ON SCHOOL BUSES - National Child Passenger Safety Board

ON SCHOOL BUSES - National Child Passenger Safety Board
SPECIAL NOTE/February 2008
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION:
NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING (NPRM)
ON SCHOOL BUSES
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued a report in 2002 on the
results of a comprehensive school bus research program examining ways of further improving
school bus safety. Based on that research, the agency is now proposing several upgrades to the
school bus passenger crash protection requirements.
For new school buses of 10,000 pounds or less GVWR, the agency proposes to require lap/
shoulder belts in lieu of the lap belts that are currently specified.
For school buses with GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, the NPRM provides guidance
to State and local jurisdictions on the subject of installing seat belts. Each state or local
jurisdiction would continue to decide whether to install belts on these large school buses. The
NPRM proposes performance requirements for those voluntarily-installed seat belts on large
school buses manufactured after the proposed effective date.
Other changes to school bus safety requirements are also proposed, including raising the height
of seat backs from 20 inches to 24 inches on all new school buses.
The comment period on this NPRM closed on January 22, 2008 and a final rule is expected later
this year.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Chapter 1: Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Chapter 2: The School Bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on School Bus Specific seats,
and Integrated School Bus Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Chapter 8: Evacuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Guidelines for the Safe Transportation of Pre-school Age Children in School Buses. . 219
Child Restraint and Vehicle Manufacturer Contacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Federal Laws Guiding Special Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Sharing Student Health and Medical Information with School Transporters. . . . . . . . 229
Child Safety Seat Registration Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Child Safety Seat Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Quick Reference Guide to FMVSS and Reulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
FMVSS No. 213 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
LATCH Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
FMVSS for School Buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Transporting Children with Special Health Care Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Effective School Bus Occupant Restraints for Students with Special Needs. . . . . . . . . 257
IMMI Child Restraints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Cleaning and Maintenance of Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS). . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Child Passenger Safety Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Selecting and Using the Most Appropriate Car Safety Seats for Growing Children:
Guidelines for Counseling Parents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Child Passenger Safety: A Parent’s Primer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
School Transportation Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Glossary of Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Acknowledgements
This National Highway Traffic Safety Administration revised curriculum is designed to be a
comprehensive guide for currently certified Child Passenger Safety technicians who wish to
address the issues of transporting the pre-school population safely on school buses. In preparing
this edition, we have carefully re-examined all of the content, clarified or updated much of the
information from the previous edition and added a substantial amount of new information to
assist the technician in teaching this within the school bus community.
We are deeply grateful to the many Child Passenger Safety Technicians, Transportation
Directors, School Bus Drivers or Aides, Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists, Early
Intervention Specialists or other school personnel who contributed comments which helped us
prepare The Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training.
We wish to recognize the contributions of the following people. We apologize if we have
neglected to acknowledge all of the people who in some way shared their knowledge or expertise
with us.
Harvey Boatman
Betty Mason
Peggy Burns
Earl McMillen
Sharon Conrad
Connie Murray
John Goss
Leah Preiss
Carole Guzzetta
Alexandra Robinson
Bill Hall
Bob Rubin
Aaron Harris
Deb Trombley
Charlie Hood
Charlie Vits
Darlene Kennington
Peter Zimmerman
Miriam Manary
A special thank you to Carla Aguiar who provided the technicial assistance that was needed
to complete this project. We would also like to express our heartfelt appreciation to Roseann
Schwaderer, Edupro Group for making this project possible. Without her dedication to
transportation for special needs and pre-school children this curriculum would not have come to
fruition.
Thank you.
Charley Kennington
Sue Shutrump
Kathy Strotmeyer
Cheryl Wolf
Jean Zimmerman
March 2008
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Chapter 1:
Introduction
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety
Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 1
Introduction
Chapter 1: Introduction
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Activity 1: Meet your neighbor
• Share
– Your name
– School district,
Agency, or
company
– Reason you are
attending this
training
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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Meet your neighbor
Share your name, school district or agency and the reason
you are attending this training.
Chapter 1: Introduction
classroom notes:
Course Objectives
• Provide an overview of Child Safety Restraint
Systems (CSRS)
• Discuss school bus occupant protection systems
• Describe the challenge for school bus drivers in
transporting infants and preschool age children
• Describe the issues when using CSRS on school
buses
• Discuss the Federal role in occupant protection
and safety standards for occupant protection
• Instruct the correct installation of CSRS in a
school bus, including devices for children with
special needs
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This chapter will explain the course objectives and the role
of school personnel when transporting pre-schoolers on
school buses
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Guiding Principles
• Learn
• Practice
• Implement
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• Learn the skills and information
• Practice new skills
• Implement what you have learned
GOAL: Gain the information needed to provide safe
pupil transportation for infants and pre-schoolers
Chapter 1: Introduction
classroom notes:
Why are we here?
• School bus drivers are transporting
young children
• Preschool age children and infants
should be transported in CSRS
• School bus drivers are transporting
HeadStart Children
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1. More and more school bus drivers find themselves
transporting pre-school age children and infants.
• School districts are offering early intervention
programs/classes for pre-school children
• School buses are transporting Head Start
students
• School buses also transport pre-school age
children to childcare
2. Know your state law
• By law, most children age 4 and younger
must be transported in a child safety
restraint system in passenger vehicles.
3. However, even if it isn’t the law, national guidelines
based on research recommend that pre-school age
children be restrained in a CSRS during transport
in all vehicles.
4. This means that school bus drivers/attendants/
monitors need to know about child safety restraint
systems and how they work.
5. The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) has developed this
course to meet that need.
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Course Goal and Attendees
• To provide important child passenger
safety information to those who
transport preschool age children and
infants in a school bus
• Attendees
– School bus drivers/aides/mechanics
– Pupil transportation trainers
– Transportation Supervisors
• Child Passenger Safety Technicians
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1. To provide important passenger safety information
to those who are involved with transporting preschool age children and infants in a school bus
2. Who should take this course?
a. School bus drivers
• So they can be sure that the children
they are transporting are restrained
properly and safely
b. Pupil transportation trainers
• So that they know what the drivers
should know and can help correct misuse
when they see it
c. Child Passenger Safety Technicians
• To familiarize themselves with school
buses
Chapter 1: Introduction
classroom notes:
Best Practices
• Best practice is the gold standard of
protection. It is the most acceptable
way to transport a child safely on the
basis of the child’s age, weight,
height, body development and
behavior.
• Find the best way to transport a child
safely on a school bus.
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• Best practice is the gold standard of protection. It is
the most acceptable way to transport a child safely
on the basis of the child’s age, weight, height, and
body development.
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Course Format
• 8 Chapters
• Lecture, activities, and hands-on
practice
• Certificate of completion
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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1. In order to accomplish the objectives, the following
topics will be covered
a. Introduction to the course
b. School Buses
c. Seat belts
d. Introduction to Child Safety Restraint
Systems (CSRS)
e. Rear facing seats with practice installation
f. Forward facing seats with practice
installation
g. Safety Vests, Add-on Seats and Integrated
Seats with practice installations
h. Evacuations
2. The format will be a mixture of lecture and hands
on activities
a. In order to be able to safely transport infants
and pre-school age children on school buses
you need to have hands-on experience with
CSRS
Chapter 1: Introduction
classroom notes:
b. You have to know how to put the CSRS in
the school bus correctly
c. And you have to know how to put the child
in the CSRS correctly
3. At the conclusion of the course you will receive a
certificate of completion
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Basic Terms
• Occupant protection
• Child safety restraint system (CSRS)
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This review will reflect the terminology of the school bus
industry.
Occupant protection
Any system that provides protection to a vehicle’s
occupants in the event of a crash.
Includes:
a. Seat belts
Lap/shoulder belts installed on a certified
school bus seat
b. CSRS
The occupant protection systems used to
protect infants and pre-school age children
in the event of a crash
This is any device (except a lap belt) designed
for use in a motor vehicle to seat, restrain, or
position a pre-school age child
c. Add-on or integrated child safety seats
School bus specific CSRS
d. Safety vests
e. Compartmentalization
Chapter 1: Introduction
11
classroom notes:
School Bus Safety Facts
Safest form of
transportation:
• Larger and heavier
• Less likely to be in a
crash
• Conspicuous
• Meets stringent FMVSS
• Occupant protection:
– Compartmentalization
– Safety Belts required on
small buses
– LATCH required in two
seating positions on buses
under 10,000 pounds
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Resources for bus transportation:
• http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov
• http://www.nasdpts.org
• http://americanschoolbuscouncil.org/
• http://www.ncstonline.org/
• http://www.nsc.org
12
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Occupant Protection
Systems
• Occupant protection reduces the
crash forces affecting a child
passenger
• Three collisions in a crash
– Vehicle
– Human
– Internal
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How occupant protection systems work
1. They reduce the level of energy from a crash that
affects the child passenger
2. In every crash there are three collisions
a. The vehicle collision
• The vehicle collides with something
b. The human collision
• This impact throws around the vehicle’s
occupants so they collide with the inside
of the vehicle or are ejected from the
vehicle
c. The internal collision
• The impact of the occupant hitting some
part of the vehicle can cause internal
injuries as organs, including the brain,
are torn or bruised
Chapter 1: Introduction
13
classroom notes:
Occupant Protection
Systems
• Occupant protection works by:
– Holding occupants in place
– Spreading crash forces over a wide part
of body
– Spreading crash forces over strongest
parts of body
– Allowing body to “ride down” crash
– Protecting head and spinal cord
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Holding occupants in place so that they are not thrown
around and so that internal injuries are minimized or
prevented
• Spreading the forces over a wide part of the body
• Spreading the forces over the strongest parts of the
body
For older children and adults, the strongest
parts are the hips and shoulders
For infants, there really isn’t a strong part, so
the rear-facing seat cradles the entire body
and spreads the force over the entire back,
head, and neck
• Allowing the body to slowly “ride down” the crash
The belt and harness webbing stretch and
the vehicle seat cushions compress to let
occupants slow down more gradually than
the vehicle
• Protecting the head and spinal cord
The shoulder belt and the harness keep the
head and upper body away from the hard
surfaces of the vehicle
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
NHTSA Guidelines &
Regulations
• NHTSA “Guideline for the Safe
Transportation of Pre-school Age
Children in School Buses”
– Always transport in properly secured
CSRS
• HeadStart regulations
– Transport in allowable alternative
vehicle in appropriate CSRS
• Know your state laws
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1. The guidelines issued by NHTSA in February 1999
recommends that pre-school children transported
in school buses ALWAYS be transported in
properly secured child safety restraint systems
2. Head Start regulations governing the
transportation of Head Start students require that
they should be transported in school buses or an
“allowable alternative vehicle” in a child safety
restraint system appropriate to the individual child.
www.acf.hhs.gov
3. Know your state laws
Chapter 1: Introduction
15
classroom notes:
The Challenge
• School buses are now transporting
infants and pre-school age children
• How do we do it safely?
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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1. How do we safely transport infants and pre-school
age children in school buses?
a. How should they be secured in a CSRS?
b. How should the CSRS be secured in the
school bus?
2. References
a. Guideline for the Safe Transportation of
Pre-School Age Children in School Buses;
Can be found at: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/
people/injury/buses/Guide1999/prekfinal.
htm
b. Appendix - Glossary
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Chapter Review
• Introduced Course Expectations
• Learned Federal and State Laws and
Guidelines
• Discussed the School Bus
Environment and the Impact on
Preschoolers
• Introduced “Best Practice” Concept
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
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Review the Guidelines for the Safe Transportation of
Pre-Schoolers on School Buses, Feb. 1999 and Head Start
Regulations if they are applicable in your district/agency
Chapter 1: Introduction
17
Chapter 2:
The School Bus
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety
Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 2
Child Passenger Safety
and the School Bus
Chapter 2: The School Bus
19
classroom notes:
20
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Overview
• The traditional school bus was not
intended to transport preschool age
children.
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
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School buses are not designed to transport pre-school age
children.
Chapter 2: The School Bus
21
classroom notes:
Large School Buses
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Types of School Buses
1. Large
a. The school bus gross vehicle weight rating is
more than 10,000 lbs.
b. It is designed to carry more than 10 people.
c. It is intended to carry school age children
d. In most States, large school buses are not
required to have seat belts.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
School Buses Are Safe
• Less likely to be in a crash
– Mandated driver safety training
• Heavier than smaller vehicles
• Experience less crash forces
• Distribute crash forces differently
• Provide occupant protection through
compartmentalization
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1. School bus transportation is the safest form of
ground transportation. School buses are nearly 8
times safer than passenger vehicles. Getting to and
from the bus is more dangerous than riding the bus.
2. Buses are larger and heavier than most other
vehicles. The crash forces are distributed throughout
the vehicle differently and are also experienced by
the occupants differently.
3. School buses are safer than other vehicles because
a. They are less likely to be in a crash.
Mandated driver safety training.
b. They are heavier than a smaller vehicle
c. They experience less crash forces
d. They distribute crash forces differently
Chapter 2: The School Bus
23
classroom notes:
Compartmentalization
• Protective
envelope with 2
features:
• Closely spaced
seats
• Seat backs
that are:
– High
– Flexible
– Energyabsorbing
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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1. Compartmentalization is a passive occupant
protection system using the concept of eggs in a
carton
2. A protective envelope is created that consists of:
a. Closely-spaced seats (maximum of 24 inches
from the passenger hip joint to the seat back
in front of the occupant)
b. High-backed seats (top of the seat is 24
inches from the lower cushion) that are
flexible and padded on both sides to absorb
energy
3. To get the full benefit of compartmentalization
occupants must be seated
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Small School Bus
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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2. Small
a. The school bus gross vehicle weight rating is
less than 10,000 lbs.
b. It is required to have seat belts.
c. LATCH is required for two seating
positions in small buses made after
September 2002. Tether anchors are not
required in school buses.
Chapter 2: The School Bus
25
classroom notes:
Multi Function School
Activity Bus (MFSAB)
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3. The MFSAB is classified as a “school bus,” not a
“bus.”
a. The MFSAB must meet FMVSS 222, as
FMVSS 222 is presently written.
b. The MFSAB must meet all warning label
requirements applicable to school buses.
There is no label unique to the MFSAB.
c. The MFSAB meets all FMVSS except crash
avoidance equipment.
d. Because school bus color is regulated by
State law, NHTSA does not prohibit the
MFSAB from being painted National
School Bus Glossy Yellow.
e. Since the MFSAB would not pick up or
drop off students, on the street, there is no
need for traffic control devices such as the
4-way/8-way alternating flashing lights and
stop arms. Thus, the school bus flashing
lights and stop arms are not required by the
FMVSSs for MFSABs.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
School Buses and CSRS
• Most school buses are not designed
to accommodate CSRS
• Under certain circumstances, a
school bus can safely use CSRS
• The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) has set
standards to address school buses
and CSRS
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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1. Most school buses are not designed to
accommodate CSRS
2. However, in certain circumstances, a school bus can
accommodate CSRS
3. Standards for the school bus are set by the US
Department of Transportation. These standards are
called Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards or
FMVSS
Chapter 2: The School Bus
27
classroom notes:
What is the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration?
• NHTSA is the agency within the U.S.
Department of Transportation
focused on occupant safety
• Responsible for setting and enforcing
safety standards for motor vehicles
and motor vehicle equipment (for
example, CSRS)
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• NHTSA mission is to save lives, prevent injuries,
and reduce traffic costs through education, research,
safety standards, and enforcement activities.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Consumer Information –
Reporting Defects
• Transporter reports the problem
• Where to report it:
– Manufacturers
– www.odi.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/
recalls
– DOT Auto Safety Hotline
1-888-DASH-2-DOT
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• Each CSRS comes with a product registration form
that should be completed and mailed back to the
manufacturer.
• Manufacturers can then let product owners know if
there is a recall.
• If the child safety seat registration form has not
been sent in initially, it can be submitted using the
NHTSA CSRS Registration Form, provided in the
Appendix, or a registration form can be submitted
online thru the manufacturer’s Web site.
• Not all recalls directly affect performance.
For example, an error printed in the Spanish
instructions would not concern English readers.
• Some recalls do not impact crash performance (for
example, a defect reported about a carrying handle
may not affect the CSRS during a crash.)
• All recommendations provided by the manufacturer
should be followed.
Chapter 2: The School Bus
29
classroom notes:
FMVSS
• Federal
Motor
Vehicle
Safety
Standards
• 208
• 209
• 210
• 213
• 222
• 225
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There are many FMVSS that affect school buses – six of
which directly apply to CSRS in school buses.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
FMVSS 208
• Seat belts are required:
– In ALL seating positions of small buses
– For drivers only in large school buses
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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FMVSS 208: Tells what kind of occupant protection
certain vehicles must have.
• Seat belts are required in ALL seating positions
of small buses and for drivers only in large school
buses
Chapter 2: The School Bus
31
classroom notes:
FMVSS 209
• If a school bus didn’t come from the
factory equipped with lap belts and it
now has lap belts, make sure that:
– Lap belts were installed according to the
manufacturer’s instructions
– Retrofitted equipment is certified to
meet FMVSS 209
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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FMVSS 209: Gives requirements for seat belt assemblies
1. If a school bus didn’t come from the factory
equipped with lap belts and it now has lap belts,
make sure that:
a. The lap belts have been installed according
to the manufacturer’s instructions
b. The retrofitted equipment is certified to meet
FMVSS 209
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
FMVSS 210
• If a school bus
seat has a lap
belt, the seat
must be
reinforced
• No tied,
knotted,
looped
lap belts
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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FMVSS 210: This standard regulates what the seat belt is
anchored to.
1. In school buses, lap belts are anchored to the seat
frame
2. This means that manufacturers must reinforce
(strengthen) the seat frame that has a lap belt
3. Properly installed lap belts meeting Federal
standards will not be looped, tied, or slip knotted to
the school bus seat frame.
Chapter 2: The School Bus
33
classroom notes:
FMVSS 213
Provides performance standards
• CSRS up to 65 pounds
• Crashworthiness
• Flammability
• Buckle release pressure
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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1. This rule provides CSRS performance standards for
children up to 65 pounds.
2. Some of these requirements include:
a. Crashworthiness (how a CR holds up in a
crash)
b. Labeling and instructions
c. Flammability
d. Buckle release pressure
3. NHTSA tests CSRS on a vehicle bench seat in a
30 mph frontal crash involving crash test dummies.
4. LATCH-on CSRS have two parts:
a. Top tether reduces forward movement
(excursion). (school bus is exempt from the
use of a tether)
b. Lower anchors replace seat belts for
installation.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
FMVSS 213
• CSRS must have label stating:
– Manufacturer’s identification
– That it meets FMVSS 213 requirements
– Model number and date
– Basic instructions
– Size guideline
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
Chapter 2: The School Bus
2-16
35
classroom notes:
FMVSS 222
• Sets forth requirements for
compartmentalization
• Only applies to large buses
– Small buses required to have seat belts
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
2-17
FMVSS 222: Sets forth requirements for
compartmentalization for large school buses
1. Seat spacing needs are not the same for small and
large school buses because seat belts are required on
the small buses
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
FMVSS 225
• Also known as LATCH -
Lower
Anchors and
Tethers
for CHildren
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
2-18
LATCH-in vehicle has two parts
• Top tether anchorage points are exempt on school
buses.
• Lower anchorages in or near seat bight (the base/
crack of the seat; required in two seating positions
on small school buses)
Standard provides requirements for the location and
strength of child restraint anchorage systems for light duty
passenger vehicles manufactured after September 2002.
Additional information about FMVSS related to CPS can
be found in the Appendix.
FMVSS 225 General exceptions: (a) Convertibles and
school buses are excluded from the requirements to be
equipped with tether anchorages.
Chapter 2: The School Bus
37
classroom notes:
FMVSS 225 (cont’d)
Tether is
exempt on
a school
bus
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2-19
On a small school bus only the two lower anchorages will
be used
• In a school bus, a CSRS can be properly secured
without the upper anchorage (a tether strap)
• Only two seating positions in small school buses
will be required to have the lower anchorage system
• The anchorage system will be optional for large
school buses
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
School Bus and CSRS
• School bus must have:
– Seat belt properly placed and attached
– Reinforced bus seat
– Adequate room between bus seats
– Adequate aisle width
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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2-20
To safely install a child safety restraint system in a school
bus, you need
a. A lap belt that is properly placed
b. A reinforced bus seat
c. Adequate room between the bus seats
d. Adequate aisle width
Chapter 2: The School Bus
39
classroom notes:
Spacing Between Seats
• Recommend that rows be spaced to
the maximum spacing allowed
under FMVSS 222
• This is 24 inches
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
2-21
Adequate room between seats
• Strongly recommend the seats be spaced to the
maximum spacing allowed under FMVSS 222
• This is 24 inches
40
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Adequate Aisle Width
Aisle
39 inches
21 inches
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
30 inches
2-22
Aisle width
• The standard school bus aisle on a regular bus is 12
inches however it is easier to carry CSRS through
aisles that are wider than 12 inches
Chapter 2: The School Bus
41
classroom notes:
Chapter Review
• Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards set out how to safely
transport pre-school age children
• NHTSA also provides guidelines and
recommendations
• School buses can be retrofitted or
manufactured to meet those
requirements/recommendations
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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2-23
1. All school buses must meet certain requirements
2. These requirements are set out in Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standards
3. NHTSA also has other recommendations for the
safe transportation of pre-school age children
4. The Multifunction School Activity Bus (MFSAB)
is a sub category of a school bus
5. References
a. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
b. The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration
c. Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren
(LATCH), NHTSA
d. Safety Seat Registration Form
e. Recall and Defects Form
f. Child Safety Seat Questionnaire
g. Transporting Children with Special
Health Care Needs, American Academy of
Pediatrics
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
Chapter 3:
Seat Belt
Systems on
School Buses
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety
Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 3
Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
43
classroom notes:
44
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Chapter Objectives
• Identify seat belt parts and
anchorages
• Describe types of locking seat belt
systems and proper use
• Discuss other types of seat belt
systems you might see on a school
bus
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
3-2
45
classroom notes:
The CSRS and Seat Belt
Connection
• All seat belts are designed to lock in
a crash
• Correct CSRS installation requires a
pre-crash locked seat belt system
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-3
• Once installed the right way, a CSRS should not
move more then 1 inch side-to-side or front-toback. It will not fall over when the vehicle turns.
By keeping the lap belt webbing at a fixed length,
locking latch plates generally work well with many
types of CSRS.
• On a school bus the seat belt will lock at the
latchplate.
• A CSRS needs to be pre-crash locked at all times
in a vehicle so that the CSRS is correctly positioned
prior to crash.
• On a school bus the CSRS must be checked every
time the CSRS will be used.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Name the Seat Belt Parts
• Buckle
• Retractor
• Anchors
• Webbing
• Latchplate
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-4
You must learn the correct names for seat belt parts and
their function.
• Buckles accept the latchplate and hold the seat belt
in place.
• Retractors gather and store extra webbing
• Anchors are the places in the vehicle where seat
belts are attached.
• Webbing is the fabric part of the seat belt that
crosses the person or holds the CSRS.
• Webbing stretches in a crash and extends the time
that the deceleration forces are experienced by the
occupant to “ride down” the crash.
• Latchplate is the seat belt part that connects the
seat belt webbing to a buckle.
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
47
classroom notes:
Anchor Points
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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3-5
• Anchor points are the places where seat belts or
tethers are attached, generally at the factory, to a
strong location.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Lap Belt Properly Attached
Anchored to lap-belt
ready reinforced
seat
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3-6
Lap belt properly attached
• Anchored to a lap-belt ready reinforced seat
• Not looped or tied or slip knotted to the seat frame
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
49
classroom notes:
Seat Belt Systems With Pre-Crash
Locking Features: Locking Latchplate
Locked
Not Locked
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-7
• This type of pre-crash locking latchplate on the seat
belt can be found in school buses.
• This type of seat belt is generally good for a CSRS
installation.
• This latchplate has a locking bar found on the
bottom or back.
• If the seat belt and latchplate lie flat, the latchplate
will lock.
• If they are tilted, the latchplate will remain
unlocked. This is important when the seat belt is
placed around a CSRS because the seat belt and
latchplate must lay flat at all times to restrain the
CSRS.
• This type of latchplate locks when the seat belt
webbing is parallel or side by side to the latchplate.
• This type of latchplate will not lock when the seat
belt webbing and the latchplate are perpendicular—
up and down to each other.
• To check to see if the latchplate locks:
Buckle the seat belt.
50
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
Give a firm tug on the lap portion of the seat
belt while pulling up on it (makes the seat
belt and latchplate parallel).
classroom notes:
• Remember that the seat belt should not slide
through the latchplate under a moderate tug.
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
51
classroom notes:
Seat Belt Systems With Pre-Crash Locking
Features: More Locking Latchplates
Locking Part
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-8
• This type of seat belt system is not a typical system
for a school bus.
• On school buses not all pre-crash locking
latchplates look the same. Some have a bar like
you saw on the first slide; others have a sliding or
rotating metal or plastic piece.
• The locking piece clamps down on the lap part of
the seat belt when buckled. When pulled slightly
up and forward, much as if a body were moving in
a sudden stop, it locks.
• To test to see if the latchplate locks:
Buckle the seat belt.
Give a firm tug on the lap portion of the seat
belt while pulling up on it (makes the seat
belt and latchplate parallel).
Remember: The seat belt should not slide
through the latchplate with a moderate tug.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
When Do You Flip the Latchplate?
• Locking latchplate doesn't stay locked
when it should:
• Solution: Unbuckle and flip
Tilt
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
Flat
3-9
If the lap belt loosens:
• Unbuckle; flip latch plate one-half turn; re-buckle
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
53
classroom notes:
When Do You Twist the Buckle
Stalk?
• Helpful when the buckle
does not lie flat, is in
the belt path, or does
not allow the lockoff to
be secured
• Twisting the buckle will
make the webbing
shorter
• This will make the
buckle lower
• 3 twists maximum
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-10
Twist webbing on the buckle portion one to three times to
shorten the lap belt so the latch plate is placed lower and
away from the CSRS belt path.
Do NOT use a locking clip with a manually adjusting lap
belt
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Correct Lap Belt Length
•Non-adjustable end (buckle) of lap belt
extends no more than 1-2 inches
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-11
Correct lap belt length
• The non-adjustable part comes out from the crack
or bight of the seat (where the seat back and bottom
meet)
• Non-adjustable end of the lap belt must not extend
more than one to two inches from the seat bight
(where the seat cushion meets the seat back)
• The latch plate inserts into the buckle
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
55
classroom notes:
Correct Lap Belt Position
• Non-adjustable
end of lap belt
at aisle or at
center
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-12
Recommendations
• Number of lap belts per seat
School buses will be shipped with 3 sets of
lap belts per 39˝ school bus seat.
Non-adjustable end of the lap belt is
positioned at center (for a CSRS next to the
window) or at the aisle (for a CSRS placed
next to the aisle) for transporting pre-school
age children.
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classroom notes:
Retractor
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-13
No retractor
• Lap belt must NOT have a built in buckle
retractor; it must be manual adjustment only
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
57
classroom notes:
Non-anchored belt
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-14
This is an example of a seat belt that may be seen on
a non-FMVSS 210 school bus seat. Typically, this is
called a stretcher belt because it is one continuous piece of
webbing without an anchor system. This type of webbing
cannot be used to install any CSRS on a school bus.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Non-adjustable webbing
too long
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3-15
This equal length of webbing on this seat belt will not
allow for the proper installation of a CSRS on a school
bus. The buckle side should be 1-2 inches out of the bight
of the seat so that the buckle will not rest in the belt path
of the CSRS. If the school bus is equipped with this type
of seat belt system the entire system must be replaced.
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
59
classroom notes:
Loops verses anchor
attachments
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-16
This is another example of a seat belt that does not have
the proper FMVSS 209 anchors.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Bus Baby
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-17
This system has two separate anchors each with a buckle
and one piece of webbing with a latch plate on each side.
This system meets FMVSS 209 and can be installed on a
FMVSS 210 seat.
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
61
classroom notes:
Comparison of nonadjustable ends
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-18
This example of the two seat belts side-by-side
demonstrates the need to be exact in the school bus
specifications. The correct amount of webbing out of the
bight of the seat is 1-2 inches. But the specifications would
need to be approximately seven inches of webbing on the
non-adjustable side to accommodate the distance from
anchor points on the frame of the school bus seat.
An easier way to determine the correct length needed is to
measure from the center of the anchorage hole following
the belt path and read the measurement when it is 2 inches
out of the seat bight.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Bus Seat
• Starting from the front of the school
bus
• Must be 39 inches or wider to
accommodate two CSRS
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-19
Reinforced bus seat
• Best practice is to install CSRS at the front of the
school bus.
• Must be 39 inches or wider to accommodate two
properly secured CSRS.
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
63
classroom notes:
School buses can be ordered
with built-in (Integrated) CSRS
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-20
School bus seat can be ordered with built-in (Integrated)
CSRS.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Special Health Needs
• School bus drivers need extra
training to transport children with
special needs
• Whenever possible, pre-school age
children with special needs should be
transferred from a wheelchair to a
CSRS
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National Training
3-21
Children with Special Health Needs
• There are special steps that need to be taken for
transporting pre-school and special needs children
• School bus drivers need to have special training
specific to transporting students with special needs
• Some young children with special needs use
wheelchairs
• Whenever possible, these children should be
transferred to a CSRS
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
65
classroom notes:
Wheelchairs
• Some have labels stating they are
approved for transportation purposes
• WC/19: voluntary standard for
wheelchair crashworthiness
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-22
When it is not possible to transfer a child to a CSRS,
the wheelchair must be properly tied down and the child
properly secured
• Some wheelchairs have labels stating they are
approved for transportation purposes when the
mobility device is used as a seat in a vehicle.
• There is a voluntary standard for wheelchair
crashworthiness
Proper installation includes the following:
• Forward facing
• Lap/shoulder restraint
• 4 point tie down system
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
WC/19
• Wheelchair complying with WC/19
standard provides reasonable
measure of safe and suitable seating
–During loading and unloading
–During normal transportation
–In a frontal crash
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-23
The standard, finalized in May 2000, is ANSI/RESNA
WC/Vol.1 - Section 19 Wheelchairs – Wheelchairs Used
as Seats in Motor Vehicles
It is known as WC/19
A wheelchair that complies with WC/19 can be
considered to provide a reasonable measure of safe and
suitable seating.
• During loading and unloading
• During normal transportation
• In a frontal crash
WC 19 also requires 4 clearly marked and easily
identifiable tie down locations.
Presently limited models of wheelchairs are available with
WC/19 certification
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
67
classroom notes:
WC/19 Wheelchair
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68
3-24
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classroom notes:
Special Plans
• IEP: Individual Education Plan, for
children 3-21 years
• IFSP: Individual Family Service Plan,
for children 0-3 years
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
3-25
If a young child should be transported in a wheelchair,
that requirement will be specified in the child’s IEP or a
family’s IFSP
• IEP: Individual Education Plan, for children 3-21
years
• IFSP: Individual Family Service Plan, for children
0-3 years
Transportation personnel should be a part of the IEP
process if possible
See Glossary for definition of IEP or IFSP.
Chapter 3: Seat Belt Systems on School Buses
69
classroom notes:
Chapter Review
• Connection between pre-crash
locking seat belt systems and CSRS
installation
• Seat belt parts
• Types of pre-crash locking seat belt
systems
• Ways to secure a CSRS with a precrash locking seat belt system
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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Chapter 4
Introduction to
Child Safety
Restraint
Systems (CSRS)
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety
Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 4
Introduction to CSRS
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
71
classroom notes:
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Chapter Objectives
• List the types of Child Safety Restraint
Systems (CSRS)
• Identify how to select appropriate CSRS
• Identify CSRS parts and functions
• Discuss care of CSRS
• Review the importance of not modifying
CSRS
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-2
This section will discuss the various CSRS and introduce
the parts of a CSRS along with its functions.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
73
classroom notes:
Before Selecting a CSRS, You
Need to Know…
• Child’s weight, height, and age
• Physical, developmental, and
behavioral considerations of all the
children on the school bus
• Types of CSRS available
• Who else will ride in the school bus?
• It is important to have all the correct
information!
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-3
Some children with growth or body limitations will have
an Individual Education Plan (IEP) or Individual Family
Service Plan (IFSP) that will identify these limitations.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Types of Child Restraints
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Infant only
Convertible (rear facing, forward facing)
Forward Facing only with harness/Combination FF
Booster (belt positioning)
Special Needs Seats
Seat Belts
Add-on School Bus Specific Seats
Safety Vests
Integrated School Bus Seats
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-4
Begin to become familiar with the names of the different
types of CSRS.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
75
classroom notes:
CSRS Offer Protection in Five
Ways
• Keep the child in the vehicle
• Contact the strongest parts of the
body
• Spread the crash forces over a wide
area of the body
• Help the body to “ride down” the
crash
• Protect the head, neck, and spinal
cord
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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4-5
• CSRS work with the vehicle’s seat belt system or
LATCH.
• CSRS protect children the same way that seat belts
protect adults.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Remember Four Important
Steps
• Selection
• Direction
• Location
• Installation
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
4-6
77
classroom notes:
What is the “Best” Child Safety
Restraint Systems?
• The one that fits your child
• The one that fits your vehicle
• The one that you will use correctly
every time
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-7
• The best CSRS is the one that’s best for you! “You”
means the one who’s going to use it—driver, bus
attendant, and especially the child!
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
What is the “Best” Child Safety
Restraint Systems?
classroom notes:
• Correct for child’s
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Age
Height
Weight
Physical development
Fits the school bus seat
Easy to use
Comfortable for child
Meets FMVSS 213
Instructions available
Recall status known
Date of manufacture
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-8
• Physical development includes respiratory problems
and positioning needs. Children with special health
care needs may require a medical team approach for
restraint selection. These children may be able to
use a conventional CSRS.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
79
classroom notes:
CSRS Parts & Functions
Registration Card
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-9
• All CSRS manufacturers must provide a label on
the seat with their contact information.
• All CSRS owners are encouraged to register the
CSRS with the manufacturer either online or by
mailing in the registration card.
• Manufacturers use this information to contact
owners about safety issues, including recalls,
and are not allowed to use owner data for other
purposes.
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classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
T-Shield
Tray Shield
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-10
There are several harness types that meet FMVSS 213:
• Five-point: A harness that has five points of
contact; over each shoulder, one on each side of
the pelvis, and one between the legs, with all five
coming together at a common buckle.
• Three-point: A harness that has three points of
contact; shoulder straps coming together at a buckle
in the shell or on a crotch strap; not to be confused
with three-point (lap-shoulder) vehicle belt.
• T-shield: A triangular or “T”-shaped pad that
is attached to the shoulder harness, fits over the
child’s abdomen and hips, and buckles between the
legs. This type of seat is no longer manufactured,
although you may still see them.
• Tray shield: A wide, curved padded surface that
swings down around the child’s body and is
attached to the shoulder harness and crotch buckle.
It looks like a padded armrest, but is a basic part
of the harness system. It’s also called an overhead
shield.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
81
classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
• Padding/cover
• Shell/frame (behind cover)
• Labels
• Harness slots
• Harness straps
• Retainer clip
• Buckle
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
4-11
• Throughout the course you will have access to
different kinds of CSRS.
• There are changes to new models, so what you see
here may not be available next year or next month.
Pay attention to labels and become familiar with
how different seats look and adjust.
• Parts may be called different things by different
manufacturers, such as a lock-off/built-in locking
clip or splitter plate/connector.
Following are definitions we will be using for the different
parts. We will go into more detail about them later.
• Buckle: Where the harness locks.
• Harness: The straps that keep the child in the
CSRS and spread out the crash forces.
• Retainer clip: The plastic tie or clasp that holds the
shoulder straps together over the child’s chest at
armpit level.
• Harness Adjuster: This part is used to tighten or
loosen the harness.
• Harness Slots: The part of the CSRS where the
harnesses go through.
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Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
• Labels: Information affixed to the CSRS that is
required by Federal standards.
classroom notes:
• Shell/Frame: The molded plastic structure of the
CSRS.
• Seat Padding: This covers the shell and/or frame.
• Instruction Book/Storage Location: both are
required
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
83
classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
• Splitter plate
• Belt path
• Recline adjustment
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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4-12
• Belt Path: The place on the CSRS where the seat
belt or lower anchor strap is placed to secure the
CSRS in the vehicle.
• Recline adjuster: This allows convertible child
restraints to be reclined for rear-facing and semireclined or upright for forward-facing use.
• Splitter Plate: The metal plate that connects the
two ends of the shoulder harnesses to a single piece
of webbing used for adjustment.
84
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
CSRS Parts & Functions
• Lockoffs
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• Lock-off: A built-in belt-locking feature on the
CSRS that works with certain types of seat belts in
a similar fashion as locking clips.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
85
classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
• Locking clip
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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4-14
A locking clip comes with every new car seat. It is
designed to work with a lap/shoulder belt system that
locks on impact. This system is an Emergency Locking
Retractor (ELR) and is mostly seen in passenger vehicles
not on school buses.
• Locking Clip: A pre-crash positioning device that
holds the CSRS in the proper position during
normal driving.
• During a crash, the retractor will lock the seat belt
and keep the CSRS in place.
• The clip is provided with each new CSRS that has
a harness, unless the seat has a built-in lock-off.
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classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
Lower Anchors
And Tethers
For CHildren
– Tether
– Lower anchorage
attachments
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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4-15
• LATCH: Lower Anchors and Tethers for
CHildren.
• Lower anchor attachments: LATCH attaches the
CR to the vehicle through anchor points installed
in the vehicle and through anchor hooks attached
to the CR.
• School buses are exempt from the use of tethers
unless installing the larger special needs CSRS.
If a special needs CSRS must be tethered the
manufacturer of the CSRS would indicate this in
the instructions.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
87
classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
• Detachable base
• Adjustment foot
• Level indicator
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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4-16
• Adjustment foot: Part of the detachable base that
raises or lowers to allow a rear facing CR to be
installed with the correct recline angle.
• Detachable Base: A separate base for a CR that can
be installed in a school bus. The restraint (car seat)
portion can be removed from the base, and used as
an infant carrier.
• Level Indicator: The part of a rear-facing CR that
helps to identify correct angle.
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classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
Carry handle
Manufacturer supplied padding and inserts
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• Carry handle: Plastic handle attached to the rear
facing only CR that can be used to carry the
restraint with the child in it when removed from
the vehicle.
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classroom notes:
CSRS Parts and Functions
Foot prop
Anti-rebound bar
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• Foot prop: Rod or pole that extends from the base
of a rear facing CR to the floor of the vehicle.
Used to prevent or reduce excessive forward and
downward rotation in a crash.
• Anti-rebound bar: Hard plastic bar on the base
of some rear facing restraints that helps to reduce
movement of the restraint towards the rear of the
vehicle seat (rebound) in the event of a crash.
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classroom notes:
Modifying CSRS
• Never change a CSRS to make it fit
• Minor modifications can change the
way a CSRS performs in a crash
• Place rolled receiving blankets/towels
along the child’s side for support
• Place rolled cloth between the crotch
strap and crotch area to prevent
child slouching
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• Even minor changes can alter performance in a
crash.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
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classroom notes:
Activity 1: Use the Student
Workbook - Hands On
• Use the "classroom notes" section to
record your information
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Activity 1:
Use the Student Workbook - Hands On
Instructions: You will be placed in groups of two to
examine at least one CSRS.
While reading the labels respond to the following
questions:
• Weight/height range:
• Manufacturer name:
• Model name:
• Model number:
• Manufacturer phone number:
• Manufacture date:
• Expiration date (if included):
• How many belt paths?
• Is the CSRS on the Recall list?
Optional Activity: Student check recall status
• A Recall list can be obtained at this web site:
http://www-odi.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/
recalls/childseat.cfm
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classroom notes:
Used Seats:
Things to Consider
• Complete history available
• All labels and instructions present
• Meets Federal standards
• No recalls/recalls fixed (make, model &
date)
• All parts present and in working order
• Free of cracks, loose rivets, etc
• No more than 6 years old—may vary by
manufacturer
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Best Practice:
• School districts should provide, maintain and store
CSRS
• If the parent/caregiver provides the seat can you be
certain that the seat has:
º Been registered
º All working parts
º Age and history of the seat
º Never been in a crash
º Proper instructions
º Never been recalled
• The district should have a complete history of each
CSRS
º Was the seat exposed to extreme heat or cold
by being stored in a basement, garage, attic
or on the school bus?
• It is the district’s responsibility to be sure all parts
are present and in good working condition. It’s
important for the district to maintain records
regarding each CSRS history.
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classroom notes:
• The Juvenile Products Manufacturer Association
(JPMA) suggests replacing seats after 6 years.
• Safety vest manufacturers typically suggest
replacing them after 5 years.
• Expiration dates vary by manufacturer.
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classroom notes:
After a Crash
• CSRS, seat belts, and air bags are in
most cases, made to withstand one
crash
• CSRS replacement is not always
required:
– Review NHTSA criteria for assessing
crash severity and CSRS replacement
– Check with CSRS manufacturer for
guidelines to replace the product
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NHTSA position after a bus crash
• NHTSA recommends that CSRS be replaced
following a moderate or severe crash in order to
ensure a continued high level of crash protection for
child passengers.
• NHTSA recommends that CSRS on school buses
do not automatically need to be replaced following
a minor crash.
º Minor crashes are those that meet ALL of
the following criteria
• The school bus was able to be driven
away from the crash site
• The occupant space inside the school bus
near the CSRS was undamaged
• There were no injuries to any children
in CSRS, or serious injury to any other
school bus occupant
• There is no visible damage to the CSRS
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classroom notes:
CSRS Cleaning and
Maintenance
• Always follow the CSRS
manufacturer’s instructions
• Use only mild soap and water and
rinse with clean water
• Never use any chemicals such as
starch, bleach, or spray-on fabric
care/wrinkle guard products
• Never iron the harness
• Never lubricate the buckle
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Cleaning and Maintenance
• ALWAYS follow the manufacturer’s cleaning
instructions
• Use only mild soap and water and rinse with clean
water and air dry
• NEVER use any chemicals such as starch, bleach,
or spray-on “fabric care” products
• NEVER use industrial cleaners
• DO NOT iron the harness
• DO NOT lubricate the buckle
• DO NOT immerse the buckle
• Avoid wetting the labels
• NEVER place the shell under extremely high heat
• Replace the padding if it is torn or soiled
• Replace the harness if it is frayed or heavily soiled
º Padding and harness replacements must be
purchased from the CSRS manufacturer and
the instructions should be followed.
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º Generic padding and/or harnesses cannot be
purchased for use in a variety of CSRS.
classroom notes:
Storage and Inventory
• Storage location
º Clean, dry storage locker/closet away from
extreme temperatures when not on the
school bus
• Maintain a list of child safety seats which should
include the following information:
º Model number
º Manufacturer date
º Original instructions
º In use location
Recommendations:
School district/contractor can assign and train personnel
to:
• Check that maintenance is done
• Check for recalls
• Maintain an inventory system
• Provide proper storage
• Dispose of properly when necessary
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classroom notes:
Think about how you would
answer these questions:
• Can I use this CSRS after a crash?
• This seat was purchased at a garage sale.
Is it safe for the school district to use?
• I don’t know why my kids have to ride in
car seats. Why should they use them?
• Can I use this head padding? It came with
the seat.
• My child has autism. Can I put tape over
the retainer clip so he doesn’t get out?
• Why aren’t there seat belts on some
school buses?
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Things to consider:
• Can I use a CSRS after a crash?
º What is NHTSA reccomendation?
º What does the CSRS manufacturer say?
• Who should provide the CSRS?
• This seat was purchased at a garage sale. Is it safe
for the school district to use?
º Does transporter know the crash history?
º If so, how has it been stored?
º Are all the parts in good working order?
• I don’t know why my kids have to ride in car seats.
Why should they use them?
º How do CSRS provide protection?
º How effective are CSRS?
º What does NHTSA “Guideline for the Safe
Transportation of Pre-school Age Children”
say?
º What did the crash testing done with preschool size dummies show?
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• Can I use this head padding?
º Did it come with the CSRS?
classroom notes:
º Yes, if it is approved by the CSRS
manufacturer.
• My child has autism.
º Can I put tape over the retainer clip so he
doesn’t get out?
º Are you following CSRS manufacturer
instructions?
º What are some other options that would
provide the most protection and meet this
child’s special needs?
• Why aren’t there seat belts on some school buses?
º Some states require lap belts on school buses
(NY, LA, FL, NJ)
º Some states require lap/shoulder belts on
school buses (CA & TX)
º Under FMVSS 222 NHTSA requires
compartmentalization to protect school bus
passengers and does not believe lap/shoulder
belts would decrease fatalities on large
school buses.
Chapter 4: Introduction to Child Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
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classroom notes:
Chapter Review
• List the types of CSRS
• Identify how to select appropriate
CSRS
• Identify CSRS parts and functions
• Discuss care of CSRS
• Review the importance of not
modifying CSRS
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• What are the types of CSRS?
• How do CSRS offer protection?
• What is the best CSRS?
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Chapter 5:
Rear-Facing
Child Safety
Restraint
Systems
classroom notes:
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Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 5
Rear-Facing CSRS
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
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classroom notes:
Chapter Objectives
• Explain why children should travel
facing the rear of vehicle
• Teach selection, direction, location,
and installation of rear-facing CSRS
• Identify best practice and tough
choices
• Discuss medical conditions requiring
special attention
• Identify misuse
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103
classroom notes:
Why Children Should Travel
Rear-Facing
• Physical
Development
Child’s Body Proportions
– Babies have big
heads
– Bones,
tendons, and
muscles are not
fully developed
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• This slide shows how a child’s body changes as the
child grows. Different types of CSRS are made to
support the child’s growth.
• The infant’s head is larger and heavier in proportion
to its body than that of an older child. The
shoulders of an infant are narrow and flexible. This
is important to know for proper placement and
snugness of the CSRS harness straps.
• The child’s pelvis is small, rounded, and not fully
developed until puberty. This is important to know
because the lap belt does not always stay below the
hip bones on pre-school or elementary school age
children.
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classroom notes:
Why Children Should Travel
Rear-facing
• Increased crash
protection
• Spreads crash forces
along the entire head,
neck, and back
• Protects head, neck,
and spinal cord
• CSRS absorbs forces of
the crash
Video
Courtesy of Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
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• A rear-facing CSRS supports the entire head, neck,
and back in a head-on collision.
• In a head-on crash, the restraint cradles and moves
with the child, reducing stress to the neck and
spinal cord.
• It is the shell of the CSRS itself that absorbs the
forces in a head-on crash.
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classroom notes:
Rear-Facing Infant-Only CSRS
• This CSRS is rear facing only
• Use rear-facing CSRS to the
highest weight or height
allowed by the
manufacturer’s instructions
• Note head should be 1 inch
below the top of the shell
• Use in semi-reclined position
• Use harness straps at or
below shoulder level
• Use ONLY for transport
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• The infant seat is designed to be used rear facing
only.
• Many drivers may be tempted to place the infant
seat forward facing to allow them to view their
child more easily. This is a serious error and places
the child at a significant risk of injury/death in the
event of a crash.
• Drivers need to understand why it is important for
infants to always ride facing the rear.
• Some CSRS manufacturers recommend that
infants under 5 pounds not be placed in their
products. Always check the CSRS label for the
starting weight. Some CSRS say birth; others state
a specific number of pounds.
• Do not use the rear-facing seat above the weight
or height limits designated by the manufacturer.
Once child outgrows seat move to a rear-facing
convertible seat with a higher weight rating.
• The top of the child’s head should be well contained
within the shell (unless the manufacturer’s
instructions state otherwise) not less than 1 inch
from top of shell.
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• The harness needs to be snug and to hold the infant
down in the seat so he/she does not slide up in a
crash and suffer ejection from the car.
classroom notes:
Appendix—AAP C.S.S., A Guide for Families.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
Rear-Facing Convertible CSRS
• Use when babies
outgrow infant-only
CSRS
• Use rear-facing position
to the highest weight/
height allowed by the
CSRS manufacturer’s
instructions
• Use in semi-reclined
position
• Use harness slots at or
below shoulder level
• Use ONLY for transport
3 harness slots
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• Most new convertible CSRS are approved for rearfacing use with up to 30- to 35-pound children
and should be considered for infants whose weight
and/or height have exceeded the limits of the rearfacing-only CSRS.
• Always check the CSRS manufacturer’s
instructions for upper and lower weight/ height
limits.
• Drivers may wonder if legs are at risk for injury.
Children commonly sit with their legs crossed
or resting on the back of the vehicle seat. Risk of
injury to legs in a crash is low, and injuries to the
lower extremity are usually less severe with fewer
long-term complications than injuries to the head,
neck, or spine, which occur more commonly when
a child is seated in the forward-facing position.
• Because the rear-facing position is safest, children
should ride rear facing as long as possible (but never
exceed the manufacturer’s weight and height limits).
• Older children with poor head control who are
within height and weight requirements of a CSRS
benefit from staying rear facing longer.
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classroom notes:
Selection – Fits The Child
• Appropriate for weight and
height of child according to
CSRS instructions
• Infant’s back and bottom
are flat in CSRS
• Harness straps at or below
the shoulders
• Harness snug (pinch test)
• Harness retainer clip at the
armpit level
• Crotch strap that fits best
7 days old, 9 pounds
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• Select the CSRS that is right for the child’s weight,
height, physical development and behavioral needs.
• Select a CSRS with multiple harness slots and a
short crotch strap to offer many options for a small
but rapidly growing infant.
• Securing the infant in the CSRS:
º Place the infant in the CSRS. Put harness
straps over shoulders and buckle at the
crotch. The harness holds the infant down
low in the CSRS so he/she does not slide up
and out of the CSRS in a crash. The crotch
strap keeps the infant from moving forward.
º The harness straps should be at or below the
shoulders.
º Tighten harness straps snugly. NHTSA
requires CSRS manufacturers to state in the
instructions: “A snug strap should not allow
any slack. It lies in a relatively straight line
without sagging. It does not press on the
child’s flesh or push the child’s body into an
un-natural position.” You should not be able
to pinch excess webbing at the shoulder once
the harness is buckled. This is called the
“pinch” test.
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classroom notes:
º Place the harness retainer clip at armpit
level.
º Place blankets around baby after harness
is snug and secure. Thick padding placed
behind/under the child or under harnesses
can compress in a crash and create slack in
the harness.
º Use only the harness comfort covers or head
padding that the CSRS manufacturer has
included with the CSRS, or that the CSRS
manufacturer sells separately for the specific
CSRS.
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Selection – Fits The School Bus
classroom notes:
• Consider
bus seat
type and
size
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• Not every CSRS will fit in school buses.
• Many school buses are equipped with seats that
have less than maximum knee spacing. This makes
the installation of a rear-facing CSRS difficult.
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classroom notes:
Pinch Test
• Test at child’s
shoulder
• Try to pinch
webbing up and
down
• Your fingers should
slide off
Harness straps are too loose
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At child’s shoulder, try to pinch webbing up and down,
your fingers should slide off.
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classroom notes:
Selection – Easy to Use
• Front versus back
harness
adjustment
• Seat belt versus
lower anchors
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• Selection based on age, weight, height, physical
development, and behavioral needs of the child.
• Convenience factors:
º Number and position of harness strap
slots—Is there “room to grow”?
º Automatic or one-step harness adjustment
mechanisms: Is it easy to tighten and loosen
the harness straps?
º Infant-only CSRS versus rear-facing
convertible CSRS? Although it may be more
economical to purchase a convertible CSRS,
it may be more difficult to install on a school
bus.
º Detachable base options on infant-only
seats: Extra bases can be purchased for every
vehicle transporting the infant.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
Rear-Facing Harness Adjusters
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• Harness hardware can include manual adjusters,
“A-lock” (adjuster device on front of many seats),
metal harness adjuster, or rod/slot systems (a rod is
inserted in appropriate fabric loops at the end of the
harness).
• Air bag warning label: A permanent label must be
visibly affixed on rear-facing or convertible CSRS.
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Direction – Always Rear Facing
• For optimal
protection, use rearfacing CSRS to
highest weight or
height according to
the CSRS instructions.
• At a minimum, use
rear-facing CSRS until
child is at least 1 year
old and at least 20
pounds
classroom notes:
14 months, 24 pounds
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• The rear-facing position is generally safest, children
should ride rear facing as long as possible but
should never exceed the manufacturer’s weight or
height limits.
• For rear-facing, the shell of the CSRS absorbs the
forces of the crash across the entire head, neck and
back, while forward-facing, the harness, across a
smaller proportion of the body, absorbs the forces of
a crash.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
Location
• CSRS should be placed in the front
seats of a school bus
• Consider needs of other passengers
• Choose seat belt or lower anchor
system (Do not use both)
• Never in front of an emergency exit
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• Always consider the needs of each passenger.
• Plan where each person will sit.
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classroom notes:
Installation – Rear Facing
Basics
• Correct belt path
• Appropriate recline angle
• Tight and locked in place
– Using seat belt or
– Using lower anchors
– (Do not use both)
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• Look on the CSRS for belt path arrow or label.
• Read the CSRS manufacturer’s instructions to
identify the correct belt path.
• To install a rear-facing CSRS correctly, an
individual must secure the CSRS with an
appropriate recline angle using the correct belt
path.
• The seat belt or lower anchors must remain tight
and locked around the CSRS.
• Consider seating positions that have seat belts or
lower anchors that will stay tight.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
Installation – Angle
• The driver should use angle
given in CSRS
manufacturer’s instructions
(30 to 45 degrees)
• CSRS spreads crash forces
along the entire head, neck,
and back
• Correct position helps keep
airway open
• CSRS may be moved more
upright as child grows &
ages
Courtesy of Kathleen Weber
Child Passenger Protection Research Program
University of Michigan Medical School
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Correct recline angle:
• Follow CSRS manufacturer’s instruction for
acceptable rear-facing recline angle.
• Not all manufacturers recommend the same angle.
• As baby ages and obtains better head control, he/
she may sit more upright. This can actually provide
for improved crash protection.
CSRS recline indicator:
• The recline angle indicator is part of the CSRS and
should be used as indicated by the manufacturer.
Seat slope
• Steep angle may cause infant to ride too upright.
Maintain correct recline angle.
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classroom notes:
Installation Angle
• Use recline adjuster as
needed
• Use a firm lightweight
object to help recline
the CSRS
• Do not allow firm
lightweight object to
get in the way of seat
belt or lower anchors
• Avoid too much recline
• Follow CSRS
manufacturer’s
instructions
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5-16
• Many rear-facing CSRS have an adjustable base
(foot) that is used to correct the angle.
• For CSRS that do not have an adjustable base, a
firm lightweight object (i.e., a tightly rolled towel or
pool noodle cut to the width of the CSRS) can be
placed at the bus seat crack or bight.
• Use as few as possible.
• Then the CSRS can rest on the firm lightweight
object to maintain the correct angle. This is helpful
when CSRS are used on vehicle seats that are not
flat like those used in the testing laboratory.
• Always consult CSRS manufacturer’s instructions
for how to obtain proper angle.
• Unless the CSRS manufacturer indicates otherwise,
a rule of thumb is to use either the adjustable base
(foot) or firm lightweight object—but not both
(unless allowed by CSRS manufacturer). The CSRS
is not tested this way.
• Remember that the school bus must be on a level
surface.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
Installation –
Seat Belt or Lower Anchors
• Install tightly using seat
belt or lower anchors
• Grip CSRS at belt path
to check
• Make sure CSRS does
not move forward or
side-to-side more than 1
inch
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• CSRS must be installed with a seat belt or with
lower anchors—do not use both. While the systems
are different, they are equally safe.
• General methods to obtain a tight installation:
• Place CSRS on bus seat in the proper direction and
at the correct recline angle.
• Place the seat belt through the belt path as directed
by the manufacturer.
• Place hand in the CSRS to compress the bus seat
cushion.
• Buckle, tighten, and lock the seat belt or lower
anchorage system.
• Remember that the CSRS should not move
forward or side-to-side for more than 1 inch.
• Be sure to check CSRS installation for tightness
before each use.
º To test the installation, grip the CSRS at
or near the belt path and pull on the CSRS.
There should be no more than 1 inch of
side-to-side or forward movement at the belt
path.
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º Many drivers who mistakenly grab their
rear-facing CSRS near the baby’s head
(instead of near the belt path) think the
CSRS is not installed properly because it
moves more when tested at this point.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
classroom notes:
121
classroom notes:
Common Selection Errors
•
•
•
•
•
•
Using outgrown CSRS
Child too small/young for CSRS
Using non-FMVSS 213-certified device
Using a CSRS that is too old
Using a CSRS with unknown history
Using a CSRS that has been involved in a
moderate to severe crash
• Using a CSRS under current recall
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Common Selection Errors
• Using a CSRS the child has outgrown.
• Using a household carrier (or other device that does
not meet FMVSS 213) as a CSRS.
• Using a CSRS beyond its usable life. (JPMA
recommends a 6-year life for CSRS. Some CSRS
manufacturers allow their product to be used
longer. Check instructions.)
• Using a second-hand CSRS that is missing
instructions and parts and/or has an unknown
history.
• Using a CSRS that has been involved in a moderate
or severe crash. Using an un-repaired recalled
CSRS. (Note: This is especially dangerous if recall
is related to the crash-worthiness of the CSRS).
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classroom notes:
Harnessing Errors
• Not used
• Too loose
• Routed through wrong slots
• Not doubled back, if needed
• Knotted, pinned, or otherwise
incorrectly secured
• Not placed on child correctly
• Frayed or damaged
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• When inspecting a CSRS, it is important to
take the CSRS out of the vehicle and look it over
thoroughly inside and out. It may look and feel
correct, but without taking the CSRS out to check
it, you might miss something critical.
• Harnessing errors can be hidden behind padding or
under the seat, etc.
• Some common problems:
º Child not using harness (just sitting in the
CSRS).
º Harness too loose.
º Retainer clip not at armpit level.
º Harness routed through the wrong slots
(Note: A harness may look as though it is
properly routed through the pad, but it may
not be routed correctly through the shell.)
º Harness not doubled-back through the metal
adjuster, if needed.
º Harness knotted, pinned or incorrectly
routed.
º Harness not placed on the child correctly.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
º Harness frayed or damaged.
º Metal adjuster not flush with slot or out of
position.
º Crotch strap adjusted too long, or not
through slot closest to the child.
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classroom notes:
Installation Errors
• Seat belt or lower anchor straps too
loose or not locked
• CSRS facing the wrong direction
• Use of wrong belt path
• Incorrect recline angle
• CSRS installed using both seat belt
and lower anchors unless allowed by
manufacturer
• Incorrect lower anchor use
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There are a variety of ways CSRS are installed incorrectly:
• Seat belt or lower anchor straps too loose or not
locked.
• Rear-facing-only CSRS that is facing forward.
• Seat belt or lower anchors routed incorrectly.
• Incorrect recline angle (especially for a young
infant).
• Using two seat belts, or using a seat belt and lower
anchors together (unless allowed by the CSRS and
the vehicle manufacturers).
• Incorrect use of lower anchors. Not using the
appropriate lower anchors. Attaching them upside
down.
• Carrying handle not used as specified. (Check with
CSRS manufacturer’s instructions).
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
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classroom notes:
Always look in the manuals
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• Using carrying handle position as an example
(above), there are a number of acceptable positions.
Always look in the owner’s manuals
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Special Consideration –
Children With Special Health Needs
• First option is to
use a standard
CSRS if it meets
the child’s
needs:
• Easier to find
and use
• Less expensive
classroom notes:
19.5 pounds, 13 months
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5-22
• Safe transportation for many children with special
health needs may be provided with a standard
CSRS rather than a special needs CSRS.
• Appropriate CSRS selection should be made with
the child’s medical professionals.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
127
classroom notes:
Special Consideration – Small and
Premature Infants
• Use rear-facing CSRS with
small internal harness
dimensions
• Use CSRS designed for
child’s low weight
• Center infant in CSRS with
rolled receiving blankets and
crotch roll, if necessary
• Use CSRS only for
transportation
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5-23
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classroom notes:
Special Consideration –
Small and Premature Infants
Three-Point Harness
Five-Point Harness
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5-24
• Photos here show the proper fit of three-point and
five-point harnesses with a small infant.
• In the picture on the right the padding is part of
the child restraint.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
129
classroom notes:
Special Consideration – Tough Choices for
Small and Premature Infants
T-Shield
Tray Shield
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Why would these CSRS not be appropriate for a small
infant?
• T-shields/Tray shields may not work for small or
premature infants because the baby’s face would
be too close to the T-shield or Tray shield, which
could make breathing difficult.
130
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Misuse – What’s Wrong With This
Picture?
classroom notes:
• Determine what is
correct or incorrect
with the CSRS
installation
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Use the “classroom notes” area to write in what is wrong
with these pictures.
Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
131
classroom notes:
Misuse – What’s Wrong With This
Picture?
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5-27
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Misuse – What’s Wrong With This
Picture?
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Chapter 5: Rear-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
classroom notes:
5-28
133
classroom notes:
Chapter Review
• Describe an infant’s physical traits that require
special attention during travel
• Describe ways that rear-facing CSRS provide
additional protection during travel
• Identify all parts on a:
– Rear-facing infant CSRS (with and without a base)
– Rear-facing convertible CSRS
• Identify correct CSRS installation techniques
• Describe correct placement of harness straps,
harness retainer clip, carrying handle, etc.
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On the basis of this chapter, please answer the following
questions:
1. How do you determine which harness slots to use
for a rear-facing child?
2. What is the correct way to secure a child in a rearfacing infant or convertible seat?
3. What steps must be taken to install a rear-facing
CSRS?
4. How do you find the correct belt path?
5. How tightly should a rear-facing CSRS be
installed?
6. What is the lowest weight and youngest age for
turning a child forward facing?
7. What type of CSRS may be considered for a small
or premature infant who cannot travel in a standard
CSRS?
134
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Chapter 6
classroom notes:
ForwardFacing Child
Safety
Restraint
Systems
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Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 6
Children in Forward-Facing
Child Restraints
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
135
classroom notes:
136
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classroom notes:
Chapter Objectives
• Explain the requirements for placing
a child in a forward- facing CSRS
• Describe correct CSRS selection,
direction, location, and installation
for a child in a forward-facing CSRS
• Discuss types of medical conditions
that require special consideration for
transportation
• Identify and correct misuse
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6-2
137
classroom notes:
Conventional CSRS
• Meets child’s needs
• Cheaper
• Easier to find, use, and install
• Appropriate for children with special
health care needs
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6-3
• A conventional seat is a CSRS that is readily
available to the public—usually from a retailer. The
manufacturer’s instruction manual should be read
and followed carefully. Conventional CSRSs are
different from special needs CSRSs.
• Many children with special needs can use a
conventional CSRS (not a special CSRS).
• Correct CSRS selection should be made by the
child’s medical team (therapist, doctor, parent/
caregiver, and CPST)
• It is best if the medical teams have received
transportation-specific special needs training.
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classroom notes:
When Do You Use a Forward-Facing
Seat?
At a minimum:
• Child is at least 1 year of
age and at least 20 pounds
• Children should remain in a
forward-facing CSRS with a
full harness until they
reach the top weight or
height allowed
• Child has reached the
highest allowed rear-facing
weight of the CSRS
VIDEO
VIDEO
12 month old – rear and front-facing
Courtesy MGA Research
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6-4
• When the child reaches the highest weight or
height limit allowed by the rear facing restraint
• Child’s ears should not be above the top of the shell
• At a minimum, child is at least 1 year of age and at
least 20 pounds.
• If a convertible restraint, be sure to read
instructions on what needs to be done to convert
from rear to forward facing.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
139
classroom notes:
Selection: Types of Harnessed
Forward-Facing CSRS
• Forward-facing convertible CSRS
• Combination seat with harness
• Forward-facing-only CSRS
• Large medical seats/vests
• Integrated seats
• Safety vests
• Add-on school bus specific seats
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• Many internal harnesses for CSRS are rated at
the weight limit of 40 pounds. This is because
the harnesses have been crash tested by the
manufacturers only to the weight of 40 pounds.
• Manufacturers are aware of how these harnesses
will react in a collision because of these crash
tests. If a child weighing more than 40 pounds is
involved in a collision in a harness with a weight
limit of 40 pounds, it is unknown how the harness
will perform.
• There are CSRS available that allow a higher
weight limit for the harnesses. The manufacturer’s
instruction manuals should be read and followed
carefully.
140
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classroom notes:
Forward-Facing Convertible Seat
Forward-facing:
• CSRS in upright
position
• Some manufacturers
allow a semi-reclined
position
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6-6
• The manufacturer’s instructions for many CSRSs
recommend that they be in the upright position
when forward facing.
• Some manufacturers meet testing standards
with their seat in a forward-facing, semi-reclined
position, as well as fully upright. Consider this
position if child has special needs (discussed later
in this chapter) or if seat belts cannot be made tight
when the CSRS is upright.
• Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
141
classroom notes:
Identify Reinforced Harness Slots
Harness:
• Can be five-point or
Tray Shield
• In reinforced slots at
or above shoulders
• Some CSRS must
use top slots when
turned to face
forward
• Reinforcement is not
always visible
Only top harness slot is reinforced
Top two harness slots are reinforced
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• Reinforcement may not be visible and structures
that look like reinforcement may not be.
• The only way to know for sure is to read the
manufacturer instructions.
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classroom notes:
Combination CSRS
• Forward facing
only
• Multipurpose
• Follow weight limit
for internal
harness (refer to
CSRS instructions)
• Choose harness
slot at or above
shoulders
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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6-8
• The combination CSRS is used with a harness until
a certain weight specified by the manufacturer is
reached.
• Always check the manufacturer’s instructions for
the highest weight allowed by the harness.
• After a certain weight specified by the
manufacturer is reached, the harness must be
removed.
• Then the seat can be used as a belt-positioning
booster but only with a lap and shoulder belt. Any
harness slot can be used as long as it is at or above
the child’s shoulders.
• When determining correct fit, make sure that the
child’s ears are not above the top of the shell.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
143
classroom notes:
Seats With Higher Harness
Weight Limits
• Forwardfacing-only
CSRS:
• Weight limits
vary
Label stating weight limit
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• These seats are sometimes used for children with
special health care needs on a school bus or for
those heavier than 40 pounds.
• The harnesses on these CSRSs serve children to
higher weight limits.
• CSRS with higher weight limits may require
tethering to the safety belt directly behind the
installed CSRS.
• Always follow the manufacturer’s installation
instructions.
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classroom notes:
Harness Adjustments
• Child’s back and bottom
flat in CSRS
• Correct harness slots
and crotch strap slot
• Harness snug (pinch
test)
• Retainer clip at armpit
level
• Use to highest weight
and height limits
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6-10
• Bulky clothing can interfere with proper harness
fit. Avoid bulky clothing or padding behind child.
Bulky jackets can be put on backwards (over child’s
arms and torso) after harness is secured. Place
blankets over and around child after harness is
snug.
• Children should sit with:
º Back and bottom flat against CSRS seat
back.
º Harness placed through proper slots.
º Harness straps placed over shoulders and
buckled at the crotch.
º A snug harness lies flat and passes the pinch
test. Tighten harness straps snugly.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
145
classroom notes:
Correct
Forward Facing Seat
• Fits the child
• Fits the school
bus
• Easy to use
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• The seat should be correct for the child’s age, size,
physical development, and behavioral needs. Try
before you buy is always a good plan.
• Fits the child:
º Appropriate for weight and height of child.
º Harness straps at or above the shoulders.
• Once school district personnel have selected a CR
that fits the child, it should be tried in the school
bus to make sure that it can be installed properly
and securely.
Check:
• Whether it works with seat belt or LATCH
system.
• The seat should be easy to use with respect to:
º Front versus back harness adjustment.
º Ease of use with seat belt or LATCH system
if available.
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classroom notes:
Location: Other Factors in
School Buses
• Position of other
occupants
• Width of bus seat
• Size of CSRS
• Seat belt or LATCH
system
• Emergency exits
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6-12
• Consider the needs of each child and how they
relate to the needs of other children or adult
occupants on the bus.
• Although there may be many seating positions on
a school bus, not all will necessarily be suitable for
installation of a CSRS.
• Never place CSRS in an emergency exit.
• Drivers may have to install certain CSRS on the
bus because of a special behavioral or postural need.
• Weight limits on lower anchors and the need to
tether a special needs CSRS to the seat behind
can affect the seating position choice. Check the
manufacturer’s instructions on the special needs
CSRS to determine if the CSRS must be tethered
due to the upper weights.
• Consider how many other children are usually
transported to determine the safest seating
positions for all occupants.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
147
classroom notes:
Seat Belt or Lower Anchors:
Demonstration
• Tightly securing the CSRS
• Install tightly using seat
belt or lower anchor
system
• Grip CSRS at belt path to
check
• Keep in mind that CSRS
should not move forward
or side-to-side more than
1 inch
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When installing the CSRS in a school bus:
• Place the CSRS on the selected bus seat in the
proper direction and at the correct recline angle.
• Place the seat belt or lower anchors through the
CSRS belt path as directed by the manufacturer.
• Buckle the seat belt or secure lower anchors.
• Place hand in the CSRS and use leverage to
compress the bus seat cushion while tightening the
seat belt or lower anchors.
• Tighten as much as possible to allow for secure
placement without causing damage to the bus or
CSRS. How tight is tight enough? Use information
from the last chapter to answer this.
• Test the installation, grip the CSRS at or near
the belt path, and pull on the seat. There should
be no more than 1 inch of side-to-side or forward
movement at the belt path.
• CSRS must be installed with one seat belt or with
lower anchors. A CSRS is designed to be installed
with one seat belt or with lower anchors. Check
both the vehicle and CSRS instructions.
• Never place noodles or towels under a forward
facing CSRS.
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classroom notes:
Special Considerations
22-105 pounds and 56
inches or less
22-102 pounds and
36-60 inches
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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65-130 pounds and
54-66 inches
6-14
• In some ways, the approach for selecting the best
restraint for a child with special needs is the same
as for any child.
• Sometimes a specially adapted CSRS is needed
when a conventional CSRS does not meet all needs.
• In some cases a special-needs CSRS may be
physician prescribed and may need to be ordered
from a medical supply company.
• These seats may have higher weight limits for the
internal harness or other special features to help the
child sit in a certain way. Additional head or trunk
control may be the reason to select one of these
seats.
• Manufacturer’s instructions should be read and
followed carefully.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
149
classroom notes:
Tethering Special Seats
• Follow the manufacturer instructions
regarding when to tether special seats.
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6-15
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Special Considerations: Casts and
Other Conditions
classroom notes:
• Follow weight limits
using casted weight
• Specialized CSRS for
children
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6-16
• Hip casts can affect children’s ability to sit up.
Other restraints may be necessary.
• Never transport a child with special needs on a
reclined vehicle seat.
• Some children may require professional transport.
• Other conditions such as cerebral palsy may make
selecting a conventional CSRS difficult because
breathing or another life-threatening factor may be
involved.
• Use the resources found in this course to help the
caregiver make an informed decision about using a
special needs CSRS.
• Go to www.aap.org or www.preventinjury.org for
specific product recommendations.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
151
classroom notes:
Selection Errors
• CSRS
• CSRS
• CSRS
• CSRS
• CSRS
not appropriate for child
that child has outgrown
that is more than 6 years old
with unknown history
under current recall
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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6-17
These common errors are a problem for children’s safety:
• CSRS is not appropriate for the child.
• Sometimes transporters may not know to look for
weight and height requirements; they may choose
the wrong seat for a toddler or even an infant.
• School districts may use a car seat that is too old.
Transporters may not always be aware of the 6-year
suggested lifespan of a CSRS. Some manufacturers
place a stamped expiration date on their CSRSs.
• The CSRS may have no known history. Perhaps it
was obtained through a yard sale, flea market, or
other method. Do not use!
• The CSRS could be under current recall. The
school district may not have received information
about a current recall.
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Special Considerations: Child
Attitudes and Behavior
classroom notes:
• Child may not want to use restraints
consistently
• Behavior may distract the driver
• Driver may require special training to
deal with these issues
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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6-18
• Drivers must have all of the information regarding
the child’s behavior plan in order to understand
the behavior and how to manage it. The behavior
may be caused by a child’s medical condition, such
as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD).
• Sometimes children’s behavior may be related to
their stage of growth. They may not only resist a
CSRS but also exhibit other resistant behaviors
• Drivers may also work with the parents for some
additional insight into the child and the behaviors.
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
153
classroom notes:
Harnessing Errors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Harness not used
Routed through wrong slots
Knotted or pinned or incorrectly secured
Harness straps too loose
Harness not placed on child correctly
Harness straps frayed or damaged
Retainer clip not at armpit level
Crotch strap too long or wrong position
Using "add-ons" not approved by the
CSRS manufacturer
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6-19
• At this point in the class, you should feel
comfortable explaining how to correct these
common harness errors.
• Go through each one and see if you feel you can
clearly explain why each of these errors could be
dangerous to a child.
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classroom notes:
Harnessing Errors
Wrong Slots
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Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
6-20
155
classroom notes:
Harnessing Errors
Wrong Slots
• Frontal impact 38 mph
into tree
• 16-month old secured FF
in rear-center seat
• Harness in lowest slots
contributed to injury
severity
• Spinal cord injury
resulting in quadraplegia
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6-21
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classroom notes:
Harnessing Errors
Harness Straps Too Loose
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Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
6-22
157
classroom notes:
Selection (Optional) and
Installation
Outside Practice - Hands-On
• Using the information on “your child”:
• Set up the CSRS so it is correct for the
child, (harness, angle, lower anchors, etc.)
• Install a forward-facing convertible CSRS
and forward-facing-only CSRS in the
school bus seats provided
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6-23
Selection and Installation
• Selection activity is optional
• Installation activity is required
Instructions:
• Your instructor team will demonstrate this activity
first.
• Team members will select a CSRS, adjust it
properly, and then install it on a school bus seat
correctly.
• Working in student teams, you will become school
bus drivers of a child with a specific age, weight,
height, or special need.
• You will select the correct CSRS for the child,
adjust the harness straps and angle, and determine
the belt path.
• Then your team will work together to install your
CSRS.
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classroom notes:
Installation Errors
• Wrong belt path used to install CSRS
• Incorrect recline angle
• Both seat belt and lower anchor
systems used in CSRS installation
(unless allowed by manufacturer)
• CSRS not secured by seat belt or
LATCH system
• Seat belt or LATCH system too loose
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6-24
• At this point in the class, you should now feel
comfortable explaining how to correct these
common installation errors.
• Go through each one and see if you feel like you
have a good way to explain why each of these errors
could be dangerous to a child.
• Check manufacturer’s instructions.
• CSRS must be installed with one seat belt or with
lower anchors
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
159
classroom notes:
Installation Errors
Wrong Belt Path
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6-25
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classroom notes:
Installation Errors
Seat Belt Too Loose
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Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
6-26
161
classroom notes:
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
4 years old –
43 pounds
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What’s wrong with this picture?
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classroom notes:
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
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6-28
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
163
classroom notes:
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
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6-29
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
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classroom notes:
Activity 2
Chapter Review
• Describe those physical characteristics of
children that require special travel
considerations
• Identify all CSRS parts on forward-facing
CSRS
• Identify correct CSRS installation methods
• Describe correct placement of harness
straps, harness retainer clip, and proper
belt path
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6-30
Chapter Review—Please answer these questions on the
worksheet by using the information that you learned in
this chapter:
1. How do you determine which harness slots to use
for a forward-facing child?
2. What is the correct way to secure a child in a
forward-facing CSRS?
3. What steps must be taken to install a forwardfacing CSRS correctly?
4. How do you determine the correct belt path?
5. How tightly should a CSRS be installed?
6. What type of CSRS may be considered for a child
who weighs more than 65 pounds and who has a
behavior problem that makes a booster seat a bad
choice?
7. When should you use a top tether to install a FF
CSRS?
Chapter 6: Forward-Facing Child Safety Restraint Systems
165
classroom notes:
Activity: Selection and
Installation Hands-On
• Using information known about “your
child”:
• Select the correct CSRS for child,
including the harness
• Install on available school bus seats:
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6-31
Selection and Installation
Instructions: In small groups, you will select and install
CSRS by children’s age/weight/height:
• Select the appropriate CSRS for your child.
• Adjust harnesses to fit your child.
• Install in school bus a rear-facing infant CSRS
with or without a base and a rear-facing convertible
CSRS in a school bus.
• Look for a child (card with age, weight/height) to
be assigned to your team
º L/S belt
º Lap belt only
º Lower anchors
• Repeat for rear-facing infant CSRS or rear-facing
convertible CSRS.
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Chapter 7
Safety vests,
Add-on seats,
and Integrated
School Bus
Seats with
Practice
Installations
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety
Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 7
Safety vests, Add-on school bus specific
seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats
with Practice Installations
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on Seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats with Practice Installations
167
classroom notes:
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classroom notes:
Objectives
• Describe use of safety vests
• Describe use of add-on school bus
specific systems
• Describe use of integrated seats
• Practice installation of safety vests
and add on systems
• Practice putting a child in each
system
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7-2
This chapter will introduce you to the different types of
safety vests, add-on school bus specific seats and integrated
seats. You will learn how to install the systems and how to
use with children.
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on Seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats with Practice Installations
169
classroom notes:
Safety Vest
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Parts
• Make sure the safety vest used has been crash
tested for the size child it is being selected to secure
• Safety vests are included in FMVSS 213 and thus a
crotch strap must be used with a child up to 65 lbs.
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classroom notes:
Reasons for Using a Safety
Vest
• Child is too big for a CSRS (must be
at least 20 lbs.)
• No lap belts available on school bus;
no other school bus available
• Behavioral problems or when a
child’s actions cause safety concerns.
• Child needs positioning assistance
• Other medical problems
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7-4
• Some school systems might not have a car seat that
is the appropriate size for some children
• Since the safety vests rely on a portable seat mount/
Cam wrap, safety vests can be used on a non
FMVSS 210 bus seat where there would be no lap
belts.
• Other reasons to use a safety vest:
º Behavioral problems or when a child’s
actions cause safety concerns.
º Need positioning assistance, i.e. too small to
sit on school bus seat without support.
• Other medical problems, i.e. trunk muscles too
weak to sit without support
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on Seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats with Practice Installations
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classroom notes:
Safety Vest
• Entire seat directly behind must be
unoccupied or have restrained
occupants
– Restrained means any form of restraint
IE: lap belt, lap/shoulder belt, car seat,
safety vest, or add-on seat
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7-5
Reasons this is so important
• The child in the safety vest may experience an
unsafe degree of head excursion caused by the
unrestrained child behind them pushing into their
seat in a crash.
• The child in the second seat would not fully benefit
from compartmentalization.
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classroom notes:
Safety Vests
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• Some vest systems are comprised of two parts: the
portable seat mount or Cam wrap and the vest.
• Portable seat mount or Cam wrap
º Long wide strip of webbing that wraps
around the bus seat back
º Fastens with buckle
º Hip straps are sewn on to portable seat
mount/Cam wrap
º Shoulder straps are attached to portable seat
mount/Cam wrap
• Vest
º Vest system with hooks at the shoulders and
hips
º Crotch strap must be used with children
under 65 lbs
º Zipper adjustments
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on Seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats with Practice Installations
173
classroom notes:
E-Z-ON Seat Mount
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
7-7
• Always follow Manufacturer’s instructions for the
E-Z-ON Vest.
• Comes in 4 sizes from ages 2 yrs – 4 yrs to adult
• Weight range of 20-168 lbs
• Crotch straps are standard on XXS – S
• Portable or sewn on crotch straps are available to
order M-L and meets FMVSS 213
• Procedure for Correct Installation of Safety Vest
Portable Seat Mount
º Unbuckle safety release on the school bus
seat
º Lift bench seat
º Wrap portable seat mount around the bus
seat back and buckle it. The push button
closure faces the seat back
º Leave hooks for hip anchor on the seat – The
upper hooks should face the front side of the
backrest.
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º Remember that the mount strap has to be so
tight it causes an indentation in the top of
the bus seat.
classroom notes:
º Be sure to re-latch the safety release on the
bus seat.
• Procedure for securing the child in the safety vest.
• Be sure that the vest fits snugly and is low enough
that when the child is seated the bottom of the vest
touches the child’s upper thighs.
º Child wearing safety vests climbs or is lifted
on the bus seat.
º The child should be seated with their bottom
against the bight of the seat cushions and
shoulders and back against the seat back.
º Secure the lower pelvic straps first
º Adjust shoulder straps so that they keep
the shoulders snug against the seat back but
also allow the buttocks to stay on the seat
bottom.
º Be sure to rethread the loose end of the
adjustable shoulder straps to lock them.
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classroom notes:
BESI Vest
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
7-8
• Follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding
the size of the BESI vest.
º BESI vests
n
Comes in 3 sizes
n
For waist range 22 to 28 inches up to
waist range 38 to 44 inches
n
Comes with two separate zipper inserts
that gives you the ability to adjust to
any size child. Inserts expand the vest 2
inches and 4 inches. Both inserts may be
zipped together to expand the vest up to
6 inches.
n
Vests are color coded by size. And the
seat mounts are color coded to match the
vest.
• Procedure for Correct Installation of the Besi Vest
Portable Seat Mount
º Unbuckle safety release on the school bus
seat
º Lift bench seat
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º Wrap portable seat mount around the bus
seat back and buckle it. The release button
closure faces into the seat.
classroom notes:
º Leave hooks for hip anchor on the seat – The
upper hooks should face away from the
backrest.
º Remember that the mount strap has to be so
tight it causes an indentation in the top of
the bus seat.
º Be sure to re-latch the safety release on the
bus seat.
• Procedure for securing the child in the safety vest.
º Be sure that the vest fits snugly and is low
enough that when the child is seated the
bottom of the vest touches the child’s upper
thighs.
º Child wearing safety vests climbs or is lifted
on the bus seat.
º The child should be seated with their bottom
against the bight of the seat cushions and
shoulders and back against the seat back.
º Secure the lower pelvic straps first
º Adjust shoulder straps so that they keep
the shoulders snug against the seat back but
also allow the buttocks to stay on the seat
bottom.
º Be sure to thread the adjustable shoulder
straps to lock them.
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classroom notes:
Q’Vest
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
7-9
• Q’Vest consists of:
º The main vest assembly
º The “Y” belt
º The lower pelvic support (crotch strap)
º The seat strap
• Installation Instructions:
º Disconnect the seat cushion securement
brackets so the seat is free to be raised
slightly.
º Place the seat strap around the seat back
only with the Velcro overlap on the front
face of the seat back.
º Hand-tighten the seat strap until there is a
slight indentation on the top edge of the seat
back cover and foam.
º Adjust the location of the two webbing
guides with one as near the top of the seat
back as possible and the other several inches
below the top of the backside.
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º Next, lay the “Y” belt on the top of the
seat cushion with red release buttons facing
upward.
classroom notes:
º Attach the female buckle of the lower
pelvic support strap, or crotch strap to the
matching male buckle of the “Y” belt.
º Raise the seat cushion slightly and pass
the end of the “Y” belt (with the female
buckle and snap hook) through the opening
between the seatback and seat bottom.
Continue passing the belt in front of the
loading bar. NOTE: Ensure the “Y” belt
passes over the loading bar.
º Lower the seat cushion and adjust the “Y”
belt until no more than 5 inches of webbing,
including the buckles, is showing from the
bight of the seat.
º Adjust the lower pelvic support strap until
the buckle is in the bight of the seat.
º Reattach the seat cushion with the seat
securement brackets. NOTE: The “Y”
belt will now be pinched between the seat
cushion bottom and the seat loading bar and
will not move.
º Attach the Q’Vest tether strap to the “Y”
belt that is under the seat back.
º You may use either the snap hook or the
female buckle.
º Increase the length of the tether strap
to allow sufficient adjustment for initial
placement on the child.
• Placing the child in the Q’Vest
º As you are placing the child on the seat,
center the child between the “Y” belt
buckles and place them on top of the padded
lower pelvic support.
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classroom notes:
º Starting with the child’s arm raised, position
the vest on the child by placing it over their
head and then pass the arms through the
shoulder securement straps.
º Attach both ends of the lower pelvic support
(crotch straps) to the female buckles on the
vest panel.
º The panel should sit low on the lap of the
child.
º Tighten both lower pelvic support straps
until snug and the panel is low on the lap of
the child.
º Attach both male ends of the Q’Vest lap belt
to the “Y” belt female buckles.
º Adjust the lap belt until snug.
º With the vest in the proper position on the
child, pull the tether strap, located behind
the seat back, as tight as possible.
º The vest should be snug and the child
comfortable.
º Tuck any loose webbing from the tether
strap behind the tether or seat strap so other
passengers cannot pull the strap.
º Close the two webbing guides from the seat
strap over the tether strap to prevent it from
sliding.
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classroom notes:
Add-On School Bus
Specific Seat
• A 5 point restraint system that is
added onto a school bus seat and
attached by means of a cam wrap
technology
• Can be used on a non FMVSS 210
bus seat
• Entire seat directly behind must be
unoccupied or have restrained
occupants
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
7-10
• A 5 point restraint system that is added onto a
school bus seat and attached by means of a cam
wrap technology.
• Can be used on a non FMVSS 210 bus seat.
• Entire seat directly behind must be unoccupied or
have restrained occupants
• For use only on school bus seats
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classroom notes:
Installation
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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7-11
Installation
• Place the STAR restraint on the bus seat.
• Place the three (gray, tan and black) cam wrap
straps around the school bus seat back.
• Insert the short gray and tan straps connected
to the rear of the STAR seat base through the
opening at the bight of the seat.
• Connect the gray cam wrap to the gray seat base
strap. Connect the tan cam wrap to the tan seat
base strap. Pull the adjuster straps to tighten the
gray and tan cam wrap straps.
• Once the gray and tan cam wrap straps are tight,
use the two Velcro strips or plastic keepers on each
strap to secure the free ends of each strap.
• Now take the black strap that is attached to the
front of the seat – bring it under the bus seat and
attach to the black strap hanging at the seat back
• Pull tight and use the two Velcro strips or plastic
keeps to secure the free ends of the black strap.
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Securing Students in STAR
Restraint
classroom notes:
Student Transportation Add-on
Restraint
STAR
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
D-40
7-12
• Release the harness clip and metal latches from the
buckle, allowing the child to sit in the seat.
• Make sure the child is sitting as far back in the seat
as possible
• If additional length is needed in the restraint for a
larger child do the following: While holding the
left shoulder strap, press the adjustor button located
on the left side of the seat base, pull up on the strap
to lengthen. Repeat this step for the right shoulder
strap
• Adjust the two comfort slides to the shoulder
height of the child. These slides should be just at
the level of the shoulder
• Use the buckle loop to pull the buckle away from
the child before latching.
• Insert the two metal latches into the buckle. Be
sure you hear an audible click.
• To tighten the harness straps snugly around the
child pull up together on the two straps located on
the side of the seat base.
º A snug strap should not allow any slack.
It lies in a relatively straight line without
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classroom notes:
sagging. It does not press on the child’s
flesh or push the child’s body into an
unnatural position.
• Once the harness is snug around the child, fasten
the harness clip and position at arm pit level on the
child.
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classroom notes:
STAR Chest Strap
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National Training
7-13
• The STAR chest strap is designed to provide a
method to assist in positioning for special needs
children.
• To use the chest strap: Once the STAR restraint
has been properly installed around the child, extend
the orange chest strap UNDER the shoulder straps
and around the child’s chest. Fasten the buckle and
adjust the strap snugly.
• Adjust the harness clip and optional chest strap on
the child as close to the arm pit level as possible
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on Seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats with Practice Installations
185
classroom notes:
Pro Tech II & III
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
7-14
• Pro-Tech II
• Pro-Tech III
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classroom notes:
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7-15
Pro Tech II and Pro-Tech III Installation
Sheet
1. Unlatch seat cushion, lift and tilt seat cushion
forward
2. Unfold Pro-Tech Unit. Take the cam-wrap strap
with the buckle tongue end and drop down
between the back and cushion
3. Put cushion in place and latch under the cushion
and bring forward and connect the 1 inch strap to
the front side push buckle (holding the pad on the
seat).
4. Push the Pro-Tech snug against the seat back.
Connect the cam-wrap on the back of the seat and
adjust to a snug position.
5. Adjust for torso heights, lower slip for shorter,
middle slip for medium and upper slip for taller.
Slide webbing out then into the correct slot to make
the proper adjustment.
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classroom notes:
Integrated Seat
(CE White)
• Forward-facing
CSRS with a 5point harness
built into the
bus seat
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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7-16
• Fits students 20-60 lbs
• Seat folds down and there is a 5 point integrated
harness system
• Child sits on the folded out seat
• Lengthen the shoulder straps
• Position the child in the seat. Place the shoulder
straps over the child’s shoulders
• Fasten the 2 metal buckles into the buckle. Make
sure you hear a click
• Tighten shoulder straps
• Make sure retainer clip is at armpit level.
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classroom notes:
Pinch Test
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National Training
7-17
Tighten harness so that no pinch in the webbing can
be achieved on the straps both above the shoulder and
below the harness retainer clip.
Chapter 7: Safety Vests, Add-on Seats, and Integrated School Bus Seats with Practice Installations
189
classroom notes:
Integrated Seat
(Safe Guard)
• Forward-facing
CSRS with a 5point harness
built into the
bus seat
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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7-18
• Fits up to 22 – 85 lbs
• Up to 49 inches tall
• Used only over 1 year of age
• Full features of compartmentalization
• Child’s shoulder height must be lower than the
shoulder belt slots and they must be capable of
sitting upright without any assistance
Putting a child in an Integrated Child
Restraint (Safe Guard)
• Lower the two piece seat cushion. Fold the top
cushion under to create a seat cushion for child to
sit on.
• Release the metal latches from the buckle.
Lengthen the straps by the release button on the
adjusters. Pull the shoulder strap out to lengthen
restraint shoulder straps
• Position child in the seat. Place the shoulder straps
over the child’s shoulders and fasten the two metal
latches into the buckle. Make sure you hear an
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audible click for each metal latch. Once buckle is
attached, pull up on shoulder strap to eliminate any
slack in the lap belt area
classroom notes:
• Tighten the shoulder straps by pulling up on the
free end of the strap at each belt adjuster. Be sure
each side of shoulder strap is adjusted snug around
the child. Fasten the harness clip. Adjust to the
child’s armpit level.
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classroom notes:
Student Installation
Checklist
Seat to Install
Are straps snug? Is Crotch strap in place?
Instructors Initials
E-Z-ON Vest
BESI Vest
Q Vest
STAR System
Pro-Tech
CE White Integrated
Integrated (Safe Guard)
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National Training
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Activity: Installation of each of the
available seats
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Chapter 8
Evacuation
classroom notes:
Child Passenger Safety
Restraint Systems on
School Buses
National Training
Chapter 8
Evacuation
Chapter 8: Evacuation
193
classroom notes:
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classroom notes:
Objectives
• Describe typical pre-school characteristics in
emergency situations
• Explain how to plan and document individualized
evacuation plans.
• Explain how to plan and document route specific
evacuation plans.
• Describe the correct way to evacuate a child in a
CSRS.
• Describe the proper equipment necessary to
perform effective evacuations.
• Identify the necessary components of an
effective evacuation drill.
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-2
This chapter will help you develop safe and appropriate
route specific evacuation plans which meet individual rider
needs, while coordinating all riders and staff abilities to
evacuate in the most effective and efficient manner.
Chapter 8: Evacuation
195
classroom notes:
Safe Location Exercise
• A. Adult aide
• B. 7 mos., 24 lbs.
• C. 3½ yrs., 50 lbs.
behavior problem
• D. 2 yrs., 30 lbs.
• E. 4 yrs., 45 lbs.
• F. 4½ yrs., 65 lbs.
• G. 3 yrs., 35 lbs.
brittle bones
Driver’s
seat
#1
Lap
belt
#2
Lap
belt
#3
Lap
belt
#4
Lap
belt
Rear Wheels
#5
Vest
#6
Lap
belt
#7
Vest
#6
Lap
belt
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-3
Assign students to a seating position based on the need
for:
• the type of CSRS needed for each student
• safe seating location for each student
• need for emergency evacuation
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classroom notes:
Evacuation
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National Training
8-4
All schools need to establish policies and procedures about
how to evacuate a school bus carrying pre-school age
children in case of an emergency.
Chapter 8: Evacuation
197
classroom notes:
What are the students
abilities?
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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• Which students can come off the school bus by
themselves with only a little help?
• Which students can be removed from the bus
without their CSRS?
• Which students must not be removed from their
CSRS?
• Which students have essential equipment that also
must be removed?
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classroom notes:
Individualized Evacuation Plans
• Know your population
• Work with all available resources to
identify each child’s needs and
abilities.
• Using a guide rope helps corral preschoolers after they are exiting the
school bus.
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-6
• Pre-school children will need some assistance.
• What level of assistance does the child need or
provide?
º Verbal prompt/command
º Physical prompt
º Hand held
º Total lift (need only)
Chapter 8: Evacuation
199
classroom notes:
Individualized Evacuation Plans
• Describe their physical capabilities
• Describe their cognitive abilities
• Describe their communication abilities
– Understanding: (Need for explanations in
language they can understand; clear, concise
commands)
– Verbal: Inability to communicate needs or
concerns
• Describe behavioral concerns
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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8-7
• Runners
• Non-verbal
• Freeze or hide
• Frightened
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classroom notes:
Who can help?
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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8-8
What personnel will be available to help you?
• Which students can help others get off the school
bus?
• Where are emergency services along your route?
(Fire stations, hospitals, police, clinics)
• Local emergency response teams should be invited
to participate in evacuation drills
Things to include in the written plan:
• A seating plan that identifies where each student
sits.
• Information on how to evacuate each student
• The location of emergency evacuation equipment.
Chapter 8: Evacuation
201
classroom notes:
Route
Specific
Evacuation
Plans
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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8-9
• Know the population on the bus.
º Seating chart
º Attempt to predict the interaction between
the children.
º Order of student evacuation.
º Children in CSRS should not sit in
emergency exits.
• Emergency Medical Cards
• Team rehearsals of who will do what (if other
adults are on the bus)
• Know where assistance is that may be on the route
(Fire station, police department, medical clinics, or
hospitals)
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classroom notes:
Managing student
interaction with others
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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8-10
• The route specific plan should take into account
interaction between students which might
be predicted based on the needs identified in
individual student plans.
Chapter 8: Evacuation
203
classroom notes:
Infants
and
Teen Parenting
Programs
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-11
When infants are transported on a school bus either due
to teen parenting programs or other early intervention
services, the student would be advised to evacuate the rear
facing CSRS by cutting the webbing on the lap belt and
evacuating the infant in the car seat.
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Considerations for removing
the child from the seat:
•
•
•
•
classroom notes:
Size of the child
Size of the CSRS
Width of bus aisle
Ease of removal of the child from the
CSRS
– Releasing the buckle
– Cutting the harness
• Physical capabilities of the
driver/attendant
• Need for containment outside of the bus
• Time constraints to evacuate
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-12
Due to the potential variance of a child’s size from 20
to 65 pounds riding in a forward facing CSRS, the first
consideration is whether to evacuate with the child in or
out of the CSRS.
Considerations for removing the child from the seat:
• Size of the child
• Size of the CSRS
• Width of bus aisle
• Ease of removal of the child from the CSRS
º Releasing the buckle
º Cutting the harness
• Physical capabilities of the driver/attendant
• Need for containment outside of the bus
• Time constraints to evacuate
Options to consider include:
• Releasing the buckle and evacuating the child
• Cutting the harness and evacuating the child
Chapter 8: Evacuation
205
classroom notes:
206
• Lifting/carrying the child in the car seat
• Dragging the car seat with the child in it
Child Passenger Safety Training for School Buses National Training
classroom notes:
Integrated Seats
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-13
• In the essence of time, the first option is to release
the buckle. Slide retainer clip down and pull straps
over child’s head to remove the child.
• If the belt cutter is used, 2 cuts will be necessary
to remove the child. Cut both straps below the
harness clip. This will allow the harness clip to slide
off the end of the harness and the harnesses to pull
through the buckles.
Chapter 8: Evacuation
207
classroom notes:
Safety Vest with Portable Seat
Mount
* Cut below the buckle
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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When evacuating the student in a safety vest the vest
webbing is never cut. One cut of the portable seat mount
webbing below the buckle will allow the child to evacuate
the bus wearing the safety vest.
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Student leaves seat wearing
vest
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Chapter 8: Evacuation
classroom notes:
8-15
209
classroom notes:
Child is lead out of the bus
using the strap.
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• With a two-part vest the vest and the attached
top strap of the portable seat mount can be used
to guide the student from the bus and secure them
outside the bus.
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classroom notes:
One Piece Safety Vest
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8-17
• With a one part vest the quickest way to evacuate
from the school bus is to release:
º The two crotch strap buckles simultaneously
º Then the two lap belt buckles simultaneously
º And lift the vest over the child’s head
• You will find this method is probably quicker than
cutting the straps
• If you choose to cut the belts, cut the two crotch
straps and only one side of the lap belt, as the
remainder of the lap belt will slide through the vest
when it is lifted over the child’s head.
• REMEMBER to always cut the webbing on a 45
degree angle for ease of cutting.
Chapter 8: Evacuation
211
classroom notes:
School Bus Specific Child
Safety Restraint Systems
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
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8-18
• As with the integrated seat, in the essence of
time, the first option is to release the buckle, slide
retainer clip down and pull straps over child’s head
to remove the child.
• If the belt cutter is used, 2 cuts will be necessary
to remove the child. Cut both straps below the
harness clip. This will allow the harness clip to slide
off the end of the harness and the harnesses to pull
through the buckles.
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Evaluation of the evacuation
drill
classroom notes:
• What worked?
• What did not work?
• How to effectively remedy the
problems?
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
8-19
What worked?
• All children were evacuated in less than two
minutes
• All children were evacuated to a safe environment
approximately 100 feet from the scene
• All equipment was used properly
• Bus driver/attendant worked together as a team
• Evacuation was conducted in an orderly manner
• Appropriate emergency exits were used
• Outcomes of the drill were reviewed and discussed
with the team
Chapter 8: Evacuation
213
classroom notes:
Chapter Review
• Learned the typical pre-school
characteristics and how they might
impact emergency evacuations
• Learned how to develop customized
and route specific evacuation plans
• Learned restraint specific evacuation
procedures
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8-20
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classroom notes:
Practice
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems on School Buses
National Training
Chapter 8: Evacuation
8-21
215
Appendix
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Guideline for the Safe Transportation of
Pre-school Age Children in School Buses
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
February 1999
Introduction
School age children transported in school buses are safer than children transported in motor
vehicles of any other type. Large school buses provide protection because of their size and
weight. Further, they must meet minimum Federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSSs)
mandating compartmentalized seating, improved emergency exits, stronger roof structures and
fuel systems, and better bus body joint strength.
As more pre-school age children are transported to school programs, often in school buses, the
public is increasingly asking the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
about how to safely transport them. To help answer these questions, NHTSA conducted crash
testing of pre-school age size dummies in school bus seats. The test results showed that preschool age children in school buses are safest when transported in child safety restraint systems
(CSRSs) that meets FMVSS 213, Child Restraint Systems, and are correctly attached to the
seats.
Based on its research, NHTSA recommends pre-school age children transported in school buses
always be transported in properly secured CSRSs. In partial response to questions from school
(and child care) transportation offices, this Guideline seeks to assist school and other
transportation managers in developing and implementing policies and procedures for the
transportation of pre-school age children in school buses.
Note: The proper installation of CSRSs necessitates that a school bus seat have safety belts or
other means of securing the CSRS to the seat. NHTSA recommends that lap belts or anchorages
designed to meet FMVSS 225, Tether Anchorages and Child Restraint Anchorage Systems, be
voluntarily installed to secure CSRSs in large school buses.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE
CHILDREN IN SCHOOL BUSES
When pre-school age children are transported in a school bus, NHTSA recommends these
guidelines be followed:
(1) Each child should be transported in a Child Safety Restraint System (suitable for the child's
weight and age) that meets applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs).
Guideline for the Safe Transportation of Pre-school Age Children in School Buses
2
(2) Each child should be properly secured in the Child Safety Restraint System.
(3) The Child Safety Restraint System should be properly secured to the school bus seat, using
anchorages that meet FMVSSs.
Child Safety Restraint System Defined
A Child Safety Restraint System is any device (except a passenger system lap seat belt or
lap/shoulder seat belt), designed for use in a motor vehicle to restrain, seat, or position a child
who weighs less than 50 pounds.
Child Safety Restraint Systems Guideline
1. Child Safety Restraint System Specifications
The provider of the CSRS should ensure:
Each pre-school age child to be transported has a CSRS appropriate for the child=s weight,
height, and age.
Each CSRS meets all applicable FMVSSs (look for the manufacturer=s certification on the label
attached to the system).
Each CSRS has been registered with the CSRS's manufacturer to facilitate any recalls the
manufacturer might conduct.
If the CSRS is the subject of a recall, any necessary repairs or modifications have been made to
the manufacturer's specifications.
Each CSRS is maintained as recommended by its manufacturer, including disposal of any CSRS
that has been involved in a crash.
2. Proper Securement
The transportation provider should ensure:
The CSRS is used and secured correctly in the school bus.
Each child is secured in CSRSs according to manufacturer=s instructions.
All CSRS attachment hardware and anchorage systems meet FMVSS 210, Seat Belt Assembly
Anchorages or FMVSS 225, Tether Anchorages and Child Restraint Anchorage Systems.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Guideline for the Safe Transportation of Pre-school Age Children in School Buses
3
School bus seats designated for CSRSs meet FMVSS 225, or include lap belts that meet FMVSS
209, Seat Belt Assemblies, and anchors that meet FMVSS 210 (designed to secure adult
passengers or CSRS).
Personnel responsible for securing CSRSs onto school bus seats and children into CSRSs are
properly trained and all personnel involved with CSRSs are provided up-to-date information and
training.
When transported in the school bus, pre-school age children are supervised according to their
developmental and functioning level.
3. School Bus Seats Designated for Child Safety Restraint Systems
The transportation provider should ensure:
School-bus seats designated for CSRSs are located starting at the front of the vehicle to provide
drivers with quick access to and a clear view of the CSRS occupants.
CSRS anchorages on school bus seats should meet all applicable FMVSSs.
When ordering new school buses, the maximum spacing specified under FMVSS No. 222,
School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection, (within 24 inches from the seating reference
point) is recommended for seats designated for CSRSs to provide adequate space for the CSRSs.
The combined width of CSRS and/or other passengers on a single seat does not exceed the width
of the seat.
If other students share seats with the CSRSs, the CSRSs are placed in window seating position.
4. Retrofitting School Buses
The transportation provider should ensure:
Existing school bus seats should only be retrofitted with lap belts or child restraint anchorages as
instructed by the school bus manufacturer.
When a school bus is retrofitted with a seat to allow for proper securement of a CSRS,
instructions obtained from the school bus or seat manufacturer on how to install the seat and
restraint systems should be followed.
When a school bus is retrofitted, the bus owner should ensure that seat spacing is sufficient for
the CSRS to be used.
5. Evacuation
The transportation provider should ensure:
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
February 1999
Guideline for the Safe Transportation of Pre-school Age Children in School Buses
4
The establishment of a written plan on evacuating pre-school age children and other passengers
in CSRSs in the event of an emergency. This written plan should be provided to drivers,
monitors, and emergency response personnel. The plan should explicitly state how children (both
in and out of the CSRS) should be evacuated from the school bus.
Evacuation drills are practiced on a scheduled basis, at least as often as that required for the
school system=s school-aged children.
All personnel involved in transporting children are trained in evacuation and emergency
procedures, including those in the written school bus evacuation plan.
All school buses carrying children in CSRSs carry safety belt cutters that are accessible only to
the driver and any monitors.
CSRSs are not placed in school bus seats adjacent to emergency exits.
Local emergency response teams are provided copies of the written school bus evacuation plan,
including evacuation of pre-school age children. Emergency response personnel should be
invited to participate in evacuation drills.
6. Other Recommendations
The school transportation provider should establish a policy on whether they or the child=s
guardian must supply a CSRS to be used on a school bus.school bus purchases should be based
on the needs of a projected student population, taking into consideration projected ages, sizes,
and other characteristics of the students, including any special needs, and whether pre-school age
children or medically fragile students will be transported.
Specified procedures should be established for loading and unloading children in CSRSs.
Procedures should be established for the periodic maintenance, cleaning, and inspection for
damage of CSRSs. Procedures should be established to train personnel involved in direct service
delivery of infants, toddlers, and pre-school children on the physical day-to-day handling of
these young children and means to handle potential exposure to contagious and communicable
diseases.
When school bus procedures are established, it should be noted that some children in CSRSs
may have special needs, including medical fragility, that must be addressed on a child-by-child
basis.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Child Restraint and Vehicle Manufacturer Contacts
Child Restraint Manufacturer Contacts
Angel Guard Products Inc.
c/o Mercury Distributing
7001 Wooster Pike
Medina, OH 44256
800-815-6330
www.angel-guard.com
Columbia Medical Mfg.
PO Box 633
Pacific Palisades, CA 90272
800-454-6612
www.columbiamedical.com
Jupiter Industries
1399 Kennedy Road, Unit
#22
Scarborough, Ontario
M1P 2L6 Canada
800-465-5795
www.jupiterindustries.com
Baby Trend Inc.
1567 S. Campus Avenue
Ontario, CA 91761
800-328-7363
www.babytrend.com
Combi International
Corporation
199 Easy St.
Carol Stream, IL 60188
630-871-0404
www.combi-intl.com
IMMI
(SafeGuard)
18881 US 31 North
PO BOX 408
Westfield, Indiana 46074
877-447-2305
www.safeguardseat.com
Basic Comfort
445 Lincoln Street
Denver, CO 80203
800-456-8687
www.basiccomfort.com
Dorel Juvenile Group
(Cosco, Eddie Bauer and
Safety 1st)
2525 State Street
Columbus, IN 47201
800-457-5276 / 800-5441108
www.djgusa.com
Kolcraft Enterprises Inc.
(Discontinued production)
3455 West 31st Place
Chicago, IL 60623
800-453-9393
www.kolcraft.com
BESI, Inc.
9445 Sutton Place
Hamilton, OH 45011
800-543-8222 / 513-874-0232
www.besi-inc.com
Evenflo Company Inc.
707 Crossroads Court
Vandalia, OH 45377
800-233-5921
www.evenflo.com
LaRoche Brothers, Inc.
P.O. Box 95
Gardner, MA 01440
978-632-8638
www.boosterkids.com
Britax Child Safety Inc.
13501 South Ridge Drive
Charlotte, NC 28273
888-427-4829
www.britaxusa.com
E-Z-ON Products
605 Commerce Way West
Jupiter, FL 33458
800-323-6598
www.ezonpro.com
Mercedes-Benz
manufactured by Britax
Car Seat Specialty
(Nania, Safety Baby)
P.O. Box 3194
Rock Hill, SC 29732
877-912-1313
www.team-tex.com
Fisher-Price
(Discontinued production)
636 Girard Avenue
East Aurora, NY 14052
800-432-5437
www.fisher-price.com
Mia Moda
1966 Hwy. 160 West
Suite 101
Fort Mill, SC 29708
866-642-6632
www.miamodainc.com
Chicco USA, Inc.
1835 Freedom Road
Lancaster, PA 17601
877-424-4226
www.chiccousa.com
Graco Children's Products
(Graco, Century)
150 Oaklands Boulevard
Exton, PA 19341
888-224-6549
www.gracobaby.com
Peg Perego U.S.A. Inc.
3625 Independence Drive
Fort Wayne, IN 46808
800-671-1701
www.perego.com
National CPS Certification Training Program
January, 2008
Child Restraint Manufacturer Contacts
ProRider
Children-N-Safety Program
1620 Industry Drive SW #C
Auburn, WA 98001
800-642-3123
www.prorider.com
Safeline Kids, Inc.
14881 S. Concord Park Dr,
#2
Bluffdale, UT 84065
800-829-1625
www.safelinekids.com
Volvo Cars of North
America
Seven Volvo Drive
Rockleigh, NJ 07647
800-458-1552
new.volvocars.com
Porsche Cars of North
America
manufactured by Britax
Safety Angel International
Inc.
P.O. Box 740151
Boynton Beach, FL 334740151
888-743-3798
www.safetyangel.com
Xportation Safety
Concepts
Inc.
(Discontinued production)
Q’Straint USA
5553 Ravenswood Rd, Bldg
110
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312
800-987-9987 / 954-986-6665
www.qstraint.com
Snug Seat
12801 E. Independence
Blvd.
Stallings, NC 28105
800-336-7684
www.snugseat.com
Recaro
3275 Lapeer Road West
Auburn Hills, MI 48326
800-328-7363 (Baby Trend)
www.recaro-nao.com
www.babytrend.com
Tumble Forms - Sammons
Preston
4 Sammons Court
Bolingbrook, IL 60440
800-323-5547
www.tumbleforms.com
Vehicle Manufacturer Contacts
Manufacturer
Acura
Customer Service
Web site
School
Bus Manufacturers
800-382-2238
www.acura.com
Blue BirdAudi
Corporation
Bentley
PO Box 937
BMW
Fort Valley,
GA 31030
Buick
478-822-2174
800-822-2834
IC Corporation
4201800-236-8539
Winfield Road
800-831-1117
Warrenville, Illinois 60555
800-521-7300
1.800.892.7761
Chevrolet
Collins Bus
Corporation
Chrysler - DaimlerChrysler
PO Box 2946
Daewoo
Hutchinson,
KS 67504-2946
Dodge - DaimlerChrysler
620-662-9000
Mid800-222-1020
Bus
PO 800-992-1997
Box 2946
877-362-1234
Hutchinson,
KS 67504-2946 www.daewoous.com
800-992-1997
www.dodge.com
620-662-9000
Cadillac
Ferrari
800-458-8006
201-816-2600
Ford
800-392-3673
Corbeil Bus
Thomas
Built Buses, Inc.
GMC
830 12e Avenue
1408800-462-8782
Courtesy Road
Saint-Lin-Laurentides,
High
Point, NC 27260
National CPS Certification Training
Program
Quebec, Canada J5M 2V9
336-889-4871
450-439-3577
224
www.audiusa.com
US Bus Corporation
(see Trans Tech Bus)
www.bentley.com
www.bmwusa.com
www.buick.com
Trans Tech
Bus
Road
www.chevrolet.com
Warwick, NY 10990
www.chrysler.com
845-988-2333
www.cadillac.com
7 Lake Station
www.ferrariusa.com
www.ford.com
www.gmc.com
January, 2008
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Federal Laws Guiding Special Education
U.S. Constitution-Fourteenth Amendment
The U.S. Constitution provides that no state may deny any person within its jurisdiction the
equal protection of the laws. A state must treat all persons alike. Therefore, disabled individuals
are provided this “equal protection” of access to school bus transportation services.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990 (IDEA) (formerly the Education for all
Handicapped Children Act of 1975
The individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires public schools to make available
to all eligible students with disabilities a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the
least restrictive environment (LRE) appropriate to their individual needs. This changed the
terminology of “handicapped children” to “children with disabilities” and broadened the
definition of the terms “assistive technology device” and “assistive technology service.”
IDEA mandates public school systems to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) for
each child. The specific special education and related services outlined in each IEP reflects the
individualized needs of each student.
The language for training and personnel development for can be found below in Section 662 (b)
(1) (A) of IDEA:
Section 602(26) Related services.-(A) In general.--The term `related services’ means transportation, and such developmental,
corrective, and other supportive services (including speech-language pathology and audiology
services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy,
recreation, including therapeutic recreation, social work services, school nurse services designed
to enable a child with a disability to receive a free appropriate public education as described in
the individualized education program of the child, counseling services, including rehabilitation
counseling, orientation and mobility services, and medical services, except that such medical
services shall be for diagnostic and evaluation purposes only) as may be required to assist a child
with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes the early identification and
assessment of disabling conditions in children.
(B) Exception.--The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the
replacement of such device.
Sec. 662. Personnel development to improve services and results for children with
disabilities.
(b) Personnel Development; Enhanced Support for Beginning Special Educators.-(1) In general.--In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall support activities--
(A) for personnel development, including activities for the preparation of personnel who will serve
children with high incidence and low incidence disabilities, to prepare special education and general
education teachers, principals, administrators, and related services personnel (and school board members,
when appropriate) to meet the diverse and individualized instructional needs of children with
disabilities and improve early intervention, educational, and transitional services and results for children
with disabilities, consistent with the objectives described in subsection (a);
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); Federal register/Vol. 64, No. 48/
Friday, March 12, 1999/Rules and Regulations 34 CFR Part 303 Early Intervention
Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C of the Individual with
Disabilities Act)
This section encourages states to maintain and implement a statewide comprehensive,
coordinated, multidisciplinary, interagency system of early intervention services for infants
and toddlers with disabilities and their families. Early intervention services also include
transportation and related cost of travel that are necessary to enable eligible children under this
part and their families to receive early intervention services. Therefore, districts may provide
transportation services to infants and toddlers with disabilities as part of a local program or part
of an interagency program.
The Education of All Handicapped Children’s Act Amendments of 1986 (EHCA) Part H
Part H addressed the need for early intervention for infants and toddlers. States were offered
financial incentives to establish an extensive, statewide service among numerous agencies that
would be provided to children from birth through two years of age. In addition, it lowered
the age of eligibility for special education and related services for all children with disabilities
to age three and required that all eligible children receive early intervention services. This law
also required that services be specified in the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). The
responsibilities of transportation services are defined as the cost of travel that is necessary to
enable an eligible child and the child’s family to receive early intervention services.
The Handicapped Children’s Protection Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-372)
This law amended EHA to authorize the award of reasonable attorney’s fees to parents who
prevail in due process hearings and judicial proceedings in dispute over special education and
related services.
The Education For All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (Pub. L. 94-142) (EHCA)
The Education For All Handicapped Children Act guaranteed a “free appropriate public
education” (FAPE), including special education and related services, to all handicapped children.
It also provides funding to help states bear the additional costs they would incur in educating
handicapped students. It provides that they must be educated with other, non disabled students
to the extent possible (Least Restrictive Environment) and establishes an elaborate system of
procedural safeguards to ensure parental input. Persons involved with the student’s special
education program must be appropriately trained. Transportation services may include schools,
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
travel in and around school buildings, specialized equipment (lift buses), counseling, or social
work services.
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA)
The privacy rights of students extend to education records maintained by a school district and
by a person acting for the school district. Personal notes made by a driver concerning a student
for their own use and not available to other persons, except a substitute driver, are not subject
to FERPA. Disclosure of “personally identifiable information” about a student to persons
other than professional personnel employed in the school district is prohibited without parental
consent. Parental consent is the guiding principle regarding the release or exchange of student
records and information in those records. Emergency information should be carried on the bus
at all times to provide appropriate identification for students in emergency situations.
Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-112)
The Rehabilitation Act prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities by any
recipient of federal funding, including public schools. Section 504 covers persons with a
disability who would otherwise be qualified to participate in and benefit from programs or other
activities receiving federal financial assistance. Section 504 has been used as the foundation
for special education complaints involving transportation services, such as access to bus service,
length of ride, transportation costs to parents, loss of instructional time, suspension, method of
transportation, and specialized needs.
The Civil Rights Act of 1994 and The Education Amendments of 1972 (Title VI, Title VII
and Title IX)
These laws protect the civil rights and equal education opportunities of all individuals regardless
of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Harassment and discriminatory behavior that
denies civil rights or access to equal educational opportunities include comments, name calling,
physical conduct or other expressive behavior directed at an individual or group that intentionally
demeans the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin of the individual(s) or creates an
intimidating, hostile, or demeaning environment for education.
The Reauthorization of IDEA 2004 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement
Act)
This law, as amended by the 2004 changes, will not provide mandatory full funding. Although
the annual amounts now authorized to be spent on IDEA would achieve full funding in six
years, that assumes these amounts will actually be appropriated and explains why mandatory
funding of IDEA is so important. A new provision in the Act authorizes the Secretary to issue
only regulations necessary to secure compliance with the statute. This provision may limit
the Secretary’s authority to issue regulations that could be useful in clarifying ambiguities. A
new section of the Act also suggests that states minimize the number of rules, regulations and
policies to which the school districts are subject.
The No Child Left Behind Act 2001
The No Child Left Behind Act is a plan for comprehensive education reform. This law provides
for stronger accountability for results, expanded flexibility and local control, expanded options
for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work. Public
school choice, Charter Schools and supplemental services are some of the issues that will impact
transportation for school districts.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
This law affords legal rights to persons with disabilities by expanding access to facilities. ADA
involves access issues and design standards. The American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standards detail how accessibility is to be achieved in new construction and alterations,
specifications for various building elements and spaces, including entrances, ramps, parking,
restrooms and telephones, among others. ADA is the continuum of Section 504. The
Department of Justice enforces ADA.
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Information Report
Sharing Student Health and Medical Information
with School Transporters
by Peggy A. Burns, Esq.
Background
This Information Report is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of records disclosure and
confidentiality provisions, since there are multiple situations in which school transporters require
student information in order to safely and efficiently carry out their responsibilities. Rather, it
focuses on communicating to school transporters and special education directors the necessity
-- and legitimacy -- of disclosure of student health and medical information. Included in the
category of “school transporters” are transportation administrators, drivers, and other appropriate
school transportation staff members, as well as bus contractors hired by school districts and
educational units to transport students to and from school and school-related activities. School
transporters and special education directors are urged to seek legal advice regarding specific
applications of this information.
It is critical that school transporters have relevant health and medical information about the
students who ride their buses, and in some cases it is legally mandated. Even where there is
not a statutory or regulatory mandate to provide this information to school transporters, any
reasonable risk management analysis readily leads to the conclusion that the potential harm from
failure to share this information far outweighs any risk that a school district or contractor could
incur as a result of transporters having this information.
Despite these facts, however, special education and other school personnel are often reluctant
to share student health and medical information with school transporters. Many are adamant
about their “inability” to provide information about students’ conditions and needs which may
impact travel on the school bus. The reason — misinformation about and/or misunderstanding
of confidentiality requirements.
Questions
• Can school transporters legally receive health and medical information about students
who ride their buses?
• What factors should be considered in determining whether transportation personnel,
special education personnel, medical personnel and parents should collaborate to
accomplish this sharing of information?
• What are the prerequisites to the sharing of student health information with school
transporters?
• How can compliance with these prerequisites be achieved?
Discussion
Application of relevant statutory and regulatory information.
Several clear, guiding principles emerge from an understanding of applicable law, especially the
Regulations implementing Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (hereafter,
“IDEA”), and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (hereafter, “FERPA.”)
Principle 1 -- Rationale for Disclosure
When transportation is provided as a related service to a special education student -- that is,
because transportation is necessary for the child to access Individualized Education Program
(IEP) services -- then transporters are related service providers. [See IDEA Regulations
(hereafter “Regs”), Section 300.24.] Under such circumstances, the school district must provide
necessary information to school transporters. That information includes setting forth the role of
transportation personnel in meeting the unique needs of the child as identified in his/her IEP,
and those “accommodations, modifications, and supports” identified in the child’s IEP which
relate in any way to the transportation environment. [See Regs., Section 300.342(b) (2) and
(3).]
While the IDEA Regulations impose a mandatory duty on school districts when transportation
is a related service, FERPA provides for broader permission to disclose information about a child
under two situations:
(1) when a parent consents to the disclosure; or
(2) when “school officials” have a “legitimate educational interest,” even when the district has
not obtained such prior consent.
Who is a school official with a legitimate educational interest?
When FERPA was modified in 1996, a “Model Notification of Rights Under FERPA for
Elementary and Secondary Institutions” was included in Appendix B. That Model Notification
clearly demonstrates Congressional intent as to who might reasonably be entitled to receive
student information:
“A school official is a person employed by the District as an administrator,
supervisor, instructor or support staff member. . .; a person serving on the School
Board; a person or company with whom the District has contracted to perform a
special task. . .”
And, a school official has “a legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an
education record in order to fulfill his or her professional responsibility.”
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
It is clear that school transporters meet this standard when student health and medical
information is necessary to enable the safe and efficient transport of a student.
Principle 2 -- Publication of List
Under IDEA, school districts and contractors must publish a notice setting forth those staff
members who will have access to student information. [See Regs., Sec. 300.572(d).] FERPA
requires that school districts that share information with staff members or contractors,
recognized as needing student information, specify “criteria” for determining who will receive
such information and under what circumstances.
These requirements are easily met by including in student/parent handbooks a statement like the
following, as suggested in Appendix B to FERPA:
“Federal law permits the school district to disclose personally identifiable
information in the student’s education records to ‘school officials with legitimate
educational interests.’ School officials include persons employed by the district as
an administrator, supervisor, teacher, or support staff member (including but not
limited to. . .transportation personnel. . .);. . . .or a person, agency, or company
with whom the District has contracted, or otherwise arranged to perform a special
task or service. . . Such individuals have a legitimate educational interest if s/he
needs to review an education record in order to fulfill his or her professional and/or
official responsibility.
A legitimate educational interest also exists where the staff member or other
individual works directly with students and needs to review education records to
increase his/her awareness of steps necessary for the safety and welfare of students
and staff members.”
Principle 3 – Confidentiality
The IDEA Regulations recognize that confidentiality requirements apply to the provision of
necessary student information to school district employees and school transportation contractors.
These requirements do not prohibit disclosure, but merely impose on the “agency or institution
that collects, maintains or uses personally identifiable information, or from which information
is obtained” the duty to protect the confidentiality of such information “at collection, storage,
disclosure and destruction stages.” [See Regs., Sec. 300.572 (a).] This duty is further defined by
the FERPA requirement that a school district share personally identifiable information from an
education record only on the condition that the recipient of the information will not disclose the
information to any other party without the prior consent of the parent or eligible student.
Principle 4 -- Training
In order to receive student information which is otherwise confidential, school transporters must
receive training -- like all other personnel who receive this information in the course of their job
duties.
All related services personnel must be “trained,” and the Official Commentary to Section 300.24
of the Regs specifically includes “bus drivers” among such personnel. The Regs further state
that “all persons collecting or using personally identifiable information must receive training
or instruction regarding” limitations imposed by IDEA and FERPA and state policies and
procedures which implement the disclosure and confidentiality provisions of these federal laws.
[See Regs., Section 300. 572 (c).]
The Bottom Line: Why Should School Districts Ensure That Pupil Transportation Official
Have Access to Student Information?
Participation in IEP Meetings.
As indicated above, the duty to inform is mandatory under IDEA Regulations when school
transportation is provided as a related service. School transporters are essential participants in
the decision which must be made as to whether transportation is a related service for a particular
child. Section 300.344 of the Regs. provides that a local education agency may include related
services personnel as appropriate at the IEP meeting. Appendix A of the IDEA Regulations
includes many useful questions and answers on this subject.
• The answer to Question 30 states: “. . .[I]t is appropriate for [related services personnel] to
be included if a particular related service is to be discussed as part of the IEP meeting.”
• The answer to Question 33 states: “In determining whether to include transportation in
a child’s IEP and whether the child needs to receive transportation as a related service,
it would be appropriate to have at the IEP meeting a person with expertise in that area.”
That expertise will be most evident -- and most valuable -- when members of the IEP
team have necessary information about the needs of the student.
In its Letter to Smith (July 12, 1995), and in a number of letters and opinions since then, the
Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) of the U.S. Department of Education stated
that the IEP must include more than a “yes” or “no” to the question, “Is transportation a related
service?” Rather, it must include accommodation, modifications, and supports which must
be provided for the child in accordance with his/her unique needs. Transporters are likely to
be more aware of the availability of assistive technology devices applicable to transportation
than anyone else on the IEP team, and certainly will have the responsibility to properly use
such devices in response to the child’s needs. Health and medical information is essential to
this end. OSEP specifically noted in Letter to Smith: “In all instances, each student’s need for
transportation as a related service and the type of transportation to be provided are issues to be
discussed and decided during the evaluation process and individualized education program (IEP)
meeting, and the transportation arrangements agreed upon should be included in the disabled
student’s IEP.”
“Transportation arrangements” are obvious components of the information transporters must
receive. But remember, Section 300.342(b)(3) of the Regulations implementing Part B of
the IDEA mandates that each related service provider know what s/he must do specifically to
implement the IDEA. Consequently, other information, such as behavior intervention plans or
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
assistive technology details, must be shared with school transporters in order to comply with this
provision.
Finally, in order to determine necessary components of training for transporters, it is critical
to share student health and medical information with driver trainers, and the occupational
therapists, physical therapists, nurses and others who will work with them. How else can drivers
and aides be aware of proper responses to the unique medical needs of students?
Supporting the district’s proposed transportation plan.
A recent California case shows how driver training and provision of health and medical
information can be an invaluable tool to help demonstrate that your chosen method of
transportation for a particular student is reasonably calculated to meet his/her needs.
In Pleasant Valley School District, (37 IDELR 265, August 21, 2002), parents of a student with
short-gut syndrome objected to the district’s proposal to provide regular district transportation
instead of continuing the door-to-door transportation the boy had received for more than three
years.
Among the parents’ concerns was the possibility that the student’s g-tube would become
dislodged or that he would have a seizure. The school nurse had trained the driver on whose
bus the student had ridden, and could train other drivers accordingly. An emergency care plan,
which would be shared with anyone who drove the student, embodied the proper procedures
to employ in the event that the g-tube became dislodged. The plan also included the proper
procedures to undertake should the student suffer a seizure. The fact that the driver would be
ready if an emergency occurred was instrumental in the Hearing Officer’s concluding that proper
accommodations could be made on the regular education bus to address the unique needs of the
child.
While school districts cannot be insurers of students’ safety, they do have an obligation to
take reasonable steps to respond to known dangers which may threaten the welfare of students
and others. Students who, though not requiring special education, have health or medical
challenges, may have a health action plan or other protocol which could have a bearing on school
transportation.
Are There Risks to School Districts if Information is Shared With Transporters?
Generally, a single mistake by a school district or contractor will not amount to a violation of
FERPA. However, the Family Compliance Office of the U.S. Department of Education, which
investigates, processes and reviews complaints and violations under FERPA, may take steps
regarding individuals who improperly disclose information from education records. Section
99.33 of the Regulations implementing FERPA provides:
“If this Office determines that a third party improperly re-discloses personally
identifiable information from education records in violation of [FERPA],
the educational agency or institution may not allow that third party access to
personally identifiable information from education records for at least five years.”
The implications of this section are significant. Since a school district makes a commitment
when sharing information with a bus driver that the driver will not inappropriately “re-disclose”
the information to a third party, there can be strong sanctions if that condition is not met. Since
a driver needs certain information in order to do his/her job, a restriction which prevents access
to necessary information for at least five years means that the driver cannot do his or her job.
That situation would most likely result in termination. Even absent federal agency determination
of a breach of confidentiality, or a privately brought action based on invasion of privacy or
inaccuracy of the information, a school district might well consider this a sufficiently serious rule
violation to impose consequences up to and including termination.
A school district violates FERPA if it has a policy of denying access to records to parents, or
it has a policy of wrongly disclosing information to third parties. A parent or student over the
age of 18 may file a complaint giving specifics about why that person thinks a school district has
violated FERPA. The complaint must be submitted within 180 days of the alleged violation
or of the date that the complainant knew of, or reasonably should have known of, the alleged
violation. Following an agency investigation in which it is determined that a violation had
occurred, the Family Compliance Office may take a number of steps:
• It will give the school district a reasonable period of time to comply with specific steps set
out by the Office; and
• If the school district does not comply within that period, the Office may withhold federal
monies, and/or issue an order to compel compliance.
Before the extreme sanction of loss of eligibility for federal funds is applied, a school district
must not only have a policy and practice of violating FERPA, but also refuse to take steps to
comply with FERPA within a reasonable period of time. Therefore, the school district which
shares necessary information with drivers risks little. That is especially true in comparison with
the potential risks to the safety and welfare of the student if important information is not shared.
On the other hand, the driver who does not take that responsibility seriously risks losing his or
her job.
Conclusion
School transporters can legally receive information about students’ health and medical conditions
when these conditions may impact transportation planning and implementation. Factors to be
considered in setting conditions for such disclosure include:
(1)the determination of legitimate educational interest;
(2)compliance with FERPA requirements of notice;
(3)requiring confidentiality of the school transporters to whom the information is disclosed;
and
(4)training.
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
It is clear that once school transporters are trained regarding the requirements of confidentiality,
school district and medical personnel are well-advised to share this information.
© National Association of State Directors of Pupil Transportation Services. All rights reserved.
March 2003
APPENDIX
Relevant Federal Regulations
IDEA Regulations
Sec. 300.342(b)(2) and (3): “Each public agency shall ensure that. . .[t]he child’s IEP is accessible
to each. . .related service provider. . .who is responsible for its implementation;” and “Each. .
.provider described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is informed of - (i) His or her specific
responsibilities related to implementing the child’s IEP; and (ii) The specific accommodations,
modifications, and supports that must be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP.”
Sec. 300.560(c): “Participating agency means any agency or institution that collects, maintains, or
uses personally identifiable information, or from which information is obtained, under Part B of
the Act.”
Sec. 300.560(b): “Education records means the type of records covered under the definition of
‘education records’ in 34 CFR part 99 (the regulations implementing the Family Educational
Rights and Privacy Act of 1974.)”
Sec. 300.563: “Each participating agency shall keep a record of parties obtaining access to
education records collected, maintained, or used under Part B of the Act (except access by
parents and authorized employees of the participating agency), including the name of the party,
the date access was given, and the purpose for which the party is authorized to use the records.”
Sec. 300.572(a): “Each participating agency shall protect the confidentiality of personally
identifiable information at collection, storage, disclosure and destruction stages.”
Sec. 300.572(c): “All persons collecting or using personally identifiable information must receive
training or instruction regarding the State’s policies and procedures under Sec. 300.127 and 34
CFR part 99.”
Sec. 300.572(d): “Each participating agency shall maintain, for public inspection, a current
listing of the names and positions of those employees within the agency who may have access to
personally identifiable information.”
FERPA Regulations
Sec. 99.3: “‘Education Records’. . .means those records that are: (1) Directly related to a student;
and (2) Maintained by an educational agency or institution or by a party acting for the agency or
institution.”
Sec.99.7(3): “The notice [which must be provided annually to parents concerning their rights
under FERPA] . . .must include. . .if the educational agency or institution has a policy of
disclosing education records under Sec. 9.31(a)(1), a specification of criteria for determining who
constitutes a school official and what constitutes a legitimate educational interest.”
Sec. 99.31(a)(1): “An educational agency or institution may disclose personally identifiable
information from an education record of a student without the consent required by Sec. 99.30 if
the disclosure meets one or more of the following conditions: (1) The disclosure is to other school
officials, including teachers, within the agency or institution whom the agency or institution has
determined to have a legitimate educational interest.”
Biographical Information
Peggy A. Burns, Esq., is in-house counsel with Adams Twelve Star Schools, a large suburban
school district in Colorado. She is also founder of Education Compliance Group, Inc., an
organization committed to addressing legal compliance issues in education. A former high
school English and forensics teacher, and licensed attorney for twenty-one years, Peggy has
devoted the past fifteen years specifically to legal issues affecting public education.
In the last several years, Peggy has focused significantly on issues related to pupil transportation.
She has trained, and served as a consultant to, transportation personnel in school districts in a
number of states, and has presented on legal matters which concern school transporters at many
state, regional and national conferences. Peggy has served on the National Board of Advisors
of the National Conference and Exhibition on Transporting Students with Disabilities for the
past four years, and is a Tenured Faculty Member. She is also a contributing editor for School
Transportation News, a member of the Colorado School Pupil Transportation Association,
and the Special Education Committee of the National Association for Pupil Transportation.
Peggy has been an adjunct professor with Colorado State University and is currently an adjunct
professor with the University of Denver.
Peggy is the author of “Putting the Brakes on Sexual Harassment: A Training Program for
School Bus Drivers;” several pamphlets on “Special Needs Transportation;” and a training video
program, “Confidential Records: Training for School Bus Drivers.” The training video program
is available from Education Compliance Group, Inc., P.O. Box 221, Lafayette, CO 80026, or by
calling (303) 604-6141, or faxing a request for information to (303) 604-6143.
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Form Approved: O.M.B. No. 2127-0576
CHILD SAFETY SEAT REGISTRATION FORM
FOR YOUR CHILD’S CONTINUED SAFETY
Although child safety seats undergo testing and evaluation, it is possible that your child seat could be recalled. In
case of a recall it is important that the manufacturer be able to contact you as soon as possible so that your seat can
be corrected.
All child safety seats manufactured since March 1993 have a registration form so that owners can provide their
names/addresses to the manufacturer. In case of a safety recall, the manufacturer can use that information to send
recall letters to owners. Also, child safety seat manufacturers have agreed to maintain owner names/addresses for
child safety seats manufactured before March 1993, so they can notify those consumers in the event of a future
safety recall. However, in order for the manufacturer to know which child safety seat you own, all of the
information on the lower half of this page must be provided.
If you would like the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to give your name and address to
the manufacturer of your child safety seat, so that you can be notified of any future safety recalls regarding your
child safety seat, fill out this form. Please type or print clearly, sign and mail this postage-paid, pre-addressed form.
If you have any questions, or need help with any child safety seat or motor vehicle safety issue, call the U.S.
Department of Transportation’s toll-free Auto Safety Hotline at 1-800-424-9393 (Washington DC AREA
RESIDENTS, 202-366-0123).
Your Name:___________________________________________ Telephone___________________
Your Street Address_________________________________________________________________
City:______________________, State:_____________________ Zip Code:_____________________
IMPORTANT: The following information is essential and can be found on labels
on your child seat.
Child Seat Manufacturer:__________________________________________________________
Child Seat Model Name & Number:________________________________________________
Child Seat Date of Manufacture:___________________________________________________
I AUTHORIZE NHTSA TO PROVIDE A COPY OF THIS REPORT TO THE CHILD
SAFETY SEAT MANUFACTURER.
SIGNATURE:__________________________________________ DATE:____________________
The Privacy Act of 1974 - Public Law 93-579, As Amended: This information is requested pursuant to the authority
vested in the National Highway Traffic Safety Act and subsequent amendments. You are under no obligation to
respond to this questionnaire. Your response may be used to assist the NHTSA in determining whether a
manufacturer should take appropriate action to correct a safety defect. If the NHTSA proceeds with administration
enforcement or litigation against a manufacturer, your response, or
statistical summary thereof, may be used in support of the agency’s action.
Send this form to:
NHTSA
Auto Safety Hotline, NAD-40
Room 2318
400 Seventh Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
238
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Form Approved: O.M.B. No. 2127-0008
Child Safety Seat Questionnaire
FOR AGENCY USE ONLY
Date Received
To report a complaint, defect or incident
U.S. Department
of Transportation
National Highway
Traffic Safety
Administration
od-or
___ ___
rt-dt
___ ___
od-rt
___ ___
VEHICLE SAFETY HOTLINE
Nationwide: 1-888-327-4236 / DC Metro area: 202-366-0123
To submit by Fax: 202-366-3171
up-ltr ___ ___
Reference No.
OWNER INFORMATION (Type or Print)
NAME and ADDRESS
DAY TIME TELEPHONE NO. (AREA CODE)
Do you authorize NHTSA to provide a copy of this information to the manufacturer of your Child Safety Seat?
� YES
In the absence of an authorization, NHTSA WILL NOT provide your name and address to the vehicle manufacturer.
� NO
CHILD INFORMATION
Any Special Information
Age
Height/Length
Weight
CHILD SAFETY SEAT INFORMATION (As identified on the manufacturing label on the seat)
Seat Manufacturer
Date Manufactured
Type of Child Safety Seat
� Infant
� Booster
� Integrated
Failed Part. Describe Failure Below.
� Base
� Harness/Buckle
� LATCH Connector � Tether
Seat Was:
� Convertible
� Shell
� Other
� Other
� Handle
Purchased From:
Purchased
� New
� Used
� Obtained through loaner program
� Gift
� Borrowed Date ___/____/____
Seat Name and Model Number
_____________________________________
City_____________________ State _______
� Material Padding
Installed in Vehicle by the:
� Vehicle Safety Belt
� LATCH System (vehicle information required)
VEHICLE INFORMATION
Make of Vehicle
Model of Vehicle
Year of Vehicle
INCIDENT INFORMATION (If applicable)
Number of Injured
Crash?
� Yes
Child Seat Location:
� Front
� Rear
Number of Fatalities
Police Report Filed
� No
� Yes
� Right
� Left
� Center
� Lap
� Shoulder
� No
Facing Direction:
Safety Belt System Used
� Both
� Forward
� Rear
DESCRIBE INCIDENT/DEFECT IN DETAIL (Please explain how the Child Seat failed)
CONTINUE ON BACK IF NEEDED
The Privacy Act of 1974–Public Law 93-579 This information is requested pursuant to authority vested in Chapter 301 of Title 49 of the United States Code.
You are under no obligation to respond to this questionnaire. Your response may be used to assist the NHTSA in determining whether a manufacturer should take
appropriate action to correct a safety defect. If the NHTSA proceeds with administrative enforcement or litigation against a manufacturer, your response, or a statistical
summary thereof, may be used in support of the agency’s action.
HS Form 350C (April 2005)
Reverse of HS-Form 350C
Fold to show Return Address (no stamp needed). Fasten with tape or staple and mail.
Narrative Description (Continued):
Fold here
U.S. Department
of Transportation
NO POSTAGE
NECESSARY
IF MAILED
IN THE
UNITED STATES
National Highway
Traffic Safety
Administration
400 Seventh St., S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20590
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300
BUSINESS REPLY MAIL
FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO 73173
WASHINGTON, D.C.
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY NATL. HWY. TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMIN.
U.S. Department of Transportation
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Office of Defects Investigation (NVS-216)
400 7th Street, S.W.
Washington, DC 20590
Tape or Staple here
240
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Quick Reference Guide to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
and Regulations
DOT HS 805 878 - Revised March 2004
Foreword
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has a legislative mandate under Title 49 of the
United States Code, Chapter 301, Motor Vehicle Safety, to issue Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
(FMVSS) and Regulations to which manufacturers of motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment
must conform and certify compliance. FMVSS 209, Seat Belt Assemblies, was the first standard to become
effective on March 1, 1967. A number of FMVSS became effective for vehicles manufactured on and after
January 1, 1968. Subsequently, other FMVSS have been issued. For instance, NHTSA has issued seven new
FMVSS and has amended six FMVSS and two consumer information regulations and requirements since this
booklet was revised in March 1999. New standards and amendments to existing standards are published in
the Federal Register.
These Federal safety standards are regulations written in terms of minimum safety performance requirements
for motor vehicles or items of motor vehicle equipment. These requirements are specified in such a manner
that the public is protected against unreasonable risk of crashes occurring as a result of the design,
construction, or performance of motor vehicles and is also protected against unreasonable risk of death or
injury in the event crashes do occur.
This booklet lists the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards that were in effect as of October 2003, and
provides a brief summary of each safety standard. It also provides similar information on other Federal
consumer information regulations and requirements.
Title 49: Chapter V - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation
Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
Subpart B
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 571.101– 571.500
Standard No. 101:
Controls and Displays
Standard No. 102:
Transmission Shift Lever Sequence, Starter Interlock, and Transmission Braking
Effect
Standard No. 103:
Windshield Defrosting and Defogging Systems
Standard No. 104:
Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems
Standard No. 105:
Hydraulic and Electric Brake Systems
Standard No. 106:
Brake Hoses
Standard No. 107:
[Reserved]
Standard No. 108:
Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment
Standard No. 109:
New Pneumatic Bias Ply and Certain Specialty Tires*
Standard No. 110:
Tire Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles*
Standard No. 111:
Rearview Mirrors
Standard No. 112:
[Reserved]
Standard No. 113:
Hood Latch System
Standard No. 114:
Theft Protection
Standard No. 115:
[Reserved] Requirements moved to Part 565—Vehicle Identification Number
Quick Reference Guide to FMVSS’s and Regulations
Page 2 of 4
Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
Subpart B
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 571.101– 571.500
Standard No. 116:
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids
Standard No. 117:
Retreaded Pneumatic Tires
Standard No. 118:
Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems
Standard No. 119:
New Pneumatic Tires for Vehicles Other Than Passenger Cars*
Standard No. 120:
Tire Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles Other Than Passenger Cars
Standard No. 121:
Air Brake Systems
Standard No. 122:
Motorcycle Brake Systems
Standard No. 123:
Motorcycle Controls and Displays
Standard No. 124:
Accelerator Control Systems
Standard No. 125:
Warning Devices
Standard No. 129:
New Non-Pneumatic Tires for Passenger Cars—New Temporary Spare
Non-Pneumatic Tires for Use on Passenger Cars
Standard No. 131:
School Bus Pedestrian Safety Devices
Standard No. 135:
Light Vehicle Brake Systems*
Standard No. 138:
Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems**
Standard No. 139:
New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles**
Standard No. 201:
Occupant Protection in Interior Impact
Standard No. 202:
Head Restraints
Standard No. 203:
Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering Control System
Standard No. 204:
Steering Control Rearward Displacement
Standard No. 205:
Glazing Materials
Standard No. 206:
Door Locks and Door Retention Components
Standard No. 207:
Seating Systems
Standard No. 208:
Occupant Crash Protection*
Standard No. 209:
Seat Belt Assemblies
Standard No. 210:
Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages
Standard No. 211:
[Reserved]
Standard No. 212:
Windshield Mounting
Standard No. 213:
Child Restraint Systems
Standard No. 214:
Side Impact Protection
Standard No. 215:
[Reserved]
Standard No. 216:
Roof Crush Resistance
Standard No. 217:
Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release
Standard No. 218:
Motorcycle Helmets
DOT HS 805 878
242
Revised March 2004
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Quick Reference Guide to FMVSS’s and Regulations
Page 3 of 4
Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
Subpart B
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 571.101– 571.500
Standard No. 219:
Windshield Zone Intrusion
Standard No. 220:
School Bus Rollover Protection
Standard No. 221:
School Bus Body Joint Strength
Standard No. 222:
School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection
Standard No. 223:
Rear Impact Guards
Standard No. 224:
Rear Impact Protection
Standard No. 225:
Child Restraint Anchorage Systems**
Standard No. 301:
Fuel System Integrity
Standard No. 302:
Flammability of Interior Materials
Standard No. 303:
Fuel System Integrity of Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles
Standard No. 304:
Compressed Natural Gas Fuel Container Integrity
Standard No. 305:
Electric-Powered Vehicles: Electrolyte Spillage and Electric Shock Protection**
Standard No. 401:
Interior Trunk Release**
Standard No. 402:
(Reserved)
Standard No. 403:
Platform Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles**
Standard No. 404:
Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles**
Standard No. 500:
Low Speed Vehicles
DOT HS 805 878
Revised March 2004
Quick Reference Guide to FMVSS’s and Regulations
Page 4 of 4
Part 531 - Part 595
Subpart B -
Other Regulations Relating To Transportation
Part 531:
Passenger Automobile Average Fuel Economy Standards
Part 533:
Light Truck Fuel Economy Standards
Part 541:
Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard
Part 555:
Temporary Exemptions from Motor Vehicle Safety and Bumper Standards
Part 557:
Petitions for Hearings on Notification and Remedy of Defects
Part 564:
Replaceable Light Source Information
Part 565:
Vehicle Identification Number Requirements
Part 566:
Manufacturer Identification
Part 567:
Certification
Part 568:
Vehicles Manufactured in Two or More Stages
Part 569:
Regrooved Tires
Part 570:
Vehicle In Use Inspection Standards
Part 572:
Anthropomorphic Test Devices
Part 573:
Defect and Noncompliance Reports
Part 574:
Tire Identification and Record Keeping
Part 575:
Consumer Information Regulations
Part 577:
Defect and Noncompliance Notification
Part 579:
Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility
Part 580:
Odometer Disclosure Requirements
Part 581:
Bumper Standard
Part 582:
Insurance Cost Information Regulation
Part 583:
Automobile Parts Content Labeling
Part 591:
Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and
Theft Prevention Standards
Part 595:
Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags
Subpart B —Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags
Subpart C —Vehicle Modifications to Accommodate People With Disabilities
DOT HS 805 878
244
Revised March 2004
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213
Highlights of the Regulation for Child Restraint Systems
• Covers all types of systems (infant carriers, child seats, harnesses, and car beds) that restrain children
under 65 pounds in motor vehicles.
• Requires that child restraint systems pass a 30 mph frontal sled test, which simulates a crash.
• Specifies maximum rotation during crash test for rear-facing child restraints.
• Specifies limits on child dummy measurements for forward-facing child restraints:
- Head injury criteria (potential brain injury resulting from abrupt deceleration)
- Head excursion (distance dummy head travels forward)
- Force on chest
- Knee excursion
• Requires that restraints not break during dynamic tests.
• Requires that child restraints retain a child dummy within the confines of the restraint during crash
tests.
• Specifies padding requirements around the head of child restraints for use by children weighing 22
pounds or less. Flame-retardant fabric required.
• Requires that safety seats pass the 30 mph test secured with vehicle lap belt or lower LATCH
attachments only as well as a more stringent test for forward-facing restraints with a tether anchored.
Exceptions: child harnesses and products for children with special needs may be tested with top
tether straps anchored. Boosters are tested with a vehicle lap-shoulder belt.
• Specifies the amount of force needed to open buckles on child restraints, so that toddlers cannot
unbuckle themselves but adults can easily open the buckle. (Before crash test, minimum force is
nine lbs. and maximum is 14 lbs.; after crash test, maximum is 16 lbs.)
• Requires permanent, visible labels on the restraint with the following information: certification
that it conforms to standards for use in motor vehicles, basic instructions for correct installation,
name and address of manufacturer/distributor, and date made. Air bag warning label required
for rear-facing restraints. The restraint must have a designated location for storing the
instruction booklet or sheet. An additional label may be present to state certification for use in
aircraft.
• Permits child restraint systems to be designed as an integral part of motor vehicle seats.
• Requires that the manufacturer include a registration card with the child restraint and notify
consumers of product recalls.
• As of September 1, 2002, child restraints and vehicle were required to provide LATCH attachments
(FMVSS 213) and anchors (FMVSS 225). Refer to #622 for a summary of these requirements.
SafetyBeltSafe U.S.A.
P.O. Box 553, Altadena, CA 91003
www.carseat.org
310/222-6860, 800/745-SAFE (English) 310/222-6862, 800/747-SANO (Spanish)
This document was developed by SafetyBeltSafe U.S.A. and may be reproduced in its entirety.
Important: Call to check if there is a more recent version before reproducing this document.
#91 (8-17-05)
LATCH* Requirements
Summary of Changes to Federal Regulations (FMVSS 213 and 225)
Vehicle Requirements:
i User-ready top tether strap anchorage hardware (such as a
ring, bar, bracket, or webbing loop) for three rear seating
positions were available in most passenger vehicles
beginning with model year 2000 and were required in all
cars, minivans, and pick-up trucks by model year 2001.
i Lower anchors for child restraints, each consisting of two
rigid bars 6 mm in diameter and 25-50 mm long, are present
in the vehicle seat bight (the crack between the seat back and
seat cushion) in specified seating positions in all cars,
minivans, and pick-up trucks made after September 1, 2002
(model year 2003), and in many made before that date.
i Requirements apply to all passenger cars, trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles under 8500 lbs.;
also apply to buses under 10,000 lbs.
i Current belt lockability requirement remains effective until September 1, 2012, so child restraints
without new hardware can be attached with regular vehicle belts. After that date, only vehicle belts in
seating positions without lower anchorage systems must meet lockability requirement (capable of
securing a child restraint without added equipment, such as a locking clip).
Vehicle Exceptions:
i No tether anchorage hardware is required for convertible cars or school buses.
i A built-in child restraint can replace the required anchorage system in one rear seating position.
i At least one front seating position must have the required anchorage system if the vehicle has an air bag
cut-off switch and has either no rear seat or a rear seat too small for a rear-facing child restraint.
Child Restraint Requirements:
i The head excursion limit (maximum distance the head can travel forward in crash tests) has been
reduced by nearly four inches to 28 inches. In order to meet the new requirement, most forward-facing
child restraints made after September 1, 1999, are equipped with a top tether strap. They also must meet
the previous head excursion requirement without using the tether strap.
i Lower attachment hardware (a hook, buckle, or other type of connector) is required on new child
restraints made since September 1, 2002, and is available on many models made before then. Webbingbased attachments must be adjustable.
Child Restraint Exceptions:
i Belt-positioning boosters, car beds, and harnesses are not required to have a tether strap or lower
attachment hardware. However, lower attachment hardware is required on combination seats (forwardfacing restraints with a removable harness that convert to boosters).
i Rear-facing child restraints are not required to have a tether strap. If a rear-facing restraint has a
detachable base, only the base must have lower attachment hardware.
*LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren)
SafetyBeltSafe U.S.A. P.O. Box 553, Altadena, CA 91003 www.carseat.org
310/222-6860, 800/745-SAFE (English) 310/222-6862, 800/747-SANO (Spanish)
This document was developed by SafetyBeltSafe U.S.A. and may be reproduced in its entirety.
Important: Call to check if there is a more recent version before reproducing this document.
#622 (8-17-05)
FMVSS for school buses
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention
Transporting Children With Special Health Care Needs
ABSTRACT. Children with special health care needs
should have access to proper resources for safe transportation. This statement reviews important considerations
for transporting children with special health care needs
and provides current guidelines for the protection of
children with specific health care needs, including those
with a tracheostomy, a spica cast, challenging behaviors,
or muscle tone abnormalities as well as those transported
in wheelchairs.
ABBREVIATION. FMVSS, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard.
A
ll children, including those with special
health care needs, should have access to
proper resources for safe transportation.
Families and health care professionals should be informed of basic guidelines for selecting restraints,
positioning children into them, and securing these
restraints in all types of vehicles, primarily the family
vehicle and school bus.1 Parents should be informed
of the resources available for proper restraint of children with special health care needs during travel2
and thereby avoid use of substandard products,
makeshift restraint systems, or unsafe methods of
securement in motor vehicles.
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)
213, which regulates design and performance of
child restraint systems, does not recognize that children with special needs may require the use of special occupant restraint systems.3 The standard also
does not regulate specific design and performance
criteria for occupant protection devices that can provide safe seating for children with disabilities. Crash
testing of car safety seats that meet FMVSS 213 has
been done with test dummies representing children
without special medical problems that would affect
restraint use in motor vehicles. The biomechanical
effects of a crash on test dummies representative of
children with special medical needs in any restraint
system have not been studied. Further research is
needed, including development of such test dummies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to address these concerns.
Children with special needs should not be exempt
from the requirements of each state’s laws regarding
child restraint and seat belt use. Pediatricians can
serve as resources for information to legislators, policy makers, and law enforcement professionals, as
The recommendations in this statement do not indicate an exclusive course
of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. Variations, taking into
account individual circumstances, may be appropriate.
PEDIATRICS (ISSN 0031 4005). Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
988
PEDIATRICS Vol. 104 No. 4 October 1999
well as school officials who may be unaware of the
importance and availability of occupant protection
systems for children with special needs.
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS
1. The rear seat is the safest place for all children,
and rear-facing car safety seats must never be
placed in the front seat of a vehicle that has a front
passenger air bag. The impact of a deploying air
bag can severely injure or kill an infant or small
child. Children may also be at risk of injury if they
are out of position or lie against the door of a
vehicle with a side air bag.
2. For a child with special health care needs who
requires frequent observation during travel and
for whom no adult is available to accompany the
child in the back seat, an air bag on/off switch
should be considered for the vehicle.
3. Instructions provided by the manufacturer of the
vehicle and the manufacturer of the car safety seat
must be followed.
4. Plans for procurement of the most appropriate
restraint and training for the proper use of the
device and its installation in the vehicle should be
incorporated into hospital discharge planning for
all children with special needs.4 Any child with a
medical problem should have a special care plan
that includes what to do during transport if a
medical emergency occurs.
5. Parents, health care professionals, and educators
should be encouraged to incorporate a child’s special transportation needs into the individual education plan developed with the school.
6. There have been rapid changes in development
and availability of resources for safer transportation of children with special needs. The current
version of the American Academy of Pediatrics’
“Car Seat Shopping Guide for Children With Special
Needs” should be a helpful reference for health
care professionals, parents, and school transportation providers.5
7. For additional information on transporting newborns or premature infants and children with special needs on school buses, refer to the appropriate
policy statements by the American Academy of
Pediatrics.6,7
GUIDELINES FOR PROTECTION
Although research has been limited, current information suggests the following guidelines be adhered
to when selecting an appropriate occupant protection system and positioning a child with special
needs properly.
General: Infants and Young Children
General: Older Children and Adolescents
1. The child restraint system should meet FMVSS
213.3 Standard child restraint devices may be used
for many children with special health care needs,
and, whenever possible, a standard child restraint
is the preferable choice. Use of a “special” child
restraint system for a child with health care needs
often may be postponed until a child exceeds the
physical limitations of a car safety seat.
2. Car restraint systems should not be modified or
used in a manner other than that specified by the
manufacturer unless the modified restraint system has been crash tested and has met all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration.
3. Infant-only car safety seats with capacity to recline
are useful for infants with many medical problems, especially respiratory conditions. Some convertible car safety seats also can be used in the
rear-facing position for children up to a weight of
13.5 kg (30 lb). These restraints may be especially
useful for children with poor head and neck control.
4. If the child’s head drops forward while in a rearfacing car safety seat because the position of the
seat is too upright, a roll of cloth can be wedged in
the vehicle seat crease and under the car safety
seat base at the child’s feet, so that the child reclines at no more than a 45° angle or as specified
in the manufacturer’s instructions (Fig 1).
5. Premature and small infants should not be placed
in car safety seats with a harness-tray/shield combination or an armrest that could directly contact
the infant’s neck or face during an impact.4,7,8
6. Car safety seats with five-point harnesses anchored at both shoulders, both hips, and between
the legs, can be adjusted to provide good upper
torso support for many children with special
needs.
1. When a child has outgrown a car safety seat, other
choices are available for proper and secure occupant restraint. Some systems provide for full support for the child’s head, neck, and back and accommodate children up to 47.2 kg (105 lb). Others,
such as the conventional E-Z-On Vest (E-Z-On
Products, Jupiter, FL), can be used to provide
additional trunk support for a child who already
has stable neck control. Tethers, additional lap
seat belts, or appropriate tie-down systems are
required for some of these devices and should be a
consideration for selection and proper use (Fig 2).
2. Some older children with disabilities can be transported in a special needs belt-positioning booster
or a conventional belt-positioning booster for
trunk support. The booster seats help to position
the shoulder and lap belt across the child’s chest
and pelvis.
3. Conventional lap-shoulder belt systems may also
be useful in providing for chest restraint of some
children with special needs. Lap-shoulder belts
should be used properly. Lap belts should be low
and flat across the child’s hips, and the shoulder
belt should be snug across the chest. If a lap belt
lies on the child’s abdomen or if a shoulder belt
rests on a child’s neck, use of a belt-positioning
booster seat will help assure proper placement of
the belts. The shoulder belt should never be
placed underneath the child’s arm(s) or behind
the child’s back.
Fig 1. Rear-facing seat with wedge to recline seat at a 45° tilt.
TRACHEOSTOMIES
Infants and children with a tracheostomy should
not use child restraint systems with a harness-tray/
shield combination or an armrest. On sudden impact, the child could fall forward causing the tracheostomy to contact the shield or armrest, possibly
resulting in injury and a blocked airway.9 A rearfacing car safety seat with a three-point harness or a
Fig 2. Large child forward-facing safety seat with tether anchored
to vehicle.
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
car safety seat with a five-point harness should be
selected for children with a tracheostomy.
MUSCLE TONE ABNORMALITIES
1. For toddlers with poor head control, a convertible
car safety seat approved by the manufacturer for
use in a semireclining position when facing forward may be beneficial.
2. Crotch rolls, made with a rolled towel or a diaper,
may be added between the child’s legs and the
crotch strap to keep the hips against the back of
the seat and prevent the child from slumping
forward in the seat. This modification should be
used for any child who cannot maintain appropriate posture.
3. Lateral support may be provided with rolled blankets, towels, or foam rolls (Fig 3).
4. Soft padding that does not alter the function of the
harness may be positioned behind the neck and
on either side of the head to promote anatomic
alignment. However, padding should never be
placed behind or under the child in the seat.10 Soft
padding (such as blankets, pillows, or soft foam)
compresses on impact and can prevent harness
straps from maintaining a secure, tight fit on a
child’s body (Fig 3).
5. A foam roll or rolled blanket may be placed under
a child’s knees to inhibit hypertonicity or opisthotonic posturing (Fig 3).
PRONE AND SUPINE POSITIONING OF INFANTS
Infants who must lie prone after surgical repair of
myelomeningocele or infants who must lie prone to
maintain an open airway, such as those with Pierre
Robin sequence, may require a restraint that allows
prone positioning.5,11,12
SPICA CASTS
1. For children with spica casts, a specially modified
convertible car safety seat, the Spelcast (Snug Seat,
Inc, Matthews, NC), has cut-away sides and seat
Fig 4. Child with spica cast seated in modified seat with cut-away
sides and seat bottom.
bottom that provide room for a comfortable and
snug fit into the restraint system (Fig 4). This seat
fits infants up to a weight of 9.0 kg (20 lb) (rearfacing position) and toddlers who weigh up to
18.0 kg (40 lb) (front-facing position).
2. Many older toddlers and preschool and schoolaged children in body or hip spica casts have
limited resources available for safe transport in
motor vehicles. One resource, the modified
E-Z-On Vest, has performed satisfactorily during
dynamic crash testing with a test dummy
weighted to 47.2 kg (105 lb) and is available commercially. Two sets of seat belts routed through
the vest are used to secure the child at the child’s
side against the vehicle seat. An ancillary belt
loops around the casted leg or legs at the knees
and is routed through the other seat belt (Fig 5).
When it is not possible to fit a child onto a vehicle
seat, use of an ambulance for transport is recommended. For lateral positioning on the vehicle seat
(eg, as required by a car bed restraint or the modified E-Z-On Vest), position the child’s head as far
as possible from the side of the vehicle (Fig 6).
CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR
1. Older children with hyperactivity, autism, or
emotional problems may require a safety restraint
Fig 3. Child in convertible car seat with soft padding behind the
neck, on either side of the head and along the sides to promote
anatomic alignment. Foam roll or rolled blanket may be placed
under knees to inhibit hypertonicity.
990
Fig 5. Child with modified E-Z-On Vest (E-Z-On Products, Inc,
Jupiter, FL).
TRANSPORTING CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE NEEDS
secured on the vehicle floor; underneath a vehicle
seat or wheelchair; or to the bus seat, bus floor, or
bus wall below the window line so that they do
not become a projectile during a crash and strike
an occupant.
2. Electrical equipment for use during transit should
have portable self-contained power for twice the
expected duration of the trip. For improved
safety, lead acid batteries or electrically powered
wheelchairs or other mobile seating devices and
respiratory systems should be converted, when
possible, to gel-cell or dry-cell batteries. To house
and protect batteries during everyday use, transportation, and collision, the use of external battery
boxes is recommended.
RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
Fig 6. Infant positioned supine in the Ultra Dream Ride car bed
(Cosco, Columbus, IN).
that is less likely to be unbuckled by the child.
High back booster seats with internal harnesses
that have seat belts routed underneath the seat
base may be helpful in reducing the child’s likelihood of unbuckling the restraint during travel.
Large child car safety seats with a 5-point harness
may be required for children weighing over 40 lb
who cannot be restrained in a belt positioning
booster seat with only a lap/shoulder harness.
2. Vests with rear back closure also may be helpful
for use with children who have behavioral problems that may interfere with safe travel.5
WHEELCHAIR TRANSPORTATION
Any child who can assist with transfer or be “reasonably” moved from a wheelchair, stroller, or special seating device to the original manufacturer’s
forward-facing vehicle seat equipped with dynamically-tested occupant restraints or be “reasonably”
moved to a child restraint system complying with
FMVSS 213 requirement should be so transferred for
transportation. The unoccupied wheelchair also
should be secured adequately in the vehicle to prevent it from becoming a dangerous projectile in the
event of a sudden stop or crash.13
Occupied wheelchair(s) should be secured in a
forward-facing position. Any occupied wheelchair
should be secured with four-point tie-down devices.
Lap boards or metal or plastic trays attached to the
wheelchair or to adaptive equipment should be removed and secured separately for transport. An occupant restraint system that has been tested at 30
mph and 20G force conditions and that includes
upper torso restraint (ie, shoulder harness) and
lower torso restraint (ie, a lap belt over the pelvis)
should be provided for each wheelchair-seated occupant.14 Head bands should not be used to restrain the
child’s head separately from the torso.
EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTATION
1. When a child with special needs is in transit,
ancillary pieces of medical equipment (eg, walkers, crutches, oxygen tanks, monitors) should be
The National Easter Seal Society (800 –221-6827)
can assist identifying local community resources for
procurement of specific restraint systems.5
Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention,
1999 –2000
Marilyn Bull, MD, Chairperson
Phyllis Agran, MD, MPH
Danielle Laraque, MD
Susan H. Pollack, MD
Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH
Howard R. Spivak, MD
Milton Tenenbein, MD
Susan B. Tully, MD
Liaison Representatives
Ruth A. Brenner, MD, MPH
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development
Stephanie Bryn, MPH
Maternal and Child Health Bureau
Cheryl Neverman, MS
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Richard A. Schieber, MD, MPH
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Richard Stanwick, MD
Canadian Paediatric Society
Deborah Tinsworth
US Consumer Product Safety Commission
William P. Tully, MD
Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America
Section Liaison
Victor Garcia, MD
Section on Surgery
Consultant
Murray L. Katcher, MD, PhD
REFERENCES
1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention. Selecting and using the most appropriate car safety seats for
growing children: guidelines for counseling parents. Pediatrics. 1996;97:
761–763
2. Stout JD, Bull MJ, Stroup KB. Safe transportation for children with
disabilities. Am J Occup Ther. 1989;43:31–36
3. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards; child restraint systems; child restraint anchorage systems. Federal Register. 2127(1999)
4. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention. Safe transportation of newborns at hospital discharge. 1999;
104;986 –987
5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Car Seat Shopping Guide for Children
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
With Special Needs (brochure). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy
of Pediatrics; 1998
6. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention. School bus transportation of children with special needs.
Pediatrics. 1994;93:129 –130
7. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Safe transportation
of premature and low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 1996;97:758 –760
8. Weber K. Rear-facing restraint for small child passenger: a medical
alert. University of Michigan Transportation Res Inst Res. 1995;25:12–17
9. Stroup KB, Wylie P, Bull MJ. Car seats for children with mechanically
assisted ventilation. Pediatrics. 1987;80:290 –292
10. Bull MJ, Stroup KB, Stout J, Doll JP, Jones J, Feller N. Establishing a
992
special needs car seat loan program. Pediatrics. 1990;85:540 –547
11. Stroup KB, Weber K, Bull MJ. Safe Transportation Solutions for Children
With Special Needs. In: 31st Proceedings of the American Association for
Automotive Medicine; September 28 –30, 1987; New Orleans, LA. Pages
297–307
12. Bull MJ, Stroup KB, Everly JS, Weber K, Doll J. Child safety seat use for
infants with Pierre Robin sequence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:
301–305
13. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention. School transportation safety. Pediatrics. 1996;97:754 –757
14. National Safety Council. National Standards for School Buses and School
Bus Operations. Revised ed. Warrensburg, MO: Missouri Safety Center,
Central Missouri State University; 1995
TRANSPORTING CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE NEEDS
Effective School Bus Occupant Restraints for Students with Special Needs
Susan Englert Shutrump O.T.R./L.
Supervisor of Occupational and Physical Therapy Services
Trumbull County Educational Service Center
6000 Youngstown Warren Rd.
Niles, Ohio 44446
Following are some specific concerns/problems often encountered when choosing occupant
restraint systems for students with special needs. Equipment options that may provide assistance
are given. Whenever possible, suggested equipment options are ranked from least restrictive
(appropriate for children needing mild intervention) to most restrictive (for children needing
more support or intervention). Important procedural considerations are noted for some problems.
It is vital that these are given special attention by the team designing the student’s individual
transportation plan.
Problem/
CHALLENGE
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS
PROCEDURAL
CONSIDERATIONS
1.Poor Head
Control
Child safety seat that is certified
to be used rear facing (many are
available for larger children)
No straps or other positioning
aids which secure the head or
neck to the child safety seat
separate from the torso should
be used during transportation
Child safety seat which allows
recline in a forward facing
position
Neck collar –made of soft and
light material and must be free
floating
Child safety seat designed for a
child with special needs which
incorporates a wedge
Most require use of a tether.
Wheelchair or stroller which
can be reclined with or without
use of a collar
Recline exceeding 30 degrees
should be avoided. Shoulder belt
anchor of WTOR may need to
be moved rearward
2. Poor Trunk
Control
Child safety seat with towel rolls
placed along the child’s torso to
facilitate proper alignment
Positioning aids should be
made of firm materials and
cannot interfere with the
working parts of the occupant
restraint/child safety seat.
No padding should be placed
beneath or behind the child.
Integrated child safety seat
Bus seat with shoulder/lap belt
or four point harness system
Bus Specific Add-On Child
Safety Restraint System (i.e.
STAR, Protech, etc.)
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Safety vest with crotch strap
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Modified E-Z-On Vest
Child must be able to fit
lengthwise on the vehicle seat.
Vehicle floor space should be
filled in with padding. Child’s
head must face towards aisle.
Child safety seat designed for a
child with special needs which
incorporates positioning pads
258
Most require use of a tether.
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
3. Increased Leg
Length/ower
Extremity ulk
Bulky LE
Bracing Or
Casting
Forward-facing only or
combination child seat/booster
used with internal harness
Integrated child safety seat
Bus seat with shoulder/lap belt
or four point harness system
Caution must be exercised to
assure that the seating area has
adequate room for feet and legs.
Feet should not be crammed
against the seat back. Seat size
must allow for the child to be
placed easily
in the seat (not forced). Children
who wear bulky LE bracing or
casting often
experience sensory deficits,
which make them prone to skin
breakdown. In addition, their
bones may be more brittle and
prone to injury.
The weight of the cast/
braces must be accounted
for when considering seat weight
limits
Bus Specific Add-On Child
Safety Restraint System (i.e.
STAR, Protech, etc.)
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Safety vest with crotch strap
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Spelcast/Hippo
Must have some hip flexion
Modified E-Z-On Vest
Child must be able to fit
lengthwise on the vehicle seat.
Vehicle floor space should be
filled in with padding. Child’s
head should face towards aisle.
Wheelchair or stroller which
can be reclined with or without
use of wheelchair mounted
safety vest
Recline exceeding 30 degrees
should be avoided. Shoulder belt
anchor of WTOR may need to
be moved rearward.
Vest may need additional crotch
straps
4. Need for
Additional
Lower Extremity
Support
Positioning over the wheel well
Child safety seat designed for a
child with special needs, which
incorporates a footplate
Most require use of a tether.
5. Child with
Behavioral
Problems Who
has Difficulty
Staying Seated
Window seating with peer in
aisle to cue proper behavior
IEP team to assure proper
supervision and/or assistance
must carefully analyze boarding
procedures.
Pictures of proper bus behavior
mounted with Velcro or social
stories may prompt compliance
Allowing child to use
headphones, books, or soft
lightweight toys may help them
stay seated and in compartment.
Child Safety Restraint System
Safety vest with crotch strap
260
If the vest is necessary primarily
because of problem behavior,
a behavior intervention plan
designed by the IEP Team
should be in place that addresses
the transportation environment.
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
6. Child with a
Shunt
7. Child with
Tracheotomy
Integrated child safety seat
All equipment must provide
support to the head and neck
area.
Bus seat with shoulder/lap belt
or four point harness system
which lacks buckles/hardware
near shunt site
Seat placement must not allow
the child’s head to bump the
wall of the bus.
Bus Specific Add-On Child
Safety Restraint System (i.e.
STAR, Protech, etc.)
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Safety vest without buckles/
hardware near shunt site
Entire seat behind must be
unoccupied or seat a student also
in CSRS
Child safety restraint system
without a shield
Seat placement in the front
for maximum amount of adult
supervision. Student should be
positioned away from the lift
door or open windows at the
rear of the bus to avoid increased
exposure to dust and fumes
and/or frequent changes of
temperature
Oxygen if carried must
be secured and mounted
appropriately in the bus with
guidance from the oxygen
supplier.
Emergency procedures to
be followed in the event of
respiratory distress should be
clearly stated in the IEP with
proper training and inservice
given.
8. Child with
Feeding Tube or
ostomy bag
Child safety restraint systems
which allow for adjustment in
waist/pelvic area
All harness belts on equipment
must avoid contact with the
tube/ostomy site
If child has difficulty swallowing
and may “pocket” food, a mouth
check before boarding bus and
seating in the front of the bus
are recommended.
9. Child with
Brittle Bones,
Spinal Rods
or Other
Orthopedic
Concerns for a
Rough Ride
Seat placement in the front of
the bus to allow for smoother
ride.
Additional padding may be
necessary. The IEP team should
meet to decide how to proceed.
Avoid wheel well positions
It is vital that all harness straps
are properly positioned.
10. Child of
Small Stature
Who has
Difficulty
Getting Into and
Out of the Bus
Step stool with non-slip step
surface available at home and
school if allowable.
Transport on bus with air-ride
Children should not be carried
onto or off of the bus.
Bus with additional steps
All equipment recommended should be installed and used in accordance with manufacturer
instructions. Some of the CSRS above can be installed on traditionally designed school buses
and therefore may allow for an overall less restrictive transportation plan. All procedures
followed for preschool transportation should be consistent with the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration “Guideline for the Safe Transportation of Pre-school Age Children in
School Buses”. Any additional medical equipment or items accompanying the child should be
secured appropriately in the vehicle.
This handout was originally prepared in conjunction with Kentin Gearhart, who was the project
manager at Riley Hospital For Children. Riley’s Automotive Safety For Children program
continues to be a great resource and inspiration for this author.
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Kentin’s work and that of his coworkers at Riley is gratefully acknowledged. They include:
Cheryl Wolf
Safety and Training Supervisor
Lafayette School Corporation and
Project Manager Riley Mobile Teaching School Bus
2300 Cason Street
Lafayette, IN 47904
Judith Talty
Associate Director of the Automotive Safety Program
Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine
575 West Drive, 004
Indiana, IN 46202
After review and analysis of the IMMI data by the SAE Child
Restraint Sub-Committee, an agreement of no more than 3
complete (360 degree) twists of the safety belt buckle as
the maximum allowed was reached in 2006.
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
Cleaning and Maintenance of Child
Safety Restraint Systems (CSRS)
With regular use, all CSRS become soiled and
must be properly cleaned before returning
them to your inventory for future use. The
most practical advice for the care and
maintenance of a CSRS begins with the CSRS
instructions. Always follow the CSRS
manufacturer’s cleaning instructions.
Here are some additional tips to make the
process more manageable.
Tips and Techniques for the Proper Care and
Maintenance of Child Safety Restraint Systems
x Read the CSRS instructions and follow the step-by-step directions
for disassembling and re-assembling all of the parts.
x Brush or vacuum all of the crumbs or “leftovers” from the padding.
x Remove the harness and padding being careful to remember how
they will need to be re-attached.
x Replace the padding if it is torn or too soiled. Follow the washing
instructions for the padding. Many pads may be machine washable
on a gentle cycle. Read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
Never use dry cleaning solution on the padding.
x Replace the harness if it is frayed or heavily soiled. The harness
may be spot cleaned or surface cleaned with a mild soap. Do not
immerse totally in water unless directed by the CSRS instructions.
x Wipe the plastic shell with a damp cloth or sponge and a mild soap.
Never use bleach, harsh chemicals or household detergents. They
can weaken the plastic.
x Avoid wetting the labels.
x Never place the shell under extremely high temperatures. This will
cause deformation and deterioration of the plastic.
x The buckle may be cleaned with a
damp cloth. Do not lubricate or
immerse the buckle in water.
x When all of the parts are cleaned and
dried, reassemble the CSRS following
the manufacturer’s instructions.
Lifespan of a CSRS
x Most manufacturers recommend replacing a CSRS after five to six
years. Manufacturers of school bus restraints and add-on seats also
recommend a lifespan of five to six years.
x If the CSRS has any broken or missing parts that cannot be
replaced or if the CSRS has been recalled, contact the manufacturer
to determine if the seat should be repaired or destroyed.
x Read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions if the CSRS has
been involved in a crash.
Additional Information
For additional information on the proper care and maintenance of
CSRS, contact the manufacturer.
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Child Passenger Safety Restraint Systems in School Buses National Training
SAMPLE
Child Passenger Safety Log
Name of School District____________________________________________________
Address of School District__________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Name of Contractor________________________________________________________
Address of
Contractor_______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Vehicle Type____________________________________________________________
Vehicle License #________________________________________________________
Vehicle Number__________________________________________________________
Type of Child Restraint: Circle one
Infant
Convertible
Forward Facing
Booster
Vest
Special Needs Seat
Manufacturer of Child Restraint______________________________________________
Make and Model Number___________________________________________________
Date of Manufacture_______________________________________________________
Date Purchased___________________________________________________________
SAMPLE
CARE and MAINTENANCE
Recall List checked:
Dates___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Recalled: Circle one
Recall Repaired:
YES
Circle one
Parts Replaced Circle one
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
List Replacement Parts and Date of Replacement________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Copy of Manufacturer’s instructions__________________________________________
Vehicle involved in crash:
Circle one
YES
NO
Child Restraint involved in crash: Circle one
YES
NO
Child Restraint replaced:
YES
NO
Circle one
Reason__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Print Name______________________________________________________________
Signature________________________________________________________________
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AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention
Selecting and Using the Most Appropriate Car Safety Seats for Growing
Children: Guidelines for Counseling Parents
ABSTRACT. Despite the existence of laws in all 50
states requiring the use of car safety seats or child restraint devices for young children, more children are still
killed as passengers in car crashes than from any other
type of injury. Pediatricians and other health care professionals need to provide up-to-date, appropriate information for parents regarding car safety seat choices and
proper use. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics is not a testing or standard-setting organization, this
policy statement discusses the Academy’s current recommendations based on the peer-reviewed literature available at the time of publication and sets forth some of the
factors that parents should consider before selecting and
using a car safety seat.
ABBREVIATIONS. AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics,
NHTSA, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
2.
3.
4.
INTRODUCTION
I
n 2000, 539 children younger than 5 years died
while riding in motor vehicles; almost half were
unrestrained,1 and many others were restrained
improperly.2 Many parents want to know which car
safety seat is best for their child. An appropriate car
safety seat is the right size for the child, fits the
vehicle’s seats and seat belt systems, and is easy for
parents to use properly. In addition, it must meet all
applicable federal safety standards.
Pediatricians also need to be aware that the child
occupant protection laws in their states may not
reflect the safest way to transport a child. Parents
should be counseled to follow the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations for best
child passenger restraint, and pediatricians should
advocate to improve their state laws to provide better child protection.
5.
6.
AAP RECOMMENDATIONS
Seat Selection
1. Children should face the rear of the vehicle until
they are at least 1 year of age and weigh at least 20
lb to decrease the risk of cervical spine injury in
the event of a crash. Infants who weigh 20 lb
before 1 year of age should ride rear facing in a
convertible seat or infant seat approved for higher
weights until at least 1 year of age.3,4 If a car safety
seat accommodates children rear facing to higher
The recommendations in this statement do not indicate an exclusive course
of treatment or serve as a standard of medical care. Variations, taking into
account individual circumstances, may be appropriate.
PEDIATRICS (ISSN 0031 4005). Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
550
PEDIATRICS Vol. 109 No. 3 March 2002
7.
weights, for optimal protection, the child should
remain rear facing until reaching the maximum
weight for the car safety seat, as long as the top of
the head is below the top of the seat back.3
Premature and small infants should not be placed
in car safety seats with shields, abdominal pads,
or arm rests that could directly contact an infant’s
face or neck during an impact and injure the
child.5
For optimal protection, pediatricians should counsel parents of most children (those who weigh
more than 12 lb at 4 months of age) to encourage
use of a convertible car safety seat that will accommodate them rear facing at higher weights.
A convertible car safety seat is positioned semireclined and rear facing for a child until at least 1
year of age and at least 20 lb. The seat is positioned upright and forward facing for an older
and heavier child who weighs up to 40 lb and may
be used as long as the child fits well (eg, tops of
ears below the top of the car safety seat back and
shoulders below the seat strap slots).6
A forward-facing seat, a combination seat, or a
belt-positioning booster seat should be used when
the child has outgrown a convertible safety seat
but is too small to use the vehicle’s safety belts.
Vehicle safety belts should not be used until the
shoulder belt can be positioned across the chest
with the lap belt low and snug across the thighs7,8;
the child should fit against the vehicle’s seat back
with his or her feet hanging down when the legs
are bent at the knees. A belt-positioning booster
seat should be used until the vehicle safety belt
fits well.
Many new vehicles are equipped with integrated
(built-in) car safety seats that are designed for
forward-facing riders who are at least 1 year of
age and weigh at least 20 lb. All younger infants
should be positioned rear facing in separate car
safety seats until they are at least 1 year of age and
weigh at least 20 lb. When purchasing a new
vehicle, parents should consider selecting a vehicle with an optional integrated car safety seat.
Some integrated seats convert to booster seats for
older children.9
On the basis of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), shield boosters have not been certified by their manufacturers
for use by children who weigh more than 40 lb.3,10
In current models, the shield can be removed and
the restraint can be used with a lap and shoulder
belt as a belt-positioning booster seat for children
who are too heavy or tall to fit in a seat with a full
harness.
Children who weigh 40 lb or less are best protected in a seat with a full harness.3,11 Significant
injuries to the head, spine, abdomen, and extremities of children in shield boosters have been documented in crash investigations resulting from
ejection, excessive head excursion, and shield contact.11–14 Although boosters with shields may
meet current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for use by children who weigh 30 to 40 lb,
on the basis of current published peer-reviewed
literature, the AAP does not recommend their use.
8. A number of aftermarket add-on devices claim to
solve the problem of poorly fitting seat belts; however, these products may actually interfere with
proper lap and shoulder harness fit by positioning
the lap belt too high on the abdomen and allowing
too much slack in the shoulder harness, placing it
too low across the shoulder.15 Until performance
requirements are developed by the NHTSA for
aftermarket devices, these products should not be
used.
9. Children with special health care needs should
have access to appropriate restraint systems.16,17
Specific information is available in the AAP policy
statement “Transporting Children with Special
Health Care Needs”17 and “Safe Transportation
of Children With Special Needs: A Guide for Families.”18
Installation in Vehicle
1. A rear-facing car safety seat must not be placed in
the front passenger seat of any vehicle equipped
with an air bag on the front passenger side. Death
or serious injury to an infant can occur from the
impact of the air bag against the back of the car
safety seat.3,19
2. Parents should be advised that the rear vehicle
seat is the safest place for children of any age to
ride. Any front-seat, front-facing passengers
should ride properly restrained and positioned as
far back as possible from the front air bag on the
passenger side.19
3. Parents should be instructed to read the vehicle
owner’s manual and child restraint device instructions carefully. When the car safety seat is installed in the car, it should be tested for a safe,
snug fit in the vehicle to avoid potentially lifethreatening incompatibility problems between the
design of the car safety seat, vehicle seat, and seat
belt system.
Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children
(LATCH) is a new standardized car safety seat
attachment system that will simplify car safety
seat installation and enhance safety. Most new
vehicles and car safety seats will be equipped with
this system by September 2002.
4. Infants should ride at approximately a 45° angle
to prevent slumping and airway obstruction. If
the vehicle seat slopes so that the infant’s head
flops forward, the car safety seat should be positioned back at an approximately 45° tilt according
to the manufacturer’s instructions. Some car
safety seats have built-in features that allow adjustment of the angle. For car safety seats that do
not adjust, a firm roll of cloth, a solid-core Styrofoam roll, or a tightly-rolled newspaper can be
wedged under the car safety seat below the infant’s feet to achieve this angle.20
5. Experience with the interaction of vehicle side air
bags and car safety seats is limited. To date, no
crash studies have established that a child properly restrained in a car safety seat is at risk from
current side air bag impact.3 Laboratory simulations have indicated, however, that unrestrained
and out-of-position children are at risk of serious
injury from a deploying side air bag.21 Because
children cannot be depended on to remain in position at all times and until additional research
and experience is acquired, parents should be
counseled about the potential risks and benefits of
having side air bags. Parents should consider
placing children and car safety seats away from all
air bags, choosing a vehicle without side air bags
in the rear seat, or deactivating side air bags in
rear seats if children are transported in adjacent
positions. They may also refer to the vehicle owner’s manual for recommendations specific to their
vehicle.
Placement of Child in Seat
1. In rear-facing car safety seats for infants, shoulder
harnesses usually should be placed in the slots at
or below the infant’s shoulders, the harness
should be snug, and the car safety seat’s retainer
clip should be positioned at the level of the infant’s armpit, not on the abdomen or in the neck
area (see manufacturers’ instructions for details).
2. In forward-facing car safety seats for older children, the shoulder strap should be at or above the
child’s shoulders, the harness should be snug, and
the retainer clip should be positioned level with
the child’s armpits. This seat should be used until
the child reaches the top weight limit of the seat or
the tops of his or her ears reach the top of the car
safety seat back (see manufacturers’ instructions
for details).
3. A child should never be left unattended in a car
safety seat in or out of the car.
SUMMARY
Existing products provide effective restraint for
children riding in motor vehicles and minimize risk
of death and injury during car crashes if used appropriately. Parents look to pediatricians for up-to-date,
accurate information on selecting and properly using
car safety seats. New products that address gaps in
restraint protection are continually being developed.
Manufacturers should be encouraged to develop car
safety seats that accommodate children rear facing to
4 years of age (45 lb). It is important that pediatricians keep abreast of innovations in child passenger
safety.21 The use of the AAP materials, including
“Car Safety Seats: A Guide for Families,”9 the “OneMinute Car Seat Safety Check-Up,”23 and “Safe
Transportation of Children With Special Needs: A
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Fig 1. Car safety seats: selecting the appropriate type.
552
SELECTING AND USING THE MOST APPROPRIATE CAR SAFETY SEATS
Guide for Families”18 can assist the physician in providing specific advice for patients. The information
in Fig 1 in this statement will also aid in selecting the
appropriate type of restraint. Additional consultation for detailed technical information can be obtained from certified child passenger safety technicians identified by state on the NHTSA Web site
(http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/childps/
contacts/index.cfm). This information will help parents ensure that their children are transported as
safely as possible.
Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention,
2001–2002
Marilyn J. Bull, MD, Chairperson
Phyllis Agran, MD, MPH
Victor Garcia, MD
H. Garry Gardner, MD
Danielle Laraque, MD
Susan H. Pollack, MD
Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH
Milton Tenenbein, MD
Joseph Wright, MD, MPH
Liaisons
Ruth A. Brenner, MD, MPH
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development
Stephanie Bryn, MPH
Health Resources and Service
Administration/Maternal and Child Health Bureau
Richard A. Schieber, MD, MPH
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Alexander Sinclair
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Deborah Tinsworth
US Consumer Product Safety Commission
Lynn Warda, MD
Canadian Paediatric Society
Consultant
Murray L. Katcher, MD, PhD
Staff
Heather Newland
REFERENCES
1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for
Statistics and Analysis. Traffic Safety Facts 2000: A Compilation of Motor
Vehicle Crash Data From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the
General Estimates System. Washington, DC: US Department of
Transportation; 2000. DOT HS Publ. No. 809 337. Available at: http://
www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/ncsa/. Accessed January 22, 2002
2. Decina LE, Kneobel KY. Child safety seat misuse patterns in four states.
Accid Anal Prev. 1997;29:125–132
3. Weber K. Child passenger protection. In: Nahum AM, Melvin JW, eds.
Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention. New York, NY: SpringerVerlag; 2002:523–549
4. Weber K. Rear-facing restraint for small child passengers: a medical
alert. UMTRI Res Rev. 1995;25:12–17
5. Bull MJ, Weber K, Stroup KB. Automotive restraint systems for premature infants. J Pediatr. 1988;112:385–388
6. Johnston C, Rivara FP, Soderberg R. Children in car crashes: analysis of
data for injury and use of restraints. Pediatrics. 1994;93:960 –965
7. Agran PF, Dunkle DE, Winn DG. Injuries to a sample of seatbelted
children evaluated and treated in a hospital emergency room. J Trauma.
1987;27:58 – 64
8. Winston FK, Durbin DR, Kallan MJ, Moll EK. The danger of premature
graduation to seat belts for young children. Pediatrics. 2000;105:
1179 –1183
9. American Academy of Pediatrics. Car Safety Seats: A Guide for Families.
Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; (updated annually)
10. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations. 49 CFR
§571.213 (1998)
11. Marriner PC, Woolford JG, Baines GA, Dance DM. Abdominal shield
booster cushions in motor vehicle accidents. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference IX. Montreal, Quebec,
Canada: University of Montreal; 1995:233–240
12. Whitman GR, Brown KA, Cantor A, D’Aulerio LA, Eisentraut DK,
Markushewski ML. Booster-with-shield restraint case studies. SAE
973307. Child Occupant Protection 2nd Symposium. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers; 1997:149 –157
13. Stalnaker RL. Spinal cord injuries to children in real world accidents.
SAE 933100. Child Occupant Protection 2nd Symposium. Warrendale, PA:
Society of Automotive Engineers; 1997:173–183
14. Slavik DH. Cervical distraction injuries to children. SAE 973306. Child
Occupant Protection 2nd Symposium. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers; 1997:137–148
15. Blue Ribbon Panel II. Protecting Our Older Child Passengers. Recommendations. March 15, 1999. Available at: http://carseat.org/
whatsnew/blueribbon.htm. Accessed April 9, 2001
16. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention. Safe transportation of newborns at hospital discharge. Pediatrics. 1999;104:986 –987
17. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention. Transporting children with special health care needs. Pediatrics. 1999;104:988 –992
18. American Academy of Pediatrics. Safe Transportation of Children With
Special Needs: A Guide for Families. Elk Grove Village, IL: American
Academy of Pediatrics; In press
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Warnings on interaction
between air bags and rear-facing child restraints. MMWR Morb Mortal
Wkly Rep. 1993;42:280 –282
20. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Injury and Poison
Prevention and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Safe transportation
of premature and low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 1996;97:758 –760
21. Duma SM, Crandell JR, Pilkey WD, Seki K. Dynamic response of the
Hybrid III 3-year-old dummy head and neck during side air bag loading. In: Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive
Medicine 42nd Conference. Barrington, IL: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine; 1998:193–208
22. Bull MJ, Sheese J. Update for the pediatrician on child passenger safety:
five principles for safer travel. Pediatrics. 2000;106:1113–1116
23. American Academy of Pediatrics. One-Minute Car Seat Safety Check-Up.
Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2001
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Child Passenger Safety
A PARENT’S PRImER
When you’re an expectant mother, it’s important to always wear your seat belt to protect you and your unborn child. Wear
the lap belt across your hips and below your belly with the shoulder belt across your chest (between your breasts). Once
your baby is born, follow these important safety steps.
GROwING UP SAFE: It’s a four-step process.
As children grow, how they sit in your car, truck or SUV should change.
Save your child from injury or death by observing all four steps:
For the best possible protection keep infants in the back seat, in rear-facing child safety
seats, as long as possible up to the height or weight limit of the particular seat. At a
minimum, keep infants rear-facing until a minimum of age 1 and at least 20 pounds.
REAR-FACING
SEATS
FORwARDFACING SEATS
When children outgrow their rear-facing seats (at a minimum age 1 and at least 20
pounds) they should ride in forward-facing child safety seats, in the back seat, until they
reach the upper weight or height limit of the particular seat (usually around age 4 and
40 pounds).
BOOSTER
SEATS
Once children outgrow their forward-facing seats (usually around age 4 and 40 pounds),
they should ride in booster seats, in the back seat, until the vehicle seat belts fit properly.
Seat belts fit properly when the lap belt lays across the upper thighs and the shoulder
belt fits across the chest (usually at age 8 or when they are 4’9” tall).
When children outgrow their booster seats, (usually at age 8 or when they are 4’9” tall)
they can use the adult seat belt in the back seat, if it fits properly (lap belt lays across the
upper thighs and the shoulder belt fits across the chest).
SEAT BElTS
Get Help!
ON THE wEB
Go to www.nhtsa.gov and choose Child Safety Seat
Information from the menu or click on the child passenger
safety icon. The site includes child safety seat installation tips,
product ratings, recalls, and other useful information.
BY PHONE
For more information about child safety seats, booster seats,
inspection/fitting stations in your area, seat belts, air bags, and
other highway safety issues, call the DOT Vehicle Safety Hotline
at: 1-888-327-4236.
NEAR YOU
A certified child passenger safety technician can check your
installation and answer questions. To find a technician or an
inspection station near you, go to www.nhtsa.gov, click on
the child passenger safety icon, and then click on the Fitting/
Inspection Station link or go to www.seatcheck.org.
REmEmBER: All children under 13 should ride in the back seat.
Always read the child restraint instructions and the vehicle owner’s manual.
March 2007
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Child Passenger Safety
Glossary of Terms
Active Protection: Protection features that require action by the occupant. These features
include lap belts, lap and shoulder belts, and child restraint systems.
Anchor: A common short alternative for anchorage; often used to refer specifically to the
hardware installed at the anchorage, either factory-installed or in a retrofit shoulder-belt or
tether kit.
Add-on school bus specific seat: A CSRS complying with FMVSS 213 and is designed to be
used exclusively on a school bus. It incorporates a seat base, back and a five point harness system.
It is secured to the school bus seat with a webbing system.
Allowable alternate vehicle: A vehicle designed for carrying eleven or more people, including
the driver, that meets all the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards applicable to school buses
except 49 CFR 571.108 and 571.131. (See also Multifunction School Activity Bus.)
Anchorages: See anchor.
Belt cutter: See Safety belt cutter
Belt-positioning booster seat (BPB): A crash-tested device that raises the child so that the
required lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. All BPBs act as pre-crash positioning devices and
must be used with lap and shoulder belts. BPB models may have high backs, or be backless.
Belt sensitive: Refers to a type of emergency locking retractor, which locks when the belt is
pulled quickly.
Belt path: The path that the manufacturer is required to create so that the safety belt passes
around or through the CSRS. Some seats have multiple belt paths. For example, convertible car
seats have one belt path for rear-facing use and a separate one for forward-facing use.
Best practice: The gold standard of protection. It is the most acceptable way to transport a child
safely on the basis of the child’s age, weight, height, and body development.
Booster seat: See belt-positioning booster seat.
Buckle: The locking mechanism of the vehicle belt or child safety seat. The latchplate fits (clicks)
into the buckle, which must have a red button.
Caregiver: A person responsible for a child’s well-being and safety.
CPS: Child passenger safety.
Cam wrap: A seat-mounted system for attaching a safety vest to a school bus seat. (See Portable
seat mount)
Car seat: See Child Restraint
Child restraint (CR), child restraint system (CRS), child restraint device (CRD) child safety
restraint system (CSRS): A crash-tested device or system that is specially designed to provide
infant/child crash protection. General term for systems including child safety seats, boosters,
vests or car beds that meet FMVSS 213.
Children with special transportation needs: Children whose physical or behavioral conditions
make the use of particular, often specially designed, restraint systems necessary for their safety.
Combination seat: A type of forward-facing child restraint that is used with an internal harness
system to secure a child. With removal of the internal harness, it is used as a belt-positioning
booster (BPB).
Compartmentalization: The occupant protection built into the school bus as specified in
FMVSS 222. A protective envelope is created that consists of:
• Closely-spaced seats (maximum of 24 inches from the passenger hip to the seat back in
front of the occupant)
• High-backed seats (top of the seats is about 24 inches from the lower cushion) that are
flexible and padded on both sides to absorb energy.
CR: See Child Restraint
Convertible seat: A child restraint that “converts” from rear-facing for infants and smaller
children to forward-facing for older and larger children.
Crash Dummies: Full-scale replicas of human beings, weighted and articulated to simulate
the behavior of a human body in a vehicle mishap, and instrumented to record as much data as
possible on numerous variables during a collision.
Detachable Base: A separate base for a child restraint system that can be installed in the vehicle.
The restraint (car seat) portion can be removed from the base, and used as an infant carrier.
Emergency locking retractor (ELR): A retractor on a safety belt system that locks in response
to rapid deceleration of the vehicle. ELRs respond to rapid extraction of the belt or the sudden
deceleration of the vehicle or both.
Excursion: The distance traveled by an occupant or test dummy in the direction of impact
during a crash.
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Evacuation device: Specially designed device with handles to effectively drag a person or CSRS
to an exit and away from the bus.
Fire blanket: Chemically treated blanket used to cut off the oxygen supply to a fire and could
also be used to keep a child warm in the case of injury or shock.
FMVSS: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards are regulations to which manufacturers of
motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment must conform and certify compliance.
Forward-facing CSRS: A restraint that is intended for use only in the forward-facing position
for a child at least age one and at least 20 pounds up to the specified limits of the seat, set by the
manufacturer.
Harness: A system of straps that keep the child within the shell, distributes crash forces, and
helps the child “ride down” the crash.
Harness retainer clip: A plastic tie or clasp that holds the shoulder straps together over the
child’s chest at armpit level; a pre-crash positioning device intended to keep harness straps in
position on the shoulders. It can also be referred to as a “chest clip.”
Harness adjuster: Used to tighten or loosen the internal harness of a child restraint system.
Harness slots: The part of the CSRS where the harnesses pass through from the front to the
back of the restraint. Seats come with at least one and as many as four sets of slots.
High Back Booster Seats: see Belt Positioning Booster.
IEP: Individualized Education Program, for children 3-21 years. The IEP is the blueprint for
the education and related services that the local education agency (LEA) provides for a child
with a disability, together with the goals, academic assessment procedures, and placement of the
child.
IFSP: Individualized Family Services Plan. For children 0-3 years and their family an IFSP
is developed in coordination with his/her teacher, day care center, school, or school district to
provide for a particular child’s special needs. Because infants and toddlers are served in a variety
of locations (including the home), Part C of IDEIA services (see appendix) are to be provided in
“natural environments in which children without disabilities participate” to the maximum extent
appropriate.
Infant-only seat: A child restraint system designed for use only by a baby in a semi-reclined
rear-facing position.
Integrated child seat: A child-sized forward-facing restraint with a full harness built into a
school bus seat.
Labels: These are located on the seat, and indicate the following: 1) NHTSA certification
of conformation to all applicable FMVSS 2) Weight and height guidelines for the specific
seat 3) Basic outline of the installation procedures 4) Manufacturing date, including data of
Child Passenger Safety Glossary of Terms
283
manufacture, the manufacturers name and address, and a model number 5) Air bag warning and
6) FAA certification for use in an aircraft.
LATCH: Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren.
Latch plate: The part of the buckle mechanism that locks or connects into the buckle.
Level Indicator: Helps to identify the manufacturer’s recommended correct angle for rear-facing
restraints.
Lock-off: A built-in belt-locking feature on the child restraint system that works with certain
types of safety belts in a similar fashion as locking clips.
Locking clip: A flat H-shaped metal item intended to clip lap and shoulder belt webbing
together at a free-sliding latch plate in order to prevent the webbing from sliding through. A
locking clip is a pre-crash positioning device only. It is not to be used as a belt shortening clip.
Lower anchorage attachments: A piece of belt webbing that anchors to the lower anchorage on
the vehicle structure. It secures the CSRS to the vehicle. These attachments are used in place of
the vehicle safety belt.
Multifunction School Activity Bus (MFSAB): “A school bus whose purposes do not include
transporting students to and from home or school bus stops,” as defined in 49 CFR 571.3.
This subcategory of school bus meets all FMVSS for school buses except the traffic control
requirements (alternately flashing signal and stop arm).
NHTSA: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is the agency within the U.S.
Department of Transportation focused on occupant safety. NHTSA is responsible for setting
and enforcing FMVSS.
Non-regulated (aftermarket) products: As the name implies there are no federal standards for
these products. Some examples are infant head positioning pads, shoulder belt positioning pads
and shoulder belt positioning devices. Manufacturer–tested and approved accessories for their
own CSRS are acceptable.
Ossification: The natural process of bone formation.
Passive occupant protection: Features of the vehicle that lessen the injury to the occupant
without any action taken by the occupant.
Portable seat mount: A long wide strip of webbing that wraps around the school bus seat back.
Used with safety vests.
Rear-facing: Refers to the direction the child restraint is facing. The rear-facing CSRS supports
the entire head, neck, and back; cradles and moves with the child to reduce stress to the neck
and spinal cord in a crash.
Rebound: Reactive motion in the opposite direction after initial impact has occurred.
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Recalls: Voluntary or required actions taken to correct problems or deficiencies once products
have been distributed or sold. Manufacturers must offer free repairs or replacement for products
recalled for violations of safety standards.
Recline Adjustor: Allows convertible restraints to be reclined for rear-facing and semi-reclined
or upright for forward-facing use.
Registration card: A postage-paid return card that comes with every child restraint; should be
returned to the manufacturer so owners can be notified of any recalls.
Retractor: A mechanism that rolls up the webbing of the safety belt when it is not in use and
takes up slack around the user.
Retrofitted: Installing, fitting, or adapting a device or system for use with something older. For
example: To furnish a school bus with parts or equipment that was not included at the time the
school bus was manufactured.
Ride Down: Ride down is the extension of time when the forces are felt by the occupant during
a crash. A quick change in speed is what causes injury.
Safety belt: The webbing, anchor, and buckle system that restrains the occupant in the vehicle.
A safety belt is also known as a seat belt.
Safety belt cutter: A device used to cut webbing.
Safety vest: A combination pelvic and upper torso child restraint system that consists primarily
of flexible material, such as straps, webbing or similar material, and that does not include a rigid
seating structure for the child. A cam wrap must be used for installation on a school bus seat.
School bus: A bus owned, leased, contracted to or operated by a school or school district and
regularly used to transport students to and from school or school-related activities, but not
including a charter bus or transit bus. A school bus must meet all applicable FMVSSs and is
readily identified by alternately flashing lamps, National School Bus Yellow paint, and the legend
“School Bus,” except as may be provided for the multifunction school activity bus.
Seat Belt Syndrome: Separation of the lumbar vertebrae and associated paralysis, due to the
effects of a crash where only a lap belt was used.
Seat bight: The intersection between the bottom vehicle seat cushion and the back cushion.
Seat padding: The cushioning attached to a child restraint, on which the child sits.
Shell/frame: The molded plastic structure of the CSRS. In some models, the shell is attached to
or reinforced by a metal frame.
Shield booster: A type of booster, as defined by FMVSS 213, that has a seating platform and a
structure in front of the child for restraint, but which is subject to crash testing using only a lap
belt and to the head excursion limit of only 813 mm.
Child Passenger Safety Glossary of Terms
285
Snug safety belt or lower anchors: Tight enough that the child restraint cannot move more than
1 inch in any direction from the belt path.
Snug harness: Harness straps do not allow any slack; It lies in a relatively straight line without
sagging yet does not press into the child’s shoulders making an indentation. You should not be
able to pinch the webbing vertically.
Splitter plate: Metal plate that connects the two ends of the shoulder harnesses to a single piece
of webbing used for adjustment.
Submarining: When the hips and legs slide forward out of the harness and the upper body
remains restrained.
Technician: A person who successfully completes the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration’s (NHTSA) standardized child passenger safety certification program.
Tether: See Tether Strap
Tether anchor: The kit or installed hardware bracket used to secure the tether hook and strap
at the designated anchor point in the vehicle. The tether strap and hook attach directly to the
anchor bracket.
Tether strap: A piece of belt webbing that anchors the top of the CSRS to the vehicle structure.
It keeps the restraint from tipping forward on impact and can provide an extra margin of
protection. Can be optional or factory installed.
Webbing: The fabric of the safety belt that holds the occupant or a CSRS in place.
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