Untitled - slithdata.net

Untitled - slithdata.net
Certain individuals may experience epileptic seizures or loss of
consciousness when subjected to strong, flashing lights for long
periods of time. Such individuals may therefore experience a seizure
while operating computer or video games. This can also affect
individuals who have no prior medical record of epilepsy or have
never previously experienced a seizure.
If you or any family member has ever experienced epilepsy symptoms
(seizures or loss of consciousness) after exposure to flashing lights,
please consult your doctor before playing this game.
Parental guidance is always suggested when children are using a
computer and video games. Should you or your child experience
dizziness, poor eyesight, eye or muscle twitching, loss of
consciousness, feelings of disorientation or any type of involuntary
movements or cramps while playing this game, turn it off immediately
and consult your doctor before playing again.
• Do not sit too close to the monitor.
• Sit as far as comfortably possible.
• Use as small a monitor as possible.
• Do not play when tired or short on sleep.
• Take care that there is sufficient lighting in the room.
• Be sure to take a break of 10-15 minutes every hour.
Terrain effect on combat
Ground Support
Combat Resolution
To Hit
Piercing Fortress Europa (PFE) covers the campaign of the Western Allies
against the Axis forces in the period from July, 1943, to April, 1945 in Sicily
and Italy. Two separate maps are included in order to cover each of the
campaigns at a level that best matches the respective unit and time scales.
Each hex represents a distance of roughly 12 km.
Each unit represents a division, a brigade or a commando unit.
II = Battalion
X = Brigade
XX = Division
Each turn represents 4 days in the summer, up to 6 days in the winter. For
the Sicily campaign a turn represents 3 days.
Please ensure your system meets the minimum requirements listed below.
Windows XPSP2/Vista/7/8
Pentium 500 MHz or Athlon Equivalent
512 MB RAM
200 MB of Free HDD space
To install the game, insert the game DVD disc into your DVD drive. If you
have disabled the Autorun function on your DVD or if you are installing from
a digital download, navigate to the DVD or download file location, double-
click on the installation file, and if it is a zip archive, then double click on
the executable (exe) file that is shown inside the archive. The correct file
name will normally include the words “SetupRelease”. Follow all on-screen
prompts to complete the installation.
Please use the Add/Remove Programs or Programs and Features option from
the Windows Control Panel or the “Uninstall” link in the game’s Windows
START menu to uninstall the game. Uninstalling through any other method
will not properly uninstall the game.
In order to maintain our product excellence, Matrix Games releases updates
containing new features, enhancements, and corrections to any known
issues. All our updates are available free on our website and can also be
downloaded quickly and easily by clicking on the “Check for Updates” link in
your Game Menu or by using the “Update Game” shortcut in your Windows
START menu folder for the game.
We also periodically make beta (preview) updates and other content
available to registered owners. Keeping up with these special updates is
made easy and is free by signing up for a Matrix Games Member account.
When you are signed up, you can then register your Matrix Games products
in order to receive access to these bonus game-related materials. Follow
this process:
1. Sign Up for a Matrix Games Member account: THIS IS A ONE TIME
PROCEDURE; once you have signed up for a Matrix account, you are in
the system and will not need to sign up again. Go to www.matrixgames.
com and click the Members hyperlink at the top. In the new window,
select Register NOW and follow the onscreen instructions. When
you’re finished, click the Please Create My New Account button, and a
confirmation e-mail will be sent to your specified e-mail account.
2. Register a New Game Purchase – Once you have signed up for a Matrix
Games Member account, you can then register any Matrix Games title
you own in your new account. To do so, log in to your account on the
Matrix Games website (www.matrixgames.com). Click “Register Your
Game” near the top of the menu in the Members Club to register your
new Matrix Games purchase.
We strongly recommend registering your game as it will give you a backup
location for your serial number should you lose it in the future. Once you’ve
registered your game, when you log in to the Members section you can
view your list of registered titles by clicking My Games. Each game title is a
hyperlink that will take you to an information page on the game (including all
the latest news on that title).
Also on this list is a Downloads for Registered Games hyperlink that
takes you to a page that has all the latest public and registered downloads,
including patches, for your registered titles. You can also access patches
and updates via our “Latest Downloads” section (http://www.matrixgames.
If you were logged into your Members Club account when you purchased your
game, it will be automatically registered and you can access an automatic redownload link by going to http://www.matrixgames.com/members/myorders.
asp or using the “My Orders” link in the Members Club. If your download does
not show up there, you can contact our Help Desk at http://www.matrixgames.
com/support/ to receive a new download link. This process generally takes
one business day, but is often faster during normal work hours.
Our forums are one of the best things about Matrix Games. Every game has
its own forum with our designers, developers and the gamers playing the
game. If you are experiencing a problem, have a question or just an idea
on how to make the game better, post a message there. Go to http://www.
matrixgames. com and click on the Forums hyperlink.
Should you have a technical problem with the game, the best way to get
help is to post a note in the Technical Support sub-forum of the main game
forum at http://www.matrixgames.com/forums. You’ll then hear back from
either our Matrix Games Staff, the development team, or from one of the
many helpful players of the game. This is usually the fastest way to get help.
Alternatively, you can contact our Help Desk at http://www.matrixgames.
com/support/. Support requests will generally be answered within 24 hours,
except on weekends and holidays.
1. The Sicily Campaign. Only sixteen turns long and containing a small
number of divisions. In this scenario, the Allied player is provided with
sea transport points and one paradrop point at start instead of having to
build them in the first couple of turns. Sixteen turns is not a long time
to destroy the Axis forces and conquer the island, taking the cities of
Syracuse, Palermo and Messina.
The Axis player has a difficult time of it. The Italian forces are weak; the
German forces are too few. It’s very difficult to hold a line for any length of
time so a slow withdrawal towards Messina is the default strategy.
The Allies need 50 victory points for a marginal victory. If the Allies
also control Messina, then it’s a decisive victory. If the final total is less
than 10, then it’s an Axis decisive victory. Any other result is an Axis
Minor victory.
2. The Italian campaign which begins on September 1st, 1943 and runs
for twenty months till the end of April, 1945. The Allied forces here are
tasked with conquering all of Italy including the Po Valley. The faster the
Allies accomplish this goal the greater their level of victory. The task for
the German player is prevent the Allies from crossing the Po.
The Allies have at their disposal a strong army with a steady rate of
replacements as well as air support and the ability to make amphibious
landings in the German rear. They’ll need all of those as the Germans
have some high quality units and advantageous terrain.
Over the course of the campaign, both sides will have to deal with
units being withdrawn from the theatre at inopportune times and less
than ideal levels of supply and fuel.
In this campaign, the Allies need 130 victory points to gain a marginal
victory and 240 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than
129 victory points is a marginal victory and less than 80 is a decisive victory.
3. The Southern Italy campaign. Essentially the same as the campaign but
covers only the first twenty-six turns. This scenario focuses on the initial
invasion of Italy, the capture of ports such as Taranto and Naples and the
capture of the airbase at Foggia. For a decisive victory, the Allies could also
attempt the capture of Cassino and the town of Ortona.
The opening phase of the Italian campaign can be somewhat chaotic
as the Germans seek to establish a front and the Allies are fresh and
driving for their objectives.
In this scenario, the Allies need 30 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 50 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 29
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 15 is a decisive victory.
4. Breaking the Gustav Line. Covers the crucial period when the Allied
advance on Rome was being held up at the Gustav Line centred on
Cassino. Historically, the Allies attempted to outflank the German position
by landing in the rear at Anzio. In the game, the Allied player is free to try
his own strategies to break the line and capture Rome.
This scenario is thirty-two turns long. To win a full victory, the Allies must
capture Rome, Pescara, Cassino, Ancona and Civitavecchia. The opposing
German forces hold a strong fortified line which will be expensive to assault.
In this scenario, the Allies need 40 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 60 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 39
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 20 is a decisive victory.
5. Advance to the Alps. This scenario covers the battle along the Gothic
Line and the breakthrough by the Allies into the Po Valley and to the
foothills of the Alps. Unlike earlier in the wa,r the Allies are short of the
resources they need for a broad assault and many of their forces have
been withdrawn to other theatres.
The German army starts in a good fortified position but their position
lacks strategic depth. The Po Valley will be hard to defend once the Allies
break through the Gothic Line.
The scenario is sixty-six turns in length and to win a full victory the
Allies must capture Florence, Mantua, Genoa, Venice and Verona.
In this scenario, the Allies need 43 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 60 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 42
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 30 is a decisive victory.
6. Main front: Italy. An alternative long campaign which assumes the
invasion of southern France doesn’t happen and the forces and resources
are instead kept in and/or diverted to the Italian campaign.
The campaign up until the spring of 1944 is pretty much historical.
After that, there are a number of differences from other scenarios. The
withdrawals of units from the Allied army no longer take place and the
reduction in resources is canceled.
As a trade-off for the advantages gained by the Allies, they are
expected to reach the Po Valley by December of 1944 or the campaign is
considered to be a failure.
In this campaign the Allies need 130 victory points to gain a marginal
victory and 240 victory points for a decisive victory. Also, for a decisive victory,
every city in the above list needs to be captured. For the Germans, less than
129 victory points is a marginal victory and less than 80 is a decisive victory.
The start up screen provides are several other options besides choosing a
scenario. Players also have to select the type of game from three types. First
is a solitaire game with the computer opponent playing one side. Second is
a two-player “hotseat” game where players take turns inputting their orders
and watching the results on the same computer. Third, a play-by-email
(PBEM) game where two players pass a game file back and forth between
two computers via email or memory stick, etc.
The next option is selecting the balance. The default is no advantage to
either side. If one side is given an advantage, it benefits from a 33% increase
in combat supply and fuel, a bonus of 20% in replacements and a 20%
bonus to their firepower in battle.
Another option is the screen resolution players want to play. Set this
based on your current screen resolution, the game will NOT reset your
actual screen size; it will assume the resolution of the screen is whatever
the player selects. You are allowed to select a screen size that your system is
not running but you may experience problems. It’s possible to play the game
in a smaller window than your screen resolution but don’t select a screen
size bigger than your current resolution.
Piercing Fortress Europa runs in a window, it does not run in full-screen
mode. This allows easy access to other programs you may have running.
When the initial game options have been selected the game will start,
loading the chosen campaign.
American Armour
American Rangers
British Infantry
Canadian Armour
German Luftwaffe
SS Panzer
German Mech Infantry
French Mountain Troops
PFE has many unit types and nationalities. A few are shown above without
their details. The units are of varying types including armoured, infantry,
airborne and some commando and garrison units. Each division is rated for
type, quality and strength. The level of disruption for each unit is also tracked
as it gradually decreases and increases during play.
The symbol in the middle of the counter indicates the type of unit, armour,
infantry, panzer grenadier, commando or paratroop. In the top left of the
counter, a blue “P” standing for Paratroop/Airborne may appear.
In the same location, there may be a “C” which means the unit is
commando-capable or a letter “M” which stands for mountain troops:
Allied airborne units are the only units that can be airdropped on
eligible hexes at the cost of a paradrop point. Like commandos
they have higher quality than regular infantry and the effects of
disruption are 50% less than other units.
Mountain troops for both sides enjoy advantages over regular
infantry when attacking or defending in rough or mountainous
The primary benefit of commando and ranger units is that
they can be used to invade a beach for a cost of a single sea
transport point. With the beach active on the following turn
additional units can be brought in using the lesser sea transport
cost instead of the amphibious invasion cost.
They can also be transferred between friendly ports at no cost.
They have higher quality ratings than other units of the same nationality
so are effective in raising the average quality of their side in battles.
Disruption reduces movement but the disruption penalty for commandos
and rangers is 50% less than it is for other units.
Commando and ranger units also enjoy the same combat benefits as
mountain troops when fighting in rough or mountainous terrain.
The colour of the counter denotes the nationality. Grey units are standard
German army units. Grey-blue units are Luftwaffe ground forces. Black units
are German SS.
The Allies have a plethora of different nationalities. The most common
are the green coloured American forces and the khaki coloured British units
with the unit type on a white background.
Other khaki coloured units are Commonwealth units. The dark blue unit
type background is the New Zealand division.
The khaki coloured units with the green unit type background are Indian
forces. The khaki coloured unit with the orange background is South African.
Two types of khaki coloured units with a red background on their unit type
indicating Canadian forces and Polish forces.
The light blue units are French forces.
On the left-hand side of the counter, to the left of the unit type
symbol, is a yellow circle. Inside this circle is a number that
represents the physical size of the unit, called the Stacking
Value. It is important in determining how many units can be in
one hex and how much capacity is used when amphibiously moving a unit
to a port. Units vary from 1 to 5 stacking points each.
In the top right of the counter is an upside down coloured triangle, representing
troop quality. A green symbol means very elite, a yellow symbol means high
quality, a red symbol means average and a black symbol means low quality.
The larger triangle in the bottom right indicates the level of combat
supply of the unit. A green symbol means 3 levels of combat supply, a yellow
symbol means 2, a red symbol means 1 and a black symbol means 0 combat
supply. Units with a black symbol may not attack and units with a red symbol
may attack but with low intensity.
Two numbers are in the lower left/centre of the counter below the unit
symbol. The first number is the current strength of the unit. The second
number, the one in parenthesis, is the maximum strength of the unit so the
player can see at a glance if the unit needs replacements.
The coloured line at the bottom of the counter is to indicate the amount of
disruption on the unit. The longer the red line, the greater the level of disruption.
If no line is visible then the unit is not currently suffering from any disruption.
When a unit has been given an order a red line will appear across the
top of the counter
When a unit is within 3 turns of being withdrawn from the theatre, the
unit ID will be highlighted in red.
The fourth button of the tool bar, the one with the fuel drums, takes the
player to the Settings screen. On this screen is information and some options
to tailor the game.
Down the left side of the Settings screen are all the keyboard shortcuts.
These can be used instead of the mouse, they are not additional commands.
On the right side of the screen are the optional settings. The checkboxes
under the heading “Update Map” allow the player to control whether or not
the game should shift his view of the map depending on three kinds of events.
ƒƒ The top one, “Unit moves”, if checked, means the game will update the
map view to show every move made by a friendly unit. Some players
may prefer this option to be turned off, as it can be disconcerting to
see the map view shifting around constantly.
ƒƒ The second checkbox, “Unit attacks”, if checked, means the map
view is updated for battles. This one should be on all the time as there
is little reason a player wouldn’t want the map view to shift to show
the location of a combat.
ƒƒ The third checkbox, “City changes hands”, will shift the map view
when a city’s possession switches. A message box will also appear
when this happens.
Under the heading, “When selecting unit”, there is a single checkbox with
the title, “Auto-movement order”. What this setting does is that when a
player select a unit the game automatically assumes the player wishes to
move the unit and so possible objective hexes are highlighted.
The third heading on the right side of the Settings screen is “Sound
effects”. There are three categories of sound effects which can be turned on
and off individually.
ƒƒ The first category, “Sound”, are the ones the player hears when clicking on
buttons, clicking on the map or using keyboard shortcuts. These consist of
various clicks and beeps to give the player some feedback on his choices.
ƒƒ The second category, “Scroll sounds” are the clicks generated when
the player scrolls the map using the arrow keys.
ƒƒ The third category is “Background sound”. They are generated when
ending the orders phase and when bringing up various screens. For
example, bringing up the air force orders screen generates the sound
of aircraft in the background.
Below the checkboxes is a track bar with the title, “Speed of playback
movement”. When a player is finished his orders and the game resolves the
turn and then plays back what happened, this tool controls the speed of that
playback. It controls how fast the units move.
The next track bar, with the heading, “Speed of scrolling” controls the
speed at which the map view scrolls when the mouse cursor is placed near
the edge of the view.
There is not a large number of phases in PFE. The Orders phase is where
everything a player may wish to do can be done and then the execution phase
where all the orders of both sides are resolved somewhat simultaneously
followed by another orders phase.
From left:
ƒƒ New Game
ƒƒ Victory
ƒƒ Save Game
ƒƒ Settings
ƒƒ Toggle Forces
ƒƒ Find Division
ƒƒ Supply Map
ƒƒ Display Overall Map
ƒƒ Display Past Messages
ƒƒ Turn
ƒƒ Overall Status
ƒƒ Reinforcement Status
ƒƒ Ports
ƒƒ Air Power
ƒƒ Next Unit
Although strength and disruption are important, the focus of the game is on
supply. Units lacking supply attack with less power and their ability to keep
attacking is limited by how many combat supply points they have. Each
unit can be given up to three combat supply points and these are spent
making attacks or defending against attacks. Combat supply, however, is
very limited, therefore it is up to the player to decide which units receive
combat supply and in what quantities.
At the start of the Italian campaign, all units have a low amount of combat
supply. The first thing a player will do is add combat supply to some or all of
his on-map forces. At the start of the Sicily scenario, Allied units are already
assigned two combat supply points each.
In the case of the Allied player, the first thing to consider is where to
launch an amphibious invasion and how many stacking points will need
to be moved by sea. In the case of the Italian campaign its possible not to
amphibiously move units at all. Forces can instead be ferried directly from
Sicily (Messina) to the toe of Italy. Doing this is considered to be part of
regular movement although the single sea hex that is crossed does cost a
high number of movement points.
Another option is to purchase an airborne drop and seize
a port that way. Paradrops can only be undertaken by
actual airborne units such as the US 82nd or the British
1st Para as shown on the screen below.
Scenarios do not necessarily start on “turn 1“. Instead the Italian
campaign has different start points and end points. So a scenario could start
on turn 27 for instance. Another could end on turn 26.
During a turn‘s orders phase, a player may select different units and order
them to perform different actions. Its important to note that moving a unit in
the player’s turn does not actually move the unit. Instead the unit has been
ordered to move. The orders given out don’t take place until the resolution
phase at which time all orders are carried out somewhat simultaneously,
a movement point per unit at a time as described below. Attacks that are
ordered or movements made by the player during his turn may be canceled
due to enemy action.
During the resolution phase, withdrawals are resolved first, then reinforcement
of friendly hexes, then attacks and then movement. The sequence as to which
attacks or movements are resolved first, or whether attacks take place before a
withdrawal occurs, is based on a formula whereby units with better quality and
supply and lower rates of disruption get off the mark sooner.
Movement: If the player selects the Movement option, the game calculates
all hexes that the unit may move to and highlights them while darkening
the ineligible hexes. The highlighted hexes are those that the unit’s current
movement allowance can reach based on the terrain limitations. Selecting a
highlighted hex will move the unit’s visible icon to that location to note that
that is where the unit will attempt to move to during the resolution phase.
It must be noted that selecting a new location during the orders phase
does not mean that it will positively be able to move there. Movement of a
unit can be held up or even completely halted due to the movement of other
friendly and enemy units. In the case of enemy units, a hex that the game
allowed movement through during the orders phase could become occupied
by an enemy unit or the hex next to it could be occupied by an enemy unit.
Friendly units can also block movement due to their occupation of a hex
that cannot otherwise be entered due to stacking limitations.
Attack: Friendly units that are adjacent to enemy units may attack those
forces if they have at least one combat supply point (the triangle is red,
yellow or green). The game will highlight adjacent hexes that are eligible to
be attacked. Selecting one of those hexes will move the unit icon to that hex
and the attack will take place in the resolution phase unless the enemy units
there have successfully withdrawn.
Withdraw: Units that are adjacent to the enemy do not move normally if they
attempt to withdraw. Instead, they have to perform a withdrawal first that
will put them into a hex that is not adjacent to the enemy. When withdrawing,
only half of a unit’s movement points are considered to be available. When
selecting a Withdrawal action, the game will calculate which hexes are
eligible to be withdrawn to and which hexes can be moved to from there and
then highlights them as with movement.
Withdrawals succeed automatically if the unit is not attacked. However,
if an enemy unit is attacking a friendly unit which is attempting to withdraw,
then the result depends on the quality of the respective units, the terrain
the unit is in, the level of disruption on the unit and the type of unit. This
calculation produces a percentage chance that is checked against a random
factor. If the unit fails the test, then the attacking unit will carry out is assault
and the unit trying to withdraw will be forced to defend.
If the withdrawing unit wins the resulting combat, it may continue to
withdraw as ordered. If it loses, it will be retreated by the game system.
Reinforce adjacent: As movement takes place after combat, it is not possible
to move forces to a now threatened sector of the line. However, for forces that
are already adjacent to a hex that may be attacked, this option exists, allowing
adjacent friendly units to reinforce a threatened hex before the enemy attacks it.
Combat supply: Units need at least one combat supply point to attack an
enemy force. Each turn they can, if not doing anything else, add one combat
supply point up to a total of three. The greater the number of supply points a
unit has in a battle, the more effective that unit’s firepower will be.
An increase in a unit’s firepower is one of the ways to overcome a
numerical inferiority in a local situation. As it takes 3 turns to bring a unit up
to its maximum firepower, players will have to plan ahead. Combat supply is
expended in combat at a rate of one level per combat round.
Fortify: German forces may build fortifications. Fortification points must be
purchased in advance on the National Status screen. Once Fort points are
available it costs one Fort point and takes one turn of doing nothing else to
construct an actual fort. The fort greatly increases the survivability of a unit
from enemy fire and also slightly increases the firepower of the unit.
Amphibious Moves: If enough invasion points are available and a unit is
available at Messina (or Malta in the Sicily scenario), the option to launch
an amphibious invasion will be available. When this button is clicked, all the
eligible beach or port hexes will be highlighted. Selecting one of the highlighted
hexes brings up a dialog box allowing selection of a port by clicking on the
“Activate Port” button or by cancelling the selection via the “Continue” button.
When the “Activate Port” button is clicked, a port icon will appear adjacent
to the beach/port being invaded. Two port workers will automatically be
assigned to work this beach if available. If two port workers are not available,
then there will be no opportunity of selecting an invasion in the first place.
An amphibious move is the option to move a unit between two friendly
ports or from a friendly port to a previously invaded beach. The target port/
beach must have sufficient landing capacity for the unit before the move
can take place, meaning the working landing capacity must be equal to or
greater than the stacking value of the unit being moved.
Paradrop: For the Allied player, paradrop points are either available at the
start of the scenario or may be purchased. Using an airborne unit costs just
a single Airborne point for the entire unit. Once this option is selected, the
game will highlight all the possible hexes within range and which are one
of the proper terrain types. Once a hex has been selected, it becomes the
airborne unit’s objective. During the resolution phase, if the Allied player
does not have air superiority, the drop will be canceled.
The cost to purchase an airborne point is 25 fuel and 2 supply points.
In the Sicily scenario, the Allied airbase is Malta. In the Italian scenarios,
the Allied airbase is Messina and then Foggia once captured. Until Foggia is
captured, the Allied air force is limited to southern Italy.
Amphibious invasions: Only the Allied player may launch amphibious
invasions. Amphibious points, also called naval transport points, must be
spent to move units by sea. Amphibious points cost 25 fuel points and a
variable number of supply points (1 to 3). Each amphibious point may move
one stacking point. To invade an inactive port or beach requires a number
of amphibious points equal to the stacking value of the unit. To move a unit
by sea between friendly ports or beaches requires one amphibious point
less than the stacking value. Example, an infantry division with a stacking
value of 3 would require 3 naval transport points to move by sea and invade
a non-friendly beach and 2 amphibious points to move the same unit to a
friendly beach or port.
The cost of an amphibious point for the first 27 turns of the campaign
is 1 supply point and 25 fuel points. On turn 28, the cost is increased to
two supply points and, on turn 73, the cost goes up to 3 supply points. This
reduction represents the fact that Allied shipping resources in the theatre
gradually became scarcer due to transfers to other theatres.
Purchasing invasion points means a loss of other capability, due to the
expenditure of fuel and supply, in return for the ability to open a new invasion beach.
It’s possible an Allied player will click on a unit in Messina (or Malta if
playing the Sicily scenario) and not see the option to amphibiously invade.
This may happen because 2 port workers must be available for an amphibious
invasion to take place. If all the port workers are already engaged at other
ports; new amphibious invasions are not possible.
Ending the turn: Once a player has completed his orders phase, he clicks
the “Turn” button and that exits the phase and starts the execution phase.
PFE cannot be played well without understanding how fuel and supply affect
play. Fuel is required to move units, combat supply is what they require to
fight and regular supply affects a number of things including the cost of
moving combat supply from a port or base to a unit.
If not in regular supply, i.e the hex the unit is in has less than 25% supply,
then the unit can’t take on replacements or combat supply points. The level
of regular supply a unit has also determines the percentage of its movement
points that can be used.
Both fuel and combat supply points enter play every turn. How this works
is that an overall capacity is added up based on the scenario and the current
state of the map. Since each side’s economy is different based on scenario
and conditions, each will be illustrated separately.
ƒƒ The German player receives 6 capacity for Syracuse, 12 for Messina
and 2 for Palermo.
ƒƒ The Allied player receives 30 for Malta.
ƒƒ The German player receives 20 capacity for Verona and 12 for Rome.
In addition, as long as it’s 1943, the German player receives an
additional 10. On turn 10, the German side receives a special onetime allotment of 300 fuel in addition to any other fuel points they
are to receive.
ƒƒ The Allied player receives 45 capacity for Messina, an additional 10
after turn 10 an additional 5 after turn 20. an additional 5 after turn
35 and another 5 after turn 55. Beginning on turn 80, the Allies begin
to lose capacity. Subtract 10 on turn 80. subtract 5 on turn 90 and
subtract another 5 on turn 100.
Once the capacity has been decided, the economic module looks at how the
capacity is to be divided between supply and fuel. This calculation produces
a “supply capacity” and a fuel capacity”.
ƒƒ For the German player, between 15 and 22% of the “supply capacity”
is converted to combat supply points and roughly three times the “fuel
capacity” becomes fuel point subject to some randomness.
ƒƒ For the Allied player, the functions are the same as the German’s
except the fuel point conversion is four times.
There are several types of terrain. Each type affects stacking, movement and
combat differently.
ƒƒ Open terrain is the easiest terrain type to move through and both
armoured units and infantry units receive an increase in their firepower.
ƒƒ Hilly terrain is also pretty easy to move through and once again both
types of units receive a combat bonus.
ƒƒ Rough terrain penalizes movement and increases the infantry
combat bonus.
ƒƒ Mountain terrain is like Rough but the infantry bonus is greater and
the effects on movement more severe.
ƒƒ Urban is good defensive terrain that can contain a lot of stacking
The number of stacking points that can occupy a hex is governed by the
terrain type in that hex. Below is a list of each terrain type and the number
of stacking points allowed to occupy that hex type.
Strait StackLimit = 6
Open StackLimit = 10
Hilly StackLimit = 7
Rough StackLimit = 6
Mountain StackLimit = 5
Urban StackLimit = 11
Rome = 16
Naples = 14
Bologna = 12
Florence = 12
Taranto = 12
Verona = 12
Movement point cost
For Non-Mech /Road
Cross River
Movement point cost For Mechanized /Road
Cross River
Weather: Rain: +3 cost for Mech units, +1 cost for non-Mech.
Weather: Snow: +1 cost for all units.
If hex is enemy controlled +2
Terrain effect if defender
+ 10%
Hilly No effect
Rough - 30%
Mountain - 40%
Urban - 10%
Fort + 10%
Terrain effect if attacker:
Open No effect
Hilly - 10%
Rough - 30%
Mountain - 50%
Urban - 20%
Fort - 20%
- 20%
Cross-river in rain - 40%
Terrain effect on defender
Open No effect
Hilly +10%
Rough + 20% (+40% if mountain troops or commandos)
Mountain + 30% (+50% if mountain troops or commandos)
Urban + 30%
Fort + 25%
Terrain effect on attacker
Open - 10%
Hilly No effect
Rough - 30% (-10% if mountain troops or commandos)
Mountain - 40% (-20% if mountain troops or commandos)
Urban - 20%
Fort - 25%
- 20%
Cross-river in rain - 40%
This screen, shown above, is designed to give the player information
regarding his fuel and combat supply situation. The screen is split into
several areas. The top line provides information concerning the total strength
and number of divisions of each major type the player has as well as the
casualties he’s suffered so far, his available air strength and finally, if Allied,
his working port capacity versus the maximum capacity he has.
On the second line is a yellow text area and a slider. This is where the player
sets his fuel versus combat supply priority. Any increase in one reduces the
priority of the other. The player has to decide what he needs most, fuel or supply.
To change the priorities, click and hold on the “thumb” part of the gauge
and move it to the desired position. The slider is divided into “steps” of 10.
So the split can be set as 60/40 but not 65/35.
Below the priority area on the left-hand side of the screen is the area
where the player may trade some of his fuel and supply resources for other
capabilities. For the Allied player those capabilities are additional invasion
beaches and airborne operations while for the Axis player its fortifications.
On the right-hand side of the screen is another information display
concerned specifically with how much supply and fuel used and how much
is arriving in the theatre. For each, it shows what the player had in stock last
turn, how much arrived, how much was consumed and what the current
total is.
The top of this screen tells the player the number of active units and the
number of casualties his units have taken so far.
In the top panel are four buttons: “On Map”, “Destroyed”, “Arrivals” and
“Withdrawals”. By clicking one of these buttons, the area below will display
a list of units matching that attribute.
ƒƒ The “On Map” button displays a list of units that are active and on the map.
ƒƒ The “Destroyed” button displays a list of units that have been lost
during the campaign.
ƒƒ “Arrivals” displays a list of units that have yet to enter the map
area. This can include untits that have been present and have been
withdrawn and are scheduled to re-enter.
ƒƒ “Withdrawals” displays a list of units that will be removed from the
game in upcoming turns.
The listing of relevant units will display the name of the unit, the size of the
unit in stacking points, and its strength/maximum strength.
Clicking on one of the units in the list shows more information displayed
to the right of the list. At the top will be the unit name, then the supply level
of the hex it’s in, the combat supply with the unit, then disruption, strength
and below that the number of replacements needed.
Below that is a button “Add replacement”, which is visible only if that
nation actually has replacements available for that type of unit. Clicking on
the button will transfer a replacement point of the appropriate type to the unit.
Below the button is a display showing the number of each type of
replacements available to that nation. The type that matches the selected
unit is in bold and underlined.
At the bottom of the unit display is text telling the player the air support
priority for that unit and two buttons, for incrementing or decrementing that
priority. Increasing priority aids in combat. Air power is abstract in PFE.
When a unit in the list is clicked, the map will focus on that unit Exiting
the screen will show the unit with a yellow border.
Use this screen to make the play of the game easier. There is no reason
to select every friendly unit on the map to check if they need replacements
or what their air priority setting is. Instead, click on the unit at the top of the
on-map list and use the down arrow to move down the list with an eye on the
need for replacements. If any replacements are needed and available or the
air priority needs to be changed, it’s easy to do in on this screen.
This is a screen available only to the Allied player showing the ports and
beaches that have been captured and to which the player may assign or
remove “port worker” points. When a beach is successfully invaded or a port
has been captured, that beach/port will appear in the Allied player’s list of
ports that can be seen by selecting the button with the anchor symbol.
The list of ports and beaches is sorted so that the port/beach with the
most workers currently assigned is at the top of the list.
At the top of the display is a line that tells the player how many worker
points he has unassigned.
Below that is a list box that contains a list of the ports captured so far and
any working beaches. Clicking on one of the names of the ports will provide
information about that port.
The first line is “Supply Capacity” which tells the player the total supply
capacity that that port can handle once operating at 100%. That supply
capacity is not to be confused with combat supply points. What supply
capacity means in this case is the regular supply of foodstuffs and other
items. When cut off from such supply, a unit is considered isolated and will
incur disruption every turn it remains in an isolated state. The disruption
makes the unit very brittle to enemy attack. For the Allies, port supply
capacities determine the level of supply reaching each friendly hex. As Allied
units move further away from ports the amount of supply they receive from
those ports declines so the capture of ports closer to the front line as that
line moves north is a constant necessity.
A good way to see the overall supply situation is through the “Supply
Status on Map” button showing well-supplied areas in green and badly
supplied areas in red.
The second line is related to the first: it’s the percentage of a port’s
supply capacity that is currently working. To increase that value, the player
must assign more workers than are required. If he assigns less workers than
are required, the port’s functioning supply capacity will gradually decrease.
The third line is “Landing capacity” and this is the number of unit stacking
points that can be moved to the beach/port and the second number is the
number of stacking points that can be moved there when the beach/port is
functioning at full capacity.
The fourth line is “Current level of damage”. This is the amount of
damage the port has incurred from either bombing or enemy occupation.
Damage acts as a ceiling on port functioning. The more damage to a port the
lower the ceiling of its maximum port capacity. Damage can only be fixed
by assigning workers, the more workers assigned, the faster the damage is
The fifth line is “Minimum workers required”. This is the number of
worker points that should be assigned to that port at minimum to keep the
port functioning at its current capacity. if the port is damaged that capacity
is artificially low. Assigning less than that will mean the port’s functioning
supply capacity will gradually lessen. Assigning more workers than are
required will mean the functioning capacity will increase faster. Once the
port is at 100% working capacity there is no reason to have more workers
there than the minimum.
The sixth line is “Current number of workers” which is the number of
points currently assigned. An invasion beach automatically has three worker
points assigned if the beach is captured.
Below this text is two buttons, one to increase the number of workers
assigned to the port and one to decrease them.
In general, a unit in 100% supply will consume a fuel point for every
movement point that the unit expends.
The amount of fuel consumed by a unit is only part of the equation. Also
affected is how far that unit is from a fuel source. The further away from the
source of supply the more fuel that’s used just getting it to the unit.
Its the same with combat supply, transferring combat supply to a unit
uses fuel depending on how far that unit is from a supply source. The Allies
will use a lot less fuel if they are sitting on a working port than if they are in
the hills of central Italy. In the case of the Germans they draw supply from
cities such as Rome, Naples, Florence and Verona.
Its important for players with limited fuel supplies to keep an eye on
consumption to make sure they don’t run out at a critical moment and don’t
waste fuel unnecessarily.
ƒƒ At plus 90% general supply, one movement point expended costs 1.0
fuel points .
ƒƒ At 70% to 89% general supply, one movement point expended costs
1.2 fuel points.
ƒƒ At 40% to 69% general supply, one movement point expended costs
1.5 fuel points.
ƒƒ At 16% to 39% general supply, one movement point expended costs
2.0 fuel points.
ƒƒ At 0% to 15% general supply, one movement point expended costs
3.0 fuel points.
There are two types of supply in the game. The first represents regular
supply and the second is combat supply.
Regular supply is traced from ports or supply cities to units. Roads are used
whenever possible as the ability to supply units overland eventually peters out.
As long as a unit is in at least 25% supply it can be reinforced and receive
combat supply. If its not in supply it gains fatigue and loses strength each turn.
Example, in the Italian campaign the Allies invade across the straits
from Messina. Later they move to capture Taranto, a major port, and get
it functioning at 100% capacity. The supply level of most of southern Italy
would be adequate, but as they advance toward Naples unit supply levels
will be less and the cost of bringing fuel and combat supply to units as they
advance away from Taranto would become burdensome.
The solution would be to focus on capturing another port closer to the
front line, such as Naples which can supply operations over a great swath
of central Italy. If the advance is focused on the east coast then capture
of smaller ports such as Bari, Termoli and Ortona become important. The
thing to remember is that no matter how good a port is, its limited in its
effectiveness as forces move away from it.
For the Germans, their supply comes from Verona at the north edge
of the map but can also receive supply from Rome, Naples and Florence.
Reinforcements enter at Verona.
Except for being unable to accept a combat supply point, supply doesn’t
affect orders.
What supply does affect is both the total amount of movement points
available and the fuel cost of moving a unit.
Combat supply is very important. Units must have at least one combat supply
point in order to attack. Units can have up to three combat supply. Combat
supply is used up during combat and has to be replenished. Each side is
limited in the amount of combat supply it has and therefore its important
that players plan where their offensives will take place. They will very rarely
be able to attack with all their units each turn.
The more supply available to a unit, the more effective it is in combat. For
example at 0, the effectiveness of an armoured unit would be 66%. At level
3 combat supply the effectiveness of the same unit would be 200%.
To be able to add a combat supply point, the unit must be in a hex with
at least 25% regular supply.
Airpower in PFE is abstracted. No
specific bombers and fighters are in
the game. Airpower is represented
by generic air points. For the Allied
player, there are three areas these
points can be distributed between.
Airpower assigned to Air
Superiority will attempt to protect
airpower allotted to other missions
and will also try to destroy enemy
airpower, achieving superiority in
the theatre which allows airborne operations to take place. Each turn the
airpower of both sides assigned to Air Superiority will attempt to destroy
each other and remaining airpower will attempt to then destroy enemy
airpower assigned to other missions.
Ground Support is airpower that can be used directly by a player to
support attacks on enemy positions and to support one’s own forces that are
threatened. The way this works is that the total of available ground support
points is divided by the number of unit’s in battle which are weighted based
on their priority. So a unit in combat with a ground support priority of three
will receive ground support before a unit with a priority of one will. If there
are 4 ground support points, 3 will go to the priority 3 unit and 1 to the prioriy
1 unit. Ground support can be very important for the Allies especially when
defending a beachhead.
Interdiction is airpower that is assigned to reducing the number of
movement points available to enemy units. This option can be very effective
in reducing the speed at which German reinforcements coming from the
Alps are able to reach central or southern Italy. Interdiction also allows for a
chance at spotting German units that are behind the lines.
In the case of the Germans, if Foggia has not fallen, airpower that is not
assigned is considered to be interdicting Allied movements outside of air
cover from Sicily.
Port Attacks are a special mission available only to the German player.
This mission is an attempt to inflict new damage on a port captured by the
Allies so as to disrupt the supply capability of that port. If the Allies don’t
keep air points on the air superiority mission, such missions can be very
effective in setting Allied progress back.
To bring on combat, units must physically enter enemy-held hexes, not just
be adjacent to them. To enter an enemy-held hex, a unit must have at least
one combat supply point. If the enemy units have not withdrawn when their
hex is attacked, a battle will take place.
When a battle occurs, the first thing to be resolved is ground support. Ground
support aircraft are more effective against armour than infantry, plus units in
rough or mountain terrain are better protected against those in open terrain.
Base chance of hitting enemy in:
Open 30%
Rough 17%
ƒƒ The chance to hit armour and mech units is double. So 60% in the
ƒƒ The chance of hitting defending units is halved.
ƒƒ If the defender is fortified then the modified chance is halved again.
ƒƒ In snow, the base chance of being hit is reduced by a third.
For each unit, all ground support in that battle makes an attack. For every
hit achieved, there is a 20% chance of it causing an actual loss and a 40%
chance of it causing a disruption. Otherwise, the hit has no effect.
To resolve a battle, all units, whether defending or attacking, fire at the
opposing units. The fire strength is the combat strength of the unit modified by
weather, terrain, unit type, unit quality, disruption and available combat supply.
Each combat requires the expenditure of a single combat supply point
per unit involved.
When units fire, their strength is the basic firepower value. This value
determines how many times the unit can fire. This number can be modified
by a number of circumstances to produce a final firepower value.
1. Combat Supply:
ƒƒ If at 0 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 66% of
unit strength.
ƒƒ If at 1 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 100% of
unit strength.
ƒƒ If at 2 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 150% of
unit strength.
ƒƒ If at 3 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 200% of
unit strength.
2. Weather
ƒƒ If raining, the fire strength is reduced by 50%.
ƒƒ If snowing the fire strength is reduced by 25%.
3. Disruption
ƒƒ Fire strength is reduced by 5% for each point of disruption.
4. Terrain effect on combat
Terrain effect if defender
Open + 10%
Hilly No effect
Rough - 30%
- 40%
Urban - 10%
Fort + 10%
Terrain effect if attacker:
Open No effect
Hilly - 10%
Rough - 30%
Mountain - 50%
Urban - 20%
Fort - 20%
- 20%
Cross-river in rain - 40%
5. Withdrawal
ƒƒ If a unit is withdrawing as its attacked the unit’s fire strength is
reduced 10%
6. Coordination
ƒƒ If a force is made up of units from various nationalities, the fire
strength of each unit is reduced by 10%
7. Difficulty setting
ƒƒ The side with the handicap set in their favour gets a 25% boost to its
1. Combat Supply:
ƒƒ If at 0 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 75% of the
unit strength.
ƒƒ If at 1 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 100% of the
unit strength.
ƒƒ If at 2 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 133% of the
unit strength.
ƒƒ If at 3 combat supply a unit has a base fire strength of 166% of the
unit strength.
2. Weather
ƒƒ If raining, the fire strength is reduced by 33%.
ƒƒ If snowing the fire strength is reduced by 25%
3. Disruption
ƒƒ Fire strength is reduced by 4% for each point of disruption.
4. Terrain effect on combat
Terrain effect on defender
Open No effect
Hilly +10%
+ 20% (+40% if mountain troops or commandos)
Mountain + 30% (+50% if mountain troops or commandos)
Urban + 30%
Fort + 25%
Terrain effect on attacker
Open - 10%
Hilly No effect
Rough - 30% (-10% if mountain troops or commandos)
Mountain - 40% (-20% if mountain troops or commandos)
Urban - 20%
Fort - 25%
- 20%
Cross-river in rain - 40%
5. Withdrawal
ƒƒ If a unit is withdrawing as it’s attacked, the unit’s fire strength is
reduced 20%
6. Coordination
ƒƒ If a force is made up of units from various nationalities, the fire
strength of each unit is reduced by 10%
7. Difficulty setting
ƒƒ The side with the handicap set in their favour gets a 25% boost to its
8. Amphibious
ƒƒ Units invading a beach that turn fire at double strength to represent
naval support.
The final total is the fire strength number. The next thing to do is compute
the To Hit number.
If defending, this number is 6 plus the Efficiency rating of the unit times
two. For the attacker, the base number is 3.
For each fire-strength point, a random number is generated between 1 and
100. If this number is less than the To Hit number, then the target incurs a
hit. Each hit is then checked to see if it produces a casualty or a disruption.
Fire has roughly a 30 to 60% chance of the hit causing a casualty,
otherwise it causes a disruption.
When a battle is resolved, the hex is noted with the combat marker being
placed on top of the stack. The player is then given a display in the upper
left-hand side of the screen showing all the data concerning the battle.
On the top line is given the hex location and the battle result. The battle
result will note which side was forced to fall back.
On the second line is the type of terrain.
Below that is a list for each
side of which units are in the
Below those lists are overall
data for each side.
Below the unit lists is
the data that gives players a
good idea of what outcome to
First is the total strength
of each side and second is
the average troop quality (or
On the third line is the
average amount of combat
supply each side has.
On the fourth line is the average amount of disruption for each side.
On the fifth line is the strength of each side after all modifiers have been applied.
On the sixth line is the amount of ground support for each side, if any.
Below that is a note saying whether the attacker had to cross a river to
bring on the battle and secondly if the defender had any fortifications available.
The last two lines list the amount of troop losses and the amount of
disruption incurred by each side during the battle.
Every turn, all the units that have yet to arrive in the game are checked to
see if they’re available now. Units already on the map are also checked,
to see if they’ve been withdrawn from the theatre. This list is available to the
player by clicking the Reinforcement button.
Units that are to be withdrawn from the theatre within 3 turns will have
their ID turn red to indicate to the player the unit will be withdrawn.
Casualties leave a unit at less than full strength. This can be rectified by
adding replacements from those available in that unit’s national pool as
shown above.
When taking on replacements, a unit may incur disruption. For each
replacement added to a unit, there is roughly a 33% chance of a disruption
being incurred to represent a unit needing time to incorporate a large
number of replacements.
The determination of victory is based on a combination of capturing cities
and inflicting casualties.
Sicily: In the Sicily scenario, there are three cities worth victory points:
Syracuse, Palermo and Messina. Messina is by far the most important for
victory purposes. Its capture is worth ten victory points (vps) per turn before
the end of the scenario that its captured. So if it’s captured 3 turns before
the last turn, it’s worth 40 vps.
Capture of Messina: 5 vps per turn before the end of the game.
Capture of Syracuse: 10 vps.
Capture of Palermo: 5 vps.
victory points for each Axis casualty.
-2 victory points for each Allied casualty.
If the final total is 50 or more, it’s an Allied Minor victory. If the Allies also
control Messina, then it’s a Decisive Allied victory. If the final total is less than
10, then it’s an Axis Decisive victory. Any other result is an Axis Minor victory.
Southern Italy Campaign
ƒƒ +1 vp per 5 German casualties
ƒƒ -1 vp per 5 Allied casualties
ƒƒ +5 vps if Allies control Taranto
ƒƒ +15 vps if Allies control Naples
ƒƒ +10 vps if Allies control Foggia
ƒƒ +5 vps if Allies control Ortona
ƒƒ +8 vps if Allies control Cassino
In this scenario, the Allies need 30 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 50 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 29
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 15 is a decisive victory.
Breaking the Gustav Line
ƒƒ +1 vp per 5 German casualties
ƒƒ -1 vp per 5 Allied casualties
+20 vps if Allies control Rome
+4 vps if Allies control Pescara
+8 vps if Allies control Civitavecchia
+8 vps if Allies control Ancona
+8 vps if Allies control Leghorn
+10 vps if Allies control Florence
+2 vps if Allies control Cassino
In this scenario, the Allies need 40 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 60 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 39
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 20 is a decisive victory.
Advance to the Alps
ƒƒ +1 vp per 5 German casualties
ƒƒ -1 vp per 5 Allied casualties
ƒƒ +5 vps if Allies control Ravenna
ƒƒ +7 vps if Allies control Genoa
ƒƒ +15 vps if Allies control Verona
ƒƒ +8 vps if Allies control Mantua
ƒƒ +8 vps if Allies control Venice
ƒƒ +5 vps if Allies control Florence
ƒƒ +10 vps if Allies control Bologna
In this scenario, the Allies need 43 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 60 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 42
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 30 is a decisive victory.
The Italian Campaign:
ƒƒ +1 vp per 4 German casualties
ƒƒ -1 vp per 4 Allied casualties
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 131 that Florence falls, divided by 3
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 131 that Rome falls, divided by 4
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 131 that Bologna falls, divided by 3
+1 vp for each turn before 131 that Mantua falls, divided by 3
+1 vp for each turn before 131 that Venice falls, divided by 3
+1 vp for each turn before 131 that Naples falls, divided by 5
+1 vp for each turn before 131 that Foggia falls, divided by 5
In this campaign, the Allies need 130 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 240 victory points for a decisive victory. For the Germans, less than 129
victory points is a marginal victory and less than 80 is a decisive victory.
Main Front: Italy
ƒƒ +1 vp per 5 German casualties
ƒƒ -1 vp per 5 Allied casualties
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Florence falls, divided by 2
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Rome falls, divided by 3
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Bologna falls
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Mantua falls, divided by 2
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Venice falls
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Naples falls, divided by 4
ƒƒ +1 vp for each turn before 89 that Foggia falls, divided by 4
In this campaign the Allies need 130 victory points to gain a marginal victory
and 240 victory points for a decisive victory. Also, for a decisive victory,
every city i nthe above list needs to be captured. For the Germans, less than
129 victory points is a marginal victory and less than 80 is a decisive victory.
Two players may play a game of PFE at the same computer. Aat the start
screen, select the Hotseat button in the Game Type area. The Allied player
will go first, inputting a password and then moving to the Orders Phase.
Once the Allied player has finished his Orders Phase, the game will clear
the map and ask for the Axis player to enter his password. At this point, the
players switch positions and the Axis player enters his password and does
his orders phase. The playback of the turn is done for each player separately;
both players are not in front of the screen at the same time at any time.
When the Axis player completes his turn, he switches seats with the
Allied player who, after entering his password, will see a playback of the
now resolved previous turn. After this playback is completed, the player will
enter his orders phase. The Axis player then does the same, password entry,
playback view and orders phase.
Two players may play a game of PFE on separate computers by passing
the game file back and forth via email, memory stick or any other means.
This style of play is very similar to the description of Hotseat play with
two exceptions. One, the Allied player, before his first orders phase, will
be prompted to enter a name for the game. This name will be used as a
filename for the turn files which are passed to the other player. Two, at the
end of each player’s orders phase, a popup will appear telling the player to
send the save game file to the other player.
One of the first things a wargamer will notice is that the sequence of play
is different than the classical design. I prefer simultaneous moves. Also, I
prefer that a unit has the ability to perform only one action at a time. So no
leave a ZoC, move, enter a different ZoC and attack in this game.
By limiting units to just one major action per turn, I had to reduce the
time scale so that, over a month, units would be able to perform a number of
actions, including move a given distance, that felt right. With simultaneous
moves, the limit of one type of action per turn and a time scale of 4 to 8
moves per month, I had the core of the system I wanted.
The campaign in Italy often seemed close to being a stalemate. Periods
where a position became untenable and a grand withdrawal occurred were
few although the Allies were always planning for the big breakthrough.
The sequence of play makes breakthroughs difficult to achieve which I
think is historical. When using a classic sequence of play, a player can move
his forces to attack any weak point along a line, make the attacks and then
get a mechanized movement phase allowing him to exploit all before the
defender can move anyone.
Using the PFE system, the attacker and defender will enjoy moments
of uncertainty., For example an attacker moving his forces up to a weak
point in the line, then the defender will be able to order his forces to react
although since everything is simultaneous the attacks will be going in while
the defender is reacting. Nothing being certain, neither side will know for
sure what the situation will be on the ensuing turn. Will the attacks succeed
or fail? Will the defender’s reserves be able to create a new line in time?
Does the attacker have fresh forces following up?
The sequence of play, simultaneous with short turns allowing a single type
of action, produced the overall feel I wanted where the front is constantly
in a state of flux as hexes are gained and lost and limited withdrawals are
happening all in an effort to prevent the big breakthrough.
Something else I wanted from the game system was an emphasis on
reserves, fresh units and planning. On the German side, Kesselring always
seemed able to scrape together some reserves to deploy to meet a threat or
plug a hole. Since the defender is essentially always reacting to the situation
one turn in the past, having even just a couple of units in reserve is very
Once units are “stuck in” they are difficult to extricate and move to
another part of the line. Therefore, it’s important for the defender to always
have a reserve of some sort to plug a hole.
Units wear out as they attack and defend. The way fresh units were
handled was in two ways. One, disruption. This value rises as units take hits
in combat or lacks supply and falls as the unit rests in a well supplied hex.
The other way was using combat supply points. These points give the player
some direct control over how ready a unit is to engage with the enemy. Since
it requires several turns to bring a unit up to maximum effectiveness and
since combat points are not infinite, it requires some level of planning as to
which units receive the points and when the unit needs to be ready.
The above covers the base system. I wanted to avoid the need for a lot of
chrome and I wanted the system to be as easy to play as possible so I hoped
the base system would meet those goals.
After that, some chrome was required for the Italian Campaign itself. The
system needed amphibious operations and paradrops, ground support and
interdiction as well as replacements etc.
When adding chrome, I tried to avoid unnecessary complexity and to
integrate those areas as smoothly as possible into the base system.
I hope the result gives a feel for the Italian Campaign and that the game
itself is of interest to players.
Frank Hunter
Gary Krockover
Brad Hunter
zgrant, pzgndr, gwgardner, Bott, Delta91, sulla05, Warlord1963, rjh1971, AZ
Gung Ho, Ralph Harper, dbrs1962, map66, Sgt_Rock, Hitech, Okiemcguire,
Jmass, typhoon, derfderf, moet, MikeKraemer, victor charlie, schascha,
Rick, GJK, fthein
JD McNeil
Iain McNeil
Tamas Kiss
Erik Rutins
Philip Veale
Marco A. Minoli
Richard Evans
Olivier Georges
Bart Schouten
Claudio Guarnerio
Myriam Bell
Andrew Loveridge
Gerry Edwards
Dean Walker
Liz Stoltz
Christian Bassani
Paulo Costa
Valery Vidershpan
Andrea Nicola
Fernando Turi
Juan Diaz Bustamante
1. General. This software product in its entirety is copyrighted and is protected by international law. The
software and any accompanying documentation or media including this License whether on disk, in
read only memory, or in any other form is licensed, not sold, to you by Matrix Games Ltd. and is for use
only under the terms of this License. Matrix Games reserve all rights not expressly granted to you. The
rights granted herein are limited and do not include any patents or intellectual property rights. Matrix
Games expressly retains ownership of the Software itself.
2. Permitted License Uses and Restrictions. This License allows you to install and use one copy
of the Software on a single computer at any time. This License does not allow the Software to exist
on more than one computer at a time, and you may not make the Software available over a network
where it could be used by multiple computers at the same time. You may not copy, reproduce, translate,
decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble, modify, or create derivative works from the assembled
code or any part thereof. The software may contain an Editor that allows purchaser to create new
assets, modify existing assets or files or create custom levels, scenarios or other materials for use
solely in connection with the existing software (“new materials”). Purchaser is not permitted to use, or
allow third parties to use the Editor and/or any new materials created, for any commercial purposes
whatsoever, or in any other software, without the express prior written permission of Matrix Games
Ltd. Any persons so doing is committing an offence and or a copyright violation and will be subject to
appropriate civil or criminal action at the discretion Matrix Games Ltd.
3. Game Servers. Use of the software by purchaser on Slitherine’s servers is allowed entirely at the
discretion of Slitherine, who at their sole discretion reserve the right to remove, deny or prevent any
purchaser from using the Companies servers for any reason whatsoever including unreasonable,
abusive or offensive language or behaviour and without consultation or notice.
4. Support & Multiplayer. In certain situations and at their sole discretion Matrix Games Ltd. may
refuse technical support and/or access to multiplayer or online functionality, including but not limited
to the following; the user attempts or assist other to bypass security measures on the software, or the
user is abusive to Matrix Games staff and or it’s community, or Matrix Games has reason to suspect
the user is attempting to cheat or assisting others to cheat, or Matrix Games suspect that the person or
entity is not the original purchaser of the software or Matrix Games at its sole discretion has terminated
the Licence.
5. Transfer. Purchaser may not rent, lease, lend or sublicense the Software to any person or entity.
6. Termination. This License is effective until terminated. Your rights under this License will terminate
automatically without notice from Matrix Games if you fail to comply with any term(s) of this License.
Upon the termination of this License, you shall cease all use of the Software.
7. Warranty. This Software is provided without warranty of any kind, whether express or implied,
including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, which are hereby
disclaimed. In no event will Matrix Games Ltd be liable for any special, incidental, or consequential
damages resulting from possession, use, or malfunction of this software product.
8. Disclaimer. You expressly acknowledge and agree that use of the software is at your sole risk and
that the entire risk as to satisfactory quality, performance, accuracy and effort rests with you. The
software is provided “as is”; with all faults and without warranty of any kind, and Matrix Games Ltd or
their licensors, subsidiaries, affiliates or sub licensees hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions
with respect to the software, express, implied or statutory. Matrix Games do not warrant against
interference of your enjoyment of the software, nor that the functions contained in the software will
meet your requirements, nor that the operation of the software will be uninterrupted or error-free, or
that defects in the software will be corrected. No oral or written information or advice given by Matrix
Games or any authorized representative shall create a warranty. Should the software prove defective,
you assume the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction.
9. Limitation of Liability. Is restricted to the full extent not prohibited by law, in no event will Matrix
Games be liable for personal injury, or any incidental, special, indirect or consequential damages
whatsoever, including, without limitation, damages for loss of profits, loss of data, business interruption
or any other commercial damages or losses, arising out of or related to your use or inability to use the
software, however caused, regardless of the theory of liability (contract, tort or otherwise) and even
if Matrix Games has been advised of the possibility of such damages. In no event shall Matrix Games
Ltd’s total liability to you for all damages (other than as may be required by applicable law in cases
involving personal injury) exceed the amount which the purchaser paid for the software or Fifty US
Dollars ($50) whichever is less. The foregoing limitations will apply even if the above stated remedy
fails in its essential purpose.
10. Controlling Law and Severability. This License will be governed by and construed in accordance
with the laws of England and Wales. If for any reason a court of competent jurisdiction finds any
provision, or portion thereof, to be unenforceable, the remainder of this License shall continue in full
force and effect.
11. Complete Agreement; Governing Language. This License constitutes the entire agreement
between the parties with respect to the use of the Software licensed herein and supersedes all prior
or contemporaneous understandings regarding such subject matter. No amendment to or modification
of this License will be binding unless in writing and signed by Matrix Games Ltd. Any translation of
this License is done for local requirements only In the event of a dispute between the English and any
non-English versions; the English version of this License shall govern.
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