BENDIX BW1421 User manual

BENDIX BW1421 User manual
SD-01-337
®
Bendix® TU-FLO® 501 Air Compressor
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
General
The function of the air compressor is to provide and maintain
air under pressure to operate devices in the air brake and/
or auxiliary air systems.
Description
The Tu-Flo® 501 compressor is a two cylinder, single stage,
reciprocating compressor with a rated displacement of 12
cubic feet of air per minute at 1250 R.P.M.
The Tu-Flo® 501 compressor is constructed from two major
assemblies, the head and the crankcase. The head houses
the discharge valving and is installed on the upper portion of
the crankcase. The crankcase is a one piece casting
combining the cylinder block and the crankcase. The upper
portion of the casting houses the cylinder bores and inlet
valving; and the lower portion, the crankshaft and main
bearings. Various mounting and drive configurations, required
by the numerous vehicle engine designs, are obtained by
bolting different mounting flanges, end covers, and base
adapters to the crankcase. Two horizontal governor mounting
pads are located on either side of the upper portion of the
crankcase to provide convenient governor mounting.
Two methods are employed for cooling the Tu-Flo® 501
compressor during operation. The cylinder head is connected
to the engine’s cooling system, while the cylinder bore portion
of the crankcase has external fins for efficient air cooling.
1
D-1
D-2
D-3
FIGURE 1 - VARIOUS COMPRESSOR MOUNTINGS
All Tu-Flo® 501 compressors utilize the engine’s pressurized
oil system to lubricate the internal moving parts.
A nameplate is attached to the crankcase to identify the
compressor. The nameplate displays a Bendix piece number
or in some cases an engine or vehicle manufacturer’s piece
number, along with a serial number.
open inlet valve and into the cylinder (see Fig. 4). As the
piston begins its upward stroke, the air that was drawn into
the cylinder on the down stroke is being compressed. Air
pressure on top of the inlet valve plus the force of its spring,
returns the inlet valve to its seat. The piston continues the
upward stroke and compressed air then flows by the open
discharge valve, into the discharge line and on to the
reservoirs (see Fig. 5). As the piston reaches the top of its
stroke and starts down, the discharge valve spring and air
pressure in the discharge line returns the discharge valve
to its seat. This prevents the compressed air in the discharge
line from returning to the cylinder bore as the intake and
compression cycle is repeated.
Non-Compression of Air (Unloaded)
FIGURE 2 - COMPRESSOR NAMEPLATE
OPERATION
General
The compressor is driven by the vehicle engine and is
operating continuously while the engine is running. Actual
compression of air is controlled by the compressor unloading
mechanism and the governor. The governor is generally
mounted on the compressor and maintains the brake system
air pressure to a preset maximum and minimum pressure
level.
Intake and Compression of Air (Loaded)
During the down stroke of the piston, a slight vacuum is
created between the top of the piston and the head, causing
the flat circular inlet valve to move up and off its seat. (Note
the flat square discharge valve remains on its seat.)
Atmospheric air is drawn through the air strainer by the
2
When air pressure in the reservoir reaches the cut-out setting
of the governor, the governor allows air to pass from the
reservoir into the cavity beneath the unloader pistons. This
lifts the unloader pistons and plungers. The plungers move
up and hold the inlet valves off their seats (see Fig. 6).
With the inlet valves held off their seats by the unloader
pistons and plungers, air is pumped back and forth between
the two cylinders. When air is used from the reservoir and
the pressure drops to the cut-in setting of the governor, the
governor closes and exhausts the air from beneath the
unloader pistons. The unloader saddle spring forces the
saddle, pistons and plungers down and the inlet valves return
to their seats. Compression is then resumed.
Discharge
Line
Optional “Ping” Tank
Air Dryer
The Air Brake Charging System supplies the
compressed air for the braking system as well as other air
accessories for the vehicle. The system usually consists
of an air compressor, governor, discharge line, air dryer,
and service reservoir.
Optional Bendix® PuraGuard® QC™
Oil Coalescing Filter
Compressor
Governor
(Governor plus Synchro valve
for the Bendix® DuraFlo™ 596
Compressor)
Service Reservoir
(Supply Reservoir)
Reservoir Drain
FIGURE 3A - SYSTEM DRAWING
COMPRESSOR & THE AIR BRAKE SYSTEM
GENERAL
The compressor is part of the total air brake system, more
specifically, the charging portion of the air brake system. As
a component in the overall system its condition, duty cycle,
proper installation and operation will directly affect other
components in the system.
Powered by the vehicle engine, the air compressor builds
the air pressure for the air brake system. The air compressor
is typically cooled by the engine coolant system, lubricated
by the engine oil supply and has its inlet connected to the
engine induction system.
As the atmospheric air is compressed, all the water vapor
originally in the air is carried along into the air system, as
well as a small amount of the lubricating oil as vapor. If an
air dryer is not used to remove these contaminants prior to
entering the air system, the majority, but not all, will condense
in the reservoirs. The quantity of contaminants that reach
the air system depends on several factors including
installation, maintenance and contaminant handling devices
in the system. These contaminants must either be eliminated
prior to entering the air system or after they enter.
DUTY CYCLE
The duty cycle is the ratio of time the compressor spends
building air to the total engine running time. Air compressors
are designed to build air (run "loaded") up to 25% of the
time. Higher duty cycles cause conditions that affect air
brake charging system performance which may require
additional maintenance. Factors that add to the duty cycle
are: air suspension, additional air accessories, use of an
undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive leakage
from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or valves, etc.
Refer to Table A in the Troubleshooting section for a guide to
various duty cycles and the consideration that must be given
to maintenance of other components.
COMPRESSOR INSTALLATION
While the original compressor installation is usually
completed by the vehicle manufacturer, conditions of
operation and maintenance may require additional
consideration. The following presents base guidelines.
DISCHARGE LINE
The discharge line allows the air, water-vapor and oil-vapor
mixture to cool between the compressor and air dryer or
reservoir. The typical size of a vehicle's discharge line, (see
column 2 of Table A in the Troubleshooting section) assumes
a compressor with a normal (less than 25%) duty cycle,
operating in a temperate climate. See Bendix and/or other
air dryer manufacturer guidelines as needed.
The discharge line must maintain a constant slope down
from the compressor to the air dryer inlet fitting or reservoir
to avoid low points where ice may form and block the flow. If,
instead, ice blockages occur at the air dryer or reservoir
inlet, insulation may be added here, or if the inlet fitting is a
typical 90 degree fitting, it may be changed to a straight or
45 degree fitting. Shorter discharge line lengths or insulation
may be required in cold climates.
While not all compressors and charging systems are
equipped with a discharge line safety valve this component
is recommended. The discharge line safety valve is installed
in the cylinder head (Tu-Flo® 550/750) or close to the
compressor discharge port and protects against over
pressurizing the compressor in the event of a discharge line
freezeup.
3
DISCHARGE LINE TEMPERATURE
When the temperature of the compressed air that enters
the air dryer is within the normal range, the air dryer can
remove most of the charging system oil. If the temperature
of the compressed air is above the normal range, oil as oilvapor is able to pass through the air dryer and into the air
system. Larger diameter discharge lines and/or longer
discharge line lengths can help reduce the temperature.
HOLE
THREAD
FIGURE 3B - DISCHARGE LINE SAFETY VALVE
TO RESERVOIR
INLET VALVE
DISCHARGE
VALVE
UNLOADER
PLUNGER
INTAKE
STRAINER
PISTON
TO GOVERNOR
STROKE
FIGURE 4 - INTAKE
TO RESERVOIR
INLET VALVE
UNLOADER
PLUNGER
DISCHARGE
VALVE
INTAKE
STRAINER
PISTON
TO GOVERNOR
The air dryer contains a filter that collects oil droplets, and a
desiccant bed that removes almost all of the remaining water
vapor. The compressed air is then passed to the air brake
service (supply) reservoir. The oil droplets and the water
collected are automatically purged when the governor
reaches its "cut-out" setting.
For vehicles with accessories that are sensitive to small
amounts of oil, we recommend installation of a Bendix®
PuraGuard® QC™ oil coalescing filter, designed to minimize
the amount of oil present.
Lubrication
Since all Tu-Flo® 501 compressors are connected to the
engine’s pressurized oil system, a continuous flow of oil is
provided to the compressor, which is eventually returned to
the engine.
Oil is fed into the compressor in various ways, for example:
through the rear end cover, the drive end of the crankshaft or
through the front flange adapter. An oil passage in the
crankshaft conducts pressurized oil to the precision sleeve
main bearings and to the connecting rod bearings. Splash
lubrication of the cylinder bores, connecting rod wrist pin
bushings, and the ball type main bearings, on some models,
is obtained as oil is forced out around the crankshaft journals
by engine oil pressure.
Check the exterior of the compressor for the presence of oil
seepage and refer to the TROUBLESHOOTING section for
appropriate tests and corrective action.
STROKE
Cooling
FIGURE 5 - COMPRESSION
TO RESERVOIR
INLET VALVE
DISCHARGE
VALVE
UNLOADER
PLUNGER
PISTON
INTAKE
STRAINER
TO GOVERNOR
STROKE
FIGURE 6 - UNLOADING
4
Air flowing through the engine compartment from the action
of the engine’s fan and the movement of the vehicle assists
in cooling the crankcase. Coolant flowing from the engine’s
cooling system through connecting lines enters the head
and passes through the head’s water jacket and back to the
engine. Proper cooling is important in maintaining discharge
air temperatures below the maximum 400°F recommended.
POLYURETHANE SPONGE STRAINER EVERY
5000 MILES OR 150 OPERATING HOURS
Remove and wash all of the parts. The strainer element
should be cleaned or replaced. If the element is cleaned, it
should be washed in a commercial solvent or a detergent
and water solution. The element should be saturated in clean
engine oil, then squeezed dry before replacing it in the
strainer. Be sure to replace the air strainer gasket if the
entire air strainer is removed from the compressor intake.
DRY ELEMENT-PLEATED PAPER AIR
STRAINER
FIGURE 7 - POLYURETHANE SPONGE STRAINER
EVERY 20,000 MILES OR 800 OPERATING HOURS
Remove the spring clips from either side of mounting baffle
and remove the cover. Replace the pleated paper filter and
remount the cleaned cover making sure the filter is in
position. Be sure to replace the air strainer gasket if the
entire air strainer is removed from the compressor intake.
(NOTE: Some compressors are fitted with compressor
intake adapters which allow the compressor intake
to be connected to the engine air cleaner.)
FIGURE 8 - PAPER AIR STRAINER DRY ELEMENT-PLEATED
In this case, the compressor receives a supply of clean air
from the engine air cleaner. When the engine air filter is
changed, the compressor intake adapter should be checked.
If it is loose, remove the intake adapter, clean the strainer
plate, if applicable, and replace the intake adapter gasket,
and reinstall the adapter securely. Check line connections
both at the compressor intake adapter and at the engine air
cleaner. Inspect the connecting line for ruptures and replace
it if necessary.
EVERY 6 MONTHS, 1800 OPERATING HOURS
OR AFTER EACH 50,000 MILES
FIGURE 9 - COMPRESSOR INTAKE ADAPTER
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most
important factor in maintaining the air brake charging system.
Refer to Table A in the Troubleshooting section for a guide to
various considerations that must be given to the maintenance
of the compressor and other related charging system
components.
Every month, 300 operating hours or after each 10,000 miles,
depending on the operating conditions, experience and the
type of strainer used, service the air strainer.
Remove the discharge head fittings and inspect the
compressor discharge port and discharge line for excessive
carbon deposits. If excessive buildup is noted in either, the
discharge line must be cleaned or replaced and the
compressor checked more thoroughly, paying special
attention to the air induction system, oil supply and return
system, and proper cooling. If necessary, repair or replace
the compressor. Check for proper belt and pulley alignment
and belt tension. Adjust if necessary, paying special
attention not to over tighten the belt tension. Check for noisy
compressor operation, which could indicate a worn drive
gear coupling or a loose pulley. Adjust and/or replace as
necessary. Check all compressor mounting bolts and
retighten evenly if necessary. Check for leakage and proper
unloader mechanism operation. Replace if defective in any
way.
5
EVERY 24 MONTHS, 7200 OPERATING HOURS
OR AFTER EACH 200,000 MILES
Perform a thorough inspection as indicated below and
depending upon the results of this inspection or experience,
disassemble the compressor, clean and inspect all parts
thoroughly, repair or replace all worn or damaged parts
using only genuine Bendix replacements or replace the
compressor with a genuine Bendix remanufactured unit.
IMPORTANT - Should it be necessary to drain the engine
cooling system to prevent damage from freezing, the cylinder
head of the compressor must also be drained.
GENERAL SERVICE CHECKS
Inspection
It is of the utmost importance that the compressor receives
a clean supply of air. The air strainer must be properly
installed and kept clean. If the compressor intake is connected
to the engine air cleaner, supercharger, etc., these
connections must be properly installed and maintained.
Check the compressor mountings to be sure they are secure.
Check the drive for proper alignment, belt tension, etc.
Inspect the oil supply and return lines. Be sure these lines
are properly installed and that the compressor is getting
the proper supply of oil, and just as important, that the oil is
returning to the engine. Check the coolant lines to and from
the compressor and see that the cooling fins on the
crankcase are not clogged with dirt, grease, etc. Check
the unloader mechanism for proper and prompt operation.
Operating Tests
Vehicles manufactured after the effective date of FMVSS
121, with the minimum required reservoir volume, must have
a compressor capable of raising air system pressure from
85-100 P.S.I. in 25 seconds or less. This test is performed
with the engine operating at maximum governed speed.
The vehicle manufacturer must certify this performance on
new vehicles with appropriate allowances for air systems
with greater than the minimum required reservoir volume.
Air Leakage Tests
Leakage past the discharge valves can be detected by
removing the discharge line, applying shop air back through
the discharge port and listening for escaping air. Also, the
discharge valves and the unloader pistons can be checked
for leakage by building up the air system until the governor
cuts out, then stopping the engine. With the engine stopped,
listen for escaping air at the compressor intake. To pinpoint
leakage if noted, apply a small quantity of oil around the
unloader pistons. If there is no noticeable leakage at the
unloader pistons, the discharge valves may be leaking. If
the compressor does not function as described above, or
leakage is excessive, it is recommended that it be returned
6
FIGURE 10 - TU-FLO® 501 AIR COMPRESSOR (THRU
DRIVE) EXPLODED VIEW
to the nearest authorized Bendix Distributor for a factory
remanufactured compressor. If this is not possible, the
compressor can be repaired using genuine Bendix
replacement parts, in which case, the following information
should prove helpful.
REMOVING AND DISASSEMBLY
Removing
These instructions are general and are intended to be a
guide, in some cases additional preparations and
precautions are necessary. Chock the wheels of the vehicle
and drain the air pressure from all the reservoirs in the
system. Drain the engine cooling system and the cylinder
head of the compressor. Disconnect all air, water and oil
lines leading to and from the compressor. Remove the drive
gear(s) or pulley from the compressor crankshaft using a
gear puller. Inspect the pulley or gear and associated parts
for visible wear or damage. Since these parts are precision
fitted, they must be replaced if they are worn or damaged.
DISASSEMBLY
General
Remove road dirt and grease from the exterior of the
compressor with a cleaning solvent. Before the compressor
is disassembled, the following items should be marked to
show their relationship when the compressor is assembled.
Mark both the front and rear end cover in relation to the
crankcase. Mark the drive end of the crankshaft in relation
to the front end cover and the crankcase. Mark the cylinder
head in relation to the crankcase. Mark the base plate or
base adapter in relation to the crankcase.
A convenient method to indicate the above relationship is to
use a metal scribe to mark the parts with numbers or lines.
Do not use a marking method that can be wiped off or
obliterated during rebuilding, such as chalk. Remove all
compressor attachments such as governors, air strainers
or inlet fittings, discharge fittings and pipe plugs.
Cylinder Head
Remove the six cylinder head cap screws and tap the head
with a soft mallet to break the gasket seal. Remove the inlet
valve springs from the head and inlet valves from their guides
in the crankcase. Remove inlet valve guides from around
the inlet valve seats on the crankcase taking care not to
damage seats. Scrape off any gasket material from the
cylinder head and crankcase. Unscrew the discharge valve
seats from the head and remove the discharge valves and
springs. Inspect the discharge valve seats for nicks, cracks,
and excessive wear and replace if necessary.
The discharge valve stops should be inspected for wear
and replaced if excessive peening has occurred. To
determine if excessive peening has occurred, measure the
discharge valve travel. Discharge valve travel must not exceed
.057 inches. To remove the discharge valve stops, support
the machined surface of the cylinder head on an arbor press
bed and gently press the stops from the top of the head and
out the bottom. Be sure to allow sufficient clearance for the
stops between the press bed and the bottom of the cylinder
head. The valve stop bores in the cylinder head must be
inspected for excessive scoring. A new head body must be
used if scoring is excessive. Discard the inlet valves and
springs, the discharge valves and springs and the discharge
valve seats if defective.
Crankcase Base Plate or Adapter
Remove the cap screws securing the base plate or base
adapter. Tap with soft mallet to break the gasket seal. Scrape
off any gasket material from crankcase and plate or adapter.
Connecting Rod Assemblies
(Note: Before removing the connecting rods, mark each
connecting rod and its cap. Each connecting rod is
matched to its own cap for proper bearing fit, and
these parts must not be interchanged.)
Straighten the prongs of the connecting rod bolt lock strap
and remove the bolts and bearing caps. Push the piston
with the connecting rods attached out the top of the cylinders
of the crankcase. Replace the bearing caps on their
respective connecting rods. Remove the piston rings from
the pistons. If the pistons are to be removed from the
connecting rods, remove the wrist pin lock wires or teflon
plugs and press the wrist pins from the pistons and
connecting rods.
If the pistons are removed from the rod, inspect the bronze
wrist pin bushing. Press out and replace the bushing if it is
excessively worn. (See inspection of Parts) Discard the
piston rings and the connecting rod journal bearings.
Discard the wrist pin bushings if they were removed.
Crankcase
Remove the key or keys from the crankshaft and any burrs
from the crankshaft where the key or keys were removed.
(Note: Through Drive Compressors may have a crankshaft
key at both ends.)
Remove the four cap screws securing front or drive-end end
cover or flange adapter. Remove the end cover, taking care
not to damage the crankshaft oil seal or front main bearing,
if any. Remove both of the small seal rings from the
crankcase, and the o-ring from around the front end cover.
Remove the four cap screws securing the rear end cover
and remove the rear end cover taking care not to damage
the rear main bearing, if any. Remove both of the small seal
rings from the crankcase and the o-ring from around the end
cover. If the compressor has ball type main bearings, press
the crankshaft and ball bearings from the crankcase, then
press the ball bearings from the crankshaft. Remove the
unloader spring, spring saddle, and spring seat from the
inlet cavity of the crankcase, using long nose pliers. Remove
the unloader plungers and guides. Cover the inlet cavity with
a shop rag and apply air pressure to the governor mounting
pad unloader port to blow the unloader pistons out of their
bores and into the inlet cavity.
CLEANING OF PARTS
General
All parts should be cleaned in a good commercial grade
solvent and dried prior to inspection.
Cylinder Head
Remove all the carbon deposits from the discharge cavities
and all the rust and scale from the cooling cavities of the
cylinder head body. Scrape all the foreign matter from the
body surfaces and use shop air pressure to blow the dirt
particles from all the cavities.
Crankcase
Clean the carbon and dirt from the inlet and unloader
passages. Use shop air pressure to blow the carbon and
dirt deposits from the unloader passages.
Oil Passages
Thoroughly clean all oil passages through the crankshaft,
crankcase, end covers, and base plate or base adapter.
Inspect the passages with a wire to be sure. Blow the
loosened foreign matter out with air pressure.
7
OIL PASSING
All reciprocating compressors currently manufactured will
pass a minimal amount of oil. Air dryers will remove the
majority of oil prior to entrance into the air brake system.
For particularly oil sensitive systems the Bendix® PuraGuard®
QC™ oil coalescing filter can be used in conjunction with a
Bendix air dryer.
If compressor oil passing is suspected, refer to the
TROUBLESHOOTING section and TABLE A for the
symptoms and corrective action to be taken. In addition,
Bendix has developed the "Bendix Air System Inspection
Cup" or BASIC test to help substantiate suspected excessive
oil passing. The steps to be followed when using the BASIC
test are presented in APPENDIX A at the end of the
TROUBLESHOOTING section.
INSPECTION OF PARTS
Cylinder Head Body
Inspect the cylinder head for cracks or damage. Apply shop
air pressure to one of the coolant ports with all others
plugged, and check for leakage by applying a soap solution
to the exterior of the body. If leakage is detected, replace
the head.
End Covers
Check for cracks and external damage. If the crankshaft
main bearings are installed in the end cover, check for
excessive wear and flat spots and replace them if necessary.
If the compressor has an oil seal in the end cover, it should
be removed by pressing it out of the end cover.
Crankcase
Check all crankcase surfaces for cracks and damage. On
compressors where ball bearing main bearings are used the
difference between the O.D. of the outer race and the I.D. of
the crankcase hole should be .0000 in. to .0015 in. loose.
This is to maintain the correct press fit. The crankcase must
be replaced if the fit is too loose.
On compressors fitted with precision, sleeve main bearings,
the difference between the O.D. of the crankshaft journal
and the main bearing I.D. must not exceed .0065 in. If the
clearance is greater than .0065 in., the end cover or main
bearing must be replaced.
Check the unloader bore bushings to be sure they are not
worn, rusted, or damaged. If these bushings are to be
replaced, they can be removed by running a 1/8 in. pipe
thread tap into the bushing, and inserting a 1/8 in. pipe
threaded rod and pulling the bushing straight up and out.
Do not use an easy-out for removing these bushings. If the
inlet valve seats are worn or damaged, so they cannot be
reclaimed by facing, they should be replaced. Cylinder
bores should be checked with inside micrometers or
calipers. (Fig. 11). Cylinder bores which are scored or out of
round by more than .001 in. or tapered more than .002 in.
should be rebored or honed oversize. Oversized pistons and
piston rings are available in .010 in., .020 in. and .030 in.
oversizes. Cylinder bores must be smooth, straight, and
round. Clearance between the cast iron pistons and cylinder
bores should be between .002 in. minimum and .004 in.
maximum.
PISTON RING
OIL RING
PISTON RING
.002”
.004”
.001”
.003”
CORRECT GAP CLEARANCE
WITH RINGS IN CYLINDER
OIL RING
EXPANDER RING
.002”
.010”
FIGURE 12 - CORRECT GROOVE CLEARANCE
Pistons
Check the pistons for scores, cracks, or enlarged ring
grooves; replace the pistons if any of these conditions are
found. Measure each piston with a micrometer in relation
to the cylinder bore diameter to be sure the diametral
clearance is between .002 in. minimum and .004 in.
maximum.
Check the fit of the wrist pins to the pistons and connecting
rod bushings. The wrist pin should be a light press fit in the
piston. If the wrist pin is a loose fit, the piston and pin
assembly should be replaced. Check the fit of the wrist pin
in the connecting rod bushing by rocking the piston. This
clearance should not exceed .0007 in. Replace the wrist pin
bushings if excessive clearance is found. Wrist pin bushings
should be reamed to between .5314 in. and .5317 in. after
being pressed into the connecting rods.
FIGURE 11 - MEASURING CYLINDER BORES
8
Check the fit of the piston rings in the piston ring grooves.
Check the ring gap with the rings installed in the cylinder
bores. Refer to Fig. 12 for correct gap and groove clearances.
Crankshaft
Check the crankshaft threads, keyways, tapered ends and
all machined and ground surfaces for wear, scores, or
damage. Standard crankshaft journals are 1.1250 in. to
1.1242 in. in diameter. If the crankshaft journals are
excessively scored or worn or out of round and cannot be
reground, the crankshaft must be replaced. Connecting
rod bearing inserts are available in .010 in., .020 in. and
.030 in. undersizes for compressors with reground
crankshafts. Main bearing journals must be maintained so
the ball bearings are a snug fit or so that no more than .0065
in. clearance exists between the precision sleeve main
bearing and the main bearing journals on the crankshaft. In
crankshafts fitted with oil seal rings, the oil seal ring groove
or grooves must not be worn. The ring groove walls must
have a good finish and they must be square. Check to be
sure the oil passages are open through the crankshaft.
FIGURE 13 - DISCHARGE
VALVE, VALVE STOP AND
SEAT
FIGURE 14 - INLET VALVE
AND SEAT
Inlet Valves and Seats
Used bearing inserts must be replaced. Connecting rod
caps are not interchangeable. The locking slots of the
connecting rod and cap should be positioned adjacent to
each other. Clearance between the connecting journal and
the connecting rod bearing must not be less than .0003 in.
or more than .0021 in. after rebuilding.
Inlet valves and springs should be replaced, if the inlet valve
seats show signs of slight nicks or scratches. They can be
redressed with a fine piece of emery cloth or by lapping with
a lapping stone, grinding compound and grinding tool. If the
seats are damaged to the extent that they cannot be
reclaimed, they must be replaced. The dimension from the
top of the cylinder block to the inlet valve seat should not
exceed .113 in. nor be less than .101 in.
REPAIRS
ASSEMBLY
Discharge Valves, Valve Stops and Seats
General Note: All torques specified in this manual are
assembly torques and can be expected to fall off after
assembly is accomplished. Do not retorque after initial
assembly torques fall.
Connecting Rod Bearings
If the discharge valve seats merely show signs of slight wear,
they can be dressed by using a lapping stone, grinding
compound and grinding tool. If the discharge valve stops
are to be replaced, an application of a sealer is required,
such as “Locktite Retaining Compound #75.” Be sure that
the press fit between the discharge valve stop outside
diameter and the valve stop bore in the cylinder head is a
minimum of .0008 in. and a maximum of .0028 in. If this fit
can not be maintained, a new cylinder head body must be
used. Be sure to completely support the outside top of the
cylinder head casting, while pressing in the replacement
stops. Install the new discharge valve springs and valves.
Screw in the discharge valve seats. Discharge valve travel
should be between .041 in. to .057 in.
To test for leakage by the discharge valves, apply 100 pounds
of air pressure through the cylinder head discharge port
and apply a soap solution to the discharge valves and seats.
A slight leakage in the form of soap bubbles is permissible.
If excessive leakage is found, leave the air pressure applied
and with the use of a fibre or hardwood dowel and a hammer,
tap the discharge valves off their seats several times. This
will help the valves to seat and should reduce the leakage.
With the air pressure still applied at the discharge port of
the cylinder head, check for leakage around the discharge
valve stops exposed on the top of the cylinder head casting.
No leakage is permitted.
To convert inch pounds of torque to foot pounds of torque,
divide inch pounds by 12.
inch pounds ÷ 12 = foot pounds
To convert foot pounds of torque to inch pounds of torque,
multiply foot pounds by 12.
foot pounds x 12 = inch pounds
Installing the Crankshaft
Cautionary Note:
All flange mounted compressors must be assembled without
a gasket between the crankcase and flange adapter and
some compressors do not require gaskets on the end cover.
Install the new crankcase gaskets only where they were
removed during disassembly. In service failure of the
compressor will occur if gaskets are used in disregard of
the preceding.
9
If the compressor uses a ball type main bearing, press the
ball bearing onto the correct end of the crankshaft. Position
the ball bearing and the crankshaft in the crankcase, making
sure the drive end of the crankshaft is positioned in the
crankcase as marked before disassembly. Carefully press
the crankshaft and ball bearing into the crankcase using an
arbor press.
In the case of compressors with a front ball bearing, place
two small seal rings in the counter-sunk holes at the front of
the crankcase, as well as an end cover gasket. Install the
front end cover in the proper position as marked before
disassembly, taking care not to damage the new oil seal.
In the case of compressors with a rear ball bearing, place
two small seal rings in the counter-bore at the rear of the
crankcase. In one case a gasket is used and in another a
large o-ring is placed in the counterbore at the rear of the
crankcase. These are in addition to the seal rings. Install
the rear end cover in the proper position as marked before
disassembly. Since June, 1978, the two small seal rings
have been increased slightly in cross section and a retaining
ring added, as shown in Figure 15.
SEAL RING
OLD
O-RING RETAINER
SEAL RING
NEW
FIGURE 15
In the case of compressors with a sleeve bearing either front
or rear, place the two small seal rings in the counter-sunk
holes in the crankcase. Caution: An end cover gasket must
not be used. Place the o-ring seal in the groove around the
flange adapter or the end cover, and affix the thrust washer.
Install the flange adapter or end cover in the proper position
as marked before disassembly, taking care not to damage
the sleeve bearing.
10
Secure the flange adapter, front or rear end cover to the
crankcase by tightening the four cap screws. See note below
for torque.
Note: For cast iron flange adapters, torque the four 7/16
in. cap screws to 38-45 foot pounds. For die cast
aluminum end covers, torque the four 7/16 in. cap
screws to 25-30 foot pounds. All end covers using
5/16 in. cap screws or stud and nuts are torqued
to 15-18 foot pounds. For through drive compressors
with a cast iron end cover, torque the four 7/16 in.
cap screws to 25-30 foot pounds.
Pistons and Connecting Rods
If new wrist pin bushings are to be used, they should be
pressed into the connecting rods so that the oil hole in the
bushing lines up with the one in the rod. The new bushings
should then be reamed or honed to provide between .0001
in. (.00254 mm) and .0006 in. (.01524 mm) clearance on
the wrist pin. Position the connecting rod in the piston and
press in the wrist pin.
Pistons installed in compressors manufactured prior to
November, 1976, will have the wrist pin secured in the piston
by a lock wire extending through matching holes in wrist pin
and piston boss, anchored in a hole in the side wall of the
piston. If the original pistons are used the wrist pin must be
pressed in so the hole in the wrist pin aligns with that of the
piston and secure same by inserting the new lockwire
through the hole in piston and wrist pin and lock the wire by
snapping the short 90° section into the lockwire hole in the
bottom of the piston.
Compressors built after November, 1976, will have the wrist
pin secured by Teflon buttons in either end of the wrist pin,
allowing the wrist pin to float. The Teflon buttons pc. no.
292392 may be used with either new or old wrist pins. The
later design pistons have two rings above the wrist pin and
one below. Install the piston rings in the correct location
with the ring pipmarks up. Stagger the position of the ring
gaps. Pre-lubricate the piston, piston rings, wrist pins and
connecting rod.
Unloader
A new unloader kit should used when rebuilding. (Figure
14). (Piece Number 279615). The unloader pistons in the kit
are pre-lubricated with a special lubricant piece number
239379 and need no additional lubrication. Install the unloader
pistons in their bores being careful not to cut the o-rings.
Position the unloader plungers in their guides and slip them
in and over the tops of the pistons. Install the unloader spring
seat in the crankcase inlet cavity; a small hole is drilled in
the crankcase for this purpose. Position the saddle between
the unloader piston guides, so its forks are centered on the
guides. Install the unloader spring, making sure it seats
over the spring seats both in the crankcase and on the saddle.
Position and install the inlet valve guides, then drop the inlet
valves in their guides. The inlet valves should be a loose
sliding fit in the guides.
During this test, the compressor should be checked for
gasket leakage and noisy operation, as well as unloader
operation and leakage.
INSPECTION OF REBUILT UNIT
Check to be sure that covers, plugs, or masking tape are
used to protect all ports if compressor is not to be installed
immediately. Fit the end of all crankshafts with keys, nuts,
and cotter pins as required and then protect the ends against
damage by wrapping with masking tape or friction tape. The
open bottom of a vertical engine lubricated compressors
should be protected against the entrance of dirt during
handling or storage, by installing a temporary cover over
the base.
COMPRESSOR TROUBLESHOOTING
FIGURE 16 - UNLOADER MECHANISM
Cylinder Head
Install the inlet valve springs in the cylinder head by applying
a turning motion to the spring after it is in the head. The
turning motion should dig the spring wire into the spring
seat in the bottom of the spring bore in the head. Should
this procedure fail after repeated attempts, use a very small
quantity of grease to hold them in place, just enough to
keep the springs from failing out. Place the cylinder head
gasket on the cylinder block. Carefully align the cylinder
head assembly on the block and install the cap screws,
tightening them evenly to a torque of 25-30 foot pounds.
Base Plate or Base Adapter
Position the base plate or base adapter gasket on the
crankcase and install the base plate or base adapter as
marked before disassembly. Tighten the six cap screws
securing the cast iron base adapter evenly to a torque of
38-45 foot pounds, and 12-16 foot pounds for base plate or
aluminum cover.
Testing Rebuilt Compressor
In order to properly test a compressor under operating
conditions, a test rack for correct mounting, cooling,
lubricating, and driving the compressor is necessary. Such
tests are not compulsory if the unit has been carefully rebuilt
by an experienced person. A compressor efficiency or
build-up test can be run which is not too difficult. An engine
lubricated compressor must be connected to an oil supply
line of at least 15 P.S.I. pressure during the test and an oil
return line must be installed to keep the crankcase drained.
Connect to the compressor discharge port, a reservoir with
a volume of 1500 cubic inches, including the volume of
connecting line. With the compressor operating at 2100
R.P.M., the time required to raise the reservoir(s) pressure
from 85 P.S.I. to 100 P.S.I. should not exceed 7 seconds.
IMPORTANT: The troubleshooting contained in this section
considers the compressor as an integrated component of
the overall air brake charging system and assumes that an
air dryer is in use. The troubleshooting presented will cover
not only the compressor itself, but also other charging system
devices as they relate to the compressor.
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS TO AVOID
PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following
general precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and always block the wheels.
Always wear safety glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When
working in the engine compartment, the engine
should be shut off and the ignition key should be
removed. Where circumstances require that the
engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should
be used to prevent personal injury resulting from
contact with moving, rotating, leaking, heated or
electrically charged components.
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or
assemble a component until you have read and
thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air
brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized air
systems, make certain to drain the air pressure
from all reservoirs before beginning ANY work on
the vehicle. If the vehicle is equipped with an
AD-IS™ air dryer system or a dryer reservoir module,
be sure to drain the purge reservoir.
5. Following the vehicle manufacturer’s
recommended procedures, deactivate the electrical
system in a manner that safely removes all electrical
power from the vehicle.
11
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended
pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove a
component or plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix® replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment and
be designed specifically for such applications and
systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired. Do
not attempt repairs requiring machining or welding
unless specifically stated and approved by the
vehicle and component manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make
certain all components and systems are restored to
their proper operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Antilock Traction Control (ATC),
the ATC function must be disabled (ATC indicator
lamp should be ON) prior to performing any vehicle
maintenance where one or more wheels on a
drive axle are lifted off the ground and moving.
12
TABULATED DATA
Number of cylinders
Bore size
Stroke
Piston displacement at 1250 RPM
Piston displacement per revolution
Maximum recommended RPM
(naturally aspirated)
Minimum coolant flow at maximum RPM
Horsepower required at 3000 RPM
against 100 PSI head pressure
Recommended minimum discharge
line size
Recommended minimum oil return
line size
Recommended minimum oil supply
line size
Recommended minimum unloader
line size
Recommended minimum inlet cavity line
size (when compressor is
connected to engine air cleaner)
Recommended minimum coolant line
size
Recommended maximum inlet air
temperature
Recommended maximum discharge
air temperature
Minimum pressure required to unload
2
2.625 in.
1.50 in.
12 cu. ft.
16.5 cu. in.
3000
2.5 gal./min.
4.9 H.P.
5/8 in. OD
Copper Tube
5/8 in. OD Tubing
1/4 in. OD Tubing
1/4 in. OD Tubing
5/8 in. ID
minimum
1/2 in. OD Tubing
250°F
400°F
60 PSI
This troubleshooting guide obsoletes and supersedes all previous published
troubleshooting information relative to Bendix air compressors.
Advanced Troubleshooting Guide
for Air Brake Compressors
*
The guide consists of an introduction to air brake charging system
components, a table showing recommended vehicle maintenance
schedules, and a troubleshooting symptom and remedy section with tests
to diagnose most charging system problems.
INDEX
Symptom
Page Number
Air
Symptom
Page Number
Coolant
Air brake charging system:
Slow build (9.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 - 22
Doesn’t build air (10.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Air dryer:
Doesn’t purge (14.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Safety valve releases air (12.0) . . . . . . . . . 24
Compressor:
Constantly cycles (15.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Leaks air (16.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Safety valve releases air (11.0) . . . . . . . . . 23
Noisy (18.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Reservoir:
Safety valve releases air (13.0) . . . . . . . . . 24
Compressor leaks coolant (17.0) . . . . . . . . . . 25
Test Procedures
Maintenance & Usage Guidelines
(1) Oil Leakage at Head Gasket . . . 26
(2) System Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Engine
Oil consumption (6.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Oil
Oil Test Card results (1.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Oil is present:
On the outside of the compressor (2.0) . . . 17
At the air dryer purge/exhaust
or surrounding area (3.0) . . . . . . . . . . . 17
In the supply reservoir (4.0) . . . . . . . . 18 - 20
At the valves (5.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
At air dryer cartridge (7.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
In the ping tank or compressor
discharge aftercooler (8.0) . . . . . . . . . . 21
Maintenance Schedule and
Usage Guidelines (Table A) . . 15
(3) Compressor Discharge and
Air Dryer Inlet Temperature . . . . 26
(4) Governor Malfunction . . . . . . . . 27
(5) Governor Control Line . . . . . . . . 27
(6) Compressor Unloader . . . . . . . . 27
BASIC Test Information . . . . . . 29-31
*This guide is only for vehicles that use desiccant air dryers.
13
Introduction to the Air Brake Charging System
Powered by the vehicle engine, the air compressor
builds the air pressure for the air brake system. The
air compressor is typically cooled by the engine coolant
system and lubricated by the engine oil supply.
The compressor's unloader mechanism and governor
(along with a synchro valve for the Bendix® DuraFlo™
596 air compressor) control the brake system air
pressure between a preset maximum and minimum
pressure level by monitoring the pressure in the service
(or “supply”) reservoir. When the air pressure becomes
greater than that of the preset “cut-out”, the governor
controls the unloader mechanism of the compressor
to stop the compressor from building air and also
causes the air dryer to purge. As the service reservoir
air pressure drops to the “cut-in” setting of the governor,
the governor returns the compressor back to building
air and the air dryer to air drying mode.
As the atmospheric air is compressed, all the water
vapor originally in the air is carried along into the air
system, as well as a small amount of the lubricating oil
as vapor.
The duty cycle is the ratio of time the compressor
spends building air to the total engine running time.
Air compressors are designed to build air (run “loaded”)
up to 25% of the time. Higher duty cycles cause
conditions that affect air brake charging system
performance which may require additional
maintenance. Factors that add to the duty cycle are:
air suspension, additional air accessories, use of an
undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive
leakage from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or
valves, etc.
The discharge line allows the air, water-vapor and
oil-vapor mixture to cool between the compressor and
air dryer. The typical size of a vehicle's discharge line,
(see column 2 of Table A on page 15) assumes a
compressor with a normal (less than 25%) duty cycle,
operating in a temperate climate. See Bendix and/or
other air dryer manufacturer guidelines as needed.
When the temperature of the compressed air that enters
the air dryer is within the normal range, the air dryer can
remove most of the charging system oil. If the
temperature of the compressed air is above the normal
range, oil as oil-vapor is able to pass through the air
dryer and into the air system. Larger diameter discharge
lines and/or longer discharge line lengths can help reduce
the temperature.
The discharge line must maintain a constant slope
down from the compressor to the air dryer inlet fitting
to avoid low points where ice may form and block the
flow. If, instead, ice blockages occur at the air dryer
inlet, insulation may be added here, or if the inlet fitting
is a typical 90 degree fitting, it may be changed to a
straight or 45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, see
Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21 and TCH-08-22 (see
pages 32-34). Shorter discharge line lengths or
insulation may be required in cold climates.
The air dryer contains a filter that collects oil droplets,
and a desiccant bed that removes almost all of the
remaining water vapor. The compressed air is then
passed to the air brake service (supply) reservoir. The
oil droplets and the water collected are automatically
purged when the governor reaches its “cut-out” setting.
For vehicles with accessories that are sensitive to small
amounts of oil, we recommended installation of a
Bendix® PuraGuard® system filter, designed to minimize
the amount of oil present.
The Air Brake Charging System supplies the
Discharge
Line
Optional “Ping” Tank
Air Dryer
compressed air for the braking system as well as other
air accessories for the vehicle. The system usually
consists of an air compressor, governor, discharge line,
air dryer, and service reservoir.
Optional Bendix® PuraGuard®
System Filter or PuraGuard®
QC™ Oil Coalescing Filter
Compressor
Governor
(Governor plus Synchro valve
for the Bendix® DuraFlo™ 596™
Compressor)
Service Reservoir
(Supply Reservoir)
Reservoir Drain
14
Table A: Maintenance Schedule and Usage Guidelines
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most important factor in maintaining the air brake charging system.
Vehicle Used for:
No. of
Axles
Column 1
Column 2
Typical
Compressors
Spec'd
Discharge
Line
I.D.
Length
1/2 in.
6 ft.
Column 3
Recommended
Air Dryer
Cartridge
Replacement1
Column 4
Recommended
Reservoir
Drain
Schedule2
Column 5
Acceptable
Reservoir
Oil Contents3
at Regular
Drain Interval
e.g. Line haul single trailer
w/o air suspension, air over
hydraulic brakes.
5
or
less
e.g. Line haul single trailer
with air suspension,
school bus.
5
or
less
High Air Use
e.g. Double/triple trailer, open
highway coach/RV, (most)
pick-up & delivery, yard or
terminal jockey, off-highway,
construction, loggers, concrete
mixer, dump truck, fire truck.
8
or
less
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. City transit bus, refuse,
bulk unloaders, low boys,
urban region coach, central
tire inflation.
12
or
less
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 750 air compressor
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
Bendix® BA-921™ air compressor
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
9 ft.
Every 3
Years
1/2 in.
9 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
1/2 in.
5/8 in.
Recommended
Every
Month Max of
every 90
days
12 ft.
For the
BASIC
Test Kit:
Order
Bendix
P/N
5013711
Every 2
Years
15 ft.
Every
Month
5/8 in.
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
3/4 in.
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
3 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
Bendix® BA-922™, or DuraFlo™ 596 air compressor
Compressor with less than 15% duty
cycle
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 air compressor
Low Air Use
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
5 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
Every
Year
15 ft.
Footnotes:
1 With increased air demand the air dryer cartridge needs to be replaced more often.
2 Use the drain valves to slowly drain all reservoirs to zero psi.
3 Allow the oil/water mixture to fully settle before measuring oil quantity.
4 To counter above normal temperatures at the air dryer inlet, (and resultant oil-vapor passing
upstream in the air system) replace the discharge line with one of a larger diameter and/
or longer length. This helps reduce the air's temperature. If sufficient cooling occurs, the
oil-vapor condenses and can be removed by the air dryer. Discharge line upgrades are not
covered under warranty. Note: To help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, shorter discharge
line lengths or insulation may be required in cold climates. (See Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21
and TCH-08-22, included in Appendix B, for more information.)
5 For certain vehicles/applications, where turbo-charged inlet air is used, a smaller size
compressor may be permissible.
Note: Compressor and/or air dryer
upgrades are recommended in cases
where duty cycle is greater than the
normal range (for the examples
above).
For Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 and 750
compressors, unloader service is
recommended every 250,000 miles.
15
Air Brake Charging System Troubleshooting
How to use this guide:
Find the symptom(s) that you see, then move to the right to
find the possible causes (“What it may indicate”) and
remedies (“What you should do”).
Review the warranty policy before performing any intrusive
compressor maintenance. Unloader or cylinder head gasket
replacement and resealing of the bottom cover plate are
usually permitted under warranty. Follow all standard safety
procedures when performing any maintenance.
WARNING! Please READ and follow these instructions to
avoid personal injury or death:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following general
precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the parking
brakes, and always block the wheels. Always wear safety
glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when working
under or around the vehicle. When working in the engine
compartment, the engine should be shut off and the ignition
key should be removed. Where circumstances require that
the engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should
be used to prevent personal injury resulting from contact
with moving, rotating, leaking, heated or electrically charged
components.
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or assemble
a component until you have read and thoroughly
understand the recommended procedures. Use only the
proper tools and observe all precautions pertaining to use
of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air brake
system, or any auxiliary pressurized air systems, make
certain to drain the air pressure from all reservoirs before
beginning ANY work on the vehicle. If the vehicle is
equipped with an AD-IS™ air dryer system or a dryer
reservoir module, be sure to drain the purge reservoir.
Symptom:
1.0 Oil Test Card
Results
Normal - Charging system is working within
normal range.
Check - Charging system needs further
investigation.
5. Following the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended
procedures, deactivate the electrical system in a manner
that safely removes all electrical power from the vehicle.
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line containing
pressure; it may whip. Never remove a component or plug
unless you are certain all system pressure has been
depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix® replacement parts, components
and kits. Replacement hardware, tubing, hose, fittings, etc.
must be of equivalent size, type and strength as original
equipment and be designed specifically for such
applications and systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged parts
should be replaced rather than repaired. Do not attempt
repairs requiring machining or welding unless specifically
stated and approved by the vehicle and component
manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make certain all
components and systems are restored to their proper
operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Antilock Traction Control (ATC), the ATC
function must be disabled (ATC indicator lamp should be
ON) prior to performing any vehicle maintenance where
one or more wheels on a drive axle are lifted off the ground
and moving.
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
Not a valid test.
Discontinue using this test.
Do not use this card test to diagnose
compressor "oil passing" issues. They are
subjective and error prone. Use only the
Bendix Air System Inspection Cup (BASIC) test
and the methods described in this guide for
advanced troubleshooting.
The Bendix ® BASIC test should be the
definitive method for judging excessive oil
fouling/oil passing. (See Appendix A, on
page 29 for a flowchart and expanded
explanation of the checklist used when
conducting the BASIC test.)
û
Bendix®
BASIC Test
16
Look for:
ü
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
2.0 Oil on the
Outside of the
Compressor
Engine and/or other accessories
leaking onto compressor.
Find the source and repair. Return the vehicle
to service.
2.1 Oil leaking at
compressor / engine
connections:
(a)Leak at the front or rear (fuel
pump, etc.) mounting flange.
ð Repair or replace as necessary. If the
mounting bolt torques are low, replace the
gasket.
(b)Leak at air inlet fitting.
ð Replace the fitting gasket. Inspect inlet
hose and replace as necessary.
(c)Leak at air discharge fitting.
ð Replace gasket or fitting as necessary to
ensure good seal.
(d)Loose/broken oil line fittings.
ð Inspect and repair as necessary.
(a)Excessive leak at head gasket.
ð Go to Test 1 on page 26.
(b)Leak at bottom cover plate.
ð Reseal bottom cover plate using RTV
silicone sealant.
(c)Leak at internal rear flange gasket.
ð Replace compressor.
(d)Leak through crankcase.
ð Replace compressor.
(e)(If unable to tell source of leak.)
ð Clean compressor and check periodically.
2.2 Oil leaking
from compressor:
ð
(c)
(a)
ð
(c)
3.0 Oil at air dryer
purge/exhaust or
surrounding area
Head
gasket
and rear
flange
gasket
locations.
Air brake charging system functioning
normally.
ð Air dryers remove water and oil from the
air brake charging system.
Check that regular maintenance is being
performed. Return the vehicle to service.
An optional kit (Bendix piece number
5011327 for the Bendix® AD-IS™ or AD-IP™
air dryers, or 5003838 for the Bendix®
AD-9™ air dryer) is available to redirect the
air dryer exhaust.
17
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
4.0 Oil in Supply or
Service Reservoir
(air dryer installed)
What you should do:
Maintenance
(a) If air brake charging system
maintenance has not been
(If a maintained Bendix
performed.
PuraGuard® system filter
That is, reservoir(s) have not been
or Bendix® PuraGuard®
drained per the schedule in Table
QC™ oil coalescing filter
is installed, call
A on page 15, Column 4 and/or the
1-800-AIR-BRAKE
air dryer maintenance has not
(1-800-247-2725) and
been performed as in Column 3.
ð Drain all air tanks and check vehicle at next
service interval using the Bendix® BASIC
test. See Table A on page 15, column 3
and 4, for recommended service schedule.
(b) If the vehicle maintenance has
been performed as recommended in Table A on page 15,
some oil in the reservoirs is normal.
ð Drain all air tanks into Bendix® BASIC test
cup (Bendix Air System Inspection Cup).
If less than one unit of reservoir contents
is found, the vehicle can be returned to
service. Note: If more than one oil unit
of water (or a cloudy emulsion mixture)
is present, change the vehicle's air
dryer, check for air system leakage (Test
2, on page 26), stop inspection and
check again at the next service interval.
See the BASIC test kit for full details.
If less than one "oil unit" of water (or water/
cloudy emulsion mixture) is present, use
the BASIC cup chart on the label of the
cup to determine if the amount of oil found
is within the acceptable level.
ðIf within the normal range, return the
vehicle to service. For vehicles with
accessories that are sensitive to small
amounts of oil, consider a Bendix ®
PuraGuard® QC™ oil coalescing filter.
ð If outside the normal range go to
Symptom 4.0(c).
Also see the Table A on page 15, column
3 for recommended air dryer cartridge
replacement schedule.
®
speak to a Tech Team
member.)
(a)
See Table A, on page 15,
for maintenance
schedule information.
Drain all air tanks (reservoirs)
into the Bendix® BASIC test
cup. (Bendix kit P/N 5013711).
Duty cycle too high
(c) Air brake system leakage.
ð Go to Test 2 on page 26.
(d) Compressor may be undersized for
the application.
ð See Table A, column 1, on page 15 for
recommended compressor sizes.
ð If the compressor is "too small" for
the vehicle's role (for example, where a
vehicle's use has changed or service
conditions exceed the original vehicle or
engine OE spec's) then upgrade the
compressor. Note: The costs incurred (e.g.
installing a larger capacity compressor,
etc.) are not covered under original
compressor warranty.
ð If the compressor is correct for the
vehicle, go to Symptom 4.0 (e).
The duty cycle is the ratio of time the compressor spends
building air to total engine running time. Air compressors
are designed to build air (to "run loaded") up to 25% of the
time. Higher duty cycles cause conditions that affect air
brake charging system performance which may require
additional maintenance. Factors that add to the duty cycle
are: air suspension, additional air accessories, use of an
undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive leakage
from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or valves, etc.
18
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
4.0 Oil in Supply
or Service
Reservoir*
(air dryer installed)
(continued)
What you should do:
Temperature
(e) Air compressor discharge and/or
air dryer inlet temperature too high.
ð Check temperature as outlined in Test 3
on page 26. If temperatures are normal
go to 4.0(h).
(f) Insufficient coolant flow.
ð Inspect coolant line. Replace as necessary
(I.D. is 1/2").
ð Inspect the coolant lines for kinks and
restrictions and fittings for restrictions.
Replace as necessary.
(f)
(e)
ð Verify coolant lines go from engine block
to compressor and back to the water pump.
Repair as necessary.
(g)
Testing the temperature
at the discharge fitting.
Inspecting the coolant hoses.
(g) Restricted discharge line.
(g)
ð If discharge line is restricted or more than
1/16" carbon build up is found, replace the
discharge line. See Table A, column 2, on
page 15 for recommended size. Replace
as necessary.
ð The discharge line must maintain a
constant slope down from the compressor
to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low
points where ice may form and block the
flow. If, instead, ice blockages occur at the
air dryer inlet, insulation may be added
here, or if the inlet fitting is a typical 90
degree fitting, it may be changed to a
straight or 45 degree fitting. For more
information on how to help prevent discharge
line freeze-ups, see Bendix Bulletins
TCH-08-21 and TCH-08-22 (Appendix B).
Shorter discharge line lengths or insulation
may be required in cold climates.
Kinked discharge line shown.
Other
(h) Restricted air inlet (not enough air
to compressor).
(h)
Partly
collapsed
inlet line
shown.
ð Check compressor air inlet line for
restrictions, brittleness, soft or sagging
hose conditions etc. Repair as necessary.
Inlet line size is 3/4 ID. Maximum
restriction requirement for compressors is
25 inches of water.
ð Check the engine air filter and service if
necessary (if possible, check the air filter
usage indicator).
*If a maintained Bendix® PuraGuard® system filter or Bendix® PuraGuard® QC™ oil coalescing
filter is installed, call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725) and speak to a Tech Team
member.
19
Symptom:
4.0 Oil in Supply
or Service
Reservoir*
(air dryer installed)
(continued)
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
Other (cont.)
(i) Poorly filtered inlet air (poor air
quality to compressor).
Inspect the
engine air
cleaner.
ð Check for leaking, damaged or defective
compressor air inlet components (e.g.
induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter bodies,
etc.). Repair inlet components as needed.
Note: Dirt ingestion will damage
compressor and is not covered under
warranty.
(j) Governor malfunction or setting.
ð Go to Test 4 on page 27.
(k) Compressor malfunction.
ð If you found excessive oil present in the
service reservoir in step 4.0 (b) above and
you did not find any issues in steps 4.0 (c)
through 4.0 (j) above, the compressor may
be passing oil.
Replace compressor. If still under
warranty, follow normal warranty process.
Note: After replacing a compressor,
residual oil may take a considerable period
of time to be flushed from the air brake
system.
Crankcase Flooding
Consider installing a compressor bottom drain kit
(where available) in cases of chronic oil passing
where all other operating conditions have been
investigated. Bendix compressors are designed to
have a 'dry' sump and the presence of excess oil in
the crankcase can lead to oil carryover.
*If a maintained Bendix® PuraGuard® system filter or Bendix® PuraGuard® QC™ oil coalescing
filter is installed, call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725) and speak to a Tech Team
member.
5.0 Oil present at
valves (e.g. at
exhaust, or seen
during servicing).
Air brake system valves are required
to tolerate a light coating of oil.
ð A small amount of oil does not affect SAE
J2024** compliant valves.
ð Check that regular maintenance is being
performed and that the amount of oil in the
air tanks (reservoirs) is within the
acceptable range shown on the Bendix®
BASIC test cup (see also column 5 of Table
A on page 15). Return the vehicle to
service.
For oil-sensitive systems, see page 14.
** SAE J2024 outlines tests all air brake system pneumatic
components need to be able to pass, including minimum
levels of tolerance to contamination.
Genuine
Bendix
valves are
all SAE
J2024
compliant.
20
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
6.0 Excessive oil
consumption in
engine.
A problem with engine or other engine
accessory.
ð See engine service manual.
7.0 Oil present at
air dryer cartridge
during
maintenance.
Air brake charging system is
functioning normally.
The engine
service
manual has
more
information.
Oil shown
leaking
from an air
dryer
cartridge.
ð Air dryers remove water and oil from the air
brake charging system. A small amount of
oil is normal. Check that regular
maintenance is being performed and that
the amount of oil in the air tanks
(reservoirs) is within the acceptable range
shown by the BASIC Test (see also column
5 of Table A on page 15). Replace the air
dryer cartridge as needed and return the
vehicle to service.
8.0 Oil in ping tank
or compressor discharge aftercooler.
Air brake charging system is
functioning normally.
ð Follow vehicle O.E. maintenance
recommendation for these components.
9.0 Air brake
charging system
seems slow to
build pressure.
(a) Air brake charging
functioning normally.
ð Using dash gauges, verify that the
compressor builds air system pressure
from 85-100 psi in 40 seconds or less with
engine at full governed rpm. Return the
vehicle to service.
system
(b) Air brake system leakage.
ð Go to Test 2 on page 26.
(c) Compressor may be undersized for
the application.
ð See Table A, column 1, on page 15 for
some typical compressor applications. If
the compressor is "too small" for the
vehicle's role, for example, where a
vehicle's use has changed, then upgrade
the compressor. Note: The costs incurred
(e.g. installing a larger capacity
compressor, etc.) are not covered under
original compressor warranty.
(d) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.
ð Go to Test 6 on page 27.
(e) Damaged
gasket.
ð An air leak at the head gasket may indicate
a downstream restriction such as a
freeze-up or carbon blockage and/or could
indicate a defective or missing safety
valve. Find blockage (go to 9.0(f) for
details.) and then replace the compressor.
Do not re-use the safety valve without
testing. See Symptom 12.0(a).
compressor
head
21
Symptom:
9.0 Air brake
charging system
seems slow to
build pressure.
(continued)
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
(f) Restricted discharge line.
ð If discharge line is restricted:
ð By more than 1/16" carbon build up,
replace the discharge line (see Table A,
column 2, on page 15 for recommended
size) and go to Test 3 on page 26.
ð By other restrictions (e.g. kinks).
Replace the discharge line. See Table A,
column 2, on page 15 for recommended
size. Retest for air build. Return vehicle to
service or, if problem persists, go to 9.0(a).
(f)
Dash gauges.
Kinked discharge line shown.
(g) Restricted air inlet (not enough air
to compressor).
(g)
ð The discharge line must maintain a
constant slope down from the compressor
to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low points
where ice may form and block the flow. If,
instead, ice blockages occur at the air dryer
inlet, insulation may be added here, or if
the inlet fitting is a typical 90 degree fitting,
it may be changed to a straight or 45 degree
fitting. For more information on how to help
prevent discharge line freeze-ups, see
Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21 and
TCH-08-22 (Appendix B).
Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be
required in cold climates.
ð Check compressor air inlet line for
restrictions, brittleness, soft or sagging
hose conditions etc. Repair as necessary.
Refer to vehicle manufacturer’s guidelines
for inlet line size.
ð Check the engine air filter and service if
necessary (if possible, check the air filter
usage indicator).
Partly collapsed
inlet line shown.
22
(h) Poorly filtered inlet air (poor air
quality to compressor).
ð Check for leaking, damaged or defective
compressor air inlet components (e.g.
induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter
bodies, etc.). Repair inlet components as
needed. Note: Dirt ingestion will damage
compressor and is not covered under
warranty.
(i) Compressor malfunction.
ð Replace the compressor only after making
certain that none of the preceding
conditions, 9.0 (a) through 9.0 (h), exist.
Symptom:
10.0 Air charging
system doesn’t
build air.
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
(a) Governor malfunction*.
ð Go to Test 4 on page 27.
(b) Restricted discharge line.
ð See 9.0(f).
(c) Air dryer heater malfunction:
exhaust port frozen open.
ð Replace air dryer heater.
(d) Compressor malfunction.
ð Replace the compressor only after making
certain the preceding conditions do not
exist.
* Note: For the Bendix® DuraFlo™ 596 air compressor, not only
the governor, but also the SV-1™ synchro valve used would
need to be tested. See Bulletin TCH-001-048.
11.0 Compressor
safety valve
releases air
(Compressor
builds too much
air).
(a) Restricted discharge line.
ð
Damaged
discharge
line
shown.
ð If discharge line is restricted:
ð By more than 1/16" carbon build up,
replace the discharge line (see Table A,
column 2, on page 15 for recommended
size) and go to Test 3 on page 26.
ð By other restrictions (e.g. kinks).
Replace the discharge line. See Table A,
column 2, on page 15 for recommended
size.
ð The discharge line must maintain a
constant slope down from the compressor
to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low
points where ice may form and block the
flow. If, instead, ice blockages occur at the
air dryer inlet, insulation may be added
here, or if the inlet fitting is a typical 90
degree fitting, it may be changed to a
straight or 45 degree fitting. For more
information on how to help prevent discharge
line freeze-ups, see Bendix Bulletins TCH08-21 and TCH-08-22 (Appendix B).
Shorter discharge line lengths or insulation
may be required in cold climates.
(b) Downstream air brake system
check valves or lines may be
blocked or damaged.
ð Inspect air lines and verify check valves
are operating properly.
(c) Air dryer lines incorrectly installed.
ð Ensure discharge line is installed into the
inlet of the air dryer and delivery is routed
to the service reservoir.
(d) Compressor safety valve
malfunction.
ð Verify relief pressure is 250 psi. Replace
if defective.
(e) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.
ð Go to Test 6 on page 27.
(f) Governor malfunction.
ð Go to Test 4 on page 27.
23
Symptom:
12.0 Air dryer
safety valve
releases air.
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
(a) Restriction between air dryer and
reservoir.
ð Inspect delivery lines to reservoir for
restrictions and repair as needed.
(b) Air dryer safety valve malfunction.
ð Verify relief pressure is at vehicle or
component manufacturer specifications.
Replace if defective.
(c) Air dryer
performed.
ð See Maintenance Schedule and Usage
Guidelines (Table A, column 3, on page
15).
Air dryer
safety valve
ð
maintenance
not
(d) Air dryer malfunction.
ð Verify operation of air dryer. Follow vehicle
O.E. maintenance recommendations and
component Service Data information.
(e) Improper governor control line
installation to the reservoir.
ð Go to Test 5 on page 27.
(f) Governor malfunction.
ð Go to Test 4 on page 27.
(a) Reservoir safety valve malfunction.
ð Verify relief pressure is at vehicle or
component manufacturer's specifications
(typically 150 psi). Replace if defective.
(b) Governor malfunction.
ð Go to Test 4 on page 27.
(c) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.
ð Go to Test 6 on page 27.
(a) Air dryer malfunction.
ð Verify operation of air dryer. Follow vehicle
O.E. maintenance recommendations.
(b) Governor malfunction.
ð Go to Test 4 on page 27.
(c) Air brake system leakage.
ð Go to Test 2 on page 26.
(d) Improper governor control line
installation to the reservoir.
ð Go to Test 5 on page 27.
(a) Air brake charging system
maintenance not performed.
ð Available reservoir capacity may be
reduced by build up of water etc. Drain
and perform routine maintenance per
Table A, columns 3 & 4, on page 15.
(b) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.
ð Go to Test 6 on page 27.
(c) Air dryer purge valve or delivery
check valve malfunction.
ð Verify operation of air dryer. Follow vehicle
O.E. maintenance recommendations and
component Service Data information.
(d) Air brake system leakage.
ð Go to Test 2 on page 26.
ê
ê
Technician removes
governor.
13.0 Reservoir
safety valve
releases air
14.0 Air dryer
doesn’t purge.
(Never hear
exhaust from air
dryer.)
15.0 Compressor
constantly cycles
(compressor
remains unloaded
for a very short
time.)
24
Symptom:
16.0 Compressor
leaks air
What it may indicate:
(a) Compressor leaks
connections or ports.
at
ð Check for leaking, damaged or defective
compressor fittings, gaskets, etc. Repair
or replace as necessary.
ð Go to Test 6 on page 27.
(c) Damaged
gasket.
head
ð An air leak at the head gasket may indicate
a downstream restriction such as a freezeup or carbon blockage and/or could
indicate a defective or missing safety
valve. Find blockage (go to 9.0(f) for
details.) and then replace the compressor.
Do not re-use the safety valve without
testing. See Symptom 12.0(a).
(a) Improperly installed plugs or
coolant line fittings.
ð Inspect for loose or over-torqued fittings.
Reseal and tighten loose fittings and plugs
as necessary. If overtorqued fittings and
plugs have cracked ports in the head,
replace the compressor.
(b) Damaged
gasket.
head
ð An air leak at the head gasket may indicate
a downstream restriction such as a freezeup or carbon blockage and/or could
indicate a defective or missing safety
valve. Find blockage (go to 9.0(f) for
details.) and then replace the compressor.
Do not re-use the safety valve without
testing. See Symptom 12.0(a).
(c) Porous compressor head casting.
ð If casting porosity is detected, replace the
compressor.
(a) Damaged compressor.
ð Replace the compressor.
compressor
Head
gasket
location
ð
18.0 Noisy
compressor
(Multi-cylinder
compressors only)
air
(b) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.
Testing for leaks
with soap solution.
17.0 Compressor
leaks coolant
What you should do:
compressor
Other Miscellaneous Areas to Consider
This guide attempts to cover most
compressor system problems. Here are
some rare sources of problems not
covered in this guide:
• Turbocharger leakage. Lubricating oil
from leaking turbocharger seals can enter
the air compressor intake and give
misleading symptoms.
• Where a compressor does not have a
safety valve installed, if a partial or
complete discharge line blockage has
occurred, damage can occur to the
connecting rod bearings. Damage of this
kind may not be detected and could lead
to compressor problems at a later date.
25
Tests
Test 1: Excessive Oil Leakage at the
Head Gasket
Exterior leaks at the head gasket are not a sign that oil is being passed
into the air charging system. Oil weepage at the head gasket does not
prevent the compressor from building air.
Observe the amount of weepage from the head gasket.
If the oil is only around the cylinder head area, it is acceptable (return the
vehicle to service), but, if the oil weepage extends down to the nameplate area
of the compressor, the gasket can be replaced.
LOOK
FOR
WEEPAGE
Test 2: Air Brake System and Accessory Leakage
Inspect for air leaks when working on a vehicle and
repair them promptly.
Park the vehicle on level ground and chock wheels.
Build system pressure to governor cut-out and allow
the pressure to stabilize for one minute.
Step 1: Observe the dash gauges for two additional
minutes without the service brakes applied.
Step 2: Apply the service brakes and allow the
pressure to stabilize. Continue holding for two
minutes (you may use a block of wood to hold the
Test 3: Air Compressor Discharge
Temperature and Air Dryer Inlet
Temperature*
Caution: The temperatures used in this test
are not normal vehicle conditions.
Above normal temperatures can cause oil (as
vapor) to pass through the air dryer into the
air brake system.
This test is run with the engine at normal
operating temperature, with engine at max. rpm.
If available, a dyno may be used.
1. Allow the compressor to build the air system
pressure to governor cut-in.
2. Pump the brakes to bring the dash gauge
pressure to 90 psi.
3. Allow the compressor to build pressure from
95 to 105 psi gauge pressure and maintain
this pressure range by cycling the brakes for
five (5) minutes.
pedal in position.) Observe the dash gauges.
If you see any noticeable decrease of the dash air
gauge readings (i.e. more than 4 psi, plus two psi
for each additional trailer) during either two minute
test, repair the leaks and repeat this test to confirm
that they have been repaired.
Air leaks can also be found in the charging system,
parking brakes, and/or other components - inspect
and repair as necessary.
(* Note that only vehicles that have passed Test 2
would be candidates for this test.)
4. Then, while maintaining max rpm and
pressure range, measure and record the
surface temperature of the fittings:
ð at the compressor discharge port. (T1).
ð at the air dryer inlet fitting. (T2).
Use a touch probe thermocouple for
measuring the temperature.
5. See table below.
6. Retest before returning the vehicle to service.
T1
T2
Compressor Air Dryer
Discharge
Inlet
Fitting
Fitting
under
360°F
under
200°F
Temperatures are within
normal range for this test, check
other symptoms. Go to 4.0 (h).
under
360°F
over
200°F
This could indicate a discharge
line problem (e.g. restriction).
Call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE
(1-800-247-2725)
and speak with our Tech Team.
over
360°F
__
T1
T2
Discharge Line
26
Action
Compressor is running hot.
Check coolant 4(f) and/or
discharge line 4(g).
Tests (continued)
Test 4: Governor Malfunction
1. Inspect control lines to and from the governor
for restrictions (e.g. collapsed or kinked).
Repair as necessary.
2. Using a calibrated external gauge in the supply
reservoir, service reservoir, or reservoir port
of the D-2™ governor, verify cut-in and cutout pressures are within vehicle OEM
specification.
3. If the governor is malfunctioning, replace it.
Test 5: Governor Control Line
1. Ensure that the governor control line from the
reservoir is located at or near the top of the
reservoir. (This line, if located near the bottom
of the reservoir, can become blocked or
restricted by the reservoir contents e.g. water
or ice.)
2. Perform proper reservoir drain intervals and
air dryer cartridge maintenance per
Maintenance Schedule and Usage Guidelines
(Table A on page 15).
3. Return the vehicle to service.
Test 6: Compressor Unloader Leakage
Bendix ® Compressors: Park vehicle, chock
wheels, and follow all standard safety procedures.
Remove the governor and install a fitting to the
unloader port. Add a section of air hose (min 1ft
long for a 1/2" diameter line) and a gauge to the
fitting followed by a shut-off valve and an air
source (shop air or small air tank). Open the shut
off and charge the unloader port by allowing air
pressure to enter the hose and unload the
compressor. Shut off the air supply and observe
the gauge. A steady reading indicates no leakage
at the unloader port, but a falling reading shows
that the unloader mechanism is leaking and needs
to be serviced.
27
NOTES
28
Appendix A: Information about the BASIC Test Kit (Bendix P/N 5013711)
Service writer records info - including
the number of days since all air tanks
were drained - and fills out symptom
checklist. Technician inspects items.
days
Bendix® Air System Inspection Cup
(BASIC) Test Information
START BASIC TEST
Park vehicle on LEVEL ground.
Chock wheels, drain air from system.
Drain contents of ALL air
tanks into BASIC cup
Is there
less than one
unit of liquid?
Vehicle OK.
Return vehicle to
service.
YES
END TEST
NO
Is
there more
than one unit of:
• water, or
• cloudy emulsion
mixture?
Cloudy emulsion mixture
YES
NO, only oil.
Is this a
transit vehicle, bulk
unloader, or has more
than 5 axles?
YES, this is a high
air use
vehicle.
Hig
Find the point on the label
where the number of oil units
meets the number of days*
since the vehicle's air tanks
were last drained.
h
Low
Hig
Is the
point above
the HIGH Air Use
line on the
cup?
H
NO, this is a low air
use vehicle.
Find the point on the label
where the number of oil units
meets the number of days*
since the vehicle's air tanks
were last drained.
h
Is the
point above
the LOW Air Use
line on the
cup?
NO
YES
Test for air
leakage
Low
END TEST
Does
the vehicle have
excessive air
leakage?
YES
Test for air
leakage
Use Test 2:
Air Leakage
END TEST
Repair leaks and
return vehicle to
service
END TEST
NO (did not know
when last
drained) Re-test with the
BASIC Test after
30 days***
END TEST
* If the number of days since the air tanks were drained is
unknown - use the 30 day line.
** Note: Typical air dryer cartridge replacement schedule is every
3 yrs/ 300K miles for low air use vehicles and every year/100K
miles for high air use vehicles.
END TEST
YES, number of days
was known (30 - 90 days)
Replace the Compressor. If under warranty, follow standard
procedures.
If, after a compressor was already replaced, the vehicle fails the
BASIC test again, do not replace the compressor**** - use the
Advanced Troubleshooting Guide to investigate the cause(s).
END TEST
Change air dryer
cartridge**
Re-test with the
BASIC Test after
30 days***
Vehicle OK.
Return vehicle to
service.
NO
Was
the number of
days since last
draining
known?
NO
Low
YES
Use Test 2:
Air Leakage
Is this vehicle
being re-tested (after
water, etc. was found
last time?)
Go to the
Advanced
Troubleshooting
Guide to find
reason(s) for
presence of water
NO
igh
Compressor
YES
*** To get an accurate reading for the amount of oil collected
during a 30 day period, ask the customer not to drain the air
tanks before returning. (Note that 30-90 days is the
recommended air tank drain schedule for vehicles equipped
with a Bendix air dryer that are properly maintained.) If, in cold
weather conditions, the 30 day air tank drain schedule is longer
than the customer's usual draining interval, the customer must
determine, based on its experience with the vehicle, whether to
participate now, or wait for warmer weather. See the cold
weather tips in Bulletins TCH-008-21 and TCH-008-22 (included
on pages 32-34 of this document).
****Note: After replacing a compressor, residual oil may take a
considerable period of time to be flushed from the air brake system.
29
Appendix A continued: Information about the BASIC Test Kit (Bendix P/N 5013711)
®
Filling in the Checklist for the Bendix Air System Inspection Cup (BASIC) Test
Note: Follow all standard safety precautions. For vehicles using a desiccant air dryer.
The Service Writer fills out these fields with information gained from the customer
Number of Days Since Air Tanks Were Last Drained: ________ Date: ___________Vehicle #: ____________
Engine SN __________________________ Vehicle Used for: _______________Typical Load:________ (lbs.)
No. of Axles: ____ (tractor) ____ (trailer) No. of Lift Axles: ____ Technician’s Name: ____________________
Checklist for Technician
The Service Writer
also checks off any
complaints that the
customer makes to
help the Technician
in investigating.
Have you confirmed complaint?
è
Customer’s Complaint
(Please check all that apply)
“Relay valve q leaks oil / q malfunctions” . . . . . . . q no q yes*
“Dash valve q leaks oil / q malfunctions” . . . . . . . q no q yes*
q “Air dryer leaks oil” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q no q yes*
q “Governor malfunction” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q no q yes*
q “Oil in gladhands” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q no q yes*
how much oil did you find? ________________________________
q “Oil on ground or vehicle exterior” . . . . . . . . . . . q no q yes*
amount described: ______________________________________
q “Short air dryer cartridge life”
replaces every: ______________ q miles, q kms, or q months
q “Oil in air tanks” amount described:_______________________
We will measure amount currently found when we get to step B of the test.
q “Excessive engine oil loss” amount described: ______________
Is the engine leaking oil? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q no q yes*
Is the compressor leaking oil? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q no q yes*
q Other complaint:
______________________________________
q No customer complaint.
BASIC test starts here:
STEP A - Select one:
q This is a low air use vehicle: Line haul (single trailer) with 5 or less axles, or
q This is a high air use vehicle: Garbage truck, transit bus, bulk unloader, or
line haul with 6 or more axles.
Then go to Step B.
STEP B - Measure the Charging System Contents
1. Park and chock vehicle on level ground. Drain the air system by
pumping the service brakes.
2. Completely drain ALL the air tanks into a single BASIC cup.
3. If there is less than one unit of contents total, end the test now and
return the vehicle to service. Vehicle passes.
4. If more than one oil unit of water (or a cloudy emulsion mixture)
is found:
(a) Change the vehicle’s air dryer cartridge
Oil
- see Footnote 1,
Units
(b) Conduct the 4 minute leakage test (Step D),
(c) STOP the inspection, and check the vehicle
again after 30 days - see Footnote 2. STOP
Otherwise, go to Step C.
+ CK.
The Technician
checks boxes for
any of the
complaints that
can be confirmed.
* Note: A confirmed complaint above does NOT mean
that the compressor must be
replaced.
The full BASIC test below will
investigate the facts.
The Technician selects the air use
category for the vehicle. This
decided which of the two acceptance lines on the cup will be used
for the test below.
For an accurate test, the
contents of all the air tanks on
the vehicle should be used.
Note for returning vehicles that are being
retested after a water/cloudy emulsion
mixture was found last time and the air
dryer cartridge replaced: If more than one
oil unit of water or a cloudy emulsion mixture
is found again, stop the BASIC test and
consult the air dryer's Service Data sheet
troubleshooting section.
Footnote 1: Note: Typical air dryer cartridge replacement schedule is every 3 yrs/ 300K miles for low air use vehicles and every year/100K miles for
high air use vehicles.
Footnote 2: To get an accurate reading for the amount of oil collected during a 30 day period, ask the customer not to drain the air tanks before
returning. (Note that 30-90 days is the recommended air tank drain schedule for vehicles equipped with a Bendix air dryer that are properly
maintained.) If, in cold weather conditions, the 30 day air tank drain schedule is longer than the customer's usual draining interval, the customer
must determine, based on its experience with the vehicle, whether to participate now, or wait for warmer weather. See the cold weather tips in
Bulletins TCH-008-21 and TCH-008-22 (included in Appendix B of the advanced troubleshooting guide).
30
Appendix A continued: Information about the BASIC Test Kit (Bendix P/N 5013711)
®
Filling in the Checklist for the Bendix Air System Inspection Cup (BASIC) Test
Note: Follow all standard safety precautions. For vehicles using a desiccant air dryer.
2. Record amount
of oil found:
The Technician uses the chart (label) on the BASIC
test cup to help decide the action to take, based
on the amount of oil found. Use the lower
acceptance line for low air use vehicles, and upper
line for high air use vehicles (from Step A).
_________ days
_________ units
3. Action to
take
è
è
1. Record days since air
tanks were last drained.
è
STEP C - How to Use the BASIC Test
if oil level is at or below System OK.
STOP
If number of days is:
acceptance line for number
TEST
30-60 days (high air
Return
to
service.
of daysè
use) or
if oil level is above
30-90 days (low air use)
Go to Step D
acceptance line for number
è
of days è
if oil level is at or below System OK.
STOP
TEST
30-day acceptance line è
Return to service.
Stop inspection.
(if the number of days is
STOP
unknown, or outside the if oil level is above 30-day Test again
acceptance
line
è
after 30 days. + CK.
limits above)
See Footnote 2.
Otherwise . . .
è
Acceptance
Lines
BASIC Test Example
An oil level of 4 units in a sixty-day period is within the
acceptance area (at or below the line) for both low
and high air use vehicles. Return the vehicle to service.
Oil
Level
X
The Technician looks for the point where the number
of days since the air tanks were drained meets the
oil level. If it is at or below the (low or high use)
acceptance line, the vehicle has passed the test. If
the point is above the line we go to the leakage test.
Sixty days since last air
tank draining
STEP D - Air Brake System Leakage Test
Park the vehicle on level ground and chock wheels. Build system pressure to governor cut-out
and allow the pressure to stabilize for one minute.
1: Observe the dash gauges for two additional minutes without the service brakes applied.
2: Apply service brakes for two minutes (allow pressure to stabilize) and observe the dash
gauges.
If you see any noticeable decrease of the dash air gauge readings repair leaks. Repeat
this test to confirm that air leaks have been repaired and return vehicle to service. Please
repeat BASIC test at next service interval. Note: Air leaks can also be found in the charging
system, parking brakes, and/or other components - inspect and repair as necessary.
If no air leakage was detected, and if you are conducting
this test after completing Step C, go to Step E.
STEP E - If no air leakage was detected in Step D
Replace the compressor.
Note: If the compressor is within warranty period,
please follow standard warranty procedures. Attach
the completed checklist to warranty claim.
Decision point
Air leakage is the number one
cause of compressors having
to pump excessive amounts of
air, in turn run too hot and
pass oil vapor along into the
system. Here the Technician
conducts a four-minute test to
see if leakage is a problem
with the vehicle being tested.
The Technician only reaches
Step E if the amount of oil
found, for the amount of time
since the air tanks were last
drained exceeds the acceptance level, AND the vehicle
passes the four-minute
leakage test (no noticeable
leakage was detected).
31
Appendix B
Technical Bulletin
Bulletin No.: TCH-008-021
Subject:
Effective Date: 11/1/92
Page: 1 of 2
Air Brake System - Cold Weather Operation Tips
As the cold weather approaches, operators and fleets alike begin to look to their vehicles with an eye
toward “winterization”, and particularly what can be done to guard against air system freeze-up. Here
are some basic “Tips” for operation in the cold weather.
Engine Idling
Avoid idling the engine for long periods of time! In addition to the fact that most engine
manufacturers warn that long idle times are detrimental to engine life, winter idling is a big factor in
compressor discharge line freeze-up. Discharge line freeze-ups account for a significant number of
compressor failures each year. The discharge line recommendations under “Discharge Lines” are
important for all vehicles but are especially so when some periods of extended engine idling can not
be avoided.
Discharge Lines
The discharge line should slope downward form the compressor discharge port without forming water
traps, kinks, or restrictions. Cross-overs from one side of the frame rail to the other, if required,
should occur as close as possible to the compressor. Fitting extensions must be avoided.
Recommended discharge line lengths and inside diameters are dependent on the vehicle application
and are as follows.
Typical P&D, School Bus and Line Haul
The maximum discharge line length is 16 feet.
Length
6.0-9.5 ft.
9.5-12 ft.
I.D. Min.
½ in.
½ in.
12-16 ft.
5/8 in.
Other Requirements
None
Last 3 feet, including fitting at the end of the
discharge line, must be insulated with ½ inch thick closed
cell polyethylene pipe insulation.
Last 3 feet, including fitting at the end of the
discharge line, must be insulated with ½ inch thick
closed cell polyethylene pipe insulation.
If the discharge line length must be less than 6 feet or greater than 16 feet, contact your local
Bendix representative.
32
Appendix B: Continued
Bulletin No.: TCH-008-021
Effective Date: 11/1/92
Page: 2 of 2
High Duty Cycle Vehicles (City Transit Coaches, Refuse Haulers, Etc.)
The maximum discharge line length is 16 feet.
Length
I.D. min.
Other Requirements
10-16 ft.
½ in.
None
If the discharge line length must be less than 10 feet or greater than 16 feet, contact your local Bendix
representative.
System Leakage
Check the air brake system for excessive air leakage using the Bendix “Dual System Air Brake Test
and Check List” (BW1279). Excessive system leakage causes the compressor to “pump” more air
and also more moisture into the brake system.
Reservoir Draining (System Without Air Dryer)
Routine reservoir draining is the most basic step (although not completely effective) in reducing the
possibility of freeze-up. All reservoirs in a brake system can accumulate water and other contamination
and must be drained! The best practice is to drain all reservoirs daily. When draining reservoirs; turn
the ENGINE OFF and drain ALL AIR from the reservoir, better still, open the drain cocks on all
reservoirs and leave them open over night to assure all contamination is drained (reference Service
Data Sheet SD-04-400 for Bendix Reservoirs). If automatic drain valves are installed, check their
operation before the weather turns cold (reference Service Data Sheet SD-03-2501 for Bendix®
DV-2™ Automatic Drain Valves). It should be noted that, while the need for daily reservoir draining is
eliminated through the use of an automatic drain valve, periodic manual draining is still required.
Alcohol Evaporator or Injector Systems
Check for proper operation of these systems by monitoring alcohol consumption for a few days
(Reference Service Data Sheet SD-08-2301 for the Bendix Alcohol Evaporator). Too little means the
system is not receiving adequate protection and too much simply wastes alcohol. As a general
guide, these systems should consume approximately 1 to 2 ounces of alcohol per hour of compressor
loaded time (compressing air). City pick-up and delivery vehicles will operate with the compressors
loaded (compressing air) more while compressors on highway vehicles will be loaded less. These
figures are approximate and assume that air system leakage is within the limits of the Bendix “Dual
System Air Brake Test and Check List” (BW1279). Last but not least, begin using alcohol several
weeks prior to freezing weather to ensure that the system is completely protected. Use only methanol
alcohol, such as Bendix “Air Guard”, in evaporators or injectors.
Air Dryers
Make certain air brake system leakage is within the limits stated in BW1279. Check the operation
and function of the air dryer using the appropriate Service Data Sheet for the air dryer.
AD-9™ Air Dryer
AD-4™ Air Dryer
AD-2™ Air Dryer
AD-IP™ Air Dryer
AD-SP™ Air Dryer
Trailer System-Guard™ Air Dryer
Service Data Sheet SD-08-2412
Service Data Sheet SD-08-2407
Service Data Sheet SD-08-2403
Service Data Sheet SD-08-2414
Service Data Sheet SD-08-2415
Service Data Sheet SD-08-2416
33
Appendix B: Continued
Technical Bulletin
Bulletin No.: TCH-008-022
Subject: Additional
Effective Date: 1/1/1994
Page: 1 of 1
Cold Weather Operation Tips for the Air Brake System
Last year we published Bulletin PRO-08-21 which provided some guidelines for “winterizing” a vehicle
air brake system. Here are some additional suggestions for making cold weather vehicle operation
just a little more bearable.
Thawing Frozen Air Lines
The old saying; “Prevention is the best medicine” truly applies here! Each year this activity accounts
for an untold amount of unnecessary labor and component replacement. Here are some Do’s and
Don’ts for prevention and thawing.
Do’s
1. Do maintain freeze prevention devices to prevent road calls. Don’t let evaporators or injectors run
out of methanol alcohol or protection will be degraded. Check the air dryer for proper operation
and change the desiccant when needed.
2. Do thaw out frozen air lines and valves by placing the vehicle in a warmed building. This is the
only method for thawing that will not cause damage to the air system or its components.
3. Do use dummy hose couplings on the tractor and trailer.
4. Do check for sections of air line that could form water traps. Look for “drooping” lines.
Don’ts
1. Do not apply an open flame to air lines and valves. Beyond causing damage to the internal
nonmetallic parts of valves and melting or burning non-metallic air lines. WARNING: THIS
PRACTICE IS UNSAFE AND CAN RESULT IN VEHICLE FIRE!
2. Do not introduce (pour) fluids into air brake lines or hose couplings (“glad hands”). Some fluids
used can cause immediate and severe damage to rubber components. Even methanol alcohol,
which is used in Alcohol Evaporators and Injectors, should not be poured into air lines. Fluids
poured into the system wash lubricants out of valves, collect in brake chambers and valves and
can cause malfunction. Loss of lubricant can affect valve operating characteristics, accelerate
wear and cause premature replacement.
3. Do not park a vehicle outside after thawing its air system indoors. Condensation will form in the
system and freeze again. Place the vehicle in operation when it is removed to the outdoors.
Supporting Air and Electrical Lines
Make certain tie wraps are replaced and support brackets are re-assembled if removed during routine
maintenance. These items prevent the weight of ice and snow accumulations from breaking or
disconnecting air lines and wires.
Automatic Drain Valves (System without Air Dryer)
As we stated last year, routine reservoir draining is the most basic step (although not completely
effective) in reducing the possibility of freeze-up. While automatic drain valves relieve the operator of
draining reservoirs on a daily basis, these valves MUST be routinely checked for proper operation.
Don’t overlook them until they fail and a road call is required.
34
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36
BW1421 © 2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC All rights reserved. 9/2004 Printed in U.S.A.
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