________________
8. Other (please specify) __________________
9. Infiltration (air leakage). Indicate equivalent air change (AC) rate used ___________________________________ AC/hour
__________________
10. Mechanical ventilation (outdoor air).
Indicate design flow rate in cubic feet per minute (cfm) ____________ cfm
__________________
11. Contingency (safety margin)
Required for quicker recovery from temperature setback
(shall not exceed 25 per cent of total of items 1 to 10 above)
__________________
__________________
Total design heat load
12. Heating plant selection
____________________ X ____________________
No. of units
=
Output Btu/h per unit
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__________________
Total heating output
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Air conditioners
Ventilation
Most religious buildings do not have air conditioning. Those
that do have it often restrict it to the sanctuary and office
areas in summer when outdoor temperatures and humidity
exceed comfort levels. It can be part of a rooftop unit or
built into a forced air furnace system. Window units can also
provide comfort to a small area such as an office or small
meeting room. Air conditioners are rated in Btu/h. They
may also be rated in tons, an old-fashioned term used to
describe the cooling effect felt by one ton of ice melting
in a 24-hour period. One ton of cooling is 12 000 Btu/h.
The efficiency of an air conditioner is expressed in two
ways. One is the EER or Energy Efficiency Ratio, which is
expressed as: EER = Btu/h of cooling divided by watts input.
The second is SEER or Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio—
essentially the EER averaged out over the entire season.
The SEER is expressed as: SEER = Total cooling during
season, in Btu’s divided by total energy consumed, in watthours. In shopping for an air conditioner, look for one with a
SEER of 13.0 for smaller units, or an EER of 10.0 for larger
units.
Whether natural or mechanical, ventilation of buildings is
often required for the health and comfort of occupants.
Large assemblies of people can generate large quantities
of heat at a rate of about 130 watts/person. Very large and
expensive air conditioning systems would be required to
meet such peak loads. For this reason, many assembly halls
may have undersized air conditioning systems.
Natural ventilation
When an occupied room gets too hot, we like to open a
window to get some fresh air into it. This is an example of
natural ventilation for thermal comfort. Outside air comes
into the room through the window and cools off that area.
It is intentional and we are controlling it. In warm weather
we are saving energy by reducing heat gain through the
walls and avoiding running cooling equipment. In cold
weather, opening a window increases the load on your
heating system and costs money.
Mechanical ventilation
A central mechanical ventilation system, also called a
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning or HVAC system,
provides a conditioned air supply through a ducted
distribution system to control the interior environment of a
building. A system may supply 100 per cent outdoor air with
all return air exhausted, or it may operate with a portion of
the return air recirculated through the system.
When a church is unoccupied, it is not necessary to supply
outside air, which costs money to heat or air condition.
All cooling systems rated less then 19 kW (65 000 Btu/h.)
should meet or exceed ENERGY STAR® specifications
and all cooling systems rated above 19 kW (65 000
Btu/h.) should meet or exceed the minimum performance
standards listed in the most recent version of CSA
Standards C746-06.
Power Smart incentives are no longer available for roof
top or split system AC units.
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LIGHTING SYSTEMS
Lighting systems in religious buildings generally account for
less than five per cent of the total electricity bill. As a result,
savings from installing energy efficient lighting, indoors and
out, are likely to be modest.
The major benefits of upgrading your lighting are to make
your facility more productive to work in and more attractive,
healthier and more comfortable for the congregation.
Incandescent
Because of its relatively poor efficiency, incandescent
lighting is quickly being displaced by other types of lights. It
is still used in areas where lights are to be switched often,
dimmed for variable output, or in very cold temperature
applications.
Life of an incandescent bulb is generally about 1000
hours, with extended service versions of up to 2500 hours.
Another category called “long life” can reach operating
hours of 5000 to 6000 hours. Note that longer life is
achieved through the use of heavier filaments that produce
less light and work less efficiently.
Colour rendition is very good. A close “relative” of
incandescent lighting is quartz, which has an incandescent
filament in an envelope containing special gases.
Efficiencies are 21 to 23 lumens per watt, with life ratings
of up to 2000 hours. Loss of lumen output at the end of
life is normally less than 10 per cent of initial values. Loss of
lumen output in cold weather is less than 5 per cent.
T8 fluorescent
T8 fluorescent lighting is extremely popular because of its
efficiency, relatively good colour rendition, and very good
life (15 000 to 24 000 hours).
T8 fluorescents require electronic ballasts because they are
a type of arc discharge lamp. Standard electronic ballasts are
designed for reliable operation down to 10ºC (50ºF); low
temperature versions are available down to -18ºC (OºF).
Above: Open style fluorescent
fixture. Right: A T12 (top lamp) and
a T8. The T12 measures twelve
eighths of an inch or 1.5 inches in
diameter; the T8, eight eighths of
an inch or 1 inch in diameter. Pin
spacing is the same for both lamps,
facilitating replacement.
Depending on fixture construction, fluorescent lighting still
remains a very economical light source. Sometimes lamp
jackets or sleeves are used over the lamps to maximize light
output at cool temperatures.
There is no problem with fluorescent lights during
momentary power dips (such as during the starting of air
conditioners or other large loads) as arc re-strike is virtually
instantaneous.
Lamp output is highly dependent on temperature. Output is
maximum (100 per cent) at about 25°C (77°F) and falls to
about 70 per cent at -l°C (30°F). Loss of lumen output at
end of life is normally about 20 per cent of the initial values.
Metal halide – probe-start
Because of its good efficiency as well as very good colour
rendition, probe start metal halide (MH) is a very popular
light source. A lumen loss of about 30 per cent can be
expected at the end of life of this standard technology type
of MH lighting.
Some probe-start MH lamps have tended to explode
at the end of their life, particularly if they were used
continuously and never shut off. Rated life is about
10 000 to 20 000 hours.
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Pulse-start metal halide lights have a 2-minute warm-up
and a 4-minute restart time compared with probe-start
metal halide lights which have a 4-minute warm-up and
a 15-minute restart time.
Enclosed pulse-start metal halide lighting
There is very little lumen loss at lower temperatures [-1°C
(30°F)] compared to fluorescent lamps. Probe-start metal
halide lamps perform best in the base–up or base-down
operating position. There is a roughly 15 per cent light
loss when the lights are operated up to 30 degrees above
or below horizontal. Always select a fixture with base-up
burning for efficiency and ease of maintenance.
Metal halide is effectively the same lamp type as mercury
vapour except that metallic additives have been added for
extra efficiencies. It requires a somewhat different ballast
from a mercury lamp because of higher starting voltages.
A mercury lamp operates well on a metal halide ballast, but
a metal halide lamp does not operate on a mercury ballast.
Warm-up and re-strike times for metal halide lamps are
slightly less than mercury.
Metal halide – pulse-start
Pulse-start metal halide, a new technology, should be
considered primarily because it is about 20 per cent more
efficient than standard metal halide. In some cases lamp life
is also longer.
Pulse start is now available in a broader range of wattages
between 175 and 400 watts. Lamps are ignited by a
starter that emits a pulse—hence “pulse start”—rather
than relying on the ballast open circuit voltage. As a result
pulse start lighting has better cold temperature starting
reliabilities than standard (probe-start) MH lamps.
CAUTION
For all metal halide lamp types, it is very important
to change failed lamps as soon as possible after
failure to avoid progressive damage to the ballast.
High pressure sodium
High pressure sodium (HPS) lighting is quickly gaining
popularity in indoor and outdoor applications because of its
efficiency, low cost, and excellent lumen maintenance.
A loss of about 20 per cent of initial output can be expected
at the end of its life. The light is golden or light amber and
has been used for years in street and security lighting.
It is quickly gaining acceptance in indoor applications where
colour rendition is not critical.
A good variety of lamp wattages is available (70, 100, 150,
250, 400, and 1000 watt) as well as fixture types by many
manufacturers. Ballasting for HPS sources is more critical
than for mercury/metal halide sources as the ballast must
have greater regulating properties as well as an electronic
starting circuit to “fire” or start the lamp. Ballasts must be
integrally mounted with the lamp because of the high lamp
ignition voltages required.
Because HPS lamp output is relatively position insensitive,
lamps can be operated in any position. HPS has excellent
cold temperature operation and quicker warm-up as well as
re-strike times, compared with mercury and metal halide.
High pressure sodium wall pak
Because pulse start systems are becoming more popular,
prices for fixtures and lamps are dropping. As a rule, the
total fixture (and lamp) cost of a standard versus a pulsestart metal halide system is about equal, even though
about 20 per cent fewer pulse-start fixtures are required.
Installation cost is lower, and more important, less energy
is required for the future life of the system. Warm-up and
restart-time is faster for pulse-start technology.
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Although HPS arc tubes do not rupture at end of life,
a totally enclosed fixture is still recommended to protect the
lamp, particularly in gymnasiums.
Normal lamps last about 24 000 hours, but dual-arc HPS
lamps are available with a life of 30 000 to 40 000 hours.
During a power dip or very short-term outage, the second
arc of a dual-arc HPSs re-strikes immediately while the
“first” arc cools down, accounting for the longer life.
As with metal halide, a burned out lamp should be changed
as soon as possible, as the ballast will gradually suffer
damage.
It is advantageous (if possible) to match exterior as well as
interior lamp wattages to simplify stocking. A very popular
lamp is the 250 watt, as well as the 400 watt.
Low pressure sodium
Low pressure sodium (LPS) lighting is closely related to
fluorescent lighting since it is a low-pressure, low intensity
discharge source and has a linear lamp shape.
The lamp consists of an arc tube enclosed in a clear tubular
outer bulb that has been evacuated. The colour of the light
is a monochromatic yellow. It can be used in applications
where colour rendition is not critical.
A large variety of wattages is available, from 18 to 180
watts. This source has the highest efficiency of all sources,
ranging from 100 to 180 lumens per watt.
Ballasts are required. Typical start-up times are about
12 minutes, with re-striking of the lamp immediately
after interruption. This lamp type starts and performs
well at temperatures below -1°C (30°F).
Rated life is 18 000 hours. Wattage increases seven per
cent and lumen output five per cent, by the end of lamp life.
Low pressure sodium is very good for exterior applications
but has suffered market loss to HPS and MH, primarily due
to system cost.
Lighting ballasts
The average rated life of ballasts for most ballasted light
sources is 15 years, and up to 20 years for premium
quality ballasts.
The life of a ballast can be dramatically shortened if it
is subjected to high temperatures for extended periods.
For high-intensity discharge (HID) ballasts, it is advisable to
leave space of at least 15 cm (6 in.) between the top of the
ballast housing and the ceiling.
On the other hand, fluorescent fixtures should always
be tightly surface mounted to ceilings to improve heat
transfer. Suspending fixtures from ceilings results in low
ballast temperatures. However, T8 electronic ballasts have
very low losses and are not as temperature critical as
magnetic versions.
Saving with parking lot controllers
Although your religious building probably has a limited number of parking lot
plugs, modern parking lot controllers can still reduce your plug-in expenses up
to 50 per cent, yet ensure trouble-free starts for staff or guests.
In contrast to earlier systems, parking lot controllers save energy by
automatically adjusting the time that power is supplied to car plugs as a
function of outside temperature. Above -5°C (23˚F), outlets typically receive
no power. As the temperature drops, outlets receive power for progressively
longer intervals. Below -20°C (-4˚F) power stays on all the time.
Plug power is controlled either from a central panel or by circuitry built inside
the receptacle—the so called “intelligent” parking lot controllers which are
programmable and often use tell-tale lights to show if there is a problem with
block heaters or cords. For details on financial incentives for using parking lot
controllers, contact Manitoba Hydro or visit our website at hydro.mb.ca.
Intelligent parking lot controller
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29
ENERGY AUDITS
An energy audit is a procedure that shows how your facility
consumes energy and helps identify practical, cost-effective
energy saving measures that will reduce energy use and
lower operating costs.
Energy audits typically yield energy savings of
10 to 15 per cent, depending on what energy saving
measures have already been applied. Almost every religious
building in Manitoba can adopt some energy efficient
measures and save energy dollars.
Types of audits
There are four types of energy audits. The two types
described in detail in this guide are the simple walk-through
evaluation and the detailed walk-through audit.
The simple walk-through evaluation, also known as a
screening audit, highlights the main energy uses in the
facility and points out the most obvious ways to save
energy.
The detailed walk-through or comprehensive audit offers
an in-depth analysis of the energy use of a facility and a
detailed energy saving implementation plan.
Systems evaluated in both types of audits include:
• the building envelope
•lighting
• domestic hot water
• heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)
•controls.
The two other types of energy audits are the benchmark or
yardstick audit, and the engineering audit.
The benchmark audit provides a general review of the
energy use of a facility and the potential for energy savings.
Drawing on billing data, the square footage of the building,
annual weather data, and the expected energy performance
values of specific building types from existing databases,
it provides a performance or energy use index as well as
monthly energy use and demand profiles. It indicates areas
that need further study. Although a list of general energy
saving ideas may be included, specific energy savings are
not identified.
30
The engineering audit includes detailed analyses of specific
systems within a facility as well as information ranging from
general recommendations to detailed engineering plans
and costs.
Do you need an audit to save energy?
It is not always necessary to complete an energy audit
to save energy, but conducting your own simple “walkthrough” evaluation will help you identify energy losses that
can be corrected at little or no additional costs through
maintenance, operational actions, or purchasing choices.
If a more detailed technical analysis proves necessary,
your initial energy evaluation will provide the important
preliminary data on which to base the more detailed
analysis.
Getting started
Whether you conduct your own simple evaluation or have
a professional conduct a detailed audit for you, the first
thing you will need is at least 12 months of energy
information (electricity and natural gas, propane or oil).
You can get this information from your utility company,
your fuel supplier, or your energy bills. The information is
valuable because it can tell you how much energy is used
for baseload equipment such as hot water, lighting, and
office equipment, and how much energy is used for heating
and air conditioning.
To streamline your evaluation, the appendices include
14 worksheets for a “Religious Building ‘Walk-Through’
Energy Evaluation.” The sheets list questions and leave
room for the answers that will serve as a record of
your evaluation and the basis of applying energy saving
measures.
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Heating: 76.8%
Ventilation: 7.8%
Car plugs: 0.2%
Air conditioning: 0.7%
Cooking: 1.7%
Motors: 2.7%
Lighting: 4.2%
Misc. equipment: 3.2%
Hot water: 2.7%
Typical energy use in a religious building. Note that 80 to 85 per cent of the energy used in a church is for heating and ventilation.
Conducting your own simple
walk-through evaluation
Baseload calculations
If you decide to conduct your own simple walk- through,
obtain a copy of the building plans or a sketch of the
layout of each floor, then walk through the facility and
identify all the equipment and processes that use or cause
the use of energy. Use the forms in the appendices to
keep track of your findings and record your energy-saving
ideas as you go.
You will need lots of time to do this properly: allow yourself
at least four to five hours.
Make a list of the size and location of all energy using
equipment such as motors, appliances, and lights. Include
information such as operating hours and temperatures,
condition of insulation and weather-stripping, locations of
gaps around doors and windows.
To help you identify potential energy reduction measures,
ask yourself the following questions:
• Do the lights or equipment need to stay on as long as
they do?
• Can the operating temperature be reduced?
• Can smaller more efficient equipment be installed?
• Can insulation be added?
• Can windows and doors be improved or should they be
replaced?
• Can you turn it off, turn it down or tune it up?
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Baseload calculations in a religious building are used to
determine non-temperature-related loads. They provide an
indication of the day-to-day use of energy.
Baseload calculations in a religious building can sometimes
be tricky. Religious buildings typically use natural gas,
propane, or oil for heating, providing ventilation and hot
water, and sometimes to operate kitchen equipment.
Other equipment, such as lighting, air conditioning, office
equipment, and appliances, operates on electricity.
Some churches are all-electric; others use both a fossil
fuel and electricity for heating. To get a feel for how much
energy is used for heating and ventilation, the easiest way is
to look at the energy (fuel and electricity) that is consumed
in May and in September. In these months both heating and
cooling are usually minimal but the church building is still
being used regularly.
The average use for these two months can be referred
to as the baseload. Any energy used above this energy
level from October to April is usually heating and ventilation
and anything above this amount in June, July, and August
is usually cooling.
Baseload energy use consists of lighting, hot water,
office equipment, and appliances. Once you have calculated
how much energy is used for heating/ventilation, baseload
and cooling you will have a better idea of where you should
put the emphasis to get the most energy savings for
your efforts.
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
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Actual energy audits show that 80 to 85 per cent of the
energy used in a church is for heating and ventilation. The
balance of the energy is for fans, water heating, lighting,
motors, cooking equipment, and office equipment.
Some of the most cost-effective ways of reducing
heating costs in a church are to caulk and weather seal
around windows and doors, insulate accessible attics and
uninsulated basement walls, install set-back thermostats,
and turn off ventilation systems when not required during
unoccupied times or small functions.
Develop an energy efficiency plan
An important first step is to appoint an energy manager or
an energy management committee. The role of this person
or committee is to document energy savings, monitor
energy bills every month, and identify potential problems
that need to be looked at such as a high consumption in any
one month.
It is important to involve as many people as possible in the
church energy management program. Some suggestions to
accomplish this are as follows:
• Post an energy chart in the foyer and update it each
month.
• Consider posting one chart for electricity and one for
natural gas, propane, or oil.
• Run short energy announcements or tips in the bulletin,
or include an energy section in the newsletter.
• Make announcements during the service.
These are usually good ways to get everyone involved and
feeling that they are helping, but to keep everyone involved
will require continual new ideas and education.
Energy action plan ideas
If you can see daylight around the edge of doors or
windows, buy the appropriate weather stripping without
delay and install it and caulk around the casing to reduce
drafts. The payback is almost immediate.
If you feel a draft around a window that does not need to be
opened in the winter, consider caulking around the window
using a strippable caulking (removable weatherstripping).
If you see a hot water or steam pipe with damaged
insulation, or no insulation, buy the appropriate pipe
insulation without delay and install it. The payback is almost
immediate.
32
If you have incandescent lights that are on 40 hours a week
or longer, contact Manitoba Hydro about converting the
incandescent lamps to compact fluorescents lamps.
If you come across a room that has the lights on 40 hours a
week or longer even though very few people use the room,
contact Manitoba Hydro about installing an occupancy
sensor.
If you have fluorescent lights that are on 40 hours a week
or longer, contact Manitoba Hydro about converting them
to T8 fluorescents lamps with electronic ballasts.
If you come across a room that is always heated but not
always occupied, consider installing a programmable
thermostat.
Heating effects of electrical equipment
Electrical equipment and appliances, from lighting systems
and office equipment to motors and water heaters, deliver
the useful services they are designed to deliver. But the
electrical energy they consume also appears as heat within
the building. The heat can be useful or detrimental to the
building’s heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems,
depending on the season.
In cold weather, heat produced by the electrical equipment
can help reduce the load on the building’s heating system. In
contrast, during warm weather, heat produced by electrical
appliances adds to the building’s air conditioning load.
Energy efficient equipment and appliances consume less
energy to produce the same useful work, but they also
produce less heat. As a result, efficient equipment increases
the load on your heating systems in winter and reduces the
load on your air conditioning systems in summer. There is a
trade-off here that you need to be aware of.
The impacts of energy efficient electrical equipment and
appliances on building heating and air conditioning systems
are commonly called “interactive effects” or “cross effects.”
When considering the overall net savings of an energy
efficient product, remember to factor in the interactive
effects of the product on building heating and cooling
systems.
Weighing the interactive effects will result in better
informed decisions and realistic expectations of savings.
The percentage of heat that is useful in your specific
building or room will depend on several factors, including:
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•
•
•
•
•
location of pieces of equipment or appliances
location of heaters and their thermostats
type of ceiling
size of building
whether the room is an interior space (no outside walls
or ceiling) or an exterior space (perimeter walls, with or
without windows)
• the time of year (spring, summer, fall, or winter)
• type of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system
used in each room.
Unfortunately, interactive effects are often complex and
may require assessment by an experienced mechanical
engineer or technologist.
Heating effects of indoor lighting
Energy efficient indoor lighting is a good example of
electrical equipment that can cause interactive effects.
Energy efficient lighting systems reduce lighting system
operating and maintenance costs. In addition, they usually
improve lighting quality and increase lighting levels. But
lighting systems also contribute to the space heating
requirements of facilities.
Electrical energy is transformed initially by a light fixture
into light and two types of heating energy, then ultimately
entirely into heat.
The amount of electrical energy that is transformed directly
into heat, infrared radiation, and visible light will be different
for the various light sources commonly used (such as
incandescent, fluorescent, halogen, high pressure sodium,
metal halide or mercury vapour). However the result is
still the same: 100 per cent of the electricity used by the
lighting system ultimately becomes heat.
For example, ten 100-watt incandescent lamps operating
for 10 hours will transform 10 kWh of electrical energy
entirely into heat, as follows:
• Approximately 9.7 kWh of heat will be transferred to the
surroundings in two ways. First, heat will be transferred
directly from the lamps by convection to the air
surrounding the lamps. Second, infrared radiant energy
is absorbed as heat by objects within “view” of the
fixtures, and the heat absorbed is then transferred
to the air by convection.
• Approximately 0.3 kWh of visible lighting energy is also
absorbed by objects within view of the fixture and then
transferred as heat to the air by convection.
Energy Efficiency Guide for Religious Buildings
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In short, all 10 kWh of electrical energy consumed
by these light fixtures will appear as heat in the
building. If the same amount of light can be produced
by retrofitting the fixtures to compact fluorescent fixtures
that draw only 25 watts, then in 10 hours of operation
the 10 new fixtures will produce only 2.5 kWh of heat.
When the building is heated, then the heaters may have
to produce a large portion of the 7.5 kWh of lost heat to
maintain the same level of heating in the building. In this
way, the energy you have saved by installing more efficient
lighting will be offset by the additional heating required.
The net energy saving may be near zero.
If the electricity you save with the new lighting is more
expensive than the extra energy you need for heating,
you will save with your new energy efficient lights during
the heating season.
But if the electricity you save with the new lighting is less
expensive than the extra energy you need for heating,
your energy efficient lighting will not save as much as the
additional money you have to spend on heating during the
heating season.
In spring and fall, however, when neither heating nor air
conditioning is needed, your net energy savings will be the
same as the lighting system savings.
In summer, when the lighting system operates while air
conditioning is required, an additional 33 to 40 per cent
for air conditioning savings can be added to the lighting
energy savings.
Interactive effects do not apply to outdoor lighting.
Lighting retrofit takes into account
interactive effects
The following scenario looks at the loss of heating caused
by retrofitting a church gymnasium with energy efficient
lighting.
It is included to help religious facilities determine whether
retrofitting is economically feasible, given the possibility
that energy efficient lighting may increase heating costs by
producing less heat.
A gym in a church was used from September to June
(43 weeks) for about 47 hours each week. It was illuminated
by 45 large incandescent bulbs ranging from 300 to
500 watts.
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33
Energy used by the old incandescents and
proposed T8s
Existing lighting
No. of
fixtures
Lamps
per
fixture
Fixture
wattage
Hours/
year
Incandescent
15
1
500 w
2 021
15 158
Incandescent
15
1
400 w
2 021
12 126
Incandescent
15
1
300 w
2 021
Type of
lighting
Energy use
in kWh
9 095
36 379
Proposed lighting
Type of
lighting
T8 Fluorescent
No. of
light
fixtures
Lamps
per
fixture
Fixture
wattage
Hours/
year
45
4
120
2 021
Energy use
in kWh
10 913
Since the incandescent bulbs lasted only 750 to 1000
hours, and since it was a major effort to keep replacing
burned-out bulbs, the church decided to look into the
option of installing 45 energy efficient T8 fluorescent
fixtures, each housing four lamps and equipped with
electronic ballasts.
The new lamps would save electricity, shed about the same
amount of light, and last 20 000 hours, virtually eliminating
the difficult task of replacement.
Cost of the retrofit was estimated at $5000, but church
officials were reluctant to go ahead without confirmation
that replacing the incandescents would save money despite
eliminating their higher wattages, which were acting as
supplementary heating.
With assistance from their local Manitoba Hydro
representative, church officials calculated the energy
used by the incandescents by multiplying the wattage of
each bulb by the annual hours of operation and dividing
by 1000 to get kilowatthours. The same process was
used to calculate the energy that would be consumed by
the new T8 fluorescent lamps, assuming 120 watts for
each florescent fixture and ballast. For this evaluation it
was assumed that 90 per cent of the energy used by the
incandescent lights produced useful heat in the seven
heating months of October to April, only 50 per cent
was useful in September and May, and none was useful
in June. The gym was used very little in July and August,
so these months were not included in the calculations.
These amounts of useful heat or interactive effects from
the incandescents during the various months were used
to calculate the cost of the extra natural gas required to
replace the electric heat lost with the new lighting system.
Although the new lamps would reduce electrical
consumption for gym lighting by 25 466 kWh or $1775.75
per year, it was estimated that the heating system would
require an additional $1030.50 in natural gas costs to
replace the heat lost from the lights. The estimate takes
into account that natural gas is cheaper than electricity, but
the boiler system is only 65 per cent efficient. In summary,
when interactive effects were taken into account, actual
energy savings would be $745.25 per year.
To encourage customers to replace their old non-efficient
lighting systems with T8 fluorescent fixtures equipped
with electronic ballasts, Manitoba Hydro offers financial
incentives for replacement lamps that stay on at least 2000
hours per year. For a T8 fluorescent ballast installed in a
new fixture, the incentive is $30 per ballast for a standard
ballast and $35 per ballast for a premium ballast.
In this scenario, the incentive for replacing the 45
incandescent fixtures was $35 times 45 or $1575.
The incentive lowered the $5000 project cost to $3425.
With annual savings of $745.25, the simple payback was
4.6 years.
The benefits of the retrofit were considered acceptable
and the project was given permission to go ahead.
Actual savings with the new lighting, taking into account interactive effects
Time of year
Winter (Oct to Apr)
Annual energy
saved by
new lights
Annual electrical
savings with the
new lights
Interactive effect
(% electrical energy
that becomes heat)
Replacement
heat cost
Total saved
17 766 kWh
$1 238.89
90%
$883.29
$355.60
Spring/fall (Sep and May)
5 330 kWh
$371.67
50%
$147.21
$224.46
Summer (Jun)
2 369 kWh
$165.19
0%
$0.00
$165.19
25 465 kWh
$1 775.75
73%
$1 030.50
$745.25
Totals
*Total dollars saved include applicable taxes and assume a boiler running on natural gas with an efficiency of 65 per cent.
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APPENDICES
A. Forms for performing a “walk-through”
energy evaluation of your religious facility
1. General information
2. Electrical worksheet
3. Natural gas/propane worksheet
4. Bulk fuel worksheet
5. Lighting
6. Envelope
7. Water system
8. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
(HVAC)­
systems
9. HVAC—temperature setback
10.
HVAC—controls/fans
11. Office machines & equipment
12. Appliances & equipment
13.
Miscellaneous equipment
14.
Landscaping
B.
Power Smart Illustrated Guides
C.
Manitoba Hydro's Religious Building Audit Program
D. Power Smart Programs for Religious Buildings
E.
Case Study: Heat pumps prove feasible for
Calvary Baptist
F.
Improving the efficiency of a heating system
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APPENDIX A
Forms for performing
a walk-through energy evaluation
of your religious facility
The following forms have been developed to help you perform a walk-through energy
evaluation of your religious facility.
Fill them in, in the order they are presented, to get an overview of energy consumption
as a basis for identifying practical, cost-effective measures for reducing energy use and
lowering operating costs.
The first step is to record general information on Form 1, then fill in the forms for all
energy consumption from utility bills for the last 12 months.
Next, walk through the facility and identify all the equipment and processes that
use energy or cause it to be used. Note the size of equipment, operating hours and
temperatures, condition of insulation and weather-stripping, and gaps around doors
and windows.
Ask yourself questions such as the following to help you identify potential energy
reduction measures:
•
Does the equipment need to run as long?
•
Can the operating temperature be reduced?
•
Can smaller more efficient equipment be installed?
•
Can insulation be added?
•
Can windows and doors be improved or should they be replaced?
•
Can electrical equipment be operated at off-peak hours?
•
CAN YOU TURN IT OFF? TURN IT DOWN? TUNE IT UP?
If a more detailed technical analysis seems necessary, then this initial energy evaluation
will provide the important preliminary data needed for the detailed analysis.
Date: ____________________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
Facility name: ____________________________________________________________________________
Mailing address: ___________________________________________________________________________
Town:
_______________________________________________________ Postal code: ________________
Name of facility operator:_______________________________________________________________________ Title:_________________________________________________________________________________________ Phone number:__________________________________________________ Fax number:__________________ Name of person completing this form:____________________________________________________________ Title:_________________________________________________________________________________________ Phone number:__________________________________________________ Fax number:__________________ __________________________________________________________________________
Brief description of function or use of facility:______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Total floor area of facility (sq. m./sq. ft.):____________________________________________________________ Energy Efficiency Guide for Religious Buildings
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
2. ELECTRICAL WORKSHEET
Complete one form for each electric meter in your facility. The completed form is necessary,
as part of the information needed to establish your energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) baselines.
This information will also provide you with a much better understanding of your actual energy costs.
Facility name:_________________________________________________________________________________ Meter descriptor (entire facility, area, equipment, etc.):________________________________________________
Service - phase(s): ___________ Voltage: ____________
Utility company name: Manitoba Hydro
Account number: _______________________
Hydro rate class (e.g. General Service Small – Non Demand): _________________________________________
Year: _____________ No. of months: _____________
Provincial tax (%): ___________GST (%): ___________City tax (%): ____________
Electrical data
(A-adjusted, R-company read, E-estimated, V-verified, M-manual estimated)
Month/year, or
date meter read
Demand
Actual (kVA)
Billed (kVA)
Electrical
consumption
(kilowatt-hours)
Total cost $
Reading
type
(A,R,E,V,M)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12
Totals
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
3. NATURAL GAS/PROPANE WORKSHEET
Complete one form for each natural gas or propane meter in your facility. The completed form is necessary, as part
of the information needed to establish your energy usage and GHG baselines. This information will also provide you
with a much better understanding of your actual energy costs.
Facility name:__________________________________________________________________________________
Units of metering – imperial (Mcf, ccf): _____________ Metrics (cubic metres, or m3): ______________________
Utility company name: ___________________________________________________________________________
Account number: _______________________________ Rate code: ______________________________________
Fuel use (entire facility, area, equipment, etc.): _______________________________________________________
Year: ________________ No. of months: ___________________
Provincial tax (%): ______________GST (%): ______________City tax (%): _______________
Natural gas / propane data
(A-adjusted, R-company read, E-estimated, V-verified, M-manual estimated)
Natural gas / propane
consumption
units _______________
Month/year
or date meter read
Total
cost
$
Reading
type
(A,R,E,V,M)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Totals
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
4. BULK FUEL WORKSHEET
Complete one form for each bulk fuel (propane, oil, coal, wood, etc.) used in your facility. The completed form
is necessary, as part of the information needed to establish your energy usage and greenhouse gas baselines.
This information will also provide a better understanding of your actual energy costs.
Facility name:___________________________________________________________________________________
Fuel company name: ____________________________________________________________________________
Fuel type: __________________________ Fuel delivery units (litres, tonnes cords etc): ______________________
Account number: ______________________________ Fuel cost / unit: ___________________________________
Fuel use (entire facility, area, equipment, etc.): ________________________________________________________
Year: _______________ No. of months: _________________
Provincial tax (%): ________________GST (%): ________________City tax (%): ____________________
Fuel type ________________________________
Month/year
fuel delivered
Monthly fuel
consumption
units _______________
Total
cost
$
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Totals
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
5. LIGHTING
Facility: _____________________________________________
Location of lights: ___________________
Please use a new sheet for each area, location or room in the facility.
Existing lights and controls
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 4
Type of fixtures (see legend):
Number of fixtures:
Number of lamps per fixture:
If fluorescent indicate length of lamps
(2 ft, 3 ft, 4 ft, 8 ft):
Watts per fixture: (Include ballast wattage
if known)
Fixture height from work surface(ft/m)
Foot-candle level (if known) – measured at work
surface - foot candles
Present operation of lights - hours/day
Present operation of lights - days/week
Present operation of lights – weeks/year
Proposed operation of lights - hours/day
Proposed operation of lights - days/week
Proposed operation of lights - weeks/year
Present light levels: Bright __________Adequate _____________ Dim____________
Reflectance of walls and ceilings: Good _______ Average __________ Poor __________
Can lights be switched on and off as desired? Yes _____ No _____ Comment: ______________________
Can lower wattage lamps be installed? Yes ____ No _____ Comment: _________ _______________________
Can existing lamps/fixtures be retrofitted? Yes ____ No ____ Comment: ______ _______________________
Is there an automatic timer? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, is it set properly? Yes ____ No ____
Is there an occupancy sensor? Yes ____ No ____
If No, can an occupancy sensor be installed? Yes _____ No _____
Energy action plan ideas:______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________ _
Lighting Legend
A.- Incandescent
B.- Fluorescent T-12 C.- Fluorescent T-12 HO (high output)
D.- Compact Fluorescent
E.- Mercury Vapour
F.- Fluorescent T-12 VHO (VH output)
G.- High Pressure Sodium
H.- Low Pressure Sodium
I.- Metal Halide (white light)
J.- Fluorescent T8
K.- Quartz Halogen
L.- Exit lamp - incandescent
M.- Exit lamp—compact fluor.
N.- Exit lamp - LED
O. Other-specify __________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
6. ENVELOPE
Facility: ___________________________________________Direction wall face_________________________
For each wall area of facility (front, sides and back of a building) please use one sheet.
WINDOWS (Please circle appropriate Yes or No)
Are storm
windows used?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Description of window type
(double hung, slider, casement,
etc.)
Number of
glazings
No
No
No
Do windows
open?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Window fit
(poor, fair,
good)
No. of
windows
No
No
No
DOORS (Please circle appropriate Yes or No, and circle units used)
Are storm
doors used?
Is door Insulated?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Description of door type
(overhead, insulated metal,
wood, etc)
Condition of
door (warped,
cracked)
Door fit
(poor, fair,
good)
Number of
doors
Number/location of broken or cracked windows: __________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Description of door or window repairs or replacements needed (including door closers): ______________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Caulking: _______________________________________________
feet/metres required
Weather-stripping: _______________________________________
feet/metres required
INSIDE (Please circle appropriate Yes or No)
Insulation location
Insulated ?
Ceiling (attic)
Yes
No
Walls
Yes
No
Basement/crawlspace walls
Yes
No
Floor / slab
Yes
No
Present
thickness
Insulation Types
Location of drafts (use strip of tissue to locate): e.g., doors, windows, elec. outlets, attic hatches, cracks, etc.
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Is attic ventilation installed? Yes _____ No ____ Comments__________________________________________
Energy action plan ideas: _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
7. WATER SYSTEM
Facility name: __________________________________________________
Please fill in one sheet for each hot water tank. Please circle units used: e.g., gallons/litres
System components
Type of water heater, energy (fuel) used: __________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Tank storage capacity: __________________ gallons/litres
Number of tanks: _______________________
Recovery rate: ____________________ gallons/litres per hour
Size of heating element: _________________
Temperature setting: ___________ºC/ºF
Make, model, age: _____________________________________________________________________________
Tank insulation (type/thickness): if known __________________________________________________________
Is tank equipped with a heat trap?
Yes ________ No ________
Location, description of other heaters, if any: ______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Length of heated uninsulated distribution piping: ____________________ feet/metre
Hot water temperatures
(Please circle units used)
At showerhead: _________________ºC/ºF. At faucet nearest tank: ________________ºC/ºF
At dishwasher: __________________ºC/ºF. At washing machine: _________________ºC/ºF
At other location: (______________________________________):
_________________ºC/ºF
Showerheads, faucets, toilets, other (Please circle units used)
Showerheads: Rate of flow: _______ gallons/litres per minute. No. of showerheads _______
Faucets: Average use/day: ______ minutes per shower
Rate of flow: ________ gallons or litres per minute. No. of faucets ________
Number of toilets: ______ Tank Size:______ gallons/litres.
Dishwasher: Capacity: ________________ gallons/litres.
Times used per week:_______
Times used per week:__________
Washing machine capacity: ________________ gallons/litres. Times used per week: ______
Have cool water washing machines been tried? Yes ____ No ____ Comment: ____________
________________________________________________________________________________
Energy action plan ideas: _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
8. HEATING, VENTILATING & AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC) SYSTEMS
Facility name: _________________________________________________________________________________
Please use another sheet if required.
Air conditioning
Number of units: ______________________________________________________________________________
Make, type, size, location of each: _______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Frequency of servicing: ____________________________
Date of last servicing: _______________________
Has the HVAC system been “balanced”? Yes ________ No ________
Heat pumps
Number of units: ______________________________________________________________________________
Make, type, size, location of each: _______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Do they have auxiliary heating? Yes _______ No _______
If so, do they have controls that minimize use of that heating? Yes ________ No ________
Frequency of servicing: ____________________________
Date of last servicing: _______________________
Central heating plant and system
(Please circle units used)
Location: _____________________________________________________________________________________
Type of fuel used: _____________________________________________________________________________
Type of system (e.g., hot water, steam, warm air) __________________________________________________
If you have a steam system, when were the traps last checked? ______________________________________
Number of zones: _______________
Age of boiler or furnace: ______________ Type, condition of insulation on boiler: _______________
Age of burner: _____________________
Is domestic hot water heated by the boiler? __________________
Steam pressure ________________( PSI) Or hot water temperature ____________ (ºC/ºF)
Type and condition of insulation on air ducts or on distribution piping: _______________________________
Frequency of testing/cleaning adjustment: ___________
Date of last test/service: _____________________
Results of test (e.g., combustion efficiency, in %):
Energy action plan ideas: _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH”
ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
9. HVAC—TEMPERATURE SETBACK
Facility name: ______________________________________________________________________
Please use another sheet if required. Circle appropriate “Yes” or “No.”
Temperature setback schedule
Time of use of room
Day of week
group meets
Group’s name
(Scouts, Cubs,
choir, etc.)
Room name
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Start-time
Stop-time
Can temp be
setback during
unoccupied
times? Circle
“Yes” or “No”
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
Setback
temp
ºC
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
10. HVAC—CONTROLS/FANS
Facility name: ________________________________________________________________________________
Please use a new sheet for each zone, area, or room in the facility.
Controls/use (Please circle units used)
Location(s) and description of thermostats: _______________________________________________________
Location of setback clock/setback thermostat: ____________________________________________________
Cold weather thermostat setting ______ ºC/ºF. Is temperature set back at night and on weekends? ______
If “Yes,” what are setback times and temperatures for nighttime? ________ weekends? _________
Is temperature setback automatic? ___________ or manual?_____________
Hot weather thermostat setting: _________ ºC/ºF. Is temperature setup at night and on weekends? ______
If “Yes,” what are setback times and temperatures for: nighttime _________ weekend __________
Is temperature setback automatic? ____________or manual? ______________
How many hours a week and weeks per year is the system used?
Hours & weeks in hot weather __________________ Hours & weeks in cold weather ___________________
When is system turned on/off in relation to daily occupancy (i.e., before, after, by how long)?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Which areas are too hot? ______________________________________________________________________
Which areas are too cold? _____________________________________________________________________
Fans
(Supply, return, exhaust, circulating, etc. Please circle appropriate Yes or No)
Function:
(supply, return,
etc.)
Area served:
Fan operating hours
hours per days per
day
week
weeks
per year
Can fans be cycled to
reduce operating times?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Energy action plan ideas: ______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
11. OFFICE MACHINES & EQUIPMENT
(Computers, printers, photocopiers, etc.)
Facility name: __________________________________________________________________________________
Please use more sheets if required
Office machine
Machine type, location _________________________________________________________________________
Wattage (nameplate watts, or amps x volts): _______________________________________________________
Is it left on overnight? _____________________________
Daily hours of operation: ___________________
Over weekends? ____________________________
Hours per day it could be turned off: __________________
Office machine
Machine type, location _________________________________________________________________________
Wattage (nameplate watts, or amps x volts): _______________________________________________________
Is it left on overnight? _____________________________
Daily hours of operation: ___________________
Over weekends? ____________________________
Hours per day it could be turned off: __________________
Office machine
Machine type, location _________________________________________________________________________
Wattage (nameplate watts, or amps x volts): _______________________________________________________
Is it left on overnight? _____________________________
Daily hours of operation: ___________________
Over weekends? ____________________________
Hours per day it could be turned off: __________________
Office machine
Machine type, location _________________________________________________________________________
Wattage (nameplate watts, or amps x volts): _______________________________________________________
Is it left on overnight? _____________________________
Daily hours of operation: ___________________
Over weekends? ____________________________
Hours per day it could be turned off: __________________
Energy action plan ideas:______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
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Religious Building
“WALK-THROUGH” ENERGY EVALUATION FORM
12. APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT
Facility name: _________________________________________________________________________________
Please use another sheet if required.
Refrigeration and freezing (Please circle units used)
Type, age, energy used: _____________________________ Compressor rating: _____ hp; age: ______ years
Present temperature: ºC/ºF________ Hours per day of use: __________ Weeks per year of use: __________
Do doors close completely, by themselves? ____________ Condition of door seals: ____________________
Refrigeration and freezing (Please circle units used)
Type, age, energy used: _____________________________ Compressor rating: _____ hp; age:______ years
Present temperature: ºC/ºF________ Hours per day of use: __________ Weeks per year of use: __________
Do doors close completely, by themselves? ____________ Condition of door seals: ____________________
Refrigeration and freezing (Please circle units used)
Type, age, energy used: _____________________________ Compressor rating: _____ hp; age:______ years
Present temperature: ºC/ºF________ Hours per day of use: __________ Weeks per year of use: __________
Do doors close completely, by themselves? ____________ Condition of door seals: ____________________
Cooking (range, oven, grill, etc. Please circle units used)
Type, age, energy used:_________________________________ Temperature now used: ºC/ºF ____________
Is this lowest possible temperature? Yes ___ No ____ Is equipment turned off when possible? ___________
Are exhaust hoods installed over all cooking equipment? Yes ______ No ________
Cooking (Range, oven, grill, etc. Please circle units used)
Type, age, energy used:_________________________________ Temperature now used: ºC/ºF ____________
Is this lowest possible temperature? Yes ___ No ____ Is equipment turned off when possible? ___________
Are exhaust hoods installed over all cooking equipment? Yes ______ No ________
Cooking (Range, oven, grill, etc. Please circle units used)
Type, age, energy used:_________________________________ Temperature now used: ºC/ºF ____________
Is this lowest possible temperature? Yes ___ No ____ Is equipment turned off when possible? ___________
Are exhaust hoods installed over all cooking equipment? Yes ______ No ________
Energy action plan ideas: __________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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13. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
Facility name: ________________________________________________________________________
Please use another sheet if required.
Washer/dyer (if applicable)
Type, age, energy used: _______________________________________________________________________
Temperature now used: Hot ________ Warm __________ Cold _________
Are machines fully and properly loaded? Yes _________ No _________
Can lower washing/rinse water temperatures be used ? Yes _______ No ________
Dish washer #1 (if applicable)
Type, age, energy used: _______________________________________________________________________
Temperature now used: Hot ________ Warm __________ Cold _________
Are machines fully and properly loaded? Yes _________ No _________
Can lower washing/rinse water temperatures be used ? Yes _______ No ________
Dish washing #2 (if applicable)
Type, age, energy used: _______________________________________________________________________
Temperature now used: Hot ________ Warm __________ Cold _________
Are machines fully and properly loaded? Yes _________ No _________
Can lower washing/rinse water temperatures be used ? Yes _______ No ________
Car plugs (car, block or car & block heaters)
(Please circle appropriate Yes or No)
Function:
(car, block car
& block)
Plug operating hours
Description of parking lot served:
hours per
day
days per
week
weeks per
year
Can plugs be
cycled to reduce
operating times?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Energy action plan ideas: ______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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14. LANDSCAPING
Facility name: __________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Complete forms for “green” areas. The completed form is a necessary part of the information needed to establish
how your water is being used.
Irrigation practices:
Length of time irrigated
per week
Irrigated area
Sprinkler flow rate
Total water use
per week
Best management practices
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
50
Specifically mandate the use of heat-tolerant low-water use plants.
Limit turf areas.
Mow regularly, but leave grass 2 1/2 inches to 3 inches high.
Use mulch around groundcovers, trees, shrubs, etc.
Do not over-fertilize or over-prune.
Monitor for and fix leaks and broken sprinkler heads.
Ensure your irrigation system is efficient (rates of water flow for each area are appropriate)
Control application of water with moisture sensors or timers.
If possible, irrigate in the early morning to reduce evaporation caused by heat and wind.
Consider the use of a drip irrigation system rather than sprinklers.
Be sure hoses have shut-off nozzles.
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APPENDIX B
Power Smart Illustrated Guides
Manitoba Hydro has developed a series of eight illustrated guides for improving energy efficiency of homes.
Although they were developed for residential customers, the guides can be very helpful in showing you how to
make your religious building more energy efficient. They meet the needs of both experienced and inexperienced
renovators. Most of the work described can be completed by a volunteer with common household tools.
For a copy of one or more of these illustrated guides call 1-888-MB HYDRO (624-9376).
Guide 1: Sealing, Caulking &
Weatherstripping. Provides step
by step instructions to identify and
reduce air leakage in the home.
A thorough job of caulking and
weatherstripping reduces cold
drafts and makes your home more
comfortable while saving on your
heating costs.
Guide 5: Doors and Windows.
This illustrated guide provides
instructions on how to assess
the condition of a door or window
and the steps required to update
or replace.
Guide 2: Basement and
Crawlspace Insulation. Basement
and crawlspace walls can be
insulated from either the inside or
the outside. This booklet reviews
the advantages and disadvantages
of both methods and provides
details on the best ways to insulate.
Guide 6: Heating Systems. Shows
you how to maintain your heating
system between regular servicing
visits and deal with a furnace or
boiler that requires replacement.
Guide 3: Attic Insulation.
Retrofitting your home’s attic is
often one of the least costly and
most effective ways to reduce your
energy bills. This booklet provides
you the knowledge you need to
get the job done properly.
Guide 7: Water Heaters. Provides
maintenance tips, ideas on how to
reduce your water heating bills, and
instructions on how to replace a
hot water tank.
Guide 4: Wall Insulation. Although
it can be expensive, retrofitting
your home’s exterior walls can be
a good long-term investment. This
booklet guides you through the
various methods of insulating the
exterior walls of your house, for
comfort and savings.
Guide 8: Indoor Air Quality
and Ventilation. Helps you to
understand the relationship
between energy efficiency, indoor
air quality, ventilation, and your
health. It provides maintenance
tips and helps improve the
performance of your current
ventilation system.
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APPENDIX C
Manitoba Hydro’s Religious Building
Audit Program
Potential energy saving measures
The report for this type of audit provides a summary
showing total energy use and costs, as well as an energy
index which can be used to compare energy use in your
church building with other church buildings.
The report also shows estimated monthly energy
consumption compared to actual monthly use. This
comparison accomplishes the same purpose as an energy
balance and provides confirmation that the consultant has
properly estimated energy consumption for the various
energy using systems in the building.
The last part of the report is a list of potential energy
saving measures and the energy savings they would yield, in
dollars.
The energy audit report gives you a good understanding
of the energy savings potential in your religious facility.
Once you have investigated the actual costs you will be able
to make an informed decision on the best way to apply an
energy efficiency program to reduce energy use and costs.
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APPENDIX D
Power Smart Programs for Religious Buildings
Manitoba Hydro offers financial assistance and technical
guidance to its commercial customers to install the
most up-to-date energy efficient technologies in new
construction and renovation projects. With the help of
incentives under Power Smart, you can often recover the
cost of using approved energy efficient technologies in a
few years. Religious Buildings which are billed as commercial
structures are eligible for the commercial building programs
offered by Power Smart for Business.
Benefits include: lower heating and cooling costs, improved
occupant comfort, and longer building life. In saving energy
you also help save the environment. When you use less
electricity, we can defer the capital cost and environmental
effects of building more dams and transmission lines.
We can export any surplus electricity for revenues that
help keep our rates among the lowest in the industrialized
world. At a global level, the electricity we export reduces
emissions of greenhouse gases produced by other utilities
by “displacing” emissions from their fossil fuel burning
power plants.
For current information on Power Smart for Business programs and
incentives contact your Manitoba Hydro account representative, or:
Call 204-360-3676 (Winnipeg) or 1-888-624-9376 (toll free)
Email [email protected]
Visit hydro.mb.ca/psfb
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APPENDIX E
Case study:
Heat pumps prove feasible for Calvary Baptist
The following case history was prepared to explain how an
electrically heated religious facility determined that it would be
feasible to install heat pumps, then followed through with the
installation, which has added comfort year-round and saved on
energy bills despite an addition to the sanctuary.
It was prepared to convey the importance of conducting a
feasibility study if you consider that your religious facility could
benefit from installation of a heat pump.
For details on financial help with a feasibility study and
incentives for saving electricity with a heat pump, contact
Manitoba Hydro or visit our website at hydro.mb.ca.
W
hen Calvary Baptist Church in Killarney increased
the size of its sanctuary by 150 per cent, the
heating bills remained roughly the same as
before, and the church now has the added bonus of air
conditioning as well.
“In 1999 we increased our 2000-square-foot sanctuary
by another 3000 square feet, bringing the total to just over
5000 square feet,” says Mark Bryce, church treasurer.
“Then we tore out the old electric baseboards and installed
a new heat pump system. It uses two heat pumps that are
roughly the same size as a regular furnace.
“Our heating and cooling bills are now roughly $3400 a
year, compared with about $3000 a year just to heat the
building in the past, even though we now have over twice
the area.
“With all the air changes, you get a fresh-air feeling,
no matter what time of year, even when the church is
packed to the rafters.”
The system was installed with the help of a financial
incentive under Manitoba Hydro’s Earth Power
(Geothermal Heat Pump) Program.
The program offers information and financial assistance to
Hydro’s commercial, industrial, and agricultural customers to
install electrical energy saving measures in new construction
and renovation projects.
The level of financial assistance is based on electrical savings
determined in a feasibility study, which also qualifies for
assistance under the program.
The feasibility study, prepared by an engineering firm,
showed it would cost $51 000 to install a heat pump
system.
In contrast, adding more baseboards would have cost only
$32 000.
Costs in both cases included installing duct work for a
forced air system to handle air conditioning, which the
church wanted.
Heating and cooling the enlarged sanctuary would cost only
$2000 a year with a heat pump system, but $5000 a year
with baseboards and a conventional air conditioner.
Payback drops
“In other words, with our new heat pump system, we’re
getting twice the heat for about the same money, with air
conditioning thrown in.”
As a result, the heat pump system would normally have paid
for itself in 6.3 years. With the help of Manitoba Hydro’s
Earth Power (Geothermal Heat Pump) Program, the
payback dropped to three years.
Packed to the rafters
The heat pump system is complemented by energy efficient
windows and an air barrier system – both of which are
covered under the Commercial Building Envelope Program.
The new system consists of two heat pumps, each about
the size of a natural gas furnace.
The heat pumps use a forced air system to keep the church
warm in winter and cool in summer.
“It’s an incredibly even heating and cooling system,”
says Bryce.
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New windows in the church feature triple glazing and
high-density insulating spacer bars to improve energy
performance and reduce condensation.
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An air barrier system was also built into the walls of the
sanctuary, for energy savings and comfort.
In an air barrier system, polyethylene vapour barrier is
sandwiched between two layers of drywall on inside walls.
The strategy protects the vapour barrier by preventing
drafts caused by air pressure from wind.
Sheathing on outside walls is covered with Tyvek, an air
barrier material that allows vapour to pass through to the
outside, helping keep wall cavities moisture-free. Tyvek also
shields the interior polyethylene vapour barrier by keeping
the wind out.
The combined effect of the air-barrier system helps control
air leakage into and out of the building, reducing the
church’s heating and cooling bills and improving occupant
comfort.
Following in footsteps
The conversion from baseboard heating to a heat pump
system has inspired other churches in the Killarney area,
says Mark Bryce.
“I know of another church that plans on installing a heat
pump system this year. A third church expects to install
their new heat pump system in the near future.”
Other religious institutions are turning to heat pump
systems for the same reasons as Calvary Baptist Church in
Killarney.
Heat pumps are an environmentally friendly form of
heating and cooling, because they do not consume natural
resources.
They are extremely efficient compared with conventional
forms of heating and cooling.
Heat pumps also make a building so comfortable they
create a welcoming atmosphere in all seasons.
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APPENDIX F
Improving the efficiency of a heating system
Conventional heating equipment that burns fossil fuels
is typically in the range of 55 to 65 per cent efficient.
This is because these units have a pilot light that is always
burning (called a standing pilot). They also use a natural
draft venting system (draft hood) that results in a constant
flow of air through the boilers or draft hood and out the
venting system (chimney). When the heating system is in
standby mode, heat from the exchangers is extracted by
heated room air flowing through the heating equipment
and carried outdoors through the venting system. This loss
is referred to as stand-by loss. These conventional heating
systems can no longer be purchased for homes; they can
still be purchased for commercial facilities, but this is not
recommended.
When a natural draft heating system is firing, it removes
heated building air to the outdoors through the venting
system to maintain a constant pressure at the burners. This
air is referred to as dilution air. The stand-by and dilution
loss could represent five per cent to 30 per cent of the
natural gas consumption for these units.
A mid-efficiency natural gas heating system is about 80 per
cent efficient because it uses an electronic ignition to light
the flame instead of a standing pilot. It also uses a draft fan
which provides a draft only when there is a call for heat,
eliminating the outmoded draft hood.
A high-efficiency natural gas heating system is between
90 and 95 per cent efficient. These units include electronic
ignition, a draft fan, and a secondary heat exchanger that
removes additional heat by condensing the moisture in the
exiting flue gases.
A Power Smart incentive is available for high efficiency
ENERGY STAR® certified furnaces as well as qualifying
condensing and near condensing boilers.
Electric heating systems (boilers, furnaces, baseboards,
or plug-in heaters) are considered 100 per cent efficient.
The efficiencies of all these systems do not include the
efficiency of delivery or distribution, and can vary depending
on maintenance and other factors.
Heat pumps typically have a coefficient of performance
(COP) of two to three, which means that for every unit of
electricity used to operate the heat pump, two to three
units of heat energy are produced. This is sometimes
referred to as an efficiency of 200 to 300 per cent.
Converting your heating source –
How much could you save as a percentage of your current total heating costs?
Conventional (55%) to mid-efficiency (80%)
Conventional (60%) to mid-efficiency (80%)
Conventional (55%) to high efficiency (90%)
Conventional (60%) to high efficiency (90%)
Mid-efficiency (80%) to high efficiency (90%)
Electricity (100%) to heat pump (250%)
Savings as a percentage of current total heating costs
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R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
3.
Although a forced air system is easily converted
to a heat pump system, heat pumps produce low
temperature air at around 38˚C to 43˚C (100˚F
to 110˚F). As a result, ducts for hot air distribution
system(s) may have to be enlarged to ensure that
the same amount of heat is available to each room.
4.
Before replacing any existing building heating system,
detailed and itemized load calculations should be performed
by an engineer registered with the Association of
Professional Engineers & Geoscientists of Manitoba, or
by a contractor or technologist certified by the Heating,
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI)
or the Hydraulics Institute.
Hot water systems also use high temperature hot
water at 60˚C to 80˚C (140˚F to 180˚F) which is
hotter than is normally produced by a heat pump
system. An engineering study must be conducted to
ensure existing pipes and radiators are big enough
to carry the higher water flows required to maintain
adequate heating capabilities.
5.
Replacing an aging low efficiency heating system with an
energy efficient unit that uses the same fuel can be cost
effective, but care must be taken when converting to
another fuel, particularly an electrical or heat pump system.
Because a steam heating system uses very high heat,
replacing a steam heating system with a heat pump
will also require replacing all heating radiators, piping,
and controls. An engineering study is required.
6.
To install a closed loop system requires a large area
of land, either a lawn or parking lot, to install the
vertical pipes. If only a limited amount of land is
available, the more expensive open loop (two-well)
system can be used, provided adequate groundwater
is available. An engineering study is required.
7.
Setting back the temperature is not recommended
when using a heat pump system because the
recovery time is very long. Setting back the
temperature will also cause the supplemental
heating equipment to operate excessively,
reducing savings.
8.
Setting back the temperature when using an
electrical heating system will cause increased
demand charges, as all the electrical heaters will
come on at the same time to bring the temperature
back to normal, increasing the recorded demand.
Although a ground source or geothermal heat pump system
can reduce the cost of heating an existing electrically
heated building by 60 per cent, it is difficult to accurately
predict dollar savings resulting from the conversion of
a natural gas system to a heat pump system. There are
many factors involved, such as the impact of demand
charges, potential rate class changes, and the actual cost of
electricity (runoff or lowest block rate).
Converting to electric or geothermal
Considerations to be taken before converting to an
electrical or geothermal heat pump heating system:
1 .
A key consideration is whether your present
electrical service is large enough to handle the
increased load of an electrical heating system or a
heat pump with a supplemental electrical heating
system.
2.
An electrical heating system (either conventional or
heat pump) can result in a demand charge that will
offset some of the savings. The charge depends on
existing electrical consumption, load factor, and the
size of installed equipment.
Energy Efficiency Guide for Religious Buildings
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R E L I G I O U S B U I L D I N G S I N I T I AT I V E
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For more information on Power Smart for Business programs,
contact your Manitoba Hydro account representative or:
Phone 204-360-3676 (Winnipeg) or 1-888-624-9376
Email [email protected]
Visit hydro.mb.ca/psfb
Available in accessible formats upon request.
June 2017
Printed on recycled paper
*Manitoba Hydro is a licensee of the Trademark and Official Mark.
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