Chassis Systems Control Second generation multi purpose camera

Chassis Systems Control Second generation multi purpose camera
Chassis Systems Control
Second generation
multi purpose camera (MPC2)
The second generation multi purpose camera (MPC2)
allows vehicle manufacturers to integrate a wide range of
driver assistance functions into their vehicles using only a
single sensor — thereby enabling manufacturers to effectively and efficiently address the ever-increasing safety
standards set by legislators and consumer protection
organizations. Beginning in 2014, manufacturers striving
to achieve the highest rating (five stars) under the Euro
NCAP (European New Car Assessment Program) must
equip new models with at least one driver assistance
system, such as automatic emergency braking, lane keeping assistance or automatic speed limit recognition. The
Customer benefits
United States and Japan are also discussing the option of
▶Realization of multiple safety and comfort func-
including similar criteria in their own national NCAP rules.
tions, including pedestrian warning, forward
collision warning, lane departure warning, lane
Features and design
keeping or lane guidance support, road sign
The Bosch MPC2 offers manufacturers a scalable, monoc-
assis­tant and intelligent headlight control
ular camera platform for video-based driver assistance
▶Uniform in-house Bosch processes applied
systems. All MPC2 variants are based on a scalable pro-
throughout the development of hardware, image
cessor concept, allowing the system to be optimally con-
processing technology and functions, ensuring
figured to the required level of functionality. This means
that all components are optimally aligned
that the Bosch architecture is consistent across the range,
▶Comprehensive portfolio of functions developed
with standardized interfaces and functions.
by Bosch
▶Can be combined with other sensors, in parti-
The MPC2 imager module comprises the system optics
cular with radar, to support emergency braking
and includes a highly dynamic CMOS (complementary
systems and adaptive cruise control
metal oxide semiconductor) color imager with a resolu-
▶Meets NCAP safety standards
tion of 1280 x 960 pixels. Thanks to its improved resolu-
▶Scalable hardware concept allows components
tion, the new imager allows for a larger opening angle
to be optimally configured to the required level
than its predecessor, and a significantly increased object
of functionality
detection range, now extending to over 120 meters.
▶CAN, FlexRay and Ethernet interfaces for easy
­integration in the vehicle
▶AUTOSAR conformity enables integration of
customer-specific object codes
▶Housing geometry can be adapted to fit the
space available
▶Compact design enables installation in the crashprotected area of the interior rear-view mirror
▶Highly flexible power connector design
The color imager allows the MPC2 to assess blue and red
color information, improving the system’s ability to recognize and distinguish between colored lines and specific
road signs. The multi purpose camera is installed behind
the windshield near the interior rear-view mirror.
Chassis Systems Control | Multi purpose camera (MPC2)
Image processing algorithms
Technical features
Imager size
Field of view
Horizontal Vertical Resolution
Frame rate
Exposure dynamic
Wavelength
Current consumption
Operating temperature
Interfaces
1280 x 960 pixels
50° (nominal)
28° (nominal)
25 pixels/°
30 images/second
110 dB
400...750 nm
<5.0 W (0.35 A at 14 V)
-40 to +85°C (+105°C for
CAN communication)
2x CAN or CAN+Ethernet
Optional: FlexRay
2x digital in/out, windscreen
heating
At the heart of all advanced driver assistance functions
are the intelligent and powerful image processing
algorithms that Bosch has developed for application in
the automotive industry. In order to ensure multi-functional operation in its systems, Bosch has designed
and optimized these algorithms to deliver the best
possible performance while minimizing the memory,
runtime and hardware requirements.
Object detection
The MPC2 detects objects based on predefined object
classes that the system has been trained to recognize,
distinguishing between pedestrians, cyclists, motorcy-
The electronics system inside the camera is comprised
cles, cars and trucks. The detected objects are as­
of one scalable processing unit, which provides a
signed attributes, such as distance, speed, lateral
programmable logic (FPGA) and a dual core micro-
position, angle and, if necessary, time to collision. The
processor with CAN interface on a single chip. An
detection range is dependent on the size of the object,
additional processing unit can be added if necessary.
extending to over 120 meters for the detection of
This architecture uses parallel image processing in the
vehicles and approximately 60 meters for the detection
FPGA, which allows the system to analyze complex
of pedestrians. The functional path for pedestrian
driving situations within a very short space of time.
detection has been developed in accordance with ISO
standard 26262 for risk class ASIL A (Automotive
The software architecture of the MPC2 is AUTOSAR-
Safety Integrity Level A).
compatible and allows the vehicle manufacturer to
integrate its own functional modules alongside the
Lane detection
customer-specific functions offered by Bosch.
The lane detection algorithm used in the MPC2
records and classifies all common lane markings up to
The MPC2 features extensive internal and external
a distance of approximately 60 meters ahead (or up to
monitoring functions to detect any possible faults in
100 meters in excellent visibility conditions), whether
the camera. It also detects if the camera lens is
the road markings are continuous, broken, white,
blocked or obscured.
yellow, red or blue. The camera can even detect Botts’
dots (raised highway markers). The system not only
Functionality
detects the lateral line geometry, but also records the
The MPC2 optics focuses incoming light onto a highly
surface gradient in order to track upward and down-
dynamic CMOS color imager. The sensor converts the
ward slopes in the road. If no clear markings are
brightness and color information into electrical image
present, the system draws on secondary information,
signals. These signals are then processed by a high-
such as grass edges along the side of the road, to
performance computer integrated into the camera
determine how the driving lane continues.
housing — without the need for a separate controller.
The algorithm is capable of determining the lateral
The system processes the image, recognizing, classify-
position and the angle of the vehicle in the lane to an
ing and locating a wide range of situational factors
exceptional degree of accuracy, which is crucial for
around the vehicle with a high level of accuracy and
functions such as lane departure warning or lane
reliability, including objects such as pedestrians,
keeping/lane guidance support. Even if road markings
vehicles, road markings, light sources and road signs.
are temporarily removed or are not present on a
particular stretch, the lane assistance functions that
use the lane detection algorithm remain fully functional
and ready to assist at any time.
Chassis Systems Control | Multi purpose camera (MPC2)
Light source detection
Forward collision warning
In addition to object detection, the MPC2 also recog-
As part of a strategy to focus on accident prevention
nizes and classifies individual, paired and clustered light
technologies, one of the functions recommended by
sources, at dawn or dusk and in darkness. The algo-
US-NCAP is forward collision warning. If the system
rithm measures the horizontal and vertical angular
detects an impending rear-end collision with a vehicle
position and the distance to the light sources, differenti-
traveling ahead, it warns the driver via a visual, audible
ating between headlights and tail lights in order to
and/or haptic signal. The function does not intervene
distinguish between oncoming vehicles or vehicles
independently, but prompts the driver to brake.
traveling ahead. It is also capable of detecting and
classifying elements of the road infrastructure, such as
Lane departure warning
street lights and delineators. Using this data, in conjunc-
The lane departure warning system compares the road
tion with information regarding the ambient light
markings to the vehicle’s position in its lane. If the
conditions, the algorithm assesses whether the vehicle
system detects that the driver is at risk of leaving the
is traveling in an urban environment — deciding whether
driving lane unintentionally at vehicles speeds of 60
or not the high beam headlights can be switched on.
km/h (37 mph) and above, it issues a visual, audible
and/or haptic signal, for example a steering wheel
The headlights of oncoming vehicles are detected and
vibration. These warnings alert the driver to the fact
classified at a distance of up to 800 meters, and tail
that the vehicle is drifting off course, allowing him/her
lights of vehicles ahead can be detected from approxi-
to countersteer accordingly with sufficient time to avoid
mately 400 meters away. Capable of providing a wide
any danger. When the driver activates the turn signal to
range of intelligent lighting functions, the MPC2 meets
intentionally change lanes or turn, the function does not
all demands placed on modern headlight technology,
issue a warning.
including systems such as high beam control, adaptive
high beam control and continuous high beam control.
Lane keeping and lane guidance support
If the system detects that the vehicle is traveling too
Road sign recognition
close to the lane marking at vehicle speeds of around
The MPC2 detects and classifies round, triangular and
60 km/h (37 mph) and above, the system gently, but
rectangular road signs, including the start and end
noticeably, countersteers to keep the vehicle on course.
points of stretches where speed limits are in force, or
The driver can individually set the point at which the
where passing is prohibited. It also recognizes “no
steering intervention takes place and the strength at
entry”, “stop”, “right of way” and “road works” signs.
which it is applied — with options ranging from very
Road sign recognition also classifies relevant supple-
early but gentle intervention, up to a later but stronger
mentary signs, such as time limits, signs applicable only
countersteering effect. The system can intervene
to specific vehicle types and turn arrows. The system
directly via electrical steering, or indirectly by applying
reliably detects road signs whether they are sited on
the brakes on one side of the vehicle. A driver can
actual signs, variable message systems or gantries,
override the function at any time, allowing him or her to
offering a high level of international coverage for a wide
remain in control of the vehicle. When the driver
range of different sign types.
activates the turn signal to intentionally change lanes or
turn, the function does not intervene.
Applications and use
The variants of the multi purpose camera allow manufacturers to integrate a wide range of functions that
make driving safer and more comfortable.
Pedestrian warning
The system continually analyzes the area in front of
the vehicle in order to detect impending collisions with
pedestrians who are in the vehicle’s path or moving
toward it in a way that is likely to present a risk. If the
system recognizes any impending dangerous situation
for pedestrians at vehicle speeds of up to 60 km/h
(37 mph), it can warn the driver and, working in
conjunction with a radar sensor, also trigger emergency
braking.
Chassis Systems Control | Multi purpose camera (MPC2)
Road sign assistant
Sensor data fusion
The road sign assistant evaluates road sign recognition
Data fusion combines the benefits of different sensors
data and displays the information that is relevant for the
and measuring principles in the most effective way
driver in the instrument cluster. The road sign display
possible, providing data that individual sensors working
can be used to provide a range of warning functions,
in isolation cannot generate. By fusing multiple sensors,
including warning the driver before the speed limit is
the measurement range, reliability and accuracy is
exceeded, warning against passing on a stretch where
increased.
such maneuvers are prohibited, or letting the driver
know when a “stop” sign or “no entry” sign has been
The multi purpose camera is an integral part of a
overlooked. Detected speed limits can also be used by
surround sensor network, and can be used in conjunc-
the ACC system, which can automatically adjust its set
tion with other surround sensors, such as radar and
speed to the speed limit in force on the road. To
ultrasonic sensors.
increase reliability and supplement the data used with
information that cannot typically be detected by a
For automatic emergency braking — which independent-
camera, the system can also draw on data from the
ly applies the brakes if the driver fails to react to an
navigation system, for example, to distinguish between
impending collision — Bosch fuses a radar sensor and
urban and rural roadways or interpret text-based
the multi purpose camera or alternatively uses a stereo
supplementary signs, such as the validity period of
video camera. Where fusion is applied, automatic full
speed limits.
deceleration is only triggered if both sensor systems
detect the critical object.
Intelligent headlight control
Light source detection opens up a variety of lighting
Sensor data fusion can be used to significantly improve
functions that significantly improve visibility at dusk,
the performance of comfort functions too. Thanks to
dawn and in darkness — making driving safer and more
the lateral measurement accuracy of the MPC2, the ACC
comfortable.
function is able, for example, to detect vehicles pulling
in or out at an earlier stage, and therefore respond
High beam control allows the driver to utilize high beam
more dynamically. The system also ensures that vehicles
lighting wherever possible to improve visibility when
in front are assigned to the correct lanes, which further
driving at night, without having to constantly switch it
enhances ACC functionality, especially when driving on
on and off manually. It activates the high beams when it
a curve.
detects that no other vehicles are in the vicinity, and if a
vehicle is detected, it switches the high beam off again.
In future generations of LED headlights, it will be
possible to control the entire light distribution range in
separate segments. This new technology means that the
vehicle high beam is permanently activated for driving
at night, which significantly improves visibility without
blinding oncoming traffic.
Adaptive high beam control not only controls the range
or segmentation of the light, but also adapts the width
of the illumination beam to the traffic conditions. As a
result, bends can be illuminated in advance of the
vehicle’s approach, and a wider light cone can be used
to more effectively illuminate the edges of the road in
urban areas, helping the driver to spot any potentially
vulnerable pedestrians.
Robert Bosch GmbH
Chassis Systems Control
Robert-Bosch-Allee 1
74232 Abstatt
Germany
www.bosch-automotivetechnology.com
Printed in Germany
292000P0ZK-C/CCA-201307-En
© Robert Bosch GmbH 2013. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation,
reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of registration for industrial property rights.
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