Avaya X.25 User's Manual

Avaya X.25 User's Manual
Configuring X.25
Services
Router Software Version 11.01
Site Manager Software Version 5.01
Part No. 114059 Rev. B
February 1997
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ii
114059 Rev. B
Bay Networks Software License
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114059 Rev. B
iii
Bay Networks Software License (continued)
9.
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iv
114059 Rev. B
Contents
About This Guide
Before You Begin .............................................................................................................xiii
Conventions .....................................................................................................................xiv
Acronyms ......................................................................................................................... xv
Ordering Bay Networks Publications ...............................................................................xvi
Technical Support and Online Services
Bay Networks Customer Service ................................................................................... xviii
Bay Networks Information Services .................................................................................xix
World Wide Web ........................................................................................................xix
Customer Service FTP ..............................................................................................xix
Support Source CD ................................................................................................... xx
CompuServe ............................................................................................................. xx
InfoFACTS .................................................................................................................xxi
How to Get Help ........................................................................................................xxi
Chapter 1
X.25 Overview
X.25 Interface .................................................................................................................1-1
X.25 and the OSI Model .................................................................................................1-2
Physical Layer ..........................................................................................................1-3
Data Link Layer ........................................................................................................1-3
Link Access Procedure Balanced Protocol ........................................................1-4
LAPB Implementation on Bay Networks Routers ..............................................1-4
Network Layer ..........................................................................................................1-5
X.25 Network Types ........................................................................................................1-5
How X.25 Services Work ................................................................................................1-6
Determining the X.121 Destination ..........................................................................1-7
Establishing a Virtual Circuit ....................................................................................1-8
Transmitting Data ...................................................................................................1-10
114059 Rev. B
v
IPEX .............................................................................................................................1-12
How IPEX Works ..........................................................................................................1-12
Levels of Tunneling .................................................................................................1-13
IPEX Network Interfaces ..............................................................................................1-13
X.25 PLP Interface .................................................................................................1-14
TCP Interface .........................................................................................................1-14
IPEX Facility Support ....................................................................................................1-15
Sequence of Connections with IPEX ............................................................................1-15
IPEX Mapping ...............................................................................................................1-17
Mapping Types .......................................................................................................1-17
IPEX Connection Summary ..........................................................................................1-17
IPEX Handling of Large Data Messages (M-bit) ...........................................................1-18
How X.25 Handles Large Data Messages .............................................................1-19
How TCP Handles Large Data Messages ..............................................................1-19
Q-bit Support ..........................................................................................................1-19
QLLC ............................................................................................................................1-19
QLLC and DLSw ....................................................................................................1-20
NPSI .......................................................................................................................1-20
How QLLC Works .........................................................................................................1-20
Sequence of Connections with QLLC ....................................................................1-21
QLLC Mapping .............................................................................................................1-21
QLLC Terminology ........................................................................................................1-21
Coordinating X.25 and DLSw Parameters ....................................................................1-22
Chapter 2
Implementation Notes
X.25 Data Compression .................................................................................................2-1
Load Sharing ..................................................................................................................2-2
Clocking Sources for Routers Set Back-to-Back ............................................................2-2
Packet-level Parameters: Max Window Size and Max Packet Length ............................2-2
Flow-Control Negotiation ................................................................................................2-3
Configuring LAPB for an AN or ASN ..............................................................................2-4
Configuring Synchronous Lines with X.25 ......................................................................2-4
DDN Default Service Record ..........................................................................................2-5
RFC 1356 Multiplexing ...................................................................................................2-5
PTOP Encapsulation ......................................................................................................2-6
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114059 Rev. B
Chapter 3
Enabling X.25 Service
Enabling X.25 on an Interface ........................................................................................3-1
Selecting a Connector ....................................................................................................3-2
Configuring X.25 Packet-level Parameters .....................................................................3-4
X.25 Packet-level Parameter Descriptions ...............................................................3-5
Adding X.25 Network Service Records ........................................................................3-10
X.25 Network Service Record Parameter Descriptions .........................................3-12
Adding X.25 Network Service Records to a
Previously Configured Interface .............................................................................3-15
Enabling Bridging and Routing Services on an X.25 Circuit ........................................3-15
Configuring IP Interfaces over X.25 Circuits .................................................................3-16
Chapter 4
Editing X.25 Parameters
Editing the X.25 Global Parameter .................................................................................4-2
X.25 Global Parameter Description ..........................................................................4-3
Editing X.25 Packet-level Parameters .............................................................................4-4
X.25 Packet-level Parameter Descriptions ...............................................................4-5
Editing X.25 Network Service Records ........................................................................4-24
X.25 Network Service Record Parameter Descriptions .........................................4-27
Deleting X.25 Network Service Records ......................................................................4-37
Deleting X.25 from the Router ......................................................................................4-37
Chapter 5
Editing IPEX Parameters
Accessing IPEX Global Parameters ...............................................................................5-1
IPEX Global Parameter Descriptions .......................................................................5-3
Configuring IPEX Mapping Entries .................................................................................5-4
Adding an IPEX Mapping Table Entry ......................................................................5-4
IPEX Mapping Parameter Descriptions ........................................................................5-10
Parameters for SVC Connections ..........................................................................5-10
Parameters for TCP Connections ...........................................................................5-12
Additional Mapping Parameters .............................................................................5-15
Editing IPEX Mapping Table Entries .......................................................................5-18
Editing LAPB Parameters ......................................................................................5-18
Deleting IPEX Mapping Table Entries ....................................................................5-19
Deleting IPEX from the Router .....................................................................................5-19
114059 Rev. B
vii
Chapter 6
Editing QLLC Parameters
Configuring QLLC ...........................................................................................................6-1
Adding a QLLC Mapping Table Entry .......................................................................6-2
QLLC Mapping Parameter Descriptions .........................................................................6-6
QLLC Mapping Parameters .....................................................................................6-6
Additional Mapping Parameters .............................................................................6-10
Editing or Deleting QLLC Mapping Table Entries ...................................................6-13
Appendix A
Sample IPEX Configuration
IPEX Mapping Example ................................................................................................. A-1
Appendix B
QLLC Configuration Examples
Sample Network Topologies .......................................................................................... B-1
Upstream QLLC Network ........................................................................................ B-1
Down Stream QLLC Network .................................................................................. B-3
Setting the Generate XID Parameter ................................................................ B-3
Peer-t0-Peer QLLC Network Topology .................................................................... B-5
Primary-to-Secondary QLLC Network Topology ..................................................... B-6
X.25 Backbone QLLC Network Topology ................................................................ B-6
Appendix C
X.25 Default Parameter Settings
Appendix D
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
IPEX Originated Cause Code in Disconnect Request Packet ....................................... D-1
IPEX Originated Diagnostic Codes in Clear Request Packet ........................................ D-1
IPEX Originated Diagnostic Codes Due to TCP Error ................................................... D-1
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated with
Clear Request Packets .................................................................................................. D-3
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated with Restart Packet ........... D-7
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated with Diagnostic Packets ..... D-8
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated with Reset Packets ............ D-9
Index
viii
114059 Rev. B
Figures
Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-3.
Figure 1-4.
Figure 1-5.
Figure 1-6.
Figure 1-7.
X.25 Network ...........................................................................................1-2
OSI/X.25 Correspondence .......................................................................1-3
LAPB Frame .............................................................................................1-4
Sample X.25 Configuration ......................................................................1-7
Virtual Circuit Connecting Bay Networks Routers ...................................1-8
X.25 Call Request Packet Format ............................................................1-9
Setting Up an X.25 Call Connection ......................................................1-10
Figure 1-8.
Figure 1-9.
Figure 1-10.
Figure 1-11.
Figure 1-12.
Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-2.
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-8.
Figure 3-9.
Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-11.
Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-4.
Routing IP Traffic across the X.25 Network ............................................1-11
Sample Network Topology with TCP/IP Tunneling and IPEX .................1-12
Levels of Tunneling with IPEX ................................................................1-13
How IPEX Establishes Connections ......................................................1-16
Role of the X.25 and TCP Protocol Stacks in IPEX ...............................1-18
RFC 1356 Null Encapsulation ..................................................................2-6
RFC 1356 Normal Encapsulation ............................................................2-6
Add Circuit Window ..................................................................................3-2
WAN Protocols Window ...........................................................................3-3
X.25 Packet Config Window .....................................................................3-4
X.25 Service Configuration Window for a PDN Network ........................3-10
X.25 Service Window .............................................................................3-11
Selecting Protocols > Add/Delete ..........................................................3-17
Select Protocols Windows ......................................................................3-18
IP Configuration Window ........................................................................3-19
Enter Adjacent Host Window .................................................................3-21
IP Interfaces Window .............................................................................3-22
Adding an IP Interface to an X.25 Circuit ...............................................3-23
Configuration Manager Window ...............................................................4-2
Edit X.25 Global Parameters Window ......................................................4-3
X.25 Packet Level Edit Window ................................................................4-5
X.25 Service Configuration Window for a DDN Network .......................4-25
114059 Rev. B
ix
Figure 4-5.
Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-7.
Figure 5-8.
Figure 5-9.
Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-2.
Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-4.
Figure A-1.
Figure A-2.
Figure A-3.
Figure A-4.
Figure A-5.
Figure B-1.
Figure B-2.
Figure B-3.
Figure B-4.
x
Default DDN Service Window ................................................................4-26
Configuration Manager Window Showing IPEX Protocols Menu .............5-2
Edit IPEX Global Parameters Window .....................................................5-2
X.25 Service Window ...............................................................................5-4
Values Selection Window .........................................................................5-5
IPEX Mapping Table Configuration Window .............................................5-6
IPEX Mapping Type Window ....................................................................5-7
Values Selection Window .........................................................................5-8
IPEX Mapping Parameters Window for SVC ...........................................5-9
IPEX Mapping Parameters Window for TCP ............................................5-9
X.25 Service Window ...............................................................................6-2
Values Selection Window .........................................................................6-3
QLLC Mapping Table Configuration Window ...........................................6-4
QLLC Mapping Parameters Window ........................................................6-5
Sample Configuration for Mapping Parameters ...................................... A-1
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Local SVC Connection Type ................... A-2
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Local TCP Connection Type ................... A-2
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Remote SVC Connection Type ............... A-3
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Remote TCP Connection Type ............... A-3
Upstream QLLC Network ........................................................................ B-2
Downstream QLLC Network ................................................................... B-4
Host-to-Host or Primary-to-Secondary QLLC Network ........................... B-5
X.25 Backbone QLLC Network ............................................................... B-7
114059 Rev. B
Tables
Table 2-1.
Table 2-2.
Table 2-3.
Table 4-1.
Table 4-2.
Table C-1.
Table C-2.
X.25 Packet-level Parameters ..................................................................2-3
X.25 Service Record Parameters ............................................................2-3
Synchronous Line Parameter Defaults for X.25 .......................................2-4
Parameter Settings for Flow-Control Negotiation ...................................4-14
User Facilities and Codes ......................................................................4-35
X.25 Global Parameter ........................................................................... C-1
X.25 Packet-level Parameters ................................................................. C-1
Table C-3.
Table C-4.
Table C-5.
Table C-6.
X.25 Network Service Record Parameters ............................................. C-4
IPEX Global Parameters ......................................................................... C-5
IPEX Mapping Parameters ..................................................................... C-5
QLLC Parameters ................................................................................... C-6
114059 Rev. B
xi
About This Guide
If you are responsible for configuring and managing Bay Networks® routers, read
this guide to learn how to customize Bay Networks router software for X.25
services.
Configuring X.25 Services offers
114059 Rev. B
•
An overview of Bay Networks X.25 services (Chapter 1)
•
Implementation notes that may affect how you configure X.25 services
(Chapter 2)
•
Directions for enabling X.25 (Chapter 3)
•
Descriptions of X.25 parameters and instructions for editing those parameters
(Chapter 4)
•
Descriptions of IPEX parameters and instructions for editing those parameters
(Chapter 5)
•
Descriptions of QLLC parameters and instructions for editing those
parameters (Chapter 6)
•
A sample IPEX configuration (Appendix A)
•
Examples of QLLC configurations (Appendix B)
•
Default parameter settings (Appendix C)
•
IPEX diagnostic codes (Appendix D)
xiii
Configuring X.25 Services
Before You Begin
Before using this guide, you must complete the following procedures. For a new
router:
•
Install the router (refer to the installation manual that came with your router).
•
Connect the router to the network and create a pilot configuration file (refer to
Quick-Starting Routers and BayStream Platforms, Connecting Bay Stack AN
and ANH Systems to a Network, or Connecting ASN Platforms to a Network).
Make sure that you are running the latest version of Bay Networks Site Manager
and router software. For instructions, refer to Upgrading Routers from Version
7–10.xx to Version 11.0.
Conventions
angle brackets (< >)
Indicate that you choose the text to enter based on the
description inside the brackets. Do not type the
brackets when entering the command.
Example: if command syntax is ping <ip_address>,
you enter ping 192.32.10.12
bold text
Indicates text that you need to enter, command names,
and buttons in menu paths.
Example: Enter wfsm &
italic text
Indicates variable values in command syntax
descriptions, new terms, file and directory names, and
book titles.
quotation marks (“ ”)
Indicate the title of a chapter or section within a book.
screen text
Indicates data that appears on the screen.
Example: Set Bay Networks Trap Monitor Filters
separator ( > )
Separates menu and option names in instructions and
internal pin-to-pin wire connections.
Example: Protocols > AppleTalk identifies the
AppleTalk option in the Protocols menu.
Example: Pin 7 > 19 > 20
xiv
114059 Rev. B
About This Guide
vertical line (|)
Indicates that you enter only one of the parts of the
command. The vertical line separates choices. Do not
type the vertical line when entering the command.
Example: If the command syntax is
show at routes | nets, you enter either
show at routes or show at nets, but not both.
Acronyms
APPN
BFE
BOFL
CPU
CUG
CUGOA
DCE
DDN
DLSw
DOD
DP
DTE
FEP
FDDI
FTP
HDLC
IEEE
IP
IPEX
ISO
ITU-T
LAN
LAP
LAPB
LCN
LLC
MAC
114059 Rev. B
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking
Blacker front-end encryption
Breath of Life (message)
central processing unit
closed user group
closed user group with outgoing access
data circuit-terminating equipment
Defense Data Network
Data Link Switching
Department of Defense
data path
data terminal equipment
front-end processor
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
File Transfer Protocol
high-level data link control
Institute of Electrical Engineers
Internet Protocol
IP Encapsulation of X.25
International Organization for Standardization
International Telecommunications
Union–Telecommunication Standardization Sector (formerly
CCITT)
local area network
Link Access Procedure
Link Access Procedure Balanced
logical channel number
Logical Link Control
media access control
xv
Configuring X.25 Services
MCT1
MIB
MTU
NCP
NPSI
NUI
OSI
OSPF
PAD
PDN
PDU
PLP
PPP
QLLC
PSN
RIP
RPOA
SAP
SDLC
SNA
SNAP
SNPA
SVC
TCP/IP
VC
VTAM
Multichannel T1
Management Information Base
maximum transmission unit
Network Control Program
NCP Packet Switching Interface
Network User Identification
Open Systems Interconnection
Open Shortest Path First
packet assembler/disassembler
Public Data Network
protocol data unit
Packet Level Procedure
Point-to-Point Protocol
Qualified Logical Link Control
packet-switching network
Routing Information Protocol
recognized private operating agencies
service access point
Synchronous Data Link Control
Systems Network Architecture
Subnetwork Access Protocol
Subnetwork Point of Attachment
switched virtual circuit
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
virtual circuit
Virtual Telecommunication Access Method
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xvi
114059 Rev. B
Technical Support and Online Services
To ensure comprehensive network support to our customers and partners
worldwide, Bay Networks Customer Service has Technical Response Centers
in key locations around the globe:
•
•
•
•
•
Billerica, Massachusetts
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Support FTP, and InfoFACTS document fax service.
114059 Rev. B
xvii
Configuring X.25 Services
Bay Networks Customer Service
If you purchased your Bay Networks product from a distributor or authorized
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xviii
114059 Rev. B
Technical Support and Online Services
Bay Networks Information Services
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114059 Rev. B
xix
Configuring X.25 Services
Support Source CD
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For assistance with noncritical network support issues, Bay Networks Information
Services maintain an active forum on CompuServe, a global bulletin-board
system. This forum provides file services, technology conferences, and a message
section to get assistance from other users.
The message section is monitored by Bay Networks engineers, who provide
assistance wherever possible. Customers and resellers holding Bay Networks
service contracts also have access to special libraries for advanced levels of
support documentation and software. To take advantage of CompuServe’s recently
enhanced menu options, the Bay Networks Forum has been re-engineered to allow
links to our Web sites and FTP sites.
We recommend the use of CompuServe Information Manager software to access
these Bay Networks Information Services resources. To open an account and
receive a local dial-up number in the United States, call CompuServe at
1-800-524-3388. Outside of the United States, call 1-614-529-1349, or your
nearest CompuServe office. Ask for Representative No. 591. When you’re on line
with your CompuServe account, you can reach us with the command GO
BAYNET.
xx
114059 Rev. B
Technical Support and Online Services
InfoFACTS
InfoFACTS is the Bay Networks free 24-hour fax-on-demand service. This
automated system has libraries of technical and product documents designed to
help you manage and troubleshoot your Bay Networks products. The system
responds to a fax from the caller or to a third party within minutes of being
accessed.
To use InfoFACTS in the United States or Canada, call toll-free 1-800-786-3228.
Outside of North America, toll calls can be made to 1-408-764-1002. In Europe,
toll-free numbers are also available for contacting both InfoFACTS and
CompuServe. Please check our Web page for the listing in your country.
How to Get Help
Use the following numbers to reach your Bay Networks Technical Response
Center:
114059 Rev. B
Technical Response Center Telephone Number
Fax Number
Billerica, MA
1-800-2LANWAN
(508) 670-8765
Santa Clara, CA
1-800-2LANWAN
(408) 764-1188
Valbonne, France
(33) 92-968-968
(33) 92-966-998
Sydney, Australia
(612) 9927-8800
(612) 9927-8811
Tokyo, Japan
(81) 3-5402-0180
(81) 3-5402-0173
xxi
Chapter 1
X.25 Overview
The X.25 Protocol transports LAN traffic to packet-switching networks (PSNs).
X.25 allows many different kinds of equipment to communicate across networks
at a relatively low cost.
Common carriers, mainly the telephone companies, designed X.25. An agency of
the United Nations, the International Telecommunications
Union-Telecommunications sector (ITU-T, formerly CCITT), administers the
X.25 Protocol. X.25 is a global standard, and is the dominant communications
protocol in use around the world today.
X.25 Interface
X.25 defines the interaction across PSNs between data terminal equipment (DTE)
and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). DTEs include devices such as
terminals, hosts, and routers; DCEs include devices such as modems, packet
switches, and other ports.
Figure 1-1 shows an X.25 network. A DTE (in this case, Router A) connects to a
DCE in the PSN. The PSN connects to another DCE and, finally, to another DTE
(Router B).
114059 Rev. B
1-1
Configuring X.25 Services
PSN
Virtual circuit
Virtual circuit
DCE
Router A (DTE)
DCE
Router B (DTE)
X250001A
Figure 1-1.
X.25 Network
To begin communication, one DTE device (for example, a router) calls another
DTE to request a data exchange session. The called DTE can accept or refuse the
connection. If the called DTE accepts the connection, the two systems begin
full-duplex data transfer. Either side can terminate the connection at any time.
Because public data networks (PDNs), the most commonly used type of PSN,
typically use error-prone analog lines, the X.25 Protocol provides extensive error
checking, recovery, and packet sequencing.
A DTE can be a device that does not itself implement X.25. In this case, the DTE
connects to a DCE through a packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), which is a
device that translates data into packet form.
X.25 and the OSI Model
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model combines a
nonproprietary structured computer system architecture with a set of common
communication protocols. It comprises seven layers. Each layer provides specific
functions or services and follows the corresponding OSI communications
protocols to perform those services.
The X.25 Protocol focuses on three of the seven layers in the OSI model: the
physical layer, the data link layer, and the network, or packet, layer. As you read
the following sections, refer to Figure 1-2, which illustrates the correspondence
between X.25 and the OSI model. Figure 1-2 conforms to the typical rendering of
the OSI model, which depicts the physical layer at the bottom of the protocol
stack, and refers to succeeding layers as representing higher-level protocols.
1-2
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
OSI model
Network layer
Data link layer
Physical layer
X.25 protocol
X.25 packet layer
LAPB
X.21, X.21bis/RS232C,
RS449/422, and V.35
X250003A
Figure 1-2.
OSI/X.25 Correspondence
Physical Layer
The physical layer transmits bits across the physical connection or modem
interface. Bay Networks supports all of the standard media for X.25 transmission:
X.21, X.21bis/RS232C, RS449/422, and V.35.
Data Link Layer
The data link layer defines the link access procedures for transferring frames of
data accurately and reliably across the access lines between the DTE and the
DCE.
114059 Rev. B
1-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Link Access Procedure Balanced Protocol
X.25 uses the Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) protocol at the data link
layer to
•
Initialize the link between the DTE and the local DCE device
•
Frame X.25 data packets before transmitting them to the DCE
LAPB is a version of high-level data link control (HDLC), which is an OSI
standard.
Figure 1-3 shows a LAPB frame. The LAPB Information field contains the X.25
data packet. When an X.25 packet reaches the destination router, the LAPB
protocol strips away the LAPB frame and delivers the packet to the network layer
for further processing.
X.25 packet
Flag
Control
Address
Information
Frame
check
sequence
Flag
X250004A
Figure 1-3.
LAPB Frame
LAPB Implementation on Bay Networks Routers
The implementation of the LAPB protocol on the AN® and ASN™ routers, and on
BN® and LN® routers with an Octal Sync link module, differs from that on other
Bay Networks routers. On the AN and ASN routers and BN and LN® routers with
Octal Sync, LAPB is implemented in software in routers that use the QUICC
68360 driver. On the other routers, LAPB is implemented in the hardware using
the MK5025 chip.
Note: The different LAPB implementations result in two different LAPB
management information bases (MIBs). This means that if you copy an
existing configuration from a Bay Networks router that uses the MK5025 chip
to the AN or ASN, or the BN or LN with octal sync, the configuration may not
work because the location of the LAPB MIB is different.
1-4
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
Although detailed discussion of the LAPB MIB is beyond the scope of this guide,
when you configure X.25, you automatically set up LAPB for all routers.
Network Layer
The network, or packet, layer establishes the virtual circuit and provides
procedures for call establishment, data transfer, flow control, error recovery, and
call clearing. The router uses the network layer to determine destination X.121
addresses and to specify which user-configurable X.25 facilities the network layer
supports. (See “Determining the X.121 Destination” later in this chapter, for more
information about X.121 addresses.) The X.25 Protocol defines how the DTE and
its respective DCE communicate and exchange data.
The X.25 network transmits data over virtual circuits (VCs) between each source
and destination on the network. Because as many as 128 VCs can exist on the
same physical link at the same time, multiple devices can share the bandwidth of
the transmission line, sending data in multiple packets from the source to the
destination.
X.25 Service Types
The Bay Networks router transmits data across five types of X.25 network
services.
•
Public Data Network (PDN)
The X.25 PDN service provides end-to-end connectivity between the router
and a remote DTE that supports Internet RFC 1356 X.25 services. The Bay
Networks router supports Internet RFC 1356 for IP, OSI, DECnet, IPX, and
XNS.
•
Defense Data Network (DDN)
The X.25 DDN service provides end-to-end connectivity between a router and
a remote DTE that supports X.25 DDN Standard Service. IP uses DDN
service to transmit IP datagrams. OSI uses DDN service to send OSI protocol
data units (PDUs) over the X.25 network. No other protocols use DDN
services.
You can implement an X.25 DDN network as a Blacker front-end encryption
(BFE) network. BFE is an external, standalone encryption device that you
connect to your router to establish X.25 DDN networks.
114059 Rev. B
1-5
Configuring X.25 Services
•
Point-to-Point Service
Point-to-Point service is proprietary to Bay Networks, so Bay Networks
routers must be at both ends of the connection. AppleTalk, transparent and
spanning tree bridging, DECnet, IP, VINES, XNS, IPX, and OSI can use
Point-to-Point X.25 service to transmit datagrams over the X.25 network.
•
IP Encapsulation of X.25 (IPEX)
IPEX allows two X.25 systems to exchange data by tunneling over a TCP/IP
network.
•
Qualified Logical Link Control (QLLC)
QLLC transfers IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) traffic over an
X.25 network.
The type of traffic that the router forwards depends upon the type of network layer
service enabled on each of the router’s network interfaces. For example, if you
configure an interface for DDN services, you cannot configure any other type of
service. You can, however, configure an interface to run PDN IPEX, QLLC, and
Point-to-Point services together.
How X.25 Services Work
End users on a LAN use the services of the Bay Networks router to access X.25
networks. The router acts as a DTE device; it encapsulates user data in X.25
format and transmits it across the network.
To demonstrate how Bay Networks X.25 services work, the following sections
explain how Router A, which is configured for X.25 PDN services, routes data
from IP endstation 1.1.1.2 over the X.25 network to IP endstation 3.1.1.2. Refer to
Figure 1-4 as you read the next sections.
1-6
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
X.25 PDN
10000
1.1.1.1
2.1.1.1
20000
2.1.1.2
DCE
3.1.1.1
DCE
Router A
Router B
1.1.1.2
3.1.1.2
IP network
IP network
Key
DCE = Data circuit-terminating equipment
10000, 20000 = X.121 addresses
X250005A
Figure 1-4.
Sample X.25 Configuration
Determining the X.121 Destination
Each interface connecting to the X.25 network has an X.121 address, which
consists of 1 to 15 decimal digits. For example, in Figure 1-4 the X.121 network
addresses for Routers A and B are 10000 and 20000, respectively. Router A
communicates with Router B over the X.25 network by setting up virtual circuits
that connect the two X.25 interfaces.
Data transmission begins when
114059 Rev. B
1.
Router A receives an IP datagram from IP endstation 1.1.1.2 that is destined
for endstation 3.1.1.2.
2.
Router A checks its IP routing table to determine the next hop on the
datagram’s path (in this example, IP address 2.1.1.2).
1-7
Configuring X.25 Services
3.
When Router A determines that the next hop is located across the X.25
network, it checks to see which destination X.121 address maps to the next
hop’s IP address via the IP adjacent host table (in this example, X.121 address
20000).
4.
To transmit the datagram across the network, the router now establishes a
virtual connection between itself and destination X.121 address 20000.
Router A begins by selecting an unused virtual circuit. The router assigns the
circuit a 12-bit virtual circuit number (Figure 1-5), which it chooses from a
user-specified range of virtual circuit numbers. The virtual circuit number
identifies the logical channel portion of the circuit that connects the router and
its DCE.
Virtual circuit number = 000000000001
10000
Logical
channel
X.25 PDN
DCE
20000
DCE
Router B
Router A
X250006A
Figure 1-5.
Virtual Circuit Connecting Bay Networks Routers
The logical channel consists of a 4-bit logical channel group number
concatenated with an 8-bit logical channel number. The logical channel
number identifies this circuit as the one that will carry all data transmitted
between the router and the destination DTE, when the connection to the
destination X.121 address is established.
Establishing a Virtual Circuit
After Router A determines the destination X.121 address, the two routers establish
a virtual circuit as follows:
1.
1-8
Router A uses the services of the packet layer protocol to generate a call
request packet that it sends to Router B.
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
Along with various optional X.25 facilities, the call request packet specifies
the outgoing logical channel number, Router A’s X.121 address, and Router
B’s X.121 address (Figure 1-6).
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Logical channel group number
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Logical channel number
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
Call request
Source
X.121 length
Destination
X.121 length
Destination X.121
address
Source X.121 address
Facilities length
Facilities
Data
X250007A
Figure 1-6.
X.25 Call Request Packet Format
2.
When the local DCE receives Router A’s call request, the DCE forwards it
across the X.25 network, where it is eventually routed to Router B.
3.
Router B checks the called address for a match to its configured X.121
address. It also checks the calling address for a match to the remote X.121
address configured in the service record.
4.
If it finds both matches, it accepts the call, and responds with a call accept
packet that establishes the virtual connection between the two routers.
When the virtual circuit is established, the router can transmit and receive data
(Figure 1-7).
114059 Rev. B
1-9
Configuring X.25 Services
1. Send request
X.25 PDN
Call request
DCE
DCE
Incoming call
Router A
Router B
2. Establish connection
X.25 PDN
Call confirm
DCE
DCE
Call accept
Router A
Router B
3. Encapsulate and transmit data
X.25 PDN
User data
DCE
DCE
Router A
User data
Router B
X250008A
Figure 1-7.
Setting Up an X.25 Call Connection
Transmitting Data
After Router B establishes the circuit, data travels between endstations 1.1.1.2 and
3.1.1.2 as follows:
1-10
1.
Router A begins processing the packets it receives from IP endstation 1.1.1.2
across the X.25 network to Router B.
2.
Router B removes the X.25 packet headers and trailers and forwards only the
IP data to IP endstation 3.1.1.2 (Figure 1-8).
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
3.
IP endstation 3.1.1.2 transmits data to endstation 1.1.1.2.
Note that other IP endstations (for example, 1.1.1.3) can use the virtual circuit
to transmit data in the direction of endstation 3.1.1.2 until the call is cleared.
The call request and call accept packets specify the logical channel numbers
(LCNs) assigned to the virtual connections between each router and its
corresponding DCE. As a result, subsequent X.25 data packets contain only
the logical channel numbers, rather than the complete X.121 destination
addresses.
X.25 PDN
10000
1.1.1.1
2.1.1.1
20000
2.1.1.2
DCE
3.1.1.1
DCE
Router A
1.1.1.2
Router B
3.1.1.2
IP network
1.1.1.3
IP network
X250009A
Figure 1-8.
114059 Rev. B
Routing IP Traffic across the X.25 Network
1-11
Configuring X.25 Services
IPEX
Bay Networks X.25 services include tunneling over TCP/IP Internet (IPEX).
IPEX lets you send and receive messages between two X.25 systems via a TCP/IP
network. The tunneling maps TCP sockets to X.25 virtual circuits.
IPEX works with X.25 switched virtual circuits (SVCs), as well as with TCP/IP
protocols over all interface types that Bay Networks routers support.
Note: In this document, the acronym IPEX refers to both the Bay Networks
router when configured to provide X.25 tunneling service, and to the software
that implements the tunneling, depending on the context.
IPEX supports
•
TCP/IP over FDDI, Ethernet, and Token Ring LAN media
•
X.25 over synchronous interfaces (6 MB/s maximum)
How IPEX Works
Tunneling support attaches an X.25 DTE or DCE to the IPEX router, which
converts X.25 data to TCP and uses TCP/IP to carry the X.25 data to another,
remote IPEX router, which converts it back to X.25. Figure 1-9 illustrates this
conversion.
TCP
connnections
X.25 Level 3
connections
TCP
X.25 Level 3
connections
TCP
TCP/IP
X.25
DTEs or DCEs
"local"
IPEX
(router)
"local"
IPEX
(router)
X.25
DTEs or DCEs
X250010A
Figure 1-9.
1-12
Sample Network Topology with TCP/IP Tunneling and IPEX
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
The sample configuration shows X.25 DTEs or DCEs connected to Bay Networks
routers by standard X.25 lines, interfaces, and software, and a network of routers
interconnected by standard TCP/IP lines and interfaces. You can connect the
DTEs or DCEs to the router using any synchronous or Multichannel T1 (MCT1)
port type.
Levels of Tunneling
IPEX
(router)
X.25 interface
X.25
TCP
TCP/IP
TCP interface
TCP interface
X.25
TCP
X.25
X.25 interface
Figure 1-10 shows the levels of tunneling within the IPEX router.
X.25
IPEX
(router)
X250011A
Figure 1-10. Levels of Tunneling with IPEX
When communicating with an X.25 DTE, the Bay Networks IPEX router acts as
an X.25 DCE. Conversely, when communicating with an X.25 DCE, the Bay
Networks IPEX router acts as an X.25 DTE. The IPEX router provides X.25 SVC
support. You define the connection between two X.25 systems during
configuration. When either a DCE or DTE initiates a call, the router establishes a
TCP connection. SVCs must have an X.121 address for the router to make the
TCP connection.
IPEX Network Interfaces
Bay Networks routers that support IPEX services use the following protocols:
114059 Rev. B
•
X.25 Packet Layer Protocol (PLP)
•
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
•
Internet Protocol (IP)
1-13
Configuring X.25 Services
X.25 PLP Interface
The X.25 PLP interface corresponds to OSI Layer 3. On an X.25 PLP interface,
you can create and configure multiple SVCs.
On an X.25 interface, you can configure IPEX service and another type of X.25
service: PDN, Point-to-Point, or QLLC. IPEX uses the X.25 flow-control
mechanisms to detect any congestion in the X.25 connection.
IPEX uses the X.25 PLP client interface to
•
Open and close X.25 connections
•
Send data to the X.25 module for transmission
•
Process received data delivered from the X.25 module
•
Control the flow of data across the client interface
•
Ensure data integrity
TCP Interface
IPEX appears to TCP as a client. As such, IPEX specifies the socket for the local
TCP interface (consisting of its IP address and TCP port number) and another
socket for the remote TCP interface to establish a connection.
For SVCs using IPEX, when the local X.25 DCE or DTE requests an X.25
end-to-end switched connection, the local router contacts the remote IPEX router
to establish a unique TCP connection for that X.25 connection.
Because a large number of TCP connections may be active concurrently to
support many tunneling sessions, IPEX service uses a large range of TCP port
numbers to create separate sockets for the individual tunneling sessions. However,
IPEX service does not use any port numbers that are reserved for the standard
TCP/IP protocols, UNIX system services, or other TCP client services provided in
the software. The port numbers reserved for IPEX service range from 12,304
through 16,399.
IPEX uses the TCP client interface to
1-14
•
Open, close, and check the status of TCP connections
•
Send data to the TCP module for transmission
•
Process received data delivered from the TCP module
•
Control the flow of data across the client interface
•
Ensure data integrity across the IP network
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
IPEX Facility Support
IPEX handles only the following X.25 PLP facilities:
•
Default Packet Size and Default Window Size: The IPEX router examines
the packet and window size in the X.25 call from the client terminal. When
the router has validated and accepted these parameters, it sets up the optimal
flow control queues at the X.25 client interface, as well as the optimal receive
and transmit windows at the TCP client interface.
•
Flow Control Parameter Negotiation: The IPEX router can support the
largest packet size defined in the X.25 standard. Therefore, it always accepts
the proposed window and packet size parameters in the X.25 call packet from
the client terminal after they are validated, without negotiating a smaller
window or packet size.
Sequence of Connections with IPEX
Figure 1-11 illustrates the sequence of calls and connections in X.25 TCP/IP
tunneling.
114059 Rev. B
1.
When the local IPEX router receives an incoming X.25 call request from a
client X.25 terminal, the local IPEX router sends a TCP connection request to
the IPEX router serving the remote X.25 terminal.
2.
The remote IPEX router then sends a call request to the remote X.25 terminal.
That terminal then responds with an X.25 call accepted packet.
3.
The remote IPEX router accepts the TCP connection.
4.
The local IPEX router accepts the local X.25 connection.
1-15
Configuring X.25 Services
X.25
call request
Step 1
TCP/IP
X.25
terminal
"local"
IPEX
(router)
X.25
call pending
"distant"
IPEX
(router)
X.25
terminal
TCP connection
request
Step 2
X.25
call request
Step 3
X.25
call accepted
Step 4
TCP
connection established
X.25
connection established
Step 5
X.25
call accepted
Step 6
X250012A
Figure 1-11.
1-16
How IPEX Establishes Connections
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
IPEX Mapping
For each established SVC connection that contains a specified X.25 called address
(X.121 address), IPEX establishes a TCP connection from IPEX to a TCP/IP
server. This connection consists of the IP address and the TCP port number of a
remote TCP/IP peer that correspond to the X.25 called address. To enable
X.25-to-TCP conversion you must configure the following information:
•
The point of attachment (that is, the circuit interface) on the IPEX system at
which the SVC establishes the connection.
•
The SVC LCN range at the packet level.
•
The X.25 called address of the incoming call request from the X.25
DTE/DCE to IPEX.
•
The associated remote TCP socket (IP address and TCP port number) that
identifies the destination of the TCP connection.
This mapping sets a path for forwarding data received on an X.25 virtual circuit to
a specific remote TCP/IP peer.
Mapping Types
To configure IPEX, you must select either local or end-to-end mapping, which
determines whether facilities, call user data, M-bit and Q-bit support terminate
locally or are passed across the TCP/IP connection.
If you set the mapping type to local, IPEX ports can support different packet sizes
at each end, but message size can be no longer than 4 KB.
If you configure end-to-end mapping, all IPEX ports must have the same packet
and window size, or the M-bit support will not function properly. End-to-end
mapping allows unlimited message size.
IPEX Connection Summary
To set up a reliable tunneling session, each side must successfully establish a
connection. When one side receives a call request, the other side attempts to
connect. If the connection attempt fails on the remote side, the local side will
reject the call request it received because the tunneling session cannot be set up.
114059 Rev. B
1-17
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 1-12 shows how IPEX mediates the interaction between the two protocol
stacks as the data flows between the X.25 client terminals and the TCP-based
hosts.
Information
from/to other
X.25 terminals
Information
from/to other
IPEX routers
X.25 level 2
IP
FDDI
V.35
MCT1/E1
X.25 level 2
SYNC
X.25 level 3
IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.2
SNMP
TCP
IEEE 802.5
X.25 level 3
SNMP
IPEX module
TCP
IP
IEEE 802.2
IEEE 802.3
X250013A
Figure 1-12.
Role of the X.25 and TCP Protocol Stacks in IPEX
The TCP and X.25 communication stacks share the responsibility for maintaining
a reliable and efficient data flow. That is, if data loss occurs because of a lack of
software resources or intermittent transmission errors, the communication stack
on that side must retransmit the lost data. In addition, both sides must
independently maintain protocol flow control.
Data loss may also occur due to hardware or other catastrophic failures. You must
implement redundancy in the network topology design and provide manual or
automated intervention to handle these types of data communication failures.
IPEX Handling of Large Data Messages (M-bit)
X.25 is a message-based protocol, and TCP is an unstructured stream protocol.
They differ in the way they send outgoing traffic from their clients and deliver
incoming traffic to their clients.
1-18
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
How X.25 Handles Large Data Messages
When the X.25 client submits an X.25 message that is larger than an X.25 packet
size, the X.25 protocol fragments the message. X.25 then transmits the sequence
of packets containing these fragments. Within each packet, X.25 includes a flag
(M-bit) that indicates the fragmentation and helps the receiver reassemble the
message.
How TCP Handles Large Data Messages
TCP, on the other hand, does not have a flag to mark fragmentation of messages
that are bigger than the TCP maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. The portion
of a message that does not fit into one TCP data segment is sent in a subsequent
data segment. Without a flag or any indication of the size of the message, the TCP
client has no way of determining the boundary of a message; that is, whether the
complete message is contained within one or in several data segments. Hence,
once IPEX receives the X.25 user data and translates it to a TCP data segment, the
message boundary is lost.
To minimize changes in the existing host applications, IPEX maintains the X.25
message boundary. IPEX structures the application information into message
blocks before encapsulating it in TCP data segments.
Q-bit Support
IPEX service includes support for the Qualified Data bit (Q-bit), which is
transported generically through the network. A Q-bit value of 1 indicates that the
frame is a control frame, and a value of 0 indicates that it is a data frame.
QLLC
Bay Networks X.25 services include Qualified Logical Link Control (QLLC), a
protocol that transfers IBM SNA data over an X.25 network. QLLC carries both
logical link control information and SNA data across an X.25 network.
For example, with QLLC support, a Bay Networks router can send and receive
X.25 packets from an IBM host running IBM’s X.25 NCP Packet Switching
Interface (NPSI) and downstream QLLC compatible SNA endstations. It can also
work with other topologies, several of which are illustrated in Appendix B,
“QLLC Configuration Examples.”
114059 Rev. B
1-19
Configuring X.25 Services
QLLC and DLSw
You must run DLSw when you use QLLC. The router transmits the SNA data
contained within QLLC packets over SDLC or LLC (token ring, Ethernet, Frame
Relay) data links that use DLSw services.
QLLC works with all media that X.25 supports. You can establish as many as 128
simultaneous QLLC VCs on a physical link.
To configure DLSw, refer to Configuring DLSw Services.
NPSI
IBM’s NCP Packet Switching Interface (NPSI) software allows SNA hosts to
attach to X.25 networks, and to support virtual circuits for both incoming and
outgoing calls. NPSI makes X.25 virtual circuits appear to SNA hosts as
point-to-point (SDLC) links.
How QLLC Works
The interfaces that you configure for QLLC conversion are the serial interfaces of
the X.25 network that connect to the remote devices with which you want your
local SNA devices to communicate.
Sequence of Connections with QLLC
When an X.25 attached device -- for example, a 3174 -- wants to send data to an
IBM host, the 3174 sends an X.25 call request packet. The IBM host running
NPSI receives the call request, and establishes a QLLC session with the 3174.
1-20
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Overview
QLLC Mapping
The QLLC software matches the MAC address that DLSw recognizes to the
X.121 address that X.25 recognizes. It also translates the data into a format that
the receiving X.25 device can comprehend.
To use QLLC, you must assign a virtual MAC address to the X.25 device, and
map that MAC address to the device’s X.121 address. You must also assign a
virtual X.121 address to the DLSw device, and map that address to the DLSw
device’s MAC address. This mapping sets a path for forwarding data between an
X.25 VC to and a specific remote DLSw device. QLLC requires one mapping
entry for each VC.
Appendix B, “QLLC Configuration Examples,” shows examples of QLLC
network topologies.
Adjacent and Partner Devices
Bay Networks QLLC uses the terms adjacent and partner to describe the X.121
and MAC addresses that map to each other. These terms are relative to the
interface that runs the QLLC/X.25 software.
The Adjacent X.121 DTE/DCE device connects to the interface that is running the
QLLC/X.25 software, either directly or indirectly. It maps to that device’s
Adjacent MAC address.
The Partner X.121 DTE/DCE device connects through the DLSw network. It
maps to that device’s Partner MAC Address.
In Figure B-1, for example, Router A connects to the SNA mainframe through the
X.25 network, so the mainframe is an adjacent device. The PC, the 3174 control
unit, and the AS400 are partner devices because they connect through the DLSw
network, and not through the X.25 network.
In Figure B-4 of Appendix B, Router A connects to the SNA mainframe through a
token ring network, so it is a partner device. Router A connects to the PC through
the X.25 network, so the PC is an adjacent device. The mainframe is an adjacent
device for Router B, because they connect through the X.25 network. The PC is a
partner device for Router B.
114059 Rev. B
1-21
Configuring X.25 Services
Coordinating X.25 and DLSw Parameters
In addition to setting QLLC parameters, you must coordinate X.25 packet size
parameters with the SNA frame size to ensure that they are compatible.
1-22
114059 Rev. B
Chapter 2
Implementation Notes
This chapter describes special features of the Bay Networks X.25 implementation,
including
•
Data compression
•
Load sharing
•
Clocking sources for routers set back-to-back
•
Max Window Size and Max Packet Length parameters
•
Flow control negotiation
•
Configuring LAPB for an AN or ASN
•
Configuring synchronous lines
•
DDN default service record
•
RFC 1356
•
PTOP encapsulation
X.25 Data Compression
Bay Networks data compression software enables you to reduce line costs and
improve response times over X.25 networks.
Our data compression eliminates redundancies in data streams. When you use
compression on your network, bandwidth efficiency improves, enabling you to
transmit more data over a given amount of network bandwidth.
To use data compression with X.25, you must set the X.25 service record
parameter, Enable Compression, to Enable. See Chapter 4 for information about
how to access this parameter.
114059 Rev. B
2-1
Configuring X.25 Services
For a complete discussion of data compression, descriptions of compression
parameters, and instructions for configuring compression for an X.25 interface,
see Configuring Data Compression Services.
Load Sharing
The Bay Networks implementation of X.25 on PDN networks includes load
sharing across as many as four VCs, using a round-robin algorithm to distribute
traffic. This feature improves performance by increasing the effective window
size, that is, the number of packets that a DTE can transmit before it receives an
acknowledgment.
To take advantage of multiple virtual connections and load sharing across them,
you must set the Max Connections network service record parameter to a value
greater than 1 (refer to Chapter 4).
IPEX and QLLC do not support load sharing.
Clocking Sources for Routers Set Back-to-Back
If two Bay Networks routers are operating back-to-back without a clocking
source, you must configure internal clocking on both routers. Use a crossover
cable to connect the ports.
The default clocking source for X.25 is external. When you configure X.25 and
LAPB on an existing network, external clocking can cause unpredictable results
on any internally clocked line. Clocking sources must be the same for each router
that you connect back-to-back.
Packet-level Parameters: Max Window Size and
Max Packet Length
When you configure X.25 packet-level parameters, make certain to set the Max
Window Size and Max Packet Length parameters for peer routers to the same
value if you also enable flow control. If you do not, the routers cannot perform
network service-level negotiations.
For QLLC and IPEX, set Max Window Size and Max Packet Length parameters
according to the values in the attached X.25 devices.
2-2
114059 Rev. B
Implementation Notes
For example, if you set the Max Window Size for Router A to 7, set the
Max Window Size for peer Router B to 7. Similarly, if you set the Max Packet
Length for Router A to 512, set the Max Packet Length for peer Router B to 512.
Window size and packet length can affect packet throughput across the X.25
network. Setting either the Max Window Size or Max Packet Length parameter
too low can cause the router to drop packets. You may want to configure these
parameters at higher values than the default settings. Refer to Chapter 4 for
information about how to access these parameters.
Flow-Control Negotiation
The Bay Networks implementation; of X.25 enables the router to negotiate flow
control, which regulates the rate of data transfer among elements of a network to
prevent congestion and overload. For flow-control negotiation to work properly,
you must set the parameters in Tables 2-1 and 2-2 as shown.
Table 2-1.
Parameter
Value
Flow Control Negotiation
On
Max Window Size
See the parameter descriptions for options
Max Packet Length
See the parameter descriptions for options
Acceptance Format
DEFEXT (specifies default Basic format)
Release Format
DEFEXT (specifies default Basic format)
Table 2-2.
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Packet-level Parameters
X.25 Service Record Parameters
Parameter
Value
Flow Facility
Negot (negotiate flow facility)
Window Size
See the parameter descriptions for options
Packet Size
See the parameter descriptions for options
2-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Configuring LAPB for an AN or ASN
When you create a new X.25 line on a Bay Networks AN or ASN router, Site
Manager automatically uses default values to configure LAPB. If you want to edit
the LAPB parameters, you can access them through the Edit Line Parameters
window after you have created the new X.25 line. For further information, refer to
Configuring Line Services.
Configuring Synchronous Lines with X.25
Table 2-3 shows the default synchronous line configurations for an AN/ASN and a
BN/VME router.
Table 2-3.
Synchronous Line Parameter Defaults for X.25
Synchronous Line Parameter
AN/ASN X.25
BN/VME X.25
BOFL
Disable
Disable
MTU*
512
1600
Service
Transparent
LAPB
Transmit Window Size
1
7
Min Frame Spacing*
1
1
Local Addr
7
1†
Promiscuous
Enable
Disable
Remote Addr
7
3†
WAN Protocol
LAPB
X.25
Sync Polling‡
Enable
Disable
*. Set this parameter to the same value on both sides of the X.25 connection. The default is calculated
to be 2 times the packet size times the window size. For nonsegmenting protocols (AppleTalk,
DECnet), you may need to increase the MTU to a larger value.
†. The addresses are those of the BN/VME router configured as a DCE; they are reversed if the router
is configured as a DTE.
‡. Set this parameter to Disable if the physical interface is not V.35.
If you want to edit the synchronous line parameters, you can access them through
the Edit Line Parameters window after you have created the new X.25 line. For
more information on these parameters, refer to Configuring Line Services.
2-4
114059 Rev. B
Implementation Notes
DDN Default Service Record
When you configure the Service Type as DDN, you can automatically configure
service records that use default parameter values for every DDN SVC on your
network. This means that you do not have to individually configure DDN service
records. To use the default DDN service record feature, set the Use Default
Service Configuration packet-level parameter to ON.
You can also change the default values that apply when you set the Use Default
Service Configuration parameter to ON. Refer to Chapter 4 for instructions.
If you want to configure specific DDN SVCs with nondefault values, you can
configure them individually. If you set the Default DDN parameter to ON, the
default values apply to all SVCs, but if you then edit an individual SVC, values
that you assign to that SVC apply.
RFC 1356 Multiplexing
Bay Networks supports RFC 1356 multiplexing.
RFC 1356 defines a standard for multiprotocol encapsulation over X.25 networks.
Bay Networks implements RFC 1356 for IP, OSI, IPX, DECnet, and XNS. This
means you can use Bay Networks routers at one end of a connection, and
equipment from another vendor (that also supports RFC 1356 for these protocols)
at the other end of the connection.
Multiplexing enables you to send multiple protocols over a single virtual circuit.
Bay Networks advises multiplexing when you configure multiple routing
protocols on a PDN type of service.
You enable multiplexing by setting the Enable 1356 Multiplexing parameter. If
you set this parameter to Enable, the router can use RFC 1356 Null Encapsulation
to send multiple protocols over a single virtual circuit. If you set the value to
Disable, the router uses RFC 1356 Normal Encapsulation for IP and OSI, and
RFC 1356 SNAP Encapsulation for IPX DECnet and XNS, opening a separate
virtual circuit for each protocol. The default setting is Disable. See Figures 2-1
and 2-2 for illustrations of Null and Normal Encapsulation.
114059 Rev. B
2-5
Configuring X.25 Services
1010001
LAN
LCN 1:
IP, IPX, DECnet
1010002
LAN
X.25
Port: S21
WAN protocol: X25
Bi-directional VC:16
LCN start: 1
PDN service record 1:
Remote X.121: 1010002
Protocols: IP, IPX, DEC
Enable 1356 multiplexing: enable
X250015A
Figure 2-1.
RFC 1356 Null Encapsulation
1010001
LCN 1: IP
1010002
LCN 2: IPX
LAN
X.25
LAN
LCN 3: DEC
Port: S21
WAN Protocol: X25
Bi-directional VC:16
LCN start: 1
PDN service record 1:
Remote X.121: 1010002
Protocols: IP, IPX, DEC
Enable 1356 multiplexing: disable
X250016A
Figure 2-2.
RFC 1356 Normal Encapsulation
PTOP Encapsulation
Bay Networks also has Point-to-Point Service (PTOP), a proprietary
encapsulation method for LAN protocols. PTOP requires a Bay Networks router
at both ends of a connection. You must use PTOP to encapsulate AppleTalk,
Banyan VINES and Bridge traffic.
2-6
114059 Rev. B
Chapter 3
Enabling X.25 Service
This chapter describes how to enable X.25 service. It assumes you have read
Configuring Routers and
1.
Opened a configuration file
2.
Specified router hardware if this is a local mode configuration file
When you enable X.25 service, you must configure a subset of X.25 parameters.
The Configuration Manager supplies default values for the remaining parameters.
If you want to edit these default values, refer to Chapter 4, “Editing X.25
Parameters.”
Enabling X.25 on an Interface
To enable X.25 service:
1.
Select the link or net module connector on which you are enabling X.25.
2.
Select the X.25 Protocol.
3.
Configure packet-level parameters.
4.
Add X.25 service records.
5.
Enable bridging and routing protocols.
6.
Configure routing protocols over X.25 circuits.
The following sections describe how to perform each of these steps.
114059 Rev. B
3-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Selecting a Connector
1.
In the main Configuration Manager window, click on the circuit
(connector) you want to configure:
For example, if you selected the module 5300 Quad Sync, click on the
connector COM1 to configure the first synchronous circuit. The Configuration
Manager displays the Add Circuit window (Figure 3-1) with the selected
circuit highlighted.
Figure 3-1.
Add Circuit Window
2.
Click on OK to accept the values shown.
The WAN Protocols window appears (Figure 3-2).
3-2
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
COM Circuits
Figure 3-2.
3.
114059 Rev. B
WAN Protocols Window
Select X.25 from the WAN Protocols menu to display the X.25 Packet
Config window (Figure 3-3).
3-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 3-3.
X.25 Packet Config Window
Configuring X.25 Packet-level Parameters
3-4
1.
Configure the packet-level parameters using the descriptions that follow
as a guide.
2.
When you are done, click on OK to display the X.25 Service
Configuration window (Figure 3-4).
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
You add X.25 service records from this window. Refer to “Adding X.25
Network Service Records,” later in this chapter, for instructions.
Note: After you enable X.25 service on the router, you can edit the default
settings for the rest of the X.25 parameters. See Chapter 4 for instructions.
X.25 Packet-level Parameter Descriptions
Use the following descriptions as guidelines when you set parameters in the X.25
Packet Config window.
At any time, you can get help or obtain a list of acceptable values for a parameter
by clicking on the appropriate button on the upper right side of each window. To
enter a value, you can either
•
Type directly into the parameter field.
•
Click on Values and then select a value from the list displayed (the default
selection is highlighted).
Parameter:
Link Address Type
Default:
DCE
Options:
DCE | DTE
Function:
Instructions:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies whether this interface provides logical DCE or DTE services.
Specify the service type as DCE or DTE. You must set one end of the link
as a DCE and the other end as a DTE.
3-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Network Address Type
Default:
PDN_Network
Options:
PDN_Network | DDN_Network | BFE_Network
Function:
Specifies the type of X.25 network to which the interface connects. The
value of this parameter determines the format of the local X.121 address.
Instructions:
Specify PDN_Network for a Public Data Network or a Point-to-Point
connection. Specify DDN_Network for a Defense Data Network. Specify
BFE_Network for a DDN that uses BFE encryption.
If you specify PDN_Network you must enter the local address in X.121
address format, that is, you must specify a value for the PDN X.121
Address parameter.
If you specify DDN_Network or BFE_Network, you must enter the local
address in IP address format, that is, you must specify a value for the
DDN IP Address parameter. The router will translate the address into
X.121 format.
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.50
PDN X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Specifies the X.121 address assigned to this interface. The X.25 network
service provider supplies the X.121 address.
Set this parameter only if you set the Network Address Type parameter to
PDN_Network.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
3-6
Enter the appropriate X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits).
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.52
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Parameter:
DDN IP Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid IP address
Function:
Specifies the IP address assigned to this interface. The router translates
the address into X.121 format and uses it as the local address.
Set this parameter only if you set the Network Address Type parameter to
DDN_Network or BFE_Network.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Enter the appropriate IP address.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.51
Note: The following parameters require you to specify logical channel
number (LCN) value ranges for SVCs. Each SVC channel you configure on
the router must have a unique LCN. There are three types of SVC channels:
incoming, bidirectional, and outgoing. You must configure at least one SVC
channel for X.25 to establish calls. The total number of channels you configure
cannot exceed 512.
Parameter:
Number of Incoming SVC Channels
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 512
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the number of logical channels that accept incoming calls only.
Enter the number of channels that you assign to incoming calls only on
this interface.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.36
3-7
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 4095
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the lowest logical channel number that the router can assign to
logical channels that accept incoming call requests only.
Enter a number greater than the highest number reserved for PVC
channels, but small enough that the last SVC channel number will be less
than 4095.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.37
Number of Bidirectional SVC Channels
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 512
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the number of logical channels that both accept incoming calls
and transmit outgoing calls.
Enter the number of logical channels that you assign to both accept and
transmit calls on this interface.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.38
Bidirectional SVC LCN Start
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 4095
Function:
Specifies the lowest logical channel number that the router can assign to
bidirectional logical channels.
Instructions:
Enter a number greater than the highest number reserved for incoming
SVC channels, but small enough that the last SVC channel number will
be less than 4095.
MIB Object ID:
3-8
Incoming SVC LCN Start
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.39
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Parameter:
Number of Outgoing SVC Channels
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 512
Function:
Instructions:
Specifies the number of logical channels that transmit outgoing calls only.
Enter the number of channels that you assign to outgoing calls only.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.40
Parameter:
Outgoing SVC LCN Start
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 4095
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the lowest logical channel number that the router can assign to
logical channels that transmit outgoing call requests only.
Enter a number greater than the highest number reserved for bidirectional
SVC channels, but small enough that the last SVC channel number will
be less than 4095.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.41
Use Default Service Configuration
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Creates default DDN service records for every DDN SVC on your
network.
Select ON if you want to use default values for your DDN SVCs. Refer to
configuration instructions in Chapter 4 if you want to set this parameter to
ON and still individually configure some of your DDN SVCs.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.54
3-9
Configuring X.25 Services
Adding X.25 Network Service Records
After you click on OK in the X.25 Packet Config window, the X.25 Service
Configuration window appears (Figure 3-4). Complete the following steps to add
X.25 network service records:
Figure 3-4.
1.
3-10
X.25 Service Configuration Window for a PDN Network
Click on Add to display the X.25 Service window (Figure 3-5).
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Figure 3-5.
X.25 Service Window
2.
Configure the X.25 network service parameters using the descriptions
that follow as a guide.
3.
When you are done, click on OK.
The X.25 Service Configuration window appears. It now displays the record
you just added. At this point you can
•
Add another network service record by repeating Steps 1 through 3.
•
Enable bridging and routing services on the X.25 circuit by following the
instructions in the next section, “Enabling Bridging and Routing Services
on an X.25 Circuit.”
•
Edit the remaining X.25 network service parameters, for which the
default values are currently in effect (refer to Chapter 4).
Note: If you selected IPEX in the Type parameter, the IPEX Mapping Table
Configuration window appears when you click on OK in Step 3 above. See
Chapter 5 for instructions on configuring IPEX mapping parameters. If you
selected QLLC, the QLLC Mapping Table Configuration window appears. See
Chapter 6 for instructions on configuring QLLC mapping parameters.
114059 Rev. B
3-11
Configuring X.25 Services
X.25 Network Service Record Parameter Descriptions
Use the following descriptions as guidelines when you configure the parameters in
the X.25 Service window.
Parameter:
Type
Default:
None
Options:
PDN | DDN | PTOP | IPEX | QLLC
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
3-12
Specifies the type of X.25 service that this interface supplies.
•
PDN for Public Data Network service
•
DDN for Defense Data Network service
•
PTOP for Point-to-Point network service
•
IPEX for TCP/IP Tunneling over X.25
•
QLLC for QLLC service
Choose one of these network service types. If you specify IPEX or QLLC
you must configure several IPEX or QLLC specific parameters (refer to
Chapter 5 for IPEX and Chapter 6 for QLLC).
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.9
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Parameter:
Remote IP Address
Default:
0.0.0.0
Options:
Any valid IP address
Function:
Specifies a destination IP address that is reachable over this X.25
interface. This parameter is not used with Point-to-Point service.
You must specify a remote IP address if you plan to enable IP on this
interface. For DDN services, the router translates the remote IP address
you specify into an X.121 address so that it can route IP traffic over the
network. For PDN services, the router uses the remote IP address you
specify to define an adjacent host for the IP interface.
Instructions:
Enter a 32-bit destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
If you run OSI over DDN, you must also enter this IP address in the
Subnetwork Point of Attachment (SNPA) field of the OSI External
Address Adjacency Configuration window. To enter this value in the
SNPA field, you must convert the IP address into X.121 format. Refer to
Configuring OSI Services for more information.
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.13
Remote X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies a destination X.121 address. You must specify a destination
X.121 address if you are configuring PDN or Point-to-Point services. If
you are configuring DDN services, the router derives this address from
the remote IP address.
Enter a destination X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits) that is
reachable over this X.25 interface.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.12
3-13
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Connection ID
Default:
1
Options:
1 through 255
Function:
Instructions:
Identifies each circuit to its remote destination. You can have multiple
Point-to-Point circuits configured to the same X.121 destination. Each of
them requires a unique connection ID. Assign the same connection ID to
both the local and remote configurations for each circuit. You use the
Connection ID parameter with PTOP service only.
Assign a unique connection ID for each X.121 connection.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.11
Parameter:
Enable 1356 Multiplexing
Default:
Disable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
If you set this parameter to Enable, the router can use RFC 1356 Null
Encapsulation to send multiple protocols over a single virtual circuit. If
you set the value to Disable, the router uses RFC 1356 Normal
Encapsulation for IP and OSI, and RFC 1356 SNAP Encapsulation for
any of the other protocols, opening a separate virtual circuit for each
protocol.
Bay Networks advises multiplexing only when you configure multiple
routing protocols on a PDN type of service.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
3-14
Select Enable if you want to multiplex traffic over a single virtual circuit.
Otherwise, select Disable.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.34
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Adding X.25 Network Service Records to a
Previously Configured Interface
To add a new network service record to an existing X.25 interface, begin at the
Configuration Manager window and
1.
Select Circuits > Edit Circuits to display the Circuit List window.
2.
Select the X.25 interface to which you want to add network service
records.
3.
Click on Edit to display the Circuit Definition window.
4.
Select X25 Protocol > Service.
The X.25 Service Configuration window appears (refer to Figure 3-4). It lists
all network service records currently defined for the interface. Follow the
instructions in the section, “Adding X.25 Network Service Records.”
Enabling Bridging and Routing Services on an X.25 Circuit
After you have added at least one network service record, you can enable bridging
and routing protocols on an X.25 PTOP circuit, and routing protocols only on
X.25 PDN and DDN circuits.
Note: If you configure multiple DDN or PDN network service records on the
X.25 circuit, you need to enable routing protocols on that circuit only once.
However, if you configure multiple PTOP network service records on the X.25
circuit, you must enable bridging/routing protocols for each PTOP network
service record. This is because the router uses a different internal circuit for
each PTOP record configured on the circuit.
To enable bridging and routing services:
1.
Select a network service record in the X.25 Service Configuration
window (Figure 3-6).
2.
Select Protocols > Add/Delete (Figure 3-6).
The Select Protocols window appears (Figure 3-7).
3.
114059 Rev. B
Select the bridging/routing protocols you want to enable on the circuit,
then click on OK.
3-15
Configuring X.25 Services
After you have selected the protocols, refer to the appropriate configuration
guide for instructions on how to configure the parameters associated with
these protocols.
When you have specified the protocol-specific parameters in all windows, the
Configuration Manager redisplays the X.25 Service Configuration window.
4.
Enable additional bridging/routing protocols on the circuit by repeating
Steps 1 through 3, or click on Done to exit the window.
Configuring IP Interfaces over X.25 Circuits
The Configuration Manager allows you to configure multiple IP interfaces on a
single X.25 PDN circuit. This means that a single X.25 circuit can respond to
multiple IP addresses, each on a different subnet, at the same time.
This section leads you through the Configuration Manager windows that appear
when you configure IP interfaces on a single X.25 circuit. To configure multiple
IP addresses over X.25:
1.
3-16
From the X.25 Service Configuration window (Figure 3-6), select
Protocols > Add/Delete.
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Figure 3-6.
Selecting Protocols > Add/Delete
The Select Protocols window appears (Figure 3-7).
114059 Rev. B
3-17
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 3-7.
2.
3-18
Select Protocols Windows
From the Select Protocols window, select IP and click on OK to display
the IP Configuration window (Figure 3-8).
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Figure 3-8.
IP Configuration Window
Configure the parameters using the descriptions that follow as a guide.
3.
Note that you do not need to set the Unnumbered Assoc Addr parameter.
Parameter:
IP Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid IP address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Assigns a 32-bit IP address to the interface.
Enter the IP address of the interface in dotted decimal notation.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.3.2.1.4.1.4
3-19
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Subnet Mask
Default:
0.0.0.0
Options:
The Configuration Manager automatically calculates an appropriate
subnet mask, depending on the class of the network to which the interface
connects. However, you can change the subnet mask with this parameter.
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the network and subnetwork portion of the 32-bit IP address.
Accept the assigned subnet mask or enter another subnet mask in dotted
decimal notation.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.3.2.1.4.1.6
Transmit Bcast Addr
Default:
0.0.0.0
Options:
0.0.0.0 or any valid IP broadcast address
Function:
Specifies the broadcast address that this IP subnet uses to broadcast
packets.
Accepting 0.0.0.0 for this parameter specifies that the IP router will use a
broadcast address with a host portion of all 1s. Accepting 0.0.0.0 does not
configure the router to use the address 0.0.0.0 to broadcast packets. For
example, if you have IP address 123.1.1.1 and a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0, accepting the default value 0.0.0.0 configures the IP router
to use the address 123.1.1.255 to broadcast packets.
To set an explicit broadcast address of all 1s, enter 255.255.255.255 for
this parameter.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4.
3-20
Accept the default, 0.0.0.0, unless the calculated broadcast address (host
portion) of all 1s is not adequate. In that case, enter the appropriate IP
broadcast address in dotted decimal notation.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.3.2.1.4.1.8
When you are finished configuring the parameters in the IP
Configuration window, click on OK to display the Enter Adjacent Host
window (Figure 3-9).
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Figure 3-9.
Enter Adjacent Host Window
5.
Enter the IP address of the adjacent host.
You do not need to enter a value for the Unnumbered Assoc Addr parameter.
Parameter:
IP Address
Default:
None
Options:
The IP address of the remote X.25 interface which the X.25 call will
terminate. This address must be on the same IP network as the local
X.25 interface.
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Assigns a 32-bit IP address to the interface.
Enter the IP address of the interface in dotted decimal notation.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.3.2.1.4.1.4
6.
Click on OK to return to the X.25 Service Configuration window
(refer to Figure 3-6).
7.
Select Protocols > Edit IP > Interfaces to display the IP Interfaces
window (Figure 3-10).
3-21
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 3-10.
IP Interfaces Window
Note: For information on the parameters in the IP Interfaces window, refer to
Configuring IP Services.
8.
Click on Add to configure additional IP interfaces on the X.25 circuit.
The IP Configuration window appears (Figure 3-11).
3-22
114059 Rev. B
Enabling X.25 Service
Figure 3-11.
Adding an IP Interface to an X.25 Circuit
Configure the parameters, using the descriptions that follow as a guide.
9.
See Step 3 for descriptions of the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Transmit
Bcast Addr parameters.
Note that you do not need to set the Unnumbered Assoc Addr parameter.
Parameter:
Configure RIP
Default:
None
Options:
YES | NO
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies whether the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is configured
on this interface.
Click on Values and select YES or NO.
None
3-23
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Configure OSPF
Default:
None
Options:
YES | NO
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies whether the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is
configured on this interface.
Click on Values and select YES or NO.
None
For detailed information on RIP and OSPF, refer to Configuring IP Services.
10. After you have specified the parameters in the IP Configuration window,
click on OK.
The Enter Adjacent Host window appears (refer to Figure 3-9).
11. Specify the IP address for the remote host, as previously described.
If you need to specify additional IP interfaces on the X.25 circuit, click on
Add in the IP Interfaces window (refer to Figure 3-10) and continue adding IP
interfaces until you are finished.
3-24
114059 Rev. B
Chapter 4
Editing X.25 Parameters
After you enable X.25, you can edit all X.25 parameters from the Configuration
Manager window (Figure 4-1). Refer to Configuring Routers for instructions on
using Site Manager to access this window.
For each X.25 parameter, this chapter gives the default setting, valid parameter
options, the parameter function, instructions for setting the parameter, and the
MIB object ID.
The Technician Interface allows you to modify parameters by executing set and
commit commands with the MIB object ID. This process is equivalent to
modifying parameters using Site Manager. For more information about using the
Technician Interface to access the MIB, refer to Using Technician Interface
Software.
Caution: The Technician Interface does not verify the validity of the value
you enter for a parameter. Entering an invalid value can corrupt your
configuration.
114059 Rev. B
4-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 4-1.
Configuration Manager Window
Editing the X.25 Global Parameter
The X.25 global parameter enables X.25 services for the entire router. To edit the
X.25 global parameter, begin at the Configuration Manager window, shown in
Figure 4-1, and
1.
Select Protocols > X25 > Global.
The Edit X.25 Global Parameters window appears (Figure 4-2).
4-2
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Figure 4-2.
Edit X.25 Global Parameters Window
2.
Enable or disable X.25 services, using the Enable parameter as described
in the following parameter description.
3.
Click on OK to save your changes.
X.25 Global Parameter Description
Use the following parameter description to edit the X.25 global parameter.
Parameter:
Enable
Default:
Enable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Globally enables or disables X.25 services.
Set to Disable if you want to disable X.25 services.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.1.2
4-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Editing X.25 Packet-level Parameters
The X.25 packet-level parameters are specific to individual X.25 interfaces. To
edit packet-level parameters for an existing interface, begin at the Configuration
Manager window (refer to Figure 4-1) and
1.
Select Circuits > Edit Circuits to display the Circuit List window.
2.
Select the X.25 interface that you want to edit; then click on Edit.
The Circuit Definition window appears.
3.
Select X25 Protocol > Packet.
The X.25 Packet Level Edit window appears (Figure 4-3).
4.
Edit the packet-level parameters that you want to change, using the
parameter descriptions that follow as a guide.
5.
Click on OK to exit the window.
Note: When you reconfigure an interface in dynamic configuration mode,
X.25 packet-level and LAPB service restart on that interface.
4-4
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Figure 4-3.
X.25 Packet Level Edit Window
X.25 Packet-level Parameter Descriptions
Use the following descriptions as guidelines when you edit the parameters in the
X.25 Packet Level Edit window (refer to Figure 4-3). Because you may want to
edit the parameters you set previously to enable X.25 services, this chapter repeats
descriptions for those parameters and adds descriptions for the parameters for
which the Configuration Manager supplies default values.
114059 Rev. B
4-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Caution: Line speed, packet size, and window size all affect packet
throughput across the X.25 network. Setting any of these variables too low can
cause the router to drop packets. Therefore, use caution when changing the
default settings for the following X.25 parameters:
•
Max Window Size
•
Max Packet Length
•
Window Size
•
Packet Size
Parameter:
Enable
Default:
Enable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-6
Enables or disables packet-level services for the interface.
Set to Disable to disable packet-level services.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.2
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Network Address Type
Default:
PDN_Network
Options:
PDN_Network | DDN_Network | BFE_Network
Function:
Instructions:
Specifies the type of X.25 network to which the interface connects. The
value of this parameter determines the format of the local X.121 address.
Do not set this parameter if you have a Point-to-Point connection.
Specify PDN_Network for a Public Data Network. Specify
DDN_Network for a Defense Data Network. Specify BFE_Network for a
DDN network that uses BFE encryption.
If you specify PDN_Network, you must enter the local address in X.121
address format, that is, you must specify a value for the PDN X.121
Address parameter.
If you specify DDN_Network or BFE_Network, you must enter the local
address in IP address format, that is, you must specify a value for the
DDN IP Address parameter. The router translates the address into X.121
format.
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.50
PDN X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Specifies the X.121 address assigned to this interface. The X.25 network
service provider supplies the X.121 address.
Set this parameter only if you set the Network Address Type parameter to
PDN_Network.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Enter the appropriate X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits).
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.52
4-7
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
DDN IP Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid IP address
Function:
Specifies the IP address assigned to this interface. The router translates
the address into X.121 format and uses it as the local address.
Set this parameter only if you set the Network Address Type parameter to
DDN_Network or BFE_Network.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.51
Sequence Size
Default:
MOD8
Options:
MOD8 | MOD128
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the modulo of sequence numbering.
Set to the appropriate sequence size.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.10
Restart Procedure Type
Default:
DTE_Restart (for DTE) or DCE_Restart (for DCE)
Options:
DTE_Restart | DTE_Norestart | DTE_DXE | DCE_Restart
Function:
For each X.25 interface, this parameter specifies the device type (DTE or
DCE) at the X.25 packet level. It also enables you to turn on restart
procedures, which clear all virtual circuits and let you initialize a link.
You can also use the restart procedures to recover from a network failure.
Instructions:
Select the value that matches your device type and determine whether you
want to enable restart procedures. Select DTE_Restart if your interface is
a DTE. Select DCE_Restart if your interface is a DCE. Select
DTE_Norestart if you have a DTE interface but do not want to enable
restart procedures. DTE_DXE is for a DTE/DTE environment, and it
leaves the DTE unassigned, while still providing restart procedures.
MIB Object ID:
4-8
Enter the appropriate IP address.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.45
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Default Tx/Rx Window Size
Default:
2
Options:
1 through 7 (for MOD8) or 1 through 127 (for MOD128)
Function:
Specifies a default window size for this packet layer.
The value in this parameter applies only if the Flow Control Negotiation
parameter is set to OFF in both the packet level and service record
parameters.
Instructions:
To specify a window size other than 2, enter a value within the specified
range.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.42
Parameter:
Default Tx/Rx Pkt Length
Default:
128
Options:
16 | 32 | 64 | 128 | 256 | 512 | 1024 | 2048 | 4096
Function:
Specifies a default packet size for this packet layer.
The value in this parameter applies only if the Flow Control Negotiation
parameter is set to OFF.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
To specify a nonstandard default packet size, set to one of the available
options.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.43
Note: The following parameters require you to specify logical channel
number (LCN) value ranges for SVCs. Each SVC channel you configure on
the router must have a unique LCN. There are three types of SVC channels:
incoming, bidirectional, and outgoing. You must configure at least one SVC
channel for X.25 to establish calls. The total number of channels you configure
cannot exceed 512.
114059 Rev. B
4-9
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Number of Incoming SVC Channels
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 512
Function:
Instructions:
Specifies the number of logical channels that accept incoming calls only.
Enter the number of channels that you assign to incoming calls only on
this interface.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.36
Parameter:
Incoming SVC LCN Start
Default:
0
Options:
1 through 4095
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Enter a number greater than the highest number reserved for PVC
channels, but small enough that the last SVC channel number will be less
than 4095.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.37
Number of Bidirectional SVC Channels
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 512
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-10
Specifies the lowest logical channel number that the router can assign to
logical channels that accept incoming call requests only.
Specifies the number of logical channels that both accept incoming calls
and transmit outgoing calls.
Enter the number of logical channels that you assign to both accept and
transmit calls on this interface.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.38
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Bidirectional SVC LCN Start
Default:
0
Options:
1 through 4095
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the lowest logical channel number that the router can assign to
bidirectional logical channels.
Enter a number greater than the highest number reserved for Incoming
SVC channels, but small enough that the last SVC will be less than 4095.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.39
Number of Outgoing SVC Channels
Default:
0
Options:
0 through 512
Function:
Instructions:
Specifies the number of logical channels that transmit outgoing calls only.
Enter the number of channels that you assign to outgoing calls only.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.40
Parameter:
Outgoing SVC LCN Start
Default:
0
Options:
1 through 4095
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the lowest logical channel number that the router can assign to
logical channels that transmit outgoing call requests only.
Enter a number greater than the highest number reserved for bidirectional
SVC channels, but small enough that the last SVC channel number will
be less than 4095.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.41
4-11
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Use Default Service Configuration
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Creates default DDN service records for every DDN SVC on your
network.
Select ON if you want to use default values for your DDN SVCs. Refer to
configuration instructions in Chapter 4 if you want to set this parameter to
ON and still individually configure some of your DDN SVCs.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.54
T1 Timer
Default:
60 seconds
Options:
1 through 999
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies how long the router waits to receive an acknowledgment of a
transmitted command frame. Specifically, the T1 timer sets, in seconds,
the timeout values for Restart, Reset, and Clear commands. The router
uses this timer to set up data links.
We recommend that you accept the default value, 60.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.32
Caution: We recommend that you accept the default T1 Timer, T2 Timer,
T3 Timer, and T4 Timer values. Reset these parameters with caution.
4-12
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
T2 Timer
Default:
180 seconds
Options:
1 through 999
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the call-confirmation timeout value in seconds. The value for
this timer is the amount of time the router has to respond to a
call-confirmation condition. This timer represents the ITU-T (formerly
CCITT) T11 timer for the DCE and the T21 timer for the DTE.
We recommend that you accept the default value, 180.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.33
T3 Timer
Default:
200 milliseconds
Options:
200 through 2000
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the congestion or busy condition watchdog timeout value in
milliseconds. The value for this timer is the length of time the router has
to respond to a congestion or busy condition.
We recommend that you accept the default value, 200.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.34
T4 Timer
Default:
200 milliseconds
Options:
200 through 2000
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the data packet transmission watchdog timeout value in
milliseconds. The value for this timer is the length of time that the router
has to respond to an acknowledgment frame. This is a Bay Networks
proprietary internal timer.
We recommend that you accept the default value, 200.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.35
4-13
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Flow Control Negotiation
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables the flow-control negotiation facility on this interface.
When you enable flow-control negotiation, the router can negotiate the
maximum window size and packet length for virtual circuits on this
interface on a per-call basis. It uses the Max Window Size and Max
Packet Length parameter settings as a boundary check during
negotiations. The receiving DTE may accept these values or reply with a
counterproposal.
When you disable flow-control negotiation, the router uses the values
specified by these parameters:
–
Default Tx/Rx Window Size
–
Default Tx/Rx Pkt Length
Configure the remote peer router to match these default values.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
To enable flow-control negotiation, set this parameter to ON. Then be sure
to set the following parameters as shown in Table 4-1, or flow-control
negotiation will not work.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.14
Table 4-1.
Parameter Settings for Flow-Control Negotiation
Parameter
Value
X. 25 Packet-Level parameters
Max Window Size/Max Packet Length
See parameter descriptions
Acceptance Format
DEFEXT
Release Format
DEFEXT
X. 25 Service Record parameters
4-14
Flow Facility
Negot
Window Size/Packet Size
See parameter descriptions
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Max Window Size
Default:
2
Options:
1 through 7 (for MOD8) or 1 through 127 (for MOD128)
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the maximum window size allowed in the facilities field of
outgoing and incoming call request packets generated by the router and
transmitted on this interface.
If you set the Sequence Size parameter to MOD8, accept the default, 2, or
enter a value between 1 and 7. If you set the Sequence Size parameter to
MOD128, enter a value between 1 and 127.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.11
Max Packet Length
Default:
128
Options:
16 | 32 | 64 | 128 | 256 | 512 | 1024 | 2048 | 4096
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies the maximum length, in bytes, of the information field of
outgoing X.25 packets generated by the router and transmitted on this
interface.
Accept the default, 128, or set to one of the available options.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.12
Caution: Window size and packet length can affect packet throughput across
the X.25 network. Setting either the Max Window Size or Max Packet Length
parameter too low can cause the router to drop packets.
Also note that on peer routers, the values of the Max Window Size and Max
Packet Length parameters must be the same. For example, if you set the Max
Window Size for Router A to 7, then set the Max Window Size for peer
Router B to 7.
114059 Rev. B
4-15
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Tx/Rx Throughput Class
Default:
THRCLASS19200
Options:
THRCLASS75 | 150 | 300 | 600 | 1200 | 2400 | 4800 |
9600 | 19200 | 48000
Function:
Specifies the default data throughput rate (amount of data in bits per
second) for packets transmitted and received on this X.25 interface. This
is the throughput value that the router first uses when bringing up the line.
If the router receives an incoming call requesting to negotiate a
throughput rate different from this value, the router checks the Max
Throughput Class parameter value to determine whether it can support the
requested rate.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To specify a nonstandard default data throughput rate, select one of the
available options.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.44
Throughput Class Negotiation
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Permits the negotiation of throughput classes, allowing you to determine
the amount of throughput you want to go through the switch.
When you enable this parameter, the router can negotiate the throughput
rate for virtual circuits on this interface on a per-call basis. The receiving
DTE may accept the proposed rate or reply with a counterproposal.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-16
If you want the router to accept calls with throughput negotiation, set this
parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.15
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Max Throughput Class
Default:
19200
Options:
75 | 150 | 300 | 600 | 1200 | 2400 | 4800 | 9600 | 19200 | 48 K | 64 K
Function:
Specifies the maximum throughput rate (amount of data in bits per
second) that this VC can send across the X.25 network.
If the Throughput Class Negotiation parameter is set to ON, the default
value (19200) is the maximum value allowed by this parameter.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Accept the default, 19200, or select one of the available options.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.13
Network User Identification
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Specifies whether this interface supports the Network User Identification
(NUI) service facility.
When you enable this parameter, the router can provide administrative
and management information to the DCE on a per-call basis.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable NUI support, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.16
Incoming Calls Accept
Default:
ON
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Specifies whether this interface accepts incoming calls.
When you enable this parameter, the router can accept incoming call
requests on this interface.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
To disable incoming calls, set this parameter to OFF.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.17
4-17
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Outgoing Calls Accept
Default:
ON
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Specifies whether this interface generates outgoing call requests.
When you enable this parameter, the router can initiate outgoing call
requests on this interface.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To disable outgoing calls, set this parameter to OFF.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.18
Fast Select Accept
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables the fast select accept facility on this interface.
When you enable this parameter, the router can accept incoming call
requests with fast select facility on this interface.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable the fast select accept facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.19
Reverse Charge Accept
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables or disables the reverse charge accept facility on this interface.
When you enable this parameter, the router can accept calls with the
reverse charge facility.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
To enable the reverse charge accept facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.20
Note: When this parameter is set to ON, the router accepts calls with the
reverse charge facility, but it does not maintain a record of the charges.
4-18
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Fast Select
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables the fast select request facility on this interface.
When you enable this parameter, call request packets the router generates
and transmits on this interface can contain up to 128 bytes of user data.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable the fast select request facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.21
Reverse Charging
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables or disables the reverse charge request facility on this interface.
Packet network charges accrue whenever the router generates an outgoing
call request packet. When you enable this parameter, these packet
network charges are charged to the receiving DTE.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable the reverse charge request facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.22
CUG Selection
Default:
Null
Options:
Null | Basic (16) | Extended (32)
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the type of closed user group (CUG) facility that the interface
supports.
If you accept the default value, Null, no closed user groups are supported;
if you set this parameter to Basic, the Basic facility is supported; if you set
this parameter to Extended, the Extended facility is supported. Ensure that
the value of this parameter matches the value of the network service
record parameter CUG Facility Format.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.23
4-19
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
Null
Options:
Null | CUGOA
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies whether or not this interface supports a closed user group
(CUG) with outgoing access.
To enable CUG with outgoing access, set this parameter to CUGOA. If
you enable this option, set the CUG Selection parameter to Extended. In
addition, set the network service record parameter CUG Facility Type to
OA.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.24
CUG Bilateral Selection
Default:
Null
Options:
Null | Bilateral
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-20
CUG Outgoing Access
Specifies whether or not this interface supports a bilateral closed user
group (CUG).
To enable CUG with bilateral facility support, set this parameter to
Bilateral. If you enable this option, set the CUG Selection parameter to
Extended. In addition, set the network service record parameter CUG
Facility Type to Bilateral.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.25
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
RPOA Selection
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Enables the recognized private operating agencies (RPOA) selection
facility on this interface. When you enable this parameter, the router can
accept incoming calls with this facility; the router accepts both RPOA
Basic format and Extended format.
To enable the RPOA facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.26
Note: When this parameter is set to ON, the router accepts calls with the
RPOA facility, but it does not validate them.
Parameter:
Charging Information
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies whether this packet layer accepts incoming calls with charging
information; however, the packet layer does not collect any charging
information.
To enable the charging information facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.27
Transit Delay
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies whether this packet layer accepts incoming calls with transit
delay. Note that the router does not send outgoing calls with transit delay.
To enable transit delay, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.28
4-21
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
ON
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies whether the router includes a full local DTE address in all
outgoing call requests transmitted on this interface.
To enable full addressing, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.29
Acceptance Format
Default:
Basic (2)
Options:
Basic (2) | Allext (255) | Defext (128)
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the call accept packet format as follows:
–
Basic is Basic call accept packet format.
–
ALLEXT is Extended call accept packet format.
–
DEFEXT specifies that when an incoming call does not include
facilities, a default Basic call accept packet format is used.
Select the appropriate call accept packet format.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.30
Release Format
Default:
Basic (2)
Options:
Basic (2) | Allext (255) | Defext (128)
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-22
Full Addressing
Specifies the format of the call clear packet as follows:
–
Basic is Basic call clear packet format.
–
ALLEXT is Extended call clear packet format.
–
DEFEXT specifies that when an incoming call does not include
facilities, a default Basic call clear packet format is used.
Select the appropriate call clear packet format.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.31
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
CCITT Conformance
Default:
DXE1988
Options:
DXE1980 | DXE1984 | DXE1988 | FDSEL1980 | FDSEL1984 |
FDSEL1988
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the CCITT (now ITU-T) specification to which the router’s
operation conforms.
Select a CCITT conformance year that matches your network
requirements. For example, if you are connecting to a
DXE1980-compliant network, select DXE1980.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.46
Network Standard
Default:
None
Options:
None | ISO | DOD
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the network standard with which your router complies. The
value of this parameter is in addition to the ITU-T (formerly CCITT)
specification with which your network conforms.
Select the appropriate network standard. Choose None if you want to use
only the CCITT Conformance value. Select ISO if you are connecting to a
network that complies with the International Organization for
Standardization. Select DOD if you are connecting to a network that
complies with Department of Defense specifications (DDN networks).
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.47
4-23
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Statistics Computation
Default:
Disable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies whether the router computes statistics and X.25 debug logging
for the packet level and all the virtual circuits associated with this line
instance. If you set this parameter to Disable, the router computes no
statistics, which maximizes data throughput. If you set this parameter to
Enable, the router computes statistics.
Set this parameter to Enable or Disable.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.49
Client Response Timer
Default:
120 seconds
Options:
1 through 999
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies the client application response timeout period in seconds to
allow for extended delays that can occur negotiating with remote clients.
This timer must have a value greater than that for the T3 Timer parameter,
and less than the value for the T2 Timer parameter.
We recommend that you accept the default value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.5.1.57
Editing X.25 Network Service Records
To edit the parameters for an existing X.25 network service record, begin at the
Configuration Manager window (refer to Figure 4-1) and
1.
Select Circuits > Edit Circuits.
The Circuit List window appears.
2.
Select an X.25 interface; then click on Edit.
The Circuit Definition window appears.
3.
Select X25 Protocol > Service.
The X.25 Service Configuration window appears (Figure 4-4). It lists all
currently defined network service records.
4-24
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Figure 4-4.
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Service Configuration Window for a DDN Network
4.
Select the network service record you want to edit.
5.
Edit the network service parameters that you want to change, using the
parameter descriptions that follow as guidelines.
6.
If you are configuring DDN Service Records and you want to change the
default values for service record parameters, click on Default DDN, and
edit service record parameters in the Default DDN Service window
(Figure 4-5).
4-25
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 4-5.
7.
Default DDN Service Window
Click on Apply to implement your changes.
The values that you have selected are the new default DDN service record
parameter values. They apply to all DDN circuits, except those that you
configure individually, following Steps 1 through 5 of this procedure.
8.
4-26
Click on Done.
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
X.25 Network Service Record Parameter Descriptions
This section provides information on how to set all network service record
parameters in the X.25 Service Configuration window (refer to Figure 4-4).
Parameter:
Enable
Default:
Enable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Enables or disables the network service record.
Set this parameter to Disable only if you want to disable this service
record.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.2
Parameter:
Type
Default:
None
Options:
PDN | DDN | PTOP | IPEX | QLLC
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the type of X.25 service that this interface supplies.
•
PDN for Public Data Network service
•
DDN for Defense Data Network service
•
PTOP for Point-to-Point network service
•
IPEX for TCP/IP Tunneling over X.25
•
QLLC for QLLC service
Choose one of these network service types. If you specify IPEX or QLLC
you must configure several IPEX or QLLC specific parameters (refer to
Chapter 5 for IPEX and Chapter 6 for QLLC).
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.9
4-27
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Connection ID
Default:
1
Options:
1 through 255
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Identifies each circuit to its remote destination. You can have multiple
Point-to-Point circuits configured to the same X.121 destination. Each of
them requires a unique Connection ID. Assign the same connection ID to
both the local and remote configurations for each circuit. You use the Type
parameter with PTOP service only.
Assign a unique connection ID for each X.121 connection.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.11
Remote IP Address
Default:
0.0.0.0
Options:
Any valid IP address
Function:
Specifies a destination IP address that is reachable over this X.25
interface. This parameter is not used with Point-to-Point service.
You must specify a remote IP address if you plan to enable IP on this
interface. For DDN services, the router translates the remote IP address
you specify into an X.121 address so that it can route IP traffic over the
network. For PDN services, the router uses the remote IP address you
specify to define an adjacent host for the IP interface.
Instructions:
Enter a 32-bit destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
If you run OSI over DDN, you must also enter this IP address in the
SNPA field of the OSI External Address Adjacency Configuration
window. To enter this value in the SNPA field, you must convert the IP
address into X.121 format. Refer to Configuring OSI Services for more
information.
MIB Object ID:
4-28
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.13
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Remote X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
Specifies a destination X.121 address. You must specify a destination
X.121 address if you are configuring PDN or Point-to-Point services. If
you are configuring DDN services, the router derives this address from
the remote IP address.
Enter a destination X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits) that is
reachable over this X.25 interface.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.12
Parameter:
Enable 1356 Multiplexing
Default:
Disable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
If you set this parameter to Enable, the router can use RFC 1356 Null
Encapsulation to send multiple protocols over a single virtual circuit. If
you set the value to Disable, the router uses RFC 1356 Normal
Encapsulation for IP and OSI, and RFC 1356 SNAP Encapsulation for
any of the other protocols, opening a separate virtual circuit for each
protocol.
Bay Networks advises multiplexing only when you configure multiple
routing protocols on a PDN type of service.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Select Enable if you want to multiplex traffic over a single virtual circuit.
Otherwise, select Disable.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.34
4-29
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Enable Compression
Default:
Disable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Enables data compression.
Set this parameter to Enable if you want the X.25 service to use
compression for this connection. Otherwise, accept the default, Disable.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.33
Broadcast
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Indicates whether you want the X.25 service to send IP broadcast
messages to the remote IP address.
Set this parameter to ON if you want the X.25 service to send broadcast
messages to the IP address. Otherwise, accept the default, OFF.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.14
Max Connections
Default:
2
Options:
1 through 4
Function:
Specifies the maximum number of virtual circuits that the router can
establish with the remote device specified in this record. Increasing the
number of connections to the same destination may improve the rate of
data throughput.
To take advantage of multiple virtual connections and load sharing across
them, set this parameter to a value greater than 1. This parameter has
meaning only for PDN services.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-30
Accept the default, 2, or enter a value within the specified range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.15
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Precedence
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the priority of IP packets that this X.25 interface transmits and
that traverse the X.25 network. This parameter has meaning only for
DDN services.
To enable IP packet prioritization, set Precedence to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.16
Max Idle (Mins)
Default:
2, except QLLC default is 0
Options:
0 through 999
Function:
Specifies the maximum number of minutes that a virtual circuit can
remain idle. Once the Max Idle timer expires, X.25 clears the circuit.
Point-to-Point connections do not use this parameter. QLLC has a default
of 0 for this parameter, which disables the parameter
Use this parameter to minimize CPU and network overhead during
periods of low datagram traffic.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Accept the default value, 2, or enter a timeout value within the specified
range. To disable this parameter, enter a value of 0.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.17
4-31
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
60
Options:
10 through 999
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the interval in seconds between call request packets the router
sends to a specific destination. If a call attempt fails, the router waits the
number of seconds this parameter specifies before sending another call
request packet to the destination. If the router receives any IP datagrams
for this destination, it drops them during this period.
Accept the default, 60, or enter a call retry interval within the specified
range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.18
Flow Facility
Default:
Default
Options:
Negot | Default
Function:
Enables or disables the X.25 flow-control facility on each virtual circuit.
If you enable this parameter, calls the router transmits to the remote
X.121 address in this service record will contain flow control. You must
also enable the flow-control facility at the packet layer.
Instructions:
To enable flow-control facility negotiations, set this parameter to Negot.
MIB Object ID:
4-32
Call Retry
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.19
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Window Size
Default:
2
Options:
1 through 7 (for MOD8) or 1 through 127 (for MOD128)
Function:
Specifies the window size that appears in the facilities field of outgoing
call request packets to the X.121 address in this service record.
Instructions:
Accept the default, 2, or enter a window size within the specified range.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.20
Note: Window size and packet size can affect packet throughput across the
X.25 network. Setting the Window Size or Packet Size parameter too low
could cause the router to drop packets.
Parameter:
Packet Size
Default:
128
Options:
16 | 32 | 64 | 128 | 256 | 512 | 1024 | 2048 | 4096
Function:
Specifies the packet size that appears in the facilities field of outgoing call
request packets to the remote X.121 address in this service record.
Instructions:
Accept the default, 128, or enter a packet size within the specified range.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.21
Note: Do not set this parameter to a value greater than you specify for the
packet-level parameter Max Packet Length.
114059 Rev. B
4-33
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Fast Select Request
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables the fast select request facility on each virtual circuit.
When you enable this parameter, call request packets this router generates
and sends to the remote X.121 address in this service record contain the
fast select request facility.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable the fast select request facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.22
Fast Select Accept
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables the fast select accept facility.
When you enable the fast select accept facility, the router can accept
incoming fast select call requests from the remote X.121 address in this
service record.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable the fast select accept facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.23
Reverse Charge Request
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables or disables the reverse charge request facility.
Packet network charges accrue whenever the router generates an outgoing
call request packet. When you enable Reverse Charge Request, these
packet network charges accrue to the receiving DTE.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
4-34
To enable the reverse charge request facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.24
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
Reverse Charge Accept
Default:
OFF
Options:
ON | OFF
Function:
Enables or disables the reverse charge accept facility.
When you enable this parameter, the router accepts network packet
charges from incoming call request packets.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
To enable the reverse charge accept facility, set this parameter to ON.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.25
DDN BFE
Default:
Disable
Options:
Disable | Enable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Enables or disables DDN Blacker front-end encryption (BFE) support.
To enable DDN BFE support, set this parameter to Enable.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.31
4-35
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
User Facility (hex)
Default:
None
Options:
Any facility that needs to be included in the call request packet
Function:
Allows you to add support for a facility Bay Networks does not transmit.
To generate a call with such a facility, you must enter the appropriate
facility code in this parameter. You must also set the associated parameter
at the packet level to ON. Table 4-2 names the facilities, which are also
the names of the packet-level parameters, and gives the corresponding
facility codes.
Table 4-2.
User Facilities and Codes
Facility/Packet-Level Parameter
Code
Throughput Class Negotiation
02
Network User Identification
C6
RPOA Selection
44
Transit Delay
49
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specify a facility in hexadecimal form.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.29
Note: If you need to set this parameter back to nil after you have configured it,
you must
1. Select User Facility from the appropriate network service record (refer
to “Editing X.25 Network Service Records” earlier in this chapter).
2. Overwrite the erroneous value by typing all spaces where you
previously entered a hexadecimal value.
3. Click on Apply to implement your changes.
4. Click on Done to exit the X.25 Service Configuration window.
4-36
114059 Rev. B
Editing X.25 Parameters
Parameter:
CUG Facility Format
Default:
None
Options:
None | Basic | Extended
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the closed user group (CUG) facility format that the interface
can accept. The value of this parameter should match that of the X.25
packet-level parameter CUG Selection.
If you are not configuring a CUG for this interface, select None. To
configure the Basic format, select Basic. To configure the extended
format, select Extended.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.26
CUG Facility Type
Default:
Normal
Options:
Normal | OA | Bilateral
Function:
Instructions:
Defines the type of CUG facility that the interface will accept. This
parameter works with the X.25 packet-level parameters CUG Outgoing
Access and CUG Bilateral Selection.
Select Normal to enable routing between CUGs.
Select OA to allow communication between CUGs with outgoing access.
If you select OA, make sure that you set the packet-level parameter CUG
Outgoing Access to CUGOA.
Select Bilateral to allow communication between bilateral CUGs. If you
select this option, make sure that you set the packet-level parameter CUG
Bilateral Selection to Bilateral.
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.27
4-37
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
CUG Number
Default:
Range:
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
0
0 through 9999
Identifies each CUG with a number so that information is routed to the
correct CUG.
Enter a number for the closed user group.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.28
Deleting X.25 Network Service Records
To delete a network service record, begin at the X.25 Service Configuration
window (refer to Figure 4-4) and
1.
Select the network service record that you want to delete.
2.
Click on Delete.
The X.25 Service Configuration window no longer lists the network service
record you deleted.
3.
Click on Done to save your changes and exit the window.
Deleting X.25 from the Router
To delete X.25 from the router globally, begin at the Configuration Manager
window (refer to Figure 4-1) and
1.
Select Protocols > X25 > Delete X.25.
A window pops up and prompts:
Do you REALLY want to delete X.25?
2.
Click on OK.
Site Manager returns you to the Configuration Manager window. X.25 is no
longer configured on the router.
4-38
114059 Rev. B
Chapter 5
Editing IPEX Parameters
This chapter describes how to configure
•
IPEX global parameters, which seldom require attention. Check these
parameters to make sure that IPEX is installed.
•
IPEX mapping parameters, which you use to configure tunneling.
For each IPEX parameter, this chapter gives the default setting, valid parameter
options, the parameter function, instructions for setting the parameter, and the
MIB object ID.
The Technician Interface allows you to modify parameters by executing set and
commit commands with the MIB object ID. This process is equivalent to
modifying parameters using Site Manager. For more information about using the
Technician Interface to access the MIB, refer to Using Technician Interface
Software.
Caution: The Technician Interface does not verify the validity of the
parameter values you enter. Entering an invalid value can corrupt your
configuration.
Accessing IPEX Global Parameters
After you have configured a network interface circuit for X.25, you can edit the
configuration record to enable IPEX service on it.
Access the IPEX global parameters from the Protocols menu in the Configuration
Manager window (Figure 5-1).
114059 Rev. B
5-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 5-1.
Configuration Manager Window Showing IPEX Protocols Menu
1.
From the Protocols menu in the Configuration Manager window, select
IPEX > Global.
The Edit IPEX Global Parameters window appears (Figure 5-2).
Figure 5-2.
5-2
Edit IPEX Global Parameters Window
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
2.
In the Edit IPEX Global Parameters window, accept or change the
default values and click on OK to return to the Configuration Manager
main window.
IPEX Global Parameter Descriptions
This section describes the IPEX global parameters you can modify
from the Edit IPEX Global Parameters window.
Parameter:
Enable
Default:
Enable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
Globally enables or disables IPEX.
Select Enable (the default) to activate IPEX on all interfaces.
Select Disable to deactivate IPEX on all interfaces. Selecting this option
when the Configuration Manager is in dynamic mode terminates all active
IPEX sessions.
MIB Object ID:
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.1.2
Note: When you create X.25 interfaces that use IPEX service, the service is
globally enabled automatically.
Parameter:
Max Message Size
Default:
1600
Options:
16 through 4096 bytes
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
The maximum client message size that IPEX transports. The value for this
parameter cannot be larger than that for the Client Queue Size parameter,
and the software prevents you from assigning a value that is too large.
Accept the default, or assign a value equal or less than that for the client
queue size.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.1.4
5-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Configuring IPEX Mapping Entries
To set up the mapping between the X.25 and TCP interfaces
1.
Add an entry to the IPEX Mapping Table.
2.
Configure the IPEX Mapping Parameters.
Adding an IPEX Mapping Table Entry
To add an entry to the IPEX Mapping Table
1.
In the X.25 Service Configuration window (refer to Figure 4-4), click on
Add.
The X.25 Service window appears (Figure 5-3).
Figure 5-3.
X.25 Service Window
2.
5-4
Position your cursor in the Type parameter bar, click on the Values
button, and select IPEX as the service type (Figure 5-4).
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Figure 5-4.
3.
Values Selection Window
Click on OK.
You return to the X.25 Service window, which now lists IPEX as the Type
parameter entry. This is the only parameter you configure in the Service
window.
4.
Click on OK.
The IPEX Mapping Table Configuration window appears (Figure 5-5).
114059 Rev. B
5-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 5-5.
5.
IPEX Mapping Table Configuration Window
Click on Add.
The IPEX Mapping Type window appears (Figure 5-6).
5-6
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Figure 5-6.
IPEX Mapping Type Window
6.
Click on the Values button and select a source connection type from the
menu that appears (Figure 5-7), using the parameter description that
follows as a guide.
Parameter:
Source Connection Type
Default:
None
Options:
SVC | TCP
Function:
Specifies the type of connection at the sending end of the original
message. SVC specifies an X.25 Level 3 connection. TCP is a
Transmission Control Protocol connection.
Source connection type SVC sends to destination connection type TCP.
Source connection type TCP sends to destination connection type SVC.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Select SVC to specify an X.25 connection to a switched virtual circuit.
Select TCP to specify a Transmission Control Protocol connection.
1.3.6.1.4.18.3.5.15.2.1.4
Note: Either the source or the destination connection type (but not both)
must be TCP.
114059 Rev. B
5-7
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 5-7.
7.
Values Selection Window
After you select SVC or TCP, click on OK.
The IPEX Mapping Type window reappears and displays the connection type
you have selected.
8.
Click on OK.
The IPEX Mapping Parameters window appears. If you selected SVC,
Figure 5-8 appears. If you selected TCP, Figure 5-9 appears.
5-8
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Figure 5-8.
IPEX Mapping Parameters Window for SVC
Figure 5-9.
IPEX Mapping Parameters Window for TCP
114059 Rev. B
5-9
Configuring X.25 Services
In the IPEX Mapping Parameters windows, you define a new mapping entry by
specifying source and destination X.121 addresses, a mapping type, local or
remote port numbers, and other parameters, depending on whether the connection
type is SVC or TCP.
IPEX Mapping Parameter Descriptions
This section describes the IPEX mapping parameters that you must configure in
the IPEX Mapping Parameters windows. It also describes additional parameters
that you can modify in the IPEX Mapping Table Configuration window. The order
of the parameter descriptions is
•
Mapping parameters for SVC connections
•
Mapping parameters for TCP connections
•
Additional mapping parameters
To set parameters, enter a value in the parameter field or select a value from the
Values list.
Parameters for SVC Connections
Parameter:
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Specifies the inbound X.121 called address that you map to the TCP
connection. The port monitors the X.25 calls for this X.121 called address
to initiate the connection.
Instructions:
Enter the called X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits). The destination
address depends on the network device to which this circuit is connected.
Consult your network administrator for the correct value.
MIB Object ID:
5-10
X.121 Called Address
1.3.6.1.4.18.3.5.15.2.1.6
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Parameter:
Mapping Type
Default:
End_to_End
Options:
Local | End_to_End
Function:
Specifies whether facilities, call user data, M-bit, and Q-bit support
terminate locally or are passed end-to-end. X.25 parameters that you
configure at the packet and service record level determine which facilities
are supported.
If you set this parameter to Local, IPEX ports can support different packet
sizes at each end. You must also configure the Source X.121 Address
parameter for an SVC source connection type, and both Source and
Destination X.121 Address parameters for a TCP source connection type.
If you configure End-to-End mapping, all IPEX ports must have the same
packet and window size, because if you allow different packet sizes, the
M-bit support does not function correctly.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Select Local or End_to_End.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.16
Remote IP Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid IP address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the remote IP address used to establish a TCP connection to the
destination. You configure this parameter only when the source
connection type is SVC.
Enter the IP address of the remote connection. Use dotted decimal
notation (for example, 1.1.1.1). Consult your network administrator for
the correct value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.12
5-11
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Remote TCP Port Number
Default:
None
Options:
The TCP port number at the remote connection, a value between 12304
and 16399.
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies the remote TCP port number used to establish a TCP connection
to the destination. The remote TCP port originates connections to the
local TCP port. You configure this parameter only when the source
connection type is SVC.
Enter the TCP port number for the remote connection.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.13
Parameters for TCP Connections
Parameter:
Default:
None
Options:
The local TCP port number, a value between 12304 and 16399.
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
5-12
Local TCP Port
Specifies the TCP port in the local IPEX connection. This port accepts
inbound TCP connections from the remote TCP port. You configure this
parameter when the Source Connection Type is TCP.
Enter the TCP port number.
1.3.6.1.4.18.3.5.15.2.1.5
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Parameter:
Destination Connection Type
Default:
SVC if the source connection type is TCP | TCP if the source connection
type is SVC
Options:
SVC | TCP
Function:
Instructions:
Destination connection type TCP receives data from source connection
type SVC. Destination connection type SVC receives data from source
connection type TCP. SVC specifies an X.25 Level 3 connection. TCP is a
Transmission Control Protocol connection. Site Manager configures this
parameter automatically after you configure the Source Connection Type
parameter.
You cannot change the value of this parameter. If you want to make a
change, delete the entry and create a new one.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.8
Note: Either the source or the destination connection type (but not both)
must be TCP.
Parameter:
Mapping Type
Default:
End_to_End
Options:
Local | End_to_End
Function:
Specifies whether facilities, call user data, M-bit, and Q-bit support
terminate locally or are passed end-to-end. X.25 parameters that you
configure at the packet and service record level determine which facilities
are supported.
If you set this parameter to Local, IPEX ports can support different packet
sizes at each end. You must also configure the Source X.121 Address
parameter for an SVC source connection type, and both Source and
Destination X.121 Address parameters for a TCP source connection type.
If you configure End-to-End mapping, all IPEX ports must have the same
packet and window size, because if you allow different packet sizes, the
M-bit support does not function correctly.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Select Local or End_to_End.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.16
5-13
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the calling X.121 address that will be inserted in the outbound
X.25 call packet. You configure this parameter only with source
connections of type TCP, and only when you set the Mapping Type
parameter to Local.
Enter the calling X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits). The source
address is based on where the call originated. Consult your network
administrator for the correct value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.9
Destination X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the called X.121 address that will be inserted in the outbound
X.25 call packet. You configure this parameter only with source
connections of type TCP, and only when you set the Mapping Type
parameter to Local.
Enter the called X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits). The destination
address depends on the network device to which this circuit is connected.
Consult your network administrator for the correct value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.10
X.25 Call User Data
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid call user data up to 128 bytes
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
5-14
Source X.121 Address
Specifies the X.25 call user data field content inserted in the X.25 Call
Request packet. You configure this parameter only when the source
connection type is TCP and the mapping type is Local.
Enter the appropriate data in ASCII format.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.10
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Additional Mapping Parameters
You can access the following parameters in the IPEX Mapping Table
Configuration window.
Parameter:
Enable
Default:
Enable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
Enables or disables a particular IPEX mapping entry on this interface.
Select Enable (the default) to activate this IPEX mapping entry.
Select Disable only if you want to deactivate this mapping entry. When
you select Disable, you eliminate all active IPEX sessions established
with this mapping entry.
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.2
5-15
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
TCP Circuit if the source connection type is SVC | The serial port
configured for IPEX if the source connection type is TCP
Options:
TCP Circuit | The serial port configured for IPEX
Function:
Specifies the circuit that sends the tunneled message to the destination.
Site Manager configures this parameter automatically after you configure
the Source Connection Type parameter. If the source connection type is
SVC, the Destination Circuit Name is TCP Circuit, and IP routing
determines the appropriate circuit on the router. If the source connection
type is TCP, the Destination Circuit Name is the serial port configured for
IPEX.
Instructions:
You cannot change the value of this parameter. If you want to make a
change, delete the entry and create a new one.
Parameter:
Client Queue Size
Default:
The larger of TCP Max Window Size or IPEX Max Message Size, usually
4096
Options:
16 through 8192 bytes
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
5-16
Destination Circuit Name
Specifies the size (in bytes) of the IPEX queues used for buffering data
between TCP and X.25. The value of this parameter must be at least as
large as that of the Maximum Message Size parameter, and the software
prevents you from assigning a lower value.
Accept the default, or select a client queue size at least as large as the
maximum message size.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.14
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Parameter:
Idle Session Timer
Default:
120
Options:
0 through 86,400 seconds
Function:
Specifies the timeout period, in seconds, that an established TCP
connection can be inactive before the router sends messages to the peer to
verify that the peer is alive.
If you set this parameter to zero, you disable the keepalive feature.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Accept the default, or adjust the timer if your network requires a shorter
or longer idle time
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.18
Keep Alive Retransmit Timer
Default:
3 seconds
Options:
0 through 600
Function:
Specifies the interval, in seconds, at which the router will retransmit
unacknowledged keepalive messages. If you set the Idle Session Timer
to 0, this timer’s value has no impact. If you set the Idle Session Timer to
a value other than 0, and this timer is 0, the router does not send keepalive
messages, and the TCP session terminates when the idle session timer
expires.
The time you set should be larger than the round-trip network delay, or
retransmits will occur unnecessarily.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Accept the default or adjust to be longer than the round-trip network
delay.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.19
5-17
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Keep Alive Retransmit Count
Default:
5
Options:
0 through 99
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies the number of unacknowledged keepalive messages that the
router retransmits before the TCP session terminates. If you set this
parameter to 0, the router will send only one keepalive message.
Accept the default or adjust to meet requirements for the total time the
router needs to detect that the peer connection has terminated. The total
time is the sum of the Idle Session Timer and the Keep Alive Retransmit
Timer times the Keep Alive Retransmit Count.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.15.2.1.20
Editing IPEX Mapping Table Entries
To change an IPEX mapping table entry:
1.
In the Configuration Manager window, select Protocols > IPEX > IPEX
Mapping Table.
The IPEX Mapping Table Configuration window appears
(refer to Figure 5-5).
2.
In the IPEX Mapping Table Configuration window, select the circuit for
which you want to edit parameter values.
3.
Edit the parameter values. Refer to “IPEX Mapping Parameter
Descriptions,” earlier in this chapter.
4.
Click on Apply to save the new configuration.
5.
Click on Done.
You return to the Configuration Manager window.
Editing LAPB Parameters
For a synchronous circuit, LAPB functions are implemented in hardware and
firmware. To edit the LAPB parameters of a synchronous circuit, refer to the
procedures for editing line parameters in Configuring Line Services.
5-18
114059 Rev. B
Editing IPEX Parameters
Deleting IPEX Mapping Table Entries
To delete an entry from the IPEX Mapping Table:
1.
In the Configuration Manager window, select Protocols > IPEX > IPEX
Mapping Table.
The IPEX Mapping Table Configuration window appears
(refer to Figure 5-5).
2.
Select the entry that you want to delete.
3.
Click on Delete.
The system software deletes the entry you selected, and the entry disappears from
the list of IPEX Mapping Table entries in the IPEX Mapping Table Configuration
window.
Deleting IPEX from the Router
T o delete IPEX globally, begin at the Configuration Manager window, and
1.
Select IPEX > Global > Delete IPEX.
A window prompts:
Do you REALLY want to delete IPEX?
2.
Click on OK.
Site Manager returns you to the Configuration Manager window. IPEX is no
longer configured on the router.
114059 Rev. B
5-19
Chapter 6
Editing QLLC Parameters
This chapter describes how to configure QLLC parameters.
For each QLLC parameter, this chapter gives the default setting, valid parameter
options, the parameter function, instructions for setting the parameter, and the
MIB object ID.
The Technician Interface allows you to modify parameters by executing set and
commit commands with the MIB object ID. This process is equivalent to
modifying parameters using Site Manager. For more information about using the
Technician Interface to access the MIB, refer to Using Technician Interface
Software.
Caution: The Technician Interface does not verify the validity of the
parameter values you enter. Entering an invalid value can corrupt your
configuration.
Configuring QLLC
When you configure a network interface circuit for X.25, you can enable QLLC.
You must
1.
Add an X.25 Service Record and select QLLC as the service type.
2.
Add an entry to the QLLC Mapping Table.
3.
Configure the QLLC Mapping Parameters.
4.
Configure DLSw over X.25 circuits.
Refer to Configuring DLSw Services.
114059 Rev. B
6-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Adding a QLLC Mapping Table Entry
1.
In the X.25 Service Configuration window (refer to Figure 3-4), click on
Add.
The X.25 Service window appears (Figure 6-1).
Figure 6-1.
X.25 Service Window
2.
6-2
Position your cursor in the Type parameter bar, click on the Values
button, and select QLLC as the service type (Figure 6-2).
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Figure 6-2.
3.
Values Selection Window
Click on OK.
You return to the X.25 Service window, which now lists QLLC as the Type
parameter entry.
4.
Enter a value for the Remote X.121 Address.
Refer to the parameter description below.
5.
Click on OK.
The QLLC Mapping Table Configuration window appears (Figure 6-3).
Parameter:
Remote X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies a destination X.121 address. You must specify a destination
X.121 address if you are configuring PDN or Point-to-Point services. If
you are configuring DDN services, the router derives this address from
the remote IP address.
Enter a destination X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits) that is
reachable over this X.25 interface.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.2.1.12
6-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure 6-3.
6.
QLLC Mapping Table Configuration Window
Click on Add.
The QLLC Mapping Parameters window appears (Figure 6-4).
6-4
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Figure 6-4.
QLLC Mapping Parameters Window
In the QLLC Mapping Parameters window, you define a new mapping entry by
specifying a Map Entry Name, Adjacent and Partner X.121 addresses, and
Adjacent and Partner MAC addresses. All other QLLC parameters have default
values.
114059 Rev. B
6-5
Configuring X.25 Services
QLLC Mapping Parameter Descriptions
This section describes the QLLC mapping parameters that you can configure in
the QLLC Mapping Parameters window. It also describes additional parameters
that you can modify in the QLLC Mapping Table Configuration window.
Note: Each mapping entry must have a unique combination of Adjacent X.121
Address, Partner X.121 Address, and Protocol ID.
To set parameters, enter a value in the parameter field or select a value from the
Values list.
QLLC Mapping Parameters
You can access the following parameters in the QLLC Mapping Parameters
window.
Parameter:
Default:
None
Options:
Any text string
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
6-6
Map Entry Name
Provides a name for the QLLC mapping entry.
Enter a text string that describes this mapping entry.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.18
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Parameter:
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121 Address
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the X.121 device that connects to the interface running the
QLLC/X.25 software, either directly or indirectly. QLLC software maps
the adjacent X.121 address to the adjacent MAC address.
Accept the value that the software automatically carries forward from the
X.25 service record, or enter the appropriate X.121 address (up to
15 decimal digits). Consult your network administrator for the correct
value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.7
Protocol ID (PID) (hex)
Default:
0xC3
Options:
A hexadecimal value from 0x01 through 0xFE
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the protocol ID used in the first byte of the Call User Data of the
X.25 Call Request packet.
Accept the default, or select another value within the range given. The
PID must be set to the value of the adjacent X.25/QLLC device.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.8
Adjacent MAC Address
Default:
None
Options:
The MAC address assigned to this QLLC device. It must be unique within
your DLSw network.
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
Specifies the MAC address assigned to the device that connects to the
interface running the QLLC/X.25 software. QLLC software maps the
adjacent MAC Address to the adjacent X.121 address.
Enter the adjacent MAC address. Consult your network administrator for
the correct value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.11
6-7
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
None
Options:
Any valid X.121 address
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Specifies the X.121 address of the device that connects through the DLSw
network. QLLC software maps the partner X.121 address to the partner
MAC address.
Enter the partner X.121 address (up to 15 decimal digits). Consult your
network administrator for the correct value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.6
Partner MAC Address
Default:
None
Options:
The MAC address assigned to this SNA device. It must be unique within
your network.
Function:
Specifies the MAC address assigned to the device that connects through
the DLSw network. The QLLC software maps the partner MAC address
to the partner X.121 address.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Enter the MAC address. Consult your network administrator for the
correct value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.9
PU Type
Default:
2.0
Options:
2.0 | 2.1
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
6-8
Partner DTE/DCE X.121 Address
Identifies the type of the adjacent SNA node. This parameter, with the
IDBLOCK and IDNUM parameters, determines the XID value.
Accept the default, or enter 2.1.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.15
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Parameter:
Generate XID
Default:
Disable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Allows a non-NPSI host to establish a session with a QLLC endstation.
Set to Enable when a PU 2.0 QLLC device connects through DLSw to a
non-X.25 host.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.16
IDBLOCK
Default:
None
Options:
017 | 061 | any other three-digit hexadecimal value
Function:
Specifies the block number that identifies incoming connection requests.
This parameter, with the PU Type and IDNUM parameters, determines
the XID value. The value in the IDBLOCK parameter must match the
host IDBLOCK value.
Instructions:
Obtain the configured value at the host (from VTAM or other host
operating system) for this device. In most cases, type 017 for a 3174 T2.0
node, or type 061 for a T2.0 node in fixed format. The following table lists
the IDBLOCK values.
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
NA
6-9
Configuring X.25 Services
6-10
Device
IDBLOCK Num
NPSI
003
3770
004
3650/3680
005
6100/3790
006
NTO, 3767
007
S/34
00E
3774
011
3x74
017
3276
018
8775
019
S/1
021
S/38
022
5520
031
5280
032
PC/SRJE
03D
S/36
03E
4680
04D
APPC/PC
050
AS/400
056
6150
05C
OS/2 EE
05D
WSP
05E
PC/3270
061
RS/6000
071
Subarea
FFF
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Parameter:
IDNUM
Default:
None
Options:
Any five-digit hexadecimal value from 00000 to FFFFF
Function:
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Specifies the ID number that identifies incoming connection requests.
This parameter, with the PU Type and IDBLOCK parameters, determines
the XID value. This value must match the host IDNUM parameter value.
Obtain the configured value at the host (from VTAM or other host
operating system) for this device. Type a five-digit hexadecimal value
from 00000 to FFFFF.
NA
Additional Mapping Parameters
You can access the following parameters in the QLLC Mapping Table
Configuration window.
Parameter:
Enable
Default:
Enable
Options:
Enable | Disable
Function:
Instructions:
Enables or disables a particular QLLC mapping entry on this interface.
Accept the default, Enable, to activate this QLLC mapping entry.
Select Disable only if you want to deactivate this mapping entry. When
you select Disable, you eliminate all active QLLC sessions established
with this mapping entry.
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.2
6-11
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Adjacent SAP Address
Default:
0x04
Options:
A hexadecimal value from 0x01 through FE.
Function:
Specifies the SAP address associated with a communication subsystem on
an adjacent device.
If you have two data streams running between the same two endpoints,
you must assign different SAP numbers to each of these streams.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
Parameter:
Accept the default, or specify the SAP address associated with a specific
communication subsystem. For example, the SAP associated with SNA is
0x04. You must include the 0x prefix.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.12
Partner SAP Address
Default:
0x04
Options:
A hexadecimal value from 0x01 through 0xFE
Function:
Specifies the SAP address associated with a communication subsystem on
a partner device,
If you have two data streams running between the same two endpoints,
you must assign different SAP numbers to each of these streams.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
6-12
Accept the default, or specify the SAP address associated with a specific
communication subsystem. For example, the SAP associated with SNA is
0x04. You must include the 0x prefix.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.10
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Parameter:
Options
Default:
Wait
Options:
Wait | Don’t Wait
Function:
Instructions:
Specifies when to forward an XID to the adjacent device.
Accept the default, Wait, if you are connecting to a device running PU 2.0
traffic.
Choose Don’t Wait if you are connecting to a host running PU 2.1 traffic.
MIB Object ID:
114059 Rev. B
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.13
6-13
Configuring X.25 Services
Parameter:
Default:
Trace
Disable (0x0)
Hexadecimal
Value
Function:
Decimal Value
Message/Event
0x0001
1
Enable QLLC logging
0x0002
2
Data frames/packets
0x0004
4
Flow control messages
0x0008
8
Client registration messages
0x0010
16
X.25 session establishment messages
0x0020
32
Test frames/packets
0x0040
64
XID frames/packets
0x0080
128
Set Mode frames/packets
0x0100
256
Disconnect frames/packets
0x0200
512
Configuration changes
0x0400
1024
Death of client (DLSw)
0x0800
2048
Data Path (DP) messages
This object is a bitmask used to enable logging of internal QLLC
messages and events. You can add values and enter the sum to enable
multiple message groups.
Enabling this parameter has a small impact on router performance. You
may want to disable this parameter after you are sure that the
configuration works.
Instructions:
MIB Object ID:
6-14
Accept the default, Disable, or enable the type of debugging that you want
on your network.
1.3.6.1.4.1.18.3.5.9.4.8.1.14
114059 Rev. B
Editing QLLC Parameters
Editing or Deleting QLLC Mapping Table Entries
To change a QLLC mapping table entry:
1.
In the Configuration Manager window, select Circuits > Edit Circuits.
The Circuit List window appears. Select the circuit you want to edit.
2.
Click on Edit.
The Circuit Definition window appears.
3.
Select X.25 Protocol > Service.
The X.25 Service Configuration window appears.
4.
Select QLLC.
The QLLC Mapping Table Configuration window appears.
5.
Select a mapping table entry and change the appropriate parameters.
If you want to delete a mapping table entry, select it and click on Delete.
6.
Click on Apply to save the new configuration.
7.
Click on Done.
You return to the Configuration Manager window.
114059 Rev. B
6-15
Appendix A
Sample IPEX Configuration
IPEX Mapping Example
This sample configuration for IPEX mapping parameters (Figure A-1) illustrates
two X.25 terminals that use X.25 TCP/IP Tunneling.
X.25 level 3
connections
TCP
connections
TCP
port 15000
TCP
port 15000
X.25 level 3
connections
TCP/IP
X.25 DTE
X.121 address is 987
"local"
IPEX
(router)
IP address
192.168.134.222
"remote"
IPEX
X.25 DCE
(router)
X.121 address is 123
IP address
192.168.134.111
X250014A
Figure A-1.
Sample Configuration for Mapping Parameters
In this example, the calling X.25 terminal on the left (987) sends the called
address (123) to the first IPEX router, establishing an SVC source connection with
a TCP destination connection. The call is tunneled through the TCP/IP network to
the second IPEX router, which establishes a source TCP connection with an SVC
destination connection to the X.25 terminal on the right.
Figures A-2 through A-5 show the parameter settings for full duplex calls for this
configuration. Figures A-2 and A-5 show the settings for 987 calling 123, and
Figures A-4 and A-3 show the settings for 123 calling 987.
114059 Rev. B
A-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Figure A-2.
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Local SVC Connection Type
Figure A-3.
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Local TCP Connection Type
A-2
114059 Rev. B
Sample IPEX Configuration
Figure A-4.
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Remote SVC Connection Type
Figure A-5.
IPEX Mapping Parameters for Remote TCP Connection Type
114059 Rev. B
A-3
Appendix B
QLLC Configuration Examples
The sections that follow illustrate typical QLLC network topologies.
Sample Network Topologies
QLLC conversion supports the following network topologies:
•
Upstream QLLC
•
Downstream QLLC
•
Endpoint QLLC
•
Backbone QLLC
The following sections show examples of each.
114059 Rev. B
B-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Upstream QLLC Network
Figure B-1 shows support for upstream X.25 networks. The DLSw network
connects to an upstream QLLC host through an X.25 network, and to SDLC- and
LLC-attached SNA endstations. The endstations can be a PU2.0 devices, such as
the AS 400, IBM 3174, PS/2, and IBM 5394. A QLLC host might be an AS 400 or
an IBM mainframe running NPSI software.
B-2
114059 Rev. B
QLLC Configuration Examples
SNA mainframe
X.121 address = 12345678
MAC address = 400000441000
PC
X.121 address = 45678912
MAC address = 400000456000
X.25
Token Ring
DLSw
Router B
Router A
3174
control unit
Station address = C1
SDLC X.21 address = 70012345
MAC address = 40000000EACO
X.121 address = 400444
MAC address = 400000FE4000
AS 400
Router B SDLC local device table
Address = C1
MAC address = 4000000EAC0
Router A mapping table
SNA mainframe
parameters map to
PC parameters
AS 400 parameters
3174 control unit
parameters
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121
address =12345678
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 45678912
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 400444
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 70012345
Adjacent MAC
address = 400000441000
Partner MAC
address = 400000456000
Partner MAC
address = 400000FE4000
Partner MAC
address = 40000000EACO
X250017A
Figure B-1.
114059 Rev. B
Upstream QLLC Network
B-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Downstream QLLC Network
Figure B-2 shows support for downstream QLLC devices. The DLSw network
connects to upstream SDLC- or LLC-attached SNA hosts, and downstream
QLLC-compatible attached SNA endstations. The endstation can be a PU2.0
device, such as an AS 400, IBM 3174, PS/2, or IBM 5394. The SNA host might be
an AS 400 or an IBM mainframe.
Setting the Generate XID Parameter
Set the Generate XID parameter to Enable when you configure a secondary
X.25 device to communicate with a non-X.25/QLLC primary device. This means
that for the FEP, the AS 400, and the IBM 3745 in Figure B-2, set this parameter
to Enable.
B-4
114059 Rev. B
QLLC Configuration Examples
SNA mainframe
3174
control unit
X.121 address = 12345678
MAC address = 400000456000
X.121 address = 67891234
MAC address = 400000567000
Token Ring
X.25
AS 400
DLSw
SDLC
Router B
Router A
IBM 3745 FEP
Router B SDLC local device table
Station address = C1
X.21 address = 70012345
MAC address =
40000000EACO
X.121 address = 84561234
MAC address = 400000FE4000
Address = C1
MAC Address = 4000000EAC0
Router A mapping table
3174 control unit
parameters map to
SNA mainframe
parameters
AS 400 parameters
IBM 3745
parameters
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121
address =12345678
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 67891234
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 70012345
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 84561234
Adjacent MAC
address = 400000456000
Partner MAC
address = 4000005670000
Partner MAC
address = 40000000EACO
Partner MAC
address = 4000000FE4000
X250018A
Figure B-2.
114059 Rev. B
Downstream QLLC Network
B-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Endpoint QLLC Network
Figure B-3 shows support for a network that connects an upstream X.25-attached
SNA endstation, and a downstream X.25-attached SNA endstation. The
endstations can be an AS 400 and a PC supporting a hierarchical protocol such as
SNA or a peer-to-peer protocol such as APPN.
Setting the Options Parameter
Set the Options parameter to Don’t Wait when both endstations are X.25/QLLC
devices.
B-6
114059 Rev. B
QLLC Configuration Examples
AS 400
PC
X.121 address = 12345678
MAC address = 400000441000
X.25
X.121 address = 45678912
MAC address = 400000567000
X.25
DLSw
Router B
Router A
Router A mapping table
AS 400 parameters map to
PC
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121
address = 12345678
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 45678912
Adjacent MAC
address = 400000441000
Partner MAC
address = 400000567000
Router B mapping table
PC parameters map to
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121
address = 45678912
Adjacent MAC
address = 400000567000
AS 400
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 12345678
Partner MAC
address = 400000441000
X250020A
Figure B-3.
114059 Rev. B
Endpoint QLLC Network
B-7
Configuring X.25 Services
Backbone QLLC Network
Figure B-4 shows support for an X.25 backbone. This X.25 network connects to
an upstream SNA mainframe, and a downstream PC through an X.25 backbone
network. Refer to Chapter 1 for definitions of Adjacent and Partner devices.
SNA mainframe
X.121 address = 12345678
MAC address = 400000441000
PC
X.121 address = 45678912
MAC address = 400000567000
Token Ring
Token Ring
X.25
Router B
Router A
Router A mapping table
SNA mainframe parameters
map to
PC
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121
address = 45678912
Adjacent MAC
address = 400000567000
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 22345678
Partner MAC
address = 400000441000
Router B mapping table
PC parameters map to
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121
address =12345678
Adjacent MAC
address = 400000441000
SNA mainframe
Partner DTE/DCE X.121
address = 45678912
Partner MAC
address = 400000567000
X250021A
Figure B-4.
B-8
X.25 Backbone QLLC Network
114059 Rev. B
Appendix C
X.25 Default Parameter Settings
Tables B-1 through B-6 list X.25, IPEX, and QLLC parameters and their default
values.
.
Table C-1.
X.25 Global Parameter
Parameter
Default
Enable
Enable
Table C-2.
X.25 Packet-level Parameters
Parameter
Default
Enable
Enable
Link Address Type
DCE
Network Address Type
PDN_Network
PDN X.121 Address
None
DDN IP Address
None
Sequence Size
MOD8
Restart Procedure Type
DTE_Restart (for DTE)
DCE_Restart (for DCE)
(continued)
114059 Rev. B
C-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Table C-2.
X.25 Packet-level Parameters (continued)
Parameter
Default
Default Tx/Rx Window Size
2
Default Tx/Rx Pkt Length
128
Number of Incoming SVC
Channels
0
Incoming SVC LCN Start
0
Number of Bidirectional SVC
Channels
0
Bidirectional SVC LCN Start
0
Number of Outgoing SVC
Channels
0
Outgoing SVC LCN Start
0
Use Default Service Configuration
OFF
T1 Timer
60 s
T2 Timer
180 s
T3 Timer
200 ms
T4 Timer
200 ms
Flow Control Negotiation
Off
Max Window Size
2
Max Packet Length
128
Tx/Rx Throughput Class
THRCLASS19200
Throughput Class Negotiation
Off
Max Throughput Class
19200
(continued)
C-2
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Default Parameter Settings
Table C-2.
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Packet-level Parameters (continued)
Parameter
Default
Network User Identification
Off
Incoming Calls Accept
On
Outgoing Calls Accept
On
Fast Select Accept
Off
Reverse Charge Accept
Off
Fast Select
Off
Reverse Charging
Off
CUG Selection
Null
CUG Outgoing Access
Null
CUG Bilateral Selection
Null
RPOA Selection
Off
Charging Information
Off
Transit Delay
Off
Full Addressing
On
Acceptance Format
Basic (2)
Release Format
Basic (2)
CCITT Conformance
DXE1988
Network Standard
None
Statistics Computation
Disable
Client Response Timer
120
C-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Table C-3.
C-4
X.25 Network Service Record Parameters
Parameter
Default
Enable
Enable
Type
None
Connection ID
1
Remote IP Address
0.0.0.0
Remote X.121 Address
None
Enable 1356 Multiplexing
Disable
Enable Compression
Disable
Broadcast
Off
Max Connections
2
Precedence
Off
Max Idle (Mins)
2
Call Retry
60
Flow Facility
Default
Window Size
2
Packet Size
128
Fast Select Request
Off
Fast Select Accept
Off
Reverse Charge Request
Off
Reverse Charge Accept
Off
DDN BFE
Disable
User Facility (hex)
None
CUG Facility Format
None
CUG Facility Type
Normal
CUG Number
0
114059 Rev. B
X.25 Default Parameter Settings
Table C-4.
IPEX Global Parameters
Parameter
Default
Enable
Enable
Max Message Size
1600
Table C-5.
IPEX Mapping Parameters
Parameters for SVC Connections
Default
X.121 Called Address
None
Mapping Type
End_to_End
Remote IP Address
None
Remote TCP Port Number
None
Parameters for TCP Connections
Default
Local TCP Port
None
Destination Connection Type
SVC if the source connection type is TCP | TCP if the source
connection type is SVC
Mapping Type
End_to_End
Source X.121 Address
None
Destination X.121 Address
None
X.25 Call User Data
None
Additional Mapping Parameters
Default
Enable
Enable
Source Connection Type
None
Destination Circuit Name
TCP Circuit if the source connection type is SVC | The serial
port configured for IPEX if the source connection type is TCP
Client Queue Size
Set to the larger of TCP Max Window Size or IPEX Max
Message Size, usually 4096
Idle Session Timer
120 seconds
Keep Alive Retransmit Timer
3 seconds
Keep Alive Retransmit Count
5
114059 Rev. B
C-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Table C-6.
QLLC Parameters
QLLC Mapping Parameters
Default
Map Entry Name
None
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121 Address
None
Protocol ID (PID)
0xC3
Adjacent MAC Address
None
Partner DTE/DCE X.121 Address
None
Partner MAC Address
None
PU Type
2.0
Generate XID
Disable
ID Block
None
ID Num
None
Additional Parameters
Default
Enable
Enable
Adjacent SAP Address
0x04
Partner SAP Address
0x04
Options
Wait
Trace
Disable (0x0)
C-6
114059 Rev. B
Appendix D
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
If IPEX receives a Disconnect Request from TCP or a Disconnect Indication from
Packet Layer Protocol (PLP), IPEX forwards the packet with cause and diagnostic
code transparently.
If IPEX detects an error, a Clear Request packet with IPEX specific cause and
diagnostic code is generated and sent to PLP. The lists of IPEX cause and
diagnostic codes follows:
IPEX Originated Cause Code in Disconnect Request Packet
IPEX_X25_CAUSE_OPERATIONAL
0x09
IPEX Originated Diagnostic Codes in Clear Request Packet
Error Condition
IPEX Cause/Diagnostic Code
TCP gate failed.
(0x09, 0x60)
IPEX session failed.
(0x09, 0x61)
IPEX mapping is disabled.
(0x09, 0x62)
IPEX cct is not up.
(0x09, 0x63)
IPEX Originated Diagnostic Codes Due to TCP Error
When IPEX detects a TCP error, it maps the TCP error status code into X.25
diagnostic code by adding 0x20 to TCP error status code.
114059 Rev. B
D-1
Configuring X.25 Services
The Mapping Table follows:
D-2
Error Condition
TCP Error
IPEX Cause/Diagnostic
Code
Disconnect is per user request.
0x64
(0x09, 0x84)
Disconnect reason is unknown to TCP.
0x65
(0x09, 0x85)
Network management deleted/disabled all of
TCP connection.
0x66
(0x09, 0x86)
The remote TCP disconnected.
Ox67
(0x09, 0x87)
TCP Paniced somewhere
Ox68
(0x09, 0x88)
IP registration failed.
Ox69
(0x09, 0x89)
Buffer could not be allocated.
Ox6a
(0x09, 0x8a)
GAME RPC call timeout with no response.
Ox6b
(0x09, 0x8b)
Another connection exists with the same socket Ox6c
definitions.
(0x09, 0x8c)
An unexpected disconnect of the timer gate for Ox6d
this connection occurred.
(0x09, 0x8d)
TCP quit because a maximum number of
Ox6e
retries was reached on a (re)transmit without
acknowledgment from the remote TCP system.
(0x09, 0x8e)
An unexpected disconnect of the client transmit
gate for this connection occurred.
Ox6f
(0x09, 0x8f)
An unexpected disconnect of the client receive Ox70
gate for this connection occurred.
(0x09, 0x90)
The IP reassembly gate for the given interface
disconnected.
Ox71
(0x09, 0x91)
TCP protocol error occurred.
Ox72
(0x09, 0x92)
Connection was Idle for too long.
Ox73
(0x09, 0x93)
Client was idle for too long.
Ox74
(0x09, 0x94)
Out of Sequence SYN received.
Ox75
(0x09, 0x95)
TCP function called from wrong gate.
Ox76
(0x09, 0x96)
Normal close.
Ox77
(0x09, 0x97
Client (Interface) Error.
Ox78
(0x09, 0x98)
No response to keep Alive.
Ox79
(0x09, 0x99)
114059 Rev. B
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated
with Clear Request Packets
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Self-clearing of virtual circuits
out of order.
P4_frozen state, T2 expired.
0x09
P4_wakeup.
Maintenance action.
Deregistration of PLP service
user.
DTE originated
Maintenance action.
0x00
0x7a
Local procedure error
Call setup or call clearing
problem.
Local_calling state receives
call request (DCE).
0x7a
0x13
0x40
Logical_channel_ready state
receives CCALL,CCLR.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p1 (DTE).
0x13
0x14
Logical_channel_ready state
receives CCALL,CCLR.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p2 (DCE).
0x13
0x15
P2_remote_calling state
receives CALL, CCALL,
CCLR, Invalid packet.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p3 (DTE).
0x13
0x16
P2_local_calling state
receives CCLR, Invalid
packet.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p3 (DCE).
0x13
0x16
Local_calling state receives
CCLR, Invalid packet.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p2 (DCE).
0x13
0x15
P4 state receives
CALL,CCALL,CCLR.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p4.
0x13
0x17
114059 Rev. B
D-3
Configuring X.25 Services
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
P2_collision state receives
CALL,CCLR, invalid.
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p5.
0x13
0x18
P2_remote_clearing state
receives CALL, CCALL,
CCLR, invalid
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p6 (DCE).
0x13
0x19
P2_remote_clearing state
receives CALL, CCLR,
CCALL invalid
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state p7 (DTE).
0x13
0x20
P2_local_calling state watch
Local procedure error
T2 expired.
0x13
Call connected
dog timer expired
0x31
P2_local_clearing state
Local procedure error
T1 expired.
0x13
Clear confirm watch
dog timer 1st expired
0x32
P2_SVC_setup state
Local procedure error
T1 expired.
0x13
Reset confirm watch
dog timer 2nd expired
0x33
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Local procedure error
Unidentifiable packet.
0x13
0x21 (33)
Local procedure error
Too short packet.
0x13
0x26 (38)
Local procedure error
Too long packet
0x13
0x27 (39)
Local procedure error
Non-zero LCN.
0x13
0x29 (41)
Local procedure error
Not applicable packet in
state px.
0x13
0x13 + px
D-4
114059 Rev. B
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Error in PLP2
Local procedure error
Improper cause code
from DTE.
0x13
0x51 (82)
Error in PLP2
Local procedure error
0x13
Not acceptable
intermediate packet
length.
OX40 (64)
Error in PLP2
Local procedure error
Packet not conformant
with requested facility
0x13
0x2a
Error in PLP2
Local procedure error
Non-zero address length
field
0x13
0x4a
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Unknown called address
Null
0x0d
0x00
Local procedure error
Invalid called DTE
address
0x13
0x43
Error in PLP2
Local procedure error
Invalid calling DTE
address
0x13
0x44
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Error in PLP2
Invalid facility request
Unknown facility code.
0x03
0x41
Local procedure error
Duplicated facility code.
0x13
0x49
Invalid facility request.
Facility parameter not
allowed.
0x03
0x42
Error in PLP2
114059 Rev. B
Local procedure error
Exceeding facility length.
0x13
0x45
D-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Error in PLP2
Access barred.
Not both way or one way
incoming LC
0x0b
0x46
Error in PLP2
Error in p1_local_restart.
Access barred.
Null
0x0b
0x00
Invalid facility
Not available facility
service.
0x03
0x4d
Negotiation Error in call
request packet in p1 state.
Local procedure error
Facility parameter not
allowed.
0x13
0x42
p2_remote_calling state timer Out of order
expired.
0x09
Call setup or clearing
problem
0x40
p2_local_calling state zt4
expired.
Local procedure error
Call setup or clearing
problem.
0x13
0x40
D-6
114059 Rev. B
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated
with Restart Packet
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Invalid event in state r1.
Local procedure error.
Packet type invalid for r1.
0x01
0x11 (17)
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state r2 (DCE)
Invalid event in state r2.
0x01
0x12 (18)
Invalid event in state r3.
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state r3 (DTE)
0x01
0x13 (19)
Local Restart state,
watchdog timer expiration.
Local procedure error.
Confirmation watchdog
timer first expiration.
0x01
0x34 (52)
Error in p1_local_restart.
Local procedure error.
Reject supported but not
subscribed to.
0x01
(0x21 (33)
Error in p1_local_restart.
Error in p1_local_restart.
Error in p1_local_restart.
Error in p1_local_restart.
Invalid packet.
Local procedure error.
Unidentifiable packet
0x01
0x26 (38) ??????
Local procedure error.
Too short packet
0x01
0x26 (38)
Local procedure error.
Too long packet.
0x01
0x27 (39)
Local procedure error.
Non-zero LCN
0x01
0x29 (41)
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state r2.
0x01
0x12 (18)
114059 Rev. B
D-7
Configuring X.25 Services
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
In P1 restart local/remote
state receives Reset Ind.
Network Operational.
No additional information.
0x07
0x00
DTE originated.
No additional information.
0x00
0x00
In P1 DTE_DXE_wait state
receives error packet or T4
expired.
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated
with Diagnostic Packets
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Local restart state, watchdog
timer second expiration.
DTE originated
Confirmation watchdog
timer second expiration
0x00
0x34 (52)
Invalid packet in p1.
Invalid packet in p1.
Invalid packet in p1.
Invalid packet in p1.
Invalid packet in p1.
DTE originated
Unidentifiable packet.
0x00
0x21 (40)
DTE originated
Too short packet
0x00
0x26 (38)
DTE originated
Invalid bits 5-8 (GFI)
0x00
0x28 (40)
DTE originated
Invalid LCN
0x00
0x24 (40)
DTE originated
Too long packet
0x00
0x27 (39)
P2_local_clearing state. Clear DTE originated
confirm watchdog timer
second expired.
0x00
Clear confirm watchdog
timer second expired.
0x32
D-8
114059 Rev. B
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
X.25 Originated Cause and Diagnostic Codes Associated
with Reset Packets
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Local Restart state
User defined
User defined
0xxx
0xxx
Local procedure error.
Confirmation watchdog
timer first expiration
1. P3_local_reset state T1
expired.
0x05
0x33 (51)
2. P4_disabled-T1 expired
P3_flow_control_ready state
received Reset Confirm
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state d1
0x05
0x1b (27)
P3 _remote_reset state
received Reset Confirm or
invalid packet.
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state d2 (DCE)
0x05
0x1c (28)
P3_local reset state received
Reset Confirm
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state d3 (DTE)
0x05
0x1d (29)
114059 Rev. B
1. Error in p3_local_reset
Local procedure error.
Unidentifiable packet
2. Error in P4_disabled
0x05
0x21 (33)
1. Error in p3_local_reset
Local procedure error.
2. Error in p4_disabled.
0x05
Reject but not subscribed
to
0x25 (37)
1. Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
Too short packet.
2. Error in p4_disabled.
0x05
0x26 (38)
1. Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
Too long packet.
2. Error in p4_disabled.
0x05
0x27 (39)
1. Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
Non-zero LCN
2. Error in p4_disabled.
0x05
0x29 (41)
D-9
Configuring X.25 Services
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state dx (DCE)
0x05
0x1b +dx
Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
Not applicable packet in
state dx (DCE)
0x05
0x1b +d?
1.Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
2. Error in p4_disabled.
0x05
Forbidden packet on
PVC.
0x23
Error in p3_local_reset.
Error in p3_local_reset.
Error in p3_local_reset.
Error in p3_local_reset.
Local procedure error.
Bad PS
0x05
0x01
Local procedure error.
Bad PR
0x05
0x02
Local procedure error.
Bad Q bit
0x05
0x53
Local procedure error.
Improper case code from
DTE.
0x05
0x51
INTR in p5_remote_interrup
state
Local procedure error.
Not applicable interrupt
packet in this state.
0x05
0x2c
CINTR in p5_remote_interrup Local procedure error.
state
0x05
Not applicable interrupt
confirm packet in this
state
0x2b
CINTR in p5_remote_interrup Not usable PVC.
state
0x1d
D-10
Not used.
0x00
114059 Rev. B
IPEX Cause and Diagnostic Codes
Error Condition
Cause Code
Diagnostic Code
Error in p4_disabled bad ps,
pr, q bit, cause
Network disorder.
Not used.
0x00
Error in p4_disabled timer.
Reset confirm. Watch dog
timer second expired.
Not used.
Reset confirm. Watch
dog second expired.
0x00
0x33
114059 Rev. B
D-11
Index
A
Acceptance Format parameter, 2-3, 4-22
adding network service records, 3-10
Adjacent DTE/DCE X.121 Address parameter,
6-6
Adjacent MAC Address parameter, 6-7
Adjacent SAP Address parameter, 6-10
AN/ASN routers
configuring LAPB, 2-4
defaults for synchronous line parameters, 2-4
AN/ASN routers, configuring LAPB, 1-4
B
Bay Networks
CompuServe forum, xx
Customer Service FTP, xix
home page on World Wide Web, xix
InfoFACTS service, xxi
publications, ordering, xvi
support programs, xviii
Support Source CD, xx
Technical Response Center, xvii, xxi
technical support, xvii
Bidirectional SVC LCN Start parameter, 3-8,
4-11
Blacker Front-End (BFE) Network, 1-5
enabling, 3-6, 4-7, 4-34
BN routers with Octal Sync, configuring LAPB,
1-4
BN/VME routers, defaults for synchronous line
parameters, 2-4
BOFL parameter, default setting, 2-4
114059 Rev. B
boundary, message, 1-19
bridging protocols, enabling, 3-15
Broadcast parameter, 4-30
C
call request packet format, 1-9
call requests for X.25, 1-8
Call Retry parameter, 4-31
CCITT Conformance parameter, 4-23
Charging Information parameter, 4-21
Client Queue Size parameter, 5-16
Client Response Timer parameter, 4-24
clocking sources for X.25, 2-2
compression. See data compression
CompuServe, Bay Networks forum on, xx
Configure OSPF parameter, 3-24
Configure RIP parameter, 3-23
configuring
IPEX mapping, 5-4
multiple IP addresses, 3-16
QLLC mapping, 6-1
congestion, 1-14
Connection ID parameter, 3-13, 4-28
CUG Bilateral Selection parameter, 4-20
CUG Facility Format parameter, 4-36
CUG Facility Type parameter, 4-36
CUG Number parameter, 4-37
CUG Outgoing Access parameter, 4-20
CUG Selection parameter, 4-19
Index-1
Configuring X.25 Services
Customer Service FTP, xix
customer support. See getting help
D
Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE),
defined, 1-1
data compression, 2-1
enabling, 2-1, 4-30
X.25 service record, 2-1
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), defined, 1-1
data transmission (X.25), 1-10
DDN BFE parameter, 4-34
DDN IP Address parameter, 3-7, 4-8
Default Tx/Rx Pkt Length parameter, 4-9
Default Tx/Rx Window Size parameter, 4-9
defaults
IPEX parameters, C-5
QLLC parameters, C-6
X.25 global parameter, C-1
X.25 network service record parameters, C-4
X.25 packet-level parameters, C-1 to C-3
Defense Data Network (DDN), 1-5
Blacker Front-End, 1-5
enabling, 4-34
enabling, 3-6, 4-7
specifying as X.25 service type, 3-12, 4-27
deleting
IPEX from the router, 5-19
IPEX mapping table entries, 5-19
network service records, 4-37
QLLC, 6-13
X.25 from the router, 4-37
Destination Circuit Name parameter, 5-16
Destination Connection Type parameter, 5-13
Destination X.121 Address parameter, 5-14
DLSw, 1-20
Index-2
E
editing
global parameter, 4-2
IPEX mapping table entries, 5-18
IPEX parameters, 5-1 to 5-19
LAPB parameters, 5-18
network service parameters, 4-24 to 4-37
packet-level parameters, 4-4 to 4-24
QLLC mapping table entries, 6-13
QLLC parameters, 6-1 to 6-12
Enable 1356 Multiplexing parameter, 3-14, 4-29
Enable Compression parameter, 4-30
Enable parameter
global, 4-3
IPEX (global), 5-3
IPEX (mapping), 5-15
packet-level, 4-6
QLLC (mapping), 6-10
service record, 4-27
enabling
bridging/routing protocols on a circuit, 3-15
data compression, 2-1, 4-30
X.25 on a circuit, 3-1
Ethernet, 1-12
F
Fast Select Accept parameter, 4-18, 4-33
Fast Select parameter, 4-19
Fast Select Request parameter, 4-33
FDDI, 1-12
flow control, 1-14, 2-3
enabling, 4-14, 4-32
Flow Control Negotiation parameter, 2-3, 4-14
Flow Facility parameter, 2-3, 4-32
Full Addressing parameter, 4-22
114059 Rev. B
Index
G
Generate XID parameter, 6-9
getting help
from a Bay Networks Technical Response
Center, xxi
from the Support Source CD, xx
through CompuServe, xx
through Customer Service FTP, xix
through InfoFACTS service, xxi
through World Wide Web, xix
global parameter, editing, 4-2
globally deleting
IPEX, 5-19
H
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC), 1-4
I
ID Block parameter, 6-9
ID Num parameter, 6-9
Idle Session Timer parameter, 5-17
implementation notes, 2-1 to 2-4
Incoming Calls Accept parameter, 4-17
Incoming SVC LCN Start parameter, 3-8, 4-10
InfoFACTS service, xxi
interface
TCP, 1-14
Internet Protocol (IP), 1-13
IP address, 1-14
IP Address parameter, 3-19, 3-21
IP parameters
Configure OSPF, 3-24
Configure RIP, 3-23
IP Address, 3-19, 3-21
Subnet Mask, 3-20
Transmit Bcast Addr, 3-20
114059 Rev. B
IPEX
connection summary, 1-17
global parameters, 5-3
levels of tunneling, 1-13
mapping, 1-17
mapping parameters, 5-4, 5-10
mapping table, 5-4
network interfaces, 1-13
overview, 1-12 to 1-19
parameters, editing, 5-1 to 5-19
roles of X.25 and TCP protocol stacks, 1-18
sample network topology, 1-12
specifying as X.25 service type, 3-12
IPEX global parameters
Enable, 5-3
Max Message Size, 5-3
IPEX Mapping Parameters window, 5-9
K
Keep Alive Retransmit Count parameter, 5-18
Keep Alive Retransmit Timer parameter, 5-17
L
LAN media, 1-12
LAPB parameters, editing, 5-18
Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB), 1-4
for AN or ASN routers, 2-4
Link Address Type parameter, 3-5
LN routers with Octal Sync, configuring LAPB,
1-4
load sharing, 2-2
Local Addr parameter, default setting, 2-4
Local TCP Port parameter, 5-12
logical channel numbers (LCNs), 1-11
Index-3
Configuring X.25 Services
M
N
Map Entry Name parameter, 6-6
mapping
configuring for IPEX, 5-4
IPEX, 1-17
QLLC, 1-21
mapping parameters
IPEX, 5-4
mapping parameters for IPEX, 5-10
mapping parameters, QLLC, 6-6
mapping table
adding a QLLC entry, 6-4
adding an IPEX entry, 5-4
editing IPEX entries, 5-18
editing QLLC entries, 6-13
Mapping Type parameter, 5-11, 5-13
mapping types
end-to-end, 1-17
local, 1-17
Max Connections parameter, 2-2, 4-30
Max Idle (Mins) parameter, 4-31
Max Message Size parameter (global), IPEX, 5-3
Max Packet Length parameter, 2-2, 2-3, 4-15
changing default setting, 4-6
Max Throughput Class parameter, 4-17
Max Window Size parameter, 2-2, 2-3, 4-15
changing default setting, 4-6
Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU), 1-19
M-bit support, 1-19
message boundary, 1-19
message-based protocol, 1-18
Min Frame Spacing parameter, default setting,
2-4
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit), 1-19
MTU parameter, default setting, 2-4
multiplexing, RFC 1356, 2-5, 3-14
Network Address Type parameter, 3-6, 4-7
Network Control Program Packet Switching
Interface (NPSI), 1-20
network layer protocols, 1-5
network service records
adding, 3-10
deleting, 4-37
editing, 4-24 to 4-37
network services, 1-5
Blacker Front-End, 1-5
Defense Data Network (DDN), 1-5
IP Encapsulation of X.25 (IPEX), 1-6
Point-to-Point, 1-6
Public Data Network (PDN), 1-5
Network Standard parameter, 4-23
network topology for IPEX, 1-12
Network User Identification parameter, 4-17
Number of Bidirectional SVC Channels
parameter, 3-8, 4-10
Number of Incoming SVC Channels parameter,
3-7, 4-10
Number of Outgoing SVC Channels parameter,
3-9, 4-11
Index-4
O
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic
Reference Model, 1-2
Options parameter
parameters
QLLC
Options, 6-11
Outgoing Calls Accept parameter, 4-18
Outgoing SVC LCN Start parameter, 3-9, 4-11
114059 Rev. B
Index
P
packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), defined,
1-2
Packet Layer Protocol (PLP), 1-13
Packet Size parameter, 2-3, 4-33
changing default setting, 4-6
packet-level parameters, editing, 4-4 to 4-24
parameters
editing, 4-1 to 4-37
global, Enable, 4-3
IP
Configure OSPF, 3-24
Configure RIP, 3-23
IP Address, 3-19, 3-21
Subnet Mask, 3-20
Transmit Bcast Addr, 3-20
IPEX
Client Queue Size, 5-16
Destination Circuit Name, 5-16
Destination Connection Type, 5-13
Destination X.121 Address, 5-14
Enable (global), 5-3
Enable (mapping), 5-15
Idle Session Timer, 5-17
Keep Alive Retransmit Count, 5-18
Keep Alive Retransmit Timer, 5-17
Local TCP Port, 5-12
Mapping Type, 5-11, 5-13
Max Message Size (global), 5-3
Remote IP Address, 5-11
Remote TCP Port Number, 5-12
Source Connection Type, 5-7
Source X.121 Address, 5-14
X.25 Call User Data, 5-14
network service record
Broadcast, 4-30
Call Retry, 4-31
Connection ID, 3-13, 4-28
CUG Facility Format, 4-36
CUG Facility Type, 4-36
CUG Number, 4-37
DDN BFE, 4-34
114059 Rev. B
Enable, 4-27
Enable 1356 Multiplexing, 4-29
Enable Compression, 4-30
Fast Select Accept, 4-33
Fast Select Request, 4-33
Flow Facility, 2-3, 4-32
Max Connections, 2-2, 4-30
Max Idle (Mins), 4-31
Packet Size, 2-3, 4-33
Precedence, 4-31
Remote IP Address, 3-12, 4-28
Remote X.121 Address, 3-13, 4-29
Reverse Charge Accept, 4-34
Reverse Charge Request, 4-34
Type, 3-12, 4-27
User Facility (hex), 4-35
Window Size, 2-3, 4-32
packet level
Acceptance Format, 2-3, 4-22
Bidirectional SVC LCN Start, 3-8, 4-11
CCITT Conformance, 4-23
Charging Information, 4-21
Client Response Timer, 4-24
CUG Bilateral Selection, 4-20
CUG Outgoing Access, 4-20
CUG Selection, 4-19
DDN IP Address, 3-7, 4-8
Default Tx/Rx Pkt Length, 4-9
Default Tx/Rx Window Size, 4-9
Enable, 4-6
Fast Select, 4-19
Fast Select Accept, 4-18
Flow Control Negotiation, 2-3, 4-14
Full Addressing, 4-22
Incoming Calls Accept, 4-17
Incoming SVC LCN Start, 3-8, 4-10
Link Address Type, 3-5
Max Packet Length, 2-2, 2-3, 4-15
Max Throughput Class, 4-17
Max Window Size, 2-2, 2-3, 4-15
Network Address Type, 3-6, 4-7
Network Standard, 4-23
Network User Identification, 4-17
Index-5
Configuring X.25 Services
Number of Bidirectional SVC Channels,
3-8, 4-10
Number of Incoming SVC Channels, 3-7,
4-10
Number of Outgoing SVC Channels, 3-9,
4-11
Outgoing Calls Accept, 4-18
Outgoing SVC LCN Start, 3-9, 4-11
PDN X.121 Address, 3-6, 4-7
Release Format, 2-3, 4-22
Restart Procedure Type, 4-8
Reverse Charge Accept, 4-18
Reverse Charging, 4-19
RPOA Selection, 4-21
Sequence Size, 4-8
Statistics Computation, 4-24
T1 Timer, 4-12
T2 Timer, 4-13
T3 Timer, 4-13
T4 Timer, 4-13
Throughput Class Negotiation, 4-16
Transit Delay, 4-21
Tx/Rx Throughput Class, 4-16
QLLC
Adjacent DTE/DCE/X.121 Address, 6-6
Adjacent MAC Address, 6-7
Adjacent SAP Address, 6-10
Enable, 6-10
Generate XID, 6-9
ID Block, 6-9
ID Num, 6-9
Map Entry Name, 6-6
Partner DTE/DCE X.121 Address, 6-7
Partner MAC Address, 6-8
Partner SAP Address, 6-11
Protocol ID (PID), 6-7
PU Type, 6-8
trace, 6-12
synchronous line, 2-4
Partner DTE/DCE X.121 Address parameter, 6-7
Partner MAC Address parameter, 6-8
Partner SAP Address parameter, 6-11
PDN X.121 Address parameter, 3-6, 4-7
Index-6
PLP (Packet Layer Protocol), 1-13
Point-to-Point Service (PTOP), 2-6
Point-to-Point X.25 service
Bay Networks proprietary, 1-6
specifying as X.25 service type, 3-12, 4-27
port, TCP, 1-14, 5-12
Precedence parameter, 4-31
processing a call, 1-7
determining X.121 destination, 1-7 to 1-8
generating call requests, 1-8
transmitting data, 1-10 to 1-11
Promiscuous parameter, default setting, 2-4
protocol
Internet, 1-13
message-based (X.25), 1-18
TCP stack, 1-18
unstructured stream (TCP), 1-18
X.25 Layer 3, 1-13
X.25 stack, 1-18
Protocol ID (PID) parameter, 6-7
PU Type parameter, 6-8
Public Data Network (PDN), 1-5
enabling, 3-6, 4-7
specifying as X.25 service type, 3-12, 4-27
Q
QLLC
and DLSw, 1-20
configuring, 6-1
defined, 1-19
mapping, 1-21
overview, 1-19 to 1-22
parameters, editing, 6-1 to 6-12
requirements, 1-20
sequence of connections, 1-21
Qualified Data bit (Q-bit), 1-19
114059 Rev. B
Index
R
Release Format parameter, 2-3, 4-22
Remote Addr parameter, default setting, 2-4
Remote IP Address parameter, 3-12, 4-28, 5-11
Remote TCP Port Number parameter, 5-12
Remote X.121 Address parameter, 3-13, 4-29
Restart Procedure Type parameter, 4-8
Reverse Charge Accept parameter, 4-18, 4-34
Reverse Charge Request parameter, 4-34
Reverse Charging parameter, 4-19
RFC 1356 multiplexing, 2-5, 3-14
routing protocols, enabling, 3-15
RPOA Selection parameter, 4-21
S
sending data across X.25 WAN, 1-10
Sequence Size parameter, 4-8
Service parameter, default setting, 2-4
socket, 1-14, 1-17
Source Connection Type parameter, 5-7
Source X.121 Address parameter, 5-14
Statistics Computation parameter, 4-24
stream protocol (TCP), 1-18
Subnet Mask parameter, 3-20
Support Source CD, xx
switched virtual circuit (SVC), 1-12
Sync Polling parameter, default setting, 2-4
synchronous line parameters, default settings, 2-4
TCP
interface, 1-14
large data messages, 1-19
port number, 1-14, 5-12
protocol stack, 1-18
socket, 1-17
unstructured stream protocol, 1-18
Technician Interface, 4-1, 5-1, 6-1
Throughput Class Negotiation parameter, 4-16
Token Ring, 1-12
Trace parameter, 6-12
transfer unit, maximum, 1-19
Transit Delay parameter, 4-21
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 1-14
Transmission Control Protocol. <Emphasis>See
also TCP
Transmit Bcast Addr parameter, 3-20
Transmit Window parameter, default setting, 2-4
transmitting data across X.25 network, 1-10
tunneling (IPEX), 1-13
Tx/Rx Throughput Class parameter, 4-16
Type parameter, 3-12, 4-27
U
User Facility (hex) parameter, 4-35
V
Values list window, 5-10, 6-6
virtual circuit, switched, 1-12
T
T1 Timer parameter, 4-12
T2 Timer parameter, 4-13
T3 Timer parameter, 4-13
T4 Timer parameter, 4-13
114059 Rev. B
Index-7
Configuring X.25 Services
W
WAN Protocol parameter, default setting, 2-4
window
Add Circuit, 3-2
Enter Adjacent Host, 3-21
IP Configuration, 3-19
IPEX Mapping Parameters, 5-9
QLLC Mapping Table Configuration, 6-4
Select Protocols, 3-18
Values list, 5-10, 6-6
WAN Protocols, 3-3
X.25 Packet Config, 3-4
X.25 Service, 3-11
X.25 Service Configuration, 3-10, 3-17
Window Size parameter, 2-3, 4-32
changing default setting, 4-6
World Wide Web, Bay Networks home page on,
xix
X
X.121 destination addresses, 1-7, 1-8
X.25
data compression, 2-1
default parameter settings, C-1 to C-5
enabling, 3-1
implementation notes, 2-1 to 2-4
large data messages, 1-19
Layer 3 (PLP) interface, 1-13
load sharing, 2-2
message-based protocol, 1-18
overview, 1-1 to 1-6
protocol stack, 1-18
switched virtual circuit, 1-12
X.25 Call User Data parameter, 5-14
Index-8
114059 Rev. B
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