Part V – Fire Protection – 2012
RULES
FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION
OF SEA-GOING SHIPS
PART V
FIRE PROTECTION
2012
GDAŃSK
RULES
FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION
OF SEA-GOING SHIPS
PART V
FIRE PROTECTION
2012
GDAŃSK
RULES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF SEA-GOING
SHIPS prepared and edited by Polski Rejestr Statków, hereinafter referred to as PRS,
consist of the following Parts:
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
Part VI
Part VII
Part VIII
Part IX
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Classification Regulations
Hull
Hull Equipment
Stability and Subdivision
Fire Protection
Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants
Machinery, Boilers and Pressure Vessels
Electrical Installations and Control Systems
Materials and Welding.
Part V – Fire Protection – 2012, was approved by the PRS Board on 20 June, 2012 and
enters into force on 1 July, 2012.
From the entry into force, the requirements of Part V – Fire Protection apply, in full, to
new ships.
For existing ships, the requirements of Part V – Fire Protection are applicable within
the scope stated in Part I – Classification Regulations and as specified in Part
SUPPLEMENT – RETROACTIVE REQUIREMENTS.
The requirements of Part V – Fire Protection are extended by the below-listed
Publications:
Publication No. 41/P – Symbols Related to Life-saving Appliances and Arrangements
and Escape Routes. Guidelines for Passenger Safety Instructions.
Publication No. 51/P – Procedural Requirements for Service Suppliers.
Publication No. 53/P – Plastic Pipes on Ships.
Publication No. 88/P – Guidelines on Safety for Natural Gas-fuelled Engine Installations
in Ships.
Publication No. 89/P – Guidelines on Designing, Performance of Type Tests of Fixed
Fire-extinguishing Systems used on Ships.
Publication No. 29/I – Guidelines for Periodical Inspections of Fire-Extinguishing
Systems and Appliances Used on Ships.
IMO resolutions and circulars referred to in Part V – Fire Protection – see the list of
reference IMO documents at the end of the Part.
© Copyright by Polski Rejestr Statków S.A., 2012
PRS/AW, 10/2012
ISBN 978-83-7664-094-5
CONTENTS
Page
1 General......................................................................................................................
1.1 Application ........................................................................................................
1.2 Definitions .........................................................................................................
1.3 Scope of Survey.................................................................................................
1.4 Technical Documentation of Fire Protection.....................................................
5
5
6
16
20
2 Fire Protection of Cargo Ships................................................................................
2.1 Ship Construction ..............................................................................................
2.2 Fire Divisions ....................................................................................................
2.3 Means of Escape................................................................................................
2.4 Fire Protection of Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces
and Control Stations ..........................................................................................
2.5 Fire Protection Arrangements in Machinery Spaces .........................................
2.6 Fire Protection Arrangements in Cargo Spaces .................................................
2.7 Fire Protection of Galley Spaces .......................................................................
2.8 Fire Protection of Store-Rooms for Paints and Flammable Liquids ..................
2.9 Fire Protection of Spaces Intended for Garbage Storage and Processing ..........
2.10 Additional Requirements for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods.......................
27
27
34
43
3 Fire-Extinguishing Systems and Inert Gas Systems .............................................
3.1 General Requirements .......................................................................................
3.2 Water Fire Main System....................................................................................
3.3 Automatic Sprinkler System (for the Protection of Accommodation Spaces,
Service Spaces and Control Stations) ................................................................
3.4 Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing Systems and Equivalent
Fire-Extinguishing Systems...............................................................................
3.5 Fixed Foam Fire-Extinguishing Systems...........................................................
3.6 Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems..............................................................
3.7 Equivalent Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems ...........................................
3.8 Dry Powder Fire-Extinguishing System ............................................................
3.9 Fixed Deck Foam System (for Use in Tankers).................................................
3.10 Inert Gas System (for Use in Tankers) ..............................................................
3.11 Tests of Fire-Extinguishing Systems and Inert Gas Systems ............................
74
74
75
91
97
106
122
122
125
128
138
4 Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System.......................
4.1 Fixed Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System ....................................................
4.2 Sample Extraction Smoke Detection System (for Cargo Spaces) .....................
4.3 Pre-discharge Alarm of Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing System.........................
4.4 Fixed Hydrocarbon Gas Detection Systems in Tanker Hull Spaces..................
140
140
148
152
152
47
49
53
55
56
57
57
86
5 Fire-Fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools........................ 155
5.1 Fire-Fighting Equipment and Escape Equipment .............................................. 155
5.2 Spare Parts and Tools ........................................................................................ 167
6 Additional Requirements.........................................................................................
6.1 Passenger Ships – Mark: PASSENGER SHIP ..................................................
6.2 Ferries and Ro-Ro Ships – Marks: FERRY, RO-RO SHIP...............................
6.3 Tankers (Crude Oil Tankers and Product Carriers) Carrying
Cargoes Having a Flash-Point not exceeding 60 ºC and Combination
Carriers – Marks: CRUDE OIL TANKER, PRODUCT CARRIER A,
CRUDE OIL TANKER/ORE CARRIER, CRUDE OIL TANKER/ORE
CARRIER/BULK CARRIER............................................................................
6.4 Product Carriers Carrying Cargoes having a Flash-Point Exceeding 60 ºC
– Mark: PRODUCT CARRIER B ......................................................................
6.5 Special Purpose Ships – Mark: SPECIAL PURPOSE SHIP.............................
6.6 Tugs and Supply Vessels – Marks: TUG, SUPPLY VESSEL ..........................
6.7 Floating Cranes – Mark: FLOATING CRANE.................................................
6.8 Container Ships – Mark: CONTAINER SHIP ..................................................
6.9 Oil Recovery Vessels – Mark: OIL RECOVERY VESSEL .............................
6.10 Ro-Ro Passenger Ships – Mark: RO-RO/PASSENGER SHIP .........................
6.11 Gas Tankers – Mark: LIQUEFIED GAS TANKER..........................................
6.12 Chemical Tankers – Mark: CHEMICAL TANKER .........................................
6.13 Fire Fighting Ships – Mark: FIRE FIGHTING SHIP . . ...................................
6.14 High Speed Craft – Mark: HSC.........................................................................
6.15 Ships with Ice Class – Marks: L1A, L1, L2, L3 and L4....................................
6.16 Ships with Unattended Machinery Space and with One Person
on Watch – Mark: AUT and NAV 1..................................................................
6.17 Restricted Service Ships – Marks: I, II and III ..................................................
6.18 Ships Carrying Vehicles with Petroleum Tanks – Mark: PET ..........................
6.19 Ships Provided with Inert Gas System – Mark: ING.........................................
6.20 Passenger Ships Engaged on Domestic Voyages – Mark: Class B,
Class C or Class D .............................................................................................
6.21 Cargo Ships of Less than 500 Gross Tonnage – Minimum Requirements ........
6.22 Ships with Natural Gas-Fuelled Engines ...........................................................
171
171
212
7 Requirements for Appliances and Equipment Posing Additional Risk of Fire .....
7.1 Helicopter Facilities...........................................................................................
7.2 Store-Rooms for Flammable Liquids with a Flash-Point below 43 °C .............
7.3 Tanks and Distributing Stations Intended for Fuel of a Flash-Point below 43 °C...
7.4 Cylinders Containing Welding Gases (Oxygen or Acetylene) ..........................
7.5 Heating of Spaces ..............................................................................................
7.6 Gas Fuel System for Domestic Purposes...........................................................
7.7 The Arrangement of Oil Fuel Tanks..................................................................
276
276
282
282
283
285
285
286
215
230
231
234
235
235
236
238
242
243
248
256
256
258
260
260
260
260
270
275
Supplement – Retroactive Requirements .................................................................... 287
List of IMO documents referred to in Part V of the Rules......................................... 289
General
1
1.1
5
GENERAL
Application
1.1.1 Part V – Fire Protection applies to the structural fire protection, fireextinguishing systems and fire alarm systems, as well as to the arrangement of firefighting equipment in sea-going ships specified in 1.1.1, Part I – Classification
Regulations.
1.1.2 The requirements, specified in Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and in Chapter 7 are
applicable to cargo ship: general cargo ship assigned the mark GENERAL
CARGO SHIP in the symbol of class and are the basic requirements for all other
types of ships to be assigned an additional mark in the symbol of class specified in
3.4, Part I – Classification Regulations. Ships which are to be assigned an
additional mark in the symbol of class shall additionally comply with the
applicable requirements set forth in Chapter 6.
1.1.3 For cargo ships of less than 500 gross tonnage, in lieu of certain
requirements stated in Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, less severe requirements, specified
in 6.21, apply.
1.1.4 Alternative/novel design or arrangements for fire safety deviating from the
requirements specified in the present Part may be permitted, provided that the
design and arrangements meet the fire safety objectives and the functional
requirements, this being verified through approval of technical documentation and
performance of appropriate tests.
1.1.5 On ships subject to SOLAS Convention, alternative/novel design or
arrangements for fire safety may be permitted, provided that:
.1 engineering analysis of such alternative design/arrangement is carried out
in accordance with guidelines set out in MSC/Circ.1002/Corr.1;
.2 technical documentation and the engineering analysis of such alternative
design/arrangement is approved by PRS;
.3 where, for the purpose of the engineering analysis, tests of such design/
arrangement or parts thereof are required, these tests will be carried out in
the presence of PRS’ Surveyor;
.4 a certificate is issued by PRS demonstrating that alternative design/
arrangement provides the equivalent level of safety to the requirements of
SOLAS Convention in accordance with SOLAS regulation II-2/17.
Copies of the approved technical documentation and the engineering analysis,
as well as of the certificate demonstrating that alternative/novel design or
arrangements provide the equivalent level of safety to the requirements of SOLAS
regulation II-2/17 shall be available on board the ship at all times, for the purpose
of inspections.
6
1.2
Fire Protection
Definitions
The definitions relating to the general terminology of the Rules for the
Classification and Construction of Sea-going Ships (hereinafter referred to as the
Rules) are given in Part I – Classification Regulations. Wherever, in Part V,
definitions given in other Parts of the Rules are used, reference to these Parts is
made.
For the purpose of Part V, the following definitions have been adopted:
.1 A t r i a – public spaces on passenger ships within a single main vertical zone
spanning three or more open decks.
.2 C a b i n b a l c o n y – an open deck which is provided for the exclusive use of
the occupants of a single cabin and has direct access from such a cabin.
.3 T o t a l f l o o d i n g – filling the entire volume of the space with a fireextinguishing agent (inert gas, high-expansion foam, water mist, etc.) in order
that fire may be suppressed within that volume.
.4 C h e m i c a l c a r r i e r – for the purpose of Part V, chemical carrier means
a cargo ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquid
product of a flammable nature, listed in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code.
.5 S a f e t y c e n t r e – a control station (with regard to the requirements for
passenger ships ) dedicated to the management of emergency situations. Safety
systems’ operation, control and/or monitoring are an integral part of the safety
centre.
.6 C e n t r a l c o n t r o l s t a t i o n – a control station (with regard to passenger
ships) in which the following control and indicator functions are centralized:
.1 a fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems;
.2 automatic sprinkler systems;
.3 fire door indicator panels;
.4 fire door closure;
.5 watertight door indicator panels;
.6 watertight door opening and closure;
.7 shutting off ventilation fans;
.8 general/fire alarms;
.9 internal communication systems including telephones; and
.10 public address systems microphones.
.7 C o n t i n u o u s l y m a n n e d c e n t r a l c o n t r o l s t a t i o n – a central
control station (in passenger ships) which is continuously manned by
a responsible member of the crew.
.8 F l a m m a b l e l i q u i d s – liquids, liquid mixtures and suspended solids
(paints, varnishes, etc.), which give off flammable vapours having a flash-point
not exceeding 60 °C, determined in closed cup test.
General
7
.9 L o w e r f l a m m a b l e l i m i t – minimum concentration of flammable
compound in air (or other oxidizing agent) below which the mixture will not
ignite or above which a spontaneous propagation of flame may occur.
.10 M e a n s o f e s c a p e – a designated route ultimately leading from
a compartment or ship area to the evacuation station, appropriately marked and
lighted.
.11 Directive MED – Council Directive 96/98/EC on Marine Equipment
(MED) of 20 December 1996, as amended, which specifies, with regard to fire
protection, the requirements and the scope of certification of the equipment
used on ships subject to SOLAS 74/78 Convention, as amended, flying the
flag of EU Member State.
.12 E s c a p e – an orderly movement of passengers and the crew to the evacuation
station or any place of relative safety on open deck in the event of fire.
.13 G a s c a r r i e r – for the purpose of Part V, gas carrier means a cargo ship
constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquefied gas or
other products of a flammable nature, listed in Chapter 19 of the IGC Code.
.14 M a i n f i r e - r e s i s t i n g d i v i s i o n – fire-resisting division (A Class
division) forming boundary of the main vertical or horizontal zone, installed in
passenger ships.
.15 M a i n v e r t i c a l z o n e s – sections (with regard to the requirements for
passenger ships) into which the hull, superstructures and deckhouses are
divided by A Class divisions, the mean length and width of which on any deck
do not, in general, exceed 40 m.
.16 U p p e r f l a m m a b l e l i m i t – maximum concentration of flammable
agent in air (or other oxidizing agent) above which the mixture will not ignite.
.17 G r o u p o f f i r e s – definition of fire depending on the type of burning
material and the material burning process. The fires are subdivided into the
following groups:
– G r o u p A – fires of solid, usually organic materials such as wood, paper,
coal, etc. which, when burning, involve also the phenomenon of glowing;
– G r o u p B – fires of flammable liquids, such as diesel oil, petrol, alcohols or
solid substances which melt when exposed to the heat of the fire, such as
grease, tar, etc.;
– G r o u p C – fires of flammable gases, such as: methane, acetylene,
hydrogen, etc.,
– G r o u p D – fires of light metals and light metal alloys, such as
magnesium, sodium, aluminium, etc.;
– Group F or K – fires of edible oils and fat in galley appliances.
.18 F i r e - e x t i n g u i s h i n g s y s t e m s – active systems, intended for the
supply of fire-extinguishing medium to the spaces/zones protected,
8
.19
.20
.21
.22
.23
.24
.25
.26
.27
Fire Protection
structurally fixed to the ship’s hull and activated automatically or manually
from outside the protected spaces/zones.
W a t e r s c r e e n s y s t e m – system which supplies water to vertical
surfaces of bulkheads and exit trunks in order to protect them against the
effects of fire. The system is also used for creating a narrow space filled with
water droplets (water screen) in order to prevent the fire expansion. The
system is activated manually from outside the protected spaces.
Automatic sp r i n k l e r s y s t e m – fire-detecting and extinguishing system
fitted with temperature sensors activated by predetermined temperature, starting
automatically the supply of sprayed water by sprinklers in the area of the
detected fire and actuating, in control station, the warning signal that the system
is activated. The system is intended for extinction of fires in accommodation,
service spaces or control stations where people may be present.
W a t e r - s p r a y i n g f i r e - e x t i n g u i s h i n g s y s t e m – manually or
automatically controlled fire-extinguishing system where water is supplied by
spraying nozzles installed in the protected space or in the region of the
protected machinery. The system is intended for extinction of fires in cargo
spaces, machinery spaces, store-rooms and other similar spaces.
F i r e s i g n a l l i n g s y s t e m s – systems intended for detecting the fire
symptoms, i.e. smoke, temperature, flame or change in atmospheric
conditions, as well as warning systems transmitting the warning signal that
fire-extinguishing system will operate. Depending on the application, fire
signalling systems are subdivided into:
– f i r e d e t e c t i o n a n d f i r e a l a r m s y s t e m – a system designed
for detecting the fire symptoms and transmitting, after automatic
activation, the alarm signal to control station or other manned space;
– w a r n i n g s y s t e m – a system transmitting the warning signal (visual
and audible) to persons present in the protected space that the smothering
system is on the point of being put into action.
Fire damper – a device installed in a ventilation duct which under normal
conditions remains open allowing flow in the duct, and is closed during fire,
interrupting the flow in the duct to restrict the passage of fire.
A manual fire damper – a fire damper intended to be closed manually in
the event of fire by the crew.
An automatic fire damper – a fire damper which closes automatically in
response to exposure to fire products.
IMSBC Code – the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code, as
amended.
BCH Code – Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, as amended.
General
9
.28 FSS Code – the International Fire Safety Systems Code, as amended.
.29 FTP Code – the International Code for the Application of Fire Test
Procedures, as amended.
.30 HSC Code – the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, as
amended.
.31 IBC Code – the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of
Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, as amended.
.32 IGC Code – the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of
Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk, as amended.
.33 IMDG Code – the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, as
amended.
.34 S t r u c t u r a l f i r e p r o t e c t i o n – all passive means of fire protection
intended for:
– preventing the fire hazard;
– confining/retarding the expansion of fire and smoke on the ship;
– ensuring safe evacuation of personnel from individual spaces and from the
ship, as well as access to particular spaces during rescue and fire-fighting
operations.
.35 SOLAS Convention – the International Convention for the Safety of Life at
Sea, 1974, as amended.
.36 D a n g e r o u s g o o d s – cargoes which constitute additional fire hazard.
Division of dangerous goods into classes is given in 2.10.1.9.
Note: For details relating to particular dangerous goods, see the IMDG Code.
. 37 S t o r e - r o o m s – spaces such as:
– rooms for explosives, intended for the storage of materials of explosive
nature, such as, e.g. pyrotechnic means of signalling;
– rooms for readily ignitable materials, intended for the storage of flammable
solids and flammable liquids, such as: paint and flammable liquids rooms,
compressed flammable gas rooms, etc. ;
– rooms for the storage of combustible materials, such as: boatswain’s stores,
sail stores, carpenter shops, ship’s archives, luggage rooms, mail rooms,
customs rooms, rooms for protective clothing and linen, laundries and
drying rooms, kiosks and duty free shops;
– rooms for the storage of non-combustible materials, such as: spare parts
rooms, stores of mechanical and electrical workshops outside the
machinery spaces.
.38 R e a d i l y i g n i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s – solid materials capable of forming
explosive dust-and-air mixtures, as well as any combustible dry, fibrous and other
readily ignitable materials, such as cotton, tobacco, sulphur, etc.
10
Fire Protection
. 39 N o n - c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l – a material which neither burns nor
gives off flammable vapours in sufficient quantity for self-ignition when heated to
750 °C, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 1.
Any other material is a combustible material.
.40 S t e e l e q u i v a l e n t m a t e r i a l – any non-combustible material which,
by itself or due to insulation provided, has structural and integrity properties
equivalent to steel at the end of applicable exposure to the standard fire test (e.g.
aluminium alloy with appropriate insulation or composite material). Steel
equivalent composite material is subject to test in accordance with IMO guidelines,
specified in MSC/Circ.732.
.41 G r o s s v o l u m e o f a s p a c e – the volume of the space without
deduction for the arrangements, machinery, independent tanks, as well as
equipment, contained therein.
.42 N e t v o l u m e o f a s p a c e – the volume of the space after deduction for
the arrangements, machinery, independent tanks, as well as equipment, contained
therein.
.43 P e r s o n w i t h r e d u c e d m o b i l i t y – anyone who has a particular
difficulty when using public transport, including elderly persons, disabled persons,
persons with sensory impairments and wheelchair users, pregnant women and
persons accompanying small children.
.44 O p e n r o - r o s p a c e s – ro-ro spaces which are either open at both ends or
have an opening at one end, and are provided with adequate natural ventilation
effective over their entire length through permanent openings distributed in the side
plating or deckhead or from above, having a total area of at least 10% of the total
area of the space sides.
.45 O p e n v e h i c l e s p a c e s – vehicle spaces which are either open at both
ends or have an opening at one end and are provided with adequate natural
ventilation effective over their entire length through permanent openings
distributed in the side plating or deckhead or from above, having a total area of at
least 10 % of the total area of the space sides.
.46 P r i m a r y d e c k c o v e r i n g – the first layer of a floor construction, applied
directly on the top of the deck plating – primary coat, anticorrosive compound or
adhesive – which is necessary to provide protection or the floor adhesion to the deck
plating. Other layers in the floor construction are floor coverings.
.47 B u l k h e a d d e c k – the uppermost deck up to which the transverse
watertight bulkheads are carried.
.48 W e a t h e r ( o p e n ) d e c k – a deck which is completely exposed to the
weather from above and from at least two sides.
.49 S p e c i a l c a t e g o r y s p a c e s – enclosed spaces intended for the carriage
of vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion above and below the
General
11
bulkhead deck, into and from which vehicles can be driven and to which
passengers have access. Special category spaces may be accommodated on more
than one deck, provided that the total overall clear height for vehicles does not
exceed 10 m.
.50 C a r g o s p a c e s – all spaces used for cargo, including liquid fuel tanks,
tanks for other liquid cargo and trunks to such spaces.
.51 A c c o m m o d a t i o n s p a c e s – spaces such as public spaces, corridors,
lavatories, crew and passenger cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, game and hobby
rooms, barber shops, pantries containing no cooking appliances 1) and other similar
spaces.
.52 P u b l i c s p a c e s – those portions of accommodation spaces which are used
for halls, dining rooms, lounges and similar permanently enclosed spaces.
.53 I n d u s t r i a l s p a c e s – spaces, such as production spaces, workshops,
laboratories, etc., in which readily ignitable materials (e.g. grease) or flammable
liquids are produced, processed or used during manufacturing process.
.54 R o - r o s p a c e s – spaces not normally subdivided in any way and normally
extending to either a substantial length or the entire length of the ship in which motor
vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion and/or goods (packaged or in
bulk, in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including road or rail tankers), trailers,
containers, pallets, demountable tanks or in or on similar stowage units or other
receptacles) can be loaded and unloaded normally in a horizontal direction.
.55 V e h i c l e s p a c e s – cargo spaces (e.g. conventional spaces) intended for
the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion.
.56 S e r v i c e s p a c e s – spaces used for galleys, pantries containing cooking
appliances 2), lockers, mail and specie rooms, store–rooms, workshops other than
1)
2)
Pantries or isolated pantries containing no cooking appliances may accommodate:
– toasters, microwave ovens, induction heaters and similar appliances each of them with
a maximum power of 5 kW;
– electrically heated cooking plates and hot plates for keeping food warm each of them with
a maximum power of 2 kW and surface temperature not above 150 °C.
Such pantries may also contain coffee automats, dish washers and water boilers, with no
uncovered hot surfaces, regardless of power.
A dining room containing such appliances shall not be regarded as a pantry.
Main pantries or isolated pantries provided with cooking appliances may contain:
– toasters, microwave ovens, induction heaters and similar appliances each of them with
a maximum power of 5 kW;
– electrically heated cooking plates and hot plates for keeping food warm each of them with
a maximum power of 5 kW.
Such pantries may be also fitted with coffee automats, dish washers and water boilers,
regardless of power.
Spaces containing any electrically heated cooking plate and hot plate for keeping food warm
with a power of more than 5 kW shall be regarded as galleys.
12
Fire Protection
those forming part of the machinery spaces, and similar spaces and trunks to such
spaces.
.57 R o o m s c o n t a i n i n g f u r n i t u r e a n d f u r n i s h i n g s o f r e s t r i c t e d
f i r e r i s k – those rooms (with regard to fire integrity of adjacent spaces on
passenger ships) containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk (such as
cabins, public spaces, offices or other types of accommodation) in which:
.1 case furniture such as desks, wardrobes, dressing tables, bureaux, dressers,
is constructed entirely of approved non-combustible materials, except that
a combustible veneer not exceeding 2 mm may be used on the working
surface of such articles;
.2 free-standing furniture such as chairs, sofas, tables is constructed with
frames of non-combustible materials;
.3 draperies, curtains and other suspended textile materials have qualities of
resistance to the propagation of flame, not inferior to those of wool having
a mass of 0.8 kg/m2, this being determined in accordance with the FTP
Code, Annex 1, Part 7;
.4 floor coverings have low flame-spread characteristics;
.5 exposed surfaces of bulkheads, linings and ceilings have low flame-spread
characteristics;
.6 upholstered furniture has satisfactory qualities of resistance to the ignition
and propagation of flame, this being determined in accordance with the
FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 8;
.7 bedding components have qualities of resistance to the ignition and
propagation of flame, this being determined in accordance with the FTP
Code, Annex 1, Part 9.
.58 C a r g o p u m p - r o o m s – spaces in tankers where pumps for cargo
handling systems, stripping systems and crude oil washing systems are installed.
.59 C o n t r o l s t a t i o n s – those spaces, in which the ship’s radio or main
navigating equipment (such as: the steering stand 1), the compass, radar and
direction-finding equipment) or the emergency source of power (including
emergency batteries 2)) is located, or where the fire recording or fire control
equipment is centralized.
Spaces where the fire recording or fire control equipment is centralized are
considered to be a fire control station.
1)
2)
Steering gear room containing an emergency steering position is not considered to be control
station.
Emergency batteries, regardless of battery capacity, for power supply from black-out till start of
emergency generator, emergency batteries used as reserve source of energy to radiotelegraph
installation, batteries for start of emergency generator or batteries regarded as emergency source
of power, required in Chapter 9, Part IX – Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
General
13
.60 P o t e n t i a l i g n i t i o n s o u r c e s – sources having enough energy to
cause ignition. These include high temperature surfaces, sparks or flames from
inefficient flanges or joints, electrical discharges caused from electrostatic
atmospheres, or electrical contactor faults. Sources of these are, for example,
exhaust gas piping of internal combustion engines, leakages from boiler furnace
joints and electrical equipment within oil treatment rooms.
. 61 H o t s u r f a c e s – surfaces with a temperature of less than 220 °C including
steam systems with a pressure of less than 2.3 MPa, thermal oil systems, exhaust
gas piping and oil-fired boilers and exhaust gas boilers.
.62 H e a t e d s u r f a c e s – surfaces with a high temperature source on the other
side.
.63 H i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s u r f a c e s – surfaces with temperatures above 220 °C.
.64 M a c h i n e r y s p a c e s – machinery spaces of category A and other spaces
containing propulsion machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal
combustion engines, generators and major electrical machinery, oil filling stations,
refrigerating, stabilizing, ventilation and air-conditioning machinery and similar
spaces, and trunks to such spaces.
.65 M a c h i n e r y s p a c e s o f c a t e g o r y A – spaces and trunks to such
spaces which contain:
.1 internal combustion machinery used for main propulsion;
.2 internal combustion machinery used for purposes other than main
propulsion where such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output
of not less than 375 kW;
.3 any oil-fired boilers or oil fuel units;
.4 inert gas generators, incinerators, etc.
.66 A C l a s s d i v i s i o n s – fire-resisting divisions formed by bulkheads and
decks which comply with the following criteria:
.1 they are constructed of steel or other equivalent material;
.2 they are suitably stiffened;
.3 they are insulated with approved non-combustible materials 1), 2) such that
the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than
140°C above the original temperature, nor will the temperature at any one
point, including any joint, rise more than 180 °C above the original
temperature, within at least the time listed below:
Class A-60 – 60 min,
Class A-30 – 30 min,
Class A-15 – 15 min,
Class A-0 – 0 min,
1)
2)
Adhesives used in the construction of divisions need not be non-combustible; however, they shall
have low flame-spread characteristics.
For the construction of ship divisions – see para. 2.2.1.1.1.
14
Fire Protection
they are so constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of smoke
and flame to the end of the one-hour standard fire test;
.5 a prototype bulkhead or deck has been satisfactorily tested in accordance
with the FTP Code requirements, Annex 1, Part 3.
.67 B C l a s s d i v i s i o n s – fire-retardant divisions formed by bulkheads,
decks, ceilings or linings which comply with the following criteria:
.1 they are constructed of approved non-combustible materials 1) and all
materials used in the construction and erection of these divisions are noncombustible, with the exception that paint coatings and veneers with LFS
characteristics may be used;
.2 they have an insulation value such that the average temperature of the
unexposed side will not rise more than 140 °C above the original
temperature, nor will the temperature at any one point, including any joint,
rise more than 225 °C above the original temperature, within at least the time
listed below:
Class B-15 – 15 min,
Class B-0 – 0 min,
.3 they are so constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of flame
to the end of the first half hour of the standard fire test;
.4 a prototype division has been satisfactorily tested in accordance with the
FTP Code requirements, Annex 1, Part 3.
.68 C C l a s s d i v i s i o n s – divisions constructed of approved non-combustible
materials1). They need to meet neither requirements relative to the passage of
smoke and flame nor limitations relative to the temperature rise. Combustible
veneers are permitted, provided they meet all applicable requirements specified in
the present Part.
.69 S a f e a r e a i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a f i r e c a s u a l t y – from the
perspective of habitability, any area (as regards the requirements for large
passenger ships), which is not flooded or which is outside the main vertical zone(s)
in which a fire has occurred such that it can safely accommodate all persons on
board to protect them from hazards to life or health and provide them with basic
services.
.70 C a r g o a r e a – part of the ship (as regards the requirements for tankers) that
contains cargo holds, cargo tanks, slop tanks and cargo pump-rooms, including
pump-rooms, cofferdams, ballast and void spaces adjacent to cargo tanks and also
deck areas throughout the entire length and breadth of the part of the ship over the
above-mentioned spaces 2).
.4
1)
2)
Adhesives used in the construction of divisions need not be non-combustible; however, they shall
have low flame-spread characteristics.
Interpretations referring to the definition of cargo area with regard to void spaces or ballast water
tanks protecting a fuel oil tank are given in MSC.1/Circ. 1239 for SOLAS regulations II-2/3.6 and
II-2/4.5.1.1.
General
15
.71 S a u n a – a hot room with temperatures normally varying between 80 ºC and
120 ºC where the heat is provided by a hot surface (e.g. by an electrically heated oven).
The hot room may also include the space where the oven is located and adjacent
bathrooms.
.72 F i r e - f i g h t i n g e q u i p m e n t – portable or mobile equipment used for
extinction of fire, fire-fighting operations and personal protection, such as: fire
hoses, nozzles, portable and mobile fire-extinguishers, portable foam applicator
units, breathing apparatus and fire-fighter’s outfit.
.73 S t a n d a r d f i r e t e s t – a test, with regard to fire structures, in which
specimens of the relevant bulkheads or decks are exposed in a test furnace to
temperatures corresponding approximately to the standard time-temperature curve,
in accordance with the test method specified in the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
.74 C o m b i n a t i o n c a r r i e r – a cargo ship designed to carry both oil and
solid cargoes in bulk.
.75 P a s s e n g e r s h i p – a ship which carries more than twelve passengers.
.76 R o - r o p a s s e n g e r s h i p – a passenger ship with ro-ro spaces or special
category spaces.
.77 C a r g o s h i p – a ship intended for the carriage of cargoes, which is not
a passenger ship.
.78 C o n t i n u o u s B C l a s s c e i l i n g s o r l i n i n g s – those B Class
ceilings or linings which terminate at an A or B Class division.
.79 F l a s h - p o i n t – the temperature in degrees Celsius (closed cup test) at
which a product will give off enough flammable vapours to be ignited, as
determined by an approved flash-point apparatus.
.80 H e l i c o p t e r f a c i l i t i e s – this term covers a helideck, helicopter landing
area, refuelling and hangar facilities.
.81 L o w f l a m e - s p r e a d – with regard to materials used in structural fire
protection low flame-spread means that the surface thus described will adequately
restrict the spread of flame, this being determined in accordance with the FTP
Code, Annex 1, Part 5.
.82 C l o s e d r o - r o s p a c e s – ro-ro cargo spaces which are neither open ro-ro
spaces nor weather decks.
.83 C l o s e d v e h i c l e s p a c e s – vehicle spaces which are neither open
vehicle spaces nor weather decks.
.84 S l o p t a n k – a tank (as regards the requirements for tankers) intended for
the carriage of cargo tanks residues and washings.
.85 T a n k e r – for the purpose of Part V, tanker means a cargo ship constructed
or adapted for the carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes of flammable nature.
16
Fire Protection
.86 O i l f u e l u n i t – the equipment used for the preparation and delivery of oil
fuel, heated or not, to boilers (including inert gas generators) and internal
combustion engines (including gas turbines) at a pressure of more than 0.18 MPa 1).
1.3
Scope of Survey
1.3.1 The general survey regulations for classification, construction surveys and
surveys of ships during service within the scope of structural fire protection, fireextinguishing systems, as well as fire detection and fire alarm systems are given in
Part I – Classification Regulations.
1.3.2 The following are subject to survey during ship construction or alteration:
structural fire protection, fire-extinguishing systems, fire detection and fire alarm
systems, other fire protection systems and arrangements, the documentation of
which is subject to consideration and approval, as well as appliances and systems
which constitute fire risk.
1.3.3 For ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, as well as for all passenger
ships engaged on international voyages (subject to Convention SOLAS 74/78, as
amended) and flying the flag of EU Member State, the following components of
fire-protection equipment/arrangements are subject to certification for compliance
with Council Directive 96/98/EC on Marine Equipment (MED) of 20 December
1996, as amended, also referred to as Directive MED:
.1 A and B Class divisions;
.2 fire doors;
.3 fire door control systems components;
.4 A and B Class windows and side scuttles;
.5 non-combustible materials;
.6 primary deck coverings;
.7 walls and ceilings surface materials and floor coverings with low flamespread characteristics: decorative veneers, paint systems, floor coverings, as
well as pipe insulation covers, adhesives used in A, B and C Class divisions
and ventilation ducts combustible covers;
.8 draperies, curtains and other suspended textile materials and films (used in
passenger ships);
.9 upholstered furniture (used in passenger ships);
.10 bedding components (used in passenger ships);
.11 fire (ventilation) dampers;
.12 penetrations through A Class divisions: electric cable transits, pipes, ducts,
etc. penetrations;
.13 penetrations through B Class divisions: electric cable transits, pipes, ducts,
etc. penetrations;
1)
Oil fuel transfer pumps are not considered as oil fuel units.
General
17
.14 materials other than steel for pipes conveying oil or fuel oil: pipes, fittings,
valves and flexible pipe assemblies;
.15 automatic sprinkler systems heads;
.16 equivalent high-pressure sprinkler systems heads;
.17 nozzles of fixed water-spraying systems and equivalent high-pressure
water-based systems for use in machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms;
.18 nozzles for equivalent high-pressure spraying water-based systems for use
in ro-ro spaces and special category spaces;
.19 nozzles for fixed local spraying water-based systems for use in machinery
spaces of category A;
.20 deep-fat cooking equipment fire-extinguishing systems nozzles (automatic
or manual type);
.21 nozzles for fixed water-spraying systems for cabin balconies (used in
passenger ships);
.22 components of equivalent fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems for use in
machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms (fire-extinguishing medium, main
valves and discharge nozzles);
.23 aerosol systems equivalent to fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems for use
in machinery spaces;
.24 components of fixed deck medium-expansion foam fire-extinguishing
system (used in tankers);
.25 components of fixed low-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system used in
machinery spaces and fixed deck foam fire-extinguishing system used in
tankers;
.26 foam concentrates for fixed high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing
systems for use in machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms;
.27 foam concentrates for fixed foam fire-extinguishing systems for use in
chemical carriers;
.28 fixed inside air foam systems for use in machinery spaces and cargo pumprooms;
.29 arrangements to prevent the passage of flame into the cargo tanks in
tankers;
.30 fixed oxygen analysis and flammable gas detection equipment (used in
tankers);
.31 portable oxygen analysis and flammable gas detection equipment (used in
tankers);
.32 inert gas systems components (used in tankers);
.33 components of escape routes low-location lighting systems (for use in
passenger ships);
.34 fire hoses (classic) and fire hoses (reel type);
.35 dual-purpose type nozzles (spray and jet type);
.36 portable and mobile fire-extinguishers;
.37 portable fire-fighting equipment for lifeboats and rescue boats;
18
Fire Protection
fire-fighter’s outfit: protective clothing (close proximity clothing);
fire-fighter’s outfit: boots;
fire-fighter’s outfit: gloves;
fire-fighter’s outfit: helmet;
fire-fighter’s outfit: life-line;
self-contained compressed-air-operated breathing apparatus;
air-supplied breathing apparatus for use with a smoke helmet or smoke
mask;
.45 emergency escape breathing devices;
.46 components of fixed fire detection and alarm systems for accommodation
and service spaces, control stations, machinery spaces and unattended
machinery spaces (control and indicating devices, electrical and electronic
installations, power supply equipment, fire detectors: smoke detectors, heat
detectors and flame detectors, as well as manually operated call points);
.47 alarm devices of fire detection and alarm system.
Confirmation of compliance with the Directive requirements is Certificate of
Conformity with Directive MED, issued by a notified body (the steering wheel
mark on the Certificate).
.38
.39
.40
.41
.42
.43
.44
1.3.4 For ships of less than 500 gross tonnage and for passenger ships not
engaged on international voyages, as well as for ships flying the flag of non-EU
Member State, the fire-protection equipment/arrangements, specified in 1.3.3, shall
be of the type approved by PRS (shall have Type Approval Certificate issued by
PRS).
In lieu of Type Approval Certificate, the above-mentioned equipment may have
Certificate of Conformity with Directive MED.
1.3.5 The following structures, equipment/arrangements/materials used in fire
protection, not covered by 1.3.3, shall be of the type approved by PRS:
.1 C Class divisions;
.2 carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems components: cylinders,
distribution valves, flexible pipe assemblies, time-delay units, visual and
audible warning devices, discharge nozzles;
.3 fire-extinguishing systems components of paint lockers and flammable
liquid lockers;
.4 galley exhaust duct fixed fire-extinguishing systems components:
.5 helicopter deck fire-extinguishing system components;
.6 liquid gas fuel systems for domestic purposes (components);
.7 nozzles for water spraying hand operated systems;
.8 fixed dry chemical powder fire-extinguishing system used in gas tankers;
.9 sample extraction smoke detection system components;
.10 electric safety lamps;
.11 chemical protective clothing;
General
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
.17
.18
.19
.20
.21
.22
.23
.24
.25
.26
.27
.28
.29
.30
.31
.32
.33
.34
.35
.36
.37
19
portable foam applicator units;
cold-weather starting of generator sets (starting devices);
power-operated doors control system;
fire-extinguishing systems flexible couplings;
foam concentrate used in low-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system;
foam concentrate used in portable foam applicator units;
high-expansion foam generators;
fire hydrants;
low-location lighting system of escape routes;
alternative evacuation management system;
an automatic sprinkler system;
equivalent high-pressure automatic sprinkler system (water mist system);
water-spraying system for ro-ro and special category spaces;
equivalent high-pressure spraying water-based system for ro-ro and special
category spaces;
water-spraying system for the protection of machinery spaces and cargo
pump-rooms;
equivalent high-pressure spraying water-based system for machinery spaces
and cargo pump-rooms;
fixed local water-based system for machinery spaces of category A;
water-spraying system and water-based system for cabin balconies;
equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system for machinery spaces and cargo
pump-rooms;
high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system;
fire detection and alarm system;
fire detection and alarm system for cabin balconies;
sample extraction smoke detection system;
hydrocarbon gas detection system;
liquid gas fuel systems for domestic purposes;
plastic pipes used in fire-extinguishing systems.
1.3.6 PRS may give consent to a single acceptance of a structure, material or
system, for which type approval is required, to be installed on a given ship subject
to tests and acceptance surveys being carried out in accordance with the previously
agreed tests and acceptance programme and the issue of Inspection
Certificate/Certificate.
1.3.7 Fire pumps, water-spraying systems supply pumps, water and foam pumps
of foam fire-extinguishing systems are subject to acceptance and operation tests at
the manufacturer’s in the presence of PRS’ Surveyor.
1.3.8 Containers and pressure vessels of gas fire-extinguishing systems, as well
as CO2 manifold are subject to acceptance and pressure tests at the manufacturer’s
in the presence of PRS’ Surveyor.
20
Fire Protection
1.3.9 During the ship service, fire-extinguishing systems and equipment used in
fire protection, as well as appliances and equipment which constitute additional fire
hazard are subject to periodical inspections and attestation in accordance with
Publication No. 29/P – Guidelines for Periodical Inspections of Fire-extinguishing
Systems and Appliances Used on Ships.
1.3.10 Inspections, maintenance and repair of fixed fire-extinguishing systems,
fire-fighting equipment (fire-extinguishers and portable foam applicator units),
breathing apparatus, low-location lighting systems using photoluminescent
materials, as well as laboratory tests of foam concentrates shall be carried out by
service stations approved by PRS.
1.3.11 Service stations seeking PRS’ approval shall comply with the
requirements specified in Publication No. 51/P – Procedural Requirements for
Service Suppliers.
1.3.12 Repairs of fixed fire-extinguishing systems on board are subject to
acceptance of PRS’ Surveyor in accordance with MSC./Circ. 1070.
1.4
1.4.1
Technical Documentation of Fire Protection
Classification Documentation
Prior to the commencement of ship construction, the following technical
documentation shall be submitted to the PRS Head Office for consideration and
approval:
A. Structural Fire Protection:
.1 plan of structural fire protection, indicating the applied fire protection
method, the names of compartments and their fire hazards, covering:
– the arrangement of A, B and C fire divisions, taking into account
closures of openings in these divisions;
– the arrangement of draught stops;
– designation of escape routes;
– design of typical penetrations of pipings, cables and ventilation ducts
through fire divisions;
.2 fire doors arrangement and control plans;
.3 plan of windows and sidescuttles;
.4 plan of ship’s spaces insulation;
.5 plan of deck covering;
.6 plans of ship equipment, covering:
– linings and ceilings;
– plan of floor lining;
– list of upholstered furniture, mattresses, suspended textile materials and
the bedding components (for passenger ships);
General
.7
.8
.9
.10
.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
21
plan of maintenance and painting;
calculations of the total amount of combustible materials used in
accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations;
plan of ventilation and air-conditioning, including the arrangement of
ventilation ducts, air inlets and outlets, as well as fire dampers;
plan of means of escape and escape time assessment (applicable to
passenger ships only);
plan of low-location lighting and designation of escape routes (for
passenger ships);
analysis of evacuation procedure (for ro-ro passenger ships);
the arrangement of safety centre (for passenger ships);
documentation confirming compliance with the requirements for large
passenger ships in the context of fire disasters;
list of required certificates for materials/components/structures used in fire
divisions.
B. Active Fire Protection:
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
water fire main system, including calculation of fire pump capacities,
hydraulic calculations of the required pressure at fire hydrants, the
arrangement of fire pumps, pipelines and fire hydrants;
automatic sprinkler system or equivalent high-pressure sprinkler system,
including the calculations of the necessary water supply, the required
pressure at sprinklers, diagram of the system operation, including alarm
signals, drawing of pressure tank, the arrangement of pumps, pressure tank,
section valves and sprinklers, with division into pipe sections;
water-spraying fire-extinguishing system or equivalent high-pressure waterspraying system for cargo spaces, including the calculations of pumps
capacities, hydraulic calculations of the required pressure at spraying nozzles,
the arrangement of pumps, pipelines and nozzles, with division into pipe
sections;
water-spraying fire-extinguishing system or equivalent high-pressure
water-spraying system for machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms,
including the calculations of pumps capacities, hydraulic calculations of the
required pressure at spraying nozzles, the arrangement of pumps, pipelines
and nozzles, with division into pipe sections;
local water-spraying fire-extinguishing system for machinery spaces of
category A, including the calculations of pumps capacities, hydraulic
calculations of the required pressure at spraying nozzles, diagram of the
system operation, including alarm signals, the arrangement of pumps,
pipelines and nozzles, with division into pipe sections;
local water-spraying fire-extinguishing system for exhaust gases fired oil
boilers, including the calculations of the necessary water supply, diagram
of the system operation, including alarm signals, the arrangement of
pipelines, fittings and nozzles, as well as sewage drainage;
22
Fire Protection
.7
.8
.9
.10
.11
.12
.13
.14
.15
.16
.17
water screen system, including the calculations of water supplies, the
arrangement of pipelines, fire hydrants and nozzles;
fire-extinguishing system for the protection of galley exhaust duct and
deep-fat cooking equipment;
foam fire-extinguishing system, including the calculations of the required
quantity of foam concentrate, hydraulic calculations of pipe diameters, the
system operation diagram, the arrangement of pipes and devices such as
foam concentrate tanks, proportioners, foam monitors and foam generators;
carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system or an equivalent gas fireextinguishing system, including the calculations of the required quantity of
extinguishing medium, the diameters of pipes and nozzles, diagram of the
system operation, including warning signalization, the arrangement of fireextinguishing station, starting arrangements, the arrangement of pipes and
nozzles, operation manual;
dry powder fire-extinguishing system, including the calculations of fireextinguishing medium and the powder carrier, diagram of the system
operation, the arrangement of fire-extinguishing stations, fire control
stations, pipes and fittings;
inert gas system (for tankers and chemical carriers), including the
calculations of the system equipment capacity, covering: diagram of the
details and arrangement of the gas generating plant, the arrangement of the
system components, the pipes for the distribution of gas to tanks and
cofferdams, electrical diagrams of control and monitoring the inert gas
parameters, automation and alarms;
fire detection and alarm system, including electric circuits diagrams,
division into sections, the arrangement of control panel, indicating units,
detectors and manually operated call points;
sample extraction smoke detection system, including the location of smoke
detection control panel, indicating units, pipes and smoke accumulators,
electric circuits diagrams,
hydrocarbon gas detection system (required for tankers), including the
location of gas measurement and analysis panel, pipes and smoke
accumulators, as well as electric circuits diagrams;
the arrangement of fire-fighting equipment, i.e. portable and mobile fireextinguishers, portable foam applicator units, fire-fighter’s equipment and
emergency escape breathing apparatus;
a list of the required certificates for the applied components, appliances,
systems, fire-fighting equipment.
C. Appliances and Equipment Constituting Additional Fire Hazard
.1
.2
.3
helicopter facilities, fire-extinguishing systems and helideck equipment;
tanks and distributing stations for fuel with a flash-point below 43°C;
welding gases system; .
General
.4
23
liquefied gas installation for domestic purposes.
Classification documentation shall contain material specifications, list of
appliances, components of systems, as well as the necessary information allowing
to assess whether structures/appliances/systems comply with the requirements of
PRS Rules.
With regard to ships to be assigned additional mark in the symbol of class,
additional documentation relating to structural fire protection, active fire protection
or appliances and equipment which constitute fire hazard on ship may be required
by PRS.
For ships undergoing alteration, the above-mentioned documentation is subject
to consideration and approval within the scope regarding alteration.
1.4.2
Fire Control Plan
1.4.2.1 Ships of 150 gross tonnage and above, as well as all ships engaged on
international voyages shall be provided with Fire Control Plan, based on the
general arrangement plan, indicating:
.1 the arrangement of A and B Class divisions, vertical and horizontal, as well
as fire doors in these divisions;
.2 control stations and fire control stations;
.3 main and secondary escape routes (stairways, ladders, doors and
manholes), as well as directions of escape routes from all areas and spaces
on the ship to the open deck, to lifeboats and liferafts embarkation areas;
.4 ship spaces/areas fitted with fire detection and fire alarm systems, as well
as the arrangement of: fire and explosive gases detectors, manually
operated call points and fire alarm control panel;
.5 ship spaces/areas protected by fixed fire-extinguishing systems and the
arrangement of: fire-extinguishing medium storage tanks, water and foam
monitors, shut-off valves, fire hydrants, shore connections, as well as
control and alarm devices;
.6 the arrangement of fire-fighting equipment, i.e. fire-extinguishers, portable
foam applicator units, fire-fighter’s outfit, fire axes, emergency escape
breathing devices, as well as chemical protective clothing and additional
breathing apparatus required when dangerous goods are carried;
.7 position of remote shutting off the ventilation system and the location of:
fire dampers in ventilation ducts and ventilation openings closures in
spaces protected by total flooding gas systems;
.8 fuel and lubricating oil tanks, located outside the double bottom, the
arrangement of remote control of shut-off valves and stopping oil fuel and
lubricating oil pumps;
.9 main and emergency fire and bilge pumps, emergency generating set and
emergency switchboard;
.10 fire alarm call points and equipment;
24
Fire Protection
.11 internal communication telephones;
.12 inert gas systems appliances (for tankers);
.13 the location of container, in which Fire Control Plan, intended for the
shoreside fire-fighting personnel, is stored;
.14 assembly stations for passengers and crew (for passenger ships);
.15 list and the arrangement of numbered openings (doors, manholes,
ventilation inlets) which shall be closed before the release of fireextinguishing medium into spaces protected by total flooding system.
Fire Control Plan shall show the ship’s profile with indicated deck levels, main
fire divisions and main escape routes.
In specification table on the Plan, the number of the required fire-fighting
equipment and other equipment used in fire protection shall be given.
A free space shall be left on the Plan for recording possible changes and
information related to ship modifications.
1.4.2.2 The graphic symbols used in Fire Control Plan shall conform to the
symbols given in Res. A.952(23); all the descriptions shall be in the official
language of the Flag State. The descriptions in Fire Control Plans intended for
ships engaged on international voyages shall be also in English.
In Fire Control Plans intended for existing ships constructed before 1 January
2004, the graphic symbols set out in Resolution A.654(16), may be used.
1.4.2.3 Fire Control Plan shall be exhibited in the ship in the visible places – in
halls, mess rooms, as well as on the navigation bridge and at control station.
1.4.2.4 Alternatively, the information included in Fire Control Plan may be
presented in the form of a booklet, which shall be at all times available on board in
an easily accessible position. One copy of the booklet shall be kept by each officer.
1.4.2.5 A duplicate of Fire Control Plan, intended for use by the shoreside firefighting personnel, shall be permanently stored in a container at entrances, outside
the deckhouse, on each side of the ship. The container shall be weathertight,
painted red and marked in accordance with the guidelines, specified in
MSC/Circ.451.
The location of each container with Fire Control Plan shall be indicated by
a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
1.4.2.6 Fire Control Plan shall be subject to updating and any changes to the
Plan shall be recorded, on a routine basis, by the officer responsible for fire
protection.
1.4.2.7 Fire Control Plan shall be approved by the Flag State Maritime
Administration or PRS, acting on behalf of the Flag State Maritime Administration.
General
25
1.4.2.8 Fire control plan shall be marked with ship identification number which
conforms to the IMO ship identification scheme adopted by the Organization, in
accordance with SOLAS Convention, reg. XI-1/3.
1.4.3
Maintenance and Safety Operation Documentation
1.4.3.1 The ship shall be provided with the following documentation:
.1 Fire protection systems and appliances maintenance plan;
.2 Fire training manual;
.3 Fire safety operational booklet.
The above documentation shall be marked with IMO ship identification number.
1.4.3.2 Fire protection systems and appliances maintenance plan shall contain
information on maintenance, testing and inspections of fire-extinguishing systems,
appliances and equipment, carried out by the crew, covering:
.1 water fire-extinguishing systems, fire pumps and fire hydrants, including
fire hoses, nozzles and international shore connections;
.2 all other fixed fire-extinguishing systems;
.3 fire detection and fire alarm systems, as well as warning signalization;
.4 automatic sprinkler systems;
.5 ventilation systems, including fire and smoke dampers, fans and their controls;
.6 emergency shut down of fuel supply;
.7 fire doors, including their controls;
.8 general emergency alarm systems;
.9 emergency escape breathing devices;
.10 fire-extinguishers, including spare charges; and
.11 fire-fighter’s outfit.
Maintenance plan may be computer-based.
For passenger ships, Maintenance plan shall additionally cover low-location
lighting of escape routes and public address system.
For tankers, Maintenance plan shall additionally cover the inert gas system, the
deck foam system, fire safety arrangements in cargo pump-room, hydrocarbon gas
detection systems and flammable gas detectors.
In ships to be assigned an additional mark in the symbol of class, the
Maintenance plan shall additionally cover special fire-fighting equipment required
for the relevant ship.
Maintenance plan shall also take into account the guidelines specified in
MSC/Circ. 850.
1.4.3.3 Training manual shall include instructions for fire emergency proceedings,
as well as conducting training and fire drills, within the following scope:
.1 general fire safety practice and precautions related to the dangers of
smoking, electrical hazards, flammable liquids and similar common
shipboard hazards;
26
Fire Protection
general instructions for fire-fighting activities and fire-fighting procedures,
including procedures for notification of a fire and use of manually operated
call points;
.3 fire-fighting procedures and the duties assigned to particular crew
members;
.4 division of crew members into parties responsible for rescue and firefighting operations;
.5 meaning of the ship’s alarms;
.6 operation and use of fire-extinguishing systems and appliances;
.7 operation and use of fire doors;
.8 operation and use of fire dampers and smoke dampers;
.9 evacuation systems and equipment.
The Training manual shall be written in the working language of the ship and
shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin.
The Training manual may be prepared in the audio-visual form.
.2
1.4.3.4 The Fire safety operational booklet shall contain the necessary information
and instructions for the safe operation of the ship and cargo handling operations in
relation to fire safety.
The Fire safety operational booklet shall include information concerning the
crew duties and responsibilities for the general fire safety of the ship while loading
and discharging cargo and while underway.
Necessary fire safety precautions for handling different cargoes, such as:
containers, general cargoes, etc. shall be explained therein.
In the case of ships carrying dangerous cargoes and flammable bulk cargoes, the
Fire safety operational booklet shall also provide reference to the pertinent firefighting and emergency cargo handling instructions contained in the Code of Safe
Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code), the International Bulk Chemical Code
(IBC Code), the International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code) and the International
Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code).
The Fire safety operational booklet shall be provided in each crew mess room
and recreation room or in each crew cabin.
The Fire safety operational booklet shall be written in the working language of
the ship.
The Fire safety operational booklet may be combined with Training manual.
For tankers, the Fire safety operational booklet shall include provisions for
preventing fire spread to the cargo area due to ignition of flammable gases or
flammable vapours, as well as procedures for cargo tank gas-purging and gas-freeing.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
2
27
FIRE PROTECTION OF CARGO SHIPS
2.1
Ship Construction
2.1.1
Materials for Hull, Superstructures, Structural Bulkheads, Decks
and Deckhouses
The hull, superstructures, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses shall be
constructed of steel or steel equivalent material.
For the purpose of applying the definition of “steel equivalent material”, as
specified in 1.2.40, the applicable fire exposure shall be according to the integrity
and insulation standards given in the appropriate tables relating to fire divisions. For
example, where divisions such as decks or sides and ends of deckhouses are
permitted to have B-0 fire integrity, the applicable fire exposure shall be half an hour.
2.1.2
Materials for Outfitting the Ships
2.1.2.1
2.1.2.1.1
Use of Non-Combustible Materials
Insulating Materials and Structure Elements
Materials used for the insulation of walls, floors and ceilings, as well as the
insulation of pipings and ventilation ducts penetrating the ship spaces shall be noncombustible, except in cargo spaces, mail rooms, baggage rooms and refrigerated
compartments of service spaces.
Vapour barriers and adhesives used in conjunction with insulation, as well as
insulation of pipe fittings for cold service systems (refrigeration systems and
chilled water piping for air-conditioning systems) need not be of non-combustible
materials, but they shall be kept to the minimum quantity practicable and their
exposed surfaces shall have low flame-spread characteristics.
In spaces where petrol products may be present, the insulation surface shall be
impenetrable for these products and their vapours. The fire insulation in such
spaces can be covered by metal sheets (not perforated) or by vapour barrier glass
cloth accurately sealed at the joint.
Insulation materials, as well as structural materials with insulation containing
asbestos are prohibited, see MSC.1/Circ. 1374.
Insulation materials and structural materials with insulation, such as wall,
ceiling and floor coverings, fire doors, etc. shall be supplied with asbestos-free
declaration.
2.1.2.1.2
Ceilings and Linings
All linings, ceilings, draught stops and their associated grounds shall be of noncombustible materials in the following spaces:
.1 in accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations in ships
where method IC, specified in 2.2.3.1, has been adopted; and
28
Fire Protection
.2
in corridors and stairway enclosures serving accommodation spaces,
service spaces and control stations in ships where method IIC or IIIC,
specified in 2.2.3.1, has been adopted.
2.1.2.2
2.1.2.2.1
Use of Combustible Materials
General Requirements
Non-combustible bulkheads, ceilings and linings fitted in accommodation
spaces, service spaces and control stations may be faced with combustible
materials, facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers, provided that such spaces
are bounded by non-combustible bulkheads, ceilings and linings in accordance
with the requirements specified in 2.1.2.2.2 to 2.1.2.2.4.
2.1.2.2.2
Maximum Heat of Combustion of Combustible Materials
Combustible materials used on the surfaces of bulkheads, ceilings and linings,
specified in 2.1.2.2.1 and 6.1.1.2.2, shall have the heat of combustion Q not
exceeding 45 MJ/m2 of the area for the thickness used. This requirement is not
applicable to the surfaces of furniture fixed to linings or bulkheads.
Heat of combustion of material shall be determined from the formula:
Q = Q g qs , [MJ/m2]
where:
Q – heat of combustion for the thickness used, [MJ/m2;];
Qg – material heat of combustion, determined according to PN-EN ISO 1716:
Reaction to fire tests for building products – Determination of the heat
combustion, [MJ/kg];
q – material density, [kg/m3];
s – material thickness, [m].
Materials used on the surfaces of bulkheads, ceilings and linings shall be
provided with test certificate confirming the material heat of combustion, issued by
an approved laboratory.
2.1.2.2.3
Total Volume of Combustible Materials
Where, in accordance with 2.1.2.2.1, on the surfaces of bulkheads, ceilings and
linings combustible materials are used, the total volume of the materials shall be as
follows:
.1 the total volume of combustible facings, mouldings, decorations and
veneers in accommodation and service spaces shall not exceed a volume
equivalent to 2.5 mm veneer on the combined area of the bulkheads and
ceilings linings. Furniture fixed to linings, bulkheads or decks need not be
included in the calculation of the total volume of combustible materials;
.2 in the case of ships fitted with automatic sprinkler system complying with
the requirements of 3.3, the above volume may include some combustible
materials used for erection of C Class divisions.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
2.1.2.2.4
29
Use of Materials on Exposed Surfaces 1)
The materials used for the following exposed surfaces shall have low flamespread characteristics, confirmed by test in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1,
Part 5:
.1 exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures;
.2 exposed surfaces of ceilings in accommodation spaces, service spaces
(except saunas) and control stations;
.3 surfaces and grounds in concealed and inaccessible spaces in
accommodation and service spaces, as well as control stations.
In ships other than passenger ships, exposed surfaces in cabins, service spaces,
public spaces and control stations need not have low flame-spread characteristics.
2.1.2.2.5
Paints, Varnishes and other Finishing Materials
Paints, varnishes and other finishing materials used on exposed1) interior
surfaces within accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations and
stairway enclosures shall not be capable of producing excessive quantities of
smoke and toxic products, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code,
Annex 1, Part 2.
2.1.2.2.6
Primary Deck Coverings
Primary deck coverings, if applied within accommodation spaces, service spaces
and control stations, shall be made of approved materials which will not readily ignite,
will not give rise to smoke or toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures, this
being determined in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 6.
2.1.2.2.7
The Total Mass of Combustible Materials in Ship Spaces
It is recommended, in accordance with guidelines specified in MSC. Circ. 1003,
that in accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations (excluding floor
coverings), the total mass of combustible materials, such as: cable insulation,
plastic pipes, veneers, outfitting, as well as combustible materials used for
furniture, bedding components and electrical appliances per unit area of the space
shall not exceed the following values:
– 5 kg/m2 – for corridors, stairways and control stations;
– 35 kg/m2 – for accommodation spaces;
– 45 kg/m2 – for service spaces surrounded by A Class divisions.
1)
The exposed surfaces are the surfaces of bulkheads, decks, floor coverings, bulkheads and
ceilings linings. The requirements of this paragraph are not applicable to plastic pipes, electric
cables and furniture.
30
Fire Protection
2.1.2.3
Waste Receptacles
Waste receptacles shall be constructed of non-combustible materials, capable of
being closed and shall have no openings in the sides or bottom.
The use of waste receptacles constructed of combustible materials in galleys,
pantries, bars, garbage handling or storage spaces and incinerator rooms is not
precluded, provided they are intended purely for the carriage of wet waste, glass
bottles, metal cans and are suitably marked.
2.1.3
Structure of Aluminium Alloys
Where any part of the structure is made of aluminium alloy, the following
requirements shall be complied with:
.1 the insulation of aluminium alloy components of A or B Class divisions,
except structure which is non-load-bearing1), shall be such that the temperature
of the structural core does not rise more than 200 °C above the ambient
temperature at any time during the applicable fire exposure to the standard fire
test;
.2 special attention shall be given to the insulation of aluminium alloy
components of columns, stanchions and other structural members required
to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage, launching and embarkation areas,
as well as A and B Class divisions to ensure:
.1 that for such members supporting lifeboat and liferaft areas and
A Class divisions, the temperature rise limitation, specified in subparagraph .1 shall apply at the end of one hour; and
.2 that for such members required to support B Class divisions, the
temperature rise limitation, specified in sub-paragraph .1 shall apply at
the end of half an hour.
1)
Load-bearing division is a deck or bulkhead including stiffeners, pillars, stanchions and other
structural members which, if eliminated, would adversely affect the designated structural strength
of the ship.
If an aluminium deck is tested with insulation installed below the deck, then the result will
apply to decks, which are bare on the top. Aluminium decks may not be provided with deck
coverings on the top unless tested with the deck covering, to verify that the 200°C temperature of
the aluminium is not exceeded. However, when needed, any approved primary deck covering (not
specifically the one used during the standard fire test of the deck) may be used for meeting this
requirement.
When spaces of categories (1) to (10) – according to 6.1.4 and of categories (1) to (5) and (10) –
according to 6.1.5 are located on top of aluminium decks, the deck does not need to be insulated
from the upper side, provided the deck is protected by an approved primary deck covering.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
2.1.4
2.1.4.1
31
Machinery Spaces of Category A
General Requirements
2.1.4.1.1 Machinery spaces of category A shall be enclosed by steel A Class
bulkheads and decks having the fire integrity as required for fire divisions
separating the relevant adjacent spaces.
2.1.4.1.2 The crowns and casings of machinery spaces of category A shall be of
steel construction having the fire integrity as required for such machinery space.
2.1.4.1.3 The floor plating of normal passageways in machinery spaces of
category A shall be made of steel.
2.1.4.1.4 Materials used for floors, lining of bulkheads, ceilings or decks in
machinery spaces and engine control rooms shall be non-combustible. Where there
is a danger that oil may penetrate insulating materials, these shall be protected
against the penetration of oil or oil vapours.
2.1.4.1.5 Where oil-fired boilers are located in machinery spaces on ‘tweendecks
and boiler rooms are not separated from the machinery space by A Class divisions,
the ‘tweendeck shall be provided with steel tight coamings at least 0.2 m in height.
2.1.4.1.6 To prevent fires in machinery spaces, the guidelines given in MSC.
1/Circ.1321 shall be taken into account in the design, assembly and maintenance of
machinery installations and equipment.
2.1.4.2
Protection of Openings in Boundary Bulkheads in Machinery Spaces
of Category A
2.1.4.2.1 The number of skylights, doors, ventilators, openings in funnels to
permit exhaust ventilation and other openings to machinery spaces shall be reduced
to a minimum consistent with the needs of ventilation and the proper and safe
working of the ship.
2.1.4.2.2 Skylights in machinery casings shall be made of steel and shall not
contain glass panels.
2.1.4.2.3 Glazed windows shall not be fitted in machinery space boundaries.
However, glazed windows may be fitted in engine control rooms within the
machinery space.
2.1.4.2.4 Doors fitted in boundary bulkheads of machinery spaces of category A
shall be reasonably gastight and self-closing.
32
2.1.4.3
Fire Protection
Means of Control in Machinery Spaces of Category A
2.1.4.3.1 Means of control shall be provided for:
.1 opening and closure of skylights, closure of openings in funnels which
normally allow exhaust ventilation and closure of ventilator dampers;
.2 stopping ventilating fans of machinery space ventilation system;
.3 stopping forced and induced draught fans, oil fuel transfer pumps, oil fuel
unit pumps, lubricating oil service pumps, thermal oil circulating pumps
and oil separators;
.4 closing oil fuel pipes valves for storage, settling and daily service tanks
situated in machinery space above the double bottom;
.5 closing power-operated doors or the doors fitted with release mechanism,
which are not watertight power-operated doors.
2.1.4.3.2 Means of control, required above, shall be located outside the
machinery spaces, where they will not be cut off in the event of fire in the spaces
they serve, with due regard to hot gases produced by a fire in the space concerned.
2.1.4.3.3 The location of means of control in machinery spaces of category A
shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
2.1.4.4
Fan Rooms Serving Machinery Spaces
2.1.4.4.1 A fan room solely serving the machinery space or multiple spaces
containing machinery space may be treated as machinery space having little or no
fire risk. In this case:
.1 vertical and horizontal boundaries between the fan room and the machinery
space casing shall have A-0 fire integrity;
.2 ducts penetrations shall comply with the requirements specified in
paragraph 11.2.6, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating
Plants;
.3 ducts serving the machinery space shall be routed directly to the relevant
fan(s) and from the fans to the louvres;
.4 closing of the ventilation duct to/from the machinery space should be possible
from outside the machinery space. In such case, the controls for the closing of
the machinery space ventilation duct (i.e. fire dampers installed in accordance
with the requirements stated in 11.2.6.2, Part VI – Machinery Installations and
Refrigerating Plants) can be located inside the fan room.
2.1.4.4.2 A fan room solely serving the machinery space may be considered
a part of the machinery space. In such case:
.1 the requirements for fire integrity of horizontal boundaries between the fan
room and the machinery space do not apply;
.2 closing the ventilation duct to/from the machinery space shall be possible
from outside the machinery space. In this case, the controls for closing the
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
33
ventilation duct (i.e. a fire damper installed in accordance with the
requirements specified in paragraph 11.2.6.2, Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants) shall be located outside the fan room.
2.1.4.4.3 For both cases described above, for any space(s) adjacent to the fan
room superstructure, the fire integrity of the separating bulkheads shall comply
with the applicable requirements set forth in 2.2.2.
2.1.5
Store-Rooms for Paints and Flammable Liquids
Store-rooms for paints and flammable liquids shall be classified as spaces of
category (9) – service spaces of high fire risk. Walls and decks enclosing such
store-rooms shall be A Class steel divisions, having the fire integrity as required for
fire divisions adjacent to the relevant spaces.
Exits from the store-rooms shall lead directly to the open deck or via corridor
and stairway designed for the purpose.
2.1.6
Welding Shops
Welding shops located outside machinery spaces shall be classified as spaces of
category (9) – service spaces of high fire risk. Walls and decks enclosing such
welding shops shall be A Class steel divisions, having the fire integrity as required
for fire divisions separating adjacent spaces.
Exit from the welding shop shall lead directly to the open deck.
Welding shops located within machinery spaces shall be situated at a distance of
not less than 5 m from fuel and oil tanks and from the spaces of fuel treatment (e.g.
fuel separators). They shall be enclosed by A-0 Class divisions, the deck within the
welding shop being of A-60 Class standard.
2.1.7
Saunas
Construction and arrangement of saunas shall comply with requirements
specified in 6.1.1.7. The boundaries separating the sauna from other spaces except
those inside of the perimeter and spaces of categories (5), (7) and (10), specified in
2.2.2.2, shall be insulated to A-60 Class standard.
2.1.8
Galleys
2.1.8.1 The walls and decks enclosing galleys shall be of A Class standard, with
fire integrity as required for service spaces of high fire risk, in accordance with
Tables given in 2.2.2 for divisions separating the relevant adjacent spaces. The
entrance doors shall be self-closing.
2.1.8.2 Floors, wall linings and suspended ceilings shall be made of noncombustible materials.
34
2.2
Fire Protection
Fire Divisions
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
Fire Division Construction
Class A, B and C Fire Divisions
2.2.1.1.1 Insulated A Class bulkheads and decks used on board ships, including
means of affixing the insulation to the A Class structural members, shall be
consistent with the materials, details and arrangements used during fire tests,
conducted during type approval tests of the given division. The fire test report shall
contain information given in Annex to MSC.1/Circ.1435.
2.2.1.1.2 A division consisting of a non-combustible core and combustible
veneer may be accepted as B or C Class division after it has undergone the
following tests:
.1 core non-combustibility test in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1,
Part 1;
.2 smoke and toxic products test of the veneer in accordance with the FTP
Code, Annex 1, Part 2;
.3 surface flammability test of the veneer in accordance with the FTP Code,
Annex 1, Part 5.
To be accepted as B Class division, the above-mentioned division shall
additionally undergo the test required for B Class divisions, specified in the FTP
Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
2.2.1.1.3 Light weight constructions (honeycomb type) made of steel or
equivalent material may be used as non-load bearing internal A Class divisions in
accommodation and service spaces, provided they have successfully passed the
relevant standard fire test according to the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
2.2.1.2
Draught Stops
2.2.1.2.1 Draught stops are tight barriers aimed at preventing the spread of
smoke and fire, as well as preventing a draught of air containing oxygen from
sustaining a fire in areas behind ceilings, panellings or linings where this cannot
readily be seen.
2.2.1.2.2 Air spaces behind ceilings, panellings or linings in accommodation
spaces, service spaces, control stations and corridors shall be divided by draught
stops spaced not more than 14 m.
2.2.1.2.3 In the vertical direction, such air spaces, including those behind linings
of stairways and lift trunks, shall be closed by draught stops at each deck.
2.2.1.2.4 To construct draught stops, the following methods may be applied:
.1 the extension of B or C Class bulkhead, ceiling or lining;
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
35
steel sheet not less than 1 mm in thickness, stiffened, intermittently welded
to the ship's structure and the top profile of the bulkhead or fastened
mechanically to the ceilings or linings;
.3 non-combustible board, fastened mechanically to the ship's structure,
bulkheads, ceilings or linings;
.4 A Class mineral wool insulation, not less than 20 mm in thickness, faced on
each side with expanded metal mesh, the mesh on one side being attached to
the ship's structure, or expanded metal mesh being fitted on one side and noncombustible cloth (glass-cloth) on the other side of mineral wool insulation.
Other equivalent arrangements may be accepted.
.2
2.2.1.2.5 Where continuous ceilings are used, the draught stops shall be in line
with the bulkheads.
2.2.1.2.6 Draught stops are not required in public spaces with open ceilings
(perforated ceilings) with openings of 40% or more and arranged in such a way that
a fire behind the ceiling can be seen and easily extinguished.
2.2.2
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks
2.2.2.1 The minimum fire integrity of vertical divisions (walls, bulkheads)
separating adjacent spaces shall be in accordance with Table 2.2.2-1. The minimum
fire integrity of bulkheads forming horizontal divisions (decks) shall be in
accordance with Table 2.2.2-2.
2.2.2.2 The following requirements shall govern the application of the Tables:
.1 where only one value is given for fire integrity standards of a division
between two spaces, this value shall be used for all cases;
.2 the dash means that there are no restrictions as far as material and fire
integrity of a given division are concerned;
.3 for determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied, the
spaces are classified according to their fire risk. Where there exists doubt as
to classification of space to one of the below-given categories, it shall be
treated as a space within the relevant category having the most stringent
boundary requirements. The title of each category is intended to be typical
rather than restrictive;
.4 smaller, enclosed rooms within a space that have less than 30%
communicating openings to that space are considered separate spaces. The
fire integrity standard of the boundary bulkheads and decks of such smaller
rooms shall be as prescribed in Tables 2.2.2-1 and 2.2.2-2.
11 categories are provided:
(1) Control stations:
– spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting (spaces containing
accumulator batteries, emergency generating sets compartments);
– wheelhouse and chartroom, radar transmitter room;
36
Fire Protection
– spaces containing the ship's radio equipment;
– fire control stations;
– control rooms for propulsion machinery when located outside the
propulsion machinery space;
– spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
(2) Corridors – corridors and lobbies.
(3) Accommodation spaces – see the definition given in 1.2.51, excluding
corridors.
(4) Stairways – interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks
and escalators (except those wholly contained within the machinery spaces)
and enclosures thereto. A stairway which is enclosed at one level only shall be
regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
(5) Service spaces of minor fire risk:
– lockers and store-rooms having a deck area less than 4 m2, not having
provisions for the storage of flammable liquids, as well as drying rooms
and laundries;
– identifiable spaces containing distribution boards, having a deck area of
less than 4 m2’;
– refrigerated provision chambers if thermally insulated with noncombustible material.
(6) Machinery spaces of category A – see the definitions given in 1.2.65.
(7) Other machinery spaces:
– machinery spaces, specified in 1.2.64, excluding machinery spaces of
category A;
– electrical equipment rooms (e.g. auto-telephone exchange, air-conditioning
duct spaces).
(8) Cargo spaces – all spaces used for cargo (including cargo oil tanks) and trunk
ways and hatchways to such spaces.
(9) Service spaces (high fire risk) – galleys, pantries containing cooking
appliances, paint and readily ignitable materials rooms, lockers and storerooms having areas of 4 m2 or more, store-rooms for flammable liquids,
saunas, workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces, as
well as spaces for the storage and processing of garbage, as well as
refrigerated provision chambers if insulated with combustible material.
(10) Open decks:
– open deck spaces and enclosed promenades clear of lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation and lowering stations. To be considered in this category,
enclosed promenades shall have no significant fire risk, meaning that
furnishings shall be restricted to deck furniture. In addition, such spaces
shall be naturally ventilated by permanent openings;
– air spaces (the spaces outside superstructures and deckhouses).
(11) Ro-ro spaces and vehicle spaces – spaces defined in 1.2.54 and 1.2.55.
37
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
Table 2.2.2-1
Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces
Spaces
Control stations
(1)
Corridors and lobbies
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-15
A-60
A-15
A-60
A-60
*
A-60
C
B-0
B-0
c)
A-0
B-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
B-0
c)
A-0
B-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
B-0
B-0 A-60
c)
c)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
C
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
–
A-0
e)
(
a),b)
Accommodation
spaces
(3)
Stairways
(4)
Service spaces
(low risk)
(5)
C
Machinery spaces
of category A
(6)
Other machinery
spaces
(7)
Cargo spaces/
conventional cargo
holds
d)
g)
d)
(10)
Ro-ro and vehicle
spaces
f)
(8)
Service spaces (high
risk)
(9)
Open decks
A-0
* h)
(11)
Table 2.2.2-2
Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent spaces
Space
below ↓
Space→
above
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(1)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-60
Corridors and lobbies (2)
A-0
*
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
Control stations
Accommodation spaces
A-60
(3)
Stairways
(4)
(10) (11)
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-30
Service spaces (low risk) A-15
(5)
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-60i)
A-30 A-60
*
A-60
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
Machinery spaces
of category A
A-60 A-60 A-60 A-60 A-60
(6)
Other machinery spaces A-15
(7)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
38
Space
below ↓
Fire Protection
Space→
above
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
Service spaces (high
A-60
risk)
(9)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0d)
*
A-30
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
-
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-30
*
*h)
Cargo spaces/
conventional cargo
holds
Open decks
(10) (11)
(8)
(10)
*
Ro-ro and vehicle spaces A-60 A-30 A-30 A-30
(11)
Notes to Tables 2.2.2-1 and 2.2.2-2:
a)
No special requirements are imposed upon bulkheads in methods IIC and IIIC of fire protection.
b)
In the case of method IIIC, B-0 Class bulkheads shall be provided between spaces or groups of
spaces of 50 m2 and over in area.
c)
For the choice of division type – see 2.2.3 and 2.2.4.
d)
Where spaces are of the same numerical category, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the
Tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose, e.g. in category (9),
a galley next to other galley does not require a bulkhead, but a galley next to a paint room
requires A-0 bulkhead.
e)
Bulkheads separating the wheelhouse, chartroom and radio room from each other may be of B-0
rating.
f)
A-0 rating may be used only if no dangerous goods are intended to be carried or if such goods are
stowed not less than 3 m horizontally from such bulkhead.
g)
For cargo spaces in which dangerous goods are intended to be carried, the requirements of 2.10
apply.
h)
Bulkheads and decks separating ro-ro cargo spaces shall be capable of being closed reasonably
gastight and such divisions shall have A Class integrity in so far as is reasonable and practicable.
i)
If the machinery space in category (7) has low fire risk, A-0 Class bulkheads may be used. To
determine such space – see 6.1.4.2(10).
* Where an asterisk appears in the Tables, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent
material but is not required to be of A Class standard. However, where a deck, except an open
deck, is penetrated for the passage of the electric cables, pipes and vent ducts, such penetrations
shall be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke. Divisions between control stations
(emergency generators) and open deck may have air intake openings without means for closure,
unless a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system is fitted.
2.2.2.3 Continuous B Class ceilings or linings, in association with the relevant
decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing, wholly or in part, to the
required fire integrity of a division.
2.2.2.4 External boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses which are
required in 2.1.1 to be of steel or other equivalent material may be pierced for the
fitting of windows and sidescuttles other than of A Class, provided that in this Part
of the Rules there is no requirement for such boundaries to have A Class fire
integrity. Similarly, such boundaries may be fitted with doors other than A Class
doors made of materials other than steel, type approved.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
39
2.2.2.5 The use of fire division with fire integrity higher than the division with
fire integrity required by the Rules in the range of the same type of division, e.g.
Class B-15 division instead of Class B-0, Class A-15 division instead of Class A-0,
etc. is permitted.
2.2.3
Divisions within Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces
and Control Stations
2.2.3.1 One of the following methods of fire protection shall be adopted in
accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations:
– me t h o d I C – all internal divisional bulkheads shall be made as B or C Class
divisions; accommodation and service spaces are not required to be fitted with
automatic sprinkler system and fire detection and fire alarm system, except that
smoke detectors shall be provided in corridors, stairways and escape routes, in
compliance with 2.4.1.1.1;
– me t h o d I I C – all spaces in which fire might be expected to originate shall be
fitted with automatic sprinkler system in compliance with 2.4.1.1.2, with no
restriction on the type of internal divisional bulkheads;
– me t h o d I I I C – the fitting of fire detection and fire alarm system, in
compliance with 2.4.1.1.3, is required in all spaces in which a fire might be
expected to originate, with no restriction on the type of internal divisional
bulkheads, except that in no case must the area of any accommodation space or
spaces bounded by an A or B Class division exceed 50 m2. The area of public
space may be permitted to increase up to 75 m2.
2.2.3.2 The requirements for the use of non-combustible materials in the
construction of and insulation of boundary bulkheads of machinery spaces, control
stations, service spaces, etc. and the requirements concerning the protection of
stairway enclosures and corridors shall be common for all three methods.
2.2.3.3 All divisions required to be B Class divisions shall extend from deck to
deck and to the shell or other boundaries. Where continuous B Class ceilings or
linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, the bulkhead may terminate at such
ceilings or linings.
2.2.3.4 For a given method of fire protection, those divisions which are not
required to be of A or B Class, shall be:
– for method IC – at least C Class construction;
– for method IIC – any, except in individual cases where C Class bulkheads are
required in accordance with Table 2.2.2-1;
– for method IIIC – any, except that in no case must the area of any accommodation
space or spaces bounded by A or B Class division exceed 50 m2 (except in
individual cases where C Class bulkheads are required in accordance with Table
2.2.2-1). The area of public space may be permitted to increase up to 75 m2 .
40
Fire Protection
2.2.3.5 Interpretations regarding the use of construction materials in accommodation
spaces on cargo ships are given in MSC/Circ. 1120, with reference to SOLAS
regulation II-2/5.3 and II-2/6.2, see Appendix, tables – Method IC Method IIC – IIIC.
2.2.4
Protection of Stairways and Lift Trunks in Accommodation Spaces,
Service Spaces and Control Stations
2.2.4.1 Stairways which penetrate only a single deck shall be protected at least at
one level by B-0 Class divisions and self-closing doors. Lifts which penetrate only
a single deck shall be surrounded by A-0 Class divisions with A-0 Class steel doors
at both levels.
Dumb-waiters shall be regarded as lifts.
2.2.4.2 Stairways and lift trunks which penetrate more than a single deck shall be
surrounded by at least A-0 Class divisions and be protected by at least A-0 class
steel self-closing doors at all levels 1).
2.2.4.3 In ships having accommodation for 12 persons or less, where stairways
penetrate more than one deck and where there are at least 2 escape routes direct to
the open deck at every accommodation level, stairway enclosures and lift trunks
may be of B-0 Class standard instead of A-0 Class standard.
2.2.5
Closures of Openings in Fire-Resisting Divisions, Fire-Resisting
Divisions Penetrations and Prevention of Heat Transmission
2.2.5.1 All openings in fire-resisting divisions shall be provided with closing
arrangements of fire integrity not lower than that of the division, in which they are
fitted.
2.2.5.2 Pipings, ventilation ducts and cables penetrations through A Class
divisions are subject to tests in accordance with the FTP Code requirements,
Annex 1, Part 3.
Pipe penetration testing is not required where the penetration is made of steel or
steel equivalent material having a thickness of 3 mm or greater and a length of not
less than 900 mm, fitted in such a way that the distance from the end of penetration
to the division, on each side of the division, is not less than 450 mm and there are
no openings. Such penetrations shall be suitably insulated by the insulation for
a distance of at least 450 mm, measured from the surface of the division. Fire
integrity of pipe penetration insulation shall be the same as that of the division.
Similarly, testing of steel ventilation ducts is not required where steel sleeves
are made in accordance with the requirements specified in 11.2, Part VI –
Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants, are directly joined to ventilation
1)
Interpretations regarding the construction of stairways on cargo ships are given in MSC/Circ.1120
with reference to SOLAS regulation II-2/9.2.3.4.1, see Appendix, Figs. 1, 2.1 and 2.2.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
41
ducts by means of riveted or screwed flanges or by welding and are suitably
insulated by the insulation of the same fire integrity as the division, for a distance
of 450 mm, measured from the surface of the division.
This requirement is also applicable to the exterior boundaries of superstructures
and deckhouses which are required to be A-60 Class divisions.
2.2.5.3 Pipe penetrations through B Class divisions are subject to fire tests
required for the division in which they are fitted.
Testing is not required for steel or copper pipe penetrations, as well as for
penetrations by pipes other than steel or copper lined with a steel sleeve having a
thickness of not less than 1.8 mm and a length of not less than 900 mm – for pipe
diameters of 150 mm or more and of not less than 600 mm for pipe diameters of
less than 150 mm (equally divided to each side of the division). If the pipe is not
connected to the ends of the sleeve, the clearance between the sleeve and the pipe
shall not exceed 2.5 mm or any clearance between the pipe and the sleeve shall be
made tight by means of non-combustible or other suitable material.
Where B Class divisions are penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes,
trunks, ducts, etc. or for the fitting of ventilation terminals, lighting fixtures
and similar devices, such penetrations shall be lined with a steel sleeve in
accordance with the requirements specified in 11.2.9, Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
2.2.5.4 Uninsulated metallic pipes penetrating A Class and B Class divisions
shall be made of materials having a melting temperature which exceeds 950 ºC –
for A-0 Class divisions and 850 ºC – for B-0 Class divisions.
2.2.5.5 Pipings and ventilation ducts penetrating A Class and B Class fire
divisions shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs 1.16.11.5 and 11.2,
Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants; cables penetrating fire
divisions – with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 16.8.6, Part VIII –
Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
2.2.5.6 In the case of steel and aluminium structures, to avoid heat transmission at
intersections and terminal points of insulation of decks or bulkheads, the insulation of
decks or bulkheads regarded as A Class or B Class fire divisions shall be carried past
the penetration, intersection or terminal point for a distance of at least 0.45 m 1).
1)
Details of measures to be adopted for avoiding heat transmission at intersections and terminal
points of insulation of decks or bulkheads are given in MSC/Circ. 1120 for SOLAS regulation II2/9.3.4, for details see Appendix, figures 1 and 2.
Alternative design may be accepted, provided that the effectiveness of such design is verified
by an appropriate tests carried out in the same manner as those specified in the FTP Code.
In the case where the lower part of insulation has to be cut for drainage, the construction shall
be in accordance with the structural details as given in Fig. 3 in the Appendix.
42
Fire Protection
If a space is divided with a deck or bulkhead of A Class standard having
insulation of different values, the insulation with the higher value shall continue on
the deck or bulkhead with the insulation of the lesser value for a distance of at least
0.45 m.
2.2.6
Doors and Windows in Fire Divisions
2.2.6.1 The fire integrity of doors shall be equivalent to that of the division in
which they are fitted, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code
requirements, Annex 1, Part 3. Doors and door frames in A Class divisions shall be
constructed of steel or steel equivalent material. Doors in B Class divisions shall be
constructed of non-combustible material.
Doors approved as A Class without the sill being part of the frame shall be so
installed that the gap under the door does not exceed 12 mm and a non-combustible
sill shall be so installed under the door that floor coverings do not extend beneath
the closed door.
Doors approved as B Class without the sill being part of the frame shall be so
installed that the gap under the door does not exceed 25 mm.
In ships, in which IC method of fire protection, specified in 2.2.3.1, is adopted,
PRS may permit the use of combustible materials in doors separating cabins from
individual interior sanitary accommodations, such as e.g. showers.
Where the required fire-resisting divisions are replaced by divisions of a higher
standard, the fire integrity of the door need only conform to that of the required
division.
2.2.6.2 Doors required to be self-closing shall not be fitted with hold-back hooks.
However, hold-back arrangements fitted with remote release hooks or other
interlocking arrangements capable of automatic release in the event of remote
release control failure or voltage decay, may be used.
2.2.6.3 In corridor bulkheads, ventilation openings may be permitted only in and
under the doors of cabins and public spaces. Ventilation openings are also permitted
in B Class divisions leading to lavatories, offices, pantries, lockers and store-rooms.
The openings shall be provided only in the lower part of a door. The total clear area
of such openings shall not exceed 0.05 m2.
Alternatively, a non-combustible air balance duct routed between the cabin and
the corridor, located below the sanitary unit is permitted where the cross-sectional
area of the duct does not exceed 0.05 m2. Ventilation openings, except those under
the door, shall be fitted with a grill made of non-combustible material.
2.2.6.4
Watertight doors regarded as fire doors need not be insulated.
2.2.6.5 Doors fitted in fire divisions (self-closing and automatically-closing
doors included) shall be so arranged as to be capable of being opened manually
from either side of the division by one person only.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
43
2.2.6.6 Windows and portholes in the ship shell plating, as well as in superstructures
and deckhouses shall comply with the requirements of sub-chapter 7.2, Part III – Hull
Equipment.
2.3
2.3.1
Means of Escape
General Requirements
2.3.1.1 Means of escape shall allow persons on board safe and swift escape to the
lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck. This deck shall be accessible from other
open decks connected with means of escape.
2.3.1.2 The escape routes are routes for escape and also for access. The door
locking arrangement shall be such that it does not obstruct these two objectives
(escape and access) and that the doors in the way of escape routes can be opened
from both sides. Doors along any designated escape routes which require keys to
unlock them when moving in the direction of escape shall not be permitted.
2.3.1.3 Unless expressly provided otherwise in the present Rules, at least two widely
separated and ready for use means of escape shall be provided from all spaces or
group of spaces.
2.3.1.4 Lifts shall not be considered as forming one of the required means of
escape.
2.3.1.5 To facilitate a swift and safe means of escape to the lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation deck, overhead hatches fitted along the escape routes shall comply
with the following requirements:
.1 the securing devices shall be of a type which can be opened from both
sides;
.2 the maximum force needed to open the hatch cover shall not exceed 150 N;
and
.3 the use of a spring equalizing, counterbalance or other suitable device
on the hinge side to reduce the force needed for opening is acceptable.
2.3.1.6 The lift car shall ensure safe evacuation of persons, also in the emergency
conditions. The lift car shall incorporate an escape hatch at the top of at least
0.5 x 0.5 m to enable evacuation when the lift automatically stops at a deck in the
event of power failure. It should only be possible to open this from the outside,
using a special key kept in a box by the hatch. The lifts shall be provided with
a steel ladder allowing to take the persons, through escape hatch, to the nearest
landing.
2.3.1.7 Escape routes in all machinery spaces, cargo pump-rooms, cargo spaces
and service spaces, in which the crew is normally employed or to which they have
access, as well as in public spaces, corridors, stairways and on open decks, leading
44
Fire Protection
to assembly stations, as well as exits and emergency exits from spaces shall be
marked with symbols complying with Res. A.760(18).
These symbols shall be placed at an adult person eye level and shall be of
photoluminescent material or of other material and marked by electric illumination,
supplied from the emergency source of power.
2.3.1.8 Escape routes shall be provided with lighting supplied from the main and
the emergency source of power, see Chapter 6, Part VIII – Electrical Installations
and Control Systems.
2.3.2
2.3.2.1
Means of Escape from Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces
and Control Stations
General Requirements
2.3.2.1.1 In accommodation and service spaces in which the crew is normally
employed, stairways and ladders shall be provided giving ready means of escape to
the lifeboat and life raft embarkation deck.
2.3.2.1.2 At all levels of accommodation there shall be provided at least two
widely separated means of escape from each enclosed space or group of spaces.
An enclosed space is a place in which the crew may normally be present,
situated within another space, e.g. smoking room located in public space. Such
public space shall be provided with 2 means of escape.
Accommodation cabins composed of more than one space may have only one
means of escape.
2.3.2.1.3 Unless expressly provided otherwise in sub-chapter 2.3, corridors,
lobbies or parts of corridors from which there is only one means of escape shall be
prohibited.
Dead-end corridors used in service areas which are necessary for the practical utility
of the ship, such as fuel oil stations and athwarship supply corridors may be permitted,
provided such dead-end corridors are separated from crew accommodation areas and
are inaccessible from passenger accommodation areas. A part of a corridor that has
a depth not exceeding its width is considered a recess or local extension and is
permitted.
2.3.2.1.4 All stairways in accommodation and service spaces, as well as in
control stations shall be of steel frame construction or of frame construction made
from other equivalent material.
2.3.2.1.5 If a radiotelegraph station has no direct access to the open deck, two
means of escape from such station shall be provided. One of the means of escape
may be a porthole or a window of sufficient size to enable the evacuation.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
45
2.3.2.1.6 The doors along the escape routes shall open outwards, except that:
.1 the cabin doors may open into the cabins in order to avoid injury to persons
in the corridor when the door is opened;
.2 the doors in the vertical emergency escape trunks may open out of the trunk
in order to permit the trunk to be used both for escape and for access.
2.3.2.2
Escape from Spaces Located below the Lowest Open Deck
Below the lowest open deck the main means of escape shall be a stairway and
the second means of escape may be a trunk or a stairway.
2.3.2.3
Escape from Spaces Located above the Lowest Open Deck
Above the lowest open deck the means of escape shall be stairways or doors
leading to an open deck or a combination thereof.
2.3.2.4
Dead-end Corridors
1)
Dead-end corridors having a length of more than 7 m shall be prohibited.
In well-grounded cases, dead-end corridors are permitted in spaces located
above the lowest open deck, provided that escape route from the dead-end of such
corridor is a steel ladder leading to a deck above from which evacuation is possible
and that there are two means of escape, complying with 2.3.2.3, at the end of the
other end of such corridor. A window leading to the open deck is not accepted as
a means of escape.
2.3.2.5
Width and Continuity of Escape Routes
Stairways and corridors used as escape routes shall be not less than 0.7 m in
clear width and shall have a handrail on one side. Stairways and corridors with
a clear width of 1.8 m and over shall have handrails on both sides.
Clear width is the distance between the handrail and the bulkhead on the other
side or between the handrails. The angle of inclination of stairways should be, in
general, 45º. In well-justified cases, the angle of inclination may be increased to
50º; for machinery spaces and small spaces – to 60º.
The width of doorways which give access to a stairway shall be not less than the
clear width of the stairway.
2.3.2.6
Dispensation from Two Means of Escape
In exceptional cases, PRS may dispense with one of the means of escape for
crew spaces that are entered only occasionally, if the required escape route is
independent of watertight doors.
1)
Dead-end corridor – a corridor or its part from which there is only one means of escape.
46
Fire Protection
2.3.2.7
Location of Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
In all ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international
voyages, at least 2 emergency escape breathing devices complying with 5.1.5 shall
be located along the escape routes – in easily accessible places, within
accommodation spaces.
2.3.3
2.3.3.1
Means of Escape from Machinery Spaces
Escape from Machinery Space of Category A
From each machinery space of category A, two means of escape shall be
provided which shall consist of either:
.1 two sets of steel stairways or ladders 1), as widely separated as possible,
leading to doors in the upper part of the machinery space and from which
access is provided to the open deck. One of these stairways or ladders shall
be located within a protected enclosure having the fire integrity as required
for stairways in 2.2.2, category (4), from the lower part of the machinery
space to a safe position outside the space. This enclosure shall be provided
with self-closing fire doors of the same fire integrity standard. The ladder
or stairway shall be fixed in such a way that heat is not transferred into the
enclosure through non-insulated fixing points. The protected enclosure
shall have a free opening of at least 800 mm x 800 mm, the ladder being
included. The enclosure shall be provided with emergency lighting; or
.2 one steel stairway or ladder leading to a door in the upper part of machinery
space and from which access is provided to the open deck and additionally,
in the lower part of machinery space and in position well separated from
the ladder or stairway referred to, a steel door capable of being operated
from each side and which provides access to a safe escape route from the
lower part of the space to the open deck.
2.3.3.2
Dispensation from Two Means of Escape
In ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage, one of the means of escape required in
2.3.3.1 may be dispensed with, due regard being paid to the dimension and the
arrangement of the upper part of the machinery space.
In ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage, the means of escape from machinery
spaces of category A need not comply with the requirements for an enclosed fire
shelter, specified in 2.3.3.1.1.
In the steering gear space, a second means of escape shall be provided when the
emergency steering position is located in the space unless there is direct access to
the open deck.
1)
Ladders having strings of flexible steel wire ropes are not acceptable in such escape routes.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
2.3.3.3
47
Escape from Machinery Spaces other than those of Category A
From machinery spaces other than those of category A, two means of escape
shall be provided, except that a single escape route may be accepted for spaces
which are entered only occasionally and for spaces where the maximum distance to
the door is 5 m or less.
2.3.3.4
Location of Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
On all ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international
voyages, within the machinery spaces of category A, emergency escape breathing
devices complying with 5.1.5 shall be located at visible places. The number of the
devices shall be as follows:
.1 in machinery spaces of category A containing internal combustion engines
used for main propulsion:
– 2 pcs. in one level spaces, located along escape routes near escape
ladders or stairways. In spaces with more than one level, disregarding
machinery spaces, additionally 1 pc. on every platform or deck level,
located near escape ladders or stairways;
– 1 pc. in ECR if ECR is located within the machinery space;
– 1 pc. in the area of workshops if they are located in the machinery
space. The breathing device shall be located outside, near escape doors
from the workshop area. The device is not required if there is a direct
access to an escape route from the workshop area.
Additional devices may be required, depending on the size and
arrangement of the machinery space;
.2 in machinery spaces of category A, other than those containing internal
combustion engines used for main propulsion:
– 1 pc. on each platform or deck level, located near escape ladders or
stairways. The breathing device is not required if the machinery space
has one level and there is a direct access to an escape route.
2.4
2.4.1
Fire Protection of Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces and Control
Stations
Fixed Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System and Fire-Extinguishing
Systems
2.4.1.1 On cargo ships, accommodation spaces, service spaces and control
stations shall be protected by a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system
complying with the requirements of 4.1 and/or automatic sprinkler system
complying with the requirements of 3.3, depending on a protection method adopted
as specified in 2.2.3.1, as follows:
– in ships in which method IC has been adopted, all corridors, stairways and
escape routes within accommodation spaces and service spaces shall be
48
Fire Protection
provided with a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system to provide smoke
detection;
– in ships, in which method IIC has been adopted, accommodation spaces, galleys
and other service spaces, except spaces which afford no substantial risk such as
void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc. shall be fitted with an automatic sprinkler
system. In addition, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be
installed in all corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation
spaces to provide smoke detection;
– in ships in which method III C has been adopted, all accommodation spaces,
except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk such as void spaces, sanitary
spaces, etc. shall be fitted with a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system. In
addition, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so installed and
arranged as to provide smoke detection in all corridors, stairways and escape
routes within accommodation spaces.
Service spaces located away from the accommodation area need not be fitted
with a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system.
2.4.1.2 Manually operated call points shall be installed throughout the
accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations in accordance with the
requirements of 4.1.2.
2.4.2
Air Supply and Smoke Extraction System in Control Stations
Control stations located outside machinery spaces shall be fitted with air supply
and smoke extraction system complying with the requirements specified in subchapter 11.11, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants to
ensure that, in the event of fire, the machinery and equipment contained therein
may be supervised and continue to function effectively.
2.4.3
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
2.4.3.1 The number of portable fire-extinguishers in public spaces shall be 1 fireextinguisher per 250 m2 of deck area or fraction thereof.
2.4.3.2 In corridors, the walking distance to fire-extinguishers shall not exceed
25 m within each deck and main vertical zone.
2.4.3.3
Hospital shall be provided with at least one fire-extinguisher.
2.4.3.4 Laundry drying rooms and pantries containing cooking appliances shall
be provided with at least one fire-extinguisher.
2.4.3.5 Control stations (other than the wheelhouse) shall be provided with at
least one fire-extinguisher.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
49
2.4.3.6 Where the wheelhouse is 50 m2 and more, at least two fire-extinguishers
shall be provided; where the wheelhouse is less than 50 m2 – only one extinguisher.
Additional fire-extinguisher shall be provided in the chartroom.
If the wheelhouse is adjacent to the chartroom and has a door giving direct
access to the chartroom, no additional fire-extinguisher is required in the
chartroom.
2.4.3.7 Lockers and store-rooms (having a deck area of 4 m2 or more), mail and
baggage rooms, workshops (not part of machinery spaces) shall be provided with
one extinguisher.
2.4.3.8 In ships of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards, accommodation spaces,
service spaces and control stations shall be provided with at least five portable fireextinguishers.
2.5
Fire Protection Arrangements in Machinery Spaces
2.5.1
2.5.1.1
Machinery Spaces Containing Oil-Fired Boilers or Oil Fuel Units
Fixed Total Flooding Fire-Extinguishing Systems
In cargo ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards, machinery spaces of category A
containing oil-fired boilers or oil fuel units shall be provided with one of the
following fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing systems:
.1 a fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system complying with the
requirements specified in 3.6.4;
.2 a fixed high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system complying with the
requirements specified in 3.5.3;
.3 a fixed water-spraying fire-extinguishing system or equivalent highpressure water-based spraying fire-extinguishing system complying with
the requirements specified in 3.4.4.
As an alternative, an equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system complying with
the requirements of 3.7.1, or aerosol fire-extinguishing system, specified in 3.7.2,
may be used.
If the machinery space and boiler room are not entirely separated by a steel
partition or oil fuel can drain from the boiler room into the machinery space, the
machinery space and the boiler room shall be considered as one compartment.
2.5.1.2
Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment
Each machinery space containing oil-fired boilers shall be provided with the
following fire-fighting equipment:
50
Fire Protection
.1
.2
.3
.4
2.5.2
2.5.2.1
in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards – with mobile foam-extinguisher
of at least 135 l capacity or equivalent 1), with hoses on reels suitable for
reaching any part of the space. In the case of domestic boilers of less than
175 kW, such foam-extinguisher is not required;
in every ship – with at least two portable foam extinguishers – in each
firing space and in each space in which a part of the oil fuel installation is
situated;
in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards – with a portable foam
applicator unit, complying with the requirements of 5.1.3. The applicator
may be located in the machinery space or at an entrance, outside of the
space;
in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards – with 0.1 m3 capacity
receptacle containing sand, sawdust impregnated with soda or other
equivalent dry material, located in the boiler firing space. A scoop shall be
provided at the receptacle. A portable 6 kg dry-powder fire-extinguisher
may be used as an alternative.
Machinery Spaces Containing Internal Combustion Engines
Fixed Total Flooding Fire-Extinguishing Systems
In ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards, machinery spaces of category A
containing internal combustion engines shall be provided with a fixed total
flooding fire-extinguishing system required in 2.5.1.1.
2.5.2.2
Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment
Each machinery space containing internal combustion engines shall be provided
with the following portable fire-fighting equipment:
.1 in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, a foam-type mobile fireextinguisher of 45 l capacity or equivalent 2), to enable foam or its
equivalent to be directed on to any part of the fuel or lubricating oil
pressure system, gearing or other fire hazards. In cargo ships the
extinguisher may be arranged outside machinery space, near the entrance to
the space;
.2 in every ship – with portable foam extinguishers so located that no point in
the machinery space is more than 10 m walking distance from an
extinguisher and that there are at least two such extinguishers in each such
space;
1)
Mobile 50 kg dry powder extinguisher and mobile 45 kg CO2 extinguisher are considered
equivalent.
2)
Mobile 25 kg dry powder extinguisher and mobile 20 kg CO2 extinguisher are considered
equivalent.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
51
in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, a portable foam applicator unit
complying with the requirements of 5.1.3. Such unit may be located inside
the machinery space or outside the space, at the entrance to the space.
Additionally, in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, machinery spaces of
category A shall be provided with portable fire-extinguishers, arranged as follows:
.4 in engine control room – at least one fire-extinguisher; additional fireextinguisher shall be provided when main switchboards are arranged in the
engine control room;
.5 in the vicinity of the main switchboards – two fire-extinguishers;
.6 in each enclosed workshop – at least one fire-extinguisher;
.7 in enclosed spaces with oil-fired inert gas generators – two fireextinguishers.
.3
2.5.3
2.5.3.1
Machinery Spaces Containing Steam Turbines or Enclosed Steam
Engines
Fixed Total Flooding Fire-Extinguishing Systems
For periodically unattended spaces, see 6.16.3.1.
2.5.3.2
Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment
Each machinery space containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines
shall be provided with the following portable fire-fighting equipment:
.1 in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, mobile foam-type fireextinguishers of 45 l capacity or equivalent, sufficient in number to enable
foam or its equivalent to be directed onto any part of the turbine or engine
pressure lubrication system, onto any part of the casing enclosing pressurelubricated parts of the turbines, engines or associated gearing and any other
fire hazards. Such extinguishers need not be used if fire protection is
provided in such spaces by a fixed fire-extinguishing system, required in
2.5.1.1;
.2 in every ship – portable foam extinguishers so arranged that no point in the
space is more than 10 m walking distance from an extinguisher and that
there are at least two such extinguishers in each such space.
2.5.4
Other Machinery Spaces
Any machinery space, other than that listed in 2.5.1, 2.5.2 and 2.5.3 (auxiliary
spaces, electrical equipment spaces, air-conditioning equipment spaces and other
similar spaces), shall be provided with at least one portable fire-extinguisher.
2.5.5
Rooms Containing Fuel Oil Purifiers
2.5.5.1 A separate room containing fuel oil purifiers for heated fuel oil shall be
provided with:
52
Fire Protection
.1
.2
.3
independent mechanical ventilation, see 11.3.4, Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants;
fire detection and fire alarm system, complying with the requirements
specified in 4.1; and
a fixed fire-extinguishing system capable of being activated from outside of
the room. The system shall operate independently of the machinery space
total flooding fire-extinguishing system, but may constitute its part.
2.5.5.2 Ventilation switching off and closing of ventilation openings in fuel oil
purifiers room shall be effected from a position close to the place from which the fireextinguishing system is activated.
2.5.5.3 Where the oil fuel purifiers are not placed in a separate room, they shall
be protected by a local water-based fire-extinguishing system (see 2.5.8), capable
of being activated automatically or activated manually from the machinery control
position or from other suitable location. If automatic release is provided, additional
manual release shall be arranged.
2.5.5.4 Fuel oil purifiers room shall be provided with at least one portable fireextinguisher.
2.5.6
Main and Auxiliary Internal Engines Silencers
2.5.6.1 It is recommended that for main and auxiliary internal combustion
engines silencers, exhaust gas boilers, exhaust pipes of steam boilers and
incinerators, as well as gas turbine system regenerators, a local carbon-dioxide fireextinguishing system complying with the requirements of 3.6.6, independent of the
fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing system, required in 2.5.1.1, should be
provided.
2.5.6.2 For crosshead type engines, scavenge spaces in open connection to the
cylinder shall be connected to an approved local CO2 fire-extinguishing system,
specified in 3.6.6 or equivalent fire-extinguishing system in accordance with the
engine manufacturer’s requirements (see 2.1.6, Part VII – Machinery, Boilers and
Pressure Vessels). The local fire-extinguishing system shall be entirely separate
from the fire-extinguishing system of the engine room.
2.5.7
Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System
2.5.7.1 In ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, a fixed fire detection and fire
alarm system with detectors and manually operated call points, complying with the
requirements of 6.16.2, shall be installed in machinery spaces of category A:
.1 periodically unattended machinery spaces, see 6.16.2.1;
.2 machinery spaces where:
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
53
– the installation of automatic and remote control systems and equipment
have been approved in lieu of continuous manning of the space;
– the main propulsion and associated machinery, including the main
sources of electrical power, are provided with various degrees of
automatic or remote control and are under continuous manned
supervision from the engine control room;
.3 enclosed spaces containing incinerators.
Machinery spaces other than machinery spaces of category A containing
flammable materials / liquid fuel in quantities constituting fire hazard, shall be
fitted with fire detectors.
2.5.7.2 In cargo ships of less than 500 gross tonnage, all machinery spaces of
category A shall be fitted with fire detection and fire alarm system complying with
the applicable requirements, specified in 6.16.2 – see 6.21.3.
2.5.7.3 Fire detection and alarm system with fire detectors shall be installed in
the location where the emergency generator set and the emergency switchboard, for
use in port, are installed.
2.5.8
Fixed Local Application Fire-Extinguishing System
In cargo ships of 2000 gross tonnage and upwards, machinery spaces of
category A above 500 m3 in volume shall, in addition to the fixed total flooding
fire-extinguishing system, required in 2.5.1.1, be fitted with a fixed local waterbased fire-extinguishing system complying with the requirements of 3.4.6 or
equivalent local application fire-extinguishing system of an approved type.
2.5.9
Arrangements for Release of Smoke from Machinery Spaces
Machinery spaces of category A and, where deemed necessary, other machinery
spaces shall be provided with arrangements permitting the release of smoke, in the
event of fire, in accordance with the requirements specified in 11.3.7, Part VI –
Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
2.5.10
Oil Mist Detection System
It is recommended that machinery spaces of category A, in locations of
potential oil/fuel leaks, should be provided with atmospheric oil mist detectors, in
accordance with MSC/Circ. 1086. Oil mist detection system is subject to PRS’
approval.
2.6
2.6.1
Fire Protection Arrangements in Cargo Spaces
Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems for General and Bulk Cargoes
2.6.1.1 Except for ro-ro and vehicle spaces covered by other requirements, cargo
spaces in cargo ships of 2000 gross tonnage and upwards shall be protected by
54
Fire Protection
a fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system complying with the requirements
specified in 3.6.4 or an equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system which gives
equivalent protection.
2.6.1.2 The Flag State Administration may exempt from the requirements,
specified in 2.6.1.1 and 2.6.2, cargo spaces of any cargo ship if:
.1 constructed, and solely intended, for the carriage of ore, coal, grain,
unseasoned timber, non-combustible cargoes or cargoes which constitute
a low fire risk; and
.2 if the ship is fitted with steel hatch covers and effective means of closing all
ventilators and other openings leading to the cargo spaces.
2.6.1.3 The list of solid bulk cargoes for which the ship may be exempted from
providing cargo spaces with a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system is given in
Appendix to MSC.1/Circ.1395, Table 1.
Such cargoes include also non-combustible materials, listed in para.1 of Annex
2 to the FTP Code, such as products made of glass, concrete, ceramic products,
natural stone, masonry units, metals, etc.
2.6.2
Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems for Dangerous Goods
2.6.2.1 In ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards engaged in the carriage of
dangerous goods on deck or in cargo spaces, each cargo space shall be provided
with a fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system complying with the
requirements of 3.6.4 or a gas fire-extinguishing system which gives equivalent
protection for the carried cargoes, see 2.10.1.4.
For the control of the self-heating of the cargoes within the cargo holds,
a separate fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system or an equivalent gas fireextinguishing system need not be provided 1).
2.6.2.2 In the case of solid dangerous bulk cargoes for which a gas fireextinguishing system is ineffective, a system which gives equivalent protection
shall be provided. It may be a water-spraying fire-extinguishing system complying
with the requirements of 3.4, with the application rate of at least 5 l/min per square
metre of the cargo hold area. The system may be supplied by its own pump or from
1)
For certain individual schedules of solid bulk cargoes subject to self-heating, specified in
Appendix 1of the IMSBC Code, such as: FISHMEAL (FISHSCRAP) STABILIZED UN 2216,
SEED CAKE, containing vegetable oil UN 1386 and SEED CAKE UN 2217, the following
ventilation requirement applies: if the temperature of the cargo exceeds 55oC and continues to
increase, this self-heating of the cargo shall be regarded as an emergency condition in which
ventilation to the cargo space shall be stopped and the fixed carbon dioxide or an equivalent inert
gas fire-extinguishing system required for the protection of the cargo space shall be used to
control the self-heating of the cargo. Fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems or inert gas systems
installed on board to protect spaces other than cargo spaces cannot be used for this purpose.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
55
the water fire main, provided the requirements, specified in 2.10.3.2.3, regarding
water supply are complied with.
Water supplies (four jets of water), specified in 2.10.3.2, are considered as an
acceptable protection for cargoes for which a gas fire-extinguishing system is
ineffective.
2.6.2.3 For the list of solid bulk cargoes, for which a gas fire-extinguishing
system is ineffective and for which a fire-extinguishing system giving equivalent
protection shall be provided – see Annex to MSC.1/Circ 1395, Table 2.
2.7
Fire Protection of Galley Spaces
2.7.1
Galley Exhaust Duct
2.7.1.1 In cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, exhaust ducts from
galley ranges passing through accommodation spaces (applies to all spaces defined
as accommodation spaces, the definition being given in 1.2.51) or spaces containing
combustible materials situated in accommodation area shall be constructed of
A Class divisions (applies only to the part of the duct outside of the galley) and shall
comply with the applicable requirements for ventilation ducts, set forth in Chapter
11, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants. Additionally, the
exhaust duct shall be fitted with:
.1 a grease trap readily removable for cleaning;
.2 a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct at the junction between
the duct and the galley range hood; in addition, a fire damper shall also be
provided in the upper end of the duct, near the duct outlet;
.3 fixed means for extinguishing fire within the duct. If carbon dioxide system
is fitted, it shall comply with the requirements of 3.6.7.
2.7.1.2 Arrangements, operable from within the galley, for shutting off the
exhaust and air supply fans shall be provided.
2.7.1.3 The fire damper need not be subjected to fire test, but it shall be of steel
and capable of stopping the air draught.
2.7.1.4 Galley exhaust duct passing through accommodation spaces or spaces
containing combustible materials shall be fitted with insulation of the same fire
integrity as required for the galley space. If the galley exhaust duct is contiguous to
such spaces, the insulation shall be carried along the duct and for a distance of at least
450 mm from the duct edge1).
1)
Examples of the ventilation duct insulation are given in MSC.1/Circ.1276, interpretations of
SOLAS regulations II-2/9.7.2.1, II-2/9.7.2.2 and II-2/9.7.5.2.1.
56
Fire Protection
2.7.2
Deep-Fat Cooking Equipment
Deep-fat cooking equipment, installed in closed spaces or open decks, shall be
fitted with the following:
.1 an automatic or manual fire-extinguishing system using fire-extinguishing
agent suitable for extinction of burning fat, subject to tests in accordance
with ISO 15371: 2009 1);
.2 a primary and backup thermostat with an alarm to alert the operator in the
event of failure of either thermostat;
.3 arrangements for automatically shutting off the electrical power upon
activation of the fire-extinguishing system;
.4 an alarm for indicating operation of the fire-extinguishing system in the
galley where the equipment is installed; and
.5 controls for manual operation of the fire-extinguishing system, clearly
labelled.
2.7.3
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
Galleys shall be provided with at least one Class B fire-extinguisher; one
additional Class F or K fire-extinguisher shall be provided for galleys fitted with
deep-fat cooking equipment.
2.8
Fire Protection of Store-Rooms for Paints and Flammable Liquids
2.8.1 The store-rooms for paints and flammable liquids shall be located away of
accommodation areas. Exits from the store-rooms shall lead directly to the open deck.
2.8.2 In cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, the store-rooms shall be
provided with one of the following fire-extinguishing systems:
.1 a carbon dioxide system, the quantity of CO2 being calculated in
accordance with 3.6.4.1.1, assuming filling factor ϕ = 0.4;
.2 a dry powder system designed for at least 0.5 kg powder/m3;
.3 a water-spraying fire-extinguishing system or sprinkler system, with the
water discharge rate not less than 5 l/min per square metre of the floor. This
system may supplied from the water fire main;
.4 a system providing equivalent protection.
In all cases, the fire-extinguishing system shall be operable from outside of the
store-room.
Additionally, such store-rooms shall be provided with one portable fireextinguisher.
2.8.3 For lockers of a deck area of less than 4 m2, which do not give access to
accommodation spaces, a portable carbon dioxide fire-extinguisher sized to provide
1)
For ships constructed before 1 July 2013, ISO 15371:2000 may be used.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
57
the quantity of CO2 not less than that calculated in accordance with 2.8.2.1 may be
accepted in lieu of a fixed system. A discharge port shall be arranged in the locker
to allow the discharge of the extinguisher without having to enter into the protected
space. The required portable fire-extinguisher shall be stowed adjacent to the port.
Alternatively, a port or hose connection may be provided to facilitate the use of
the water fire main.
2.9
Fire Protection of Spaces Intended for Garbage Storage and Processing
2.9.1 In ships of 2000 gross tonnage and upwards, spaces intended for the storage
and processing of garbage shall be fitted with water-spraying fire-extinguishing
system complying with the requirements of 3.4. The water-spraying system may be
supplied from the water fire main or fresh water pressure tank system.
If provision has been made for fitting an automatic sprinkler system on the ship,
the spaces, referred to above, may be protected by the sprinkler system.
2.9.2 In ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, incinerators rooms located
outside machinery space shall be fitted with fire detection and fire alarm system
complying with the requirements specified in 4.1, as well as one of the fireextinguishing systems required for machinery spaces of category A, listed in
2.5.1.1.
2.9.3 Incinerators rooms shall be provided with at least one portable fireextinguisher.
2.10
2.10.1
Additional Requirements for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods
General Requirements
2.10.1.1 Ships engaged in the carriage of dangerous goods – dangerous goods
classes, see the definitions given in 2.10.1.9 – shall additionally comply with the
relevant requirements of the present sub-chapter and the provisions of the IMDG
Code or the IMSBC Code, as amended.
2.10.1.2 Compliance with these requirements is confirmed by Certificate of
Compliance for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods issued to a ship after satisfactory
completion of ship survey, in accordance with Annex 1, MSC.1/Circ. 1266.
2.10.1.3 The requirements of the present sub-chapter are not applicable to the
carriage of dangerous goods in limited quantities as specified for the relevant goods
class concerned in Chapters 3.4 and 3.5 of the IMDG Code.
2.10.1.4 In ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, engaged in the carriage of
dangerous goods on deck or in cargo spaces, each cargo space shall be fitted with
a fixed fire-extinguishing system – see 2.6.2.1.
58
Fire Protection
2.10.1.5 Cargo ships of less than 500 gross tonnage shall comply with the
requirements of the present sub-chapter, but, subject to PRS’ acceptance, the
requirements may be reduced and such reduced requirements shall be recorded in
the Appendix to Document of Compliance.
2.10.1.6 Ships engaged in the carriage of dangerous goods shall be additionally
provided with three hoses and nozzles, located on the open deck.
2.10.1.7 When dangerous goods are carried on the weather deck, in open ro-ro
spaces and vehicle spaces, two portable fire-extinguishers, each having a capacity
of not less than 6 kg of dry powder or equivalent, located in the vicinity of the
cargoes shall be additionally provided.
2.10.1.8 To verify whether the ship construction and equipment intended for the
carriage of declared dangerous goods comply with the requirements specified in
the present sub-chapter, the following technical documentation shall be submitted
for approval:
.1 water fire main (calculations of the capacities and the arrangement of fire
hydrants);
.2 water spraying fire-extinguishing system (designated cargo space flooding);
.3 electrical equipment and wiring in cargo spaces (details of electrical
components installation/certificates for use in dangerous environments);
.4 fire detection and fire alarm system;
.5 ventilation system;
.6 bilge system;
.7 structure of divisions separating cargo spaces from machinery space of
category A;
.8 arrangement plan of fire-fighting equipment/fire-control plan.
2.10.1.9 For the purpose of the present sub-chapter, dangerous goods have been
divided into classes and groups in accordance with the IMDG Code and the IMSBC
Code. The following definitions of dangerous goods classes and groups apply:
CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS CARGOES IN PACKED FORM
Division into classes:
Class 1 – explosive materials
Class 1 comprises:
.1 explosive substances (a substance which is not itself an explosive but
which can form an explosive atmosphere of gas, vapour or dust is not
included in class 1), except those which are too dangerous to transport or
those where the predominant hazard is one appropriate to another class;
.2 explosive articles, except devices containing explosive substances in such
quantity or of such a character that their inadvertent or accidental ignition
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
59
or initiation during transport shall not cause any effect external to the
device either by projection, fire, smoke, heat or loud noise;
.3 substances and articles not mentioned under .1 and .2 which are manufactured
with a view to producing a practical, explosive or pyrotechnic effect.
Transport of explosive substances which are unduly sensitive, or so reactive as
to be subject to spontaneous reaction, is prohibited.
Division 1.1: substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard. A mass
explosion is one which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously.
Division 1.2: substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass
explosion hazard.
Division 1.3: substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor
blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.4: substances and articles which present no significant hazard.
Division 1.5: very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.6: extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion
hazard.
Subdivision 1.4 S in compatibility group S:
Substances and articles so packaged or designed that any hazardous effects arising
from the accidental functioning are confined within the package unless the package
has been degraded by fire, in which case all blast or projection effects are limited to
the extent that they do not significantly hinder fire fighting or other emergency
response efforts in the immediate vicinity of the package.
Class 2 – gases
Class 2.1: flammable gases
Class 2.1: flammable non-toxic gases
Class 2.2: non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Class 2.3: toxic gases
Class 2.3: flammable toxic gases
Class 2.3: non-flammable toxic gases
Class 3 – flammable liquids
Class 3 FP < 23oC: flammable liquids with a flash-point less than 23 oC (closedcup test)
Class 3 23oC FP 60oC: flammable liquids with a flash-point of 23 oC or
above and less than or equal to 60oC (closed-cup test)
Class 3 – liquid desensitized explosives
60
Fire Protection
Class 4 – flammable solids; substances liable to spontaneous combustion;
substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Class 4.1: flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives
Solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible
or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances (solids
and liquids) which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid
desensitized explosives which may explode if not diluted sufficiently.
Class 4.2: substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Substances (solids and liquids) which are liable to spontaneous heating under
normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact with air, and
being then liable to catch fire.
Class 4.3: substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases liquids
Substances (solids and liquids) which, by interaction with water, are liable to
become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous
quantities.
Class 4.3 liquids:
Liquids which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Class 4.3 solids:
Solids which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Class 5 – oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
Class 5.1: oxidizing substances
Substances which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may,
generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other
material. Such substance may be contained in an article.
Class 5.2: organic peroxides
Organic substances which contain the bivalent -O-O- structure and may be
considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen
atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides are thermally
unstable substances which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating
decomposition. In addition, they may have one or more of the following properties:
– be liable to explosive decomposition,
– burn rapidly,
– be sensitive to impact or friction,
– react dangerously with other substances,
– cause damage to the eyes.
Class 6 – toxic and infectious substances
Class 6.1: Toxic substances
These are substances liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm
human health if swallowed or inhaled, or by skin contact.
Class 6.1 FP < 23oC: toxic substances with a flash-point less than 23 oC
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
61
Class 6.1 23oC FP 60oC: toxic substances with a flash-point of 23 oC or
above and less than or equal to 60oC
Class 6.1 liquids: toxic liquids with a flash-point greater than 60 oC
Class 6.1: toxic solids
Class 6.2: infectious substances
These are substances known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens.
Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae,
parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in
humans or animals.
Class 7: radioactive materials
Radioactive material means any material containing radionuclides where both
the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed the
values specified in the IMDG Code.
Class 8: corrosive substances
Substances which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in
contact with living tissue or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even
destroy, other goods or the means of transport.
Class 8 liquids FP < 23oC: corrosive liquids with a flash-point less than 23 oC
Class 8 liquids 23oC FP 60oC: corrosive liquids with a flash-point of 23 oC
or above and less than or equal to 60oC
Class 8 liquids: corrosive liquids with a flash-point greater than 60 oC
Class 8 solids: corrosive solids
Class 9: miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
Dangerous substances and articles are substances and articles which, during
transport, present a danger not covered by other classes.
CARRIAGE OF SOLID DANGEROUS GOODS IN BULK
Division into groups:
Group A – cargoes which may liquefy when the actual moisture is higher than the
cargoes transported moisture limit.
Group B –
cargoes which possess a chemical hazard which could give rise to
a dangerous situation on a ship.
Group C – cargoes which are not liable to liquefy (Group A) and do not possess
chemical hazards (Group B).
Division into classes:
Class 4.1: flammable solids
The materials in this class are readily combustible solids and solids which may
cause fire through friction.
62
Fire Protection
Class 4.2: substances liable to spontaneous combustion
The materials in this class are materials, other than pyrophoric materials, which,
in contact with air without energy supply, are liable to self-heating.
Class 4.3: substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
The materials in this class are solids which, by interaction with water, are liable
to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous
quantities.
Class 5.1: oxidizing substances
The materials in this class are materials while in themselves not necessarily
combustible, may, generally, by yielding oxygen cause, or contribute to, the
combustion of other material.
Class 6.1: toxic substances
The materials in this class are materials liable either to cause death or serious
injury or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled, or by skin contact.
Class 8: corrosive substances
The materials in this class are materials which, by chemical action, will cause
severe damage when in contact with living tissue or will materially damage, or
even destroy, other goods or the means of transport.
Class 9: miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
The materials in this class are materials and articles which, during transport,
present a danger not covered by other classes.
Class MHB: materials hazardous only in bulk
These are materials which may possess chemical hazards when transported in
bulk other than materials that are classified in the IMDG Code as dangerous
cargoes.
2.10.2
Requirements with Respect to Class of the Carried Dangerous Goods
2.10.2.1 Unless expressly provided otherwise, the requirements specified in subchapter 2.10 are applicable to dangerous goods carried both in cargo spaces and on
the open deck.
2.10.2.2 Tables 2.10-1 and 2.10-2 contain requirements specified in sub-chapters
2.10.3 and 2.10.12, which are applicable to the following ship types and cargo spaces:
.1 ships and cargo spaces not specifically designed for the carriage of freight
containers but intended for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged
form, including goods in freight containers and portable tanks;
.2 container ships and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous
goods in freight containers and portable tanks 1);
1)
A purpose-built container space is a cargo space fitted with cell guides for the stowage and
securing of containers.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
.3
.4
.5
63
ro-ro ships and ro-ro cargo spaces, special category spaces and vehicle deck
spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods;
ships and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of solid dangerous goods
in bulk;
ships and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods other
than liquids and gases in bulk (in shipborne barges).
2.10.2.3 Table 2.10-2 contains the requirements, specified in 2.10.3 to 2.10.10,
with respect to particular classes of solid dangerous goods carried in bulk.
2.10.2.4 Tables 2.10-1, 2.10-2 and 2.10-3 contain the requirements, specified in
Chapters 2.10.3 to 2.10.12, with respect to particular classes of dangerous goods
carried in packed form.
2.10.3
2.10.3.1
Supply of Water from the Water Fire Main System
Availability of Water Supply
Arrangements shall be made to ensure immediate availability of water supply
from the water fire main at the required pressure by permanent pressurization and
automatic start of a fire pump or by remote starting of the fire pump from the
navigation bridge.
2.10.3.2
Water Supply Quantity and the Arrangement of Fire Hydrants
2.10.3.2.1 The quantity of water delivered shall be sufficient to supply four
nozzles of a size and at pressures as specified in 3.2. This amount of water may be
supplied by equivalent means complying with PRS’ requirements.
2.10.3.2.2 The number and position of hydrants shall be such that any part of the
empty cargo spaces can be reached with four jets of water not emanating from the
same hydrant. Two of the jets shall be supplied by a single length of hose each, two
may be supplied by two coupled hose lengths each. All four jets of water, each
supplied by a single length of hose, shall reach any part of ro-ro cargo spaces.
2.10.3.2.3 On open-top container ships, the water spraying fire-extinguishing
system complying with the requirements specified in 3.4.8, will also satisfy the
requirement for the carriage of dangerous goods.
The amount of water required for fire-fighting purposes in the largest hold shall
allow simultaneous use of the water spray system plus four jets of water from hose
nozzles.
64
Fire Protection
Table 2.10-1
Application of the requirements to different modes of carriage
of dangerous goods in ships and cargo spaces
X
X
X
2.10.3.2
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.3.3
–
X
X
X
X
2.10.3.4
–
X
X
X
X
2.10.4
–
X
X
X
X
2.10.5
–
X
X
X
–
2.10.6.1
–
X
X1
X
–
2.10.6.2
–
X
X1
X
–
2.10.7
–
X
X
X
–
2.10.8.1
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.8.2
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.9
X
X
–
–
X
2.10.10
X
X
X2
X
X
3
Open ro-ro spaces
2.10.11
–
–
–
X
X
2.10.12.1
–
–
–
X
–
2.10.12.2
–
–
–
X
–
.5
Shipborne barges
X
.4
X
For application of requirements of sub-chapter 2.10 to different classes of
dangerous goods, see Table 2.10-2
Closed ro-ro spaces 5
X
∗
Container cargo spaces
.3
Not specially designed
.2
2.10.3.1
Sub-chapter
∗
.1
Weather decks of ships listed in
1. to 5.
Paragraph 2.10.2.2
Solid dangerous goods in
bulk
Where X appears in the Table, it means that this requirement is applicable to all classes of
dangerous goods as given in the appropriate line of Table 2.10-3, except as indicated by the
Notes to the Table.
–
X
X
X4
X4
X4
X4
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
A ro-ro space fully open above and with full openings in both ends may be treated as a weather
deck.
65
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
Notes:
1
2
3
4
5
For classes 4 and 5.1 not applicable to closed freight containers. For classes 2, 3, 6.1 and 8, where
carried in closed freight containers, the ventilation rate may be reduced to not less than two air
changes per hour. For classes 4 and 5 liquids where carried in closed freight containers, the
ventilation rate may be reduced to not less than two air changes per hour. For the purpose of this
requirement, a portable tank is a closed freight container.
Applicable to decks only.
Applies only to closed ro-ro spaces, not capable of being sealed.
Where the barges are capable of containing flammable vapours or alternatively if they are capable
of discharging flammable gases to a safe space outside the barge carrier compartment by means of
ventilation ducts connected to the barges, these requirements may be reduced or waived to the
satisfaction of PRS.
Special category spaces shall be treated as closed ro-ro cargo spaces when dangerous goods are
carried.
Table 2.10-2
Application of the requirements to different classes of dangerous goods
for ships and cargo spaces carrying solid dangerous goods in bulk
Class
4.1
4.2
4.36
5.1
6.1
8
9
2.10.3.1
X
X
–
X
–
–
X
2.10.3.2
X
X
–
X
–
–
X
2.10.4
X
X
7
X
8
X
–
–
X8
2.10.6.1
–
X7
Sub-chapter
X
–
–
–
–
2.10.6.2
X
9
7
X
X
7,9
–
–
X7,9
2.10.6.3
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.8
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
7
–
–
X10
2.10.10
X
X
X
X
Notes:
6
The hazards of substances in this class which may be carried in bulk are such that special
consideration must be given to the construction and equipment of the ship involved in addition to
meeting the requirements enumerated in this Table.
7
Only applicable to Seedcake containing solvent extractions, to Ammonium nitrate and to
Ammonium nitrate fertilizers.
8
Only applicable to Ammonium nitrate and to Ammonium nitrate fertilizers. However, a degree of
protection in accordance with standards specified in IEC Publication 60079 – Electrical
Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, is sufficient.
9
Only suitable wire mesh guards are required.
10
The requirements of the IMSBC Code are sufficient.
66
Fire Protection
Table 2.10-3
Application of the requirements to different classes of dangerous goods except solid dangerous goods in bulk
1.1 to 1.6
1.4 S
2.1
2.2
2.3 flammable 20
2.3 non-flammable
3 FP15 < 23 °C
3 FP15≥23 °C to≤ 60 °C
4.1
4.2
4.3 liquids 21
4.3 solids
5.1
5.2 16
6.1 liquids FP15< 23 °C
6.1 liquids FP15≥23 °C
to ≤ 60 °C
6.1 liquids
6.1 solids
8 liquids FP15 <23 °C
8 liquids FP15 ≥23 °C
to ≤ 60 °C
8 liquids
8 solids
9
Class
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
2.10.3.1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.3.2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
–
2.10.3.3
X
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2.10.3.4
X
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
X
–
–
–
X
–
–
–
X17
Sub
-chapter
1
2.10.4
X
–
X
–
X
–
X
–
2.10.5
X
X
X
X
–
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
–
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
–
2.10.6.1
–
–
X
–
–
X
X
–
X11
X11
X
X
X11
–
X
X
–
X11
X
X
–
–
X11
2.10.6.2
–
–
X
–
–
–
X
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
X
–
–
–
X
–
–
–
X17
2.10.7
–
–
–
–
–
–
X
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
X
X
X
–
X
X19
X19
–
–
2.10.8
–
–
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X14
2.10.9
–
–
–
–
–
–
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
–
X
X
–
–
X
X
–
–
–
X
X
X
–
–
X
X
–
–
–
2.10.10
X
12
–
–
X
18
–
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
13
2.10.11
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.12.1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2.10.12.2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
67
Notes to the Table 2.10-3:
11
When mechanically ventilated spaces are required by the IMDG Code.
12
Stow 3 m horizontally away from the machinery space boundaries in all cases.
13
Refer to the IMDG Code.
14
As appropriate to the goods being carried.
15
FP is a flash point.
16
Under the provisions of the IMDG Code, stowage of Class 5.2 dangerous
goods under deck or in enclosed ro-ro spaces is prohibited.
17
Only applicable to dangerous goods evolving flammable vapour, listed in the IMDG Code.
18
Only applicable to dangerous goods having a flash point below 23 oC, listed in the IMDG Code.
19
Only applicable to dangerous goods having a subsidiary risk class 6.1.
20
Under the provisions of the IMDG Code, stowage of class 2.3 liquids having a subsidiary risk
class 2.1 under deck or in enclosed ro-ro spaces is prohibited.
21
Under the provisions of the IMDG Code, stowage of class 4.3 liquids having a flash point below
23oC under deck or in enclosed ro-ro spaces is prohibited.
2.10.3.3
Cooling the Designated Cargo Space
2.10.3.3.1 Means shall be provided for effectively cooling the designated underdeck space by at least 5 l/min per square metre of the horizontal area of cargo
spaces, either by a fixed arrangement of spraying nozzles or by flooding the cargo
space with water.
The water may be supplied by means of the main fire pumps. The required
water shall be distributed evenly over the cargo space area from above via a fixed
piping system and full bore nozzles. The piping and nozzle system may be divided
into sections and be integrated into the hatch covers. Connection may be via hoses
with quick-acting couplings. Additional hydrants shall be provided on deck for this
purpose.
2.10.3.3.2 Hoses may be used for this purpose in small cargo spaces and in small
areas of larger cargo spaces at the discretion of PRS.
2.10.3.3.3 The drainage and pumping arrangements shall be such as to prevent
the build-up of free surfaces. The drainage system :
.1 shall be seized to remove not less than 125% of the combined capacity of
both the water spraying pumps and the required number of fire hose
nozzles;
.2 the drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected
space at a position in the vicinity of the fire-extinguishing system controls;
.3 bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at
the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than
40 m in each watertight compartment.
If this is not possible, the adverse effect upon stability of the added weight and
free surface of water shall be taken into account and calculations shall be submitted
confirming that after flooding the cargo space the ship will comply with the
requirements of Part IV – Stability and Subdivision.
68
Fire Protection
2.10.3.3.4 The total required capacity of the water supply shall satisfy the
requirements specified in 2.10.3.2 and 2.10.3.3, if applicable, simultaneously
calculated for the largest designated cargo space.
The capacity requirements, specified in 2.10.3.2., shall be met by the total
capacity of the main fire pump(s), not including the capacity of the emergency fire
pump, if fitted. If water-spraying fire-extinguishing system is used to satisfy the
requirements of 2.10.3.3, the spraying system pump shall be also taken into
account in this total capacity calculations.
2.10.3.4
Cooling the Cargo Space with Other Suitable Medium
In lieu of spraying or flooding a designated under deck space, provision to flood
the space with suitable specified medium 1), may be made.
2.10.4
Sources of Ignition
2.10.4.1 Electrical equipment and wiring shall not be fitted in enclosed cargo
spaces, as well as in closed and open ro-ro spaces unless it is essential for
operational purposes.
2.10.4.2 However, if electrical equipment is fitted in such spaces, it shall be of
a certified safe type for use in the dangerous environments to which it may be
exposed 2), unless it is possible to completely isolate the electrical system (e.g. by
removal of links in the system, other than fuses).
2.10.4.3 Cable penetrations of the decks and bulkheads shall be sealed against
the passage of gas or vapours. Through runs of cables and cables within the cargo
spaces shall be protected against damage from impact.
2.10.4.4 Any other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of
flammable vapours shall not be permitted.
2.10.5
Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System
2.10.5.1 Ro-ro spaces shall be fitted with a fixed fire detection and fire alarm
system complying with the requirements of 4.1. All other types of cargo spaces
shall be fitted with either a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system or a sample
extraction smoke detection system complying with the requirements of 4.1 or 4.2.
If a sample extraction smoke detection system is fitted, attention shall be paid to
prevent the leakage of toxic fumes and flammable gases into adjacent occupied
areas.
1)
2)
A fixed high expansion foam system, complying with the requirements of 3.5.3, is acceptable,
except if cargoes dangerously react with water (see the IMDG Code).
The electrical equipment shall comply with the requirements of Publication IEC 60092, Part 506.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
69
2.10.5.2 If a cargo space or the weather deck is intended for the carriage of class 1
goods, it is recommended to monitor adjacent cargo spaces, with the exception of open
ro-ro spaces, by a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system or a sample extraction
smoke detection system, complying with the requirements specified in 4.1 or 4.2.
2.10.6
2.10.6.1
Ventilation
Mechanical Ventilation (six air exchanges per hour)
2.10.6.1.1 Enclosed cargo spaces 1) shall be provided with adequate power
ventilation. The ventilation shall provide for at least six air changes per hour in the
cargo space, based on empty cargo space and for removal of gases and vapours
from the upper or lower parts of the cargo space, as appropriate.
2.10.6.1.2 The requirement concerning the removal of gases and vapours from
the upper and lower part of the cargo hold is considered to be met if the ducting is
arranged such that approximately 1/3 of the air volume is removed from the upper
part and 2/3 from the lower part. The position of air inlets and air outlets shall be
such as to prevent short circuiting of the air. Interconnection of the hold
atmosphere with other spaces is not permitted.
In cargo spaces intended for the carriage of solid dangerous cargoes in bulk, the
ducting shall be so arranged that the space above the cargo can be ventilated and
that exchange of air from outside to inside the entire cargo space is provided.
2.10.6.1.3 For open top container ships, mechanical ventilation is required only
for the lower part of the cargo hold (for which purpose ducting is required). The
ventilation capacity shall be at least 2 air changes per hour based on the empty hold
volume below weather deck.
2.10.6.1.4 Where continuous ventilation is required, fixed ventilator(s) shall be
fitted. Portable ventilators are permitted, provided they are permanently fixed
during loading and voyage.
In the case of the carriage of cargoes which require continuous ventilation 2), it is
not prohibited to use ventilators fitted with a means of closure required for fire
1)
2)
If adjacent spaces are not separated from cargo spaces by gastight bulkheads or decks, then they
are considered as part of the enclosed cargo space and the ventilation requirements that apply to
the adjacent space shall be the same as those applicable to the enclosed cargo space itself.
Under the IMSBC Code, continuous ventilation is required in cargo spaces carrying the following
solid cargoes in bulk:
ALUMINIUM FERROSILICON POWDER UN 1395;
ALUMINIUM SILICON POWDER, UNCOATED UN 1398;
ALUMINIUM SMELTING BY-PRODUCTS or ALUMINIUM REMELTING BY-PRODUCTS
UN 3170;
FERROPHOSPHORUS (including BRIQUETTES);
FERROSILICON (25% ≤ Silicon ≤ 30% or ≥ 90% Silicon);
FERROSILICON UN 1408 (30% ≤ Silicon < 90%);
ZINK ASHES UN 1435.
70
Fire Protection
protection purposes, provided the minimum height to the ventilator opening is in
accordance with the international Convention on Load Lines (ICLL), reg.19.3.
2.10.6.1.5 Where the IMSBC Code requires 2 fans per hold, a common
ventilation system with 2 fans connected is acceptable.
2.10.6.2
Non-Sparking Fans
2.10.6.2.1 The fans shall be such as to avoid the possibility of ignition of
flammable gas/air mixtures.
Exhaust fans shall be of non-sparking type and shall comply with the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 5.3.2, Part VII – Machinery, Boilers and
Pressure Vessels.
2.10.6.2.2 Suitable wire mesh guards shall be provided over inlet and outlet
openings to prevent foreign objects from entering into the fan casing. The standard
wire mesh guards should have a size of 13 mm x 13 mm.
2.10.6.2.3 The air outlets shall be placed at a safe distance from possible ignition
sources. A spherical radius of 3 m around the air outlets, within which ignition
sources are prohibited, is required.
2.10.6.3
Natural Ventilation (Carriage of Solid Dangerous Goods in Bulk)
Natural ventilation, with ventilator closures, shall be provided in enclosed cargo
spaces intended for the carriage of solid dangerous goods in bulk, where there is no
provision for mechanical ventilation.
2.10.7
Bilge Pumping
2.10.7.1 Where it is intended to carry flammable or toxic gases in enclosed
spaces, the bilge pumping shall be designed to protect against inadvertent pumping
of such liquids through machinery spaces piping or pumps. Where large quantities
of such liquids are carried, additional means of draining those spaces shall be
provided.
Bilge systems for cargo holds on container ships shall be independent of the
machinery space bilge system. The system bilge pump shall be located outside the
machinery space.
2.10.7.2 If the bilge drainage system is additional to the system served by pumps
in the machinery space, the capacity of the system shall be not less than 10 m3/h
per cargo space served. If the additional system is common and serves more than
2 cargo spaces, the capacity need not exceed 25 m3/h. The additional bilge system
need not be arranged with redundancy.
The additional bilge system shall enable any leaked flammable or toxic liquids
to be removed from all bilge wells in the cargo space.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
71
Pumps and pipelines serving the system shall not be installed in machinery
spaces.
Where water-driven ejectors are installed, they shall be equipped, on the suction
side, with non-return valves.
2.10.7.3 The bilge pipeline into the machinery space shall be isolated either by
fitting a blank flange or by a closed lockable valve. The isolating valve shall be
situated outside the machinery space, at the point of exit from the machinery space
close to the bulkhead.
Warning sign shall be displayed at the isolating valve or control positions,
bearing the inscription: THIS VALVE SHALL BE KEPT SECURED IN CLOSED
POSITION DURING THE CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS IN CARGO
HOLD NO. ……
2.10.7.4 Enclosed spaces outside machinery spaces 1) containing bilge pumps
serving cargo spaces intended for the carriage of flammable or toxic liquids shall
be fitted with separate mechanical ventilation giving at least six air changes per
hour. If the space has access from another enclosed space the door shall be selfclosing.
2.10.7.5 If bilge draining of cargo spaces is arranged by gravity drainage, the
drainage shall be either led directly overboard or to a closed drain tank located
outside the machinery spaces. The tank shall be provided with a vent pipe to a safe
location on the open deck .
Drainage from a cargo space into bilge wells in a lower space is only permitted
if that space satisfies the same requirements as the cargo space above.
2.10.8
Personnel Protection
2.10.8.1 The ship shall be provided with four sets of chemical protective
clothing, in addition to the required fire-fighter’s outfits. The chemical protective
clothing shall cover all skin so that no part of the body is unprotected.
The chemical protective clothing is intended for emergency purposes only.
The chemical protective clothing shall be selected taking account of the hazards
related to the carried cargoes (chemicals) and IMO-developed standards for the
particular classes of cargo and physical condition.
For solid bulk cargoes, the protective clothing shall satisfy the equipment
provisions specified in the respective schedules of the IMSBC Code for individual
substances.
For packaged goods, the protective clothing shall satisfy the equipment
provisions specified in emergency procedures (EmS) of the Supplement to the
IMDG Code for individual substances.
1)
Electrical equipment in such space shall comply with IEC Publication 60092 and the requirements
of Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
72
Fire Protection
2.10.8.2 The ship shall be provided with at least two additional self-contained
breathing apparatuses complying with the requirements specified in 5.1.4.
For each of the breathing apparatus, two complete sets of air bottles shall be
provided. These spare bottles shall be in addition to the spare bottles required for
fireman’s outfit. Ships equipped with means for fully recharging the air cylinders free
from contamination need carry only one spare charge for each required apparatus.
2.10.9
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
The cargo spaces shall be provided with portable fire-extinguishers with a total
capacity of at least 12 kg of dry powder or equivalent (e.g. two 6 kg dry powder
extinguishers), located at the entrance to these spaces. These extinguishers shall be
in addition to any portable fire-extinguishers required by the Rules.
2.10.10
Insulation of Machinery Space Boundaries
2.10.10.1 Bulkheads forming boundaries between cargo spaces (conventional
cargo spaces) and machinery spaces of category A shall also be insulated to A-60
Class standard, unless the dangerous goods are stowed at least 3 m horizontally
away from such bulkheads. Other boundaries (e.g. decks) between such spaces
shall be insulated to A-60 Class standard.
2.10.10.2 In the case that a closed or semi-closed cargo space is located partly
above a machinery space and the deck above the machinery space is not insulated
to A-60 Class standard, dangerous goods are prohibited in the whole of that cargo
space. If the deck above the machinery space is a weather deck, not insulated to A60 Class standard, dangerous goods are prohibited only for the portion of the deck
located above the machinery space.
2.10.11
Water-Spraying System in Ro-Ro Spaces
2.10.11.1 Each open ro-ro space having a deck above it and each space deemed
to be a closed ro-ro space not capable of being sealed shall be fitted with a fixed
pressure water-spraying system, complying with the requirements specified in 3.4.2
or equivalent high pressure water-based fire-extinguishing system, referred to in
3.4.3. The system shall be manually operated and shall protect all parts of any deck
and vehicle platform in the space.
2.10.11.2 To prevent the build-up of free surfaces, the draining system,
complying with the requirements specified in 2.10.3.3.3, shall be fitted.
2.10.12
Separation of Ro-Ro Spaces
2.10.12.1 In ships having ro-ro spaces, a separation shall be provided between
a closed ro-ro space and an adjacent open ro-ro space. The separation shall be such
as to minimize the passage of dangerous vapours and liquids between such spaces.
Fire Protection of Cargo Ships
73
Such separation need not be provided if the ro-ro space is considered to be a closed
cargo space over its entire length.
2.10.12.2 In ships having ro-ro spaces, a separation shall be provided between
a closed ro-ro space and the adjacent weather deck. The separation shall be such as
to minimize the passage of dangerous vapours and liquids between such spaces.
A separation need not be provided if the arrangements of the closed ro-ro spaces
are in accordance with those required for the dangerous goods carried on adjacent
weather decks.
74
3
Fire Protection
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS AND INERT GAS SYSTEMS
Fire-extinguishing systems are intended for the extinction of fire inside the ship
spaces or on the open deck.
Inert gas systems are intended for rendering and maintaining atmosphere in
cargo tanks and hull spaces in tankers.
3.1
General Requirements
3.1.1 Fire-extinguishing systems and inert gas systems shall be so constructed as
to be efficient and readily available for operation under all conditions specified in
sub-chapter 1.6, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
3.1.2 Fire-extinguishing medium storage vessels and cylinders used in fireextinguishing systems and inert gas systems shall comply with the requirements for
pressure vessels and air receivers, specified in Chapter 12, Part VII – Machinery,
Boilers and Pressure Vessels.
3.1.3 Pumps other than those serving the water fire main system necessary for
the supply of water to fire-extinguishing systems for the protection of the ship’s
spaces, required by the present Part of the Rules, their sources of power and their
controls shall be installed outside the spaces protected by such systems and shall be
so arranged that a fire in the spaces will not put any such system out of action.
3.1.4 The use of fire-extinguishing media, which, either by themselves or under
expected conditions of use, emit toxic gases in such quantities as to endanger
persons, is not permitted.
3.1.5 In fire-extinguishing systems and in inert gas systems, metal pipes of the
minimum melting temperature appropriate for the given extinguishing system, shall
be used. Steel pipes, except stainless steel pipes, shall be protected against
corrosion; it is recommended that steel pipes should be hot-galvanized both inside
and outside.
3.1.6 Plastic pipes are allowed for the following fire-extinguishing systems:
– water fire main systems,
– water-spraying systems,
– foam systems,
– sprinkler systems
used in ship spaces/areas if they were subjected to fire tests in accordance with
Publication No. 53/P (Res. A.753(18) and Res. 313(88), having due regard to their
location, as specified in Table 4.1.3 of the said Publication.
3.1.7 Fire-extinguishing systems and inert gas systems pipes shall comply with
the requirements specified in sub-chapter 1.16, Part VI – Machinery Installations
and Refrigerating Plants, as follows:
75
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
materials for pipes – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.2;
pipe wall thickness – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.3;
pipe connections – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.4;
pipe bends radius – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.5;
protection against corrosion – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.7;
pipes insulation – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.8;
pipes passage and penetrations – the requirements of sub-chapter 1.16.11;
flexible hose assemblies and compensators – the requirements of sub-chapter
1.16.12.
3.1.8 Continuously pressurized pipelines installed outside ship spaces or in nonheated spaces shall be so designed or protected as to preclude their freezing in ship
operation areas where low temperatures may exist.
3.2
Water Fire Main System
All self-propelled ships shall be provided with water fire main system
complying with the requirements of the present sub-chapter.
3.2.1
Number, Capacity and Discharge Pressure of Fire Pumps
3.2.1.1 For ships other than passenger ships, the number of the main fire pumps
and the minimum pressure of water supplied simultaneously by all the pumps and
the two required nozzles at the discharge rate determined in 3.2.1.5, at any hydrant,
shall be in compliance with the values given in Table 3.2.1.1. For passenger ships –
see 6.1.16.2.
3.2.1.2 The maximum pressure at any hydrant shall not exceed that at which the
effective control of a fire hose by one person is possible. This shall be checked
during the acceptance of the system on board.
Table 3.2.1.1
Ships other than passenger ships,
gross tonnage
*
Number of fire pumps
Minimum pressure at hydrants
[MPa]
< 500
1
(plus portable pump, required
for cargo ships)
*
500 ≤ gross tonnage < 6000
2
0.25
≥ 6000
2
0.27
In ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards, the pressure of the fire pump shall be sufficient to
ensure delivering, through fire hose nozzles adopted on the ship, a jet of water of at least 12 m
throw length; in ships of less than 150 gross tonnage – the length of the water jet may be
appropriately less.
76
Fire Protection
3.2.1.3 Every cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall be additionally
fitted with an emergency fire pump complying with the requirements of 3.2.4.
3.2.1.4 Unless the two main fire pumps, their sea valves and their sources of
power are situated within compartments separated by at least A-0 Class divisions
so that a fire in any one compartment will not render both fire pumps inoperable,
an emergency fire pump should be fitted. In such case one of the fire pumps shall
comply with the requirements for the emergency fire pump, specified in 3.2.4.
An arrangement in which one main fire pump is located within a compartment
having more than one bulkhead or deck adjacent to the compartment containing the
other main fire pump should also require an emergency fire pump.
3.2.1.5 On cargo ships, the total capacity of the main fire pumps (excluding the
emergency fire pump), with a pressure not lower than that specified in Table
3.2.1.1, shall be not less than four-thirds of the capacity of each required bilge
pump, specified in paragraph 6.1.3, Part VI – Machinery Installations and
Refrigerating Plants.
On cargo ships, the total capacity of the main fire pumps need not exceed 180
m3/h, unless a larger capacity is required in order to ensure the simultaneous
operation of other fire-extinguishing systems supplied by the pumps.
3.2.1.6 In every ship which is required to be provided with more than one fire
pump, each of the required fire pumps, other than the emergency pump, shall have
a capacity not less than 80% of the total required capacity divided by the minimum
number of the required fire pumps but in any case not less than 25 m3/h. Each such
pump shall be capable of supplying at least two jets of water – see the assumptions
for capacity calculations given in 3.2.4.2.2. These fire pumps shall be capable of
supplying the fire main system under the required conditions.
Where more than the minimum of the required pumps are installed, such
additional pumps shall have a capacity of at least 25 m3/h and shall be capable of
delivering at least two jets of water.
3.2.1.7 Where other fire-extinguishing systems using water from fire pumps are
provided in the ship, the capacity of such pumps shall be sufficient for the operation
of the water fire main system with at least 50% of capacity determined in 3.2.1.5 and
for simultaneous operation of one of the other systems which requires the largest
quantity of water. In cargo ships, the capacity of fire pump required for simultaneous
provision of water for other fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficient for
delivering at least 2 jets of water through nozzles of the largest size used in the ship.
3.2.1.8 The location of each main and emergency fire pumps shall be indicated by
a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
3.2.2
77
Ready Availability of Water Supply
3.2.2.1 In cargo ships of gross tonnage 500 and upwards, provision shall be made
for a remote starting of one of the fire pumps from the fire control station, located
outside the machinery space or from control station. In the pump remote starting
position, a gauge indicating water pressure or another indicator (e.g. an electric lamp)
shall be provided to indicate the pump operation.
The location of a remote starting of the fire pump shall be indicated by a plate
with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
The remote starting arrangement of the pumps need not be provided in the case of
permanently pressurized water fire main system with automatic starting of the pump.
Ships with periodically unattended machinery space and where only one person
is required on watch shall comply with the requirements specified in 6.16.1.
3.2.2.2 For dry pipe (not filled with water) water fire main systems, the time from
starting the pump till the moment the water is supplied to the remotest fire hydrant
located within accommodation area shall not exceed 1 min. For fire hydrants located
in cargo area, this period of time may be appropriately longer. The above shall be
checked during the acceptance of the water fire main system on board.
3.2.3
Requirements for Fire Pumps
3.2.3.1 Fire pumps shall be independently driven. In ships of less than 1000 gross
tonnage, one of the required fire pumps may be driven from the main engine.
3.2.3.2 Fire pumps may be used for other shipboard services if the ship is
provided with at least two independently driven fire pumps, one of which is all the
time kept readily available for water supply to the water fire main system.
3.2.3.3 Sanitary, ballast, bilge or general service pumps may be accepted as main fire
pumps, provided that their capacity and pressure head comply with the requirements
for fire pumps and that such pumps are not used for pumping liquid fuel or oil.
3.2.3.4 On cargo ships, in which ballast, bilge or general service pumps are
installed in machinery spaces, it is additionally required for at least one such pump
with at least 25 m3/h capacity and the water pressure specified in 3.2.1.1 to be
capable of supplying sea water to the water fire main system.
However, it is not required to choose pumps with capacity and pressure
characteristics other than being optimal for the service intended just to make
connection to the fire main possible, provided the required number and capacity of
fire pumps are ensured.
3.2.3.5 Each electrically driven fire pump shall be provided with the pump start
button, located in an easily accessible position. Location of the button shall be
indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan. Overload protection
78
Fire Protection
of electric drives shall comply with the requirements specified in 8.3.3, Part VIII –
Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
3.2.3.6 Pumps which are capable of developing a pressure exceeding the design
pressure shall be provided with relief valves. Those valves shall be so placed and
adjusted as to prevent excessive pressure in any part of the system.
3.2.3.7 Fire pumps and their sea valves shall be located below the ship summer
load waterline to ensure water suction under all trim, roll and heeling conditions. If
such arrangement is not practicable, the pumps shall be self-priming.
3.2.3.8 At least one of the fire pumps located in the machinery space shall be
supplied from two sea chests.
3.2.3.9 Fire pumps installed outside the machinery space shall have sea valves in
each compartment in which they are situated.
3.2.3.10 Fire pumps and their prime movers shall not be installed forward of the
collision bulkhead.
3.2.3.11 Each fire pump shall be provided with shut-off valves on the suction
and discharge side, as well as a pressure gauge. In the case of centrifugal fire
pumps, non-return valves, preventing water backflow, shall be fitted on the
discharge side.
3.2.3.12 The sea valves, as well as shut-off valves shall be provided with a plate
bearing the inscription: THE VALVE SHALL BE ALWAYS KEPT OPEN.
3.2.4
3.2.4.1
Fixed Emergency Fire Pump
General Requirements
3.2.4.1.1 The emergency fire pump shall be a fixed independently driven pump,
powered by diesel engine or an electric motor supplied from an emergency source
of power.
3.2.4.1.2 The emergency fire pump, its sea valve, suction and delivery pipes and
isolating valves shall be located outside the machinery space, in which the main
fire pumps and/or sources of power are located.
If this arrangement cannot be made, the sea valve may be fitted in the
machinery space, provided the valve is remotely controlled from a position in the
same compartment in which the emergency pump is located and the suction pipe is
as short as practicable.
3.2.4.1.3 Short lengths of suction and discharge pipes of the emergency fire
pump may penetrate the above-mentioned machinery space, provided they are
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
79
enclosed in a substantial steel casing or are insulated to A-60 Class standard. The
pipes shall have substantial wall thickness, but in no case less than 11 mm and shall
be welded, except for the flanged connection to the sea inlet valve.
3.2.4.1.4 In the case where suction or discharge pipes penetrating machinery
spaces are enclosed in a substantial casing, or are insulated to A-60 class standard,
it is not necessary to enclose or insulate distance pieces, sea inlet valves and sea
chests. For this purpose, the discharge piping means piping between the emergency
fire pump and the isolating valve. The method for insulating pipes to A-60 Class
standard is that they shall be covered/protected in a practical manner by insulation
material which is approved as a part of A-60 Class divisions in accordance with the
FTP Code.
3.2.4.1.5 Where the sea inlet valve is in the machinery space, the valve should
not be a fail-close type. Where the sea inlet valve is in the machinery space and is
not a fail-open type, measures shall be taken so that the valve can be opened in the
event of fire, e.g. control piping, actuating devices and/or electric cables with fireresistant protection equivalent to A-60 Class standard.
3.2.4.1.6 Where the main fire pumps are provided in compartments outside
machinery spaces and the emergency fire pump suction or discharge piping
penetrates such compartments, the piping shall comply with the requirements
specified in 3.2.4.1.3 and 3.2.4.1.4.
3.2.4.1.7 Where the emergency fire pump is driven by electric engine, the
electrical cables to this pump shall not pass through the machinery spaces
containing the main fire pumps and/or their sources of power, as well as through
other spaces or areas of high fire risk.
Where the ship arrangements are such that the cables have to pass through these
spaces, the cables shall be of a fire-resistant type complying with the requirements
of 16.1.3, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems and shall be
specially protected against mechanical damage, e.g. run in heavy gauge pipe.
3.2.4.1.8 Control post of the emergency fire pump shall be located outside the
main fire pumps space, in close vicinity to the pump, as well as in the place of the
pump sea valve control if the valve is controlled from outside the emergency fire
pump-room.
The location of a remote starting of the emergency fire pump shall be indicated by
a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.2.4.2
Capacity and Discharge Pressure of the Emergency Fire Pump
3.2.4.2.1 The capacity of the emergency fire pump cannot be less than 40% of
fire pumps capacity required in 3.2.1.5 and in no case less than:
.1 25 m3/h – for cargo ships of 2000 gross tonnage and upwards;
80
Fire Protection
.2 15 m3/h – for cargo ships of less than 2000 gross tonnage.
When the pump is delivering the quantity of water required above, the pressure at
any hydrants shall be not less than that specified in 3.2.1.1.
On cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, engaged on international
voyages, the pressure shall not be less than 0.27 MPa.
3.2.4.2.2 Where a fixed water-spraying fire-extinguishing system or water-based
fire-extinguishing system installed for the protection of the machinery space of
category A, required in 2.5.1.1, is supplied by the emergency fire pump, then the
emergency fire pump capacity shall be adequate to supply the fixed fireextinguishing system at the required pressure plus two jets of water. The capacity
of the two jets shall in any case be calculated as not less than 25 m3/h, at the
assumption that both jets are supplied by nozzles of the maximum diameter 1).
It is assumed that the capacity of a single jet at the hydrant pressure of
0.27 MPa is 16 m3/h – for the nozzle diameter 16 mm, and 23.5 m3/h – for the
nozzle diameter 19 mm.
3.2.4.3
Sea Inlet Valve and the Emergency Fire Pump Suction Height
3.2.4.3.1
The sea inlet valve for the pump shall be installed below the summer
load waterline so that the pump will be capable of pumping under all conditions of
list, trim, roll and pitch likely to be encountered in service.
3.2.4.3.2
Where necessary to ensure suction, the emergency fire pump shall be
of self-priming type. The total suction head and the net positive suction head of the
pump shall be such as to ensure the required pump capacity and the hydrants
pressure under all conditions of list, trim, roll and pitch to be encountered in
service. The ballast condition of a ship on entering or leaving a dry dock need not
be considered as service condition.
3.2.4.3.3 It shall be indicated, in classification documentation, that the
emergency fire pump suction inlet is fully submerged under all conditions of list,
trim, roll and pitch likely to be encountered in service.
3.2.4.3.4 Operational sea-going conditions for which roll, pitch and heave shall
be applied are as follows:
.1 the lightest sea-going condition shall be considered, which is defined as the
ballast condition which gives the shallowest draught at the position of the
sea chest and emergency fire pump as given in the approved stability booklet
(or preliminary stability calculation for new building);
.2 for the calculation of roll, pitch and heave, the table given in
MSC.1/Circ.1388, shall be applied;
1)
When selecting the biggest nozzle size available onboard, the nozzles located in the space
containing fire pumps need not be taken into account.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
.3
81
the heave combined with pitch and heave combined with roll shall be
considered separately.
3.2.4.3.5 The emergency fire pump suction shall be submerged at the waterlines
corresponding to the two following conditions:
.1 a static waterline drawn through the level of 2/3 immersion of the propeller
at even keel (pod or thruster driven ships shall be considered separately);
and
.2 the ship in the arrival ballast condition, in accordance with the approved
trim and stability booklet, without cargo and with 10% stores and fuel
remaining.
For either condition, roll, pitch and heave need not be applied.
3.2.4.3.6 Restricted service ships (ships operating solely in sheltered waters)
shall be subject to compliance with the still water submergence requirement
specified in 3.2.4.3.5.1.
3.2.4.3.7 In all cases, the net positive suction head (NPSH) available for the
pump shall be greater than that required in the present sub-chapter.
3.2.4.3.8 Upon completion of the emergency fire pump installation,
a performance test confirming the pump capacity, which is to be not less than that
required in 3.2.4.2.1, shall be carried out. If the emergency fire pump is the main
supply of water for any fixed fire-extinguishing system provided to protect the
space where the main fire pump is located, the pump shall have the capacity for
this system. As far as practicable, the test shall be carried out at the draught
corresponding to the lightest sea-going condition.
3.2.4.4
Emergency Fire Pump Space
3.2.4.4.1 The space containing the emergency fire pump shall not be contiguous
to the boundaries of machinery spaces of category A or those spaces containing
main fire pumps. Where this is not practicable, the common bulkhead between
the two spaces shall have the fire integrity as specified in 2.2.2 for a control station.
When a single access to the emergency fire pump room is through another space
adjoining a machinery space of category A or the spaces containing the main fire
pumps, Class A-60 boundary is required between that other space and the
machinery space of category A or the spaces containing the main fire pumps.
3.2.4.4.2 No direct access shall be permitted between the machinery space
of category A or machinery space containing the main fire pumps and the space
containing the emergency fire pump and its source of power. When this is not
practicable, an arrangement where the access is by means of an airlock with the
door of the machinery space being of A-60 Class standard and the other door being
82
Fire Protection
steel, gastight, self-closing and without any hold-back arrangements, may be
permitted.
Alternatively, the access may be through a watertight door capable of being
remotely operated from a readily accessible position outside the machinery space
and the space containing the emergency fire pump and unlikely to be cut off in the
event of fire in those spaces.
In such cases, a second means of access to the space containing the emergency
fire pump and its source of power (e.g. through a manhole and ladder) shall be
provided.
3.2.4.4.3 The room containing the emergency fire pump and its sources of power
shall have adequate space for maintenance work and inspections.
3.2.4.4.4 The room, referred to above, shall be provided with lighting, supplied
from the emergency source of electric power.
3.2.4.4.5 The room containing the emergency fire pump and its sources of power
shall be well ventilated. If mechanical ventilation, necessary for diesel engine
operation, has been provided, it shall be supplied from the emergency source of
electric power.
3.2.4.4.6 Ventilation arrangements to the space containing the independent
source of power for the emergency fire pump shall be such as to preclude, as far as
practicable, the possibility of smoke from the machinery space fire entering or
being drawn into that space.
3.2.4.5
Diesel Engine and Fuel Tank for Emergency Fire Pump
3.2.4.5.1 The emergency fire pump shall be driven by a diesel engine only. The
engine shall be capable of being readily started in its cold condition down to the
temperature of 0 °C by hand (manual) cranking. Where ready starting cannot be
assured, if this is impracticable, or if lower temperatures are likely to be
encountered, and if the room for the diesel-driven power source is not heated,
electric heating of the diesel engine cooling water or lubricating oil system shall be
fitted. If hand (manual) starting is impracticable, compressed air, electricity, or
other sources of stored energy, including hydraulic power or starting cartridges are
permitted to be used as a means of starting.
The means shall be such as to enable the diesel-driven power source to be
started at least six times within a period of 30 minutes and a least twice within the
first 10 minutes.
3.2.4.5.2 A service fuel tank of the volume sufficient to ensure at least 3-hours
operation of the pump on full load shall be installed in the space containing the
emergency fire pump. The fuel reserve sufficient to ensure an additional 15-hours
operation of the pump shall be provided outside the machinery space of category A.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
83
3.2.4.5.3 The minimum level/ the required minimum volume of fuel shall be
marked on the service fuel tank.
3.2.5
Water Fire Main Pipings
3.2.5.1 The diameter of the water fire main system pipes shall be sufficient for
the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps
operating simultaneously. In the case of cargo ships, the diameter need only be
sufficient for the discharge of 140 m3/hour.
For cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, the water fire main system
pipes shall be calculated for a working pressure not less than 1.0 MPa.
3.2.5.2 The pipelines and fire hydrants shall be so designed and arranged as to
preclude their freezing in ships entering areas where low temperatures may exist.
It applies, in particular, to continuously pressurized pipelines.
For continuously pressurized pipelines where fire hydrants are located on open
decks, it is recommended that supply pipes installed in interior locations should be
fitted with shut-off valves, remotely controlled from a position near the hydrant.
The pipeline section from a shut-off valve to the hydrant, subjected to freezing,
shall be drained by means of a drain plug. The fire hydrant and the drain plug shall
be provided with a plate informing on the necessity of draining this pipe section
after it has been used.
3.2.5.3 The whole section of the fire main within machinery space of category A
containing the main fire pump(s) shall be separated by isolating valves from the
rest of the fire main. The isolating valves shall be installed in an easily accessible
position outside the machinery space. The fire main shall be so arranged that when
the isolating valves are shut, all the hydrants on the ship, except those in the
machinery space, referred to above, can be supplied with water by another pump or
the emergency fire pump.
Each section of water fire installation pipings installed within machinery space
of category A shall be additionally equipped with the isolating valve located
outside the space.
This requirement is not applicable to the piping supplied by fire pumps located
in spaces other than machinery spaces of category A.
The location of each isolating valve separating the section of the fire main shall
be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.2.5.4 Materials made readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for
fire mains and hydrants unless adequately protected.
3.2.5.5 Fire main pipelines shall be capable of being drained through drain plugs
fitted in the lowest section of the system.
84
Fire Protection
3.2.5.6 Each open deck fire main branch used for the purpose other than firefighting shall be fitted with an isolating valve. This valve shall be remotely
controlled from the open deck.
3.2.6
Fire Hydrants
3.2.6.1 Each fire hydrant shall be fitted with a coupling complying with national
standards and a shut-off valve so that any fire hose may be connected and removed
while the pump is in operation.
Fire hydrant couplings, installed on open decks, shall be provided with easily
removable caps.
3.2.6.2 Fire hydrants shall be so positioned that they allow easy and rapid
connection of fire hoses.
3.2.6.3 The number and position of hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of
water not emanating from the same hydrant, one of which shall be from a single length
of hose, may reach any part of the ship normally accessible to the passengers or crew
while the ship is being navigated and any part of any cargo space when empty, any roro cargo space or any special category space in which latter case the two jets of water
shall reach any part of the space, each from a single length of hose. For ro-ro spaces
and vehicle spaces – the requirements are specified in 6.2.2.3.
Fire hydrants shall be positioned near the accesses to the protected spaces.
The location of each fire hydrant shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol
used on Fire Control Plan.
3.2.6.4 In ships where deck cargo may be carried, the positions of the hydrants
shall be such that they are always readily accessible and the pipes are arranged as
far as practicable to avoid risk of damage by such cargo.
3.2.6.5 In machinery spaces of category A, there shall be at least two fire
hydrants with fire hose and nozzle located on either side of the ship. In small
machinery spaces, only one fire hydrant is permitted.
In cargo ships of less than 500 gross tonnage where the machinery space of
category A cannot afford the connection and use of fire hose inside the space, the
fire hydrant, together with fire hose and nozzle may be located outside the
machinery space, close to the entrance to this space.
3.2.6.6 Fire hydrants shall be made from material resistant to the corrosive effect
of sea water.
3.2.6.7
3.2.7
Fire hydrants shall be painted red.
Fire Hoses
3.2.7.1 Fire hoses shall be of non-perishable material and shall be sufficient in
length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be required
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
85
to be used. Each fire hose shall be provided with a nozzle and the necessary
couplings allowing quick connection.
Fire hose couplings shall be made from material resistant to the corrosive effect
of sea water.
Fire hoses shall be made in accordance with EN 694:2001. They are subject to
tests in accordance with PN-EN 14540 + A1.
3.2.7.2 Fire hoses, together with nozzles and any necessary fittings and tools,
shall be stowed in hose boxes, located in conspicuous positions near the water
service hydrants or connections.
Within accommodation spaces, fire hoses shall be stowed in boxes, on reels and
shall be permanently connected to fire hydrants.
Fire hoses boxes shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire
Control Plan.
3.2.7.3 Fire hoses shall have a length of at least 10 m, but not more than:
.1 15 m in machinery spaces;
.2 20 m in superstructure spaces and on open decks;
.3 25 m on open decks in ships with a maximum breadth in excess of 30 m.
In ships of less than 500 gross tonnage, the length of fire hose shall not exceed:
.4 10 m in machinery spaces;
.5 18 m in superstructure spaces and on open decks.
3.2.7.4 Unless one fire hose and nozzle is provided for each fire hydrant in the
ship, there shall be complete interchangeability of hose couplings and nozzles.
3.2.7.5 In cargo ships of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards, the number of fire
hoses to be provided shall be one for each 30 m length of the ship and one spare,
but in no case less than five in all. This number does not include fire hoses required
in machinery spaces and boiler rooms.
3.2.7.6 In cargo ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage, the number of fire hoses
to be provided shall be calculated in accordance with 3.2.7.5; the number of fire
hoses shall in no case be less than three.
3.2.7.7 In every cargo ship, the number of fire hoses shall be not less than the
number of provided fire hydrants.
3.2.8
Fire Hose Nozzles
3.2.8.1 Fire hose nozzles shall be made from material resistant to the corrosive
effect of sea water. Fire hose nozzles made of plastic material, e.g. polycarbonate,
are considered acceptable, provided the nozzles capacity and serviceability, as well
as their suitability for the marine environment are confirmed by tests.
3.2.8.2 Standard nozzle sizes 12 mm, 16 mm or 19 mm or as near thereto as
possible shall be used on ships. Where other fire-extinguishing systems are used –
such as fog fire-extinguishing systems – different diameter nozzles may be permitted.
86
Fire Protection
3.2.8.3 For accommodation and service spaces, a nozzle size greater than 12 mm
need not be used.
3.2.8.4 For machinery spaces and open decks, the nozzle size shall be such as to
obtain the maximum discharge possible from two jets of water at the pressure
specified in Table 3.2.1.1 from the smallest pump, provided that a nozzle size
greater than 19 mm need not be used.
3.2.8.5 All fire hose nozzles shall be of approved dual-purpose type, i.e. of
spray/jet type incorporating a shutoff.
3.2.9
International Shore Connection
3.2.9.1 In ships of gross tonnage 2000 and above, the fire main system shall have
a branch led to the open deck in way of superstructure. The branch shall be fitted
with a permanent shore connection for the water supply. The shore connection shall
be fitted with a shut-off valve, as well as steel coupling for the international shore
connection in accordance with the requirements specified in Table 2.1 of the FSS
Code. The shut-off valve is not required if the shore connection is closed with a blind
flange fitted with butterfly screws (not requiring a wrench to remove the flange).
3.2.9.2 Facilities shall be available enabling such pipe connection to be used on
either side of the ship.
3.2.9.3 All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships engaged
on international voyages shall be provided with a portable international shore
connection complying with the requirements specified in Chapter 2 of the FSS
Code.
3.2.9.4 Facilities shall be available enabling such shore connection to be used on
each side of the ship.
3.2.9.5 The portable international shore connection shall be kept in a fire storeroom. The location of international shore connection shall be indicated by a plate
with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.3
3.3.1
Automatic Sprinkler System (for the Protection of Accommodation
Spaces, Service Spaces and Control Stations)
General Requirements
3.3.1.1 An automatic sprinkler system shall be fitted with sea water pump,
a pressure tank with an arrangement, control panels with alarm system, pipelines
grouped in sections with section valves supplying water to spaces and the
sprinklers. The sprinkler system shall be automatically set in operation at the
temperature in the protected space rise to the value given in 3.3.7.2.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
87
3.3.1.2 The system pipings shall be always filled with fresh water, but small
exposed sections may be of the dry type 1) where this is a necessary precaution.
Saunas and refrigerated provision chambers shall be fitted with dry pipe
sprinkler systems.
In control stations, in which water may cause damage to essential, for the safety
of the ship, appliances, dry-type pipes may also be used.
3.3.1.3 Any part of the system which may be subjected to freezing temperatures
in service shall be suitably protected against freezing.
3.3.1.4 Automatic sprinkler system shall be capable of immediate operation at all
times and no action of the crew shall be necessary to set it in operation.
3.3.1.5 The sprinkler system shall be kept charged at the necessary pressure and
shall have provision for a continuous supply of water.
3.3.1.6 Spaces/group of spaces protected by automatic sprinkler system shall be
indicated by a plate, placed on access door, with the symbol used on Fire Control
Plan.
3.3.2
Sources of Power Supply
3.3.2.1 There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the sea water
pump and alarm system. If the pump is electrically driven, it shall be connected to
the main electric switchboard, which shall be capable of being supplied by at least
two generators.
3.3.2.2 The power supply lines shall be so arranged as to avoid galleys,
machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces of high fire risk, except in so far as it
is necessary to reach the appropriate switchboards.
3.3.2.3 One of the sources of power supply for the alarm system shall be an
emergency source of electric power.
3.3.2.4 Where one of the sources of power for the sea water pump is an internal
combustion engine, it shall, in addition to compliance with the requirements of
3.3.4.5, be so situated that a fire in any protected space will not affect the air supply
to the engine.
1)
Dry-type pipes - dry pipe system in the sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached
to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of which (as from
opening a sprinkler) permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve. The
water flows into the piping system and out of the opened sprinklers.
88
3.3.3
Fire Protection
Pressure Tank
3.3.3.1 Fresh water pressure tank shall be fitted with:
.1 fresh water supply pipeline;
.2 automatic pressure maintaining device;
.3 water level indicating device and alarms warning of the water level and
pressure drop in the tank below the minimum values;
.4 safety valve;
.5 pressure gauge, connected through a stop valve or cock.
3.3.3.2 The tank capacity shall be equal to at least twice the above required
quantity of fresh water in the pressure tank.
The quantity of fresh water in the pressure tank shall be equal to the quantity of
sea water delivered by the sea water pump in one minute, calculated for the area of
at least 280 m2 at the application rate specified in 3.3.7.1.
3.3.3.3 Provision shall be made for maintaining such air pressure in the tank that
after the consumption of the whole quantity of fresh water it will be not lower than
the working pressure of the sprinklers plus hydrostatic pressure from the tank
bottom to the highest sprinkler.
3.3.3.4 Arrangements for replenishing compressed air and fresh water in the
pressure tank, as well as non-return valves precluding the ingress of sea water into
the tank shall be provided.
3.3.3.5 The pressure tank shall comply with the requirements for pressure
vessels, set out in Chapter 12, Part VII – Machinery, Boilers and Pressure Vessels.
3.3.4
Sea Water Pump
3.3.4.1 An independent power sea water pump shall be provided for the purpose
of maintaining continuous discharge of water from the sprinklers. The pump shall
be brought into action automatically by the pressure drop in the system before the
standing fresh water charge in the pressure tank is completely exhausted.
3.3.4.2 The pump and the piping system shall be capable of maintaining the
necessary pressure at the level of the highest sprinkler to ensure a continuous
output of water sufficient for the simultaneous coverage of a minimum area of
280 m2 at the application rate specified in 3.3.7.1.
Hydraulic calculations shall be made to confirm that the water flow and
pressure will be sufficient to cover the most unfavourably located section (the
greatest flow resistance).
3.3.4.3 The pump shall have fitted on the delivery side a test valve with a short
open-ended discharge pipe. The effective cross-sectional area of the valve and pipe
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
89
shall be adequate to permit the release of the required pump output while
maintaining the pressure in the system specified in 3.3.3.3.
3.3.4.4 Means shall be provided for testing the automatic operation of the pump
on reduction of pressure in the system.
3.3.4.5 The sea water pump and the pressure tank shall be situated outside protected
spaces, in a position reasonably remote from machinery spaces of category A.
3.3.5
Piping Arrangements
3.3.5.1 Sprinklers shall be grouped into separate sections, each of which shall
contain not more than 200 sprinklers.
3.3.5.2 Each section of sprinklers shall be capable of being isolated by one stop
valve only, fitted on the supply pipe. The stop valve in each section (section valve)
shall be readily accessible in a location outside of the associated section or in
cabinets within stairway enclosures. A locking arrangement shall be provided to
protect the section valves against access thereto by any unauthorized person.
The location of the valves shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on
Fire Control Plan.
3.3.5.3 A test valve shall be provided for testing the automatic alarm for each
section of sprinklers by a discharge of water equivalent to the operation of one
sprinkler. The test valve for each section shall be situated near the stop valve of
that section.
3.3.5.4 Automatic sprinkler system shall have a connection from the ship’s fire
main by way of a non-return valve fitted with interlocking arrangement.
3.3.5.5 A gauge indicating the pressure in the system shall be provided at each
section valve and at the control station.
3.3.5.6 The sea inlet valve shall be in the space containing the pump and shall be
so arranged that when the ship is afloat it will not be necessary to shut off the
supply of sea water to the pump for any purpose other than the inspection or repair
of the pump.
3.3.5.7 The suction pipes of sea water pump supplying the sprinkler system shall
be fitted with filters to prevent the sprinklers against getting clogged.
3.3.5.8 Provision shall be made in each section for blowing the pipes with
compressed air and flushing them with fresh water.
3.3.6
Control Panels and Alarm System
3.3.6.1 Each section of sprinklers shall be provided with water flow sensor for
giving a visual and audible alarm signal at one or more control panels, whenever
90
Fire Protection
any sprinkler comes into operation. The alarm system shall be such as to indicate
any fault occurring in the sprinkler system.
3.3.6.2 Control panels shall show in which section, served by the system, fire has
occurred and shall be centralized on the navigation bridge or a continuously
manned central control station. In addition, visible and audible alarms from the
control panel shall also be placed in a position other than on the afore-mentioned
spaces to ensure that the indication of fire is immediately received by the crew.
3.3.6.3 Switches shall be provided at one of the control panels, which enable the
alarm and the indicators for each section of sprinklers to be tested.
3.3.6.4 A scheme or plan shall be located at each control panel showing the
space protected by automatic sprinkler system and the location of the fire zone in
respect of each section.
3.3.6.5 Suitable instructions for testing and maintenance of automatic sprinkler
system shall be available on board the ship.
3.3.7
Sprinklers
3.3.7.1 Sprinklers shall be placed in an overhead position and spaced in a suitable
pattern to maintain an average application rate of not less than 5 l/m2 /min over the
nominal area covered by the sprinklers. The nominal area is defined as being the gross
horizontal projection of the area to be covered.
The use of sprinklers providing a lower average application rate may be
permitted subject to submission of test results confirming that such sprinklers are
not less effective.
Sprinklers shall be placed as clear as possible of beams or other objects likely to
obstruct the projections of water and in such positions that combustible materials in
the space will be well sprayed.
3.3.7.2 In accommodation and service spaces, the sprinklers shall come into
operation within the temperature range from 68 °C ÷ 79 °C, except that in locations
such as drying rooms and galleys, where high ambient temperatures might be
expected, the operating temperature may be increased by not more than 30 °C above
the normal deckhead temperature.
3.3.7.3 The sprinklers shall be resistant to corrosion by marine atmosphere.
Sprinklers are subject to type tests in accordance with ISO 6182-1 or PN-EN
12259-1 standards, or in accordance with the guidelines specified in Annex 1 to
Res. A.800(19), as amended by Res. MSC.265 (84).
3.3.7.4 The total number of spare sprinklers for all types of sprinklers installed on
board, related to the total number of sprinklers, shall be as follows:
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
Total number of sprinklers
91
Required number of spare sprinklers
< 300
6
300 ÷ 1000
12
> 1000
24
The ship shall be provided with at least 6 spare sprinklers for each section.
For each type of sprinkler, the number of spare sprinklers need not exceed the
total number of installed sprinklers.
3.3.8
Equivalent High-Pressure Sprinkler System (Water Mist System)
3.3.8.1 Guidelines for the design, assembly and type approval tests of equivalent
high-pressure sprinkler system are specified in Publication No. 89/P.
3.3.8.2 The system shall be designed, assembled and type tested in accordance
with Res. A.800(19), as amended by Res. MSC.265(84).
3.3.8.3 Type approval tests of equivalent high-pressure sprinkler systems
performed in accordance with the guidelines, specified in Res. A.800(19), remain
valid until 1 July 2015.
3.3.8.4 Existing equivalent high-pressure sprinkler systems, approved and installed
in accordance with the guidelines specified in Res. A.800(19) are to be permitted to
remain in service as long as they are serviceable based on the survey results.
3.4
3.4.1
Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing Systems and Equivalent
Fire-Extinguishing Systems
General Requirements
3.4.1.1 The water-spraying fire-extinguishing system shall be fitted with the
supply water pump, distribution pipelines which may be divided into sections with
section valves and spraying nozzles.
3.4.1.2 The capacity and the pressure head of the supply water pump shall be
determined on the basis of the required water discharge rate, taking into account
the characteristics and number of spraying nozzles installed in the largest protected
space. Where the system capacity is less than 50% of the fire pumps capacity,
specified in 3.2.1.5, a separate supply water pump need not be installed and the
system may be supplied with water from the water fire main system. Otherwise, an
independent supply water pump shall be provided, with the capacity sufficient to
cover the demand of the largest protected space.
3.4.1.3 Unless the requirements for protected spaces provide otherwise, the water
discharge rate shall be taken as follows:
92
Fire Protection
– 5 l/min per floor square metre – for cargo spaces and machinery spaces;
– 24 l/min per shelf square metre – for shelves in explosives store-rooms.
3.4.1.4 The water pressure shall ensure an effective distribution of dispersed
water in the protected space.
3.4.1.5 The spraying nozzles shall be so arranged as to provide uniform
distribution of dispersed water in the protected space.
3.4.1.6 The system shall be fitted with filters preventing the nozzles from
becoming clogged by impurities in sea water or pipe corrosion chips.
3.4.1.7
Pipelines shall be capable of being drained.
3.4.1.8 In each of the protected spaces, an adequate draining system shall be
provided to enable suitable overboard discharge of water by means of gravitational
force or bilge pump.
3.4.1.9 Spaces/ group of spaces protected by water-spraying fire-extinguishing
system shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.4.2
Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing System in Ro-Ro Spaces,
Special Category Spaces and Vehicle Spaces
3.4.2.1 The nozzles shall have such a bore that would prevent them from
becoming clogged by impurities in sea water or pipe corrosion chips.
3.4.2.2 The water discharge rate shall be at least 3.5 l/min per floor square metre –
for spaces with a deck height not exceeding 2.5 m and 5 l/min per floor square metre –
for spaces with a deck height of 2.5 m or more.
3.4.2.3
Water pressure shall be sufficient to ensure uniform distribution of water.
3.4.2.4 The system shall be sufficient to ensure uniform coverage of the full breadth
of the vehicle deck and may be divided into pipe sections, provided that the length of
the section is not less than 20 m, except that on ships with vehicle spaces separated by
horizontal A Class divisions, enclosing stairways, etc. the section width may be
appropriately reduced.
3.4.2.5 The section valves manifold shall be placed in an easily accessible space
located outside the space to be protected so as not to be cut off by a fire in the
protected space. Direct access to section valves manifold from the protected
vehicle space and from outside the space shall be ensured. The space containing the
section valves manifold shall be well ventilated.
The location of section valves manifold shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
93
3.4.2.6 The system shall be supplied from an independent supply pump and shall
be additionally connected to the water fire main, through a non-return valve fitted
with a locking arrangement.
3.4.2.7 The capacity of the pump shall be such as to be capable of providing
simultaneously a sufficient supply of water at the required pressure to all nozzles in
the vehicle deck or on at least two sections thereof.
3.4.2.8 The supply water pump shall be capable of being brought into operation
by remote control (which may be manually actuated) from the position close to
section valves manifold.
3.4.2.9 The water-spraying fire-extinguishing system shall be fitted with:
.1 a pressure gauge installed on section valves manifold;
.2 information plates located on each manifold valve, showing space/section
of the piping that the valve serves;
.3 system operation and maintenance manual located in the space housing
section valves manifold. The manual shall contain a plan of the system,
with division into sections and the arrangement of all sections of the
system;
.4 sufficient number of drain valves.
3.4.2.10 The supply pump shall be situated outside the protected space. In the
case of electrically driven pump, power supply cables shall not be led through
protected spaces. If such arrangement is not practicable, fire-resistant cables
complying with the requirements specified in 16.1.2, Part VIII – Electrical
Installations and Control Systems, suitably protected against mechanical damage,
may be permitted.
3.4.2.11 The system shall be type approved in accordance with guidelines
specified in Res. A.123(V).
3.4.3 Equivalent High-Pressure Water-Based Spraying
Fire-Extinguishing System in Ro-Ro Spaces and Special Category Spaces
Guidelines for the design, assembly and type tests of the system are given in
Publication No. 89/P.
3.4.4
Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing System and Equivalent HighPressure Water-Based Fire-Extinguishing System in Machinery Spaces
and Cargo Pump-Rooms
Guidelines for the design, assembly and type tests of the system are given in
Publication No. 89/P.
94
Fire Protection
3.4.5
Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing System and Equivalent HighPressure Water-Based Fire-Extinguishing System for Cabin Balconies
Guidelines for the design, assembly and type tests of the system are given in
Publication No. 89/P.
3.4.6
Fixed Local Water-Based Fire-Extinguishing System for Machinery
Spaces of Category A
3.4.6.1 In machinery spaces of category A, the system shall be capable, without
the necessity of the engines shut-down, personnel evacuation or sealing the space,
of protecting the areas 1) containing the following equipment:
.1 internal combustion engines parts, which constitute fire hazard 2);
.2 boiler fronts;
.3 incinerators parts, which constitute fire hazard;
.4 heated oil separators;
.5 oil-fired equipment, such as inert gas generators, thermal oil heaters, etc.
3.4.6.2 The system shall consist of the supply water pump, distribution pipes,
spraying nozzles, starting arrangement and signalling devices.
Distribution pipes shall be divided into sections protecting the above-mentioned
areas.
Each section of the pipes shall be divided by a section valve – electromechanical/
pneumatic, remotely controlled from the control panel and from the position of
particular section operation. Provision shall be made for manual operation of the
electromechanical/pneumatic valve in the event of loss of power.
3.4.6.3 The supply water pump and section valves shall be located outside the
protected areas.
3.4.6.4 The capacity of the supply water pump shall be based on the protected
area demanding the largest volume of water.
3.4.6.5 The system shall be started manually. The system control panel with start
buttons for each section shall be located in the engine control room. In addition,
start buttons for particular section of the system shall be located close to each
protected area.
The location of control panel and start buttons for each section of the system
shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
1)
2)
Protected area is an area within a protected space which is required to be protected by the system.
For more precise definition – see MSC/Circ.1120, interpretations regarding SOLAS II-2/10.5.6.3.1,
.2 and 3 regulations.
In multi-engine installations, at least two pipe sections shall be arranged.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
95
3.4.6.6 In ships with periodically unattended machinery spaces, the system shall
have the automatic release capability – see 6.16.3.2.
Machinery space fitted with local water-spraying fire-extinguishing system
operated automatically shall be indicated by a warning plate placed on access door,
bearing the inscription: CAUTION. THE POSSIBILITY OF RELEASE OF THE
WATER-BASED SYSTEM.
3.4.6.7 Activation of the system shall give visual and audible alarms, as well as
indication of the activated zone. Visual and audible alarms shall be provided in
each protected space, in the engine control room and on the bridge. Audible alarms
may use a single tone.
3.4.6.8 The operation of the fire-extinguishing system and supply of water by
each of the section shall not result in the loss of electric power or reduction of the
manoeuvrability of the ship.
3.4.6.9 The system shall be capable of fire suppression with mechanical
ventilation running and supplying air to the protected space or a method of
automatically shutting air supply fans upon activation of the system shall be
provided.
3.4.6.10 The system shall be available for immediate use and capable of
continuously supplying water extinguishing medium for at least 20 minutes in
order to suppress or extinguish the fire or to prepare for the operation of the main
fire-extinguishing system.
3.4.6.11 The supply water pump, control of the system and signalling devices
shall be supplied from the main and the emergency source of electric power.
Possibility of automatic switching over of power sources shall be provided.
3.4.6.12 Guidelines for the design, assembly and type tests of the system are
given in Publication No. 89/P.
3.4.7
Local Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing System for Exhaust
Gas-Fired Thermal Heaters
3.4.7.1 The flow rate of the water-spraying system shall be at least 5 l/min per
square metre of the heated surfaces.
3.4.7.2 The system shall be available for immediate use and capable of
continuously supplying water at full capacity for at least 20 min. The use of fresh
water is recommended.
3.4.7.3 Water-spraying nozzles shall ensure uniform distribution of water on
heated heater surfaces. The nozzles shall be arranged so that the machinery space
fittings do not obstruct the water jets.
96
Fire Protection
3.4.7.4 To protect against uncontrolled water leaks on heated exhaust gas-fired
thermal oil heater surfaces, the supply line shall be fitted with two shut-off valves
and a drain valve between them.
3.4.7.5 Provision shall be made for manual starting of the system. Control valves
and pump starters shall be installed in one easily accessible place, safely distanced
from the exhaust gas-fired thermal oil heater.
The location of the system operation shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
Operation instructions for the system shall be also displayed at the starting
arrangement.
3.4.7.6 The exhaust gas line/duct located below the exhaust gas-fired thermal oil
heater shall be protected by a water trap for collecting and draining water to prevent
water flooding the engine. Water shall be drained to the bilge or a suitable waste.
3.4.7.7 Activation of the system shall set off the alarm in the machinery space
and in a continuously manned control station.
3.4.8
Equivalent Water-Spraying Fire-Extinguishing System for Open-Top
Container Ships
3.4.8.1 The fire-extinguishing system shall be capable of suppressing fire in the
bay of origin and to cool adjacent areas to prevent structural damage.
3.4.8.2 The system shall be capable of spraying water into the cargo hold from
deck level downward. The system shall be designed and arranged to take account
of the specific hold and container configuration.
3.4.8.3 The system shall be subdivided into sections, with each section to consist
of a ring-line at deck level in an open cargo hold around a container bay.
The location of the section valves manifold shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.4.8.4 The system shall be capable of spraying the outer vertical boundaries of
each container bay in an open cargo hold and of cooling the adjacent structure. The
application density shall be not less than 1.1 l/min/per square metre of the hold.
3.4.8.5 The system shall be supplied by at least one dedicated pump with
a capacity to serve all container bays in any one open-top container simultaneously.
The pump(s) shall be installed outside the open-top area.
3.4.8.6 The availability of water to the water spray system shall be at least 50% of
the total capacity, with adequate spray patterns in the open-top container hold, and with
any one dedicated pump inoperable. For the case of a single dedicated pump, this may
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
97
be accomplished by an interconnection to an alternative source of water. The system
shall be supplemented by fire hose supply from the water fire main on the open deck.
3.4.9
Water Screen System
3.4.9.1 The water screen system shall be provided for use in the following cases:
.1 for creating “water wall” in ships with industrial spaces, where there is no
possibility of installing A-60 Class divisions;
.2 in ships adapted for operation in oil spillage area – for drenching the
external bulkheads of superstructures.
3.4.9.2 The water discharge rate of the water screen system shall be taken as
follows:
– 70 l/min per linear metre of the bulkhead length as a full substitute of A-60
Class division;
– 30 l/min per linear metre of the bulkhead length for one side drenching of A-0
Class steel division.
3.4.9.3 The water screen system may be supplied from the water fire main
system; for small water screens, the system may be also supplied from sea water or
fresh water pressure tank system.
3.4.9.4 Water screen means of control shall be located in easily accessible and
safe positions. The location of remote means of control shall be indicated by a plate
with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.5
3.5.1
Fixed Foam Fire-Extinguishing Systems
Application and General Requirements
3.5.1.1 Fixed foam fire-extinguishing systems are intended for the protection of
machinery spaces, cargo spaces (conventional cargo holds), cargo pump-rooms,
vehicle spaces, ro-ro and special category spaces. Fixed foam fire-extinguishing
systems cannot be used for the protection of cargo pump-rooms in chemical tankers
carrying alcohol-based liquid cargoes, unless the systems have been additionally
tested with alcohol-based fuel and alcohol resistant foam.
3.5.1.2 The foam concentrates used in the foam fire-extinguishing systems are
subject to type tests in accordance with the guidelines specified in circulars:
MSC.1/Circ.1312/Corr.1 – for low-expansion foam, MSC/Circ.798 – for mediumexpansion foam and MSC/Circ.670 – for high-expansion foam.
3.5.1.3 Different foam concentrate types shall not be mixed in a foam system.
Foam concentrates of the same type, but produced by different manufacturers, shall
also not be mixed unless considered compatible.
98
Fire Protection
3.5.1.4 A space/spaces protected by the foam fire-extinguishing system shall be
indicated by an appropriate plate, placed on the space/spaces access door, with the
symbol used on Fire control plan.
3.5.2
Definitions
For the purpose of the present sub-chapter, the following definitions have been
adopted:
.1 Foam generators – discharge devices or assemblies through which highexpansion foam solution is aerated to form foam that is discharged into the
protected space. Foam generators using inside air typically consist of
a nozzle or a set of nozzles and a casing. The casing shall be made of
perforated steel/ stainless steel plates shaped into a box that enclose the
nozzle(s). Foam generators using outside air typically consist of nozzles
enclosed within a casing that spray onto the screen. An electric, hydraulic or
pneumatically driven fan is provided to aerate the solution.
.2 High-expansion foam fire-extinguishing sy stem – fixed total
flooding extinguishing systems that use inside air or outside air for aeration
of the foam solution. A high-expansion foam system consists of foam
generators and the dedicated foam concentrate approved during the fire
testing.
.3 Inside air foam system – a fixed high-expansion foam fireextinguishing system with foam generators located inside the protected
space and drawing air from that space.
.4 Outside air foam system – a fixed high-expansion foam fireextinguishing system with foam generators installed outside the protected
space that are directly supplied with fresh air.
.5 Foam delivery ducts – supply ducts for introducing high-expansion
foam into the protected space from foam generators located outside the
protected space.
.6 Expansion ratio – the ratio of the volume of foam to the volume of
solution from which the foam is produced.
.7 Nominal application rate – the nominal flow rate per area expressed in
l/min/m2.
.8 Nominal foam expansion ratio – the ratio of the volume of foam to
the volume of foam solution from which it is made, under non-fire
conditions and at an ambient temperature of e.g. ± 20 oC.
.9 Nominal foam production – the volume of foam produced per time
unit, i.e. nominal flow rate times foam expansion ratio, expressed in
m3/min.
.10 Nominal flow rate – the foam solution flow expressed in l/min.
.11 Nominal filling rate – the ratio of nominal foam production to the area,
expressed in m/min.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
99
.12 Nominal filling time – is the ratio of the height of the protected space
to the space nominal filling rate, expressed in minutes.
.13 Foam – the extinguishing medium produced when foam solution passes
through a foam generator and is mixed with air.
.14 Low-expansion foam – foam with expansion ratio up to 20 (generally
about 10).
.15 Medium- expansion foam – foam with expansion ratio between 20 and
200 (generally about 100).
.16 High-expansion foam – foam with expansion higher than 200
(generally about 500).
.17 Design filling rate – at least the minimum nominal filling rate used
during the approval tests.
.18 Foam solution – a solution of foam concentrate and water.
.19 Foam mixing rate – the percentage of foam concentrate mixed with
water forming the foam solution.
.20 Foam concentrate – a liquid which, when mixed with water in the
appropriate concentration forms a foam solution.
.21 Alcohol resistant foam concentrate – foam concentrate used for
extinguishing fires of water-miscible flammable liquids (polar liquids) and
fires of other liquids, extinguished by typical foams.
3.5.3
3.5.3.1
Fixed High-Expansion Foam Fire-Extinguishing Systems
General Requirements
3.5.3.1.1 Fixed high-expansion foam system shall consist of foam concentrate
storage tank(s), water supply pump, foam pump and foam proportioner, water and
foam concentrate, distribution pipes and foam generators. The system may be fitted
with ducts supplying high-expansion foam into a protected space and ducts
supplying air into foam generators.
3.5.3.1.2 The system shall be capable of manual release and shall be designed to
produce foam at the required application rate within 1 minute of release. Automatic
release of the system shall not be permitted unless appropriate operational
measures or interlocks are provided to prevent any local fire-extinguishing systems
from interfering with the effectiveness of the system.
3.5.3.1.3 The system shall be capable of fire extinction, shall be manufactured
and type tested based on the requirements guidelines specified in
MSC.1/Circ.1384.
3.5.3.1.4 The system and its components shall be suitably designed to withstand
ambient temperature changes, vibration, humidity, shock, clogging and corrosion
normally encountered on ships. Piping, fittings and related components inside the
protected spaces (except gaskets) shall be designed to withstand 925°C.
100
Fire Protection
3.5.3.1.5 The system piping, foam concentrate storage tanks, components and
pipe fittings in contact with the foam concentrate shall be compatible with the foam
concentrate and be constructed of corrosion resistant materials, such as stainless
steel or equivalent. Other system piping and foam generators shall be made of full
galvanized steel or equivalent. Distribution pipes shall have self-draining
capability.
3.5.3.1.6 Means for testing the operation of the system and assuring the required
pressure and flow shall be provided by pressure gauges at both inlets (water and
foam concentrate supply) and at the outlet of the foam proportioner. A test valve
shall be installed on the distribution piping downstream of the foam proportioner,
along with orifices which reflect the calculated pressure drop of the system. All
sections of piping shall be provided with connections for flushing, draining and
purging with air. All nozzles shall be able to be removed for inspection in order to
prove clear of debris.
3.5.3.1.7 Means shall be provided for the crew to safely check the quantity of
foam concentrate and take periodic control samples for foam quality. The
minimum level/required foam volume shall be marked on the tank.
The location of foam concentrate storage tank shall be indicated by a plate with
the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.5.3.1.8 Operating instructions for the system shall be displayed at each
operating position.
The location of the system remote control shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.5.3.1.9 Spare parts shall be provided on board in accordance with the
manufacturer's instruction.
3.5.3.1.10 If an internal combustion engine is used as a prime mover for the sea
water pump for the system, the fuel oil tank shall contain sufficient fuel to enable
the pump to run on full load for at least 3 h and sufficient reserves of fuel shall be
available outside the machinery space of category A to enable the pump to be run
on full load for an additional 15 h. If the fuel tank serves other internal combustion
engines simultaneously, the total fuel tank capacity shall be adequate for all
connected engines.
The minimum level/required fuel oil volume shall be marked on the tank.
3.5.3.1.11 The arrangement of foam generators and foam delivery piping/ducts
in the protected space shall not interfere with access to the installed machinery for
routine maintenance.
The location of foam delivery ducts outlets shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
101
3.5.3.1.12 The system source of power supply, foam concentrate supply and
means of controlling the system shall be readily accessible and simple to operate,
and shall be arranged at positions outside the protected space not likely to be cut
off by a fire in the protected space. All electrical components directly connected to
the foam generators shall have at least an IP 54 rating.
3.5.3.1.13 The piping system shall be sized in accordance with a hydraulic
calculation technique, such as e.g. the Hazen-Williams method to ensure
availability of flows and pressures required for correct performance of the system.
3.5.3.1.14 The arrangement of the protected spaces shall be such that they may
be ventilated as the space is being filled with foam. Procedures shall be provided to
ensure that upper level dampers, doors and other suitable openings are kept open in
case of a fire. For inside air foam systems, spaces below 500 m3 need not comply
with this requirement.
3.5.3.1.15 Onboard procedures shall be established to require personnel reentering the protected space after the system discharge to wear breathing apparatus
to protect them from oxygen deficient air and products of combustion entrained in
the foam blanket.
3.5.3.1.16 Installation plans and operating manuals shall be supplied to the ship
and be readily available on board. A list or plan shall be displayed showing the
spaces covered and the location of the zone in respect of each section. Instructions
for testing and maintenance shall be available on board.
3.5.3.1.17 All installation, operation and maintenance instructions/plans for the
system shall be in the working language of the ship. If the working language of the
ship is not English, French, nor Spanish, a translation into one of these languages
shall be included.
3.5.3.1.18 The foam generator room shall be ventilated to protect against
overpressure, and shall be heated to avoid the possibility of freezing.
3.5.3.1.19 The quantity of foam concentrate available shall be sufficient to
produce a volume of foam equal to at least five times the volume of the largest
protected space enclosed by steel bulkheads, at the nominal expansion ratio, or
enough for 30 min of full operation for the largest protected space, whichever is
greater.
3.5.3.1.20 Machinery spaces, cargo pump-rooms, vehicle spaces, ro-ro spaces
and special category spaces shall be provided with audible and visual alarms within
the protected space warning of the release of the system. The alarms shall operate
for the length of time needed to evacuate the space, but in no case less than 20 s.
102
3.5.3.2
3.5.3.2.1
Fire Protection
Inside Air Foam Systems
Systems for the Protection of Machinery Spaces and Cargo PumpRooms
3.5.3.2.1.1 The system shall be supplied by both main and emergency sources of
power. The emergency power supply shall be provided from outside the protected
space.
3.5.3.2.1.2 Sufficient foam-generating capacity shall be provided to ensure that
the minimum design filling rate for the system is met and in addition shall be
adequate to completely fill the largest protected space within 10 min.
3.5.3.2.1.3 The arrangement of foam generators shall, in general, be designed
based on the approval test results. A minimum of two generators shall be installed
in every space containing combustion engines, boilers, purifiers, and similar
equipment. Small workshops and similar spaces may be covered by only one foam
generator.
3.5.3.2.1.4 Foam generators shall be uniformly distributed under the uppermost
ceiling in the protected spaces including the engine casing. The number and
location of foam generators shall be adequate to ensure all high risk areas are
protected in all parts and at all levels of the spaces. Extra foam generators may be
required in obstructed locations. The foam generators shall be arranged with at
least 1 m free space in front of the foam outlets, unless tested with less clearance.
The generators shall be located behind main structures, and above and away from
engines and boilers in positions where damage from an explosion is unlikely.
3.5.3.2.2
Systems for the Protection of Vehicle, Ro-Ro, Special Category
and Cargo Spaces
3.5.3.2.2.1 The system shall be supplied by the ship's main power source.
An emergency power supply is not required.
3.5.3.2.2.2 Sufficient foam-generating capacity shall be provided to ensure that
the minimum design filling rate for the system is met and in addition shall be
adequate to completely fill the largest protected space within 10 min, except that,
for the systems intended for the protection of vehicle and ro-ro spaces and special
category spaces with the deck height of 3 metres or less, the filling rate shall be not
less than two-thirds of the design filling rate and in addition sufficient to fill the
largest protected space within 10 min.
3.5.3.2.2.3 The system may be divided into sections, however, the capacity and
design of the system shall be based on the protected space demanding the greatest
volume of foam. Adjacent protected spaces need not be served simultaneously if
the boundaries between the spaces are A Class divisions.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
103
3.5.3.2.2.4 The arrangement of foam generators shall, in general, be designed
based on the approval test results. The number of generators may be different, but
the minimum design filling rate determined during approval tests shall be provided
by the system. A minimum of two generators shall be installed in every space. The
foam generators shall be arranged to uniformly distribute foam in the protected
spaces, and the layout shall take into consideration obstructions that can be
expected when cargo is loaded on board. As a minimum, generators shall be
located on every second deck, including movable decks. The horizontal spacing of
the generators shall ensure rapid supply of foam to all parts of the protected space.
This shall be established on the basis of full scale tests.
3.5.3.2.2.5 The foam generators shall be arranged with at least 1 m free space in
front of the foam outlets, unless tested with less clearance.
3.5.3.3
3.5.3.3.1
System Using Outside Air
Systems for the Protection of Machinery Spaces and Cargo PumpRooms
3.5.3.3.1.1 The system shall be supplied by both main and emergency sources of
power. The emergency power supply shall be provided from outside the protected
machinery space.
3.5.3.3.1.2 Sufficient foam-generating capacity shall be provided to ensure that
the minimum design filling rate for the system is met and in addition shall be
adequate to completely fill the largest protected space within 10 min.
3.5.3.3.1.3 The arrangement of foam delivery ducts shall, in general, be designed
based on the approval test results. The number of ducts may be different, but the
minimum design filling rate determined during approval tests shall be provided by
the system. A minimum of two ducts shall be installed in every space containing
combustion engines, boilers, purifiers and similar equipment. Small workshops and
similar spaces may be covered by only one duct.
3.5.3.3.1.4 Foam delivery ducts shall be uniformly distributed under the
uppermost ceiling in the protected spaces including the engine casing. The number
and location of ducts shall be adequate to ensure all high risk areas are protected in
all parts and at all levels of the spaces. Extra ducts may be required in obstructed
locations. The ducts shall be arranged with at least 1 m free space in front of the
foam delivery ducts, unless tested with less clearance. The ducts shall be located
behind main structures, and above and away from engines and boilers in positions
where damage from an explosion is unlikely.
3.5.3.3.1.5 The arrangement of the foam delivery ducts shall be such that a fire
in the protected space will not affect the foam-generating equipment. If the foam
104
Fire Protection
generators are located adjacent to the protected space, foam delivery ducts shall be
installed to allow at least 450 mm of separation between the generators and the
protected space, and the separating divisions shall be of A-60 Class standard. Foam
delivery ducts shall be constructed of steel having a thickness of not less than
5 mm. In addition, stainless steel dampers (single or multi-bladed) with a thickness
of not less than 3 mm shall be installed at the openings in the boundary bulkheads
or decks between the foam generators and the protected space. The dampers shall
be automatically operated (electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically) by means
of remote control of the foam generator related to them, and arranged to remain
closed until the foam generators begin operating.
3.5.3.3.1.6 The foam generators shall be located where an adequate fresh air
supply can be arranged.
3.5.3.3.2
Systems for the Protection of Vehicle, Ro-Ro and Special Category
Spaces
3.5.3.3.2.1 The system shall be supplied by the ship's main power source. An
emergency power supply is not required.
3.5.3.3.2.2 Sufficient foam-generating capacity shall be provided to ensure that
the minimum design filling rate for the system is met and in addition shall be
adequate to completely fill the largest protected space within 10 min, except that
for systems intended for the protection of vehicle, ro-ro spaces and special category
spaces with the deck height of 3 m or less, the filling rate shall be not less than
two-thirds of the design filling rate and in addition sufficient to fill the largest
protected space within 10 min.
3.5.3.3.2.3 The system may be divided into sections, however, the capacity and
design of the system shall be based on the protected space demanding the greatest
volume of foam. Adjacent protected spaces need not be served simultaneously if
the boundaries between the spaces are A Class divisions.
3.5.3.3.2.4 The arrangement of foam delivery ducts shall, in general, be
designed based on the approval test results. The number of ducts may be different,
but the minimum design filling rate determined during approval tests shall be
provided by the system. A minimum of two ducts shall be installed in every space.
The foam generators shall be arranged to uniformly distribute foam in the protected
spaces, and the layout shall take into consideration obstructions that can be
expected when cargo is loaded on board. As a minimum, ducts shall be led to every
second deck, including movable decks. The horizontal spacing of the ducts shall
ensure rapid supply of foam to all parts of the protected space. This shall be
established on the basis of full scale tests.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
105
3.5.3.3.2.5 The system shall be arranged with at least 1 m free space in front of
the foam outlets, unless tested with less clearance.
3.5.3.3.2.6 The arrangement of the foam delivery ducts shall be such that a fire
in the protected space will not affect the foam-generating equipment. If the foam
generators are located adjacent to the protected space, foam delivery ducts shall be
installed to allow at least 450 mm of separation between the generators and the
protected space, and the separating divisions shall be of A-60 Class standard. Foam
delivery ducts shall be constructed of steel having a thickness of not less than
5 mm. In addition, stainless steel dampers (single or multi-bladed) with a thickness
of not less than 3 mm shall be installed at the openings in the boundary bulkheads
or decks between the foam generators and the protected space. The dampers shall
be automatically operated (electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically) by means
of remote control of the foam generator related to them, and arranged to remain
closed until the foam generators begin operating.
3.5.3.3.2.7 The foam generators shall be located where an adequate fresh air
supply can be arranged.
3.5.3.4
Installation Tests
3.5.3.4.1 After installation, the pipes, valves, fittings and assembled systems
shall be tested, including the operation tests of the power and control systems,
water pumps, foam pumps, valves, remote and local release stations and alarms.
Flow at the required pressure shall be verified for the system using orifices fitted to
the test line. In addition, all distribution pipes shall be flushed with fresh water and
blown through with air to ensure that the piping is free of obstructions.
3.5.3.4.2 Operation tests of all foam proportioners or other foam mixing devices
shall be carried out to confirm that the mixing ratio tolerance is within + 30 to –0%
of the nominal mixing ratio defined by the system approval. For foam
proportioners using foam concentrates of Newtonian type with kinematic viscosity
equal to or less than 100 cSt at 0 ºC and density equal to or less than 1.1 kg/dm3,
this test can be performed with water instead of foam concentrate. Other
arrangements shall be tested with the actual foam concentrate.
3.5.3.5
Systems Using Outside Air with Foam Generators Installed
Inside the Protected Space
Systems using outside air, but with generators located inside the protected
space and supplied by fresh air ducts may be accepted, provided that these
systems have been shown to have performance and reliability equivalent to the
systems defined in 3.5.3.3. For acceptance, the following minimum design
features shall be considered:
.1 lower and upper acceptable air pressure and flow rate in supply ducts;
.2 function and reliability of damper arrangements;
106
Fire Protection
.3
.4
3.5.4
arrangements and distribution of air delivery ducts including foam
outlets; and
separation of air delivery ducts from the protected space.
Fixed Low-Expansion Foam Fire-Extinguishing Systems
3.5.4.1
Installation Requirements
3.5.4.1.1 The system shall consist of foam storage tank, water supply pump,
foam pump and foam proportioner, water and foam distributing pipes and
discharge outlets.
3.5.4.1.2 The system shall be capable of discharging through fixed discharge
outlets, in no more than 5 min, a quantity of foam sufficient to produce an effective
foam blanket over the largest single area over which oil fuel is liable to spread.
3.5.4.1.3 Means shall be provided for effective distribution of the foam through
a permanent system of piping and control valves or cocks to suitable discharge
outlets, and for the foam to be effectively directed by fixed sprayers onto other
main fire hazards in the protected space. The means for effective distribution of the
foam shall be proven acceptable through calculation or by testing.
3.5.4.1.4 The means of control of any such systems shall be readily accessible
and simple to operate and shall be grouped together in as few locations as possible
at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in the protected space.
The location of the system remote control shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.6
3.6.1
Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems
General Requirements
3.6.1.1 Fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems using halon 1211, 1301 and 2402
and perfluorocarbons shall be prohibited.
3.6.1.2 Where the quantity of the fire-extinguishing medium is required to
protect more than one space, the quantity of medium available need not be more
than the largest quantity required for any one space so protected, provided the
spaces are separate.
Adjacent spaces, not separated by at least A-0 Class divisions, provided with
independent ventilation, shall be regarded as one space.
If there is a connection through ventilation ducts between two or more cargo
spaces protected by a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system, such spaces shall be
considered as one protected space.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
107
3.6.1.3 Fixed gas fire-extinguishing system shall consist of container(s) for the
storage of the fire-extinguishing medium, connected to a manifold, pipes fitted with
control valves, normally closed, conveying the medium into the protected spaces and
warning signalization. The control valves shall be so marked as to indicate clearly the
spaces to which the pipes are led.
3.6.1.4 Where air receivers (e.g. diesel engine starting air receivers) are installed
in a protected space, the volume of the receivers converted to free air volume shall
be added to the gross volume of the space when calculating the necessary quantity
of the fire-extinguishing medium. Alternatively, a discharge pipe may be fitted and
led directly to the open air.
3.6.1.5 Means shall be provided for the crew or shore personnel to safely check
the quantity of the fire-extinguishing medium in the containers, without the
necessity to move the containers completely from their fixing position. For carbon
dioxide systems, hanging bars for a weighing device above each bottle row or other
means shall be provided. For other types of extinguishing media, suitable surface
indicators may be used.
In space, in which containers with fire-extinguishing medium are located,
adequate clearance, above the containers, shall be provided to facilitate the
containers exchange.
3.6.1.6 Pressure container(s) for the storage of fire-extinguishing medium and
associated pressure components shall be designed to the relevant national standards,
having regard to their locations and maximum ambient temperatures expected in
service. The maximum ambient temperature 550 C, expected in service, is assumed.
3.6.1.7 The piping for the distribution of fire-extinguishing medium shall be so
arranged and discharge nozzles so positioned as to ensure a uniform distribution of
the medium in the protected space.
Classification documentation shall contain the system flow hydraulic
calculations.
3.6.1.8 Unless expressly provided otherwise, pressure containers for the storage
of fire-extinguishing medium shall be located outside protected spaces, in fireextinguishing stations complying with the requirements specified in 3.6.2.
3.6.1.9 Spare parts for fire-extinguishing systems shall be stored on board in
accordance with the system manufacturer’s requirements. The recommended
number of spare parts and tools for fire-extinguishing systems is given in 5.2.2.
3.6.1.10 All openings in boundaries and decks of spaces protected by a fixed gas
fire-extinguishing system, which may admit air to or allow gas to escape from the
space shall be capable of being closed from outside of the protected space.
108
Fire Protection
3.6.1.11 In piping sections, where valve arrangements introduce sections of
closed piping, such sections shall be fitted with a pressure relief valve, the outlet of
the valve being led to the atmosphere.
3.6.1.12 All discharge piping, fittings and nozzles in the protected spaces shall
be constructed of materials having a melting temperature which exceeds 925 ºC.
Where fittings or nozzles are constructed of components/materials for which the
melting temperature is not specified, such components/materials shall be furnished
with a document confirming their melting temperature.
The piping and the associated equipment shall be adequately supported.
3.6.1.13 Pipes distributing fire-extinguishing medium into protected spaces shall
be fitted with a stub-pipe for connecting to compressed air used for the piping
passage test.
3.6.1.14 Cargo spaces protected by gas fire-extinguishing system shall not be
permitted to be periodically used for the carriage of passengers.
3.6.1.15 The pipes for conveying fire-extinguishing medium may pass through
accommodation spaces, provided that they are of substantial thickness over their
whole length within these spaces, are joined only be welding without drains or
other openings and that their tightness is verified with a pressure test, after their
installation, at a pressure head not less than 5 MPa. The pipes for conveying fireextinguishing medium shall not pass through refrigerated spaces.
3.6.1.16 At each entrance/manhole to the space protected by gas fireextinguishing system, a warning plate, bearing the following inscription, shall be
placed:
SPACE PROTECTED BY ........ GAS-FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM
LEAVE THIS AREA IMMEDIATELY WHEN THE ......... WARNING
SIGNAL IS SOUNDED. DANGER OF SUFFOCATION
In place of dots, the name of the fire-extinguishing medium (e.g. CO2 ) and the
description of the warning signal shall be given.
The notice shall be made in red letters on a white background.
Spaces protected by gas fire-extinguishing system shall be additionally indicated
by a plate, placed on access door, with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.6.1.17 In the case of systems for which high concentration of extinguishing
medium (CO2, inert gas) is required, to prevent an excessive pressure in a space
protected by a fire-extinguishing system due to the discharge of the extinguishing
medium, means shall be provided for the release of air through an opening in the
upper part of the space, e.g. ventilation dampers, machinery casing skylights. The
system operating instructions shall clearly specify which opening should be closed
last after admission of the extinguishing medium into the space.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
109
3.6.1.18 The ship shall be provided with operating instructions for each system,
prepared by the manufacturer, containing a checklist for periodical inspections and
maintenance, to be performed by the crew. The instructions shall also contain crew
safety pre-start procedures. Operating instructions shall be displayed at the starting
arrangements.
3.6.2
Fire-Extinguishing Stations
3.6.2.1 Fire-extinguishing stations are spaces intended for the storage of fireextinguishing medium and fire-extinguishing system equipment.
3.6.2.2 Fire-extinguishing station shall be located outside protected spaces, in
a safe place and easily accessible from crew accommodation spaces.
3.6.2.3 The boundaries and decks separating fire-extinguishing station from
adjacent spaces shall have the same fire integrity as is required for control station.
3.6.2.4 Fire-extinguishing stations shall not be located forward of the collision
bulkhead and shall not be used for any other purposes than the storage of fireextinguishing medium and fire-extinguishing system operation.
3.6.2.5 Fire-extinguishing station shall additionally comply with the following
requirements:
.1 it shall be located on the open deck and have direct access from the open
deck or shall be located below the deck with access from the open deck –
by means of stairways or permanently fixed steel ladder. Entrance to the
station shall be independent of the protected space;
.2 it shall be separated from adjacent spaces by gastight bulkheads and decks.
All means of closing any openings therein shall be gastight;
.3 access doors shall open outwards;
.4 it shall be provided with effective natural ventilation, with ventilation
grates located in the lower and upper parts of the space. Where the station
is located below the open deck or where the access from the open deck is
not provided it shall be fitted with mechanical ventilation system designed
to take exhaust air from the bottom of the space and to provide at least 6 air
changes per hour. Ventilation ducts serving other spaces shall not be
connected to the fire-extinguishing station ventilation system.
The ventilation fan shall operate automatically by the opening of the station
access door. The operation of the fan shall be indicated by a visual signal.
The exhaust duct outlet shall be led to the open deck and shall be so located
as to ensure that CO2 will not be drawn into other ventilation outlets.
.5 it shall be provided with thermal insulation so that the temperature inside
the station does not exceed +45 ºC. The station shall be fitted with heating
if it is essential for normal operation of the station that the temperature shall
be maintained above the freezing point;
110
Fire Protection
means shall be provided for measuring temperature inside the station;
it shall be locked; the key for the lock shall be kept in a break-glass-type
closure, located near the entrance to the station 1);
.8 it shall be provided with means of communication with central control
station, navigation bridge and machinery space;
.9 it shall be provided with fire-extinguishing system operating instructions,
including pre-start procedures;
.10 the lighting of the station shall be supplied from the main and emergency
source of electric power;
.11 the station shall be indicated by a plate, placed on access door, with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
.6
.7
3.6.2.6 Fire-extinguishing media protecting the cargo spaces may be stored in
a room located forward of the cargo spaces, but aft of the collision bulkhead,
provided that both the local manual release mechanism and remote control(s) for
the release of the media are fitted and the latter is of robust construction or so
protected as to remain operable in case of fire in the protected space.
The remote controls shall be placed in the accommodation area in order to
facilitate their ready accessibility by the crew. The capability to release different
quantities of fire-extinguishing media into each of the protected spaces shall be
included in the remote release arrangement.
3.6.3
Operation of the System, Warning Signalization and Time Delay
3.6.3.1 Fixed gas fire-extinguishing system shall be operated manually by means
of distribution valves fitted on the pipes conveying fire-extinguishing media into
the space. Automatic release of fire-extinguishing medium shall not be permitted,
except for local fire-extinguishing systems provided as additional to and
independent of fire-extinguishing systems required for machinery spaces, fitted
above the equipment which constitute high fire risk or in high fire risk areas in
machinery spaces.
3.6.3.2 In the case of systems intended for the protection of two or more spaces,
the distribution valves on the pipes conveying fire-extinguishing medium into the
protected spaces shall be so marked as to indicate clearly the spaces to which the
pipes are led.
3.6.3.3 Suitable provision shall be made to prevent inadvertent release of fireextinguishing medium into the protected space.
1)
Having regard to the requirements concerning the threat of terrorist attacks on ships, other closing
arrangements of the station precluding access to the station by unauthorized persons while
providing easy access thereto for the crew, without the search for a key, are permitted.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
111
3.6.3.4 Fire-extinguishing system for the protection of machinery spaces, cargo
pump-rooms, ro-ro spaces, refrigerated spaces on container ships shall be provided
with manual remote controls (control cabinets/ panels) located outside the space,
and if practicable, at the exit from the space. A separate control cabinet/panel shall
be provided for each protected space, fitted with a plate bearing the name of the
space.
Control cabinet/panel shall be locked; the key for the lock shall be kept in
a break-glass-type closure, located near the entrance to the control cabinet/panel 1).
Each remote control cabinet/panel shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol
used on Fire Control Plan.
3.6.3.5 Control cabinets/panels shall be readily accessible, simple to operate and
shall be grouped together in as few locations as possible above the bulkhead deck
at position(s) not likely to be cut off by a fire in a protected space. At each location
there shall be provided fire-extinguishing system operating instructions, including
crew safety pre-start procedures.
3.6.3.6 Where the protected space is provided with mechanical ventilation, the
opening of the control cabinet/panel and opening the valve on the pipe conveying
fire-extinguishing medium to the space shall automatically shut off ventilating fans
serving this space.
It shall not be possible to switch on ventilating fans until the control
cabinet/panel is brought to its initial condition.
Electrical system of shutting off ventilating fans shall be supplied from
uninterrupted power system (UPS).
3.6.3.7 Spaces protected by a gas fire-extinguishing system, such as machinery
spaces, cargo pump-rooms, ro-ro spaces, refrigerated spaces on container ships, as
well as other spaces in which the crew is normally employed or to which they have
access through doors or manholes shall be fitted with automatic visual and audible
warning signalization – alerting of the release of fire-extinguishing medium,
complying with the requirements specified in 4.3.
Conventional cargo spaces and small spaces (such as compressor rooms, paint
lockers, etc.), fitted with local fire-extinguishing system only, need not be provided
with such warning signalization.
3.6.3.8 The warning signalization shall be automatically activated, e.g. by
a micro-switch that activates the signalization upon opening the control
cabinet/panel. The signalization shall operate for the length of time needed to
evacuate the space, but in no case less than 20 s before the medium is released.
1)
Having regard to the requirements concerning the threat of terrorist attacks on ships, other closing
arrangements of the control cabinet/panel precluding access to these places by unauthorized persons
while providing easy access thereto for the crew, without the search for a key, are permitted.
112
Fire Protection
3.6.3.9 The release of fire-extinguishing medium into a space shall be delayed by
an automatic time-delay device for the length of time needed to evacuate the space,
not shorter than 20 s and not longer than 45 s.
If electrical time-delay device is used, it shall be supplied from uninterrupted
power system (UPS).
3.6.3.10 Automatic time delay mechanism is not required for systems using
hydrocarbon halogen derivatives extinguishing media whose extinguishing
concentration is not higher than the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL),
as well as for systems using inert gases whose extinguishing concentration is not
higher than 52%, calculated for the largest space.
3.6.4
3.6.4.1
Carbon Dioxide Systems
General Requirements
3.6.4.1.1 Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system is intended for the protection
of machinery spaces and cargo spaces. The quantity of carbon dioxide, (G), for
particular spaces, shall be calculated from the formula:
G = 1.79 ⋅V ⋅ϕ [kg]
where:
V – design volume of the largest space to be protected – the gross volume of the
space – see the definitions given in 1.2.41, [m3];
ϕ – filling factor:
ϕ = 0.3 – for cargo spaces (conventional cargo spaces) and other spaces,
except machinery spaces;
ϕ = 0.35 – for machinery spaces, the volume of which includes the volume
of casings;
ϕ = 0.4 – for machinery spaces, the volume of which does not include the
volume of casings above the level, at which the horizontal
section area of the casing does not exceed 40% of the
machinery space area, taken midway between the tank top and
the lowest part of the casing;
ϕ = 0.45 – for vehicle and ro-ro spaces capable of being sealed.
Note: For machinery spaces, such value of ϕ shall be taken at which G is the greatest.
For cargo ships of less than 2000 gross tonnage, the 0.35 and 0.4 ϕ values may
be reduced to 0.3 and 0.35, respectively if two or more machinery spaces, which
are not entirely separate, are considered as forming one space.
3.6.4.1.2 The total quantity of CO2 on board shall be sufficient for the protection
of the largest space.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
113
3.6.4.1.3 For machinery spaces, the piping system shall be such that 85% of the
required quantity of gas can be discharged into the space within not longer than
2 min.
3.6.4.1.4 For vehicle and ro-ro spaces capable of being sealed, the piping system
shall be such that at least 2/3 of the required quantity of gas can be discharged into
the space within not longer than 10 min.
3.6.4.1.5 For container and general cargo spaces (primarily intended to carry
a variety of cargoes separately secured or packed), the fixed piping system shall be
such that at least two-thirds of the carbon dioxide can be discharged into the space
within 10 min.
For solid bulk cargo spaces, the fixed piping system shall be such that at least
two-thirds of the carbon dioxide can be discharged into the space within 20 min.
The system controls shall be arranged to allow one-third, two-thirds or the
entire quantity of carbon dioxide to be discharged based on the loading condition
of the hold.
3.6.4.1.6 CO2 discharge time for each protected spaces shall be checked by
calculations to be enclosed with CO2 fire-extinguishing system classification
documentation.
3.6.4.2
Means of Control
3.6.4.2.1 Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system shall be operated in
accordance with the requirements specified in 3.6.3 and the requirements set forth
in the present sub-chapter.
3.6.4.2.2 Remote controls of carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system intended
for the protection of machinery spaces, cargo pump-rooms, ro-ro spaces,
refrigerated spaces on container ships, spaces to which the crew have access
through doors or manholes and spaces in which the crew normally work and to
which they have access shall comply with the following requirements:
.1 two separate controls shall be provided for releasing carbon dioxide into
a protected space and to ensure the activation of the warning signalization 1).
One control shall be used for opening the valve of the piping which
conveys gas into the protected space and a second control shall be used to
discharge gas from its storage containers. Positive means shall be provided
so that they can only be operated in that order. The positive means shall be
achieved by a mechanical and/or electrical interlock that does not depend
on any operational procedure to achieve the correct sequence of operation.
1)
The two separate controls for releasing carbon dioxide into the protected space can be independent
of the controls activating the warning signalization, see 3.6.3.8.
114
Fire Protection
.2
Where electrical interlock is used, it shall be supplied from uninterrupted
power supply (UPS);
the two controls shall be located inside a release cabinet clearly identified
for the particular space. If the cabinet containing the controls is to be
locked, a key to the cabinet shall be in a break-glass-type closure
conspicuously located adjacent to the cabinet.
3.6.4.2.3 Pneumatic release cabinet shall consist of the main and the spare pilot
cylinders, control devices and pilot line pipes. The capacity of each pilot cylinder
shall be such as to ensure the opening of remotely controlled valves, at the most
unfavourable ambient temperature.
Pilot line pipelines shall be made of steel, be welded or connected by
mechanical joints and shall not be led through spaces/areas close to arrangements
where they be may subjected to damage.
3.6.4.2.4 In addition to remote control, provision shall be made for manual
operation of the system from fire-extinguishing station, by manual opening of each
valve of the piping which conveys gas into the protected space and each cylinder
valve.
3.6.4.3
CO2 Cylinders
3.6.4.3.1 The total quantity of CO2, calculated for the largest protected space,
shall be stored in the cylinders. The number of cylinders shall be specified with due
regard to cylinder typical volume (80 l, 67 l, 45 l) and the filling ratio (i.e. the
quantity of CO2 per 1 l of the cylinder volume), which shall not exceed 0.67 kg/l –
for the cylinder of the design pressure 12.5 MPa and 0.75 kg/l – for the cylinder of
design pressure 15 MPa and over.
It is recommended that the quantity of CO2 in the cylinder should be not greater
than 45 kg and the filling ratio - not greater than 0.67 kg/l .
All cylinders in the fire-extinguishing station shall be of the same size.
3.6.4.3.2 The cylinders in fire-extinguishing stations shall be placed vertically in
rows on insulation pads which may be made of wood.
The cylinders shall be accessible for inspection and for checking the amount of
carbon dioxide contained therein. Each cylinder shall be painted red and numbered.
3.6.4.3.3 Cylinders shall be fitted with relief valves or bursting disks, operating
or bursting at a pressure rise in the cylinders to 1.3 p (±0.1 %), where p means the
cylinder design pressure.
Where the fire-extinguishing station is located below the open deck, carbon
dioxide from the relief valves or bursting disks shall be discharged to the
atmosphere by a special pipe.
The relief valve vents shall be so located as the ensure that gas is not drawn
back into other ventilation intakes.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
115
3.6.4.3.4 CO2 cylinders shall comply with the requirements of ISO 9809 and ISO
3500 or the relevant national standards. Each cylinder shall be furnished with PRS
certificate.
3.6.4.3.5 Each CO2 cylinder shall be connected to a manifold by a flexible hose
and a non-return valve. The non-return value shall be so located on the manifold as
to allow disconnection of a single cylinder, without affecting the system operation.
The flexible hose shall withstand the maximum pressure in CO2 cylinder and shall
be type approved in accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter
1.16.12, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
3.6.4.4
Pipes, Fittings and CO2 Discharge Nozzles
3.6.4.4.1 The main CO2 pipeline from cylinders up to and including distribution
valves – the so-called manifold shall be designed for a nominal working pressure
of 10 MPa and shall be made of seamless steel pipes certified by PRS. Distribution
valves shall be made from steel and shall be flange type.
The remaining CO2 pipelines shall also be made from steel seamless pipes, but
may be furnished with the steel mill certificate.
The pipe wall thickness shall comply with Table 1.16.3.1-1, Part VI –
Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
3.6.4.4.2 CO2 manifold shall be fitted with a pressure gauge, a stub-pipe (with
a non-return valve) for blowing the pipes with compressed air and safety valve.
The safety valve opening pressure shall be 13 MPa and the flow area of the valve
shall enable the discharge of excess CO2 to the atmosphere without causing
overpressure of the manifold.
Where the fire-extinguishing station is located below the open deck, CO2
discharge from the safety valve shall be led to the atmosphere by a special pipe.
The safety valve vents shall be so located as the ensure that CO2 is not drawn
back into other ventilation intakes.
3.6.4.4.3 Carbon dioxide shall be discharged into protected spaces through
discharge nozzles. The number and arrangement of the nozzles in the protected
space shall be such as to ensure uniform distribution of carbon dioxide in the space.
Discharge nozzles shall me made of steel or steel equivalent material.
3.6.4.4.4 In machinery spaces and boiler rooms, the nozzles shall be arranged
having regard to the arrangement of the machinery and equipment which constitute
fire risk. The nozzles shall be preferably located in the lower part of the space,
above the machinery which pose fire risk and below floor, for the protection of the
bilges.
Nozzles shall be also fitted in the engine casing if equipment of increased fire
risk, e.g. oil-fired boilers, is arranged there.
116
Fire Protection
Nozzles shall not be placed over escape routes or ladders provided to allow ease
of evacuation of the space.
3.6.4.4.5 In cargo spaces, CO2 nozzles shall be located in upper part of the space.
If CO2 system is connected with a sample extraction smoke detection system,
the nozzles shall be so arranged that no part of the overhead deck area is more than
12 m horizontally away from a nozzle. The sample extraction smoke detection
system shall comply with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 4.2. In cargo
space where ‘tween deck panels (movable stowage platforms) are provided, the
nozzles shall be located in both the upper and lower upper parts of the cargo space.
3.6.4.4.6 Water traps during CO2 pipes fitting, which can allow water to
accumulate, shall be avoided. Where this is not possible, a short run off piece with
a drain plug shall be fitted in the lowest points.
3.6.4.4.7 On the main pipeline conveying CO2 to the spaces in which the crew is
normally employed or to which they have access, an adjustable flange with
position indicator shall be installed before manifold to cut the flow of CO2 to the
spaces during the system inspection and tests.
3.6.4.5
Fire-Extinguishing Stations (for the Storage of CO2 Cylinders)
3.6.4.5.1 Fire-extinguishing stations shall comply with the requirements of 3.6.2
and additionally with the requirements, given below:
.1 they shall be provided with thermal insulation and ventilation so constructed
that the temperature inside the station does not exceed +49 ºC – for cylinders
with filling factor 0.67 and +40 ºC – for cylinders with filling factor 0.75;
.2 provision shall be made for monitoring the air temperature in the fireextinguishing station from outside the station. If this is to be a thermometer,
it shall be so fitted in the station as to be visible both from the inside of the
station and, through a sidescuttle, from outside of the station.
3.6.4.5.2 Fire-extinguishing station shall be provided with the system operating
manual containing the system diagram, pipelines distributing CO2 to particular
protected machinery/cargo spaces, properly marked distribution valves and the
system operation remote controls means. In addition, the manual shall contain the
following information:
.1 the required quantity of CO2 [kg] for the protection of the largest space and
the required total number of CO2 cylinders in the station;
.2 the number of CO2 cylinders required to distribute CO2 to each protected
machinery space, served by separate pipe sections with distribution valves;
.3 safety procedures for the crew 1;
1)
The procedures shall contain information stating that during periodical tests of the system, having
in mind the safety of the persons who may present in the protected spaces, the manifold with the
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
.4
.5
.6
.7
117
list of openings which shall be closed in order to seal each protected before
discharge of CO2 to the space;
proceedings in the case of emergency operation of the system directly from
the fire-extinguishing system if remote operation directly from release
cabinet is not possible;
proceedings to be followed by the crew after the use of CO2 system;
actions to be taken to make the system operable after fire suppression.
3.6.4.5.3 The CO2 system operating manual for the protection of cargo spaces
(holds) shall additionally specify the number of cylinders required for the
protection of each cargo space (hold) for the following conditions:
.1 the cargo space (hold) is empty;
.2 the cargo space (hold) is 50% loaded;
.3 the cargo space (hold) is 100% loaded.
3.6.4.6
Warning Signalization and Time Delay
3.6.4.6.1 Spaces protected by the CO2 system in which personnel normally work
or to which they have access shall be provided with warning signalization, see
3.6.3.7 and 3.6.3.8.
3.6.4.6.2 The warning signalization shall be also automatically activated in the
event of emergency operation of the system from fire-extinguishing station after
opening the valve in the piping which conveys CO2 to a protected space.
3.6.4.6.3 The release of CO2 into the space in which personnel normally work or
to which they have access shall be delayed by means of automatic time-delay
device, see 3.6.3.9.
3.6.4.7
The System Testing
After the system has been installed on board, accepted and pressure tested
within the scope and at the pressure specified in Table 3.11, the following shall be
carried out:
.1 all CO2 pipes and nozzles shall be blown through using compressed air or
nitrogen;
.2 operation test of the warning signalization shall be performed.
The guidelines for periodical inspections and tests of the CO2 system are given
in MSC.1/Circ.1318.
connected CO2 cylinders shall be fitted with adjustable flange (if provided) or be disconnected
from the pipelines distributing CO2 to the spaces.
118
3.6.5
3.6.5.1
Fire Protection
Low Pressure Carbon Dioxide Systems
General Requirements
3.6.5.1.1 Low pressure carbon dioxide system with regard to: the required
amount of carbon dioxide, time of discharge into the protected spaces, location of
discharge nozzles in the protected spaces and CO2 warning signalization – shall
comply with the requirements specified in 3.6.4. Additionally, the system shall
comply with the requirements of the present sub-chapter.
3.6.5.1.2 CO2 storage tanks, refrigerating units, control devices and other
equipment of the system shall be located in the same space, complying with the
requirements for fire-extinguishing station specified in 3.6.4.5.
3.6.5.2
CO2 Storage Tanks
3.6.5.2.1 The required amount of liquid carbon dioxide shall be stored in tank(s)
under a working pressure in the range of 1.8 – 2.2 MPa. The normal liquid charge
in the tanks shall be limited to provide sufficient vapour space to allow for the
expansion of the liquid carbon dioxide under the maximum storage temperature
that can be obtained corresponding to the setting of the pressure relief valves but it
shall not exceed 95% of the volumetric capacity of the tank.
3.6.5.2.2 Carbon dioxide storage tank shall be designed, constructed and tested
in accordance with the requirements of Part VII – Machinery, Boilers and Pressure
Vessels. The tank shall be fitted with:
.1 a pressure gauge;
.2 high pressure alarm – not higher than the setting of the safety relief valve;
.3 low pressure alarm – not less than 1.8 MPa;
.4 branch pipes with stop valves for filling the tank;
.5 discharge pipes;
.6 a liquid CO2 level indicator;
.7 two safety relief valves;
.8 an alarm device signalling the minimum level (stock) of carbon dioxide.
3.6.5.2.3 The two safety relief valves shall be so arranged that either valve can
be shut off while the other is connected to the tank. The setting of the relief valves
shall not be less than 1.1 times the working pressure. The capacity of each valve
shall be such that the vapours generated under fire condition can be discharged
with a pressure rise not more than 20% above the setting pressure. The discharge
from the safety valves shall be led to the atmosphere.
3.6.5.2.4 The tank(s) and outgoing pipes permanently filled with carbon dioxide
shall have thermal insulation preventing the operation of the safety relief valve in
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
119
24 h after de-energizing the plant, at ambient temperature of 45oC and an initial
pressure equal to the starting pressure of the refrigerating unit.
The insulating materials and their liners shall have adequate mechanical
properties, fire resistance and protection against penetration of water vapours –
subject to PRS’ approval.
3.6.5.3
Refrigerating Units of CO2 Tank
3.6.5.3.1 The tank shall be serviced by two automated completely independent
refrigerating units solely intended for this purpose, each comprising a compressor
(with its prime mover), evaporator and condenser.
In the event of failure of either one of the refrigerating units, the other shall be
actuated automatically. Provision shall be made for local manual control of the
refrigerating plant.
3.6.5.3.2 Refrigerating units shall comply with the requirements specified in
Chapter 21, Part VII – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants. The
refrigerating capacity and automatic control of each unit shall be so as to maintain
the required temperature under conditions of continuous operation during 24 h at
sea temperatures up to 32oC and ambient temperatures up to 45oC.
3.6.5.3.3 Each electric refrigerating unit shall be supplied from the main
switchboard busbars by a separate feeder.
3.6.5.3.4 Cooling water supply to the refrigerating plant (where required) shall
be provided from at least two circulating pumps, one of which being used as
a stand-by. The stand-by pump may be a pump used for other services so long as
its use for cooling would not interfere with any other essential service of the ship.
Cooling water shall be taken from not less than two sea connections, preferably one
port and one starboard.
3.6.5.4
Pipes, Fittings and CO2 Discharge Nozzles
3.6.5.4.1 The pipes, valves and fittings shall be in accordance with the
requirements for a design pressure not less than the design pressure of the CO2
tanks.
3.6.5.4.2 Safety relief devices shall be provided in each section of the pipe that
may be isolated by block valves and in which there could be a build-up of pressure
in excess of the design pressure of any of the components.
3.6.5.4.3 The piping system shall be so designed that the pressure at the nozzles
will be not less than 1 MPa. The pipes, fittings and discharge nozzles shall comply
with the requirements specified in 3.6.4.4.
120
Fire Protection
3.6.5.4.4 Pipe connections shall be provided on the open deck on the port and
starboard sides for filling CO2 tanks. The pipes shall be fitted with valves allowing
to equalize pressure during filling the CO2 tank.
3.6.5.5
Alarms
Audible and visual alarms shall be given in permanently manned control station
when:
.1 the pressure in the tank reaches the low or high value specified in 3.6.5.2.1;
.2 any one of the refrigerating units fails to operate;
.3 the lowest permissible level of CO2 in the tank is reached.
3.6.5.6
Release Control
3.6.5.6.1 The release of CO2 shall be initiated manually. The means of control
shall comply with the requirements specified in 3.6.4.2.
3.6.5.6.2 If the system serves more than one space, means for control of
discharge quantities of CO2 shall be provided, e.g. automatic timer or accurate level
indicators located at the control position.
3.6.5.6.3 If a device is provided which automatically regulates or stops the
discharge of the rated quantity of carbon dioxide into the protected spaces, it shall
be also possible to regulate the discharge manually.
3.6.5.7
The System Testing
After having been assembled on board, the system shall be subjected to
acceptance and tests in accordance with the approved test programme. The scope
of the tests shall include refrigerating unit operation tests and the requirements
specified in 3.6.4.7.
3.6.6
Local Carbon Dioxide Fire-Extinguishing Stations in Machinery
Spaces
3.6.6.1 In well-grounded cases, local CO2 fire-extinguishing systems may be
located in machinery spaces where the crew is normally employed for
extinguishing fire of internal combustion engines silencers and pipes.
3.6.6.2 The maximum number of CO2 cylinders located in the machinery space
shall be such that CO2 concentration in the space after its emergency release does
not exceed 5% of the gross volume, i.e. concentration safe for the persons in the
space. A greater number of CO2 cylinders is permitted, provided that carbon
dioxide from CO2 cylinder safety valves is discharged to the atmosphere by
a special pipe fitted with an audible signalling device.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
121
3.6.6.3 Local CO2 fire-extinguishing system shall consist of CO2 cylinder,
manifold and pipelines, with isolating valves, conveying carbon dioxide to
particular protected spaces and connected to discharge nozzle. The manifold shall
be fitted with a pressure gauge and a stub-pipe for blowing the pipes with
compressed air.
3.6.6.4 The location of the CO2 cylinder and the system operation position shall
be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.6.6.5 Operating instructions of the system shall be placed close to the system
operation position.
3.6.7
Local Carbon Dioxide Fire-Extinguishing System for Extinction
of Fire in Exhaust Duct from the Galley
3.6.7.1 A local carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing station for extinction of fire in
exhaust duct from the galley range shall consist of CO2 cylinder, supplying
pipeline and discharge nozzles, fitted in the duct. The necessary quantity of carbon
dioxide shall be calculated from the formula:
G = 1.79 ⋅V ⋅ϕ ⋅ z [kg]
where:
V – volume of space above galley range, plus volume of ventilation duct, [m3];
ϕ – duct filling factor equal to 0.4;
z – coefficient of losses,
z = 2.
3.6.7.2 Carbon dioxide may be stored in one or more cylinders in a cabinet inside
the galley space. The maximum CO2 quantity shall be such that the CO2
concentration in the space after its release does not exceed 5% of the gross volume.
3.6.7.3 Discharge nozzles shall be situated inside the duct, between the lower and
the upper fire dampers.
3.6.7.4 The location of the CO2 cylinders and the system operation position shall
be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.6.7.5 Operating instructions of the system shall be placed in the vicinity of the
system operation position informing on the necessity to shut off the exhaust fan
and to close fire dampers before CO2 release into the duct.
3.6.8
Steam Fire-Extinguishing Systems
3.6.8.1 The use of steam as a fire-extinguishing medium in fixed fireextinguishing systems required by the present Part of the Rules is not permitted.
Steam fire-extinguishing system, approved by PRS, may be used only in restricted
areas as an addition to the required fixed fire-extinguishing systems.
122
Fire Protection
3.6.8.2 The boiler supplying steam shall have an evaporation of at least 1 kg of
steam per hour for each 0.75 m3 of the gross volume of the largest space so
protected. Additionally, the system is subject to PRS’ consideration with respect to
its reliability and fire-extinguishing efficiency.
3.6.8.3 The boiler shall ensure a continuous supply of steam with the required
capacity under normal service conditions.
3.7
Equivalent Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems
3.7.1
Equivalent Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems for Machinery
Spaces and Cargo Pump-Rooms
Guidelines for the design, assembly and type approval tests of the system are
specified in Publication No. 89/P.
3.7.2
Aeorosol Fire-Extinguishing System for Machinery Spaces
Guidelines for the design, assembly and type approval tests of the system are
specified in Publication No. 89/P.
3.8
Dry Powder Fire-Extinguishing System
3.8.1
3.8.1.1
General Requirements
Nitrogen or other type of inert gas may be used as the powder carrier.
3.8.1.2 The system shall consist of:
.1 fire-extinguishing stations, where powder containers, gas (powder carrier)
pressure vessels and distribution manifolds are stored;
.2 fire control stations, where starting cylinders, fire hose nozzles with hoses
or powder monitors are stored;
.3 pipings and fittings for the activation of the system and for the powder
supply to fire control stations.
3.8.1.3 Remote activation of the system from any one of the fire control stations
shall be ensured.
The system shall be ready to operate not later than 30 s from the opening of
starting cylinder at the remotest, from the fire-extinguishing station, fire control
station.
3.8.1.4 Powder shall be furnished with quality certificate issued by an authorized
body or manufacturer.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
3.8.2
123
Quantity of the Powder and Gas (Powder Carrier), as well
as the Number and Capacity of Fire Hose Nozzles and Monitors
3.8.2.1 In each container stored in the fire-extinguishing station, there shall be
a design quantity of powder adequate for a continuous operation during at least 45 s
of all fire hose nozzles and monitors connected to one station, at their rated capacity.
3.8.2.2 The capacity of each fire hose nozzle shall be not less than 3.5 kg/s and
the distance of powder coverage not less than 8 m. When determining the
maximum distance of coverage of a fire hose nozzle, the length of the hose shall be
taken into account.
The capacity of each monitor shall be not less than 10 kg/s; 10, 30 and 40 m
shall be taken as the maximum distances of powder discharge for the monitors of
10, 25 and 45 kg/s capacity, respectively.
3.8.2.3 The quantity of powder for the protection of control stations and storerooms of readily ignitable materials shall be such as to ensure a continuous operation
of the system during at least 10 s at the discharge rate of 0.1 kg/m3 per one second.
3.8.2.4 The quantity of gas (powder carrier) shall be sufficient for a single
discharge of the total quantity of powder in the container.
3.8.3
Fire-Extinguishing Stations of Dry Powder System
If two or more fire control stations are connected to the fire-extinguishing
station, each of them shall be supplied from the powder manifold by an
independent pipe fitted with a valve.
The fire-extinguishing station arrangements shall enable the operation of both
the individual fire control stations and all the stations simultaneously.
Fire-extinguishing stations shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on
Fire Control Plan.
3.8.4
Fire Control Stations
3.8.4.1 Each fire control station shall be provided with the following:
– a fire hose nozzle;
– a rigid, non-kinkable hose up to 33 m in length;
– cylinders for remote activation of the system;
or alternatively:
– a monitor;
– cylinders for remote activation.
3.8.4.2 The fire control station equipment, except for the monitor, shall be stored
in a watertight box or locker.
124
Fire Protection
3.8.4.3 The fire hose nozzle shall be equipped with a device for the opening and
closing the passage.
3.8.4.4 The passage area of the fire hose nozzle shall be equal to the hose
passage area or less, but not more than by 50%.
3.8.4.5
Starting cylinders shall be equipped with pressure gauges.
3.8.4.6 The system activation instructions shall be available at the fire control
station.
3.8.4.7 The system control station shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol
used on Fire Control Plan.
3.8.5
Containers, Pipings and Fittings
3.8.5.1 Container shall be provided with a scarfed pipe with its end being at
a distance of about 100 mm from the container bottom.
3.8.5.2 Arrangement for the supply of gas to the lower part of the container shall be
provided with a device preventing the powder from penetrating into the gas piping.
3.8.5.3
The powder filling ratio shall be taken not greater than 0.95.
3.8.5.4 The pipings and fittings of the system shall not have contractions or
sudden increase of the passage area.
3.8.5.5 The cross-sectional area of the manifold in the fire-extinguishing station
shall be not less than the sum and not greater than the double sum of the sectional
areas of pipings connected to the manifold through which the powder may be
simultaneously supplied.
3.8.5.6 The distributing manifold of the system in the fire-extinguishing station shall
be provided with means for blowing through the pipes after the use of the system.
3.8.5.7 The bending radius of the powder system pipings shall be not less than
10 d, where d is the outer diameter of the pipe.
3.8.5.8 To spaces such as emergency power units rooms, emergency fire pump
rooms, as well as store-rooms, garages and hangars, the powder shall be delivered
by means of spray nozzles, the design, number and arrangement of which shall
ensure an uniform powder coverage throughout the space. The pressure at the most
remote spray nozzles shall be equal to at least the minimum pressure sufficient for
an effective powder coverage.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
3.9
125
Fixed Deck Foam System (for Use in Tankers)
3.9.1
General Requirements
3.9.1.1 The system shall consist of foam concentrate tank, water supply pump,
foam pump and foam proportioner, water supply pipes, as well as foam monitors
and manual foam applicators.
Generally, the deck foam systems shall be designed for low-expansion foam;
however, after appropriate tests, medium-expansion foam may be permitted.
Definitions relating to foam system – see 3.5.2.
3.9.1.2 The arrangements for generating foam shall be capable of delivering
foam to the entire cargo tanks area, as well as into any cargo tank, the deck of
which has been ruptured.
3.9.1.3
The deck foam system shall be capable of simple and rapid operation.
3.9.1.4 The deck foam system and the water fire main system can be supplied from
the common line. However, operation of the deck foam system at its required output
shall permit the simultaneous use of the minimum required jets of water at the
required pressure from the fire main on the open deck over the full length of the ship
in accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations and machinery spaces.
If the deck foam system and the water fire main system are to be supplied from
the common line, additional foam concentrate shall be provided for operation of 2
hose nozzles for the same period of time as is required for the foam system.
A common line for the water fire main system and deck foam system can only
be accepted if it can be demonstrated that the hose nozzles can be effectively
controlled by one person when supplied from the common line at a pressure needed
for operation of the monitors.
3.9.1.5 The main control station for the system shall be suitably located outside
the cargo area, in the vicinity of the accommodation spaces and readily accessible
and operable in the event of fire in the areas protected.
The location of the main control station shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.9.1.6 The major foam system equipment, such as the foam concentrate tanks
and the pumps shall be located outside cargo area but may be located in the
machinery space.
The location of the foam concentrate tanks shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.9.1.7 Means shall be provided for the crew to safely check the quantity of foam
concentrate in the tanks and taking the foam concentrate samples for the periodical
126
Fire Protection
checking of its quality. The minimum level/required quantity of foam concentrate
shall be marked on the tank.
3.9.2
Foam Concentrate Requirements
3.9.2.1 For tankers carrying:
.1 crude oil or petroleum products having a flash-point not exceeding 60 °C
(closed cup test), as determined by an approved flash-point apparatus, and
a Reid vapour pressure which is below atmospheric pressure or other liquid
products of similar fire-hazard, including the cargoes listed in Chapter 18
of the IBC Code having a flash-point not exceeding 60 °C (closed cup test)
for which a regular foam fire-extinguishing system is effective; or
.2 petroleum products having a flash-point exceeding 60 °C (closed cup test),
as determined by an approved flash-point apparatus; or
.3 products listed in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code having a flash-point exceeding
60 °C (closed cup test), as determined by an approved flash-point apparatus;
the rate of supply of foam solution shall be not less than the greatest of the
following:
.1 0.6 l/min per square metre of cargo tanks deck area, where cargo tanks deck
area means the maximum breadth of the ship multiplied by the total
longitudinal extent of the cargo tank spaces; or
.2 6 l/min per square metre of the horizontal sectional area of the single tank
having the largest such area; or
.3 3 l/min per square metre of the deck area protected by the largest monitor,
such area being entirely forward of the monitor, but not less than 1250 l/min.
3.9.2.2 For tankers carrying chemicals in bulk, listed in Chapter 17 of the IBC
Code, having a flash-point not exceeding 60 °C (closed cup test), the rate of supply
of foam solution shall be as specified in the IBC Code.
3.9.2.3 Sufficient foam concentrate shall be supplied to ensure at least 20 min of
foam generation – in tankers fitted with inert gas installation or 30 min of foam
generation – in tankers not fitted with inert gas installation or when inert gas
installation is not required.
If the deck foam system and the water fire main system are to be supplied from
the common line, additional foam concentrate shall be provided on board, see
3.9.1.3.
3.9.2.4 Foam concentrate used in the foam system shall be type approved in
accordance with MSC/Circ. 1312/Corr.1 and shall be suitable for extinguishing the
carried flammable cargoes. For extinguishing crude oil, petroleum products and
non-polar solvents, type B foam concentrates shall be used. Type A foam
concentrates (alcohol resistant) shall be used for extinguishing polar solvents, listed
in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
127
Only one type of foam concentrate shall be used on board and it shall be
effective for extinguishing the greatest possible amount of the carried cargoes.
Cargoes for which foam is not effective, additional fire protection shall be
provided in accordance of the IBC Code.
3.9.2.5 Liquid cargoes having a flash-point not exceeding 60 °C for which
regular foam is not effective shall be fire protected in accordance with the IBC
Code.
3.9.3
Monitors and Foam Applicators
3.9.3.1 Foam from the fixed deck foam system shall be supplied by means of
monitors and foam applicators.
At the system acceptance on board, tests of foam monitors and applicators shall
be carried out to ensure that the foam expansion ratio and drain time do not differ
by more than ± 10% from the values required for the used foam, specified in
3.9.2.4. If medium-expansion foam is used in the fire-extinguishing system
(expansion ratio between 21 and 200), the foam solution supply rate and the
capacity of monitors shall be specified for the given ship separately in each
particular case.
At least 50% of the required foam solution supply rate shall be delivered from
each monitor.
In tankers of less than 4000 tonnes deadweight, installation of monitors may not
be required and the use of applicators only may be permitted. However, in such
case the capacity of each applicator shall be at least 25% of the required foam
solution supply rate.
3.9.3.2 The number and position of monitors shall be such as to comply with the
requirements specified in 3.9.1.2.
3.9.3.3 The distance from the monitor to the farthest extremity of the protected
area forward of that monitor shall be not more than 75 % of the monitor throw in
still air conditions.
3.9.3.4 A monitor and hose connection for a foam applicator shall be situated
both port and starboard at the front of the poop or accommodation spaces facing
the cargo tanks deck.
Port and starboard monitors may be located in the cargo area, provided they are aft
of cargo tanks and that they protect below and aft of each other.
In tankers of less than 4000 tonnes deadweight, a hose connection for a foam
applicator shall be situated both port and starboard at the front of the poop or
accommodation spaces facing the cargo tanks deck.
3.9.3.5 Applicators shall be provided to ensure flexibility of action during firefighting operations and to cover areas screened from the monitors.
128
Fire Protection
3.9.3.6 The capacity of any applicator shall be not less than 400 l/min and the
applicator throw in still air conditions shall be not less than 15 m.
3.9.3.7 Each tanker shall be provided with at least four applicators in accordance
with 3.9.3.6. The number and arrangement of hose connections for a foam
applicator shall be such that foam from at least two applicators can be directed on
to any part of the cargo tanks deck area.
The requirements of the present paragraph are applicable to all tankers,
regardless of their size.
The location of each foam applicator shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.9.4
Isolating Valves
Valves shall be provided in the foam main and in the water fire main when this
is an integral part of the deck foam system, immediately forward of any monitor
position to isolate damaged sections of those mains.
The location of each isolating valve shall be indicated by a plate with the
symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.10
3.10.1
Inert Gas System (for Use in Tankers)
General Requirements
3.10.1.1 The purpose of the inert gas system is to maintain the atmosphere of the
cargo tanks non-flammable at all times, except when such tanks are required to be
gas-free.
The inert gas system shall be designed, constructed and tested in accordance
with guidelines specified in MSC/Circ. 353, MSC/Circ. 387, as well as MSC/
Circ.450/Rev.1. Standards for the design, testing and location of the devices to
prevent the passage of flame into cargo tanks in tankers are given in
MSC/Circ.677, MSC/Circ.1009 and MSC.1/Circ.1324.
3.10.1.2 The system shall be capable of:
.1 inerting empty cargo tanks by reducing the oxygen content of the
atmosphere in each tank to a level at which combustion cannot be
supported;
.2 maintaining the atmosphere in any part of any cargo tank with an oxygen
content not exceeding 8% by volume and at a positive pressure at all times
in port and at sea except when it is necessary for such a tank to be gas-free;
.3 eliminating the need for air to enter a tank during normal operations except
when it is necessary for such tank to be gas-free; and
.4 purging empty cargo tanks of a hydrocarbon gas so that subsequent gas-freeing
operations will at no time create a flammable atmosphere within a tank.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
129
3.10.1.3 The inert gas system shall consist of inert gas generators, scrubbers,
blowers, water seal, the inert gas supply main fitted with an isolating valve and
non-return device, branch piping supplying gas to cargo tanks and double hull
spaces, as well as automatic arrangement, indication and alarm devices allowing to
continuously indicate and record the inert gas parameters.
3.10.1.4 Those parts of scrubbers, blowers, non-return devices, scrubber effluent
and other drain pipes which may be subjected to corrosive action of the gases
and/or liquids shall be either constructed of corrosion-resistant material or lined
with rubber, glass fibre epoxy resin or other equivalent coating material.
3.10.2
Supply of Inert Gas
3.10.2.1 The inert gas supply may be treated flue gas from main or auxiliary
boilers. Systems using flue gases from one or more separate gas generators or other
sources or any combination thereof may be accepted by PRS, provided that an
equivalent standard of safety is achieved. Systems using stored carbon dioxide
shall not be permitted owing to the risk of ignition from generation of static
electricity by the system itself.
3.10.2.2 The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas to the cargo tanks at
a rate of at least 125% of the maximum rate of discharge capacity of the ship
expressed as a volume.
3.10.2.3 The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas with an oxygen
content of not more than 5% by volume in the inert gas supply main to the cargo
tanks at any required rate of flow.
3.10.3
Scrubbers
3.10.3.1 A flue gas scrubber shall be fitted which will effectively cool the volume
of gas specified in 3.10.2.2 and 3.10.2.3 and remove solids and sulphur combustion
products. The cooling water arrangements shall be such that an adequate supply of
water will always be available without interfering with any essential services on the
ship. Provision shall be also made for an alternative supply of cooling water.
3.10.3.2 Filters or equivalent devices shall be fitted to minimize the amount of
water carried over to the inert gas blowers.
3.10.3.3 Scrubbers shall be located aft of all cargo tanks, cargo pump-rooms and
cofferdams separating these spaces from machinery spaces of category A.
3.10.4
Blowers
3.10.4.1 At least two blowers shall be fitted and be capable of delivering to the
cargo tanks at least the volume of gas required in 3.10.2.2 and 3.10.2.3. Only one
130
Fire Protection
blower may be permitted by PRS if the system is capable of delivering the total
volume of gas required in 3.10.2.2 and 3.10.2.3 to the protected cargo tanks,
provided that sufficient spares for the blower and its prime mover are carried on
board to enable any failure of the blower and its prime mover to be rectified by the
ship’s crew.
When two blowers are provided, the total required capacity of the inert gas
system is preferably to be divided equally between the two blowers, and in no case
is one blower to have a capacity less than 1/3 of the total capacity required.
3.10.4.2 The inert gas system shall be so designed that the maximum pressure
which it can exert on any cargo tank will not exceed the test pressure of any cargo
tank. Suitable shutoff arrangements shall be provided on the suction and discharge
connections of each blower. Arrangements shall be provided to enable the
functioning of the inert gas plant to be stabilized before commencing cargo
discharge. If the blowers are to be used for gas-freeing, their inlets shall be
provided with blanking arrangements.
3.10.4.3 The blowers shall be located aft of all cargo tanks, cargo pump-rooms
and cofferdams separating these spaces from machinery spaces of category A.
3.10.5
Water Seals
3.10.5.1 The water seals, required in 3.10.9.1, shall be capable of being supplied
by two separate pumps, each of which shall be capable of maintaining an adequate
water supply at all times.
3.10.5.2 The arrangement of the water seal and its associated fittings shall be
such that it will prevent backflow of hydrocarbon vapours and will ensure the
proper functioning of the seal under operating conditions.
3.10.5.3 Provision shall be made to ensure that the water seal is protected against
freezing in such a way that the integrity of the seal is not impaired by overheating.
3.10.5.4 A water loop or other approved arrangement shall also be fitted to each
associated water supply and drain pipe and each venting or pressure-sensing pipe
leading to gas-safe spaces 1). Means shall be provided to prevent such loops from
being emptied by vacuum.
3.10.5.5 The deck water seal and loop arrangements shall be capable of
preventing return of hydrocarbon vapours at a pressure equal to the test pressure of
the cargo tanks.
3.10.5.6 In respect of paragraph in 3.10.15.1.7, provision shall be made, to the
satisfaction of PRS, for the maintenance of an adequate reserve of water at all
1)
A gas-safe space is a space in which the entry of hydrocarbon gases would produce hazards with
regard to flammability or toxicity.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
131
times and the integrity of the arrangements to permit the automatic formation of the
water seal when the gas flow ceases. The signal alarm on the low level of water in
the water seal shall operate when the inert gas is not being supplied.
3.10.6
Flue Gas Isolating Valves
Flue gas isolating valves shall be fitted in the inert gas supply mains between
the boiler uptakes and the flue gas scrubber. These valves shall be provided with
indicators to show whether they are open or shut. Precautions shall be taken to
maintain the valves gastight and keep the seatings clear of soot.
Arrangements shall be made to ensure that boiler soot blowers cannot be
operated when the corresponding flue gas isolating valve is open.
3.10.7
Prevention of Flue Gas Leakage
3.10.7.1 Special consideration shall given to the design and location of scrubber
and blowers with relevant piping and fittings in order to prevent flue gas leakages
into enclosed spaces.
3.10.7.2 To permit safe maintenance, an additional water seal or other effective
means of preventing flue gas shall be fitted between the flue gas isolating valves
and scrubber or incorporated in the gas entry to the scrubber.
3.10.8
Gas Regulating Valves
3.10.8.1 A gas regulating valve shall be fitted in the inert gas supply main. This
valve shall be automatically controlled to close as required in 3.10.10. It shall also
be capable of automatically regulating the flow of inert gas to the cargo tanks
unless means are provided to automatically control the speed of the inert gas
blowers required in 3.10.4.
3.10.8.2 The inert gas regulating valve shall be located at the forward bulkhead
of the forward most gas-safe space through which the inert gas supply main passes.
3.10.9
Non-Return Devices of Flue Gas
3.10.9.1 At least two non-return devices, one of which shall be a water seal, shall
be fitted in the inert gas supply main, in order to prevent the return of hydrocarbon
vapours to the machinery space uptakes or to any gas-safe spaces under all normal
conditions of trim, list and motion of the ship. They shall be located between the
gas regulating valve required in 3.10.8.1 and the aftermost connection to any cargo
tank or cargo pipeline.
3.10.9.2
Non-return devices shall be located in the cargo deck area.
3.10.9.3 The second device shall be a non-return valve or equivalent capable of
preventing the return of vapours or liquids and fitted forward of the deck water seal
132
Fire Protection
specified in 3.10.9.1. It shall be provided with positive means of closure. As an
alternative to positive means of closure, an additional valve having such means of
closure may be provided forward of the non-return valve to isolate the deck water
seal from the inert gas main to the cargo tanks.
3.10.9.4 As an additional safeguard against the possible leakage of hydrocarbon
liquids or vapours back from the deck main, means shall be provided to permit this
section of the line between the valve having positive means of closure, referred to
in 3.10.9.3 and the gas regulating valve to be vented in a safe manner when the first
of these valves is closed.
3.10.10
Automatic Shutdown
3.10.10.1 Automatic shutdown of the inert gas blowers and gas regulating valve
shall be arranged on predetermined limits, specified in 3.10.15.1.1, 3.10.15.1.2 and
3.10.15.1.3, being reached.
3.10.10.2 Automatic shutdown of the gas regulating valve shall be provided in
the case specified in 3.10.15.1.4.
3.10.11
Oxygen Rich Gas
When the oxygen content of the inert gas exceeds 8% by volume, the alarms
(required in 3.10.15.1.5) shall be activated, cargo pumps automatically shut down
and the isolating valve, referred to in 3.10.9.3, shall be closed.
3.10.12
Inert Gas Pipelines
3.10.12.1 The inert gas supply main may be divided into two or more
branches forward of the water seal required in 3.10.5 and the non-return devices
required in 3.10.9.
3.10.12.2 The inert gas supply main shall be fitted with branch piping leading to
each cargo tank and double hull tanks.
Each branch piping for inert gas shall be fitted with either stop valve or equivalent
means of control for isolating each tank. Where stop valves or other isolating devices
are fitted, they shall be provided with “open – closed” indicators and locking
arrangements, which should be under control of a responsible ship’s officer.
3.10.12.3 In combination carriers, the arrangement to isolate the slop tanks
containing oil or oil residues from other tanks shall consist of blank flanges which
will remain in position at all times when cargoes other than oil are being carried.
3.10.12.4 Means shall be provided to protect cargo tanks against the effect of
overpressure or vacuum caused by thermal variations when the cargo tanks are
isolated from the inert gas supply main.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
133
3.10.12.5 Piping systems shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the
accumulation of cargo or water in the pipelines under all normal conditions.
3.10.12.6 Arrangements shall be provided to enable the inert gas main to be
connected to an external source of inert gas supply.
The arrangements shall consist of a 250 mm nominal pipe size bolted flange,
isolated from the inert gas main by a valve and located forward of the non-return
valve required in 3.10.9.3. The design of the flange shall conform to the
appropriate class in the standards adopted for the design of other external
connections in the ship’s cargo piping.
3.10.12.7 If a connection is fitted between the inert gas supply main and the
cargo piping system, arrangements shall be made to ensure an effective isolation
having regard to the large pressure difference which may exist between the
systems. This shall consist of two shut-off valves with an arrangement to vent the
space between the valves in a safe manner or an arrangement consisting of a spoolpiece with associated blanks 1).
3.10.12.8 The valve separating the inert gas supply main from the cargo main
and which is on the cargo main side shall be a non-return valve.
3.10.13
Indication Devices
Means shall be provided for continuously indicating the temperature and
pressure of the inert gas at the discharge side of the gas blowers, whenever the gas
blowers are operating.
3.10.14
Indicating and Recording Devices
3.10.14.1 Instrumentation shall be fitted for continuously indicating and
permanently recording, when the inert gas is being supplied:
.1 the pressure of the inert gas supply mains forward of the non-return
devices, required in 3.10.9.1;
.2 the oxygen content of the inert gas in the inert gas supply main on the
discharge side of the gas blowers.
3.10.14.2 The devices, referred to in 3.10.14.1, shall be placed in the cargo
control room, where provided. Where no cargo control room is provided, they shall
be placed in a position easily accessible to the officer in charge of cargo operations.
3.10.14.3 In addition, meters shall be fitted:
.1 on the navigation bridge to indicate at all times the pressure in the inert gas
supply main, referred to in 3.10.14.1.1 and the pressure in the slop tanks of
1)
An example of such arrangements is given in MSC/Circ.1120 for the FSS Code Chapter 15,
paragraph 2.3.2.7.
134
Fire Protection
.2
3.10.15
combination carriers, whenever those tanks are isolated from the inert gas
supply main; and
in the engine control room or in the machinery space to indicate the oxygen
content of the inert gas in the gas supply main, referred to in 3.10.14.1.2.
Audible and Visual Alarms
3.10.15.1 For inert gas systems of both the flue gas type and the inert gas
generator type, audible and visual alarms shall be provided to indicate:
.1 low water pressure or low flow rate to the flue gas scrubber, referred to in
3.10.3;
.2 high water level in the flue gas scrubber, referred to in 3.10.3;
.3 high gas temperature, see 3.10.13;
.4 failure of the inert gas blowers, referred to in 3.10.4;
.5 oxygen content in excess of 8% by volume, see 3.10.14.3.2;
.6 failure of the power supply to the automatic control system for the gas
regulating valve, referred to in 3.10.8 and to the indicating and recording
devices, referred to in 3.10.14;
.7 low water level in the water seal, referred to in 3.10.9.1;
.8 gas pressure lower than 1 kPa, see 3.10.14.1.1. The alarm shall be such as
to ensure that the pressure in slop tanks in combination carriers can be
monitored at all times;
.9 high gas pressure, referred to in 3.10.14.1.1.
3.10.15.2 For inert gas systems of the inert gas generator type, additional audible
and visual alarms shall be provided to indicate:
.1 insufficient fuel oil supply;
.2 failure of the power supply to the gas generator; and
.3 failure of the power supply to the automatic control system for the generator.
3.10.15.3 The alarms, required in 3.10.15.1.5, 3.10.15.1.6 and 3.10.15.1.8, shall
be fitted in the machinery space and cargo control room, where provided, but in
each case in such a position that they are immediately received by responsible
members of the crew.
3.10.15.4 An audible low gas pressure alarm independent of that required in
3.10.15.1.8 or automatic shutdown of cargo pumps shall be provided to operate on
predetermined limits of low pressure in the inert gas main being reached.
3.10.16
Operating Manuals
Detailed operating manuals shall be provided on board, covering the operation,
safety and maintenance requirements and occupational health hazards relevant to
the inert gas system. The manual shall contain guidance on procedures to be
followed in the event of a fault or failure of the inert gas system. The operating
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
135
manuals shall be prepared in accordance with guidelines for inert gas systems,
specified in IMO MSC/Circ.353, as amended by MSC/Circ.387.
3.10.17
Inert Gas System with Oil Fired Inert Gas Generator
3.10.17.1 In the case of inert gas system with oil fired inert gas generator, the
following additional requirements shall be complied with:
.1 two fuel oil pumps shall be fitted to the inert gas generator. Installation of
only one fuel oil pump may be permitted by PRS, provided that sufficient
spares for the oil pump and its prime mover are carried on board to enable
any failure of the fuel oil pump and its prime mover to be rectified by the
ship’s crew;
.2 the compartment in which oil fired inert gas generator is situated shall be
regarded, with respect to fire protection, as machinery space of category A;
.3 arrangements shall be provided to vent the inert gas from oil fired gas
generators to the atmosphere when the inert gas produced is off
specification, e.g. during start-up or in the event of equipment failure;
.4 automatic shutdown of the oil fuel supply to inert gas generators shall be
arranged on predetermined limits being reached with respect to low water
pressure or low water flow rate to the cooling and scrubbing arrangement
(the scrubber) and with respect to high gas temperature;
.5 automatic shutdown of gas regulating valve shall be arranged with respect
to failure of the power supply to the oil fired inert gas generator.
The space with inert gas generator shall be indicated, on the access door, by
a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.10.18
Nitrogen Generator System
3.10.18.1 The requirements of the present sub-chapter are applicable exclusively
to the gas generator system where inert gas is produced by separating air into its
component gases by passing compressed air through a bundle of hollow fibres,
semi-permeable membranes or adsorber materials.
3.10.18.2 With respect to the piping arrangements, alarms and instrumentation
downstream of the gas generator, the requirements for inert gas generator, specified
in 3.10, shall apply.
In particular, the requirements specified in 3.10.8.1, 3.10.8.2, 3.10.10, 3.10.12,
3.10.14, 3.10.15.1.6, 3.10.15.1.8, 3.10.15.1.9, 3.10.15.3, 3.10.15.4, 3.10.16 shall be
complied with.
3.10.18.3 A nitrogen gas generator shall consist of a feed air treatment system
and any number of membrane or adsorber modules in parallel necessary to meet
the required capacity which shall be at least 125% of the maximum discharge
capacity of the ship expressed as a volume.
136
Fire Protection
3.10.18.4 The air compressor and the nitrogen generator may be installed in the
machinery space or in a separate compartment. A separate compartment shall be
treated as machinery space other than category A with respect to fire protection.
The space with inert gas generator shall be indicated, on the access door, by
a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
3.10.18.5 Where a separate compartment is provided, it shall be situated outside
the cargo area and shall be fitted with an independent mechanical extraction
ventilation system providing 6 air changes per hour. The compartment shall be also
fitted with a low oxygen level alarm.
The compartment shall have no direct access to accommodation spaces, service
spaces and control stations.
3.10.18.6 The nitrogen generator shall be capable of delivering high purity
nitrogen with O2 content not exceeding 5% by volume. The system shall be fitted
with automatic means to discharge “off-spec” gas to the atmosphere during start-up
and abnormal operation.
3.10.18.7 The system shall be fitted with two air compressors. It is recommended
that the total required capacity of the system be divided equally between the two
compressors, and in no case is one compressor to have a capacity less than 1/3 of
the total capacity required.
Only one compressor may be accepted, provided that sufficient spares for the
air compressor and its prime mover are carried on board to enable their failure to
be rectified by the ship's crew.
3.10.18.8 A feed air treatment system shall be fitted to remove free water, particles
and traces of oil from the compressed air and to maintain the required temperature.
3.10.18.9 Where a nitrogen tank is fitted, it may be installed in a separate
compartment or in a compartment containing the air compressor and the generator,
or may be located in the cargo area. Where the nitrogen tank is installed in an
enclosed space, the access shall be arranged only from the open deck and the
access door shall open outwards. The space shall be fitted with an independent
mechanical extraction ventilation system providing 6 air changes per hour. A low
oxygen alarm shall be also fitted.
3.10.18.10 The oxygen-enriched air from the nitrogen generator and the
nitrogen-product enriched gas from the protective devices of the nitrogen receiver
shall be discharged to a safe location on the open deck.
3.10.18.11 In order to permit maintenance, an isolating valve shall be fitted
between the generator and the receiver.
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
137
3.10.18.12 Two non-return devices shall be fitted in the inert gas supply main,
one of which shall be an arrangement consisting of two shut-off valves in series
with a venting valve in between (double block and bleed), the following
requirements being complied with:
.1 the operation of the valves shall be automatically executed. Signal for
opening/closing of the valve shall be taken from the process directly, e.g.
inert gas flow or differential pressure;
.2 alarm for faulty operation of the valves shall be provided, e.g. the operation
status when the supply valves are open while the blower is stopped, is an
alarm condition.
The second non-return device shall be a non-return shut-off device, fitted with
open/closed indicator.
3.10.18.13 The system shall be provided with instruments continuously
indicating the temperature and pressure of air:
.1 at the discharge side of the compressor;
.2 at the entrance side of the nitrogen generator.
3.10.18.14 The system shall be fitted with instruments continuously indicating
and recording the oxygen content of the inert gas downstream of the nitrogen
generator when inert gas is being supplied.
3.10.18.15 The instruments, referred to in 3.10.18.14, shall be placed in the
cargo control room. Where no cargo control room is provided, they shall be placed
in position easily accessible to the officer in charge of cargo operations.
3.10.18.16 Audible and visual alarms shall be provided to indicate:
.1 low air pressure at the discharge side of compressor – see 3.10.18.13.1;
.2 high air temperature at the discharge side of compressor– see 3.10.18.13.1;
.3 high condensate level at automatic drain of water separator – see 3.10.18.8;
.4 failure of electrical heater, if fitted;
.5 oxygen content in excess of 5% by volume – see 3.10.18.6;
.6 failure of the power supply to the instruments – see 3.10.18.14.
3.10.18.17 Automatic shut-down of the system shall be arranged upon alarm
conditions specified in 3.10.18.16.1 to .5.
3.10.18.18 The alarms, required in 3.10.18.16, shall be fitted in the machinery
space and cargo control room, where provided, in such position that they are
immediately received by responsible members of the crew.
3.10.18.19 For nitrogen generator system fitted in tankers of less than 20 000 tonnes
deadweight, in gas tankers or chemical tankers, the requirements specified in 3.10.18.1,
3.10.18.2, 3.10.18.3 and 3.10.18.7 need not be complied with.
138
Fire Protection
Where the connections to the cargo tanks, to the hold spaces or to cargo piping
are not permanent, the non-return devices, required in 3.10.18.12, may be
substituted by two non-return valves.
3.11
Tests of Fire-Extinguishing Systems and Inert Gas Systems
3.11.1 The scope of workshop tests and the tests on completion of pipelines
installation on board, as well as test pressure values for fire-extinguishing systems
and inert gas systems shall be determined in accordance with Table 3.11.
3.11.2 Flexible pipes and attachments, used in fire-extinguishing systems, which
are required to be fire-resistant materials, shall be subjected to fire test for 30 minutes
at a temperature 800 °C, while at the maximum service pressure water is circulated
inside the pipe. The temperature of the outlet shall not be less than 80 °C. No leak
should be recorded during or after the tests.
An alternative is to fire test of the flexible pipe with flowing water at a pressure
of at least 0.5 MPa and subsequently pressure test to twice the design pressure.
3.11.3 Fire hydrants, used in water fire main, made form components or
materials liable to be damaged or destroyed by heat fire are subject to fire test
which shall be conducted in two stages:
– dry test – the valve shall be put into a furnace and tested for 10 minutes at
a temperature of 250 °C;
– test under water working pressure – the valve connected to the water supply piping
shall be put into a furnace and tested for 30 minutes at a temperature of 540 °C.
The fire test is considered satisfactory if on completion of two stages of the test,
the fire hydrant functions properly.
Table 3.11
Scope of pressure tests and test pressure values for fire-extinguishing systems
and inert gas systems
Item
Systems to be tested
1
1
2
Water and foam fire-extinguishing systems (see also
sub-chapter 1.5.4, Part VI – Machinery Installations
and Refrigerating Plants):
.1 pipes of water fire main systems, water-spraying
systems and sprinkler systems,
.2 pipes of high pressure water-spraying systems
and sprinkler systems (water mist),
.3 pipes of foam systems.
2
Pipes of dry powder chemical systems
Test pressure
In workshop
3
On board ship
4
–
1.25 p
1.5 p
1.25 p
–
1.25 p
1.5 p
1.25 p (air test)
139
Fire-Extinguishing System and Inert Gas System
1
3
3.1
2
3
4
1.5 p
19.0 MPa
–
5.0 MPa
1.3 p
–
1.3 p (nitrogen
test)
1.0 MPa
–
–
1.5 p(zb)
1.25 p(zb)
–
–
4
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system
High pressure carbon dioxide system:
.1 pipes from cylinders to distribution valves
(manifold),
.2 pipes from distribution valves to the protected
spaces and pipes from safety valves passing
through accommodation and service spaces,
.3 remote control pilot lines pipes from pilot
cylinders to distribution valves/cylinder valves,
.4 pipes passing through spaces other than
accommodation spaces and service spaces and
pipes in the protected space.
Low pressure carbon dioxide system:
.1 pipes from storage tanks to distribution valves,
.2 pipes from distribution valves to protected
spaces; pipes from safety valves,
.3 pipes in the protected space.
Pipes and scrubber of inert gas system (in tankers)
5
Pipes of equivalent gas fire-extinguishing systems
1.5 p
1.0 MPa
1.25 p
(air test)
1.25 p (air test)
6
7
Compressed air pipes
Cylinders, storage tanks and containers:
.1 pressurized (including cylinders without valves)
.2 non-pressurized,
1.5 p
1.25 p (air test)
1.5 p
by filling up to
the top of air
vent pipe
1.25 p (air test)
1.5 p (but at least
0.2 MPa)
–
together with the
whole system
3.2
8
.3 cylinders with valves fitted.
Fittings – pressure and strength tests
–
–
Notes to Table 3.11:
1) The value p in the Table means the maximum working pressure in the system, p(zb) means the
tank safety valve setting pressure. For carbon dioxide system, p is equal to the design pressure in
the cylinder or in the storage tank.
2) Complete fittings shall be subjected to hydraulic test with a pressure of at least 1.25 p. Carbon
dioxide cylinders valves shall be tested for tightness to maximum breaking pressure of the
bursting disk – according to 3.6.4.3.3.
3) The systems shall be tested in assembly on board ship, upon completion of all installation work.
4) Pipes of water fire main systems in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall be tested for
tightness to a pressure of at least 1.0 MPa.
140
4
Fire Protection
FIRE SIGNALLING SYSTEMS AND HYDROCARBON GAS
DETECTION SYSTEM
4.1
Fixed Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System
4.1.1
Definitions
.1 S e c t i o n – a group of fire detectors and manually operated call points as
reported in the indicating unit.
.2 S e c t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y – a system with the
capability of identifying the section in which a detector or manually
operated call point has activated.
.3 I n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e – a system with the capability to
identify the exact location and type of detector or manually operated call
point which has activated, and which can differentiate the signal of that
device from all others.
.4 L o o p – an electrical circuit linking detectors of various sections and
connected to the control panel.
4.1.2
General Requirements
4.1.2.1 Any required fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall consist of
fire detectors, manually operated call points and the control panel. The system shall
be capable of immediate operation at all times (this does not require a back-up
control panel). Notwithstanding this, particular spaces may be disconnected, for
example workshops during hot work and ro-ro spaces during on and off-loading.
The means for disconnecting the detectors shall be so designed as to automatically
restore the system to normal surveillance after a pre-determined time that is
appropriate for the operations in question. The space shall be manned or provided
with patrol when the required detectors are disconnected. The detectors in all other
compartments shall remain operational.
4.1.2.2 Where a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system is required for the
protection of spaces other than stairways, corridors and escape routes, at least one
detector shall be installed in each such space.
4.1.2.3 Fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so designed and the
detectors so positioned as to detect rapidly the onset of fire in any part of the
protected spaces and under any normal conditions of operation of the machinery and
variations of ventilation as required by the possible range of ambient temperatures.
4.1.2.4 Except in spaces of restricted height and where their use is particularly
appropriate, detection and alarm systems using only thermal detectors are not
permitted.
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
141
4.1.2.5 Smoke detectors shall be installed in all stairways, corridors and escape
routes within accommodation spaces. It is recommended that special purpose smoke
detectors be installed within ventilation ducting where smoke may occur as a factor
indicative of incipient fire.
4.1.2.6 Manually operated call points shall be installed throughout the
accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations, but it is not required that
they be fitted in an individual space within these spaces. One manually operated call
point shall be located at each exit. Manually operated call points shall be located in
the corridors of each deck at each exit (inside or outside) to the open deck and be
readily accessible from the corridor such that no part of the corridor is more than
20 m from a manually operated call point.
Service spaces and control stations which have only one access, leading directly
to the open deck, shall have a manually operated call point not more than 20 m
(measured along the access route using the deck, stairs and/or corridors) from the
exit.
Manually operated call points are not required to be installed for spaces having
little or no fire risk, such as void spaces and carbon dioxide rooms, nor at each exit
from the navigation bridge, in cases where the control panel is located on the
navigation bridge.
The location of each manually operated call point shall be indicated by a plate
with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
4.1.2.7 Fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be designed to:
.1 control and monitor input signals from all the connected fire and smoke
detectors and manually operated call points;
.2 provide output signals to the navigation bridge, continuously manned
control station or onboard safety centre to notify the crew of fire and fault
conditions;
.3 monitor power supplies and circuits necessary for the operation of the
system for loss of power and fault conditions;
additionally:
.4 the system may be arranged with output signals to other fire safety systems
including:
.1 paging systems, fire alarm or public address systems;
.2 fan stops;
.3 fire doors 1);
.4 fire dampers;
.5 automatic sprinkler systems;
.6 smoke extraction systems;
.7 low-location lighting systems;
1)
Watertight doors which also serve as fire doors shall not be closed automatically in case of fire
detection.
142
Fire Protection
.8 fixed local application fire-extinguishing systems;
.9 CCTV system; and
.10 other fire safety systems.
4.1.2.8 The fire detection and fire alarm system may be connected to a decision
management system, provided that:
.1 the decision management system is proven to be compatible with the fire
detection system;
.2 the decision management system can be disconnected without losing any of
the functions required by this sub-chapter for the fire detection system;
.3 any malfunction of the interfaced and connected equipment will not
propagate under any circumstance to the fire detection system.
4.1.2.9 Detectors and manually operated call points shall be connected to
dedicated sections of the fire detection system. Other fire safety functions, such as
alarm signals from the sprinkler valves, may be permitted if provided in separate
sections.
4.1.2.10 Fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so designed as to
withstand supply voltage variation and transients, ambient temperature changes,
vibration, humidity, shock, impact and corrosion normally encountered in ships. All
electrical and electronic equipment on the bridge or in the vicinity of the bridge shall
be tested for electromagnetic compatibility in accordance with Res. A.813(19).
4.1.2.11 Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems with a zone address
identification capability shall be so arranged that:
.1 means are provided to ensure that any fault (e.g. power break, short circuit,
earth, etc.) occurring in the loop will not render the whole loop ineffective;
.2 all arrangements are made to enable the initial configuration of the system
to be restored in the event of failure (e.g. electrical, electronic, informatics,
etc.);
.3 the first initiated fire alarm will not prevent any other detector from
initiating further fire alarms; and
.4 no loop will pass through a space twice. When this is not practicable (e.g.
for large public spaces), the part of the loop which by necessity passes
through the space for a second time shall be installed at the maximum
possible distance from the other parts of the loop.
4.1.2.12 In cargo ships, the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be, as
a minimum, capable of identifying each loop.
4.1.2.13 Spaces/group of spaces covered by the fixed fire detection and alarm
system shall be marked by a plate, placed at access door, with the symbol used on
Fire Control Plan.
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
4.1.3
143
Sources of Power Supply
4.1.3.1 There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the electrical
equipment used in the operation of the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system,
one of which shall be an emergency source. The supply shall be provided by
separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose. Such feeders shall run to an
automatic changeover switch situated in or adjacent to the control panel for the fire
detection system. The changeover switch shall be so designed that its failure will
not cut off the source of power supply. The main feeder (and the corresponding
emergency feeder) shall run from the switchboard to the changeover switch
avoiding another switchboard.
4.1.3.2 The operation of the automatic changeover switch or a failure of one of
the power supply sources shall not cause loss of fire detection capability. Where
a momentary loss of power would cause degradation of the system, a battery of
adequate capacity shall be provided to ensure continuous operation during
changeover.
4.1.3.3 There shall be sufficient power to permit the continued operation of the
system with all detectors activated, but not more than 100 if the total exceeds this
figure.
4.1.3.4 In cargo ships, the emergency source of power specified in 4.1.3.1 shall be
supplied by accumulators batteries or from the emergency switchboard. The source of
power shall be sufficient to maintain the operation of the fire detection and fire alarm
system for the periods required in sub-chapter 9.3, Part VIII – Electrical Installations
and Control Systems, and at the end of that period, shall be capable of operating all
connected visual and audible fire alarm signals for a period of at least 30 min.
4.1.3.5 Where the fire detection system is supplied from accumulators batteries,
the accumulator battery shall be located in or adjacent to the control panel for the fire
detection system, or in another location suitable for use in an emergency. The rating
of the battery charge unit shall be sufficient to maintain the normal output power
supply to the fire detection system while recharging the batteries from a fully
discharged condition.
4.1.4
4.1.4.1
Component Requirements
Detectors
4.1.4.1.1 Detectors shall be operated by heat, smoke or other products of
combustion, flame, or any combination of these factors. Detectors operated by
other factors indicative of incipient fires may be accepted, provided that they are
not less sensitive than such detectors.
144
Fire Protection
4.1.4.1.2 Smoke detectors required in all stairways, corridors and escape routes
within accommodation spaces shall be certified to operate before the smoke density
exceeds 12.5% obscuration per metre, but not until the smoke density exceeds 2%
obscuration per metre, when tested according to EN 54:2001 and IEC 60092-504.
Alternative national standards may be used. Smoke detectors to be installed in other
spaces shall operate within sensitivity limits recommended by the manufacturer
having regard to the avoidance of detector insensitivity or oversensitivity.
4.1.4.1.3 Heat detectors shall be certified to operate before the temperature
exceeds 78ºC but not until the temperature exceeds 54ºC, when the temperature is
raised to those limits at a rate less than 1ºC per min, when tested according to EN
54:2001 and IEC 60092-504. Alternative national standards may be used. At higher
rates of temperature rise, the heat detector shall operate within temperature limits
recommended by the manufacturer having regard to the avoidance of detector
insensitivity or oversensitivity.
4.1.4.1.4 Operation temperature of heat detectors in drying rooms and similar
spaces of a normal high ambient temperature may be up to 130 oC, and to 140 oC in
saunas.
4.1.4.1.5 Flame detectors shall be tested in accordance with EN 54-10:2001 and
IEC 60092-504. Alternative national standards are permitted.
4.1.4.1.6 All detectors shall be of a type such that they can be tested for correct
operation and restored to normal surveillance without the renewal of any
component.
4.1.4.1.7 Detectors fitted in hazardous areas, where there is a risk of explosion,
shall be tested and type-approved for such service. Detectors installed in special
category spaces above the bulkhead deck need not be type-approved for service in
hazardous areas. Detectors fitted in spaces carrying dangerous goods, listed in subchapter 2.10, Table 2.10-3, shall be suitable for service in hazardous areas
in order to fulfil the requirements specified in sub-chapter 2.10.4.
4.1.4.1.8 Detectors fitted in refrigerated spaces, such as refrigerated provision
chambers, shall be tested in accordance with the relevant, for such spaces 1,
procedures.
4.1.4.2
Control Panel
The control panel for the fire detection system shall be tested in accordance
with standards EN 54-2:1997, EN 54-4:1997 and IEC 60092-504:2001. Alternative
national standards are permitted.
1)
See the guidelines of the International Electrotechnical Commission, in particular Publication IEC
60068-2-1 – Section one – Test Ab, Environmental Testing – Part 2-1: Tests A: Cold
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
4.1.4.3
145
Cables
Cables used in the electrical circuits shall be flame-retardant in accordance with
standard IEC 60332-1.
4.1.5
Installation Requirements
4.1.5.1
4.1.5.1.1
sections.
Detector Sections
Detectors and manually operated call points shall be grouped into
4.1.5.1.2 The section of fire detectors which covers a control station, a service
space or an accommodation space shall not include a machinery space of category
A or a ro-ro space. The section of fire detectors which covers a ro-ro space shall
not include a machinery space of category A. For fixed fire detection systems with
remotely and individually identifiable fire detectors, a section covering fire
detectors in accommodation, service spaces and control stations shall not include
fire detectors in machinery spaces of category A or ro-ro spaces.
4.1.5.1.3 Where the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system does not include
means of remotely identifying each detector individually, no section covering more
than one deck within accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations
shall normally be permitted, except a section which covers an enclosed stairway. In
order to avoid delay in identifying the source of fire, the number of enclosed spaces
included in each section shall be limited and is subject to PRS’ approval in each
particular case. If the detection system is fitted with remotely and individually
identifiable fire detectors, the sections may cover several decks and serve any
number of enclosed spaces.
4.1.5.2
Positioning of Detectors
4.1.5.2.1 Detectors shall be located for optimum performance. Positions near
beams and ventilation ducts, or other positions where patterns of air flow could
adversely affect performance, and positions where impact or physical damage is
likely, shall be avoided. Detectors shall be located on the overhead at a minimum
distance of 0.5 m away from bulkheads, except in corridors, lockers and stairways.
4.1.5.2.2 The maximum spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with the
below Table:
146
Fire Protection
Table 4.1.5.2.2
Spacing of detectors
Item
Detector
type
Maximum floor area
per detector
[m2 ]
Maximum distance
apart between centres
[m]
Maximum distance
from bulkheads
[m]
1
Heat
37
9
4.5
2
Smoke
74
11
5.5
Other spacings based upon test data which demonstrate the characteristics of the
detectors are permitted. Detectors located below moveable ro-ro decks shall be in
accordance with the above requirement.
4.1.5.2.3 Detectors in stairways shall be located at least at the top level of the
stair and at every second level beneath.
4.1.5.2.4 When fire detectors are installed in freezers, drying rooms, saunas,
parts of galleys used to heat food, laundries and other spaces where steam or fumes
are produced, heat detectors may be used.
4.1.5.2.5 Where a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system is required within
accommodation spaces and service spaces in accordance with 2.4.1, spaces having
little or no fire risk need not be fitted with detectors. Such spaces include void
spaces with no storage of combustibles, private bathrooms, public toilets, fireextinguishing medium storage rooms (fire-extinguishing stations), cleaning gear
lockers (in which flammable liquids are not stowed), open deck spaces and
enclosed promenades having little or no fire risk and that are naturally ventilated
by permanent openings.
4.1.5.3
Arrangement of Cables
4.1.5.3.1 Cables which form part of the system shall be so arranged as to avoid
galleys, machinery spaces of category A, and other enclosed spaces of high fire
risk except where it is necessary to provide for fire detection or fire alarms in such
spaces or to connect them to the appropriate power supply.
4.1.5.3.2 Section with individually identifiable capability shall be so arranged
that it cannot be damaged at more than one point by a fire.
4.1.6
4.1.6.1
System Control Requirements
Visual and Audible Fire Detection Alarm Signals
4.1.6.1.1 Activation of any detector or manually operated call point shall initiate
a visual and audible fire detection alarm signal at the control panel and indicating
units. Alarm signals shall be in accordance with the Code on Alarms and Indicators
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
147
– Res. A.1021(26). If the signals have not been acknowledged within 2 min., an
audible fire alarm shall be automatically sounded throughout the crew accommodation
and service spaces, control stations and machinery spaces of category A. This alarm
sounder system need not be an integral part of the detection system.
4.1.6.1.2 Control panel shall be located on the navigation bridge or in the fire
control station.
The location of each control panel shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol
used on Fire Control Plan.
4.1.6.1.3 In cargo ships, an indicating unit shall be located on the navigation
bridge if the control panel is located in the fire control station. Where a ship is
provided with cargo control room, an indicating unit shall be located in this room.
Indicating units shall, as a minimum, denote the section in which a detector has
activated or manually operated call point has been operated.
4.1.6.1.4 Clear information shall be displayed on or adjacent to each indicating
unit about the spaces covered and the location of the sections.
4.1.6.1.5 Power supplies and electric circuits necessary for the operation of the
system shall be monitored for loss of power and fault conditions, as appropriate
including:
.1 a single open or power break fault caused by a broken wire;
.2 a single ground fault caused by the contact of a wiring conductor with
a metal component; and
.3 a single wire to wire fault caused by the contact of two or more wiring
conductors.
Occurrence of a fault condition shall initiate a visual and audible fault signal at
the control panel which shall be distinct from a fire signal.
4.1.6.1.6 Means to manually acknowledge all alarm and fault signals shall be
provided at the control panel. Audible alarm sounders on the control panel and
indicating units may be manually silenced. The control panel shall clearly
distinguish between normal, alarm, acknowledged alarm, fault and silenced
conditions.
4.1.6.1.7 The system shall be arranged to automatically reset to the normal
operating condition after alarm and fault conditions are cleared.
4.1.6.1.8 When the system is required to sound a local audible alarm within the
cabins where the detectors are located, any means to silence the local audible
alarms from the control panel are not permitted.
4.1.6.1.9 In general, audible alarm sound pressure levels at the sleeping positions in
the cabins and 1 m from the source shall be at least 75 dB(A) and at least 10 dB(A)
148
Fire Protection
above ambient noise levels existing during normal equipment operation with the ship
under way in moderate weather. The sound pressure level shall be in the 1/3 octave
band about the fundamental frequency. Audible alarm signals shall not exceed
120 dB(A).
4.1.7
Installation Tests
4.1.7.1 The function of fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems shall be tested
under varying conditions of ventilation after installation on board.
4.1.7.2 Suitable instructions, appropriate instruments for testing fire detectors,
according to fire, as well as component spares for testing and maintenance shall be
provided on board.
4.2
4.2.1
Sample Extraction Smoke Detection System (for Cargo Spaces)
General Requirements
4.2.1.1 Sample extraction smoke detection system is intended for installation in
conventional cargo spaces in ships carrying dangerous goods in accordance with
the requirements specified in 2.10, as well as in ro-ro spaces and vehicle spaces.
4.2.1.2 Sample extraction smoke detection system shall consist of the following
main components:
.1 smoke accumulators – air collection devices installed at the open ends of the
sampling pipes in each cargo hold that perform the physical function of
collecting air samples for transmission to the control panel through the
sampling pipes, and may also act as discharge nozzles for the fixed gas fireextinguishing system, if installed;
.2 sampling pipes – a piping network that connects the smoke accumulators to
the control panel, arranged in sections to allow the location of the fire to be
readily identified;
.3 three-way valves – if the system is interconnected to a fixed gas fireextinguishing system, three-way valves are used to normally align the
sampling pipes to the control panel, and if a fire is detected, the three-way
valves are re-aligned to connect the sampling pipes to the fire-extinguishing
system discharge manifold and isolate the control panel; and;
.4 control panel – the main element of the system which provides continuous
monitoring of the protected spaces for indication of smoke. It typically may
include a viewing chamber or smoke sensing units. Extracted air from the
protected spaces is drawn through the smoke accumulators and sampling
pipes to the viewing chamber, and then to the smoke sensing chamber where
the air stream is monitored by electrical smoke detectors. If smoke is sensed,
the repeater panel (normally on the bridge) automatically sounds an alarm
(not localized). The crew can then determine at the smoke sensing unit
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
149
which cargo hold is on fire and operate the pertinent three-way valve for
discharge of the extinguishing agent.
4.2.1.3 Any required system shall be capable of continuous operation at all times
except that systems operating on a sequential scanning principle may be accepted,
provided that the interval between scanning the same position twice depends on the
number of scanning points and the response time of the fans.
The interval (I) shall be determined with a 20% allowance in accordance with
the following formula:
I = 1.2 × T × N [s]
where:
T – response time of the fans [s];
N – the number of scanning points.
The maximum allowable interval between the two subsequent scans, however,
shall not exceed 120 s (Imax = 120 s).
4.2.1.4 The system shall be so designed, constructed and installed as to prevent
the leakage of any toxic or flammable substances or fire-extinguishing media into
any accommodation and service space, control station or machinery space.
4.2.1.5 The system and its equipment shall be suitably designed to withstand
supply voltage variations and transients, ambient temperature changes, vibration,
humidity, shock, impact and corrosion normally encountered in ships and to avoid
the possibility of ignition of a flammable gas-air mixture.
4.2.1.6 The system shall be of a type that can be tested for correct operation and
restored to normal surveillance without the renewal of any component.
4.2.1.7 Alternative power supply for the electrical equipment used in the
operation of the system shall be provided.
4.2.2
Component Requirements
4.2.2.1 The sensing unit shall be certified to operate before the smoke density
within the sensing chamber exceeds 6.65% obscuration per metre.
4.2.2.2 Duplicate sample extraction fans shall be provided. The fans shall be of
sufficient capacity to operate with the normal conditions or ventilation in the
protected area and the connected pipe size shall be determined with consideration
of fan suction capacity and piping arrangement to satisfy the conditions specified in
4.2.5.2. Sampling pipes shall be a minimum of 12 mm internal diameter. The fan
suction capacity shall be adequate to ensure the response of the most remote area
within the required time criteria specified in 4.2.5.2. Means to monitor airflow shall
be provided in each sampling line.
150
Fire Protection
4.2.2.3 Control panel shall permit observation of smoke in the individual
sampling pipes.
4.2.2.4 Sampling pipes shall be so designed as to ensure that, as far as
practicable, equal quantities of airflow are extracted from each interconnected
accumulator.
4.2.2.5 Sampling pipes shall be provided with an arrangement for periodically
purging with compressed air.
4.2.2.6 Control panel for the smoke detection system shall be tested according to
standards EN 54-2 (1997), EN 54-4 (1997) and IEC 60092-504 (2001). Alternative
standards may also be used.
4.2.3
4.2.3.1
Installation Requirements
Smoke Accumulators
4.2.3.1.1 At least one smoke accumulator shall be located in every enclosed
space for which smoke detection is required. However, where a space is designed
to carry oil fuel or refrigerated cargo alternatively with cargoes for which a smoke
sampling system is required, means may be provided to isolate the smoke
accumulators in such compartments from the system. Such means are subject to
PRS’ approval in each particular case.
4.2.3.1.2 Smoke accumulators shall be located on the overhead or as high as
possible in the protected space, and shall be spaced so that no part of the overhead
deck area is more than 12 m measured horizontally from an accumulator. Where
such systems are used in spaces which may be mechanically ventilated, the
position of the smoke accumulators shall be considered having regard to the effects
of ventilation. At least one additional smoke accumulator shall be provided in the
upper part of each exhaust ventilation duct. An adequate filtering system shall be
fitted at the additional accumulator to avoid dust contamination.
4.2.3.1.3 Smoke accumulators shall be positioned where impact or physical
damage is unlikely to occur.
4.2.3.1.4 Sampling pipe networks shall be balanced to ensure compliance with
4.2.2.4. The number of accumulators connected to each sampling pipe shall ensure
compliance with 4.2.5.2.
4.2.3.1.5 Smoke accumulators from more than one enclosed space shall not be
connected to the same sampling pipe.
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
151
4.2.3.1.6 In cargo holds where non-gastight ‘‘tween deck panels” (movable
stowage platforms) are provided, smoke accumulators shall be located in both the
upper and lower parts of the holds.
4.2.3.2
Sampling Pipes
4.2.3.2.1 Sampling pipe arrangement shall be such that the location of the fire
can be readily identified.
4.2.3.2.2 Sampling pipes shall be self-draining and effectively protected from
impact or damage from cargo working.
4.2.4
4.2.4.1
System Control Requirements
Visual and Audible Fire Signals
4.2.4.1.1 Detection of smoke or other products of combustion shall initiate a visual
and audible signal at the control panel and indicating units.
4.2.4.1.2 Control panel shall be located on the navigation bridge or in the fire
control station. An indicating unit shall be located on the navigation bridge if the
control panel is located in the fire control station.
The location of control panel shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used
on Fire Control Plan.
4.2.4.1.3 Clear information shall be displayed on or adjacent to the control panel
and indicating units designating the spaces covered.
4.2.4.1.4 Power supplies necessary for the operation of the system shall be
monitored for loss of power. Any loss of power shall initiate a visual and audible
signal at the control panel and the navigating bridge which shall be distinct from
a signal indicating smoke detection.
4.2.4.1.5 Means to manually acknowledge all alarm and fault signals shall be
provided at the control panel. The audible alarm sounders on the control panel and
indicating units may be manually silenced. The control panel shall clearly
distinguish between normal, alarm, acknowledged alarm, fault and silenced
conditions.
4.2.4.1.6 The system shall be so arranged as to automatically reset to the normal
operating condition after alarm and fault conditions are cleared.
4.2.5
Testing
4.2.5.1 Suitable instructions and component spares shall be provided on board
for the system testing and maintenance.
152
Fire Protection
4.2.5.2 After installation, the system shall be functionally tested using smoke
generating machines or equivalent as a smoke source. An alarm shall be received at
the control unit in not more than 180 s for vehicle decks, and not more than 300 s
for container and general cargo holds, after smoke is introduced at the most remote
accumulator.
4.3
Pre-discharge Alarm of Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing System
4.3.1 Pre-discharge alarm system, required in 3.6.3, shall give visual and
audible warning of the release of fire-extinguishing medium into the protected.
space.
4.3.2 The sound alarm shall be audible throughout the protected space at the
maximum noise level in the space. The alarm signal shall be easily distinguished
from other alarm signals and shall comply with the requirements of the Code on
Alarms and Indicators – Res. A.1021 (26). The visual signal shall be red in
accordance with ISO 2412.
4.3.3 Conventional cargo spaces, as well as small spaces, such as small
compressor rooms, paint lockers, etc. with local fire-extinguishing system need not
be provided with pre-discharge alarm system.
4.3.4 The pre-discharge alarm system shall also comply with the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 7.6, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control
Systems.
4.4
4.4.1
Fixed Hydrocarbon Gas Detection Systems in Tanker Hull Spaces
General Requirements
4.4.1.1 The system shall comprise a central unit for gas measurement and
analysis and gas sampling pipes from all ballast tanks and void spaces of doublehull and double-bottom spaces adjacent to the cargo tanks, including the forepeak
tank and any other tanks and spaces under the bulkhead deck adjacent to cargo
tanks.
4.4.1.2 The system may be integrated with the cargo pump-room gas detection
system, provided that the spaces, referred to in 4.4.1.1, are sampled at the rate
required in 4.4.2.3.1. Continuous sampling from other spaces may also be
considered, provided the sampling rate is complied with.
4.4.1.3 The system shall be designed, constructed and tested in accordance with
the guidelines specified in MSC.1/Circ.1370.
Fire Signalling Systems and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection System
4.4.2
4.4.2.1
153
Component Requirements
Gas Sampling Lines
4.4.2.1.1 Common sampling lines to the detection equipment shall not be fitted,
except the lines serving each pair of sampling points as required in 4.4.2.1.3.
4.4.2.1.2 The materials of construction and the dimensions of gas sampling lines
shall be such as to prevent flow restriction. Where non-metallic materials are used,
they shall be electrically conductive. The gas sampling lines shall not be made of
aluminium.
4.4.2.1.3 Configuration of gas sampling lines shall be adapted to the design and
size of each space. Except as provided in 4.4.2.1.4 and 4.4.2.1.5, the sampling
system shall allow for a minimum of two hydrocarbon gas sampling points, one
located on the lower and one on the upper part of the space where sampling is
required. Where required, the upper gas sampling point shall not be located lower
than 1 m from the tank top. The position of the lower located gas sampling point
shall be above the height of the bottom shell-plating girder, however, at least 0.5 m
from the bottom of the tank and it shall be provided with means to be closed when
clogged. While positioning the fixed sampling points, due regard shall also be paid
to the density of vapours of the oil products intended to be transported and the
dilution from space purging or ventilation.
4.4.2.1.4 For ships with deadweight of less than 50,000 tonnes, installation of
one sampling location for each tank may be permitted for practical and/or
operational reasons.
4.4.2.1.5 For ballast tanks in the double-bottom, ballast tanks not intended to be
partially filled and void spaces, the upper gas sampling point is not required.
4.4.2.1.6 Means shall be provided to prevent gas sampling lines from clogging
when tanks are being ballasted by using compressed air flushing to clean the line
after switching from ballast to cargo loaded mode. The system shall have an alarm
to indicate if the gas sampling lines are clogged.
4.4.2.2
Gas Analysis Unit
4.4.2.2.1 Gas analysis unit shall be located in a safe space and may be located in
areas outside the ship's cargo area; for example, in the cargo control room and/or
navigation bridge in addition to the hydraulic room when mounted on the forward
bulkhead, provided the following requirements are fulfilled:
.1 sampling lines shall not run through gas-safe spaces, except where
permitted under .5;
.2 hydrocarbon gas sampling pipes shall be equipped with flame arresters.
Sample hydrocarbon gas shall be led to the atmosphere with outlets
154
Fire Protection
.3
.4
.5
4.4.2.3
arranged in a safe location, not close to a source of ignition and not close to
the accommodation area air intakes;
manual isolating valve, which shall be easily accessible for operation and
maintenance, shall be fitted in each of the sampling lines at the bulkhead on
the gas-safe side;
hydrocarbon gas detection equipment including sample piping, sample
pumps, solenoids, analysing units etc., shall be located in a reasonably gastight cabinet (e.g. fully enclosed steel cabinet with a door with gaskets)
which shall be monitored by its own sampling point. At a gas concentration
above 30% of the lower flammable limit inside the steel enclosure the
entire gas analysing unit shall be automatically shut down; and
where the enclosure cannot be arranged directly on the bulkhead, sample
pipes shall be of steel or other equivalent material and without detachable
connections, except for the connection points for isolating valves at the
bulkhead and analysing unit, and shall be routed on their shortest ways.
Gas Detection Equipment
4.4.2.3.1 Gas detection equipment shall be designed to sample and analyse from
each sampling line of each protected space, sequentially at intervals not exceeding
30 min.
4.4.2.3.2 Means shall be provided to enable measurements with portable
instruments, in case the fixed system is out of order or for system calibration. In
case the system is out of order, procedures shall be in place to continue to monitor
the atmosphere with portable instruments and to record the measurement results.
4.4.2.3.3 Audible and visual alarms shall be initiated in the cargo control room,
navigation bridge and at the analysing unit when the vapour concentration in
a particular space reaches a pre-set value, which shall not be higher than the
equivalent of 30% of the lower flammable limit (LFL).
4.4.2.3.4 Gas detection equipment shall be so designed that it may be readily
tested and calibrated.
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
5
155
FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT, ESCAPE EQUIPMENT,
SPARES AND TOOLS
5.1
5.1.1
Fire-Fighting Equipment and Escape Equipment
General Requirements
5.1.1.1 Fire-fighting equipment and escape equipment (hereinafter referred to as
equipment) shall comply with the requirements specified in the Rules for Statutory
Survey of Sea-going Ships, Part VIII – Fire-fighting Equipment and Escape
Equipment.
5.1.1.2 Equipment shall be located in easily accessible and visible places on the
ship and shall be fixed to bulkheads/linings/decks in a safe manner, allowing its
immediate use.
5.1.1.3 The location, on board the ship, of each equipment specified in the
present Chapter shall be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control
Plan. The plates shall be made of photoluminescent material complying with the
requirements specified in Res. A.760(18) or from other material and marked by
lighting supplied from the emergency source of power.
Additionally, such plates shall be used to mark the following components of the
fire-fighting appliances: manually operated call points, general alarm call points,
control panel, emergency sources of electric power (aggregate, accumulator
batteries), emergency switchboard, fire pumps, tanks/cylinders of gas fireextinguishing systems, air compressor for breathing apparatus, controls for: remote
operation of fixed fire-extinguishing systems, remote stopping of fuel and
lubricating oil pumps, remote operation of fire pumps, remote operation of bilge
pumps, closing of oil fuel/oil tank valves, remote stopping of fans and fire dampers
in ventilation ducts, remote closing of fire dampers, closing appliances for
ventilation openings in the spaces, as well as section valves and shut-off valves of
water and foam fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrants and fire hose boxes, as
specified in particular paragraphs of the present Part of the Rules.
5.1.1.4 The equipment shall be kept in good working condition and be available
for immediate use at all times whether at sea or in port and shall be used
exclusively for fire fighting, rescue operations and training purposes.
5.1.1.5 Spare equipment shall be stored in the fire-fighting equipment locker or
in other space specially designed for this purpose. It is recommended that there
should be two fire-fighting equipment lockers on the ship, one of them being
located within superstructure.
Each fire-fighting equipment locker shall be indicated, at access door, by a plate
with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
156
Fire Protection
5.1.1.6 Suitable space/stand for overhauling and maintenance of stored equipment
to ensure its readiness for immediate use shall be provided in the fire-fighting
equipment room.
5.1.1.7 A set consisting of crowbar and fire axe shall be located inside
accommodation spaces area, near exits.
5.1.1.8 Fire protection warning plates with inscriptions: DANGER and NO
SMOKING, written in English and in the working language of the ship shall be
provided on board. The plates of dimensions not less than 840 x 600 mm shall be
white with 20 mm borders. The letters shall be black and at least 120 mm in height.
5.1.1.9 Fire equipment protecting against the effect of fire, such as fire blankets,
protective clothing and gloves shall be supplied with asbestos free declaration.
5.1.2
Portable and Mobile Fire-Extinguishers
5.1.2.1 Powder or carbon dioxide portable fire-extinguishers shall have
a capacity of at least 5 kg; foam fire-extinguishers – a capacity of at least 9 l each.
The total mass of a portable fire-extinguisher shall not exceed 20 kg.
In spaces of small volumetric capacity, carbon dioxide portable fireextinguishers having a capacity less than 5 kg shall be applied, see 5.1.2.9.
Fire-extinguishers shall be of approved type, based on the guidelines specified
in Res. A.951(23).
Only refills approved for the fire-extinguisher in question shall be used for
recharging.
5.1.2.2 Fire-extinguishers with fire-extinguishing capability equivalent to that of
9 l foam fire-extinguisher may be considered as equivalent.
5.1.2.3 While selecting fire-extinguishers for particular spaces, a risk of the specific
group of fire shall be taken into account (see the definition of group of fires A, B, C, D,
F or K given in 1.2.17). Fire-extinguishers shall be used as follows:
.1 accommodation spaces – group A;
.2 service spaces:
– drying rooms, pantries containing cooking appliances – group A or B;
– lockers of 4 m2 deck area or above (mail and luggage rooms) – group B;
– galleys – group B, additionally group F or K;
.3 control stations – group A, with additional extinguishing medium for
electrical equipment fires;
.4 machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms – group B, with additional
extinguishing medium for electrical equipment fires;
.5 workshops – group A or B;
.6 ro-ro spaces, vehicle spaces and special category spaces - group B;
.7 cargo spaces – groups A, B, C or D, depending on the carried cargoes;
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
.8
.9
157
open decks – group B;
helideck – group B.
5.1.2.4 Fire-extinguishers containing an extinguishing medium which either by
itself or under expected conditions of use gives off toxic gases in such quantities as
to endanger persons or gives off gases which are harmful to the environment are
not permitted.
5.1.2.5 Portable fire-extinguishers shall be provided with devices or lead-sealed
safety pin to indicate whether they have been used.
5.1.2.6 Portable fire-extinguishers shall be situated ready for use at easily visible
places, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time in the event of fire, and
in such a way that their serviceability is not impaired by weather, vibration or other
external factors.
One of the portable fire-extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be
stowed near the entrance to that space.
It is recommended that the remaining portable fire-extinguishers in the public
spaces and workshops be located at or near the main entrances and exits.
5.1.2.7 In accommodation and service spaces, in machinery spaces of category A
and galleys, the minimum number of portable fire-extinguishers and their location
shall be such that no point in the space is more than 10 m walking distance from an
extinguisher.
5.1.2.8 CO2 fire-extinguishers shall not be placed in accommodation spaces or in
explosion threatened spaces.
5.1.2.9 In control stations and other spaces containing electrical or electronic
equipment or appliances necessary for the safety of the ship, portable fireextinguishers shall be provided whose extinguishing media are neither electrically
conductive nor harmful to the equipment and appliances.
Where portable CO2 fire-extinguishers are provided, the volume of any space
containing one or more extinguishers shall be such as to avoid the health risk, i.e.
limit the volumetric concentration of vapour that can occur due to the discharge to
not more than 5%. The volume of CO2 (at 100% concentration) shall be calculated
at 0.56 m3/kg. For instance, a portable CO2 fire-extinguisher of 5 kg capacity may
be applied in a space of net volumetric capacity more than 56 m3.
5.1.2.10 The requirements concerning the arrangement of fire-extinguishers in
ship spaces are specified in the relevant provisions of Part V concerning particular
spaces; these requirements are listed in Table 5.1.6-1 and Table 5.1.6-2.
158
Fire Protection
5.1.2.11 Mobile fire-extinguisher is a wheeled extinguisher with at least 20 kg
extinguishing media capacity, provided with an actuating device containing propellant
gas which allows immediate and independent fire-extinguishing operation.
In ships of less than 500 gross tonnage, mobile fire-extinguishers may be –
subject to PRS’ approval – used as an alternative fire arrangement for fireextinguishing equipment required in particular chapters of Part V.
5.1.2.12
Spare Charges
In cargo ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and in passenger ships, spare
charges shall be provided for 100% of the first 10 extinguishers and 50% of the
remaining fire-extinguishers capable of being recharged on board. However, not
more than 60 total spare charges are required.
For fire-extinguishers which cannot be recharged on board, an additional
portable fire-extinguishers of the same quantity, type, capacity and number shall be
provided instead of spare charges.
Spare charges shall be stored in the fire-fighting equipment locker or in other
designated space.
5.1.3
Portable Foam Applicator Unit
5.1.3.1 Portable foam applicator unit shall consist of a foam nozzle/branch pipe,
either of a self-inducing type or in combination with a separate inductor, capable of
being connected to the fire main by a fire hose, a portable tank containing at least 20 l
of foam concentrate and at least one foam concentrate spare tank of the same capacity.
5.1.3.2 The nozzle/branch pipe and inductor shall be capable of producing
effective foam suitable for extinguishing an oil fire, at a foam solution rate of at
least 200 l/min at the nominal pressure fire main.
5.1.3.3 Portable foam applicator unit shall be so designed as to withstand
clogging, ambient temperature changes, vibration, humidity, shock, impact and
corrosion normally encountered on ships.
5.1.3.4 Foam concentrate shall be of an approved type. Foam concentrate is
subject to type approval tests to be performed in accordance with the guidelines
specified in MSC.1/Circ.1312/Corr.1.
5.1.3.5 The values of the foam expansion and drainage time of the foam
produced by the portable foam applicator unit shall not differ by more than ± 10%
of those determined in the circular, referred to above.
5.1.4
Fire-Fighter’s Outfit
5.1.4.1 Ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international
voyages shall carry at least two fire-fighter’s outfits.
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
159
Cargo ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards shall carry at least one firefighter’s outfit, see 6.21.6.2.
5.1.4.2 Fire-fighter’s outfit shall consist of the following:
.1 personal equipment, comprising:
.1 protective clothing made of material protecting the skin from the heat,
radiating from the fire and from burns and scalding by flame or steam.
The outer surface of the protective clothing shall be water-resistant;
.2 fire fighter's gloves;
.3 fire fighter's boots;
.4 fire-fighter’s helmet;
.5 electric safety lamp of approved type, with a minimum burning period
of 3 h. Electric safety lamps used on tankers, as well as on other ships
in hazardous areas shall be of an explosion-proof type, in accordance
with Publication IEC 60079;
.6 fireman's belt with snap fastener and fireman's axe in a sheath. The
handle of the axe shall be provided with high-voltage insulation;
.2 breathing apparatus, which shall be a self-contained compressed-airoperated breathing apparatus, the volume of air in the cylinders being at
least 1200 l or other self-contained breathing apparatus capable of
functioning for at least 30 min. The breathing apparatus shall be fitted with
an audible and visual alarm or other device which will alert the user before
the volume of the air in the cylinder has been reduced to no less than 200 l.
All air cylinders shall be fitted with coupling of the same type to make
them interchangeable.
5.1.4.3 Two spare charges shall be provided for each required breathing
apparatus. Ships equipped with suitably located means/compressors for fully
recharging the air cylinders free from contamination (fitted with filters preventing
contamination) need to carry only one spare charge for each breathing apparatus.
Means/compressors for recharging the air cylinder, as well as spare charges for
breathing apparatus shall be kept in the space in which breathing apparatus are located.
The location of means/compressor for recharging the air cylinders shall be
indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
5.1.4.4 For each breathing apparatus, a fireproof lifeline at least 30 m in length
shall be provided. The lifeline shall be subjected to a strength test by static load of
3.5 kN for 5 min. The lifeline shall be capable of being attached by means of
snaphook to the harness of the apparatus or to a separate belt in order to prevent the
breathing apparatus from becoming detached when the lifeline is operated.
5.1.4.5 Fire-fighter’s outfits and sets of personal equipment shall be kept ready
for use in an easily accessible location that is permanently and clearly marked.
160
Fire Protection
Where more than one fire-fighter’s outfit or more than one set of personal
equipment are carried, they shall be stored in widely separated positions.
One set of fire-fighter’s outfit shall be available on the navigation bridge
or in its vicinity.
5.1.5
Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
5.1.5.1 Emergency escape breathing device is a supplied air or oxygen device
only used for escape from a compartment that has a hazardous atmosphere,
dangerous to life and health.
The emergency escape breathing device shall not be used for fighting fires,
entering oxygen deficient spaces or tanks or worn by fire-fighters.
5.1.5.2 Emergency escape breathing device shall consist of a full face piece or
a hood and oxygen or air cylinder.
5.1.5.3 Full face piece shall form a complete seal around the eyes, nose and mouth.
5.1.5.4 Hood shall completely cover the head, neck and may cover portions
of the shoulders.
5.1.5.5 Hood and a full face piece shall be made of flame-resistant materials
and include a clear window for viewing.
5.1.5.6 Emergency escape breathing device shall have a service duration of at
least 10 min.
5.1.5.7 Emergency escape breathing device shall be capable of being carried handsfree. When stored, the device shall be suitably protected from the environment.
5.1.5.8 Emergency escape breathing devices shall be manufactured and marked
in accordance with the requirements stated in Chapter 2 of the FSS Code and the
guidelines specified in MSC/Circ.849.
5.1.5.9 In all ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international
voyages, there shall be carried at least two emergency escape breathing devices on
escape routes within accommodation spaces (see 2.3.2.7), at least two emergency
escape breathing devices in machinery spaces of category A (see 2.3.2.4), at least
two spare devices and, for the purposes of drills, at least one emergency escape
breathing device located in a fire-fighting equipment locker.
For the arrangement of emergency escape breathing devices in passenger ships,
see 6.1.6.12.
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
5.1.6
161
Ship Fire-Fighting Equipment and Emergency Escape Equipment
5.1.6.1 The list of requirements for fire-fighting equipment and emergency
escape equipment on ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards is given in Table
5.1.6-1.
5.1.6.2 The list of minimum requirements for fire-fighting equipment and
emergency escape equipment on ships of less than 500 gross tonnage is given in
Table 5.1.6-2. The equipment arrangement shall be in accordance with the
requirements given in Table 5.1.6-1.
Table 5.1.6-1
Fire-fighting equipment for ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards
Item
Equipment
Number and arrangement
1
2
3
1
Fire hoses complete with fittings in
accordance with the requirements
specified in 3.2.7:
1. for the water fire main system
2. for the foam fire-extinguishing
system
2
3
Fire hose nozzles:
1. water dual-purpose type,
producing solid and dispersed
water jet
2. water fog applicators
with extensions
Portable foam applicator complying
with the requirements specified in
5.1.3 with a spare foam concentrate
container
a) equal to the number of the ship's hydrant valves;
b) for ships carrying dangerous goods, additionally 3
items;
c) on helideck, additionally 2 items.
a) equal to the number of the ship's hydrants intended
for foam supplying. Water hoses mentioned in 1.1,
may be included in this number, provided that
their diameter is adequate for foam supply.
– equal to the number of the ship's hydrant valves.
a)for passenger ships carrying more than 36
passengers:
– in each machinery space of category A – 3 items;
– for each 2 breathing apparatus – 1 item;
– in each special category space – 3 items;
b) in each ro-ro cargo space – 3 items.
a) in machinery spaces containing oil-fired boilers
– 1 set;
b) in machinery spaces containing internal
combustion engines
– 1 set;
c) in special category spaces
– 1 set, not fewer, however, than 2 sets for a ship,
d) in ro-ro cargo spaces
– 1 set, not fewer, however, than 2 sets for a ship.
162
Fire Protection
1
4
2
Mobile fire-extinguisher:
– 135 l or equivalent foam unit
– 45 l or equivalent foam unit
– 50 kg or equivalent dry powder unit
– 45 kg or equivalent carbon dioxide
unit
5
9 l foam fire-extinguishers
or equivalent fire-extinguishers
3
a) in machinery spaces containing oil fired boilers
or oil fuel units
– one 135 l foam unit or equivalent dry powder
unit with reeled hose;
b) in machinery spaces containing internal
combustion engines – one 45 l foam unit or
equivalent dry powder unit.
The unit is not required where the machinery
space is fitted with a local carbon dioxide
extinguishing system with hose and nozzle;
c) in machinery spaces containing steam turbines or
shielded steam turbines:
– 45 l foam units or equivalent dry powder units
in the number sufficient to supply extinguishing
medium to each piece of equipment or firethreatened area.
The units are not required where the machinery
space is fitted with a fixed fire extinguishing
system;
d) in machinery space with main electric propulsion
motors – one 50 kg dry powder unit or one 45 kg
carbon dioxide unit;
e) helideck – two 50 kg dry powder units,
f) on crude oil carriers in rooms containing crude
oil-fired boilers or cargo slop fired boilers:
– one 135 l foam unit or one equivalent dry
powder unit.
The units are not required where the machinery
space is fitted with the foam fire-extinguishing
system, including fixed generators of foam, ensuring
supply of foam to front walls of boilers and to drip
trays under the burners.
a) accommodation and service spaces:
– in corridors – the distance to a fire-extinguisher
shall not exceed 25 m on each deck and in each
main vertical zone;
– one fire-extinguisher per each space of the total
surface area not exceeding 250 m2 or in the
other part of deck containing public spaces;
– one fire-extinguisher in the sick-bay;
– one fire-extinguisher in the drying room and
in the pantry containing cooking appliances;
b) control stations:
– two fire-extinguishers in the wheelhouse
of the total surface area 50 m2 or more;
– one fire-extinguisher in the wheelhouse
of the total surface area less than 50 m2;
– one fire-extinguisher in a control station
other than the wheelhouse;
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
1
2
163
3
– one fire-extinguisher on the navigation bridge;
– one fire-extinguisher in the emergency
generator space;
– one fire-extinguisher in the space of emergency
fire pump driven by internal combustion
engine;
c) machinery spaces containing oil fuel-fired boilers:
– two fire-extinguishers in way of furnaces and
in each space containing oil fuel lines, and
additionally one fire-extinguisher per each
furnace instead of the sand container;
d) machinery spaces with internal combustion engines:
– one fire-extinguisher at each level of engine
room at port and starboard side and additional
extinguishers so positioned that the distance to
the fire-extinguisher does not exceed 10 m and
two foam fire-extinguishers are required at the
floor level;
e) machinery spaces with turbines or shielded steam
engines:
– one fire-extinguisher at each level of engine
room at port and starboard side and additional
extinguishers so positioned that the distance to
the fire-extinguisher does not exceed 10 m and
two foam fire-extinguishers are required at the
floor level;
f) spaces containing oil fuel firing
inert gas generators:
– two fire-extinguishers;
g) spaces containing oil fuel centrifuge:
– one fire extinguisher;
h) incinerating plant spaces:
– one fire-extinguisher;
i) cargo pump-rooms in oil tankers, fuel and liquid
cargo stations, as well as storage spaces of hoses
for flammable liquids:
– two fire-extinguishers in the cargo pump room;
– one fire-extinguisher per each 30 m2 of space
floor area;
k) processing spaces:
– one fire-extinguisher per each processing space
or per each 250 m2 of such space;
l) store-rooms of flammable paints and liquids:
– one fire-extinguisher;
m) workshops:
– one fire-extinguisher;
n) steering gear space:
– one fire-extinguisher;
o) special category spaces and ro-ro cargo spaces:
164
1
6
7
8
Fire Protection
2
3
– fire-extinguishers at each side spaced by 20 m
from each other;
p) open deck on tankers:
– two fire-extinguishers;
q) open deck, open ro-ro spaces or open vehicle
spaces – suitable number of fire-extinguishers
Fire-extinguishers
Ships having galleys fitted with deep-fat cooking
for fighting group F or K fires
appliances:
(burning edible oil)
– one fire-extinguisher in way of deep-fat
cooking appliance.
12 kg dry powder fire-extinguishers
a) ro-ro cargo spaces:
– one fire-extinguisher at each side of each deck
spaced by 20 m from each other;
b) cargo spaces for the carriage of dangerous
cargoes:
– one or two fire-extinguishers of the total
content of 12 kg of dry powder.
5 kg carbon dioxide fire-extinguishers a) machinery spaces with main internal combustion
or equivalent fire-extinguishers,
engines:
– one fire-extinguisher for engine rooms with
intended for extinction of fire in
equipment under voltage
engines of the total output less than 750 kW;
– two fire-extinguishers for engine rooms with
engines of the total output of 750 kW and over;
– two fire-extinguishers in way of each main
distribution board;
b) machinery spaces with main propulsion electric
motors:
– two fire-extinguishers per each motor;
c) machinery spaces with auxiliary power generating
sets:
– one fire-extinguisher at each free standing unit
or per each two units installed side-by-side;
d) ECR:
– one fire-extinguisher and additionally
one fire-extinguisher if the main distribution
board is located in the ECR;
e) machinery spaces with electric motors:
– one fire-extinguisher for spaces of floor area
less than 30 m2;
– two fire-extinguishers for spaces of floor area
exceeding 30 m2;
f) switchboard space in the area of accommodation
spaces:
– one fire extinguisher in the adjacent corridor;
g) contactor spaces:
– one fire extinguisher in each space;
h) refrigerating plant spaces, spaces of airconditioning units and fans where electric
equipment is installed:
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
1
2
165
3
– one fire-extinguisher for spaces of floor space
less than 30 m2;
i) steering gear and thruster spaces:
– one fire-extinguisher in each space;
9
Fire-fighter’s outfit complying
with the requirements specified
in 5.1.4
10
Fire blanket
11
Crowbar and fire axe
j) navigation bridge, radio stations and chartrooms:
– one fire-extinguisher in each space or in
corridor near the entrance;
k) gyrocompass space:
– one fire-extinguisher in each space;
l) sick-bay, telephone exchange:
– one fire-extinguisher in each space;
m) galley:
– one fire-extinguisher in each space;
n) helideck
– four fire-extinguishers;
o) helicopter hangar:
– one fire-extinguisher.
p) in the proximity of electric panels:
– one fire-extinguisher for every panel having
a power of 20 KW or more.
a) all ships:
– two sets;
b) oil tankers:
– additionally two sets;
c) all passenger ships:
– additionally, two sets of fire-fighter’s outfit
and two sets of personal equipment per each 80
m of length of accommodation and service
spaces on the deck with greatest total length of
such spaces;
d) passenger ships carrying more than 36
passengers:
– additionally, two sets per each main vertical
zone;
e) ships with helideck:
– additionally two sets;
f) ships carrying dangerous goods:
– additionally two breathing apparatus.
a) navigation bridge – 1 item;
b) machinery spaces with engines of the total output:
– less than 400 kW – 1 item;
– 401 ÷ 800 kW – 2 items;
– more than 800 kW – 3 items;
c) helideck – 1 item;
d) a separate oil-fired boiler-room – 1 item;
e) each motor rescue boat – 1 item.
1 set – at each accommodation spaces deck.
166
1
12
13
14
Fire Protection
2
Portable international shore
connection for the supply of water to
the water fire main system
Portable exhaust fan
Portable instrument for measuring
concentration of flammable vapours,
together with a set of spare parts and
calibration instrument.
Portable instrument for measuring
concentration of oxygen
15
Exhaust gas analyser
16
17
18
Light fire hook
Salvage set, see paragraph 7.1.2.6
Carbon dioxide detector
19
20
Fire protection information board
Chemicals resisting clothing
21
Emergency escape breathing
device in accordance
with the requirements
of 5.1.5
3
1 item – required for all ships of gross tonnage 500
and more engaged on international voyages.
one set – for gas removal from a space protected by
fixed carbon dioxide system, for ships without
mechanical ventilation in protected spaces
2 items – in tankers carrying cargoes with ignition
temperature not exceeding 60°C.
2 items – in tankers carrying cargoes with ignition
temperature not exceeding 60°C.
1 instrument – for ships intended for the carriage
of mechanical vehicles with fuel in their tanks.
1 item – at helideck.
1 set – at helideck.
For ships fitted with fixed carbon dioxide fireextinguishing systems:
1 carbon dioxide detector or portable carbon dioxide
analyser;
10 tube-type carbon dioxide detectors.
CO2 detector is not required on ships provided with
portable instrument for measuring concentration of
oxygen.
2 boards per ship.
For ships carrying dangerous goods – 4 sets.
a) all cargo ships of gross tonnage 500 and more
engaged on international voyages – accommodation
spaces:
– 2 items located along escape routes;
– 1 item – spare device and 1 item – intended for
drills, stored in fire-fighting equipment room;
b) all ships of gross tonnage 500 and more, and all
passenger ships engaged on international voyages –
machinery spaces of category A:
– 2 items located along escape routes, additionally
1 item at each level of platform or deck;
– additionally 1 item in ECR, if ECR is a separate
space.
– additionally 1 item in way of workshops being
separate spaces.
c) passenger ships – accommodation spaces:
– 2 items in each main vertical zone;
– 1 item – spare device and 1 item – intended for
drills, stored in fire-fighting equipment room;
d) passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers:
– additionally 2 items in each main vertical zone.
167
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
10
11
12
1)
2)
5
3
–
–
5
3
1
5
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
–
–
–
–
2
4
1
3
–
–
3
1
–
Fire hose, dual-purpose nozzle
5
5
45 l mobile foam fire
extinguisher
3
5
6
Fire gloves
6
7
8
9
5
–
–
Fire-fighter's axe and crowbar
5
4
5
Fire-fighter's outfit
3
4
3
5
Fire blanket
2
2
Cargo ship
Rescue ship, research vessel,
surveying vessel
Dredger
Pilot cutter, research inspector,
surveying vessel, tug with main
propulsion rating less than
368 kW
Tug and fire-fighting ship
with main propulsion rating
from 368 kW to 769 kW
Fishing vessel
Non-propelled barge
Propelled barge
Diver’s non-propelled barge,
floating workshop
Non-propelled hopper barge
Propelled hopper barge,
floating crane
House boat
Number equal to the number of hydrants installed on
shipboard
1
1
Watercraft type
Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher
Item
9 l foam fire extinguisher or
equivalent
Table 5.1.6-2
Fire-fighting equipment for ships less than 500 1) gross tonnage
7
2
8
12)
9
1
10
1
2
–
1
1
2
1
–
–
1
1
1
1
2
12)
1
1
2
+
1
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
–
–
–
1
–
1
1
–
1
1
Unless expressly provided otherwise by the flag State Administration.
Applies to ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards.
5.2
5.2.1
Spare Parts and Tools
General Requirements
5.2.1.1 Spares and tools for fire-extinguishing systems shall be kept in a firefighting equipment locker or other space provided for this purpose, e.g. fireextinguishing station.
168
Fire Protection
5.2.1.2 In spaces where fire-extinguishing systems pumps, compressors and
motors are installed, a place for keeping the spares and tools intended for
maintenance of the systems shall be provided.
5.2.1.3
5.2.2
Spare parts shall be properly marked.
Recommended Numbers of Spares and Tools
Spare parts for fixed fire-extinguishing systems and tools for assembly shall be
stored on board. The recommended numbers of spares and tools are specified
in Table 5.2.2, recommendations of the systems components manufacturers shall
also be taken into account.
Table 5.2.2
Required number of spares and tools
Item
1
1
Name of spare part or tool
2
Water fire main system:
1. fire hoses of each length and diameter
used aboard the ship, fitted complete
with couplings and hose nozzle;
2. reducers with couplings for each size
fitted (if the ship is provided with
hydrants of various diameters);
3. hose couplings – for ships of less than
4000 gross tonnage;
4. hose couplings – for ships of 4000 gross
tonnage and upwards;
5. rubber joints for couplings, hose nozzles,
etc.;
6. hose clamps;
2
7. wrenches for hose couplings;
8. complete fire hydrant valves of each size
fitted.
Automatic sprinkler system:
1. sprinkler heads, complete;
2. wrenches for sprinkler heads (where
heads are fitted by means of special
wrenches);
3. parts for section valve.
3
Water-spraying system and water-based
system :
1. spraying nozzles used in the system;
2. wrenches for spraying nozzles.
Number required per ship
3
– for ships of 1000 gross tonnage and
upwards – 5 items;
– for ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage –
3 items
2 items
2 items (for each diameter)
4 items (for each diameter)
5% of the total number, however no fewer
than 10 items
4 items (for ships of less than 300 gross
tonnage – 2 items)
2 items
2 items per each size
total number of heads:
< 300
300 ÷ 1000
> 1000
1 item per section
6
12
24
1 set, in accordance with delivery specification
5% of the total number of spraying nozzles
fitted
1 item
Fire-fighting Equipment, Escape Equipment, Spares and Tools
1
4
5
6
7
8
2
Foam fire-extinguishing system:
1. hydrant valves of each type and size
fitted;
2. air-foam nozzle;
3. isolating diaphragms;
4. disks for inserting diaphragms;
5. dosing device diaphragm
Carbon dioxide system:
1. adjustable spanner;
2. plugs for pipes leading from cylinder
valves to manifolds;
3. thrust bushes and nuts for protective
devices;
4. protective caps for cylinders;
5. non-return valves;
6. discharge nozzles of each type and size
fitted.
Inert gas system:
1. control valve (sluice valve) for admitting
gas into spaces protected;
2. parts for automatic control.
Dry powder system:
1. parts of nozzles and monitors means of
control;
2. nozzles of each type and size fitted;
3. special wrenches for the assembly of
valves, nozzles, monitors, spraying
nozzles.
Other gas fire-extinguishing systems:
1. plugs for pipes leading from cylinder
valves to manifolds;
2. thrust bushes and nuts for protective
devices;
3. protective caps for cylinders,
4. non-return valves;
3
1 item
1 item
200% of the number of diaphragms fitted
10% of the total number of those fitted,
no fewer, however, than 2 items
1 item.
1 item
25% of the number of cylinders
10% of the number of cylinders
100% of the number of cylinders
5% of the number of cylinders,
no fewer, however, than 1 item
2 items
1 item
in accordance with delivery specification
1 set per each part
1÷2 items
1 set
25% of the number of cylinders
10% of the number of cylinders
100% of the number of cylinders
5% of the number of cylinders,
no fewer, however, than 1 item
1 set
2 items.
5. O-rings;
6. discharge nozzles of each type and size
fitted;
7. pressure-reducing valves (or orifice
plates), for the number of items installed:
– less than 50 items
1 item
– 51 ÷ 100 items
2 items
– above 100 items
3 items
169
170
1
9
10
Fire Protection
2
8. Pressure gauges, for the number of
cylinders installed:
– less than 50 items
– 51 ÷ 100 items
– above 100 items
General requirements for all systems:
1. instruments and gauges, such as pressure
gauges and thermometers of each type
fitted in the systems;
2. sufficient quantity of packing material
for onboard repairs;
3. fuses for automatic closing fire doors and
dampers;
4. spares for pumps, fans, compressors and
motors serving fire-extinguishing
systems;
5. spare parts and tools for remote control
equipment of fire-extinguishing systems;
6. spare parts and tools for fire alarm
systems;
7. flame arresters (inserts) of each type and
size;
8. spare parts for electrical equipment of
fire-extinguishing systems.
Fire detection and fire alarm system:
– fire detectors.
3
1 items
2 items
3 items
1 item of each type
1 set
100% of automatic fire doors and dampers
closing upon activation of the fuses
in accordance with the requirements
specified in Annex to Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants
in accordance with technical specification
approved by PRS in each particular case
in accordance with technical specification
approved by PRS in each particular case
1÷2 sets
in accordance with the requirements
specified in Chapter 23 of Part VIII –
Electrical Installations and Control Systems
5% of the total of each type of fire detectors
used (no fewer, however, than 2 items).
Additional Requirements
6
171
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The requirements specified in Chapter 6 apply to ships which are to be assigned
additional marks in the symbol of class. These requirements shall be considered as
supplementary to those specified in Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 which constitute the
basic requirements for all types of ships.
6.1
Passenger Ships – Mark: PASSENGER SHIP
The requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.1 apply to all passenger ships,
as well as to those ships engaged on domestic voyages for which additional mark
Class A, Class B, Class C or Class D in the symbol of class is requested to be
affixed, unless stated otherwise in sub-chapter 6.20 (for class definition, see Part I –
Classification Regulations).
6.1.1
Ship Construction
6.1.1.1
General Requirements
6.1.1.1.1 The construction of ceilings and linings shall be such as to make it
possible, without impairing the efficiency of the fire protection, for the fire patrols
to detect any smoke originating in concealed and inaccessible places, except where
there is no risk of fire originating in such places. To comply with this requirement,
open-work linings or inspection hatches may be used.
6.1.1.1.2 The construction of light weight fire divisions (honeycomb type) made
of steel may be used as non load-bearing internal A Class divisions in
accommodation and services spaces, provided they have successfully passed the
relevant standard fire test according to the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3. These
constructions shall not be used as an integral part of main fire zone bulkheads and
stairway enclosures.
6.1.1.1.3 On passenger ships with cabin balconies of the accommodation spaces,
non-load bearing partial bulkheads which separate adjacent balconies shall be
capable of being opened by the crew from each side for the purpose of fighting
fires.
6.1.1.2
6.1.1.2.1
Materials for Room Furnishing
Divisions 1, Ceilings and Linings
All linings, grounds, draught stops and ceilings shall be of non-combustible
materials except in cargo spaces, mail rooms, baggage rooms, saunas or
refrigerated compartments of service spaces.
1)
Interpretations regarding the use of materials for the construction of bulkheads in accommodation
spaces on passenger ships are given in MSC/Circ.1120 for SOLAS regulations II-2/5.3 and II-2/6.2.
172
Fire Protection
Partial bulkheads or decks used to subdivide a space for utility or artistic
treatment shall also be of non-combustible materials.
On passenger ships with cabin balconies of the accommodation spaces, linings,
ceilings and partial bulkheads or decks used to screen or to separate adjacent cabin
balconies shall be of non-combustible materials.
6.1.1.2.2
Use of Combustible Materials
A, B or C Class divisions in accommodation and service spaces which are faced
with combustible materials, facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers shall fulfil
the requirements specified in 2.1.2.2.2 to 2.1.2.2.6 and in 6.1.1.2.3. Traditional
wooden benches and wooden linings on bulkheads and ceilings, however, are
permitted in saunas and such materials need not be subject to the calculations of the
gross calorific value and total volume of the combustible materials required in
2.1.2.2.2 and 2.1.2.2.3.
Materials used for facing of balconies in the accommodation spaces need not be
subject to the calculations of the total volume of the combustible materials required
in 2.1.2.2.3.
6.1.1.2.3
Materials for Exposed Surfaces
Materials used for facing the exposed surfaces, specified in 2.1.2.2.4, shall have
low flame-spread characteristics. Exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway
enclosures and of bulkhead and ceiling linings in accommodation and service
spaces (except saunas), as well as control stations shall also have low flame-spread
characteristics.
On passenger ships with cabin balconies of the accommodation spaces, exposed
surfaces of cabin balconies, except for natural hard wood decking systems shall
have low flame-spread characteristics.
6.1.1.2.4
Maximum Total Mass of Combustible Materials in Accommodation
Spaces
For ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, it is recommended, in
accordance with the guidelines specified in MSC/Circ.1003, that the total mass of
combustible materials per unit area in the space should not exceed the values
required for cargo ships, as set forth in 2.1.2.2.7.
For ships carrying more than 36 passengers, it is recommended that the total
mass of combustible materials per unit area in the space should not exceed the
following values:
– 5 kg/m2 – for corridors, stairways and control stations;
– 15 kg/m2 – for accommodation spaces of low fire risk;
– 35 kg/m2 – for accommodation spaces of moderate and high fire risk;
– 45 kg/m2 – for service spaces bounded by A Class divisions.
Additional Requirements
6.1.1.2.5
173
Paints, Varnishes and Other Finishes
On passenger ships with cabin balconies of the accommodation spaces, paints,
varnishes and other finishes used on exposed interior surfaces shall not be capable
of producing excessive quantities of smoke and toxic products, this being
confirmed in accordance with the Fire Test Procedure Code, Annex 1, Part 2.
6.1.1.2.6
Primary Deck Coverings
On passenger ships with cabin balconies of the accommodation spaces, primary
deck coverings shall be made of the approved material which will not readily ignite,
will not give rise to smoke or toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures,
this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedure Code, Annex 1,
Part 6.
6.1.1.2.7
Furniture in Stairway Enclosures
Furniture in stairway enclosures shall be limited to seating. It shall be fixed,
limited to six seats on each deck in each stairway enclosure, made of materials
resistant to the ignition and propagation of flame, determined in accordance with the
FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 8, and shall not restrict passenger escape routes. Additional
seating is permitted in the main reception area within a stairway enclosure if it is
fixed, non-combustible and does not restrict the passenger escape routes.
Furniture shall not be permitted in passenger and crew corridors forming escape
routes in cabin areas. However, lockers of non-combustible materials, providing
storage for non-hazardous safety equipment may be used.
Drinking water dispensers and ice cube machines are permitted in corridors
provided they are fixed and do not restrict the width of the escape routes.
This also applies to decorative flower or plant arrangements, statues or other
objects of art such as paintings and tapestries in corridors and stairways.
6.1.1.2.8
Furniture and Furnishings on Cabin Balconies of Passenger Ships
Furniture and furnishings on cabin balconies, except for natural hard wood
decking systems and exposed surfaces of divisions and linings shall fulfil the
requirements for the spaces with furniture and furnishings of low fire risk specified
in the definition 1.2.57. If this cannot be fulfilled, such balconies shall be protected
by a fixed fire detection and fire alarm and fixed pressure water-spraying systems –
see 6.1.11.3.
6.1.1.3
Means of Control in Machinery Spaces of Category A
6.1.1.3.1 Means of control shall be provided for:
.1 opening and closure of skylights, closure of openings in funnels which
normally allow exhaust ventilation and closure of ventilator dampers;
.2 stopping ventilating fans of machinery space ventilating system,
174
Fire Protection
.3
.4
.5
.6
stopping forced and induced draught fans, oil fuel transfer pumps,
oil fuel unit pumps, lubricating oil service pumps, thermal oil circulating
pumps and oil separators;
closing oil fuel pipes’ valves for storage, settling and daily service tanks
situated in the machinery space above the double bottom;
switching on ventilating fans intended for release of smoke from
machinery space;
closing power-operated doors or actuating release mechanism on doors
other than power-operated watertight doors.
6.1.1.3.2 Means of control, specified in 6.1.1.3.1, shall be located outside
machinery spaces, where they will not be cut off in the event of fire in the spaces
they serve. Such controls and the controls for any required fire-extinguishing
system shall be situated at one control position or grouped in as few positions as
possible. Such positions shall have a safe access from the open deck.
6.1.1.3.3 The location of control devices in machinery spaces of category A shall
be indicated by a plate with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
6.1.1.4
Paints and Flammable Liquids Store-Rooms
On passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, store-rooms for paints and
flammable liquids shall be classified in category (14) – other space where flammable
liquids are stored listed in 6.1.4. Divisions and decks shall be of Class A and of fire
integrity required for fire divisions depending on the category of the adjacent spaces.
Such store-rooms shall not be located in way of accommodation spaces.
6.1.1.5
Galleys
Main galleys shall be classified as follows:
– on passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers – in category (12), i.e.
machinery spaces and main galleys, listed in 6.1.4;
– on passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers – in category (9), i.e.
service spaces of greater fire risk, listed in 6.1.5.
Divisions and deck forming boundaries of such galleys shall be constructed
from steel and of Class A and of fire integrity required for fire divisions depending
on the category of the adjacent spaces in accordance with tables included
in sub-chapters 6.1.4 and 6.1.5.
Lining of the ceiling in galleys shall be constructed from a non-combustible
material and shall be readily removable for cleaning the covered spaces where dust
and grease may accumulate.
6.1.1.6
Open Deck Areas
On passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the guidelines for
evaluation of fire risk of external areas, contained in the Annex to IMO
Additional Requirements
175
MSC.1/Circ.1274, shall be taken into consideration during the design of open deck
areas (promenades, passenger areas for recreation and rest).
6.1.1.7
Construction and Arrangement of Saunas
6.1.1.7.1 The perimeter of the sauna shall be of A Class boundaries and may
include changing rooms, showers and toilets. The sauna shall be insulated to A-60
standard against other spaces except those inside of the perimeter and spaces of
categories (5), (9) and (10), specified in 6.1.4.2.
6.1.1.7.2 Bathrooms with direct access to saunas may be considered as part of
them. In such cases, the door between sauna and the bathroom need not comply
with fire safety requirements.
6.1.1.7.3 The traditional wooden lining on the bulkheads and ceiling are
permitted in the sauna. The ceiling above the oven shall be lined with a noncombustible plate with an air gap of at least 30 mm. The distance from the hot
surfaces to combustible materials shall be at least 500 mm or the combustible
materials shall be protected (e.g. non-combustible plate with an air gap of at least
30 mm).
6.1.1.7.4
The traditional wooden benches are permitted to be used in the sauna.
6.1.1.7.5
The sauna door shall open outwards by pushing.
6.1.1.7.6
Electrically heated ovens shall be provided with a timer.
6.1.2
Main Vertical Zones and Horizontal Zones
6.1.2.1 On passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the hull,
superstructures and deckhouses shall be subdivided into main vertical zones by A-60
Class divisions. Steps and recesses shall be kept to a minimum, but where they are
necessary, they shall also be A-60 Class divisions.
Where at one side of the main vertical zone division, there are spaces of
category (5), (9) or (10) – listed in 6.1.4 – the fire integrity standard of the division
may be reduced to A-0.
Fire integrity standard of the main vertical zone division may be also reduced
to A-0 where oil fuel tanks are installed at both sides of the division.
6.1.2.2 On ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the hull, superstructures
and deckhouses in way of accommodation and service spaces shall be subdivided
into main vertical zones by A Class divisions. These divisions shall have fire
integrity in accordance with Tables 6.1.5-1 and 6.1.5-2.
176
Fire Protection
6.1.2.3 The main vertical zone divisions above the bulkhead deck shall be in line,
as far as practicable with watertight subdivision bulkheads situated immediately
below the bulkhead deck.
The length and width of the main fire division shall generally not exceed 40 m.
6.1.2.4 The length and breadth of the main vertical zones may be increased to
maximum 48 m so that the boundaries of the main vertical zones are in line with
watertight bulkheads or that large public spaces are situated in a single zone over
its whole length, provided that the total surface area of the main vertical zone on
any deck does not exceed 1600 m2. The length or width of the main vertical zone is
the maximum distance between the furthermost points forming the division.
6.1.2.5 If a stairway serves two main vertical zones, the maximum length of one
main vertical zone shall be measured from the far side of the main vertical zone
stairway enclosure. In that case, all boundaries of the stairway enclosure shall be
insulated as main vertical zone bulkheads and access doors leading into the
stairway shall be provided from each vertical zone. The stairway, however, need
not be included in calculating the size of the main vertical zone if it is treated as its
own main vertical zone 1).
6.1.2.6 The number of main zone divisions of 48 m maximum length is not
limited as long as they comply with all the applicable requirements.
6.1.2.7 Main vertical zone divisions shall extend from the outer plating of one
side to the outer plating of the other side or other A-60 Class division and from
deck to deck in each ‘tweendeck’ space.
6.1.2.8 Where a main vertical zone is subdivided by horizontal ‘A’ Class divisions
into horizontal zones for the purpose of providing an appropriate barrier between
zones protected by automatic sprinkler systems and non-sprinklered zones of the
ship, the horizontal divisions shall extend between adjacent main vertical zone
bulkheads and to the shell plating or exterior boundaries of the ship and shall be
insulated in accordance with the fire insulation and integrity values specified in Table
6.1.4-2 – for ships carrying more than 36 passengers, and in Table 6.1.5-2 – for ships
carrying not more than 36 passengers.
6.1.2.9 In ships designed for special purposes, such as automobile or railroad car
ferries where the provision of main vertical zone bulkheads would defeat the
purpose for which the ship is intended, equivalent protection, approved by PRS,
shall be provided by dividing a space into horizontal zones.
1)
Interpretations regarding the arrangement of stairways with respect to the main fire divisions and
determining the length of these divisions are given in MSC/Circ.1120 for SOLAS regulation
II-2/9.2.2.1, see Appendix, figures 1 to 4.
Additional Requirements
177
Service spaces and ship stores shall not be located on ro–ro decks unless protected
in accordance with the applicable requirements.
6.1.2.10 In ships with special category spaces, any such space shall additionally
fulfil the relevant requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.10.2. Where such
compliance would be inconsistent with the requirements of sub-chapter 6.1, the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.10.2 shall prevail.
6.1.3
Bulkheads within Main Vertical Zones
6.1.3.1 On ships carrying more than 36 passengers, all bulkheads which are not
required to be A Class divisions shall be at least B Class or C Class divisions
as prescribed in sub-chapter 6.1.4.
6.1.3.2 On ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, all bulkheads in way of the
accommodation spaces and service spaces which are not required to be A Class
divisions shall be at least B Class or C Class divisions in accordance with the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.1.5.
Additionally, all corridor boundaries where not required to be A Class shall be B
Class divisions and shall extend from deck to deck, except that:
.1 where continuous B Class ceilings or linings are fitted on both sides of the
bulkhead, the portion of the bulkhead behind the continuous ceiling or
lining shall be of a material which, in thickness and composition, is
acceptable in the construction of B Class divisions but which shall be
required to meet B Class integrity standards only in so far as is reasonable
and practicable in the opinion of PRS 1); and
.2 where a ship is protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance
with the requirements specified in 3.3, the corridor bulkheads may
terminate at a ceiling in the corridor, provided that such bulkheads and
ceilings are of B Class standard and comply with the requirements specified
in sub-chapter 6.1.5. All doors and frames in such bulkheads shall be of
non-combustible materials and shall have the same fire integrity as
bulkheads in which they are fitted.
6.1.3.3 Bulkheads required to be B Class divisions, except corridor bulkheads,
specified in 6.1.3.2, shall extend from deck to deck and from shell to shell or other
boundaries unless continuous B Class ceilings or linings fitted on both sides of the
1)
The extension of the bulkhead shall be made of non-combustible material and the construction
of the extension shall correspond to the fire class of extended bulkhead. Where extension of the
division is of B-0 Class, it may be constructed of steel sheet with 1 mm in thickness, provided it is
properly covered (e.g. with rockwool). Alternatively, extension of B-0 division may be made of
rockwool (having a mass density not less than 100 kg/m3 and 50 mm in thickness). provided it is
properly supported and fixed.
178
Fire Protection
bulkhead are at least of the same fire integrity as the bulkhead, in which case the
bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling or lining 2).
If an air gap between cabins results in an opening in the continuous B-15 Class
ceiling, the bulkheads on both sides of the air gap shall be of B-15 Class standard.
6.1.3.4 Atriums shall be protected by fire divisions as follows:
.1 the atrium shall be within enclosures formed of A Class divisions having
the fire integrity as prescribed in Tables 6.1.4-1 and 6.1.5-1;
.2 decks separating spaces within the atrium shall have the fire integrity as
prescribed in Tables 6.1.4-2 and 6.1.5-2, depending on the adjacent spaces
category.
6.1.4
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks in Ships Carrying
more than 36 Passengers
6.1.4.1 The minimum fire integrity of vertical divisions and bulkheads separating
adjacent spaces shall fulfil the requirements specified in Table 6.1.4-1, whereas of
decks separating adjacent spaces – with the requirements specified in Table 6.1.4-2.
Where, due to any particular structural arrangements in the ship, difficulty is
experienced in determining, from the Tables, the minimum fire integrity value of
any division, such values shall be agreed with PRS.
6.1.4.2 The principles, specified in 2.2.2.2, as well as those given below, shall
govern the application of the Tables.
With respect to category (5) spaces – the application of the requirements for fire
integrity of Table 6.1.4-1 to the external bulkheads of deckhouses and
superstructures, and of Table 6.1.4-2 to open decks, shall be agreed with PRS in
each particular case. In no case the requirements of category (5) of the tables,
referred to above, necessitate enclosure of spaces which need not be enclosed.
Spaces have been subdivided into 14 categories according to their fire risk:
(1) Control stations:
– spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting (battery
rooms and spaces containing emergency power generating units);
– navigation bridge and chartroom, including navigation equipment room
(radar transmitter);
– spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment;
– fire control station;
– control rooms for propulsion machinery when located outside the
propulsion machinery space;
– spaces containing centralised fire alarm equipment;
– spaces containing centralised public address system stations and
equipment.
2)
Guidelines for the construction of bulkheads within accommodation spaces in the main vertical
zone are given in MSC/Circ.917/Corr.1
Additional Requirements
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
1)
179
Stairways – interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks
and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery
spaces) and enclosures thereto. A stairway which is enclosed at one level only
shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire
door.
Corridors – passenger and crew corridors and lobbies.
Embarkation stations and external escape routes:
– lifeboat and liferaft stations;
– open deck spaces and enclosed promenades forming lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation and lowering stations;
– internal and external assembly stations;
– external stairs and open decks used for escape routes;
– ship's sides to the minimum draught waterline, superstructures and
deckhouses situated below or in the vicinity of liferafts and escape
chutes.
Open deck spaces:
– open deck spaces and enclosed promenades clear of lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation and lowering stations. The enclosed promenades shall
constitute no fire risk, meaning that furnishings shall be restricted to deck
furniture. In addition, such spaces shall be naturally ventilated by
permanent openings;
– air spaces (the spaces outside superstructures and deckhouses).
Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk:
– cabins containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk;
– offices and dispensaries containing furniture and furnishings of restricted
fire risk;
– public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk
and having a deck area of less than 50 m2.
Accommodation spaces of moderate fire risk:
– spaces as in category (6), however containing furniture and furnishings of
other than restricted fire risk;
– public spaces containing furniture and furnishing of restricted fire risk
and having a deck area of 50 m2 or more;
– isolated lockers and small store-rooms in accommodation spaces having
areas less than 4 m2 (in which flammable liquids are not stowed);
– motion picture projection and film stowage rooms;
– diet galleys (containing no open flame) 1);
– cleaning gear lockers (in which flammable liquids are not stowed);
– laboratories (in which flammable liquids are not stowed);
– pharmacies;
– small drying rooms (having a deck area of 4 m2 or less);
Such galleys shall not contain appliances listed in footnote 1) to 1.2.51.
180
Fire Protection
– specie rooms;
– operating rooms;
– identifiable spaces containing electrical distribution boards
(having a deck area of 4 m2 or less).
(8) Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk:
– public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of other than restricted
fire risk and having a deck area of 50 m2 or more;
– hair-dresser’s shops and beauty parlours;
– saunas.
– sale shops.
(9) Sanitary and similar spaces:
– communal sanitary facilities, showers, baths, water closets, etc.;
– small laundry rooms;
– indoor swimming pool areas;
– isolated pantries containing no cooking appliances in accommodation spaces
– see the definition given in 1.2.51;
Note: Private sanitary facilities shall be considered a portion of the space
in which they are located.
(10) Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery spaces having little or no fire risk:
– water tanks forming part of the ship’s structure;
– voids and cofferdams;
– auxiliary machinery spaces which do not contain machinery having
a pressure lubrication system and where storage of combustibles is
prohibited, such as:
– ventilation fans and air conditioning rooms,
– windlass room,
– steering gear room,
– stabiliser equipment room,
– thruster room,
– electrical propulsion motor room,
– rooms containing section switchboards and purely electrical equipment
other than oil-filled electrical transformers (above 10 kVA),
– shaft alleys and pipe tunnels,
– spaces for pumps and refrigeration machinery, not handling or using
flammable liquids;
– closed trunks serving the spaces listed above, as well as other trunks,
such as pipe and cable trunks.
(11) Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo spaces, cargo and other oil tanks and
other similar spaces of moderate fire risk:
– cargo oil tanks;
– cargo holds, trunkways and hatchways;
– refrigerated chambers;
– oil fuel tanks (where installed in a separate space with no machinery);
Additional Requirements
181
– shaft alleys and pipe tunnels allowing storage of combustibles;
– auxiliary machinery spaces as in category (10) which contain machinery
having a pressure lubrication system or where storage of combustibles is
permitted;
– oil fuel filling stations;
– spaces containing oil-filled electrical transformers (above 10 kVA);
– spaces containing turbine or reciprocating steam engine driven auxiliary
generators and small internal combustion engines of the power output up to
110 kW driving emergency generators, sprinkler, water-spraying or fire
pumps, bilge pumps, etc.;
– closed trunks serving the spaces listed above.
(12) Machinery spaces and main galleys:
– main propulsion machinery rooms (other than electric propulsion motor
rooms) and boiler rooms;
– auxiliary machinery spaces other than those in categories (10) and (11)
which contain internal combustion machinery or other oil-burning,
heating or pumping units;
– main galleys and annexes;
– trunks and casings to the spaces listed above.
(13) Store-rooms, workshops, pantries, etc.:
– main pantries not annexed to galleys – see the definition given in 1.2.56,
including the footnote;
– main laundry;
– large drying rooms, having a deck area of more than 4 m2;
– miscellaneous store-rooms;
– mail and baggage rooms;
– garbage rooms;
– workshops, not forming part of machinery spaces, galleys, etc.;
– lockers and store-rooms having areas greater than 4 m2, not intended for
the storage of flammable liquids;
– refrigerated provision chambers;
– garbage handling and storage spaces.
(14) Other spaces in which flammable liquids are stowed:
– paint lockers;
– store-rooms containing flammable liquids (including dyes, medicines,
etc.);
– laboratories (in which flammable liquids are stowed).
182
Fire Protection
Table 6.1.4-1
Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces (not bounding either main vertical zones or horizontal zones)
Spaces
Control stations
(1)
Stairways
(2)
Corridors
(3)
Evacuation stations and external escape
routes
(4)
Open deck spaces
(5)
Accommodation spaces of minor fire
risk
(6)
Accommodation spaces of moderate
fire risk
(7)
Accommodation spaces of greater fire
risk
(8)
Sanitary and similar spaces
(9)
Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery
spaces having little or no fire risk (10)
Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo
spaces, cargo and other oil tanks and
other similar spaces of moderate fire
risk
(11)
Machinery spaces and main galleys
(12)
Store-rooms, workshops, pantries etc.
(13)
Other spaces in which flammable
liquids are stowed
(14)
(1)
B-0 a)
(2)
A-0
A-0 a)
(3)
A-0
A-0
B-15
(4)
A-0
A-0
A-60
(5)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
–
(6)
A-60
A-0
B-15
A60b)d)
A-0
(7)
A-60
A-15
B-15
A60b)d)
A-0
(8)
A-60
A-15
B-15
A60b)d)
A-0
(9)
A-0
A-0 c)
B-15
A-0 d)
(10)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
(11)
A-60
A-15
A-15
A60b)
A-0
(12)
A-60
A-30
A-30
A60b)
A-0
(13)
A-60
A-15
A-0
A60b)
A-0
(14)
A-60
A-30
A-30
A60b)
A-0
A-0
B-0
B-0
B-0
C
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0
A-30
B-0
B-0
C
A-0
A-15
A-60
A-15
A-60
B-0
C
C
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0 a)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0 a)
A-0
A-0
A-15
A-0 a)
A-0
A-0 a)
A-60
A-0
A-30
183
Additional Requirements
Table 6.1.4-2
Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent spaces (not forming steps in main vertical zones
nor bounding horizontal zones)
Space above →
Space below ↓
Control stations
(1)
Stairways
(2)
Corridors
(3)
Evacuation stations and external escape
routes
(4)
Open deck spaces
(5)
Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk
(6)
Accommodation spaces of moderate fire
risk
(7)
Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk
(8)
Sanitary and similar spaces
(9)
Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery spaces
having little or no fire risk
(10)
Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo spaces,
cargo and other oil tanks and other similar
spaces of moderate fire risk
(11)
Machinery spaces and main galleys
(12)
Store-rooms, workshops, pantries, etc. (13)
Other spaces in which flammable liquids are
stowed
(14)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
A-30
A-0
A-15
A-30
A-0
A-0
A-15
–
A-0 a)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-15
A-30
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-30
A-30
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-30
A-30
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
–
–
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-15
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-15
A-15
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-15
A-15
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-15
A-0
A-30
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0 a)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-15
A-30
A-0
A-0
A-0 a)
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-30
A-60
A-15
A-60
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-15
A-60
A-30
A-60
A-30
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0
A-30a)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-0
A-30
A-60
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
184
Fire Protection
Notes to Table 6.1.4-1 and Table 6.1.4-2:
a)
Where adjacent spaces are in the same numerical category, a bulkhead or deck between such
spaces may not be fitted if deemed unnecessary by PRS. For example, in category (12) a bulkhead
need not be required between a galley and its annexed pantries provided the pantry bulkhead and
decks maintain the integrity of the galley boundaries. A bulkhead is, however, required between
a galley and machinery space even though both spaces are in category (12).
b)
The ship’s side, to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, superstructure and deckhouse
sides situated below and adjacent to liferafts and evacuation slides may be reduced to A-30 Class.
c)
Where public toilets are installed completely within the stairway enclosure, the public toilet
bulkhead within the stairway enclosure may be of B Class integrity.
d)
Where spaces of categories (6), (7), (8) and (9) are located completely within the outer perimeter
of the assembly station, the bulkheads of these spaces are permitted to be of B-0 Class integrity.
Control positions for audio, video and light installations may be considered as part of the
assembly station.
6.1.5
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks in Ships Carrying
not more than 36 Passengers
6.1.5.1 The minimum fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces shall
be in accordance with Table 6.1.5-1, whereas the minimum fire integrity of decks –
in accordance with Table 6.1.5-2.
6.1.5.2 The requirements specified in paragraph 2.2.2.2 shall govern application
of the above mentioned tables.
Adjacent spaces have been subdivided into 11 categories according to their
fire risk:
(1) Control stations:
– spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting (battery
rooms and spaces containing emergency power generating units);
– wheelhouse and chartroom including the space containing radar transmitter;
– spaces containing the ship's radio equipment;
– fire control stations;
– control rooms for propulsion machinery, where located outside the
machinery space;
– spaces containing centralised fire alarm equipment.
(2) Corridors – passenger and crew corridors and lobbies.
(3) Accommodation spaces – see 1.2.51, excluding corridors.
(4) Stairways – interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape
trunks and escalators (except those wholly contained within the machinery
spaces) and enclosures thereto. A stairway which is enclosed at one level
only shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by
a fire door.
(5) Service spaces (low fire risk):
– lockers and store-rooms having areas less than 4 m2, not having
provisions for the storage of flammable liquids, as well as drying rooms
and laundries;
Additional Requirements
185
– identifiable spaces containing distribution boards having a deck area of
less than 4 m2.
(6) Machinery spaces of category A – see 1.2.65.
(7) Other machinery spaces:
– machinery spaces, specified in sub-chapter 1.2.64, excluding machinery
spaces of category A;
– electrical equipment rooms (e.g. auto-telephone exchange, air-conditioning
duct spaces).
(8) Cargo spaces – all spaces used for cargo (including cargo oil tanks) and
trunkways and hatchways to such spaces other than special category spaces.
(9) Service spaces (high fire risk) – galleys, pantries containing cooking
appliances (see the definition given in 1.2.56, including the footnote), paint
and readily ignitable material rooms, lockers and store-rooms having areas
of 4 m2 or more, flammable liquids store-rooms, saunas, as well as
workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces, garbage
handling and storage scraps.
(10) Open decks:
– open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having little or no fire risk.
To be considered in this category, the enclosed promenades shall
constitute no significant fire risk, meaning that furnishings shall be
restricted to deck furniture. In addition, such spaces shall be naturally
ventilated by permanent openings;
– air spaces (spaces outside superstructures and deckhouses).
(11) Special category and ro-ro spaces – see 1.2.49 and 1.2.54.
6.1.5.3 External boundaries which are required in 2.1.1 to be of steel or other
equivalent material may be pierced for the fitting of windows and sidescuttles,
provided that there is no requirement for such boundaries of passenger ships to
have A Class integrity. Similarly, in such boundaries which are not required to
have A Class integrity, doors may be constructed of materials regarded as suitable.
6.1.5.4 The construction and the arrangements of saunas shall comply with the
requirements specified in 6.1.1.7. The sauna shall be insulated to A-60 standard
against other spaces except those inside of the perimeter and spaces of categories
(5), (7) and (10), specified in 6.1.5.2.
186
Fire Protection
Table 6.1.5-1
Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces
Control stations
Corridors
Spaces
(1)
(2)
(1)
A-0c)
–
(2)
A-0
Ce)
(3)
A-60
B-0e)
Accommodation spaces
(3)
–
–
Ce)
Stairways
(4)
–
–
–
Service spaces (low fire risk)
Machinery spaces of category A
Other machinery spaces
Cargo spaces
Service spaces (high fire risk)
Open decks
Special category spaces and ro-ro spaces
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(4)
A-0
A-0a)
B-0e)
A-0a)
B-0e)
A-0a)
B-0e)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(5)
A-15
B-0e)
(6)
A-60
A-60
(7)
A-15
A-0
(8)
A-60
A-0
B-0e)
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0a)
B-0e)
Ce)
–
–
–
–
–
–
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-60
*
–
–
–
–
–
A-0
A-0
A-0b)
–
–
–
–
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
–
–
–
(9)
A-60
A-15
A-0d)
A-15
A-0d)
A-15
A-0d)
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0b)
–
–
(10)
*
*
(11)
A-60
A-15
*
*
A-30
A-0d)
A-15
*
*
*
*
*
–
–
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0
A-0
187
Additional Requirements
Table 6.1.5-2
Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent spaces
Space above →
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(1)
(2)
(3)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
*
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
*
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
*
*
Stairways
Service spaces (low fire risk)
Machinery spaces of category A
Other machinery spaces
Cargo spaces
Service spaces (high fire risk)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
A-0
A-15
A-60
A-15
A-60
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-60f)
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
A-60
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0d)
*
A-15
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0d)
A-60
(10)
(11)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0d)
*
A-30
A-0d)
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
Open decks
Special category spaces and ro-ro spaces
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-30
A-0d)
*
A-15
A-30
A-0
A-30
A-0d)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-30
*
A-0
*
A-30
*
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-30
–
A-0
A-0
A-0
Space below ↓
Control stations
Corridors
Accommodation spaces
188
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
*
Fire Protection
Notes to Table 6.1.5-1 and Table 6.1.5-2:
For clarification of the division type – see paragraphs 2.2.3 and 2.2.4.
Where spaces are of the same numerical category, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the
Tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose, e.g. in category (9),
a galley next to other galley does not require a bulkhead, but a galley next to a paint room
requires A-0 bulkhead.
Bulkheads separating the navigation bridge, chartroom from each other may be of B-0 rating. No
fire rating is required for the partitions separating the navigation bridge and the safety centre
when the latter is within the navigation bridge.
In determining the applicable fire integrity standard of a boundary between two spaces both
of which are protected by automatic sprinkler systems, in accordance with the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 3.3, the lesser of the two values given in the tables may apply.
Where the particular division forms a boundary of the main vertical fire zone in accordance with
the requirements specified in paragraph 6.1.2.1, Class A-0 shall apply.
If the machinery space in category (7) has little fire risk, Class A-0 may apply. For determining
such machinery space – see 6.1.4.2(10).
Where an asterisk appears in the tables, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent
material, although it is not required to be of A Class standard. However, where a deck, except in
a category (10) space, is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes and vent ducts, such
penetrations shall be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke. Divisions between
control stations (emergency generators) and open decks may have air intake openings without
means for closure, unless a fixed gas fire-fighting system is fitted.
6.1.6
6.1.6.1
Means of Escape
Width of Stairways
Stairways shall be not less than 900 mm in clear width. The minimum clear
width of stairways shall be increased by 10 mm for every one person provided
in excess of 90 persons. The maximum clear width between handrails shall not
exceed 1800 mm. The total number of persons to be evacuated by such stairways
shall be assumed to be two thirds of the crew and the total number of passengers
in the areas served by such stairways. The width of stairway shall be calculated
in accordance with the provisions of the FSS Code, Chapter 13, paragraph 2.1.2.
The stairway shall not decrease in width in the direction of evacuation
to the assembly station, except in the case of several assembly stations in one main
vertical zone – the stairway width shall not decrease in the direction
of the evacuation to the most distant assembly station.
6.1.6.2
Handrails
Stairways shall be fitted with handrails on each side. The maximum clear width
between handrails shall be 1800 mm.
6.1.6.3
Alignment of Stairways
All stairways sized for more than 90 persons shall be aligned fore and aft.
Additional Requirements
6.1.6.4
189
Vertical Rise and Inclination
Stairways shall not exceed 3.5 m in vertical rise without the provision
of a landing and shall not have an angle of inclination greater than 45°.
6.1.6.5
Landings
Landings at each deck level shall be not less than 2 m2 in area and shall be
increased by 1 m2 for every 10 persons provided for in excess of 20 persons,
however need not exceed 16 m2, except for those landings servicing public spaces
having direct access to the stairway enclosure. Intermediate landings shall be sized
in the same manner as stairways.
6.1.6.6
Doorways and Corridors
Doorways 1, corridors and intermediate landings included in means of escape
shall be sized in the same manner as stairways.
Aggregate width of stairway exit doors to the assembly station shall not be less
than the aggregate width of stairways serving this deck.
6.1.6.7
Evacuation Routes to Embarkation Deck
It shall be recognised that the evacuation routes to the embarkation deck may
include an assembly station. In that case, consideration shall be given to the fire
protection requirements and sizing of corridors and doors from the stairway
enclosure to the assembly station and from the assembly station to the embarkation
deck, noting that evacuation of persons from assembly stations to embarkation
positions will be conducted in small controlled groups.
6.1.6.8
Routes from Assembly Station to Survival Craft Embarkation
Position
Where passengers and crew are held at an assembly station which is not at the
survival craft embarkation position, the dimension of stairway width and doors
from the assembly station to this position shall not be based on the number of
persons in the controlled group. The width of these stairways and doors need not
exceed 1.5 m unless larger dimensions are required for evacuation of these spaces
under normal conditions.
6.1.6.9
Means of Escape Plans
For each ship, Means of Escape Plan shall be provided indicating the following:
.1 number of crew and passengers in all normally occupied spaces;
.2 number of crew and passengers expected to escape by stairway and
through doorways, corridors and landings;
.3 assembly stations and survival craft embarkation positions
1)
Not applicable to cabin doors.
190
Fire Protection
.4 primary and secondary means of escape;
.5 width of stairways, doors, corridors and landing areas.
Means of Escape Plan shall be accompanied by detailed calculation for
determining the width of escape stairways, doors, corridors and landings.
It is recommended that the width of each means of escape be calculated in
accordance with an evacuation analysis based on the guidelines specified in
MSC.1/Circ.1238.
6.1.6.10
6.1.6.10.1
Means of Escape from Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces
and Control Stations
Escape from Spaces below Bulkhead Deck
6.1.6.10.1.1 Below the bulkhead deck two means of escape, at least one of which
shall be independent of watertight doors, shall be provided from each watertight
compartment or similarly restricted space or group of spaces. In well-grounded
cases, one of the means of escape for crew spaces that are entered only
occasionally may be waived if the required escape route is independent of
watertight doors.
6.1.6.10.1.2 Where, in accordance with 6.1.6.1.10.1.1, PRS has waived the
requirement to provide two means of escape, this sole means of escape shall
provide safe escape. However, stairways shall not be less than 0.8 m in clear width
with handrails on both sides.
6.1.6.10.2
Escape from Spaces Above Bulkhead Deck
Above the bulkhead deck there shall be at least two means of escape from each
main vertical zone or similarly restricted space or group of spaces at least one
of which shall give access to a stairway forming a vertical escape.
6.1.6.10.3
Direct Access to Stairway Enclosures
Stairway enclosures in accommodation and service spaces shall have direct
access from the corridors and be of a sufficient area to prevent congestion, having
in view the number of persons likely to use them in an emergency. Within the
perimeter of such stairway enclosures, only public toilets, lockers of noncombustible material providing storage for nonhazardous safety equipment and
open information counters are permitted.
Only corridors, lifts, public toilets, special category spaces and open ro-ro
spaces to which any passengers can have access, other than escape stairways
required by 6.1.6.10.4.1 and external areas are permitted to have direct access to
these stairway enclosures and external areas.
Public spaces may also have direct access to stairway enclosures, except for the
backstage spaces of a theatre.
Additional Requirements
191
Small corridors or "lobbies" used to separate an enclosed stairway from galleys
or main laundries may have direct access to the stairway, provided they have
a minimum deck area of 4.5 m2, a width of not less than 0.9 m and contain a fire
hose station.
6.1.6.10.4
Details of Means of Escape
Means of escape shall fulfil the following requirements:
.1 at least one of the means of escape (from the spaces located below and
above the bulkhead deck) required by 6.1.6.10.1.1 and 6.1.6.10.2 shall
consist of a readily accessible enclosed stairway, which shall provide
continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the appropriate
lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks, or to the uppermost weather deck if
the embarkation deck does not extend to the main vertical zone 1) being
considered. In the latter case, direct access to the embarkation deck by way
of external open stairways and passageways shall be provided and shall
have emergency lighting and slip-free surfaces underfoot. Boundaries
facing external open stairways and passageways forming part of an escape
route and boundaries in such a position that their failure during a fire
would impede escape to the embarkation deck shall have fire integrity,
including insulation values, in accordance with Tables 6.1.4-1 and 6.1.4-2,
as appropriate;
.2 access from the stairway enclosures to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation
areas shall be provided either directly or through internal routes which
have fire integrity and insulation values for stairway enclosures as
determined by Tables 6.1.4 and 6.1.5, as appropriate;
.3 stairways serving only a space and a balcony in that space shall not be
considered as forming one of the required means of escape;
.4 each level within an atrium shall have two means of escape, one of which
shall give direct access to an enclosed vertical means 2) of escape meeting
the requirements specified in sub-paragraph .1;
.5 widths, number and continuity of escapes shall be in accordance with
the requirements in the FSS Code, Chapter 13.
6.1.6.10.5
Marking of Escape Routes
In addition to the emergency lighting, in passenger accommodation spaces, the
means of escape, including stairways and exits, shall be marked by low-location
lighting or photoluminescent strip indicators placed not more than 0.3 m above the
deck at all points of the escape route including angles and intersections. The
1)
2)
Interpretations regarding the construction of continuous fire shelter are given in MSC/Circ.1120,
for SOLAS regulation II-2/13.3.2.4.1, see the figure in the Appendix.
Such enclosed means of escape shall be sized taking into account the total number of persons at
each level of the atrium considered.
192
Fire Protection
lighting must enable passengers to identify the routes of escape and readily identify
the escape exits. If electric illumination is used, it shall be supplied by the
emergency source of power and it shall be so arranged that the failure of any single
light or cut in a lighting strip will not result in the marking being ineffective. The
low-location lighting of escape routes shall fulfil the requirements specified in
22.1.4, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems, as well as Res.
A.752(18).
In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the marking of escape
routes shall also be provided in the crew accommodation spaces.
The marking of escape routes, required in 2.3.1.7, in passenger accommodation
spaces shall be visible and easy to read for persons with reduced mobility,
especially for wheelchair users.
In lieu of marking the escape routes by low-location lighting system or
photoluminescent strip indicators, alternative evacuation guidance system
complying with the requirements specified in MSC/Circ. 1167 and type approved
in accordance with the guidelines set forth in MSC/Circ. 1168, may be accepted.
6.1.6.10.6
Normally Locked Doors that Form Part of Escape Route
Cabin and stateroom doors shall not require keys to unlock them from inside the
room. Neither shall there be any doors along any designated escape route which
require keys to unlock them when moving in the direction of escape.
Escape doors from public spaces that are normally latched shall be fitted with
a means of quick release. Such means shall consist of a door-latching mechanism
incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the
direction of escape flow. Quick release mechanism shall:
.1 consist of bars or panels, whose actuating portion extends across at least
one half of the width of the door leaf, at least 760 mm and not more than
1120 mm above the deck;
.2 cause the latch to release when a force not exceeding 67 N is applied to the
releasing device; and
.3 not be equipped with any locking device, set screw or other arrangement
that prevents the release of the latch when pressure is applied to the
releasing device.
6.1.6.10.7
Adjustment of Escape Routes for Persons with Reduced Mobility
In public spaces and in passenger accommodation areas, means of escape to
embarkation station, especially corridors with handrails, passageways, doorways
and doors shall be made in such a way as to accommodate the movement of
persons with reduced mobility, especially wheelchair users. When designing
escape routes “Recommendation on the design and operation of passenger ships to
respond to elderly and disabled persons’ needs” contained in MSC/Circ.735 shall
be taken into account.
Additional Requirements
6.1.6.10.8
193
Means of Escape from Accommodation Spaces on Open Decks
In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two means of escape, as
widely separated as possible, shall be provided from all accommodation areas on
open decks.
6.1.6.11
Means of Escape from Machinery Spaces
In each machinery space, two means of escape shall be provided in accordance
with the requirements specified in the present sub-chapter.
6.1.6.11.1
Escape from Spaces below Bulkhead Deck
Where the machinery space is below the bulkhead deck, the two means
of escape shall consist of either:
.1 two sets of steel stairways or ladders 1), as widely separated as possible,
leading to doors in the upper part of the machinery space and from which
access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck.
One of these stairways or ladders shall be located within a protected
enclosure having the fire integrity as required for stairways in 6.1.4,
category (2) and 6.1.5, category (4), from the lower part of the machinery
space to a safe position outside the space. This enclosure shall be provided
with self-closing doors of the same fire integrity standard. The ladder or
stairway shall be fixed in such away that heat is not transferred into the
enclosure through non-insulated fixing points. The protected enclosure
shall have a free opening of at least 800 mm x 800 mm including provision
for a ladder and shall be provided with emergency lighting; or
.2 one steel stairway or ladder leading to doors in the upper part of the
machinery space from which access is provided to the lifeboat and liferaft
embarkation deck and additionally, in the lower part of the space and in
a position well separated from the stairway or ladder referred to, a steel
door capable of being operated from each side and which provides access
to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck.
In machinery spaces, stairways which are not located within a protected
enclosure shall provide a continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin.
6.1.6.11.2
Escape from Spaces above the Bulkhead Deck
Where the space is above the bulkhead deck, the two means of escape shall be
as widely separated as possible and the doors leading from such means of escape
shall be in a position from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and
liferaft embarkation decks. Where such means of escape require the use of ladders,
these shall be of steel.
1)
Ladders having strings of flexible steel wire ropes are not acceptable in such escape routes.
194
Fire Protection
6.1.6.11.3
Dispensation from Two Means of Escape
In ships of less than 1,000 gross tonnage, one means of escape from the
machinery space may be considered sufficient, due regard being paid to the width
and disposition of the upper part of the space.
In ships of 1,000 gross tonnage and above, one means of escape from
a normally unattended auxiliary machinery space may be considered sufficient, so
long as either a door or a steel ladder provides a safe escape route to the
embarkation deck, due regard being paid to the nature and location of the space and
whether persons are normally employed in that space. This requirement applies
only to auxiliary machinery spaces where persons are not normally employed.
In the steering gear space, the second means of escape shall be provided when
the emergency steering position is located in that space unless there is a direct
access to the open deck.
6.1.6.11.4
Escape from Machinery Control Rooms
Two means of escape shall be provided from the machinery control room
located within a machinery space, at least one of which will provide a continuous
fire shelter to a safe position outside the machinery space.
6.1.6.11.5
Spaces
Escape from other Enclosed Compartments within Machinery
From enclosed spaces 1) located within machinery space, such as for monitoring
of operation of machinery, and from work spaces in which person are normally
employed, there shall be at least two means of escape, one of which shall be
independent of the machinery space and give access to the embarkation deck.
6.1.6.12
Location of Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
6.1.6.12.1 In all passenger ships, at least two emergency escape breathing
devices, complying with the requirement specified in 5.1.5, shall be situated in
each main vertical zone.
6.1.6.12.2 In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two emergency
escape breathing devices, in addition to those required in 6.1.6.12.1, shall be
carried in each main vertical fire zone.
6.1.6.12.3 The requirements, specified in paragraphs 6.1.6.12.1 and 6.1.6.12.2,
do not apply to stairway enclosures which constitute individual main vertical zones
and to the main vertical zones in the fore and aft end of a ship which do not contain
spaces of categories (6), (7), (8) or (12), defined in 6.1.4.
1)
An enclosed space is a space having less than 30% of communication openings with machinery
space.
Additional Requirements
6.1.7
195
Protection of Stairways and Lifts in Accommodation
and Service Spaces and Control Stations
6.1.7.1 Stairways shall be within enclosures formed of A Class divisions, with
positive means of closure at all openings, except that:
.1 a stairway connecting only two decks need not be enclosed, provided the
integrity of the deck is maintained by proper bulkheads or self-closing
doors in one ‘tweendeck space. Where a stairway is closed in one
‘tweendeck space, the stairway enclosure shall be protected in accordance
with Table 6.1.4-1 or Table 6.1.5-1;
.2 stairways may be fitted in the open in a public space, provided they lie
wholly within the public space.
6.1.7.2 Lift trunks shall be so fitted as to prevent the passage of smoke and flame
from one ‘tweendeck to another and shall be provided with means of closing so as
to permit the control of draught and smoke.
Machinery for lifts located within stairway enclosures shall be arranged in
a separate room, surrounded by steel boundaries, except that small passages for lift
cables are permitted.
Lifts which open into spaces other than corridors, public spaces, special
category spaces, stairways and external areas (e.g. provision chambers, galleys,
machinery spaces) shall not open into stairways included in the means of escape.
6.1.8
Means of Closing of Openings in Class A Fire Divisions
6.1.8.1 Except for hatches between cargo, special category, store, and baggage
spaces, and between such spaces and the weather decks, openings shall be provided
with permanently attached means of closing which shall be at least as effective for
resisting fires as the divisions in which they are fitted.
6.1.8.2 Construction of fire doors and door frames in A Class divisions, with the
means of securing them when closed, shall provide resistance to fire as well as to
the passage of smoke and flame equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which the
doors are situated, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1,
Part 3. Such doors and door frames shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent
material.
Fire doors approved as A Class doors without the sill being part of the frame
shall be so installed that the gap under the door does not exceed 12 mm and a noncombustible sill shall be installed under the door such that floor coverings do not
extend beneath the closed door.
Where required divisions are replaced by divisions of a higher standard, the
door need only conform to the required division.
Watertight doors need not be insulated. Watertight doors, regarded as fire doors,
in A Class divisions need not be fire-tested in accordance with the FTP Code
196
Fire Protection
where intended for use below the bulkhead deck, provided they fulfil the relevant
watertightness requirements. Where such doors are used at locations above the
bulkhead deck, they shall fulfil the relevant watertightness and fire integrity
requirements, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code.
Where a watertight door is located adjacent to a fire door, both doors shall be
capable of independent operation remotely – if required, and from both sides of
each door.
6.1.8.3 Fire doors in main vertical zone bulkheads, galley boundaries and
stairway enclosures other than power-operated watertight doors and those which
are normally locked, shall satisfy the following requirements:
.1 the doors shall be self-closing and be capable of closing with an angle of
inclination of up to 3.5º opposing closure;
.2 approximate time of closure for hinged fire doors shall not be more than
40 s and no less than 10 s from the beginning of their movement with the
ship in upright position. The approximate uniform rate of closure for
sliding doors shall be of no more than 0.2 m/s and no less than 0.1 m/s with
the ship in upright position;
.3 doors which are permanently open, except those for emergency escape
trunks, shall be capable of remote release from the ship safety
centre/continuously manned central control station, either simultaneously
or in groups and shall be capable of release also individually from
a position at both sides of the door. Release switches shall have an on-off
function to prevent automatic resetting of the system;
.4 hold-back hooks not subject to central control station release from the ship
safety centre/ continuously manned central control station are prohibited;
.5 door closed remotely from the central control station shall be capable of
being re-opened from both sides of the door by local control. After such
local opening, the door shall automatically close again;
.6 indication must be provided at the fire door indicator panel in the ship
safety centre/continuously manned central control station whether each
door is closed 1;
.7 release mechanism shall be so designed that the door will automatically close
in the event of disruption of the control system or central power supply;
.8 local power accumulators for power-operated doors shall be provided in
the immediate vicinity of the doors to enable the doors to be operated after
1)
Lift door indication signals shall meet the following:
.1 the signal showing that A Class lift doors are in the closed position shall be activated only
when the order to close the main fire doors has been given by the continuously manned
central control station; and
.2 when there are several lifts giving access to the same stairway, the lift door indicators located
in the continuously manned central control station shall be capable of indicating that all the
lift doors giving access to the same landing are properly closed. This indication shall be
shown on the panel.
Additional Requirements
197
disruption of the control system or central power supply at least ten times
(fully opened and closed) using the local controls;
.9 disruption of the control system or central power supply at one door shall
not impair the safe functioning of the other doors;
.10 remote-released sliding or power-operated doors shall be equipped with an
alarm that sounds at least 5 s but no more than 10 s after the door being
released from the ship safety centre/continuously manned central control
station and before the door begins to move and continues sounding until
the door is completely closed;
.11 a door designed to re-open upon contacting an object in its path shall reopen not more than 1 m from the point of contact;
.12 double-leaf doors equipped with a latch necessary for their fire integrity
shall have a latch that is automatically activated by the operation of the
doors when released by the system;
.13 doors giving direct access to special category spaces which are poweroperated and automatically closed need not be equipped with the alarms
and remote-release mechanisms required in sub-paragraphs .3 and .10.
.14 components of the local control system shall be accessible for maintenance
and adjusting; and
.15 power-operated doors shall be provided with a control system of an
approved type which shall be able to operate in case of fire and be in
accordance with the FTP Code. This system shall satisfy the following
requirements:
.1 control system shall be able to operate the door at the temperature of
at least 200 °C for at least 60 min, served by the power supply;
.2 power supply for all other doors not subject to fire shall not be
impaired;
.3 at temperatures exceeding 200 °C the control system shall be
automatically isolated from the power supply and shall be capable
of keeping the door closed up to at least 945 °C.
.16 remote closure panels and door closure indicator shall be located in the ship
safety centre/ continuously manned central control station – see 6.1.25.2.4.
6.1.8.4 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, where a space is protected
by an automatic sprinkler system, complying with the requirements specified in
sub-chapter 3.3, or is fitted with a continuous B Class ceiling, openings in decks
not forming steps in the main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones shall be
closed reasonably tight and such decks shall meet A Class integrity requirements in
so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of PRS.
6.1.8.5 The requirements for A Class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship
shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles, provided that there is
no requirement for such boundaries to have A Class integrity in paragraph 6.1.10.3.
The requirements for A Class integrity of the outer boundaries of the ship shall not
198
Fire Protection
apply to exterior doors, except for those in superstructures and deckhouses facing
lifesaving appliances, embarkation and external assembly station areas, external
stairs and open decks used for escape routes.
Stairway enclosure doors need not meet this requirement.
6.1.8.6 Except for watertight doors, weathertight doors (semi-watertight doors),
doors leading to the open deck and doors which need to be reasonably gastight, all
A Class doors located in stairways, public spaces and main vertical zone bulkheads
in escape routes shall be equipped with a self-closing hose port of material,
construction and fire resistance which is equivalent to the door into which it is fitted.
The self-closing hose port shall be a 150 mm square clear opening with the door
closed and shall be inset into the lower edge of the door, opposite the door hinges
or, in the case of sliding doors, nearest the opening.
The hose port installed in either hinged doors or slide doors need not open/close
when the doors are in the closed position.
6.1.8.7 Doors installed in boundaries of the machinery spaces, other than
watertight doors, shall be so arranged that positive closure is assured in case of fire
in the space by power-operated closing arrangements or by the provision of selfclosing doors capable of closing against inclination of 3.5o opposing closure, and
having a fail-safe hold-back arrangement, provided with a remotely operated
release device. Doors for emergency escape trunks need not be fitted with a failsafe hold-back facility and a remotely operated release device.
6.1.9
Means of Closing of Openings in Class B Fire Divisions
6.1.9.1 Doors and door frames in B Class divisions and means of securing them
shall provide a method of closure which shall have resistance to fire equivalent to
that of the divisions, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code,
Annex 1, Part 3, except that ventilation openings may be permitted in the lower
portion of such doors. Where such opening is in or under a door, the total net area
of any such opening or openings shall not exceed 0.05 m2.
Alternatively, a non-combustible air balance duct routed between the cabin and
the corridor, and located below the sanitary unit is permitted where the crosssectional area of the duct does not exceed 0.05 m2. All ventilation openings shall be
fitted with a grill made of non-combustible material. Doors shall be non-combustible.
Doors approved as B class without the sill being part of the frame shall be so
installed that the gap under the door does not exceed 25 mm.
6.1.9.2 Cabin doors in B Class divisions shall be of a self-closing type. Holdback hooks are not permitted.
6.1.9.3 The requirements for B Class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship
shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles. Similarly, the
Additional Requirements
199
requirements for B Class integrity shall not apply to exterior doors in
superstructures and deckhouses.
For ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the use of combustible
materials in doors separating cabins from the individual interior sanitary spaces
such as showers is permitted.
6.1.9.4 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, where an automatic
sprinkler system complying with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 3.3 is
fitted:
.1 openings in decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding
horizontal zones shall be closed reasonably tight and such decks shall meet
B Class integrity requirements in so far as is reasonable and practicable in
the opinion of PRS;
.2 openings in corridor bulkheads of B Class materials shall be protected in
accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.1.3.
6.1.10
Windows and Sidescuttles
6.1.10.1 Windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads within accommodation and
service spaces and control stations other than those to which the requirements
specified in paragraphs 6.1.8.5 and 6.1.9.3 apply, shall be so constructed as to
preserve the integrity requirements of the type of bulkheads in which they are
fitted, this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
6.1.10.2 Notwithstanding the requirements specified in Tables 6.1.4-1 and 6.1.4-2
as well as 6.1.5-1 and 6.1.5-2, windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads separating
accommodation and service spaces and control stations from weather shall be
constructed with frames of steel or other suitable material. The glass shall be retained
by a metal glazing bead or angle.
6.1.10.3 Windows facing life-saving appliances, embarkation and assembly
stations, external stairs and open decks used for escape routes, as well as windows
situated below liferaft and escape slide embarkation areas shall have the fire
integrity in accordance with the requirements specified in Table 6.1.4-1. Where
automatic sprinkler system is provided for the protection of windows, A-0
windows may be accepted as equivalent. To be considered under this paragraph,
the heads of the automatic sprinkler system shall either be:
.1 dedicated heads located above the windows, and installed in addition to the
conventional ceiling sprinklers; or
.2 conventional ceiling sprinkler heads so arranged that the window is
protected by an average application rate of at least 5 l/min per 1 m2 and the
additional window area is included in the calculation of the area covered by
the automatic sprinkler system; or
.3 heads of the equivalent high pressure sprinkler system tested and approved
in accordance with the guidelines specified in Res. A.800(19).
200
Fire Protection
6.1.10.4 Windows located in the ship’s side below the lifeboat embarkation area
shall have fire integrity at least equal to A-0 Class.
6.1.11
Fire-extinguishing Arrangements in Control Stations,
Accommodation and Service Spaces
6.1.11.1 In passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, there shall be
installed throughout accommodation and service spaces, as well as control stations
except for the spaces which afford no substantial fire risk (e.g. voids, public toilets,
etc.) either:
.1 fixed fire detection and fire alarm system, of approved type, complying
with the requirements specified in 4.1 and 6.1.14 so installed and arranged
as to detect the presence of fire in all above-mentioned spaces and provide
smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes within the
accommodation spaces; or
.2 automatic sprinkler system, of approved type, complying with the
requirements specified in 3.3 and 6.1.13, and additionally fire detection and
fire alarm, complying with the requirements specified in 4.1 and 6.1.14,
which will be so installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in
corridors, stairways and escape routes within the accommodation spaces.
If fixed fire detection and fire alarm system is installed only in corridors,
stairways and escape routes within accommodation area, an automatic sprinkler
system shall be fitted in all accommodation spaces, service spaces and control
stations.
6.1.11.2 In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, there shall be
installed throughout accommodation and service spaces, as well as control stations
including corridors and stairways:
.1 automatic sprinkler system, of approved type, complying with the
requirements specified in 3.3 and 6.1.13. Alternatively, control stations –
where water may cause damage to essential equipment – may be fitted with
a fixed fire-extinguishing system of approved type; and
.2 fixed fire detection and fire alarm system of approved type, complying with
the requirements specified in 4.1 and 6.1.14 so installed and arranged as to
provide smoke detection in those spaces; smoke detectors, however, need
not be fitted in private bathrooms and galleys.
Each enclosed space of the floor area greater than 2 m2 shall be provided with
a sprinkler and smoke detector. In spaces having the floor area smaller than 2 m2
only smoke detector may be fitted.
Spaces of low fire risk (such as e.g. voids, toilets, carbon dioxide rooms and
similar spaces) need not be fitted with an automatic sprinkler system and smoke
detector.
In refrigerated chambers and in other spaces where steam or fumes may occur, such
as saunas and laundries, heat detectors may be installed instead of smoke detectors.
Additional Requirements
201
6.1.11.3 In passenger ships, furniture and furnishings on passenger cabin
balconies shall be protected by a fixed water-spraying and fixed fire detection and
fire alarm systems unless the furniture and furnishings fulfil the requirements for
the spaces of restricted fire risk in accordance with the definitions given in 1.2.57 –
see 6.1.1.2.8.
Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems for cabin balconies shall be
designed, arranged and type-tested in accordance with the guidelines contained in
MSC.1/Circ.1242, whereas the water-spraying fire-extinguishing system – see subchapter 3.4.5 (MSC.1/Circ.1268).
6.1.11.4 The entire main vertical zone containing the atrium shall be protected
throughout with a smoke detection system complying with the requirements
specified in 4.1 and 6.1.14, including smoke detectors.
6.1.11.5 Atriums shall be provided with the smoke control and ventilation
system automatically activated by the fire detection and fire alarm system in
accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 22.3.5, Part VI –
Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants. The control panel of the smoke
control and ventilation system shall be located in the ship safety centre – see
6.1.25.2.4.
6.1.11.6 Passenger internal assembly stations shall be fitted with a supply
ventilation system in accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter
22.3.6, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
6.1.11.7 Accommodation spaces shall be equipped with fire-fighting equipment
and emergency escape breathing devices arranged in accordance with the
requirements specified in Table 5.1.6-1.
6.1.12
Fire-Extinguishing Arrangements in Cargo Spaces
6.1.12.1 Cargo spaces of passenger ships of 1000 gross tonnage and above shall
be protected by a fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system complying with
the requirements specified in 3.6 or an equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system,
referred to in 3.7, or a fixed high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system,
complying with the requirements of 3.5.3, which gives equivalent protection for the
carried cargoes.
6.1.12.2 In passenger ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage and in passenger
ships of restricted service (see 6.17.1), a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system in
cargo spaces may be waived, provided that the ship is fitted with steel hatch covers
and effective means of closing all ventilators and other openings leading to the
cargo spaces.
6.1.12.3 A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system complying with the
requirements of 4.1 or a sample extraction smoke detection system complying with
202
Fire Protection
the requirements of 4.2 shall be provided in any cargo space which is not
accessible during the ship's normal operation.
In passenger ships of restricted service, fire detection system and fire alarm
system need not be installed – see 6.17.2.
6.1.12.4 In all passenger ships, regardless of the gross tonnage, carrying
dangerous cargo on deck or in cargo spaces, each cargo space shall be provided
with the fixed carbon-dioxide fire-extinguishing system, complying with the
requirements specified in 3.6 or a gas fire-extinguishing system which gives
equivalent protection for the carried cargoes.
6.1.13
Automatic Sprinkler System
6.1.13.1 In addition to the requirements specified in this sub-chapter, an
automatic sprinkler system shall fulfil the requirements specified in 3.3.
6.1.13.2 There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the sea
water pump and alarm and detection system. Where the sources of power for the
pump are electrical, these shall be a main generator and an emergency source of
power.
6.1.13.3 Any section of sprinklers shall not be situated in more than one main
vertical zone and shall not serve more than two decks. Exemption from this
requirement is subject to PRS’ consent in each particular case.
6.1.13.4 The control panel of the automatic sprinkler system shall be located in
the ship safety centre/central control station.
6.1.13.5 Electric power supply for the automatic sprinkler system shall fulfil the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 22.1.1, Part VIII – Electrical Installations
and Control Systems.
6.1.14
Fire Detection and Alarm System
6.1.14.1 In addition to the requirements set forth in 4.1, fire detection and alarm
system shall comply with the requirements of the present sub-chapter.
6.1.14.2 Fire detection and alarm system shall be capable of remote
identification of each detector and manually operated call point individually.
6.1.14.3 Fire detectors fitted in cabins, when activated, shall be capable of
emitting, or cause to be emitted, an audible alarm within the space in which they
are located.
6.1.14.4 On cabin balconies, the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall,
as a minimum, have section identification capability.
Additional Requirements
203
6.1.14.5 The emergency source of power, specified in 4.1.3.1, shall be sufficient to
maintain the operation of the fire detection and fire alarm system for the periods
required in sub-chapter 22.1.2, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control
Systems, and at the end of that period shall be capable of operating all the connected
visual and audible fire alarm signals for a period of at least 30 min.
6.1.14.6 Cables routed through other main vertical zones that they serve, and
cables to control panels in an unattended fire control stations shall be fire-resisting
according to IEC 60331, unless duplicated and well separated.
6.1.14.7 Any section of detectors and manually operated call points shall not be
situated in more than one main vertical zone, except on cabin balconies.
6.1.14.8 The control panel of the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall
be designed on the fail-safe principle (e.g. an open detector circuit shall cause an
alarm condition).
6.1.14.9 The control panel of the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall
be located in the ship safety centre/central control station.
6.1.14.10 Indicating unit that is capable of individually identifying each detector
that has been activated or manually operated call point that has operated shall be
located on the navigation bridge. On cabin balconies, indicating units shall, as
a minimum, denote the section in which a detector has activated or manually
operated call point has been operated.
6.1.15
Signalling System in Ships Carrying more than 36 Passengers
6.1.15.1 Signalling system for the fire detection and automatic sprinkler systems
shall be located in the ship safety centre/ continuously manned central control
station. Additionally, the following shall be provided in those locations:
.1 control panels for remote closing the fire doors;
.2 controls for switching and shutting down the ventilation fans;
.3 indicators of open or closed position of the fire doors;
.4 indicators of fan operation;
.5 indicators of operation or off status of fire detectors and alarms.
6.1.15.2 The power supply and the signalling system shall fulfil the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 22.1.1, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control
Systems.
6.1.16
Water Fire Main System
6.1.16.1 The water fire main system shall comply with the applicable
requirements specified in 3.2, as well the requirements of the present sub-chapter.
204
Fire Protection
6.1.16.2 The number of the main fire pumps and the pressure of water delivered
simultaneously by two pumps through the required nozzles, at the discharge rate
specified in 6.1.16.4, at any hydrant, shall be at least equal to the values specified
in Table 6.1.16.2.
Table 6.1.16.2
Ship gross tonnage
Number of pumps
Minimum pressure
at hydrants [MPa]
< 4000
2
0.3
≥ 4000
3
0.4
6.1.16.3 The total capacity of the main fire pumps, at the pressure not lower than
that specified in Table 6.1.16.2, shall not be less than two-thirds of the required
combined capacity of bilge pumps whose capacity shall be determined in
accordance with the requirements specified in paragraphs 6.1.3 and 22.3.2.1, Part
VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
6.1.16.4 Where more pumps than the minimum of the required pumps are
installed, such additional pumps shall have a capacity of at least 25 m3/h and shall
be capable of delivering at least two required jets of water.
6.1.16.5 In ships of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards, the arrangement of fire
pumps, their sources of power and sea connections shall be such that in the event of
fire in any one compartment all the fire pumps will not be put out of action.
It means that at least one of the pumps shall be supplied from the main and
emergency source of power and shall be located in a separate space. Cabling for
the emergency source of power shall not be led through machinery spaces of
category A, galleys or other spaces of high fire risk.
Where fire pumps are installed in adjacent spaces, the division between the
spaces shall be of A-60 Class.
6.1.16.6 In passenger ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage, if a fire in any one
compartment could put the required two pumps out of action (e.g. when the pumps
are located in one compartment), an emergency fire pump complying with the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 3.2.4, but with the capacity not less than
25 m3/h, shall be provided.
6.1.16.7 In passenger ships of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards, the water fire
main system shall be kept permanently pressurised and shall be such as to ensure an
effective jet of water immediately available from any hydrant in an interior location
and to ensure the continuation of the output of water jet by automatic starting of one
required fire pump.
Additional Requirements
205
6.1.16.8 In passenger ships of less than 1000 gross tonnage, immediate availability
of water supply shall be achieved either by automatic start of at least one fire pump
or by remote starting from the navigation bridge of at least one fire pump.
6.1.16.9 Fire pumps and the emergency fire pumps start buttons, as well as the
indicators of the pumps operation shall be located in the ship safety
centre/continuously manned central control station – see 6.1.25.2.4.17.
6.1.16.10 In accommodation, service and machinery spaces, the number and
position of hydrants shall be such that the requirements specified in 3.2.6.3 may be
fulfilled when all watertight doors and all doors in the main vertical zone
bulkheads are closed.
6.1.16.11 In passenger ships where access is provided to a machinery space of
category A at a low level from an adjacent shaft tunnel, two fire hydrants shall be
provided external to but near the entrance to that machinery space of category A.
This requirement also applies to other spaces adjacent to the machinery space of
category A, although it need not be fulfilled where the tunnel or adjacent spaces are
not part of the escape route.
The fire hydrants shall be supplied by the pipeline which does not pass
through machinery space of category A.
6.1.16.12 In interior locations in passenger ships carrying more than
36 passengers, fire hoses shall be connected to the hydrants at all times.
6.1.16.13 In all passenger ships, the number of fire hoses shall be such that there
will be at least one fire hose for each of the fire hydrants.
6.1.17
Fire Protection of Exhaust Ventilation Ducts from Galley Range
6.1.17.1 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the exhaust duct from
a galley range shall fulfil the requirements specified in 2.7.1.
6.1.17.2 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, each exhaust duct from
a galley range installed in a galley (irrespective of whether or not it passes through
accommodation spaces) shall comply with the requirements specified in 2.7.1 and
additionally shall be provided with:
.1 automatically and remotely operated fire dampers located in the lower end
of the duct at the junction between the duct and the galley range hood;
.2 remotely operated fire damper, located in the upper end of the duct in
a position close to the outlet of the duct. Where the exhaust duct has
branches below the upper fire damper, each branch shall be fitted with
a remotely operated fire damper;
.3 suitably located hatches for inspection and cleaning. One hatch shall be
provided close to the exhaust fan. A hatch for inspection and cleaning shall
206
Fire Protection
also be fitted in the lower end of the galley exhaust duct, where the grease
can accumulate.
Remotely controlled arrangements for shutting off the exhaust and supply fans
serving the galley, for operating the fire dampers (including the fire dampers in
each branch), as well as for operating the fire-extinguishing system shall be located
outside the galley, in a position close to the entrance to the galley.
6.1.17.3 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the exhaust duct from
a galley range installed on open decks shall comply with the requirements specified
in 6.1.17.2 when passing through accommodation spaces or spaces containing
combustible materials.
6.1.18
Fire-Extinguishing Arrangements in Machinery Spaces
6.1.18.1 In all passenger ships, machinery spaces of category A shall be fitted
with fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing system, required in 2.5.1.1.
6.1.18.2 In passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, machinery spaces
of category A above 500 m3 in volume, in addition to the fixed total flooding fireextinguishing system shall be protected by a local water-based system or an
equivalent system complying with the requirements specified in 3.4.6.
System activation alarm signals shall be located in the ship safety centre/
continuously manned central control station - see 6.1.25.2.4.11.
6.1.18.3 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, each machinery space of
category A shall be provided with two water fog applicators.
6.1.19
Carbon Dioxide Fire-Extinguishing System
The piping of each fixed carbon dioxide system used on ship shall be such
that 85% of the required gas quantity may be discharged into each protected space
within 2 min.
6.1.20
Fire-Fighter’s Outfit
6.1.20.1 In passenger ships, if the aggregate of the lengths of all passenger
spaces and service spaces on the deck which carries such spaces is more than 80
metres, or, if there is more than one such deck, on the deck which has the largest
aggregate of such lengths, two fire-fighter’s outfits and two sets of personal
equipment for every 80 metres, or part thereof, of such aggregate of lengths shall
be additionally provided.
In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two additional firefighter’s outfits shall be provided for each main vertical zone. However, for
stairway enclosures which constitute individual main vertical zones and for the
main vertical zones in the fore or aft end of a ship which do not contain spaces of
categories (6), (7), (8) or (12) defined in 6.1.4, no additional fire-fighter’s outfits
are required.
Additional Requirements
207
6.1.20.2 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, for each pair of breathing
apparatus there shall be provided one water fog applicator which shall be stored
adjacent to such apparatus.
6.1.20.3 In all passenger ships, at least two fire-fighter’s outfits and, in addition,
one set of personal equipment shall be available at any one position. At least two
fire-fighter’s outfits shall be stored in each main vertical zone.
6.1.20.4 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two spare charges for each
breathing apparatus shall be provided, irrespective of fitting the ship with the
means for fully recharging the air cylinders.
Ships carrying not more than 36 passengers provided with the means for fully
recharging the air cylinders may be provided with only one spare charge for each
breathing apparatus.
6.1.20.5 Passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers shall be fitted with
a suitably located means for fully recharging breathing air cylinders, free from
contamination. The means for recharging shall be either:
.1 breathing air compressors supplied from the main and emergency
switchboard, or independently driven, with a minimum capacity of 60 l/min
per required breathing apparatus, not to exceed 420 l/min; or
.2 self-contained high-pressure storage systems of suitable pressure to
recharge the breathing apparatus used on board, with a capacity of at least
1200 l per required breathing apparatus, not to exceed 50000 l of free air.
6.1.21
Fire Control Plan
6.1.21.1 Fire Control Plan, referred to in 1.4.2, is required on each passenger
ship, irrespective of its gross tonnage.
6.1.21.2 For passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, Fire Control Plan
shall additionally contain the following information: date on which the keel was laid,
date and scope of the ship modifications, as well as the applied additionally safety
measures in accordance with the guidelines given in Res.A.756(18).
6.1.22
Fire Protection of Exhaust Duct from Main Laundry (Chemical
Laundry)
In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the exhaust duct from the main
laundry shall be fitted with:
.1 filter(s) readily removable for cleaning purposes;
.2 automatically and remotely operated fire damper located in the lower end
of the duct;
.3 suitably located hatches for inspection and cleaning.
The main laundry shall be provided with remote control arrangements for
shutting off the exhaust duct fans and supply fans from within the space and for
operating the fire damper, referred to in .2.
208
Fire Protection
6.1.23
6.1.23.1
Requirements for Large Passenger Ships in the Context of Fire
Casualties – after a Fire Casualty that does not Exceed the Casualty
Threshold
Application
6.1.23.1.1 The requirements of sub-chapter 6.1.23 apply to passenger ships
constructed on or after 1 July 2010 having the length 1) of 120 m or more or having
three or more main vertical zones.
6.1.23.1.2 Sub-chapter 6.1.23 specifies the design criteria for a ship’s safe return
to a port of refuge under its own propulsion after a fire casualty that does not
exceed the casualty threshold specified in 6.1.23.2 and provides also functional
requirements and performance standards for safe areas.
6.1.23.1.3 Interpretations regarding the requirements specified in the present
sub-chapter are given in Appendix to MSC.1/Circ.1369.
6.1.23.2
Fire Casualty Threshold
The casualty threshold, in the context of a fire, includes:
.1 loss of a space of origin up to the nearest A Class boundaries, which are
a part of the space of origin, if the space of origin is protected by a fixed
fire-extinguishing system; or
.2 loss of the space of origin and adjacent spaces up to the nearest A Class
boundaries, which are not part of the space of origin.
6.1.23.3
Safe Return to a Port of Refuge
6.1.23.3.1 When fire damage does not exceed the casualty threshold specified in
6.1.23.2, the ship shall be capable of returning to a port of refuge while providing
safe area(s) as defined in 1.2.69. To be deemed capable of returning to a port of
refuge, the following systems/arrangements shall remain operational in the
remaining part of the ship not affected by fire:
.1 propulsion;
.2 steering systems and steering-control systems;
.3 navigational systems;
.4 systems for filling, transfer and service of fuel oil;
.5 systems of internal communication between the navigation bridge, machinery
spaces, safety centre, fire-fighting and damage control teams, as well as
communication systems required for passenger and crew notification and
mustering;
.6 means of external communication;
.7 water fire main system;
1)
See the definitions of the ship’s length (L) given in Part II – Hull.
Additional Requirements
.8
.9
.10
.11
.12
.13
.14
209
fixed fire-extinguishing systems;
fire detection and fire alarm system;
bilge and ballast systems;
power-operated watertight and semi-watertight doors;
systems intended to support safe areas, specified in 6.1.23.4.1.2;
flooding detection systems; and
other systems determined to be vital to damage control efforts.
6.1.23.3.2 Interpretations relating to pipings, ventilation ducts, electric cables,
systems for filling, transfer and service of fuel oil, as well as means of external
communication are given in Annex to MSC.1/Circ.1437.
6.1.23.4
6.1.23.4.1
.1
.2
.3
.4
Safe Area(s)
Functional Requirements
the safe area(s) shall generally be internal space(s). However, the use of an
external space as a safe area may be allowed in ships operating in restricted
area of navigation and in relevant expected environmental conditions;
the safe area(s) shall provide all ship occupants (passengers and crew) with
the basic services to ensure that their health is maintained. These basic
services include:
.1 sanitation;
.2 water;
.3 food;
.4 alternate space for medical care;
.5 shelter from the weather;
.6 means of preventing heat stress and hypothermia;
.7 light; and
.8 ventilation;
ventilation system shall reduce the risk that smoke and hot gases could
affect the use of the safe area(s); and
means of access to life-saving appliances shall be provided from each area
identified or used as a safe area, taking into account that a main vertical
zone may not be available for internal transit.
6.1.23.4.2
Alternate Space for Medical Care
Alternate space for medical care shall comply with the requirements specified in
MSC/Circ. 1129.
210
Fire Protection
6.1.24
6.1.24.1
Requirements for Large Passenger Ships in the Context of Fire
Casualties – if the Casualty Threshold is Exceeded
Application
6.1.24.1.1 The requirements of sub-chapter 6.1.24 apply to passenger ships
having the length L 1) of 120 m or more or having three or more main vertical zones.
6.1.24.1.2 Sub-chapter 6.1.24 provides the basic criteria for systems required to
remain operational for supporting the orderly evacuation and abandonment of
a ship if the casualty threshold, as defined in 6.1.23.2, is exceeded.
6.1.24.1.3 Interpretations regarding the requirements set forth in the present subchapter are given in the Appendix to MSC.1/Circ. 1369.
6.1.24.2
Requirements for Systems that Shall Remain Operational
if the Casualty Threshold is Exceeded
6.1.24.2.1 In the case when one main vertical zone is unserviceable due to fire,
the following systems shall be so arranged and segregated as to remain operational:
.1 water fire main system;
.2 internal communication systems (in support of fire-fighting teams, for
passenger and crew notification and mustering);
.3 means of external communication;
.4 bilge systems for removal of fire-fighting water;
.5 lighting along escape routes, at assembly stations and at embarkation
stations of life-saving appliances; and
.6 the systems of marking escape routes or alternative evacuation guidance
systems.
6.1.24.2.2 The above systems shall be capable of operation for at least 3h (from
the moment the casualty threshold has been exceeded) on the assumption of no
damage outside the unserviceable main vertical zone. These systems are not
required to remain operational within the unserviceable main vertical zone.
6.1.24.2.3 Cables and piping for the systems, referred to in 6.1.24.2.1, passing
through the unserviceable main vertical zone shall be run within a trunk
constructed to A-60 Class standard. An equivalent degree of protection for the
above-mentioned cables and piping may be allowed subject to agreement with
PRS.
1)
See the definitions of the ship’s length (L) given in Part II – Hull.
Additional Requirements
6.1.25
6.1.25.1
211
Safety Centre
Application
6.1.25.1.1 Every passenger ship shall have on board a safety centre to assist with
the management of emergency situations, complying with the requirements of the
present sub-chapter.
6.1.25.1.2 Clarifications regarding interrelation between the central control
station, navigation bridge and safety centre are given in MSC.1/Circ.1368.
6.1.25.2
Requirements for Safety Centre
6.1.25.2.1 The safety centre shall either be a part of the navigation bridge or be
located in a separate space adjacent to and having direct access to the navigation
bridge so that the management of emergencies can be performed without
distracting watch officers from their navigational duties.
6.1.25.2.2 The layout and ergonomic design of the safety centre shall take into
account the guidelines developed by IMO (MSC.1/Circ. 1368).
6.1.25.2.3 Means of communication between the safety centre, the central control
station, the navigation bridge, the engine control room, the storage rooms (stations)
for fire fire-extinguishing systems and fire equipment lockers shall be provided.
6.1.25.2.4 The full functionality (operation, control, monitoring or any
combination thereof, as required) of the safety systems shall be available from the
safety centre:
.1 all power ventilation systems;
.2 fire doors;
.3 general alarm system;
.4 public address system;
.5 electrically powered escape routes low-location lighting systems or
evacuation guidance systems;
.6 watertight and semi-watertight doors;
.7 indicators (open-closed) for shell doors, loading doors and other closing
appliances;
.8 water leakage of inner/outer bow doors, stern doors and any other shell
doors;
.9 television surveillance system;
.10 fire detection and fire alarm system;
.11 fixed local fire-extinguishing systems;
.12 automatic sprinkler systems and equivalent systems;
.13 water-based fire-extinguishing systems for machinery spaces;
.14 alarm to summon the crew;
212
Fire Protection
.15 atrium smoke distraction systems;
.16 flooding detection systems;
.17 fire pumps and emergency fire pumps.
6.2
Ferries and Ro-Ro Ships – Marks: FERRY, RO-RO SHIP
6.2.1
Means of Escape from Ro-Ro Spaces
6.2.1.1 At least two means of escape shall be provided in ro-ro spaces where the crew
are normally employed. The escape routes shall provide a safe escape to the lifeboat
and liferaft embarkation decks and shall be located at the fore and aft ends of the space.
6.2.1.2 Escape and access routes shall be so arranged as to ensure safe escape
routes during loading and unloading such as solid-line indication of an escape lane,
with minimum clearance of 600 mm in width.
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
Fire Protection Arrangements in Ro-Ro Cargo Spaces and Vehicle
Spaces
Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System
6.2.2.1.1 Ro-ro cargo spaces and vehicle spaces shall be fitted with a fixed fire
detection and fire alarm system in accordance with the requirements specified in
4.1. The system shall be capable of rapidly detecting the onset of fire. The type of
detectors and their spacing shall be in accordance with PRS requirements taking
into account the effects of ventilation and other relevant factors. After being
installed, the system shall be tested under normal ventilation conditions and shall
give an overall response in accordance with PRS requirements.
6.2.2.1.2 Smoke detector sections in ro-ro cargo spaces and vehicle spaces may
be provided with a timer for disconnecting the detector sections during loading and
unloading to avoid false alarms. The time of disconnection shall be adapted to the
time of loading/unloading. The control panel shall indicate whether the detector
sections are disconnected or not.
If, however, the manually operated call points have been installed, they shall not
be capable of being disconnected during loading and unloading of vehicles.
6.2.2.1.3 Except open ro-ro spaces, open vehicle spaces, a sample extraction
smoke detection system complying with the requirements specified in 4.2 may be
applied instead of fixed detection and alarm system.
6.2.2.2
Fixed Fire-Extinguishing Systems
6.2.2.2.1 Vehicle spaces and ro-ro spaces which are capable of being sealed from
a location outside of the cargo spaces shall be fitted with one of the fixed fireextinguishing systems:
Additional Requirements
.1
.2
.3
.4
213
gas fire-extinguishing system in accordance with the requirements specified
in 3.6;
a fixed high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system in accordance with
the requirements specified in 3.5.3;
a fixed pressure water-spraying system in accordance with the requirements
specified in 3.4.2;
an equivalent high-pressure water-spraying system in accordance with the
requirements specified in 3.4.3.
6.2.2.2.2 Ro-ro spaces and vehicle spaces not capable of being sealed shall be
fitted with a fixed pressure water-spraying system in accordance with the
requirements, specified in sub-chapter 3.4.2, for manual operation which shall
protect all parts of any deck and vehicle platform. Such water-spraying system
shall have:
.1 a pressure gauge on the valve manifold;
.2 clear marking on each manifold valve indicating the spaces/pipe section
served;
.3 instructions for maintenance and operation located in the valve manifold
room;
.4 a sufficient number of drainage valves.
6.2.2.2.3 When fixed pressure water-spraying systems are provided, in view of
the serious loss of stability which might arise due to large quantities of water
accumulating on the deck or decks during the operation of the fixed pressure waterspraying system, proper arrangements shall be made to drain the space in
accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.12, Part VI –
Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Systems.
6.2.2.3
Number and Position of Hydrants
The arrangement of hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of water not
emanating from the same hydrant, one of which shall be from a single length of
hose, may reach any part of any cargo space when empty, any ro-ro space or any
vehicle space, in which latter case the two jets of water shall reach any part of the
space, each from a single length of hose. Furthermore, such hydrants shall be
positioned near accesses to the protected space.
6.2.2.4
Ventilation
Ventilation in closed ro-ro spaces and closed vehicle spaces shall fulfil the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 11.4, Part VI – Machinery Installations and
Refrigerating Plants.
In cargo ships, ventilation fans shall normally be run continuously whenever
vehicles are on board. Where there is a possibility of shutting off fans during
voyage (only in cargo ships), the vehicle space shall be proved combustible gas-
214
Fire Protection
free well in advance prior to vehicle discharge. One or more portable combustible
gas detecting instruments shall be carried for this purpose.
6.2.2.5
Sources of Ignition
Electrical equipment and wiring in closed ro-ro cargo spaces and vehicle spaces
which may be the source of ignition shall be explosion-proof and shall fulfil the
relevant requirements specified in sub-chapter 22.3, Part VIII – Electrical
Installations and Control Systems.
Other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of flammable
vapours is not permitted in closed ro-ro cargo spaces and vehicle spaces.
NO SMOKING signs shall be placed on all entrance doors to ro-ro spaces and
vehicle spaces.
6.2.2.6
Scuppers and Discharges
Scuppers from closed ro-ro cargo spaces and vehicle spaces shall not be led to
machinery or other spaces where sources of ignition may be present.
Scuppers and discharges shall fulfil the requirements specified in sub-chapter
6.12, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
6.2.2.7
Permanent Openings
Permanent openings in the side plating, the ends or deckhead of the space shall
be so situated that a fire in the cargo space does not endanger stowage areas and
embarkation stations for survival craft and accommodation spaces, service spaces
and control stations in superstructures and deckhouses above the cargo spaces.
6.2.2.8
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
6.2.2.8.1 Portable fire-extinguishers shall be provided at each deck level in each
hold or compartment where vehicles are carried, spaced not more than 20 m apart
on both sides of the space. At least one portable fire-extinguisher shall be located at
each access to such a cargo space.
Portable fire-extinguishers are not required for weather decks used as cargo roro spaces.
6.2.2.8.2 Each ro-ro and vehicle space intended for the carriage of motor
vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion shall be additionally
provided with the following fire-extinguishing appliances:
.1 at least three water-fog applicators; and
.2 one portable foam applicator unit in accordance with the requirements
specified in 5.1.3, provided that at least two such units are available in the
ship for use in such spaces.
Additional Requirements
215
6.2.2.8.3 Cargo holds, loaded with vehicles with fuel in their tanks and stowed in
open or closed containers need not be provided with the portable fire-extinguishers,
water fog applicators and foam applicator unit.
6.2.3
Fire Protection of Open Deck
Open vehicle spaces need not be provided with fire detection and alarm system,
fixed water-spraying fire-extinguishing system, portable foam applicator units and
portable fire-extinguishers.
6.3
Tankers (Crude Oil Tankers and Product Carriers) Carrying Cargoes
Having a Flash-Point not exceeding 60 ºC and Combination Carriers –
Marks: CRUDE OIL TANKER, PRODUCT CARRIER A, CRUDE OIL
TANKER/ORE CARRIER, CRUDE OIL TANKER/ORE
CARRIER/BULK CARRIER
6.3.1
Application
The requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.3 apply to tankers carrying crude
oil or petroleum products having a flash-point not exceeding 60 °C (closed cup
test), as determined by an approved flash-point apparatus, and a Reid vapour
pressure which is below atmospheric pressure or other liquid products of similar
fire-hazard, as well as to combination carriers intended for the alternate carriage of
the above-mentioned liquid cargoes.
6.3.2
Location and Separation of Spaces
Ship spaces shall be so arranged or separated, e.g. by cofferdams, as to preclude
the cargo or its vapour from penetration to the spaces/zones where there is a risk of
explosion.
Cofferdam means an isolating space (where there is a risk of explosion)
between two adjacent steel bulkheads or decks which ensures safe access and
inspection 1). In the case when a corner-to-corner situation occurs, this principle
may be applied by welding a diagonal plate across the corner 2) .
Void space or ballast water tank protecting fuel oil tank need not be considered
as "cargo area", defined in 1.2.70, even though they have a cruciform contact with
the cargo oil tank or slop tank.
Void spaces protecting fuel oil tanks are not considered as a cofferdam even
though they have a cruciform contact with the slop tank.
1)
2)
No cargo, wastes or other goods shall be located in cofferdams.
The example of such isolating plates - see Appendix to MSC/Circ.1120, interpretations of SOLAS
regulation II-2/4.5.1.
216
6.3.2.1
Fire Protection
Machinery Spaces
6.3.2.1.1 Cargo pump-rooms, cargo tanks, slop tanks and cofferdams shall be
positioned forward of machinery spaces. Cargo tanks and slop tanks shall be
isolated from machinery spaces by cofferdams, cargo pump-rooms, oil fuel bunker
tanks or ballast tanks.
6.3.2.1.2 Machinery spaces, other than those of category A, may be permitted
forward of the cargo tanks and slop tanks, provided they are:
.1 isolated from the cargo tanks and slop tanks by cofferdams, cargo pumprooms, oil fuel bunker tanks or ballast tanks; and
.2 have at least one portable fire-extinguisher. In cases where they contain
internal combustion machinery, one approved mobile foam-type
extinguisher of at least 45 l capacity or equivalent shall be arranged in
addition to portable fire-extinguishers. If operation of a mobile fire
extinguisher is impracticable, this fire-extinguisher may be replaced by two
additional portable fire-extinguishers.
Where deemed necessary for the safety or navigation of the ship, machinery
spaces containing internal combustion machinery not being main propulsion
machinery having an output greater than 375 kW may be located forward of the
cargo area, provided the arrangements are in accordance with the provisions of the
present paragraph.
6.3.2.2
Cargo Pump-Rooms
6.3.2.2.1 Cargo pump-rooms (where pumps of cargo such as cargo pumps,
stripping pumps and pumps for crude oil washing of cargo tanks are provided)
shall be positioned forward of machinery spaces.
Cargo pump-rooms shall be considered as separate spaces bounded by gas-tight
divisions.
6.3.2.2.2 Pump-rooms containing pumps and their accessories for ballasting
those spaces situated adjacent to cargo tanks and slop tanks and pumps for oil fuel
transfer, shall be considered as equivalent to a cargo pump-room within the context
of this regulation provided that such pump-rooms have the same safety standard as
that required for cargo pump-rooms.
Pump-rooms intended solely for ballast or oil fuel transfer serving spaces not
adjacent to cargo tanks need not fulfil the requirements for cargo pump-rooms.
6.3.2.2.3 The lower portion of the pump-room may be recessed into machinery
spaces of category A to accommodate pumps, provided that the deck head of the
recess is in general not more than one-third of the moulded depth H (for H see 1.2,
Part II – Hull) above the keel, except that in the case of ships of not more than
25,000 tonnes deadweight, where it can be demonstrated that for reasons of access
and satisfactory piping arrangements this is impracticable, PRS may permit
Additional Requirements
217
a recess in excess of such height, but not exceeding one-half of the moulded depth
above the keel.
6.3.2.2.4 To ensure fire safety in cargo-pump rooms during assembly, inspection
and maintenance, reference is made to the guidelines set out in MSC.1/Circ.1321.
6.3.2.3
Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces, Control Stations and Cargo
Control Stations
6.3.2.3.1 Accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations and main cargo
control stations (excluding isolated cargo handling gear lockers) shall be positioned
aft of cargo tanks, slop tanks, and spaces which isolate cargo or slop tanks from
machinery spaces, but not necessarily aft of the oil fuel bunker tanks and ballast
tanks, and shall be so arranged that a single failure of a deck or bulkhead shall not
permit the entry of gas or vapours from the cargo tanks into an accommodation
space, main cargo control stations, control station or service spaces.
6.3.2.3.2 Exceptionally, where deemed necessary, PRS may permit
accommodation and service spaces, control stations and the main cargo control
stations forward of the cargo tanks, slop tanks and spaces which isolate cargo and
slop tanks from machinery spaces.
6.3.2.3.3 Where the fitting of a navigation position above the cargo area is shown
to be necessary, it shall be for navigation purposes only and it shall be separated
from the cargo tank deck by means of an open space with a height of at least 2 m.
Fire protection requirements for such a navigation position shall be that required
for control stations on tankers, as specified in Tables 6.3.3-1 and 6.3.3-2 and other
relevant paragraphs of Part V.
6.3.2.3.4 In way of accommodation spaces, a smoking room shall be arranged.
The room shall be protected by B-15 Class divisions, the interior finishing of the
room shall be made of materials with low flame-spread characteristics and it shall
be provided with sufficient ventilation.
6.3.2.3.5 In accommodation spaces and service spaces, only IC method,
specified in 2.2.3.1, shall be used.
6.3.2.4
Requirements for Combination Carriers
In combination carriers intended for the alternate carriage of petroleum products
and dry cargoes in bulk, the following requirements shall be fulfilled:
.1 the slop tanks shall be surrounded by cofferdams, except where the
boundaries of the slop tanks are formed by: the hull, the main cargo deck,
cargo pump-room bulkhead or oil fuel storage tank. These cofferdams shall
not be open to a double bottom, pipe tunnel, pump-room or other enclosed
space nor shall they be used for cargo or ballast and shall not be connected
218
Fire Protection
.2
6.3.2.5
to piping systems serving oil cargo or ballast. Means shall be provided for
filling the cofferdams with water and for draining them. Where the
boundary of a slop tank is part of the cargo pump-room bulkhead, the pump
room shall not be open to the double bottom, pipe tunnel or other enclosed
space; however, openings provided with gastight bolted covers are
permitted;
hatches and tank cleaning openings to slop tanks shall only be permitted on
the open deck and shall be fitted with closing arrangements. Except where
they consist of bolted plates with bolts at watertight spacing, these closing
arrangements shall be provided with locking arrangements which prevent
unauthorised opening.
Requirements for Exterior Boundaries of Superstructures
and Cargo Deck
6.3.2.5.1 Permanent continuous coaming reaching from side to side, at least 300
mm in height, shall be provided on the open deck about 2 m from the front
bulkhead of the superstructure containing accommodation and service spaces so
that any cargo spilled on the deck could not penetrate into the accommodation and
service space area.
Where stern loading station is installed on board the ship, such coaming shall be
provided also at the stern bulkhead of the superstructure.
6.3.2.5.2 Exterior boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses enclosing
accommodation spaces, including any overhanging decks which support such
spaces shall be constructed of steel and A-60 Class standard type for the whole
length in the cargo area and on the sides for the length of 3 m aft from the end
boundary of the cargo space area on every deck. The superstructure and deckhouse
bulkheads which face the cargo area should be provided (at 3 m length) with A-60
Class standard insulation up to the underside of the deck of the navigation bridge.
Penetrations of pipes, cables and ventilation ducts through exterior boundaries
of superstructures, which are required to be of A-60 Class standard, shall fulfil the
requirements specified in 2.2.5.
6.3.2.5.3 In boundary bulkheads of superstructures and deckhouses, access
doors, air inlets and openings to accommodation spaces, service spaces, control
stations and machinery spaces shall not face the cargo area. They shall be located
on the transverse bulkhead not facing the cargo area or on the outboard side of the
superstructure or deckhouse at a distance of at least 4% of the length of the ship but
not less than 3 m from the end of the superstructure or deckhouse facing the cargo
area. This distance, however, need not exceed 5 m.
Access to forecastle spaces containing sources of ignition is permitted through
doors facing the cargo area, provided that such doors are located outside hazardous
areas as defined in IEC Publication 60092-502.
Additional Requirements
219
6.3.2.5.4 In boundary bulkheads of superstructures facing the cargo area and on
the sides of superstructures at a distance less than that specified in 6.3.2.5.3, access
doors to main cargo control stations and to such service spaces as provision rooms,
store-rooms and lockers may be fitted, provided they do not give access to
accommodation spaces, control stations and other service spaces – such as galleys,
pantries or workshops – in which potential sources of flammable vapour ignition
may exist. Boundaries of such spaces shall be insulated to A-60 Class standard,
with the exception of the boundaries facing the cargo area.
In the above-mentioned boundaries, openings closed with bolted plates, for the
removal of machinery may be provided.
In these boundaries, the navigation bridge doors and windows may be fitted,
provided they are gastight 1).
In these boundaries, access to a deck foam system room (including the foam
tank and control station) is permitted, provided that the door is located flush with
the bulkhead.
6.3.2.5.5 Windows and sidescuttles facing the cargo area and installed on the
sides of the superstructures and deckhouses within the limits specified in 6.3.2.5.3
shall be of the fixed (non-opening) type. Such windows and sidescuttles, except
wheelhouse windows, shall be constructed to A-60 Class standard.
The location of the windows and sidescuttles shall correspond to a prototype
subjected to fire test with the fire against its external side (i.e. the side which, after
installation on board, will be exposed to the weather).
Windows and sidescuttles mounted in excess of the limits, specified in
6.3.2.5.3, may be constructed to A-0 Class standard.
6.3.2.5.6 Rubbing strakes shall be made of, or faced with, material precluding
spark formation.
6.3.3
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks
6.3.3.1 The minimum fire integrity of vertical divisions (partitions, bulkheads)
separating adjacent spaces shall be in accordance with Table 6.3.3-1 and the
minimum fire integrity of decks – in accordance with Table 6.3.3-2.
1)
The navigation bridge external doors and windows considered gastight shall be tested for
gastightness. If a water hose test is applied, the following shall be taken as a guide:
– nozzle diameter: minimum 12 mm;
– water pressure just before the nozzle: not less than 0.2 MPa; and
– distance between the nozzle and the doors or windows: maximum 1.5 m.
220
Fire Protection
Table 6.3.3-1
Fire integrity of bulkheads separating adjacent spaces
Spaces
Control stations
Corridors
(1)
(2)
Accommodation spaces
(3)
Stairways
(4)
Service spaces of low fire risk
Machinery spaces of category A
Other machinery spaces
Cargo pump-rooms
Service spaces of high fire risk
Open decks
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(1)
A-0c)
(2)
A-0
C
(3)
A-60
B-0
C
(4)
A-0
B-0
A-0a)
B-0
A-0a)
B-0
A-0a)
(5)
A-15
B-0
(6)
A-60
A-60
(7)
A-15
A-0
(8)
A-60
A-60
(9)
A-60
A-0
(10)
*
*
B-0
A-60
A-0
A-60
A-0
*
B-0
A-0a)
C
A-60
A-0
A-60
A-0
*
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0b)
A-60
A-0d)
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-60
A-0b)
*
*
*
*
*
–
221
Additional Requirements
Table 6.3.3-2
Fire integrity of decks separating adjacent spaces
Space above →
Space below ↓
Control stations
(1)
Corridors
(2)
Accommodation spaces
(3)
Stairways
(4)
Service spaces of low fire risk
(5)
Machinery spaces of category A (6)
Other machinery spaces
(7)
Cargo pump–rooms
(8)
Service spaces of high fire risk
(9)
Open decks
(10)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-15
A-60
A-15
–
A-60
*
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
–
A-0
*
A-0
*
*
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
–
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
–
A-0
*
A-0
*
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
–
A-0
*
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0d)
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60e)
*
A-0
A-0
*
–
–
–
–
–
A-0
A-0
*
–
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
–
A-0b)
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
–
222
Fire Protection
Notes to Table 6.3.3-1 and Table 6.3.3-2, as appropriate:
a)
For clarification as to which applies, see 2.2.3 and 2.2.4.
b)
Where spaces are in the same numerical category, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the
Tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose, for example, in
category (9) a galley next to a galley does not require a bulkhead, but a galley next to a paint
room requires an A-0 bulkhead.
c)
Bulkheads separating the navigation bridge, the chartroom and radio room from each other may
be of B-0 rating.
d)
Bulkheads and decks between cargo pump-rooms and machinery spaces of category A may be
penetrated by cargo pump shaft glands and similar gland penetrations, provided that gastight seals
with efficient lubrication or other means ensuring the permanence of the gas seal are fitted in way
of the bulkhead or deck penetrations.
e)
Fire insulation need not be fitted in the machinery space in category (7) of low fire risk. To
determine such machinery space – see 6.1.4.2(10).
* Where an asterisk appears in the table, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent
material, but is not required to be of A Class standard. However, where a deck, except an open
deck, is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes and vent ducts, such penetrations shall
be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke. Divisions between control stations
(emergency generators) and open decks may have air intake openings without means for closure,
unless a fixed gas fire-fighting system is fitted.
6.3.3.2
The principles, given in 2.2.2.2, shall govern the application of the Tables.
The spaces have been subdivided into 10 categories according to their fire risk:
(1) Control stations:
– spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting (battery rooms
and spaces containing emergency power generating units);
– wheelhouse and chartroom, radar transmitter rooms;
– spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment;
– fire control station;
– control rooms for propulsion machinery when located outside the
machinery space;
– spaces containing centralised fire alarm equipment.
(2) Corridors – corridors and lobbies.
(3) Accommodation spaces – see the definitions given 1.2.51, excluding
corridors.
(4) Stairways – interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks
and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery
spaces) and enclosures thereto. A stairway which is enclosed at one level only
shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire
door.
(5) Service spaces (low fire risk):
– lockers and store-rooms not having provisions for the storage of flammable
liquids and having areas less than 4 m2 as well as drying rooms and
laundries;
Additional Requirements
223
– identifiable spaces containing electrical distribution boards (having a deck
area of 4 m2 or less);
– refrigerated provision chambers thermally insulated with non-combustible
material.
(6) Machinery spaces of category A – spaces as defined in sub-chapter 1.2.65.
(7) Other machinery spaces:
– spaces as defined in 1.2.64, excluding machinery spaces of category A;
– rooms containing electrical equipment, e.g. auto-telephone exchange,
distribution boards, air-conditioning duct spaces.
(8) Cargo pump-rooms – all spaces containing cargo pumps including
trunkways and hatchways to such spaces.
(9) Service spaces (high fire risk) – galleys, pantries containing cooking
appliances, paint and flammable liquids rooms, lockers and store-rooms
having areas of 4 m2 or more, saunas, as well as workshops other than those
forming part of the machinery spaces, garbage handling and storage spaces, as
well as refrigerated provision chambers thermally insulated with combustible
material.
(10) Open decks – open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having no fire risk,
as well as air spaces outside superstructures and deckhouses.
6.3.3.3 Permanent gastight glazed ports, of approved type, for illuminating cargo
pump-rooms, may be fitted in bulkheads and deck separating cargo pump-rooms
and other spaces, provided they are of adequate strength and the fire integrity
and gastightness of the bulkhead or deck is maintained.
Glazed ports shall be protected against mechanical damage and shall be
provided with strong covers capable of being closed from outside the cargo pumproom.
Glazed ports shall be so constructed that glass and sealing will not be impaired
by the working of the ship.
The glass and the protection of the light fitting shall not impair the integrity of
the bulkhead and shall be of equivalent strength.
The fitting shall have the same resistance to fire and smoke as the unpierced
bulkhead.
6.3.3.4 Skylights to cargo pump-rooms shall be made of steel, shall not contain
any glass and shall be capable of being closed from outside the pump-room.
6.3.3.5 The construction and arrangement of saunas shall comply with the
requirements stated in 6.1.1.7. The sauna shall be insulated to A-60 Class standard
against other spaces except those inside of the perimeter and spaces of categories
(5), (7) and (10), specified in 6.3.3.2.
224
6.3.4
6.3.4.1
Fire Protection
Cargo Tank and Pump-Room Fire Protection
Fixed Deck Foam Systems
6.3.4.1.1 Tankers, irrespective of their deadweight, shall be provided with a fixed
deck foam system in accordance with the requirements specified in 3.9 to protect
the cargo tanks deck.
6.3.4.1.2 For tankers of 20 000 tonnes deadweight and upwards, an equivalent
fixed installation is permitted provided that such an installation shall:
.1 be capable of extinguishing spill fires (of spilled cargo) and also preclude
ignition of spilled oil not yet being ignited;
.2 be capable of combating fires in ruptured tanks.
6.3.4.1.3 Tankers with fore or aft loading stations (located outside the cargo
area) shall be provided with foam system for protecting these stations, of the
capacity 6 l/min per 1 m2 of the surface area.
6.3.4.2
Inert Gas Systems
6.3.4.2.1 Tankers of 20 000 tonnes deadweight and upwards shall be fitted with
an inert gas system.
The inert gas system shall be capable of inerting, purging and gas-freeing empty
tanks and maintaining the atmosphere in cargo tanks with the required oxygen content.
The inert gas system shall be designed, constructed and tested in accordance
with the requirements specified in 3.10.
6.3.4.2.2 All tankers, irrespective of their deadweight, operating with cargo tank
cleaning procedure using crude oil washing shall also be fitted with an inert gas
system in accordance with the requirements specified in 3.10.
6.3.4.2.3 Where an installation equivalent to a fixed inert gas system is installed,
it shall be:
.1 capable of preventing dangerous accumulations of explosive mixtures in
intact cargo tanks during normal service throughout the ballast voyage and
necessary in-tank operations; and
.2 so designed as to minimise the risk of ignition from the generation of static
electricity by the system itself.
6.3.4.2.4 Tankers required to be fitted with inert gas systems shall fulfil the
following requirements:
.1 double hull spaces and segregated ballast tanks adjacent to cargo tanks
shall be fitted with suitable connections for the supply of inert gas;
.2 where such hull spaces or tanks are connected to a permanently fitted inert
gas distribution system, means shall be provided to prevent hydrocarbon
Additional Requirements
225
gases from the cargo tanks entering such double hull spaces or tanks
through the system; and
.3 where such spaces or tanks are not permanently connected to an inert gas
distribution system, proper hose assemblies shall be used to allow
connection to the inert gas main.
Ballast system pipes are permitted to be used for conveying inert gas to the
separated ballast tanks.
6.3.4.3
Arrangements for Gas Measurement in Double Hull
and Double Bottom Spaces
6.3.4.3.1 Construction of the double hull spaces shall be such as to enable
measuring oxygen and flammable vapour concentrations in such spaces with
portable flammable vapour detectors using flexible gas sampling hoses.
6.3.4.3.2 Where the atmosphere in double hull spaces cannot be reliably
measured using flexible gas sampling hoses, such spaces shall be fitted with
permanent gas sampling lines. The configuration of gas sampling lines shall be
adapted to the design of such spaces.
6.3.4.3.3 The materials of construction and diameters of gas sampling lines shall
be such as to prevent their restriction. Where such lines are made of plastic
materials, they should be electrically conductive.
6.3.4.3.4 In addition to compliance with the requirements concerning portable
equipment for measuring oxygen and for measuring flammable vapour
concentrations, specified in 6.3.11, oil tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and
above shall be provided with fixed hydrocarbon gas detection system in accordance
with the requirements specified in 4.4.
6.3.4.3.5 Oil tankers provided with constant operative inerting systems for such
spaces need not be equipped with fixed hydrocarbon gas detection equipment.
6.3.4.3.6 Cargo pump-rooms provided with additional arrangements to prevent
explosion in cargo pump-rooms, as required in 6.3.5.2, need not be equipped with
fixed hydrocarbon gas detection system.
6.3.4.4
Detection of Flammable Vapours on Combination Carriers
An approved fixed gas warning system capable of monitoring flammable
vapours shall be provided in cargo pump-rooms, pipe ducts and cofferdams,
mentioned in 6.3.2.4, adjacent to slop tanks. Suitable arrangements shall be made
to facilitate measurement of flammable vapours in all other spaces within the cargo
area. Such measurements shall be made possible from the open deck or easily
accessible positions.
226
6.3.4.5
Fire Protection
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
On tankers with open deck, at least two portable fire-extinguishers shall be
provided.
6.3.4.6
Pipe Trunk within Cargo Tanks Deck Area
Where an enclosed pipe trunk is situated within the cargo tanks deck area, the
pipe trunk:
.1 shall be protected by one of the fixed fire-extinguishing systems (total
flooding) required in 6.3.5.1. The extinguishing system shall be operated
from a readily accessible position outside the pipe trunk;
.2 is not considered part of the cargo tanks deck area;
.3 the area of the pipe trunk need not be included in the calculation of the
foam solution rate of supply for the fixed deck foam system required in
6.3.4.1;
.4 shall be adequately ventilated and provided with lighting interlocked with
ventilation, as well as system for continuous monitoring of the
concentration of hydrocarbon gases, in accordance with the requirements
for cargo pump-rooms, specified in 6.3.5.2;
.5 shall contain no flammable gas sources other than pipes and flanges. If the
pipe trunk contains any other source of flammable gas, i.e. valves and
pumps, it shall be regarded as a cargo pump-room.
6.3.5
Fire Protection of Cargo Pump-rooms
The requirements specified in the present sub-chapter apply to pump-rooms
containing pumps for cargo, such as cargo pumps, stripping pumps, pumps for slop
tanks, pumps for COW or similar pumps.
Pump-rooms intended solely for ballast transfer or oil fuel transfer need not
fulfil these requirements.
6.3.5.1
Total Flooding Fixed Fire-Extinguishing Systems
6.3.5.1.1 Each cargo pump-room shall be provided with one of the following
fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing systems suitable for the protection of
machinery spaces of category A:
.1 carbon dioxide system operated from a readily accessible position
outside the pump-room in accordance with the requirements specified in
3.6 or equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system, referred to in 3.7,
complying with the following requirements:
– warning signalization shall comply with the requirements specified in
4.3 and 6.3.5.3;
– a notice shall be exhibited at the controls stating that due to the
electrostatic ignition hazard, the system is to be used solely for fire
extinguishing and not for inerting purposes;
Additional Requirements
227
high-expansion foam system in accordance with the requirements specified
in 3.5.3, provided that the foam concentrate supply is suitable for
extinguishing fires involving the cargoes carried;
.3 water-spraying fire-extinguishing system in accordance with the
requirements specified in 3.4.4.
The system shall be operated from an easily accessible position outside the
cargo pump-room.
.2
6.3.5.1.2 Where the extinguishing medium used in the cargo pump-room system
is also used in systems serving other spaces, the quantity of medium provided or its
delivery rate need not be more than the maximum required for the largest
compartment.
6.3.5.2
Additional Arrangements to Prevent Explosion in Cargo Pump-rooms
Cargo pump-rooms shall be fitted with:
.1 temperature monitoring system for pumps, driven by shaft passing through
pump-room bulkheads, such as: cargo pumps, slop pumps, ballast pumps,
stripping pumps, tank cleaning pumps (except small pumps of 1 m3/h
capacity or less and bilge pumps). Sensing points shall be provided on
bulkhead shaft glands, bearings and pump casing. The setting point shall be
about 60 – 80 oC. The sensing points shall be permanently fixed. When the
set point is reached, a signal shall be automatically effected in cargo central
room or the pump control station;
.2 lighting interlocked with ventilation;
.3 a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon
gases in accordance with the guidelines given in MSC.1/Circ.1321, Part IV,
Chapter. 3.2;
.4 bilge 1) level monitoring devices,
in accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 22.5.7, Part VIII –
Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
6.3.5.3
Pre-discharge Alarms in Cargo Pump-Room
Where a gas fire-extinguishing system is applied, an alarm system warning of the
release of an extinguishing medium to the cargo pump-room required in 3.6.3.7 shall:
.1 be air-operated and the air supply shall be properly dried and clean.
Application of CO2 operated alarms is not permitted owing to the
possibility of the generation of static electricity in the CO2 cloud; or
.2 electrically operated, and the arrangements shall be of an explosion-proof
type and such that the electric actuating mechanism is located outside the
pump room except where the alarms are certified intrinsically safe.
1)
Bilge high-level alarms are acceptable as an alternative means for the level monitoring devices.
228
Fire Protection
6.3.5.4
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
In each cargo pump-room, at least two portable fire-extinguishers shall be
provided.
6.3.5.5
Control of Ignition Sources
6.3.5.5.1
Any potential ignition sources shall be effectively protected.
6.3.5.5.2 Any penetration (including a movable part) of the engine room
boundary or safety area passing through a pump-room bulkhead shall be provided
with the following:
.1 gas-tight sealing device with efficient lubricant (periodic greasing type is
not permitted); and
.2 temperature measuring device.
6.3.5.6
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Cargo pump-rooms shall be fitted with fixed fire detection and alarm system, of
approved type, complying with the applicable requirements specified in 6.16.2. The
system shall be suitable for use in explosive atmosphere.
6.3.6
Fire-Extinguishing Arrangements in Machinery Spaces
Machinery spaces of category A in all tankers irrespective of gross tonnage shall
be provided with fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing system in accordance with
the requirements specified in 2.5.1.1.
6.3.7
Requirements for Paints and Flammable Liquids Store-Rooms
6.3.7.1 Paints and flammable liquids store-rooms shall fulfil the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 2.8.
These requirements are not applicable to store-rooms regarded as cargo service
spaces intended for the stowage of cargo samples, when such spaces are situated
within the cargo area.
6.3.7.2 Paint lockers, irrespective of their use, shall not be located above the
cargo tanks, slop tanks and compartments separating the cargo tanks or slop tanks
from the machinery spaces.
6.3.8
Water Fire Main System
6.3.8.1 In addition to the requirements specified in the present sub-chapter, water
fire main system shall fulfil the requirements specified in sub-chapter 3.2.
6.3.8.2 Where an emergency fire pump is located in the forebody, means shall be
provided to ensure operation of this pump, as well as sea valves from both the
pump-room and open deck.
Additional Requirements
229
6.3.8.3 Isolating valves shall be fitted in the water fire main at poop front in
a protected position and on the tank deck at intervals of not more than 40 m to
preserve the integrity of the fire main system in case of fire or explosion.
An information plate shall be provided at each valve to indicate that the valve
shall be always kept open during the ship’s normal operation.
6.3.8.4 Before each isolating valve on the water fire main located on cargo deck,
twin fire hydrants of 50 mm in diameter – for ships of gross tonnage not exceeding
1000, and of 65 mm in diameter – for ships of gross tonnage more than 1000 shall
be fitted, spaced equally over the length of the cargo deck.
6.3.8.5 Ships with fore loading stations and single point mooring arrangements
shall be provided with the sprinkler system for drenching the anchor stoppers, with
the application rate 5 l/min per 1 m2 of the horizontal projection of the anchor
stoppers, permanently connected to the water fire main system.
6.3.8.6 Fire hose attachment fittings shall not cause risk of sparking. Fire hose
coupling and nozzles used in the open deck area shall not be made from aluminium
alloys.
6.3.9
Application of Aluminium Coatings
The application of aluminium coatings is prohibited in cargo tanks, cargo deck
area, cargo pump-rooms, cofferdams and any other area where flammable vapour
of cargo may accumulate.
Aluminised pipes may be permitted in:
.1 ballast tanks;
.2 inerted cargo tanks;
.3 hazardous areas on open deck, provided the pipes are protected from
accidental impact.
6.3.10
Fire-Fighter’s Outfits
On each tanker, at least two fire-fighter’s outfits shall be provided in accordance
with the requirements specified in 5.1.4, additional to those required in 5.1.4.1.
6.3.11
Portable Instruments for Measuring Flammable Vapour
and Oxygen Concentrations
6.3.11.1 Each tanker shall be equipped with at least two portable gas detectors
capable of measuring flammable vapour concentrations and at least two portable
instruments for measuring oxygen concentrations, together with a sufficient set of
spares. Suitable means shall be provided for calibration of such instruments.
Alternatively, at least two dual-purpose type instruments capable of measuring
both oxygen and flammable vapours concentrations can be provided on board.
These instruments shall be capable of measuring flammable vapour
concentrations in double hull and double bottom spaces in connection with fixed
air sampling pipings, referred to in 6.3.4.3.2.
230
Fire Protection
6.3.11.2 In addition, for tankers fitted with inert gas systems, at least two
portable gas detectors shall be provided capable of measuring concentrations of
flammable vapours in inerted atmosphere.
6.3.11.3 Suitable arrangement shall be made on each cargo tank such that the
condition of the tank atmosphere can be determined using these portable instruments.
6.4
6.4.1
Product Carriers Carrying Cargoes having a Flash-Point Exceeding
60 ºC – Mark: PRODUCT CARRIER B
Ship Construction
The product carriers shall, in general, fulfil the requirements for cargo ships,
specified in Chapter 2. In respect of the fire integrity of vertical and horizontal
divisions separating adjacent spaces, the relevant requirements for cargo ships,
other than tankers, specified in 2.2.2, apply. Cargo pump-rooms shall be treated as
machinery spaces of category A.
6.4.2
Arrangement and Separation of Spaces
The arrangement of spaces with respect to cargo tanks shall fulfil the
requirements specified in 6.3.2, as appropriate, except the requirements regarding
the hazardous cargo pump-rooms and cargo area.
Superstructure exterior boundaries and windows facing the cargo area need not
be of A-60 Class standard.
6.4.3
Fire Protection of Cargo Tanks, Machinery Spaces and Cargo
Pump-Rooms
6.4.3.1 The tankers shall fulfil the requirements specified in Chapter 2, except
that instead of the fixed gas fire-extinguishing system required in 2.6.1 for the
protection of cargo spaces, it shall be fitted with a fixed deck foam fireextinguishing system for the protection of the cargo tank area in accordance with
the requirements specified in sub-chapter 3.9.
The tankers of less than 2000 gross tonnage need not be fitted with the fixed
deck foam fire-extinguishing system.
6.4.3.2 Fire protection of the machinery spaces shall fulfil the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 2.5.
6.4.3.3 Cargo pump-rooms shall be treated as machinery spaces of category A
and the fire protection arrangements shall be in accordance with sub-chapter 2.5.
6.4.3.4 Where cargo tanks are provided with cargo heating arrangements, the
possibility of the temperature measurement in cargo tanks shall be ensured and
means shall be provided to prevent the cargo from being heated to a temperature
that would constitute fire risk.
Additional Requirements
6.4.4
231
Water Fire Main System
Water fire main system shall additionally fulfil the requirements specified in
6.3.8.
6.4.5
Fire-Fighter’s Outfits
On each tanker, two additional fire-fighter’s outfits shall be provided in
accordance with the requirements specified in 5.1.4.
6.5
6.5.1
Special Purpose Ships – Mark: SPECIAL PURPOSE SHIP
General
6.5.1.1 For ships carrying not more than 60 persons of special personnel on
board, the fire protection requirements for cargo ships, specified in Chapter 2, shall
be applied.
6.5.1.2 For ships carrying more than 60, but not more than 240 persons of special
personnel on board, the fire protection requirements for passenger ships carrying
not more than 36 passengers, specified in sub-chapter 6.1, shall be applied.
6.5.1.3 For ships carrying more than 240 persons of special personnel on board,
the fire protection requirements for passenger ships carrying more than 36
passengers, specified in sub-chapter 6.1, shall be applied.
6.5.1.4 The minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks separating industrial
spaces in ships, mentioned in paragraphs 6.5.1.1 and 6.5.1.2, shall fulfil the
requirements specified in 2.2.2.2 for service spaces of category (5) or (9),
respectively, whereas in ships mentioned in paragraph 6.5.1.3 – the requirements
specified in paragraph 6.1.4.2 for spaces of category (10) or (14), respectively.
6.5.1.5 In industrial spaces, where due to their functions, A-60 Class fire division
cannot be made, water screen system complying with the requirements specified
in 3.4.9 may be applied.
6.5.2
Store-Rooms for Explosives
6.5.2.1 In special purpose ships, the arrangement of store-rooms for explosives
may be made, provided the requirements specified in paragraphs 6.5.2.2 to 6.5.2.22
are fulfilled. The store-rooms of the following type may be provided:
.1 built-in store-rooms – spaces which constitute part of the ship’s hull
structure;
.2 portable self-contained store-rooms – spaces which do not constitute part
of the ship’s hull structure, of the volume of 3 m3 or more;
.3 portable boxes for the storage of explosives – boxes which do not constitute
part of the ship’s hull structure, of the volume less than 3 m3.
232
Fire Protection
6.5.2.2 Built-in store-rooms shall be situated in the forward or after part of the
ship’s hull and shall be separated from the propeller shaft, propeller and rudder by
at least one watertight compartment. Store-rooms shall not be located under
accommodation spaces, control stations and fuel storage spaces, neither be adjacent
thereto.
6.5.2.3 Built-in store-rooms shall not be adjacent to machinery spaces of
category A, boiler rooms, galley and other fire hazardous spaces. If, however, such
location cannot be avoided, a cofferdam of at least 0.6 m in width, separating these
spaces, shall be provided. The cofferdam shall be fitted with ventilation and shall
be empty. One of the walls enclosing the cofferdam shall be of A-15 Class
division. Where the cofferdam is adjacent to machinery space of category A, the
isolating wall shall be of A-30 Class division.
6.5.2.4 Access to store-rooms built in the ship’s hull shall be provided from the
open deck through a watertight or gastight door. In no case shall the access to
store-rooms be provided through spaces mentioned in paragraphs 6.5.2.2 and
6.5.2.3.
6.5.2.5 Self-contained store-rooms and boxes for explosives shall be located
on the open deck in protected places.
6.5.2.6 Boxes for the storage of explosives shall be located on the open deck
in places affording easy disposal of the content of the boxes overboard in case
of emergency.
6.5.2.7 Bulkheads and decks forming store-rooms for explosives shall be
watertight and constructed of steel. They shall be of A-15 Class division. Insulation
preventing water condensation shall be provided.
6.5.2.8 Pipelines of fresh water, sea water and bilge installation may be run
through store-rooms for explosives.
Pipelines of other installations may be run through the store-rooms, provided
they are encased in a watertight duct.
6.5.2.9 Doors and covers of store-rooms shall be provided with means enabling
them to be locked.
6.5.2.10 Store-rooms shall be fitted with shelves. The construction and the
capacity of the shelves shall be such as to secure the safe stowage of the entire
store of explosives in containers of the approved type and to preclude the latter
from shifting or falling in case of roll.
The upper shelf shall not be located higher than 1.8 m above the floor. The
shelves shall have holes to facilitate the flow of water from the upper to the lower
shelves during the operation of the water-spraying system.
Additional Requirements
233
6.5.2.11 The floor of store-rooms shall be covered with permanent, antislip
material precluding spark formation, such as floor-mats.
6.5.2.12 The free volume of the store-room, when loaded, shall be at least 70%
of the entire store-room space and the cubic capacity of the store-room shall be not
less than one cubic metre per each 100 kg of explosives or 1000 detonating fuses.
6.5.2.13 Store-rooms built in the ship’s hull shall be provided with natural or
mechanical ventilation which would ensure the temperature inside store-rooms not
exceeding 38 ºC. Openings of this ventilation shall be provided with flame
arresters.
6.5.2.14 Portable store-rooms shall be provided with an effective natural
ventilation, the inlet and outlet openings of the ventilation being fitted with flame
arresters.
6.5.2.15 Store-rooms shall be fitted with automatic temperature alarms whose
detectors will operate at temperatures rising above 40 °C. An appropriate signal
indicator shall be provided on the navigation bridge and in the ship’s fire officer
cabin.
6.5.2.16 Built-in and portable store-rooms for explosives shall be fitted with
water-spraying system in accordance with the requirements specified in 3.4.
Control devices shall be clearly marked.
6.5.2.17 Scuppers shall be fitted in the store-room decks. The scupper pipes shall
be fitted with valves which shall be kept permanently closed under normal service
conditions. The valves shall be controlled from outside the store-room.
6.5.2.18 Portable store-rooms shall be fitted with plates stating the weight of the
empty store-room and the weight of the store-room loaded to a maximum.
6.5.2.19 Boxes for the stowage of explosives shall be watertight and constructed of
metal. The thickness of the walls and cover of the boxes shall be not less than 3 mm.
Surfaces exposed to a direct solar radiation shall be provided with a protective screen.
6.5.2.20 Store-rooms shall be provided with the following conspicuous
inscriptions:
.1 Store-room for explosives;
.2 Do not approach with open fire;
.3 Keep the door closed.
6.5.2.21 Boxes for the stowage of explosives shall be provided with the
following conspicuous inscriptions:
.1 Box for the stowage of explosives;
.2 Do not approach with open fire;
.3 Unauthorised opening prohibited.
234
Fire Protection
6.5.2.22
Special rooms shall be provided for the stowage of fuses.
6.5.2.23 Electrical equipment of the store-rooms for explosives shall fulfil
the requirements specified in sub-chapter 22.5.3, Part VIII – Electrical Installations
and Control Systems.
6.5.3
Fire Detection and Fire Alarm System
6.5.3.1 Fire detection and fire alarm system shall be provided in ships of 1000
gross tonnage and upwards and in the case when method IIIC of fire protection is
applied – also in ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards.
In spaces fitted with automatic sprinkler system, fire detection and fire alarm
system need not be provided.
6.5.3.2 Fire detection and fire alarm system shall be provided in the following
spaces:
.1 accommodation and service spaces;
.2 store-rooms for explosives, readily ignitable materials and flammable
liquids, as well as welding shops;
.3 control stations (except CCS, accumulator battery rooms and converter rooms);
.4 cargo spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods.
6.5.3.3
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
Manually operated call points shall be provided in the following places:
corridors of accommodation, service and public spaces;
entrance halls;
public spaces having an area of more than 150 m2;
machinery spaces of category A and main control stations;
industrial spaces.
6.5.4
Early Detection of Fire in Periodically Unattended Machinery Spaces
On special purpose ships carrying not more than 240 persons on board, in
periodically unattended machinery spaces, means shall be provided for early
detection of fire in accordance with the requirements specified in 6.16.5.
6.6
Tugs and Supply Vessels – Marks: TUG, SUPPLY VESSEL
6.6.1 In each tug and supply vessel of gross tonnage 150 and upwards or with
combined propulsion power more than 735 kW, machinery spaces of category A
shall be fitted with total-flooding fire-extinguishing systems in accordance with the
requirements specified in 2.5.1.1.
6.6.2 Tugs and supply vessels serving crude oil tankers, product carriers and
barges carrying cargoes with a flash-point not exceeding 60°C shall, additionally,
fulfil the following requirements:
Additional Requirements
.1
.2
.3
.4
6.7
235
the ship shall be provided with a fixed deck foam fire-extinguishing system
complying with the applicable requirements specified in 3.9, capable of
delivering foam to the open deck. Instead of the fixed deck foam fireextinguishing system, 45 l capacity mobile foam-type fire-extinguishing
unit with a reeled hose ensuring delivery of the foam to the open deck, is
permitted;
exhaust pipes shall be fitted with spark arresters in accordance with the
requirements specified in paragraph 10.1.3, Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants;
internal combustion engine silencers shall be fitted with local gas fireextinguishing system independent of the machinery space fire-extinguishing
system;
rubbing strakes and deck equipment shall be so made as to preclude spark
formation.
Floating Cranes – Mark: FLOATING CRANE
6.7.1 The number of the main fire pumps and the pressure of the discharged
water shall be in accordance with Table 3.2.1.1, except that in floating cranes with
gross tonnage less than 2000, only one fire pump is required.
6.7.2 Water fire main system shall have one branch on either side led out to the
open deck, terminated with an international shore connection complying with the
requirements specified in 3.2.9 and intended to provide a supply of water from an
extraneous source to all fire-extinguishing systems.
6.8
6.8.1
Container Ships – Mark: CONTAINER SHIP
Water Fire Main System
On open decks intended for the carriage of freight containers, the arrangement
of fire hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of water not emanating from the
same hydrant through a single length of hose will reach each container side wall.
6.8.2
Water-Spraying System
Open-top container holds shall be protected by a fixed water-spraying system
in accordance with the requirements specified in 3.4.8.
6.8.3
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Whenever a fire detection and fire alarm system is required in the open hold
area, the system shall be designed and arranged to take account of the specific hold,
container configuration and ventilation.
236
6.9
6.9.1
Fire Protection
Oil Recovery Vessels – Mark: OIL RECOVERY VESSEL
Ship Construction
6.9.1.1 The hull, superstructures, deckhouses and decks shall be constructed
of steel. The use of aluminium alloys for these structures is not permitted.
6.9.1.2 The ship structure, fire integrity of vertical bulkheads and decks shall fulfil
the applicable requirements for tankers carrying cargoes with a flash-point not
exceeding 60°C, set forth in 6.3.2 and 6.3.3.
6.9.1.3 Exterior boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses shall be of A-60
Class over the whole height from the upper deck upwards, unless the application
rate of water screens in accordance with the requirements of 6.9.2.2 allows
reduction of the insulation thickness.
6.9.1.4 Superstructure windows and sidescuttles shall be of A-0 standard and
shall be fitted with steel covers.
6.9.1.5 Exits from superstructures and deckhouses to the open deck and leading
to the spaces which constitute an explosion hazard shall be provided with two
gastight doors, spaced at least 1.5 m apart. The outer doors shall be of self-closing
type. The door sills shall be at least 300 mm high.
Air locks need not be arranged in compartments that are not adjacent to
accommodation spaces having exits to the open deck, provided that:
.1 the compartments are permanently closed and are not used during
the ship’s operation in the oil spillage area;
.2 electrical equipment installed therein is of an explosion-proof type.
Also, air locks need not be provided at the exits from the navigation bridge
to the open deck.
6.9.1.6 Each opening in cargo tanks intended for the recovered oil shall be
provided with gastight closing appliances.
6.9.1.7 Decks and walls forming the boundaries of the enclosed spaces intended
for the storage of the loose gear used for collecting the spilled oil shall fulfil
the requirements specified in Table 6.3.3-1 and Table 6.3.3-2 relating to spaces
of category (9).
6.9.1.8 Spaces intended for the storage of the loose gear used for collecting
the spilled oil may serve as cofferdams.
Subject to PRS’ consent, in ships of restricted service, cofferdams separating
the machinery spaces of category A from cargo tanks need not be installed,
provided that a bulkhead constructed of uniform plate ensuring access for
inspections and hydraulic tests of the tanks during the ship's surveys is fitted.
Additional Requirements
6.9.2
237
Water Screen System
6.9.2.1 Ships shall be provided with the water screen system for drenching
the exterior boundaries of the superstructure in accordance with the applicable
requirements specified in sub-chapter 3.4.
6.9.2.2 Application rate of the water screen system shall be at least 15 l/min per
linear length of the boundary.
Where the insulation of the exterior boundaries is not of A-60 Class, the
application rate shall be at least 30 l/min per linear length of the boundary.
6.9.2.3 Water screen system for drenching the exterior boundaries of the
superstructure shall be operated remotely from the navigating bridge.
6.9.3
Foam Fire-Extinguishing System
Ships shall be provided with a foam fire-extinguishing system in accordance
with the requirements specified in 3.5.4. The system shall be capable of delivering
foam to the open deck and intended for the protection of the recovered oil tanks, as
well as of the enclosed spaces intended for the storage of the loose gear for
collecting the spilled oil.
6.9.4
Water Fire Main System
Water fire main system shall fulfil the following additional requirements:
.1 it shall be made as in tankers and fulfil the relevant requirements specified
in 6.3.8;
.2 fire water pumps shall be supplied with water from bottom sea valves only.
The side sea valve shall be capable of being closed;
.3 fire pumps shall be remotely controlled from the navigation bridge.
6.9.5
Fire-Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Machinery Spaces
6.9.5.1 Fire-extinguishing systems intended for the protection of machinery
spaces shall be remotely controlled from the navigation bridge. Exits to the open
deck from the fire-extinguishing stations protecting these spaces need not be
provided.
6.9.5.2 High-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system shall not be used for the
protection of machinery spaces.
6.9.6
System for Determining Concentration of Flammable Gases
6.9.6.1 Fixed system for an automatic determining the concentration of
flammable hydrocarbon gases and vapours shall be provided. The system shall:
.1 operate continuously when the ship is in the area of oil spillage and during
collecting the oil;
238
Fire Protection
.2
.3
.4
.5
be composed of safe elements suitable for application in explosive
atmosphere in accordance with the relevant requirements specified in subchapter 22.5.4.2, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems;
be provided with the sampling arrangements or detectors made of materials
resistant to the marine atmosphere and hydrocarbon gases and vapours.
The cross-section and length of the sampling arrangement piping shall be
such as to ensure the supply of the samples of air to the analyser within not
more than 1 minute;
be fitted with automatic change-over arrangements ensuring the successive
control of the air content in all places in which the sampling system or
detectors have been installed. Intervals between one changing over and the
next one shall be such as to enable the sample to reach the analyser;
give audible and visual signals in the following cases:
– exceeding by 30% the normal level of hydrocarbons concentration in the
air, such signals being simultaneously announced on the navigation bridge;
– interference in the supply of electric power to analyser;
– clogging the piping between the sampling arrangement and the analyser.
6.9.6.2 Sampling arrangements or detectors of the system for determining
the concentration of hydrocarbon gases or vapours shall be located as follows:
.1 in the vicinity of openings in the intake ventilation;
.2 in at least two positions on the open deck at a level not exceeding 1.0 m
above the deck;
.3 in machinery spaces – in air locks;
.4 in cofferdams of cargo tanks.
6.10
Ro-Ro Passenger Ships – Mark: RO-RO/PASSENGER SHIP
The requirements specified in 6.10 apply to passenger ships provided with ro-ro
cargo spaces or special category spaces and are supplementary to those specified in
sub-chapters 6.1 and 6.2.
6.10.1
6.10.1.1
Escape Routes
General
6.10.1.1.1 Escape routes shall be provided from every normally occupied
space/group of spaces on the ship to an assembly station. These escape routes shall
be so arranged as to provide the most direct route possible to the assembly station,
and shall be appropriately marked, see 6.1.6.10.5.
6.10.1.1.2 Escape route from cabins to stairway enclosures shall be as direct
as possible, with a minimum number of changes in direction. It shall not be
necessary to cross from one side of the ship to the other to reach an escape route. It
shall not be necessary to climb more than two decks up or down in order to reach
an assembly station or open deck from any passenger space.
Additional Requirements
239
6.10.1.1.3 External routes shall be provided from open decks to the lifeboats or
liferafts embarkation stations.
6.10.1.1.4 Where enclosed spaces adjoin an open deck, openings from the
enclosed space to the open deck shall, where practicable, be capable of being used
as an emergency exit.
6.10.1.1.5 Escape routes shall not be obstructed by furniture and other obstacles.
With the exception of tables and chairs, cabinets and other heavy furnishings in
public spaces and along escape route shall be secured in place to prevent shifting if
the ship rolls or lists. Floor coverings shall also be secured in place.
6.10.1.2
Instructions for Safe Escape
6.10.1.2.1 Decks shall be sequentially numbered, starting with “1” at the tank top
or the lowest deck. The numbers shall be prominently displayed at stairs landings
and lift lobbies. Decks may also be named, but the deck number shall always be
displayed with the name.
6.10.1.2.2 Simple plans showing the “YOU ARE HERE” position and escape
routes marked by arrows shall be prominently displayed on the inside of each cabin
door and in public spaces. The plan shall show the directions of escape, and shall
be properly oriented in relation to its position on the ship.
6.10.1.3
Strength of Handrails and Corridors
6.10.1.3.1 Handrails or other handholds shall be provided in all corridors along
the entire escape route to the assembly and embarkation stations. Such handrails
shall be provided on both sides of longitudinal corridors of more than 1.8 m in
width and transverse corridors of more than 1 m in width. Particular attention shall
be paid to the need to be able to cross lobbies, atriums and other large open spaces
along escape routes. Handrails and other handholds shall be of such strength as to
withstand a uniformly distributed horizontal load of 750 N/m applied in the
direction of the centre of the corridor or space, and a uniformly distributed vertical
load of 750 N/m applied in downward direction. The two loads need not be applied
simultaneously.
6.10.1.3.2 The lowest 0.5 m of bulkheads or other partitions forming vertical
divisions along escape routes shall be able to sustain a load of 750 N/m to allow
them to be used as walking surfaces from the side of the escape route with the ship
at large angles of heel.
6.10.1.4
Evacuation Analysis
Escape routes shall be evaluated based on an evacuation analysis. The analysis
shall identify and eliminate, as far as practicable, congestion which may develop
240
Fire Protection
during an abandonment due to normal movement of passengers and crew along
escape routes, including the possibility that crew may need to move along these
routes in a direction opposite to the movement of passengers. In addition, the
analysis shall demonstrate that escape arrangements are sufficiently flexible to
provide for the possibility that certain escape routes, assembly stations, or
embarkation stations may not be available as a result of a casualty.
It is recommended that the analysis of escape proceedings be evaluated in
accordance with the guidelines contained in MSC/Circ. 1238.
6.10.1.5
Escape Routes from Special Category Spaces
6.10.1.5.1 Escape routes from special category spaces and open ro-ro spaces, to
which passengers have access both below and above the bulkhead deck shall
ensure safe access to the embarkation deck, at least equivalent to the requirements
specified in 6.1.6.10.1.1, 6.1.6.10.2, 6.1.6.10.4.1 and 6.1.6.10.4.2.
Such spaces shall be provided with designated walkways to the means of escape
between secured vehicles with a breadth of at least 0.6 m, and where practicable
and reasonable those designated longitudinal walkways shall raise at least 0.15 m
above the deck surface. Parking arrangements for the vehicles shall maintain the
walkways clear at all times.
6.10.1.5.2 One of the escape routes from the machinery spaces in which the crew
is normally employed shall not have direct access to any special category space.
6.10.1.5.3 Hoistable drive-up/down ramps to vehicles platform decks must not
be capable of blocking the approved escape routes when in lowered position.
6.10.2
6.10.2.1
Fire Protection of Special Category Spaces and Ro-ro Spaces
General
6.10.2.1.1 As the ship division in special category spaces and ro-ro spaces into
main vertical zones in accordance with the requirements specified in 6.1.2 may be
impracticable, fire protection of the ship shall be ensured by the ship division into
horizontal zones and fitting the spaces with a fixed fire-extinguishing system.
A horizontal zone may include special category spaces on more than one deck,
provided that the total overall height (i.e. the sum of distances between deck and web
frames of the decks forming one horizontal zone) for vehicles does not exceed 10 m.
6.10.2.1.2 Decks and bulkheads forming the boundaries separating horizontal
zones from each other and from the remainder of the ship shall fulfil the relevant
requirements specified in the Rules concerning the ventilation systems, openings
in A Class divisions and penetrations in A Class divisions for maintaining
the integrity of vertical zones.
Additional Requirements
6.10.2.2
241
Structural Fire Protection
6.10.2.2.1 In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the boundary
bulkheads and decks of special category spaces and ro-ro spaces shall be insulated
to A-60 Class standard. However, where a category (5), (9) or (10) space, as
defined in 6.1.4 is on one side of the division, the fire integrity standard may be
reduced to A-0.
Where oil fuel tanks are below a special category space or ro-ro space,
fire integrity of the deck between such spaces may be reduced to A-0 standard.
6.10.2.2.2 In passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the vertical
and horizontal boundaries of special category spaces shall be insulated as required
for category (11) spaces in Tables 6.1.5-1 and 6.1.5-2, respectively.
6.10.2.2.3 In passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the vertical
and horizontal boundaries of enclosed and open ro-ro spaces shall be insulated as
required for category (8) spaces in Tables 6.1.5-1 and 6.1.5-2, respectively.
6.10.2.2.4 Indicators shall be provided on the navigation bridge and they shall
indicate when any fire door leading to or from the special category spaces is
closed.
6.10.2.2.5 Doors to special category spaces shall be of such construction that
they cannot be kept open permanently and shall be kept closed during the voyage.
6.10.2.3
Fire Detection and Alarm System
6.10.2.3.1 Special category spaces, as well as ro-ro spaces shall be fitted with
a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system in accordance with the requirements
specified in 6.2.2.1.1.
6.10.2.3.2 If an efficient fire control patrol system is maintained in special
category spaces by a continuous fire watch at all times during the voyage, a fixed
fire detection and fire alarm system need not be installed.
6.10.2.3.3 In special category spaces, manually operated call points shall be
fitted and so spaced that no part of the space is more than 20 m from a manually
operated call point, and one shall be placed close to each exit from such spaces.
6.10.2.3.4 Smoke detector sections in vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces
may be provided with an arrangement (e.g. a timer) for disconnecting detector
sections during loading and unloading of vehicles to avoid ‘false’ alarms. The time
of disconnection shall be adapted to the time of loading/unloading. The central unit
shall indicate whether the detector sections are disconnected or not.
Manually operated call points, however, shall not be capable of being
disconnected by the arrangements referred to above.
242
Fire Protection
6.10.2.4
Fixed Fire-Extinguishing Systems
6.10.2.4.1 Special category spaces shall be provided with one of the following
fixed fire-extinguishing systems:
.1 water-spraying fire-extinguishing system complying with the requirements
specified in 3.4.2;
.2 equivalent high-pressure water based fire-extinguishing system, referred to
in 3.4.3.
6.10.2.4.2 Where fixed water-spraying system is provided, in view of the serious
loss of stability which could arise due to large quantities of water accumulating on
the deck or decks during the operation of the system, proper arrangements shall be
made to drain the space in accordance with the requirements specified in subchapter 6.12, Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
6.10.2.4.3 Carbon dioxide systems shall not be used for the protection of special
category spaces.
6.10.2.5
Position of Fire Hydrants
The requirements specified in 6.2.2.3 shall be fulfilled.
6.10.2.6
Ventilation System
The requirements specified in 6.2.2.4 shall be fulfilled.
6.10.2.7
Ignition Sources
The requirements specified in 6.2.2.5 shall be fulfilled.
6.10.2.8 Scuppers and Discharges
The requirements specified in 6.2.2.6 shall be fulfilled.
6.10.2.9
Permanent Openings
The requirements specified in 6.2.2.7 shall be fulfilled.
6.10.2.10
Portable Fire-Fighting Equipment
The requirements specified in 6.2.2.8 shall be fulfilled.
6.11
Gas Tankers – Mark: LIQUEFIED GAS TANKER
Gas tankers shall fulfil the requirements of the IGC Code, as amended.
Additional Requirements
6.12
6.12.1
243
Chemical Tankers – Mark: CHEMICAL TANKER
Application
6.12.1.1 Chemical tankers intended for the carriage of flammable chemicals in
bulk shall fulfil the requirements of the IBC Code, as amended.
6.12.1.2 Chemical tankers engaged solely in the carriage of cargoes which are
non-flammable (the cargoes listed in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code , the entry NF in
column i of the table of minimum requirements) shall fulfil the requirements for
cargo ships specified in Chapter 2, as well as for tankers carrying cargoes with
a flash-point exceeding 60°C; however, they need not be fitted with a fireextinguishing system to protect the cargo pump-room or with a fixed deck foam
fire-extinguishing system.
6.12.1.3 Chemical tankers engaged solely in the carriage of liquid products with
a flash point of 60 °C and above (entry ”Yes” in column i of the table of minimum
requirements in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code) shall fulfil the applicable requirements
for tankers specified in sub-chapter 6.4 (they shall be fitted with a fixed deck foam
fire-extinguishing system for tankers in accordance with the requirements specified
in sub-chapter 3.9).
Liquid cargoes with a flashpoint exceeding 60 ºC other than oil products or
liquid cargoes subject to the requirements of the International Bulk Chemical Code
are considered to constitute a low fire risk, not requiring the protection of a fixed
deck foam extinguishing system.
6.12.1.4 Chemical tankers engaged in the carriage of products with a flash point
not exceeding 60 °C (entry ”No” in column i of the table of minimum requirements
in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code) shall, in respect of the structural fire protection and
fire protection of the enclosed spaces, fulfil the requirements for tankers specified
in 6.3 (except 6.3.2.3) as well as the requirements specified in this sub-chapter.
6.12.2
Fire Protection of Cargo Pump-Room
6.12.2.1 In chemical tankers engaged in the carriage of products with a flash
point not exceeding 60 °C (the cargoes listed in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code, entry
”No” in column i of the table of minimum requirements), irrespective of their gross
tonnage, the cargo pump-room shall be provided with a fixed carbon dioxide fireextinguishing system in accordance with the requirements specified in 6.3.5.1.1.1
or an equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system.
The amount of carbon dioxide carried shall be sufficient to provide a quantity of
free gas equal to 45% of the gross volume of the cargo pump-room in all cases.
6.12.2.2 If cargoes to be carried are not suited to extinguishment by carbon
dioxide or an equivalent gas fire-extinguishing system, the cargo pump-room shall
244
Fire Protection
be protected by a fire-extinguishing system consisting of either a fixed pressure
water-spraying system specified in 3.4.4 or high-expansion foam system in
accordance with the requirements specified in 3.5.3.
6.12.2.3 In chemical tankers of 500 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on
international voyages and engaged in the carriage of products with a flash point not
exceeding 60 °C (entry ”No” in column i of the table of minimum requirements in
Chapter 17 of the IBC Code) cargo pump-rooms shall have:
.1 temperature monitoring system for pumps, driven by shaft passing through
pump-room bulkheads, such as: cargo pumps, slop pumps, ballast pumps,
stripping pumps, tank cleaning pumps (except small pumps of 1 m3/h
capacity or less and bilge pumps). Sensing points shall be provided on
bulkhead shaft glands, bearings and pump casing. The setting point shall be
about 60 – 80 oC. The sensing points shall be permanently fixed. When the
set point is reached, a signal shall be automatically effected in cargo central
room or the pump control station;
.2 lighting interlocked with ventilation;
.3 a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon
gases in accordance with the guidelines given in MSC.1/Circ.1321, Part IV,
Chapter. 3.2;
.4 bilge level monitoring devices 1),
in accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 22.5.7, Part VIII –
Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
6.12.3
Fire Protection of Cargo Area
6.12.3.1 Chemical tankers engaged in the carriage of liquid products with a flash
point not exceeding 60 °C (entry ”No” in column i of the table of minimum
requirements in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code), irrespective of their gross tonnage,
shall be provided with a fixed deck foam fire-extinguishing system in accordance
with the requirements specified in 6.12.4.
6.12.3.2 Chemical tankers fitted with bow or stern loading and unloading
arrangements shall be provided with one additional foam monitor in accordance
with the requirements specified in paragraph 6.12.4.8 and one additional applicator
meeting the requirements specified in paragraph 6.12.4.11. The additional monitor
shall be so located as to protect the bow or stern loading and unloading
arrangements. The area of the cargo line forward or aft of the cargo area shall be
protected by the above-mentioned applicator.
6.12.3.3 In cargo area, portable fire-extinguishing equipment suitable for the
products to be carried shall be provided and kept in good operating order.
1)
Bilge high-level alarms are acceptable as an alternative means for the level monitoring devices.
Additional Requirements
6.12.4
245
Fixed Deck Foam System
6.12.4.1 Only one type of foam concentrate shall be supplied, and it shall be
effective for the maximum possible number of cargoes intended to be carried.
For other cargoes for which foam is not effective or is incompatible, additional
arrangements to the satisfaction of PRS shall be provided. Regular protein foam
shall not be used.
6.12.4.2 For liquid cargoes with a flash-point not exceeding 60 ºC for which
foam is not effective or is incompatible, an alcohol-resistant foam concentrate shall
be used in the deck foam extinguishing system. The list of cargoes for which an
alcohol-resistant foam concentrate shall be used is contained in the IBC Code,
(entry ”A” in column l of the table of minimum requirements in Chapter 17) and
MSC/Circ.553.
6.12.4.3 Alcohol-resistant foam concentrate is subject to type tests in accordance
with the guidelines specified in MSC.1/Circ.1312/Corr.1.
6.12.4.4 The arrangements for providing foam shall be capable of delivering
foam to the entire cargo tanks deck area as well as into any cargo tank, the deck of
which is assumed to be ruptured.
6.12.4.5 Deck foam system shall be capable of simple and rapid operation. The
main control station for the system shall be suitably located outside the cargo area,
adjacent to the accommodation spaces and readily accessible and operable in the
event of fires in the areas protected.
6.12.4.6 The rate of supply of foam solution shall be not less than the greatest
of the following:
.1 2 l/min per square metre of the cargo tanks deck area, where cargo tanks
deck area means the maximum breadth of the ship times the total
longitudinal extent of the cargo tank spaces;
.2 20 l/min per square metre of the horizontal sectional area of the single tank
having the largest such area; or
.3 10 l/min per square metre of the area protected by the largest monitor,
such area being entirely forward of the monitor.
Lower application rates may be accepted based on performance tests.
6.12.4.7 Sufficient foam concentrate shall be supplied to ensure at least 30 min
of foam generation when using the highest of the solution rates specified in
6.12.4.6.
For chemical tankers fitted with inert gas systems, a quantity of foam
concentrate sufficient for 20 min of foam generation may be accepted.
246
Fire Protection
6.12.4.8 Foam from the fixed deck foam system shall be supplied by means of
monitors and foam applicators. At least 50% of the foam rate required in paragraph
6.12.4.6.1 or 6.12.4.6.2 shall be delivered from each monitor. The capacity of any
monitor shall be at least 10 l/min of foam solution per square metre of deck area
protected by that monitor, such area being entirely forward of the monitor. Such
capacity shall be not less than 1.250 l/min. For chemical tankers of less than 4,000
tonnes deadweight, the minimum capacity of the monitor may be lesser subject to
PRS’ consent in each particular case.
6.12.4.9 The distance from the monitor to the farthest extremity of the protected
area forward of that monitor shall be not more than 75% of the monitor throw in
still air conditions.
6.12.4.10 A monitor and hose connection for a foam applicator shall be situated
both port and starboard at the poop front or accommodation spaces facing the cargo
area.
6.12.4.11 Foam applicators shall be provided for flexibility of action during firefighting operations and to cover areas screened from the monitors. The capacity
of any applicator shall be not less than 400 l/min and the applicator throw in still
air conditions shall be not less than 15 m.
The number of foam applicators provided shall be not less than four. The
number and disposition of foam main outlets shall be such that foam from at least
two applicators can be directed to any part of the cargo tanks deck area.
6.12.4.12 Valves shall be provided in the foam main, and in the fire main where
this is an integral part of the deck foam system, immediately forward of any
monitor position to isolate damaged sections of those mains.
6.12.4.13 Operation of a deck foam system at its required output shall permit the
simultaneous use of the minimum required number of jets of water at the required
pressure from the fire main.
6.12.4.14 Means shall be provided for the crew to safely check the quantity of
foam concentrate in the tanks and taking the foam concentrate samples for the
periodical checking of its quality. The minimum level/required quantity of foam
concentrate shall be marked on the tank.
6.12.5
Inert Gas System
6.12.5.1 Chemical tankers, irrespective of gross tonnage, engaged in the carriage
of flammable products (entry ”inert” in column h of the table of minimum
requirements in Chapter 17 of the IBC Code) shall be provided with inert gas
system complying with the requirements for inert gas system on chemical tankers
contained in Res. A.567(14).
Additional Requirements
247
6.12.5.2 Where an inert gas system based on oil fired inert gas generators is fitted on
board chemical tankers, such system shall fulfil the requirements specified in Res.
A.567(14) in addition to the requirements specified in paragraphs 6.12.5.3 to 6.12.5.6.
6.12.5.3 As an alternative to the water seal in the inert gas line on deck, an
arrangement consisting of two shut-off valves in series with a venting valve in
between may be accepted (double block and bleed). The following conditions
apply:
.1 operation of the valve shall be executed automatically. Signal(s) for
opening/closing of valves shall be taken from the process directly, e.g. inert
gas flow or differential pressure;
.2 alarm for faulty operation of the valves shall be provided, e.g. the operation
status of "Blower stop" and "supply valve(s) open" is an alarm condition.
6.12.5.4 Where two blowers are provided, the total capacity of the inert gas
system shall preferably be divided equally between the two blowers, and in no case
shall one blower have a capacity less than 1/3 of the total capacity required.
6.12.5.5 Those parts of scrubbers, blowers, non-return devices, scrubber effluent
and other drain pipes which may be subjected to corrosive action of the gases
and/or liquids shall be either constructed of corrosion resistant material or lined
with rubber, glass fibre epoxy resin or other equivalent coating material.
6.12.5.6 The compartment where any oil fired inert gas generator is situated shall
be treated as machinery space of category A in respect of fire protection.
6.12.5.7
3.10.18.
6.12.6
Nitrogen generator systems shall fulfil the requirements specified in
Water Fire Main System
6.12.6.1 In chemical tankers, irrespective of their gross tonnage, water fire main
system shall fulfil the requirements for cargo ships of 2000 gross tonnage
and upwards.
6.12.6.2 Aluminium alloys shall not be used for fire hose couplings and nozzles
in open deck areas.
6.12.7
Fire Protection of Machinery Spaces
Chemical tankers, irrespective of their gross tonnage, shall fulfil the
requirements for cargo ships of 2000 gross tonnage and upwards in respect of the
fire protection of machinery spaces and fixed fire-extinguishing systems used in
such spaces specified in sub-chapter 2.5.
However, the requirements concerning local water spray system installed in
machinery spaces of category A above 500 m3 in volume, given in 2.5.8, are
applicable only where the chemical tanker is of gross tonnage 2000 and upwards.
248
Fire Protection
6.12.8
Application of Aluminium Coatings
Chemical tankers engaged in the carriage of products with a flash-point not
exceeding 60 °C shall fulfil the requirements concerning application of aluminium
coatings for the hull and piping specified in 6.3.9.
6.12.9
Requirements for Paint Lockers and Store-Rooms for Flammable
Liquids
6.12.9.1 Paint lockers and store-rooms for flammable liquids shall fulfil the
requirements specified in 2.8.
6.12.9.2 Paint lockers, irrespective of their use, shall not be located above the
cargo area.
6.12.10
Access to Spaces in Cargo Area
Access to forecastle spaces containing sources of ignition is permitted through
doors facing the cargo area provided that such doors are located outside explosionhazardous zones as defined in IEC Publication IEC 60092-502.
6.12.11
Crew Protective Clothing and Equipment
Chemical tankers, depending on the type of the carried cargo, shall be provided
with suitable protective clothing, breathing apparatus and safety equipment for the
protection against noxious chemicals, in accordance with the requirements of the
IBC Code.
6.13
6.13.1
Fire Fighting Ships – Mark: FIRE FIGHTING SHIP . . .
Application
6.13.1.1 The requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.13 are applicable to fire
fighting ships and ships having special fire fighting capabilities, intended for fire
fighting and rescue operations.
6.13.1.2 A ship which fulfils the applicable requirements concerning structure
and equipment will be assigned an additional mark FIRE FIGHTING SHIP
and the appropriate notation: 1a or 1 or 2, or 3, affixed to the symbol of class.
6.13.1.3 Notation 1a and 1 signifies that a ship is intended for an early stage of
fire fighting and rescue operations close to structure on fire.
6.13.1.4 Notation 2 or 3 signifies that a ship is intended for continuous large fires
fighting operations, carried out at a distance of structure on fire.
6.13.1.5 A ship, which, in addition to compliance with the requirements for 2 or
3 notation assignment, is fitted with the water screen system for self-protection
Additional Requirements
249
enabling to carry out fire fighting and rescue operations close to structure on fire,
will be assigned an additional mark FIRE FIGHTING SHIP 2 and 1 or FIRE
FIGHTING SHIP 3 and 1, respectively.
6.13.1.6 Detailed requirements concerning particular notations are specified
in sub-chapter 6.13.3.
6.13.2
General Requirements
6.13.2.1 In ships with 1a or 1 notation, all exterior boundaries, such as:
bulkheads, decks and the hull above design summer waterline shall be constructed
of steel and shall be protected by the water screen system.
The application rate of the water screen system may be reduced in accordance
with the requirements specified in paragraph 6.13.6.3.
6.13.2.2 In ships with 2 or 3 notation, all exterior boundaries of the hull above
design summer waterline shall be A-0 steel structures or shall be constructed of an
equivalent material, but they do not need be protected by the water screen system.
6.13.2.3 In ships with 2 or 3 notation which are not provided with the water
screen system, all windows and port lights, except those on the navigation bridge,
shall be of A-0 Class standard and shall be fitted with steel covers.
6.13.2.4 Decks and platforms on which fire fighting monitors are situated,
as well as the monitors foundations shall be so designed as to sustain loadings from
the water jet reactions, with the monitors operating at the maximum output in the
direction most unfavourable to the stability of the ship.
6.13.2.5 Ships shall have adequate stability for all modes of fire fighting
operations with all water and foam monitors in operation in the direction most
unfavourable to the stability of the ship (operation in horizontal plane, at the
maximum output in the direction towards one side and the minimum oil fuel and
water capacity).
6.13.2.6 Ships shall have adequate manoeuvrability to enable it to keep position
during fire-fighting and rescue operations.
6.13.2.7 Ships lighting shall be such as to facilitate fire-fighting and rescue
operations at night.
Two searchlights shall be provided on board, capable of giving an effective
horizontal and vertical range of coverage and an illumination to a distance of
250 m in clear air at a minimum level of illumination of 50 lux within an area not
less than 11 m in diameter.
6.13.2.8 Ships shall be provided with oil fuel storage tanks ensuring the ship
propulsion and fire-extinguishing equipment operation during fire fighting
250
Fire Protection
operations depending on the additional notation affixed to the symbol of class in
accordance with the Table 6.13.3, item 11.
6.13.2.9 Classification documentation, in addition to that required in 1.4.1,
shall contain:
.1 specification containing data on all functions of the ship, i.e. fire-fighting
and rescue operations, fire-extinguishing systems operation, including the
data on fire-fighting appliances and equipment;
.2 calculations of the ship stability for all operation modes of water and foam
monitors with monitors operating in the direction most unfavourable to the
ship stability;
.3 calculations of water and foam monitors supports at the most unfavourable
mode of operation;
.4 calculations of: fire-extinguishing system with water monitors, fireextinguishing system with foam monitors and water screen system;
.5 plan showing the arrangement and securing of fire fighting appliances and
equipment (pumps, water and foam monitors, foam concentrate containers,
fire hoses manifolds);
.6 plan of fire control room, where provided;
.7 plans and diagrams of fire-extinguishing systems: fire-extinguishing system
with water monitors, fire-extinguishing system with foam monitors and the
water screen system;
.8 arrangement plan of fire-fighting equipment and fire-fighter’s outfit;
.9 water and foam monitors remote control plan;
.10 plan of the electric lighting arrangement and supply;
.11 plan of the compressed air system for charging the bottles of breathing
apparatus;
.12 arrangement plan showing sea chests for fire pumps.
6.13.2.10 Ships and fire-extinguishing systems are subject to the following tests:
.1 test of the ship manoeuvrability and keeping its position during the
operation of all monitors in fire fighting simulation conditions;
.2 measurement of the ship angle of list during operation of all water and
foam monitors directed to one side;
.3 operation test of water pumps at maximum output (pressure, capacity);
.4 operation test of water and foam monitors at maximum output;
.5 measurement of horizontal and vertical range of water and foam monitors;
.6 checking the operation and the measurement of the water screen system
capacity;
.7 operation test of ship lighting at night; checking the searchlights reflectors
operation.
251
Additional Requirements
6.13.2.11 Fire water pumps and their prime movers, as well as air compressors
for charging the cylinders of the breathing apparatus shall be supplied with the PRS
Certificate.
6.13.2.12 The following fire-fighting appliances and equipment shall be supplied
with Type Approval Certificate.
.1 water and foam monitors;
.2 foam concentrate;
.3 foam concentrate proportioners and high-expansion foam generators;
.4 fire hydrants, nozzles and fire hoses;
.5 water screen spraying nozzles;
.6 fire-fighter’s outfit;
.7 portable high-expansion foam generators;
.8 searchlight reflectors.
6.13.2.13 Operation manual containing the following information shall be
available on board:
.1 instructions for the ship operation during all modes of fire fighting and
rescue operations;
.2 diagrams and operation description of all fire-extinguishing systems;
.3 instructions for use, periodical testing and maintenance of all fireextinguishing systems and appliances.
6.13.3
Required Equipment
Depending on the additional notation affixed to the symbol of class, the ship
shall fulfil the relevant requirements specified in Table 6.13.3.
Table 6.13.3
Requirements for fire fighting ship equipment
Item
Notation affixed to the symbol of class
Requirement
1a
1
2
3
3
4
5
6
2÷4
2
3 or 4
4
90÷300
1200
2400 or 1800
2400
1÷2
1÷2
2÷4
2÷4
4
Total capacity of water pumps [m3/h]
600
2400
7200
9600
5
Number of foam monitors
2÷4
–
–
2
6
Foam monitor capacity [m3/h]
40
–
–
300
7
Horizontal range of water monitor 1) [m]
–
120
150
150
8
Vertical range of water monitor 2) [m]
–
50
70
70
–
–
–
50
+5)
+5)
–
–
1
2
1
Number of water monitors
2
Water monitor capacity [m3/h]
3
Number of water pumps
3)
9
Vertical range of foam monitor [m]
10
Water screen system for ship self
protection
252
Fire Protection
2
1
3
4
5
6
11
Oil fuel capacity sufficient for fire
fighting operations, for a given time 4)
[h]
–
24
96
96
12
Number of hose connections at each side
of ship
Number of fire-fighter’s outfits
Portable high-expansion foam generator
–
4
8
8
–
–
4
–
8
1
8
1
13
14
Notes:
1)
Length of monitor throw measured horizontally from the monitor outlet to the mean impact area.
2)
Height of throw measured vertically from the sea level to mean impact area at a horizontal
distance of at least 70 m from the nearest part of the ship.
3)
Height of foam monitor throw measured vertically from the sea level during two monitors
simultaneous operation, at maximum output capacity.
4)
Total oil fuel capacity on board shall be such as to ensure the propulsion operation and continuous
operation of all monitors, at maximum output for a specified time.
5)
Water screen system to be provided; for detailed requirements – see 6.13.6.
6.13.4
Water Monitor Fire-Extinguishing System (for External Objects)
6.13.4.1 The number and capacity of water monitors and pumps, depending on
additional notation affixed to the symbol of class, shall be in accordance with Table
6.13.3.
6.13.4.2 Water monitors shall be so arranged forward or aft as to ensure their most
effective operation. The monitors shall be so positioned that they will have a free line
for the water jet over the horizontal area covered. The monitors shall be capable of
adequate adjustment in the vertical and horizontal direction; the required range and
height of trajectory shall be achieved with all monitors operating simultaneously.
6.13.4.3 Water monitors shall give solid jets of water. In ships with 2 and 3
notations, at least two monitors shall be capable of giving dispersed water jet.
6.13.4.4 Monitor position blocking arrangements shall be provided to prevent
water jets from impinging on the ship’ structure or equipment.
6.13.4.5 Monitors shall be capable of being operated both locally and at the
remote control station. The remote control station shall have adequate overall
operational visibility, means of communication and fire protection.
The remote control station shall be fitted with water pumps control buttons,
pressure gauges and shut-off control valves.
6.13.4.6
Valve control shall be so designed as to avoid water hammer.
6.13.4.7 Monitor remote control system shall be suitably protected against
external damage. Electrical control system shall be provided with overload and
Additional Requirements
253
short-circuit protection. Where a hydraulic or pneumatic monitor control system is
applied, the control power units shall be duplicated. Control equipment shall be
clearly marked.
6.13.4.8 Water monitor pumps may be used for the supply of the screen water
system and foam monitor fire-extinguishing system. In those cases, the capacity
of the pumps shall be adequately increased and shut-off valves enabling
disconnection of the water supply to the systems shall be provided.
6.13.4.9 Fire pumps shall be supplied from an independent sea water suction
valve, which shall not be used for any other purposes. Sea chest shall be arranged
as low as practicable to avoid clogging due to debris or ice. The location of sea
chest shall be such that the water suction will be possible in any ship operation
conditions. Due regard shall be paid to the ship’s motions on wave and water flow
from propellers or thrusters.
6.13.4.10 All sea chests shall be provided with strainer plates at the ship’s shell
plating. The strainer plates shall have a clear area of at least twice that of the sea
valves. Low pressure steam or compressed air shall be provided for cleaning the
strainer plates.
6.13.4.11
Sea valves shall be operable from fire pump control position.
6.13.4.12 Sea valves with nominal diameter exceeding 450 mm shall be power
and manually controlled.
6.13.4.13 Spaces where fire pumps and their prime movers are located shall be
considered as machinery spaces in respect of fire protection.
6.13.4.14
Piping system shall be protected against overpressure.
6.13.4.15 All piping shall be made of steel and shall be protected both internally
and externally against corrosion by hot galvanizing.
6.13.4.16 Drain plugs for water drainage shall be installed in the lowest section
of the piping.
6.13.4.17 The piping system shall be protected against operation of the pumps
when water inlet valves are closed or shall be provided with alarms indicating such
operation status of the pumps.
6.13.4.18 The piping system shall have arrangements to avoid overheating
of the pumps at low delivery application rates.
6.13.4.19 Suction lines shall be as short and straight as practicable. The water
velocity in the suction lines shall not exceed 2 m/s.; the water velocity in piping
between pumps and water monitors shall not exceed 3.5 m/s.
254
6.13.5
Fire Protection
Foam Monitor Fire-Extinguishing System (for Protection of External
Objects)
6.13.5.1 The number and capacity of foam monitors and the monitors operation
characteristics shall be in accordance with Table 6.13.3. The low-expansion foam
ratio of the monitors shall be 12 to 1.
6.13.5.2 Foam monitor system shall consist of foam concentrate container, foam
mixing unit and pipelines to the foam monitors.
6.13.5.3 The foam concentrate container shall have capacity sufficient for at least
30 minutes of foam generation by all monitors.
6.13.5.4 Means shall be provided for the crew to safely check the quantity of
foam concentrate in the tanks and taking the foam concentrate samples for the
periodical checking of its quality. The minimum level/required quantity of foam
concentrate shall be marked on the tank.
6.13.5.5 Water supply to the foam monitor system may be taken from water
monitor system pumps after appropriately reducing the supply water pressure.
6.13.5.6 Foam monitors shall have both local and remote control. The remote
control of the foam monitors shall be located at the remote control station for the
water monitors. The remote control shall include water pumps operation and water
and foam concentrate valves control.
6.13.5.7 Monitor remote control system shall fulfil the requirements specified
in paragraph 6.13.4.7.
6.13.6
Water Screen System
6.13.6.1 Water screen system shall provide protection to all external vertical
areas of the hull, superstructures and deckhouses, including water and foam
monitor foundations and equipment, as well as the surface of the deck above
machinery spaces or other spaces in which combustible materials are located.
During water screen system operation, proper visibility from the navigation bridge
and from fire control room shall be provided.
6.13.6.2 Water screen system shall be provided with sea water pump or may be
served by water monitor system pump, provided the pump capacity is increased
by the capacity required for the water screen system.
6.13.6.3 Capacity of the water screen system shall be at least 5 l/min/m2 for
A-60 Class boundaries and 10 l/min/m2 for the remaining boundaries and decks.
Additional Requirements
255
6.13.6.4 Water screen system shall be divided into sections so that it will be
possible to close down manually or remotely sections covering boundaries which
are not exposed to fire.
6.13.6.5 Pump capacity shall be sufficient to supply simultaneously, at the
required pressure, all nozzles of the sections which protect the largest area exposed
to fire and high temperature.
6.13.6.6 Arrangement of the nozzles shall be such as to give an even distribution
of water spray over the protected area, as well as to preclude damage thereto during
fire fighting operations.
6.13.6.7 Piping shall be made from steel and be protected against corrosion
externally and internally by hot galvanizing or shall be made from other corrosion
and heat resistant metal alloys. Drain plugs for water drainage shall be installed
in the lowest sections of the pipes.
6.13.6.8 Decks shall be provided with scuppers for water draining during water
screen system operation.
6.13.7
Fire Hose Stations (for Protection of External Objects)
6.13.7.1 Ship shall be provided with fire hose stations for fire fighting on
external objects. The number of fire hose connections, in a fire hose station, on
each side of the ship shall be in accordance with Table 6.13.3.
6.13.7.2 At least half of the required number of fire hose connections shall be
located on the open deck on both sides.
6.13.7.3 Nominal diameter of fire hoses shall be not less than 38 mm and not
more than 65 mm.
6.13.7.4 Nozzles shall be of universal type, i.e. they shall give solid or dispersed
water jet and shall ensure a water jet throw not less than 12 m.
6.13.7.5 Where a fire hose station is supplied from the water monitor system,
provision shall be made to reduce the water pressure at the hydrants to an amount
at which each fire hose nozzle can be safely handled by one man.
6.13.8
Fire-Fighter’s Outfit
6.13.8.1 Fire-fighter’s outfit shall consist of personal equipment and breathing
apparatus, with two spare air bottles. Fire-fighter’s outfit shall comply with the
requirements specified 5.1.4. The number of fire-fighter’s outfits for fire fighting
operations, depending on notation affixed to the symbol of class, shall be in
accordance with Table 6.13.3.
256
Fire Protection
6.13.8.2 Fire-fighter’s outfits shall be stored in at least 2 rooms, one of which
shall be accessible from the open deck. The entrance to the room shall be clearly
marked. The room shall be provided with ventilation and heating arrangements.
6.13.8.3 The arrangement of the room shall enable easy access to the whole
stored outfit. Protective clothing and other outfits shall be stored in suspended
position.
6.13.8.4 An air compressor capable of recharging the air bottles used in
breathing apparatus, having the capacity of at least 75 l/min, shall be provided. The
inlet to the compressor shall be fitted with appropriate filters. The air compressor
may be located in the fire-fighter’s outfit room or in a separate space, located in
a safe place.
6.13.9
Portable High-Expansion Foam Generator (for Protection
of External Objects)
6.13.9.1 Capacity of high-expansion foam generator intended for fire fighting
operations on external objects, required on ships with additional class 2 or 3
notation affixed to the symbol of class shall be not less than 100 m3/min.
6.13.9.2 Foam concentrate shall be stored in portable tanks. The total storing
foam concentrate capacity shall be sufficient for at least 30 minutes of foam
generation.
6.14
High Speed Craft – Mark: HSC
High speed craft shall fulfil the requirements of the HSC Code, as amended.
6.15
6.15.1
Ships with Ice Class – Marks: L1A, L1, L2, L3 and L4
General Requirements
Components of fire-fighting systems and other fire protection equipment which
may be exposed to icing which could interfere with the proper functioning of that
component shall be protected adequately.
6.15.2
Means of Escape
External stairways, ladders and landings on the escape routes from
accommodation and service spaces to assembly stations and life saving equipment
exposed to sub-zero temperatures shall be so arranged and protected that they are
not made inaccessible or inoperable by ice or snow accumulation.
6.15.3
Water Fire-Extinguishing Systems
6.15.3.1 On ships with ice class notation, at least one of the water fire main
system pumps and pumps serving other water fire-extinguishing systems, required
Additional Requirements
257
in the present Part of the Rules, shall be connected to a sea chest which is provided
with de-icing arrangements, complying with the requirements specified in 22.2.11,
Part VI – Machinery Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
6.15.3.2 Where a fixed fire-extinguishing system or alternative fire-extinguishing
system situated in a space separate from the compartment containing the main fire
pumps utilizes its own independent sea chest, this sea chest should be capable of
being cleared of accumulations of slush ice, by steam or compressed air.
6.15.3.3 Fire pumps including an emergency fire pump shall be installed in
heated compartments and in any event shall be adequately protected from freezing
for minimum temperature for the intended voyage.
6.15.3.4 Open deck isolating valves of water fire main system shall be so located
that they are accessible. Any isolating valves located in exposed positions shall not
be subjected to icing from freezing spray.
6.15.3.5 In the case of systems which need not be permanently pressurized,
the fire main shall be so arranged that external sections subjected to freezing can be
isolated and draining devices shall be provided. The system control shall be fitted
with a plate informing of the necessity to drain the pipes any time the system has
been used.
6.15.3.6 In the case of systems required to be permanently pressurized, the pipes
shall be led in heated compartments. The pipes led on the open deck or in
compartments with minus temperatures shall be adequately protected against
freezing.
6.15.3.7 Hydrants positioned on open decks shall be installed in boxes to protect
them against being flooded and freezing. Each hydrant shall be equipped with an
efficient two-handed valve handle.
6.15.4
Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems
6.15.4.1 Fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems shall be so designed and located
that they are not made inaccessible or inoperable by ice or snow accumulation or
low temperature.
Closing arrangements for openings of the spaces protected by gas fireextinguishing systems which may be subjected to low temperatures and freezing
shall be protected adequately.
6.15.4.2 Stations containing fire-extinguishing medium shall be located in
adequately heated compartments and the access facing an open deck shall be so
shielded that the door will not be made inoperable due to freezing or snow
accumulation.
258
Fire Protection
6.15.4.3 Precautions shall be taken to prevent fire-extinguishing medium pipings,
isolating valves and nozzles of any fire-extinguishing system located in spaces to
be subject to negative temperatures from becoming clogged by ice build up or
freezing.
6.15.4.4 External terminals of relief valves and safety valves of the fireextinguishing medium piping and tanks shall be adequately protected from
becoming clogged due to freezing or snow accumulation.
6.15.5
Fire-Fighting Equipment
Foam fire-extinguishers shall not be located in any positions that are exposed to
freezing temperatures.
6.16
6.16.1
Ships with Unattended Machinery Space and with One Person
on Watch – Mark: AUT and NAV 1
Water Fire Main System
On ships with unattended machinery space or when only one person is required
on watch, there shall be immediate water delivery from the fire main system at
a suitable pressure, either by remote starting of one of fire pumps from the
navigation bridge and fire control station, if any, or permanent pressurisation of the
fire main system by one of the main fire pumps.
On cargo ships of less than 1600 gross tonnage, the remote starting of the pump
need not be provided if the fire pump start button in the machinery space is in an
easily accessible position.
6.16.2
Fire Detection and Alarm System in Machinery Spaces
6.16.2.1 Machinery spaces of category A shall be provided with fire detection
and fire alarm system complying with the applicable requirements specified in 4.1
and in the present sub-chapter.
6.16.2.2 Fire control panel shall be located on the navigating bridge, in fire
control station or other accessible place where a fire in the machinery space will
not render it inoperative.
6.16.2.3 Fire control panel shall indicate the place of the detected fire in
accordance with the arranged fire zones by means of a visual signal. Audible
signals clearly distinguishable in character from any other audible signals shall be
audible throughout the navigating bridge and the accommodation area of the
personnel responsible for the operation of the machinery space.
6.16.2.4 Fire detectors shall be of types, and so located as to rapidly detect the
onset of fire in conditions normally present in the machinery space and at variations
of ventilation as required by the possible range of ambient temperature.
Additional Requirements
259
Consideration shall be given to avoiding false alarms. Combination of detector types
shall apply in order to enable the system to react to more than one type of fire
symptom.
One type of fire detectors shall react to flame. Such detectors shall be located in
the region of internal combustion engines, boiler firing and other places subject to
open fire. The type and positioning of fire detectors is subject to PRS’ approval in
each particular case.
6.16.2.5 Fire detector zones shall be arranged in a manner that will enable the
operating staff to locate the seat of the fire. Air currents created by the machinery
are not to render the detection system ineffective. The arrangement and number of
loops, as well as location of detector heads is subject to PRS’ approval in each
particular case.
6.16.2.6 Where fire detectors are provided with the means to adjust their
sensitivity, necessary arrangements shall be ensured to fix and identify the set
point.
6.16.2.7 Where it is intended that a particular loop or detector may be
temporarily switched off, this state shall be clearly indicated. Reactivation of the
loop or detector shall be performed automatically after a present time.
6.16.2.8 Manually operated control points shall be located in the following
places:
– passageways having entrances to machinery spaces of category A;
– control station in the machinery space.
6.16.2.9 After the fire detection and alarm system has been installed on board
the ship, operation tests shall be performed in various operating conditions of
ventilation and machinery installations in accordance with the test programme
approved by PRS.
6.16.2.10 With regard to power supply, safety devices, selection and routing of
cables, fire detection and alarm system shall fulfil the requirements specified in
sub-chapter 7.5, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
6.16.3
Fire-Extinguishing Systems in Machinery Spaces
6.16.3.1 In spaces containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines used for
main propulsion or other purposes having in the aggregate a total output of not less
than 375 kW, one of the fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing systems, referred to
in 2.5.1.1, shall be provided.
6.16.3.2 Local water-based spraying fire-extinguishing system, required in
2.5.8, shall be operated automatically. The requirements for automatic operation
are specified in Publication No. 89/P.
260
6.16.4
Fire Protection
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
One portable fire-extinguisher shall be provided at each entrance to machinery
spaces of category A.
6.16.5
Early Detection of Fire in Machinery Spaces
6.16.5.1 Means shall be provided to detect and give alarms at an early stage in
case of fires:
.1 in boiler air supply casings and exhausts (uptakes); and
.2 in scavenging air belts of propulsion machinery,
unless PRS deems this to be unnecessary.
6.16.5.2 Internal combustion engines of 2,250 kW and above or having cylinders
of more than 300 mm bore shall be provided with crankcase oil mist detectors or
engine bearing temperature monitors or equivalent devices.
6.17
Restricted Service Ships – Marks: I, II and III
6.17.1 In cargo spaces of passenger ships, a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system
required in 6.1.12.1 need not be provided if the ship is fitted with steel hatch covers
and effective means of closing all ventilators and other openings leading to the
cargo spaces.
6.17.2 In cargo spaces of passenger ships, fire detection and fire alarm system,
required in 6.1.12.3, need not be applied.
6.18
Ships Carrying Vehicles with Petroleum Tanks – Mark: PET
Cargo ships shall comply with the requirements for the protection of ro-ro
spaces and vehicles spaces, specified in 6.2.2, whereas passenger ships – the
requirements for fire protection of special category spaces and ro-ro spaces
specified in 6.10.2.
6.19
Ships Provided with Inert Gas System – Mark: ING
Inert gas system installed on board the ship assigned the additional mark ING
shall fulfil the requirements specified in sub-chapter 3.10.
6.20
Passenger Ships Engaged on Domestic Voyages – Mark: Class B,
Class C or Class D
The requirements specified in the present sub-chapter apply to passenger ships
engaged on domestic voyages and are supplementary to the requirements specified
in sub-chapters 6.1 and 6.10.
These requirements also apply to ships of less than 24 metres in length.
Additional Requirements
6.20.1
6.20.1.1
261
Water Fire Main System
Ships with Length of 24 Metres and Above
6.20.1.1.1 The number of fire pumps and the pressure in the system shall be
as follows:
.1 in ships carrying not more than 500 passengers:
– minimum number of pumps – not less than two, one of which may
be a main engine-driven pump;
– minimum pressure maintained at all hydrants – not less than 0.3 MPa
(only for ships with Class B mark).
.2 in ships carrying more than 500 passengers:
– minimum number of pumps – not less than three, one of which may be
a main engine-driven pump;
– minimum pressure maintained at all hydrants – not less than 0.4 MPa
(only for ships with Class B mark).
In ships carrying more than 250 passengers, the arrangement of sea connections,
fire pumps and their sources of power shall be such as to ensure that, in the event
of fire in any one compartment, all the fire pumps will not be put out of action.
If this requirement cannot be fulfilled, an emergency fire pump in accordance
with the requirements specified in 3.2.4 shall be provided.
In ships carrying more than 250 passengers, the arrangements for the ready
availability of water supply shall be such that at least one effective jet of water is
immediately available from any hydrant in an interior location and so as to ensure
the continuation of the output of water by the automatic starting of a required fire
pump.
6.20.1.2
Ships with Class C or Class D Additional Notation
of Less than 24 Metres in Length
6.20.1.2.1 One independent fire pump is required, which shall be capable of
delivering for fire-fighting purposes at least one jet of water from any fire hydrant,
at the pressure specified below. The quantity of water so delivered shall not be less
than two thirds of the quantity required to be dealt with by the bilge pumps when
employed for bilge pumping.
Such fire pump shall be capable, when discharging the maximum amount
referred to above through fire hydrants with nozzles of 12 or 16 or 19 mm, of
maintaining at any hydrant minimum pressure of 0.3 MPa.
6.20.1.2.2 Every ship carrying over 250 passengers shall be provided with an
additional fire pump which shall be permanently connected to the fire main. Such
a pump shall be powered independently. Such a pump and its source of power shall not
be situated in the same compartment as the pump required in accordance with
6.20.1.2.1 and shall be provided with a permanent sea connection situated outside the
262
Fire Protection
machinery space. Such pump shall be capable of delivering at least one jet of water
from any fire hydrants provided in the ship maintaining a pressure of at least 0.3 MPa.
6.20.1.2.3 In ships with a periodically unattended machinery space or when only one
person is required on watch, there shall be immediate water delivery from the fire main
system at a suitable pressure, either by remote starting of one of the main fire pumps
with remote starting from the navigating bridge and fire control station, if any, or by
automatic start of the pump on the pressure drop in the system..
6.20.2
6.20.2.1
Protection of Machinery Spaces
Ships with Length of 24 Metres and Above
6.20.2.1.1 Machinery spaces of category A above 500 m3 in volume (irrespective
of the ship’s gross tonnage), shall, in addition to the fixed fire-extinguishing system
required in 2.5.1.1, be protected by a type-approved local spraying water-based
system or equivalent fire-fighting system, of approved type, complying with the
requirements specified in 3.4.6.
6.20.2.1.2 In ships carrying more than 400 passengers, machinery spaces of
category A (irrespective of the machinery space volume), shall, in addition to the
fixed fire-extinguishing system required in sub-chapter 2.5.1.1, be protected by
a type-approved local spraying water-based system or equivalent fire-fighting
system, of approved type, complying with the requirements specified in 3.4.6.
6.20.2.1.3 In ships of 40 metres in length and above, within the machinery
spaces, emergency escape breathing devices in accordance with the requirements
specified in 5.1.5 shall be situated ready for use at easily visible places, which can
be reached quickly and easily at any time in the event of fire. The location of
emergency escape breathing devices shall take account of the layout of the
machinery space and the number of persons normally working in the space.
6.20.2.1.4 The number and location of these devices shall be indicated on the
Fire Control Plan required in 6.20.5.1.
6.20.2.2
Ships with Class B, Class C or Class D Additional Notation
of Less than 24 metres in Length
Machinery space of category A shall be fitted with:
.1 a fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing systems (e.g. carbon dioxide)
complying with the requirements specified in 3.6 or an equivalent gas fireextinguishing system;
.2 one mobile foam fire extinguisher of at least 45 l capacity or one carbon
dioxide extinguisher of at least 16 kg capacity provided in any space
containing internal combustion engines, oil settling tanks or oil fuel units.
The fire extinguisher may be positioned outside the machinery space at the
entrance;
Additional Requirements
.3
6.20.3
263
9 l foam fire extinguishers or equivalent – one extinguisher per each 736 kW,
or part thereof, of the combined output of such machinery; it is required that
not fewer than two but not more than six such extinguishers shall be provided
in any such space. The use of low-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system in
lieu of the fire extinguishers is permitted.
Automatic Sprinkler System
For ships with additional notation Class C or Class D of less than 40 metres in
length with a total protected area of less than 280 m2, PRS may accept other area
for sizing of pumps and alternative supply components than those required in
3.3.4.2.
6.20.4
Fire-Fighter’s Outfit
6.20.4.1 In ships of 40 metres in length and above, at least two fire-fighter’s
outfits in accordance with the requirements specified in 5.1.4 shall be provided.
6.20.4.2 In ships of 60 metres in length and above, if the aggregate of the lengths
of all passenger spaces and service spaces on the deck which carries such spaces is
more than 80 metres or, if there is more than one such deck, on the deck which has
the largest aggregate of such lengths, at least two fire-fighter’s outfits and at least two
sets of personal equipment for every 80 metres, or part thereof, of such aggregate of
lengths shall be additionally provided.
In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two additional fire-fighter’s outfits
shall be provided for each main vertical zone, except for stairway enclosures which
constitute individual main vertical zones and for main vertical zones of limited
length in the fore and aft end of a ship which do not include machinery spaces or
main galleys.
6.20.4.3 In ships of 40 metres in length and above, but less than 60 metres, at
least two fire-fighter’s outfits shall be provided.
6.20.4.4 In ships with additional notation Class B of less than 40 metres in
length, at least two fire-fighter’s outfits shall be provided, but with only one spare
air-charge for self-contained breathing apparatus.
6.20.4.5 If – taking account of the ship service restrictions – PRS deems it
unreasonable or impracticable to place a fire-fighter’s outfit on board, the ship may
be exempt from the requirements to carry one or more such outfits.
6.20.5
Operation Documentation
6.20.5.1 Ships shall be provided with the Fire Control Plan complying with the
requirements specified in 1.4.2.
264
Fire Protection
6.20.5.2 Ships shall be provided with the Fire Protection Systems and
Appliances Maintenance Plan complying with the requirements specified in
1.4.3.2, as well as the Fire Training Manual complying with the requirements
specified in 1.4.3.3.
6.20.5.3 In ships carrying cargo, to provide information and instruction for proper
ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety, Fire Safety Operational
Booklet complying with the relevant requirements specified in 1.4.3.4 shall be carried.
6.20.6
Ship Structure, Main Vertical and Horizontal Zones,
as well as Bulkheads within these Zones
6.20.6.1 The hull, superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses
shall be constructed of steel or steel equivalent material.
6.20.6.2 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the hull, superstructure and
deckhouses shall be subdivided into main vertical zones by A-60 Class divisions.
Steps and recesses shall be kept to a minimum, but where they are necessary,
they shall also be A-60 Class divisions.
Where an open deck space, a sanitary or similar space or a tank including a fuel
oil tank, void space or auxiliary machinery space having little or no fire risk, is on
one side or where fuel oil tanks are on both sides of the division, the standard may
be reduced to A-0.
6.20.6.3 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the hull, superstructure
and deckhouses in way of accommodation and service spaces shall be subdivided
into main vertical zones by A Class divisions. These divisions shall have insulation
values in accordance with Table 6.1.5-1.
6.20.6.4 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, main fire zones divisions
shall comply with the requirements specified in 6.1.2.2 to 6.1.2.6.
6.20.6.5 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, fire integrity of vertical and
horizontal divisions within main fire zones shall comply with the requirements
specified 6.1.4.
6.20.6.6 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, fire integrity of vertical
and horizontal divisions within main fire zones shall comply with the requirements
specified 6.1.5.
6.20.7
Means of Escape
6.20.7.1 The requirements specified in 6.1.6 shall be fulfilled, except for the
requirement set forth in 6.1.6.9 regarding the development of the Means of Escape
Plan for the ship.
Additional Requirements
265
6.20.7.2 In ships of 40 metres in length and above, at least two emergency
escape breathing devices in accordance with the requirements specified in 5.1.5
shall be provided in each main vertical zone.
6.20.7.3 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two emergency escape
breathing devices, in addition to those required in 6.20.7.2, shall be provided in
each main vertical zone
6.20.7.4 The requirements specified in 6.20.7.2 and 6.20.7.3 do not apply to
stairway enclosures which constitute individual main vertical zones or the main
vertical zones in the fore or aft end of a ship, which do not contain spaces of
categories (6), (7), (8) or (12) defined in 6.1.4.
6.20.7.5 In ships of less than 24 metres in length, the requirement concerning one
of the means of escape from the machinery spaces may be waived having regard to
the width and arrangement of the upper part of such space.
6.20.8
Means of Escape on Passenger Ro-ro Ships
The requirements specified in 6.10.1.1 to 6.10.1.4 shall be fulfilled, except that
evacuation analysis, referred to in 6.10.1.4, need not be performed in accordance
with the IMO guidelines.
6.20.9
Openings in A and B Class Divisions
6.20.9.1 The requirements specified in 2.2.6.5, 6.1.8.3, 6.1.8.6 and 6.1.9.3, as
well as the requirements specified in the present sub-chapter shall be fulfilled.
6.20.9.2 All openings in A Class divisions shall be provided with permanently
attached means of closing which shall have the same fire resistance as the divisions
in which they are fitted.
6.20.9.3 The construction of all doors and door frames in A Class divisions, with
the means of securing them when closed, shall provide resistance to fire, as well as
to the passage of smoke and flame, as far as practicable, equivalent to that of the
bulkheads in which the doors are situated. Such doors and doorframes shall be
constructed of steel or other equivalent material. Watertight doors need not be
insulated.
6.20.9.4 The requirement for A Class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship
shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles, provided that in subchapter 6.20.12 relating to windows and sidescuttles there is no requirement for
such boundaries to have A Class integrity.
This requirement does not apply to exterior doors, except for the doors in
superstructures and deckhouses facing life-saving appliances, embarkation and
external assembly station areas, external stairs and open decks used for escape
routes. Stairway enclosure doors need not meet this requirement.
266
Fire Protection
6.20.9.5 Doors and door frames in B Class divisions and means of securing them
shall provide a method of closure which shall have resistance to fire equivalent to
that of the divisions, except that ventilation openings may be permitted in the lower
portion of such doors. Where such opening is in or under a door, the total net area
of any such opening or openings shall not exceed 0.05 m2. Alternatively, a noncombustible air balance duct routed between the cabin and the corridor and located
below the sanitary unit is permitted where the cross-sectional area of the duct does
not exceed 0.05 m2. All ventilation openings shall be fitted with a grill made of
non-combustible material. Doors shall be non-combustible.
6.20.9.6 For reasons of noise reduction, doors with built-in ventilation soundlocks with openings at the bottom on one side of the door and at the top on the
other side may be approved as an equivalent, on condition that the following
requirements have been fulfilled:
.1 the upper opening shall always face the corridor and shall be provided with
a grating of non-combustible material and an automatically operating fire
damper, activated at a temperature of about 70 °C;
.2 the lower opening shall be provided with a grating made of a noncombustible material;
.3 the doors shall be tested in accordance with IMO Resolution A.754 (18) or
FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3.
6.20.9.7 Cabin doors in B Class divisions shall be of a self-closing type.
Hold-backs are not permitted.
6.20.10 Protection of Stairways and Lifts in Accommodation and Service Spaces
The requirements specified in 6.1.7 and 6.1.6.10.3 shall be fulfilled.
6.20.11
Fire Protection of Exhaust Ducts from Galley Range
6.20.11.1 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, exhaust ducts from galley
ranges in which grease or fat is likely to accumulate shall meet the requirements
specified in 6.1.17.2.
6.20.11.2 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, exhaust ducts from
galley ranges passing through accommodation spaces or spaces containing
combustible materials shall meet the requirements specified in 2.7.1.
6.20.12
6.20.12.1
Windows and Sidescuttles
The requirements specified in 6.1.10.1 and 6.1.10.2 shall be fulfilled.
6.20.12.2 In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, windows facing life-saving
appliances, embarkation and assembly areas, external stairs and open decks used for
escape routes, and windows situated below liferaft and escape slide embarkation
Additional Requirements
267
areas shall have the fire integrity as required in Table 6.1.4-1. Where automatic
dedicated sprinkler heads are provided for these windows, A-0 windows may be
accepted as equivalent. Sprinkler heads must be either:
.1 dedicated heads located above the windows and installed in addition to the
conventional ceiling sprinklers; or;
.2 conventional ceiling sprinkler heads so arranged that the window is
protected by an average application rate of at least 5 litres/m2 per minute
and the additional window area is included in the calculation of the area
of coverage.
Windows located in the ship’s side below the lifeboat embarkation areas shall have
the fire integrity at least equal to A-0 Class. In ships carrying not more than
36 passengers, notwithstanding the requirements relating to fire integrity given in
Tables 6.1.5-1 and 6.1.5-2, special attention shall be given to the fire integrity of
windows facing open or enclosed lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas and to the fire
integrity of windows situated below such areas in such a position that their failure
during a fire would impede the launching of, or embarkation into, lifeboats or liferafts.
6.20.13
Restricted Use of Combustible Materials
6.20.13.1 Except in cargo spaces, mail rooms, baggage rooms or refrigerated
compartments of service spaces, all linings, grounds, draught stops, ceilings and
insulation shall be of non-combustible materials. Partial bulkheads or decks used to
subdivide a space for utility or artistic treatment shall also be of non-combustible
material.
6.20.13.2 Vapour barriers and adhesives used in conjunction with insulation,
as well as insulation of piping and pipe fittings for cold service systems need not be
non-combustible, but they shall be kept to the minimum quantity practicable and
their exposed surfaces shall have low flame-spread characteristics.
6.20.13.3 The following surfaces shall have low flame-spread characteristics:
.1 exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures, as well as
bulkheads, wall and ceiling linings in all accommodation spaces, service
spaces and control stations;
.2 concealed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation spaces, service spaces
and control stations.
6.20.13.4 Total volume of combustible facings, mouldings, decorations and
veneers in accommodation and service spaces shall not exceed a volume equivalent
to 2.5 mm veneer on the combined area of the walls and ceilings. Furniture fixed to
linings, bulkheads or decks need not be included in the calculation of the total
volume of combustible materials.
In the case of ships fitted with the sprinkler system in accordance with the
requirements of 3.3, the above volume may include some combustible material
used for erection of C Class divisions.
268
Fire Protection
6.20.13.5 Veneers used on surfaces and linings covered by the requirements of
6.20.13.3 shall have Q calorific value not exceeding 45 MJ/m2 of the area for the
thickness used.
6.20.13.6 Furniture in stairway enclosures shall be limited to seating. It shall be
fixed, limited to six seats on each deck in each stairway enclosure, be of restricted
fire risk, and shall not restrict the passenger escape route. Additional seating in the
main reception area within a stairway enclosure if it is fixed, non-combustible and
does not restrict the passenger escape route is permitted.
Furniture is not permitted in passenger and crew corridors forming escape
routes in cabin areas. However, lockers of non-combustible material, providing
storage for the required safety equipment, may be permitted.
Drinking water dispensers and ice cube machines may be permitted in corridors,
provided they are fixed and do not restrict the width of the escape routes. This also
applies to decorative flower or plant arrangements, statues or other objects of art,
such as paintings and tapestries in corridors and stairways.
6.20.13.7 Paints, varnishes and other finishes used on exposed interior surfaces
shall not be capable of producing excessive quantities of smoke and toxic products,
this being determined in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 2.
6.20.13.8 Primary deck coverings, if applied within accommodation and service
spaces and control stations, shall be of an approved material which will not readily
ignite or give rise to toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures, this being
determined in accordance with the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 6.
6.20.14
Fixed Fire Detection, Fire Alarm and Automatic Sprinkler System
in Ship Spaces
6.20.14.1 In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers and in ships with
a length of less than 24 metres there shall be installed throughout each separate
zone, whether vertical or horizontal, in all accommodation and service spaces and
in control stations, except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk such as void
spaces, sanitary spaces, etc., either:
.1 type-approved fixed fire detection and fire alarm system in accordance
with the requirements specified in 4.1 and 6.1.14 which shall be so
installed and arranged as to detect the presence of fire in such spaces, and
also providing smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes
within accommodation spaces; or
.2 type-approved automatic sprinkler system, in accordance with the
requirements specified in 3.3 and 6.1.13, which shall be so installed and
arranged as to protect such spaces and, additionally, a type-approved fixed
fire detection and fire alarm system in accordance with the requirements
specified in 4.1 and 6.1.14 which shall be so installed and arranged as to
Additional Requirements
269
provide smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes within
accommodation spaces.
6.20.14.2 Ships carrying more than 36 passengers shall be fitted with:
.1 type-approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with the
requirements specified in 3.3 and 6.1.13 installed in all service spaces,
control stations and accommodation spaces, including corridors and
stairways. Alternatively control stations where water may cause damage to
essential equipment may be fitted with an approved fixed fire-extinguishing
system of another type; and
.2 type-approved fixed fire detection and fire alarm system in accordance with the
requirements specified in sub-chapters 4.1 and 6.1.14 which shall be so
installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in service spaces, control
stations and accommodation spaces, including corridors and stairways. Smoke
detectors need not be fitted in private bathrooms and galleys.
Spaces having little or no fire risk such as voids, public toilets, carbon dioxide
rooms and similar spaces need not be fitted with an automatic sprinkler system or
fixed fire detection and alarm system.
6.20.14.3 Ships with a length of less than 24 metres shall be fitted with an
automatic sprinkler system and fixed fire detection and alarm system as required
for ships carrying more than 36 passengers in 6.20.14.1.
6.20.14.4 In ships assigned an additional mark indicating their adjustment to
periodically unattended operation of the machinery spaces, a type-approved fixed
fire detection and alarm system shall be installed in the machinery spaces in
accordance with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.16.2.
Where the navigating bridge is unattended, the alarm system shall be operable
from the position attended by an authorised crew member.
6.20.15
Fire Protection of Special Category Spaces
The requirements specified in 6.10.2 shall be fulfilled.
6.20.16
Additional Requirements for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods
Passenger ships carrying dangerous goods shall comply with the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 2.10.
6.20.17
Requirements for Ships Cooperating with Helicopter
Ships cooperating with helicopter shall comply with the requirements specified
in 7.1.
270
6.21
Fire Protection
Cargo Ships of Less than 500 Gross Tonnage – Minimum
Requirements
The requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.21 apply to cargo ships including
tugs, supply vessels, dredgers, hopper barges, pilot craft, as well as barges and
pontoons without their own propulsion (except for chemical carriers and gas
tankers) of less than 500 gross tonnage.
These ships shall fulfil the applicable requirements specified in 2.1 to 2.8; the
requirements specified in present sub-chapter shall be complied with in each
particular case.
Chemical carriers and gas tankers shall fulfil requirements of the IBC Code
and the IGC Code, respectively – see sub-chapters 6.12 and 6.11.
6.21.1
6.21.1.1
Structural Fire Protection
Structural Fire Protection of Divisions Separating Adjacent Spaces
Machinery spaces of category A shall be enclosed by A-60 Class divisions
where adjacent to: accommodation spaces, control stations, corridors, staircases
and by A-0 Class divisions elsewhere.
Galleys shall be separated from the adjacent spaces by at least A-0 Class divisions.
Service spaces of high fire risk other than galley shall be separated from the
adjacent spaces by at least B-15 Class divisions.
Corridors and staircases shall be separated from the adjacent spaces by at least
B-0 Class divisions.
Cargo spaces shall be separated from the adjacent spaces by at least A-0 Class
divisions.
Divisions used to separate spaces other than those, referred to above, shall be of
non-combustible material.
6.21.1.2
Closing Arrangements for Openings in Fire Divisions
Openings in A Class divisions shall be provided with permanently attached
means of closing which shall be at least as effective for resisting fires as the
divisions in which they are fitted.
Doors shall be self-closing in way machinery spaces of category A and galleys,
except where they are normally kept closed.
6.21.1.3
Means of Control in Machinery Spaces of Category A
In category A machinery spaces, means of control specified in 2.1.4.3 shall be
used. These controls, as well as the controls of fire-extinguishing systems shall be
situated at one control position outside the space concerned where they will not be
cut off in the event of fire in the space they serve. Such positions shall have safe
access from the open deck.
Additional Requirements
6.21.1.4
271
Means of Escape
There shall be at least two means, as widely separated as possible, of escape to
the open deck from each section of accommodation and service spaces and control
stations.
The normal means of escape to the accommodation and service spaces below
the open deck shall be so arranged that it is possible to reach the open deck without
passing through spaces containing a possible source of fire (e.g. machinery spaces,
storage spaces of flammable liquids). The second means of escape may be through
portholes or hatches of adequate size leading directly to the open deck.
At least two means of escape shall be provided from machinery spaces of
category A by steel ladders one of which shall not be an emergency exit.
6.21.2
Water Fire Main System
6.21.2.1
Fire Pumps
Water fire main system shall be supplied by one main fire pump, independently
driven; one portable fire pump shall be additionally provided on board the ship.
The total capacity of the main fire pump shall be determined in accordance with
the following formula:
Q = (0.145(L(B+D))1/2 + 2.17)2, [m3/h],
need not, however, exceed 25 m3/h
where:
L – length of ship, [m] – see Part I – Classification Regulations;
B – moulded breadth, [m] – see Part I – Classification Regulations;
D – moulded depth to bulkhead deck, [m].
On ships of gross tonnage 150 and upwards, the pressure maintained at any
hydrant shall be sufficient to produce a jet throw at any nozzle of not less than 12 m.
On ships of gross tonnage less than 150, a lesser jet of water may be specially
considered.
6.21.2.2
Portable Fire Pump
6.21.2.2.1
.1
.2
.3
Portable fire pump shall fulfil the following requirements:
the pump shall be self-priming and have a capacity at least 12 m3/h;
the total suction head and the net positive suction head of the pump shall
be determined taking account of actual operation, i.e. pump location when
used and the size of the ship;
the portable fire pump, when fitted with its length of discharge hose and
nozzle, shall be capable of maintaining a pressure sufficient to produce
a jet throw of at least 12 m, or that required to enable a jet of water to be
directed on any part of the engine room or the exterior boundary of the
engine room and casing, whichever is greater;
272
Fire Protection
except for electric pumps, the pump set shall have its own fuel tank of
sufficient capacity to operate the pump for three hours. For electric
pumps, their batteries shall have sufficient capacity for three hours;
.5
the pump powered by an internal combustion engine shall use oil fuel
having a flash point above 60 ºC. If the fuel type has a flashpoint below
60 ºC, further consideration to the fire safety aspects shall be given;
.6
the pump set shall be stored in a secure, safe and enclosed space,
accessible from the open deck and clear of the machinery space of
category A;
.7
the pump set shall be easily moved and operated by two persons and
readily available for immediate use;
.8
arrangements shall be provided to secure the pump at its anticipated
operating position(s);
.9
the overboard suction hose shall be non-collapsible and of sufficient
length to ensure suction under all operating conditions. A suitable strainer
shall be fitted at the inlet end of the hose;
.10 any diesel-driven source for the pump shall be capable of being readily
started in its cold condition by hand (manual cranking);
Means to illuminate the stowage area of the portable pump and its necessary
areas of operation shall be provided from the emergency source of electrical power.
On ships of gross tonnage less than 150, a portable fire pump need not be
provided if an approved fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing pump is fitted in the
machinery space.
.4
6.21.2.2.2 In lieu of portable fire pump, a fixed fire pump may be used which
should comply with the following:
.1 the pump, its source of power and sea connection shall be located in
accessible positions, outside the compartment housing the main pump;
.2 the valve shall be capable of being operated from a position near the pump;
.3 the room where the fire pump and its prime mover is located shall be
illuminated from the emergency source of electrical power and shall be
ventilated;
.4 where the pump is required to supply water for a fixed fire-extinguishing
system in the space where the main fire pump is situated, it shall be
capable of simultaneously supplying water to this system and the fire main
at the required rates;
.5 the pump may also be used for other suitable purposes, subject to PRS’
consent in each particular case;
.6 pressure and quantity of water delivered by the pump shall be sufficient to
produce a jet of water, at any nozzle, of not less than 12 m in length.
On ships of gross tonnage less than 150, a lesser jet of water may be
specially considered.
Additional Requirements
6.21.2.3
273
Piping
The diameter of the fire main shall be based on the required capacity of the fixed
main fire pump(s) and the diameter of the water service pipes shall be sufficient to
ensure an adequate supply of water for the operation of at least one fire hose.
If a fixed fire pump, instead of a portable pump, is fitted outside the engine
room where the main fire pump is situated, an isolating valve shall be fitted in the
fire main so that all the hydrants on board the ship, except those in the machinery
space, can be supplied with water. The isolating valve shall be located in an easily
accessible and tenable position outside the machinery space.
The fire main shall not re-enter the machinery space downstream of the
isolating valve.
6.21.2.4
Fire Hydrants
On ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards, the number and position of
hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of water may reach any accessible part
of the ship in accordance with the requirements specified in 3.2.6.2.
On ships of less than 150 gross tonnage, the number and position of hydrants
shall be such that at least one jet of water may reach any accessible part of the ship.
At least one hydrant shall be provided in each machinery space of category A.
6.21.2.5
Fire Hoses
Fire hoses shall, in general, have a length not exceeding 18 m.
Ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with fire hoses the
number of which shall be one for each 30 m length of the ship and additionally
a spare one, in no case, however, less than three in all.
On ships of less than 150 gross tonnage, one hose shall be provided for each
hydrant. In addition one spare hose shall be provided onboard.
6.21.3
Fixed Fire Detection and Fire Alarm Systems in Machinery Spaces
of Category A
In each machinery space of category A, a fixed fire-detection and fire-alarm
system shall be installed in accordance with the requirements specified in 6.16.2.
6.21.4
Fixed Fire-Extinguishing System in Machinery Spaces of Category A
On ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards, machinery spaces of category A
shall be provided with a type-approved fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing
system complying with the applicable requirements specified in 2.5.1.1.
6.21.5
Fire Protection of Paint Lockers and Flammable Liquid Lockers
Paint lockers and flammable liquid lockers shall be provided with at least one
portable 6 kg dry powder fire extinguishers situated directly at the entrance to such
a locker.
274
Fire Protection
6.21.6
6.21.6.1
Fire-Fighting Equipment
Portable Fire-Extinguishers
The minimum number of portable fire-extinguishers shall be as follows:
.1 in accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations:
– on ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards – at least 3 extinguishers;
– on ships of less than 150 gross tonnage – at least 1 extinguisher;
.2 in machinery spaces (one extinguisher per every 375 kW of internal
combustion engine power) – at least 2 extinguishers, however, not more
than 6 extinguishers are required.
Accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations shall be provided
with a sufficient number of portable fire-extinguishers which shall be so arranged
as to ensure that at least one extinguisher will be readily available for use in every
compartment of these spaces and to ensure that at least one extinguisher will be
available at each deck having accommodation or service spaces, or control stations.
For each required portable fire-extinguisher, duplicate extinguishers shall be
provided.
6.21.6.2
Fire-Fighter’s Outfit
All cargo ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with at least
one fire-fighter’s outfit (including an axe) in accordance with the requirements
specified in 5.1.4.
6.21.6.3
Fire Blanket
Each ship shall be provided with at least one fire blanket.
6.21.7
Fire Protection of Tankers Carrying Products with a Flash-point
Not Exceeding 60 ºC
These tankers shall fulfil the requirements specified in sub-chapter 6.3.
6.21.8
6.21.8.1
Additional Fire Protection of Tankers Carrying Products
with a Flash-point Exceeding 60 ºC
Cargo Pump-Room
In the cargo pump-room, a type-approved fixed fire-detection and alarm system
shall be installed, complying with the applicable requirements specified in 4.1.
6.21.8.2
Cargo Area Deck Protection
On the cargo tank deck, the following fire-fighting equipment shall be provided:
– mobile foam-type fire-extinguishing unit having 135 l; or
– portable foam applicator unit in accordance with the requirements specified in
5.1.3.
Foam concentrate used shall be suitable for the cargoes to be carried.
Additional Requirements
6.21.9
275
Fire Protection of Ships not Fitted with Propelling Machinery
The requirements for fire protection for such ships are specified by PRS
considering in each case their size and purpose, arrangement of the accommodation
spaces, machinery and combustible materials on board.
The scope of documentation for consideration and approval to be submitted to
PRS Head Office shall be agreed with PRS in each particular case; such
documentation shall indicate the proposed fire protection structural arrangements,
applications of fixed fire-detection and alarm systems, as well as fire-extinguishing
systems and also state the positioning of portable fire-extinguishers.
6.21.10
Fire Control Plan
On all cargo ships, Fire Control Plan complying with the requirements
specified in 1.4.2, shall be exhibited on board the ship.
On ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards, a duplicate of Fire Control Plan
shall be kept in a firmly sealed container positioned outside the superstructure at
the entrance to be used by the shore fire brigade during the fire while in port.
6.22
Ships with Natural Gas-Fuelled Engines
Fire protection of those ships shall be in accordance with the guidelines
specified in Publication No. 88/P (Res. MSC.285(86)).
276
7
Fire Protection
REQUIREMENTS FOR APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT POSING
ADDITIONAL RISK OF FIRE
7.1
7.1.1
Helicopter Facilities
Application
7.1.1.1 Depending on helicopter operation, ships shall be provided with specially
designated and equipped areas: helideck, helicopter landing area or winching area,
defined in 7.1.2.
7.1.1.2 Ships equipped with helideck shall comply with the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 7.1.3, 7.1.4, 7.1.6 and 7.1.8.
7.1.1.3 Ro-ro passenger ships of 130 m in length or above provided with
helicopter landing area, constructed in accordance with the recommendations given
in MSC/Circ.895, shall comply with the requirements specified in sub-chapters
7.1.5 and 7.1.8.
7.1.1.4 Ships provided with a winching area shall be fitted with portable firefighting equipment, as specified in particular chapters of the present Part for the
given type of ship, located in the vicinity of the winching area.
7.1.1.5 Ships provided with helicopter refueling and hangar facilities shall
comply with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 7.1.6.
7.1.2
Definitions
For the purpose of the present Chapter, the following definitions have been
adopted:
.1 H e l i d e c k – a purpose–built helicopter landing platform or other deck
area including all structure, fire-fighting appliances and other equipment
necessary for the safe operation of helicopter.
.2 H e l i c o p t e r l a n d i n g a r e a – an area on a ship designated for
occasional or emergency landing of helicopter and not designed for routine
helicopter operations.
.3 W i n c h i n g a r e a – a pick-up area provided for the transfer by
helicopter of personnel or stores to or from the ship, while helicopter
hovers above the deck.
7.1.3
Helideck Structure
7.1.3.1 Helideck shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.
If the helideck forms the deckhead of a deckhouse or superstructure, it shall be
insulated to A-60 Class standard.
Requirements for Appliances and Equipment Posing Additional Risk of Fire
277
7.1.3.2 Aluminium or other low-melting metal construction is permitted,
provided the following requirements are fulfilled:
.1 if the platform is cantilevered over the side of the ship, then after each fire
on the ship or on the platform, the platform shall undergo a structural
analysis to determine its suitability for further use;
.2 if the platform is located above the ship’s deckhouse or a similar structure,
the following requirements shall be fulfilled:
.1 the deckhouse top and bulkheads under the platform shall have no
openings;
.2 all windows under the platform shall be provided with steel covers;
.3 after each fire on the platform or in close proximity, the platform shall
undergo a structural analysis to determine its suitability for further
use.
7.1.3.3 Helideck shall be provided with both the main and an emergency means
of escape and access for fire-fighting and rescue personnel. These means of escape
shall be located as far apart from each other as practicable and preferably
on the opposite sides of the helideck.
7.1.3.4 Helideck shall be provided with drainage facilities, constructed of steel
and led directly overboard, independent of any other system and so designed
that drainage does not fall on to any part of the ship.
7.1.4
Fire-Fighting and Helideck Fire Protection
7.1.4.1 Helideck shall be fitted with a fixed foam system complying with the
requirements specified in 7.1.6.
7.1.4.2 The helideck area shall be provided with a least 2 fire hydrants and 2 dueltype nozzles, with a fire hose capable of supplying water to each part of the helideck.
7.1.4.3 In the close proximity of the helideck, the following fire-fighting
appliances shall be provided:
.1 at least two mobile dry-powder extinguishers having a total capacity of not
less than 45 kg;
.2 carbon dioxide fire-extinguishers of a total capacity not less than 18 kg
or equivalent;
.3 two sets of fire-fighter’s outfits in accordance with the requirements
specified in 5.1.4, in addition to those required elsewhere in Part V;
.4 at least one rescue kit, stored in a manner that provides for immediate use
and protection against weather conditions, consisting of:
– adjustable wrench;
– blanket, fire-resistant;
– cutters, bolt 60 cm;
– hook;
278
Fire Protection
–
–
–
–
–
–
7.1.5
hacksaw, heavy duty, complete with 6 spare blades;
ladder;
lifeline of 5 mm in diameter and 15 m in length;
pliers, side-cutting;
set of assorted screwdrivers;
harness knife complete with sheath.
Fire Protection of Helicopter Landing Area
7.1.5.1 For helicopter landing areas, at least two hose reel foam stations shall be
provided, each capable of discharging a minimum foam solution discharge rate,
depending on helicopter category in accordance with Table 7.1.6.3 or alternatively
at least two portable foam applicators.
7.1.5.2 The helicopter landing area shall be provided with a least 2 fire hydrants
and 2 duel-type nozzles, with a fire hose capable of supplying water to each part of
the landing area.
7.1.5.3 The quantity of foam concentrate shall be adequate to allow operation of
all connected discharge devices for at least 10 min.
7.1.5.4 Hose reel foam station and fire hydrants shall be provided with a means
of access that does not require travel across the helicopter landing area.
7.1.5.5 In addition, the fire-fighting equipment, listed in 7.1.4.3, shall be
provided in the vicinity of the helicopter landing area.
7.1.6
Foam Fire-Extinguishing System for the Helideck
7.1.6.1 For helideck, the foam system shall contain at least two fixed foam
monitors or deck integrated foam nozzles.
7.1.6.2 In addition, at least two hose reels fitted with foam-making branch pipe
and non-collapsible hose sufficient to reach any part of the helideck shall be
provided.
7.1.6.3 Depending on helicopter category, the minimum foam system discharge
rate shall be determined by multiplying the D-value area, given in Table 7.1.6.3, by
6 l/min/m2.
Table 7.1.6.3
Helicopter
category
H1
H2
H3
Helicopter overall length L
L < 15 m
15 m ≤ L < 24 m
24 m ≤ L < 35 m
Discharge rate of foam solution
[l/min]
250
500
800
Requirements for Appliances and Equipment Posing Additional Risk of Fire
279
7.1.6.4 The minimum foam system discharge rate for deck integrated foam
nozzle system shall be determined by multiplying the overall helideck area by
6 l/min/m2.
7.1.6.5 The foam concentrate shall be approved type and be demonstrated
effective for extinguishing aviation fuel spill fires and shall conform to
performance standards not inferior to those specified in MSC.1/Circ.1312/Corr.1.
Where the foam storage tank is on the exposed deck, freeze protected foam
concentrates shall be used, if appropriate, for the area of operation.
7.1.6.6 The quantity of foam concentrate shall be adequate to allow operation of
all connected discharge devices for at least 5 min.
7.1.6.7 Means shall be provided for the crew to safely check the quantity of foam
concentrate in the tanks and taking the foam concentrate samples for the periodical
checking of its quality. The minimum level/required quantity of foam concentrate
shall be marked on the tank.
The location of the foam concentrate storage tank shall be indicated by a plate
with the symbol used on Fire Control Plan.
7.1.6.8 Each monitor shall be capable of supplying at least 50% of the minimum
foam system discharge rate, but not less than 500 l/min. The minimum discharge
rate of each hose reel shall be at least 400 l/min.
7.1.6.9 The foam system shall be capable of manual release, and may be
arranged for automatic release.
7.1.6.10 The distance from the monitor to the farthest extremity of the protected
area shall be not more than 75% of the monitor throw in still air conditions.
7.1.6.11 Manual release station capable of starting necessary pumps and opening
required valves, including the fire main system, if used for water supply, shall be
located at each monitor and hose reel. In addition, a central manual release station
shall be provided at a protected location. The foam system shall be designed to
discharge foam with nominal flow and at design pressure from any connected
discharge devices within 30 s of activation.
7.1.6.12 Activation of any manual release station shall initiate the flow of foam
solution to all connected hose reels, monitors and deck integrated foam nozzles.
7.1.6.13 The system and its components shall be designed to withstand ambient
temperature changes, vibration, humidity, shock impact and corrosion normally
encountered on the open deck.
7.1.6.14 A minimum nozzle throw of at least 15 m shall be provided with all
hose reels and monitors discharging foam simultaneously. The discharge pressure,
280
Fire Protection
flow rate and discharge pattern of deck integrated foam nozzles shall be so selected
as to ensure capability to extinguish fires involving the largest size helicopter for
which the helideck is designed.
7.1.6.15 Monitors, foam making branch pipes, deck integrated foam nozzles and
couplings shall be constructed of brass, bronze or stainless steel. Pipings, fittings
and related components, except gaskets, shall be designed to withstand 925 ºC.
7.1.6.16 All manual release stations, foam monitors and hose reels shall be
provided with a means of access that does not require travel across the helicopter
landing area.
7.1.6.17 Oscillating monitors, if used, shall be preset to discharge foam in spray
pattern and have a means of disengaging the oscillating mechanism to allow rapid
conversion to manual operation.
7.1.6.18 If foam monitors with flow rate up to 1000 l/min are installed, they shall
be equipped with air-aspirating nozzles. If a deck integrated nozzle system is
installed, then the additionally installed hose reel shall be equipped with an airaspirating handline nozzle. The use of non air-aspirating foam nozzles (on both:
monitors and the additional hose reel) is permitted only where foam monitors with
a flow rate above 1000 l/min are installed.
7.1.7
Helicopter Refuelling and Hangar Facilities
7.1.7.1 If the ship is provided with helicopter refueling and hangar facilities,
the requirements specified in this sub-chapter shall be fulfilled.
7.1.7.2 Hangar shall be treated as machinery space of category A with regard
to structural fire protection.
7.1.7.3 Hangar shall be fitted with a fixed total flooding fire-extinguishing
system, required in 2.5.1.1 for machinery spaces of category A and fire detection
and fire alarm system.
The loop of fire detectors in hangar shall not include detectors and manually
operated call points installed in machinery space category A.
7.1.7.4 Designated area shall be provided for the storage of fuel tanks
which shall be:
.1 as remote as is practicable from accommodation spaces, escape routes
and lifeboat embarkation stations; and
.2 isolated from areas containing a source of vapours ignition.
7.1.7.5 Fuel storage area shall be provided with arrangements whereby fuel
spillage may be collected and drained to a safe location.
Requirements for Appliances and Equipment Posing Additional Risk of Fire
281
7.1.7.6 Fuel storage tanks shall be constructed of metal, be fitted with fuel level
indicator, fuel filling and refueling pipe connector with a filter, fuel contamination
drain cover, fuel samples cock and ventilating pipes fitted with vent heads of an
approved type with flame arresters. Areas where fuel tanks are situated and fuelling
operations conducted are to be suitably isolated from enclosed spaces or other areas
which contain a source of vapour ignition.
7.1.7.7 Portable fuel storage tanks shall be of appropriate design and be suitably
installed, protected against damage and earthed.
7.1.7.8 Storage tank fuel pumps shall be provided with means which permit
shutdown from a safe remote location in the event of a fire. Where a gravity
fuelling system is installed, equivalent closing arrangements shall be provided
to isolate the fuel source.
7.1.7.9 Fuel pumping unit shall be connected to one tank at a time. The piping
between the tank and the pumping unit shall be of steel or equivalent material,
as short as possible, and protected against damage.
7.1.7.10 Electrical fuel pumping units and associated control equipment shall be
of an explosion-proof type.
7.1.7.11 Fuel pumping units shall incorporate a device which will prevent
over-pressurization of the delivery or filling hose.
7.1.7.12
Equipment used in refueling operations shall be electrically bonded.
7.1.7.13 “NO SMOKING” signs shall be displaced in vicinity of helicopter
refueling and on access door to hangar.
7.1.7.14 Enclosed hangar facilities or enclosed spaces containing refuelling
installations shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance
with the requirements specified in sub-chapter 11.9, Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants.
7.1.7.15 Electric equipment and wiring in enclosed hangar or enclosed spaces
containing refueling installations shall be of an explosion-proof type.
7.1.8
Helicopter Operation Manuals
7.1.8.1 For each helideck, Operation Manual containing a description and a checklist
of safety precautions, procedures and equipment requirements shall be prepared. Such
a manual may be part of the ship’s emergency response procedures.
7.1.8.2 Operation Manual shall contain safety procedures and precautions to be
followed during helicopter refueling operations.
282
Fire Protection
7.1.8.3 Operation Manual shall include the responsibilities of fire-fighting
personnel consisting of at least two persons who shall be present
on the helideck at all times when helicopter operations and refuelling are expected.
7.2
Store-Rooms for Flammable Liquids with a Flash-Point below 43 °C
7.2.1 Flammable liquids with a flash-point below 43 °C, determined by an
approved flash-point apparatus (closed cup test) shall be stored inside ventilated
store-rooms in metallic receivers; each of such receivers shall be fitted with:
.1 self-closing tap valve;
.2 fuel level indicator closed type;
.3 pipe for filling the receiver from outside of the store-room;
.4 vent pipes led out to the open deck, fitted with vent heads of an approved
type with flame arresters;
.5 drip tray.
The quantities of any flammable liquids not exceeding 35 l may be stored
in metallic canisters with tight closure.
Where the total volume of the receivers exceeds 250 l (but does not exceed
2500 l), the store-room used for their storage shall be fitted with independent
mechanical ventilation ensuring the removal of air from the lower parts of the
space at the rate not less than 20 changes per hour.
Supply ventilation may be of natural type.
Switching on the fans shall be combined with the arrangement opening the
access door to the store-room. The whole equipment inside the store-room space
shall be of explosion-proof type in accordance with the requirements specified in
sub-chapter 2.8, Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
Where the quantity of flammable liquids exceeds 2500 l, the tanks for their
storage shall fulfil the requirements specified in 7.3.
7.2.2 In ships of less than 300 gross tonnage, where the arrangement of a special
space for flammable liquids of a flash-point below 43 °C is not practicable,
the liquids can be stored in steel ventilated cabinets or boxes. Such cabinets or boxes
shall not be adjacent to accommodation spaces and their doors shall open outside.
Inside the cabinets or boxes, the liquids shall be stored in metallic canisters with
tight closures and their total volume shall not exceed 50 l.
7.3
Tanks and Distributing Stations Intended for Fuel of a Flash-Point
below 43 °C
7.3.1 Tanks intended for fuel of a flash-point below 43 °C, determined by an
approved apparatus (close-cup test), shall fulfill the following requirements:
.1 they shall be built into the ship’s hull near its fore or aft portion, if possible;
.2 they shall be surrounded from all sides and corners, excluding the side
below the lowest waterline, with cofferdams which, in normal service
Requirements for Appliances and Equipment Posing Additional Risk of Fire
283
conditions, shall be filled with inert gas. Air pipes shall fulfil the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 9.1, Part VI – Machinery
Installations and Refrigerating Plants. The cofferdams shall be fitted with
sounding pipes led out to the open deck;
each fuel tank shall be fitted with the piping as follows: filling pipes, fuel
discharge pipes, sounding and air pipes. The lower end of filling pipe shall
be situated not more than 300 mm and the lower end of sounding pipe not
more than 30 mm above the tank bottom. It is recommended that closed
type level meter, instead of the sounding pipes, be used;
vent pipes of the tank shall be raised at least 2.5 m above the open deck.
The outlets of these pipes shall be at the distance of at least 9 m from openings
in superstructures and deckhouses and shall be fitted with approved type flame
arresters;
all fuel tank pipes shall be led from the tanks to oil fuel stations inside
a separate gastight trunk of dimensions enabling access over the whole
length of the trunk. The trunk walls shall be made as A-60 Class divisions
or, if the trunk shall be filled with water or inert gas, A-0 Class division. In
all cases, the supply and exhaust ventilation of the trunk shall be ensured.
The outlets of ventilation pipes shall be fitted with flame arresters;
all the fuel pipelines, machinery, fittings and instruments associated
with fuel storage and transport shall be reliably grounded to the ship’s hull
structure in order to avoid formation of electrostatic charges.
.3
.4
.5
.6
7.3.2 Distributing stations for fuel with a flash-point below 43 °C shall fulfil
the following requirements:
.1 they shall be located on the open deck as far as possible from
accommodation spaces and from possible sources of ignition;
.2 they shall be enclosed with A-60 Class fire-resisting divisions.
The doors may be A Class doors, made of steel without insulation.
The station shall be bounded with gastight bulkheads and decks;
.3 deck linings, door closing appliances and the station equipment shall
preclude the possibility of sparking;
.4 the station shall be fitted with drip trays for collecting and draining
the spilled oil to suitable drain tank.
7.4
Cylinders Containing Welding Gases (Oxygen or Acetylene)
7.4.1
General Requirements
7.4.1.1 The cylinders containing welding gases shall be supplied with PRS
Certificate.
7.4.1.2
The cylinders shall be fitted with cylinder valve caps.
284
Fire Protection
7.4.1.3 The storage of cylinders containing oxygen or acetylene in machinery
spaces is prohibited.
7.4.2
Compartments for the Storage of Cylinders
7.4.2.1 Cylinders containing welding gases (oxygen, acetylene, etc.) shall be
stored in a dedicated compartment designed for that purpose, complying with the
following requirements:
.1 direct access to such a compartment from the open deck shall be provided
and the door shall be locked;
.2 the compartment shall be bounded by A-0 Class partition and shall be
separated from the fire-hazardous adjacent spaces by A-60 Class fire divisions;
.3 except as necessary for service within the space, electrical wiring and
fittings are not permitted within the compartment. Where such electrical
fittings are installed, they shall be of an explosion-proof type;
.4 separate compartment shall be provided for each type of compressed gas;
.5 the compartment used for the storage of such gases shall not be used for
other purposes;
.6 the compartment shall be provided with effective ventilation system;
.7 “NO SMOKING” and “EXPLOSION HAZARD. NO NAKED LIGHT”
notices shall be displayed on the entrance to such compartment;
.8 the compartment shall be provided with safety manual containing the
following information:
– on completion of work, all cylinder valves shall be kept in close
position;
– flammable materials (especially oil or fat) shall not be kept in the
vicinity of cylinders containing oxygen;
– cylinder valves shall not be handled with oily or greasy hands.
7.4.2.2 Cylinders containing technical gases, including empty cylinders shall be
stored in an upright position and properly secured so as to ensure their quick
removal. The cylinders shall have a clearly legible identification of the name and
chemical formula of their contents.
7.4.2.3 Cylinders shall be stored on a base made from wood or other material in
such a way as not be in direct contact with deck surface.
7.4.3 Storage of the Cylinders on Open Deck
Cylinders containing welding gases – not more than two such cylinders – may
be stored on open decks in designated positions which shall fulfil the following
requirements:
.1 such positions shall be at a distance of at least 10 m from accommodation
and control stations and at least 4 m from the compartments where
flammable materials are stored;
Requirements for Appliances and Equipment Posing Additional Risk of Fire
285
such positions shall be protected against excessive variations in temperature
and weather conditions, as well as against mechanical damage;
“NO SMOKING” and “EXPLOSION HAZARD. NO NAKED LIGHT”
notices shall be displayed in the vicinity of the cylinders.
.2
.3
7.4.4
Welding Gases Installation
7.4.4.1 The pipes supplying oxygen and acetylene to a welding shop shall be
made of steel, be connected by welded pipe coupling or flanges.
7.4.4.2
valve.
Each pipeline shall be fitted with pressure reducing valve and cut-off
7.4.4.3 Where two or more cylinders are connected to a manifold, the supply
pipe, between cylinders, shall be fitted with non-return valves.
7.4.4.4 The cylinders shall be connected to the manifold by elastic pipes of
approved type.
7.4.4.5 The manifold shall be fitted with a safety valve. The outlet from the
safety valve shall be led to the open deck, in a place which will not pose fire
hazard.
7.4.4.6 After installation on board, the system is subject to acceptance and tests
in accordance with the approved documentation. The pipes are subject to strength
tightness tests, with a test pressure equal at least 1.25 of oxygen and acetylene
working pressure.
7.5
Heating of Spaces
7.5.1 Electric heating of spaces shall fulfil the requirements specified in Chapter 15,
Part VIII – Electrical Installations and Control Systems.
7.5.2 All heaters shall be so constructed and positioned as to preclude the
possibility of ignition of window curtains or space furnishings, as well as the
luggage and clothing left by the persons using the space concerned.
7.5.3 Usage of heating appliances with open fire, such as solid fuel (coal) or gas
burning boilers with open burners is not permitted.
7.6
Gas Fuel System for Domestic Purposes
7.6.1 Gas fuel system for domestic purposes shall fulfil the relevant national
standards of the Flag State. After its installation on board, the system is subject
to acceptance and tests in accordance with the approved documentation.
286
Fire Protection
7.6.2 Cylinders containing liquefied gas for domestic purposes shall be stored on
the open deck or in a well ventilated space which opens only to the open deck.
7.6.3 A portion of open deck, recessed into a deck structure, machinery casing,
deck house, etc., utilised for the exclusive storage of gas bottles is considered
acceptable, provided that:
.1 such a recess has an unobstructed opening, except for small appurtenant
structures, such as opening corner radii, small sills, pillars, etc. The opening
may be provided with grating walls and door;
.2 the depth of such a recess is not greater 1 m.
The recesses, specified above, shall be considered as open deck to determine the
fire integrity of boundaries of the adjacent spaces.
7.6.4 The system shall comply with the applicable requirements specified in the
Rules for the Classification and Construction of Inland Waterways Vessels, Part V –
Fire Protection, 2010, sub-chapter 7.3.
7.7
The Arrangement of Oil Fuel Tanks
Oil fuel tanks, which do not form an integral part of the ship’s structure, shall be
arranged and separated from other tanks/spaces in accordance with the
requirements specified in sub-chapter 12.7, Part VI – Machinery Installations and
Refrigerating Plants.
Supplement – Retroactive Requirements
287
SUPPLEMENT – RETROACTIVE REQUIREMENTS
1
GENERAL
1.1 The requirements specified in the present Supplement apply to existing ships,
irrespective of their construction date, unless provided otherwise elsewhere
in this Supplement.
1.2 Compliance with the applicable retroactive requirements is confirmed by
PRS’ Surveyor in the report on the nearest ship survey, to be carried out after the
requirements compliance date.
2
2.1
REQUIREMENTS
Halon Fire-Extinguishing Systems
2.1.1 In accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1005/2009 of the European
Parliament and of the Council, of 16 September 2009 on substances that deplete
the ozone layer, on existing ships flying the flag of the European Union Member
State, halon fire-extinguishing systems containing such halons as: 1211, 1301 and
2402, considered as controlled substances listed in Annex I (group III) to this
Regulation, are prohibited. Also portable fire-extinguishers containing the abovementioned halons are prohibited on board.
2.1.2 If an existing ship, to which PRS class is to be assigned, carries a halon
system, such a system, until the issue of Certificate of Class, shall be dismantled
and halon shall be recovered in order to be destroyed, recycled or reclaimed by
a service station approved by the Flag State Administration for conformity with the
environmental protection rules. The dismantled halon system shall be replaced by
carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system, complying with the requirements
specified in sub-chapter 3.6.4, Part V of the Rules or an equivalent gas fireextinguishing system, complying with the requirements specified in sub-chapter
3.7, Part V of the Rules.
2.1.3 Portable fire-extinguishers containing the above-mentioned halons shall be
replaced by other approved fire-extinguishers, complying with sub-chapter 5.1,
Part V of the Rules.
2.1.4 Documentation of a new equivalent fire-extinguishing system is subject
to approval by the PRS Head Office. After installation on board, the system shall
be accepted and tested under PRS Surveyor’s supervision for compliance with the
approved documentation.
288
2.2
Fire Protection
Requirements for Cargo Ships of Gross Tonnage Less than 500,
Constructed before 1 July 2008
Cargo ships of gross tonnage 150 and upwards of unrestricted service, to which
PRS class is to be assigned, until the issue of Certificate of Class, shall comply
with the following requirements:
– a portable fire pump shall be provided on board in accordance with the
requirements specified in 6.21.2.2, Part V, if the fire main system is supplied by
only one main fire pump;
– in machinery spaces of category A, a fire detection and fire alarm system in
accordance with the relevant requirements specified in 6.16.2, Part V shall be
installed unless the machinery space is fitted with a fixed gas fire-extinguishing
system;
– for each required portable fire-extinguisher, duplicate extinguishers shall be
provided;
– Fire Control Plan shall be exhibited on board the ship in accordance with the
requirements specified in 1.4.2, Part V.
2.3
Requirements for Carbon Dioxide Systems Used in Ships Constructed
before 1 July 2002
By the first scheduled dry-docking after 1 January 2010, but not later than
1 January 2013, fixed carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems for the protection
of machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms shall be provided with two
independent controls of the carbon dioxide discharge to the protected space,
located inside the release cabinet in accordance with the requirements specified in
3.6.4.2.2.
2.4
Portable Instruments for Measuring Oxygen and Flammable Vapour
Concentrations on Tankers – Mark: CRUDE OIL TANKER,
PRODUCT CARRIER A
Each tanker constructed before 1 July 2002, by the first class confirmation/
renewal survey, but not later than 1 January 2013, shall be equipped with at least
two instruments for measuring oxygen and at least two instruments for measuring
flammable vapour concentrations, together with a sufficient set of spares. Suitable
means shall be provided for the calibration of such instruments. As an alternative,
at least two dual-purpose type instruments capable of measuring both oxygen and
flammable vapours, with a set of spare parts, may be used
List of IMO documents referred to in Part V of the Rules
289
List of IMO documents referred to in Part V of the Rules
IMO Assembly Resolutions
1. A.567(14): Regulation for Inert Gas Systems on Chemical Tankers.
2. A.654(16): Graphical Symbols for Fire Control Plans.
3. A.752(18): Guidelines for the Evaluation, Testing and Application of LowLocation Lighting on Passenger Ships.
4. A.753(18): Guidelines for the Application of Plastic Pipes on Ships.
5. A.756(18): Guidelines on the Information to be Provided with Fire Control
Plans and Booklets Required by SOLAS Regulations II-2/20 and 41-2.
6. A.951(23): Improved Guidelines for Marine Portable Fire Extinguishers.
7. A.952(23): Graphical Symbols for Shipboard Fire Control Plans.
8. A.1021(26): Code on Alerts and Indicators.
MSC/MEPC Resolutions
1. MSC.285(86): Interim Guidelines on Safety for Natural Gas-fuelled
Engine Installations in Ships.
2. MSC.313(88): Amendments to the Guidelines for the Application of
Plastic Pipes on Ships.
MSC Circulars
1. MSC/Circ.353: Revised Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems.
2. MSC/Circ.387: Revised Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems.
3. MSC/Circ.450/Rev.1: Revised factors to be taken into consideration when
designing cargo tanks venting and gas-freeing arrangements.
4. MSC/Circ. 451: Guidance concerning the location of fire control plans for
the assistance of the shore side fire-fighting personnel.
5. MSC/Circ.553: Information on flashpoint and recommended fire-fighting
media for chemicals to which neither the IBC nor BCH Codes apply.
6. MSC/Circ.670: Guidelines for the performance and testing criteria and
surveys of high-expansion foam concentrates for fixed fire-extinguishing
systems.
7. MSC/Circ.677: Revised standards for the design, testing and locating of
devices to prevent the passage of flame into cargo tanks in tankers (as
amended by MSC/Circ. 1009).
8. MSC/Circ.732: Interim guidelines on the test procedure for demonstrating
the equivalence of composite materials to steel under the provisions of the
1974 SOLAS Convention.
9. MSC/Circ: 735: Recommendation on the design and operation of
passenger ships to respond to elderly and disabled persons’ needs.
290
Fire Protection
10. MSC/Circ. 798: Guidelines for performance and testing criteria and
surveys of medium-expansion foam concentrate for fixed fireextinguishing systems.
11. MSC/Circ.849: Guidelines for the performance, location, use and care of
emergency escape breathing devices (EEBDs).
12. MSC/Circ.895: Recommendation on helicopter landing areas in ro-ro
passenger ships.
13. MSC/Circ.917/Corr.1: Guidelines on fire safety construction in
accommodation areas.
14. MSC/Circ.1002/Corr.1: Guidelines on alternative design and arrangements
for fire safety.
15. MSC/Circ.1003: Guidelines on a simplified calculation for the total
amount of combustible materials per unit area in accommodation and
service spaces.
16. MSC/Circ.1009: Amendments to the revised standards for the design,
testing and locating of devices to prevent the passage of flame into cargo
tanks in tankers (MSC/Circ.677).
17. MSC/Circ.1070: Ship design, construction, repair and maintenance –
Guidelines for the survey of repairs.
18. MSC/Circ.1086: Code of practice for atmospheric oil mist detectors.
19. MSC/Circ.1120: Unified interpretations of SOLAS Chapter II-2, the FSS
Code, the FTP Code and related fire test procedures.
20. MSC/Circ.1129: Guidance on the establishment of medical and sanitation
related to programmes for passenger ships.
21. MSC/Circ.1167: Functional requirements and performance standards for
the assessment of evaluation guidance systems.
22. MSC/Circ.1168: Interim guidelines for the testing, approval and
maintenance of evacuation guidance systems used as an alternative to the
low-location lighting systems.
23. MSC.1/Circ.1238: Guidelines for evacuation analysis for new and existing
passenger ships.
24. MSC.1/Circ.1239: Unified interpretations of SOLAS Chapter II-2.
25. MSC.1/Circ.1242: Guidelines for the approval of fixed fire detection and
fire alarm systems for cabin balconies.
26. MSC.1/Circ.1266: Carriage of dangerous goods.
27. MSC.1/Circ.1268: Guidelines for the approval of fixed pressure waterspraying and water-based fire-extinguishing systems for cabin balconies.
28. MSC.1/Circ.1274: Guidelines for evaluation of fire risk of external areas
on passenger ships.
29. MSC.1/Circ.1276: Unified interpretations of SOLAS Chapter II-2.
30. MSC.1/Circ.1312/Corr.1: Revised guidelines for the performance and
testing criteria, and surveys of foam concentrates for fixed-fireextinguishing systems.
List of IMO documents referred to in Part V of the Rules
291
31. MSC.1/Circ.1318: Guidelines for the maintenance and inspections of fixed
carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems.
32. MSC.1/Circ.1321: Guidelines for measures to prevent fires in enginerooms and cargo pump-rooms.
33. MSC.1/Circ.1324: Amendments to the revised standards for the design,
testing and location of devices to prevent the passage of flame into cargo
tanks in tankers (MSC/Circ.677, as amended by MSC/Circ.1009).
34. MSC.1/Circ.1368: Interim clarifications of SOLAS Chapter II-2
requirements regarding interrelation between the central control station,
navigation bridge and safety centre.
35. MSC.1/Circ.1369: Interim explanatory notes for the assessment of
passenger ship systems’ capabilities after a fire or flooding casualty.
36. MSC.1/Circ:1370: Guidelines for the design, construction and testing of
fixed hydrocarbon gas detection systems.
37. MSC.1/Circ.1374: Information on prohibiting the use of asbestos on board
the ships.
38. MSC.1/Circ.1384: Guidelines for the testing and approval of fixed highexpansion foam systems.
39. MSC.1/Circ.1388: Unified interpretation of Chapter 12 of the International
Code for Fire Safety Systems.
40. MSC.1/Circ.1395: List of solid bulk cargoes for which a fixed gas fireextinguishing system may be exempted or for which a fixed gas fireextinguishing system is ineffective.
41. MSC.1/Circ.1431: Guidelines for the approval of helicopter facility foam
fire fighting appliance.
42. MSC.1/Circ.1432: Revised guidelines for the maintenance and inspection
of fire protection systems and appliances.
43. MSC.1/Circ.Unified interpretations of the FTP Code.
44. MSC.1/Circ.1437: Amendments to the interim explanatory notes for the
assessment of passenger ship system capabilities after a fire or flooding
casualty (MSC.1/Circ.1369).
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement