Broadcast Engineering - American Radio History

Broadcast Engineering - American Radio History
-Alk
A HOWARD W
SAMS
PUBLICATION
MARCH 1965/75 cents
i Broadcast Engineering
the technical journal
of the broadcast communications industry
7-Tr
www.americanradiohistory.com
T AGAIN
RI KER'S
AMAZING NEW
VIEW -POINTER
FOLLOW THE ACTION NO MATTER HOW FAST...
The RIKER VIEW -POINTER is
a new video production tool. The size
pencil, it is an all -transistor instrument which electronically
produces an arrowhead -shaped marker in the program picture at the
spot where the VIEW -POINTER is placed. Using any video monitor,
the VIEW -POINTER, held like a pencil, may be moved to any part of
the raster to follow action at any speed, slow or fast. A built-in pushbutton allows the marker to flash on and off for increased attention
TECHNICAL:
of
The VIEW-POINTER is completely self-contained. It is used with any
of the viewer.
Weighing only 3 ounces, the self-contained, all -transistor circuitry
operates at 12 volts thereby eliminating all high -voltage hazard.
a
(pinpoint
a
NAB SHOW -BOOTH
face in the crowd)
. SPECIAL
OF COMMERCIALS
EVENTS
EDUCATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS
MEDICAL DEMONSTRATIONS
and many others (could even be used as
"sing-alongs")
220
SEE DEMONSTRATIONS OF:
. WEATHER (trace the movement of a front)
. PRODUCTION
point-up to hundreds of feet, through standard
studio lines.
BE SURE TO VISIT RIKER AT THE
SPORTS EVENTS (follow the golf ball)
NEWS
program insertion
SEND FOR FULL DESCRIPTION AND DETAILS
PERFECT FOR:
.
.
standard video monitor and is installed in less than 1 minute by
merely bridging the program line. The VIEW-POINTER may be operated at any convenient location even at long distances from the
a
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automatic programmed video switchers
additive/non-additive video mixers
video processing amplifier
new special effects
complete line of video test equipment
ORDEN LANE, HUNTINGTON STATION, NEW YORK: PHONE 516 HA 1-3444
Circle Item
1
on Tech Data
Card
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LOS ANGELES
DETROIT
IHIS IS
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The AL-1OCR is compatible with any DC metering
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rudi
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Western Division
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Omaha, Nebraska
Washington, D.C.
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Silver Spring, Md.
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195 Mass. Avenue
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AUTOLOG
RUST REMOTE CONTROL
NAB Show Booth 22_.
Circle Item
2 on Tech Dota
Card
3
March, 1965
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
4-400A IN
AM TRANSMITTERS
At least six major manufacturers
of 1 -kw AM transmitters in use
today employ 4-400A's as both
modulators and power amplifiers.
In these two stages, the circuits
used in the Bauer 707, the CCA
AM-1000DK, the Collins 20V-3,
the ITA AM -1000A*, the RCA
BTA-1R or 1R1, and the new
Visual 1 -kw AM are very similar.
Due to the similarity in circuitry,
some faults are common to all, and
these faults require similar common
troubleshooting procedures. Once
you understand the basic configuration, you can work with any of
these rigs more easily.
Tube Characteristics
The 4-400A is a beam-power
by Thomas
R.
Haskett, Consulting
Author, Broadcast Consultant,
review of the
Cincinnati, Ohio
circuits in which this tube is used and
some useful troubleshooting hints.
-A
tetrode employing a directly-heated,
thoriated-tungsten filament. Nominally 5 volts, filament voltage should
not exceed limits of 4.75 to 5.25
volts. Required current is 14.5
amperes. The tube must be operated in a vertical position with the
base downward. This base is a
metal -shell giant with 5 pins, and
the shell must be grounded by
means of spring fingers. The plate
connection is brought out to a metal
cap atop the glass envelope, and a
heat -dissipating (finned type) plate
connector must be used here. The
4-400A runs extremely hot-the
base at 200°C (393°F), the plate
cap at 225°C (437°F)-and forced air cooling must be used. The manufacturer recommends that air flow
be applied simultaneously with filament power and that the column
of air be directed upward through
the base toward the bulb. All transmitters using 4-400A's are there -
fore interlocked so that filament
power is removed whenever the
blower stops.
As a class-AB1 modulator (as
used here), maximum ratings are:
plate voltage, 4000; plate current,
350 ma; plate dissipation, 400
watts; screen voltage, 800. Maximum power output is approximately
1000 watts. As a class-C plate modulated RF power amplifier (also
used here), maximum ratings are:
plate voltage, 3200; plate current,
275 ma; plate dissipation, 270
watts; screen voltage, 600. Maximum power output is about 800
watts.
Modulator Circuit
Fig. 1. This simplified schematic shows some typical features of modulators using 4.400A.
Fig. 1 is a simplified diagram
illustrating modulator features common to most transmitters. Audio is
applied to the primary of input
transformer Ti, in the range of +4
to +10 VU. Ti has a split secondary to feed the grids of V1 -V2,
the drivers, in push-pull. A portion
of the driver bias is provided by
voltage drop across cathode resistors R3, R4, and R5. As R3 and
R4 are separate and unbypassed,
they provide current feedback which
tends to equalize tube differences
and balance the stage. Note that
the grids of this stage no not return
to ground at the "cold" end of T1.
More on this later.
The drivers are coupled to the
modulators by means of capacitors
Cl and C2. The modulators are 4400A's, operated class AB1 in
push-pull. Grid bias is obtained
through the two bias-set pots, R12
and R13 (Bauer uses a single control here). The purpose of R14 and
R15 is to minimize any tendency
toward parasitic oscillations. Filament current is taken from transformers T2 and T3; the respective
center taps are brought out through
R17 and R18, thence together
I8
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
is no longer a transmitter manufacturer, but many ITA transmitters
are in use, and parts are still available (see "Letters to the Editor" in the
February 1965 issue).
*ITA
MODULATORS
121
4-400A
TO
'A
PLATES
.3000V
INOM1
DRIVERS
I
BAUER
I
COLLINS
I
CCA
ITA
V1 & V21
0
6SJ7
12BY7
VI SUAI
RCA
2E26
www.americanradiohistory.com
through R16 to ground. Modulator
cathode current is monitored by
switching a meter across resistors
R17 and R18. Shunting R16 is K1,
the modulator overload relay; if
modulator cathode current exceeds
a preset value, Kl trips and removes high voltage. Fig. 2 shows
the slightly different cathode systems used by Bauer and Collins.
Feedback ladders Z1 -Z3 and Z2 Z4 couple 8 to 10 db of negative
feedback from modulator plates to
driver grids. The junction of Z3
and Z4 is grounded, forming the
ground return for the driver grids.
Bauer uses a simplified version
(Fig. 3) of this ladder, with no capacitors. CCA and ITA use a resistor and a coil in parallel, as parasitic suppressors in series with each
modulator plate. Beyond the feedback ladders, the modulator plates
are connected to T4, the modulation
transformer. One end of the T4
secondary is grounded (through a
capacitor), while the other end is
connected to one end of modulation choke L1 and thence to the
PA plates.
PA
(A) Bauer
HUM
BALANCE
T6
(B)
Collins
Fig. 2. Two alternate filament schematics.
Modulator Troubleshooting
When one side of a push-pull
circuit goes bad, the trouble generally reveals itself as DC unbalance. When the modulators are
thus unbalanced, audio distortion
results. The most obvious emergency remedies are to try new tubes,
reset grid bias, and rebalance the
driver stage. If the trouble is severe,
the modulator overload relay may
kick the rig off the air.
In some cases, however, the trouble persists. Here are some steps
to follow in that event (use Fig. 1
as reference):
1. Check cathode resistors R17 R18. Although normally low
in value (2 or 3 ohms), they
should be equal. (Does not
apply to Bauer or Collins.)
2.
Check modulator filament voltages with servicing voltmeter;
they should be equal when
measured at tube socket-not
less than 4.75 nor more than
5.25 volts AC.
3.
Measure modulator screen
voltage. Measuring at socket,
you should find equal voltages
-about 750 volts DC above
ground or chassis.
4.
Check DC grid bias on modu-
OL
5.
lators. Depending on setting of
the bias pot(s), bias value
should be anywhere from 90
to 150 volts negative with respect to chassis. Bauer should
show equal bias at each grid;
others should be capable of
being adjusted to equal values.
Bias should not shift when
audio driver is applied; if it
does, modulator is drawing
grid current (see Step 5).
Check audio voltages at grids
of modulators with AC-VT VM (not VOM). Check for
possible grid current; stage
operates class AB 1 and should
not draw current. Grids should
remain balanced under drive,
Fig. 3. Feedback in the Bauer transmitter.
March, 1965
same as they were in Step 4
without drive. Grid current
here suggests leaky coupling
capacitor Cl or C2, wiring or
socket partially shorted, or
tube defect (probably gassy).
6. Check coupling capacitors Cl
and C2 by disconnecting grid
end and connecting VTVM
between loose lead and ground.
With plate voltage on V1 -V2,
you should read no more than
1 volt DC from the loose end
to ground. If either is doubtful, replace with 1000 -volt
Mylar Difilm type.
Check for unwanted continu7.
ity from grid pins of modulator sockets (topside of socket)
through wiring to plate pins of
driver sockets. If doubtful, lift
slider connection of bias pots
R12 - R13 and measure DC
resistance between grids and
ground; should be many
megohms.
Check Driver balance by replacing tubes and measuring
DC voltage drop across cathode resistors R3 -R4; adjust
pot(s) until drops are equal.
(Bauer has a cathode balance
pot for this purpose.) If doubtful, recheck cathode resistor
values, as in Step 1.
9. Defeat the two feedback ladders, Z1 -Z3 and Z2 -Z4, by
strapping a 20-mfd capacitor
from point B to ground and
another from point A to
ground. This shorts the feedback networks for AC, although not for DC; the latter
is needed for proper driver
bias. Any resulting unbalance
suggests trouble in one of the
feedback ladders. You can
also check the ladders during
operation by measuring from
point A to ground and point
B to ground with an AC and
a DC voltmeter, with the primary of T1 shorted. (You
don't need the 20-mfd capacitors for this test.) DC voltages from each point to ground
should balance within 2%; if
they don't, there's a bad resistor in one of the ladders.
AC voltages should also balance within 2%; if they don't,
there's probably a bad capacitor in one of the ladders.
The actual values of the lad8.
19
www.americanradiohistory.com
der components aren't too important, so long as they are
equal overall.
10. Check modulation transformer
by reversing plate leads to see
if unbalance shifts to other
tube. Also try disconnecting
T4 completely, putting 117
volts AC on entire secondary,
and measuring AC voltage
from either end of primary to
center tap. You should get
about 70 volts AC on each
side, and values should be
within 2% of each other.
11. If RF is suspected of getting
into audio stages, use dummy
load on modulation transformer to isolate audio section.
Completely disconnect secondary of T4. Across entire secondary, connect 4000 -ohm,
200 -watt resistor in series with
500 -ohm, 10 -watt resistor, as
shown in Fig. 4. Then connect
vertical input of scope across
500 -ohm resistor. Turn on
transmitter and drive a 1000 cps sine wave through modulators. Scope should exhibit
clean sine wave if modulators
are in balance. If it does, you
probably have RF trouble; if
it doesn't, you probably have
audio -difficulties.
12. To completely isolate modulator stage, use dummy load on
T4 as in Step 11. Disconnect
MODULATION
TRANSFORMER
PRI
TO
VERTICAL
INPUT
OF
OSCILLOSCOPE
STATION
GROUND BUSS
Fig. 4. Dummy load for modulator tests.
plate ends of coupling capacitors C1 -C2 and connect them
to ground. As a final assurance, disconnect the feedback
ladders from the modulator
plates. These steps will usually
eliminate parasitics or undesirable feedback, proving modulator stage itself okay. Note:
You must disconnect platecap
straps from the modulators
and connect each plate directly
to modulation transformer.
Caution: Be very careful; with
feedback ladders gone, there is
no bleeder on HV supply.
Discharge HV filter capacitors
carefully after this test.
After any unbalance has been
corrected, run audio proof on transmitter as final qualitative check.
Power Amplifier
Fig. 5 is the simplified diagram
of a PA circuit which is more or
less common to all six transmitters
-two 4-400A's in parallel as class -
RF
FROM
IPA
ó
FROM
MOD
XFMR
Ìso
FROM MOD
CHOKE
KSI
REM
RS
IP
000
L
PAOLA'
Fig. 5. Simplified diagram of typical final RF amplifier in an AM transmitter using 4.400A.
C modulated amplifiers, with highlevel plate modulation. With new
tubes, plate efficiency is 70%. RF
drive from the IPA stage is applied
through coupling capacitor C51 and
parasitic suppressors R53 -R54 to
the PA grids. Grid rectification, and
resulting grid current, produces grid
bias. L51 and C52 decouple RF,
but permit DC grid current to flow
through R51 -K51 for protection
and R52 for metering. K51 contacts are normally open; grid current holds them closed, permitting
the application of screen voltage to
both PA's and modulators. If grid
current disappears, as when there
is no RF drive, K51 opens and removes screen voltage. Grid -drive
monitoring is accomplished at this
point by metering across R52.
Filament power for the PA's is
obtained via T51 -T52. C53-054055-056 are RF bypasses at the
tube sockets. Filament transformer
centertaps are brought out through
metering resistors R55 and R56,
thence through K52 and its shunt,
R57. If PA cathode current exceeds
a preset value, overload relay K52
trips and removes high voltage. Note
that Collins and Bauer again use
but a single filament transformer,
as shown in Fig. 6. Bauer has a
single PA cathode -current meter;
Collins has none. However, Collins
has a PA filament voltmeter.
PA screens are decoupled with
C57 -R58 and C58 -R59, and screen current metering is across R62.
Normally, plain plate (and screen)
modulation is used, but there is
some variation in circuit design
among brands. CCA, ITA, and
Visual use AF chokes in series with
the PA screen supply to cause selfmodulation of the screen. RCA's
modulation transformer has a tap
which feeds modulation to the IPA
plate.
Returning to Fig. 5, in the plate
circuit, you'll note two parasitic
suppressors are used-L52-R60
and L53 -R61. (Collins doesn't use
these.) RF power is coupled to plate
and coupling tank Z51 via C59 and
thence to the antenna. The tank
consists of several coils and capacitors arranged in either a T or a
pi network, along with a harmonic
suppressor; the exact arrangement
varies from brand to brand. L54
and C60 decouple RF from the
modulator and power-supply sec -
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
20
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Some plain talk from Kodak about tape:
Sensitivity and
frequency response
Controlling every electrical factor involved in the making and using of
sound tape is a bit like trying to watch
it can be done,
a three-ring circus
but you need fast eyeballs. Let's discuss
two critically important parameters:
sensitivity and frequency response.
Sensitivity means the degree of output for a given input.
We put in a 400 -cycle signal and
measure the output. The result: low frequency sensitivity. We choose 400
cycles for a number of good reasons. A
400 -cycle note recorded at 15 inches per -second gives us a wave length that
the tape "sees" ofroughly .0375 inches,
and by a happy coincidence this wave
length penetrates the entire depth of
the oxide coating, but not the support
material. Everything else being equal,
low -frequency response is a function
of the thickness of the coating. The
thicker the coating, the better the bass
response. We test at a frequency that
penetrates the entire coating. We
choose 400 cycles instead of, let's say,
20 cycles because the 400 -cycle note
tells us just as much-and has an added
advantage. An engineer can hear 400
cycles, so we have audio monitoring as
well as instrumented observation on a
scope face.
tesust as the low -frequency sensitivity
t gives us an idea about oxide thickness, the high -frequency test gives us a
fairly accurate picture as to just how
smooth the surface of the tape is. Good
high -frequency response is impossible
on a tape having a rough surface.
Here's why: The low points will represent gaps in the oxide and cause a loss
of H.F. response. We test our high frequency sensitivity at 15,000 cycles.
(Inches -per -second divided by cycles per -second gives us recorded wave
length.) So at 15 ips the arithmetic
looks like this:
...
inches .
second inches second
cycles second cycles
second
inches which is wave
cycles length (X)
TH US:
inches
15 inches
second
second
x
15,000 cycles
15,000 cycles second
second
15
At this high frequency (short wave
length) we are recording only on the
surface of the tape. If any roughness is
present, big troubles result. If you
have a surface condition where the
amplitude of the roughness is just .0001
inches and your recorded signal has a
1 -mil wave length, you will lose 5.5 db
in high -frequency response! Let's rephrase the catastrophe. It takes a surface variation of just one tenth the
wave length to knock down response by
about 6 db. And this can happen at
any frequency
We are working toward making a
point: KODAK Sound Recording Tape
has a surface that is unsurpassed in
smoothness, a surface that varies no
more than 25-50 millionths of an inch
from a theoretically perfect plane.
Frequency response is merely the
arithmetic subtraction of high -frequency sensitivity from low -frequency
sensitivity. Ideally the response is zero.
It's quite an easy matter to juggle the
characteristics of an oxide around so
that frequency response is nice and flat.
For instance, if your oxide has poor
high -frequency sensitivity, you can reduce the thickness of the oxide layer.
This will degrade L.F. sensitivity, and
thus effect a flat response. But is the
resulting L.F. loss worth it? We don't
think so. That's why we designed our
1
1000
inch
_1
mil wave
cycles
length
coating to give us superior low- and
high-frequency sensitivities, as well as
a nice flat response.
Next time we'll chat about a few
other basic considerations.
!
o
SOUND RECORDING TAPE
Choose KODAK Sound Recording Tape,
Type 31A, for all general-purpose and
low -print applications. Or Type 34A
whenever you need high -output or low-
noise characteristics. For extended
playing times try our extra- or double play tapes
or try the new triple play tape-so thin you get 3600 feet on
a 7 -inch reel. KODAK Sound Recording
Tapes are available at electronic supply
stores, camera shops, specialty shops,
everywhere.
department stores
...
®
...
Eastman Kodak Company, MCMLXI
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester,
Circle Item
10 on Tech Data
N. Y.
Card
March, 1965
21
www.americanradiohistory.com
the Ig panel meter is suspect,
substitute another.
2. Check tube balance by switching PA's or trying new tubes.
Check filament voltages with
tubes in sockets. Measure Ikl
and Ik2, try substitute meters,
and check resistance of R55
and R56 metering shunts.
Check value of R57.
3. Measure PA screen voltages
at sockets-they should be
equal and not above 600 volts.
Suspect leaky or shorted screen
bypasses C57-058, or change
in value of dropping resistors
R58 -R59, if voltages are low.
If screen current exceeds normal value (check your transmitter manual), there is probably leakage or a short to
ground (C57 or C58), or one
of the tubes is defective.
4. If the plate voltage is abnormally high or low, shut down
the rig and measure the plate
voltmeter multiplier, R63. If
doubtful, substitute another
voltmeter. With care, even a
VOM may be used, if it has a
5 -kv range. Make connections
tions, while L55 acts as load for
the modulator audio. Modulation is
decoupled from the power supply
by the supply's own output filter
capacitor. A plate ammeter is used
in series with the plate supply, and
a plate voltmeter and its multipliers
R63 -R65 are used across this supply. Note that remote plate voltage
can be read across R65, and remote
plate current across R57.
PA Troubleshooting
Whenever the PA operates improperly, the following steps may
be followed:
1. Determine presence of grid
drive by noting grid current
(Ig) across R52. If absent,
check for RF output from
IPA-you may have to trace
all the way back to the oscillator. If the IPA is working
properly, suspect an open or
leaky coupling capacitor C51
(make DC leakage test as outlined in Step 6 earlier), a
shorted C52 bypass, an open
or shorted L51, or a change
in value of R51 or R52. Make
ohmmeter checks of these. If
Quality
Covered
Nylon
Patch
Cords
How Much Better Are Switchcraft's Patch Cords?
PLUG ONE IN AND TRY
IT!
Built-in Switchcraft quality assures dependable, reliable
connections in broadcast studio applications. A complete
line of cords featuring bronze tinsel conductors insulated
with thermoplastic, over which a braided shield and
black Nylon braid are woven, is available in 3 series.
Lengths from 6 inches to 10 feet. Cords are assembled
with Switchcraft's Mil-Type 2 and 3 conductor phone
plugs and 2 conductor twin-plug.
For complete details write for Bulletin No. 121 or see
your local Switchcraft Authorized Industrial Distributor
for immediate delivery at factory prices.
swNtçaa.
5535 N. Elston Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Canadian Rep.: Atlas Radio Corp., LTD.
50 Wingold Ave. Toronto, Ontario, Canada
IM(.+
Circle Item
11
on Tech Data
Fig. 6.
Alternate PA filament circuits
carefully with power off and
make sure the test leads are
dressed well away from ground.
Suspect a leaky or shorted C60
bypass or a partial short in
metering circuits.
5. If audio -RF interaction is suspected, isolate RF section by
disconnecting secondary of
modulation transformer and
using dummy load, as described earlier. With proper
grid drive, PA should produce
pure RF output. If trouble persists, it probably has nothing
to do with audio.
6. When checking continuity of
protective relays in interlock
circuits with ohmmeter, you
must always disconnect the relay coil from its shunt. Otherwise, either the coil or the
shunt could be open, and
the other would still show
continuity.
7. Try RF dummy load (nonreactive) in place of antenna, to
eliminate possibility of change
in antenna resistance. If directional antenna system is used,
put the dummy before the
phasor.
Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
22
www.americanradiohistory.com
March 1965
We interrupt this magazine to bring you ...
Late Bulletin from Washington
by Howard T. Head
Federal Regulation of CATV
As Community Antenna Television (CATV) systems become more numerous, an
increasing number of proposals advocating Federal regulation of CATV are
being made.
At present, the Commission regulates only those CATV systems
which employ microwave relays, by conditions imposed on the microwave licenses.
Such systems, however, constitute fewer than one-fourth of the
total number of CATV installations.
Although the proposals differ in scope and detail, the principal areas in
which Commission control is urged are: protection of local broadcast
stations from the bringing in of outside programs which duplicate those
broadcast locally;
requiring CATV systems to carry the programs of local
stations;
prohibiting "leapfrogging," the bringing in of programs from
very distant stations;
prohibiting the origination of programs by the
CATV system;
and the establishment of technical regulations to govern the
quality of signals distributed by CATV systems.
The Commission staff is generally in accord with the recommendations, although there is some sentiment in favor of permitting, or even encouraging,
CATV systems in smaller communities to provide a degree of local program
service.
However, the Commission's final action is likely to be closely
tied to its belief in the need for a nationwide, locally -operated, competitive television service based on full utilization of the UHF channels.
Sharing TV Channels with Other Users
The Joint Technical Advisory Committee (JTAC) of IEEE and the EIA has under
study a recommendation that the Commission permit the shared use of present
television channels by the Land Mobile Radio Services (fire, police, taxicab, business, etc.) (June 1964 Bulletin).
Television channels would be
made available to these other services in cities where the channels cannot
be assigned for television -broadcast use because of the Commission's
engineering requirements. Land mobile operation would be confined to a
band approximately 1 me wide near the center of a television channel adjacent to an occupied channel.
Engineering studies submitted to JTAC
indicate that a minimum of interference would be caused to television
reception.
Under study by a joint industry -government advisory committee are proposals
www.americanradiohistory.com
which would provide for the multiplexing of land mobile base -station
transmissions on FM broadcast carriers. The technique would be
essentially the same as that employed for regular FM multiplexing,
except that by employing narrow audio bandwidths a number of multiplex
channels would be provided. Studies indicate that under favorable conditions up to eight 3-kc voice channels could be provided in the portion
of each FM channel presently available for multiplex operation.
Stereo Sound for Television
In replies to the Commission inquiry concerning stereo sound for television (January 1965 Bulletin), some receiver manufacturers express the
view that the small size of the television screen would render stereophonic sound ineffective. The relatively poor audio quality and lack
of stereo material for television use are also cited as reasons in
On the other hand, some manufacturers have
opposition to the proposal.
given their wholehearted endorsement and have offered detailed technical
proposals for accomplishing the desired stereo effect. Several parties
have asked for additional time to comment, and a final decision from the
Commission is likely to be many months away.
Early Release of New UHF Table
Prospects are that the Commission will release at least portions of the
anticipated new table of UHF channel allocations (September 1964 Bulletin)
The revised table, which has been checked by a computer,
in the near future.
will probably be released in portions, beginning with the allocations for
The revised table
the congested northeastern portion of the United States.
is expected to make a substantial number of new UHF channel assignments
available for both commercial and noncommercial -educational television operation.
Antenna Farms and New TV Propagation Curves
The Commission is preparing Notices of Proposed Rule Making in connection
with the matter of antenna farms for tall towers (November 1964 and February
1965 Bulletins) and the adoption of new field -strength -vs -distance curves
These
for both the VHF and UHF television bands (September 1964 Bulletin).
topics have been linked in this context for two reasons. First, the new
field -strength curves will influence the selection of television transmitter
Second, the proposed
locations meeting the Commission's Technical Standards.
antenna -farm Rules contemplate "equivalent protection" of existing television stations when operation is proposed at a farm area which would result
in a short mileage separation from other cochannel stations.
Under the new proposal, an applicant for permission to erect a tall FM or
television tower would be required to specify operation in a designated farm
area unless prior FAA approval has been obtained for a different location.
Howard T. Head ...in Washington
www.americanradiohistory.com
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CAN YOUGO
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These all solid state systems represent major advances in solid
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.
and result in operational economies. Many Commercial TV
and ETV broadcasters have recognized the advantages of these
units, and specified them for new stations and station modernization. So, before you purchase any TV switching or control
systems, be sure you're familiar with the features of CDL
equipment. Also contact us for full information on the outstanding line of CO.EL. TV and FM Antennas.
..
Be sure to see us at:
NAB
Booth #312... and see our
Switchers in operation.
WARD ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES, Inc.
P.
0.
BOX
1045, MOUNTAINSIDE,
N.
March, 1965
J.
(201)-232-1167
25
www.americanradiohistory.com
MICROELECTRONIC
MODULES,
There is, within the broad field of
electronics, an explosive revolution
that may soon significantly alter the
design and construction techniques
now familiar to us all. The microelectronic module, or integrated
circuit, has been developed with
almost unprecedented speed and
with surprisingly little fanfare. Announced at the 1959 IRE Show,
the new concept was greeted with
much enthusiasm but little hope
for immediate practical applications;
after all, each module cost nearly
$2900. And yet, today, less than
six years later, several integrated
circuits employing silicon planar
epitaxial elements can be purchased
"off the shelf" for less than $3. The
way in which this solid-state technique has grown so rapidly is another example of a vigorous electronic technology working to fill a
need of the industry.
When the first practical semiconductor devices appeared in 1948,
engineers wasted little time designing them into a wide range of circuitry. Within a very few years, the
transistor became the most challenging and effective device in the quest
for greater reliability, smaller size,
and adaptability to printed -circuit
techniques. It saw widespread use
by Allen
1965
Smith,
in missile and space-age equipment,
in computers, and in home entertainment instruments. However, the
transistor as a discrete component
is proving to be only a relatively
short-lived intermediate step in the
development of totally integrated
circuit packages. As engineers became more at ease with transistorized circuitry, they began to think
more directly of using their expanding knowledge of the atomic, crystalline, and electrical characteristics
of metals and semimetals to further
increase the reliability and component density of low -power circuits.
A variety of techniques has been
developed to provide a practical integrated -circuit technology.
Three Major Concepts
Early attempts to unitize component assemblies, developed primarily from transistor -PC -board
circuits, used individual miniaturized components mounted on small
wafers or cards which, in turn, were
stacked and mounted in hermetically sealed cans or were encapsulated. Later, a second concept
evolved. Deposited -carbon resistors
and semiconductor elements were
combined on various substrate chips
METAL
.098"DIA
HOLES
FOR PELLETIZED
COMPONENTSt
SILVERED
CERAM I C
TYPICAL PELLET
CERAMIC CAPACITOR
.063
METAL -FILM
RESISTANCE PATH
IS SPIRALLED
a:
PRIMED -CIRCUIT
INTERCONNECTIONS
-
An up-to-date
the
search for
report on the state of
higher circuit density and reliability.
B.
METAL
CAPS
HEIGHT
.063" MAX.
TYPICAL PELLET
FILM RESISTOR
Fig. 1. A graphic representation of the pelletized high density approach to circuit design.
(glass, ceramic, or fiber) for mounting on transistor-type (TO -5, for
example) headers; a more recent,
and perhaps the most promising,
technique employs deposited metal
films for resistive, capacitive, and
inductive circuit elements. The third
concept is that of the pure solid
circuit using metal and semimetal
diffusion processes.
High -Density Packages
In many circuits, primarily those
used in computer devices where
memory sections occasionally may
have to be replaced, the stacked or
cordwood high-density approach
has been widely used. The stacks
usually have multifinger contacts
for plug-in replaceability and lend
themselves well to low-cost design
flexibility because they use more or -less standard components. When
it is considered that the cost increase over standard printed -circuit
designs is only nominal, integrated
circuits of this type offer reliability
of a rather high order.
Several companies (Mallory, Micram, Raytheon, Sprague, and Westinghouse, among others) have pursued various high-density concepts
from stacking conventional components to "pellet" components of
uniform size recessed into cavities
in an insulated base and interconnected by printed -circuit wiring
(Fig. 1). Pelletized components enable one defense contractor (Anna
Div. of Bosch Arma) to build a
20 -lb guidance computer for solving space -navigation problems that
occupies only .40 cubic foot and
draws less power than a small (50 watt) incandescent bulb. A design
survey conducted by a prominent
space-age contractor (General Dynamics/Astronautics) shows that
approximately 80% to 95% of all
GD electronics circuits could be
pelletized directly or with very
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
26
www.americanradiohistory.com
--'
-
'
-
'
,
titOle'
hanges
s
1
FCC
adopts
allowing
plan
P
stations
-spaced
short
U
+Ireir
CON/
@CtgQ
to icnP.
slight (about 5%) circuit redesign.
Automated fabrication processes
for this concept are being studied.
Other manufacturers and governmental agencies are performing additional research on high-density
packaging of microminiature and
standard components. Because of its
relatively high power capabilities,
the pelletized approach is being
used in the design of several communication devices. One communications unit, developed recently by
Motorola's Semiconductor Division,
uses multiple -wafer construction
and offers voltage gains adjustable
SA
A
V
Automatic Power
Control-Lowest Tube
Investment in the Industry
-Automatic Voltage Control
-Solid State Rectifiers
-stahl¢
Fig. 2. Schematic of multiple-wafer amp.
are now possible.
In spite of improved manufacturing techniques, production yields
M
w
V,
w
V
watt from an input of .5 volt
of
rms. The device, housed in a TO -5
can, draws approximately 1.5 ma
standby current and couples directly
to the output load. Its circuit configuration is shown in Fig. 2.
1
and Bauer has the packages to help you increase
your effective power
economically and quickly.
The Bauer 1 KW FM Transmitter, for instance, with a
four bay antenna
will give you
maximum power with
watts to spare.
AMPLIFIER ONLY
AVAILABLE IF YOU
WANT TO USE YOUR
EXISTING EXCITER.
Features include:
IN
Semiconductor and Thin -Film
Integrated Circuits
Even though component - type
microelectronic circuitry has shown
great promise in many applications,
thin-film and semiconductor integrated circuits are gaining significant support from military and civil
research groups, particularly in the
design of digital data-processing
equipment and computers. The need
for compact, low-level, and highly
reliable logic circuits has produced
many different items. As recently
as a year ago, most of these devices
of integrated circuits are still ialrly
low for the more complex functions.
Reliability, however, has been improved greatly from a failure rate
reported by one company (Texas
Instruments) of .13% per 1000 hrs
at 85°C in 1962 to less than .006%
in 1964. The Bureau of Naval
Weapons reports that semiconductor integrated -circuit reliability is
higher in many applications than
that of standard discrete components.
Several missile -guidance and control systems in the newest generation of ballistic weapons employ
semiconductor networks: Minuteman ICBM, EGO and POGO satellite digital signal systems, the
Apollo guidance computer, and
other computer -navigational systerns rely heavily on integrated circuits. Semiconductor limitations
in
carried minimum prices of almost
$50; one company, however, (Fairchild) now offers many logic circuits at under $5, several
under
tolerance (20%, nominally)
and
maximum available values of resistance and capacitance (about
Son aná
Grcludeci
Operation-Remote
Crid
Control
Provisions. Both packages
available in "Kit" form
or factory assembled.
High
Power Amplifiers available
for special Vertical
Power
Improved
ehng,d.sit10,
and
diffusion techniques promise
further
reductions in price, while
circuits
operating at power levels in the 120
to 800 microwatt region will allow
even greater reductions in size than
1001
itiM
however, preclude
their
use in many
applications. Thin-film circuits,
on
the other hand, provide resistance
in the megohm region and,
with
tantalum films, can achieve capacitance values in excess of 1 mfd.
Combinations
Increase
your power and
coverage by calling
Bauer
today for all the
facts.
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1663 Industrial Road,
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Circle Item
Low Loss Feeder Cable
15 on Tech
Data Cord
OPTIONAL: Available With A High Molecular Weight
Polyethylene Jacket (Resistant to Outdoor Weathering)
Ideal for Direct Burial.
OPTIONAL: Cables Are Available With
Integral Messenger Wire (0.109" Galv. Steel, 1800 Lb.
Minimum Breaking Strength Is Standard)
OPTIONAL: Available With Super Heavy Molecular Weight
Polyethylene Jacket to Withstand Extreme or Unusual
Weather Conditions. Also for Direct Burial Where
A Heavier Jacket Would Be Desirable.
830 Monroe Street, Hoboken, New Jersey . Coll Us Collect: New York: (212) WH 3-5793, Hoboken: (201) OL 6-2020
www.americanradiohistory.com
PLEASE INSERT THIS SrirET IN YOUR CATALOGUE
See Us At IEEE
Booth 3701-3-5
new
SOLID STATE
WAVE
ANALYZER
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of a typical micro IF amplifier.
Using a combination of semiconductor and thin-film
techniques, Motorola has developed a 120-mc transceiver giving 60 mw output from an 11 -volt supply
with a maximum current drain of less than 40 ma.
A block diagram of the unit is shown in Fig. 3. Each
complete, monolithic (using silicon substrate wafers
with diffused semimetals and deposited films) IF stage
of the handheld unit is mounted in a TO -5 can and is
tuned to 12 mc; gain per stage is 20 db. Five such IF
stages are used in the small (5'/8" x 25/8" x 1") unit.
Fig. 4 shows the circuit of one stage.
BFO flat to 0.05db
Ay.
Single -Block Circuits
MODEL 2330
$1495
measures down to 3,.V
relative amplitudes to
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- 75
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internal distortion
85db
BFO output to lvrms flat to ±0.05db
20 cps to 50kc for response measurement
ACCESSORIES
Tunable Notch Filter Model 2334
Extends dynamic range
Rejection Frequency: 20cps to 20kc
Attenuation at notch >80 db
Accepts up to 100v at hi Z or 25 dbm into 60012
Write
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catalog sheet
MARCONI
INSTRUMENTS
DIVISION OF ENGLISH ELECTRIC CORPORATION
ENGLEWOOD, NEW JERSEY
111 CEDAR LANE
Circle Item
16 on Tech
In the abstract sense, the term "solid-" or "single block" circuit denotes the philosophical height of electronic sophistication, because it implies utilization of
the basic crystalline and atomic structure of a single
material to obtain a desired electronic function. The
material is modified by machining, diffusion techniques,
etching, and plating so that a known signal input will
produce the desired output function or waveform. The
term also implies an extremely high level of precision
in the manufacture of the devices.
In a practical view, because of their limited powerhandling abilities and higher cost, solid -block devices
are being used primarily for computer logic functions
at this stage of their development. Their level of complexity is generally lower than for semiconductor or
thin-film integrated circuits, but recent developments
in thin-film transistors promise a wider range of circuits
using TFT active devices for linear functions. The application of "pure" electronic circuits will continue to
attract the efforts of the creative engineer interested
in smaller, more efficient equipment.
Summary
While high-density packaging concepts and the solid block circuit approach both promise a great deal, it
seems that the immediate future will see increased use
of integrated circuits using a combination of semiconductor, solid-state, and thin-film techniques.
It is difficult, even dangerous, to make firm predictions that will define the course microelectronic circuits
will take within the next few years. It's fairly safe, however, to suggest that the very rapid development of these
interesting devices over the past few years has just
begun to provide the industry with higher reliability,
reduced size, and lower cost. Concerning microcircuits,
you haven't seen anything, yet.
Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
32
www.americanradiohistory.com
Pictured above is the new ATC MICRO-SET completely adjustable head assembly. Made from heavy castings on precision tooling, the MICRO SET assembly offers easy and positive head adjustments for both height and azimuth with a locking feature capable of holding the adjustments under the most severe operating conditions. The assembly fits all PB, PC and Criterion Series Automatic Tape Control playback machines.
See the
MICRO -SET
head assembly
as well as the
complete line
of ATC
automatic
programming
equipment
in operation
at the NAB
Convention in
Washington, D.C.
March 21-24.
Circle Item
17 on Tech
Visit Booth 309
Sheraton Park
Hotel...
AUTOMATIC
1107
E.
TAPE CONTROL
Croxton Ave., Bloomington, Illinois
Data Card
March, 1965
33
www.americanradiohistory.com
A SOLID-STATE
AUDIO SWITCHING SYSTEM
Have you ever wished for the
equivalent of a latching push-button
switch bank which can be remotely
actuated? Have you ever needed an
audio switching device which produced a fade-in or fade-out instead
of an abrupt switch? Have you ever
lost a commercial or a program because of dirty switch or relay contacts? Chances are you have encountered these problems at one
time or another. Here is a system
that has solved these problems and
many more for us at WCKY.
The system is based on two new
electronic components, the optical electronic relay and the silicon controlled rectifier. We used these devices to build a solid-state audio
switcher to feed the outputs of three
cartridge playback units into a single console input, with a rapid cross fade between the inputs.
GATE
by Larry J. Gardner, Chief Engineer,
WCKY, Cincinnati, Ohio-A useful piece
of equipment designed around
some unusual components.
1
-E
60
C
MFD
Fig. 1. Basic circuit of SCR static switch.
Fig. 1 shows a basic circuit for
an SCR static switch. Being anxiou3
to experiment, we ordered a few
small SCR's and wired up some
breadboard circuits. To our delight,
we found that five or six stages of
this kind of static switch worked
very well so long as the series capacitance between the anodes of any
AUHIO
OUTPUT
1K
6oce
1000 MFD
15
-
WVDC
.Lv
1000MFD
15 WVDC
'
1000 MFO
15
WVDC
_J
1K
IK
loon
100n
AUDIO INPUT
NO
(
1N482A
1
1N482A
1DDn
AUDIO INPUT
7
NO
2N1595
4.7K
MFD
-I(
O5
Z
1N482A
I(
I(
05 MFD
1N482AI
AUDIO INPUT
NO 2
3MFD
2N1595
.05
MFD.
8
MFD
i2N1595
-I(
IN482AT
1N482Á=
4.7K
4. 7K
INDICATOR
LAMPS
TRIGGER
1{
i}3
3{
I
1N3856
114A
117V
60CPS
2.12.6V112A
22(Kí
iL
500MFD
25
05I
=
MFD
1N1774
RESET
NOTE
Fig. 2.
1W
WV
Complete schematic diagram
01, K2, K3- SIGMA FR4L2-I OR EQUIVALENT
of the all -solid-state audio switching unit.
two SCR's was greater than the
value given in Fig. 1. We thus had
a solid-state push-button latching
switch. The next step was to put it
to practical use.
In our air studio, three cartridge
machines fed three console faders;
this sometimes caused operators to
wonder which was which. We
needed a good way to feed these
machines to a single fader. Relay type switchers had been tried, but
they were found to be unsatisfactory because their abrupt switching
didn't harmonize with good, tight
production.
Then the optical -electronic relay
came to mind. This little device
contains a small lamp adjacent to
one or two cadmium-sulphide photocells. The entire assembly is sealed
in a light -tight box about the size
of a sugar cube. When voltage is
applied to the lamp, the resistance
of the photocells drops from over
ten megohms to less than 500 ohms.
But, unlike in ordinary relays, the
"contact" resistance of this unit can
be adjusted to any value between
the extremes simply by adjusting
the lamp voltage. Thus, by usjng
suitable RC networks the designer
can produce almost any desired
fade-in or fade-out characteristic.
Fig. 2 shows the final result of
our work, a three -stage static switch
in which the lamps in the optical electronic relays are the loads. The
audio passes through both photocells in each relay to maintain a
balanced audio-circuit configuration.
A few well chosen capacitors and
resistors provide a fade-in time of
about one -tenth second and a one second fade-out time. A few isolating diodes and a good power supply
complete the design.
The operation of the unit is as
follows: First, referring again to
Fig. 1, when power is first applied,
neither SCR is conducting, and ca -
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
34
www.americanradiohistory.com
IMITATED
DUPLICATED!BUT
N
ANOTHER KEY TO ..
.
immiammi
S ABTA
"Imitation is the sincerest
flattery"- Chas. Caleb Colton
SUCC1r
13
-
lave you noticed that when a good idea rcaI y tills a need
how fast it is imitated?
We expect imitations..
our products are that good
and we are proud of our
industry leadership. But remember, when imitations of SPARTA innovations are released, be sure to carefully check quality, features, service and price. You'll find they
just don't compare with SPARTA'S time -tested originals!
.
...
.
THE SPARTA BP -11 PORTABLE
CARTRIDGE PLAYBACK
Completely Transistorized
Full Fidelity Speaker
Battery Powered
THE A -50B PORTABLE STUDIO
You are Cordially Invited
To See These Products As Well
As Sparta's Complete Line Of
Broadcast Equipment
In Booth No. 319
At The Sheraton Park Hotel,
N.A.B. Convention,
March 21-24
SPARTA A-20
No R.S.V.P. Required. We're
Always Happy To See You!
% PA
AUDIO CONSOLE
See this and other
new SPARTA products
at the N.A.B. show.
TA
Circle Item
ELECTRONIC CORPORATION
6450 FREEPORT BLVD.
18 on Tech
SACRAMENTO, CALIF. 95822
Data Card
March, 1965
35
www.americanradiohistory.com
Just What Does
TV
Computer Programmer Do?
a
First thing it does is go to work saving
ing station personnel for more productive
money-if it's Tarzian's new Automatic
effort. APT speaks your language, too. All
this solid state workhorse needs to go into
Programmer for Television (APT). APT
starts paying its own way immediately by
eliminating make goods caused by operator error. It can't get flustered-can't
panic. Prime time, or any time.
With
a
Tarzian computer programmer,
...
faster. At
productions run smoother
APT's command, intricate combinations
of switches, fades, dissolves, supers, pre rolls, previews, etc. are executed precisely
as required by your programming.
With
NO mistakes. And all automatically, free -
action is the information right off your
program log. No confusing translation into
computer lingo. And anyone who can read
the log can load it into the computer. It's
really that simple.
APT is a true computer-not just an
automation switcher. It was designed
solely for television-not modified from
some other use. It's all solid state. It interfaces readily with existing equipment.
And, it costs less than
VTR.
REM
C3
First computer programmer
a
ri
designed specifically for
S2
YiA
A call or letter brings our
APT3
television by a major television manufacturer.
brochure with all the details.
PC
Cl
SARKES
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT DIVISION
NET
TA
R Z I A N
BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA
Circle Item 22 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
36
www.americanradiohistory.com
pacitor C assumes no charge. When
a small positive -going pulse is applied to the gate of SCR1, the SCR
conducts, and full supply voltage is
applied to load 1. Capacitor C then
charges through load 2 to full supply voltage. Then, when a trigger
pulse is applied to the gate of SCR2,
C is in effect placed across SCR1.
This causes the current through
SCR1 to fall below the holding
value, and this SCR is turned off.
The same kind of switching action
occurs in the three-stage unit in
MOSELEY ASSOCIATES INC.
VISIT US
AT BOOTH
237
REMOTE PICK-UP
N.A.B.
CONVENTION
EQUIPMENT
Fig. 2.
The fade-in time is determined
by the 100 -ohm resistors and the
1000-mfd capacitors. The fade-out
time depends on the same capacitors and the 1000 -ohm resistance
of the lamps in the relays. The"
1N482A diodes in series with the
SCR's prevent the timing capacitors
from discharging through the 24volt indicator lamps. Other diodes
in the gate circuits provide the correct triggering signal. The unit is
operated by connecting the trigger
terminals to the auxiliary -start terminals on the cartridge machines
or to extra contacts on the machine
start switches. The indicator lamps
used were part of the illuminated
remote-start pushbuttons.
Two power -supply outputs are
provided: an 18 -volt output for the
indicator lamps and an 11 -volt regulated output for the 12 -volt relay
lamps (to insure long life). A reset
button is provided to turn off all
SCR's, and the audio inputs and
outputs are terminated to maintain
proper impedance matching. The
unit has an "on" insertion loss of
about 10 db.
Three of these units have been
constructed and are going strong,
and we are constantly dreaming up
new applications for the basic circuit. So far, however, we haven't
been able to use it to switch our
directional antenna system. Anybody know where to get a 50-kilowatt photocell?
SPECIFICATIONS:
response:
50-10,000 cps
±2
solid state power supply/control head
automatic leveling & peak limiter
microphone & line inputs
dual channel operation
db
distortion: Less than 1.6%
SNR:
50 db
selectivity: 100 db @ ±15 kc/s
ALSO
-
BE SURE
TO SEE OUR
942-952 mc/s aural STL - mono and stereo systems
10 watt FM Exciter - 50 watt FM Transmitter
stereo and SCA generators
AND INTRODUCING:
ALL SOLID-STATE 21 channel remote control system . . . for
use over single voice quality wire line or STL. Ideal for AM,
FM, or TV transmitters.
Visit Booth 237 and discuss
with our engineers the application of our equipment
to your needs.
STANCIL-HOFFMAN CORP.
MINITAPE PROFESSIONAL BATTERY
Operated Portable Recorder, Mono Stereo.
Synchronous.
MAGNETIC FILM RECORDERS, Single
and Multi -Channel, 16, 17%, 35 MM.
BROADCAST LOGGING Recorders, Slow
Speed Single Channel to 32 Channels.
HIGH SPEED TAPE DUPLICATORS for
Full, Half and Two Track Stereo Duplication.
921 N. Highland Ave., Hollywood 38, Calif.
90X 3192
CALIFORNIA
Telephone
Area Code 805
957-0424
P.
0
-
SANTA BARBARA,
Circle Item
March, 1965
31 on
Tech Data Card
37
www.americanradiohistory.com
THIS IS THE TURNING POINT IN TELEVISION TAPE PRODUCTION:
The days of updating are over. The days of
television tape recorder performance inadequate to the demands of teleproduction are
over. The days of equipment performance
Mc. The VR -2000 is revolutionary in execution: the
new criteria called for the development of a completely
new head assembly, a completely new mechanical
design, a completely new signal electronics system,
inadequate to the demands of color recording are over. The days when you are asked
to pay upwards of sixty thousand dollars for a recorder
that will be technologically bypassed in less than two
years are over. Now
for the first time
there is a
recorder so advanced it can make superb, broadcast for the
qua lity third generation color copies. Now
first time there is a recorder capable of producing
superb, broadcast -quality fourth generation black-and white dubs. The VR -2000 is revolutionary in conception:
Ampex engineers made an exhaustive mathematical
re-examination of the signal handling theory which had
been the basis for all the recorders developed in the
last nine years. Result: a new standard utilizing a new
high -band carrier/deviation frequency of 7.06 to 10.0
with built-in Intersynct television signal synchronization. Result: a recorder with a S/N ratio up to 46 db.; a
basic frequency response to six megacycles depending
on standard used; a transient response "K" Factor of
less than 2%; moire so minimal as to be virtually
nonexistent. Result: a recorder which provides a total
teleproduction capability that even includes frame -byframe animation (when equipped with the exclusive
Ampex Editec* System). Result: a recorder that delivers
picture quality that has to be seen to be believed.
Result: a recorder that marks the turning point of
what can only be called a new era in television tape
technology. Term financing and leasing available. For
complete information call your Ampex representative or
write: Ampex Corp., 401 Broadway, Redwood City, Calif.
-
-
-
-
THIS IS THE TURNING POINT IN TELEVISION TAPE RECORDING:
www.americanradiohistory.com
M
Broadcast Engineering
Preview of the 1965 NAB
Convention and Engineering Conference
Editorial Comment
40
Welcome From the NAB Manager
of Engineering-George Bartlett
The Shape
41
of Broadcasting
Worldwide-Lawrence J. Cervone
42
Engineering Conference Agenda
48
Exhibit Hall Floor Plan
50
List of Exhibitors
52
Show and Related News
..
___.
Preview of New Products
The 1965 NAB Convention and Engineering
54
55
Conference-March 21-24,
Shortham and Sheraton -Park Hotels, Washington, D. C.
www.americanradiohistory.com
1965,
An Editorial Comment
From BROADCAST ENGINEERING
All of us associated with broadcasting
know from our daily experience that
this is a vigorous, dynamic industry.
Changes in audience demands bring
about changes in programming, which
in turn force the development of new
techniques and new equipment. Changing economic factors often exert an important influence on the technological
evolution of broadcasting. Conversely,
new technological advances make possible new concepts in programing and
bring into being new economic forces;
the development of television provides
a somewhat spectacular example of this
fact.
The influence of the broadcasting industry on the social, political, and economic state of modern civilization cannot be overestimated, and the responsibility of those in broadcasting is thus
enormous. The contribution of the
broadcast engineer to his industry is
vital; without him there would be no
facilities, no maintenance-no broadcasting. Each technical person is therefore obligated to keep himself informed
of new trends and developments in
broadcast technology. To do less would
be to cheat himself and all those who
depend on his services.
For the broadcast engineer, the annual NAB Convention provides an opportunity to examine and discuss the
latest hardware and to hear and discuss
the newest ideas. The most modern designs in automatic programmers and
loggers, transmitters, audio gear, camera
equipment, solid-state microwave equipment-everything from the microphone
and the camera lens to the antennawill be arrayed on the exhibit floor for
your inspection. A number of technical
papers will be presented during the Engineering Conference.
But keeping informed must be a yearround activity. It is the function of
BROADCAST ENGINEERING to keep
you readers informed of what is-and
what will be-new in the area of broadcast technology. We also provide a medium of exchange for ideas and solutions to the everyday technical problems
that face every broadcaster. But our
obligation to our readers does not stop
there. It is also necessary for us to provide information of a more underlying
nature to add to the store of knowledge
of engineering personnel at all levels. To
do this we seek out and enlist the services of the most qualified authors and
reporters available. We strive always to
make the editorial pages of this journal
as informative and as valuable to our
readers as is humanly possible.
Many changes have occurred in
broadcasting over the years. In radio,
FM broadcasting has achieved an important place in the industry, and stereophonic broadcasting is now a routine
service from many FM stations. The use
of directional antennas has become
almost the rule rather than the exception in AM broadcasting. Television has
progressed from the scanning disc to allelectronic compatible color. And yet,
all these changes are but forerunners of
things to come. Round-the -world television by satellite is almost here. Solidstate equipment is bound to increase in
use; the use of microelectronic techniques will bring about entirely new concepts in equipment design and applications. Who can predict what other as
yet unforeseen developments may occur
to revolutionize broadcast technology?
Whatever the future developments may
be, you will know about them, because
BROADCAST ENGINEERING will report them to you promptly, clearly, concisely, and accurately.
ç îf'ß
-40www.americanradiohistory.com
Welcome to the I9th NAB
BROADCAST ENGINEERING CONFERENCE
by George W. Bartlett,
NAB Manager of Engineering
For 19 consecutive years, the National
Association of Broadcasters has endeavored to provide the engineering
fraternity of our great industry with a
forum where one can see, hear, and he
associated with the latest broadcast techniques and developments currently being unveiled. This forum is the NAB
Broadcast Engineering Conference which
is held in conjunction with the NAB
Annual Convention, whose main curtain
will rise at 10:30 sharp on the morning
of March 22, 1965, in Washington, D. C.
Each year, our gathering seems to be
in the "bigger and better" category. Each
year, past attendance figures are broken,
better sessions are held, and more equipment is on display. It is a public-relations man's dream, as an inexhaustible
supply of superlatives is needed to extol
the size and grandeur of the passing
parade.
The never-ending firsts which are
associated with the conference seem to
go on and on, and references to past
programs and news releases are indicative of the forward advances constantly
being made in broadcast engineering.
Video tape, cartridge tape, automation,
and electronic set counting are but a
few of the revolutionary new developments which have been unveiled at past
conventions-developments which have
all but changed the face of broadcasting.
Broadcast engineering is a dynamic
and challenging activity in which innovations are constantly coming to fruition, producing drastic changes in our
methods of operation. It is a challenging
field which requires aggressive leadership and forward thinking
especially
in today's highly competitive marketplace operating within the confines of
our free enterprise system.
The Broadcast Engineering Conference
...
attempts to provide not only a focal
point for technical innovations but also a
medium for the exchange of ideasideas which, when discussed in a conducive atmosphere, will eventually add
to our ever-expanding storehouse of
knowledge.
It is with this background that I take
this opportunity on behalf of the Association to welcome you to the 19th
Broadcast Engineering Conference-a
Conference star-studded with new ideas,
new equipment, and unbounded vibrance
and vitality, a Conference which is dedicated to the broadcast engineer and the
broadcast engineer alone. There is no
other gathering in the free world that
provides one with such a golden
opportunity.
At the Conference, you will hear approximately 27 technical papers on subjects covering the gamut from microphone to antenna, from camera to transmitter. An FCC technical panel, which
will answer all your questions on virtually any engineering subject, three
engineering luncheons featuring the finest speakers obtainable, plus the usual
socializing so necessary to the exchange
of ideas, help round out the program.
Thousands of square feet of exhibit
space will be devoted to the largest display of technical broadcast equipment
ever assembled under one roof
to be
examined, inspected, evaluated, praised.
or criticized.
Once again, welcome to your Engineering Conference. The program was
planned by your Conference Committee
with you specifically in mind and was
tailor-made to fit your every need. I
hope you will take maximum advantage
of its every opportunity and carry back
to those at home the knowledge and experiences gained at this gathering.
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...
THE SHAPE OF BROADCASTING
WORLDWIDE
by Lawrence J. Cervone*-In today's
shrinking world it is becoming more
and more important for the broadcaster
to know what his neighbors are doing.
Nobody knows better than the American broadcaster how great is radio as an
instrument for communication between
peoples. No matter where man goes in
the world, he is potentially within reach
of broadcasting. The size and composition of the audience that can be reached
by a single broadcast staggers the imagination.
The marvel of television has added
sight to sound, and not long ago viewers
in New York watched the opening of
the Olympic Games in Tokyo, This inspiring event confirms the coming of
world television in full color, with all
"This article has been adapted from an
address given before the Oregon Association of Broadcasters November 17, 1964,
by Mr. Cervone, who is Vice -President Operations of the Gates Radio Company,
Quincy, Illinois, a Subsidiary of Harris
Intertype Corporation. This adaptation
reflects changes in the world broadcasting picture that have occurred since the
speech was originally given.
the diversity and enrichment it will hold
for viewers of the future. As such technological advances continue, it will become increasingly important for all of us
in broadcasting to be aware of the shape
of radio and TV in the world outside
our 50 states.
Most of us have participated in and
know the current status of radio and
TV here in the United States. We are
fortunate in being a part of an industry
which, although subjected to government
control, is not government run. The fact
is that, with few exceptions, where broadcasting is inspired by competitive factors,
it has grown to provide fairly good and
diversified service to the people. This applies to programming as well as to the
adequacy of stations. Our competitive
system is very different from any other
almost anywhere in the world. But there
is a changing atmosphere, a trend toward
commercial sponsorship of radio and TV
programs in many countries of the world.
This could be significant for us all.
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Radio Around the World
Three different methods of radio
broadcasting are in general use throughout the world. The most common method is amplitude modulation (AM), mainly
in the frequency band of 540 kc to 1600
kc. This system is, of course, the basis
for our U. S. system. It is used in Europe
and Latin America for domestic broadcasting and, as here, is overcrowded in
all civilized areas. In Europe, many high power AM stations also operate in the
long -wave band from 150 kc to 450 kc.
There are about 40 such stations with
powers up to 500 kw scattered around
France, Germany, Scandinavia, middle
Europe, and Russia.
The second method is short-wave
broadcasting in the band extending from
2 to about 30 mc. The lower portion of
this band is used for domestic broadcasting in tropical areas where high atmospheric noise levels limit the service area
of medium -wave stations. Most of the
short-wave band, however, is used for
long-range foreign service and for internal broadcasting by countries which
extend over large distances, such as
Indonesia.
With few exceptions, high-power shortwave broadcasting is nearly always government controlled because the programs
are for foreign consumption and can
affect the nation's foreign relations.
Growing in use everywhere in the
world is the third method, frequency
modulation (FM). This system provides
an essentially interference -free high-fidelity signal. Because of the line-of -sight
transmission characteristics that prevail at
Fig.
1..
Radio coverage around the world.
the frequencies used for FM, this method
permits better use to be made of the frequency spectrum. The movement to FM
is most pronounced in Europe. In Germany there are 155 FM stations versus
83 AM; Great Britain has 160 FM versus
96 AM; Sweden has 74 FM versus 65
AM. FM is also gaining use in South
and Central America.
World Radio Coverage
The pictorial radio -coverage map (Fig.
shows that today there are about
13,000 radio stations in the world and
over 400 million receivers. The U. S. is
better served by radio than any other
country in the world. About half of the
radio stations and half of the radio sets
are in the U. S. and Canada, another
third are in Europe and North America,
and the remaining sixth are scattered
over Asia, Africa, South America, and
the Near East.
In the United States we have 100 radio
sets per 100 people. In Asia the ratio is
two sets per 100 people. Near the bottom
of the scale is Sudan with only 16,000
1)
Table 1. Tabulation of Worldwide Radio Coverage.
Wired
Sets
Speakers AM, LF, & FM
(sets per
(millions)
100 people)
(millions)
93
40
6
Europe
USSR
_
Asia ____
Australia & Oceania_
15
15
31
36
2
7
3
19
Africa
5
31/2
South America
18
11
North America
198
.2
44.2
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1200
250
350
2000
6000
75
368
Stations
2700
400
12900
sets for a population of 10 million-less
than one set per 100 people.
Worldwide, there are about 370 million radio sets and about 44 million
wired speakers in use (Table 1).
Europe
-
In England, BBC operates all radio
96 AM and 160 FM stations. Even
though in 1962 the Pilkington report
recommended that this BBC monopoly
be retained and that no advertising be
accepted on radio, the pressure is on
Parliament to authorize low -power com-
mercial AM stations for local coverage.
Unlicensed operators of so-called "Pirate
Ships" are reported to serve 39 million
listeners in England with commercially
sponsored programs. There are now four
such ships operating in the Irish Sea and
the North Sea, and a fifth ship, now
being equipped to transmit with 50,000
watts of power, will be managed by
personnel experienced in U. S. network
advertising sales and operation. The
Council of Europe has the entire subject of broadcasting from International
waters on its next meeting agenda.
Recently relocated to a new 40 -million -dollar circular Radio center in Paris,
French broadcasting has four networks
(2 AM, 1 FM, and the short-wave external service) all directed by a government -sponsored monopoly (RTF) under
the authority of the Ministry of Information. There are no commercials of any
sort on the French radio.
Germany has 155 FM and 83 AM
transmitters operated by 11 public corporations drawing their revenue from
licensing fees and, to a very limited extent, from commercial advertising.
In Italy, RAI, a national network responsible to the Ministry of Ports and
Telecommunications, owns and operates
all 133 AM and 1000 FM stations (mostly
low -power repeaters). Advertising time is
limited to restricted periods but represents 5% of total air time.
A very profitable operation in the
Principality of Luxembourg is Radio
Luxembourg, a privately owned company
whose revenue is derived solely from advertising. Broadcasts on AM and FM are
in Dutch, German, French, and English.
It is reported that the radio station is
the nation's second largest industry.
In Russia, a country where wired loudspeakers have traditionally been more
important than private sets, there has
been an increase in the number of individual radios from 9 million in 1957 to
about 15 million today. However, about
31 million wired loudspeakers are still in
use, and radio listening is marked by the
extensive use of redistribution. About 1
million radio sets per year are produced
by the Soviet radio industry. Radio, of
course, is all government controlled, and
domestic programs in 64 languages are
beamed via 400 AM stations.
Africa
Ethiopia has only five transmitters
with a total power of 30 kw for domestic
and overseas services. Two 100 -kw and
one 50 -kw medium -wave stations, gifts
from the U. S., will go on the air for
domestic coverage in 1965.
Radio in South Africa means SABC.
This is a public utility chartered by the
government; some commercials are allowed. Most significant is the program
of converting all radio to FM by 1970.
There will be a total of 485 FM transmitters providing full national coverage
in up to six languages.
Unique and outstanding in Africa is
Radio Clube de Mozambique, which is
a commercial radio service having 20
transmitters and three networks. In a
sense it is the national radio service for
this Portuguese Colony.
South America
-
In Colombia, there are about 200 stations divided into three groups
stateowned, cultural, and commercial. The
most outstanding feature is Accion Cultural Popular (ACP), a private educational enterprise which broadcasts courses
to elementary schools and to 200,000
listener groups in the early morning and
in the evening.
Who would have guessed that Brazil,
a nation of 80 million persons has more
transmitters than any other country in
the world except the U. S.? There are
about 1000 stations (5% FM), and almost all of them are privately owned.
The government does regulate advertising, but all operating income is derived
from commercials.
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The Far East
Japan has two systems. NHK, a chartered public corporation (268 stations),
carries no advertising. The 126 privately
owned commercial stations are nearly all
linked to local newspaper groups.
In the Portuguese colony of Macao,
off the Coast of China, a privately owned
commercial station broadcasts in Portuguese and Chinese. The operation consists of two medium-wave stations; a new
20 -kw DA will be on the air soon. Revenue is totally from advertising.
In Viet Nam, high priority is being
given to the use of radio for psychological warfare. There are a new 50 -kw
medium -wave station in the north, a 50 kw AM station in Saigon, and a complete
broadcasting system of about 15 stations
supplied by the U. S. AID is supplying
125,000 low-cost home radios to sell for
less than $14 each. Radio is controlled
by the Ministry of Information.
AFRTS
The Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) operates about
140 radio stations in Korea, Greenland,
Japan, Libya, Ethiopia, Germany, and
wherever we have overseas bases. In
Spain, the five AFRTS stations use 1 -kw
FM transmitters.
Television Coverage
And now a quick review of the status
of television. Although VHF is predominant today, UHF is growing rapidly in
Europe, as we shall see later. However,
first it is important to note that VHF
TV broadcasting utilizes five different
and incompatible standards:
1. British -405 lines.
2. NTSC-525 lines. Used in the U. S.,
Latin America, Japan, the Philippines,
Saudi Arabia, and Thailand.
3. CCIR-625 lines. Used in Western
Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia.
4. OIRT-625 lines. Used in Iron Curtain countries.
5. French-819 lines. Used in France
and parts of Africa.
Fig. 2. Television coverage over the world.
Another specially prepared pictorial
map (Fig. 2) illustrates the shape of television. There are about 1900 TV stations
not counting satellites and repeaters, and
3800 altogether. The world total of TV
receivers is 140 million. Operating TV
stations, both VHF and UHF, are on
the air in 90 countries of the world.
Increases have been spectacular when
one considers that in 1950 there were
only 150 transmitters in just a few
countries and only 11 million sets.
About 50% of the TV sets in use are
in the U. S. Turkey, a country of 20
million, has only one station and 1000
sets. India, with 430 million people, has
one station and 900 sets. Pakistan, with
about 75 million people, has no stations
and no sets.
Out of the approximately 120 independent nations of the world, 85 have
TV stations, and only about 35 do not.
The "have-nots" include major countries,
such as Greece, Pakistan, and the Union
of South Africa. However, there are
many other areas, classified as protectorates, colonies, and possessions, which
do have TV. These include Curacao,
Malta, Aden, Gibraltar, and Okinawa.
Africa
Zambia, one of the newest African
countries, may soon get a new TV station through U. S. aid. Many of the
newer nations start TV service with lowpower (100 -watt or so) transmitters. Such
has been the case in Ghana, Sierra
Leone, Sudan, Enugu, East Nigeria, and
Kaduna, North Nigeria. In South Africa
the government has been resisting pressure for TV service; there still isn't any.
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Table 2. Tabulation of Worldwide Television Coverage.
Sets
Sets
*Main
(millions)
Per 100 people
43
10
9
4
Europe
USSRAsia
14
Australia & Oceania_
1/2
8
2
Africa
1/3
South America
4
68
North America
TV Stations
600
nil
11/2
25
140 1/3
*Excluding low -power satellites and repeaters, of which there are 1500
220 in the USSR, and 150 in Japan.
The Middle East
Since 1957, the Arabian American Oil
Company has been operating a 12 -kw
(ERP) station (on U. S. standards) in
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. A 500 -watt repeater is also in service. Now the Saudi
Arabian government plans a national TV
service and has contracted with the U. S.
Army Engineers to construct two new
stations as the nucleus of a nationwide
12 -station chain.
In oil -rich Kuwait, a TV service was
started in 1961 with a 100 -watt transmitter. At the outset, TV programs were
restricted to readings from the Koran,
current events, news, and cultural films.
Today there are three stations, two on
U. S. standards and one on CCIR.
Latin America
The Caribbean area has provided U. S.
broadcasters with opportunities to make
investments by actual ownership participation or management contracts. As an
example, three TV stations in Haiti,
Curacao, and Aruba were built by and
initially were operated by Gerald Bartell
as commercial enterprises. The ABC network has 35% ownership of TVCR in
San Jose, Costa Rica, and minority interests in stations in other Central American countries, Venezuela, and the Philippines. CBS announced in its 1964 Annual
Stockholders Report that it had acquired
an interest in a new TV station to be
built in Antigua, British West Indies, and
130
160
40
30
90
800
1850
in Europe,
that it had interests in a channel 2 facility serving Trinidad and Tobago.
In Chile, three educational television
stations, two in Santiago and one in Valparaiso, are operated by universities.
Europe
In England, the second BBC TV network, called BBC -2, is on the air with
one station out of a planned 64. Eight
more will go on the air in 1965. This
second BBC TV network is UHF only
and operates on the CCIR 625 -line standard. England has a commercial TV service called ITA (Int'l. Television Authority), which is now reported to be getting
65% of the total audience. Ultimately
BBC -1 (VHF) and ITA (VHF) may be
forced to duplicate programs on UHF to
facilitate exchange of programs over the
Eurovision network without the necessity for standards conversion. Also, color
programming, when approved, has been
slated for UHF only.
The mention of color brings to mind
that here again there is world-wide chaos
on standards. England and Western
Europe are expected to adopt a color
standard in the March 1965 Vienna Conference. Three standards are proposed:
A. NTSC-Used in the U.S. and Japan.
B. SECAM-French system.
C. PAL-A German system.
The English are leaning toward the
NTSC system, but this will cause problems if the rest of Western Europe
adopts SECAM.
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TV is growing rapidly worldwide, and
there is a trend toward commercial support in Western Europe. Today seven
countries permit advertising: England,
Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Austria,
Finland, and Monaco. In France, TV is
a state monopoly, and a noncommercial
policy prevails. West Germany has two
extensive TV networks (1 UHF) with
5% of the time allocated for advertising.
A third network (to be all UHF) is under
construction.
Holland has a complex arrangement
in which five separate companies run a
national noncommercial TV service. In
September 1964, a commercial TV station, called "REM," began operating on
a "Texas Tower" off the coast of Holland. Due to strong pressure, the Dutch
legislature passed a law permitting Dutch
military and police forces to invade the
station, and it was forced off the air
even though its operation was in international waters.
Switzerland has a national noncommercial system, but providing adequate
programs in three languages became
costly, and the Swiss government passed
a bill permitting commercial TV. Commercial television service, with advertising confined to specific periods, will
start soon.
In Scandinavia, only Finland has commercial TV on its 25 -station system,
which includes about 10 low-power repeaters. Sweden has a large nation-wide
TV service of about 75 stations, all
owned by the Swedish Board of Telecommunications.
In Russia, the TV system of about 130
stations and 200 relay centers is linked
via the Intervision Network with Iron
Curtain countries and, through Finland,
with Western Europe. By means of this
hookup, Soviet TV can be seen in 23
countries. There are 9 million TV sets
in Russia.
The Pacific
In American Samoa, a three-station
educational VHF TV network, authorized by a two -million -dollar grant by
Congress, is now in operation.
In Australia, as in Canada, a government system of TV stations (18) operates
side -by-side with commercial stations
(28). The system seems to work. Commercial stations devote 60% to 70% of
their time to filmed material from the
the United States.
Then there is Japan, where the number of TV sets in use is second to the
number in the U. S. and larger than the
number in Great Britain. As in radio,
there are two systems, the government owned Japan Broadcasting Company of
70 stations and about 60 privately owned
commercial stations. Although commercial TV in Japan resembles the U. S.
system more than any other, there is a
basic difference-a Japanese company is
allowed to own only one TV station.
Worldwide Services
As in radio, AFRTS has extensive TV
service in every part of the world where
U. S. servicemen are stationed. The
world's most northerly located TV station is the AFRTS operation in Thule,
Greenland. The latest are two stations
added to the Korean six-station network.
AFRTS has TV stations (mainly 100 and 500-watt) in the Panama Canal
Zone, in Tripoli, in Ethiopia, in Saudi
Arabia, and on Okinawa. It operates
UHF stations in Japan, Germany, and
Puerto Rico (5 total).
Rediffusion, formed in 1928 to operate
broadcast relay systems in England,
today operates overseas broadcasting
services with transmitters covering a population of 12,500,000. TV stations are
operated in Hong Kong, Malta, the
Ivory Coast, and other areas of British
influence.
Conclusion.
After these observations of radio and
television on a rather fast "excursion"
around the world, some conclusions become obvious. First is the growing trend
toward commercial operation. Perhaps
more significant is the fact that millions
of people in vast areas of the world have
little or no modern means of communication or entertainment.
Broadcasters must make every effort
to supply the best possible broadcast
facilities and programs. Every opportunity must be taken to improve broadcasting as a means of communication
between the diverse peoples of the world.
Radio and TV influence our lives to a
much greater extent than most of us
realize, yet one is still an infant and the
other is still a child. We are in a young
industry, and the promise for the future
is bright.
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19th NAB Broadcast Engineering Conference
Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C.
10:30 AM
12:30 PM
Monday, March 22
Joint session with management for opening
of convention.
Engineering Conference Luncheon-Frank
L. Marx, President, ABC Engineers, American Broadcasting Company, presiding.
Speaker to be announced.
Monday Afternoon
William S. Duttera, Director, Allocations Engineering, National Broadcasting Company, presiding. Eldon Kanago, Chief
Engineer, Radio Station KICD, Spencer, Iowa, Session Coordinator.
2:30- 2:40 PM Opening of the 19th Broadcast Engineering
Conference-Vincent T. Wasilewski, Presi2:40- 2:55 PM
3:00- 3:25 PM
4:00- 4:25 PM
dent, NAB.
NAB Engineering Advisory Committee Report-John T. Wilner, Vice President for
Engineering, The Hearst Corporation
(WBAL-WBAL-TV, Baltimore, Md.).
USIA Television Service-Robert C. Smith,
Jr., Chief of Operations, USIA/TV.
Use of Wireless Broadcast Pickup Devices;
A Studio Wireless Cuing System (combined
paper)-CBS.
4:30- 5:00 PM
New Transistorized AGC and Gamma Control Amplifiers-NBC.
Tuesday Morning, March 23
Radio
Leslie S. Learned, Director of Engineering, Mutual Broadcasting System, presiding. R. A. Holbrook, WSB Radio & Television, Atlanta, Georgia, session coordinator.
9:00- 9:25 AM Automation-Past', Present and FutureDon Coulthurst, Director of Engineering,
International Good Music, Inc.
9:30- 9:55 AM Practical Experience Derived from Dual
Polarized FM Antennas-Robert Silliman,
Consulting Engineer.
10:00-10:25 AM Stereophonic Transmissions Via Ranger II
Satellite-Carl R. Rollert, Collins Radio
Company.
10:30-10:55 AM The Use of Test Transmitters for Selecting
AM Transmitter Sites-Vir N. James.
11:00-11:25 AM A New Device for Preventing Over-Modulation-Ralph Haberstock, Gates Radio Co.
The Use of Mobile Radio Telephone Equip11:30-12:00 N
ment in "On -The -Spot" News CoverageNorman C. Colby, Manager of Engineering, RCA.
Television
Clyde M. Hunt, Vice -President for Engineering, Post -Newsweek Stations, Washington, D. C., presiding. Charles L. Jeffers,
Vice -President, Engineering, WOAI Radio & Television, San
Antonio, Texas, session coordinator.
-48www.americanradiohistory.com
9:00- 9:25 AM
9:30- 9:55 AM
10:00-10:25 AM
10:30-10:55 AM
A Simple Trouble -Free Quadruplex VTR
System-Steve Allen, Visual Electronics.
Quartz -Iodine Lighting in TelevisionColorTran Industries.
System Considerations for Paralleling TV
Transmitters-RCA.
Station Break Automation-Ten Years of
Operating Experience-Arthur H. Freilich,
-
11:00-12:00 N
12:30 PM
Vice-President, Chrono-Log Corporation.
Color Camera Panel Frank L. Marx,
Moderator.
Panel members: R. T. Cavanagh, General
Manager of Studio Equipment, North
American Philips Company; R. E. Putnam,
Manager, Audio/Video Development Engineering, General Electric Company; Dr. H.
N. Kozanowski, Radio Corp. of America;
and possibly two additional members.
Engineering Conference Luncheon-Eldon
Kanago, Chief Engineer, Radio Station
KICD, Spencer, Iowa, presiding. Speaker to
be announced.
Tuesday Afternoon-No sessions
Wednesday Morning, March 24
James D. Parker, Director, Transmission Engineering, CBS
Television Network, presiding. Harry B. Whittemore, Director
of Engineering, RKO General Broadcasting, Session Coordinator.
9:00- 9:25 AM The High Band Approach to Teleproduc-
tion-Ampex.
9:30- 9:45 AM
Using a Passive Microwave to Bypass Path
S. Driscoll, Engineering Manager, WOKR-TV.
Gyro-Stabilized Lens System-CBS Television Network.
Empire State Zig -Zag Antenna Installation
F. E. Fisk, General
and Performance
Electric.
ABC Evaluation of SECAM Color Equipment for Video Tape Use-ABC.
FCC Technical Panel-James D. Parker,
Moderator.
Engineering Conference Luncheon-Russell
B. Pope, Director of Engineering, Golden
Empire Broadcasting Co. (Chairman, Broadcast Engineering Conference Committee)
presiding.
Presentation of Engineering Achievement
Award.
Acceptance of Award: Edward W. Allen,
Chief Engineer, Federal Communications
Commission.
Speaker to be announced.
Obstruction-George
9:45- 9:55 AM
10:00-10:25 AM
10:30-10:55 AM
11:00-12:00 N
12:30 PM
2:30 PM
-
Wednesday Afternoon
Joint session with management.
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EXHIBIT HALL FLOOR PLAN
-
Sheraton Park Hotel
1965 NAB Convention
Washington, D.C.
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NAB ASSOCIATE MEMBER EXHIBITORS
1965 NAB Convention
Sheraton -Park Hotel, Washington,
D. C., March 21-24, 1965
Addressograph - Multigraph Corporation,
1200 Babbit Road, Cleveland, Ohio
-307
Adler Educational Systems, Division of
Litton Systems, Inc., One LeFevre
Lane, New Rochelle, New York -302
Albion Optical Company, Inc., 1410
North Van Ness Avenue, Los Angeles,
California 90028-323
Alford Manufacturing Company, 299
Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02110-209
Altec Lansing Corporation, 1515 South
Manchester Avenue, Anaheim, California 92803-211
Ampex Corporation, 401 Broadway,
Redwood City, California 94063-200
Andrew Corporation, P. O. Box 807,
Chicago, Illinois 60642-238
Arriflex Corporation of America, 257
Park Avenue South, New York, New
York 10010-324
Automatic Tape Control, Inc., 1107 East
Croxton, Bloomington, Illinois 61702
-309
Bauer Electronics Corporation, 1663 Industrial Road, San Carlos, California
-318
Boston Insulated Wire & Cable Company, 65 Bay Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02125-224
CBS Laboratories Division, 227 High
Ridge Road, Stamford, Connecticut
242
CCA Electronics Corporation, 716 Jersey Avenue, Gloucester City, Camden
County, New Jersey 08030-322
Century Lighting, Incorporated, 521
West 43rd Street, New York 36, New
York -221
Chrono -Log Corporation, 2583 West
Chester Pike, Broomall, Pennsylvania
-
-308
Cleveland Electronics, Inc., 1974 East
Sixty-First Street, Cleveland, Ohio
44103-227
Cohu Electronics, Inc., Kin Tel Division, P. O. Box 623, San Diego, Cali-
fornia 92112-316
Collins Radio Company, Dallas, Texas
75207-214
Colortran Industries, 630 South Flower
Street, Burbank, California-231
Giannini Controls Corporation, 19217
East Foothill Boulevard, Glendora,
California 91740-102
Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, Indiana-304
Dage Television Company, Division of
Dage-Bell Corporation, 455 Sheridan
Avenue, Michigan City, Indiana 46360
Dresser-Ideco Company, 875 Michigan
Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43215-305
Dynair Electronics, Inc., 6360 Federal
Boulevard, San Diego, California
92114-235
Electronics, Missiles & Communications,
Incorporated, 160 East Third Street,
Mount Vernon, New York 10550243
Fairchild Recording Equipment Corporation, 10-40 45th Avenue, Long
Island City, New York 11101-222
Filmline Corporation, 43 Erna Street,
Milford, Connecticut-306
Fort Worth Tower Company, Inc., 5201
Bridge Street, P. O. Box 8597, Fort
Worth, Texas 76112-301
Gates Radio Company, 123 Hampshire
Street, Quincy, Illinois-223
General Aniline & Film Corporation,
140 West 51st Street, New York, New
York 10020-303
General Electric Company, Electronics
Park, Building 7-Room 315, Syracuse, New York 13201-217, 218
Gotham Audio Corporation, 2 West
46th Street, New York, New York
10036-229
The Harwald Company, Inc., 1245 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Illinois
Houston Fearless Corporation, 11801
West Olympic Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90064
International Good Music, Inc., P. O.
Box 943, Bellingham, Washington
98225-300
Jampro Antenna Company, 6939 Power
Inn Road, Sacramento, California
95828-206
Johnson Electronics, Inc., P. O. Box 7,
Casselberry, Florida -236
Klieg! Brothers Universal Elec. Stage
Lighting Company, Inc., 32-32 48th
Avenue, Long Island City, New York
-52-
11101-101
Lenkurt Electric Company, Inc., 1105
County Road, San Carlos, California
94070
LTV Continental Electronics Division,
4212 South Buckner Boulevard, P. O.
Box 17040, Dallas 17, Texas -213
MaCarTa, Inc., 709 Railroad Avenue,
West Des Moines, Iowa 50265-315
MVR Corporation, DBA Machtronics
Corporation, 470 San Antonio Road,
Palo Alto, California 94306
Marti Electronics, P. O. Box 661 - 105
Poindexter, Cleburne, Texas 76031234
McMartin Industries Incorporated, 605
North 13th, Omaha, Nebraska 68102
-215
Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co.,
2501 Hudson Road, St. Paul, Minnesota 55119-205, 207
Miratel Electronics, Inc., 3600 Richardson Street, St. Paul, Minnesota 55112
-210
Moseley Associates, Inc., P. O. Box 3192
-135 Nogal Drive, Santa Barbara,
California 93105-237
North American Philips Company, Inc.,
100 East 42nd Street, New York, New
York 10017-106
The Nortronics Company, Inc., 8101
Tenth Avenue North, Minneapolis,
Minnesota 55427-202
Q-TV Incorporated, 342 West 40th
Street, New York, New York 10018
-239
Quick-Set, Inc., 8121 Central Park, Skokie, Illinois 60078
Radio Corporation of America, Broadcast & Communications Products Div.,
Front and Cooper Streets, Camden,
New Jersey 08102-100
Raytheon Company, 141 Spring Street,
Lexington, Massachusetts 02173-104
Reeves Soundcraft, Division of Reeves
Industries Incorporated, 15 Great Pasture Road, Danbury, Connecticut
Riker Industries, Inc., Norden Lane,
Huntington Station, New York-220
Rohn Systems Incorporated, P. O. Box
2000, Peoria, Illinois-321
Rust Corporation of America, 195
Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 39,
Massachusetts-225
Schafer Electronics, 235 South Third
Street, Burbank, California -212
Shibaden Corporation of America, 250
West 57th Street, New York, New
York 10019-226
Shure Brothers Incorporated, 222 Hart rey Avenue, Evanston, Illinois-232
Sony Corporation of America, Industrial
Products Division, 580 Fifth Avenue,
New York, New York 10036-320
Sparta Electronic Corporation, 6450
Freeport Boulevard, Sacramento California 95822-319
Standard Electronics Corporation, P. O.
Box 677, Route 33, Manalapan Twn.,
Freehold, New Jersey-103
Sylvania Home & Commercial Electronics Corporation, 730 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10017317
Sarkes Tarzian, Inc., Broadcast Equipment Division, East Hillside Drive,
Bloomington, Indiana-201
Tektronix, Inc., P. O. Box 500, Beaverton, Oregon 97005
Telemet Company, 185 Dixon Avenue,
Amityville, Long Island, New York
-105
TelePro Industries, Inc., Cherry Hill Industrial Center, Cherry Hill, New
Jersey 08034-241
Telequip Corporation, 224 Glen Cove
Avenue, Glen Cove, Long Island, New
York-203
Telesync Corporation, 43 New Street,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey -204
Television Zoomar Company, 500 Fifth
Avenue-Suite 5520, New York 36,
New York -216
Thomson Electric Company, Inc., 50
Rockefeller Plaza-Room 916, New
York, New York 10020-313
Townsend Associates, P. O. Box 2210,
Springfield, Massachusetts 01101
Utility Tower Company, 3200 N. W.
38th Street, P. O. Box 12027, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma -240
Video -Medical Electronics Corporation,
Time & Life Building-Room 4016,
New York, New York 10020
Visual Electronics Corporation, 356
West 40th Street, New York, New
York 10018-107, 108
Vital Industries, 3614 S. W. Archer
Road, Gainesville, Florida
Vitro Electronics, 919 Jesup -Blair Drive,
Silver Spring, Maryland-233
Ward Electronic Industries, Inc., P. O.
Box 1045, Mountainside, New Jersey
07092-312
Whittaker Corporation GENCOM Division, 12838 Saticoy Street, North
Hollywood, California -314
-53-
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SHOW NEWS
Wasilewski is New NAB
President
Vincent T. Wasilewski, new NAB
President, is a 15 -year staff veteran. Mr.
Wasilewski joined the NAB legal staff
in October, 1949, was named Chief
Counsel in February, 1953, and became
manager of government relations in
August, 1955. He was named Vice -President for Government Affairs in June,
1960, and was named Executive Vice President in August, 1961, when the
post was created. In his new post, he
Committee). He is also a member of
the Federal Communications Bar Association and serves on the Committee on
Legislation.
Among his other public service posts
are memberships on the boards of directors of The Hollywood Museum and
the Advertising Federation of America
and on the Advisory Council on Federal
Reports.
He is married to the former Patricia
Callery. They have six children, Jan,
Susan, Catherine, Terese, Thomas, and
James.
B -E
succeeds LeRoy Collins, former governor of Florida, who resigned to accept
a Federal civil rights position.
Mr. Wasilewski was born in Athens.
Illinois, on December 17, 1922. He
entered the University of Illinois, College of Engineering, in 1940, but his
studies were interrupted by World War
II. He served in the U. S. Air Force
from September, 1942, until October,
1945, and returned to the University at
the close of the War. He was awarded
his bachelor's degree in political science
in 1948 and his degree of Doctor of
Jurisprudence the following year. He
was admitted to the Illinois Bar in 1950.
Mr. Wasilewski is a member of Sigma
Phi Epsilon, Phi Alpha Delta (legal
fraternity), Phi Kappa Phi (honorary),
and Order of the Coif (honorary). He
is a member of the American Judicature Society, and, as a member of the
American Bar Association, he serves on
the International & Comparative Law
Section (International Communications
Staff Dinner
Again this year, Forest Belt, Editor
of BROADCAST ENGINEERING, will
host a dinner in Washington for the
members of the B -E headquarters and
Consulting Author staffs in attendance
at the NAB Convention. At last year's
dinner, informative talks were given by
James A. Milling, President of Howard
W. Sams and Company, Inc., and Robert G. Weston, Executive Secretary of
the Committee for the Full Development of All -Channel Broadcasting. An
equally interesting program is being
planned for this year's get-together.
To Receive Award
The recipient of the 1965 NAB Engineering Achievement Award will be
Edward W. Allen, Chief Engineer of the
Federal Communications Commission.
Presentation of the award will be made
during the Engineering Conference
luncheon on Wednesday, March 24.
-54-
PREVIEW OF NEW PRODUCTS
The newest advances in broadcast
equipment and techniques will be reflected in the booths on the exhibit floor
at the 1965 NAB Convention and Engineering Conference. To give you an
idea of what to expect and what to look
for, we have again this year compiled a
listing of new products to be introduced
at the NAB Convention.
Automation Equipment
Automation continues to find increasapplication in broadcasting. Both
radio and television automation equipment will be in evidence again this year.
ing
Aitken Communications, Inc.
Highlights of the display will be a
new, simple control system for broadcast automation. A complete working
unit is to be shown.
use with any commonly available remote control panel.
Chrono -Log Corp.
This year two new units will be shown.
One is an interface system for connecting the company's step system to the TV
station equipment. Also displayed will be
a studio digital clock system. The latter
equipment is said to be accurate within
one second per year. The device features
remote digital readouts of time in hours,
minutes, and seconds.
Bauer Electronics Corp.
New additions to the Bauer line include the Model 910 solid-state console
(monophonic and stereophonic) and the
Model 605 5 -kw FM transmitter. Automation equipment will be presented in
the form of the newly introduced Model
950A time -delay programmer and Model
440A automatic logging equipment.
Audio and Radio
Those interested in audio and radio
equipment will, as always, find a profusion of modern equipment. Here are
some samples.
r
American Electronic
Laboratories, Inc.
The AEL booth will show the Model
FM -7.5KÁ, a 7500 -watt FM transmitter.
Features include overload recycling,
block-type solid state rectifiers, fast operating overload relays, and audio
response uniform within ±.5 db from
30 to 15,000 cps. Provision is made for
Belar Electronics Lab
FM broadcasters will find items of interest in the Belar exhibit. To be shown
are the FMM-1 FM modulation monitor,
the FMS -1 stereo modulation-monitor
adapter, the FME-10 solid-state serrasoid
FM exciter, and the SG -1 solid-state
stereo generator. This equipment will be
used in a demonstration of stereo proof of -performance measurements.
Fairchild Recording Equipment Corp.
Among the new products will be a
radio production desk that includes a
-55www.americanradiohistory.com
six -input mixing system with equalizers,
compressors, and reverberation. Also introduced will be the "Maximizer," a
device for overload protection and the
creation of apparent loudness effects
through "frequency shaping."
put impedances of 250 and 10,000 ohms
are provided.
The Norelco booth will have a working display of television studio equipment. The plumbicon color camera will
be included in the display.
Gates Radio Co.
Two new solid-state remote audio amplifiers, the two-channel Courier 70 and
the three -channel Attache 70 (illustrated),
will be shown. The Courier 70 accommodates two low -impedance microphones,
is housed in a vinyl -clad steel case, and
provides 300 -hour battery life. The Attache 70 features a self-contained tone
oscillator and switchable inputs for phono
cartridges, tape recorders, etc. A separate
PA feed with gain control and an illumi-
nated horizontal meter are included.
Moseley Associates, Inc.
For stations using remote control, a
transistor remote-control system will be
unveiled. The equipment is available for
use with a wire system (using a single
standard voice circuit-no DC) or with
an STL. The Model ICU -1 Isocoupler
(see page 92) will also be shown.
North American Philips Co., Inc.
The Norelco DX -11 microphone includes in the same case a dynamic microphone, a reverberation unit, a transistor
amplifier, a control unit, and a battery.
The unit is designed to permit the performer to vary the reverberation effect
himself. The correct reverberation intensity is automatically related to the delay
time. The frequency response is flat within ±3.5 db from 50 to 15,000 cps. Out-
Shure Brothers, Inc.
New from Shure this year is the SM
series of professional microphones. The
series includes the SM33 unidirectional
ribbon microphone, the SM50 omnidirectional hand-held microphone, the
SM56 cardioid stand -mounted microphone (shown here) and the SM57 cardioid hand-held microphone. The SM56
has switch -selected impedances of 3050 ohms and 150-250 ohms. EIA sensitivity (EIA Standard SE-105, August
1949) is -149 db for 30-50 ohms and
-148 db for 150-250 ohms.
-56-
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Sparta Electronic Corp.
Vitro Electronics
In addition to its regular line of audio
equipment, Sparta will be exhibiting its
experimental model A-20 audio console
and experimental model AS -500 stereo
console and turntable unit. The A-20
(in the photo) is fully transistorized,
has 16 inputs mixed through 8 step type faders, and provides program and
audition channels and built-in cueing
facilities and cue speaker. Demonstrations of all equipment will be conducted.
The Nems-Clarke Model 112 phase
monitor has a capacity for monitoring
more on special
up to nine towers
order. The monitor is all solid state, provides indications of phase and loop currents, and is suitable for either remote or
nonremote applications. Accuracy of the
unit is ±1°, and resolution is better
than .5°. Input impedance is 51 or 75
ohms.
-
Recording Equipment
Recording and reproducing equipment
has become such an integral part of
broadcasting that a multitude of these
units can be expected as a matter of
course at the Show. Among the machines on display will be the new ones
described here.
Visual Electronics Corp.
New AM and FM transmitters feature
local or remote control, standard components, design for easy maintenance,
pretuning to specified frequency, silicon
rectifiers, color-coded wiring, and vacuum
capacitor tuning. AM ratings are 1000,
5000, 10,000, and 50,000 watts. FM
output powers are 250, 1000, 5000, 7500,
10,000, and 20,000 watts. Also on display
will be an audio automation system, a
10 -channel tape -cartridge player, the McCurdy solid-state audio consoles Model
SS4724 (illustrated), McCurdy solid-state
dual -channel consoles Model SS -4400, a
new VTR system, and the Elcon 3"
image orthicon camera tube.
Automatic Tape Control, Inc.
A heavy-duty adjustable head -mounting bracket and assembly is the Model
HDHB-1. It is made from heavy machined castings and permits both height
and azimuth adjustments; it may be
locked in position when the proper alignment has been attained. The assembly
fits PB, PC, and Criterion ATC players.
-57www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Electronics, Inc.
Three new Spotmasters will be shown
this year. The "Ten Spot," Model 610,
is a multiple -channel tape-cartridge system for use in automated or semiautomated broadcast stations. The unit holds
ten Series 600 cartridges and occupies
a rack space of 19" x 17". Also on display will be the Model 400, a solid-state
economy model, and the PortaPak I, a
solid-state, portable salesman's audition
unit having a maximum playing time of
31 minutes.
rate monitoring and equalization are provided for each channel. The transport is
shock mounted and employs a hysteresis
synchronous capstan motor.
Gotham Audio Corp.
The EMT 930 three-speed studio turntable assembly pictured here includes a
preamplifier, an equalizer, and an electromagnetic remote-control brake for
close cueing. Also in the display will be
the Neumann U-64 linear admittance
condenser microphone, designed to give
uniform frequency response at angles
well off the axis of greatest sensitivity.
Rounding out this exhibitor's trio of new
products will be the Neumann SM -69
stereo microphone system.
Metrotech, Inc.
Two -direction automatic reversing permits continuous playing from a single
reel of tape by the Model 1050 tape
transport. The head -mounting plates permit azimuth and height adjustments and
accept any of the commonly used heads.
An integrated solid-state audio installation is also available. The transport
accepts 101/2" NAB reels. It has three
motors and operates at 71/2, 33/4, and
17/8 ips.
MaCarTa, Inc.
MaCarTa will be introducing its
Model 705S tape -cartridge machine
(monophonic) and the Model 572 stereo
tape -cartridge unit. The 705S operates
at PA ips (standard) or 33/4 ips (on request). Remote control is available. The
stereo Model 572 provides dual speeds
(33/4 and 71/2 ips) or, on special order,
a single speed (15 ips). Meter switching
is provided to permit reading of record
level, output level, and bias level. Sepa-
Midwestern Instruments
the Model 1021 Magnecord tape re-
-58-
corder is a relay -operated unit that can
be controlled from one or more remote
stations. Tally lights indicate the status
of the recorder to all stations. A memory
relay precludes tape damage due to "fast buttoning" of the controls.
Television Equipment
Television -broadcast equipment from
the camera lens to the transmitter will
be arrayed on the exhibit floor. Here's
the picture regarding new TV hardware.
Cleveland Electronics, Inc.
The Deflection Components Division
will be exhibiting components for operation of the newer-type vidicon and image
orthicon tubes and other special-purpose
pickup devices. A highlight of the display
is to be the 15VYA-333, a 11/2" vidicon
yoke -alignment -coil assembly for use
with the 8480 and other electrostaticfocus vidicons.
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Arriflex Corporation of America
A self-blimped camera, the Arriflex
available for both single system and double -system synchronous
sound recording. The moving parts are
acoustically isolated from the outer housing of the camera to insure quiet operation. The unit accommodates a 400' film
magazine and is provided with a tachometer and footage indicator. Governor controlled and variable -speed DC motors
and a synchronous motor are available.
16 BL, will be
Boston Insulated Wire and Cable Co.
Included in the display of cables, connectors, and cable assemblies for most
makes of television cameras will be
molded neoprene attachable connectors
for mobile -van power -supply use, studio
lighting, etc. Also shown will be camera
cable -connector adapters to provide
watertight reinforced terminations for
RCA and GE cables.
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Colortran Industries
The "Multi -Beam 650" is a 650-watt
focusing quartz light that provides an
intensity ratio in excess of 7.3 to 1. The
beam angle is continuously variable from
16° to 53°. In the same display will be
three models of the "Soft-Lite" (two of
which are illustrated), which are designed
to produce shadowless "sky -light" illumination. These are the LQS-10 (one lamp,
85° coverage, 8500 candlepower), the
LQS-20 (two lamps, 75° coverage, 17,000
candlepower), and the LQS-40 (four
lamps, 86° coverage, 35,000 candlepower). All four of these lights use
3200'K quartz -iodine lamps.
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.
Two members of the CBS family will
he displaying new wares at the Show.
-59www.americanradiohistory.com
tion amplifiers, balanced line amplifiers,
and video switchers and switcher-faders
ment includes the Model TX -4A solid will be featured. Newly introduced equip state closed-circuit television modulator.
This device is completely transistorized
and generates crystal -controlled visual
and aural carriers; a vestigial sideband
output is produced. Also shown will be
the Series 6000 balanced line amplifiers, a fully transistorized video transmission system for balanced cable; the
Model VS -120A solid-state switcherfader; the Model VS-121A solid-state
switcher-fader (shown); and the Model
PDA/VDA-3008A solid-state distribution system.
Gencom Div., Whittaker Corp.
CBS International will be showing the
Dynalens (above), developed by Dynasciences Corp. in cooperation with CBS.
This unit operates by bending the light
rays entering the camera lens by an
angularity proportional and opposite to
the camera deflection angle. Thus loss
of picture detail due to camera deflec-
tion angle is eliminated.
CBS Laboratories will be displaying
the Audimax III (monophonic) and Audimax IIIS (stereophonic) automatic level
controls. The monophonic unit is a new
solid-state version of the Audimax IIRZ.
The stereo unit consists of two Audimax
III's mechanically and electrically coupled to provide stereophonic operation.
Both units are 19" wide and 9%" deep;
the stereo model is 7" high, and the
mono model is 31/2" high. Both are
available for immediate delivery.
Dynair Electronics, Inc.
Functional displays of multiple -input,
multiple -output video and pulse distribu-
Making their debut will be the Type
all -solid-state image orthicon, the
Type 208 all -solid-state plumbicon studio camera, solid-state tape recorders
Type L-4 and BTR-4, and a 1/2" vidicon
having a low lag characteristic.
206
General Electric
The Visual Communications Products
Division will be showing the following
items: the PE -26 portable solid-state 3"
image orthicon camera, the 1T -51-B 35 kw high -band VHF transmitter (with
10:1 visual-to -aural ratio), the BC -35
solid-state audio console, the TT -56 15 kw UHF klystron transmitter, and the
T7-57 30-kw UHF klystron transmitter.
Houston Fearless Corp.
Neu this year is the 16/35 mm Re-
-60www.americanradiohistory.com
versal Labmaster. Also new is the head
for TV cameras shown in the illustration. Literature on a number of film
processors and camera supporting devices will be available.
MVR Corp. (formerly
Machtronics, Inc.)
The Video Disc Recorder is a completely self-contained unit for recording
and reproducing TV signals or similar
information. The storage medium is a
metallic disc; one TV frame is recorded
for each revolution of the disc. The unit
can be used for stop -motion effects, or
up to about 24 seconds of continuous
action may be recorded.
Klieg! Bros.
A line of all -quartz TV studio lighting
will be shown for the first time. Included are quartz scoops (No. 3450),
quartz Fresnels (6", 500 -watt No. 3506
and 8", 1000 -watt No. 3518), quartz
ellipsoidal Klieglights (400 watts, No.
1341, to 1000 watts, No. 1393) and
(illustrated) the R-64 solid-state dimmer
(available in 2400- and 6000 -watt sizes).
Microwave Associates, Inc.
The 2-gc-band solid-state microwave
relay equipment to be shown by Microwave Associates has been in use by the
networks (see News of the Industry, page
52, January 1965 B-E), but the NAB
Show will provide the first exposure of
the system to broadcasters in general.
A live demonstration of the equipment
is planned in the Telequip Corp. booth.
Raytheon Co.
The KTR-II microwave equipment
is
a solid-state (except for klystrons) sys-
-61www.americanradiohistory.com
tem delivering 1 watt in the 5925-to 8400 me range. Transmission capacity
is a single wideband video channel with
one or more subcarriers for 15-kc audio
or 600 single-sideband, suppressed -carrier
message channels. The equipment has an
operating temperature range of -30° to
+55° C. Frequency stability is ±.02%.
one -driver, one -amplifier design will be
available.
Tektronix, Inc.
The newly introduced Type RM529
video-signal waveform monitor is intended to provide bright, stable display
of vertical -interval test signals. A line
selector can be used to choose any line
for display. The displayed line, as viewed
on the picture monitor, is automatically
intensified. Four different frequency responses can be selected.
Telemet Company
Riker Industries, Inc.
In the spotlight will be a new all -transistor automated video switcher (shown
here) with automatic preroll, manual
override, and random access. The automation portion can sequence 20 events
and has the capability for a full day's
programming. The automation is separate and may be used with any Riker
switcher.
Also featured will be the Model 5300
video processing amplifier (February B -E,
page 68), the Model 1520 vertical -interval
test generator, and the Model 1525 test
generator (provides test signals for tape
recorders in accordance with SMPTE
Recommended Practice RP-10). The
Model 5147 Diagonal Bar Generator,
Model 557 3.58 -mc Subcarrier Regenerator, and Model 5319 additive/nonadditive Video Mixer complete the lineup
of new gear. The exhibit will be set up
in the form of a complete production
facility.
Standard Electronics Corp.
On display will be a new transistor
VHF transmitter and a new transistor 10 -kw UHF transmitter employing
an air-cooled klystron. A new application bulletin showing examples of the
5 -kw
Complete catalogs and new -product
literature will be available, and working
demonstrations of all equipment will be
conducted. New equipment featured this
year includes the Telechrome Mosel
3203A Clamper Amplifier, Telechrome
Model 3209A Color Stabilizing Amplifier, Telechrome Model 3518A Color Bar
Generator, and the Telechrome Model
3519A1 Sync Generator.
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Ward Electronic Industries, Inc.
A semiautomated television switching
system, the CDL Type VSA-102 will be
shown. The system includes video and
audio switching facilities and a relay
memory unit to permit advance storage
of audio and video switching events.
Also shown will be CDL solid-state
vertical -interval video switchers and a
CDL computer-controlled automated
switching system.
Sharing the Ward booth will be a new
CO. EL. slotted-waveguide UHF antenna.
The antenna is available for channels 14
to 83 and with omnidirectional gains up
to 33 times. The vertical pattern has essentially a cosecant -squared distribution.
-62www.americanradiohistory.com
SUPERB, BROADCAST -QUALITY THIRD GENERATION COLOR COPIES.
*T. M. AMPEX CORP.
www.americanradiohistory.com
tREG. U.S. PAT. OFFICE
©AMPEX CORP. 1965
EMIs,
THE CHIEF ENGINEER
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Readers are invited to send their questions
to the "Chief Engineer"; those of most general interest will be published.
The TREPAC DATATONE System,
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control and communications networks,
Multi -channel control and/or teletype,
with or without voice communications,
may be operated over a single communications link.
"Building block" design permitting
budget controlled growth capability as
well as compatability with existing
equipment, permits the design engineer
the freedom necessary to develop a
communications system tailored to his
individual needs.
Both
AM
and
FSK
TYPICAL
-POWER
transmitters and
receivers, power supplies, loop D.C. supplies, regenerative repeaters, and twoway D.C. repeaters, telemetering adapters, diversity combiners, and an extensive filter line are available from stock.
Each module has a test socket in the
front panel which allows "by the numbers" testing of operating systems by
For
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inexperienced personnel. This, together
with plug-in frequency determining elements and single type plug-in transistors, permit a realistic approach to the
maintenance problem.
information, contact:
additional
19
Datatone Division RS:
OF
AMERICA
PHONE: (201) 567.3810
J.
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SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS for TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Cneck item 54 on Tech Data Card
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BROADCASTERS
Equipment Sales
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24 -hour Parts Service
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Think first of WE for complete, reliable broadcasting
equipment and service.
Wilkinson Electronics, Inc.
1937 W. MacDade Blvd.
Woodlyn, Pa. 19094
Telephone: 215-874-5237
299-4692
55 ou Tech Data
Card
Circle Item 56 on Tech Data Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Not far from the head end of our
CATV system are located fence chargers
that cause a constant pulse streak on
channel 4, which we receive from about
100 miles away. Are there any effective
ways to go about eliminating this type
of interference? We constantly check the
fence lines for arcing, and we cut any
weeds that might cause arcing, but we
still have the problem.
I can't offer a guaranteed solution to
your problem, but here are some suggestions that should prove helpful. First,
try a small amount of resistive suppression in the HT side of the fence chargers
that are causing the interference. A
pulse-train type of "signal," almost identical to the spark pulse of auto ignition
systems, is being generated, and using
suppressor resistors often helps. If you
can find any of the old "inductive suppressors" of the spark-plug type, they
seem to work a bit better than the resistors. While this does reduce the peak
voltage and duration of the pulse somewhat, it doesn't seem to interfere with
the effectiveness of the charger. If the
resistive type suppressor is used, not over
10,000 ohms resistance should be used.
One other method has helped in some
cases: the use of LC filtering across the
input AC line (in AC -powered chargers)
to keep the pulses from feeding into the
AC supply lines and being radiated from
there. Wind a couple of air -core RF
chokes (about 15-20 turns of No. 14
wire), and connect a pair of .05-mfd
capacitors across the input and a pair of
.005 mfd capacitors across the output,
with all of the free ends tied together to
a common ground. This assembly can
usually be placed inside the fence -charger
cabinet. Ground the cabinet well.
I am the Chief Engineer of an AM
Broadcast station having a directional
antenna. The station license requires that
we read the base currents once daily.
A chemical plant immediately adjacent
to our transmitter site emits acrid fumes
which under certain weather conditions
settle near the ground and make it impossible to venture to the tower bases to
take readings. Will the Commission allow
us to skip readings of the base currents
under these conditions?
There is no provision of the Commission's Rules which would permit deviation from the terms of the station
license under these conditions. One possible solution to your problem is to ask
the manufacturer to cooperate by not
producing these fumes for a particular
period of the day so that you can make
the required readings. From an engineering standpoint, you must record these
readings even if it is necessary to don
a gas mask, and, therefore, cooperation
by the manufacturer would seem to be
the most satisfactory solution.
TRANSISTORIZED TCA3 CAMERA AMPLIFIER
FITS
ANY IMAGE ORTHICON CAMERA
This miniaturized (31/4" x 31/4" x 11/a") camera
amplifier will replace vacuum tubes in ANY
image orthicon camera. It's completely transistorized and is very simply mounted within the
camera. Microphonics are eliminated. Operating
voltage is obtained from 285 volt source already
in camera and is post -regulated. A transistor protective device is included in case the high-voltage
blocking capacitor at the image orthicon anode
should short-circuit. Signal connectors are BNC
type as well as solder -terminals. TCA3 circuit
uses but three transistors, all proven EIA types.
Output stage delivers signals for view-finder as
well as camera chain. Peaking and streaking
controls are included and are easily adjusted by
use of standard RETMA resolution chart.
TCA3's are on -the -air proven in TK10/TK30,
TK11/TK31,. 4PC4A1 and TA124E cameras.
Instructions, necessary hardware and pre-cut cables are included.
INTERNATIONAL
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PRICE F. O. B. NASHVILLE
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for more complete information write Dep.irtment
C-3
INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR CORPORATION
NUCLEAR CORP.
608 NORRIS AVE.
- NASHVILLE 4, TENN. - PHONE 615 - 254-3366
Circle Item
25 on Tech Data
Card
March, 1965
65
www.americanradiohistory.com
TECHNIQUES FOR AUDIO
TAPE MASTERING
In the recording of original tape
masters for phonograph records and
tape duplicating, there are some
techniques that are better than
others for producing a quality product. The methods to be described
have been developed over a number
of years in the professional recording business.
Mastering
Better high -frequency response,
ease of editing, and wider dynamic
range are obtained when the master
recording is made full track at a
tape speed of 15 ips. Master tapes
should be made only with first -line
professional mastering tape. This
may sound extravagant at first, since
almost any tape will accept a signal,
but experience shows the advisability of using such tape. Absolute
perfection from both a technical and
artistic point of view is difficult to
attain. Conscientious artists and
artist and repertory (A & R) men,
when listening to playback monitor
speakers-usually under high-level
conditions-can often sense even
the most minute tape -motion flaws
and other disturbances possibly not
even connected with the recording
equipment. Thus the engineer must
do everything possible to insure
highest recorded quality, and the
use of unspliced professional -grade
mastering tape is essential to maintaining that quality.
To provide a "protection tape,"
a second tape recorder may be
bridged across the program buss.
This machine runs at 7.5 ips and
provides a full-track "copy." This
second tape is recorded at the same
time as the master and can be
thought of, therefore, not as a copy
at all, but rather as a slow -speed,
low -noise original. This method has
proved to be a valuable time saver
in case the client wants such a
by John D. Harmer, President
Recording Co., Columbus, Ohio-Some
pointers to help the sound recording
engineer produce a better product.
"copy" of the master material for
audition purposes.
Splicing
When a splice must be made,
perhaps the most important single
factor is maintaining the two tape
ends parallel. The tape splicer
should be one having superb tape
holding and aligning qualities, even
if it is not as fast to use as others
or requires some handling of the
tape for trimming. However, the
best rule to apply when making
original or second- or third -generation recordings is to avoid splices
if at all possible. Few things short
of a tape break will ruin a good
recording more quickly. Even carefully trimmed, well -made splices
can cause a momentary "bump" or
"flutter" when going over stabilizer
flywheel drums or across heads and
thereby perhaps ruin an otherwise
"perfect" performance.
Equipment Considerations
Each recording session may (and
often does) require a different
equipment arrangement; however,
BRIDGING INPUT
TRANSFORMER
and
Chief Engineer, Capital City Sound
ECHO SEND
PUSH KEY
SELECTOR
ASTER LEVEL
CONTROL
LINE
OUT
PGM LINE
AMPLIFIER
Fig. 1. A versatile arrangement for adding echo effects to the audio program.
the following general approach can
usually be applied:
(A) Musical instruments and vocal
artists should be separated
whenever possible. This may
require the use of portable
sound -absorbing folding
screens to increase the apparent distance of separation.
(B) A different microphone should
be used for each group or individual so separated.
The purpose behind this separation is to gain more flexible and
individual mixer control over the
various portions of the entire recording group. This allows, for
example, the A & R man to call for
(and the engineer to supply) increased volume level for the vocalist without a corresponding increase
in the level for the orchestra.
Microphone Equalization
The use of individual microphone
equalizer controls is well established
in many of the major recording
companies because it is an extremely versatile tool. This may
cause some raised eyebrows among
readers accustomed to working with
broadcast transmission systems having essentially flat frequency response. Broadcast systems are designed, by and large, to transmit,
unaltered, signals they receive from
microphones, lines, and reproducers.
On the other hand, the purpose
of a recording studio is to record
a performance and to alter, if necessary, the characteristics of that
performance to produce a more
pleasing recorded sound. In addition to adjusting the relative levels,
this might mean increasing the
high -frequency response of one
microphone to obtain a crystal sharp piano "ring," reducing the
low -frequency response of the voice
track to retain clean, understandable dialogue, or introducing vari BROADCAST ENGINEERING
66
www.americanradiohistory.com
four -cavity amplifier
klystrons pass the 33,000 hour
mark at WWLP-TV
Springfield, Mass.
E
The new generation of UHF klystrons is now
time tested with two Eimac type 4KM100LA
cast transmitters, contact Eimac's Microwave
Division.We'll send you more data immediately
power klystrons. These two tubes have been
in use for the past 21/2 years at Station
WWLP-TV in Springfield, Mass., with a total
hours of operation now exceeding 33,000
hours! The two Eimac tubes installed in a 25
kilowatt TOWNSEND ASSOCIATES transmitter
are operating without change in their original
characteristics. Five other TOWNSEND ASSOCIATES transmitters are now in service using
with a
the same series of Eimac klystrons
history of no failures. Reliability, economy of
operation, and ease of maintenance is now a
reality. Experience tells the story. If you're in
need of really dependable tubes for broad -
4KM100 SERIES TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
4KM100LA (470-610 Mc)
4KM100LF (590-720 Mc)
4KM100LH (720-890 Mc)
WO
OM MO
25
Drive Power
Beam Voltage
20
16
3.82
8
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Output power
Heater Voltage
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kW
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EITIEL-McCULLOUGH, INC., San Carlos, Calif.
In Europe, contact Eitel - McCullough, S. A.,
15 rue du Jeu -de -l'Arc, Geneva, Switzerland
MO UM OW OM
.4Ì
Circle Item
27 on Tech Doha
Card
March, 1965
67
www.americanradiohistory.com
Q
AM
BROADCAST
TRANSMITTERS
EXCEED FCC SPECS.
at
?zices
250W
500W
1 KW
5KW
10KW
50KW
CCA - AM - 5000 D
The CCA AM -5000D, 5KW AM
broadcast transmitter incorporates features that are standard in all CCA AM
transmitters. These include:
Silicon rectifiers with minimum of
200'Jc safety factor; 300`;, reserve
in aie cooling; minimum tube costs;
low distortion high level plate modulation; automatic overload recycling;
minimum floor space; full accessibility
with hinged meter panels.
$ 2,995.00
$ 4,195.00
$ 4,495.00
$12,900.00
$16,600.00
$83,000.00
CCA ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
C
YOUR
716 JERSEY AVE., GLOUCESTER CITY
CA
INQUIRY
CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
INVITED
TELEPHONE: (609) 456-1716
AM & FM TRANSMITTERS AT REALISTIC
Circle Item
19 on Tech Data
PRICES
Card
for your tower
ROH N
requirements
check
SYSTEMS
A complete
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erection service
that has these
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DID YOU KNOW
6718 W Plank 'Rood
Phone 309-637-8416
Peoria, Illinois
TWX 309-697-1488
Circle Item 20 on Tech Data Card
ous degrees of echo into some of
the microphone channels. All this
results in a coloration of the original sound to produce a product in
accordance with the wishes and desires of the producers, the A & R
men, and the performers themselves.
Echo Devices
Most recordings made today
have some amount of artificial reverberation added. Artists and A &
R men demand echo effects, and
the engineer must supply them.
One method of producing echo
effects that has been found to work
well is the following: The recording
console equipment is modified so
that echo send signals are derived
from the channel selector keys
through a transformer bridging network (Fig. 1). The output of the
echo receive amplifier is brought
to a mixer control on the console.
This arrangement allows the recording engineer to add any amount of
echo at will. In general, reverberation devices are so connected that
the input of the device is isolated
from its own output to prevent
feedback.
A one-shot "slap echo" can be
obtained by the arrangement in Fig.
if the echo device is a tape machine (usually running at the 71
ips speed) set up for tape monitoring. This effect is differentiated
from the normal tape reverberation
in that it is a one-time echo and
does not decay as the echo produced by a re-entrant system does.
The conventional method of introducing reverberation (Fig. 2) has
some inherent drawbacks. In this
arrangement, the program amplifier
and the echo section form a closed
loop. Instability due to feedback
appears before a substantial echo
level can be obtained. A further
disadvantage is that reverberation
is applied to all signals after mixing, and selective echoing of indi 1
You can have your old cartridges reconditioned by experts
no charge for minor parts
ALL cartridges PRETESTED under
actual broadcast conditions
no minimum
no service charge for small orders
return shipment in 48 hours
factory trained personnel
new cartridge warranty
You can have any size Fidelipac tape
cartridge shipped immediately from
stock
You can have all cartridge parts for do
it yourself cartridge maintenance.
JOA incorporates all of these as a part of
their service to the broadcaster.
phone or write:
ROHN SYSTEMS, INC.
Fig. 2. Usual method has disadvantages
Cartridge Service
:3 JO
P.
A
0. Box 3087,
Philadelphia,
Pa. 19150
Area Code 215, Turner 6.7993
Circle Item
21 on Tech
Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
68
www.americanradiohistory.com
CBS International announces the new DYNALENS system...
The greatest advance in
image motion compensation
in television History
moni-
Without Dynelens-Test pattern photographed from a monitor
with I.O. camera vibrating horizontally at 25° per second.
With Dynalens-Same test pattern photographed from
A unique gyro -stabilized lens system called DYNALENS
has eliminated the problem of picture jumping or wobbling
due to angular vibratory motions of the TV camera.
Developed by Dynasciences Corporation, in coopera-
than a normal camera pan, electrical energy is produced
which moves a correcting lens in exact opposition to the
movement. Result: any picture unsteadiness is eliminated.
The excellent image motion compensation possible with
DYNALENS has been demonstrated in
tests by CBS engineers and during television coverage of the 1965 Presidential
Inauguration. Similar successful results
tion, with the Columbia Broadcasting System, DYNALENS
permits vibrationless long -lens
close-ups. The optical magnification of "zoom" lens or telephoto
lens attachments no longer
vibrating horizontally at 25° per second.
have been obtained in military aerial
photography.
With the advent of DYNALENS, television broadcasting history has been made.
For more information about this technological breakthrough, write:
produce exaggerated motion
effects.
DYNALENS has revolutionized
the picture quality possible from
locations. Cameras
mounted on unsturdy or unstable
platforms now transmit jitter -free
pictures. Pictures shot from
a
tor with I.O. camera, equipped with DYNALENS system,
j<3"remote
/
DYNASCIENCES
CORP.
World Wide Sales
a
moving vehicle such as a truck or car show similar steadiness.
This sophisticated lens system employs stabilizing gyros
which resist any short, fast movements. For motions faster
INTERNATIONAL
A
Division of Columbia Broadcasting System. Inc.
46 East 52nd Street, New York 22, N. Y.
Cable address: "Columbine"
Circle Item 29 on Tech Data Card
69
March, 1965
www.americanradiohistory.com
vidual sources is thus impossible.
Pickups
A somewhat unique, though by
no means original, method of picking up electrically-operated musical
instruments is shown in Fig. 3.
Instruments in this class include
electric guitars, bass guitars (often
accompanied by huge amplifier speaker systems), electric organs,
electric pianos, and electric bass
pianos. In the arrangement of Fig.
3, a connection is bridged across
the voice coil of the instrument
speaker. This type of pickup has
been used frequently with good
success.
Use of this method has generated
some interesting byproducts, however, not the least of which is a
general increase in background
noise level. Most of the noise
energy is power-frequency hum and
buzz; frequently, there may be as
many as four instrument amplifiers
operating at the same time in the
studio, and each contributes noise.
Fig. 3. A method for instrument pickup.
Unusual conditions sometimes
arise. In one such instance that
occurred with an electrically amplified guitar, there was an all -toofamiliar ground -loop buzz, but no
amount of power - cord reversing
or experimentation with separate
ground wires seemed to reduce the
buzz. The noise persisted when the
instrument was held or strapped
about the musician, but it stopped
when he laid the instrument
down. When the engineer accidentally touched the musician while
grounded, the noise was reduced.
Several combinations of ground
wires were then tried without totally
satisfactory results. Finally, in des-
NO ONE HAS EQUALLED THIS CAMERA
It's certainly not for want of trying. Since
Marconi introduced the first 41/2 inch Image Orthicon camera, everybody and his
brother have been trying to catch up. A
thousand Marconi 41/2" cameras have
gone into service in 38 countries. The
Mark IV has literally become the world's
standard television camera. And for good
reason. It's the camera that improved picture quality 50%. It was the first camera
to make it possible for the cameraman to
concentrate entirely on composition and
focus-and leave all other functions to
the control room. Another first: once you
set it up it stays set up. Little wonder that
a lot of people have been trying to duplicate it. But there's one hitch. While the
others have been trying to build a camera
®AMPEX CORP. 19c
1
as good as the Mark IV, Marconi has been
radically "mproving it. Long-lived silicon
rectifiers have replaced selenium units in
the power supply. A shielded yoke keeps
the camera in focus even if there's magnetic interference. A solid-state head amplifier has been added. And the Mark IV
is now instantly switchable from one world
standard to another. In short: by the time
somebody makes a camera as good as
the 1959 model Mark IV, they'll have the
1964 model to contend with. And that
goes for the whole line of Marconi specialties: vidicon telecine equipment, switch ers, color cameras, closed circuit vidicor
cameras and accessories. Distributed by
Ampex Corp., Redwood City, California.
Term leasing and financing is available.
AMPEX
Cercle Item 26 on Tech Data Card
peration, the engineer tried having
the musician stand on a large
grounded sheet of metal. This reduced the noise enough to permit
continuing the session.
Another form of noise is low frequency disturbances caused by
the musicians' fingers and hands on
guitars or other instruments hung
about the neck or otherwise in close
proximity to the body. However,
these are small technical difficulties
that once explained and demonstrated to the A & R man can
usually be cleared up with tactful
instructions to the artists involved.
A further matter to consider is
the relative studio sound levels from
vocalists and instruments. Electrically operated and amplified instruments usually deliver better quality sound when run below
normal output, and this definitely
should be encouraged by engineers
and A & R men, since the direct tap pickup allows the volume level
to be restored by the mixer control.
Moreover, lower instrument volume
permits greater flexibility, since the
sound issuing from instrument
speakers in the studio is not so
likely to be picked up on adjacent
microphones.
The subject of piano pickup has
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
70
www.americanradiohistory.com
The soundest
sound in FM
is the
new sound
of GATES
Vertical and horizontal antennas
Direct crystal -controlled cascade ex
citer Stereo transcription equipment
Dual stereo limiter
FM
transmitters
Advanced
Solid Statesman
audio control consoles. Write for
your copy of the Gates FM Fact File.
MARRIS
I
NTE RTYPE
CORPORATION
CA TES
GATES RADIO CORPORATION
A
Subsidiary of
HarrisIntertype Corporation
QUINCY, ILLINOIS 62302
Offices: New York, Houston, Los Angeles, Washington, D. C.
Export: Rocke International Corporation, New York City
In Canada: Canadian Marconi Company, Montreal
Circle Item
March, 1965
30 on Tech Data
Card
71
www.americanradiohistory.com
SEE...the
most advanced
TV lighting...
v mQ tdn
LIGHTING
SYSTEMS
and
r
Oi0=
rar
PORTABLE
ELECTRONIC
DIMMERS
Client Relations
Some of the toughest jobs for a
recording studio occur when musical talent having no previous recording experience is encountered. These
people may test the microphones
by blowing into them, or they may
insist on playing instruments with
volume levels approaching the
threshold of pain. It is a good idea
to try to release the studio space to
the client
hour in advance of
the scheduled session to allow time
for the client to become accustomed
to the premises and facilities and
to permit instrument set-up time.
If the engineer is on duty during
this advance period, he can make
the musical-instrument pickup taps,
if any, determine a general microphone placement, and give what
advice may be helpful.
1
J
at the
NAB SHOW
BOOTH 231
been discussed at length elsewhere,
so it will be considered only briefly
here. A satisfactory and pleasingly
clean pickup from a vertical grand
can be obtained by using the familiar ribbon -type microphone. With
individual equalization in the piano pickup microphone channel, the
character of the pickup can be
changed from bright stage -front
pickup to a more mellowed background sound.
Experimentation with several
pickup positions has shown that two
such positions give best overall
results in our studio environment.
In one position, the microphone is
placed 2' to 3' in front of the instrument at a point in line with C
above high C on the keyboard. The
microphone faces the sounding
board, and the instrument front
cover is removed. In the other position, the microphone is placed 2'
to 3' directly above the piano at a
point in line with highest C. The
top lid of the piano is removed,
and the microphone faces directly
into the instrument.
(Sheraton Park)
Conclusion
ColorTran quartz -iodine lighting equipment is in daily
use for television studio and location lighting throughout the world. Don't miss the dramatic ColorTran exhibit
and demonstrations at the NAB Show.
ummitr.a- ran
\\rÌMr/
ColorTran Industries
630 South Flower Street, Burbank, California
Phone: (213) 849-5991
Circle Item
28 on Tech Data
The techniques for making professional tape masters depend somewhat on the individual circumstances. It is hoped, however, that
the general comments given here
will be helpful to those who may be
called upon to assume the technical responsibility for making such
recordings.
Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
72
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEW CONCEPTS
in VTR
the days of upgrading are over!
NOW,
THE/AIlenized/VTR
makes possible
a
PROGRAM
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plus
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2Xexchange VTR machines
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LL BAND operation with performance second to none.
B udget sense with lowest cost and faster allowable writeoff.
C omplete interchangeability among all of the station's VTR machines,
color and monochrome.
Vastly simpler equipment achieved through
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Troublefree operation with a fraction of the number of
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Reliable with go/no-go plug-in maintenance.
VISUAL ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
111
356 west 40th street
new york, n. y. 10018
(212) 736-5840
LOOK TO VISUAL FOR NEW CONCEPTS IN BROADCAST EQUIPMENT
March, 1965
73
www.americanradiohistory.com
by Len Spencer, Consulting Author,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada-A basically
A COUNTERWEIGHTED
simple, but effective, solution to the
problem of sagging conductors in
an open -wire transmission line.
TRANSMISSION LINE
GROUNDED OUTER
CONDUCTORS
-
INNER
CONDUCTORS
SUPPORTING
FRAME
Because of their low cost and
simple maintenance requirements,
unbalanced open -wire RF transmission lines for the lower broadcast
frequencies were quite popular before the perfection of gas -dielectric
coaxial cables. A typical open -wire
unbalanced line consists of two
closely spaced center conductors inside four grounded, equally spaced
wires (Fig. 1). The dual center con-
ductor is insulated from the supporting frames, each of which is
mounted on a wooden pole.
At CKAC, the two-tower array
is fed by two transmission lines,
each about 525' long. One of these
lines is shown in Fig. 2. The supporting poles are approximately 50'
apart. Although the lines were taut
when first installed, extreme seasonal changes in temperature (-32
INSULATOR
ICE SHIELD
PGLE
Fig. 1.
Basic design of open -wire line.
CLAMP
NEOPRENE SPACERS
ADDED
Fig. 2. One of two lines in use at CKAC.
NEOPRENE DISC ADDED
FOR SPACER
G
Ii
POLYETHYLENE TUBE
Fig. 3. View of frame atop one pole shows
metal shield to keep ice off insulator.
GROUND WIRE
Fig. 4. Detail of support-frame changes for the counterweighted transmission line.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
74
www.americanradiohistory.com
Film couldn't.
Scotch Brand Video Tape did.
Kept her face soft and lovely for cosmetics spot!
KPRC-TV, Houston, will tell you: "ScoTcx" Video Tape cured
"skin blemishes" in filmed TV commercials. With a demonstration
that won OJ's Beauty Lotion over from film to tape. And the commercial production business over to KPRC!
Live picture quality was the big reason. Tape faithfully presents
the full softness and delicacy of a woman's face-every time. Film,
in contrast, just couldn't look live on tv, because quality gets lost in
the optical-to -electronic translation. And with repeated showings,
film tended to gather dirt, which appeared to be on the girl's skin,
KPRC pointed out.
What's more, tape offers greater production convenience than
film. You see what you've shot immediately. Most special effects
are pushbutton fast. There's never a time-out for processing. Both
time and money savings are usually part of the bargain.
KPRC is one of more than 200 stations actively participating
in 3M's comprehensive program to help advertisers and agencies
take full advantage of video tape. These stations offer helpful
reference materials as well as production service. Call your local
stations for details. Or write 3M Magnetic Products, Dept. MDV-35,
St. Paul, Minn. 55119.
Video Tape
PROGRAM MATERIAL:
PLEASE HANDLE CAREFUILT
t EPE DITE
magnetic Products Division
-SCOTCH" AND THE PLAID DESIGN ARE REG. TAS
OF 3M CO.
3
ComPar+Y
® 1965.3M
CO.
Circle Item 33 on Tech Data Card
Marclhu 1965
75
iiK
=A
¶0
SMItIFA
M
Fig. 5. Method of grounding
outer wires
to 109°F) eventually resulted in
considerable sag between the supporting poles. The outer wires, each
firmly attached to the U-shaped
metal supports (Fig. 3), expanded
unevenly and would swing away
from the "hot" center line whenever
there was a high wind. This, of
course, caused variation in the characteristic impedance of the line,
which in turn caused the output
power of the transmitter to vary.
It was decided to try freeing all
the outside grounded wires from
their individual supports and allowing them to expand and contract
with their tension controlled by a
suitable weight. When this proved
successful, we attached the center
Fig. 6. Steel frame and wooden crossarms.
line to the counterweight also.
To accomplish the modification,
the "deadman," or pole closest to
the tower, had to be extra heavily
guyed. Each "U" was provided
with polyethelene tubes (Fig. 4)
through which the wires were passed
after being securely attached by insulators to the "deadman." Near
each supporting bracket a wire was
soldered to the outside wires, at a
distance away from the tubes (to
allow for lateral movement), and
ground wire on the pole as shown
in Fig. 5.
At the building end of the line,
cross bars are mounted on two upright steel "I" beams (Fig. 6), and
the outside wires pass through pul-
neH- comracT
MOLE QUARTZ
NOOKLITE
cwxrtxwrcxl rurrox.x
Fig. 7. Arrangement of pulleys and method
of
carrying
"hot"
wire
across
arms.
leys attached to the top and bottom
crossarms (Fig. 7). The center line,
protected by a suitable insulator,
has tension applied through a pulley
on the center crossarm. The hinged
counterweight platform (Figs. 8 and
9) keeps all the lines in tension.
(The heavy cables supported by
messenger cables are the phase sampling, telephone, and power
lines to the tuning huts at the bases
of the towers.) The 25 -lb concrete
blocks in the figures were used to
adjust the lines to tautness at 68°F
and with the platform horizontal.
Note in Figs. 6 and 7 how the
"hot" center line was carried over
the top of the "H" frame but still
kept under tension by the pulleys
and counterweights.
The arrangement described is
basically simple, but it has resulted
in a more stable feed to the array
and closer phasing tolerances winter
and summer.
Uses 650 -watt 3200°K or 3400°K
quartz-iodine globe
Soft even light in rectangular field
Complete line of accessories
Lightweight, rugged
3 -light
strip offers
5
levels of illumination
Fig. 8. Blocks on platform act as weights.
At dealers or send for Bulletin 106
The most famous name
in Hollywood lighting since 1927
937
N.
Sycamore Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 90038
Fig. 9. Diagram shows platform fulcrum.
Circle Item
34 on Tech Data
Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
76
www.americanradiohistory.com
ONE NEAT PACKAGE
gives you the most efficient 50 kw AM
broadcast transmitter built anywhere!
D overall efficiency: 62% or better
plate efficiency:
80% or better
power consumption: 120 kw @
100% modulation, 92 kw @ 30% modulation, 82 kw
modulation E completelly self-contained, including blower: compact design assures minimum ünst&Fation cost and uses only 62 sq. ft. of total floor space.
@ 0
for a descriptive brochure on Continental's new Type 317C 50 kw AM broadcast
transmitter, write: Commercial Sales, Continental Electronics Manufacturing Company, Box 17040, Dallas, Texas 75217
A DIVISION OF LING-TENlCC,-VOUGH'T, INC
see the Type 317C at the NAB Show, booth 213
Circle Item
35 on Tech Data
Card
March, 1965
77
www.americanradiohistory.com
Coming
- - -ENGINEERS'
- - - - - - - - -EXCHANGE
Next Month
PHASOR
TELEPHONE
LINE
DUMMY
LOAD
JOHNSON
CONTACTOR
XMTR
XMTR
1
2
PGM AMP
A
SW ITCH
ON
CONTACTOR
&
LIMITER AC LINE
VOLTAGE FURNISHED BY
COAX IAL
RELAY
ASSOCIATED TRANSMITTER
115VAC
MOD
MON
Television in American Samoa
Fig. 1. Block diagram shows alternate use of the main, auxiliary transmitters at WIL
A Look at Maintenance Logs
of older transmitters will be pressed
into service as auxiliary transmitters
to be used in the event of failure
of the main transmitter. These older
transmitters, while still capable of
good performance, were not designed to be operated by remote
control and are, in some instances,
rather complicated to get on the
An Automatic
Building a Transistorized
Synchronizing Generator
Transmitter Control
by Melvon G. Hart, Technical Director,
WIL, St. Louis, Mo.
Special Features on
Antennas and
As more stations convert to remote -control operation of their
transmitter facilities, a large number
Related Subjects
What to Do
in
FILAMENT
ON
Tower
Emergencies
1,2]
Factors in Directional
Antenna Stability
gggu
TRANSFER
ANTENNA
DRIVER
PLATE
RESET
LOADING
ON
ON
ON
MOTOR
RF Power Measurement
Techniques
or
K3
o--
and...
RAISE,
VOLTS
Engineers' Exchange
SELECTOR
VOLTAGE
New Products
News of the Industry
COMMON
Engineers' Tech Data
Letters to the Editor
Reserve your copy now! Just fill out
and send in the convenient subscription card bound in this issue-you'll
receive the Broadcast Engineer's
Maintenance Guide free of charge.
K1 - POTTER & BRUMFIELD KRP5A - 6VDC
K3
Fig.
2.
-
K2 -POTTER & BRUMFIELD KB17AV
-
115VAC
AMPERITE 115C30
Schematic diagram showing how the motor -switch arrangement functions
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
78
www.americanradiohistory.com
...Factory attached fittings
...Long lengths
HELIAX 5"air dielectric coaxial ca 'e
hoisted from street to Marina Tower
rooftop in one continuous length fer
ABC-TV, Chicago
H
ELIAX® FLEXIBLE COAXIAL CABLE
guaranteed reliability for high power RF transmission
flexibility of Andrew HELIAX cable
made this critical transmission line system possible. Installation
required less than six hours. Cost was dramatically reduced.
Type H9-50 HELIAX cable insures long term reliability in high
power RF transmission*. Corrugated copper inner and outer
conductors absorb stress and cable retains superior electrical
qualities after repeated flexing. Andrew end connectors firmly
anchor inner to outer conductor and eliminate any RF noise from
vibration or temperature changes.
Contact your Andrew sales engineer, or write for information
on this superior transmission line.
Long continuous lengths, and
Actual measured VSWR for installed 742
foot length of 5" HELIAX
1.10
1.08
31.06
>-1.04
*Handles average power of 250 kw (a} 10 Mc or over 50 kw ß 200 Mc
1.02
1.00
170
172
174
176
178
180
182
184
FREQUENCY IN MEGACYCLES
186
138
190
28 YEARS OF ENGINEERING INTEGRITY
4.65
Circle Item
OR
P.
36 on Tech Dota
O. BOX 1307
.
P O
RA
T
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS U.S.A.
ION
60642
Card
March, 1965
79
www.americanradiohistory.com
MORE NEW STUDIO EQUIPMENT FROM ALTEC
LATEST ATTENUATOR LINE ACHIEVES
LESS THAN
1
MILLIOHM CONTACT
RESISTANCE, LOWER NOISE, EASIER
UPKEEP, LONGER LIFE
The hoped -for possibility has developed into working reality-we've
managed to come up with the finest attenuators yet developed. More
than 300 types are available with either solder terminals or as plug -ins,
either rotary or straight -lines, and in such categories as mixers, calibrated controls, calibrated grid control pots, VU range extenders,
decade attenuators, impedance matching networks, decade resistors,
faders, and stereo pan potentiometers. And they're all listed in the
new Altec Attenuator Catalog which we've printed as a convenient
reference for your aid.
A LITTLE ABOUT A LOT OF IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENTS
You might like to know how some of these improved attenuators were
engineered. For instance, "coin" silver, which is normally used to make
brushes, contains copper and is subject to oxidation reducing conductivity and raising noise level, among other things. So we've made
our brushes of "fine" (pure) silver because it doesn't oxidize it
sulfides. Silver sulfide does not reduce conductivity; in fact, it actually
has a helpful lubricity. We use dual brushes on all our attenuators
both rotary and straight-line models. They are independently sprung
and so guided as to eliminate "stumble" from contact to contact.
-
-
-
ADDED DEVELOPMENTS
Our new attenuator line is designed so that we'll be able to gang up
to 8 of them in tandem, enabling you to operate the whole group with
one control. We've produced rotary attenuators that will give you
more steps in less space. How? Instead of putting them in the conventional round cans-we're building ours in square ones. And we're
using the corners (space that previously went to waste) for the wiring.
DON'T FORGET THE CATALOG
The new Altec Attenuator Catalog we mentioned above has all
the technical characteristics and
other relevant data on the new
line. We'll be delighted to send it
to you. So write today, Dept.BE-3.
ALTE[
L A N S IN G
LANSING
ALTEC
A Division of 6süi M Ling Altec, Inc.
ANAHEIM, CALIFORNIA
e
1965 AL
air. At WIL, the standby transmitter is a Gates BC5A which was
built in 1948. Putting this transmitter on the air requires that the
following operations be performed
in exactly the right sequence: (1)
Filaments on, (2) Antenna transfer,
(3) Drive plate on, (4) Final plate
on, and (5) Automatic reset on. If
any of these functions is forgotten
or not done in proper sequence, the
transmitter will not operate or,
worse yet, may be operating fully
modulated into the dummy load.
After several outages during
which the operator on duty at the
studio failed to start the standby
transmitter, it was decided that a
simple, automatic means of placing
the auxiliary unit on the air was
needed. Provision had been made
for automatic switching of the audio
chain and the frequency and modulation monitors in the original installation (see Fig. 1); when the
new remote -controlled transmitter
was installed, a new program amplifier, limiter, frequency monitor,
and modulation monitor were also
installed. The old units were retained as standby units. Thus each
transmitter has its own set of associated audio equipment that is automatically turned on when the transmitter filaments are started. In the
event of any failure a completely
different set of audio and RF equipment is switched on the air.
The heart of the new system is
an aluminum chassis on which are
installed a one-rpm motor and cam
and six- lever-actuated snap -action
switches. The circuit is shown in
Fig. 2. To initiate the changeover,
it is necessary only to dial one position on the remote-control unit and
press the on or raise key. This
action starts the motor, which then
actuates, in proper sequence, the
switches controlling the filaments,
the antenna transfer, the driver, the
plate voltage, and the automatic
transmitter reset. At the conclusion
of the sequence the motor unit resets itself. As soon as the motor
starts turning, time -delay relay K3
closes the circuit to the plate -loading motor, which decreases the plate
loading for 30 seconds. This allows
the transmitter to start with a light
load. After the transmitter is on the
air, the operator adjusts the loading for the correct common-point
reading.
Circle Item 37 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
80
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sony
targets the sound you want
Telernike Exclusive: Built-in Monitor Facility*
Now, with
three readily interchangeable sound tele -probes,
similar in principle to changeable telephoto lenses, you can
'zoom' in from varying distances for the precise sound you're
after. The 18 -inch probe may be used for 'close-ups,' as tar
back as 75 feet from the sound source; the 34 -inch probe
from 150 feet. A 7 -fool probe is optional, for distances beyond 150 feet.
*The most unique feature, a Sony exclusive, is the built-in,
battery powered, solid state monitoring amplifier in the
pistol grip handle, which assures the operator that he is
transmitting the source with pin -point accuracy.
SONY
OTHER FEATURES. OTHER USES, The new Sony F-75 Dynamic TeleMicrophone is highly directional at the point of probe, with exceptional
rejection of side and back noises (35 to 40 db sensitivity differential).
Recessed switching allows quick selection of impedances (150, 250 and
10K). The uniform frequency response, controlled polar pattern, and
unprecedented rejection of background noise eliminates feedback interference in P. A. systems.
The complete Sony F-75 Tele -Microphone includes two sound probes, 18
and 34 inch lengths, monitoring pistol grip handle and the Sony dynamic
headset. all in a velvet -lined compartmental zed carry.ng case, for less
than$395.For specifications and a catalog of the complete line of Sony
microphones, visit your nearest Sony/Superscope franchised dealer, or
write: Superscope, inc. Dept. 52, Sun Valley, Calif. The best sound 's Sony.
SUPERSCOPE
The Tapewey to
Stereo
Superscope, lac.,
Sun Valley, California
Circle Item 38 on Tech Date Card
March, 1965
81
www.americanradiohistory.com
UHF -TV Station
NOW... Record 14" Reels!
SCULLY 280
(Continued from page 13)
....
Background Music?
Long Play Requirement?
Solid State Scully 280 is now available in special 14" model. Write for
information on the 280 (SP 14), crafted in the traditional Scully manner for
Automation?
truly professional performance.
Makers of the renowned Scully Lathe ... since 1919 the
symbol of precision in the audio industry.
Scully Recording Instruments Corp.
480 Bunnell Street, Bridgeport, Conn. 06607
Circle Item
51
on Tech Data
Card
About the Cover
Truly international, transoceanic television is a reality, and in
a few years it will be commonplace. The efforts of countless
scientists and engineers have
made this achievement possible.
Symbolic of this research and development work is the antenna
system shown on this month's
cover.
The 30' parabolic reflector is
part of a transportable space communications terminal developed by ITT Federal Laboratories, a Division of International
Telephone and Telegraph Corporation, Nutley, New Jersey. The
antenna can be disassembled for
transportation; semi -trailer vans
contain the transmitting and receiving equipment. A servo system is provided to permit automatic tracking of the satellite
with the antenna.
The system was designed for
switchover from one satellite system to another with relative ease.
A dual transmitter system with
separate feed horns makes possible rapid shifts in frequency.
Stations of this type have been
operated from a number of locations, including California, New
Jersey, Brazil, and Germany.
Experiments have been conducted using both the Relay and
Telstar satellites.
The particular antenna shown
here probably will not feed overseas programs to local TV stations, but it is one of the electronic stepping stones that will
ultimately lead to this development. When that happens, significant changes in broadcasting may
very well take place.
of video. Standard video-cable impedance is 75 ohms. Incoming network video, which may be only 1
volt peak to peak, is fed to a distribution amplifier which brings it
up to the station level and usually
offers two or more outputs at that
level. The camera control unit for
the film island also has two or more
outputs of standard composite video
information. A third source of video
is a mixing amplifier that furnishes
.4 volts of sync, plus the station's
"black" signal, about .07 volts below blanking level. Each of these
video sources is fed to a three -position switcher which in turn is fed
into the stabilizing amp, AGC, and
then into the transmitter. Thus, the
operator can select video and audio
from network, from the film camera, or from black.
Q: What about some means to
fade the video as the audio is faded?
A: Fading of network video is
almost never done in the smaller
stations. A local video fader unit
is not usually bought until local
cameras are added to the facilities.
Then the system works like this:
Each local camera's plain video
signal (without sync added) is fed
to two parallel switchers-see Fig.
3. The output of each switcher goes
through a fader-pot with both pots
connected through gears to a common lever which can be moved to
fade out one switcher while fading
in the other.
The video output of the switcherfader unit is fed to a video -sync
mixing amplifier where the sync is
added. The sync is added after the
fader unit to prevent loss of sync
when the video is faded out. The
output of the fader unit is commonly fed to a fourth position on
the switcher preceding the stab-amp
input.
Q: What equipment is needed for
film handling?
A: Equipment for 16 -nun film
should include an ordinary projector, which can be a home -type unit,
to preview the films and find cue
lines for inserting commercials. One
also needs a film rewinder, either
hand-crank or motor-powered type,
and a film timer. A film timer
actually measures the length of the
film as it is wound or rewound, but
it is calibrated in hours, minutes,
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
82
www.americanradiohistory.com
See the Max Brothers increase your program power up to 8 -fold!
(That's the new solid state Audimax on the left... and the Volumax on the right)
Hear this unique combo perform free
in your studio for 30 days! Now CBS
Laboratories gives you the famous
Max Brothers (Audimax and Volumax) both solid state for the first
time. They'll perform free in your
studio for 30 days. Then, If you're
not convinced that solid state Audimax can "ride" gain to increase program power up to 4-1, and solid state
Volumax can control modulation
peaks for as much as an additional
2-1 increase, you can cancel the
Max Brothers, with no obligation.
If you decide to keep them, they cost
only $665 each.
See why the Max Brothers are broadcasting's new money -making stars !
Audimax is an automatic level con-
Call or write CBS Laboratories for
a bulletin with complete details on
the exclusive talents of Audimax
troller that outmodes the ordinary
and Volumax.
AGC. A brilliant studio technician
REMEMBER! Together, the Max
Brothers can increase your program
power up to 8 -fold. Decrease operating costs. Bring in more advertising.
For just $665 each. Can you afford
not to ask for a FREE 30 -day trial?
Special Convention engagement. See
the Max Brothers perform in Booth
without human shortcomings. By
automatically controlling audio levels, it frees engineers, cuts costs and
boosts your signal.
Volumax has a few specialities of
its own. It outmodes conventional
peak limiters by controlling peaks
automatically without side effects. By
expanding effective range and improving reception in fringe areas, it
brings in extra advertising revenues.
Circle Item 41
oe Tech Data
242 at the NAB.
LABORATORIES
Stamford, Connecticut. Division of
A
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.
Card
83
March, 1965
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEW!
FROM DYNAIR
...and it all has
TX -4A "DYNA-MOD"
Solid State Audio/Video Modulator
Series 6600 Solid -State Balanced -Line
Video Transmission Equipment
VS-I21A Solid -State Broadcast Switcher/Fader
with Preview Buss
*AGC
... AFC ... APL-nothing
new. But APQ (Automatic Picture
Quality) is
exclusive! See
APQ and the new DYNAIR equipment at the NAB Convention, booth
235.
a DYNAIR
DYNAIR
FcrRON$CB. ¡NC.
SAN DIEGO,
63-30 FEDERAL
CALIFORNIA
BOULEVARD
SAN DIEGO. CALIFORNIA 92114
TELEPHONE
Circle Item
41
7141 582-9211
on Tech Data
and seconds rather than in feet. A
film splicer is also needed.
There is some disagreement as
to what slide -making equipment is
basically necessary. The traditional
system uses 35 -mm film, some sort
of tripod, and an easel (either horizontal or vertical) where artwork,
pictures, or plastic letters can be
arranged to form the desired slide
image. Many stations are turning
from 35 -mm film to Polaroid positive transparencies. Proponents of
Polaroids contend they are faster
and simpler, with results visible immediately. Opponents say Polaroid
slides cost about three times as
much as 35 -mm slides.
Q: How large a staff is needed?
A: The nontechnical staff is essentially as large as a medium -size
radio staff. Typically, there is a station manager who is responsible for
general station business and regional
and national sales. There are one
or two local time salesmen, as well
as a program director who is responsible for program scheduling,
commercial scheduling, and network relations. A traffic manager
handles the contracts and sees that
they are scheduled and run as
agreed. Each day's log is made up
by a traffic secretary. One or two
bookkeepers and a receptionist -secretary, to answer the phone and type
letters, round out the staff.
The technical staff includes a
chief engineer who, aside from
finding and scheduling staff engineers, usually bears the responsibility for all equipment maintenance. The number of staff engineers depends on the number of
hours the station will operate.
The average low-budget station,
with studio, control, and transmitter housed in one facility, has three
to five staff engineers. They are
often radio engineers selected for
their production ability. Completing this staff is the film man. He is
responsible for timing film, splicing
commercials in, slide making, and
generally being sure each day's films
are ready to air.
Q: How much does television
equipment cost?
A: We'll start by approximating
the new cost of a basic station's
technical equipment.
Medium -gain antenna
Transmitter monitoring equipment
Master monitor
$20,000
2,000
1,700
Card
Simple switching system
Video monitors-dual, 8"
Sync generator
Film camera chain
Prism -type optical multiplexer
16 -mm projectors (two)
Slide projector
Stab amp and AGC
Film equipment, rewinder,
Polaroid, etc.
Audio equipment
1,500
600
3,000
10,000
2,000
13,000
500
4,500
1,000
5,000
Thus, using new equipment, the
cost is about $100,000 plus the
cost of the transmitter and tower.
A 1 -kw transmitter will cost around
$45,000, while a 12.5 -kw UHF
transmitter sells for near $175,000.
Tower costs depend on height.
Q: Is there any way to cut this
cost?
A: Most of the equipment-except the transmitter, antenna, and
transmitter monitor-is common to
both VHF and UHF television. The
audio gear is the same as used by
AM and FM radio. Thus, there is
a fair availability in used equipment. The cost of used equipment
varies, but as a rule seldom exceeds 50% of that of similar new
equipment.
We heard several hints for buying used equipment. First, don't buy
out-of-date equipment. The piece
itself need not be recent, but it
should either still be in production
or not be out of production for
more than four years. Second, stick
with equipment made by a known
manufacturer. It is easier to obtain
parts for, and is probably more
compatible. Third, talk to other
engineers before buying; once
they've been in the UHF field a few
years, they have an idea which
equipment is good.
Along with these hints, the engineers we talked to generally agreed
that it is presently a buyer's market
in used equipment, because many
VHF stations are converting to all transistorized equipment.
Conclusion
As we have tried to show, planning a successful low -budget UHF
operation requires careful selection
of location and equipment and a
constant eye on costs. This article
is only a check list of considerations. There was universal agreement on one fact: The actual UHF
television station installation should
be designed and directed by a professional consulting engineer.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
84
www.americanradiohistory.com
If you are using
video tapes that
foul heads shed
cause headwear
is less than 1,000 hours,
scratch easily,
show signs of wear at
700 passes or less,
(particularly at splices)
STOP.
More and more broadcasters are solving these problems with
Reeves Soundcraft Micro -Plate* Video Tape
The 100% factory pre -tested HEAVY-DUTY video tape that meets
or exceeds commercial broadcast standards for drop -outs and
signal-to-noise ratio. Order today from your local Soundcraft
office or call Danbury, Conn. Write today for free, fully documented technical bulletin RS64-26.
-f
Ir
EC
REEVES SOUNDCRAFT
Division of Reeves Industries,Inc.
Great Pasture Road, Danbury, Conn.
NAME
TITLE
STATION'
CITY
ZONE
STATE
*T.M.11..e..
NAIN
MICE:
Danbury, Conn.
N. Y.: 302 E. 44th St.
CHI.: 7310 W. North Are., Elmwood Pk.,
111.
Come see us at the NAB Show
L.A.: 342 N. Latina' Are.
CANADA: Applied Electronics, Ltd., Toronto
- Virginia Suite - Booth 500.
www.americanradiohistory.com
EXP: C.B.S.
Iotnl., N.Y.C.
1
0 -Watt FM Station
(Continued from page 15)
me (from a doubler), 10 kc, 100
kc, and 1 me (all from multivibrator frequency dividers) are available. The instrument provides cali-
bration frequencies at 100-kc intervals into the FM broadcast band.
The first step in the measurement
procedure is to calibrate the reference unit. This was done by setting
the selector switch for 1 -mc output
and comparing the fifth harmonic
of this output with the 5 -mc transmission of WWV. A communications receiver was used to determine
when the two signals were in zero
beat; the 5 -mc oscillator was set
within an accuracy of -±1 cps by
this means.
Next the calibration unit was
switched to the 100-kc output, and
the difference between one of the
harmonics of 100 kc and the carrier frequency was determined by
comparing the difference frequency
with the output of a laboratory-type
audio oscillator. By this means, the
carrier deviation of the transmitter
as received from the factory was
found to be +400 cps. The transmitter crystal control was then adjusted until the transmitter frequency was within 25 cps of the
reference frequency. (The carrier frequency tolerance for this class of
station is ±3000 cps.)
This method of frequency measurement is not as accurate as some
others, but it is sufficiently accurate
for the purpose. Ample warmup
time should be allowed for the
equipment to stabilize, and care
must be exercised to be sure the
transmitter signal is being compared
with the proper harmonic of 100
kc. (A calibrated receiver is usually
adequate for this purpose.)
the report were drawings of the
remote control unit, a sketch of the
elevation of the transmitter -antenna
installation, and a detailed description of the antenna system. The
measuring techniques and equipment used to measure the frequency
of the new station were described.
Four photographs (showing Amen
Hall, the transmitter location, the
antenna installation in the cupola,
and the control room) and one additional FCC form 341 (in addition
to the other three engineering sections filed) completed the book.
Photocopies (the original book was
sent to the FCC) were made to provide the permittee and the installing
engineer with a permanent record
of the installation. Nine days after
filing the complete FCC form 341
and the engineering report book,
authority was granted for WPEA to
conduct program tests.
Compliance With the Rules
Suitable program and operating
logs were printed by the academy
printing shop. A large notebook was
purchased and marked for use as
a maintenance log. WPEA mainte-
nance is conducted according to
FCC Rules and Regulations on a
bimonthly basis, per the yearly contract. It will be remembered that a
copy of the maintenance contract
was included with the request for
program-test authority. A copy of
the same contract was filed with the
FCC district office in Boston, as
required by the Rules and Regulations. The maintenance log book
provides a continuous record of the
bimonthly inspections and all maintenance over a period of several
years.
To ensure compliance with subpart G (the portion of the Rules
dealing with the Emergency Broad -
Engineering Report
It was decided that merely filing
an FCC form 341 in the usual manner, while entirely proper, would
not suffice completely. Therefore, a
complete engineering report book
was made. This book contained an
affidavit of the installing engineer's
qualifications, a copy of the maintenance contract, and a comprehensive engineering report describing
the methods and procedures used in
the installation. Also included in
Circle Item
43 on Tech Data
Fig. 4.
View of basement control room.
Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
86
www.americanradiohistory.com
PICK ANY VHFUHF* POWER COMBINATION
1
. .
.BUILD IT
EASIER, MORE ECONOMICALLY
*UHF Now Available in
AIR COOLED High Power Combinations.
Now, thanks to SE's advanced transistorized design, you
can build almost any power level and aural/visual power
ratio that you need to meet the new FCC ruling and your
pocketbook.
COMBINE THEM ANY WAY YOU WISH ... The only "building blocks" you need are a transistorized driver and one or
more SE amplifiers. These highly compatible units can be
grouped in countless combinations to give you aural/visual
power combinations varying from 10% to 50%; at any
power output level.
SE AMPLIFIERS COMPLETELY SELF-CONTAINED
...
.
...
...
SAVINGS UP TO 50%
Best news of all
SE amplifiers are compatible with any driver/transmitter. Savings to
you can be as much as 50% in equipment costs!
Like more details? Drop us
a
line.
All
amplifiers are identical regardless of their output power
.. and each is completely self-contained in a newly designed unit that includes power supply, cavity, blower, control circuits, metering, etc.
SE
...
SIMPLY ADD AMPLIFIERS TO BOOST POWER
Thus,
whenever you wish to add to your present transmitter, regardless of make, or change your aural/visual power ratio,
you simply add to or change your amplifier combination.
SE ADD -A -UNIT CAN SOLVE YOUR FM PROBLEMS, TOO!
Ask us about our quality line of FM Multiplex Transmitters,
Amplifiers and Multiplex Exciters. They'll help you put more
punch in your signal!
Visit us at NAB, Booth #103, next to Visual Electronics.
standard electronics corporation
MANALAPAN TOWNSHIP
NEW JERSEY
O. BOX 677, FREEHOLD, N. J. 07728 AREA 201, 446-7611-2-3
N. J. HIGHWAY 33
P.
Distributed throughout Canada by NORTHERN ELECTRIC COMPANY LIMITED, overseas by CBS INTERNATIONAL
Representatives in Albuquerque, Birmingham, Chicago, Jacksonville, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco and Washington,
Circle Item 44 on Tech Dota Card
March, 1965
D. C.
87
www.americanradiohistory.com
SAVE TIME
PROGRAM DIRECTORS
CHIEF ENGINEERS
Identifying, Evaluating, Cataloging,
Inspecting 16mm Motion Picture Film
EXECUTIVES
on the
moviola
LIBRARY
READER
View at up to five times sound speed.
View at governed sound speed.
Twelve sided prism, high quality, projection system.
Rapid rewind without switching reels.
Performs all functions forward and reverse.
Available with or without sound.
moviola
manufacturing co.
5539 Riverton Ave., North Hollywood, Calif.
Telephone: 877-2173
Cable Address: Moviola, North Hollywood, Calif.
motion picture / Iv equipment
Circle Item 45 on Tech Data Card
send
for New FREE
CRYSTAL
CATALOG
3
with New
TRANSISTOR
OSCILLATOR
CIRCUITS
PLANTS TO SERVE YOU BETTER
HERMETICALLY SEALED
PRECISION GROUND
CUSTOM-MADE
NON -OVEN CRYSTALS
NOW
MEASURE FM STEREO
AT 4% THE COST OF
PRESENT UNAPPROVED
STEREO
MONITORS
Gold or silver plated, spring mounted. vacuum
sealed or inert gas, high freq. stability, 10
milliwatt max. current cap. Meet mil. specs.
1000KC to 1800KC (Fund. Freq.)
Prices on Request
1601KC to 2000KC (Fund. Freq.) ____.$5.00 ea.
2001KC to 2500KC (Fund. Freq.) _____ 4.00 ea.
2501 KC to 5000KC (Fund. Freq.) _____ 3.50 ea.
500IKC to 7000KC (Fund. Freq.) ___ 3.90 ea.
7001KC to 10,000KC (Fund. Freq.) ___ 3.25 ea.
10.001KC to 15,000KC (Fund. Freq.) 3.75 ea.
I5MC to 2OMC (Fund. Freq.)
5.00 ea.
Conclusion
$89.50
OVERTONE CRYSTALS
ISMC to 30MC Third Overtone _______.$3.85 ea.
___ 4.10 ea.
3OMC to 40MC Third Overtone
aOMC to 65MC Third or Fifth Overtone 4.50 ea.
65MC to 100MC Fifth Overtone
6.00 ea.
DRAKE 2-B Receiver Crystals
$4.00
(All Channels-Order by Freq.)
OVEN -TYPE CRYSTALS
For Motorola, GE, Gonset, Bendix, etc.
Add $2.00 per crystal to above prices
SUB -MINIATURE PRICES slightly higher
ORDER FROM CLOSER PLANT
eTEXAS CRYSTALS
DEPT.
BE
1000 Crystal Drive
Division of
FORT MYERS, FLORDA
Phone 813 WE 8-2109
AND
4117 W. Jefferson Blvd.
LOS ANGELES, CALIF.
Phone 213-731-2258
Circle Item 46 on Tech Data Card
interpretation was obtained. According to
this interpretation, WPEA is required to monitor an EBS station
while on the air, just as other stations must do. However, due to the
low operating power and limited
operating schedule, WPEA is not
required to conduct weekly test
alerts. It must, of course, air the
standard alerting procedure in the
event of a real alert and discontinue
operation. WPEA is not required to
broadcast the full requirements of
Section 73.921 (b), unless it voluntarily desires to do so. To provide
complete compliance, a suitable
receiver is used to monitor a key
station while WPEA is broadcasting.
Complete step-by-step operating
instructions, scope of authority of
operators with third-class licenses,
prohibited procedures, a copy of
the maintenance contract, and all
licenses are posted on a control room bulletin board. Additional
pages were inserted, where necessary, in all instruction manuals to
indicate equipment modifications.
A master line drawing of all external wiring connections not covered
by factory manuals and drawings of
special equipment constructed especially for use at WPEA were prepared. Students were given instruction in operating the console and
turntables and were made aware of
the normal practices and procedures
used in commercial radio stations.
Those operators in actual charge of
the transmitter are required to have
valid third-class licenses, and all
students connected with the station
were advised to obtain a license to
provide a flexible operation.
cast System), an official
Why spend $2300 or more now when the FMD-1
Wide Band FM Detector will enable you to
measure your stereo composite signal?
MEASURES:
> 45 db
Stereo Separation
Pilot Phase
< V2°
(L FR), (L-R), Comp.
Stereo Levels
< 0.1%
Distortion
AM Noise
From Transmitter or Antenna
Ideal for stereo proof -of -performance and type acceptance measurements.
BELAR
ELECTRONICS LAB.
1204 Childs Avenue
Drexel Hill, Pa.
By stressing proper installation
and constant attention to proper
operating practices, WPEA was
able to attain a smooth and efficient
operation. The act of incorporation
of The Phillips Exeter Academy,
which was signed by the Governor
of New Hampshire on April 3,
1781, begins: "Whereas the education of youth has ever been considered by the wise and good as an
object of the highest consequence
to the safety and happiness of a
people ..." It is hoped that WPEA
will, in the years to come, continue
to enlarge this belief of John Phillips of nearly two centuries ago.
Circle Item 47 en Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
88
www.americanradiohistory.com
Aeronautical Field
(Continued from page 17)
should be taken to correctly determine the correction factor.
ELEVATION
ANGLE
ELEVAI ION
ANGLE
Results
Fig. 6. Pattern of field -intensity meter
antenna, distorted by metal in airplane.
It was found that the readings
inside the metal airplane were
strongest next to a window. With
the airplane on the ground, the
reading inside (with the right side
of the plane toward the station) was
about 1/10 the outside reading.
More than one set of readings
Fig. 7 shows the type of results
obtained at WBBY. It is of interest
to note that in the vertical plane
there is still the same wide scattering of points in nulls that is observed when measuring nulls on the
ground.
In the course of making these
measurements, a fact became apparent that may be of help to other
engineers in connection with their
directional arrays. Directional patterns are determined from measurements made at a relatively few bearings, not all the way around. Thus
minor variations-extra nulls or
minor lobes-could exist between
measured radials and never be
known. But with an airplane flying
at low altitude in a circular path
around the array, you can for the
first time see the directional pattern
traced out graphically on the field intensity meter. Nulls and minor
lobes stand out precisely and can
be checked quickly against landmarks to see if they fall at the
ACOUSTICAL REARGUARD
10°
0190
d00 MVIM
0
16°
2°P4:6°
6° TRUE
20°
10°
Fig.
7.
TRUE
wire
IÌ11
v
tow
10°
10M
20MVIM
296° TRUE
200 MVIM
ELEVATION
ANGLE
ELEVATION
ANGLE
10
100
309° TRUE
Vertical -plane field intensities
correct bearings. Also, pattern
distortion can be discovered and
its position in terms of bearings
determined for further ground -level
investigation.
Conclusion
There are some engineering problems in connection with directional
antennas that can be solved only
by making airborne field -intensity
measurements. In many other cases,
useful information can be gained
by making such measurements.
FOR SUPERIOR SOUND
D-12
Range: 30-18,000 cps (cardioid)
30-30,000 cps (omni-directional)
Response: ± 2.5 db over entire range
Dimensions: ?a" Dia. x 4"
Data sheet available on request
Range: 40-15,000 cps
Response:
3db over entire range
Dimensions: 55/s" x 2'/A" x 27/á"
Data sheet available on request
Insensitive to sound reaching this dynamic
microphone from the rear...An exceptionally
pronounced cardioid pattern produces an acoustical shield of approximately 180° that effectively
isolates unwanted sounds originating from noisy
audiences, feed-back or reflection.
CONDENSER
and
Aloreico®
DYNAMIC MICROPHONES
MADE IN AUSTRIA BY
º6s
high quality condenser microphone for
speech. Its characteristics provide
fidelity for reproduction and recording. The
many uses and users attest to the unusual
tility of this microphone. Available with
cardioid or omni-directional capsule.
A
AKG GMBI-.
music
truest
C -60's
versa-
either
AUDIO VIDEO
PRODUCTS
NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS COMPANY, INC.
Professional Products DÍA,s 0n, 100 East 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017
Circle Item 48 en Tech Data Card
March, 1965
89
www.americanradiohistory.com
Three new Ampex
head replacements
NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY
OMMMMMMMMIMIIIBIMMIIIIMIMMIZOIMMIIMMMID
NATIONAL
NAB Opposes Frequency -
Sharing Plan
factory installed
Just $135
Available through your Ampex Distributor: Now you can have all three heads
of your Ampex 350 or 300 series full track recorder factory replaced for $85
less than the cost of a new assembly.
And the performance is identical. Just
have your distributor send us your old
assembly-we'll install three new heads
with the same factory head alignment
as the original assembly. Carries the
year warranty. And takes us
same
less than 48 hours. (Similar savings are
also available on other head assemblies, including duplicators and some
400 series recorders.) Idea: order a
new assembly at the same time and
keep the rebuilt one as a spare. Contact your Ampex Distributor, or write
for Bulletin No. 1962-A. Ampex Corp.,
Department 6-1, Redwood City, Calif.
1
Circle Item 49 on Tech Data Card
KILL THE HEAT!
Opposition to the FCC proposal that
television broadcasters share with the
Apollo space program two frequencies
assigned to auxiliary TV services has
been expressed by the National Association of Broadcasters. In its comments,
NAB said the proposed operation would
create interference that would "greatly
restrict" the broadcasters' use of the
frequencies to provide public service.
NAB added that ample spectrum space
is available among frequencies assigned
exclusively to the government to accommodate the Apollo communications
channels without encroaching upon the
auxiliary TV frequencies. The FCC has
proposed that broadcasters share the
2106.4 and 2101.8 me frequencies to
provide earth -to -space communications
for the man -on -the -moon project from
four earth research stations-Goldstone,
Calif.; Cape Kennedy, Fla.; Corpus
Christi, Tex.; and Kauai, Hawaii. The
two frequencies now are used for remote TV pickups, studio -to -transmitter
links, and intercity relays. NAB also
noted that while the FCC proposal is
"limited to the life of the Apollo project, it is noted in the proceeding that
the project life expectancy is measured
in terms of a decade." Therefore, they
said, it is "conceivable that this project
could go on indefinitely . . ." NAB requested that if the Commission decides
to go ahead and require broadcasters to
share the frequencies, "a specific time
limitation should be imposed on the use
of these frequencies" by the Apollo
project.
Antennas for Mexico
Replace hot tube rectifiers
NOW with life -time, indestructible, no -heat silicons.
2400 Ply -1 amp
replaces 5R4
... $3.95
1800 PIV-1 amp
replaces 5U4
... $1.95
Replacements available for
most
tubes. Order 10 or more for Special Quantity prices.
Wilkinson Electronics, Inc.
1937
W. MacDade Blvd.
Woodlyn, Pa. 19094
Telephone: 215.874-5237
Circle item
50 on Tech Data
Three high -power TV antennas have
been ordered for installation in Mexico.
Each has an input power rating of 100
kw. These are believed to be the most
powerful VHF -TV antennas in the world.
The antennas, to be supplied by Jampro
Antenna Company, are for transmitters
to be located on a 4000' mountain top
about 75 miles northwest of Vera Cruz.
The channel 6 antenna, ordered by Television Regional Veracruzana, S.A., is
for a six -bay batwing antenna. The channel 8 antenna, for Tele-Lajas, S.A., has
a power gain of 19.2 with an omnidirectional pattern. The channel 10 unit,
for Television de Veracruz, S.A., is intended to provide an ERP of 1.4 megawatts with a 100 -kw input.
New TV Technique
Fifty -year -old photographs and drawings
are being given "life" on the CBS News
series, "World War I," by means of
"still -motion" photography. In this technique the camera "eye" pans across a
still picture to give an illusion of motion. These effects are produced using a
"human -engineered" single -stick control
for all movements and speeds. The control device, developed by Measurement
Systems, Inc., permits the cameraman
to control speed and direction of pan
by varying pressures on a single "joystick." The joystick control converts
forces in any direction into electrical
signals that control camera movements.
In doing so, the stick does not move
more than 1/16" in any direction. This
design was indicated by recent research
in Human Engineering, which aims at
making the most of human capabilities
by designing mechanical equipment to
fit the operation of the human nervous
and muscular systems.
INTERNATIONAL
Firm Sold
Benco Television Associates, Ltd., Toronto, has been sold to Neighbourhood
Television Ltd., of Guelph, Ontario.
Neighbourhood Television is acquiring a
100% interest in Benco. Blonder-Tongue
Laboratories, Inc. held a controlling interest in Benco since the fall of 1961.
Benco manufacturers translator and
community antenna television products,
and Neighbourhood Television owns and
operates CATV systems in Canada.
A Radio Pioneer Passes
Charles Samuel Franklin, one of the
early radio pioneers, died recently in
London. Mr. Franklin joined the Marconi Company in 1899 and almost immediately left for South Africa and the
Boer War to help introduce wireless to
the battlefield. His first close contact
with Marconi himself came in 1902 when
they sailed across the Atlantic, successfully receiving transmission from Poldhu
in Cornwall at ranges of up to 1550
miles.
In 1916 Franklin and Marconi started
their first experiments with short-wave
communications, Franklin designing a
special spark transmitter that operated
in compressed air. Some highly promising results were obtained from these
initial experiments, and they eventually
led to the first beamed short - wave
system in the world. Some of Franklin's designs are still in use in HF
communications.
Franklin continued to work on the
development of his short-wave beam
system and by 1933 had even reached
a stage where he was experimenting
with radar. He was closely connected
with broadcasting and helped in the design and installation of 2L0, London's
first broadcasting station. He also designed the antenna system for the original BBC television station at Alexandra
Palace. Sixty-five patents stand to
Franklin's credit. These include the variable capacitor, the ganged capacitor, the
reaction circuit, and the concentric
feeder.
Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
90
www.americanradiohistory.com
All DISTRIBUTION
SATISFY
REQUIREMENTS
with these transistorized and completely self-contained modules
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MODEL
4000 Rack Mounting Frame provides common mounting facility
for any combination of modules.
MODELS 3200 and 3206
Video Distribu-
tion Amplifiers feature high impedance
bridging inputs and 4 identical isolated
outputs, source terminated in 75 ohms.
MODEL 3206
MODEL 3200
MODEL 3201 Sync Adder provides a
means of mixing sync into any or all
video amplifiers in the frame.
MODEL 3202 Pulse Distribution Amplifier regenerates sync, blanking or drive
MODEL 3201
MGT
MODEL 3202
pulses, providing
outputs.
4
identical isolated
3205 Equalizer Amplifier now
contains frequency boost circuits providing up to 10 db at 4.5 Mc. Slope
adjustable to match cable. Also provides
MODEL
3.3
adjustable time constant correction.
MODEL 3205
Ideal for Frequency Phone Correction of
long coaxial lines.
oe+.nu30«..wxMu
.mro
li
TELEueu.aa
MEi CO
»MR
.M
...emu.
et!
NEW MODEL 3208 Dual Video Distribution Amplifier actually contains 2 separate and
completely independent amplifiers and power supplies of the Model 3206 type in a
space -saving configuration.
See these new items at the NAB Show
Model
3203-Clamper Amplifier with
remote gain control
Model 3209-Color Stabilizing Amplifier
Model 3518-Color Bar Generator
Model 3806-Electronic Pointer
...and many others
T
+
TELEMET COMPANY
a
division of
G
GIANNINI SCIENTIFIC CORPORATION
roA4
PHONE (516) 541-3600
185 DIXON AVENUE, AMTYVILLE, N.Y.
qonAT
Circle Item 24 on Tech Data Card
9I
March, 1965
www.americanradiohistory.com
t>
PRODUCTS
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with UHF or complete aluminum flare
fittings for the throughline and with
threaded tapoff fittings.
Circle Item 112 on Tech Data Cord
variable gain control is provided. A bypass feature permits routing the video
signals around the unit if no correction
is required. The unit is fully transistorized and fits the company's Model
4001 -Al rack mounting frame.
Circle Item
111 on Tech Data
Card
Equalizer-Amplifier
Time -constant correction to reduce
streaking, overshoots, and undershoots in
color and monochrome TV signals is
provided by the Model 3205B2 equalizer amplifier. This Telemet amplifier also
provides frequency boost of up to 10
db with adjustable slope. The amplifier
is designed to operate with a 1 -volt peak to-peak composite or noncomposite video
signal. It can be used for equalization
of runs of 75 -ohm coaxial cable up to
2000' in length. Any one of a series of
correction curves can be selected with
a front -panel control that connects an
appropriate internal capacitor in the
high -frequency boost -amplifier circuit.
A concentric knob is used for selecting
the phase correction. A continuously
Coupler For
Tapoff for CATV
The new "Multee" tapoff is engineered
to accommodate four housedrop taps
and still maintain excellent VSWR and
low insertion loss. The fully weatherproof Entron unit (MT Series) has a
strand -mounting clamp for easy installation. It features throughline match and
backmatch for all -band color, extremely
low insertion loss (.3 db average), seven
attenuation values, and high isolation
between tapoffs. The unit is supplied
STL
Lines
When the Model ICU -1 Isocoupler is
used, an STL antenna and transmission
line can be mounted directly to an ungrounded standard -broadcast tower with
negligible effect on the base impedance
and without employing an insulated
quarter -wave matching section. The
coupler has less than .3 db insertion
loss to signals in the 890 to 960 me
band and presents less than 10 pf of
capacitance between the input and output connectors. Rated at 5000 volts
peak, this coupling unit is completely
sealed in a moisture -proof epoxy resin
and is designed to be strapped to the
base of an AM tower. Weighing less
BOOK REVIEW
¿Y/TH8LE$
Basic Electronics: Bureau of Naval
c,
=
t
ilt
JJ
GREENLEE CHASSIS PUNCHES
-
Make accurate, finished holes in 11/2 minutes
or less in metal, hard rubber and plastics. No
few turns of the
tedious sawing or filing
wrench does the job. All standard sizes
round, square, key, or "D" shapes for sockets,
switches, meters, etc. At your electronic parts
dealer. Literature on request.
-a
.
.
.
GREENLEE TOOL CO. gzelip
2028 Columbia Ave., Rockford, Illinois
Circle Item
52 on Tech
Personnel; Dower Publications, Inc.,
New York, New York; 459 pages,
61/2 x 91/4, paperback, $2.75. This
republication of Navy Training Course
NavPers 10087-A has not been
changed from the Navy version except for the omission of a list of
training films. Nineteen chapters include fundamentals of electron tubes
and transistors, tuned circuits, amplifiers, oscillators, transmission lines,
transmitters, receivers, and an introduction to radar. The last two chapters serve as an introduction to computers. An appendix lists electronic
color codes and symbols. An 81 page index is also included.
The reader must already have an
understanding of basic electricity if
he is to comprehend this text. A
knowledge of basic algebra and trigonometry is needed to thoroughly understand some sections. Line drawings,
schematics, charts, graphs, and waveform drawings are used throughout
to supplement the text.
The introduction urges the reader
to study the book with pencil and
paper and to refrain from skimming
the text. This is excellent advice if
the aspiring technician is to get the
most from the volume.
Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
92
www.americanradiohistory.com
than two pounds, the unit is 5" in overall length and 4" in diameter. Type N
RF connectors are used. The price of
this Moseley Associates product is $150.
Circle Item
113 on Tech Data
flywheels, capstans, tools, watches, and
magnetized metal. Designed for easy,
hand-held operation and housed in a
molded plastic case, the eraser is furnished with operating instructions and
an eight -foot gray vinyl-covered line
cord. List price is $18.95.
Card
Circle Item
115 on Tech Data
Card
Solid -State Amplifier
Compact Console
Up to eight separate audio sources can
be selected through the four mixing
channels of the Sparta A -10B console.
Four plug-in preamplifiers and/or four
plug-in input transformers can be supplied so that the console can handle as
many as eight low-level inputs. Also
included are cue facilities for all inputs,
a headphone jack with gain control, and
a public -address -system output. The unit
has speaker muting and a self-contained
monitor speaker. All preamplifiers, the
program amplifier, and the monitor amplifier are of solid-state design and modular plug-in construction for ruggedness.
The new console can be operated from
an 18 to 221/2 VDC or a 115 VAC,
50-60 cps source. It weighs 10 lbs.
Circle Item 114 on Tech Data Card
MICROPHONES
PLAYBACK
Bulk Tape Eraser
The Model 150-A Magneraser Junior,
manufacturered by Amplifier Corp. of
America and sold by Artronics Company, Inc., is designed to remove from
a reel of tape, in a matter of seconds,
all recorded signals and to reduce background noise below that of new tape.
The unit can also be used for demagnetizing record -playback and erase heads.
This reduces tape distortion and background noise which is added to program
material by magnetized heads. The
Model 150-A can also be used to demagnetize tape guide posts, bearings, pulleys,
TAPE MACHINES
CONTROL 1110M
This solid-state video distribution amplifier, by Vital Industries, combines
compact construction and many desirable
features; self-contained regulated power
supply, low differential gain and phase,
high signal-to-noise ratio, and high -gain
stability. The Model VI-l0A provides
four identical 75 -ohm outputs from a
50K -ohm loop -through input, and gain is
adjustable from
to +6 db, with frequency response within /a db to 20 mc.
-6
Circle Item 116 on Tech Data Card
\ /
STOP
lose two turns for
going too far. Turn back
You
to page 86 for Instantaneous
Selection Remote Control by
Bionic Instruments.
REVERBERATION
TESTING
SATISFYING THE HIGHEST QUALITY DEMANDS CF BROADCAST TECHNOLOGY
C=>
See Us
At
Booth 229
NAB SHOW
71""
Aol^eIíI
AUDIO CORPORATION
"ORK 36, N. Y.
-Mar Electronics Ltd., P.O. Boo 158,
2 WEST 46 STREET, NEW
In Canada:
J
212 -CO 5-4111
Don
Mills, Ontario
CATALOG ON LETTERHEAD REQUEST
Check Item 53 on trees Data Card
March, 1965
93
www.americanradiohistory.com
tt!
ENGINEERS' TECH DATA
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73. SWITCHCRAFT-New product bulletin No. 149 describes the
ti ti
latest molded headphone coiled cord.
74. TURNER-New four-color, 16 -page microphone catalog.
75. VIKING OF MINNEAPOLIS-Specification bulletins describe
Model 96 tape transport, RP120 record -playback amplifier
and Model 38 cartridge handler.
AUDIO & RECORDING EQUIPMENT
on line of recording and broadcast
ALTEC-Folder
59.
equipment.
60. AMPROBE-Full-line catalog on recorders, including in61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
formation on REE -16.
ATC--Specification sheet on the ATC-55 solid-state multiple cartridge unit.
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS-Packet contains specifications
and prices for "Spotmaster" tape -cartridge systems.
CINE SONIC-Data sheet describes rental service which
supplies background music prerecorded on 7", 101/2", and
14" reels of tape or in cartridges.
DUOTONE-Booklet No. EL-1 describing new "Elipticon"
stylus.
LANGEVIN-Descriptive literature covering complete line of
professional sound equipment.
MAGNASYNC-Information on motion -picture magnetic -film
sound -recording equipment and accessories.
McMARTIN-Data sheets covering complete line of solidstate and tube -type SCA multiplex monitors.
MILES REPRODUCER-Literature describes automatic logging
recorder.
QUAM-NICHOLS-New catalog lists coaxial, extended -range,
and hi-fi speakers and tweeters.
SCULLY-Bulletin SP -14 describing Model 280 solid-state
recorder with 14" reel -size capacity.
SENNHEISER-Bulletin and technical information on Model
MD 421 dynamic cardioid studio microphone with built-in
bass control.
SPARTA-New product brochure describes and illustrates
"Sparta-Matic" tape -cartridge systems, audio consoles, and
other related studio equipment.
.
71.
72.
76.
COMPONENTS & MATERIALS
BRADY-Self-bonding signature plates for studio property
identification and control.
WIRE-Product sheets with technical data on various
flexible and semiflexible coaxial cables.
77. TIMES
MICROWAVE DEVICES
78. LECTRONIC-Bulletin No. 83 contains a comprehensive presentatiòn of microwave equipment, waveguide components,
regulated power supplies, test equipment, and electronic
components.
79. MICRO-LINK-Brochures on portable microwave link and
fixed -station relay link; also planning guide for 2500 -mc
instructional TV systems.
80. MICROWAVE ASSOCIATES-Information on newly introduced MA-8531, a companion unit to the MA -2 microwave
TV relay system.
81. SURFACE CONDUCTION-Bulletin on microwave -by -wire
(G -line) for long-distance, broadband transmission.
MOBILE RADIO & COMMUNICATIONS
82. MOSELEY-New technical bulletin describes remote pickup
transmitter and receiver featuring low distortion, extended
frequency response, and automatic leveling and peak-limiting
circuits.
83.
MOSLEY-Literature describes Citizens band antennas.
0000000411,411000000000111)0004,*
from
a
for 1965
complete line of AM -FM
BROADCAST
TRANSMITTERS
offering you these features
Quality components conservatively rated for long life.
Minimum number of tubes and types.
Minimum floor space.
Heavy duty blowers.
Provisions for remote control.
Completely solid state power supplies.
Fully interlocked.
Automatic recycling.
it at
the NAB Show
AlBooth 512
See
1.merlcan
Model FM -7.5 KA 7500 Watt FM transmitter shown here.
WRITE FOR COMPLETE
INFORMATION
alectronIc =aaboratorles, Inc.
PHONE: (215) 822-2929
P. 0. BOX 552, LANSDALE, PENNSYLVANIA 19446
TWX: 510-661-4976
Cable Address: AMERLAB Lansdale
0.6 esesooeee
No external vault required.
Circle Item 57 on Tech Data Cord
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
94
www.americanradiohistory.com
How to get ...
and hold
a top job
in AM -FM -TV...
POWER DEVICES
describes line -voltage regulator that uses saturable -core reactor.
85. TERADO-Brochures on line of mobile power inverters that
supply instant AC power.
84. HEVI-DUTY-Bulletin No. 7-12
REFERENCE MATERIAL
& SCHOOLS
INSTITUTE OF ELECTRONICS-Brochure describes electronics slide rule with four-lesson instruction
course and grading service.
87. HOWARD W. SAMS-Literature describing popular and informative technical publications; includes latest catalog of
technical books.
88. JERROLD-Eight-page technical brochure describes a new
bridge method of sweep-frequency impedance measurement.
89. RIKER-Brochure on how to assemble a custom video processing amplifier with all -transistor video modules.
86. CLEVELAND
STUDIO & CAMERA EQUIPMENT
90. CBS LABS-Literature on Audimax III automatic level control, Volumax 400 automatic peak control.
91. CLEVELAND ELECTRONICS-Data concerns deflection yoke
and alignment coil for 3" image orthicons.
92. ZOOMAR-Bulletins contain descriptions of zoom lenses and
remote -control systems for television cameras.
TELEVISION EQUIPMENT
93. STANDARD ELECTRONICS-Technical data on new solidstate TV driver -amplifier combinations; detailed specs on
low-cost visual/aural combinations.
TELEMET-Literature describing clamper amplifier, color-bar
generator, and color-stabilizing amplifier.
95. VITAL INDUSTRIES-Data sheets describing video -distribution amplifier Model VI -10A, pulse-distribution amplifier VI20, and video damper -stabilizer VI-500.
94.
TEST EQUIPMENT
& INSTRUMENTS
new Model 355 DC -AC digital
voltmeter.
HICKOK-Brochure on Model 580 solid-state tube tester and
general test-equipment catalog.
LECTROTECH-Separate bulletins detail color generator and
vectorscope Model V7, color generator V6, and regulated
modular power supplies.
SPRAGUE-Technical data and specifications on Model 500
interference locator and accessories.
TELONIC-Four-page brochure describes line of sweep generators, RF attenuators, RF detectors, and coaxial switches.
TRIPLETT-New catalog No. 46-T concerning complete line
of VOM's, VTVM's, signal generators, and tube and transistor analyzers.
a message from Carl E. Smith, E. E.,
Consulting Broadcast Engineer
96. BALLANTINE-Information on
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
TOOLS
DEVELOPMENT-Bulletin features new desoldering-resoldering iron for use on printed circuit boards.
102. ENTERPRISE
TRANSMITTER & ANTENNA DEVICES
BAUER-Data sheet concerning Model 607 FM broadcast
transmitter, 1000 -watt unit housed in a one-piece custom
cabinet.
104. CCA-Information available on complete line of AM and
FM broadcast transmitters and accessories.
105. CONTINENTAL-Brochure describes Model 317C 50 -kw AM
broadcast transmitter.
106. CORNELL-DUBILIER-Replacement component selector, TV FM reception booklet, and 4 -page rotor brochure.
107. GATES-Latest information concerning 5 -kw AM transmitter
103.
Model BC -5P-2.
RUST-Data sheet on Autolog
AL -100R, remote -operation
version of continuous line synchronous system.
109. SCALA-Catalog sheets describe antennas for monitoring
FM and TV signals.
110. WARD ELECTRONICS-Information on CDL video signal
processing amplifiers and CO.-EL. UHF slot antennas.
108.
In over 30 years in broadcasting, I've met hundreds of really top
flight technical men and 98 % of them were at or near the top because
they "knew their stuff". There is no substitute for knowledge.
Even if a friend or relative can get you a good job, you'll fail mighty
fast if you can't produce results. The first good emergency will
separate the men from the boys. I've seen it happen again and again
when things start to go sour and the signal isn't what it should
be, skill is the only acceptable solution.
...
To get and hold a top engineering job, you need advanced technical
education. And you can get it through a program of college -level
study used by broadcasting engineers for 30 years. Cleveland Institute's Advanced Communications Engineering Course has helped
thousands of men prepare themselves for key positions in radio and
television engineering. It can do the same for you.
So don't let that next promotion pass you by. Send the coupon
below for full details. There is no obligation. I want you to know
what you can accomplish ... if you want to get ahead. If the coupon
is gone, write: Cleveland Institute of Electronics, 1776 E. 17th St.,
Dept. BE -17, Cleveland, Ohio 44114.
SEND COUPON TODAY
Cleveland Institute of Electronics
1776 E. 17th Street, Dept. BE -17
Cleveland, Ohio 44114
Please send me free information on your Advanced Communications Engineering Course ... without obligation.
Name
(please print)
County
Address
State
City
A leader in communications training
March, 1965
Zip
... since
1934
95
www.americanradiohistory.com
Professional Services
VIR JAMES
CONSULTING RADIO ENGINEERS
Applications and Field Engineering
345 Colorado Blvd.
Phone: (Area Code 303) 333.5582
DENVER, COLORADO
80206
Member AFCCE
JAMES C. McNARY
Consulting Engineer
National Press Bldg.
D. C.
Washington 4,
Telephone District 7.1205
Member AFCCE
LAWRENCE BEHR ASSOCIATES, Inc.
RADIO ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS
FM Applications and Field Engineering
AM
-
also
Communications
-
CATV
LAWRENCE BEHR, PRESIDENT
2501 East Fourth Street
Greenville, North Carolina
919 PL 8.3966
OSCAR LEON CUELLAR
Consulting Radio Engineer
AM -FM -TV
623.1121
411 Phoenix Title Building
Directional Antennas Design
Applications and Field Engineering
Tucson, Arizona 85701
Member IEEE
Ampex Head Assemblies for 300 and 400
series recorders reconditioned. Service
includes lapping and polishing all three
head stacks, cleaning entire assembly,
readjusting and replacement of guides.
and realignment of stacks as to azimuth
and zenith. Full track assemblies-$60.00.
Taber Manufacturing & Engineering Co.,
2619 Lincoln Ave., Alameda. California.
5-64 tf
Audio Equipment bought, sold, traded.
Ampex, Fairchild, Crown, McIntosh, Viking. F. T. C. Brewer Company, 2400
West Hayes Street, Pensacola. Florida.
3-64 tf
Television/Radio/communications gear of
any type available. From a tower to a
tube. Microwave, transmitters, cameras,
studio equipment, mikes, etc. Advise
your needs-offers. Electrofind Co., 440
Columbus Ave., NYC. 212 -EN -25680.
8-64 tf
COMMERCIAL CRYSTALS and new or
replacement crystals for RCA, Gates,- W.
E. Bliley, and J -K holders; regrinding,
repair, etc. BC -604 crystals; also service
on AM monitors and H -P 335B FM mon-
itors. Nationwide unsolicited testimonials
praise our products and fast service. Eidson Electronic Company, Box 96, Temple.
Texas.
5-64 tf
Parabolic antennas, six foot dia., new,
solid surface with hardware, dipole, etc.
$125.00 each. S -W Electric Cable Company, Willow & Twenty -Fourth Streets.
Oakland, California. 832-3527.
10-64 tf
Everything in used broadcast equipment. Write for complete listings. Broadcast Equipment and Supply Co., Box 3141,
Bristol, Tennessee.
11-64 6t
Laboratory Test Equipment, microwave
components, all frequency and makes at
real low prices. Write or call for information. Jericho Electronic Supplies. Sid
Gordon Electronics, 80 West Jericho
Turnpike, Syosset, Long Island, N. Y.
12-64 6t
(516) WA 1-7580.
SMITH
TAPE DUPLICATION at lowest prices
in the East; we specialize in small
quantities. Air Checks, Location Recording, Remote Broadcasts.
G & G RECORDING SERVICE
Lake Road RFD 1
Peekskill, N. Y. 10566
Four bay super -turnstile antenna, adjustable to channel 2 or 3. Fifty kilowatt
rating. Used two years and in excellent
condition. Write Broadcast Engineering,
Dept. 121.
1-65 3t
AMPEX 350 SERIES reconditioned capstan idlers for $7.50 exchange. Send us
your old ones, or order them for $10.00
and get $2.50 back after sending the old
ones in. Ours have new bearings, the
rubber softened and surface precision
ground. TABER MANUFACTURING &
ENGINEERING CO., 2619 Lincoln Ave.,
1-65 12t
Alameda, California.
AMPEX 350 SERIES reconditioned capstan drive motors (BODINE NCH -33 only)
$85.00 exchange. Send us your old one,
or order for $100.00 and get $15.00 back
after sending old one in. Ours have new
bearings and rewound stator. Package
motor well. TABER MANUFACTURING
& ENGINEERING CO., 2619 Lincoln Ave.,
1-65 12t
Alameda California.
R1AA
equalized phono
Two Pultec PC 10
amplifiers, 18 months old, $195.00 each.
Neuman DST62 stereo phono cartridge 10
hours use, $45.00. Shipped prepaid with
check or money order. W. R. Pletcher,
604 Thornhill Drive, Lafayette Hill, Pa.
i i -Classified
-- ----
Parabolic antenna, 4 -ft. diameter. New
solid surface aluminum with hardware
and diapole, $85 each. Empire Device
heads for NF 105, half price. Jericho Electronics Supplies. Sid Gordon Electronics,
80 West Jericho Turnpike, Syosset, Long
CARL
E.
CONSULTING RADIO ENGINEERS
AM, FM, TV and CATV
8200 Snowville Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44141
Phone: 216-526-4386
Member AFCCE
CAMBRIDGE CRYSTALS
PRECISION FREQUENCY
MEASURING SERVICE
SPECIALISTS FOR AM -FM -TV
Phone 876.2810
Cambridge, Mass. 02138
445 Concord Ave.
(914) PE 7-2772
MI
BB
3-65 2t
Advertising rstes in the Classified Section are ten cents per word. Minimum
charge is $2.00. Blind box number is 50
cents extra. Check or money order must
be enclosed with ad.
The classified columns are not open to
the advertising of any broadcast equipment or supplies regularly produced by
manufacturers unless the equipment is
used and no longer owned by the manufacturer. Display advertising must be
purchased in such cases.
3-65 3t
Island, N.Y. (516) WA. 1-7580.
ELECTRONIC TUBES-Top Brands SOLD
at substantial savings; (Minimum Order
$15.00). Authorized GE. Amperex, Dumont and Eimac Distributor. Send for
FREE Buyers' Guide for all your Tube
Requirements. TOP CASH PAID for your
excess inventory. (New Only-Commercial
Quantities). Metropolitan Supply Corp.,
443 Park Avenue South, New York, N.Y.
3-65 5t
100161 (212) MU 6-2834.
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
EQUIPMENT WANTED
Will buy or trade used tape and disc recording equipment-Ampex, Concertone.
Magnecord. Presto. etc. Audio equipment
for sale. Boynton Studio, 295 Main St.,
Tuckahoe, N. Y.
1-64 tf
469-B condenser manufactured by
Western Electric Company for their 504
B2, 3 kw FM transmitter. Contact Bill
Bratton, Chief engineer, WLAP, LexingA
ton, Ky. 606-255-6300.
11-64-6t
Personnel
MARKETING MANAGERS (2)
Broadcast or Audio Products
Are you an engineer well grounded
in either of the above product lines?
Would you prefer to report to the
President?
Are you capable of selling ideas to
others?
If so, you likely have the qualifica.
tions to manage the marketing of our
client's expanding product lines from
the conception of new products until
the product is meeting the customer's
needs. Technical knowledge of the
products is a prime consideration. Midwest location. Send replies to:
Batten, Batten, Hudson & Swab, Inc.
Consultants to Management
4021 Fleur Drive, Des Moines, Iowa,
50315, DEPT. M.
m
-- u n i t
Advertisers' Index
m- m ti
Altec Lansing Corp.
80
American Electronic Labs
94
Ampex Corp.
38, 63, 70, 90
Andrew Corp.
79
Automatic Tape Control, Inc.
33
Bauer Electronics Corp.
30
Belar Electronics Lab
88
Belden Mfg. Co.
7
Bionic Instruments, Inc.
86, 93
Broadcast Electronics
8-9
CBS International
69
CBS Labs, Inc.
83
CCA Electronics Corp.
68
Cleveland Institute of Electronics
95
ColorTran, Inc.
72
Continental Electronics
77
Dage TV Co.
I
Dynair Electronics, Inc.
84
Eastman Kodak Co.
21
Eitel -McCullough, Inc.
67
Fairchild Recording Co.
4
Gates Radio Co.
71
Gotham Audio Corp.
93
Greenlee Tools
92
International Nuclear Corp.
65
JOA Cartridge Service
68
Jampro Antenna Co.
10
Marconi Instruments
32
McMartin Industries
Cover 3
Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co.
75
Mole -Richardson
76
Moseley Associates
37
Moviola Mfg. Co.
88
Norelco Audio Video Products
89
Nortronics
6
RCA Broadcast and Television
Products
27-28
RCA Electronic Components
and Devices
Cover 4
Reeves Industries
85
Riker Industries
Cover 2
68
Rohn Mfg. Co.
Russco Electronics Mfg.
64
3
Rust Corp. of America
36
Sarkes Tarzian, Inc.
Scully Recording Instruments
82
Corp.
29
Shure Brothers
81
Sony Superscope
35
Sparta Electronics Corp.
37
Stancil-Hoffman Corp.
87
Standard Electronics
22
Switchcraft, Inc.
91
Telemet Co.
88
Texas Crystals
64
Trepac Corp. of America
Video Medical Electronics
5
Corp.
31
Viking
73
Visual Electronics Corp.
25
Ward Electronic Industries. Inc.
64, 90
Wilkinson Electronics
I
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
96
www.americanradiohistory.com
BOOTH 215
SEE YOU AT NAB
No other FM MONITORS can do so much!
FM/SCA MULTIPLEX MONITOR
FCC TYPE APPROVED
#3-116
This is the most versatile instrument available for monitoring all main
channel modulation and SCA Multiplex operating characteristics. Compatible with FM stereo.
Direct meter readings of:
Crosstalk
Total Modulation
SCA
SCA
Modulation
SCA
McMartin TBMd000
McMartin
TBM-3000
Injection
Frequencies
FREQUENCY & MODULATION MONITORS
FCC TYPE APPROVED #3-113, #3-119
The TBM-3000 is
a
the TBM-3500 is
a
completely self-contained frequency monitor and
self-contained modulation monitor.
The 3000 used in conjunction with either the 3500 or 4000
the FCC
requirement for
a
fulfills
station monitor.
The TBM-3500 is completely compatible with FM stereo.
McMartin
TBM-3500
RF AMPLIFIER FOR
REMOTE MONITOR OPERATION
The TBM-2500 will drive any combination of two monitors including
McMartin TBM-2500
other brands.
Isolated high and low level outputs.
Excellent stability and long tube life.
2 watt output with 1000µv input.
Complete with yagi antenna and coaxial cable.
Originality by
McMartin Industries, Inc.
-
605 North 13th Street
342-2753
Code 402
Omaha, Nebraska
In Canada Sold By: Canadian Marconi Company, Montreal 16, P. Q.
Circle Item
58 on Tech
Data Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
CREATED BY THE HAND OF EXPERIENCE
-OLOF
BLACK & WHITE
°
COLOR AT BLACK & WHITE LIGHT LEVELS
FIELD MESH
PRECISION CONSTRUCTION
41/2" DIAMETER TUBES
SPECIAL STUDIO TAPING TYPES
MATCHED SETS
LONG LIFE TARGETS
ONLY RCA's BROAD LINE OF IMAGE ORTHICONS
OFFERS A CHOICE OF ALL THESE FEATURES
IMAGE ORTHICON SELECTOR
Now you can bring out the best in your TV pick-up
equipment-even
in the most critical
applications-
because you can select the proper RCA image orthicon
specifically designed to cope with the practical problems of everyday broadcasting. Ask your RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor to explain this in terms of a
specific, practical, everyday problem you face or might
be faced with shortly. Or, write for current information: Camera Tube Booklet CAM -600.
SEE YOU AT NAB RCA BOOTH 100
Color at B/W
Type
Color
Light Levels
4401V1
4415-4416
Black &
White
Mesh
Precision
construction
X
X
Field
41/2"
Studio
diameter Taping
X
X
Long Life
Targets
X
5820A
X
5620A/L
X
7293A
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
7293A/í
7295B
73898
X
7513
X
7513/L
X
7629A
8092A
8093A
Matched
sets
X(1)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1(2)
X(2)
X
X(3)
X
8093A/L
X(3)
X
X
X
X
exceptionally low studio light levels. (2) 7513 VI or 7513..L VI.
;3) Thin film semiconducting target.
(1) For
RCA ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND DEVICES, HARRISON, N.J.
The Most Trusted Name in Electronics
www.americanradiohistory.com
X
X
X
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