Chassis Systems Control Second generation multi purpose camera
Chassis Systems Control Second generation multi purpose camera (MPC2) The second generation multi purpose camera (MPC2) allows vehicle manufacturers to integrate a wide range of driver assistance functions into their vehicles using only a single sensor — thereby enabling manufacturers to effectively and efficiently address the ever-increasing safety standards set by legislators and consumer protection organizations. Beginning in 2014, manufacturers striving to achieve the highest rating (five stars) under the Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Program) must equip new models with at least one driver assistance system, such as automatic emergency braking, lane keeping assistance or automatic speed limit recognition. The Customer benefits United States and Japan are also discussing the option of ▶Realization of multiple safety and comfort func- including similar criteria in their own national NCAP rules. tions, including pedestrian warning, forward collision warning, lane departure warning, lane Features and design keeping or lane guidance support, road sign The Bosch MPC2 offers manufacturers a scalable, monoc- assistant and intelligent headlight control ular camera platform for video-based driver assistance ▶Uniform in-house Bosch processes applied systems. All MPC2 variants are based on a scalable pro- throughout the development of hardware, image cessor concept, allowing the system to be optimally con- processing technology and functions, ensuring figured to the required level of functionality. This means that all components are optimally aligned that the Bosch architecture is consistent across the range, ▶Comprehensive portfolio of functions developed with standardized interfaces and functions. by Bosch ▶Can be combined with other sensors, in parti- The MPC2 imager module comprises the system optics cular with radar, to support emergency braking and includes a highly dynamic CMOS (complementary systems and adaptive cruise control metal oxide semiconductor) color imager with a resolu- ▶Meets NCAP safety standards tion of 1280 x 960 pixels. Thanks to its improved resolu- ▶Scalable hardware concept allows components tion, the new imager allows for a larger opening angle to be optimally configured to the required level than its predecessor, and a significantly increased object of functionality detection range, now extending to over 120 meters. ▶CAN, FlexRay and Ethernet interfaces for easy integration in the vehicle ▶AUTOSAR conformity enables integration of customer-specific object codes ▶Housing geometry can be adapted to fit the space available ▶Compact design enables installation in the crashprotected area of the interior rear-view mirror ▶Highly flexible power connector design The color imager allows the MPC2 to assess blue and red color information, improving the system’s ability to recognize and distinguish between colored lines and specific road signs. The multi purpose camera is installed behind the windshield near the interior rear-view mirror. Chassis Systems Control | Multi purpose camera (MPC2) Image processing algorithms Technical features Imager size Field of view Horizontal Vertical Resolution Frame rate Exposure dynamic Wavelength Current consumption Operating temperature Interfaces 1280 x 960 pixels 50° (nominal) 28° (nominal) 25 pixels/° 30 images/second 110 dB 400...750 nm <5.0 W (0.35 A at 14 V) -40 to +85°C (+105°C for CAN communication) 2x CAN or CAN+Ethernet Optional: FlexRay 2x digital in/out, windscreen heating At the heart of all advanced driver assistance functions are the intelligent and powerful image processing algorithms that Bosch has developed for application in the automotive industry. In order to ensure multi-functional operation in its systems, Bosch has designed and optimized these algorithms to deliver the best possible performance while minimizing the memory, runtime and hardware requirements. Object detection The MPC2 detects objects based on predefined object classes that the system has been trained to recognize, distinguishing between pedestrians, cyclists, motorcy- The electronics system inside the camera is comprised cles, cars and trucks. The detected objects are as of one scalable processing unit, which provides a signed attributes, such as distance, speed, lateral programmable logic (FPGA) and a dual core micro- position, angle and, if necessary, time to collision. The processor with CAN interface on a single chip. An detection range is dependent on the size of the object, additional processing unit can be added if necessary. extending to over 120 meters for the detection of This architecture uses parallel image processing in the vehicles and approximately 60 meters for the detection FPGA, which allows the system to analyze complex of pedestrians. The functional path for pedestrian driving situations within a very short space of time. detection has been developed in accordance with ISO standard 26262 for risk class ASIL A (Automotive The software architecture of the MPC2 is AUTOSAR- Safety Integrity Level A). compatible and allows the vehicle manufacturer to integrate its own functional modules alongside the Lane detection customer-specific functions offered by Bosch. The lane detection algorithm used in the MPC2 records and classifies all common lane markings up to The MPC2 features extensive internal and external a distance of approximately 60 meters ahead (or up to monitoring functions to detect any possible faults in 100 meters in excellent visibility conditions), whether the camera. It also detects if the camera lens is the road markings are continuous, broken, white, blocked or obscured. yellow, red or blue. The camera can even detect Botts’ dots (raised highway markers). The system not only Functionality detects the lateral line geometry, but also records the The MPC2 optics focuses incoming light onto a highly surface gradient in order to track upward and down- dynamic CMOS color imager. The sensor converts the ward slopes in the road. If no clear markings are brightness and color information into electrical image present, the system draws on secondary information, signals. These signals are then processed by a high- such as grass edges along the side of the road, to performance computer integrated into the camera determine how the driving lane continues. housing — without the need for a separate controller. The algorithm is capable of determining the lateral The system processes the image, recognizing, classify- position and the angle of the vehicle in the lane to an ing and locating a wide range of situational factors exceptional degree of accuracy, which is crucial for around the vehicle with a high level of accuracy and functions such as lane departure warning or lane reliability, including objects such as pedestrians, keeping/lane guidance support. Even if road markings vehicles, road markings, light sources and road signs. are temporarily removed or are not present on a particular stretch, the lane assistance functions that use the lane detection algorithm remain fully functional and ready to assist at any time. Chassis Systems Control | Multi purpose camera (MPC2) Light source detection Forward collision warning In addition to object detection, the MPC2 also recog- As part of a strategy to focus on accident prevention nizes and classifies individual, paired and clustered light technologies, one of the functions recommended by sources, at dawn or dusk and in darkness. The algo- US-NCAP is forward collision warning. If the system rithm measures the horizontal and vertical angular detects an impending rear-end collision with a vehicle position and the distance to the light sources, differenti- traveling ahead, it warns the driver via a visual, audible ating between headlights and tail lights in order to and/or haptic signal. The function does not intervene distinguish between oncoming vehicles or vehicles independently, but prompts the driver to brake. traveling ahead. It is also capable of detecting and classifying elements of the road infrastructure, such as Lane departure warning street lights and delineators. Using this data, in conjunc- The lane departure warning system compares the road tion with information regarding the ambient light markings to the vehicle’s position in its lane. If the conditions, the algorithm assesses whether the vehicle system detects that the driver is at risk of leaving the is traveling in an urban environment — deciding whether driving lane unintentionally at vehicles speeds of 60 or not the high beam headlights can be switched on. km/h (37 mph) and above, it issues a visual, audible and/or haptic signal, for example a steering wheel The headlights of oncoming vehicles are detected and vibration. These warnings alert the driver to the fact classified at a distance of up to 800 meters, and tail that the vehicle is drifting off course, allowing him/her lights of vehicles ahead can be detected from approxi- to countersteer accordingly with sufficient time to avoid mately 400 meters away. Capable of providing a wide any danger. When the driver activates the turn signal to range of intelligent lighting functions, the MPC2 meets intentionally change lanes or turn, the function does not all demands placed on modern headlight technology, issue a warning. including systems such as high beam control, adaptive high beam control and continuous high beam control. Lane keeping and lane guidance support If the system detects that the vehicle is traveling too Road sign recognition close to the lane marking at vehicle speeds of around The MPC2 detects and classifies round, triangular and 60 km/h (37 mph) and above, the system gently, but rectangular road signs, including the start and end noticeably, countersteers to keep the vehicle on course. points of stretches where speed limits are in force, or The driver can individually set the point at which the where passing is prohibited. It also recognizes “no steering intervention takes place and the strength at entry”, “stop”, “right of way” and “road works” signs. which it is applied — with options ranging from very Road sign recognition also classifies relevant supple- early but gentle intervention, up to a later but stronger mentary signs, such as time limits, signs applicable only countersteering effect. The system can intervene to specific vehicle types and turn arrows. The system directly via electrical steering, or indirectly by applying reliably detects road signs whether they are sited on the brakes on one side of the vehicle. A driver can actual signs, variable message systems or gantries, override the function at any time, allowing him or her to offering a high level of international coverage for a wide remain in control of the vehicle. When the driver range of different sign types. activates the turn signal to intentionally change lanes or turn, the function does not intervene. Applications and use The variants of the multi purpose camera allow manufacturers to integrate a wide range of functions that make driving safer and more comfortable. Pedestrian warning The system continually analyzes the area in front of the vehicle in order to detect impending collisions with pedestrians who are in the vehicle’s path or moving toward it in a way that is likely to present a risk. If the system recognizes any impending dangerous situation for pedestrians at vehicle speeds of up to 60 km/h (37 mph), it can warn the driver and, working in conjunction with a radar sensor, also trigger emergency braking. Chassis Systems Control | Multi purpose camera (MPC2) Road sign assistant Sensor data fusion The road sign assistant evaluates road sign recognition Data fusion combines the benefits of different sensors data and displays the information that is relevant for the and measuring principles in the most effective way driver in the instrument cluster. The road sign display possible, providing data that individual sensors working can be used to provide a range of warning functions, in isolation cannot generate. By fusing multiple sensors, including warning the driver before the speed limit is the measurement range, reliability and accuracy is exceeded, warning against passing on a stretch where increased. such maneuvers are prohibited, or letting the driver know when a “stop” sign or “no entry” sign has been The multi purpose camera is an integral part of a overlooked. Detected speed limits can also be used by surround sensor network, and can be used in conjunc- the ACC system, which can automatically adjust its set tion with other surround sensors, such as radar and speed to the speed limit in force on the road. To ultrasonic sensors. increase reliability and supplement the data used with information that cannot typically be detected by a For automatic emergency braking — which independent- camera, the system can also draw on data from the ly applies the brakes if the driver fails to react to an navigation system, for example, to distinguish between impending collision — Bosch fuses a radar sensor and urban and rural roadways or interpret text-based the multi purpose camera or alternatively uses a stereo supplementary signs, such as the validity period of video camera. Where fusion is applied, automatic full speed limits. deceleration is only triggered if both sensor systems detect the critical object. Intelligent headlight control Light source detection opens up a variety of lighting Sensor data fusion can be used to significantly improve functions that significantly improve visibility at dusk, the performance of comfort functions too. Thanks to dawn and in darkness — making driving safer and more the lateral measurement accuracy of the MPC2, the ACC comfortable. function is able, for example, to detect vehicles pulling in or out at an earlier stage, and therefore respond High beam control allows the driver to utilize high beam more dynamically. The system also ensures that vehicles lighting wherever possible to improve visibility when in front are assigned to the correct lanes, which further driving at night, without having to constantly switch it enhances ACC functionality, especially when driving on on and off manually. It activates the high beams when it a curve. detects that no other vehicles are in the vicinity, and if a vehicle is detected, it switches the high beam off again. In future generations of LED headlights, it will be possible to control the entire light distribution range in separate segments. This new technology means that the vehicle high beam is permanently activated for driving at night, which significantly improves visibility without blinding oncoming traffic. Adaptive high beam control not only controls the range or segmentation of the light, but also adapts the width of the illumination beam to the traffic conditions. As a result, bends can be illuminated in advance of the vehicle’s approach, and a wider light cone can be used to more effectively illuminate the edges of the road in urban areas, helping the driver to spot any potentially vulnerable pedestrians. Robert Bosch GmbH Chassis Systems Control Robert-Bosch-Allee 1 74232 Abstatt Germany www.bosch-automotivetechnology.com Printed in Germany 292000P0ZK-C/CCA-201307-En © Robert Bosch GmbH 2013. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of registration for industrial property rights.
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