SimpliciTI - Ti Processor Wiki
SimpliciTI
Introduction
SimpliciTI is a Texas Instruments proprietary solution to easily add low cost, low power wireless
capability to microcontroller applications. In this module, we’ll learn about and experiment with
the protocol.
Learning Objectives
In the module we’ll be covering:
•
Objects and Topologies
•
SimpliciTI architecture
•
Threading and Callback
•
Configuration
•
AP as Data hub
•
Broadcast messages
•
Frequency Agility
•
Current Consumption
•
Upcoming Features
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
5-1
Module Topics
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Module Topics
Module Topics
SimpliciTI................................................................................................................................................... 5-1
Module Topics......................................................................................................................................... 5-3
SimpliciTI................................................................................................................................................ 5-5
SimpliciTI Objects and Topologies ......................................................................................................... 5-6
Example Application and Comparison ................................................................................................... 5-7
Architecture and Details ......................................................................................................................... 5-8
APIs, Threading and CallBack ............................................................................................................... 5-9
Configuration Files................................................................................................................................5-10
Configuration.........................................................................................................................................5-11
Frame Format and Radio Configuration............................................................................................5-12
Tokens and Packet Sniffer......................................................................................................................5-13
Hardware and BSP ............................................................................................................................5-14
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network...........................................................................................5-17
Description: .......................................................................................................................................5-17
Hardware list: ....................................................................................................................................5-18
Software list:......................................................................................................................................5-18
Procedure...........................................................................................................................................5-19
Data Hub and Multiple Links.................................................................................................................5-29
Storing, Forwarding and Polling...........................................................................................................5-30
App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages ..............................................................................................5-31
Lab5b – AP as Data Hub Network.........................................................................................................5-33
Description: .......................................................................................................................................5-33
Hardware list: ....................................................................................................................................5-34
Software list:......................................................................................................................................5-34
Procedure...........................................................................................................................................5-35
Frequency Agility and Current Consumption ........................................................................................5-41
Upcoming Features and Demo ..............................................................................................................5-42
Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application..........................................................................5-43
Description: .......................................................................................................................................5-43
Hardware list: ....................................................................................................................................5-44
Software list:......................................................................................................................................5-44
Procedure...............................................................................................................................................5-45
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
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Module Topics
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
SimpliciTI
SimpliciTI
SimpliciTI is …
‹
Low Power: Supports sleeping devices for low power
consumption
‹
Low Cost: uses < 8K FLASH and < 1K RAM depending on the
platform
‹
Flexible: Simple star with extender and/or peer to peer
communication
‹
Simple: Utilizes 6 very basic core instructions
‹
Versatile: MSP430+CC1100/2500, CC111x/251x,
CC2430/31 and CC2530(SoC)
SimpliciTI targets quick time-to-market wireless
solutions for low power, low cost, and low data
rate networks without the need to know the details
of the network support.
Example Apps ...
2
Example Applications
‹
‹
‹
‹
Alarm & Security: Occupancy sensors, light sensors, carbon
monoxide sensors, glass-breakage detectors
Smoke Detectors
Automatic Meter Reading (AMR): Gas meters, water meters,
electrical meters
Home Automation: Garage door openers, appliances,
environmental devices
Objects ...
3
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
5-5
SimpliciTI Objects and Topologies
SimpliciTI Objects and Topologies
SimpliciTI Objects
‹
‹
‹
Š
Acts as Star hub
Š
One AP per network allowed
Š
Promiscuous mode
Š
Always on
AP
D
RE
Repeater (RE) (ex. Lamp)
D
SD
Š
Range Extender
Š
=4 RE per network recommended
Š
Always on
Š
Can not talk to other RE’s
Š
Promiscuous mode
Device (D) (ex. Temperature sensor)
Š
Š
‹
SD
TD
Access Point (AP) (ex. HVAC central)
Can sleep (SD)
Can transmit only (TD)
D
D
D
Multiple peer to peer links can
exist on a single hardware platform
Topologies ...
4
Network Topologies – Star and P2P
D
D
D
RE
Direct peer to peer
D
Direct peer to peer through RE
D
AP
D
SD
Poll
Store and forward peer
to peer through AP
Logical path
Data path
Network Mgmt
RE
AP
Poll
SD
Store and forward peer to peer
through RE and AP
Example App ...
5
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Example Application and Comparison
Example Application and Comparison
Wireless Sensing Application
Access point
Smoke
Alarm
Range Extender
End Device
Occup an cy
Sensor
CO Sensor
Repeater
Key
Fob
Glass
Break
Sensor
Door
Lock
Occup ancy
Sen sor
C
Gateway
Repeater
Peer to Peer message
Glass
Break
Sensor
CO Sensor
Smoke
Alarm
Message to
Access point
Message repeated
through range extenders
Range can be extended through repeaters.
The circles represent the RF range of the gateways
and the extended RF range of repeaters.
Comparison ...
6
SimpliciTI vs. Zigbee
SimpliciTI
ZigBee
Network properties:
Mesh network
Typical number of
nodes
No
Yes
from 2 to ~30
from 2 to hundreds
Yes
Yes
Hardware
Any MSP430 + ChipCon TRX or
8051 SoC
MSP430F2418 + CC2420,
CC2430
Frequency &
modulation
Any TI radio: <1GHz, 2.4GHz,
standard or proprietary
IEEE 802.15.4 DSSS, 2.4GHz
S/W object distribution
Free download
Free download
S/W source code
Free download
Not required for development.
Compiled code size on
MSP430
~4k depending on configuration
50-60k depending on
configuration
Peer to Peer and Star
network
Hardware and software:
Interoperability between
vendors:
Encryption
No
Yes, 128bit AES on enabled HW
devices, other in software.
Optional
Yes, 128bit AES
Architecture ...
7
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
5-7
Architecture and Details
Architecture and Details
SimpliciTI Architecture - Layers
Ping
Application
Link
Join
Port 0x1
0x2
Freq
Customer App
0x3 0x5
Network
NWK
Data Link
MRFI
Š
Š
Š
Š
Customer
applications
nwk applications
(modules)
NWK
MRFI (Minimal RF
Interface)
0x20
Customer App
0x21
Š
Init
Š
Ping (debug only)
Š
Link / LinkListen
Š
nwk management
Š
Send / Receive
Š
I/O
A SimpliciTI network address consists of the device address
(set at compile time) + the assigned port.
Details ...
8
SimpliciTI Details
‹
‹
‹
‹
‹
‹
‹
‹
‹
Utilizes a single MCU timer in software. SPI and I/O pins talk to radio
(non SoC targets)
Operates on 802.15.4 target (CC2430) or non-802.15.4 capable
targets (CC251x/CC2500/CC111x/CC1100)
Minimal HW abstraction … no driver support (UART, SPI, LCD,
Timers)
No heap utilization (runtime allocation of memory)
No runtime (nwk) context storage
Single thread (app), no tasks or scheduling
Network callback – app can provide callback
Retries and acknowledges must be managed by the application
Utilizes CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) “listen-before-talk”
methodology for transmit
APIs ...
9
5-8
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
APIs, Threading and CallBack
APIs, Threading and CallBack
6 Simple APIs
‹
Initialization
Š
‹
Linking (bi-directional by default)
Š
Š
‹
smplStatus_t SMPL_Link(linkID_t *linkID);
smplStatus_t SMPL_LinkListen(linkID_t *linkID);
Peer-to-peer messaging
Š
Š
‹
smplStatus_t SMPL_Init(uint8 (*pCB)(linkID));
smplStatus_t SMPL_Send(linkID_t lid, *msg, uint8 len);
smplStatus_t SMPL_Receive(linkID_t lid, *msg, *uint8 len);
Run time configuration
Š
smplStatus_t SMPL_Ioctl(Object_t object,
ioctlAction_t action, void *val);
Threading and Callback ...
10
Threading Model and Callback
‹
SimpliciTI is designed to operate
along with your application and
does not require its own context.
‹
Requires no access to a scheduler
or OS (although its use isn’t
precluded).
‹
You may register for a callback
in the initialization call.
‹
This callback is invoked in the receive
ISR thread when a valid application
destination address has been
received.
A
CallBack allows
lower level code,
like an ISR, to call upper
level code, like your
receive application.
You must register
for a callback.
smplStatus_t SMPL_Init(uint8 (*pCB)(linkID))
Pointer to your received
frame handler
Configuration files ...
11
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
5-9
Configuration Files
Configuration Files
Two Configuration Files
‹
smpl_config.dat
Š
General network settings
Š
Š
Š
‹
Maximum number of hops
Maximum payload size
Link and Join tokens
smpl_nwk_config.dat
Š
Settings for each device
Š
Š
Š
Queue sizes
Device address
etc
General config ...
12
Build Time Configurations - General
Item
Default Value
Description
MAX_HOPS
3
Maximum number of times a frame is re-sent before the frame is
dropped. Each RE and the AP decrement the hop count before resending the frame.
MAX_HOPS_FROM_AP
1
Maximum distance an polling ED can be from the AP. To reduce
broadcast storm.
NUM_CONNECTIONS
4
Number of links supported(Both Link and LinkListen). Should be 0 if
the device supports no ED objects (APs or REs)
MAX_APP_PAYLOAD
10
Maximum number of bytes in the application payload
SIZE_INFRAME_Q
2
Number of frames held in the RX frame queue. Can be 0 for Tx-only
devices, or for devices that never receive frames.
SIZE_OUTFRAME_Q
2
Number of frames held in the TX frame queue. Some NWK
applications keep TX frame around to find correct replies.
DEFAULT_JOIN_TOKEN
0x01020304
Joining a network requires this value to match on all devices (D, SD,
RE, and AP).
DEFAULT_LINK_TOKEN
0x05060708
Obtaining a link access to a network device requires this value to
match on all devices.
THIS_DEVICE_ADDRESS
0x12345678
Each device address should be unique.
Most build time configuration parameters will affect the memory
requirements and should be kept as low as possible.
Device specific config ...
13
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Configuration
Configuration
Build Time Configurations – Device Specific
Access Point Devices
ACCESS_POINT
Defined
NUM_STORE_AND_FWD_CLIENTS
10
Number of polling End Devices
supported.
AP_IS_DATA_HUB
Not Defined
If this macro is defined the AP
automatically listens for a link message
from each distinct device that joins and
supports End Device objects. The ED
joining must link immediately after it
receives the Join reply.
RANGE_EXTENDER
Defined
END_DEVICE
Defined
Device type declaration for End
Devices
RX_POLLS
Not Defined
Define RX_POLLS of the device is a
polling End Device.
Range Extender Devices
End Devices
Runtime config ...
14
Runtime Configuration
‹
‹
‹
Application access to frame header
Application access to radio controls
Access Point network management control
Object
Description
Comments
IOCTL_OBJ_FREQ
Get/Set radio frequency
Frequency agility. May be used by
APP or NWK.
IOCTL_OBJ_CRYPTKEY
Set encryption key
Customer may provide external means
for user to set a non-default key.
Requires reset to take effect.
IOCTL_OBJ_RAW_IO
Application layer access to the frame
header to directly send or receive a
frame.
This object is used for example to ping
another device where the network
address of the target device is supplied
directly and not done through the
connection table.
IOCTL_OBJ_RADIO
Application layer access to some radio
controls.
Limited access to radio directly. For
example, sleeping and waking the
radio and getting signal strength
information.
IOCTL_OBJ_AP_JOIN
Access Point join-allow
Interface to control whether Access
Point will allow devices to join or not.
IOCTL_OBJ_ADDR
context
Get/set device address
IOCTL_OBJ_CONNOBJ
Connection object
Delete a connection entry. Accessed
with LinkID. Affects this device only –
does not gracefully tear down
connection.
IOCTL_OBJ_FWVER
IOCTL_OBJ_PROTOVER
Firmware and protocol versions.
Get only. FW version a byte array of
length SMPL_FWVERSION_SIZE.
Protocol version a uint8_t
Permits run-time address generation
for a device. Set function must be done
before the SMPL_Init() call.
Frame format ...
15
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
5 - 11
Configuration
Frame Format and Radio Configuration
SimpliciTI Frame Format
PREAMBLE
SYNC
LENGTH
Misc
DST
ADDR
SRC
ADDR
PORT
DEVICE
INFO
TRACT
ID
App
Payload
FCS
RD*
RD*
1
RD*
4
4
1
1
1
n
RD*
Network Header
MRFI Header
Payload
MRFI Payload
MRFI Frame
SimpliciTI Frame
Field
Definition
Comments
PREAMBLE
Radio synchronization
Inserted by Radio HW
SYNC
Radio synchronization
Inserted by Radio HW
LENGTH
Length of remaining frame in bytes
Inserted by FW on Tx, Partially filterable on Rx.
MISC
Radio dependent (needed for future IEEE
radio support)
Currently set to 0.
DSTADDR
Destination address
Inserted by FW. LSB filterable. 0x00 and 0xFF LSB
values reserved for broadcast. LSB:MSB formatted.
SRCADDR
Source address
Inserted by FW
PORT
Application port number (bits 5-0)
Inserted by FW. Port 0x20-0x3D for customer
applications, Port 0x00-0x1F for NWK applications
DEVICE INFO
Receiver type (bit 7-6), Sender Type (5-4)
& Hop count (2-0)
Inserted by FW.
TRACTID
Transaction ID
Inserted by FW. Discipline depends on context.
APP PAYLOAD
FCS
Application data
Radio append bytes
0 < n < 52 (50 if FCS)
CRC checksum (Tx), RSSI, LQI and CRC status (Rx)
* RD = Radio-Dependent. Populate by MRFI or handled by the radio hardware.
Radio config ...
16
Radio Configuration
‹
SmartRF Studio takes your settings and creates code for
the project …
‹
It can also create a chip-specific configuration file for the
Packet Sniffer
Join and Link tokens ...
17
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Tokens and Packet Sniffer
Tokens and Packet Sniffer
Join & Link Tokens
‹
‹
‹
In networks with an AP,
only devices with a
matching Join token can
join the network
Devices not matching
the join token fail the
join request. Their
default link token
(defined at build) will be
used
Only devices with
identical Link tokens
can link together. In
networks with an AP,
the link token is
distributed by the AP
Networks with no AP do not join, they link only
Packet Sniffer ...
18
TI Packet Sniffer
‹
Sniffer hardware = SmartRF04EB + CC2510EM
‹
Displays all OTA messages within reception range of Sniffer hardware
‹
Filtering and recording ability
eZ430-RF2500 Hardware ...
19
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
5 - 13
Tokens and Packet Sniffer
Hardware and BSP
SimpliciTI eZ430-RF2500 Hardware
$49
USB 2.0
‹
Extra target boards available at www.ti.com/ez430-rf
‹
Workshop hardware = 2 eZ430-RF2500 kits/workstation
Target Board ...
20
Target Board
MSP430F2274
CC2500
‹
16-bit, 16MHz RISC processor
‹
2.4GHz transceiver
‹
32KB Flash, 1KB RAM
‹
Separate 64-byte RX & TX FIFOs
‹
Two 16-bit timers
‹
SPI interface
‹
USCI (UART/IrDA/SPI/I2C)
‹
13.3mA current consumption in RX
‹
10-bit, 200ksps ADC
‹
OOK, 2-FSK, GFSK & MSK
‹
Two configurable Op-Amps
‹
-104dBm sensitivity at 2.4kBaud
BSP ...
21
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Tokens and Packet Sniffer
Simple Board Support Library
Minimal hardware abstraction :
‹ LEDs (on, off, toggle)
‹ Buttons (read)
‹ Init (port setup)
‹ MRFI (radio interface)
Alter BSP files (\Components\bsp) for
your target system
Lab time ...
22
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
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Tokens and Packet Sniffer
*** The mind can only absorb what the bottom can endure ***
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
Description:
This lab utilizes one of the sample applications that is delivered with the SimpliciTI download.
This network is a two device peer to peer application, with both devices implemented as
SimpliciTI End Devices. One device will act as a talker and the other as a listener, but the
designation is arbitrary, since the link is bi-directional. The talker sends a 2-byte payload every 1
to 4 seconds containing the LED to toggle and a incremented transaction ID.
The listener waits for a message and, using the Receive callback feature, handles the message and
toggles the specified LED.
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
‹
Use SmartRF Studio to program
the base frequency and channel
spacing
‹
Browse the code
‹
Program your assigned channel number
‹
Build/Load/Run
‹
Observe Sniffer
Base frequency: 2.47 GHz
Channel Spacing: 400 kHz
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Channel #
0
2
4
6
8
10 or 0x0A
12 or 0x0C
AP as Data Hub ...
23
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Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
Hardware list:
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
2 eZ430-RF2500 Target Boards
1 Battery Module
2 AAA Batteries
1 eZ430-RF2500 Emulator Board
1 SmartRF04EB Board ( firmware revision 28 or later)
1 CC2510EM Board
1 Antenna
1 USB A/B Cable
1 USB Extender Cable
Software list:
9 IAR Embedded Workbench for MSP430 version 4.11D
9 TI Packet Sniffer version 2.10.1
9 SmartRF Studio version 6.10.2.0
(You will find shortcuts for the above applications on the desktop)
9 SimpliciTI version 1.0.6
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
Procedure
Select the Frequency and Channel
To make sure that each workstation is using a different frequency (and prevent a ton of confusion), we need to set up the configuration of the radio. SimpliciTI uses SmartRF Studio to export a configuration file into a format which the software will understand. There is also a structure (mrfiLogicalChanTable) where the channel is changed at run-time. We’ll utilize both
methods to set the appropriate frequency.
SimpliciTI can utilize either 801.15.4 or non-802.15.4 radios for RF communication. On the
non-802.15.4 radios that we’ll be using in this lab, we can specify channels anywhere within
the ability of the radio to tune. Channel spacing can be as close as 25KHz or as wide as
400KHz. We will, though, want to avoid active Wi-Fi channels. For more information, look at
SimpliciTI Channel Table Information.pdf in C:\Texas Instruments\
SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Documents.
With this in mind, we’ll set our CC2500 radio to operate at a base frequency of 2470MHz with
400KHz channel spacing. 2470MHz is well above Wi_Fi channel 11.
1. Open SmartRF Studio and Configuration File
Open SmartRF Studio, select the SmartRF04DK tab and then select Calculation Window – CC2500. Click Start.
2. Open Existing File and Select Preferred Settings
From the menu bar, select File Æ Open configuration. Navigate to C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\mrfi\smartrf\CC2500 and open the
rfstudio.srfs2500 file.
Look in the large Preferred settings box below and select the line that looks like:
Why are we selecting these preferred settings? You’ll see in a moment.
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
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Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
3. Set the Base Frequency and Channel Spacing
Find the RF frequency box, enter 2470 into it and press Enter. Then enter the channel
spacing of 400 in the Channel box. An information box will pop up and inform you that
the closest value is 399.902344. That’s a calculated value from the closest register setting
and is fine. The other selections were already made from the existing configuration file.
Press Enter.
4. Save Configuration
Your instructor assigned each workgroup a channel number for this lab. You might think
that the Channel number box is the spot to put this, but you’d be wrong. The channel
number is set in software, and we’ll do that in a moment. Save your work by selecting File
Æ Save configuration from the menu bar, then select rfstudio.srfs2500 and Save. If
you’re prompted to replace the file, click Yes.
5. Export Settings for SimpliciTI
Export the new settings to code that will be included by SimpliciTI, choose File Æ Export
CC2500 Code. Double click SimpliciTI settings in the bottom list of export targets and
click the Write to file button. Note that you need to use the default filename that appears,
unless you change your IAR project options. Click Save and Yes to replace.
6. Export Settings for the Packet Sniffer
In order for the TI Packet Sniffer to tune in to your message traffic, it needs to operate
with the same settings as your Tx/Rx radios. If you were to export those settings at this
point, they would contain all the settings needed for a CC2500 radio. Unfortunately, the
sniffer board uses a CC2510, so we’ll have to re-make the settings starting with the chip
selection. Why can’t you use a CC2500 as a sniffer? Because it does not have an on board
microcontroller.
Close the Export and Calculation windows, and in the initial SmartRF Studio window,
select Calculation Window – CC2510 and click Start. Select the Preferred settings
shown below:
You may notice that this setting is one of few that matches those for the CC2500, which is
why we selected it before. Like before, find the RF frequency box, enter 2470 into it and
press Enter. Then enter the channel spacing of 400 in the Channel box and press Enter.
From the menu bar, choose File Æ Export CC2510 Code. Double click on Packet sniffer
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
settings in the list of export targets, click Write to file, name the file MyPktSnfSettings.prs and click Save. Close all of the SmartRF Studio windows.
Install and Checkout
7. Install the Hardware
Plug the USB Extension Cable into an open USB port on your PC and then insert the Emulator/Target board into the other end of it. If the Emulator and Target Boards aren’t already
connected, note that the chips on the target board should be on the same side as the emulator connector when the two boards are connected. If the board gets hot, it’s backwards! It’s
easy to misalign the Emulator/Target board connector. Be careful, don’t force it or you’ll
break it You should hear (ba-bump) when Windows recognizes the board.
8. Open IAR WorkBench and the Project
Open IAR Embedded Workbench for the MSP430 by clicking on the shortcut on your
desktop. When the StartUp window appears, click on Open existing workspace.
Navigate to: C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\eZ430RF\2 simple End Devices with bi-di, select SimpliciTI eZ P2P.eww and
click Open. If you see a pop-up telling you that the project needs to be converted to the
new format, click Yes.
9.
Create Project Configurations
In the Workspace window, click on the + next to peer applications and again on the +
next to application. The main_LinkTo.c file supports the Talker and the
main_LinkListen.c file supports the Listener. We could manually include the proper file
at build time, but chance are, we’d make a mistake. Let create two build configurations to
include the correct file for us.
On the menu bar, click Project Æ Edit Configurations and click the New button. Type
Talker into the Name window and click OK. Then, create another configuration called
Listener. Click OK.
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Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
10. Include/Un-include Source Files
Both the Talker and Listener configurations currently have the same build source files as
the original configuration. That is, main_LinkTo.c is part of the build. That’s OK for the
Talker, but not the Listener.
In the Workspace Configuration pull-down menu, select Listener (like below):
Right-click on main_LinkTo.c Æ Options and check the Exclude from build checkbox.
Click OK.
Right-click on main_LinkListen.c Æ Options and uncheck the Exclude from build
checkbox. Click OK.
It’s that simple … now you can easily switch between the two builds.
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
11. Select your Channel
Click Open
from the menu bar and navigate to: C:\Texas Instruments\
SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\mrfi\radios\common. Open mrfi_f1f2.c for editing (This
file isn’t part of the project, it’s referenced in another file) About 1/3 of the way down in
the file you’ll find the following lines (make sure you’re not looking at the CC1100 table):
#if defined( MRFI_CC2500 ) || defined( MRFI_CC2510 ) || defined( MRFI_CC2511 )
static const uint8_t mrfiLogicalChanTable[] =
{
3,
103,
202,
212
};
This table defines the available channels when Frequency Agility is enabled, but the first
entry defines the operating channel when it is not. Replace 3 with the assigned channel
number for your group, then save and close the file.
12. Check out the Code
Take a moment to open main_LinkTo.c and main_LinkListen.c and check out the code.
Double-click on the filename to open the file in the editor window. Note the logical code
dealing with the buttons and LEDs, but concentrate on the SimpliciTI calls … there aren’t
many of them!
13. Build/Load the Listener
Select the Listener configuration, and then click the Debug
button on the menu bar. If
IAR is properly configured (and it should be) the code will build with no errors and
download to the target board. Click the Stop Debugging button
on the menu bar.
Remove the target board from the Emulator and connect it (carefully) to the battery
module (chips facing up). The battery module has a jumper on it to disconnect power;
remove the jumper and replace it over one of the pins for safekeeping. If you’re forgetful,
you can use a Post-It™ note to label the board as Listener 79.
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Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
14. A New Address for the Talker
Every SimpliciTI device requires its own unique address, and if we just rebuild as the
Talker, both devices will have the same address. Change the configuration to Talker, and
open the smpl_config.dat source file for editing from the Workspace, peer applications
Æ Configuration folder.
Near the bottom of the file, you’ll find the line with:
-DTHIS_DEVICE_ADDRESS="{0x79, 0x56, 0x34, 0x12}"
change it to:
-DTHIS_DEVICE_ADDRESS="{0x80, 0x56, 0x34, 0x12}"
15. Build/Load the Talker
Connect a target board to the Emulator, label it Talker 80 if you like and click the Debug
button on the menu bar. Don’t run the software yet, but you can shut down IAR
Embedded Workbench and save anything necessary.
Here’s a diagram of the program flow, but we’ll walk through it momentarily:
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
16. Set up the Sniffer Hardware
Make sure the CC2510EM board is connected properly to
the top of the SmartRF04EB board and that the antenna is
connected to the top of the EM board. Check the two
jumpers on P3 (middle of the board, near the bottom) and
assure that they are oriented vertically.
P3
Using a USB A/B cable, plug the assembly into an open USB port on the PC and switch
the EB board on (move the switch towards the EM board).
If necessary, install the driver from the location listed earlier in the workshop.
17. Start the TI Sniffer
Using the desktop shortcut, start the TI Sniffer software. Select the Protocol as SimpliciTI
(CC2510 or CC1110) and click Start. In the Connected devices box, you should see your
sniffer hardware. If you don’t see it, it’s not connected or not powered.
Click the Radio Setting tab, then the Browse button and navigate to C:\Texas
Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\mrfi\smartrf\
CC2510\MyPktSnfSettings.prs . This is the file you exported from SmartRF Studio
earlier.
Click the Setup tab and enter your workgroup channel into the Select channel box:
Select SimplicTI v1.0.6 in the menu bar pull-down:
and then click Start:
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Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
If you see the following on your sniffer display …
… your P3 jumpers are probably placed incorrectly. Turn the board off and make sure they are
positioned as shown in lab step 16, then switch the board on.
18. Start your Network
Remove/Replace your Talker 80 target board into the emulator connector. This will cycle
power on the board and start the software you downloaded. Both LED’s on the board
should light and you should see a Join message on the Sniffer display. If you see more than
one message, you probably had too much coffee and your hands were shaking when you
inserted the board.
Connect the jumper on the battery module of your Listener 79 target board. Both LED’s
on the board should light and you should see another Join message on the Sniffer display.
19. Linking
Initiate linking by pressing the button on the Talker 80 board. The red LED will turn off
and the board is now ready to hear the Link message from the Listener. Press the button
on the Listener 79 board. The green LED will turn off and you should see Link and Link
Reply messages on the sniffer. We could have done this process the other way, but there
would have been more messages on the sniffer as the listener waited for us to press the
talker button.
After this, the talker will send a 2-byte message to the listener every 4 seconds or so, and
the listener will send it back. Note the source and destination addresses as well as the
incrementing transaction value in the Application Payload.
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Note that the Time Stamp us field has been removed from the display. Look under the Select fields tab.
Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
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Lab5a – Two Device Peer to Peer Network
20. Shut Down
Remove the boards from the emulator and battery module. Remove the battery module
jumper and place it over one of the pins. Shut down all open windows on your desktop.
You’re done
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Data Hub and Multiple Links
Data Hub and Multiple Links
AP as Data Hub
‹
‹
The peer for each End Device is on the Access Point
AP can then act as a data collector or gateway
Link & Join
Token Exchange
Data
D
Link & Join
Token Exchange
AP
D
Link
SMPL_Init
LinkTo
Data
D
D
SMPL_Init
LinkTo
Link
Data
Link & Join
Token Exchange
D
D
Link
SMPL_Init
LinkTo
Multiple Links ...
24
Multiple Links
Because applications have separate port addresses, multiple
peer to peer connections can exist on a hardware platform
D
D
AP
D
D
D
D
ED
D
D
D
D
‹
‹
Application port addresses are 0x20 – 0x3D
‹
LinkTo ports start at 0x20 and increment
‹
LinkListen ports start at 0x3D and decrement
A SimpliciTI network address consists of the device address
(set at compile time) + the assigned port.
Store and Forward ...
25
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Storing, Forwarding and Polling
Storing, Forwarding and Polling
Storing and Forwarding Messages
Incoming Message
for Sleeping ED
AP
The AP can store and forward messages on behalf of
sleeping end devices
The number of messages the AP is allowed to hold is
configurable with NUM_STORE_AND_FWD_CLIENTS
Sleeping devices must Poll the AP upon wakeup
‹
‹
‹
ED
Polling devices ...
26
Polling Devices
‹
‹
‹
End Device can be configured to Poll with RX_POLLS in
smpl_config.dat
Linked AP is always on
When a polling device joins the network, the AP reserves
resources to support it
Š
Š
‹
Messages addressed to sleeping device are held by AP
Broadcast messages are not held
Each port must be polled separately until no more
messages exist for that port
ED
AP
Wake and Poll
for Messages
App level acknowledgements ...
27
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
Application Level Acknowledgements
‹
‹
‹
‹
No acknowledgement mechanism is built into SimpliciTI
Acknowledgements must be implemented at the
application level
Re-sends, etc are completely at the discretion of the
programmer
NWK level acknowledgements are a proposed feature for
future SimpliciTI releases
Message
AP
App Level Acknowledgement
ED
Broadcast messages ...
28
Broadcast Messages
‹
‹
The broadcast message type is used to transmit to every
node in the network, regardless of address
The AP and RE will repeat, but not store and forward this
message
Smoke
Alarm
Smoke
Alarm
Alarm Triggered End Device
Smoke
Alarm
Smoke
Alarm
Smo ke
Alarm
Smoke
Alarm
Smoke
Alarm
C
AP
Smo ke
Alarm
Smoke
Alarm
Smoke
Alarm
Broadcast Alarm Message
Lab time ...
29
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
*** I’m paid by the page ***
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
Lab5b – AP as Data Hub Network
Description:
In this lab, we’ll utilize another of the example applications to set up a AP-as-data-hub network.
Each ED will have an equivalent ED peer on the AP. This example can also demonstrate
frequency agility, but we’ll disable that and demo it later. With the channels changing, it would
be hard to use the packet sniffer to visualize the message traffic.
Lab5b – AP as Data Hub Network
‹
AP as Data Hub
‹
Polling device
‹
Broadcast messages
‹
Disable Frequency Agility
‹
Application level acknowledgements
Base frequency: 2.47 GHz
Channel Spacing: 400 kHz
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Channel #
0
2
4
6
8
10 or 0x0A
12 or 0x0C
Frequency agility ...
30
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
Hardware list:
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
3 eZ430-RF2500 Target Boards
2 Battery Modules
4 AAA Batteries
1 eZ430-RF2500 Emulator Board
1 SmartRF04EB Board ( firmware revision 28 or later)
1 CC2510EM Board
1 Antenna
1 USB A/B Cable
1 USB Extender Cable
Software list:
9 IAR Embedded Workbench for MSP430 version 4.11D
9 TI Packet Sniffer version 2.10.1
9 SmartRF Studio version 6.10.2.0
(You will find shortcuts for the above applications on the desktop)
9 SimpliciTI version 1.0.6
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
Procedure
1. Hardware
The USB extender cable and emulator should still be connected from the previous lab.
Connect one of the target boards to the emulator and we’re ready to go.
2. Start IAR Embedded Workbench
Start IAR Embedded Workbench and open the existing workspace:
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\
eZ430RF\AP as data hub\ SimpliciTI AP Data Hub.eww
If you are prompted to update the project(s), go ahead.
This workspace consists of three projects; an End Device project, and Access Point
project and a Range Extender project. We won’t be using the RE in this lab.
3. Build the End Devices First
Click on SimpliciTI End Device – Release in the Workspace Configuration pull-down:
That will set the ED project as the active project. Expand the project out so that we can
see its contents, like below:
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
4. Frequency/Channel
The entire SimpliciTI download shares the same mrfi folder that you programmed using
SmartRF Studio in the last lab. So we’ll be operating with those settings.
5. Frequency Agility
In order to use the packet sniffer easily, we won’t be using Frequency Agility in this lab,
so we need to disable it. Open smpl_nwk_config.dat in the SimpliciTI End Device
project, peer applications group, Configuration group. Comment out the bottom line:
// -DFREQUENCY_AGILITY
6. Unique Addresses for the EDs
Every SimpliciTI node needs a unique address, so open up smpl_config.dat in the
Configuration folder of the SimpliciTI End Device – Release project. This first device
will have address: 0x78, 0x56, 0x34, 0x12. Go ahead and Build/Load the program to this
target board. When complete, disconnect the board, connect it to an un-powered battery
module and label it ED 78. Click the Stop Debugging button.
Connect another target board to the emulator and change the address in smpl_config.dat
to: 0x79, 0x56, 0x34, 0x12. On the menu bar, click Project Æ Clean to remove files
created by the last build. Build/Load to the new board, disconnect it from the emulator,
connect it to the other un-powered battery module and label it ED 79. Click the Stop
Debugging button.
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
7. Program the AP
Using the Workspace Configuration pull-down, select SimpliciTI Access Point – Release.
Note that the project is BOLD, indicating that it is the active project.
Collapse the SimpliciTI End Device – Release project and expand the SimpliciTI Access
Point project so that we can see its contents. Close all open editor windows (before you
get confused). Let’s make sure that all the ED output files are out of the way before we
build the AP. On the menu bar, click Project Æ Clean.
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
8. Frequency Agility
Open smpl_nwk_config.dat in the SimpliciTI AP Data Hub project, peer applications
group, Configuration group. Make sure the line below is commented out.
// -DFREQUENCY_AGILITY
Open main_AP_Async_listen.c in the SimpliciTI AP Data Hub project, peer
applications group, application group. About 2/3rds down in the file, find the following
line of code:
else
{
//
checkChangeChannel();
}
Comment out the call to checkChangeChannel();
9. Unique Address for the AP
Open up smpl_config.dat in the Configuration folder of the SimpliciTI Access Point –
Release project. Change the first byte of the address to 0x90. Connect the last target board
to the emulator, Build/Load the program to the board and it AP 90.
10. Start the Sniffer
Make sure the sniffer hardware is powered and start the TI sniffer software. Select the
protocol/chip type as SimpliciTI (CC2510 or CC1110) and click Start.
Under the Radio Settings tab, select the CC2510 packet sniffer settings file that we
created earlier. Then, back under the Setup tab, select your workgroups’ channel. Click
the Start button.
11. Start the AP board
Click the Go button in IAR Embedded Workbench, then minimize it. Both LEDs on the
board should light, but there should be no packets on the sniffer display.
12. Power ED 78 board
Connect the power jumper on the ED 78 battery module. If your hands aren’t too shaky,
you should see a Join request (ED78), a Join response (AP90), a Link request (ED78) and
a Link response (AP 90).
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
13. Power ED 79 board
Connect the power jumper on the ED 79 battery module. You should see a Join request
(ED79), a Join response (AP90), a Link request (ED79) and a Link response (AP 90).
Now both ED’s are linked to their peer devices on the AP.
14. Data
Press the button on either board. The red LED on the AP 90 board should toggle. This
application gives both remote ED boards control over a peripheral on the AP. Observe the
packet traffic and payloads.
15. Shut Down
Close all open windows on your desktop, remove the AP 90 target board from the
emulator and power off both battery modules.
You’re done
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
*** sometimes you feel like a nut, sometimes you don’t ***
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
Frequency Agility and Current Consumption
Frequency Agility
‹
4 available channels to avoid noise
Channels are defined in mrfi_f1f2.c or
mrfi_radio.c for 802.15.4 radios
‹
Channel migration is initiated by the AP by:
‹
Š
Š
‹
Algorithmic detection of a noisy channel via RSSI
User initiation
AP sends a broadcast message containing the channel
number to which to change
Š
Sleeping devices may miss this message and need to initiate
channel discovery
#if defined( MRFI_CC2500 ) || defined( MRFI_CC2510 ) || defined( MRFI_CC2511 )
static const uint8_t mrfiLogicalChanTable[] =
{
3,
103,
202,
212
};
Current consumption ...
31
Current Consumption
‹
Osc startup
Š
‹
Ripple counter timeout
Š
‹
7.5mA
Receive
Š
‹
1.75mA
PLL calibration
Š
‹
2.7mA
18.8mA
Transmit
Š
21.3mA
MSP430 active: 2.7mA
MSP430 LPM3: 1.3uA
MSP430
CC2500
There are many, many caveats to this …
Excel File
Upcoming features ...
32
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App Level Acks and Broadcast Messages
Upcoming Features and Demo
Upcoming Features
‹
Security
NV storage of link tables
‹
Listen Before Talk
‹
Improved documentation
Unlink
‹
Š
Š
‹
Š
Network re-start from power-up without re-linking
Improved CCA algorithm
To remove a device from the network
‹
Auto acknowledge
‹
Code Composer Studio support
Š
In place of the current application level ack
Demo ...
33
Demo
‹
Frequency Agility
Lab time...
34
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Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
Description:
In this lab, we’ll take an existing application running on the MSP430 and add wireless capability
to it. This probably matches what most of you will be doing … it lays out all the steps,
directories, includes and all the little things that can take so much time to fix.
Lab5c – Add SimpliciTI to Existing App
‹
Take an existing application
(a temperature sensor)
‹
Add SimpliciTI radio support
to the project
‹
Test
Base frequency: 2.47 GHz
Channel Spacing: 400 kHz
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Channel #
0
2
4
6
8
10 or 0x0A
12 or 0x0C
35
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
Hardware list:
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
2 eZ430-RF2500 Target Boards
1 Battery Modules
2 AAA Batteries
1 eZ430-RF2500 Emulator Board
1 SmartRF04EB Board ( firmware revision 28 or later)
1 CC2510EM Board
1 Antenna
1 USB A/B Cable
1 USB Extender Cable
Software list:
9 IAR Embedded Workbench for MSP430 version 4.11D
9 TI Packet Sniffer version 2.10.1
9 SmartRF Studio version 6.10.2.0
(You will find shortcuts for the above applications on the desktop)
9 SimpliciTI version 1.0.6
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
Procedure
1. Install the Hardware
Insert an Emulator/Target board into the end of the USB extension cable.
2. Build Lab5a Application
Open IAR Embedded Workbench for the MSP430 by clicking on the shortcut on
your desktop. When the StartUp window appears, click on Create new project in
current workspace. Select the MSP430 Tool chain and click OK.
Navigate to: C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\eZ430RF\Lab5c, name the project Lab5c and click Save.
3. New Groups and Files
Add a new Group in the Workspace window called Source. Add main.c,
VLO_Library.h and VLO_Library.s43 from C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI1.0.6\
Projects\Examples\Peer applications\eZ430RF\Lab5c to this group.
Add another Group called Components and add a Group to that called bsp. Add
bsp.c, bsp.h and bsp_macros.h from C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI1.0.6\Components\bsp to this group.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
4.
Project Settings
If main.c isn’t open in the editor window already, look in the Source group in the
Workspace window and double-click on main.c. To construct this project, we
leaned heavily on the on-line code examples available at www.msp430.com . Note at
the top of main.c that the board support header files are added. In order to use the
board support library, we had to include/add bsp.c, bsp.h and bsp_macros.h. To
make the workspace window a little cleaner, we created the Components/bsp and
Source folders. All three source files were simply added to the project.
Right-click on Lab5c – Debug at the top of the workspace window and select Options.
In the General Options category, Target tab, configure the target device as a
MSP430F2274. Click on the Stack/Heap tab and check the Override default
checkbox. Change the Heap size to 0. We won’t be using any dynamic memory.
Select the C/C++ compiler category and click the Preprocessor tab. Add the paths
from the top of the file Paths.txt in the Lab5c folder.
C:\Program Files\IAR Systems\Embedded Workbench 5.0\430\inc
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\bsp
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\bsp\drivers
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\bsp\boards\EZ430RF
Click on the Linker category and select the List tab. Check the Generate linker listing checkbox so that a map file will be generated. That way we’ll be able to see what
our code size is easily.
It’s very important to tell IAR Embedded Workbench to use the Debugger; otherwise it will default to the Simulator (this is both confusing and infuriating).
Click on the Debugger category and see that FET Debugger is selected as the
driver. Select the FET Debugger category and see that the Texas Instruments USBIF connection is selected. Click on the Breakpoints tab and make sure that the Use
software breakpoints checkbox is selected. The emulator hardware provides only a
single hardware breakpoint, and this will emulate more breakpoints in software for
us.
Click OK to close out the Options window.
5. Build/Load
Build/load the program onto the eZRF430-2500 by clicking the
Debug button.
Fix any problems that arise (there should be none). When prompted, save the Workspace as Lab5c. The code will be automatically programmed into the F2274 Flash
memory. It might be a good idea to position the board away from blowing fans, hot
coffee or cold drinks at this time.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
6. Set a BreakPoint
In main.c, set a breakpoint on the line: if (IntDegC>32). Right-click on the IntDegC
variable in the code and select Add to Watch. The Quick Watch window will appear
on the right of the screen.
7. Run
Run the code a few time by clicking the
Go button in the toolbar and observe
IntDegC in the Quick Watch window. The temperature sensor hasn’t been calibrated,
so the actual temperature may be off by a few degrees, but we’re only interested in a
relative temperature change, so the accuracy isn’t important for this lab.
8. Program Set Point
Add two degrees to the measured value and enter it into the two if statements in the
code. For example, if you measured 36 degrees (boy, it’s HOT) , your code would
look like:
if (IntDegC>=38)
{
BSP_TURN_OFF_LED2();
BSP_TURN_ON_LED1();
}
if (IntDegC<38)
{
BSP_TURN_OFF_LED1();
BSP_TURN_ON_LED2();
9. Rebuild/Reload/Run
Click the
button to Stop Debugging, and then remove the breakpoint from the
code by double-clicking on the red dot. Click the
the program. Then click
Go.
Debug button to rebuild/reload
10. Operation
You should see the green LED light up. Place your thumb on the chips to heat them
up (the largest one on the side with the LEDs is the MSP430F2274 with the internal
temperature sensor). If your hands are cold, just rub your thumb on your pants leg to
warm it up.
The red LED should light after a few seconds. Sit the board down and, after a short
cool down, the green LED should light. If none of this happens, you probably used
the wrong set point. You’ll have to go back and re-set it.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
11. Code Size
Open up the map file so that we can see our code size. Click the Open button
on
the menu bar and navigate to C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI1.0.6\Projects\Examples\
Peer applications\eZ430RF\Lab5c\Debug\List. Select Lab5c.map and click Open.
Bearing in mind that the numbers are in hex, add up all the DATA16 and CSTACK
section sizes and enter the result in the table below in the RAM row, w/o SimpliciTI
column (I got 72h). Add the CSTART and CODE sizes together, and enter the result
into the FLASH row, w/o SimpliciTI column (I got 250h).
w/o SimpliciTI
TX code w/ SimpliciTI
RX code w/ SimpliciTI
RAM
FLASH
Now that we have a working piece of code, let’s make
it wireless! Let’s have the temperature sensor display
its results on a remote device. The first thing we need
to decide on is what topology we want to use ... let’s
start out simple and use an End Device (ED) to ED
topology. Let’s assume that you’ve copied the eZ430RF2500 target schematic and that your MSP430F2274
is connected via the SPI port to the CC2500.
12. Adding SimpliciTI
Let’s add the SimpliciTI components to the IAR project. Right-click on the Components folder and select Add Æ Add Group and create a:
nwk group. Then right-click on the nwk group and select Add Æ Add Files. Navigate to C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\simpliciti\nwk, rightclick in the window and change Arrange Icons By Æ Type. Select all five .c files
and click Open.
network applications group. Add all seven .c files from C:\Texas Instruments\
SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\simpliciti\Network applications to the group.
mrfi group. Add mrfi.c from C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI1.0.6\Components\mrfi to the group.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
13. Add a Folder and Add Files
Using Windows Explorer, navigate to C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\
Projects\Examples\Peer applications\eZ430RF\Lab5c. Create a new folder called
Configuration and a subfolder under Configuration called End Device.
Look in C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\
eZ430RF\Simple polling with AP\Configuration and copy the
smpl_nwk_config.dat file into your Configuration folder. Then look in the other
project’s End Device folder and copy smpl_config.dat into your End Device folder.
You can close Windows Explorer.
14. Another Group
Go back to IAR Embedded Workbench, right-click somewhere blank in the Workspace window and add a group named Configuration. Right-click on that group and
add the .dat files from the previous lab step (the ones in our project folders). Note:
You’ll have to change the Files of Type to make them visible.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
15. Project Options
Let’s modify the Project options to support SimpliciTI. Right-click on Lab5c - Debug in the Workspace window and select the following categories:
General Options Æ Stack/heap tab:
Override the default and set the Stack size to 200.
C/C++ compiler Æ Preprocessor tab:
Add the following include paths from the middle of Paths.txt in the Lab5c folder.
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\mrfi
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\simpliciti\nwk
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Components\simpliciti\Network applications
Add MRFI_CC2500 in the Defined symbols box to select the CC2500 radio.
Extra Options tab: (on the far right using the arrow button)
Check the Use command line options checkbox and add the following command line options in order to include the configuration file directives. Again, you can find these at the
bottom of file Paths.txt in the Lab5c folder.
–f "C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\
eZ430RF\Lab5c\Configuration\End Device\smpl_config.dat"
–f "C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI-1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\
eZ430RF\Lab5c\Configuration\smpl_nwk_config.dat"
These files contain a number of compiler required defines for the project. They need to be
included prior to the compilation in order for the defines to have their intended function.
Finally, with a grand
flourish, click OK.
16. Sanity Check
As a quick sanity check, you should be able to build the project with no errors or
warnings at this time. From the top menu bar, click Project Æ Rebuild All. Correct
any problems you may find. We haven’t changed the function of the code, so don’t
bother to run it.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
17. Create Configurations
We’re now ready to modify the code to use the radio, but we’d like to create two versions of it first; one for the transmitter (Tx) and one for the receiver (Rx). Let’s take
the next few steps to do that.
Close main.c in the editor window, then right-click on main.c in the Workspace
window and remove it from the project. When prompted, click Yes.
Then, using Windows Explorer, open the C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI1.0.6\Projects\Examples\Peer applications\eZ430RF\Lab5c folder, rename main.c
to main_tx.c. Make a copy of main_tx.c and name it main_rx.c.
Back in IAR Embedded Workbench, right click on the Source group in the Workspace window and add both main_tx.c and main_rx.c to your project.
On the menu bar, select Project Æ Edit Configurations Æ New and enter Transmitter in the Name box. Also add a Receiver configuration.
Select Receiver in the Configuration dropdown box in the Workspace window.
Right click on main_tx.c Æ Options, check the Exclude from build checkbox and
click OK. Follow a similar procedure to exclude main_rx.c from the Transmitter
project. If you look closely at the symbol to the left of the filename, you’ll see which
file is excluded. Add something to the header comments of the transmitter file so you
won’t get confused. We’ll deal with the receiver later.
18. Modify the Transmitter Code
Let’s start out with the transmitter code. Change the Configuration to Transmitter
and double click on main_tx.c to open it in the editor.
Add the following header file includes just under the bsp includes:
#include "bsp_buttons.h"
// button routines
#include "mrfi.h"
#include "nwk_types.h"
#include "nwk_api.h"
// SimpliciTI header files
19. Add the following variable definitions in the Global variables area:
linkID_t
uint8_t
linkIDTemp;
msg[1];
20. Right after BSP_Init();, add the following lines:
// Initialize SimpliciTI
SMPL_Init(0);
Low Power RF Solutions - SimpliciTI
// no callback supplied
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
21. Just before Global Interrupts (_EINT();) are enabled, add the following code. You
can cut/paste from Code.txt in the Lab5c folder if you like.
// wait for a button press...
do {
if (BSP_BUTTON1())
{
break;
}
} while (1);
// Link to receiver
while (SMPL_SUCCESS != SMPL_Link(&linkIDTemp))
{
BSP_TOGGLE_LED1();
// Blink red LED until link success
}
BSP_TURN_OFF_LED1();
BSP_TURN_ON_LED2();
NWK_DELAY(2);
BSP_TURN_OFF_LED2();
// Then indicate success by lighting
// green LED for 2 seconds
We’re adding a button press here to initiate the link process. This will make the Sniffer results easier to interpret later on. The red LED will blink until linking is successful, at which point the green
LED will light for 2 seconds.
22. Look in the main while(1) loop at the LED control statements. Just below the first
pair,
insert:
msg[0] = 0xF;
// Overtemp message
Just below the second pair, insert:
msg[0] = 0x0;
// Undertemp message
These are the messages that will be transmitted to indicate over or under temperature to the
receiver.
23. Below the last line you inserted, there are three closing braces. Just below the first
one,
insert following line of code. If you’re a slacker, you can copy/paste it from Code.txt
in the Lab5c folder.
SMPL_Send(linkIDTemp, msg, sizeof(msg));
// Send message to receiver
This is the SimpliciTI command that actually sends the message over the air.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
24. Radio Settings
We’ll re-use the settings that we previously made using SmartRF Studio, but open
C:\Texas Instruments\SimpliciTI1.0.6\Components\mrfi\radios\common\mrfi_f1f2.c and verify that the first entry
in the CC2500 structure is your workgroups’ channel.
25. Test the Transmitter
Build/Load the Transmitter program to the target board and use a Post-it™ note to
label it TX.
Start the Packet Sniffer for SimpliciTI (CC2510 or CC1110), make sure that your
sniffer settings file is loaded and select your channel. Start capturing packets.
Return to IAR Embedded Workbench, and click the Go button.
A single Join message should appear in the sniffer. Since there is no AP present, this
request will go unanswered. Press the button on the target board and you should see
Link requests appear and the red LED on the target board should be blinking. The
TX will continue to send out Link requests until it gets a response, which will be
never unless we get busy constructing the receiver.
Stop the debugger, disconnect the TX target board and move it aside. Label another
target board RX and connect it to the emulator.
26. Check the Code Size
Following the procedure outlined in step 11, fill in the RAM/FLASH sizes for the
TX code w/ SimpliciTI column. Remember to look in the Transmitter folder.
I got: RAM = 25Eh and FLASH = 1D52h
27. Modify the Receiver Code
Switch the Workspace Configuration to Receiver and open main_rx.c for editing.
Select everything and delete the contents. Copy the entire contents of main_tx.c into
main_rx.c. Close main_tx.c. Make a change to the main_rx.c header so you can
quickly see that this is the receiver.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
28. In main_rx.c, delete the following lines of code. They aren’t needed on the receiver.
#include "VLO_Library.h"
unsigned int dco_delta;
volatile unsigned long IntDegC;
void Setup_ACLK(void);
and the Setup_ACLK subroutine
void Setup_ADC10(void);
and the Setup_ADC10 subroutine
void Setup_TIMERB(void);
and the Setup_TIMERB subroutine
Setup_ACLK();
Setup_ADC10();
Setup_TIMERB();
LPM3;
ADC10CTL0 |= ENC + ADC10SC;
LPM0;
temp = ADC10MEM;
IntDegC = ((temp - 673) * 423) / 1024;
msg[0] = 0xF;
msg[0] = 0x0;
SMPL_Send(linkIDTemp, msg, sizeof(msg));
Also, delete both interrupt service routines at the bottom of the code.
29. Length, Flag and Callback
We’ll need to add a length variable (for the message length) and we’re going to need
to create a callback that will occur when SimpliciTI receives a frame. In the Global
variables area, add the following:
uint8_t len;
uint8_t flag;
// callback handler
static uint8_t sRxCallback(linkID_t);
Change the SMPL_Init(0); line to:
SMPL_Init(sRxCallback);
// Callback function
30. SMPL_LinkListen
Change:
// Link to receiver
while (SMPL_SUCCESS != SMPL_Link(&linkIDTemp))
- to // Link to transmitter
while (SMPL_SUCCESS != SMPL_LinkListen(&linkIDTemp))
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
31. Turn the Radio On
The default is for the radio to be in idle, so we’ve got to turn the receiver on. Just above
the while(1) statement, insert the following:
// Turn the radio receiver on
SMPL_Ioctl( IOCTL_OBJ_RADIO, IOCTL_ACT_RADIO_RXON, 0);
32. Overtemp, Undertemp
The message we’re sending to the receiver is 0xF for Overtemp and 0x0 for Undertemp.
Change the if() statements in the while() loop so they look like the following:
if (temp == 0xF)
{
BSP_TURN_OFF_LED2();
BSP_TURN_ON_LED1();
}
if (temp == 0x0)
{
BSP_TURN_OFF_LED1();
BSP_TURN_ON_LED2();
}
// above ...
// Turn off green LED
// Turn on red LED
// below ...
// Turn off red LED
// Turn on green LED
33. Callback Function
We need to add the function that will be called when the radio receives a frame. We already called this function sRxCallback in the definitions. The function is invoked in the
frame-receive ISR thread so it runs within the interrupt context. There’s only a single message from
a single transmitter, so the code is pretty simple. You can type this code in, or you can cut/paste
from Code.txt in the Lab5c folder.
//************************************************************
// Received Message Handler
//************************************************************
static uint8_t sRxCallback(linkID_t linkIDTemp)
{
if (SMPL_SUCCESS == SMPL_Receive(linkIDTemp, msg, &len))
{
temp = msg[0];
}
return 0;
}
34. Unique Address
Every SimpliciTI node need a unique address, right? We’ve already built the TX, so
open smpl_config.dat and change the address slightly.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
35. Build/Load/Fix
Build and Load the program to the Rx target board. Fix any problems or typos that
you encounter. Click the Stop Debugging button.
36. Check the Code Size
Following the procedure outlined in step 11, fill in the RAM/FLASH sizes for the RX
code w/ SimpliciTI column. Remember to look in the Receiver folder.
I got: RAM = 24Ah and FLASH = 1B48h. That makes my table look like this:
RAM
FLASH
w/o SimpliciTI
72h
250h
TX code w/ SimpliciTI
25Eh
1D52h
RX code w/ SimpliciTI
24Ah
1B48h
Bearing in mind the differences between the application code sets, we can see that adding
SimpliciTI costs about 500 words of RAM and about 6.9K of FLASH. Your code sizes
should compare favorably.
37. Packet Sniffer
Make sure that your packet sniffer hardware is connected and powered, then start the
packet sniffer software. Make sure you’ve selected SimpliciTI (CC2510 or CC1110).
Check under the Radio Settings tab and see that your packet sniffer settings file is
selected. Go back to the Setup tab and make sure your workgroups’ channel is entered.
The boards are un-powered, right? Click the start capture button.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
38. Operation
Connect the Tx board to a battery module and make sure the power jumper is on. If
you’re lucky and your hands aren’t shaky, you’ll see a single Join message.
Now power the Rx board. Again, you should see a single Join message. Both of these Join
requests fall on deaf ears, since there is no AP to answer them.
Press the button on the Rx board to execute SMPL_LinkListen(). The red LED will
blink very slowly and you’ll see no sniffer activity.
Press the button on the Tx board and you should see a link request and reply appear. The
green LED s will light, and then the temperature sensing code has begun execution.
At this point the sniffer should be capturing about one message per second from the Tx indicating whether the temperature is over or under-temp. Both boards should have the red
or green LED lit, depending on the temperature. If both are green, use your warm finger to
cause an overtemp condition. Both boards should light red LEDs. If your LED’s start out
red, you might want to use a cold can of soda to cool your finger down.
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Lab5c – Adding SimpliciTI to an Existing Application
39. Lab Completed
I can think of several ways to improve on the code we’ve just written … the power consumption of the receiver is a particular issue. But frankly, we’re out of time and need to
move on. If you’d like to make some changes to the code, send them to me via this workshops’ Wiki site and if I add your changes to the course, you will get credit in the source
files. Long live open source!
Congratulations! We’ll be changing out the hardware for the next lab, so power down and
disconnect all the hardware but the SmartRF04EB. Power that board down and carefully
remove the CC2510EM board and place it with the rest of the disconnected hardware.
Make sure your power jumpers are over one of the pins. Shut down any open programs
on your workstation.
You’re done
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