Technical Manual
TECHNICAL MANUAL
WESTERBEKE
30
Marine Diesel Eng ine
(F 0 r mer I y Fo u r - 91)
PUBLICATION #11874
Edition Five
September 1980
j'~ 'WESTERBEKE
j
WESTERBEKECORPORATION
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
TECHNICAL MANUAL
WESTERBEKE
30
Marine Diesel Eng ine
(F 0 r mer I y Fo u r - 91)
PUBLICATION #11874
Edition Five
September 1980
j'~ 'WESTERBEKE
j
WESTERBEKECORPORATION
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
3
SECTION INDEX
GENERAL
Introduction
Installation
Operation
Maintenance
ENGINE OVERHAUL
OTHER OVERHAUL
Marine Engine Electrical System
Cooling System (External)
Transmissions
GENERATOR SETS
HYDRAULIC CRANKING SYSTEM
SERVICE BULLETINS
4
IMPORTANT
PRODUCT
SOFT~IARE
Product software of all kinds, such as
brochures, drawings, technical data,
operator's and workshop manuals, parts
lists and parts price lists, and other
information, instructions and specifications provided from sources other
than Westerbeke, is not within Westerbeke's control and, accordingly, is
provided to Westerbeke customers only
as a courtesy and service. WESTERBEKE
CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTENT
OF SUCH SOFn-/ARE, MAKES NO WARRANTI ES
OR REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT THERETO,
INCLUDING THE ACCURACY, TIMELINESS OR
COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO
EVENT BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES
OR INJURY INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH,
OR ARISING OUT OF, THE FURNISHING OR
USE OF SUCH SOFTWARE.
For example, components and sub-assemblies incorporated in ~Jesterbeke's
products and supplied by others (such
as engine blocks, fuel systems and components, transmissions, electrical components, pumps, and other products)
are generally supported by their manufacturers with their own software, and
Westerbeke must depend on such software
for the des i gn of ~les terbeke •sown
NOTICE
product software. Such software may be
outdated and no longer accurate. Routine
changes made by Hesterbeke's suppliers,
of which ~~esterbeke rarely has notice
in advance, are frequently not reflected
in the supplier's software until after
such changes take place.
I~esterbeke customers should also keep in
mind the time span between printings of
Westerbeke product software, and the
unavoidable existence of earlier, noncurrent Westerbeke software editions in
the field. Additionally, most Westerbeke products include customer-requested
special features that frequently do not
include complete documentation.
In sum, product software provided with
Westerbeke products, whether from Westerbeke or other suppliers, must not and
cannot be relied upon exclusively as the
definitive authority on the respective
product. It not only makes good sense,
but is imperative that appropriate
representatives of I~esterbeke or the
supplier in question be consulted to
determine the accuracy and currency of
the product software being consulted
by the cus tomer.
5
INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANT
THIS MANUAL IS A DETAILED GUIDE TO THE INSTALLATION, START-UP, OPERATION
AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WESTERBEKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE. THE INFORMATION IT CONTAINS IS VITAL TO THE ENGINE'S DEPENDABLE, LONG TERM OPERATION.
~AD IT
KEEP IT IN A SAFE PLACE
KEEP IT HANDY FOR REFERENCE AT ALL TIMES
FAILURE TO DO SO WILL INVITE SERIOUS RISK, NOT ONLY TO YOUR INVESTMENT,
BUT YOUR SAFETY AS WELL.
UNDERSTANDING THE DIESEL •..•
The diesel engine closely resembles the
gasoline engine inasmuch as the mechanism
is essentially the same. Its cylinders
are arranged above its closed crankcase;
its crankshaft is of the same general type
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the
same sort of valves, camshaft, pistons,
connecting rods, lubricating system and
reverse and reduction gear.
Therefore, it follows to a great extent
that a diesel engine requires the same
preventative maintenance as that which any
intelligent operator would give to a gasoline engine. The most important factors
are proper maintenance of the fuel, lubricating and cooling systems. Replacement
of fuel and lubricating filter elements at
the time periods specified is a must, and
frequent checking for contamination (i.e.
water, sediment etc.) in the fuel system
is also essential. Another important
factor is the use of the same brand of
"high detergent" diesel lubricating oil
designed specifically for diesel engines.
The diesel engine does differ from the
gasoline engine, however, in the method of
handling and firing its fuel. The carburetor and ignition systems are done away
with and in their place is a single component - the Fuel Injection Pump - which
performs the function of both.
Unremitting care and attention at the
factory have resulted in a Westerbeke
engine capable of many thousands of hours
of dependable service. What the manufacturer cannot control, however, is the
treatment it receives in service. This
part rests with you!
ORDERING PARTS
Whenever replacement parts are needed,
always include the complete part description and part number (see separate Parts
List furnished, if not part of this publication). Be sure to include the
engine's model and serial number. Also
be sure to insist upon Westerbeke factory
packaged parts, because "will fit" parts
are frequently not made to the same
specifications as original equipment.
GENERATOR SETS
Westerbeke diesels are used for both
the propulsion of boats and for generating
electrical power. For generator set applications, all details of this Manual
apply, except in regard to certain portions of the Installation, Operation and
Maintenance sections. Additional information is provided in the section titled
Generator Sets, Section T.
6
YOUR NOTES
INSTALLATION
7 .
FOREWORD
Since the boats in which these engines are used are many and varied,
details of engine installation are equally so. It is not the purpose of
this section to advise boatyards and engine installers on the generally
well understood and well developed procedures for installation of engines. However, the following outline of general procedure is included
because it is valuable in explaining the functions of each component,
the reasons why, the precautions to be watched and the relationship of
the installation to the operation of the engine. There are details of
the installation which should have a periodic check and of which the
operator should have a thorough understanding to insure good operating
conditions for the engine and correct procedure for its servicing.
INSPECTION OF EQUIPMENT
The engine is shipped from the factory
mounted securely and properly crated. Accessory equipment is shipped in a separate
small box, usually packed with the engine
crate.
Before accepting shipment from the
transportation company, the crate should
be opened and an inspection made for concealed damage. If either visible or concealed damage is noted, you should require
the delivering agent to sign "Received in
damaged condition". Also check contents
of the shipment against the packing list
and make sure note is made of any discrepancies. This is your protection against
loss or damage. Claims for loss or damage
must be made to the carrier, not to J. H.
Westerbeke Corporation.
pry against this with crowbar, as you may
distort the coupling.
In some cases it may be necessary to
lift the engine in other than the regular
horizontal position. It may be that the
engine must be lowered endwise through a
small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
If the opening is extremely restricted it
is possible to reduce, to some extent, the
outside clearances such as generator,
cooling piping, water tank, filters,
mounting lugs, etc. This accessory equipment should be removed by a competent
mechanic and special care should be taken
to avoid damage to any exposed parts and
to avoid dirt entering openings. The parts
which have been removed should be returned
to position as soon as the restriction has
been passed.
In case it is necessary to hoist the
RIGGING AND LIFTING
engine either front end upwards or reverse
The engine is fitted with lifting rings. gear end upwards, the attachment of slings
Rope or chain slings should be atmust be done very carefully to avoid the
tached to the rings and the engine lifted
possibility of damage to the parts on
by means o~ tackle attached to this sling. which the weight may bear. It is best if
The lifting rings have been designed to
special rigging work be done by someone
carry the full weight of the engine,
experienced and competent in the handling
of heavy machinery.
therefore auxiliary slings are not required or desired.
ENGINE BOLTS
CAUTION: Slings must not be so short as
It is recommended that bronze hanger
to place the engine lifting eyes in sigbolts of appropriate size be used through
nificant sheer stress. Strain on the
the engine flexible mounts. Lag screws
engine lifting eyes must not be in excess
are less preferred because their hold on
of 100 from the vertical. A spacer bar
the wood is weakened every time they are
must be placed between the two lifting
moved,
whereas the lag bolt stays in poseyes, if supported by valve cover studs.
ition
and
the nut on top is used to tightThe general rule in moving engines is
en
the
engine
down or is removed to permit
to see that all equipment used is amply
the
engine
to
be
lifted. The bolt itself
strong and firmly fixed in place. Move the
stays
in
position
at all times, as a stud,
engine a little at a time and see that it
and
the
bond
between
the bolt and the wood
is firmly supported. Eliminate possibilis
not
weakened
by
its
removal.
ity of accidents by avoiding haste. Do
not lift from the propeller coupling, or
8
FOUNDATION FOR ENGINE
A good engine bed contributes much
toward the satisfactory operation of the
engine. The engine bed must be of rigid
construction and neither deflect nor twist
when subjected to the engine weight or the
position the boat may have to take under
the effects of rough seas. The bed must
keep the engine within one or two thousandths of an inch of this position at all
times. It has to withstand the forward
push of the propeller which is applied to
the propeller shaft, to the thrust washer
bearing in the engine and finally to the
engine bolts and engine bed.
In fiberglas hulls, we recommend that
similar wooden stringers as in wooden
hulls be formed and fitted, then glassed
to the hull securely. This allows hanger
bolts to be installed firmly in wood, thus
reducing noise and transmitted vibration.
The temptation to install the engine on
a pair of fiberglas "angle irons" should
be resisted. Such construction will allow
engine vibrations to pass through to the
hull. Flexible mounts require a firm
foundation against which to react if they
are to do their job. When possible, follow
bed design "A" and avoid bed design "B".
PROPELLER COUPLING
Each Westerbeke Diesel engine is regularly fitted with a suitable coupling for
connecting the propeller shaft to the
engine.
The coupling must not only transmit the
power of the engine to turn the shaft, but
must also transmit the thrust either ahead
or astern from the shaft to the thrust
bearing which is built into the reduction
gear housing of the engine. This coupling
is very carefully machined for accurate
fit.
For all engine models, a propeller halfcoupling, bored to shaft size for the
specific order, is supplied. The coupling
either has a keyway with set screws or is
of the clamping type.
The forward end of the propeller shaft
has a long straight keyway. Any burrs
should be removed from the shaft end. The
coupling should be a light drive fit on
the shaft and the shaft should not have to
be scraped down or filed in order to get a
fit. It is important that the key be
properly fitted both to the shaft and the
coupling. The key should fit the side of
the keyway very closely, but should not
touch the top of the keyway in the hub of
the coupling.
If it seems difficult to drive the
coupling over the shaft, the coupling can
be expanded by heating in a pail of boiling water. The face of the propeller
coupling must be exactly perpendicular to
the centerline or axis of the propeller
shaft.
PROPELLER
The type and size of propeller varies
with the gear ratio and must be selected
to fit the application based upon boat
tests. To utilize the full power of the
engine, and to achieve ideal loading conditions, it is desirable to use a propeller which will permit the engine to reach
its full rated speed at full throttle
under normal load.
ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
The engine must be properly and exactly
aligned with the propeller shaft. No
matter what material is used to build a
boat it will be found to be flexible to
some extent and the boat hull will change
its shape to a greater extent than is
usually realized when it is launched and
operated in the water. It is therefore
very important to check the engine align-
9
ment at frequent intervals and to correct
any errors when they may appear.
Misalignment between the engine and the
propeller shaft is the cause of troubles
which are blamed often on other causes.
It will create excessive bearing wear,
rapid shaft wear and will, in many cases,
reduce the life of the hull by loosening
the hull fastenings. A bent propeller
shaft will have exactly the same effect
and it is therefore necessary that the
propeller shaft itself be perfectly
straight.
One particularly annoying result of misalignment may be leakage of tra.nsmission
oil through the rear oil seal. Check to
make sure that alignment is within the
limits prescribed.
The engine should be moved around on
the bed and supported on the screw-jacks
or shims until the two halves of the couplings can be brought together without using
force and so that the flanges meet evenly
all around. It is best not to drill the
foundation for the foundation bolts until
the approximate alignment has been accurately determined.
Never attempt a final alignment with
the boat on land. The boat should be in
the water and have had an opportunity to
assume its final water form. It is best
to do the alignment with the fuel and
water tank about half full and all the
usual equipment on board and after the
main mast has been stepped and final rigging has been accomplished.
Take plenty of time in making this
alignment and do not be satisfied with
anything less than perfect results.
The alignment is correct when the shaft
can be slipped backwards and forward into
the counterbore very easily and when a
feeler gauge indicates that the flanges
come exactly together at all points. The
two halves of the propeller coupling
should be parallel within 0.002 inches (A).
I
\
)
In making the final check for alignment,
the engine half coupling should be held in
one position and the alignment with the
propeller coupling tested with the propeller
coupling in each of four positions, rotated
90 0 between each position. This test will
also check whether the propeller half coupling is in exact alignment on its shaft.
Then, keeping the propeller coupling in one
position the alignment should be checked
rot"ating the engine half coupling to full
position each 90 0 from the next one.
The engine alignment should be rechecked
after the boat has been in service for one
to three weeks and, if necessary, the
alignment remade. It will usually be
found that the engine is no longer in
alignment. This in not because the work
was improperly done at first, but because
the boat has taken some time to take its
final shape and the engine bed and engine
stringers have probably absorbed some
moisture. It may even be necessary to realign at a further period.
The coupling should always be opened up
and the bolts removed whenever the boat is
hauled out or·moved from the land to the
water, and during storage in a cradle.
The flexibility of the boat often puts a
very severe strain on the shaft or the
coupling or both when it is being moved.
In some cases the shaft has actually been
bent by these strains. This does not apply
to small boats that are hauled out of the
water when not in use, unless they are
dry for a considerable time.
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust line installations vary considerably and each must be designed for the
particular job. The general requirements
are to provide an outlet line with a minimum of restrictions and arranged so that
sea water, rain water, or condensation
cannot get back into the engine. There
should be a considerable fall in the line
between the exhaust manifold flange and
the discharge end. This slope in the pipe
makes it difficult for water to be driven
in very far by a wave; and a steep drop
followed by a long slope is better than a
straight gradual slope. Avoid any depression or trough to the line which would
fill with water and obstruct the flow of
exhaust gas. Also avoid any sharp bends.
Brass or copper is not acceptable for
wet exhaust systems, as the combination of
salt water and diesel exhaust gas will
10
cause rapid deterioration. Galvanized
iron fittings and galvanized iron pipe is
recommended for the exhaust line. The exhaust line must be at least as large as
the engine exhaust manifold flange and be
increased in size if there is an especially long run and/or many elbows. It should
be increased by 1/2" in LD. for every 10
feet beyond the first 10 feet.
support for the rubber hose to prevent
sagging, bending, and formation of water
pockets.
Always arrange that water discharge
into the rubber hose section is behind a
riser or sufficiently below the exhaust
flange so that water cannot possibly flow
back into the engine. Also make sure that
entering sea water cannot spray directly
against the inside of the exhaust piping.
Otherwise excessive erosion will occur.
MEASURING EXHAUST GAS BACK PRESSURE
Back pressure must be measured on a
straight section of the exhaust line and
as near as possible to the engine exhaust
manifold. The engine should be run at
maximum load during the measurement period.
Set~up should be as shown below.
1. For normally asperated engines:
Pressure Test Mercury Test Water Column
1-1/2" Max PSI 3" Mercury
= 39"
EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH WATER JACKETED
STANDPIPE
To insure vibration doesn't transmit to
hull, use a flexible section preferably of
stainless steel, no less than 12" overall,
threaded at each end and installed as
close to the engine as possible. This
flexible section should be installed with
no bends and covered with insulating material. The exhaust pipe should be properly
supported by brackets to eliminate any
strain on the manifold flange studs. Many
installations use flexible rubber exhaust
hose for the water cooled section of the
exhaust line because of the ease of installation and flexibility. Provide adequate
\IfAT [III lIFT [1t"4AU5T
i't'S'Tn.
WITH ~·.!!..U~ MUF'F'I.£~
1-)/10" 0,0.
WATER LIFT EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH
"HYDRO-HUSH" MUFFLER
2. For turbo-charged engines:
Pressure Test Mercury Test Water Column
0.75 Max PSI
1-1/2" Mercury = 19-1/2"
Checking The Back Pressure
1. Exhaust pipe flange
2. Exhaust line
3. Transparent plastic hose, partly filled
with.water. Measurement "A" may not
exceed 39" for normally asperated
engines and 19.5" for turbo-charged
engines.
WATER CONNECTIONS
Seacocks and strainers should be of the
full flow type at least one size greater
than the inlet thread of the sea water
pump. The strainer should be of the type
which may be withdrawn for cleaning while
the vessel is at sea.
Water lines can be copper tubing or
wire-wound, reinforced rubber hose. In
11
any case, use a section of flexible hose
that will not collapse under suction, between the hull inlet and engine and between
the outlet and the exhaust system. This
takes up vibration and permits the engine
to be moved slightly when it's being realigned. Do not use street elbows in
suction piping. All pipe and fittings
should be of bronze. Use sealing compound
at all connections to prevent air leaks.
The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw)
water pump should never be run dry.
FUEL TANK AND FILTERS
Fuel tanks may be of fiberglass, monel,
aluminum, plain steel or terne plate. If
made of fiberglass, be certain that the
interior is gel coated to prevent fibers
from contaminating the fuel system.
Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not
be used. It is not necessary to mount the
tank above the engine level as the fuel lift
pump provided will raise the fuel from the
tank. The amount of lift should be kept
minimum (6 feet being maximum). If a tank
is already installed above engine level it
can be utilized in t.his position. Great
care should be taken to ensure that the fuel
system is correctly installed so that airlocks are eliminated and precautions taken
against dirt and water entering the fuel.
A primary fuel filter of the water collecting type should be installed between
the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A
recommended type is available from the
list of accessories. The secondary fuel
filter is fitted on the engine between the
fuel lift pump and the injection pump and
has a replaceable element.
As the fuel lift pump has a capacity in
excess of that required by the injection
pump, the overflow is piped to the fuel
tank and should be connected to the top of
the tank or as near the top as possible.
To insure satisfactory operation, a
diesel engine must have a dependable supply of clean diesel fuel. For this reason,
cleanliness and care are especially important at the time when the fuel tank is
installed, because dirt left anywhere in
the fuel lines or tank will certainly
cause fouling of the injector nozzles when
the engine is started for the first time.
FUEL PIPING
We recommended copper tubing together
with suitable fittings, both for the supply
line and the return line. Run the tubing
in the longest pieces obtainable to avoid
the use of unnecessary fittings and connectors. The shut off valve in the line
between the fuel tank and engine should be
of the fuel oil type, and it is important
that all joints be free of pressure leaks.
Keep fuel lines as far as possible from
exhaust pipe for minimum temperature, to
eliminate "vapor locks".
The fuel piping leading from the tank
to the engine compartment should always be
securely anchored to prevent chafing.
Usually the copper tubing is secured by
means of copper straps.
The final connection to the engine
should be through flexible rubber hoses.
ELECTRIC PANEL
The Westerbeke all-electric panel
utilizes an electronic tachometer
with a built-in hour meter. Tachometer cables are no longer required,
except for the Skipper mechanical
panel. Mounted on the panel are
a voltmeter, water temperature
gauge and oil pressure gauge. Each
instrument is lighted. The allelectric panel is isolated from
ground and may be mounted where
visible. It is normally pre-wired.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Most Westerbeke engines are supplied
pre-wired and with plug-in connectors.
Never make or break connections while the
engine is running. Carefully follow all
instructions on the wiring diagram supplied, especially those relating to fuse/
cicuit breaker requirements.
Starter batteries should be located as
close to the engine as possible to avoid
voltage drop through long leads. It is
bad practice to use the starter batteries
for other services unless they require low
amperage or are intermittent'. In cases
where there are substantial loads (from
lights, refrigerators, radios, depth
sounders, etc.) it is essential to have a
complete, separate system and to provide
charging current for this by means of a
second alternator or "alternator output
splitter".
Starter batteries must be of a type
which permits a high rate of discharge
(Diesel starting).
12
Carefully follow the recommended wire
sizes shown in the wiring diagrams. Plan
installation so the battery is close to
engine and use the following cable sizes:
#1 #1/0
#2/0
#3/0
for distances up to 8
- for distances up to
- for distances up to
- for distances up to
feet
10 feet
13 feet
16 feet
MECHANICAL CONTROLS
The recommended practice is to have the
stop-run lever loaded to the run position
and controlled by a sheathed cable to a
push-pull knob at the pilot station. The
throttle lever should be connected to a
Morse type lever at the pilot station by
a sheathed cable.
The transmission control lever may be
connected to the pilot station by a flexible, sheathed cable and controlled by a
Morse type lever. The single-lever type
gives clutch and throttle control with
full throttle range in neutral position.
The two-lever type provides clutch control
with one lever and throttle control with
the other.
Any bends in the control cables should
be gradual. End sections at engine and
transmission must be securely mounted.
After linkages are completed, check the
installation for full travel, making sure
that, when the transmission control lever
at the pilot station is in forward,
neutral and reverse, the control lever on
the transmission is on the respective
detent. Check the throttle control lever
and the stop-run lever on the fuel injection pump for full travel.
Some models do not require a stop
cable because they have either a fuel
solenoid or an electric fuel pump.
Examples of such models are the W58,
W13, W27 and W33.
13
OPERATION
PREPARATION FOR FIRST START
The engine is· shipped IIdry" ... with
lubricating oil drained from the
crankcase and transmission. Therefore, be sure to follow these recommended procedures carefully before
starting the engine for the first time.
1. Remove oil filler cap and fill oil
sump with heavy duty, diesel lubricating oil to the highest mark on the dipstick. See table under Maintenance for
an approved lubricating oil. Do not
overfill. Select an approved grade
from the listing and continue to use it.
2. Fill the reverse gear to the highest mark on the dipstick with TYPE A
transmission fluid. Do not overfill.
Oil level for the Short Profile Sailing Gear is measured before threading
the dipstick into the housing.
Engine oil is not recommended because
it can foam and it can contain additives harmful to some transmissions.
If the engine is equipped with a V drive,
fill to the full mark on the dipstick
with the recommended lubricant specified
on the data tag on the V drive housing.
3. Fill fresh water cooling system with
a 50-50 anti-freeze solution only after
opening all petcocks and plugs until all
entrapped air is expelled.
Fill surge tank to within one inch
of the top. Check this level after
engine has run for a few minutes.
If trapped air is released, the water
level may have dropped. If so, refill tank to within one inch of top
and replace filler cap.
4. Ensure battery water level ;s
at least 3/8" above the battery
plates and battery is fully charged
so that it is capable of the extra
effort that may be required on the
first start.
5. Fill fuel tank with clean Diesel
fuel oil; No.2 diesel fuel oil is
recommended. The use of No. 1 is
permissible but No. 2 is preferred
because of its higher lubricant
content.
NOTE: If there is no filter in the
filler of the fuel tank, the recommended procedure is to pour the fuel
through a funnel of 200 mesh wire
screen.
6. Fill grease cup on the sea water
pump, if present, with a good grade
of water pump grease.
FUEL SYSTEM
lhefuel injection system of a compression ignition engine depends
upon very high fuel pressure during
the injection stroke to function
correctly. Relatively tiny movements of the pumping plungers produce this pressure and if any air
is present inside the high pressure
line, then this air acts as a cushion
and prevents the correct pressure,
and therefore fuel injection, from
being achieved.
In consequence it is essential that
all air is bled from the system
whenever any part of the system has
been opened for repair or servicing.
BLEEDING PROCEDURES BY MODEL
1.
Initial Engine Start-up
(Engine stoppage due to lack
of fuel)
a. Insure that the fuel tank(s)
is filled with the proper
grade of diesel fuel.
b. Fill any large primary filter/
water separator with clean
diesel fuel that is installed
between the fuel tank and engine. To attempt to fill any
large primary filter using the
manual priming lever on the en-
14
gine mounted fuel lift pump may
prove futile or require a considerable amount of priming.
c. Turn the fuel selector valve to
liOn. Systems with more than one
tank insure that fuel returning
is going to the tanks being used.
II
The above procedures are basic for
all initial engine start-ups or for
restarting engines stopping due to
lack of fuel.
2. On the fuel injection pump body is a
5/16 bleed screw (Bleed Point B).
This may be mounted on a manifold
with a pressure switch. Open this
one to two turns (do not remove it)
and with the priming lever bleed
until fuel free of air bubbles
flows. Stop priming and tighten
the bleed screw.
3.
On the control cover of the injection pump (Bleed Point C) is a
5/16 bleed screw. Open this screw
one to two turns and proceed as in
Step 2. (Note: B~pass this bleed
point on the W-30 lnjection pump.)
4.
W50 in'ection um onl Open the
16 bleed screw Bleed Point D)
on the injector line banjo bolt
one to two turns and with the
throttle full open and the engine
stop lever in the run position.
crank the engine over with the
starter until clear fuel free
of air flows from this point.
Stop cranking and tighten this
bleed screw.
WESTERBEKE W7 AND WPD4 GENERATOR (3600
R.P.M.l (Figyre 1)
1. With the use of a 5/16 box wrench
or common screw driver, open the
bleed screw one to two turns on the
outgoing side of the engine mounted
secondary fuel filter (Bleed
point A). With firm strokes on the
lift pump priming lever, bleed until
fuel free of air bubbles flows from
this point. Stop priming and gently
tighten the bleed screw.
2. With a 5/8 open end wrench loosen
one to two turns the nut securing
the injector line to the injector
(Bleed Point B).
Decompress the engine with the lever
on the top of the cylinder head.
Crank the engine over with the
starter (W7 ensure that the engine
stop lever is in the run position
and the throttle is full open).
(4KW use the defeat position while
cranking). Crank the engine until
fuel spurts by the nut and line.
Stop cranking and tighten the 5/8
nut and proceed with normal starting
procedures.
5. With a 5/8 wrench loosen one to two
turns the injector line attaching
nuts at the base of each injector
and with the throttle full open and
the engine stop control in the run
position, crank the engine over with
the starter until fuel spurts by the
nuts and injector line at each injector. Stop cranking and tighten the
nut and proceed with normal starting
procedures.
Fi ure 6
II
II
II
II
WESTERBEKE W30. (Fjgyre 2)
.
W40 & klPO 10. 12~. 15. (Flgure 3)
W50 & wao 15. (Fjgure 4)
These units are self-bleeding.
W80 &BR 30,(Figure 5)
W120 &BR45. (Figure 5)
1. Turn the ignition to the ON position
and wait 15-20 seconds.
1. Open the banjo bolt on top of t~e
engine mounted secondary fuel fll2. Start the engine following normal
ter 1-2 turns (Bleed Point A).
starting procedures.
With firm stroke on the fuel lift
pump priming lever bleed until fuel
free of air bubbles flows from this
point. Stop priming and tighten
the bolt.
II
II
15
WESTERBEKE W58 &WTO 20 - (Figure 7)
1. Open the bleed screw on the top
inboard side of the engine-mounted
secondary fuel filter one to two
turns using a 10mm box wrench
(Bleed Point A). This fuel filter
is equipped with a hand-operated
priming pump. With the palm of
your hand, pump this primer until
fuel free of air flows from this
point. Stop pumping and tighten
the bleed screw.
2. With bleed screw A tightened, pump
the hand primer several more times.
This primes the injection pump which
is self-bleeding. The injection pump
incorporates a feed pump which keeps
the fuel system primed when the engine is running, thus no external
lift pump is required.
Fi gure 1
3. Loosen the four injector line attaching nuts at the base of each
injector (Bleed Point B) one to two
turns with a 16mm open-end wrench.
Place the throttle in the full open
position and crank the engine over
with the starter until fuel spurts
by the nut and injector lines. Stop
cranking and tighten each of the
four nuts and proceed with normal
starting procedure.
Figure 2
Figure 3
16
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Fi gure 7
Typical Mechanical Fuel Lift Pump
PREPARATION FOR STARTING
1. Check water level in expansion
tank. It should be l~ to 2 in.
below the top of the tank when
cold.
2.
Check the engine sump oil level.
3.
Check the transmission oil level.
4.
See that there is fuel in the tank
and the fuel shut-off is open.
5.
Check to see that the starting
battery is fully charged, all
electrical connections are properly made, all circuits in order and
turn on the power at the battery
disconnect.
6.
Check the seacock and ensure that
it is open.
STARTING THE ENGINE (COLD)
Most Westerbeke marine diesel engines
are equipped with a cold starting aid
to ease in the starting of your engine
when cold.
1. Check to see that the "stop" lever
(if installed) is in the "run"
position.
2.
Place the throttle in the fully
open position.
3.
Press the "Preheat" button in and
hold for 15 to 20 seconds.
4.
While holding the "Preheat" button
in, turn the keyswitch to the "ON"
or "Run" position. This activates
the panel gauges, lights and fuel
solenoid or electric fuel pump if
so equipped. Continue to turn the
keyswitch to the "Start" position
and hold for no more than 20 seconds. Some units may be equipped
with a pushbutton to start rather
than the keyswitch and in these
cases the electrical system is
activated by fuel pressure.
If the engine fails to start in
20 seconds, release start switch
and preheat for an additional
15-20 seconds, then repeat step 4.
5.
6.
17
As soon as the engine starts, release the start switch and the
preheat button and return the
throttle to the "idle" position
immediately.
CAUTION: Do not crank the engine more
than 20 seconds when trying to start.
Allow a rest period of at least twice
the cranking period between the start
cycles. Starter damage may occur by
overworking the starter motor and the
backfilling of the exhaust system is
possible.
STARTING THE ENGINE (WARM)
If the engine is warm and
stopped for a short time,
throttle in the partialiy
and engage the starter as
ating the preheat step.
has only been
place the
open position
above, elimin-
NOTE: Always be sure that the starter
pinion has stopped revolving before
again re-engaging the starter, otherwise the flywheel ring gear or starter
pinion may be damaged.
Ensure that the electrical connection to
the cold starting aid is correct.
Extended use of the cold starting aid
beyond the time periods stated should
be avoided to prevent damage to the aid.
NEVER under any circumstances use or
allow anyone to use ether to start your
engine. If your engine will not start,
then have a qualified Westerbeke marine
mechanic check your engine.
WHEN ENGINE STARTS
1. Check for normal oil pressure
immediately upon engine starting.
Do not continue to run engine if
oil pressure is not present within
15 seconds of starting the engine.
2.
Check Sea Water Flow. Look for
water at exhaust outlet. Do this
without delay.
3.
Recheck Crankcase Oil. After the
engine has run for 3 or 4 minutes,
18
4.
5.
subsequent to an oil change or new
installation, stop the engine and
check the crankcase oil level. This
is important as it may be necessary
to add oil to compensate for the
oil that is required to fill the
engine's internal oil passages and
oil filter. Add oil as necessary.
Check oil level each day of operation.
NOTE: The SAO transmission requires that
when backing down, the shift lever must
be held in the reverse position, since
it has no positive overcenter locking
mechanism.
1.
Position shift lever in neutral.
Recheck Transmission Oil Level.
(This applies only subsequent to an
oil change or new installation.) In
such a case, stop the engine after
running for several minutes at 800
RPM with one shift into forward and
one into reverse, then add oil as
necessary. Check oil level each
day of operation.
2.
Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes
to avoid boiling and to dissipate
some of the heat.
3.
If equipped with a stop lever, pull
the knob and hold in this position
until the engine stops. This stops
the flow of fuel at the injection
pump. After the engine stops, return the control to the run position
to avoid difficulty when restarting
the engine.
Turn off the keyswitch. Some models
do not use the stop lever as they
are equipped with a fuel solenoid
or electric fuel pump which shuts
off the fuel supply when the keyswitch is turned to the off position.
Recheck Expansion Tank Water Level,
if engine is fresh water cooled.
(This applies after cooling system
has been drained or filled for the
first time.) Stop engine after it
has reached operating temperature
of 17S oF and add water to within
one inch of top of tank.
WARNING: The system is pressurized when
overheated and the pressure must be
released gradually if the filler cap is
to be removed. It is advisable to protect the hands against escaping steam
and turn the cap slowly counter-clockwise until the resistance of the safety
stops is felt. Leave the cap in this
position until all pressure is released.
Press the cap downward against the
spring to clear the safety stops, and
continue turning until it can be lifted
off.
6.
7.
STOPPING THE ENGINE
4.
5.
Close the seacock.
6.
Disconnect power to system with
battery switch.
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
1.
Never run engine for extended
periods when excessive overheating occurs, as extensive internal
damage can be caused.
2.
DO NOT put cold water in an overheated engine. It can crack the
cylinder head, block, or manifold.
Warm-up Instructions. As soon as
possible, get the boat underway,
but at reduced speed, until water
temp. gauge indicates 130-1S00F.
3.
If necessary, engine can be warmed
up with the transmission in neutral
at 1000 RPM. Warming up with the
4.
transmission in neutral takes longer
and tends to overheat the transmission,
Reverse Operation. Always reduce
engine to idle speed when shifting
gears. However, when the transmission
is engaged, it will carry full engine
load.
Keep intake silencer free from
lint, etc.
Do not run engine at high RPM without clutch engaged.
5.
Never Race a Cold Engine as internal
damage can occur due to inadequate
oil circulation.
6.
Keep the engine and accessories
clean.
19
7.
Keep the fuel clean. Handle it with
extreme care because water and dirt
in fuel cause more trouble and service life of the injection system is
reduced.
8.
Do not allow fuel to run low, because
fuel intake may be uncovered long
enough to allow air to enter the
injection system, resulting in engine
stoppage requiring system bleeding.
9.
Do not be alarmed if temperature
gauges show a high reading following
a sudden stop after engine has been
operating at full load. This is
caused by the release of residual heat
from the heavy metal masses near the
combustion chamber. Prevention for
this is to run engine at idle for a
short period before stopping it. High
temperature reading after a stop does
not necessarily signal alarm against
restarting. If there is no functional
difficulty, temperatures will quickly
return to normal when engine is operating.
20
TEN MUST RULES
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
.•. for your safety and your engine's dependability.
ALWAYS -
1. Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
2. Use only filtered fuel oil and check lube oil level daily.
3. Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is 1900
or less.
4. Close all drain cocks and refill with water before starting out.
5. Investigate any oil leaks immediately.
NEVER -
6.
7.
8.
9.
Race the engine in neutral.
Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
Break the fuel pump seals.
Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store fuel in a
galvanized container.
10. Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to run it
if black smoke comes from the exhaust.
21
MAINTENANCE
PERIODIC ATTENTION:
After you have taken delivery of your
engine, it is important that you make the
following checks right after the first
fifty hours of its operation:
FIFTY HOUR CHECKOUT (INITIAL)
Do the following:
1. Retorque the cylinder head bolts.
2. Retorque the rocker bracket nuts and
adjust valve rocker clearance.
3. Check and adjust, if necessary, the
forward drum assembly and the reverse
band on manual SAO and SA-l transmissions.
4. Change engine lubricating oil and oil
filter.
5. Check for fuel and lubricating oil
leaks. Correct if necessary.
6. Check cooling system for leaks and inspect water level.
7. Check for loose fittings, clamps,
connections, nuts, bolts, vee belt
tensions etc. Pay particular attention to loose engine mount fittings.
These could cause mis-alignment.
DAILY CHECKOUT
Do the following:
1. Check sea water strainer, if one has
been installed.
2. Check water level in cooling system.
3. Check lubricating oil level in sump.
Fill to highest mark on dipstick.
4. Turn down grease cup on water pump,
if used, one full turn.
5. Check lubricating oil level in transmission. Fill to highest mark on
dipstick.
FIGURE 1
SEASONAL CHECK-OUT (MORE OFTEN IF POSSIBLE)
Do the following:
1. Check generator or alternator "V"
belt for tension.
2. Check water level in battery.
3. Change oil in sump. Oil may be
sucked out of sump by attaching a
suction hose (3/8" ID) over the outside of the oil sump pipe, located
aft of the dipstick. Figure 1.
See Note, next page.
4. Replace lubricating oil filt~r. Fig. 2.
See Note, next page.
5. Fill sump with approximately 4.5 US
quarts of diesel lubricating oil to
high mark on dipstick. Do not over
fill. See Note next page-.--------
FIGURE 2
22
3. Fill fresh water cooling system with
antifreeze of a reputable make. (Refer
to Cold Weather Precautions.)
4. Start engine. When temperature gauge
indicates l75 0 F, shut engine down and
drain lubricating oil. Remove and replace filter. Fill sump with High Detergent Lubricating Oil.
5. Remove air filter. Carefully seal air
intake opening with waterproofed adhesive tape or some other suitable medium.
6. Seal the exhaust outlet at the most accessible location as close to the engine as possible.
7. Remove injectors and spray oil into
cylinde.rs.
8. Replace injectors with new sealing
washer under each injector. Turn engine
slowly over compression.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
9. Top off fuel tank completely so that no
IT IS MANDATORY THAT THE CHECKS 3, 4, 5
air space remains, thereby preventing
AND 6 BE ATTENDED TO WHEN TOTAL OPERATING
water formation by condensation.
TIME REACHES 150 HOURS. IN SOME INSTANCES,
THIS TOTAL IS REACHED BEFORE END OF SEASON. 10. Leave fuel system full of fuel.
11. Change fuel filters before putting the
engine back in service.
7. Clean Air Filter. The time period for
replacing the air filter depends on
12. Wipe engine with a coat of oil or
operating conditions, therefore, under
grease.
extremely dirty conditions, the season- 13. Change oil in transmission.
al frequency should be increased. The 14. Disconnect battery and 'store in fully
correct time periods for replacing the
charged condition. Before storing the
filter will greatly assist in reducing
battery, the battery terminals and
bore wear, thereby extending the life
cable connectors should be treated to
of the engine.
prevent corrosion. Recharge battery
every 30 days.
8. Check engine for loose bolts, nuts,
15. Check alignment.
etc.
9. Check sea water pump for leaks.
10. Wash primary filter bowl and screen.
If filter bowl contains water or sediment, filter bowl and secondary oil
fuel filter need to be cleaned more
frequently.
11. Replace secondary fuel filter element.
12. Replace air filter.
CAUTION: The use of different brands of
lubricating oils during oil changes has
been known to cause extensive oil sludging and may in many instances cause complete oil starvation.
6. Start engine and run for 3 or 4
minutes. Stop engine and check oil
filter gasket for leaks. Check oil
sump level. This is important as it
may be necessary to add oil to compensate for the oil that is required
to fill the engine's internal oil
passages and oil filter. Add oil as
necessary. Change oil in transmission.
Use SAE 30, High Detergent Lubricating
Oil, Service DG, DM, or DS. Do not
overfill. See note below.
END OF SEASON SERVICE
1. Drain fresh water cooling system by removing the surge tank pressure cap and
opening all water system petcocks.
2. Remove zinc rod (usually located in
heat exchanger) and see if it needs
replacing. The zinc rod will take
care of any electrolysis that may occur
between dissimilar metals. Insert new
zinc if necessary.
23
LUBRICATING OILS
Lubricating oils are available for Westerbeke Diesel engines which offer an improved
standard of performance to meet the requirements of modern operating conditions such as
sustained high speeds and temperatures.
These oils meet the requirements of the U. S. Ordnance Specification MIL-L-2l04B
(API Service CC). Any other oils which also conform to these specifications, but are
not listed here are, of course, also suitable.
COMPANY
BRAND
American Oil Co.
American Supermil Motor Oil
BP Canada Limited
BP Vanellus
BP Vanellus
Chevron Oil Co.
S.A.E. DESIGNATION
00/45 0F
45 0 /80 0 F
OVER 80 0F
lOW
20W/20
lOW
10W/30
20W/20
10W/30
RPM DELO Multi-Service Oil
lOW
20W/20
30
Cities Service Oil Co.
CITGO Extra Range
lOW
20W/20
30
Continental Oil Co.
CONOCO TRACON OIL
lOW
20W/20
30
Gulf Oil Corporation
Gulflube Motor Oil X.H.D.
lOW
20W/20
30
Mobile Oil Company
Delvac 1200 Series
1210
1220
1230
Shell Oil Company
Shell Rotella Tail
lOW
20W/20
30
Sun Oil Company
Subfleet MIL-B
lOW
20W/20
30
Texaco, Inc.
Ursa Oil Extra Duty
lOW
20W/20
30
30
30
10W/30
24
YOUR NOTES
ENGINE OVERHAUL
SPECIFICATIONS
ENGINE
Type
Number of cylinders
Bore
Maximum oversize bore: l.1nlinered cylinder ..
Linered cylinder
Stroke
Capacity ..
Compression ratio
Firing order
Torque
Idling speed
Max. continuous speed
Angle of installation
Cylinder head
Valve seat angle
Valve seat face width ..
..
..
·.
·.
..
..
..
·.
·.
4.
2·8745 to 2·8760 in. (73·012 to 73·05 mm.).
o()40 in. (1·02 mm.).
.020 in. ('51 mm.).
3·5 in. (88'9 mm.).
90·88 cu. in. (1489 c.c.).
23: 1.
1, 3, 4, 2.
64 lb. ft. (8'85 kg. m.) at 1,900 r.p.m.
300 rpm
2500 rpm
12 0 max.
..
..
45".
·089 in. (2·29 mm.).
..
.,
Overhead, push-rod-operated.
·317 in. (8·03 mm.).
1·370 to 1'375 in. (34·8 to 34'9 mm.).
1·151 to 1-156 in. (29·2 to 29·4 mm.).
·3422 to ·3427 in. (8'69 to 8·70 mm.).
·34175 to ·34225 in. (8'68 to 8·69 mm.).
·00\ 5 to -0025 in. (·04 to ·06 mm.).
·002 to ·003 in. (·05 to .08 mm.).
·015 in. ('38 mm.) cold.
·021 in. (,53 mm.).
44;°.
·090±·OIO in (2·29±·25 mm.).
Valves
Position ..
Lift
Diameter: Head: Iolet
Exhaust
Stem: Inlet
Exhaust
Stem guide clearance: Inlet ..
Exhaust
Valve rocker clearance: Running
Timing
Seat face angle ..
Seat face width
·.
·.
..
..
..
Valve guides
Length: Inlet ..
Fitted height above head
Diameter: Outside
Inside
Oversizes (outer diameter)
2·203 in. (56 mm.).
.. ·563:.m in. (14'29~:~ mm.).
..
·5635 to ·5640 in. (14·31 to 14·33 mOl.).
·34425 to ·34475 in. (8·74 to 8·76 mm.).
j ·010 in. (·25 mm.).
·.
..
..
·.
..
..
1·875 in. (47'63 mm.).
2·2343 in. (56'75 mm.).
1·4375 in. (36·51 mm.).
1·5625 in. (39'69 mm.).
20±llb. (9·07±·454 kg.).
50'5±2 lb. (22·907±·907 kg.).
Valve springs
Free length: Inner
Outer
Fitted length: Inner .,
Outer ..
Pressure: Valve closed: Inner
Outer
Working coils: Inner ..
Outer ..
Wire diameter: Inner ..
Outer ..
Core diameter: Inner ..
Outer ..
Tappets
Type
Diameter
Oversizes
.. 61-.
.. 5;.
..
..
·104
·144
·715
·993
..
Flat base, barrel type.
·81125 to ·81175 in. (20'60 to 20·62 mm.).
+.010 in., +.020 in. (+·25 mm., +'51 mm.).
..
in. (2'64 mm.).
in. (3·66 mm.).
to ·730 in. (18'16 to 18·54 mm.).
to 1·007 in. (25·22 to 25'58 mm.).
25
26
-continued
SPECIFICATIONS
Rocken
Bushes: Inside diameter (reamed in position)
Bore of arm
Rocker ratio
..
·.
..
·6255 to ·626 in. (15'89 to 15·90 mm.).
·7485 to ·7495 in. (19·01 to 19·03 mm.).
1,4:1.
Pistoas
Material and type
Clearance at bottom of skirt ..
Width of ring groove: Compression: No.1
Nos. 2 and 3
Oil control
Oversizes
..
..
..
·.
..
..
Aluminium, solid skirt.
·0036 to 0()()43 in. (·091 to ·109 mm.).
00816 to ·0826 in. (2'07 to 2·10 mm.).
·0806 to ·0816 in. (2'05 to 2·07 mm.).
·1578 to ·1588 in. (4·01 to 4·03 mm.).
+·010 in.·, +·020 in., +·030 in., +·040 in.
(+·25 mm., +'51 mm., +·76mm., +1·02mm.).
Piston rings
Number
..
3 compression (I chrome-plated, 2 tapered), 2 oil
control.
·0771 to ·0781 in. (1'96 to 1·98 mm.).
·1552 to ·1562 in. (3'94 to 3·97 mm.).
·012 to ·020 in. (·30 to ·51 mm.).
·008 to ·013 in. (·20 to ·33 mm.).
·0035 to ·0055 in. ('09 to ·14 mm.).
·0025 to ·0045 in. (·06 to ·11 mm.).
·002 to 0()()4 in. (·05 to '10 mm.).
+'010 in., + ·020 in., + ·030 in., + ·040 in.
(+·25 mm., +·51 mm., +·76 mm., +1002 mm.).
Width: Compression ..
Oil control
Fitted gap: No. 1 compression
Nos. 2 and 3 compression and oil control
Clearance in groove: No.1 compression ..
Nos. 2 and 3 compression
Oil control
Oversizes
..
..
..
..
..
..
·.
..
Gnclgeon pins
Type
Fit: In piston
..
..
In connecting rod ..
Diameter
Length ..
·.
·.
·.
Floating, located in piston by circlips.
·00035 in. (·009 mm.) clearance to ·00005 in. ('001
mm.) interference.
·0002 to ·0009 in. ('005 to ·023 mm.).
'9998 to 1·000 in. (25'39 to 25·4 mm.).
2·360 to 2·375 in. (59·94 to 60·32 mm.).
Crankshaft
Journal diameter
..
Crankpin diameter
..
Undersizes (journals and crankpins)
..
End-fioat (taken on thrust washer at centre main bearing)..
2·0005 to 2·001 in. (50·813 to 50·825 mm.).
2·0005 to 2·001 in. (50·813 to 50·825 nun.).
-·010 in., -·020 in. (-·25 mm., -'51 mm.).
·002 to ·003 in. (·05 to ·08 mm.).
Main bearings
Number and type
Material
Length ..
Inner diameter ..
Running clearance
Undersizes for reground journals
..
..
..
..
..
..
3, shell type. .
Steel-backed copper-lead.
1·213 to 1·223 in. (30·81 to 31·06 mm.).
2·0025 to 2·0032 in. (50·863 to 50·881 mm.).
·0010 to ·0027 in. (·025 to '068 mm.).
·010 in., ·020 in. (·25 mm., ·51 mm.).
Connecting rods
Length (centres)
Side-clearance ..
Small-end bush (inner diameter, reamed in position)
"
..
·.
6·498 to 6·502 in. (165'05 to 165·15 mm.).
·008 to ·012 in. (·20 to ·30 mm.).
1·0002 to 1·0007 in. (25'40 to 25·42 mm.).
..
..
·.
Steel-backed copper-lead.
'963 to ·973 in. (24'46 to 24·71 mm.).
2·0025 to 2·0032 in. (50'863 to 50·881 mm.).
·001 to '0027 in. (·025 to ·068 mm.).
·010 in., ·020 in. (·25 mm., ·51 mm.).
Big-end bearings
Material
Length ..
Diameter: Inner
Running clearance
Undersizes for reground crankpins ..
o.
27
SPECIFICATIONS - con tin u e d
Camsbaft
Journal diameter: Front
1·78875 to 1·78925 in. (45-434 to 45·447 mm.).
1·72875 to 1·72925 in. (43-910 to 43·922 mm.).
1-62275 to 1-62325 in. (41·218 to 41·231 mm.).
-003 to ·007 in. (·08 to ·18 mm.).
Centre
Rear
End-fioat (taken on thrust plate at front end)
Camshaft beariDp
Number
Type
Inner diameter (reamed in position): Front
·.
·.
Centre
Rear ..
Running clearance
Valye timine
Chain pitch
Number of pitches
Chain type
Valve to rocker clearance: Running
Timing check
Inlet valve: Opens
Closes
Exhaust valve: Opens ..
Closes ..
Timing markings
Tensioner type ..
·.
3.
Steel-backed white metal.
1·79025 to 1·79075 in. (45-472 to 45·485 mm.).
1·73025 to 1·73075 in. (43'948 to 43·961 mm.).
1·62425 to 1·62475 in. (41'256 to 41·269 mm.).
-001 to ·002 in. (,025 to -051 mm.).
·375 in. (9'525 mm.).
54.
Duplex roller.
-015 in. ('38 mm.).
· . ·021 in. ('53 mm.).
5° B.T.D.C. ]
45° A.B. D.C. With ·021 in. ('53 mm.) valve
45° B.B.D.C. rocker clearance.
5° A.T.O.C.
Dimples on timing wheels, timing disc on crankshaft
pulley, and pointer on crankcase front cover.
· . Renold spring-loaded slipper type with oil feed.
..
..
Flywheel
Diameter
..
Lubrication
System ..
Pump type
External filter ..
Oil pressure: Idling
Normal running
Release valve spring: Free length
Fitted lensth
Kecommended lubrication oil
Pressure.
Eccentric rotor.
· . Tecalemit, full-flow.
15 Ib./sq. ill. (1·05 kg./cm. l )
SO Ib./sq. in. (3·52 kg./cm. I ).
2·859 in. (72'64 mm.).
2'156 in. (54'77 mm.) at 13; lb. (6·12 kg.) load.
See Page B.I
TRANSMISSIONS
SAO Westerbeke/Paragon
SAOV (Vee drive)
11'375 in. (289 mm.).
Direct Drive
2:1 RG
Direct Drive
1.67: 1 and 2: 1 RG
1.9:1RG
All ratios
RB Freewheeling sailing gear
Hydraulic·Paragon or Warner Gear
Propeller rotation - All left hand except Warner 1. 91: 1
ENGINE MOUNTS
All Models
Flexible Adjustable
COOLING SYSTEM
Type
Thermostat Setting
Water Capacity (Fresh)
Centrifugal Pump, Thermostat
176Fto 183F
7 Qualts
28
- con tin u e d
SPECIFICATIONS
FUEL SYSTEM
Lift pump •.
Type
Static pressure (no delivery) ..
Injection pump
1st type ..
2nd type ..
3rd type ..
Injectors ..
Nozzle type: Early engines
Later engines
Nozzle holder type: Early engines
Later engines
Opening pressure
Main filter
Type
Static injection timing ..
CAPACITIES
Sump (including filter)
A.C. mechanical.
U.
S Ib./sq. in. (·3S kg./cm.W).
C.A.V.
DPA.3246496.
DPA.3246776 or DPA.3246776B.
DPA.3246847.
C.A.V. PiDtaux
BDN.O.SPC.6209.
BDN.O.SPC.6389.
DKB.3S.SD.S091.
DKB.3S.SD.SIU.
135 atmospheres.-
•.
C.A.V. bowl-less.
. . FS583602O.
22° B.T.D.C. (fully retarded).
4.5 Quarts
..
TORQUE WRENCH SETTINGS
Engine
Cylinder head nuts
Main bearing nuts
Big-end bolts
Flywheel nuts
Injector securing nuts
Injector nozzle nut
Rocker bracket nuts
Manifold nuts
Engine rear distance piece bolts: " in.
..
·.
·.
·.
..
tin ...
Water pump bolts
Fuel injection pump:
Governor housing securing screws
Distributor rotor screw
Cam advance screw
71 lb.
75 lb.
3S lb.
37 lb.
12 lb.
SO lb.
25 lb.
ft. (9·8 kg. m.).
n. (10·37 kg. m.).
n. (4·85 kg. m.).
ft. (5007 kg. m.).
ft. (1'7 kg. m.).
n. (70() kg. m.).
It. (304 kg. m.).
IS lb. ft. (2·1 kg. m.).
20 lb. ft. (2·8 kg. m.).
30 lb. ft. (4·1 kg. m.).
17 lb. ft. (2·3 kg. m.).
· . 40 lb. in. (046 kg. m.).
28 lb. in. (·32 kg. m.).
400 lb. in. (4'6 kg. m.).
Drive plate screw:
Direct
Indirect:
Ring spanner and torque adaptor centres at 2·6
(66 mm.)
Ring spanner and torque adaptor cenlres at 5
(127 mm.)
Transfer pump rotor
End plate set bolt ..
Hydraulic head locating fitting
Advance unit housing cap nut
Advance unit housing stu(1
Advance unit hOllsing ~pring cap and end plu;; ..
Hydraulic head lockil::~ screw
High-pressure outlet unions and banjo pipe bolts
Control and 'shut-otT· lever bolt or nut ..
Fuel inlet connection
160 Ib. in. (1'85 kg. m.).
in.
..
in.
..
·.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
140 lb. in. ()·61 kg. m.).
115 lb. in. (1·32 kg. m.).
65 lb. in. (,75 kg. m.).
45 lb. in. (,52 kg. m.).
35() lb. in. (4'05 kg. m.).
110 lb. in. (1·251.g. m.).
60 lb. in. ('~9 kg. m.).
250 lb. in. (2·9 kg. m.).
170tb.in.tl· 96kg.m.).
270 I~. in. (3-l kg. m.).
30 lb. in. (,34 kg. m.).
360 lb. in. (4'15 kg. m.).
• Add 5 atmospheres to the opening pressure when letting new injectOR or after fittin. DeW sprinp to allow Cor settIiDa or tho UUec.or
components
,/
,"
A
SECTION A
THE ENGINE
Section
Big-end bearings-removing and replacing
Camshaft
Liners-removing and replacing
Removing and replacing
Crankcase front cover-removing and replacing
Crankshaft and main bearings-removing and replacing
Cylinder head-removing and replacing ..
Cylinder liners-fitting
Decarbonizing
Description ..
Engine front plate-removing and replacing
Flywheel-removing and replacing
Flywheel starter ring-removing and replacing
Fuel injection pump
Driving gear lubricator and lubricator filter gauze-removing and repladng
Driving spindle-removing and replacing ..
Gearbox distance piece-removing and replacing
Inlet and exhaust manifolds-removing and replacing ..
Lubrication system
Oil filter-external ..
Oil pressure ..
Oil pressure release valve
Oil pump
Dismantling and reassembling
Removing and replacing
Oil strainer-removing and replacing
Piston and connecting rod
Dismantling and reassembling
Removing and replacing
Piston rings-removing and replacing
Piston sizes and cylinder bores
Service tools ..
Sump
Draining
Removing and replacing
Tappets-removing and replacing
Timing chain
Removing and replacing
Tensioner-removing and replacing ..
Valves
Grinding
Guides-removing and replacing
Removing and replacing
Timing check ..
Valve rocker clearances-adjusting
Valve rocker shaft
Bushes-removing and replacing
Dismantling and reassembling
Removing and replacing
Valve seat inserts-fitting ..
J'S-Iitre Diesel--Second Edition. Issue I. 60740
A.13
A.3S
A.34
A.30
A.39
A.18
A.41
A.2S
A.I
A.37
A.36
A.40
A.6
A.33
A.3S
A.17
A.3
A.S
A.S
A.7
A.12
A.ll
A.tO
A.20
A.19
A.21
A.22
End of Section
A.4
A.9
A.27
A.32
A.31
A.24
A.26
A.23
A.29
A.2S
A.16
A.IS
A.l4
A.r·
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11,.111111 .. 111
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. . . . . . . . . . . 11111111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 . . •
THE ENGINE
(Longitudinal Section)
I
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••• 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.111111111111
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THE ENGINE
(Transverse Section)
.
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•••• 1.1.1 •• 11111111111 ••• 11111111 •••• 1111 . . . . . . . . . . . 1111111 •••• 1 II 11111111'
KEY TO THE ENGINE EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
No.
i
I
I
I
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t
I
I
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Ii
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~
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J•• I I I I I "
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
41.
42.
43.
44.
Description
Gearbox distance piece.
Joint washer for distance piece.
Screw for distance piece.
Locking washer for screw.
Locking washer for screw.
Locking washer for screw.
Screw for distance piece.
Locking washer for screw.
Locking washer for screw.
Crankcase front cover.
Joint washer for front cover.
Screw for front cover to front plate.
Washer plate for screw.
Spring washer for screw.
Screw for front cover and plate to crankcase.
Washer plate for screw.
Spring washer for screw.
Screw for front cover to bearing cap.
Washer plate for screw.
Spring washer for screw.
Crankshaft oil seal.
Cylinder side cover with elbow-rear.
Cylinder side cover-front.
Joint washer for side cover.
Screw for side cover.
Washer for screw.
Crankcase vent pipe.
Screw for vent pipe clip.
Plain washer for screw.
Dynamo rear bracket.
Screw for dynamo bracket.
Spring washer for screw.
Pillar for dynamo adjusting link.
Spring washer for pillar.
Nut for piUar.
Nut for link to pillar.
Plain washer for nut.
Spring washer for nut.
Dynamo adjusting link.
Oil gause union.
Washer for union.
Oil level indicator.
Guide tube for oil level indicator.
••• ' . . . . . . I I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I . I I I I I . . . . _
......... IIIII ... .
No.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
Description
Sump.
Drain plug for sump.
Washer for drain plug.
Joint washer for sump.
Screw assembly for sump.
Cylinder head.
Plug for water jet boss and air vent.
Plug for oil hole.
Plug for core support hole.
Plug for core support hole.
Welch plug.
Combustion chamber inscrt.
Ball for insert.
Joint washer for cylinder head.
Washer for cylinder head stud.
Nut for cylinder head stud.
Heater plug.
Connection for heater plug.
Fuel injector assembly.
Joint washer for injector nozzle holder.
Hcat shield for injector nozzle.
Washer for heat shield.
Seal washer for injector atomizer.
Stud for injector nozzle holder.
Plain washer for stud.
Spring washer (or stud.
Nut for stud.
Banjo bolt for injector leak-off pipe.
Washer for banjo bolt.
Fuel leak-off pipe for injectors.
Short stud for rocker bracket.
Long stud for rocker bracket. .
Stud for water outlet elbow.
Stud for exhaust manifold.
Stud for air and exhaust manifold.
Clamp wdsher for air and exhaust manifold.
Plain washer for air and exhaust manifold.
Nut for air and exhaust manifold.
Water outlet elbow.
Joint washer for water outlet elbow.
Plain washer for stud.
Nut (or stud.
No.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
Ill.
ll2.
113.
ll4.
lI5.
116.
ll7.
ll8.
ll9.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
Description
Thermostat.
Thermal transmitter.
Valve rocker cover.
Joint washer for valve rocker cover.
Rubber bush for valve rocker cover.
Cup washer for valve rocker cover.
Cap nut for valve rocker cover.
Washer for cap nut.
Exhaust manifold.
Air inlet manifold.
Joint washer
Hub for fuellDJcction pump.
Joint washer for injection pump hub.
Screw for injection pump hub.
Joint washer for fuel injection pump.
Timing indicator.
Screw for indicator.
Plain washer for screw.
Spring washer for screw.
Cylinder and crankcase assembly.
Welch plug.
Main bearing stud.
Camshaft front bearing liner.
Screwed plug for oil gallery.
Washer for plug.
Plug for oil gallery.
Cap for front main bearing.
Cap for centre main bearing.
Cap for rear main bearing.
Joint for front and rear main bearing cap.
Spring washer for main bearing cap stud.
Nut for main bearing cap stud.
Engine front mounting plate.
Joint washer for mounting plate.
Screw for front mounting plate.
Spring washer for screw.
Long stud for cylinder head.
Short stud for cylinder head.
Stud for fuel injection pump.
Water drain tap.
Washer for drain tap.
Dust cap for oil level indicator.
11 ••••• 1 •• 11'.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · - ••• 111.11 •••••••
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1111 •• 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
THE .ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS
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KEY TO THE ENGINE INTERNAL COMPONENTS
No.
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
II.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
70.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
~
~
Description
Valve rocker shaft.
Rocker spacing spring.
Rocker bracket-tapped.
Rocker bracket-plain.
Spring washer-double-coil.
Rocker shaft washer.
Split cotter pin.
Valve rocker.
Valve rocker bush.
Tappet adjusting screw.
Adjusting screw locknut.
Rocker shaft locating screw.
Locking plate for locating screw.
Plain washer for rocker bracket stud.
Spring washer for rocker bracket stud.
Nut for rocker bracket stud.
Tappet.
Push-rod.
Screwed plug for rocker shaft.
Plain plug for rocker shaft.
Crankshaft pulley and vibration damper.
Timing disc.
Screw for timing disc.
Starting nut.
Lock washer for starting nut.
Flywheel assembly.
Starter ring.
Oil pump body.
Dowel.
Oil pump rotor assembly.
Oil pump cover.
Set screw-short.
No.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
46.
47.
48.
49.
SO.
S!.
52.
53.
54.
5S.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
Description
Spring washer.
Set screw-long.
Spring washer.
Oil strainer.
Set screw.
Spring washer.
Joint washer for oil strainer.
Oil pump driving spindle.
Fuel injection pump driving spindle.
Connecting rod assembly-Nos. I and 3.
Connecting rod and cap-Nos. 2 and 4.
Connecting rod bearing.
Bolt for connecting rod cap.
Lock washer for bolt.
Bush for connecting rod little-end.
Crankshaft.
Crankshaft main bearing.
Crankshaft thrust washer-upper.
Crankshaft thrust washer-lower.
Bolt for flywheel.
Nut for flywheel bolt.
Lock washer for nut.
Crankshaft gear.
Crankshaft gear and pulley key.
Crankshaft gear packing washer.
Crankshaft oil thrower-front.
Piston.
Gudgeon pin.
Circlip for gudgeon pin.
Piston ring-No. l-compression.
Piston ring-Nos. 2 and 3-compression.
No.
Description
70. Piston ring-Nos. 4 and 5-oil control
71. Camshaft.
72. Camshaft locating plate.
73. Screw for locating plate.
74. Shakeproof washer for screw.
75. Camshaft gear.
76. Key for camshaft gear.
77. Nut for camshaft gear.
78. Lock washer for nut.
79. Timing chain tensioner slipper head.
80. Cylinder for chain tensioner.
81. Spring for chain tensioner.
82. Body for chain tensioner.
83. Tensioner back-plate.
84. Joint washer for tensioner body.
85. Plug for tensioner body.
86. Lock washer for plug.
87. Bolt for tensioner.
88. Lock washer for bolt.
89. Timing chain.
90. Inlet valve.
91. Exhaust valve.
92. Outer valve spring.
93. Inner valve spring.
94. Valve spring bottom collar.
95. Valve guide shroud.
96. Valve packing ring.
97. Valve cotter.
98. Orclip for valve cotter.
99. Valve spring cap.
100. Valve guide.
•
I:
If
i
~
A
THE ENGINE
Section A.I
DESCRIPTION
The Westerbeke 25 HP diesel engine is of the indirect
injection type, with four cylinders, having a nominal
bore of 2·875 in. (73 mm.) and a stroke of 3·5 in.
(88·9 mm.), with a compression ratio of 23 : 1.
The cylinder block and crankcase is a one-piece casting
In \igh-quality cast iron, ensuring maximum rigidity and
stre{lgth. Full-length water jackets are provided so that
even cylinder temperatures alld high wear resistance are
assured.
The cylinder head carries the valve operating gear,
inlet and exhaust valves, fuel injectors, and heater plugs.
Large circulation passages are cast in the head, ensuring
adequate cooling. The combustion chambers are the
Ricardo Comet V type. The combustion intake, exhaust
manifold, and expansion tank is a one piece aluminum
casting mounted to the left-hand side of the cylinder head.
A quickly detachable rocker cover, embodying an oil
filler, encloses the overhead valve gear, which is push-rodoperated.
The forged-steel camshaft is mounted in the left-hand
side of the cylinder block and is supported by three whitemetal bearings. The cam profiles are designed to prevent
surge and to givl: quiet operation of the valve gear. The
A.8
timing chain is of the double-roller type, and a slippertype, oil-fed timing chain tensioner is fitted.
The forged-steel, counterbalanced crankshaft is supported by three main bearings of generous dimensions to
give adequate bearing surfaces in order to withstand the
considerable loads experienced in diesel engines. The
bearings are of the steel shell type lined with lead-copper.
Crankshaft thrust washers of steel-backed white metal
are fitted on each side of the centre main bearing.
.The connecting rods are of'H'-section forged steel with
renewable big- and sma11-end bearings. Like the main
bearings, the big-end bearings are of the steel shell type
lined with lead-copper.
The big-ends are diagonally split to permit the pistons
and connecting rods to be withdrawn upwards through
the cylinder bores.
Oil jet holes are drilled in the upper halves of the
big-ends and these supply the cylinder walls with adequate
lubrication. The small-ends are fitted with Clevite bushes.
Aluminium pistons of the solid skirt type are fitted
and a specially shaped crown is incorporated to suit the
characteristics of the combustion chamber.
Three compression and two oil control rings are fitted,
and the floating-type gudgeon pin is secured in position
by means of circlips. The top compression ring is chromeplated, while the peripheries of the other two are tapered.
Inlet valves of large head diameter are used to promote
good charging and oil seals are fitted to the stems of all
valves.
STARBOARD AND PORT VIEWS
MODEL FOUR-91
A-9
A
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____"'''''+'''"'''''II'''+'''''_'''''''I'''I'II'' ...........
'111111"
11111' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11111 ••••••• ,
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11'111 . . . . . 1111111
THE ENGINE
The oil pump is of the eccentric rotor, non-draining
type and is driven from the camshaft.
A full-flow oil filter is mounted on the side of the
crankcase
The fuel injection pump is of the C.A.V. distributor
type incorporating an automatic advance device and a
governor, both of which are hydraulically operated. The
pump is flange-mounted on the right-hand side of the
engine and is driven 'by the camshaft through a shaft and
gear mounted transversely in the crankcase.
The fuel lift pump is of the A.C. mechanical type and
is driven by the engine camshaft. Fuel oil is delivered to
the injection pump via an external filter of the C.A.V.
bowl-less type, having a renewable paper element.
C.A. V. Pintaux-type fuel injection nozzles are used.
and a leak-off pipe returns any back-leakage of fuel from
the injector nozzles to the supply side of the fuel system.
The leak-off pipe is connected to the main fuel filter to
provide continuous air-venting of the filter and to prevent
the build-up of excessive pressure inside the filter.
A centrifugal fresh water pump mounted on the front of
the cylinder block and the raw water pump mounted below
the combmatlon manIfolds and expansion tank, along with
the alternator are belt driven from the crankshaft pully.
The cooling system is controlled by a thermostat in the
cylinder head.
Section A.3
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The oil supply is carried in the sump below the
cylinder block and the filler cap is fitted on the valve
rocker cover. The oil level indicator rod is on the righthand side of the engine and is marked to indicate both
the maximum and minimum le~els.
An eccentric-rotor, non-draining-type oil pump,
located in the left-hand side of the crankcase, is driven
from the camshaft. Oil is drawn through a gauze strainer
mounted inside the sump, and is delivered through drilled
passages in the crankcase to the fuel injection pump drive
gear lubricator and the oil pump driving spindle via a
pencil-type filter gauze, and to a non-adjustable, plungertype release valve, all of which are located at the rear of
the crankcase on the left-hand side. From the release valve
oil is fed through a drilling across the rear of the crank-
A
and crankshaft to the main, big-end, and camshaft
bearings and the fuel injection pump drive coupling.
From the camshaft rear bearing oil at reduced pressure
is fed through drilled passages in the crankcase, cylinder
head, rocker shaft rear bracket, and rocker shaft to the
valve rockers and adjusting screws. Surplus oil from the
valve rockers returns to the sump via the push-rod
tunnels to lubricate the tappets. From the front camshaft
bearing oil is supplied at reduced pressure to the timing
chain tensioner, through a drilled passage in the front of
the cylinder block, to lubricate the timing chain. Surplus
oil from the timing chain returns to the sump through.
two holes in the front main bearing cap. Lubrication of
the cylinder bores is effected by jet holes drilled in the
connecting rod big-end bearings.
Section A.4
DRAINING THE SUMP
The sump is pumped out by attaching a 3/8
I.D. hose over the dip stick tube. This operation should be performed immediately after a
run while oil is hot. Refill at once with new oil
of the same brand and grade.
Section A.S
EXTERNAL OIL FILTER
The external filter is of the full-Bow type, thus ensuring
that all oil in the lubrication ~ircuit passes through the
filter before reaching the bearings.
Oil is passed through the filter from the pump at a
pressure controlled at 50 lb./sq. in. (3'5 kg./em.') by
the engine oil pressure release valve.
Should the filter become completely choked due to
neglect, a balance valve is provided to ensure that oil
will still reach the bearings.
The filter element is removed by unscrewing
the case from its base. A small amount of spillage will occur when this is done and a small
waste container should be held underneath as
the element is unscrewed.
case and a horizontal feed gallery in the right-hand side
of the crankcase to the external full-flow-type oil filter.
From the cle3l1 side of the filter oil passes through the oil
cooler into main oil gallery and then through drillings in
the crankcase
A.11
A
THE ENGINE
When reassembling, ensure that the copper joint
washers are in good condition and wiII make an oil-tight
joint.
Section A.7
OIL PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE
The non-adjustable oil pressure release valve is situated
at the rear, on the left-hand side of the crankcase, and
is held in position by a large hexagon nut sealed by a
fibre washer. The release valve spring maintains a valve
cup against a seating machined in the cylinder block.
During major overhauls or in the event of low oil
pressure, when it is known that all other components of
the engine are in good condition, the release valve should
be removed, using tool 18G69, and examined to ensure
that the cup is seating correctly and that the spring has
not lost its tension. If the valve cup is scored or shows
signs of wear it should be renewed.
The release valve spring should be checked by measuring its free length; it should be renewed if it is below
the specification given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section.
The valve seating can be checked by applying engineer's
blue to the conical face of the valve and testing for
continuous marking. Should the seating be damaged,
the valve cup mu~t be lapped in, using' valve grinding-in
tool 18G69.
Section A.6
FUEL INJECTION PUMP DRIVING GEAR
LUBRICATOR AND LUBRICATOR FILTER
GAUZE
The fuel injection pump driviog gear is pressurelubricated through a lubricator and lubricator filter
gauze, both of which are screwed into tappings in the
main feed passage from the oil pump on the left-hand
side of the engine.
At every alternate engine oil change tht' lubricator and
the filter gauze should be withdrawn and cleaned in
petrol. A stiff brush should be used to remove the
particles of 'sludge' from the filter gauze, and the lubricator should be blown clean with compressed air.
A.12
~~~i
'J!
A474ttAW
Fig. A.2
Location of the fuel injection pump driving ?ear
lubricator and the lubricator filter on the left-. md
side of the crankcase
THE ENGINE
A
Pump out sump. (Refer to Section A.4).
Remove dipstick.
Remove dipstick tube bracket.
Disconnect dipstick tube ferrule nut and remove tube.
Fig. A.3
Removing lire oil pressure release I'ail'e cup with tool
18G69
Section A.8
OIL PRESSURE
Provided the oil filter element is clean and in good
condition. the oil pressure during normal running and
when the engine is idling should be in accordance with
the figures given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section. As
the filter element becomes choked the pressure will
become progressively less, and on an engine known to
be in good condition a drop of between 10 to 15Ib./sq. in.
(,7 to 1·0 kg,fcm.') below the normal pressure is an
indication that the filter element has become choked and
is being by-passed. This can be remedied by renewing
the oil filter element.
Should there be a noticeable drop in oil pressure,
when it is known that the oil filter element is in a good
and clean condition. the following points should be
checked:
(I) Ensure that there is a good supply of the correct
grade of oil in the engine sump.
(2) Check the oil pressure release valve (Section A.7).
(3) Check the operation of the oil pressure gauge by
substitution.
(4) Ensure that the oil strainer in the engine sump is
clean and not choked with foreign matter.
(5) Check the oil pump for correct operation and wear
(Section A.12), ensuring that there is no air leakage
between the pump cover and body.
(6) Check that the working clearance of aU bearings to
which oil is supplied under pressure is not excessive
(see 'GENERAL DATA').
Section A.9
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE SUMP
Remove the drain plug, which is located on the lefthand side of the sump and drain the contents into a
suitable container.
Unscrew the 19 securing bolts with washers and detach
the sump from the crankcase.
Clean the sump thoroughly with paraffin, allow to
dry, and blowout any residue with compressed air.
Before refitting the sump to the crankcase inspect the
front and rear main bearing cap cork seals and the sump
to crankcase joint washer. If the seals and joint washer
are found to be in good condition and have not been
damaged during removal of the sump they may be used
again, but it is always advisable to renew the sump joint
washer.
When fitting a new sump to crankcase joint washer
clean the joint faces on the sump and crankcase, ensuring
that all traces of the old joint washer are removed. Smear
the crankcase joint face with grease and place the new
joint washer in position. Lift the sump into position and
install the securing screws, tightening them in a diagonal
sequence, commencing at the centre and working outwards to the ends of the sump.
Section A.IO
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE OIL STRAINER
Remove the sump as described in Section A.9.
The oil strainer is mounted direct onto the base of
the oil pump and is removed by unscrewing the three
set screws and spring washers which secure it to the oil
pump cover.
Clean the strainer in kerosene using a stiff bru~h to
dislodge the 'sludge' particles from the strainer gauze.
Replacement is a reversal of the procedure to remove,
renewing the strainer to oil pump joint washer.
Section A.II
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE
OIL PUMP AND DRIVING SPINDLE
Remove the sump and oJl strainer as described in
Sections A.9 and A.tO.
Unscrew and remove the three nuts with plain and
spring washers securing the pump to the crankcase and
withdraw the pump.
Remove the pump to crankcase joint washer.
Before the oil pump driving spindle can be withe' :wn
the fuel injection pump and the fuel injection pump
A.13
A
THE ENGINE
(1) Lubricate all parts with clean engine oil.
(2) Ensure that the outer rotor is installed in the
pump body with its chamfered end at the driving
end of the rotor pocket in the pump body.
(3) After reassembling check the pump for freedom
of action.
Section A.13
Fig. A.4
The lobe clea/'a1lce should not exceed ·006 in.
(·152 mm.) when the oil pump rotors are in the positions illustrated
driving spindle must be removed as described in Sections
D.l2 and A.33.
Replacement is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,
using a new oil pump to crankcase joint washer.
Section A.12
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
THE OIL PUMP
Unscrew the two securing screws and carefully with·
draw the cover, which is located on the base of the oil
pump body by two dowels.
Withdraw the outer rotor, and the inner rotor complete
with oil pump shaft, from the pump body.
Thoroughly clean all parts inkeFosine and inspect them
for wear. The rotor end-float and lobe clearances should
be checked as follows:
(1) Install the rotors in the pump body, place a
straight-edge across the joint face of the pump
body, and measure the clearance between the top
face of the rotors and the under side of the
straight-edge. The clearance should not exceed
·005 in. (·127 mm.). In cases where the clearance
is excessive this may be remedied by removing
the two cover locating dowels and carefully
lapping the joint face of the pump body.
(2) Check the diametrical clearance between the outer
rotor and the rotor pocket in the pump body. If
this exceeds ·010 in. (·254 mm.) and cannot be
remedied by the renewal of either the pump body
or the rotors, then the pump assembly should be
renewed.
(3) With the rotors installed in the pump body
measure the clearance between the rotor lobes
when they are in the positions shown in Fig. A.4.
If the clearance is in excess of ·006 in. (·152 mm.)
the rotors must be renewed.
Reassembly is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
noting the following points:
A.l4
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE BIG-END BEARINGS
Remove the sump, oil strainer, and oil pump (Sections
A.9, A.lO, and A.Il).
Unlock and remove the big-end bearing cap bolts;
withdraw the bearing caps; detach the connecting rods
from the crankshaft and extract the bearing liners.
As the bearings are of the shimless type, it is essential
that no attempt be made to adjust them. Worn bearings
should always be renewed.
The bearing liners are located in their housings by a
small tag on one side of each liner engaging a corresponding groove in the connecting rod and bearing cap. It
should be noted that the bearings are fitted so that the
tags are on the same joint edge of the bearing housing,
although on opposite corners.
Connecting rods and bearing caps are mated pairs, and
a bearing cap must only be refitted to the connecting rod
from which it was originally taken. To assist when
reassembling, both the connecting rod and cap are
stamped with the cylinder number to which it is fitted,
as shown in Fig. A.6. Bearing liners have no such markings, and when used liners are to be refitted they should
be suitably marked with the position in the connecting
rod-that is, rod half or cap half-and the connecting
rod number.
A punch should not be used to mark the liners.
Replacement is a reversal of the foregoing procedure.
lubricating the crankpins and bearing liners liberally with
clean engine oil and fitting new bearing cap bolt lock
washers. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to the torque
Fig. A.5
Checking the oil pump rotor end-JIoat, which sir ::!d
not exceed ·005 in. (·127 mm.)
A
THE ENGINE
Section A.IS
c
Fig. A.6
The connecting rod big-end bearing locating tags (A)
and grool'es (B). The figures (c) indicate the cylinder
from which the rod and cap were remol'ed
figure given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section, using
torque wrench ISG372.
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING THE
VALVE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Unscrew and remove the rocker shaft locating screw
from the rocker shaft rear mounting bracket.
Withdraw the split pin and plain and spring washers
from each end of the valve rocker shaft and slide off
the rockers, brackets, and spacing springs, noting their
positions on the rocker shaft. Unscrew the plug from the
front end of the rocker shaft; the plug in the rear end of
the rocker shaft is a drive fit and should not normally be
removed.
Thoroughly clean all components with kerosene dry.
and then clear the oil ways in the rear rocker bracket.
rocker shaft, and valve rockers with compressed air.
When reassembling, commence with the rear bracket
and secure the rocker shaft in position, ensuring that the
dowel end of the locating screw properly engages the
locating hole in the rocker shaft. The valve rockers and
remaining rocker brackets are interchangeable, but used
parts should be replaced on the rocker shaft in their
original position~.
Section A.16
Section A.14
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE
VALVE ROCKER SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Unscrew the two nuts securing the valve rocker cover,
withdraw the plain washers, cup washers, and sealing
bushes, and lift off the valve cover, taking care not to
damage the cork gasket.
Slacken the 14 cylinder head nuts a turn at a time, in
the order shown in Fig. A.9, until the load has been
released. Spanner ISG694 should be used to slacken the
three nuts located below the valve rocker shaft. This wiII
avoid distortion of the cylinder head, as four of the valve
rocker shaft bracket retaining nuts also serve to retain
the cylinder head. Completely unscrew these four nuts
and remove the remaining four nuts retaining the rocker
shaft brackets, noting the rocker shaft locating screw lock
plate, positioned under the right-hand nut, securing the
rocker shaft rear bracket. Remove the valve rocker shaft
complete with rockers and brackets.
Replacement is a reversal of the above procedure,
tightening the cylinder head retaining nuts to the torque
figure given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section in the
order shown in Fig. A.9. The nuts should be tightened
half a turn at a time with torque wrench ISG372, using
spanner lSG694 to tighten the three nuts located below
the rocker shaft.
Before replacing the valve rocker cover check and
adjust the valve rocker clearances as described in Section
A.2S.
REMOVING AND REPLACI!\G ROCKER BUSHES
Remove and dismantle the rocker shaft (Sections A.14
and A.15).
To remove and replace worn rocker bushes the use of
Service tool lSG226 is recommended; the bushes and the
rockers can be very easily damaged by using improvised
drifts. Place the rocker on the anvil and drive out the
worn bush (Fig. A.7).
Place a new bush on the driver and position the bush
with the butt joint at the top of the rocker bore and the
oil groove in the bush at the bottom of the rocker bore,
as shown in Fig. A.S.
Fig. A.7
Fitting a mire rock.er bliSh, /Ising SeTl'ice toollSG226
A.15
A
THE ENGINE
The exhaust manifold and manifold gasket can be
withdrawn after the two remaining nuts with plain
washers securing it to the cylinder head have been
removed.
When reassembling, which is a reversal of the above
procedure, remove all traces of the old gasket from the
cylinder head and manifold joint faces and fit a new
gasket. Do not forget to fit the foremost manifold clamp
washer at the same time as the exhaust manifold is fitted.
Bleed the fuel system (Section 0.10).
Fig. A.8
Showing the correct position for a mh'e rocker bush
A.
Oilways.
n. Joint in rockcr bush.
c. Oil groovc.
It will be necessary to drill the oil holes in the bush
to coincide with the oilways in the rocker. The oil hole
to the adjuster end can be drilled before the bush is
fitted, extra care being taken to keep the holes of the
bush and rocker in line during the pressing-in operation.
If the holes are drilled after fitting, the following
procedure should be adopted. Remove the adjuster screw
and use a ·093 in. (2'36 mm.) drill to drill out the end plug
and to continue the oi!\\'ay through the bush. Replug the
end after this operation with a rivet (Part No. 5C2436)
and weld the plug into position. The oil hole in the top
of the rocker barrel should be continul!d through the
bush with a No. 47 drill, ·0785 in. (1·98 mm.).
Finally, burnish-ream the bush to the dimensions
.given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section.
Section A.I7
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE
INLET AND EXHAUST MANIFOLDS
Section A.IS
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE CYLINDER HEAD
Drain the water from the cooling system.
Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds (Section A.17)
and the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section A.14).
Withdraw the eight push-rods, storing them carefully so
that they may be replaced in their original pmitions.
One way of doing this is to punch eight small holes in a
piece of cardboard, number the holes, and insert each
push-rod into its corresponding hole in the card.
Disconnect the fuel feed pipes from the injectors and
the injection pump and remove the pipes complete with
clamps and damper bushes. Seal off the fuel injection
pump and the injector unions with sealing caps 180216
to prevent the ingress of foreign matter.
Remove the remaining 10 cylinder head retaining nuts
and washers and lift the cylinder head with a direct pull
to withdraw it evenly up the studs.
NOTE.-The cylinder head joint face is machined with
the combustion chamber inserts installed. As the inserts
are a loose fit in the cylinder head, they should be removed
and suitably labelled with their cylinder number so that
they may be replaced in their original positions.
When reassembling, which is a reversal of the above
procedure, ensure that the surface of both the cylinder
Close inlet and outlet raw water sea-cocks. Open drain
tap on right side of cylinder block. Open drain taps on
bottom of heat exchanger. Disconnect hose from integral
manifolds. Disconnect hoses from heat exchanger. Loosen
alternator adjustment bracket and remove belt.
Remove the two hoses from raw water pump. Disconnect exhaust pipe from integral manifold. Remove air
filter. Remove bolt securing each end of manifold to
cylinder head, then remove the remaining four nuts.
Lift off manifold with heat exchanger and water pump
attached.
12
Fig. A.9
Cylillder head nut slackening and tightening seque, e
A.l6
A
THE ENGINE
smoothly ground hacksaw blade or a disused -020 in.
('50 mm.) feeler gauge may be used for this operation.
Raise one end of the ring out of its groove and insert
the blade between the ring and the piston. Rotate the
blade around the piston, applying slight upward pressure
to the raised portion of the ring, until it rests on the land
above the ring groove. The ring can then be eased off the
piston.
Before refitting the rings clean the grooves in the
piston and remove any carbon deposit. Care must be
taken not to remove any metal, or excessive side-play
between the ring and the groove will result, with consequent increased oil consumption and loss of gas-tightness.
The periphery of No.1 compression ring is chromiumplated, while the peripheries of Nos. 2 and 3 compression
rings arc tapered. To assist correct reassembly the upper
faces of the tapered rings are stamped with the word
'TOP'.
New rings must be tested in an unworn part of the
cylinder bore to ensure that the entis do not butt together.
Insert the piston into the cylinder bore, push the new
ring onto the top of the piston to ensure that the ring is
square with the cylinder bore, and measure the gap with
a feeler gauge. The correct ring gaps are given in the
'GENERAL DATA' section.
Fig. A.I2
Removing a gudgeon pin eire/ip, !Ising eirclip pliers
18G 1004
Section A.22
_./
pins to facilitate reassemhly to their original connecting
rods.
Check the gudgeon pin and connecting rod little-end
bush for wear against the dimensions given in the
'GENERAL DATA' section. If the little-end bush is
worn it should be removed and a new bllSh instalied,
using a light press.
When fitting a new little-end bush ensure that the butt
joint of the bush is on the camshaft side of the connecting rod, that the oil grooves in the bush are at the top
of the little-end bore, and that the oil holes in the bush
and connecting rod are aligned with each other.
After installing, new little-end bushes must be finishreamed to the dimemion given in the 'GENERAL
DATA' section.
New gudgeon pins should be fItted by selective
assembly. The gudgeon pin should be a hard hand-push
fit at a room temperature of 20° C. (68 0 F.).
When reassembling the piston to the connecting rod
ensure that the combustion cavity in the piston erown
is on the same side of the connecting rod as the oil jet
hole in the big-end bearing.
Secure each gudgeon pin in position with the two
circlips, ensuring that they fit well into their grooves.
PISTONS SIZES AND CYLINDER BORES
When fitting new pistons selective assembly is necessary, and to facilitate this the pistons are stamped with
identification figures on their crowns. Oversize pistons
Section A.21
REMOVL,\G AND REPLACING
PISTON RINGS
In the absence of a special piston ring expander a
A.18
Fig. A.13
Sho1l'ing the correct position for a connecting rod
little-end bush
A.
B.
Oilway.
Oil groove.
c. Bush joint on camshaft side
of connecting rod.
A
TIlE ENGINE
Section A.23
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE VALVES
Fig. A.14
Remove the eire/ip and compress the valve springs with
Service tool 18G45
are marked with the actual oversize dimensions. A piston
stamped ·020 is only suitable for a bore ·020 in. (·508
mm.) larger than the standard bore; similarly, pistons
with other markings are only suitable for the oversize
bore indicated.
After reboring an engine, or whenever fitting pistons
differing in size from those removed from the engine,
ensure that the size of the piston fitted is stamped clearly
on the top face of the cylinder block alongside the
appropriate cylinder bore. Pistons are available in the
sizes indicated in the following table.
Piston marking
STANDARD
OVERSIZE
+'010 in. (·254 mm.)
+020 in. ('508 mm.)
+·030 in. ('762 mm.)
+·040 in. (1'016 mm.)
Suitable bore
size
Metric
equh'alent
2·R757 to
2·8760 in.
73·043 to
73·050 mm.
2·8857 to
2·8860 in.
2-8957 to
2·8960 in.
2·9057 to
2·9060 in.
2·9157 to
2·9160 in.
7'3'297 to
73·304 mm.
73·551 to
73'558 mm.
73-805 to
73·812 mm.
74·059 to
74·066 mm.
Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds (Section A.17)
and the cylinder head (Section A.l8).
Detach the circJips from the valve spring cap retainers,
compress each pair of valve springs, using valve spring
compressor 18G45, and detach the two valve cap retainers from the stem of the valve. Release and remove
the valve spring compressor, and remove the valve spring
cap, valve guide shroud, valve oil seal, inner and outer
valve springs, and valve spring lower collar.
Withdraw the valves from their guides, keeping them
in their relative positions when removed from the ~ngine
to ensure replacement in their original valve guides. The
valves are numbered on their heads I to 8, commencing
from the front of the engine. If new valves are fitted they
should be identified in a similar manner.
To replace, fit each valve mto its guide and install the
lower collar, inner and outer valve springs, valve guide
shroud, and valve spring cap.
Compress the valve springs and fit a new oil seal to the
valve stem in the bottom of-the spring cap retainer groove.
Do not refit the old seals or oil-tightness may be lost, with
consequent increased oil consumption. It will be food that
the new seals are more easily fitted if they are soaked iD
engine oil for a short time before use.
Refit the valve spring retainers, remove the valve spring
compressor, and replace the retainer circlip.
Owing to the limited clearance between the crowns of
the pistons and the cylinder head joint face when the
pistons are in the T.D.C. position it is imperative that the
top faces of the valve heads 'stand down' ·018 to ·038 in.
(·46 to ·96 mm.) below the joint face of the cylinder head.
The dimension is checked by placing a straight-edge
across the cylinder head joint face and measuring the
clearance between the under side of the straight-edge and
the top faces of the valves. Valves having a stand-down
clearance greater than the above limit may adversely
affect the engine compression and should be renewed.
i~
Fig. A.15
Checking the valve 'stand-down' in relation t.
cylinder head joint face
~he
A.19
A
THE ENGINE
should be ground to its seat with a semi-rotary motion
and occasionally allowed to rise by the pressure of the
light coil spring. This assists in spreading the paste
evenly over the valve face and seat. It is necessary to
carry out the grinding operation until a dull, even, mat
surface, free from blemish, is produced on the valve seat
and valve face.
On completion, the valve seat and ports should be
. cleaned thoroughly with a rag soaked in paraffin, dried,
and then thoroughly cleaned by compressed air. The
vah'es should be washed in paraffin and all traces of
grinding paste removed.
A4839
Section A.25
Fig. A.16
Grinding ill a l'(!/re, using Service .tool 18G29.
Occasionlllly [{Ii the l'alve off its seat to spread the
grinding paste cl'£'"ly over the seat and l'Q!J'e face
If, when fitting new valves, the stand-down is found to
be less than the above limit, adjustment should be carried
out hy refacing or grinding the valves (Section A.24).
Section A.24
vAINE-GRINDING
Operational efficiency of the compression-ignition
engine depends largely on the maintenance of good
compression; therefore contact between the valve faces
and their seatings should be perfect.
Remove the valves as described in Section A.23 and
clean them thoroughly. Examine the face of each valve
for signs of pitting, any badly pitted valves being either
renewed or refaced with a suitable grinder. For details
of the valve scat angle see the 'GENERAL DATA'
section.
If the valve seats in the cylinder head show signs of
pitting or unevenness they should be refaced by the use
of the valve seat cutting tools illustrated at the end of
Section A. When using these tools, which save lengthy
and wasteful grinding in, care must be exercised to remove
only as little metal as is necessary to ensure a true seat.
Worn seats u5ually have a glass-hard surface and the
glaze breaker should be used to prepare the seat surface
for any recutting that may be necessary. Narrowing
cutters should be used to maintain the valve seats at
their correct width as given in the 'GENERAL DATA'
section.
When grinding a valve onto its seating the valve face
should be smeared lightly with a fine or medium-grade
carborundum paste and then lapped to its seat, using
grinding-in too118G29. Avoid the usc of excessive quantities of grinding paste and see that it remains in the region
of the valve seating only.
A light coil spring placed under the valve head will
assist considerably in the process of grinding. The valve
04.20
DECARBONIZING
Remo\'e the inlet and the exhaust manifold (Section
A.17).
Remove the cylinder head and gasket (Section A.l8)
and withdraw the valves as de~cribed in Section A.23 and
the fuel injectors as described in Section D.16.
Plug the waterways in the cylinder head and cylinder
block with dean rag.
If special equipment for decarbonizing is not available
it will be necessary to scrape thc carbon deposit from the
piston crown and the cylinder head, using a blunt scraper.
An odd length of copper tubing with the end flattened
and filed up makes an ideal scraping tool which will not
scratch.
A ring of carbon should be left round the periphery
of the piston crown and the rim of carbon round the top ,
of each cylinder bore should not be removed. An old
10:)
~ Q.:,
~
~ ~
6:,)
~--,:~
Fig. A.17
Badly pitted vall'e seats should be refaced, using
Senice tools 18G25, 18G25A, 18G25B, 18G25C,
18G27, 18G167, 18G167A, 18G167B, 18G167C
and 18G174D
A
THE ENGINE
outwards until they protrude ·562 : ~~ in. (14·23 !.;:mm.)
above the machined face of the valve spring seat (see
Fig. A.18).
Valve guides with an outer diameter ·010 in. ('254 mm.)
oversize are available for fitment where the normal fit bas
been impaired during the removal of an old guide.
Section A.27
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE TAPPETS
Fig. A.lS
Showing the correct location of the valve guides.
Dimension (A) '562!:m ill. (I4'23"::"~ mm.)
piston ring sprung into the bore and resting on the top
of the piston will facilitate this operation.
The cylinder head is next given attention. Remove the
carbon deposit from the valves, valve ports, and cylinder
head. Cleaning of the spherical combustion chamber in
the cylinder head is not necessary as the heat generated
during combustion is such as to prevent the build-up of
carbon on the walls of the chamber. Any accumulation
of carbon in the valve guides should be removed by
dipping the valve stem in
kerosene
and oscillating
the valve in its guide until it is free.
Remove all traces of carbon dust with compressed air,
or by the vigorous use of a tire pump, and then clean
thoroughly with kerosene and dry off.
Remove the valve rocker shan assembly (Section A.l4)
and withdraw the push-rods, taking care to store them as
described in Section A.18 so that they may be replaced
in their original positions.
Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds as described
in Section A.17.
Remove the two securing bolts and washers and
withdraw the two side covers and joint washers.
Lift out the tappets from their guides in the cylinder
block, keeping them in their respective positions so that
they may be replaced in their own guides.
New tappets must be fitted by selective assembly so that
they just fall into their guides under their own weight
when lubricated with engine oil.
Worn tappet bores mlly be cleaned up by 'fine finish'
machining, and tappets ·010 in. and ·020 in. (·254 mm.
and ·508 mm.) oversize are available.
Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,
ensuring that the side cover joint washers will make an
oil-tight joint and adjusting the valve to rocker clearances
as described in Section A.28.
Bleed the fuel system (Section 0.10).
Section A.26
REMOVL"IG AND REPLACING
THE VALVE GUIDES
Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds (Section A. I 7).
Remove the cylinder head (Section A.IS) and the
appropriate valve and spring as described in Section
A.23.
Support the cylinder head with wooden blocks and
drive the valve guide outwards from the exhaust or inlet
port with a suitable drift. The drift should take the form
of a hardened-steel punch ·5 in. (12'7 mm.) in diameter
and not less than 5 in. (12'7 em.) in length with a locating
spigot ·312 in. (7'9 mm.) in diameter machined on one
end for a length of I in. (2'54 cm.) to engage the bore of
the guide.
New valve guides must be fitted in the same directionthat is, through the inlet or exhaust port-and driven
Fig. A.I9
Cbecking and adjusting the vahe rocker clearances
A.21
A
THE ENGINE
Section A.29
Fig. A.20
The timing mark and timing plate. Sholl'n inset is the
timing disc and timing poill1er fitted to early engilles
Section A.28
ADJUSTING THE VALVE ROCKER
CLEARANCES
If the engine is to give its best performance and the
valves arc to retain their maximum useful life it is
essential to maintain the correct valve rocker clearance.
The correct clearance for both inlet and exhaust valves
is -015 in. (·381 mm.) when the engine is cold, and as the
engine has been designed to operate with this clearance,
no departure from it is permissible.
Provision for adjusting the valve clearance is made ill
the rocker arm by an adjustable screw and locknut.
The rocker adjusting screw is released by slackening
the hexagon locknut with a spanner while holding the
screw against rotation with a screwdriver. The valve
clearance can then be set by carefully rotating the rocker
screw while checking the clearance at the other end of the
rocker with a feeler gauge. This screw is then relocked
by tightening the hexagon locknut while again holding
the screw against rotation.
It is important to note that, when setting the valve
clearance, the tappet of the valve being operated upon
must be on the back of its cam-that is, opposite the
peak. As the position of the tappet on its cam cannot be
observed, and to avoid cranking the engine more than is
necessary, rocker adjustment is more easily carried out in
the following order:
Adjust No.1 rocker with No.8 valve fully open.
"
"3,,
"5,,
"
"2,,
"
.,8"
"
,,6 "
"
"4,,
",,7
It
A.22
""6,,
"
"4,,
""7,,
"
""1,,
"
"
3"
"
""5,,
"
.,2""
"
"
"
"
"
"
VALVE-TIMING CHECK
The pointer secured to the under side of the crankcase
front cover and the timing disc mounted behind the
crankshaft pulley are used to check the valve timing.
The timing disc has two sets of graduations from 0 to 35°
marked at 5° intervals, and it is the set of graduations
with the zero mark identified 1.4 which is used for the
valve-timing check. A pulley with timing marks on the
periphery of the vibration damper is installed on later
engines. The latest engine has a timing mark scribed on
the pulley and a degree plate 011 the timing cover.
Set the valve rocker clearance of No.1 cylinder inlet
valve to -021 in. ('53 mm.).
Crank the engine and determine the exact point at
which No. 1 cylinder inlet valve is about to open. A
clock gauge mounted on the cylinder head, with its
indicator in contact with the valve spring cap, will
facilitate this operation. If the valve timing is correct and
in accordance with the valve-timing diagram (sec Fig.
A.21), No. 1 piston will be at 5° B.T.D.C.• as indicated
by the alignment of the scribed line on the pointer with
the 5° mark on the timing disc.
Do not omit to reset the inlet valve clearance to ·015 in.
(,381 IDOl.) when the timing check bas been completed.
Section A.30
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE CRANKCASE FRONT COVER
Drain the cooling system.
SDC
ASiOI
I
Fig. A.21
Valve-timing diagram with valve rocker clearance set
at ·021 in. (·53 mm.).lnlet valve opens at (A) and closes
at (D). Exhaust valve opens at (c) and closes at (8)
THE ENGINE
A
and adaptor 18Gl34BD (see Fig. A.24). Pack the inner
groove of the oil seal with grease to provide initial
lubrication.
To reassemble, replace the oil thrower on the crankshaft y,ith its concave side facing away from the engine.
Fit a new joint washer and install the crankcase front
cover, tightening the securing screws finger-tight.
Centralize the crankcase front cover with thr: crankshaft,
using tool 18G3 for early engines and tool HSGI046 for
later engines, then tighten the set screws to secure the
front cover in this position. Remove the centralizing
tool and refit the crankshaft pulley.
Section A.31
REMOVING, DISMANTLING, AND REPLACING
THE TIMING CHAIN TENSIONER
Press back the starting-handle dog locking washer
and, using spanner 18G98 (see Fig. A.22), unscrew the
starting-handle dog from the crankshaft. Withdraw the
crankshaft pulley, u!'ing tool 18G2 (see Fig. A.23).
Unscrew the nine set screws with plain and spring
washers securing the crankcas~ front cover to the engine,
noting the positions from which they are removed in
order to facilitate reassembly. Withdraw the crankcase
front cover and joint washer.
For safe keeping remove the oil thrower from the end
of the crankshaft.
Remove the oil seal from the crankcase front cover and
remove all traces or the joint washer from the joint faces
of the front co\'er and the engine front mounting plate.
Insert a new oil seal into the cran~ca,e front cover
with the lip of the 5eal facing inwards, using tool 18G 134
Remove the crankcase front cover (Section A.30).
Press back the locking washer and unscrew the plug
from the base of the chain tensioner body. Insert a .. in.
(3·18 mm.) Allen key to engage the tensioner cylinder,
and turn the key in a clockwise direction to retract
the tensioner slipper into the unloaded position (see
Fig. A.26). Between a half and one fuU tum is aU that
is necessary. Unlock and remove the two set bolts and
withdraw the tensioner assembly, tensioner back plate,
and joint washer from the engine.
Withdraw the plunger and slipper assembly from the
tensioner body and engage the lower end of the cylinder
with the Allen key. Turn the key clockwise, holding the
key and plunger securely until the cylinder and spring
are released from inside the plunger.
Fig. A.23
Withdrawing the crankshaft pulley, using Sen'ice tool
18G2
Fig. A.24
Replacing the oil seal in the crankcase front co ,
using Service tool 18G134 and adaptor 18G134DD
A.23
A
THE ENGINE
joint washer and the back plate and secure the assembly
to the cylinder block.
After refitting the tensioner check the slipper head for
freedom of movement and ensure that it does not bind
on the back plate when it is moved in the body.
Release the tensioner, by inserting and turning the
Allen key in a clockwise direction, until the slipper head
moves forward under spring pressure against the timing
chain.
Do not attempt to turn the key anti-dockwise or force
the sUpper head into the chain by external pressure.
Secure the bolts with the locking plate, replace the
bottom plug, and lock with the tab washer.
Section A.32
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE TIMING CHAIN
Fig. A.25
Install the securing screws finger tight and centralize
the crankcase front cover with the crankshaft, using
Service tool 18G3/or early engines and tool 18GI046
for later engines
Check the bore in the tensioner body for ovality. If
ovality is greater than ·003 in. (·0762 mm.) when measured
on diameters near the mouth of the bore, then the complete chain tensioner should be renewed.
Inspect the slipper head for wear. If it is badly worn a
new slipper head and cylinder assembly should be fitted
to the existing body, provided the bore of the body is
within the limit given above.
The components should be cleaned thoroughly in clean
petrol, and the ·125 in. (3·18 mm.) diameter inlet oil hole
in the spigot and the ·040 in. (I ·02 mm.) outlet oil hole
in the slipper should be cleaned with compressed air
before reassembling.
When the tensioner is in operation and the engine
is running, oil from the lubrication system enters the
spigot on the back face under pressure and lubricates
the bearing surface through a hole in the slipper pad.
The pad is held against the chain by the CI)i1 spring.
Should the chain stretch with use, the slipper plunger
rises and the limiting peg, bearing on the top of the
helical slot, rotates the cylinder until the next recess in the
lower edge of the slot comes into line with the limiting peg
and prevents the plunger returning to its original position
and allowing the timing chain to become slack again.
When reassembling, insert the spring in the plunger
and place the cylinder on the other end of the spring.
Compress the spring until the cylinder enters the
plunger bore, engaging the helical slot with the peg in
the plunger. Hold the assembly compressed in this
position and engage the Allen key. Turn the cylinder
clockwise until the end of the cylinder is below the peg
and the spring is held compressed. Withdraw the key and
insert the plunger assembly in the body. Replace the
"'.24
Remove thc crankcase front ,over (Section A.30) and
crank the engine until the timing marks on the chain
wheels are opposite one another as shown in Fig. A.26.
This will permit reassembly without the necessity to
rotate either the crankshaft or the camshaft.
It should be Doted that the valves and pistons will foul
and possibly damage each other if the crankshaft and, under
certain conditions, the camshaft are rotated when the
timing chain has been removed.
If, owing to further dismantling of the engine, rotation
of the crankshaft or camshaft is found necessary, the
valve rocker shaft assembly should be removed as
described in Section A.14.
Press back the locking tab and remove the plug from
the base of the chain tensioner body. Insert a i in. Allen
key to engage the tensioner cylinder and tum the key
in a clockwise direction to retract the tensioner slipper
into the unloaded position.
Fig. A.26
Crank the engine until the timing dimples (1) and (2)
are opposite each other before removing the timing
chain and chain wheels. The c/rain tensioner is retracted
into the unloaded position by turning the Allen key (3'
in a clockwise direction
A
THE ENGINE
lock washer, using spanner 18G98 to tighten the nut.
Release the chain tensioner as described in Section A.31
and reassemble the remaining components as detailed in
Sections A.30 and CC.l.
Section A.33
Fig. A.27
Unscrew the camshaft chain .....heel sl!Cllr;ng nut with
spanner l8G98
Knock back the lock washer and, using spanner l8G98,
unscrew the camshaft chain wheel securing nut. Remove
the nut lock washer, noting that its locating tag fits into
the camshaft chain wheel keyway.
The camshaft and crankshaft chain wheels, complete
with timing chain, may now be withdrawn by easing each
chain wheel forward a fraction at a time with suitable
small levers. As the crankshaft chain wheel is withdrawn.
note the packing washers located on the crankshaft
immediately behind the chain wheel. To remove these
washers the two half-moon keys must first be withdrawn
from the end of the crankshaft. The washers need only be
removed when new crankshaft or camshaft components
are to be fitted, in which case realignment of the chain
wheels will be necessary_ To determine the thickness of
packing washers "required assemble and secure the chain
wheels to their respective shafts, using the starting-handle
dOl and a suitable distance piece to secure the crankshaft
chain wheel. Press both shafts towards the rear of the
engine to take up all end-float. Place a straight-edge
across the sides of the camshaft chain wheel teeth and
measure with a feeler gauge the gap between the straightedge and the sides of the teeth on the crankshaft chain
wheel (see Fig. A.28). Subtract ·005 in. (.)3 mm.) from
the feeler gauge reading and add the resultant thickness
of crankshaft gear packing washers.
When replacing the timing chain and wheels ensure
that the keys in the crankshaft and camshaft are in the
12 o'clock and 1 o'clock positions respectively, as seen
from the front. Assemble the wheels into the timing chain
with the two dimples on the chain wheels opposite one
another and in line with the chain wheel centres, as in
Fig. A.26. Keeping the wheels in this position, push
them onto the shafts as far as they will go. It may be
necessary to rotate the camshaft slightly to align the
camshaft key with the keyway ill the camshaft chain
wheel. Secure the camshaft chain wheel with its nut and
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE FUEL
INJECTION PUMP DRIVING SPINDLE
Remove the fuel injection pump as described in Section
0.12. Unscrew the countersunk securing screw and
withdraw the fuel injection pump hub and joint washer
from the crankcase.
Withdraw the fuel injection pump driving spindle from
the crankcase, turning the spindle in a clockwise direction
to disengage it from the skew gear on the camshaft.
When refitting the driving spindle No. 1 piston must
be at 22° B.T.D.C. on its compression stroke. The engine
is set in this position by means of the timing disc on the
crankshaft pulley and the pointer secured to the under
side of the crankcase front cover (see Fig. A.20). It
should be noted that the timing disc has two sets of
timing marks, graduated from 0° to 35° in S° divisions,
and it is the set with the zero mark identified 1.4 which
is used for this operation. Crank the engine until the
inlet valve of No. 1 cylinder is just closed; No. 1 piston
will now be commencing its compression stroke. Continue to crank the engine slowly until No. 1 piston is at
22° B.T.D.C. as indicated by the timing disc and pointer.
Insert the fuel injection pump driving spindle into the
crankcase with the master spline of the spindle in the
7 o'clock position. As the driving spindle engages the
Fig. A.28
Checking the chain wheel alignment with a str···::;htedge and feeler gauge
A.2S
A
--
THE ENGINE
--
.-
--.
~;'.~'.~~~~.~~~~
Reassem bJy is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
noting the following:
(I) Lubricate the camshaft journals liberally with
clean engine oil.
(2) Refit the timing chain and gears. realigning the
gears if necessary, as described in Section A.32.
(3) Centralize the crankcase front cover as described
in Section A.30.
(4) Install the fuel injection pump and the injection
pump driving spindle as described in.Sections A.33
and D.12.
(5) Bleed the fuel system as described in Section D.10.
.
:-.--.-.-.:.....~:.:-,-, . .
-"-"
..
Fig. A.29
Set No. I piston at 22° B.T.D.C. on its compression
stroke and refit the injection pump driving spindle
with the master spline in the 5 o'clock position
skew gear on the camshaft it will turn in an anti-clockwise
direction until the master spline is in the 5 o'clock
position.
Refit the fuel injection pump hub, using a new joint
washer, and replace the fuel injection pump as detailcd in
Section D.12.
Bleed the fuel system (Section D.I 0).
Section A.34
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE CAMSHAFT
Remove the fuel injection pump and driving spindle
(Sections D.l2 and A.33).
Remove the sump, oil pump, and oil pump driving
spindle (Sections A.9 and A.II).
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly, push-rods,
and tappets (Sections A.14 and A.27).
Remove the fuel lift pump (Section D.3). Remove the
crankcase front cover, timing chain, and chain wheels
(Sections A.30 and A.32).
Unscrew the three securing screws with shakeproof
washers to release the camshaft retaining plate and carcfully withdraw the camshaft from the front of the crankcase.
Before reassembly, assemble the camshaft retaining
plate and the chain wheel to the camshaft and check the
camshaft end-float against the dimensions given in the
'GENERAL DATA' section by measuring the clearance
between the retaining plate and the thrust face of the
camshaft front journal.
If the end-fioat is excessive the retaining plate should
be renewed.
A.26
Section A.35
REMOVI~G A~D REPLACING
THE CAMSHAFT BEARING LINERS
If the camshaft bearing clearances are excessive new
bearing liners must be fitted. Thinwall white-metal liners
are used, and removing and refitting are facilitated by the
use of tool 18GI24A and adaptors 18G124B, 18G124C,
UsG 124F, and lSG 124H. New liners should be line-reamed to give the correct running clearance (see 'GENERAL
DATA'), using tool 18Gl23A with cutters 18G123B,
18G123E, and 18G123F. and pilots 18G123L, 18G123T,
I8GI23AB. 18G!23AC. and 18Gl23AD.
Removing the front and rear liners
Insert the small end of the adaptor 18GI24F into the
camshaft front liner from the inside of the cylinder
block. thread the body of the tool onto the centre screw,
and pass the screw through the adaptor from the front
of the block. Place the slotted washer on the flat at the
rear of the centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into
the centre screw behind the slotted washer.
Tighten up the wing nut to withdraw the worn liner.
The rear liner is withdrawn by the same method, using
the adaptor 18G 1248 and withdrawing the liner from
the rear of the block.
Removing the centre liner
Insert the stepped pilot adaptor 18G 124H into the
camshaft front liner bore from the inside of the block
and the adaptor 18GI24C into the centre liner from the
rear. small end first.
With the body of the tool positioned on the centre
screw, pass the screw through the pilot adaptor and the
adaptor in the centre liner.
PI~ce the slotted washer on the flat at the rear of the
centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into the screw
behind the slotted washer.
Tighten up the wing nut to withdraw the liner.
Replacing the front and rear liners
Place the new liner on the smallest diameter of the
adaptor ) 8G 124F and insert the adaptor into the car'shaft front liner bore from the inside of the block, largest
diameter first.
A
THE ENGINE
9
Fig. A.30
Replacing the camshaft celllre bearing liner, using
Service tool 18G124A with adaptors 18G124Jl (md
18G124C
I.
2.
3.
4.
S.
Wing nut.
Body.
Adaptor 18GI2"H.
Centre screw.
Adaptor 18G124C.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Bearing liner.
Large '0' washer.
Slotted washer.
Tommy-bar.
Line up the oil holes in the liner and the cylinder
block and make certain they remain correctly positioned
during the whole operation.
Thread the body of the tool onto the centre screw
and pass the screw through the adaptor, located in the
front liner, from the front of the block.
Position the larger of the two 'D' washers on the
centre screw with the cut-away portion turned away
from the butt joint of the liner; this joint must be covered
by the washer.
Place the slotted washer on the flat at the rear of the
centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into the screw
behind the slotted washer.
Tighten the wing nut to pull the liner squarely into
position.
The rear liner is replaced by the same method, using
the adaptor 18G124B and pulling the liner into position
from the rear of the block.
Replacing the ccntre liner
Insert the stepped pilot adaptor into the camshaft
front liner from the inside of the block.
Place a new centre liner on the small end of the
adaptor l8G124C and position the adaptor in the centre
liner bore from the rear, largest diameter first. It should
be noted that two types of centre liner are available.
These liners are interchangeable, but the liner having a
clinch-type jOint. chamfered edges, and ~i'I;;': ,ow stamped
on its outer surface must be fitted with the arrow pointing
towards the front of the engine. Ensure that the oil holes
in the liner and the cylinder block are lined up and remain
so during the whole operation.
With the body of the tool positivr1:d on the centre
screw insert the screw through the PI;.)t adaptor and
the adaptor in the centre liner bore.
Position the larger of the two 'D' washers on the
centre screw with the cut-away portion turned away
from the butt joint of the liner; this joint mast be
covered by the washer.
Place the slotted washer on the flat at the rear of t~e
centre screw and insert the tommy-bar into the centre
screw. Tighten up the wing nut to pull the liner into
position.
Reaming the front and rear Iblers
Insert the taper pilots 18G123AB and 18G123AC into
the centre and rear liners respectively.
Place the plain pilot 18G123L on the arbor, followed
by the cutter l8G123E.
Pass the arbor through the front liner and the pilot
located in the centre liner.
Place the cutter 18G123B on the arbor and push the
arbor through the taper pilot in the rear liner.
Secure the cutters in their respective positions shown
in Fig. A.31, ensuring that the cutter locating pins are
engaged in the correct numbered hole provided in the
arbor.
The cutter for the front liner will cut first with the
arbor piloting in the centre and rear liners. Clear away
the swarf frequently during the operation. The cutter
for the rear liner will follow with the arbor piloting in
Fig. A.Jl
Cutters and pilots positioned for reaming the can/shaft front and rear bearing liners. Shown inset are the pilots and
cutter positioned for reaming the centre liner
A.
Polition No.6.
D.
Position No. 10.
c. Position No.9.
A.27
A
THE ENGINE
the front and centrc liners. Clear away all the swarf
before the plain pilot is allowed to enter the front liner.
When the cut in the rear liner is finished, free the
cutters and withdraw the arbor.
Reaming the ceutre liner
Set up for the second part of the operation by inserting
the pilots 18GI23T and 18GI23AD in the front and
rear liners.
.
Pass the arbor through the pilot in the front liner and
place the cutter 18G123F on the arbor. Push the arbor
through the centre liner and the pilot located in the rear
liner.
Secure the cutter in the position shown inset in Fig.
A.31, ensuring that the locating pin of the cutter engages
thc correct numbered hole in the arbor.
Ream the centre liner, release the cutter, and withdraw
the arbor.
IMPORTANT.-It is essential that the cutter Bntes
are kept dear of swarf at aU times during the cutting
operation, preferably witb air-blast equipment. The
eatter sbould be withdrawn from the liner half-way
through the cut and the &Warf removed from the cutter
and the liner.
Feed the reamer very slowly and keep tbe cutters dry.
The arbor should be lightly lubricated before assembling
the cutters and pilots.
the top of the flywheel. Tighten the flywheel securing
nuts to the figure in the 'GENERAL DATA' section,
using torque wrench 180372.
Install the fuel injection p~mp as described in Section
0.12, and bleed the fuel system as described in Section
0.10.
Section A.37
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE ENGINE FRONT PLATE
Remove the nuts securing the engine front mounting
brackets to their flexible mounts.
Remove the crankcase front cover, timiDg chain, and
timing chain tensioner (Sections A.30, A.31, and A.32).
Attach the engine by means of a sling to an overhead
lifting appliance and raise the engine to relieve the load
on the engine front mountings.
Unscrew the three securing screws with shakeproof
washers and remove the camshaft retaining plate. Remove
the three set screws with spring washers and withdraw the
front plate and joint washer•
•
Section A.36
REMOVING Arm REPLACING
THE FLYWHEEL
Remove transmission (Section
).
Disconnect and label wires from starter motor and its
solenoid.
Remove starter motor with solenoid.
Remove wiring bracket from top of bellhousing.
Remove nuts securing the rear mounting' brackets to
flexible mount.
Take the weight off the rear of the engine preferably with a
sling attached to the rear lifting bracket. Do not jack up
under sump.
Remove capscrews and lockwashers securing bell housing to
back plate.
Remove damper plate.
Remove the 6 nuts and tab washers securing flywheel to the
crankshaft and remove flywheel.
When reassembling, crank the engine until the 1.4 zero
mark on the timing disc mounted on the crankshaft pulley
is in line witb the scribed line on the pointer located on
the under side of the crankcase front cover. Nos. 1 and
4 pistons are now at T.D.C., and the flywbeel should be
installed with the T.D.C. 1.4 mark OD its periphery at
A.28
Fig. A.32
WithdraWing the front main bearing cap, usin~
Service tool 18G42A and at/4plor 180418
A
THE ENGINE
Reassembly is a reversal of the foregoing procedure,
following the instructions given in Sections A.30, A.31,
and A.32 when installing the timing gears and the crankcase front cover.
Section A.38
REMOVING AND REPLACING THE
FLYWHEEL HOUSING BACK PLATE
Remove the transmission, the starter, the flywheel housing, and the flywheel. The back
plate is now exposed and the capscreWi\ and
locks may be removed. Tap the back plate to
loosen it from the dowels and gasket. Before
replacing, clean gask~t surface carefully and
use a new gasket.
It may be noticed that the back plate has a
slight warp when removed from the engine.
This is of no concern as it will straighten when
the affixing screws are tightened to the block
and to the flywheel housing.
·When assembling be sure all d<)wels are in
place to assure alignment of parts.
Section A.39
REMOVING AND REPI,ACI!'OG
THE CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS
Remove the crankcase front cover, timing chain, and
timing chain wheels (Sections A.30 and A.32).
Remove the starter motor, the flywheel, and the gearbox distance piece (Sections N.3, A.33, and A.38).
Remove the sump, oil pump, and oil strainer (Sections
A.9, A.lO, and A.ll). Slacken the nuts securing the fuel
injectors sufficiently to relieve the engine compression and
so facilitate rotation of the crankshaft.
Remove the valve rocker shaft assembly (Section A. 14)
to prevent the pistons and valves fouling each other when
the crankshaft is rotated. The push-rods should be
removed for safe keeping as detailed in Section A.I8.
Disconnect the connecting rods from the crankshaft as
described in Section A.13, pushing each rod and piston
to the top of its cylinder bore as ~oon as it is disconnected.
Unscrew and remove the six self-locking nuts and
spring washers from the main bearing cap studs. Withdraw the main bearing caps, using tool 18G42A with
adaptor 18G42B, noting the lower halves of the crankshaft
thrust washers located on each side of the centre main
bearing cap. The centre main bearing cap is stamped with
the word 'FRONT' to assist reassembly.
Lift the crankshaft out of the crankcase and remove
the upper halves of the crankshaft thrust washers.
Remove the bearing liners from the bearing caps and
the housings in the crankcase, marking the bearing
liners so that they ma.y be replaced in their original
positions. A punch ~hould not be used for this purpose.
The bearing liners are located in their housings by a
small tag on one side of tile liner engaging a corresponding
groove in the bearing housing and cap.
In the case of a run bearing, the oilways in the crankshaft and cylinder block should be cleaned thoroughly
",ith petrol or paraffin and then blown clean with compressed air. The oil pump and oil strainer should also
be dismantled and cleaned (Sections A.IO, A.I1. and
A. 12), and the fuel injection pump driving gear lubricator filter gauze should be removt.: 1 and cleaned
(Section A.6). It is also advisable to re:1ew the external
oil filter element (Section A.5) to ensure that all bearing
metal is removed from the Iubricating system.
Thoroughly clean the thrust faces of the crankshaft
centre main journal, the bearings, and the thrust washers
and install them in the crankcase. Mount a dial gauge on
the front end of the crankcase with its indicator resting
on the front face of the crankshaft front main journal.
Prcss the crankshaft as far as possible to the rear, and,
holding it in this po~ition, zero the dial gauge. Now press
the crankshaft forw1rd as far as possible and note the
reading on the dial gauge, the difference from zero being
the amount of crankshaft end-float.
If necessary, renew tIle thrust washers, fitting them by
selective assembly and ensuring that the oil grooves face
outwards towards the crankshaft webs. Thrust washers
·003 in. ('076 mm.) oversize are available.
When installing new bearings no scraping is required
as the bearings are machined to give the correct diametrical clearance.
Reassembly is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
noting the following points:
(I) If any of the crankshaft components are renewed,
do not jurget to aligl) the crankshaft chain wheel
with th(:; camshaft chain wheel as detailed in
Section A.32.
(2) Coat the rear main bearing cap to cylinder block
horizontal joint surface with Hylomar SQ32
jointing compound.
(3) Tighten the main bearing cap nuts to the figure
given in the 'GENERAL DATA' section, using
torque wrench 18G372.
(4) Remove the fuel injection pump, and check, and
adjust if necessary, the injection pump drive timing
as detailed in Section 0.12.
Section A.40
REMOVING AND REPLACL"IG
THE FLYWHEEL STARTER RING
To remove the old starter ring from the flywheel drill
holes through the flange of the gear and then split the
gear, using a hammer and chisel and taking care JJor to
damage the flywheel.
A.29
A
THE ENGINE
~
::
II;---H---
.
I,
I f---G - - -
l'
F - _ .._.•.
Fig. A.33
Cylinder liner pilots should be made 10 the above
dimensions from case hardening steel and case
hardened. The pilot extension should be made from
55·ton hardening and tempering steel, hardened in oil,
and then tempered at a temperature of 550' C.
(1,020- F.)
Pressing-out pilot
2 U :~ in. (75'8::~ mm.).
o. 2'862::~ in. (72'69::m mm.).
c. 1i in. (44'45 mm.).
D. i in. (19'05 mm.).
E. i in. B.S.W. thread.
A.
Fig. A.34
Va/re seat machining dimensions
E.~haust
Inlet (A).
c. 1·4965 to 1·4975 in.
(38'011 to 38·036 111m.).
D. 1·375 to 1·380 in.
(34'93 to 35·05 mm.).
E. 1·250 in. (31·75 !TIm.).
F. ·085 to ·090 in.
(2'161l) 2·29 mm.).
G. ·273 to ·276 in.
(6'93 10 7·01 mm.).
I:. Maximum radius ·015 in.
('38 mm.).
J. 75'.
K. 45'.
(D).
1·2775 to 1'2785 in.
(3:!·448 to 32·47-' ml11.).
M. 1·156 to 1-161 in.
(:!9'36 to 29'49 mm.).
:-I. 1·031 in. (26'19 mm.).
p. ·OS5 to '090 in.
(2'16 to 2'29 mm.).
Q. ·273 to ·276 in.
(6'93 to 7·01 mm.).
R. Maximum radius ·015 in.
('38 mm.).
s. 45'.
I..
Pressing-in pilot
F.
3
* in. (87'31 mm.).
o. 3i in. (77·39 mm.).
H.
J.
K.
L.
2'850::~ in. (72:39::m mm.).
Ii in. (31·75 mm.).
i in. (19'05 mm.).
'015 in. ('38 mm.).
This operation should be followed by natural cooling,
when the 'shrink fit' will be permanently established and
no further treatment required.
Section A.41
Pilot extension
14l in. (36·83 em.).
N. tin. (22'22 mm.).
p. i in. (15'87 mm.).
Q. i in. (15'87 mm.).
R. I in. (25'4 mm.) flats.
s. ! in. B.S.W. thread.
T. Ii in. (31'75 mm.).
M.
FITTING CYLINDER LINERS
Make certain that the bore of the new ring and its
mating surface on the flywheel are free from burrs and
are perfectly clean.
To fit the new ring it must be heated to a temperature
of 200 to 2300 C. (392 to 446 0 F.). Do not exceed this
temperature, otherwise the temper of the teeth will be
adversely affected. The use of a thermostatically controlled furnace is recommended. Place the heated ring on
the flywheel with the lead on the ring teeth uppermost.
The expansion will allow the ring to be fitted without
force by pressing or tapping it lightly until the ring is
hard against its register.
Should the condition of the cylinder bores be such that
they cannot be cleaned up to accept the recommended
oversize pistons, dry cylinder liners can be fitted. This
operation may be carried out by the use of specialized
proprietary equipment or with a power press, using pitot
adaptors to the dimensions shown in Fig. A.33. The press
must be capable of 3 tons (3048 kg.) pressure to fit new
liners and 5 to 8 tons (5080 to 8128 kg.) to remove old
liners. If liners have not previously been fitted the bores.
must be machined and honed to the dimensions given in
the table below.
To remove worn liners
Dismantle the engine and remove the cylinder head
studs.
Machine bores of
cylillder block to this
dimension before
jilling liner
Outside diameter
of liner
Interferellce jit of
liner ill cylinder
block bore
Machine liner bore
to this dimensioll
after fitting
3·0165 to 3·017 in.
(76·619 to 76·631 mm.)
3·0185 to 3·01925 in.
(76'669 to 76·688 mm.)
·0015 to ·00275 ill.
('038 to ·069 mm.)
2·8745 to 2·876 in.
(73'01 to 73·04 mm.)
A.30
I
A
TIlE ENGINE
Place the cylinder block face downwards on suitable
wooden supports on the beef ofthe press, making sure that
there is sufficient space between the block and the bed of
the press to allow the worn liner to pass down. Insert
the pilot complete with extension into the bottom of the
liner and carefully press the liner from the bore.
To press in De,,' liners
Thoroughly clean the inside of the bores and the outside
of the liners. Stand the cylinder block upright on the bed
of the press insert the pilot guide in the top of the liner,
and position the liner with its chamfered end in the top
of the bore. Make certain that the liner is square with
the top of the block and that the ram of the press is over
the centre of the pilot. Press the liner into the bore.
Finally, bore the cylinder liners to the dimensions
given in the table at the bottom of page A.30.
Section A.42
FI'ITING VALVE SEAT INSERTS
Should the valve seatings become so badly worn or
pitted that the normal workshop cutting and refacing
tools cannot restore them to their original standard of
efficiency, special valve seat inserts can be fitted. To fit
the inserts machine the seating in the cylindl!r head to the
dimensions given in Fig. A.34 and press in the inserts,
which have an interference fit of '0025 to '0045 in. ('063
to ·114 mm.). Finally, grind or machine the seatings to
the dimensions given in Fig. A.34. The throat of each
valve seat must blend into the throat in the cylinder
head. Normal valve grinding may be ;:!cessary to ensure
efficient seating, and before reassembly the valve ·stand·
down' should be checked as detailed in Section A.23.
A.31
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
Section D.l
DESCRIPTION
The fuel is drawn from the supply tank by a mechanical
diaphragm-type lift pump, which is operated by the
engine camshaft. It is imperative that the fuel is absolutely
free from foreign matter, and in addition to the gauzetype filters in the fuel lift and injection pumps a filter of
the renewable paper element type is installed in the feed
line from the lift pump to the injectjon pump.
The injection pump, which is of the C.A.V. distributor
type, meters and forces fuel under high pressure via
Pintaux injection nozzles into the combustion chambers.
The Pintaux nozzle, which is of the pintle type embodying an auxiliary hole to facilitate starting, has been
designed expressly for use with the Ricardo Comet V
type combustion chamber which is employed in this
engine. The use of these designs ensures easy starting
under arctic conditions, especially when used in conjunction with the heater plugs which are fitted.
The accelerator is connected to the control lever on
the injection pump, which embodies a governor and
.automatic advance unit, both of which are hydraulically
operated.
Section D.2
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
The fuel lift pump is mounted on the left-hand side
of the crankcase and is operated by an eccentric on the
engine camshaft. A hand priming lever permits pumping
a supply of fuel through the main fuel filter to the
injection pump for bleeding the system of air whenever
any component has been dismantled or disconnected.
As the engine camshaft revolves, the eccentric lifts
the pump rocker arm, which moves the pull-rod together
with the diaphragm downwards against the spring'
pressure, thus creating a partial vacuum in the pumping
chamber.
Fuel drawn from the tank enters the sediment chamber and then passes through the filter gauze and the
suction valve into the pumping chamber. On the return
stroke the spring pressure pushes the diaphragm upwards, forcing the fuel from the pumping chamber
through the delivery valve and port to the main fuel filter.
When the main fuel filter is full a pressure is created
in the pump chamber. This pressure will hold the diaphragm downwards against the spring pressure, and it
will remain in this position until the main fuel filter
requires further fuel. The rocker arm operates the connecting link, which allows an idling movement of the
rocker arm when there is no movement of the fuel pump
diaphragm.
A spring keeps the rocker arm in constant contact
with the eccentric, thus eliminating noise.
D.4
Fig. D.l
Section through the fuel lift pump
1.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6..
7.
8.
9.
10.
Filter gauze.
Sealing ring.
Outlet port.
Delivery valve.
Diaphragm.
Diaphragm spring.
Rocker arm spring.
Engine camshaft.
Camshaft eccentric.
Rocker arm.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Pivot pin.
Link.
Priming cam.
Pull-rod.
Hand priming lever.
Pumping chamber.
Sediment chamber.
Inlet valve.
Inlet port.
Section D.3
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
Unscrew the banjo-type union bolts to release the two
fuel pipes from the lift pump. The fuel feed pipe from the
supply tank should be plugged to prevent the loss of fuel.
Remove the two nuts and spring washers which secure
the pump to the crankcase and withdraw the pump
complete with its gasket.
Before replacing the pump, which is a reversal of· the
procedure to remove, lubricate the rocker arm and the
rocker arm pin with clean engine oil.
Renew the gasket between the pump and the cylinder
block, and to facilitate the fitting of the pump crank the
engine to bring the eccentric on the camshaft into the
extreme released position so that its small side will
contact the rocker arm.
After installation bleed the fuel system of air as
described in Section 0.10. Start the engine and check
the pump and its fuel line connections for leaks. After
correcting any leaks the fuel system should be re-bled.
Section D.4
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBUNG
THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
Before dismantling, thoroughly clean the exterior of
the pump and scribe a mark across the upper to IJwer
half body joint flanges for guidance when reassembling.
THE FUEL SYSTEM
Fig. D.2
Diaphragm assembly diagram
I. Pump mounting flange.
2. Initial position of diaphragm locating tab.
3. f'inal position of diaphragm locating tab.
Remove the set bolt and fibre washer securing the
domed cover to the lift pump body; detach the domed
cover and its sealing ring and lift off the filter gauze.
Unscrew the set screws and separate the two halves
of the pump body.
Release the valve retaining plate from the upper half
of the pump body by removing the two securing screws
and lift out the inlet and outlet valves. Carefully remove
the valve gasket.
Lightly press the centre of the diaphragm downwards
to take the weight of the return ~pring; turn the diaphragm assembly clockwise through an angle of 90° to
release the diaphragm pull-rod from the operating link
fork and withdraw the diaphragm assembly and its
return spring.
Remove the retaining clips from the ends of the
rocker arm pin and press the pin out of the body to
release the rocker arm, rocker arm distance washers,
rocker arm spring, and link.
Detach the spring from the priming lever and body
assembly.
Further dismantling of the body is not advisable as
the priming lever is secured to its spindle by riveting.
Before reassembling, thoroughly clean all components
in paraffin and blow clean the cavities in the pump body
with compressed air.
Check the body castings for cracks and, using a
straight-edge. ensure that the diaphragm and engine
mounting flanges are true. If they are found to be distorted they may be lapped to restore their flatness.
Examine the two valve assemblies for signs of wear
and renew them if they are not in perfect condition.
Very little wear should be tolerated on the rocker arm
pin and rocker linkage. Slight wear on the working facc
D
of the rocker arm which engages the camshaft is permissible. but if it exceeds 0010 in. (·254 mm.) the rocker arm
should be renewed.
The diaphragm spring seldom requires renewing, but
should it be necessary, ensure that the new spring bean
the same identif.~tion colour as the original spring.
Reassembly is a reversal of the dismantling procedure,
noting the following.
To install the valves, first place a new gasket in
position and then insert the outlet valve, spring end
foremost, into its port. The inlet valve cannot be installed
incorrectly owing to a restriction in the port.
The rocker arm should be a tap fit in the body, and
if, due to wear, it is freer than this the holes in the body
may be closed by peening to restore the fit.
When installing the diaphragm and pull-rod assembly
ensure that the upper end of the diaphragm return spring
is centred properly in the diaphragm lower protector
washer and place the diaphragm in the pump body with
its locating tab in the 11 o'clock position (see Fig. 0.2).
Press the diaphragm downwards and turn it anti-clockwise through an angle of 90°. to engage the slots in the
pull-rod with the link fork. This will place the pull-rod
in the correct working position and at the same time
align the holes in the diaphragm with those in the pump
body flange.
To assemble the two pump body sub-assemblies. push
the rocker arm towards the pump body until the diaphragm is level with the body joint flange. Place the
upper half of the pump in position, ensuring that the
marks scribed on the joint flanges during dismantling
coincide, and install the body securing screws finger
tight. Press the rocker arm towards tbe pump body to
position the diaphragm at the bottom of its stroke. With
the diaphragm held ID this position tighten the body
securing screws in diagonal sequence.
Section D.S
TESTING THE FUEL LIFT PUMP
Before installing an overhauled pump it should be
tested for performance and air leaks. In the absence af
special test equipment the pump may be tested in the
following simple but effective manner.
Immerse the pump in a bath of clean paraffin and
flush it through by operating the rocker arm six to eight
times. Remove and empty the pump; seal the suction
side of the pump by placing a finger firmly over the inlet
union (marked 'in') and operate the rocker arm several
times. Upon removal of the finger from the inlet union
a distinct sucking noise should be heard, denoting that
the pump has developed a reasonable degree of suction.
In a similar manner, seal the delivery side of the pump
and press the rocker arm inwards to charge the pumping
chamber with air. If the pump is in good condition the
air in the pumping chamber should be held under ('~m­
pression for two or three seconds. Repeat this t~[, but
immediately the pumping chamber is charged with air
D.S
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
nection is not required and is fitted with a sealing plug,
while the second inlet connection allows fuel oil surplus
to the injection pump requirements to return to the dirty
side of the filter. This connection is fitted with a nonreturn valve to ensure that unfiltered fuel cannot find its
way into the injection pump body.
Passages in the filter head connect the filter inlet
connections to the centre tube of the filter clement.
As the upper end of the centre tube is sealed, fuel at
lift pump pressure passes down the centre tube into
the base casting and then upwards through the filter
element to the outlet connection in the filter head.
An auxiliary pipe connects the vent connection on the
top of the tilter head to the injector leak-off pipe, providing continuous air-venting of the fiI: _~r during operation.
The paper element is not intended to be washed or
cleaned in any way and should be renewed at the recommended intervals.
Section D.7
Fig. D.3
Main fuel filter components
1.
2.
3.
S.
Retaining bolt.
Washer.
Head casting.
Sealing washer.
6.
7.
8.
9.
'0' ring.
Element.
Sealing ring.
Base caS!ing.
immerse the pump in a bath of clean paraffin and
inspect the diaphragm clamping flanges for signs of air
leakage.
Finally, flush the pump through with clean fuel oil
to remove all traces of paraffin.
Section D.6
DESCRIPTION OF TIlE MAIN FUEL Fn.TER
The main fuel filter, which is- mounted at the front of
the exhaust manifold, is a C.A.V. bowl-less-type-that is,
the paper element, which is contained in a thin metal
canister, is clamped between the filter head and base
castings.
The filter components are held together by a split
bolt arrangement, comprising a centre stud mounted in
the filter base and a threaded bolt, which passes through
the filter head to screw into the centre stud.
Synthetic rubber rings located in the filter head and
base castings effect a seal between the outer rims of the
element and the :head and base castings. An' '0' ring
located in an annular groove in the centre. boss of the
filter head, and over which thj:: centre tube of the element
fits, seals the dirty side of the filter from. its cle;\D side.
The head casting is provided with two inlet, two
outlet. and a single vent connection. One :c~et·. con..
D.6
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE FUEL FILTER
Thoroughly clean the outside of the filter.
Disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet pipes and the
fuel leak-off pipe from the filter head, taking care not
to lose the sealing washer positioned on each side of the
banjo-type unions.
Unscrew the two bolts alld nuts securing the filter to
the mounting bracket on the exhaust manifold and withdraw the filter from the engine.
When replacing the filter, which is a reversal of the
above procedure, ensure that the washers positioned on
each side of the banjo-type unions are in good condition
and will make fuel-tight joints. Upon completion the fuel
system must be bled to remove all air, as described in
Section 0.10.
Section D.S
DISMANTLING AND REASSEMBLING
THE FUEL FILTER
Unscrew the retaining bolt and sealing washer from
the centre of the head casting and detach the base
casting from the filter.
Remove the filter clement, using a twisting movement
to release the element from the head casting. Withdraw
the three sealing rings from their locations in the head
and bltSe castings.
Unscrew and &:tJ1l0VC! Ute blanking flQg with _'Sher.
and the DOn-nmtt'A,~al'\le:·fr'()IlfJftll bead castiD."
W.ash Cbe.:1Ut~ ~4 ~d:.tN.se castings;, the- blankias
plug, andthenon..r~lIrl\! ftlvefiR IlCtrot and :allow .cbm
to dty. Do not' user oottoowa&k -or .etotb wiperi' ;;e 'Cby
them. :Easure that.llD residuens· left ia the passaPS'ia
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
(1) Slacken the union nut at the filter end of the
injection pump feed pipe. Operate the lift pump.
and when the fuel passing the union is free from
air bubbles tighten the union nut.
(2) Unscrew the blanking plug in the unused outlet
connection on the filter head sufficiently to allow
fuel at lift pump pressure to pass the thread on the
plug. Operate the lift pump, and when the fuel
issuing from around the plug thread is free from
air bubbles tighten the plug.
Fig. D.4
Main ftlel filter air bleed points
the head casting by blowing them clear with compressed
air.
Discard the filter element and sealing rings, which
should be renewed as normal routine procedure.
Check the operation of the non-return valve.
Assemble the sealing plug and washer to (outlet) connection No. 3 and the non-return valve to (inlet) connection No. 4 in the head casting.
Fit new sealing rings to the head casting, ensuring that
they are properly located in their grooves. Assemble a
new element, strengthened rim uppermost, to the head
casting, using a twisting movement to seat it on the seals.
Place the base casting in position, using a new sealing
ring to make the joint between the element and the
casting, and secure the assembly with the retaining bolt
and washer.
(3) Slacken the two air bleed valves on the fuel injection
pump. One bleed valve is located on the governor
housing, while the other is incorporated on one of
the hydraulic head locking screws. Operate the lift
pump, and when the fuel flowing from both bleed
valves is free from air bubbles tighten the valves.
(4) Slacken the union nut at the injector end of any
two high-pressure pipes. Ensure that the stop
control is in the 'run' position, and set the accelerator in the fully open position. Crank the engine
until the fuel flowing from both pipes is free from
air bubbles, then tighten the pipe union nuts.
(S) Start the engine and allow it to run until it is firing
on all cylinders.
After renewing the main fuel filter element, providing
the engine is not cranked during this operation, it is only
necessary to bleed the fuel filter as described in operations (1) and (2) before starting the engine.
WARNING.-Lubrication of tbe injection pump mechaDbim is effected by fuel oil UDder pressure, tberefore no
attempt should be made to bleed tbe fuel system by towing
the vehicle in gear as tbis may result in serious damage to
tbe iDjection pump.
Section D.9
RENEWING THE FUEL FaTER ELEMENT
Thoroughly clean the outside of the filter.
Support the filter base casting and unscrew the retaining bolt with copper seal washer located in the centre of
the filter head casting. Detach the base casting and, using
a twisting movement, separate the element from the head
casting. Remove the three sealing rings from their
locations in the head and base castings.
Wash the base casting in gasoline, and when dry
remove any residue.
Reassemble, using a new element and sealing rings,
fitting the element with its strengthened rim uppermost.
After reassembly bleed the fuel filter and the fuel
injection pump as described in Section 0.10.
Section 0.10
AIR-VENTING (BLEEDING) THE FUEL SYSTEM
The following procedure should be used to air-vent the
fuel system after first ensuring that there is an adequate
supply of fuel in the fuel tank.
Fig. D.S
Fuel injection pump air bleed points. The location of
the air bleed point on the later-type goven.
is
shown inset
p
D.?
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
Fig. D.6
Section through the juel injection pump
I.
2.
3.
4.
End plate aDd regulating valve.
Transfer pump.
Metcring;valve and hydraulic governor.
Back-leakage connection.
S. Drive shaft.
6. Pumping plunger.
7. Pumping and distributing rotor.
S. Hydraulic head.
Section D.II
DFSCRIPrION OF THE FUEL INJECl10N PUMP
The jnjection pump js a single-cylinder, opposedplunger, inlet-metering, distributor-type pump fitted with
a governor and an automatic advance mechanism, both
of which are hydraulically operated.
The pump, the main features of which are shown in
Fig. D.6, is ftange-mounted on the engihe and is driven
by a splined shaft, having a master spline at each end to
ensure correct location.
A central rotating member forms the pumping and
distributor rotor; this is driven by splines from the drive
shaft, and in turn drives a sliding-vane-type transfer
pump, which is mounted on the outer end of the rotor.
The transfer pump raises the fuel pressure to an intermediate level, and as its capacity is many times the
maximum requirements of the injection pump, a regulating valve housed in the pump end plate allows the excess
fuel to be by-passed back to the suction side of the
transfer pump.
The pressure regulating valve, in addition to regulating
D.S
9. Cam ring.
10. Automatic advance device.
I I . Head locating fitting and non-return
valve.
the pressure of the fuel from the transfer pump, also
provides a means of by-passing the transfer pump when
hand-priming the injection pump. Referring to Fig. D.7,
it will be seen that the valve is cylindrical and contains
a small 'free' piston, the travel of which is limited by two
light springs. When priming the injection pump, fuel at
lift pump pressure enters the central port in the regulating
valve sleeve and moves the 'free' piston against the pressure of the piston retaining spring to uncover the priming
port in the lower end of the valve sleeve. The priming
port is connected by a passage in the end plate to the
delivery side of the transfer pump, thus enabling the fuel
to by-pass the stationary transfer pump and prime the
injection pump.
When the injection pump is in operation fuel at transfer
pressure enters the lower end of the valve sleeve, forcing
the 'free' piston upwards against the regulating spring.
As the engine speed increases, the transfer pressure rises,
moving the piston against the pressure of the regulating
spring to progressively uncover the regulating port ::1
the valve sleeve and allow a metered flow of fuel to bypass back to the inlet side of the transfer pump.
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
B
Fig. D.7
Sectioll throllg17 tfle end-plate alld reguhllillg \'ah'e
A.
n.
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Priming.
Regulating.
Jnlet conned inn.
Sleeve retaining spring.
Nylon filter.
Sleeve guide plug.
Regulating spring.
Regulating slee\'e.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Regulating riSk,n.
Piston retaining spring.
Fud passage hl transfer
pump inlet.
Regulating port.
Fuel passag\: to transfer
pump nutlet.
The transfer pressure, therefore, is controlled by a
balance between the regulating spring pressure and the
requirements of the injection pump at any moment.
The pumping and distributing rotor revolves, and is a
close fit, in the stationary hydraulic head. Thc pumping
section of the rotor has a transverse bore containing
twin opposed pumping plungers. These plungers are
operated by means of a cam ring, carried in the pump
housing, through rollers and shoes which slide in the
rotor. The cam ring has four internal lobes operating
in diagonally opposite pairs. The opposed plungers have
no return springs but are moved outwards by fuel under
pressure from the transfer pump, the flow of fuel and
outward displacement of the plungers being determined
by the setting of the metering valve and the speed at
which the pump is rotating. As a result the rollers, which
operate the plungers, do not follow the contour of the
internal cam ring entirely, but will contact the cam lobes
at points which will vary according to the amount of
plunger displacement.
An automatic advance control mechani5lTI is fitted
which operates by rotating the cam ring within the pump
body. A ball-ended lever, screwed into the cam ring. is
operated by a piston sliding in a cylinder. One side of the
piston is spring-loaded, while the other side is subject
to fuel at transfer pressure, which is admitted to the
cylinder through a port and the hollo\\ locating bolt to
progressively move the cam ring into the fully advanced
position. Any tendency for the cam ring to return to
the retarded position, due to the impact of the plunger
rollers on the cam lobes, is prevented by the fuel in the
cylinder being trapped by a non-return ball valve in
the locating holt. When the engine stops the adv"nce
mechanism is allowed to return to the retarded position
under the influence of the piston springs, by normal
leakage of fuel bct\l,een the piston and the cylinder.
Machined on each lobe of the cam ring, immediately
after the peak of the cam. is a retraction curve. Under
running conditions, when thc injection cycle is completed
the distributor port in the rotor and the outlet port in
the hydraulic head are still in partial alignment with
each other. As the plunger rollers move off the peaks of
the cams the retraction curves allow the plungers to
move slightly outwards. This movement of the plungers
effects a sudden reduction of pressure in the injection
line, so preventing secondary injection and allowing the
injedion nozzle needle valve to snap onto its seating to
terminate the spray of fuel into the combustion chamber
without 'dribble'.
The distributor part of the rotor has a central axial
passage which connects the pumping space between the
plungers with the four inlet ports and single distributing
port drilled radially in the rotor. The radial hole at the
outer end of the rotor is the distributing port, and as
the rotor turns, this port is aligned successively with
the outlet ports in the hydraulic head, from which the
injectors are fed via external high-pressure pipes. The inlet
or charging ports are equally spaced around the rotor at
an intermediate position, and as the rotor turns these
are aligned successively with the inlet or metering port
4
5
6
Fig. D.8
Alllomaric Q(h'ance mechanism
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pump housing.
Cam ring.
Pumping and distributing
rotor.
Roller.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Pumping plunger.
Automatic advance piston.
Cam advance screw.
Piston springs.
Automatic advance housing.
D.9
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
Fig. D.9
Enlarged 'View of a cam ring lobe
I.
Cam peak.
2. Retraction curve.
in the hydraulic head. This port admits fuel to the rotor
under control of the metering valve, which is hydraulically governed.
The hydraulic governor is housed in the casting which
carries the pump control and shut-off levers. The control
lever is mounted on a pinion shaft which meshes with a
rack which is free to move on the metering valve stem.
The metering valve slides in a transverse bore in the
hydraulic head, into which bore the diagonally driUed
metering port opens. A damping valve is carried on the
metering valve stem against a shoulder, and the governor
spring is held between the damping valve and the rack.
The damping valve slides in a cylindrical bore in the
pump body which is filled with the fuel and acts as a
dashpot to damp out any violent movement of the
metering valve. A flat machined on the pinion shaft and
an adjustable stop screw mounted on the governor
housing limits the rotation of the pinion shaft to control
the maximum speed of the engine.
Idling speed is controlled by the spring-loaded screw
on the governor housing, which limits the movement of
the rack on the metering valve stem towards the stop
position. At idling speed the upper end of the metering
valve bears against a spring-loaded plunger, incorporated
in the hydraulic governor housing air vent valve, which
damps out any oscillations of the metering valve to
maintain the idling speed.
The governor is operated by fuel at transfer pressure
which is fed from the annular groove surrounding the
pump rotor. The fuel passes through the hollow metering
valve into an annular space around the valve via holes
drilled transversely in the valve.
Endwise movement of the metering valve varies the
area of the metering port in the hydraulic head which
registers with the annulus around the valve, the effective
D.IO
area of the port being that part which is uncovered by
the inner edge of the annulus.·
When the control lever is moved to give increased
speed the metering valve is pushed to the fully open
position by the governor spring. As the engine speed
increases, transfer pressure increases also, and this
pressure will move the metering valve back against the
governor spring pressure, until a balance is reached, to
reduce the effective area of the metering port.
Should the engine speed drop, the consequent reduction in transfer pressure will allow the governor spring
to reassert itself and move the metering valve towards
the fully open position to stabilize the engine speed.
Movement of the control lever towards the idling stop
reduces the compression of the governor spring, and
equilibrium is reached when the force exerted on the
metering valve by the fuel at transfer pressure is balanced
by compression of the governor spring. The governor
spring compression becomes progressively less as the
control lever is moved towards tht idling stop, and this
enables the reduced transfer"pressure, at low speeds, to
operate the metering valve and perform the governing
function throughout the idling range.
Operation of the shut-off lever rotates a spindle, the
inner end of which is machined to form a 'cam'. This
cam engages the under side of the shut-off washer,
secured to the top of the metering valve by a self-locking
nut, and lifts the valve to a position where the metering
port in the hydraulic head is blanked off and so stops the
engine.
In operation fuel at lift pump pressure enters the pump
through the connection on the pump end plate and passes
through a fine nylon gauze filter to the inlet side of the
transfer pump.
From the transfer pump the fuel passes through a
passage in the hydraulic head to an annular groove
Fig. D.1O
Section through the hydraulic go 'Vernor
1. Shut-off lever.
2. Rack.
3. Governor spring.
4. Damping valve.
S.
6.
7.
8.
Metering port.
Metering valve.
Pinion shaft.
Idling stop screw.
D
TIlE FUEL SYSTEM
plungers. The roller shoes, which slide in slots in the
rotor, have specially shaped projecting 'ears' which
engage eccentric slots in the top and bottom adjusting
plates. Two lugs on the top adjusting plate engage slots
in the bottom adjusting plate to locate the plates one to
the other.
The top adjusting plate is clamped to the rotor by
the drive plate, the adjusting plate being cut away in
the areas of the drive plate securing screws to permit
adjustment of the plates by rotation. The maximum outward travel of the pump plungers is limited by the 'ears'
of the roller shoes coming into contact with the curved
slot sides in the adjusting plates. As the slots are eccentric,
rotation of the adjusting plates relative to the rotor
provides a means of adjusting the maximum plunger
stroke.
A
B
Section D.12
Fig. D.ll
The injection cycle
Inlet stroke.
B. Injection stroke.
1. Fuel inlet.
A.
2. Pumping and distributing
rotor.
3. Pumping plungers.
4. Fuel to injector.
surrounding the rotor, and thence to the governor
metering valve. The position of the metering valve
depends upon the setting of the control lever, which
varies the governor spring pressure on the valve. Any
variation in pump speed is accompanied by an increase
or decrease in transfer pressure, which will move the
metering valve to increase or decrease the effective area
of the metering port, and so regulate the flow of fuel at
metering pressure into the pumping section of the rotor.
The volume of fuel passing into the pumping element is
thus controlled by the transfer pressure, the position of
the metering valve, and the time during which an inlet
port in the rotor is aligned with the metering port in the
hydraulic head.
When one of the rotor inlet ports is aligned with the
metering port in the hydraulic head fuel at metering
pressure flows into the rotor and forces the pumping
plungers apart, the amount of plunger displacement
being governed by the quantity of fuel which can flow
into the rotor while the ports are aligned. As the rotor
turns, the inlet port is cut off and the pump plungers
begin to be forced inwards by their rollers bearing on a
pair of cam lobes. This causes an immediate rise in
pressure, and as the single distributor port in the rotor
comes into register with an outlet port in the hydraulic
head the plungers force the fuel up the central bore of
the .rotor and out to the respective injector.
The maximum amount of fuel delivered at one charge
is controlled by limiting the maximum outward movement of the plungers. In Fig. D.12 is shown an end-on
view of the rotor, and it will be seen that the cam rollers
are carried in shoes which bear against the ends of the
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE FUEL INJECDON PUMP
Thoroughly clean the exterior of the fuel injection
pump, unstrap the wiring harness from the high-pressure
pipes, and disconnect the pipes from the injection pump
and the fuel injectors. Withdraw the pipes complete with
clamp and damper bushes, and seal the injection pump
outlet unions and the fuel injector inlet unions with
sealing caps 18G216.
Remove the external oil filter by unscrewing the two
bolts which secure it to the crankcase.
Disconnect the accelerai.or and stop controls from the
levers on the pump and unscrew the two nuts to release
the stop control abutment bracket from the end of the
fuel injection pump.
5
Fig. D.l2
Maximum fuel adjustment
1. Top adjusting plate.
2. RoUer shoe ear.
3. Roller;
4. Pumping end of r·,t')r.
S. Pumping plunger.
D.ll
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
Fig. D.13
Checkillg the position of the injection pump timing
pointer, usillg timing gauge 18G629
Disconnect the fuel feed and return pipes from their
union:;..og the fuel injection pump and plug these unions
to prevent the ingress of foreign matter.
Unscrew the three securing nuts with plain washers
and withdraw the pump from the engine.
When replacing the fuel injection pump on the engine
it is necessary to set the static injection timing so that
the commencement of injection occurs when the pistons
are at 22° B.T.D.C. on their compression strokes.
To ensure correct timing relationship between the
injection pump and the engine the injection pump drive
shaft and the drive coupling on the engine are provided
with master splines; also, a timing mark is scribed on the
mounting flange of the fuel injection pump and a timing
pointer is secured to the injection pump hub in the
crankcase.
Before fitting the injection pump the position of the
timing pointer on the injection pump drive hub should be
checked, and adjusted if necessary, with injection timing
gauge 18G629. Crank the engine in the normal direction
of rotation until the master spline in the injection pump
drive coupling is in the 4 o'clock position;- No. 1. piston
will now be on its compression stroke. Continue to
crank the engine slowly until No. 1 piston is at 2r
B.T.D.C. on its compression stroke, as indicated by the
timing disc or timing mark on the crankshaft pulley, or
on later engines the timing plate (see Fig. A.20). Note
that the timing disc has two sets of graduations, and it is
the set, the zero mark of which is identified 1.4, which is
used for this operation. Check the position of the master
spline in the injection pump drive coupling, which should
DOW be at 5 o'clock (see Fig. A.29).
Insert timing gauge 18G629 into the injection pump
drive hub, engaging the splined end of the gauge with
the internal splines of the drive coupling. The master
spline in the drive coupling will allow the gauge to
engage the coupling in one position only. Turn the gauge
by hand (undue force is not necessary) in a clockwise
D.l2
direction to take up any backlash in the injection pump
drive. Hold the gauge in this position and chrn: n,';: ti,e
timing pointer on the injection pump drive h!lb is in line
with the mark on the edge of the gauge. if n\:U;,i,;~ry.
slacken the two set screws and move the poiM:::' t') Ene
it up with the mark on the gauge. Tighten I.he :;eI SI ~',~W,S
to secure the pointer in the correct position and i ,,:,~(we
the timing gauge.
NOTE.-After every occasion of injcclioll l"M,P removal, or attention to the crankshaft, camshaft, or liming
gear, the position of the timing pointer on th(; injection
pump drive bub should be checked, and adjusttG, if nel:essary, as described abol·e.
Rotate the injection pump drive shaft and pr'<;;t!(,n the
master spline on the drive shaft at 7 o'clock, 'when
looking on the drive end of the pump, with jh~ hydraulic
governor housing uppermost. This will facilitau: the entry
of the drive shaft into the drive coupling on the engine.
Place a new joint washer in position on the pump
mounting studs and offer up the injection pump to the
engine, engaging the pump drive shaft with the drive
coupling on the engine and fitting the lower securing
nut and washer finger tight as the pump i$ pushed onto
the mounting studs. Fit the remaining two securing nuts
and washers finger tight, and then rotate the body of the
injection pump about its axis to line tip the timing mark
on the pump mounting flange with the timing }">ointer.
Tighten the three nuts to secure the injection pump in
this position.
Reassemble the remaining components, reversing the
order of dismantling and ensuring that both the accelerator and the stop control levers on the injection pump have
a full range of muvement when their rcspectt'!c controls
are operated.
Bleed the fuel system, as described ill SecLiGn D. IO,
and start the engine.
Fig. D.14
Align the timing mark on the injection pllmp mOllntil
flange with the timing pointer 011 the drive hllb
TIlE FUEL SYSTEM
Muimum ad idliDg speed adjustments
Before making these adjustments it is imperative that
the air cleaner is correctly serviced and fitted, and the
engine run until it has attained its nonnal running
temperature.
Maximllm speed
(1) Slacken the locknut and unscrew the idling damper,
located 011 the top of the governor housing, two
complete turns. Tighten the locknut to secure the
damper in this position. This will prevent the idling
damper interfering with the operation of the
metering valve during the setting of the maximum
speed.
(2) Using a tachometer to check the engine speed,
adjust the maximum speed stop screw to give an
engine maximum light running speed of 2500
r.p.m. Fit the rubber plug, plug retaining plate, and
set screw (early pumps), or locking sleeve (later
pumps), and seal the screw with wire and lead seal,
using sealing pliers 180 541. Check and adjust the
idling speed.
Idling speed
(1) With the engine stopped, unscrew the idling
damper until it is known to be out of contact with
the metering valve. Tighten the locknut to secure
the damper in this position.
(2) Start the engine and adjust the idling stop screw to
give an engine idling speed of 800 rpm.
(3) Screw in the idling damper until the idling speed is
increased slightly, then unscrew the damper onethird of a turn, and tighten the locknut to secure it
in position.
(4) Run the engine at about 2500 r.p.m. and release
the throttle to test for stalling and slow deceleration.
(a) If the engine stalls, screw in the idling damper
slightly and carry out a further test.
(b) If deceleration is slow, the idling damper
should be unscrewed slightly and a further
test carried out.
(5) Check the operation of the shut-otT control.
NOTE.-After every adjustment of the idliDg damper
always ensure that the engine is not idling directly on the
idling damper.
D
Section D.IS
DFSCRJPTION OF THE FUEL INJECl'ORS
The fuel injectors are of the Pintaux type, developed for
use with the Ricardo Comet V combustion chamber to
assist starting under cold conditions. The Pintaus. nozzle
is a pintle-type nozzle having an auxiliary spny bole
which directs a spray of fuel into the hottest zone of the
combustion chamber.
The nozzle consists of two parts, the nozzle valve and
the nozzle body. The nozzle valve takes the form of a
plunger aceurately lapped into the nozzle body to the
closest possible fit, within which it will work freely.
The inner end of the valve is reduced in diameter to
produce a stem upon which a valve face is formed, the
stem being extended to form a pin or pintle which fits
into a comparatively la.rpodiameter hole in the nozzle
body. The auxiliary spray bole is drilled in the nozzle
body at an angle to the pintle hole, entering the nozzle
seating below the line of contact between tbe valve and
seat. Fuel is fed to the mouth of the nozzle throughvertical drillings in the nozzle body which terminate in
an annular gallery just above the valve seating.
The nozzles are beld in position in the cylinder . , .
by suitably designed holders, a nozzle nut ~ the
D.21
D
THE FUEL SYSTEM
13----------~~~~~
1-_---2
12
1'1------3
4
IO---+~_
,_......
"'=:--- 5
6
9
8----
--------7
_ .793
Fig. D.27
Section through a fuel injector
I. Injector cap nut.
2. Joint washer.
3. Locknut.
4. Joint washer.
S. Nozzle holder.
6. Nozzle nut.
7. Nozzle body.
8. Nozl.le valve.
9. Spindle.
10. Inlet union.
11. Spring.
12. Washer.
13. Spring cap nut.
two components together, the faces of which are lapped
to form a high-pressure seal.
Each holder contains a spindle and spring which serve
to retain the nozzle valve on its seating. The upper end of
the spring is located in an adjustable cap nut, enabling
the pressure at which the valve is forced off its seating to
be regulated. A fuel inlet connection is provided to accept
tile high-pressure piping from the injection pump and
the body of the holder is drilled to allow passage of the
fuel to the gallery in the nozzle body. A leak-off pipe is
connected to the small tapped hole in the top of the cap
nut to return the accumulation of fuel which leaks past
the nozzle valve to the Jow-pressure side of the fuel
system. This slight leakage of fuel also serves to lubricate
the nozzle valve.
In operation, the pressure in the annular gallery in
the nozzle body is built up by the delivery of fuel from
the injection pump. When the pressure in the gallery
reaches injection pressure, determined by the spindle and
spring in the nozzle holder, the valve is raised from its
seating in the nozzle body and fuel is forced through the
pintle and auxiliary holes in the form of a finely atomized
spray. As the pressure in the gallery drops, injection into
the combustion chamber is terminated by the snap
Feturn of the nozzle valve onto its seating.
At engine starting speed, when the injection pressure
is low, the valve is not lifted sufficiently to clear the
pintle hole and the bulk of the fuel is discharged through
the auxiliary hole. At normal running speed the injection
D.22
pressure is higher and the valve is withdrawn from the
pintle hole, allowing the bulk of the 'fuel to be discharged
through it. A small proportion of fuel continues to be
discharged through the auxiliary hole, which does not
affect the engine performance, and prevents the formation
of carbon in the hole.
Section D.16
REMOVING AND REPLACING
THE 'FUEL INJECTORS
Disconnect the high-pressure feed pipes from the
unions on the nozzle holder bodies.
Unscrew the bolts, noting the copper sealing washers
positioned on each side of the banjo-type unions, to
release the fuel leak-off pipe from the injector nozzle
holder cap nuts and the union on the main fuel filter
head.
Unscrew and remove the cap nut from each injector
nozzle holder.
Remove the eight nuts and spring washers securing
the nozzle holders to the cylinder head and withdraw
each injector in turn, using tool 18G491A. Assemble the
tool, using the appropriate centre screw adaptor and
the unthreaded legs. Place the leg locating sleeves over
the nozzle holder studs and position the tool with the
legs in the sleeves. Screw the centre screw adaptor onto
the spring cap nut. Insert the tommy-bar into the small
hole in the adaptor, ensuring that its free end bears
against one of the legs to prevent the adaptor turning,
and tighten the centre screw nut to withdraw the injector
nozzle assembly.
If the injectors are to be removed for any considerable
length of time, seal off the f -,d t'~ed unions, using sealing
caps 18G216, and then wr:\t' each injector assembly in
grease proof paper.
Fig. D.28
Withdrawing an injector nozzle, using Service ,-.,,,/
18G491A
THE FUEL SYSTEM
D
Fig. D.29
Section through the cylinder head, showing an injector
nozzle heat shield and atomizer seal washer
Remove the atomizer seal washers from inside the
injector nozzle heat shields and the nozzle holder sealing
washers from the cylinder head. If necessary, withdraw
the injector nozzle heat shields and sealing washers
from the injector bores in the cylinder head. Should
difficulty be experienced in removing the heat shields, it
may be found necessary to remove the cylinder head and
withdraw the combustion chamber inserts, as detailed in
Section A.IS, when the heat shields can be driven out
from the inside of the combustion chambers.
Plug the injector bores in the cylinder head to prevent
the ingress of foreign matter into the combustion chambers and cylinders.
When replacing, thoroughly clean the injector bores
in the cylinder head and ensure that the copper sealing
washers are in good condition and will make a gas-tight
joint. Renew the atomizer seal washers, fitting them
with their two edges pointing downwards as shown in
Fig. D.29.
Place the injector assemblies in position and tighten
the securing nuts evenly to the figure given in the
'GENERAL DATA' section, using torque wrench
18G537.
Reconnect the high-pressure feed pipes to the unions
on the nozzle holder bodies and refit the fuel leak-oft'
pipe, ensuring that the copper sealing washers are
positioned on each side of the banjo-type unions.
D.23
Q.l
OTHER OVERHAUL
CONTENTS
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SySTEM.............
SECTION
PAGE
Q
Activation by Keyswitch (1980 onwards) ................... Q.2
Activation by Fuel Pressure .............................. Q.4
Activation by Lube Oil Pressure .......................... Q.6
COOL! NG SYSTEM (EXTERNAL)...................
R
TRANSMISSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
S
Type SAO Manual.......................................... S. 9
SAl and SAO Clutch Adjustments ........................... S.21
SAl and SAO Reduction Units .............................. S.23
Paragon P-21 Series, Hydraulic ........................... S.29
Warner Hydraulic ......................................... S.35
Short Profile Sailing Gear ............................... S.41
Q.2
SECTION Q
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ACTIVATION BY KEY SWITCH
This system is supplied on most Westerbeke engi nes begi nni ng r~ay. 1980. Essentially activation of the circuit is
accomplished by the ignition position of
the key switch. No oil pressure switch
is required. The engine is preheated
by depressing the preheat push button.
The engine is cranked by turning the
key switch to the right-most momentary
position.
Voltage is maintained to the instruments,
fuel solenoid or fuel lift pump if supplied, and to other electrical devices via
the ignition position of the key switch.
Models which have a fuel solenoid or electric fuel pump may be turned off via the
key switch. Models with mechanical fuel
lift pumps or no fuel solenoid are stopped
by pulling a stop cable.
The circuit is protected by a circuit
breaker located near the starter. Any
time excessive current flows, the circuit
breaker will trip. This is a manually
resettable breaker, and must be reset
before the engine will operate electrically
again.
CAUTION - the builder/owner must ensure
that the instrument panel, wiring and
engine are installed so that electrical
devices cannot come in contact with seawater.
The latest information regarding your
engine1s electrical system is included
on the wiring diagram shipped with the
engine. Be sure to study this wiring
diagram and all the notes thereon.
Q.3
SECTION Q
ACTIVATION BY KEYSWITCH
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM.
IZYDC BofCI'TlEtlf
~T.MTP
"
®
TEO~
••
WIRING DIAGRAM.
NOT USED
®"U NOTE- 8
W.T.SENDER
wA1'e;R TEMPT.
~rTCH
@
@
ALTERNATOR
@SWITCIt
~
B 0
ON
ON
01 L ~ESSU"e
BL"
~
i '¥----I:;j;f il
'li
I
@
....
.,L'
~OPTIONAL
\..zJ
-
ALARM
@
f'UEL SOL. (w~a ONLY)
~~;~W~::;Z~~~:l)@
L.- __
@
@saNOu-a
O.P.SENOER
i
PRE-HEAT SOL.
=
PRE-HEATER
BLO
ON
!tEE NOTE-A
NOT USED
ON
~~l-l-IoII.IIIlIi....,r_+
•
0
Q.4
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEN
ACTIVATION BY FUEL PRESSURE
(Push Button Start)
This system is supplied on all four and
six cylinder Westerbeke engines beginning
January 1975. Basically, the system is
very simple and eliminates the need for a
separate switch position to activate the
engine alarm system, when supplied.
Starting is.accomp1ished by operation
of the start push button which causes the
starting motor to crank.
Once the engine is running, fuel pressure developed in the low pressure side of
the fuel injection pump operates a fuel
pressure switch. Voltage is then applied
to the alarm system (if supplied) and to
the alternator for excitation and for all
instruments.
When the engine is stopped, fuel pressure drops and the fuel pressure switch
removes voltage from these devices.
When an engine is supplied with a preheating device, the device is energized by
a separate push button.
NOTE: It is important that your engine
installation includes fuses or circuit
breakers, as described under "Ownership
Responsibility" on the wiring diagram
supplied with your engine.
Q.5
ACTIVATION BY FUEL PRESSURE
(PUSH BUTTON STARn
r----------------·---j
IN~T'AIJ"'t"'T
PANEL. AS5EM&LY
'fIIl.1It VIC_'
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HEATERS
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Drawing No. 19201
Q.6
Marine Engine Electrical System
ACTIVATION BY LUBE OIL PRESSURE
(Keyswitch Start)
This system is supplied on all 4 and 6
cylinder Westerbeke diesels produced prior
to January 1975. Operation is ve"ry simple.
Putting the start switch in the Run position energizes an alarm system (when supplied). Returning the start switch to Off
position de-energizes the alarm.
Turning the start switch to Crank position operates the starting motor and starts
the engine. Upon starting, the start
switch is released to the Run position.
When the engine develops oil pressure,
voltage is supplied to the alternator for
excitation and to all instruments. Whenever the engine stops, loss of oil pressure removes voltage from these devices.
When an engine is furnished with a preheating device, it is energized by a separate push button at the key switch panel.
When an engine is furnished with an
electric stop solenoid, it is energized by
a separate push button at the key switch
panel.
NOTE: It is important that your engine installation includes fuses or circuit
breakers, as described under "Owner's Responsibility" on the wiring diagram supplied
with your engine.
Q.7
ACTIVATION BY LUBE OIL PRESSURE
(KEYSWITCH START)
___
~
'------1---
@
. --f,=I-'=-i=~=-====::_-=:t===~/~AI'EL C. . B~E
--r- -.. -- .-
-r====~=~--'''''-------------,
'.
,
-- -- --
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:: P SENDER
@
FOUR-50
FOUR -91
e
FOUR-154
FOUR-230 & SIX-346
1---1----------1
r--.-----------~
I
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~--------------~
Drawing No. 15245
Q.8
YOUR NOTES
SECTION R
COOLING SYSTEM (EXTERNAL)
1. DESCRIPTION:
Wes~erbeke.marine diesel engines are
equlpped wlth fresh water cooling.
Transfer of heat from engine fresh
water to sea water is accomo1ished
in a heat exchanger, similar in function to an automotive radiator. Sea
water flows through the tubes of the
heat exchanger while fresh water
flows around the tubes. The sea
water and fresh water never mix
with the result that the cooling
water passages in the engine stay
clean.
2.
FRESH WATER CIRCUIT:
Heat rejected during combustion, as
as heat developed by friction,
lS absorbed by the fresh water whose
flow is created by a fresh water circulating pump. The fresh water flows
from the engine through a fresh water
cooled exhaust manifold, a heat exchanger, in most cases an oil cooler
and returns to the suction side of '
the fresh water circulating pump.
The flow is not necessarily in this
order in every model. When starting
a cold engine, most of the external
flow to the heat exchanger is prevented by the closed thermostat.
Some amount of by-pass is maintained
to ~revent overheating in the exhaust
manlfold. As the engine warms up the
thermostat begins to open up a11~wing
full flow of engine fresh water thru
the external cooling system.
~ell
3.
SEA WATER CIRCUIT:
The.s~a wa~er flow is created by a
posltlVe dlsp1acement neoprene inpe11e-pump (gear pump in certain special
cases). Normally the pump draws sea
water directly from the ocean via the
sea cock and sea water strainer. Sometimes a transmission oil cooler, or
pehaps a V drive will be piped on the
suction side of the sea water pump.
Gen~rally it is better to have as few
devlces on the suction side of the sea
wa~e~ pum~ a~ possible to preclude
prlmlng dlfflculties. Usually sea
water flows directly from the dis-
charge of the sea water pump to the
heat exchanger sea water inlet. After
passing through the tubes of the heat
exchanger, the sea water may enter a
transmission oil cooler if present
and if sea water cooled. Ultimately,
the sea water enters a water injected,
wet exhaust system, the most popular
type of exhaust system in use. In
the case of larger engines the sea
~ater flow is divided prior to enterlng the exhaust systems so that a
portion is dumped directly overboard
and a portion is used to cool the
exhaust system. Full sea water flow
entering the exhaust system would
create unnecessary exhaust back
pressure.
4.
SEA WATER PUMP:
pump is self priming and
dlsplacement. It is a rotary
pump wlth a nonferrous housing and a
neoprene impeller. The impeller has
flexible vanes which wipe against a
curv~d cam plate within the impeller
houslng, producing the pumping action.
On no account should this pump be run
dry. There should always be a spare
impeller and impeller cover gasket
aboard.
The.s~a wa~er
posltl~e
5. SEA WATER PUMP IMPELLER REPLACEMENT:
The following instructions are general
and indicative only. Specific instructions where applicable may be packaged
with your replacement impeller.
a. Remove the front cover taking care
to salvage the gasket.
b. Remove the impeller by pulling
straight outwards, parallel to
the pump shaft. This is best
done with a pair of pliers applied to the impeller hub.
c. Coat the replacement impeller
and the chamber into which it
mounts with grease.
d. Carefully align the impeller key
way, or other locking mechanism,
R.2
with the shaft. Take care that
all the impeller blades bend in
the same direction and trailing.
6.
e.
Inspect the front cover for wear.
A worn front cover should ultimately be replaced. Sometimes
it can be reversed as an emergency measure, but not when
stamped markings would break the
seal between the cover and the
impeller bl ades.
f.
Reinstall the end cover with a
new gasket.
g.
Be doubly sure to check quickly
for sea water flow when starting
the engine. The absence of flow
indicates that the pump may not
be priming itself properly.
This situation must be investigated immediately or damage to
the new impeller will result
from overheating.
ENGINE FRESH WATER:
It is preferable to fill your engine
with a 50% antifreeze-water mixture.
This precludes the necessity of draining coolant in the winter. Since most
antifreezes contain preservative agents
of one kind or another, rusting within
the engine is minimized. Also the antifreeze mixture boils at a higher temperature than water, giving cooling
system "head room.
When draining the engine, open the
pressure cap first to relieve the
vacuum created by draining.
II
7.
FILLING THE FRESH WATER SYSTEM:
It is very important to completely fill
the fresh water system before starting
the engine. It is normal for air to
become trapped in various passages so
all high points must be opened to atmosphere to bleed entrapped air. When an
engine is started after filling with
coolant, the system may look deceptively
full until the thermostat opens. At this
time when water flows through the exteral cooling circuit for the first time,
pockets of air can be exposed and rise
to the fill point. Be sure to add coolant at this time.
8.
THERMOSTAT:
Generally thermostats are of two types.
One is simply a choking device which
opens and closes as the engine temperature rises and falls. The second type
has a by-pass mechanism. Usually this
is a disc on the bottom of the thermostat which moves downward to close off
an internal by-pass passage within the
head. Both types of thermostats, from
1980 onwards, have two 3/16" diameter
holes punched through them to serve as
a by-pass while the engine is warming
up. This prevents overheating in the
exhaust manifold during engine warm-up.
These two holes total approximately
0.06 square inches of area and replacement thermostats must be equal in this
design characteristic.
When replacing a thermostat, be sure
that it is rotated so as to not
strike the thermostat housing, projections inside the head, temperature
senders or temperature switches
which may be installed close to the
thermostat.
A thermostat can be checked for proper operation by placing it in a pan
of cold water and then raising the
temperature of the water to a boil.
The thermostat should open noticeably (with travel on the order of
1/4" - 1/2") and be fully opened when
the water is boiling.
9.
ENGINE LUBE OIL COOLER:
Lubricating oil carries heat away from
the engine bearings and other friction
surfaces. The oil circulates from the
lube oil pump, through the engine,
through the engine oil cooler, and back
to the oil pump.
The oil cooler may be cooled either by
engine fresh water or by sea water.
10.
T~~NSMISSION
OIL COOLER:
Certain transmissions require oil cooling. In these cases, the transmission
oil cooler is usually cooled by sea
water.
Normally sea water enters this cooler
after exiting the heat exchanger, but
not always.
R.3
TWO PASS MANIFOLD
Note:
Drawing is indicative only. Specific models may vary in detail.
- - - TO EXHAUST
.5 'r"S TE Iv!
SEA WArEk"
PUMP
R.4
SINGLE PASS MANIFOLD
Note:
Drawing is indicative only.
Specific models may vary in detail.
EXHAUST
MANIFOLD
SURGE
TANK
_..
, )-<J-- Q
~~--~h
RAW
WATER
PUMP
0
OIL
..... FILTER
I
-+-~~
-~-
I
FROM
C
<P SEA
COCK
OIL
COOLER
~.-....
FROM SEA
COCK
•
•
RAW WATER
FRESH WATER
..... - - . - ENGINE OIL
I' - '------ IUSED ON HYD~
HYDRAULIC~/':n"~ Cl RAULIC, GEAR
QU. COOLER
'If
ONLY
>
>
SECTION S
TRANSMISSIONS
S.B
YOUR NOTES
S.9
TYPE SAO MANUAL
DESCRIPTION
The Westerbeke Paragon manually operated reverse gear units consist of a
multiple disc clutch and a planetary reverse gear train. The units are self contained and are independent of the engine lubrication system.
OPERATION
On the forward drive, the reverse gear case and multiple disc clutch are locked
together as a solid coupling. The multiple disc clutch is locked or clamped by the
pressure produced when the shift lever is moved to the forward position. Thus the
propeller shaft turns in the same direction as the engine.
The reverse drive is obtained by clamping the reverse band around the reverse
gear case which contains the planetary reverse gear train. The reverse band is
clamped when the shift lever is moved and held in the reverse position. The
reverse motion is then obtained by driving through the gears thus turning the propeller shaft opposite to the engine rotation.
With the shift lever in the neutral position the multiple disc clutch and the reverse
band are unclamped and the planet gears run idle and the propeller shaft remains
stationary.
It is desirable to start the engine with the transmission in neutral, thus avoiding
moving the boat in either direction.
It is recommended that the shifting be done at speeds below 1000 RPM and preferably in the 800 RPM range or lower to prolong the life of the engine. transmission
and of the boat.
TROUBLE SHOOTING
The trouble shooting charts below and on the next page should be studied and the
suggestions carried out prior to any disassembly to determine as well as possible
what the trouble may be. Also, the exploded views and the accompanying discussions should be carefully read and understood so that any or all of the service work
as indi.cated from the trouble shooting charts may be carried out properly.
DISASSEMBLY
As in any servicing operation, cleanliness is a . . must and all rules for good workmanship apply. Some of these rules are as follows:
1. Use only clean fluid in any cleaning or washing of parts.
2. Use only clean oil for lubrication when pressing parts together.
3. Never use a hammer to drive ball bearings in place.
4. Never press a ball bearing so that the force is carried through the balls.
5. Use only properly sized wrenches in removing or securing nuts and capscrews.
6. Replace gaskets and "0" rings with new material.
7. Work on a clean bench and protect gear teeth and oil seal surfaces from
nicks and scratches.
NOTE: Remove the reverse and reduction gear as a complete unit before removing the
oil to avoid fouling the bilges.
TROUBLE SHOOTING CHARTS
Ch art
1
GEAR DRAGGING
DRIVE SHAFT ROTATES EITHER FORWARD OR REVERSE
WITH SHIFT LEVER IN NEUTRAL
l
1
1. DEFECTIVE FORWARD CLUTCH PLATES
I
I
Check For
I
I
I
3. BINDING IN PLANETARY ASSEMBLY
T
4. OVER ADJUSTMENT ON
FORwARD AND REVERSE
I 2. REVERSE BAND ENGAGING GEAR CASE I
----------------------------REMEDy----------------------------\. Forll.ard clutch r1ate 9.'arred and
Remove and rerlace clutch rlates.
~ear hearin,:s lI.·orn excessively.
misali,l!nment of en~ine shaft. Re·
rlace necessary rarts. Check misaJi~nment
of en~ine ,l!ear.
b. I':n,:ine
stickin~.
causin~
2. Imrruper reveue hand adjustment. Adjust
reverse band as outlined under adjustment .
.~. Check the
fol109.'in~
items:
4. Over·adjustment of t-ither forward and reverse
or hoth v.ill result in loss of neutral. Check
and readjust as outlined under adjustment.
a. /learin,l!s and ,l!ears worn excessively in ,l!ear
case. Repl'lce necessary rarts.
Chart 2
GEAR SLIPPING OR
SLOW TO ENGAGE
WITH SHIFT LEVER IN FORWARD OR REVERSE
I
I
I
I
1. wORN CLUTCH PLATES
1
2. FORWARD CLUTCH NOT ENGAGING
Check For
I
I
I
3. WORN REVERSE BAND
J
I
4. REVERSE BAND NOT ENGAGING
I
I
I
------------------------------REMEDy----------------------------I. Hemove forward clutch pldtes and check (or
\\l'iIr. I{erlace if lI.orn excessively.
.\. Rern(lVe reverse hand and check for wedr. He·
place Iinin~ if \lorn helo9.' rivets.
2. Improper forward clutch adjustment. Adjust dS
outl ined under ad justment.
.'1. Imrroper reverse band adjustment. Adjust as
outl ine.! under ad ju stment.
S.l1
TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART
Chart
a
GEAR INOPERATIVE
DRIVE SHAFT roES to()T ROtATE WITH
SHIFT LEVER IN FORWARD OR REVERSE
I
r
I
1. FAILURE OF PLANETARY ASSEMBLY
I
2. FAILURE OF REDUCTION GEAR
I
3•. FORWARD CLUTCH NOT ENGAGING
I
I
I
Chord. For
I
I
I
4. REVERSE BAND NOT
ENGAGING GEAR CASE
1
I
S. BROKEN OUTPUT SHAFT
J
REMEDY - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1. Hemo\'e r.e"ar c,,~e a!O~emhly and check for
defective or damn~l'd parcs. Replace clefective
or ,Iamu,:ed parts.
2. Rl'm""e reduction J!l'ar assemhly and check for
defective or dama~ed parts. Replace defective
or dClmal(ed parts. Refer to reduction lCear
service manual.
.~.
Ched: the
OI.
followin~
items:
I"!proper fU"'iut! clutc.·h iutjustment. :\djust
clutch as Iludincd undt'r adjustment.
(Url~ Oint
b. }-orward clutch plateli lI.orn. Heplace clutch
plate.4. Ched: the
followin~
items:
a. Improper reverse hand adjustmem~ ...\d;u~t
reverse band as outlined under a<ljll .. trll('l1t.
h.
I~everse
hand linin,lt worn. Hl'l'lac.·e linin,!!.
c. Cracked eal's or bent or cl;lma,l!ct! Iinka,ltt"
parts. l{eplaC"e defectivc material.
. S. Ched.: for broken output shaft. Hepl,ll'(' e1('.
fccti\"c shaft.
NOTE: Disassembly need be carried out only as far as is necessary to correc.t
those difficulties which interfere with prop~r marine gear operation.
REMOVAL OF REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLY FROM REVERSE GEAR
HOUSING IF lljSTALLED
NOTE: Remove the reverse gear, with reduction gear attached as a complete unit
before draining Oil, to avoid fouling the bilges.
1. Remove starter motor
2. Disconnect propeller half coupling and slide back approximately 4 inches.
3. Remove capscrews securing reverse gear to be11housing.
4. Strike gear half coupling flange with soft mallet to break reverse gear from
bellhousing. Slide entire reverse and reduction gear streight back approximately 3 inches until reverse gear clears bel1housing and lift units clear of
engine.
(Refer to "Reduction Gear" section of manual for disassembly and assembly of
reduction unit.)
S.12
1
I
42
76
44
48
SAO MANUAL
TRANSMISSION
85
80
72
71
5.13
.
94
.7
./
SAO MANUAL
TRANSMISSION
2S
2S
5.14
REMOVAL OF REVERSE GEAR HOUSING ASSEMBLY FROM ENGINE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove capscrews and lockwashers that secure reverse gear housing (3)
to front end plate (5).
Slide entire reverse gear housing (3) straight back approximately 3 inches
until housing is clear of front plate engine gear (1) and lift reverse gear
housing assembly clear of front plate (5).
Remove pilot roller bearing (60) from front plate engine gear (1) if it
remains on gear.
If necessary to replace front end plate (5). oil seal (22). or bearing (37)
proceed as follows:
a. Remove capscrews and lockwashers securing front end plate (5) to
engine flywheel housing.
b. Slide front end plate (5) straight back approximately two inches until
front plate engine gear (1) is clear of flywheel housing. and lift clear
of engine.
c. Remove retaining ring (36). bearing (37). retaining ring (35) and oil
seal (22).
d. Replace new oil seal and bearing if required.
REMOVAL OF GEAR CASE ASSEMBLY FROM REVERSE GEAR HOUSING
REDUCTION MODEL
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove four capscrews. cover seals (33). cover (10). and gasket (4)
from reverse gear housing (3).
Through cover opening in reverse gear housing (3). rem0ve nut (70). lockwasher and screw. securing adjustment nut lockspring (68) to ear of brake
band assembly (62). Remove lock spring.
Remove adjustment nut (66) from reverse cam (65). Remove reverse
cam (65) from eye in yoke (34) and slide out reverse cam (65) from
reverse cam slide assembly (63).
Remove cross shaft (13) from reverse gear housing (3) as follows:
a.
b.
c.
Loosen the two capscrews securing the yoke (34) to the cross
shaft (13).
With small end of housing toward mechanic. slide cross shaft (13)
from left to right being careful cross shaft doesn't come in contact
with operating sleeve bearing (50). or Woodruff key (26) in cross
shaft under yoke arm (34) isn't forced against cross shaft oil seal (20)
in right side of housing. Remove the two Woodruff keys from cross
shaft.
Slide cross shaft out of housing and remove brace (67) and lift yoke
(34) from operating sleeve (50).
5.
On dipstick side of housing remove roll pin (24) securing brake band locking pin (12) that secures brake band to housing. Remove locking pin and
inspect "0" ring (23) and replace if damaged.
6. Slide brake band (62) from gear case assembly (41) and remove band from
front of housing.
7. Remove cotter pin and nut (18-2) from reverse gear tailshaft (2-2).
8. Support reverse gear housing (3) with front end down so that gear case (41)
may drop free approximately two inches.
9. Press on reverse gear tails haft (2 - 2) until tailshaft is free of reduction
drive gear (87).
10. Lift reverse gear housing (3) straight up until housing clears tailshaft
(2- 2).
S.IS
11. Remove caps crews and lockwashers that secure reduction adapter plate
(85) to reverse gear housing (3).
a. Remove reduction adapter plate with attached bearing (88) and reduction drive gear (87).
b. Press bearing with drive gear from adapter plate.
c. Press bearing from drive gear.
DIRECT DRIVE UNIT (perform procedl.res 1 through 6 above)
12. Bend tang of lockwasher (19) away from locknut (18-1) and remove nut
from reverse gear tailshaft (2-1). by holding gear half coupling (14) with
spanner wrench. Remove lockwasher.
13. Support revers·e gear housing (3) face down so that gear case may drop
free approximately 2 inches.
14. Press on reverse gear tailshaft (2-1) until tailshaft is free of gear half
coupling (14). Lift reverse gear housing (3) straight up from gear case
assembly (41) until housing clears tailshaft (2-1).
15. Remove caps crews and lockwashers that secure direct drive plate (15) to
reverse gear housing (3).
a. Remove direct drive plate (15) with attached bearing (25) and gear
half coupling (14) from reverse gear housing (3).
b. Press gear half coupling from bearing.
c. Press bearing from drive plate.
d. If necessary to replace, remove oil seal (21) from direct drive plate.
DISASSEMBLY OF GEAR CASE
1. Remove thrust washer (16-2) and retainer ring (6) from end of reverse
gear tailshaft on reduction units. and Woodruff key (27). seal washer (6)
and thrust washer (16-1) from end of tails haft on direct drive units.
2. Remove lockscrew (55) and lockwasher from screw collar (53) and remove
screw collar from gear case by unscrewing.
Lift operating sleeve
assembly (50) from tailshaft when removing screw collar.
3. Lift pressure plate (49) and clutch plates (48) and (54) from end of gear
case.
4. Properly support gear case on clutch plate carrier and press tailshaft
(2-1) or (2-2) from propeller gear (43) and clutch plate carrier. Lift
clutch plate carrier from gear case.
5. Remove case ball bearing retaining ring (59) from groove in gear case.
6. Remove capscrews (14) and lockwashers (13) and case bushing (23) from
gear case.
7. Before removal of the short or lon~ pinions is attempted. first inspect the
gear teeth for indication of wear. Also, rotate each pinion to check for
rough spots during rotation. If further i~spection or replacement is
necessary. proceed with the disassembly. However. do not disassemble
unless required.
8. Drive pinion shaft (20) of one of the short pinions (22) from threaded end
of gear case approximately 1/2 inch. Push pinion shaft on through with a
dummy shaft.
9. Push dummy shaft until centerec in short pinion (46) and short pinion
spacer (56). Remove pinion shaft (42) from front end of gear case.
10. Remove remaining short pinions (46) from gear case.
11. Press propeller gear (43) from the case ball bearing (58).
12. Remove long pinions (44) using dummy shaft as in removing short pinions.
NOTE:
Bushings are pressed into the long and short pinions.
5.16
INSPECTION
All parts should be thoroughly cleaned before inspection. Parts showing excessive
wear should be replaced.
1. Ball and roller bearings should be examined for indication of corrosion
and pitting on balls or rollers and races.
2. Long and short pinion bushings should be examined for wear.
3. Pinion shafts should be examined for wear or "brinelling".
4. Long and short pinion spacers should be examined for wear.
5. Long and short pinion bore diameters should be examined for wear.
6. All gear teeth should be examined for "pitch line pitting", unever wear
pattern or excessive wear.
7. All shafts should be examined for wear on splines and shoulders.
8. Clutch plates should be examined for flatness, roughness, indicating of
excessive heating and wear or peening of driving lugs.
9. Clutch plate carrier should be examined for wear and peening of lugs and
splines.
10. Examine all oil seals for rough or charred lips.
11. Reverse band links, pins, etc. should be examined for wear or bending.
12. Reverse band lining should be examined for wear.
NOTE:
Lining should be replaced before rivets come in contact with gear case.
13. Gear case should be examined for wear from reverse band linking, short
or long pinions wearing into inside faces or wear in clutch plate slots on
threaded end.
14. Screw collar and finger assembly should be examined for wear.
15. Pressure plate should be examined for wear.
16. All old gaskets should be replaced.
17. Operating sleeve assembly should be examined for wear.
18. Engine gear should be examined for wear on oil seal surfaces, case roller
bearing race, pilot bearing race and gear teeth for "pitch line pitting",
uneven wear or excessive wear.
NOTE: When uneven gear teeth wear has been noticed, check engine gear for
eccentricity. Maximum eccentricity at pilot bearing race is .005 inches.
19. Where special vibration dampers are used as flexible couplings, check
springs and splines for wear.
ASSEMBL Y OF GEAR CASE
1. If pinion gears (45) and (46) bushings (21), and plnlOn shafts (42) were
removed from gear case (41), assembled as follows:
a.
NOTE:
Insert dummy shaft into long pinion (44).
Use same dummy shaft as used in disassembly.
b.
Insert four bushings (21) equally spaced around dummy shaft to center
shaft in gear; then assemble remaining bushings.
NOTE: Smear dummy shaft with cup grease to prevent bushings from dropping
out. Install bushing spacer (56) in gear next to first row of bushings.
c.
Lay gear case (41) on side and insert long pinion (44) in case to align
with hole in outer row.
S.l7
d.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Insert pmIOn shaft (42) plain end first. into unthreaded end of gear
case and push through pinion as far as rear wall of gear case, forcing
out the dummy shaft.
e. Remove dummy shaft. and start pinion shaft into rear wall of case.
Do not drive pinion shaft all the way into gear case until all shafts
are inserted.
f.
Assemble remaining long pinions in gear case.
g. Using dummy shaft, insert short bushings (47) into short pinion (46)
in same manner covered in paragraphs a and b above. With short
pinion, use pinion spacer (56).
h. Insert short pinion (46) into gear case, pinion toward front of case.
to line up with hole in inner row and insert pinion shaft (20) as
described in d above.
i.
Assemble remaining short pinions in gear case.
Assemble case bushing (23) to gear case with edges of race in line with
flats on pinion shafts. Replace lockwashers (13) and capscrews (14).
Insert propeller gear (24) through rear of gear case in mesh with long
pinions.
Press case ball bearing (58) into gear case and onto propeller gear by
supporting entire assembly on propeller gear inside front end of gear
case. Make certain that case ball bearing is seated properly on propeller
gear and into gear case. Install case ball bearing retaining ring (59) in
groove in gear case next to case ball bearing.
Press clutch plate carrier (27) onto reverse gear tailshaft (2-1) or (2-2).
Align splines on reverse gear tailshaft and press tails haft through propeller gear until propeller gear is seated against the clutch plate carrier
already on tailshaft. Support the entire assembly on propeller gear inside
front end of gear case during pressing operation.
Place Woodruff key (61) on end of tailshaft inside propeller gear.
Install clutch plates in clutch plate cavity in rear of gear case starting
first with bronze clutch plate (54) and alternating ·"eel plate (34) and
bronze clutch plate.
Install pressure plate (49) on top of last bronze clutch plate in clutch
plate cavity.
NOTE: Make certain that all plates ride freely and that no binding is apparent
during assembly.
10. Assemble finger assembly (52) ~o screw collar (53) using finger pins (51)
and securing with cotter pins.
11. Thread screw collar (53) onto gear case assembly (41) approximately half
of the thread length.
12. Place operating sleeve assembly (50) onto tailshaft. Position ball ends of
finger assembly over sleeve assembly.
13. Continue screwing screw collar onto gear case (41) until finger assembly
will snap over center and lock into position against the shoulder of the
pressure plate (49).
14. Push operating sleeve assembly (50) forward until finger assemblies are
free.
15. Place lockwasher over end of locks crew (55) and thread lockscrew into
one hole near edge of screw collar (53). Rotate screw collar until dog on
end of lockscrew lines up with closest hole in pressure plate.
16. On reduction tailshafts, install retaining ring on reverse gear tailshaft
making certain that retaining ring is seated properly in groove in reverse
gear tailshaft.
S.18
CAUTION: The forward clutch is not properly adjusted at the end of this assembly.
Proper adjustment is made after installation in boat is complete. Follow instructions as outlined under section on adjustments.
ASSEMBL Y OF REVERSE GEAR CASE IN REVERSE GEAR HOUSING
REDUCTION MODEL
1. Place new gaskets (8). (7). and (4) on front, rear, and top of reverse
gear housing (3).
2. If removed for replacement, install new oil seals (20) in cross shaft holes
in housing.
3. Support gear case assembly (41) on propeller gear (43) inside front end of
gear case so that reverse gear housing (3) will not rest on face when
lowered over gear case assembly.
4. Lower reverse gear housing (3) over gear case assembly with reverse
gear tailshaft (2-2) protruding through bore in rear of housing.
5. Place thrust washer (16-2) with c.ounter-bored side down over reverse
gear tails haft (2- 2). (Make certain that thrust washer seats properly on
shoulder of retaining ring (6) on tailshaft (2-2.)
6. Press reduction drive gear (87) into ball bearing (88).
7. Plc.ce new gasket (8) on reverse gear housing (3) and press reduction
drive gear (87) and ball bearing (88) on reverse gear tailshaft (2-2) until
ball bearing is seated against thrust washer (16-2). Thread on reverse
gear tailshaft nut (18 - 2).
8. Press reduction gear adapter plate (85) over ball bearing and secure with
necessary bolts.
9. Install reduction gear crescent (74).
.
10. Tighten all capscrews. Tighten reverse gear tailshaft nut (18·-2) until
cotter pin can be installed through castellation in nut and hole in reverse
gear tailshaft.
11. Install cotter pin and bedn ends over nut.
12. Place new gasket (72) on reduction adapter plate (85).
13. Install brake band assembly (62) onto gear case assembly (41) in reverse
gear housing.
14. With reduction adapter plate (85) facing mechanic, insert yoke (34) through
cover opening in housing placing forked arms of yoke over pins of operating sleeve assembly (50). Ensure part number of yoke is facing
mechanic.
15. Align and hold hole in brace (67) on inside right hole in yoke and push
cross shaft through yoke and Lrace to left side of housing.
16. Pull cross shaft out from rig~t side o~ housing approximately one inch and
insert Woodruff key in cross shaft to the right of each yoke hole to position yoke to cross shaft.
17. Secure yoke to cross shaft by tightening the two cap screws in yoke.
18. SUde reverse cam (65) through reverse cam slide assembly (63) and in
hole in arm of yoke (34).
19. Position pin in brake band (62) in hole in brace (67).
20. Replace and tighten adjustment nut (66) to reverse cam slide assembly
(63).
21. Secure lock spring (68) over adjustment nut (66) with screw, lockwasher
and nut (70).
DIRECT DRIVE UNIT
22. After paragraph 4 above place thrust washer (16-1) over reverse gear
tailshaft. Place seal washer (6) over reverse gear tailshaft against thrust
5.19
washer and install Woodruff key (27) in keyway in tailshaft.
23. If removed for replacement, press new oil seal (21) into direct drive
plate (15). Press ball bearing (25) into direct drive plate.
24. Place direct drive plate, oil seal and ball bearing assembly on suitable
support and press gear half coupling (14) into oil seal (21) and ball bearing (25) until gear half coupling is seated against ball bearing. Care must
be taken not to damage oil seal during assembly.
25. Align direct drive plate and gear half coupling up with key in reverse gear
tailshaft and press together until ball bearing is seated against thrust
washer (16-1).
26. Place lockwasher (19) over reverse gear tailshaft with tang in keyway in
gear half coupling and thread locknut (18 -1) on reverse gear tailshaft.
27. Install lockwashers and capscrews in holes in direct drive plate and bolt
to reverse gear housing.
28. Tighten all capscrews. Tighten locknut (18-1) and bend up one tang on
lockwasher (19) over locknut.
29. Continue with paragraphs 13 through 20.
ASSEMBLE TRANSMISSION TO ENGINE
1. If front end plate (5) was removed from reverse gear housing (3) or
engine flywheel housing proceed as follows:
a. Replace oil seal (22) or bearing (37) if necessary.
b. Slide engine gear (1) into flywheel housing damper spline.
c. Align mounting holes in front end plate (5) with holes in flywheel
housing and secure with lockwashers and capscrews.
d. After installing on engine, check engine gear f0r runout. Maximum
eccentricity is . 005 inches at pilot roller bearing.
2. Insert two studs three inches long in two opposite bolt holes in front end
plate (5).
3. Check to be certain that pilot roller bearing (60) is properly installed in
propeller gear insi.de gear case.
4. Start reverse gear housing (3) over the two studs and slide housing over
engine gear (1) right up against flywheel housing. It may be necessary to
rotate gear case slightly to properly mesh teeth on engine gear and short
pinions in gear case.
5. Install lockwashers and capscrews in holes around flange of housing.
6. Remove the two studs and install remaining lockwashers and capscrews.
Tighten all capscrews.
ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION GEAR ASSEMBLY TO REVERSE GEAR
HOUSING ASSEMBLY
NOTE:
1.
2.
3.
Refer to reduction gear assembly and disassembly procedures.
Install two studs 3 1/2 inches long in two opposite holes in reduction
adapter plate.
Position reduction gear assembly over studs with oil drain plug at bottom
and slide onto reduction drive gear. It may be necessary to rotate reduction ring gear slightly to properly mesh gear teeth.
Installlockwashers and capscrews around flange of reduction gear housing
and tighten uniformly.
S.20
YOUR NOTES
S.21
SA1 AND SAO MANUAL CLUTCH ADJUSTMENTS
With the transmission secured to the engine,
replace all water lines, etc. However, do
not connect the shifting linkage until all the
adjustments have been made and are satisfactorily tested~
Before securing the propeller half coupling to
the gear half coupling, check to make certain
that the couplings do not run out more than
.002 inches wi th respect to each other. Study
section IIAlignment to Engine II on Pages
14 and 15 of Technical Manual.
The transmission should be filled with new oil
as specified under lubrication.
The transmission can be parti ally adjusted before the engine has been run.
However, a
complete running test is necessary to satisfactorily determine whether the adjustments have
been properly made.
The preliminary adjustments for the forward
drive are. made as follows: remove reverse
cover plate, rotate pressure finger assembly
CI1d screw collar (37) until lock screw (42)
is up and facing you. Then, working carefully to avoid dropping either screw or tools
into clutch housing --
I. Back out the lockscrew (42) until the dog
on the end of the lockscrew is clear of the
hole in the pressure plate (35).
2. Rotate the screw Collar (37) to the right
until the lockscrew (42) is oPEosite the
next hole in the pressure plate (35).
3. Tighten the lockscrew making certain that
the dog on the end properly enters the hole
in the pressure plate.
4. Continue this until a decided effort is required to shift into forward (approximately
26 foot pounds).
48
--~~O-~~----50
~n==4---- 50
SAl Reverse
Adjustment
(Top View)
The preliminary adjustments for the reverse
drive are made as follows:
1. Loosen the locknut (50) on the inside of the
upright ear at the top of the reverse band.
2. TIghten the adjusting nut (50) on the outside
of the ear unti I both nuts are again tight
against the ear of the reverse band.
Typical Forward
Clutch Adjustment (SAl & SAO)
3. Repeat until a decided snap is required to
shift into reverse.
4. Do not tamper with adjustment of link (48).
5. For Four-99s and early Four-l07s there was
a cam operated reverse adjustment. Simply
tum screw head (103) clockwise one flat at
a time until satisfactory reverse engagement
is obtained (see Figure 3).
S.22
SAO Reverse
Adjustment
(Top View)
103
Replace the cover on the reverse gear housing.
The transmission is reedy for a prel iminary test
which may be done at dockside,
o,eck all of the mooring Iines before continuing the test,
With the engine running at i,dle speed, shift
the transmission into forward and reverse noting how well the transmission responds.
If the transmission does not engage in one or
both of the forward or reverse positions further
dockside ediustments are necessary. Continue
the ediustments as outlined above untif the
transmission will engage in both forward and
reverse drives.
A complete running test is necessary to determine that the transmission is properly edjusted.
The transmission should not slip or ''break II
away under full power conditions in the forward
drive and should hold in reverse under all normal reversing conditions.
If further adjustments are necessary, continue
the adjustments as outlined a,ove until satisfactory operation is reached. It should be
noted however that the edjustments should be
carried out only unti I satisfactory operation is
reached since it is possible to over-adjust the
transmission. If the transmission is over-adjusted it will be more difficult to shift into
forward and reverse and the parts wi II be heavily stressed and subject to early ~atigue !ailure. Therefore, once the prellmmary ad,ustments have been made, only a very small amount of adjustment will be necessary for either
forward or reverse. Usually, an adiustment of
a half a step on the forward, or at the most, a
full step is required for full edjustment. Only
a very small edjustment is required for the reverse drive.
On the forward drive, a full step of adjustment
is as outlined a,ove or is made by loosening
the lockscrew (42) and rotating the screw
collar (37) to the right until the next hole in
. the pressure plate (35) can be lined up under
the lockscrew. A half a step is mede by taking the lockscrew out of the hole that it is in
and pi acing it in the hole adjoining it in the
screw coil ar. Then rotate the screw coil ar to
the right until the next hole in the pressure
plate is lined up under the dog of the lockscrew. Make certain that the lockscrew enters
the hole properlyorit will bind up the forward
clutch.
When the transmission is properly adjusted,
replace the cover and secure all external bolts
and fasteners. Before replacing the shifting
linkage, check to make certain that it operates freely aJIId doesnotbindor drag. Replace
the linkage on the transmissiDn shift leverand
secure properly.
WHEN CLUTCH SLIPPING IS NOTICED. STOP AND ADJUST AT ONCE.
PROPER ADJUSTMENT WILL MAINTAIN YOUR CLUTCH FOR YEARS.
BUT A SLI PPI NG CLUTCH MAY DESTROY ITSELF. CAUS I NG COSTLY
REPAIRS.
S.23
SA1 AND SAO REDUCTION UNITS
DESCRIPTION
The Westerbeke/Paragon reduction gears consist of an internal ring gear and a
drive gear that offers a variety of reduction ratios.
ADJUSTMENTS
There are no adjustments necessary to maintain the reduction gears in proper
running condition.
DISASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNIT
NOTE: Disassembly need be carried out only as far as necessary to correct
those difficulties which interfere with proper marine gear operation.
Remove reverse and reduction gear as a complete unit before removing the oil to
avoid fouling the bilges.
Remove oil drain plug from bottom of reduction gear housing (B6) and
drain oil from unit. Make certain that all lubricating oil is removed
from reverse gear unit.
2. Remove capscrews and lockwashers from flange of reduction gear housing
and slide entire reduction unit straight back approximately 3 inches until
reduction unit clears reduction drive pinion.
3. Bend tang of lockwasher (7B) away from locknut (77). Remove locknut
using suitable wrench and lift lockwasher from shaft.
4. Remove gear half coupling (75) with gear type puller or by supporting
entire assembly under flange of gear half coupling and press agalnst shaft
to force coupling from assembly.
5. Support reduction gear housing so that flanged shaft assembly can drQP
free approximately 2 inches and press flanged shaft assembly from
reduction gear housing.
6. Remove retaining ring (76) from groove next to ball bearing (B4) in.,ide
reduction gear housing and press ball bearing from housing.
7. If necessary to replace. remove oil seal (79).
B.
Remove Woodruff key (BO) from flanged shaft and remove seal washer (74)
and spacer (73).
9. Press ball bearing (B4) from flanged shaft using two holes in flange.
10. Remove capscrews and lockwashers from rim of flanged shaft and remove
ring gear (71) from flanged shaft.
1.
INSPECTION
All parts should be thoroughly cleaned before inspection. Parts showing excessive
wear should be replaced.
1. Ball bearings should be examined for indications of corrosion and pitting
on balls and races.
2. All gear teeth should be examined for "pitch line pitting". uneven wear
pattern or excessive wear.
3. Examine oil seal for rough or charred lips.
4. Retaining rings should be checked for burrs or deformities.
5. All gaskets should be replaced.
ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION UNIT
1. Replace oil drain plug into reduction gear housing (B6).
2. Press ball bearing (B4) into reduction gear" housing (B6) and install retaining ring (76) into groove next to ball bearing.
S.24
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
If removed for replacement, press new oil seal (79) into reduction gea.r
housing.
Place flanged shaft over ring gear (71) and line up holes in flange with
those in ring gear.
Place lockwasher over capscrew and insert capscrew into hole in flanged
shaft and secure flanged shaft to ring gear.
Press ball bearing (84) onto flanged shaft. Place spacer (73) over shaft
next to ball bearing and place seal washer (74) over shaft next to spacer.
Install Woodruff key (80) into keyway in flanged shaft.
Place reduction gear housing over small end of flanged shaft and start
ball bearing (84) on flanged shaft into bore in housing by tapping housing
with a soft mallet.
Turn unit over with small end of housing down and press on center of
flanged shaft until spacer (73) is seated against ball bearing (84) in reduction housing.
Support unit on inside of flanged shaft with large end of unit down and
press gear half coupling (75) onto shaft end and into ball bearing until
coupling is seated against ball bearing. Care must be taken to line up
keyway in coupling and key in shaft before pressing together.
Place lockwasher (78) over end of flanged shaft with tang on inside of
lockwasher in slot on flanged shaft. Place locknut (77) onto shaft and
secure using suitable wrench.
Bend one tang of lockwasher into slot on locknut.
Install two studs 3 1/2 inches long into two opposite holes in reduction
adapter plate.
Position reduction gear assembly over studs with oil drain plug at bottom
of housing and slide onto reduction drive gear. It may t)e necessary to
rotate reduction gear slightly to properly mesh gear teeth.
Install lockwashers and cClpscrews around flange of reduction gear housing and tighten uniformly.
5.29
PARAGON P-21 SERIES HYDRAULIC
I. SPECIFICATIONS
A. Description Chart
MODEL
REDUCTION RATIO
DIRECTION OF ROTATION
P21L
P22L
P23L
P24L
P25L
DIRECT
1. 5:1
2:1
2.5:1
3:1
ALL LEFT HAND
AS VIEWED FROM
THE OUTPUT END
OF THE TRANSMISSION
B. Model and Serial Numbers
Each reverse gear has a model number and
a serial number. These numbers are on
the name plate, located on the housing
of the transmission.
MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER CHART
DIRECT DRIVE MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS
'21- L
5J-1234
.------------? '"
P2· Gear. Size
5J.1234· Transmission Serial No.
1 - Direct Drive
L· Left Hand Rotation Unit
REDUCTION GEAR MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS
'23 L
~
P2·GeorSize
2)
3 f Reduction
. Geor
: \ Size
5J-5678
--------=::::::---------1.5: 1 )
2 O· 1 f
. •
2.5: 1 \
3.0: 1
Reduction
Gear
Ratio
L - Left Hand
Rotation Unit
5J.5678 - Transmi .-ion
Se,i 01
No.
S.30
II. INTRODUCTION
Transmissions have been designed for smooth
operation and dependability in marine use. The
transmission is self- contained, having an oil
pressure system and oil supply completely
separated from engine lubricating oil systems.
Translllission oil under pressure is used to
engage a forward or reverse drive. The for-
III. INSTALLATION
A. The installation instructions below are for
use when the original transmission has been
removed for servicing and must be reinstalled, or when the transmission unit
is to be adapted as non-original equipment to a marine engine.
B. It is important that the engine and transmission rotations are matched. The direction of rotation of an engine is defined in
this manual as the direction of rotation
of the engine crankshaft as viewed from the
output end of the transmission. A clockwise rotation of the engine is a right hand
rotation and a counterclockwise rotation of
the engine is a left hand rotation.
A letter "R" or "L" appearing on the
transmission serial number plate illustrated in Section I, "SPECI FICA TIONS",
indicates whether the transmission is for
use with a right or left hand rotating
engine.
C. The hydraulic transmission is attached to
the engine in the following manner:
1. Insert two 3-1/2" studs in opposite
transmission mounting holes in the
engine adapter plate.
2. Place the transmission against the studs
so that the studs go through two of the
matching holes in the transmission
housing flange.
3. Slide the transmission along the studs
toward the engine so that the spline on
the shaft at the front ofthe transmission
enters the matching splined hole in the
engine vibration dampener.
ward drive is through a multiple disc clutch
arrangement, while the reverse drive utilizes
a reverse clamp band and planetary gear
train. The transmission oil is Circulated and
cooled through a separate external oil cooler
core, which is in turn cooled by the engine
water. Paragon transmissions are furnished
with either direct drive or reduction gears.
Gear reduction ratios and corresponding
model identification numbers are listed in
Section I, under "SPECIFICA TIONS".
4. Install and tighten four bolts with lockwashers through the transmission
housing flange into the engine adapter
plate. Remove the 3-1/2" studs. Install
and tighten the two remaining bolts
with lockwashers through the transmission housing flange.
D. The transmission and propeller shaft coupling must be carefully aligned before the
propeller shaft is connected to the transmission, in order to avoid vibration and
consequent damage to the transmission,
engine, and boat hull during operation.
To align the coupling, move the propeller
shaft, with attached coupling flange, toward
the transmission so that the faces of the
propeller shaft coupling flange and transmission shaft coupling flange are in contact. The coupling flange faces should be
in contact throughout their entire circumference. The total runout or gap between
the faces should not exceed .002" at any
point. If the runout exceeds .002", reposition the engine and attached transmission
by loosening the engine support bolts and
adding or removing shims to raise or lower
either end of the engine. If necessary,
move the engine sideways to adjust the
runout or to align the coupling flange
faces laterally. Tighten the engine support
bolts and recheck the alignment of the
coupling before bolting the coupling flanges
together. Connect the coupling flanges with
bolts, lockwashers, and nuts.
E. Connect the oil cooler lines to the transmission.
F. Connect the shift control cable from the
cockpit control station to the transmission
control valve lever, shown in Figure on
page 5. Place the transmission control
valve lever in the neutral poSition and
adjust the shaft control cable length until
the cockpit control station hand lever is
in the neutral position. Move the cockpit
control hand lever to forward and reverse
positions several times while observing the
transmission control valve lever motion.
The transmis~ion control valve lever should
move fully into forward or reverse position
when the hand lever is moved into forward
IV. OPERATION
or reverse position, and should return
exactly to the neutral position when the
hand lever Is in the neutral position.
G. Remove the oil dipstick, shown in Figure
on page 5, and fill the transmission with
Type A transmission fluid to the mark on
the dipstick. Replace the dipstick in the
transmission housing.
Starting Procedure
1. Always start the engine with the trans-
Principle of Operation
The transmission forward and reverse drives
are operated by transmission oil under pressure. An internal gear type oil pump deltvers
the transmission oil, under pressure, to the
external oil cooler. The transmission oil is
returned, still under pressure, to the oil
distribution tube and relief valve. The relief
valve maintains the oil pressure by remaining
cl03ed unt! J the oi J pressure reaches 60 PSI.
When the r;ontroJ lever is shUte':! to the
forward position, oil under pressure is delivered to the multiple disc clutch piston,
which moves to clamp the clutch discs and
planetary reverse gear case together. The
discs and case then revolve as a solid coupling in the direction of engine rotation. The
reverse drive is engaged by shifting the
control lever to the reverse position, so that
oil under pressure is delivered to the reverse
piston. The reverse piston moves to clamp
the reverse band arollnd the planetary gear
case, preventing the planetary gear case
from moving but allowing the planetary gears
to revolve to drive the output or propeller
shaft in a direction opposite to the rotation
of the engine. With the control lever in the
neutral pO!';ition, pressurized oil is prevented
from entering the clutch piston 01' reverse
band piston nnd the propeller shaft remains
stationary.
miSSion in NEUTRAL to avoid moving the
boat suddenly forward or back.
2. When the engine is first started, allow it
to idle for a ff::w moments. Stop the engine
and check the transmission oil level. Add
oil if necessary to bring the oil level up
to the mark on the transmission dipstick.
NOTE
ON SUBSEQUENT START-UPS, THE
TRANSMISSION OIL LEVEL MAYBE
CHECKED BEFORE RUNNING THE
ENGINE, WHEN ENGINE OIL IS
CHECKED.
3. Start the engine again, with the transmission
in NEUTRAL, and allow the enginetowarm
up to operating temperature.
4. Shift the transmission into FORWARD or
REVERSE as desired. If the engine should
stall when the transmission Is shifted to
FORWARD or REVERSE, place the transmiSSion in NEUTRAL before restarting the
engine.
It is recommended that shifting be done at
speeds below 1000 RPM, and preferably in
the 800 RPM, or idle engine rang(', to prolong the life of the engine, transmission,
and boat. EMERGENCY shifts may be at
higher engine speeds, but this is not a
recommended practice.
8.32
V. MAINTENANCE
A. Lubrication
The Models P200. P300 and P400 transmissions are self-contained units, independent of the engine lubricating systems.
The units are lubricated by pressure and by
splash from !ts own oil. The type of oil
recommended is "Transmission Fluid,
Type A". commonly used for automatic
transmissions in automobiles.
The quantity of oil depends upon the angle
of installation, as well as the reduction
model. The level must be maintained at
the mark on the dipstick and should be
checked periodically to ensure satisfactory operation.
When filling for the first time or refilling
after an oil change, check the level after
running for a few minutes to make certain
that the oi I cooler and the various passages
are full. If necessary, refill to the mark
on the dipstick to ensure proper operation
of the transmission. The transmission oil
level should be checked each time the engine
oil level is checked, before running the
engine.
The oil in the transmission should be
changed every 100 hours, or each season
under normal conditions. However, the
number of hours that can be run between
oil changes varies with the operating conditions. Drain plugs are located at the
bottom of the reverse gear housing and the
reduction gear housing.
B. Adjustments
No adjustment is necessary .for the FORWARD drive multiple disc clutches, and the
reverse band is self adjusting to compensate for lining wear, so that no external
reverse band adjustment is necessary.
OIL TO COOLER
COUPLING
FLANGE
S.33
C. Trouble Shooting Chart
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSES AND METHODS OF CORRECTION
GEAR INOPERATIVE
Drive Shaft does not operate
with selector valve in forv,ard
or reverse.
1.
2.
3.
Low on Pressure.
a.
Low oil supply. Add oil. refer to
lubrication.
b.
Faulty oil gauge. Replace gauge.
on gauge slow to register. air or
obstruction in on gauge line. Clean
and bleed oil gauge line.
c.
Plugged oil lines or passages.
Clean lines or passages.
d.
Oil pressure relief valve scored
and sticking. Remove relief valve.
Clean valve and valve bore in
control valve housing with crocus
cloth to free valve. or replace.
e.
Defective pistons and oil distributor
seal rings. Replace seal rings.
f.
Defective oil pump. Check for wear
and replace if necessary.
High Oil Temperature a.
Low oil supply. Add oil. refer to
lubrication.
b.
Low water level in cooling system.
Add v'ater. and check for leaks.
c.
Plugged raw water inlet screen.
Clean screen.
d.
Collapsed or diSintegrated water
inlet hose. Replace hose.
e.
Air leak in cooling water sucUon
line. Replace suction line.
f.
Raw watar pump impeller worn or
damaged. Replace impeller.
g.
Clogged or dirty oil cooler element.
Remove and clean
a.
Reverse band lining worn out.
Replace lining.
b.
Defective reverse piston "0" ring.
Replace "0" ring.
Reverse Band not
engaging Planetary
Gear Cage.
4.
Failure of Planetary
Assembly.
Remove gear case assembly. and check
for defective or damaged parts. Replace
defective or damaged parts.
5.
Failure of Reduction
Gear.
Remove reduction gear assembly and
check for defective or damaged parts.
Replace defective or damaged parts.
S.34
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSES AND METHODS OF' CORRECTION
GEAR DRAGGING
Drive Shaft rotates either
forward or reverse with
Selector Valve in neutral
position.
Forward clutch plates warped and
sticking. Remove clutch plates and
replace.
1.
Defective forward
Clutch Plates.
2.
Forward clutch piston release spring
Defective forward
Clutch Piston Release broken or weak. Replace spring.
Spring.
3.
Binding in Planetary
Assembly.
a.
Bearings and gears worn excessively
in gear case. Replace necessary
parts.
b.
Input shaft bearings worn excessively,
causing misalignment of input shaft.
Replace necessary parts.
GEAR SLIPPING OR SLOW TO
ENGAGE
With Selector Valve in forward
or reverse position.
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
LEAKS
1.
Low Oil Pressure.
See "Gear Inoperative',' (1).
2.
Worn forward Clutch
Plates.
Remove forward clutch plates and check
for wear excessively. replace clutch
plates.
3.
Reverse Band not
engaging Gear Case~
See "Gear Inoperative". (3).
1.
Water in Lubricating
Oil.
a.
Hole in oil cooler element permitting
water to seep into oil compartment.
Replace oil cooler element.
b.
Oil cooler gaskets. Check gaskets
and replace.
2.
Excessive OU in
Engine Crankcase or
Flywheel Housing.
Defective front end plate oil seal.
Replace oil seal.
3.
Oil on Exterior of
Marine Gear.
a.
Oil seeping from breather. Check
for too high oil level.
b.
Defective rear end oil seal. Replace
oil seal.
a.
Check for defective gaskets and
seal.
4.
Loss of Oil from
Transmission.
S.35
WARNER HYDRAULIC
DESCRIPTION
Westerbeke Four-107
Engines are also furnished with Warner
hydraulic direct drive and reduction
gear assemblies.
The direct drive transmission consists
of a planetary gear set, a forward
clutch, a reverse clutch, an oil pump,
and a pressure regulator and rotary
control valve. All of these are contained in a cast iron housing along with
necessary shafts and connectors, to
provide forward, reverse and neutral
operation. A direct drive ratio is used
for all forward operation. In reverse,
the speed of the output shaft is equal to
input shaft speed, but in the opposite
direction. Helical gearing is used to
provide quieter operation than can be
obtained with spur gearing.
Oil pressure is provided by the crescent type pump, the drive gear of
which is keyed to the drive shaft and
operates at transmission input speed
to provide screened oil to the pressure
regulator.
From the regulator valve the oil is
directed through the proper circuits
to the bushings and anti-friction bearings requiring lubrication. A flow of
lubricant is present at the required
parts whenever the front pump is turning and it should be noted that supply
is positive in forward, neutral and
reverse conditions.
The unit has seals to prevent escape
of oil.
Both the input and output shafts are
coaxial. With the input shaft splined
for the installation of a drive damper,
and the output shaft provided with a
flange for connecting to the propeller
shaft.
CONTROL LEVER POSITION
The position of the control lever on
transmission when in forward should
be shifted to the point where it covers
the letter "F" on the case casting. and
is located in its proper position by the
poppet ball. The Warranty is cancelled
if the shift lever poppet spring and/ or
ball is permanently removed, or if the
control lever is changed in any manner,
or repositioned, or if linkage between
remote control and transmission shift
lever does not have sufficient travel in
both directions. This does not apply to
transmissions equipped with Warner
Gear. electrical shift control.
LUBRICATION
The properties of the oil used in the
transmis sion are extremely important
to the proper function of the hydraulic
system. Therefore, it is extremely
important that the recommended oil,
automatic transmission fluid (ATF),
Type itA" be used.
PROCEDURE FOR FILLING
TRANSMISSION WITH OIL
When filling the transmission. oil
should be added until it reaches the
full mark on the dipstick. The quantity of oil depends upon the angle of
the installation. The unit should be
turned over at engine idle speed for a
short time in order to fill all circuits,
including the cooler and cooler piping.
PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING OIL
LEVEL
The oil level should be checked immediately after shutting off engine and
sufficient oil added to again bring the
transmission oil level to the full mark
on the dipstick assembly. The dipstick
assembly need not be threaded into the
case to determine the oil level.- It
need only be inserted into the case
until the cap or plug rests on the surface surrounding the oil filler hole.
The transmission should be checked
periodically to assure proper oil level.
and oil should be added if necessary.
S.36
CHANGING OIL
It is recommended that the transmission oil be changed once each season.
After draining oil from the unit. the
removable oil screen should be
thoroughly cleaned before refilling
the transmission with the recommended oil (AT F) Type "A".
REDUCTION GEAR BOX
The reduction gear box operates in
conjunction with the direct drive unit.
The reduction gear box consists of a
planetary gear set which reduces the
input revolutions to a fixed ratio.
It is recommended that all installations using a reduction gear have a
suitable locking device or brake to
prevent rotation of the propeller shaft
when the boat is not under direct propulsion. If the marine gear is not in
operation and the forward motion of
the boat causes the propeller shaft to
rotate. lubricating oil will not be circulated through the gear because the
oil pump is not in operation. Overheating and damage to the marine gear
may result unless rotation of the propeller shaft is prevented.
Except in an emergency. shift from
forward to reverse drive through
neutral at engine speeds below
1000 rpm to prevent damage to the
engine. or marine gear.
S.41
SHORT PROFILE SAILING GEAR
1.
Description
1.1
Brief description
The Short Profile Sailing Gears are equipped with a positively
driven, mechanically operated helical gearing system. The
servo-operated multiple-disc clutch requires only minimum
effort for gear changing, making the transmission suitable
for single-lever remote control via a rod linkage, Morse or
Bowden cable.
The torque transmission capacity of the clutch is exactly rated,
preventing shock loads from exceeding a predetermined value and
thus ensuring maximum protection of the engine.
The transmission units are characterized by low weight and small
overall dimensions. The gearbox castings are made of a highstrength, corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy, chromized for
improved sea water resistance and optimum adhesion of paint.
The transmissions are immersion-lubricated. Maintenance is
restricted to oil level checks (see "Maintenance").
AIR VENT HOLE
FLYWHEEL END
S.42
1.2
Gear casing
The rotating parts of the HBWtransmission are accomodated in an oil-tight casing
·divided into two halves in the plane of the vertical axis. Amply dimensioned cooling ribs ensure good heat dissipation and mechanical rigidity.
An oil filler screw with dipstick and an oil drain plug are screwed into the gear
casing. The filler screw is provided with a breather hole.
The shaft for actuating the multiple-disc clutch extends through a cover on the
side of the gear casing.
1.3
Gear sets
The transmission is equipped with shaved, casehardened helical gears made of
forged low-carbon alloy steel. The multi-spline driving shaft connecting the transmission with the engine is hardened as well.
The driven shaft (propeller side) of the transmission is fitted with a forged coupling
flange.
S.43
1.4
Multiple-disc clutch including operation - power train
The engine torque is applied to the input shaft (36) in the specified direction of
rotation and, in shifting position A (see item 1.2i, via gear (44), the frictionally
engaged clutch discs (51 and 52) to the external disc carrier (57) and from there
via the guide sleeve (59) to the output shaft (66).
In shifting position B (see item 1.2), the torque is transmitted from the input
shaft (36) via intermediate gear (26), gear (65), clutch discs (51 and 52) to the
external disc carrier (57), the guide sleeve (59) and the output shaft (66).
- Function
The transmission uses a positively driven, mechanically operated multiple-disc
clutch system mounted on the output shaft.
The thrust force required for obtaining positive frictional engagement between the
clutch discs is provided by a servo system. This essentially comprises a number of
balls which, by the rotary movement of the external disc carrier, are urged against
inclined surfaces provided in pockets between the guide sleeve and the external
d'isc carrier and in this manner exert axial pressure. The thrust force and, as a
result, the transmittable friction torque are thus proportional to the input torque
applied. Due to the cup springs (48) supporting the clutch disc stack and a limitation of the range of axial travel of the external disc carrier (57), the thrust force
cannot exceed a predetermined value, so that the torque transmission capacity of
the clutch is limited.
The actuating sleeve (60) is held in the middle position by spring-loaded pins. To
initiate the shifting operation, the actuating sleeve (60) need merely be displaced
axially by a shifting fork until the arresting force has been overcome. Then the
actuating sleeve (60) is moved automatically by the spring-loaded pins, while the
external disc carrier, which follows this movement, is rotated by the frictional
forces exerted by the clutch discs, and the shifting operation is completed as described above.
Input
36
Output
5.44
1.5
Shaft bearings
Both the input and the output shafts are carried in amply dimensioned taper roller
bearings.
The intermediate gear and the movable gears are carried in sturdy needle roller
bearings.
1.6
Shaft seals
External sealing of the input and output shafts is provided by radial sealing rings.
The running surfaces on the shafts are casehardened.
1.7
lubrication
The transmissions are immersion-lubricated. The bearings are generously supplied
with splash oil and oil mist.
S.45
2.
Installation
2.1
Delivery condition
For safety reasons, ~,e gearbox is NOT filled with oil for
shipment. The actuating lever is mounted on the actuating
shaft.
Before leaving the factory, each transmission is subjected to a test run with the
prescribed ATF oil. The residual oil remaining in the transmission after draining
acts as a preservative and provides reliable protection against corrosion for at least
1 year if the units are properly stored.
2.2
Painting the gearbox
Before painting the gearbox, take care to remove any oil films by means of suitable agents (e.g. HST safety cleansing fluid).
Always cover the running surfaces and sealing lips of the radial sealing rings on
both shafts before painting. Make certain that the breather hole on the oil filler
screw is not closed by the paint. Indicating plates should remain clearly legible.
2.3
Connection of gearbox with engine
A torsio-elastic damping plate between the engine and the
transmission is to compensate for minor alignment errors
and to protect the input shaft from external forces and
loads. Radial play should be at least O.Smrn.
2.4
Suspension of engine-gearbox assembly in the boat
To protect the gearbox from detrimental stresses and loads, provision should be
made for elastic suspension of the engine-gearbox assembly in the boat or craft.
The oil drain plug of the gearbox should be conveniently accessible.
2.5
Position of gearbox in the boat
The inclination of the gearbox unit in the direction of the shafts should not permanently exceed an angle of 20 degrees (see illustration).
The gearbox can also be mounted with the output shaft in the upward position.
Interchange the oil dipstick and the oil drain plug in this case.
S.46
2.6
Operation of gearbox
Gear changing requires only minimum effort. The gearbox is suitable for single
lever remote control. Upon loosening the retaining screw, the actuating lever (see
illustration) can be moved to any position required for the control elements (cable
or rod linkage). Make certain that the lever does not contact the actuating lever
cover plate (9): the minimum distance between lever and cover should be 0.5 mm.
The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angles to the actuating lever
in the neutral position of the lever.
The shifting travel, as measured at the pivot point of the actuating lever, between
the neutral position and end positions A and B should be at least 35 mm for the
outer and 30 mm for the inner pivot point.
A larger amount of lever travel is in no way detrimetal.
However, if the lever travel is shorter, proper gear engagement might be impeded
which, in turn, would mean premature wear, excessive heat generation and resulting damage.
o
Minimum shifting movement
Clamping screw to be
tightened to torque
of 18 Nm
Oil drain plug
S.47
Oil dipstick and
oil filler screw
17 mm width across flats
A
B
Min. distance of
actuating lever 0.5 mm
The position of the cover plate underneath the actuating lever is factory-adjusted
to ensure equal lever travel from neutral position to A and B.
When installing the gearbox, make certain that shifting is not impeded e.g. by
restricted movability of the Bowden cable or rod linkage, by unsuitably positioned
.
guide sheaves, too small bending radius, etc.
2.7
Engine-gearbox compartment
Care should be taken that the engine-gearbox compartment is properly ventilated.
3.
Operation
3.1
Initial operation
Fill the gearbox with oil of the recommended grade (see items 4.1 and 4.2). The
oil level should be the index mark on the dipstick (see illustration).
Casi ng su rface
Dipstick
Correct readings up to
200 inclination in
direction of shafts
Oil level
~~~lii1~~~~AATTF,TypeA
or
Dexron II
To check the oil level, just insert the dipstick, do not screw in. Retighten the
hex screw with the dipstick after the oil level check.
5.48
32
Operating temperature
The max. permissible temperature of the transmission oil is 130 0e.
3.3
Operation of gearbox
Shifting is initiated by a cable or rod linkage via the actuating lever and an actuating cam. The completion of the gear changing operation is automatic and cannot
be influenced by external control. The actuating lever is mounted on an actuating
shaft and fixed by means of a retaining screw.
Gear changing should be smooth, not too slow, and continuous (without interruption). The multiple-disc clutch permits gear changing at high engine rpm, including sudden reversing at top speeds in the event of danger.
3.4
Operation without load
Rotation of the propeller without load, e.g. while the boat is sailing, being towed,
or anchored in a river, as well as idling of the engine with the propeller stopped,
will have no detrimental effects on the gearbox.
Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required, since locking is possible by engaging the reverse gear.
3.5
Lay-up periods
If the transmission is not used for periods of more than 1 year it should be completely filled with oil of the same grade to prevent corrosion. Protect the input
shaft and the output flange by means of an anticorrosive coating if required.
3.6
Preparation for re-use
Drain the transmission of all oil and refill to the proper
level with the prescribed oil.
5.49
4.
Maintenance
4.1
Transmission oil
To ensure trouble-free operation of the clutch, only use oil of the recommended
type.
Under no circumstances should the oil contain any additives such as molybdenum
sulphite.
We recommend commercial Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF), Type A
or Dexron II.
4.2
Oil quantity
H BW 5 approx 0.4 Itr
HBW 10 approx 0.61tr
H BW 20 approx 0.8 Itr
Use the index mark on the dipstick as a reference.
4.3
Oil level checks
Check the oil level in the transmission daily. Correct
oil level is the index mark on the dipstick (see item 3.1).
Always use the same oil grade when topping up.
4.4
Oil change
Change the oil for the first time after about 25 hours of operation, then at intervals of at least 1 year.
4.5
Checking the Bowden cable or rod linkage
The Bowden cable or rod linkage should be checked at shorter time intervals.
The minimum lever travel from the neutral position to operating positions
(O-A = O-B) should be 35 mm for the outer and 30 mm for the inner pivot point.
Make certain that these minimum values are safely reached. Check the cable or
rod linkage for easy movability (see item 2.9).
4.6
OVERHAUL
Disassembly of the transmission in the field is not recommended. If an overhaul or repair is needed, the work should
be done by Westerbeke or an authorized Westerbeke service
center.
V.1
SECTION V
SERVICE BULLETINS
The following Bulletins contain supplementary and updated information about various components and service procedures which are important to the proper functioning of
your engine and its support systems.
You should familiarize yourself with the subjects and
make sure that you consult the appropriate Bulletin{s)
whenever your engine requires service or overhaul.
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.2
DATE:
6/15/69
MODEL:
All Engines
SUBJECT:
Connecting Pressure Sensing Devices to Oil Galleries
BULLETIN NUMBER:
20
Oil pressure sensing devices, such as senders and switches, must
never be connected directly to any oil gallery of an engine.
The
reason is simply that continued engine vibration causes fatigue of
the fittings used to make such a connection.
If these fittings fail,
the engine loses its oil pressure and very quickly seizes.
Such pressure sensing devices must be bulkhead mounted and
connected to the oil gallery using an appropriate grade of lubricating
oil hose.
Any fittings used to connect the hose to the gallery must
be of steel or malleable iron.
Brass must not be used for this
purpose.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
•• · '8"1."-'700
AIION INlHlntt'A' Nil", AIION, ••••• o.~
c ••,.:
PIN:
11967
"'.TCOIIIt, .IION·T.'.1t: •• -••••
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
Revised 7/29/81
MODEL:
W30
SUBJECT:
Lubricating Oil Sump Capacity
V.3
BULLETIN NUMBER:
The proper lubricating oil sump capacity for the Model W30
engine is 4.5 quarts.
Due to the varying angles of engine
installation, the proper amount of oil in the engine may register
as much as one inch above the full mark on the dipstick.
The
maximum installation angle for this engine is 12 degrees.
Therefore, it is important to go by the engine manual, rather
than the dipstick, to determine the proper quantity of oil.
After
once properly filling the engine with oil in the specific hull,
it is advised to mark the dipstick shosing the actual full level.
It is important to keep the engine oil sump properly filled
to insure sufficient engine lubrication under conditions of pitch
and heel.
Be careful not to overfill the oil sump.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INOUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, IIIASS. 02322· (8'71 .88-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: .2-••••
PIN:
16339
38
V.4
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
5/6/74
MODEL:
All marine generators and marine engines
SUBJECT:
Exhaust system failures
BULLETIN NUMBER: 69
When engine sea water is fed into an exhaust system so that the full
stream strikes a surface, erosion may cause premature failures.
Proper design of either a water jacketed or a water injected ("wet)"
exhaust system to prevent this problem requires that the sea water
inlet be positioned so that the entering stream of sea water does not
strike a surface directly. Also, the velocity of the entering sea
water stream should be as low as possible which is achieved by having
inlet fittings as big in diameter as possible.
In addition to the above design considerations, it is usually advantageous to divide the sea water flow at the point of entry to the
exhaust system so that only a portion of it enters the exhaust system.
The remainder is normally piped directly over the side. The proper
proportion of the sea water flow to pass through the exhaust system
can only be determined by trial and error. The goal is to prevent
excessive exhaust temperatures with the least amount of sea water.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AIIOIII
PIN:
19149
,IIIDueT",A&.
~A"I(, AIIOIII, MAee. 02322 ·,.'7IS•• -7700
CAe".: w.eTCO"~, AIIO"·T.".1C: .2-••••
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.5
DATE:
May 29, 1974
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Non-Interchangeabi 1ity between Manufacturers of Gauges and Senders
BULLETIN NUMBER: 72
In recent years we have purchased gauges and senders from four different
manufacturers .
. In no case may the gauge of one manufacturer be used with the sender of another
manufacturer. In some cases the wiring of either or both the gauge and the
sender varies by manufacturer.
Thus it becomes important, when ordering a replacement gauge or ordering a
replacement sender, to order a matched set or to know conclusively who the
manufacturer is.
Ammeters are electrically interchangeable.
STEWART-WARNER von
FARIA
2" OIA CASE
2 3/8" OIA CASE 2" OIA CASE
NOVOX
2" OIA CASE
Ammeter
11581
11931
16550
19165
Oil pressure gauge
11544
11914
16548
19166
Oil pressure sender
11542
11916
16551
19167
Water temp. gauge
11545
11913
16549
19168
Water temp. sender
11543
11915
16552
19169
Adapter ring to in- 16023
stall 2" dia gauge in and
2 3/8" di a panel
S8 #44
cut-out
GND
Wiring diagram
16023
and
",_,"",,-__ AM p- S8 #44
SND
LAMP +
LAMP
+
~
SND~8+
GND
Also see
S8 #36
SND~B+
16023
and
S8 #44
LAMP+
'fTSN
B+
GND
GND
~.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
.1I0N 'NDU.TII'.L P.II", .1I0N, II•••. 02322' '.f71 ••• -7700
C• •L~: W~.TCO"P, .1I0N·T~'~X: .2-4444
PIN:
19190
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.6
DATE:
October 4, 1974
MODEL:
FOUR-91 and FOUR-60
SUBJECT:
Air Filter Element Part 16010
BULLETIN NUMBER: 74
On a few engines we find the air filter is very sensitive to a poor
environment and clogs easily, sometimes in as few as 20 to 30 hours.
The symptoms are:
Loss of RPM
Loss of Power
Black Smoking
Check the air filter first -- remove it and see if situation clears.
Here are prime causes of air filter choking:
1. Leaking exhaust on exhaust piping allowing
soot to be expelled and sucked into element.
2. Lint or fiberglass in engine compartment
drawn into filter element.
3.
Excessive oil contamination from crankcase
breather.
It is not advisable to run without a filter even though removal appears
to cure the problem. You run a great danger in drawing foreign matter
right into the engine and ruining it. Likewise if the surge tank water
cap is at all loose, you can draw water in through the manifold opening.
REPLACE THE FILTER - DON'T REMOVE IT.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AIfOIil INOUSTRIA' ,.AR", AIfOIII, _AS•• 02:122· (.f7} ••• -7700
CAe,.: W.STCOR,., AIfOIII· T.'.1(: 82-4444
PIN:
19308
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.7
DATE:
August 27, 1975
MODEL:
Four-91, W-30
SUBJECT:
Proper bleeding procedure for hydraulically governed fuel injection
pumps incorporating an engine anti-stall device
BULLETIN NUMBER: 76
An anti-stall device is incorporated on fuel injection pumps fitted to the
engines. This device is located on top of the fuel pump governor housing,
beneath the air vent bleed screw. In fact, the bleed screw and anti-stall
are a complete assembly incorporating parts #1, #2, and #3 as shown on the
gram.
Four-91
just
device
dia-
The anti-stall device has a spring loaded pin which comes in direct contact,
with the top end of the fuel injection pump (metering valve) preventing rapid
upward movement of the metering valve to the fuel cutoff position, during rapid
engine deceleration. Rapid deceleration or rapid retarding of the throttle
without this device installed would normally cause engine stalling and/or
stoppage.
It should be noted here that under normal bleeding procedures, it is only necessary to bleed the bleed screw #5 shown on the diagram.
However, if excessive air entering the injection pump makes it necessary to
bleed screw #1 in the diagram during the fuel pump bleeding procedure, when
loosening or tightening the bleed screw #1, two wrenches should be used. One
is to loosen the bleed screw and one is to hold the anti-stall device body #2
to prevent it from turning and upsetting the adjustments. If during the bleeding procedure screw #2 shown in the diagram is inadvertently turned in or clockwise during bleeding the result will be excessive engine RPM which cannot be
controlled by retarding the throttle.
If the adjustment of the anti-stall device has been disturbed or when installing
a replacement pump, the procedure for resetting it is as follows:
1. Loosen the locknut (#3) sufficiently to enable the anti-stall device
body (#2) to be unscrewed two complete turns.
2. Set engine idle speed with idling stop screw (#4) to 800 RPM.
3. Turn the anti-stall device body (#2) clockwise until there is a barely
perceptible increase in the idling speed. Now hold device body (#2)
with wrench and tighten locknut (#3).
4. Accelerate the engine to maximum no load RPM and return the throttle
rapidly to the idling position. Should the period of return from
maximum RPM to idling RPM speed exceed three seconds, this is an
indication that the device has been screwed in too far. However,
should engine stalling occur, this is an indication that the device
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INOUSTRIAL ,.ARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (.,71 ••• -7700
CA.L~: W~STCOR", AIfON·T~L~1C: 82-4444
PIN: 19329
V.8
SERVICE BULLETIN #76 conlt.
has not been screwed in far enough.
should be made accordingly.
In either case, re-adjustment
CAUTION: Use extreme caution when tighteniny the locknut or the bleed screw
because the "threaded boss" that the assembly is screwed into is pressed
into the governor housing. It is not an integral part. Therefore, if it is
loosened or turned through over-torquing, replacement of the complete governor
housing may become necessary .
•
On all prewired engines dating from early 1975 onwards bleed screw (#5) has
been relocated to the opposite side of the fuel injection pump.
PN19329
8/27/74
Page 2/2
SERVICE BULLETIN
BULLETIN NUMBER: 82
DATE:
May 19, 1980
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Battery Recommendations
BATTERY RECOMMENDATIONS
MODEL
BATTERY AMPERE HOURS
VOLTAGE
W-7, &WPD4
60-90
12 V.D.C.
W-13 &4.4 KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W-21 & 7.7 KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W-27 &11 KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W-33
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W-30
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W-40, &WPD-10-15 KW
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W-50
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W-58 &WTO-20 KW
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W-60 &WBO-20 KW
150-170
12 V.D.C.
W-80 & 30KW
170-200
12 V.D.C.
W-120 &45 KW
200 minimum
12 V.D.C.
The ampere hour range shown is minimum.
There is no real maximum·
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARI(, AVON, ""ASS. OZ3ZZ· (tst 7 J 588 -7700
CABLE: WESTCoRP, AVON· TELEX: IIZ-4444
PIN:
20442
V.9
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.10
DATE:
September 4, 1975
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Heat Exchanger Rubber End Cap
BULLETIN NUMBER: 84
Many heat exchangers supplied on our various products incorporate a
molded rubber end cap to facilitate inspection of the tubes.
There have been occasions on which engine overheating has been caused
by the improper positioning of this rubber end cap.
It is absolutely essential that the molded channel running across the
inside of the cap be positioned over the baffle of the heat exchanger,
according to the drawing below.
In any cases of engine overheating where such a rubber end cap is used,
it should be checked for proper positioning along with other routine
troubleshooting.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL "ARK. AVON. MASS. 02:122· (.'7/ ••• -7700
CA.LE: WESTCOR". AVON· TELEX: .2-••••
PIN:
20684
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
Aprtl 4, 1983
MODEL:
All Marine Engines
SUBJECT:
Alternator Output Splitter
V.ll
BULLETIN NUMBER: 87
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: The splitter is a solid state device which allows
two batteries to be recharged and brought to the same ultimate voltage
from a single alternator as large as 120 amp and, at the same time, isolates each battery so that discharging one will have no effect on the
other. Charging rates are in proportion to the batteries' voltage (state
of discharge). This method precludes the necessity, and even the desirability of a rotary switch for selecting which battery is to be charged.
It also assures that ships services cannot drain the engine starting
battery.
I NSTALLA TI ON:
1. Mount splitter on a metal surface other than the engine, preferably
in an air stream if available. Do not install near engine exhaust
system. Install with cooling fins aligned vertically.
2. Be sure to use a wire size appropriate to the output of the associated
alternator. In full power systems number 4 wire is recommended from
the alternator to the splitter and from the splitter to the batteries.
3. Connect the alternator output terminal to the center splitter terminal.
4. Connect one splitter side terminal to one battery (s).
5. Connect the other splitter side terminal to the other battery(s).
6. When the splitter is installed, both batteries will see a charging
voltage 8/10 volts less than usual. This voltage drop can be regained,
if desired, by connecting the regulator wire directly to the alternator
output terminal instead of the regulator terminal.
TEST INFORMATION: When the engine is not running, the side splitter terminals should read the voltage of the respective battery. The center
splitter should read zero voltage.
With the engine running and alternator charging, the side splitter terminals should read the same voltage which should be the voltage of the
regulator or somewhat less. The center splitter terminal should read .82
volts higher than the readings of the side terminals.
Continued •••
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON 'NOU.TII'AL "AII",_ AVON, MA ••• OIl~III1·I.'7J ••• -7700
CAeL.: W•• TCOII,., AVON·T.L.Il: •• - ••••
PIN:
20745
V.12
This unit is se.aled for maximum life and is not repairable.
BY-PAS'5ING SPLlTI£R; In the event of failure, batteries may be charged directly
from alternator b~ connecting etther splitter terminal #1 or #2 to terminal A,
bypassing the splltter itself, This should not be done simultaneously for
both batteries unless they are, and will remain at, the same voltage (state
of charge.)
SPLITTER
, '~-+--IooG 6+
STARTING
BATtE:RY (S)
REGULATOR
-
WHT
A
5TARTER
POWER DISC. SW.
--
POWER DISCONNECT
SWITCH.
SH! P'S
PN20.6S4
Z Li'~-f--ooIoQ 13+
SERVICE
LOADS
.5ERVI CE
BATTERY(S)
SEE NOTE
ALTERNATOR
DRW'G 2070 I
;It
NOTE: On Alternators which have an isolation
and regulator terminals, such as the Motorola
engines, the regulator wire should be removed
reconnected to the OUTPUT terminal as shown.
provide an equivalent voltage drop.
diode between their output
units used with most WESTERBEKE
from the REG terminal and
The diode in the splitter will
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
April 15, 1976
MODEL:
Westerbeke 30 (formerly 4-91)
SUBJECT:
Internal Changes Since Introduction
V.13
BULLETIN NUMBER:
89
There is a serial number nameplate riveted to the block behind and just below the
lube oil cooler. It is best seen by shining a flashlight upwards from below. This
basic block serial number is composed of a prefix and a suffix. The suffix is the
last three to six characters following the last slash or hyphen. The prefix is all
which precedes the last hyphen or slash.
Only the suffix has been transposed to the Westerbeke nameplate through April 1976.
It becomes the first portion of the serial number on the Westerbeke nameplate; the
last portion is a shipping code for internal use only.
Since the introduction of the engine in 1969, there have been four different
suffixes used in part to denote various internal engineering changes to the block.
When ordering parts, these suffixes are an integral part of the engine serial
number and must be supplied.
Chronologically, the following changes have taken place: 1) a slight water pump
change not affecting interchangeability, 2) a major water pump change requiring a
new cylinder block, 3) enlarged water passages requiring a new block, head and
head gasket implemented simultaneously with a new valve retention design eliminating
the cotter retaining clip and the cylindrical seal. The main purpose of this
bulletin is to outline these changes with their serial number cut off points. See
the table on the reverse side of this Service Bulletin.
The new head gasket is usable on any previous engine and must be used from the change
point onwards. The new water pump must be used from the change point onwards and
cannot be used in an earlier engine block. The new valves must be used from the
change point onwards and should be used as replacement parts along with the new
cotter and top cup. We will only supply cylinder blocks and block assemblies from
current production.
All this information is included in Edition 6 of the Westerbeke 30 Parts List being
issued in April 1976.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAl. PARK, AVON, AlASS. 02322· (.f7} 5.8-7700
CABl.E: WESTCORP, AVON· TEl.EX: 82-4444
PIN:
18978
ENGINEERING CHANGES
Description
PART NUMBERS
I
Block
Serial No.
Approx
Years Block
15BB/U/*
* = 1503
thru 4389
69-71
Water
Pump
Not
Avail.
Head
Head
Gasket
Exhaust
Valve
Intake
Valve
Valve
Cotter
Valve
Spring
TJU! Cup
Valve
Stem
Seal
14485
14601
14458
14457
14546
14575
14576
20716
20261
AEH 1052/*
* = 501
thru 600
and 56815
thru 56854 72,73
Slight fresh
water pump
modification
not affecting
interchangeability.
AEH 1061/*
* = 106
thru 326
NO ENGINEERING CHANGES.
14604
73
Major water
pump/block
change impeller diameter
from 2-9/16" to
2-13/16" and new
valve design
15P/786A/*
requiring new
valves, cotter & * = 0101
spring cup
thru 0443 74,75
Not
Avail.
Bi gger water
passages
requiring new
block,head and
head gasket.
14470
15P/786A/*
* = 0444
onwards
76
17626
17909
17852
17892
17631
•<
~
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
Apri 1 28, 1976
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Troubleshooting Water Temperature and Oil Pressure Gauges
V.15
BULLETIN NUMBER: 92
Given a presumably faulty gauge indication with the instrument panel energized, the first step is to check for 12 VDC between the ign. (B+) and
neg. (B-) terminals of the gauge.
Assuming there is 12 volts as required, leave the instrument panel energized and perform the following steps:
1.
Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if the
gauge reads zero, the normal reading for this situation.
2.
Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground and
see if the gauge reads full scale, the normal reading for
this situation.
If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is undoubtedly
O.K. and the problem lfes either with the conductor from the sender to
the gauge, or with the sender.
If either of the above gauge tests is negative, the gauge is probably
defective and should be replaced.
Assuming the gauge is O.K., preoceed as follows. Check the conductor from
the sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity.
Check that the engine block is connected to ground. Some starters have
isolated ground terminals and if the battery is connected to the starter
(both plus and minus) the ground side will not necessarily be connected
to the block.
If the sender to gauge conductor is O.K. and the engine block is grounded,
the sender is probably defective and should be replaced.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AIION INOUSTItIAL "Altl(, AIION, IIASS. 02322· '.'71 5 •• -7700
CA8LE: WE.TCOIt", AIION·TELEX; .2- ••••
PIN:
21616
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.16
DATE:
June 22, 1976
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Adjusting Paragon P200 Series Reverse Band
BULLETIN NUMBER: 93
If the boat moves forward when the gear is in neutral at proper idle
speed, the reverse band may be out of adjustment. When adjusting,
be very careful not to get reverse band too ti ght or it will burn out.
If the boat goes backwards when in neutral, it may be too tight.
The following adjustment procedure should only be carried out when it
is not possible to obtain the service of an authorized Paragon transmission service dealer.
To Adjust:
On the outside left side of the gear there is a bolt in the mounting
pad. Under its head are 1 to 3 washers. Remove one washer. This
should stop forward boat movement. But under NO circumstances use
fewer than one washer nor more than three.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AIION INDUSTRIA' ~ARI(. AIION. IIASS. 02:122· f.'71 ••• -7700
CAe,/!: W/!STCOR~. AIION·TIf'IfJC: .2-••••
PIN:
21683
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
September 9, 1976
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Fuel Pressure Swi tch Installation
BULLETIN NUMBER:94
Overleaf is a parts list and an illustration showing the proper
installation of the fuel pressure switch used on most of our
engine products.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AI/Oil IliOUSTlIlAL PAIII<, AI/ON, MASS. OZ3ZZ· f.r7} 588 -7700
CABLE: WESTCOIIP, AI/Oil· TELEX: 8Z-4444
PIN:
21564
V.17
.<
..... 1....1
co
"II VISION ".COfiD
t 1'HIDIlICM
U
fUEL INJECTION PUMP.
(ON EN(;INE)
9
19187
8
/9442.
7
/
~
11383
5
4
.3
IItDl$'
/9321
/918S
2
~ 320
1!J26/
I /9204
HE.Y /-lb. SCREW
,cL,IIT WI/SIIEe
''0'' RING
}1" O.D.
FUEL PRESSvRE sWlrCH
PLUG
·ON RII'lt;
9/1, o. D.
ADAPTER
I
~
I
c--:-/
/
I
I
COP/1£1 WASHeR
.
r-Sc7eWASs'Y (RiceD.
QTY"
DIIC.IIAL
"'-.-'''''CT'ONAL
~
ANGULA"
D;: ~ -7(;;' rUW'NO NU...... 21 7 4
3
t~
N·E :~:~::.":.~.~"~-::.D
IIADII'N
. 0 ....
us ....
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
7 July 80 Rei ssued
MODEL:
All
V.19
BULLETIN NUMBER: 95
Domesti c Hot Water Heaters
PRINCIPLE
SUBJECT:
The heater is connected in series with the engine's freshwater circuit. This
allows full water flow for maximum heat transfer to the heater. The series
installation also avoids several potential pitfalls of installations in which
the heater is in parallel with either the engine's by-pass or its internal
freshwater circuit.
The only potential disadvantage of a series installation is flow restriction
due either to a restrictive heater design, a"large engine water flow (such
as models W58, W80, W120), or a combination of both.
Installation
The shorter the length of piping to and from the heater, the better. The
elevation of the heater should assure that the top of its internal coil is
no higher than the engine pressure cap. If the heater must be higher than
this at any heel angle, then the optional remote fill tank must be installed
to be the highest point of the circuit.
Piping between the engine and heater should
to the engine so that trapped air will rise
the engine. If trapped air can rise to the
convenient method of bleeding that air is a
rise continuously from the heater
automatically from the heater to
heater, then a petcock or other
necessity.
Study the attached sketches. A convenient place to interrupt the engine cooling circuit is between the thermostat housing outlet and the exhaust manifold
inlet. This is also the hottest water available. CAUTION: While most owners
want the hottest water available, it is possible for scalding water or even
steam to come from the faucets.
Since the heater is in series with the engine cooling water, any other convenient point of the circuit can also be interrupted for heater installation.
Some engine/heater combinations require that a "by-pass" nipple be installed
in parallel with the heater. This is required to maintain an adequate fresh
water flow for cooling capability. The table below shows the minimum diameter
of "by-pass" nipples in these situations:
HEATER
RARITAN
ALLCRAFT
SENDURE
MODEL
3/8" NPT
W30
f--3/8" NPT
W40
1/2" NPT
W50
3{4" NPT
1/2" NPT
1/2" NPT
H58
1/2" NPT
3/..1:.NPT
1/2"IiP.L_
r--- HaQ
3/4" NPT
1/2'; r"lPr
1/2" NPT
J..J.l?O
Please see sketches on overleaf.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
PIN:
21814
AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, AIION, If ASS_ 0:1:1:1:1- (.f71 5 •• -7700
CA.LE: WESTCORP, AIION- TELEX: .:1-4444
V.20
ENCtI NE
rHER~OSTAT
HOUSING
4
..
---
DUAL PAS S MANIF'OLD
• !-LTERNATE p' A
INTERRUPT
~. CES TO
~ONNECT~IRUrT AND
I
"'EATER
N SERIES.
-
ENGINE
THERMOSTAT
HOUSING
BY PASS
NIPPLE
........ ..
"
SI NGLE PAS
MANIFOLD S
PR
ESSURE CAP (M
PRESSURE TI1AU~T BE HIGHER
R E.,. OrE
ENGI NE' CAP).
TANK
FILL
WATER
HEATER
-f IN5T
- IF HEATER
H IGH(R THE-·
N ENGINE
P RESSURE
-.
COIL CAP~IS
ALrERNAi
-t1~-
I
BYPASS N IPPLE
OPTIONAL COOLANT
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
January 22, 1980
MODEL:
4-91 Engines (Older Models)
SUBJECT:
Paper Air Filter Element Replacement (P.N. 16010)
BULLETIN NUMBER: 102
A metal airscreen/silencer and attaching elbow is available for
replacing paper airfilter elements in use on older Model 4-91 Westerbeke Engines.
The use of this airscreen/silencer will enable engine
owners to vent the crankcase gases into the intake by connecting the
vent on the engine rocker cover with a length of 1/2 1.0. hose to the
90 0 fitting on the metal airscreen/silencer.
These parts may be purchased/ordered through any authorized
Westerbeke dealer.
Part
PIN
Metal Airscreen/Silencer
21536
Elbow
13335
Tubing
(2~
inches)
16353
Hose 1/2 1.0. 6 inches
11775
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INOV.TRIAL "AR", AVON, MA••• 02322· (.f71 588-7700
CABLIf: WIf.TCOR", AVON· TIfLIf1C: .2-........
PIN: 24291
V.21
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.22
DATE:
January 22, 1980
MODEL:
Four-91 and W-30 Engines - Older Models
SUBJECT:
Tach Drive Cover Plate
BULLETIN NUMBER: 103
A tach drive cover plate and gasket are available for older
Four-91 and W-30 engines:
Westerbeke Part #22123 - Plate
Westerbeke Part #14667 - Gasket
By remov·ing the two hold-down bolts for the tach drive, "it can
be carefully lifted out with its gear and the cover plate and gasket
put in its place and secured with the two bolts.
The parts may be purchased/ordered through any authorized Westerbeke dealer.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
PIN:
24292
AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, A liON , IIASS. 02:122· (.,71 .88-7700
CA8LE: WESTCORP, AIION·TELEX: .2-4444
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
January 22, 1980
MODEL:
Westerbeke 30 and 50
V.23
BULLETIN NUMBER: 104
SUBJECT: Sea Water Pump Pulley 'Set Screw P.N. 11357
The sea water pump pulley on the Westerbeke 30 and 50 engines is keyed to the
sea water pump shaft and locked in position with a heat treated 5/32 Allen head set
11
screw, Westerbeke P.N. 11357.
Particular attention should be paid to this set screw at the time of commissioning of the engine and during regular servicing of the engine.
Ensure that it is tight.
If not, remove the set screw and apply a good locking liquid to the set screw threads
and reinstall and tighten with the aid of a 5/32 Allen wrench.
11
PULLEY
SEA
\.lATER
PUMP
","S~.~ SCREW
__ ~N. 11357
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, IIIA55. 02322 ',817} 588-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112-4444
PIN:
24293
SERVICE BULLETIN
V.24
DATE:
May 1, 1980
MODEL:
All Models
SUBJECT:
Thermostats
BULLETIN NUMBER:
Beginning approximately May, 1980, thermostats supplied by the
factory have a by-pass hole sufficient to allow adequate water
flow through the exhaust manifold, head, and block, during engine
warm-up.
This flow is mandatory, especially in the case of marine engines
and generator sets which have significant load applied soon
after start-up.
We strongly recommend that only genuine WESTERBEKE thermostats
be used in WESTERBEKE products to assure proper design in this
regard.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIA' PARI(, AVON, _ASS. 02:122 "."1 ••• -7700
CAS'.: W•• TCORP, AII'ON· T.,6X: .2-••••
PIN:
24707
107
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
May 20, 1980
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Ammeter Wire Sizes
V.25
BULLETIN NUMBER: 110
Ammeters may be installed in conjunction with any Westerbeke marine diesel
engine or diesel generator set. The range of the ammeter must be appropriate
for the maximum output of the alternator.
Additionally, the wire size for the alternator output circuit, including the
ammeter, varies with the total length of that circuit. The table below shows
the maximum current that can be carried various total distances by various
wire sizes, to and from source to load.
WIRE SIZE TABLE
Total Length
MAXIMUM CURRENT(AMPS)
System of wire in
I
Volts
55
60
feet
35
40
70
85
120
12
12
12
12
12
1 to 5
5 to 10
10 to 20
20 to 30
30 to 40
12
10
6
6
4
12
10
6
4
2
12
8
6
4
2
8
6
6
2
1
8
6
3
1
1
8
6
2
1
0
6
4
1
1
0
24
24
24
24
24
1 to 5
5 to 10
10 to 20
20 to 30
30 to 40
14
12
10
8
6
14
12
8
6
6
12
10
8
6
4
12
10
6
4
4
10
8
6
4
2
10
8
4
4
2
8
6
4
2
0
32
32
32
32
32
1 to 5
5 to 10
10 to 20
20 to 30
30 to 40
14
12
10
14
12
8
8
6
6
6
12
10
8
6
4
12
10
6
4
4
10
8
6
4
2
10
8
4
4
2
8
6
4
2
0
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL ,.ARIC, AVON, IIASS. 02322 ·'.17} ••• -7700
CABLE: WESTeOR,., AVON· TELEX: .2-••••
PIN:
24737
V.26
DATE:
SERVICE BULLETIN
BULLETIN NUMBER:133
December 6, 1983
MODEL:
WlOTwo, W13, W2l, W27, W30, W33, W40, W50,
W80, WlOO, W120 (All Related Generators)
SUBJECT: Z inc Pencil - #11885
W52, W58, W70,
A zinc pencil PN 11885 is located in the sea water cooling circuit of
all primary heat echangers on the above models.
The purpose of the
zinc pencil is to sacrifice itself to electrolysis action taking place
in the salt water cooling circuit.
This zinc pencil should be
per iodically checked by unscrewing it from its mounting boss on the
exchanger.
For the lcoation of the zinc on your model, refer to the
cooling system section of your parts manual.
Replace the zinc pencil
as inspection dictates.
(Refer to Illustration A.)
Should material be flaking off the zinc, it should be scraped clean,
or be replaced by a good solid zinc pencil.
If it appear s that a lot of mater ial has been flaking off the zinc,
then it is advised that the end cap of the exchanger be removed, and
the flaked material be cleaned from that area of the exchanger. A new
end cap gasket should be on hand in case it is needed when replacing
the end cap.
Refer to Service Bulleting #84 when removing end caps made of rubber.
-
l.J.J
N
V ')
....J
c::c
::::>
I-
u
c::c
--ZINC #11885
REPLACE
CLEAN/REPLACE
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AIION INDIJSTRIAL PARK, A liON , MASS. 02322· (617) 588-7700
CA8LE: WESTCORP, AIION· TELEX: 92 -4444
PIN: 33577
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
December 5, 1984
MODEL:
A11 Propul sion and Generator Model s
SUBJECT:
BULLETIN NUMBER:
V.27
139
Hydro-Hush Muffl er Install ations
The illustrations shown with this text should be used as a guide when making
an installation of a Hydro-Hush Muffler.
When used in conjunction with propulsion engine, the Hydro-Hush Muffler should
be mounted close to the fore-aft center line of the boat. When used with a
generator unit, the muffler should be as close as possible to the generator.
All installations should be such that the entry of water into the engine exhaust
manifold and cylinders is prevented while under sail and at various angles of
heel, from following seas, when backing down, or any other condition.
.
Units installed with the exhaust manifold/water injected exhaust elbow at or
below the water line of the vessel must install a vent or syphon break in the
sea water supply line to the water injected exhaust elbow. The seawater supply
line must be looped above the water line a minimum of six (6) inches with the
vent or syphon break installed at the top of this loop.
The vented loop, when used, can be a mechanical syphon break as shown in the
illustration or a simple tee arrangement with a small hose or tube (3/16-1/4
inch 1.0.) routed to the transom exhaust discharge or to a separate thru-hull
fitting located above the water line. This hose or tube must be routed in such
a way that it will drain of water when the engine is shut down and allow air
into the sea water supply hose and injection elbow.
The syphon break or vent is installed to break the vacuum in the sea water
cooling circuit and thereby discourage syphoning of sea water through this
circuit, and subsequently filling of the exhaust and engine cylinders with
sea water. When used, syphon breaks should be checked periodically for proper
operation and should be installed in a location where, should they leak sea
water, it would not leak onto the engine or its accessories.
The syphon break or vent must be located above the vessel IS water line high
enough so as to remain above the water 1i ne at ill angl es of vessel heel and
pitch.
The Hydro-Hush Muffler remains approximately 30% full of water after engine
shut-down when there is a maximum of 48 inches of lift on the discharge side.
The installation information given in this text is to be used as a guide only.
Westerbeke cannot be responsible in any way for muffler installations. Westerbeke presumes the installer to have a basic knowledge of marine installation
requirements.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322·1617/ 588-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444
PIN:
33934
V.28
Hydro-Hush Muffler Installations
Page 2
Use as few right angle fittings as possible. The use of wire reinforced
hose is recommended and the hose should be routed to produce the bends
needed.
The use of 90 0 and 45 0 fittings contribute to the rise of engine exhaust
back pressure. (Refer to the Unit Technical Manual for back pressure
specifications.)
The exhaust hose diameters shown are minimums. Exhaust hose diameter for
the discharge hose will have to be 'increased if the length of run from
the Hydro-Hush Muffler to the thru-hull discharge is excessive (25 1 to 30 1
depending on the number of bends).
CAUTION
THE SEA WATER PUMP WILL CONTINUE TO FILL THE EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH
SEA WATER·DURING CRANKING. THE ENGINE EXHAUST PRESSURE DURING
CRANKING ~1AY NOT BE STRONG. ENOUGH TO EXPEL THE WATER FROM THE
MUFFLER AND PREVENT THE SYSTEM FROM FILLING UP WITH SEA WATER
AND ENTERING THE EXHAUST MANIFOLD AND CYLINDERS.
IF ENGINE CRANKING EXCEEDS 30-40 SECONDS APPROXIMATELY, CLOSE
THE SEA WATER THRU HULL AND OPEN IT U1MEDIATEL Y AFTER THE ENGINE
STARTS.
Page 3
ENGINE INSTALLATIONS
ENGINE INSTALLATIONS WITH EXHAUST MANI·
FOLD/WATER INJECTED ELBOW AT OR BELOW
VESSEL WATER LINE
max.
ENGINE INSTALLATIONS WITH EXHAUST MANI·
FOLD/WATER INJECTED ELBOW MINIMUM OF 6
INCHES ABOVE VESSEL WATER LINE.
V.29
V.30
Page 4
GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS
Syphon Break _ _ _n
....7l.----,--
r~
12"
Raw Water
Pump
Generator Installations with
exhaust manifold/water injected
elbow at or below vessel water
1i ne.
Raw Water
Intake - Thru
Hull Fitting
Generator Below Water Line
Raw Water
Pump
Generator Installations with
exhaust manifold/water injected
elbow minimum of 6 inches above
vessel water line.
Raw Water
Intake - Thru
Hull Fitting
Generator Above Water Line
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
1/23/85
MODEL:
ALL PROPULSION ENGINES
V.31
BULLETIN NUMBER: 148
SUBJECT: FIELD TROUBLESHOOTING TACHOMETER/HOURMETER PN 11917
The tachometer/hourmeter used in propulsion engine instrument panels contains
two separate electrical circuits with a common ground. One circuit operates
the hourmeter, and the other the tachometer. The hourmeter circuit operates
on 12 volts/alternator charging voltage supplied to the (+) terminal on the
back of the instrument.
The tachometer circuit operates on AC voltage 6-8 volts, fed from one of the
diodes in the alternator and supplied to the "tach inp." terminal while the
engine is running, and the alternator producing battery charging voltage
13.0-14.8 volts D.C.
The following are procedures to follow when troubleshooting a fault in
either of the two circuits in the tachometer/hourmeter.
HOURMETER
FAULT
1. Inoperative
TACHOMETER
FAULT
1. Inoperative
1.
1.
CHECK
Check for proper DC voltage between (+) and (-)
terminals.
A. Voltage present - meter defective - repair
or replace.
B. Voltage not present - trace (+) and (-)
electrical connections for fault. (Jump
12 Volts DC to meter (+) terminal to
verify operation.)
CHECK
Check for proper AC voltage between "Tach Inp."
terminal and (-) terminal with engine running.
A. Voltage present - attempt adjusting meter
through calibration access hole. No results,
repair or replace meter.
B. AC voltage not present - check for proper
alternator D.C. output voltage.
C. Check for A.C. voltage at tach terminal
on alternator to ground.
D. Check electrical connections from "tach
Inp." terminal to alternator connection.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617} 588-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444
PIN:
34791
V.32
-2-
2.
Sticking
1. Check for proper A.C. voltage between IItach inp.1I
terminal and (-) terminal.
2. Check for good ground connection between meter
(-) Terminal and alternator.
3.
Inaccurate
3.
Check alternator is well grounded to engine
block at alternator pivot bolt.
1.
With hand-held tach on front crankshaft pulley
retaining nut or strobe type tach read front
crank shaft pulley R.P.M. Set engine R.P.M.
with hand or strobe tach at 1500-1800 R.P.M.
2. Adjust tachometer with small Phillips type
screwdriver through calibration access hole
in rear of tachometer covered with translticent
plug. Zero tach and bring to R.P.M. set by
strobe or hand tach. (Verify R.P.M. at idle
and at high speed 2500-3000 R.P.M.) (Adjust
tach as needed.)
Tachometer Input
(AC Voltag~)
( + ) Terminal
(Battery Voltage-DC)
V.33
Page 3
SERVICE BULLETIN #148
LATE MODEL TACHOMETER
Replaces Earlier Model as Shown on Page 2 of this Bulletin
Access Hole for
Tachometer Calibration
( - ) Ground Terminal
Tachometer Input
(AC Voltage)
( + ) Terminal
(Battery Voltage-DC)
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