BENDIX SD-01-700 User manual

BENDIX SD-01-700 User manual
SD-01-700
BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR
DESCRIPTION
The function of the air compressor is to provide and
maintain air under pressure to operate devices in the
air brake systems. The Bendix® BA-922® compressor
is a two cylinder, reciprocating compressor with a rated
displacement of 31.6 cubic feet per minute at 1250 RPM.
The compressor consists of a water-cooled cylinder head,
cooling plate, valve plate assembly, and an integral air
cooled crankcase and cylinder block. The cast aluminum
cylinder head contains the required air and water ports as
well as two unloader pistons. The cast aluminum cooling
plate provides added cooling and is located between
the cylinder head and valve plate assemblies. The valve
plate assembly consists of laminated, brazed steel plates
which incorporate various valve openings and channels
for conducting air and engine coolant into and out of the
cylinder head.
The discharge valves are part of the valve plate assembly.
The cylinder head, with the cooling and valve plates,
comprise a complete cylinder head assembly.
The cast iron crankcase and cylinder block assembly
houses the pistons, connecting rods, crankshaft and related
bearings.
While not all compressors and charging systems are
equipped with an optional discharge line safety valve, this
component is recommended. The discharge line safety
valve is installed in the cylinder head – or close to the
compressor discharge port – and protects against over
pressurizing the compressor in the event of a discharge
line freeze up or blockage.
OPERATION
Safety
Valve
Cylinder
Head
Valve Plate
Assembly
Crankcase and
Cylinder Block
FIGURE 1 - BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR
Delivery
Port
Air
Intake
Unloader (2)
Unloader
Port
Discharge
Reed
Valves
Cooling
Plate
Piston
The compressor is driven by the vehicle engine and
functions continuously while the engine is in operation.
Actual compression of air is controlled by the compressor
unloading mechanism operating in conjunction with a
governor.
Crankshaft
Piston Rod
FIGURE 2 - BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR (CUT-AWAY)
Caterpillar®
Detroit
Diesel®
FIGURE 3 - TYPICAL COMPRESSOR DRIVE FLANGES
AIR INTAKE (LOADED)
During the piston down stroke, a vacuum is created in
the cylinder bore above the piston. The vacuum causes
the inlet reed valve to flex open. Atmospheric air flows
through the open inlet valve and fills the cylinder bore
above the piston.
Detroit
Diesel®
John
Deere®
cavity and into the other cylinder. A small amount of air
moves out of the inlet port. On the piston down stroke (TDC
to BDC), air flows in the reverse direction; from the other
cylinder through the unloader piston to the inlet cavity, past
the unseated unloader piston and into the cylinder bore.
Governor
Unloader Port
Air Dryer
AIR COMPRESSION (LOADED)
When the piston reaches approximately bottom dead center
(BDC), the inlet reed valve closes. Air above the piston is
trapped by the closed inlet reed valve and is compressed
as the piston begins to move toward top dead center
(TDC). When air in the cylinder bore reaches a pressure
greater than that of the system pressure, the discharge
reed valves open and air flows into the discharge line and
air brake system.
Reservoir
Port
Compressor
Supply Reservoir
FIGURE 4 - BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR UNLOADER
SYSTEM
Air, during the compression stroke, flows into the hollow
center of the unloader piston through an opening in the end
of the piston. Compressed air acts on the interior surfaces
of the unloader piston and, along with the unloader piston
spring, holds the unloader piston against its seat on the
valve plate. See Figure 6.
Air
Discharge
Port
NON-COMPRESSION OF AIR (UNLOADED)
Cooling
Plate
When air pressure in the supply reservoir reaches the
cut-out setting of the governor, the governor delivers
system air to the compressor unloader port. Air entering
the unloader port acts on the unloader piston, causing it
to move away from its seat on the valve plate assembly.
When the unloader piston is unseated a passage is opened
between the cylinder bore, the air inlet cavity in the cylinder
head, and the other cylinder. Air compression ceases.
See Figure 7.
As the piston moves from bottom dead center (BDC) to
top dead center (TDC), air in the cylinder bore flows past
the unseated unloader piston, into the cylinder head inlet
2
Air Inlet
Port
Discharge
Valve
Closed
Valve
Plate
Unloader
Port
Unloader
Piston
Down &
Seated
Inlet
Valve
Open
Piston Moving Down
FIGURE 5 - OPERATION - LOADED (INTAKE)
COOLING
Air
Discharge
Port
Air Inlet
Port
Discharge
Valve
Open
Unloader
Port
Valve
Plate
Unloader
Piston
Down &
Seated
Inlet
Valve
Closed
Piston Moving Up
FIGURE 6 - OPERATION - LOADED (COMPRESSION)
LUBRICATION
The vehicle's engine provides a continuous supply of oil
to the compressor. Oil is routed from the engine to the
compressor oil inlet. An oil passage in the crankshaft
conducts pressurized oil to precision sleeve main bearings
and to the connecting rod bearings. Spray lubrication of
the cylinder bores, connecting rod wrist pin bushings, and
ball-type main bearings is obtained as oil is forced out
around the crankshaft journals by engine oil pressure.
Oil then falls to the bottom of the compressor crankcase
and is returned to the engine through drain holes in the
compressor mounting flange.
Unloader Piston
Up & Unseated
Air flowing through the engine compartment – from the
action of the engine fan and the movement of the vehicle
– assists in cooling the compressor. Cooling fins are part
of the crankcase/cylinder block casting. Coolant flowing
from the engine cooling system through connecting lines
enters the head and passes through internal passages in
the cylinder head and valve plate assembly and is returned
to the engine. Proper cooling is important in minimizing
discharge air temperatures. Figure 8 illustrates the coolant
flow connections. See the tabulated technical data in the
back of this manual for specific requirements.
PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most
important factor in maintaining the air brake charging
system. Refer to Table A in the Troubleshooting section
for a guide to various considerations that must be given to
maintenance of the compressor and other related charging
system components.
Important Note: Review the warranty policy before
performing any intrusive maintenance procedures. An
extended warranty may be voided if intrusive maintenance
is performed during this period.
EVERY 6 MONTHS, 1800 OPERATING HOURS,
OR AFTER EACH 50,000 MILES – WHICHEVER
OCCURS FIRST – PERFORM THE FOLLOWING
INSPECTIONS AND TESTS.
AIR INDUCTION
Bendix® BA-922® compressors are only permitted to be
naturally aspirated: use of the engine turbocharger as an
air source is not allowed.
Air Inlet Port
Air From
Governor
Unloader
Port
Valve
Plate
Unloader
Piston
Up &
Unseated
Air in Pistons Mostly Shuttles Back
and Forth from One Piston to the
Other During Unloaded Mode
FIGURE 7 - OPERATION - UNLOADED
3
A supply of clean air is one of the single most important
factors in compressor preventative maintenance. Since
the Bendix® BA-922® compressor receives supply air from
the engine air filter, periodic maintenance of the engine air
filter is necessary.
Head
Bolt (6)
Discharge
Safety Valve
Unloader
Covers
Coolant In or
Out
Inspect the compressor intake adapter, and the connecting
hoses each time engine air cleaner maintenance is
performed.
1. Inspect the intake hose adapters for physical damage.
Make certain to check the adapters at both ends of the
intake hose or tubing.
2. Inspect the intake hose clamps and tighten them if
needed.
3. Inspect the intake hose or line for signs of drying,
cracking, chafing and ruptures, and replace it as
necessary.
COMPRESSOR COOLING
Inspect the compressor discharge port, inlet cavity, and
discharge line for evidence of restrictions and carbon
build-up. If more than 1/16" of carbon is found, thoroughly
clean or replace the affected parts. Since carbon build-up
generally indicates inadequate cooling, closely inspect the
compressor cooling system. Check all compressor coolant
lines for kinks and restrictions to flow. Minimum coolant
line size is 3/8" I.D. Check coolant lines for internal clogging
from rust scale. If coolant lines appear suspicious, check
the coolant flow and compare to the tabulated technical
data in the back of this manual. Carefully inspect the air
induction system for restrictions.
LUBRICATION
Check the external oil supply line for kinks, bends, or
restrictions to flow. Supply lines must be a minimum of 3/16"
I.D. Refer to the tabulated technical data in this manual
(page 10) for oil pressure minimum values.
Check the exterior of the compressor for the presence of
oil seepage and refer to the TROUBLESHOOTING section
(page 11) for appropriate tests and corrective action.
OIL PASSING
All reciprocating compressors pass a minimal amount of
oil. Air dyers will remove the majority of oil before it can
enter the air brake system. For particularly oil sensitive
systems, the Bendix® PuraGuard® system filter can be used
in conjunction with a Bendix air dryer.
If compressor oil passing is suspected, refer to the
TROUBLESHOOTING section and TABLE A (page 13) for
the symptoms and corrective action to be taken. In addition,
Bendix has developed the “Bendix Air System Inspection
Cup” or BASIC kit to help substantiate suspected excessive
oil passing. The steps to be followed when using the
4
Inlet Port
Coolant In or Out
Discharge
Port
Governor
Connection
CYLINDER HEAD PORT IDENTIFICATION
The cylinder head connection ports are identified with cast
in numerals as follows:
Atmospheric AIR IN
0
Compressed AIR OUT
21
Coolant IN or OUT
91 and 92
Governor Control
41
(Compressors with no signal line to the unloader port should
have a vent installed in the port rather than a plug.)
FIGURE 8 - TYPICAL BA-922® COMPRESSOR CYLINDER
HEAD
BASIC kit are presented in APPENDIX A at the end of the
TROUBLESHOOTING section.
COMPRESSOR DRIVE
Check for noisy compressor operation, which could indicate
excessive drive component wear. Adjust and/or replace
as necessary. Check all compressor mounting bolts and
retighten evenly if necessary. Check for leakage and
proper unloader mechanism operation. Repair or replace
parts as necessary.
COMPRESSOR UNLOADER & GOVERNOR
Test and inspect the compressor and governor unloader
system for proper operation and pressure setting.
1. Check for leakage at the unloader port. Replace leaking
or worn o-ring.
2. Make certain the unloader system lines are connected
as illustrated in Figure 3.
3. Cycle the compressor through the loaded and unloaded
cycle several times. Make certain that the governor cuts
in (compressor resumes compressing air) at a minimum
of 105 psi (cut-out should be approximately 15-20 psi
greater than cut-in pressure). Adjust or replace the
governor as required.
4. Note that the compressor cycles to the loaded and
unloaded conditions promptly. If prompt action is not
noted, repair or replace the governor and/or repair the
compressor unloader.
IMPORTANT NOTE
Replacement air governors must have a minimum
cut-in pressure of 105 psi. The cut-in pressure is the
lowest system pressure registered in the gauges before
the compressor resumes compressing air.
Note: When comparing build-up times, be sure to make
an allowance for any air system modifications which could
cause longer times, such as adding air components or
reservoirs. Always check for air system leakage.
Compressors with no signal line to the unloader port
should have a vent installed in the port rather than a
plug.
See the standard Air Brake System and Accessory Leakage
test on Page 24 (Test 2).
LEAKAGE TESTS
The following compressor operating and leakage tests
need not be performed on a regular basis. These tests
should be performed when it is suspected that leakage is
substantially affecting compressor buildup performance,
or when it is suspected that the compressor is “cycling”
between the load and unloaded modes due to unloader
plunger leakage.
Note: Leakage in the air supply system (components
before the supply reservoir - such as the governor, air dryer,
reservoir drain cocks, safety valve and check valves) will
not be registered on the vehicle dash gauges and must
be tested separately. Refer to the various maintenance
manuals for individual component leakage tests, and the
Bendix “Test and Checklist” published in the Air Brake
System Handbook (BW5057) and on the back of the Dual
Circuit Brake System Troubleshooting card (BW1396).
IN-SERVICE OPERATING TESTS
Cylinder Head
Compressor Performance: Build-up Test
Check for cylinder head gasket air leakage.
This test is performed with the vehicle parked and the
engine operating at maximum recommended governed
speed. Fully charge the air system to governor cut-out (air
dryer purges). Pump the service brake pedal to lower the
system air pressure below 80 psi using the dash gauges.
As the air pressure builds back up, time from when the
dash air pressure gauge passes 85 to the time it passes
100 psi. The time should not exceed 40 seconds. If the
vehicle exceeds 40 seconds, test for (and fix) any air leaks
and then re-test the compressor performance. If the vehicle
does not pass the test the second time, use the Advanced
Troubleshooting Guide for Air Brake Compressors – starting
on page 11 of this document – to assist your investigation
of the cause(s).
1. With the engine running, lower air system pressure to
60 psi and apply a soap solution around the cylinder
head. Check the gasket between the cylinder head
and valve plate assembly and the reed valve/gasket
between the valve plate assembly and cylinder block
for air leakage.
SERVICE TESTS: GENERAL
Note: All new vehicles are certified using the FMVSS
121 test (paragraph S5.1.1) by the vehicle manufacturer,
however the above test is a useful guide for in-service
vehicles.
Optional Comparative Performance Check
It may be useful to also conduct the above test with the
engine running at high idle (instead of maximum governed
speed), and record the time taken to raise the system
pressure a selected range (for example, from 90 to 120
psi, or from 100 to 120 psi, etc.) and record it in the
vehicle’s maintenance files. Subsequent build-up times
throughout the vehicle’s service life can then be compared
to the first one recorded. (Note: the 40 second guide in
the test above does not apply to this build-up time.) If the
performance degrades significantly over time, you may
use the Advanced Troubleshooting Guide for Air Brake
Compressors, starting on page 11 of this document, to
assist your investigation of the cause(s).
2. No leakage is permitted. If leakage is detected, replace
the compressor or repair the cylinder head using a
genuine Bendix maintenance kit available from an
authorized Bendix parts outlets.
Inlet, Discharge & Unloader
In order to test the inlet and discharge valves and the
unloader piston, it is necessary to have shop air pressure
and an assortment of fittings. A soap solution is also
required.
1. With the engine shut off, drain ALL air pressure from
the vehicle.
2. Disconnect the inlet and discharge lines and remove
the governor or its line or adapter fitting.
3. Apply 120-130 psi shop air pressure to the unloader
port and soap the inlet port. Leakage at the inlet port
should not exceed 50 sccm.
4. Apply 120-130 psi shop air pressure to the discharge
port and then apply and release air pressure to the inlet
port. Soap the inlet port and note that leakage at the
inlet port does not exceed 20 sccm.
If excessive leakage is noted in tests 3 or 4, replace or
repair the compressor using genuine Bendix® replacements
or maintenance kits available from any authorized Bendix
parts outlet.
5
While it is possible to test for inlet, discharge, and unloader
piston leakage, it may not be practical to do so. Inlet and
discharge valve leakage can generally be detected by
longer compressor build-up and recovery times. Compare
current compressor build-up times with the last several
recorded times. Make certain to test for air system leakage,
as described above, before making a determination that
compressor performance has been lost.
2.
Unloader leakage is exhibited by excessive compressor
cycling between the loaded and unloaded condition.
1. With service and supply system leakage below the
maximum allowable limits and the vehicle parked,
bring system pressure to governor cut-out and allow
the engine to idle.
2. The compressor should remain unloaded for a minimum
of 5-10 minutes. If compressor cycling occurs more
frequently, and service and supply system leakage is
within tolerance (including any leakage that may be
present at the air dryer exhaust), replace or repair the
compressor unloader system using a genuine Bendix
maintenance kit available from authorized Bendix parts
outlets.
COMPRESSOR REMOVAL & DISASSEMBLY
3.
4.
5.
GENERAL
The following disassembly and assembly procedure is
presented for reference purposes and presupposes that
a rebuild or repair of the compressor is being undertaken.
Several maintenance kits are available. The instructions
provided with these parts and kits should be followed in
lieu of the instructions presented here.
MAINTENANCE KITS & SERVICE PARTS
6.
7.
8.
safety glasses. Where specifically directed, the
parking brakes may have to be released, and/or
spring brakes caged, and this will require that the
vehicle be prevented from moving by other means
for the duration of these tests/procedures.
Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When working
in the engine compartment, the engine should be
shut off and the ignition key should be removed.
Where circumstances require that the engine be in
operation, EXTREME CAUTION should be used to
prevent personal injury resulting from contact with
moving, rotating, leaking, heated or electrically
charged components.
Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble
or assemble a component until you have read
and thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s
air brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized air
systems, make certain to drain the air pressure from
all reservoirs before beginning ANY work on the
vehicle. If the vehicle is equipped with a Bendix®
AD-IS® air dryer system or a dryer reservoir module,
be sure to drain the purge reservoir.
Following the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended
procedures, deactivate the electrical system in a
manner that safely removes all electrical power from
the vehicle.
Never exceed manufacturer ’s recommended
pressures.
Never connect or disconnect a hose or line containing
pressure; it may whip. Never remove a component
or plug unless you are certain all system pressure
has been depleted.
Use only genuine Bendix® brand replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment and
be designed specifically for such applications and
systems.
Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired. Do
not attempt repairs requiring machining or welding
unless specifically stated and approved by the
vehicle and component manufacturer.
Cylinder Head Gasket Kit ........................................ 5014472
Unloader Kit ............................................................. 5014473
Governor Adapter Kit ............................................... 5008561
Compressor Seal Kit (crankcase) ............................ 5008559
CAT MD Seal Kit ...................................................... 5012367
CAT HD Seal Kit ...................................................... 5012369
Series 60 Seal Kit .................................................... 5012371
ST-4 Discharge Safety Valve (7/8"-14 thrd.) ...............801116
ST-4 Discharge Safety Valve (M16-1.5 thrd.) ............ 800534
9.
All components shown in Figure 10 with a key number are
available in kits and/or as individual service parts.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make certain
all components and systems are restored to their
proper operating condition.
GENERAL SAFETY GUIDELINES
11. For vehicles with Automatic Traction Control (ATC),
the ATC function must be disabled (ATC indicator
lamp should be ON) prior to performing any vehicle
maintenance where one or more wheels on a drive
axle are lifted off the ground and moving.
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS TO AVOID PERSONAL
INJURY OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following
general precautions should be observed at all times:
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the parking
brakes, and always block the wheels. Always wear
6
REMOVAL
In many instances it may not be necessary to remove the
compressor from the vehicle when installing the various
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
8
9
Cylinder
Head
11
Cooling
Plate
11
Valve
Plate
Assembly
12
Crankcase
&
Cylinder
Block
13
14
Item
1
21
31
41
51
Qty.
2
1
1
1
1
Description
Unloader Cover Cap Screw
Unloader Cover
Unloader Cap Gasket
Unloader Balance Piston
Spring
Crankcase
Cover
Item
61
71
81
91
10
Qty.
1
1
1
1
1
Description
O-Ring
O-Ring
Unloader Piston
O-Ring
ST-4™ Safety Valve
End Cover
Item
11
12
13
14
Qty
22
12
13
13
Description
Head Gasket
Inlet Reed Valve/Gasket
O-Ring
Bottom Cover Gasket
Notes: 1. Contained in Unloader Kit 5014473
2. Contained in Cylinder Head Gasket Kit 5014472
3. Contained in Seal Kits 5008559, 5008561, 5008557 & 5008558
FIGURE 9 - BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR EXPLODED VIEW OF SERVICEABLE PARTS
maintenance kits and service parts. The maintenance
technician must assess the installation and determine the
correct course of action.
These instructions are general and are intended to be a guide.
In some cases additional preparations and precautions are
necessary. In all cases follow the instructions contained in
the vehicle maintenance manual in lieu of the instructions,
precautions and procedures presented in this manual.
1. Block the wheels of the vehicle and drain the air
pressure from all the reservoirs in the system.
2. Drain the engine cooling system and the cylinder
head of the compressor. Identify and disconnect all
air, water and oil lines leading to the compressor.
3. Remove as much road dirt and grease from the
exterior of the compressor as possible.
7
4. Remove the discharge and inlet fittings, if applicable, and
note their position on the compressor to aid in reassembly.
Note: If a cylinder head maintenance kit is being installed,
stop here and proceed to PREPARATION FOR
DISASSEMBLY. If replacing the compressor
continue.
5. Remove any supporting bracketing attached to the
compressor and note their positions on the compressor
to aid in reassembly.
6. Remove the flange mounting bolts and remove the
compressor from the vehicle.
7. Inspect gear and associated drive parts for visible wear
or damage. Since these parts are precision fitted,
they must be replaced if they are worn or damaged. If
replacing the compressor or replacing the drive gear,
remove the drive gear from the compressor crankshaft
using a gear puller.
8. If the compressor is being replaced stop here and
proceed to "Installing The Compressor" at the end of
the assembly procedure.
PREPARATION FOR DISASSEMBLY
6. Remove the two bolts located in the center of the head.
Gently tap the head, cooling plate and valve plate
assembly with a soft mallet to break the gasket seal.
Lift the cylinder head with cooling plate and valve plate
assembly off the cylinder block.
7. Remove the metal reed valve/gasket (12).
8. Gently tap the head, cooling plate and valve plate
assembly with a soft mallet to break the gasket seals.
Then separate the cylinder head from the cooling plate
and valve plate assembly and remove the gasket (11)
between them.
9. Turn the aluminum cylinder head over to expose the
interior portion of the head. Push the unloader piston
(7) along with its o-rings (6, 8 & 9) out of the cylinder
head.
CRANKCASE COVER
1. Remove the four crankcase cover cap screws securing
the crankcase cover to the crankcase. Using a soft
mallet, gently tap the crankcase cover to break the
gasket seal. Remove the crankcase cover gasket
(14).
Remove the balance of road dirt and grease from the
exterior of the compressor with a cleaning solvent. Mark
the rear end cover or end cover adapter in relation to
the crankcase. It is recommended, but not specifically
necessary, to mark the relationships of the cylinder head,
cooling plate, valve plate assembly, crankcase and cylinder
block assembly.
REAR END COVER OR END COVER ADAPTER
A convenient method to indicate the above relationships
is to use a metal scribe to mark the parts with numbers or
lines. Do not use marking methods such as chalk that can
be wiped off or obliterated during rebuilding.
CLEANING OF PARTS
Prior to disassembly make certain that the appropriate kits
and/or replacement parts are available. Refer to Figure 9
during the entire disassembly and assembly procedure.
CYLINDER HEAD
1. Remove the discharge safety valve (10) from the
cylinder head.
2. To restrain the spring force exerted by balance piston
spring (5), hold the unloader cover (2) in place while
removing the two unloader cover cap screws (1).
Carefully release the hold on the unloader cover until
the spring force is relaxed, then remove the unloader
cover (2).
3. Remove the unloader cover gasket (3).
4. Remove the balance piston (4) and its spring (5) from
the cylinder head.
5. Remove the six hex head bolts and washers from the
cylinder head.
8
1. Remove the four end cover cap screws that secure
the rear end cover or end cover adapter to the
crankcase.
2. Remove the rear end cover or end cover adapter from
the crankcase. Remove the o-ring seal (13) from the
end cover.
GENERAL
All parts should be cleaned in a good commercial grade of
solvent and dried prior to inspection.
CYLINDER HEAD
1. Carefully remove all gasket material adhering to the
aluminum cylinder head, steel valve plate assembly
and cast iron cylinder block. Make certain not to deeply
scratch or mar the gasket surfaces. Pay particular
attention to the gasket surfaces of the aluminum
head.
2. Remove carbon deposits from the discharge and inlet
cavities of the cylinder head and valve plate assembly.
They must be open and clear in both assemblies. Make
certain not to damage the aluminum head.
3. Remove rust and scale from the cooling cavities and
passages in the head and valve plate assembly and
use shop air to clear debris from the passages.
4. Check the threads in all cylinder head ports for galling.
Minor chasing is permitted.
5. Make certain the unloader vent passage under the
unloader cover (2) in the head is open and free of
debris.
INSPECTION OF PARTS
CYLINDER HEAD & VALVE PLATE
1. Carefully inspect the cylinder head gasket surfaces for
deep gouges and nicks. If detected, the compressor
must be replaced.
2. Carefully inspect the valve plate assembly gasket
surfaces for deep gouges and nicks. Pay particular
attention to the metal gasket surface. A metal gasket
(12) is used between the valve plate assembly and
the cylinder block. This surface must be smooth and
free of all but the most minor scratching. If excessive
marring or gouging is detected, the compressor must
be replaced.
3. Inspect the cylinder head for cracks or damage. With the
cylinder head and head gasket secured to the valve plate
assembly, apply shop air pressure to one of the coolant
ports with all others plugged, and check for leakage by
applying a soap solution to the exterior of the head. If
leakage is detected in the cylinder head casting, replace the
compressor.
END COVER OR END COVER ADAPTER
Check for cracks and external damage. Check the
crankshaft main bearing surface in the end cover or end
cover adapter, check for excessive wear and flat spots and
replace the end cover if necessary. Check for galling of
the oil port threads and replace the end cover or end cover
adapter if necessary. Minor thread chasing is permitted but
do not “recut” the threads if they are badly damaged.
CYLINDER BLOCK
1. Check the cylinder head gasket surface on the cylinder
block for nicks, gouges, and marring. A metal gasket
is used to seal the cylinder head to the cylinder block.
This surface must be smooth and free of all but the most
minor scratching. If excessive marring or gouging is
detected, the compressor must be replaced.
DISCHARGE LINE
1. Inspect the discharge line for kinks, damage, or carbon
deposits. Replace as necessary. See the advanced
troubleshooting guide for more information.
ASSEMBLY
General Note: All torques specified in this manual are
assembly torques and typically can be expected to fall off
after assembly is accomplished. Do not re-torque after
initial assembly torques fall unless instructed otherwise.
A compiled listing of torque specifications is presented on
page 11 of this manual.
INCH POUNDS TO FOOT POUNDS
To convert inch pounds to foot pounds of torque, divide
inch pounds by 12.
12 Inch Pounds = 1 Foot Pound
Example:
12
FOOT POUNDS TO INCH POUNDS
To convert foot pounds to inch pounds of torque, multiply
foot pounds by 12.
Example:
1 Foot Pound x 12 = 12 Inch Pounds
CRANKCASE COVER
1. Position the crankcase cover gasket (14) on either the
crankcase or crankcase cover and install the crankcase
cover on the crankcase using the four cap screws.
"Snug" the four cap screws then torque to 62-71 inch
pounds (7-8 Nm) using a crossing pattern.
CRANKCASE END COVER OR ADAPTER
1. Install the end cover o-ring (13) on the crankcase end
cover.
2. Orient the crankcase end cover or end cover adapter to
the crankcase using the reference marks made during
disassembly. Carefully install the end cover or end
cover adapter in the crankcase making certain not to
damage the crankshaft bearing surface in it.
3. Install the four end cover screws or studs. "Snug" the
screws then tighten to 195 to 213 inch pounds (22-24
Nm) using a crossing pattern.
CYLINDER HEAD
1. Note the position of the protruding alignment pins on the
cylinder block. Install the metal inlet reed valve/gasket
(12) over the alignment pins on the cylinder block.
2. Position the valve plate assembly on the cylinder block
so that the alignment pins in the cylinder block fit into
the corresponding holes in the valve plate assembly.
3. Position and install one of the metal gaskets (11) over
the alignment bushings protruding from the valve plate
assembly. When properly installed, the outline of the
gasket matches the outline of the valve plate.
4. Install the cooling plate over the alignment bushings
protruding from the valve plate assembly. Again, when
properly installed, the outline of the cooling plate
matches the outline of the valve plate.
5. Position and install the other metal gasket (11) over the
alignment bushings protruding from the cooling plate
assembly. The outline of the gasket matches the outline
of the cooling plate.
6. Position and install the cylinder head over the alignment
bushings protruding from the cooling plate.
Note: The alignment bushings will only fit into
two of the six cylinder head bolt holes.
7. Install the two center bolts and six hex head cylinder
head bolts and washers and snug them, then tighten
evenly to a torque of 265 to 292 inch pounds (30-33
Nm) using the pattern shown in Figure 9.
8. Install the unloader piston (7) with its pre-installed
o-rings (6, 8, 9) in the cylinder head making certain not
to damage them in the process.
9
9. Install the balance piston spring (5) in the unloader
piston (7), then install the small diameter of the balance
piston (4) through the center of the spring.
5, 11
10. Install the unloader cover gasket (3) on the cylinder
head making certain the unloader vent passage and
both screw holes align.
8, 14
1, 15
7,13
11. Position the unloader cover (2) on top of the balance
piston (4) making certain the stamped logo is visible.
12. Press and hold the unloader cover (2) in place on
the cylinder head and install both unloader cover cap
screws (1). Torque the cover cap screws (1) from 62
to 71 inch pounds (7-8 Nm).
INSTALLING THE COMPRESSOR
1. If the compressor was removed for replacement, install
the drive components. Torque the crankshaft nut to
220 - 254 foot pounds (210-290 Nm).
2. Install any supporting bracketing on the compressor in
the same position noted and marked during removal.
3. Install the gasket on the drive flange of the compressor.
Make certain oil supply or return holes in the gasket
are properly aligned with the compressor and engine.
Gasket sealants are not recommended. Secure the
compressor on the engine and tighten the mounting
bolts.
4. Install the discharge, inlet and governor adapter fittings,
if applicable, in the same position on the compressor
noted and marked during disassembly. Make certain
the threads are clean and the fittings are free of
corrosion. Replace as necessary. See the Torque
Specifications for various fitting sizes and types of
thread on page 11 of this manual.
5. Inspect all air, oil, and coolant lines and fittings before
reconnecting them to the compressor. Make certain
o-ring seals are in good or new condition. Tighten all hose
clamps.
6. Clean oil supply line. Before connecting this line to the
compressor. Run the engine briefly to be sure oil is
flowing freely through the supply line.
7. Before returning the vehicle to service, perform the
Operation and Leakage Tests specified in this manual.
Pay particular attention to all lines reconnected during
installation and check for air, oil, and coolant leaks
at compressor connections. Also check for noisy
operation.
TESTING REBUILT COMPRESSOR
In order to properly test a compressor under operating
conditions, a test rack for correct mounting, cooling,
lubricating, and driving the compressor is necessary. Such
tests are not compulsory if the unit has been carefully
rebuilt by an experienced person. A compressor efficiency,
or build-up test, can be run with realite ease. An engine
10
3, 9
Sequence
Torque
(Nm)
1 . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4 . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5 . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6 . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7 . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8 . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2, 16
4, 10
6, 12
Sequence
Torque
(Nm)
9 . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10 . . . . . . . . . . 32
11 . . . . . . . . . . 32
12 . . . . . . . . . . 32
13 . . . . . . . . . . 32
14 . . . . . . . . . . 32
15 . . . . . . . . . . 13
16 . . . . . . . . . . 13
FIGURE 10 - BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR HEAD
BOLT TORQUE SEQUENCE
lubricated compressor must be connected to an oil supply
line of at least 15 psi pressure during the test and an oil
return line must be installed to keep the crankcase drained.
Connect to the compressor discharge port, a reservoir with
a volume of 1500 cubic inches, including the volume of the
connecting line. With the compressor operating at 2100
RPM, the time required to raise the reservoir(s) pressure
from 85 psi to 100 psi should not exceed 5 seconds. During
this test, the compressor should be checked for gasket
leakage and noisy operation, as well as unloader operation
and leakage. If the compressor functions as indicated,
reinstall on the vehicle connecting all lines as marked in
the disassembly procedure.
BENDIX® BA-922® COMPRESSOR SPECIFICATIONS
Typical weight ................................................................. 60 lbs.
Number of cylinders ................................................................ 2
Bore Diameter ...................................... 3.622 in. (92.005 mm)
Stroke ................................................... 2.125 in. (53.970 mm)
Calculated displacement at 1250 RPM ..................... 31.7 CFM
Flow Capacity @ 1800 RPM & 120 PSI ......................25.2 CFM
Flow Capacity @ 3000 RPM & 120 PSI ......................38.4 CFM
Maximum recommended RPM ................................ 3000 RPM
Minimum coolant flow maximum RPM ............... 2.0 Gals./Min.
Approximate horsepower required:
Loaded 1800 RPM at 120 PSIG ................................... 8.73 HP
Unloaded 1800 RPM .................................................... 1.96 HP
Maximum inlet air temperature ........................................ 170°F
Maximum discharge air temperature ............................... 350°F
Minimum oil pressure required ........................................ 15 PSI
Minimum oil-supply line size ...................................... 3/16" I.D.
Minimum unloader-line size ....................................... 3/16" I.D.
Minimum Governor Cut-out Pressure .............................120 PSI
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Assembly Torques in inch pounds (in. Ibs.)
M8x1.25-6g Cylinder Head .......... 265-292 In. Lbs. (30-33 Nm)
M5x0.75-6g Unloader Cap ................... 62-71 In. Lbs. (7-8 Nm)
M8x1.25-6g Governor Adapter .... 195-213 In. Lbs. (22-24 Nm)
M8x1.25-6g Rear End Cover........ 195-213 In. Lbs. (22-24 Nm)
M6x1.00-6g Crankcase Cover ........... 62-71 In. Lbs. (7-8 Nm)
M20x2.50-6g Crankshaft Nut 1858-2567 In. Lbs. (210-290 Nm)
Inlet Port Fittings
1 3/16"-12 UN-2B .......................... 575-637 In. Lbs. (65-72 Nm)
M27 x 2.0 ....................................... 575-637 In. Lbs. (65-72 Nm)
Discharge Port Fittings
7/8"-14 UNF-2B ............................. 460-504 In. Lbs. (52-57 Nm)
M22 x 1.5 ....................................... 195-213 In. Lbs. (22-24 Nm)
Water Port Fittings
3/4"-16 UNF-2B ............................. 319-245 In. Lbs. (36-39 Nm)
M18 x 1.5-6g.................................. 230-257 In. Lbs. (26-29 Nm)
Unloader Port Fittings
1/8"-27 NPT .............................................................. 2 - 3 TFFT1
M10 x 1.5-6g.................................. 120-145 In. Lbs. (14-16 Nm)
Safety Valve Port
M16 x 1.5 ....................................... 230-257 In. Lbs. (26-29 Nm)
3/4"-16 UNF-2B ............................. 319-345 In. Lbs. (36-39 Nm)
7/8"-14 UNF-2A ............................. 319-345 In. Lbs. (36-39 Nm)
1/2"-14 NPT .............................................................. 2 - 3 TFFT1
Oil Port
7/16"-20 UNF ....................................97-115 In. Lbs. (11-13 Nm)
M12 x 1.5-6g.................................. 142-159 In. Lbs. (16-18 Nm)
1
Note: TFFT = Turns From Finger Tight
Advanced Troubleshooting Guide for Air Brake Compressors
INDEX
Symptom
Page Number
Air
Symptom
Page Number
Coolant
Air brake charging system:
Slow build (9.0) .....................................19 - 20
Doesn’t build air (10.0) .................................21
Air dryer:
Doesn’t purge (14.0) ....................................22
Safety valve releases air (12.0) ...................22
Compressor:
Constantly cycles (15.0) ..............................22
Leaks air (16.0) ............................................23
Safety valve releases air (11.0) ...................21
Noisy (18.0) ................................................23
Reservoir:
Safety valve releases air (13.0) ...................22
Test Procedures
(1) Oil Leakage at Head Gasket ........ 24
(2) System Leakage .......................... 24
(3) Compressor Discharge and
Air Dryer Inlet Temperature ........... 24
(4) Governor Malfunction ................... 24
(5) Governor Control Line .................. 25
(6) Compressor Unloader .................. 25
BASIC Test Information ................ 26-28
Compressor leaks coolant (17.0)....................... 23
Engine
Oil consumption (6.0) ....................................... 19
Oil
Oil Test Card results (1.0) .................................. 14
Oil is present:
On the outside of the compressor (2.0) ....... 15
At the air dryer purge/exhaust
or surrounding area (3.0) ......................... 15
In the supply reservoir (4.0) .................. 16 - 18
At the valves (5.0) ........................................ 18
At air dryer cartridge (7.0) ............................ 19
In the ping tank or compressor
discharge aftercooler (8.0)....................... 19
Maintenance & Usage Guidelines
Maintenance Schedule and
Usage Guidelines (Table A) ....... 13
11
Introduction to the Air Brake Charging System
Powered by the vehicle engine, the air compressor
builds the air pressure for the air brake system. The air
compressor is typically cooled by the engine coolant system
and lubricated by the engine oil supply.
The compressor's unloader mechanism and governor
(along with a synchro valve for the Bendix® DuraFlo 596™
air compressor) control the brake system air pressure
between a preset maximum and minimum pressure level
by monitoring the pressure in the service (or “supply”)
reservoir. When the air pressure becomes greater than that
of the preset “cut-out”, the governor controls the unloader
mechanism of the compressor to stop the compressor from
building air and also causes the air dryer to purge. As the
service reservoir air pressure drops to the “cut-in” setting
of the governor, the governor returns the compressor back
to building air and the air dryer to air drying mode.
As the atmospheric air is compressed, all the water vapor
originally in the air is carried along into the air system, as
well as a small amount of the lubricating oil as vapor.
The duty cycle is the ratio of time the compressor
spends building air to the total engine running time. Air
compressors are designed to build air (run “loaded”) up to
25% of the time. Higher duty cycles cause conditions that
affect air brake charging system performance which may
require additional maintenance. Factors that add to the duty
cycle are: air suspension, additional air accessories, use
of an undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive
leakage from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or
valves, etc.
The discharge line allows the air, water-vapor and
oil-vapor mixture to cool between the compressor and air
dryer. The typical size of a vehicle's discharge line, (see
column 2 of Table A on page 13) assumes a compressor
with a normal (less than 25%) duty cycle, operating in
a temperate climate. See Bendix and/or other air dryer
manufacturer guidelines as needed.
When the temperature of the compressed air that enters
the air dryer is within the normal range, the air dryer can
remove most of the charging system oil. If the temperature
of the compressed air is above the normal range, oil as
oil-vapor is able to pass through the air dryer and into the
air system. Larger diameter discharge lines and/or longer
discharge line lengths can help reduce the temperature.
The discharge line must maintain a constant slope down
from the compressor to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low
points where ice may form and block the flow. If, instead,
ice blockages occur at the air dryer inlet, insulation may
be added here, or if the inlet fitting is a typical 90 degree
fitting, it may be changed to a straight or 45 degree fitting.
For more information on how to help prevent discharge
line freeze-ups, see Bendix Bulletins TCH-008-021 and
TCH-008-022 (see pages 30-32). Shorter discharge line
lengths or insulation may be required in cold climates.
The air dryer contains a filter that collects oil droplets, and
a desiccant bed that removes almost all of the remaining
water vapor. The compressed air is then passed to the air
brake service (supply) reservoir. The oil droplets and the
water collected are automatically purged when the governor
reaches its “cut-out” setting.
For vehicles with accessories that are sensitive to small
amounts of oil, we recommended installation of a Bendix®
PuraGuard® system filter, designed to minimize the amount
of oil present.
The Air Brake Charging System supplies the
Discharge
Line
Optional “Ping” Tank
Air Dryer
compressed air for the braking system as well as other air
accessories for the vehicle. The system usually consists
of an air compressor, governor, discharge line, air dryer,
and service reservoir.
Optional Bendix® PuraGuard®
System Filter or PuraGuard QC™
Oil Coalescing Filter
Compressor
Governor
(Governor plus Synchro valve
for the Bendix® DuraFlo 596™
Compressor)
12
Service Reservoir
(Supply Reservoir)
Reservoir Drain
Table A: Maintenance Schedule and Usage Guidelines
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most important factor in maintaining the air brake charging
system.
Vehicle Used for:
No. of
Axles
Column 1
Column 2
Typical
Compressors
Spec'd
Discharge
Line
(See footnote 7)
I.D.
Length
1/2 in.
6 ft.
Column 3
Recommended
Air Dryer
Cartridge
Replacement1
Column 4
Recommended
Reservoir
Drain
Schedule2
Column 5
Acceptable
Reservoir
Oil Contents3
at Regular
Drain Interval
e.g. Line haul single trailer
w/o air suspension, air over
hydraulic brakes.
5
or
less
e.g. Line haul single trailer
with air suspension, RV
school bus.
5
or
less
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. Double/triple trailer,
open highway coach, (most)
pick-up & delivery, yard or
terminal jockey, off-highway,
construction, loggers, concrete
mixer, dump truck, fire truck.
8
or
less
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
e.g. City transit bus, refuse,
bulk unloaders, low boys,
urban region coach, central
tire inflation.
12
or
less
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 750 air compressor
High Air Use
Bendix® BA-921® air compressor
Compressor with up to 25% duty cycle
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
1/2 in.
9 ft.
9 ft.
Every 3
Years
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
5/8 in.
1/2 in.
5/8 in.
Recommended
Every
Month Max of
every 90
days
12 ft.
Every 2
Years
15 ft.
Every
Month
3/4 in.
Footnotes:
1. With increased air demand the air dryer cartridge needs to be
replaced more often.
2. Use the drain valves to slowly drain all reservoirs to zero psi.
3. Allow the oil/water mixture to fully settle before measuring oil
quantity.
4. To counter above normal temperatures at the air dryer inlet, (and
resultant oil-vapor passing upstream in the air system) replace the
discharge line with one of a larger diameter and/or longer length.
This helps reduce the air's temperature. If sufficient cooling occurs,
the oil-vapor condenses and can be removed by the air dryer.
Discharge line upgrades are not covered under warranty. Note:
To help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, shorter discharge line
lengths or insulation may be required in cold climates. (See Bendix
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
3 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
For the
BASIC
Test Kit:
Order
Bendix
P/N
5013711
12 ft.
For oil carry-over
control4 suggested
upgrades:
Bendix® BA-922®, or DuraFlo 596™ air compressor
Compressor with less than 15% duty
cycle
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 air compressor
Low Air Use
12 ft.
BASIC test
acceptable
range:
5 oil units
per month.
See
appendix
A.
Every
Year
Bulletins TCH-008-021 and TCH-008-022, included in Appendix B,
for more information.)
5. For certain vehicles/applications, where turbo-charged inlet air is
used, a smaller size compressor may be permissible.
6. Note: Compressor and/or air dryer upgrades are recommended
in cases where duty cycle is greater than the normal range (for
the examples above).
7. For correct compressor upgrades consult Bendix - Please note
that because a compressor is listed in the same area of the chart
does not necessarily mean that it would be a suitable candidate
for upgrade purposes.
For Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 and 750 compressors, unloader service is
recommended every 250,000 miles.
13
Air Brake Charging System Troubleshooting
Look for:
How to use this guide:
Find the symptom(s) that you see, then move to the right
to find the possible causes (“What it may indicate”) and
remedies (“What you should do”).
Review the warranty policy before performing any intrusive
compressor maintenance. Unloader or cylinder head gasket
replacement and resealing of the bottom cover plate are
usually permitted under warranty. Follow all standard safety
procedures when performing any maintenance.
WARNING! Please READ and follow these instructions to
avoid personal injury or death:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following general
precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the parking
brakes, and always block the wheels. Always wear safety
glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when working
under or around the vehicle. When working in the engine
compartment, the engine should be shut off and the ignition
key should be removed. Where circumstances require that
the engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should be
used to prevent personal injury resulting from contact with
moving, rotating, leaking, heated or electrically charged
components.
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or
assemble a component until you have read and thoroughly
understand the recommended procedures. Use only the
proper tools and observe all precautions pertaining to use
of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air brake
system, or any auxiliary pressurized air systems, make
certain to drain the air pressure from all reservoirs before
beginning ANY work on the vehicle. If the vehicle is
equipped with a Bendix® AD-IS® air dryer system or a dryer
reservoir module, be sure to drain the purge reservoir.
Symptom:
1.0 Oil Test Card
Results
Normal - Charging system is working within
normal range.
Check - Charging system needs further
investigation.
5. Following the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended
procedures, deactivate the electrical system in a manner
that safely removes all electrical power from the vehicle.
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line containing
pressure; it may whip. Never remove a component or
plug unless you are certain all system pressure has been
depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix ® brand replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware, tubing,
hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent size, type and
strength as original equipment and be designed specifically
for such applications and systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged parts
should be replaced rather than repaired. Do not attempt
repairs requiring machining or welding unless specifically
stated and approved by the vehicle and component
manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make certain all
components and systems are restored to their proper
operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Automatic Traction Control (ATC), the ATC
function must be disabled (ATC indicator lamp should be
ON) prior to performing any vehicle maintenance where
one or more wheels on a drive axle are lifted off the ground
and moving.
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
Not a valid test.
Discontinue using this test.
Do not use this card test to diagnose compressor
"oil passing" issues. They are subjective
and error prone. Use only the Bendix Air
System Inspection Cup (BASIC) test and the
methods described in this guide for advanced
troubleshooting.
The Bendix ® BASIC test should be the
definitive method for judging excessive
oil fouling/oil passing. (See Appendix A,
on page 27 for a flowchart and expanded
explanation of the checklist used when
conducting the BASIC test.)

Bendix®
BASIC Test

14
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
2.0 Oil on the
Outside of the
Compressor
Engine and/or other accessories
leaking onto compressor.
Find the source and repair. Return the vehicle
to service.
2.1 Oil leaking at
compressor / engine
connections:
(a)
Leak at the front or rear (fuel
pump, etc.) mounting flange.

Repair or replace as necessary. If the
mounting bolt torques are low, replace the
gasket.
(b) Leak at air inlet fitting.

Replace the fitting gasket. Inspect inlet hose
and replace as necessary.
(c) Leak at air discharge fitting.

Replace gasket or fitting as necessary to
ensure good seal.
(d) Loose/broken oil line fittings.

Inspect and repair as necessary.
(a) Excessive leak at head gasket.

Go to Test 1 on page 24.
(b)
Leak at bottom cover plate.

Reseal bottom cover plate using RTV
silicone sealant.
(c)
Leak at internal rear flange
gasket.

Replace compressor.
2.2 Oil leaking
from compressor:

Replace compressor.
(d)
Leak through crankcase.

Clean compressor and check periodically.
(e) (If unable to tell source of leak.)


(a)
(c)

(c)
3.0 Oil at air dryer
purge/exhaust or
surrounding area
Head
gaskets
and rear
flange
gasket
locations.
Air brake charging system functioning
normally.

Air dryers remove water and oil from the air
brake charging system.
Check that regular maintenance is being
performed. Return the vehicle to service.
An optional kit (Bendix piece number
5011327 for the Bendix® AD-IS® or AD-IP®
air dryers, or 5003838 for the Bendix® AD-9®
air dryer) is available to redirect the air dryer
exhaust.
15
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
4.0 Oil in Supply or
Service Reservoir
(air dryer installed)
(If a maintained Bendix
PuraGuard® system
filter or Bendix®
PuraGuard QC™ oil
coalescing
filter is installed, call
1-800-AIR-BRAKE
(1-800-247-2725) and
speak to a Tech Team
member.)
®
What you should do:
Maintenance
(a) If air brake charging system maintenance has not been performed.
That is, reservoir(s) have not been
drained per the schedule in Table
A on page 13, Column 4 and/or
the air dryer maintenance has not
been performed as in Column 3.
(b) If the vehicle maintenance has
been performed as recommended
in Table A on page 13, some oil in
the reservoirs is normal.
(a)
See Table A, on page
13, for maintenance
schedule information.
Drain all air tanks (reservoirs)
into the Bendix® BASIC test
cup. (Bendix kit P/N 5013711).

Drain all air tanks and check vehicle at next
service interval using the Bendix® BASIC
test. See Table A on page 13, column 3 and
4, for recommended service schedule.

Drain all air tanks into Bendix® BASIC test
cup (Bendix Air System Inspection Cup).
If less than one unit of reservoir contents
is found, the vehicle can be returned to
service. Note: If more than one oil unit
of water (or a cloudy emulsion mixture)
is present, change the vehicle's air dryer,
check for air system leakage (Test 2,
on page 24), stop inspection and check
again at the next service interval.
See the BASIC test kit for full details.
If less than one "oil unit" of water (or water/
cloudy emulsion mixture) is present, use the
BASIC cup chart on the label of the cup to
determine if the amount of oil found is within
the acceptable level.
 If within the normal range, return the
vehicle to service. For vehicles with accessories that are sensitive to small amounts
of oil, consider a Bendix® PuraGuard QC™
oil coalescing filter.
 If outside the normal range go to Symptom 4.0(c).
Also see the Table A on page 13, column
3 for recommended air dryer cartridge
replacement schedule.
Duty cycle too high
(c) Air brake system leakage.

Go to Test 2 on page 24.
(d) Compressor may be undersized for
the application.

See Table A, column 1, on page 13 for
recommended compressor sizes.
 If the compressor is "too small" for
the vehicle's role (for example, where a
vehicle's use has changed or service conditions exceed the original vehicle or engine
OE spec's) then upgrade the compressor.
Note: The costs incurred (e.g. installing
a larger capacity compressor, etc.) are
not covered under original compressor
warranty.
 If the compressor is correct for the
vehicle, go to Symptom 4.0 (e).
The duty cycle is the ratio of time the compressor spends
building air to total engine running time. Air compressors
are designed to build air (to "run loaded") up to 25% of the
time. Higher duty cycles cause conditions that affect air
brake charging system performance which may require
additional maintenance. Factors that add to the duty cycle
are: air suspension, additional air accessories, use of an
undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive leakage
from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or valves, etc.
16
Symptom:
4.0 Oil in Supply
or Service
Reservoir*
(air dryer installed)
(continued)
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
Temperature
(e) Air compressor discharge and/or
air dryer inlet temperature too
high.

Check temperature as outlined in Test 3 on
page 24. If temperatures are normal go to
4.0(h).

Inspect coolant line. Replace as necessary
(I.D. is 1/2").
(f) Insufficient coolant flow.

Inspect the coolant lines for kinks and
restrictions and fittings for restrictions.
Replace as necessary.
(f)
(e)

Verify coolant lines go from engine block to
compressor and back to the water pump.
Repair as necessary.
(g)
Testing the temperature
at the discharge fitting.
Inspecting the coolant hoses.
(g) Restricted discharge line.

If discharge line is restricted or more than
1/16" carbon build up is found, replace the
discharge line. See Table A, column 2, on
page 13 for recommended size. Replace
as necessary.

The discharge line must maintain a
constant slope down from the compressor
to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low points
where ice may form and block the flow.
If, instead, ice blockages occur at the air
dryer inlet, insulation may be added here,
or if the inlet fitting is a typical 90 degree
fitting, it may be changed to a straight or
45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freezeups, see Bendix Bulletins TCH-008-021
and TCH-008-022 (Appendix B). Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be
required in cold climates.
(g)
Kinked discharge line shown.
Other
(h) Restricted air inlet (not enough air
to compressor).
(h)
Partly
collapsed
inlet line
shown.

Check compressor air inlet line for restrictions, brittleness, soft or sagging hose
conditions etc. Repair as necessary. Inlet
line size is 3/4 ID. Maximum restriction
requirement for compressors is 25 inches
of water.

Check the engine air filter and service if
necessary (if possible, check the air filter
usage indicator).
*If a maintained Bendix® PuraGuard® system filter or Bendix® PuraGuard QC™ oil coalescing
filter is installed, call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725) and speak to a Tech Team member.
17
Symptom:
4.0 Oil in Supply
or Service
Reservoir*
(air dryer installed)
(continued)
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
Other (cont.)
(i) Poorly filtered inlet air (poor air
quality to compressor).

Check for leaking, damaged or defective
compressor air inlet components (e.g.
induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter bodies,
etc.). Repair inlet components as needed.
Note: Dirt ingestion will damage compressor
and is not covered under warranty.
Inspect the
engine air
cleaner.
(j) Governor malfunction or setting.

Go to Test 4 on page 25.
(k) Compressor malfunction.

If you found excessive oil present in the
service reservoir in step 4.0 (b) above and
you did not find any issues in steps 4.0 (c)
through 4.0 (j) above, the compressor may
be passing oil.
Replace compressor. If still under warranty,
follow normal warranty process. Note: After
replacing a compressor, residual oil may
take a considerable period of time to be
flushed from the air brake system.
Crankcase Flooding
Consider installing a compressor bottom drain kit
(where available) in cases of chronic oil passing where
all other operating conditions have been investigated.
Bendix compressors are designed to have a 'dry'
sump and the presence of excess oil in the crankcase
can lead to oil carryover.
*If a maintained Bendix® PuraGuard® system filter or Bendix® PuraGuard QC™ oil coalescing
filter is installed, call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725) and speak to a Tech Team member.
5.0 Oil present
at valves (e.g. at
exhaust, or seen
during servicing).
Air brake system valves are required
to tolerate a light coating of oil.

A small amount of oil does not affect SAE
J2024** compliant valves.

Check that regular maintenance is being
performed and that the amount of oil in the
air tanks (reservoirs) is within the acceptable range shown on the Bendix® BASIC
test cup (see also column 5 of Table A on
page 13). Return the vehicle to service.
For oil-sensitive systems, see page 12.
** SAE J2024 outlines tests all air brake system pneumatic
components need to be able to pass, including minimum
levels of tolerance to contamination.
Genuine
Bendix
valves are
all SAE
J2024
compliant.
18
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
6.0 Excessive oil
consumption in
engine.
A problem with engine or other engine
accessory.

See engine service manual.
7.0 Oil present
at air dryer
cartridge during
maintenance.
Air brake charging system is functioning
normally.
The engine
service
manual
has more
information.
Oil shown
leaking
from an
air dryer
cartridge.

Air dryers remove water and oil from
the air brake charging system. A small
amount of oil is normal. Check that regular
maintenance is being performed and that
the amount of oil in the air tanks (reservoirs)
is within the acceptable range shown by
the BASIC Test (see also column 5 of
Table A on page 13). Replace the air dryer
cartridge as needed and return the vehicle
to service.
8.0 Oil in ping tank
or compressor discharge aftercooler.
Air brake charging system is functioning
normally.

Follow vehicle O.E. maintenance
recommendation for these components.
9.0 Air brake
charging system
seems slow to
build pressure.
(a) Air brake charging system
functioning normally.

Using dash gauges, verify that the
compressor builds air system pressure
from 85-100 psi in 40 seconds or less with
engine at full governed rpm. Return the
vehicle to service.
(b) Air brake system leakage.

Go to Test 2 on page 24.
(c) Compressor may be undersized for
the application.

See Table A, column 1, on page 13 for some
typical compressor applications. If the
compressor is "too small" for the vehicle's
role, for example, where a vehicle's use has
changed, then upgrade the compressor.
Note: The costs incurred (e.g. installing
a larger capacity compressor, etc.) are
not covered under original compressor
warranty.
(d) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.

Go to Test 6 on page 25.
(e) Damaged compressor head
gasket.

An air leak at the head gasket may indicate a downstream restriction such as a
freeze-up or carbon blockage and/or could
indicate a defective or missing safety valve.
Find blockage (go to 9.0(f) for details) and
then replace the compressor. Do not reuse the safety valve without testing. See
Symptom 12.0(a).
19
Symptom:
What it may indicate:
9.0 Air brake
charging system
seems slow to
build pressure.
(continued)
(f) Restricted discharge line.
(f)
Dash gauges.
Kinked discharge line shown.
Engine Oil Quality
Inadequate oil change intervals, the formulation of the
oil and/or the quality of oil filter used can all lead to poor
oil quality. These can increase the rate at which carbon
builds up in the discharge line. Bendix recommends oil
soot (solids) be maintained at less than 3%.
(g) Restricted air inlet (not enough air
to compressor).
(g)
What you should do:

If discharge line is restricted:
 By more than 1/16" carbon build up,
replace the discharge line (see Table A,
column 2, on page 13 for recommended
size) and go to Test 3 on page 24.
 By other restrictions (e.g. kinks). Replace the discharge line. See Table A, column 2, on page 13 for recommended size.
Retest for air build. Return vehicle to service
or, if problem persists, go to 9.0(a).

The discharge line must maintain a
constant slope down from the compressor
to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low points
where ice may form and block the flow.
If, instead, ice blockages occur at the air
dryer inlet, insulation may be added here,
or if the inlet fitting is a typical 90 degree
fitting, it may be changed to a straight or
45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freezeups, see Bendix Bulletins TCH-008-021
and TCH-008-022 (Appendix B). Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be
required in cold climates.

Check compressor air inlet line for restrictions, brittleness, soft or sagging hose conditions etc. Repair as necessary. Refer to
vehicle manufacturer’s guidelines for inlet
line size.

Check the engine air filter and service if
necessary (if possible, check the air filter
usage indicator).
Partly collapsed
inlet line shown.
20
(h) Poorly filtered inlet air (poor air
quality to compressor).

Check for leaking, damaged or defective
compressor air inlet components (e.g.
induction line, fittings, gaskets, filter bodies,
etc.). Repair inlet components as needed.
Note: Dirt ingestion will damage compressor
and is not covered under warranty.
(i) Compressor malfunction.

Replace the compressor only after making
certain that none of the preceding conditions,
9.0 (a) through 9.0 (h), exist.
Symptom:
10.0 Air charging
system doesn’t
build air.
What it may indicate:
(a) Governor malfunction*.

Go to Test 4 on page 25.
(b) Restricted discharge line.

See 9.0(f).
(c) Air dryer heater malfunction:
exhaust port frozen open.

Replace air dryer heater.
(d) Compressor malfunction.

Replace the compressor only after making
certain the preceding conditions do not
exist.
* Note: For the Bendix® DuraFlo 596™ air compressor, not only
the governor, but also the SV-1™ synchro valve used would
need to be tested. See Bulletin TCH-001-048.
11.0 Compressor
safety valve
releases air
(Compressor
builds too much
air).
What you should do:
(a) Restricted discharge line.

Damaged
discharge
line shown.

If discharge line is restricted:
 By more than 1/16" carbon build up,
replace the discharge line (see Table A,
column 2, on page 13 for recommended
size) and go to Test 3 on page 24.
 By other restrictions (e.g. kinks).
Replace the discharge line. See Table A,
column 2, on page 13 for recommended
size.

The discharge line must maintain a
constant slope down from the compressor
to the air dryer inlet fitting to avoid low points
where ice may form and block the flow.
If, instead, ice blockages occur at the air
dryer inlet, insulation may be added here,
or if the inlet fitting is a typical 90 degree
fitting, it may be changed to a straight or
45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freezeups, see Bendix Bulletins TCH-008-021
and TCH-008-022 (Appendix B). Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be
required in cold climates.
(b) Downstream air brake system check
valves or lines may be blocked or
damaged.

Inspect air lines and verify check valves are
operating properly.
(c) Air dryer lines incorrectly installed.

Ensure discharge line is installed into the
inlet of the air dryer and delivery is routed
to the service reservoir.
(d) Compressor safety valve
malfunction.

Verify relief pressure is 250 psi. Replace if
defective.
(e) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.

Go to Test 6 on page 25.
(f) Governor malfunction.

Go to Test 4 on page 25.
21
Symptom:
12.0 Air dryer
safety valve
releases air.
Air dryer
safety valve
What it may indicate:

(a) Restriction between air dryer and
reservoir.

Inspect delivery lines to reservoir for restrictions and repair as needed.
(b) Air dryer safety valve
malfunction.

Verify relief pressure is at vehicle or
component manufacturer specifications.
Replace if defective.
(c) Air dryer maintenance not
performed.

See Maintenance Schedule and Usage
Guidelines (Table A, column 3, on page
13).
(d) Air dryer malfunction.

Verify operation of air dryer. Follow vehicle
O.E. maintenance recommendations and
component Service Data information.
(e) Improper governor control line
installation to the reservoir.

Go to Test 5 on page 25.
(f) Governor malfunction.

Go to Test 4 on page 25.
(a) Reservoir safety valve
malfunction.

Verify relief pressure is at vehicle or
component manufacturer's specifications
(typically 150 psi). Replace if defective.
(b) Governor malfunction.

Go to Test 4 on page 25.
(c) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.

Go to Test 6 on page 25.
(a) Air dryer malfunction.

Verify operation of air dryer. Follow vehicle
O.E. maintenance recommendations.
(b) Governor malfunction.

Go to Test 4 on page 25.
(c) Air brake system leakage.

Go to Test 2 on page 24.
(d) Improper governor control line
installation to the reservoir.

Go to Test 5 on page 25.
(a) A i r b r a k e c h a r g i n g s y s t e m
maintenance not performed.

Available reservoir capacity may be reduced by build up of water etc. Drain and
perform routine maintenance per Table A,
columns 3 & 4, on page 13.
(b) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.

Go to Test 6 on page 25.
(c) Air dryer purge valve or delivery
check valve malfunction.

Verify operation of air dryer. Follow vehicle
O.E. maintenance recommendations and
component Service Data information.
(d) Air brake system leakage.

Go to Test 2 on page 24.


Technician removes
governor.
13.0 Reservoir
safety valve
releases air
14.0 Air dryer
doesn’t purge.
(Never hear
exhaust from air
dryer.)
15.0 Compressor
constantly cycles
(compressor
remains unloaded
for a very short
time.)
22
What you should do:
16.0 Compressor
leaks air
Testing for leaks with
soap solution.
17.0 Compressor
leaks coolant
18.0 Noisy
compressor
(Multi-cylinder
compressors only)
What it may indicate:
What you should do:
(a) Compressor leaks air at connections
or ports.

Check for leaking, damaged or defective
compressor fittings, gaskets, etc. Repair
or replace as necessary.
(b) Compressor unloader mechanism
malfunction.

Go to Test 6 on page 25.
(c) Damaged compressor head
gasket(s).

An air leak at the head gasket(s) may
indicate a downstream restriction such as a
freeze-up or carbon blockage and/or could
indicate a defective or missing safety valve.
Find blockage (go to 9.0(f) for details) and
then replace the compressor. Do not reuse the safety valve without testing. See
Symptom 12.0(a).
Head
gaskets
locations

Symptom:
(a) Improperly installed plugs or coolant
line fittings.

Inspect for loose or over-torqued fittings.
Reseal and tighten loose fittings and plugs
as necessary. If overtorqued fittings and
plugs have cracked ports in the head,
replace the compressor.
(b) Damaged compressor head
gasket.

An air leak at the head gasket may indicate
a downstream restriction such as a freezeup or carbon blockage and/or could indicate
a defective or missing safety valve. Find
blockage (go to 9.0(f) for details) and then
replace the compressor. Do not re-use the
safety valve without testing. See Symptom
12.0(a).
(c) Porous compressor head casting.

If casting porosity is detected, replace the
compressor.
(a) Damaged compressor.

Replace the compressor.
Other Miscellaneous Areas to Consider
This guide attempts to cover most compressor system problems. Here are some
rare sources of problems not covered in
this guide:
• Turbocharger leakage. Lubricating oil
from leaking turbocharger seals can enter
the air compressor intake and give misleading symptoms.
• Where a compressor does not have
a safety valve installed, if a partial or
complete discharge line blockage has
occurred, damage can occur to the connecting rod bearings. Damage of this kind
may not be detected and could lead to
compressor problems at a later date.
23
Tests
Test 1: Excessive Oil Leakage at the
Head Gasket
Exterior leaks at the head gasket are not a sign that oil is being passed into
the air charging system. Oil weepage at the head gasket does not prevent
the compressor from building air.
Look
for
Weepage
Observe the amount of weepage from the head gasket.
If the oil is only around the cylinder head area, it is acceptable (return the vehicle
to service), but, if the oil weepage extends down to the nameplate area of the
compressor, the gasket can be replaced.
Test 2: Air Brake System and Accessory Leakage
Inspect for air leaks when working on a vehicle and
repair them promptly.
Park the vehicle on level ground and chock wheels.
Build system pressure to governor cut-out and allow
the pressure to stabilize for one minute.
Step 1: Observe the dash gauges for two additional
minutes without the service brakes applied.
Step 2: Apply the service brakes and allow the
pressure to stabilize. Continue holding for two
minutes (you may use a block of wood to hold the
Test 3: Air Compressor Discharge
Temperature and Air Dryer Inlet
Temperature*
Caution: The temperatures used in this test
are not normal vehicle conditions.
Above normal temperatures can cause oil (as
vapor) to pass through the air dryer into the
air brake system.
This test is run with the engine at normal operating
temperature, with engine at max. rpm. If available,
a dyno may be used.
1. Allow the compressor to build the air system
pressure to governor cut-in.
2. Pump the brakes to bring the dash gauge
pressure to 90 psi.
3. Allow the compressor to build pressure from
95 to 105 psi gauge pressure and maintain
this pressure range by cycling the brakes for
five (5) minutes.
pedal in position.) Observe the dash gauges.
If you see any noticeable decrease of the dash air
gauge readings (i.e. more than 4 psi, plus two psi for
each additional trailer) during either two minute test,
repair the leaks and repeat this test to confirm that
they have been repaired.
Air leaks can also be found in the charging system,
parking brakes, and/or other components - inspect
and repair as necessary.
(* Note that only vehicles that have passed Test 2
would be candidates for this test.)
4. Then, while maintaining max rpm and
pressure range, measure and record the
surface temperature of the fittings:
 at the compressor discharge port. (T1).
 at the air dryer inlet fitting. (T2).
Use a touch probe thermocouple for measuring
the temperature.
5. See table below.
6. Retest before returning the vehicle to
service.
T1
T2
Compressor Air Dryer
Discharge
Inlet
Fitting
Fitting
under
360°F
under
200°F
Temperatures are within
normal range for this test, check
other symptoms. Go to 4.0 (h).
under
360°F
over
200°F
This could indicate a discharge
line problem (e.g. restriction).
Call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE
(1-800-247-2725)
and speak with our Tech Team.
over
360°F
__
T1
T2
Discharge Line
24
Action
Compressor is running hot.
Check coolant 4(f) and/or
discharge line 4(g).
Tests (continued)
Test 4: Governor Malfunction
1. Inspect control lines to and from the governor
for restrictions (e.g. collapsed or kinked).
Repair as necessary.
2. Using a calibrated external gauge in the
supply reservoir, service reservoir, or reservoir
port of the D-2® governor, verify cut-in and
cut-out pressures are within vehicle OEM
specification.
3. If the governor is malfunctioning, replace it.
Test 5: Governor Control Line
1. Ensure that the governor control line from the
reservoir is located at or near the top of the
reservoir. (This line, if located near the bottom of
the reservoir, can become blocked or restricted
by the reservoir contents e.g. water or ice.)
2. Perform proper reservoir drain intervals and air
dryer cartridge maintenance per Maintenance
Schedule and Usage Guidelines (Table A on
page 13).
3. Return the vehicle to service.
Test 6: Compressor Unloader Leakage
Bendix ® Compressors: Park vehicle, chock
wheels, and follow all standard safety procedures.
Remove the governor and install a fitting to the
unloader port. Add a section of air hose (min
1 ft long for a 1/2" diameter line) and a gauge
to the fitting followed by a shut-off valve and an
air source (shop air or small air tank). Open the
shut off and charge the unloader port by allowing
air pressure to enter the hose and unload the
compressor. Shut off the air supply and observe
the gauge. A steady reading indicates no leakage
at the unloader port, but a falling reading shows
that the unloader mechanism is leaking and needs
to be serviced.
25
Appendix A: Information about the BASIC Test Kit (Bendix P/N 5013711)
Service writer records info - including
the number of days since all air tanks
were drained - and fills out symptom
checklist. Technician inspects items.
days
Bendix® Air System Inspection Cup
(BASIC) Test Information
START BASIC TEST
Park vehicle on LEVEL ground.
Chock wheels, drain air from system.
Drain contents of ALL air
tanks into BASIC™ cup
Is there
less than one
unit of liquid?
Vehicle OK.
Return vehicle to
service.
YES
END TEST
NO
Is
there more
than one unit of:
• water, or
• cloudy emulsion
mixture?
Cloudy emulsion mixture
YES
NO, only oil.
Is this a
transit vehicle, bulk
unloader, or has more
than 5 axles?
YES, this is a high
air use
vehicle.
Find the point on the label
where the number of oil units
meets the number of days*
since the vehicle's air tanks
were last drained.
h
Hig
Low
NO, this is a low air
use vehicle.
YES
Find the point on the label
where the number of oil units
meets the number of days*
since the vehicle's air tanks
were last drained.
Go to the
Advanced
Troubleshooting
Guide to find
reason(s) for
presence of water
h
Hig
Is the
point above
the HIGH Air Use
line on the
cup?
Is the
point above
the LOW Air Use
line on the
cup?
NO
H
YES
Test for air
leakage
YES
Repair leaks and
return vehicle to
service
END TEST
26
Use Test 2:
Air Leakage
NO (did not know
when last
with the
drained) Re-test
™
BASIC Test after
30 days***
END TEST
* If the number of days since the air tanks were drained is unknown
- use the 30 day line.
** Note: Typical air dryer cartridge replacement schedule is every
3 yrs/ 300K miles for low air use vehicles and every year/100K
miles for high air use vehicles.
END TEST
YES, number of days
was known (30 - 90 days)
Replace the Compressor. If under warranty, follow standard
procedures.
If, after a compressor was already replaced, the vehicle fails the
BASIC test again, do not replace the compressor**** - use the
Advanced Troubleshooting Guide to investigate the cause(s).
END TEST
Test for air
leakage
END TEST
Vehicle OK.
Return vehicle to
service.
NO
Was
the number of
days since last
draining
known?
Change air dryer
cartridge**
Re-test with the
™
BASIC Test after
30 days***
YES
Use Test 2:
Air Leakage
NO
Low
Low
Does
the vehicle have
excessive air
leakage?
Compressor
END TEST
NO
igh
Is this vehicle
being re-tested? (after
water, etc. was found
last time?)
*** To get an accurate reading for the amount of oil collected during
a 30 day period, ask the customer not to drain the air tanks before
returning. (Note that 30-90 days is the recommended air tank
drain schedule for vehicles equipped with a Bendix air dryer that
are properly maintained.) If, in cold weather conditions, the 30 day
air tank drain schedule is longer than the customer's usual draining
interval, the customer must determine, based on its experience
with the vehicle, whether to participate now, or wait for warmer
weather. See the cold weather tips in Bulletins TCH-008-021 and
TCH-008-022 (included on pages 30-32 of this document).
****Note: After replacing a compressor, residual oil may take
a considerable period of time to be flushed from the air brake
system.
Appendix A continued: Information about the BASIC Test Kit (Bendix P/N 5013711)
®
Filling in the Checklist for the Bendix Air System Inspection Cup (BASIC) Test
Note: Follow all standard safety precautions. For vehicles using a desiccant air dryer.
The Service Writer fills out these fields with information gained from the customer
Number of Days Since Air Tanks Were Last Drained: ________ Date: ___________Vehicle #: ____________
Engine SN __________________________ Vehicle Used for: _______________Typical Load:________ (lbs.)
No. of Axles: ____ (tractor) ____ (trailer) No. of Lift Axles: ____ Technician’s Name: ____________________
Checklist for Technician
The Service Writer
also checks off any
complaints that the
customer makes to
help the Technician
in investigating.
Have you confirmed

Customer’s
complaint?
(Please check all that apply)
“Relay valve leaks oil /  malfunctions”
no yes*
“Dash valve leaks oil / malfunctions”
no yes*
“Air dryer leaks oil”
no yes*
“Governor malfunction”
no yes*
“Oil in gladhands” 
no yes*
how much oil did you find? ________________________________
“Oil on ground or vehicle exterior” 
no yes*
amount described: ______________________________________
“Short air dryer cartridge life”
replaces every: ______________  miles,  kms, or  months
 “Oil in air tanks” amount described:_______________________
We will measure amount currently found when we get to step B of the test.
“Excessive engine oil loss”amount described: ______________
Is the engine leaking oil? 
no yes*
Is the compressor leaking oil? 
no yes*
 Other complaint: _____________________________________
No customer complaint.
BASIC test starts here:
STEP A - Select one:
This is a low air use vehicle: Line haul (single trailer) with 5 or less axles, or
This is a high air use vehicle: Garbage truck, transit bus, bulk unloader, or line
haul with more than 5 axles.
Then go to Step B.
STEP B - Measure the Charging System Contents
1. Park and chock vehicle on level ground. Drain the air system by
pumping the service brakes.
2. Completely drain ALL the air tanks into a single BASIC cup.
3. If there is less than one unit of contents total, end the test now and
return the vehicle to service. Vehicle passes.
4. If more than one oil unit of water (or a cloudy emulsion mixture)
is found:
(a) Change the vehicle’s air dryer cartridge
Oil
- see Footnote 1,
Units
(b) Conduct the 4 minute leakage test (Step D),
(c) STOP the inspection, and check the vehicle
again after 30 days - see Footnote 2. STOP
+ CK.
The Technician
checks boxes
for any of the
complaints that
can be confirmed.
* Note: A confirmed complaint
above does NOT mean that
the compressor must be
replaced.
The full BASIC test below will
investigate the facts.
The Technician selects the air use
category for the vehicle. This decided which of the two acceptance
lines on the cup will be used for the
test below.
For an accurate test, the
contents of all the air tanks on
the vehicle should be used.
Note for returning vehicles that are being
retested after a water/cloudy emulsion
mixture was found last time and the air
dryer cartridge replaced: If more than
one oil unit of water or a cloudy emulsion
mixture is found again, stop the BASIC test
and consult the air dryer's Service Data sheet
troubleshooting section.
Otherwise, go to Step C.
Footnote 1: Note: Typical air dryer cartridge replacement schedule is every 3 yrs/ 300K miles for low air use vehicles and every year/100K miles for
high air use vehicles.
Footnote 2: To get an accurate reading for the amount of oil collected during a 30 day period, ask the customer not to drain the air tanks before returning.
(Note that 30-90 days is the recommended air tank drain schedule for vehicles equipped with a Bendix air dryer that are properly maintained.) If, in
cold weather conditions, the 30 day air tank drain schedule is longer than the customer's usual draining interval, the customer must determine, based
on its experience with the vehicle, whether to participate now, or wait for warmer weather. See the cold weather tips in Bulletins TCH-008-021 and
TCH-008-022 (included in Appendix B of the advanced troubleshooting guide).
27
Appendix A continued: Information about the BASIC Test Kit (Bendix P/N 5013711)
®
Filling in the Checklist for the Bendix Air System Inspection Cup (BASIC) Test
Note: Follow all standard safety precautions. For vehicles using a desiccant air dryer.
2. Record amount
of oil found:
_________ days
_________ units
If number of days is:
30-60 days (high air
use) or
30-90 days (low air
use)

Otherwise . . .

(if the number of days is
unknown, or outside the
limits above)
3. Action to
take


The Technician uses the chart (label) on the BASIC
test cup to help decide the action to take, based on
the amount of oil found. Use the lower acceptance
line for low air use vehicles, and upper line for high
air use vehicles (from Step A).
1. Record days since air
tanks were last drained.

STEP C - How to Use the BASIC Test
if oil level is at or below
System OK.
STOP
acceptance line for number
TEST
Return
to
service.
of days
if oil level is above
Go to Step D
acceptance line for number
of days 
STOP
if oil level is at or below System OK.
30-day acceptance line  Return to service. TEST
Stop inspection.
if oil level is above 30-day Test again
STOP
+ CK.
acceptance line 
after 30 days.
See Footnote 2.
Acceptance
Lines
BASIC Test Example
An oil level of 4 units in a sixty-day period is within the
acceptance area (at or below the line) for both low and
high air use vehicles. Return the vehicle to service.
Oil
Level
X
The Technician looks for the point where the number
of days since the air tanks were drained meets the
oil level. If it is at or below the (low or high use)
acceptance line, the vehicle has passed the test. If
the point is above the line then go to the leakage
test.
Sixty days since last air
tank draining
STEP D - Air Brake System Leakage Test
Park the vehicle on level ground and chock wheels. Build system pressure to governor cut-out
and allow the pressure to stabilize for one minute.
1: Observe the dash gauges for two additional minutes without the service brakes applied.
2: Apply service brakes for two minutes (allow pressure to stabilize) and observe the dash
gauges.
If you see any noticeable decrease of the dash air gauge readings, repair leaks. Repeat this
test to confirm that air leaks have been repaired and return vehicle to service. Please repeat
BASIC test at next service interval. Note: Air leaks can also be found in the charging system,
parking brakes, and/or other components - inspect and repair as necessary.
If no air leakage was detected, and if you are conducting
this test after completing Step C, go to Step E.
STEP E - If no air leakage was detected in Step D
Replace the compressor.
Note: If the compressor is within warranty period,
please follow standard warranty procedures. Attach
the completed checklist to warranty claim.
28
Decision point
Air leakage is the number one
cause of compressors having
to pump excessive amounts of
air, in turn run too hot and pass
oil vapor along into the system.
Here the Technician conducts
a four-minute test to see if
leakage is a problem with the
vehicle being tested.
The Technician only reaches
Step E if the amount of oil
found, for the amount of
time since the air tanks were
last drained exceeds the
acceptance level, AND the
vehicle passes the four-minute
leakage test (no noticeable
leakage was detected).
Appendix B
Technical Bulletin
Bulletin No.: TCH-008-021
Subject: Air
Effective Date: 3-5-2010
Cancels PRO-08-21 dated 2-6-2008
Page: 1 of 2
Brake System - Cold Weather Operation Tips
$VWKHFROGZHDWKHUDSSURDFKHVRSHUDWRUVDQGÀHHWVDOLNHEHJLQWRORRNWRWKHLUYHKLFOHVZLWKDQH\HWRZDUG
³ZLQWHUL]DWLRQ´DQGSDUWLFXODUO\ZKDWFDQEHGRQHWRJXDUGDJDLQVWDLUV\VWHPIUHH]HXS+HUHDUHVRPHEDVLF
³7LSV´IRURSHUDWLRQLQWKHFROGZHDWKHU
(QJLQH,GOLQJ
$YRLGLGOLQJWKHHQJLQHIRUORQJSHULRGVRIWLPH,QDGGLWLRQWRWKHIDFWWKDWPRVWHQJLQHPDQXIDFWXUHUVZDUQWKDW
ORQJLGOHWLPHVDUHGHWULPHQWDOWRHQJLQHOLIHZLQWHULGOLQJLVDELJIDFWRULQFRPSUHVVRUGLVFKDUJHOLQHIUHH]HXS
'LVFKDUJHOLQHIUHH]HXSVDFFRXQWIRUDVLJQL¿FDQWQXPEHURIFRPSUHVVRUIDLOXUHVHDFK\HDU7KHGLVFKDUJH
OLQHUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVXQGHU³'LVFKDUJH/LQHV´DUHLPSRUWDQWIRUDOOYHKLFOHVEXWDUHHVSHFLDOO\VRZKHQVRPH
SHULRGVRIH[WHQGHGHQJLQHLGOLQJFDQQRWEHDYRLGHG
'LVFKDUJH/LQHV
7KHGLVFKDUJHOLQHVKRXOGVORSHGRZQZDUGIURPWKHFRPSUHVVRUGLVFKDUJHSRUWZLWKRXWIRUPLQJZDWHUWUDSV
NLQNVRUUHVWULFWLRQV&URVVRYHUVIURPRQHVLGHRIWKHIUDPHUDLOWRWKHRWKHULIUHTXLUHGVKRXOGRFFXUDVFORVH
DVSRVVLEOHWRWKHFRPSUHVVRU
'U\HU,QOHW7HPSHUDWXUH
7KHGU\HULQOHWDLUWHPSHUDWXUHVKRXOGW\SLFDOO\EHZLWKLQWKHUDQJHRIQRPRUHWKDQƒ)DQGQROHVVWKDQƒ)
DERYHORZDPELHQWVXUURXQGLQJWHPSHUDWXUHWRSUHYHQWIUHH]HXSV)RUH[DPSOHLIORZDPELHQWLVPLQXV
ƒ)WKHGU\HULQOHWPXVWEHDERYHƒ)/RZHUGU\HULQOHWWHPSHUDWXUHVVKRXOGEHDYRLGHGWRPLQLPL]HWKHULVN
RIIUHH]HXSXSVWUHDPRIWKHDLUGU\HU+LJKHUWHPSHUDWXUHVVKRXOGDOVREHDYRLGHGWRPLQLPL]HWKHULVNRIKHDW
GDPDJHWRWKHDLUGU\HUVHDOVDQGWRDYRLGDORVVRIGU\LQJSHUIRUPDQFH
&RPSUHVVRU/LQH6L]H
7KHOLQHVL]HDQGOHQJWKLVHVWDEOLVKHGE\WKHYHKLFOHPDQXIDFWXUHUDQGVKRXOGQRWEHDOWHUHGZLWKRXWWKHYHKLFOH
PDQXIDFWXUHUVDSSURYDO$VDUHIHUHQFHWKHOLQHOHQJWKIURPWKHFRPSUHVVRUWRWKHDLUGU\HUVKRXOGEHOHVVWKDQ
IHHWDQGWKHPLQLPXPOLQHVL]HVVKRXOGEHDVIROORZV
0LQLPXP 0LQLPXP
$SSOLFDWLRQ
/HQJWK
,'
IW
LQ
/RZ&RPSUHVVRU'XW\&\FOH$SSOLFDWLRQV
IW
LQ
+LJK&RPSUHVVRU'XW\&\FOH$SSOLFDWLRQV
/LQH,QVXODWLRQ
7RJXDUGDJDLQVWIUHH]XSVLQ/RZ'XW\&\FOHDSSOLFDWLRQVWKHGLVFKDUJHOLQHFDQEHLQVXODWHGLILWLVJUHDWHU
WKDQIHHWLQOHQJWK7KHOLQHFDQRQO\EHLQVXODWHGEDFNWRIHHWDQGDPD[LPXPRIIHHW)RUH[DPSOHLI
WKHOLQHLVIHHWLQVXODWHWKH¿WWLQJDQGWKHODVWRQHIRRWRIWKHOLQH,IWKHOLQHLVIHHWLQVXODWHWKH¿WWLQJDQG
WKHODVWIHHWRIWKHOLQH
29
Appendix B: Continued
Bulletin No.: TCH-008-021
Effective Date: 3/5/2010
Page: 2 of 2
System Leakage
Check the air brake system for excessive air leakage using the Bendix “Dual System Air Brake Test and Check
List” (BW1279). Excessive system leakage causes the compressor to “pump” more air and also reduce the life
of the air dryer desiccant cartridge.
Reservoir Draining (System without an Air Dryer)
Routine reservoir draining is the most basic step in reducing the possibility of freeze-up. All reservoirs in a
brake system can accumulate water and other contamination and must be drained! The best practice is to
drain all reservoirs daily if the air brake system does not include an air dryer. When draining reservoirs; turn
the ENGINE OFF and drain ALL AIR from the reservoir, better still, open the drain cocks on all reservoirs and
leave them open over night to assure all contamination is drained (reference Service Data Sheet SD-04-400 for
Bendix Reservoirs). If automatic drain valves are installed, check their operation before the weather turns cold
(reference Service Data Sheet SD-03-2501 for Bendix® DV-2™ Automatic Drain Valves). It should be noted that,
while the need for daily reservoir draining is eliminated through the use of an automatic drain valve, periodic
manual draining is still required.
Reservoir Draining (System with an Air Dryer)
Daily reservoir draining should not be performed on systems with an air dryer. This practice will cause the dryer
to do excessive work (i.e. build pressure from 0-130 psi instead of the normal 110-130 psi).
Alcohol Evaporator or Injector Systems
Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC discourages the use of alcohol in the air brake system as a means
of preventing system freeze-up in cold temperatures. Studies indicate that using alcohol and alcohol based
products sold for this purpose removes the lubrication from the components of the air braking system. In
addition, the materials used for the internal seals of the air system components may be adversely impacted
by the residue that some anti-freeze additives leave behind. Both are detrimental to air system component life
expectancy, causing premature wear. Because of this, Bendix® air system components warranty will be void if
analysis shows that alcohol was added to the air brake system.
Alcohol is not an acceptable substitute for having adequate air drying capacity. If the air dryer is maintained in
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended practices and moisture is found to be present in the system
reservoirs, more drying capacity is required. Bendix has several viable options including extended purge air
dryers, extended purge tandem dryers in parallel with common control, and air dryers arranged to provide
continuous ow as with the Bendix® EverFlow® continuous ow air dryer module. To address concerns with
contaminants in trailer air brake systems, the Bendix® Cyclone DuraDrain™ water separator and the Bendix®
System-Guard® trailer air dryer are available. Refer to Bendix Technical Bulletin TCH-008-042 “Alcohol in the
Air Brake System” for additional information.
Air Dryers
Make certain air brake system leakage is within the limits stated in BW1279. Check the operation and function
of the air dryer using the appropriate Service Data Sheet for the air dryer.
Air Dryer
Service Data Sheet
®
SD-08-2403
®
AD-4 air dryer
SD-08-2407
AD-9® air dryer
SD-08-2412
AD-IP® air dryer
SD-08-2414
AD-IS® air dryer
SD-08-2418
AD-2 air dryer
®
®
AD-IS EverFlow air dryer
®
AD-SP air dryer
SD-08-2415
Cyclone DuraDrain™ water separator
SD-08-2402
PuraGuard QC system lter
SD-08-187B
®
®
Trailer System-Guard air dryer
30
SD-08-2417
SD-08-2416
Bendix literature is
available to order or
download on Bendix.com
Appendix B: Continued
Technical Bulletin
Bulletin No.: TCH-008-022
Subject: Additional
Effective Date: 1/1/1994
Page: 1 of 1
Cold Weather Operation Tips for the Air Brake System
Last year we published Bulletin PRO-08-21 which provided some guidelines for “winterizing” a
vehicle air brake system. Here are some additional suggestions for making cold weather vehicle
operation just a little more bearable.
Thawing Frozen Air Lines
The old saying; “Prevention is the best medicine” truly applies here! Each year this activity accounts
for an untold amount of unnecessary labor and component replacement. Here are some Do’s and
Don’ts for prevention and thawing.
Do’s
1. Do maintain freeze prevention devices to prevent road calls. Don’t let evaporators or injectors run
out of methanol alcohol or protection will be degraded. Check the air dryer for proper operation
and change the desiccant when needed.
2. Do thaw out frozen air lines and valves by placing the vehicle in a warmed building. This is the
only method for thawing that will not cause damage to the air system or its components.
3. Do use dummy hose couplings on the tractor and trailer.
4. Do check for sections of air line that could form water traps. Look for “drooping” lines.
Don’ts
1. Do not apply an open flame to air lines and valves. Beyond causing damage to the internal
nonmetallic parts of valves and melting or burning non-metallic air lines. WARNING: THIS
PRACTICE IS UNSAFE AND CAN RESULT IN VEHICLE FIRE!
2. Do not introduce (pour) fluids into air brake lines or hose couplings (“glad hands”). Some fluids
used can cause immediate and severe damage to rubber components. Even methanol alcohol,
which is used in Alcohol Evaporators and Injectors, should not be poured into air lines. Fluids
poured into the system wash lubricants out of valves, collect in brake chambers and valves and
can cause malfunction. Loss of lubricant can affect valve operating characteristics, accelerate
wear and cause premature replacement.
3. Do not park a vehicle outside after thawing its air system indoors. Condensation will form in the
system and freeze again. Place the vehicle in operation when it is removed to the outdoors.
Supporting Air and Electrical Lines
Make certain tie wraps are replaced and support brackets are re-assembled if removed during routine
maintenance. These items prevent the weight of ice and snow accumulations from breaking or
disconnecting air lines and wires.
Automatic Drain Valves (System without Air Dryer)
As we stated last year, routine reservoir draining is the most basic step (although not completely
effective) in reducing the possibility of freeze-up. While automatic drain valves relieve the operator
of draining reservoirs on a daily basis, these valves MUST be routinely checked for proper operation.
Don’t overlook them until they fail and a road call is required.
31
BW2398 © 2010 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC, a member of the Knorr-Bremse Group • All rights reserved • 11/2010
32
Printed on recycled paper
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement