engine drive 134a system
148 Old Concord Turnpike, BARRINGTON, NH 03825 USA TEL (603) 868-5720
FAX (603) 868-1040
E-Mail:[email protected]
1-800-435-6708
www.seafrost.com
ENGINE DRIVE 134A SYSTEM
OPERATION & INSTALLATION
INSTRUCTIONS
NOTICE OF RESPONSIBILITY
It is the SEA FROST intent to provide the safest, most accurate and detailed
instructions. SEA FROST cannot be responsible for problems or damage caused by
omissions, inaccuracy or interpretation of these instructions.
SEA FROST is a registered trademark
Revised 2002
Aspects of the SEA FROST design are covered by
US Patent #4,356,708
12th Edition
134
Copyright © 1992
1
START UP PROCEDURE
For
RECENTLY COMMISSIONED
SEA FROST ENGINE DRIVE SYSTEMS
ATTENTION new SEA FROST owner or operator! PLEASE DO NOT OPERATE THE
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM UNTIL YOU READ THIS.
WARNING! Your SEA FROST System can be severely damaged and your warranty will
be invalid if these steps are not followed closely. Please read the information here before
proceeding to operate your system for the first time.
BREAK-IN PERIOD. LIMIT COMPRESSOR RUNNING TIMES TO THIRTY MINUTES
FOR THE FIRST TWO HOURS OF OPERATION. THIS SHOULD BE FOUR
SEPARATE THIRTY-MINUTE OPERATIONS WITH A REST PERIOD OF AN HOUR
OR MORE BETWEEN THEM. DURING THIS BREAK IN PERIOD KEEP THE ENGINE
SPEEDS TO BELOW 1200 RPM.
1. Locate the SEA FROST Receiver/Filter/Drier (RFD). The location of this part
varies from boat to boat, but it is often found in the engine compartment, in a
locker, or beneath the cabin sole. It is a blue metal can about 9 inches high and
3 inches in diameter, with brass fittings connecting it to copper tubing. If you do
not locate the RFD quickly, follow the route of refrigeration copper tubing, from
the engine compartment to the icebox. Along the route you will find the RFD,
along with other SEA FROST components. The RFD has a sight glass for
viewing the flow of refrigerant.
2. Start the boat's engine. Check to be sure the engine is pumping water.
3. Locate the SEA FROST Control Panel. With the engine running at a fast idle (900
to 1200 rpm), and while looking into the sight glass in the RFD, have a helper
turn the Panel Timer knob past "10" to cock the switch and start the compressor.
The engine should load, slowing slightly.
4. MONITOR THE SIGHT GLASS CONTINUALLY. White FOAM should appear in
the sight glass indicating that refrigerant is present. This foam may disappear
quite quickly, but IF NO FOAM IS EVIDENT, that is, if the sight glass does not
show presence white high speed foam within a minute of operation, the system is
flat. DO NOT CONTINUE TO OPERATE THE SYSTEM. OPERATION IN THIS
MODE WILL RUIN THE COMPRESSOR. Switch off the 12-volt panel breaker to
prevent operation until the problem is corrected. CALL US AT 603-868-5720.
2
5. If white foam is evident watch closely for a transition from foam to clear: a clear
sight glass indicates a sufficiently charged system. This point can be missed if
proper attention is not given. A FULL SIGHT GLASS AND AN EMPTY GLASS
LOOK THE SAME! It is possible for the sight glass to show large, almost
stationary bubbles even when the charge is sufficient, so it is important to
differentiate between "foam" and larger bubbles. The foam condition has
velocity and direction, but the larger bubbles are nearly stationary. If the
foam does not clear, the system is low on charge. CALL US AT 603-868-5720 for
trouble shooting and correction help.
There are three conditions of charge indicated by the sight glass:
•
•
•
A black or clear glass and no cooling indicates no charge. Turn off the
compressor at once.
A white foaming glass and some cooling indicates the system is undercharged
or has lost charge. Refer to the manual regarding leak checking and adding
charge.
A black glass and proper cooling indicates all is well.
RFD SIGHT GLASS DETAIL
EMPTY OR CLEAR
STATIONARY BUBBLES
FOAM/LOW
6. Feel the SEA FROST Plate in the icebox five minutes after engaging the timer
switch. If the sight glass clears yet the plate temperature does not drop after 5
minutes of operation, turn off the system and CALL US AT 603-868-5720.
7. If the proper charge is indicated, make ice and go sailing.
Inspecting the sight glass periodically for several weeks after a new installation and
every time after a lay period is assurance that your Sea Frost system is assembled
properly and is a good maintenance habit.
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OPERATION
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
ICE MAKING
MAINTENANCE
ZINC, CONDENSER: SKETCH
HOW REFRIGERATION WORKS
INSTALLATION
WORK HABITS
TUBE HANDLING, CUTTING, BENDING
COMPRESSOR, INSTALLATION
PULLEY MOUNTING
BELTS, COMPRESSOR
CONDENSER
BLOCK
VALVE UNIT
SWAGELOCK FITTINGS, MAKE-UP & RECONNECTING
RECONNECTING PRE-SWAGGED FITTINGS
HOSE-TO-COMPRESSOR FITTINGS
RUNNING THE LINES; RFD POSITIONING; INSULATING LINES
RFD (RECEIVER FILTER DRYER)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM; WIRING; CONTROL PANEL; TIMER
WIRING DIAGRAM
ASSEMBLY INSPECTION CHECK LIST
REFRIGERANT HANDLING
ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM; SERVICE PORTS
CAPPING A CAN OF REFRIGERANT
CHARGE HOSE; VENTING THE CHARGE
CHANGING CANS; GAUGES
LEAK CHECKING
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
READING THE SIGHT GLASS
PROPER CHARGE AMOUNT: MAXIMUM CHARGE
DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING
TROPICAL OPERATION MAINTENANCE
PRESSURE CHARTS
4
5
5
7
8
9
10
11-30
11
12
12-13
14
14
15
16-17
17
19-20
21
22
23-25
25
26-27
27
28
29
30-31
32
32
32
32-34
34-35
35-36
36
38
39-40
41
43-45
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The SEA FROST Engine Drive is a cold storage refrigeration system powered by the
boat's engine. Cold storage is attained by rapidly freezing the solution contained in the
plate, creating a captive (replenishable) block of ice. The system uses a compressor
belt-driven by the boat's engine. The compressor has an electromagnetic clutch
controlled by the timer switch on the SEA FROST control panel. Refrigerant from the
compressor is piped to the SEA FROST plate in the icebox.
BREAK IN PERIOD
REFER TO THE START UP PROCEDURE IN THE BEGINNING OF THIS MANUAL.
EVERY TIME THE SYSTEM IS RESTARTED FROM WARM, CHECK TO BE SURE IT IS
COOLING BEFORE OPERATING THE COMPRESSOR EXTENSIVELY. THIS IS YOUR
SYSTEM. SIMPLE OBSERVATIONS OF YOUR SYSTEM AND OPERATING CAUTION
WILL PREVENT DAMAGE.
OPERATION
STEP 1.
To operate the system, the engine must be running. This system is water-cooled and
relies on water being pumped by the engine. Water flow is most important, therefore
CHECK THE WATER FLOW FROM THE BOAT'S EXHAUST BEFORE OPERATION.
STEP 2. THE TIMER CONTROL
The system may be operated at any engine speed and is not affected by heel angle.
When not under way, a fast idle will give good performance. TURN the control panel
timer switch clockwise past "10" to cock the switch. From this "10" position, the switch
may be overridden to "OFF" or advanced to the desired running time. The spring
wound timer will turn off automatically. When the timer is started, the red lamp will go
on and the engine should see a slight rpm drop (larger engines will be less affected).
Within 5 minutes you will notice the plates getting cold.
WARNING: After 5 minutes of operation, check for a drop in the plate temperature by
feeling the plate with your hand. If no noticeable cooling has occurred, turn off the
panel timer switch. Check the charge level (Checking the Refrigerant Charge) and
check the water flow from the exhaust. TO PROTECT THE COMPRESSOR, DO NOT
OPERATE the system if this temperature drop is not noted. CALL US AT 603-8685720.
5
After about one half hour, the plate will become very cold. The maximum cold storage
is generally attained within an hour.
Starting from warm will require more running than the normal refreezing time of the
plate in its usable temperature range.
The concept of the SEA FROST system is to create as much frozen material in the plate
as fast as possible. This "coldness" then keeps the cabinet cold. Daily running times
are based on the time needed to freeze enough of the plate to maintain proper cooling.
The plate must be frozen. Chilling the plate without freezing it will not provide any
holdover. You will learn about the daily time required for SEA FROST operation by
using the system.
Note: Maximum holdover time will be obtained when the cabinet and contents are at
their lowest temperatures and the plate is frozen solid. There is no limit to "on" time
however, no advantage is gained by running the system beyond this point and in
refrigeration applications over running will freeze items. Experiment with two shorter
periods a day over one long run once per day.
Holdover time is effected by cabinet size, cabinet insulation, contents added to be
cooled, cabinet opening and closing, and climate. Freezer systems will generally
require operation twice a day.
A SUGGESTION.
As soon as the engine has stopped or the timer has run out, the plate will begin to warm
up as it absorbs heat, cooling the icebox. You might decide that it is a good idea to run
the unit in the last minutes of the day to provide ice for drinks. Short periods of
operation whenever the engine is on for other purposes will be beneficial. Maximum
storage will require that the plate be frozen. The plate may thaw and still not require
running in refrigeration applications. Monitor the box temperature.
Two shorter periods a day may be better than a long one once a day. When the
holdover freezing is complete the benefit of running is only to delay warming. (There is
some help in that cooling of the contents of the box will increase holdover time but heat
("cold") moves slowly and it will be more efficient to wait and run again later.)
Experimentation will provide the best instruction on how the SEA FROST should be
operated on your boat.
DEFROSTING will be required. A heavy layer of frost or ice will reduce cooling. This is
very important in freezers. The plates may be defrosted by scraping the face with an
ice scraper or spatula. Warm water may be used.
6
ICE MAKING
With the Block System or Flat Mounted Plates
Making ice in plastic self-closing bags will prevent spilling and make large amounts of
ice. A good method is to use a bag within a bag. Fill the inner bag with water, seal it,
and dry off the outside surface. The outer bag should be wetted to freeze it to the
Block. Because the Block freezes quickly, trays and bags hold fast. When the ice is
ready, the inner bag may be easily removed. Hit the frozen bag with a winch handle to
break it up.
If the Block is well frosted, it may be necessary to allow the top surface of the Block to
defrost before operating the system to make ice. If the Block is well frozen several
batches of ice can be made without operating the compressor. By the same token ice
making doesn't require compressor operation for the whole period ice is forming.
With Vertical Trays (on Vertical Plate Systems)
Fill the vertical trays with water and hang them on the stainless steel rod on the face of
the plate. Try to get some water between the tray and the plate surface to increase the
thermal contact to speed freezing.
The trays may take time to freeze after the plate is frozen and the engine compressor
has been switched off.
Plan to wait for the trays to thaw in a sink or away from the plate in the refrigerator.
When the outside surface is wet invert the tray and let the ice slide out.
After ice has been made and harvested, store it in sealable plastic bags in the
refrigerator or freezer. Leaving the ice in trays in contact with the plate will allow the ice
to melt if the plate goes above freezing.
7
MAINTENANCE
Like your engine, your SEA FROST needs periodic checking.
ROUTINELY CHECK:
1. The refrigerant charge. (Checking the Refrigerant Charge) NEVER OPERATE
SYSTEM WITHOUT PROPER CHARGE!
2. Check belt tension and condition
3. Periodically tighten compressor mounting bracket bolts.
4. Check the condenser zinc. FAILURE TO MAINTAIN THE ZINC ANODE WILL
CAUSE EXTENSIVE DAMAGE TO THE SYSTEM!
5. Check all components, bilge and engine room fittings for corrosion and wear. BE
SURE TO LOCATE AND INSPECT ALL FITTINGS AND COMPONENTS IN
THE SYSTEM. KNOW THE LOCATION OF ALL CONNECTION POINTS.
Spray with a rust inhibitor REGULARLY. Corrosion unchecked in the marine
environment will severely reduce the life of your system.
6. Winter storage will require that the water-cooled condenser be drained or flushed
and filled with antifreeze solution to avoid freeze damage. If the condenser is to
be left dry flushing with a large amount of fresh water to remove salt deposits is
recommended.
7. For tropical lay up, flush fresh water through the condenser.
CLEANING
The plate surface protects itself with a layer of oxidation. You might find after a long
period of storage the plate will look chalky. This will not effect operation and is easily
cleaned up with a pot scrubber and soap.
TROPICAL OPERATION MAINTENANCE
A system that has operated in the tropics or is in service in the tropics may need to have
the condenser cleaned with muriatic acid. Refer to the data sheet on page 47.
8
DETAIL OF CONDENSER ZINC ASSEMBLY
To change the zinc, first close the engine
seacock. Using a 7/16” and 11/16” openend wrenches, hold the brass plug and
remove the outer nut. Carefully bend the
ground strap away from the plug. Remove
the plug. Water will drain from the
condenser (or drain the condenser by
removing a hose down stream.) Compare
the old zinc to a new zinc. Using pliers hold
the zinc and unscrew the plug. If the zinc
breaks in the brass plug, heat the plug
holder with a propane torch to melt the
remaining zinc. Thread the new zinc into
the plug. Snug with pliers making sure that
the zinc is not cracked or stressed by over
tightening. Use a pipe thread sealant on the
plug thread. BE AWARE THAT THIS IS A
TAPERED PIPE THREAD. Thread the plug
into the condenser housing about 3/4 of the
length of the plug. This should seal the
connection. EXCESSIVE TIGHTENING
WILL CRACK THE CONDENSER
HOUSING. Open the seacock and check
for leaks. Reassemble the ground strap,
and nut. NOTE: This is an electrical
connection; the brass plug and the ground
strap should be free of corrosion and
oxidation. The final assembly should be
sprayed corrosion block, T-9, or similar rust
inhibitor.
9
HOW REFRIGERATION WORKS
There are two important concepts to understand in order to learn about refrigeration.
They are latent heat and phase changes. A great deal of heat is required to change a
solid to a liquid, and a liquid to a gas. A great deal of heat must be removed to reverse
these changes. These changes are called phase changes, or changes of state. The
heat removed or added at these phase changes has no effect on the temperature of the
substances until the change is complete. For instance, ice melts at 32 degrees F.
Water freezes at 32 degrees F. Ice and water will remain at 32 degrees F until the
freezing or melting process is complete. Latent heat is this hidden energy required to
make or break the bonds in a phase change.
By evaporating liquid to a gas, we can absorb heat. By condensing a gas to a liquid, we
give up heat. Refrigeration is the use of these phase changes to move heat out of the
icebox (cooling it).
We all know that cold is the absence of heat. A practical example of heat absorption by
evaporation is rubbing alcohol evaporating in your hand and cools your hands. The
alcohol is actually using the heat from your hand to boil. The absorption of heat cools
your hand.
Pressure affects the temperature at which a gas phase change will occur. Using water
as an example, water boils at sea level at 212 F. On top of Mt. Everest it boils at a
much lower temperature. The air pressure is lower allowing the water-to-steam phase
change to occur more easily. A pressure cooker increases the pressure on water to
restrict boiling to a higher temperature. A pressure cooker will cook food faster because
the temperature is higher. Remember that a phase change involves latent heat. The
temperature of boiling water is only 212 F at sea level. The evaporation action is
absorbing heat at a rate equal to the rate of heat applied, preventing further temperature
rise.
R-134a will boil at minus 15 degrees F at sea level. By evaporating liquid R-134a in the
SEA FROST plate, heat is absorbed making refrigerant vapor. To dispose of this heat,
a condensing phase change is necessary. By increasing the pressure (compressing)
we can raise the boiling point of the refrigerant vapor at the condenser. Seawater
passing the condenser coils removes the heat, forcing the vapor to a liquid state again.
Pressure, therefore, is the key that allows passing the heat we have taken from the
icebox to a warmer place (the sea water) and converting the vapor to liquid to be reevaporated again. By causing R-134a to boil (evaporate) in the SEA FROST plate, we
use the heat energy there. This activity cools the liquid solution within the plate,
causing it to change phase (freezing to a solid). By freezing this solution, we have
increased it's heat absorption capacity more than 100 times. When the cycle is stopped
(the compressor is turned off) the frozen plate will begin to absorb the heat that leaks
through the insulation in the icebox. The absorption will be at a constant temperature
until the phase change to liquid (melting) is complete. This is the principle of holdover
refrigeration and the function of your SEA FROST.
10
INSTALLATION
Work Habits
Installer's care should be stressed. No matter how good SEA FROST equipment is, it's
performance and life are in the hands of the installer. To insure your work:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Read this manual.
Reread any aspect you don't understand.
Follow Swagelok instructions carefully.
Install the RFD last and the same day the system is charged.
Spend enough time leak-checking to be sure there are no leaks.
Thanks from all of us who have to guarantee your work.
Two contaminants will give you problems in a refrigeration system. They are WATER
and DIRT. Moisture in the air is always present and cannot be eliminated; water in this
case refers to puddles and drops. Dirt is any solid. The installer's habits are important
in ensuring a trouble-free start-up. We have added a large receiver filter drier (RFD) to
take care of all dirt and moisture that might get into the system during a careful
installation. Moisture in the system is boiled off when the system is evacuated, or it is
captured in the desiccant. There is a screen in the expansion valve to prevent dirt from
plugging it.
Excess moisture that the RFD can't handle will plug the expansion valve with ice. This
ice stops the cycle. The only cure is to discharge the refrigerant, replace the RFD, reevacuate the system, and recharge it. This remedy takes time and is somewhat costly.
Keep the system clean and dry!
Tube Handling
Installation is quite simple. All the copper tube comes to you with the ends capped.
Any routing of the tubing must be done with the tube either taped or capped. Cap both
tube ends after each cut. Work with only one line at a time, and uncap only one end at
a time.
Tube Cutting
Use only a tube cutter; hacksawing or any other method will introduce chips to the
system and also distort the tube, making connections difficult and leak-prone. A
miniature cutter is essential for this work. CUT SLOWLY to avoid a ridge on the inside
of the tube. We do not recommend reaming or dressing the cut, as it is very easy to get
chips of copper in the system that will cause trouble.
11
Tube Bending
Make all but the long sweep bends with a spring or lever bender; one kink and the line
must be re-run. Don't add any more fittings than are absolutely necessary. Route all
the lines in such a way that they are most direct but out of the way. Always leave
several inches of straight undistorted tubing leading to all Swagelok fittings to allow
proper connection. Again, keep everything sealed until you are ready to make that
connection.
FIT RFD LAST
The RFD (receiver, filter, drier) should be the last component to be unpacked and fitted.
The day the system is charged.
THE COMPRESSOR
The compressor is the first component to mount when installing the SEA FROST
system.
FITTING THE COMPRESSOR TO THE BASE BRACKET
WARNING: FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE DIRECTIONS WILL CAUSE
IRREPARABLE DAMAGE TO THE COMPRESSOR AND VOID ANY CLAIMS.
12
The compressor base bracket may need to be lightly filed or sanded to properly fit
between the mounting "ears" of the compressor. It must be a perfect fit with no force
required to slide the bracket onto the compressor and yet have zero clearance
between the two parts. Forcing the compressor on to the bracket will spread the ears
cracking the compressor case. Extra space will allow the hinge bolt to work and if
tightened break the compressor ears.
If you are using an available SEA FROST engine bracket kit follow the mounting
instructions included with it. The "Compressor Posture", "Low Head" option and "Fitting
the Compressor to the Compressor Base" must be followed.
In determining the compressor location for custom brackets and off engine mounting of
the compressor consider all of the following:
COMPRESSOR POSTURE
When mounted, the compressor must not lay over more than 45 degrees from
vertical. The port fittings, the clutch coil wire, and the ground screw indicate the top of
the compressor.
Allow clearance for the compressor hoses and belt adjustment if the compressor is
mounted under the engine.
An optional low profile head is available that requires no top clearance and allows the
hoses to exit straight back. Hoses can be ordered with straight fittings.
We recommend that the compressor be driven by its own belt.
A single hi-power "A" belt is all that is required to drive the compressor
The compressor should be driven by a pulley five inches in diameter. The
compressor speed ratio should not exceed the crankshaft speed of the engine. This
ratio will give proper cooling at a fast idle and also allow operation at cruising RPM's.
The compressor will draw up to two horsepower. It should be ruggedly bolted.
The extra pulley on the compressor may be used to drive a pump or alternator.
The compressor may be mounted to a fabricated bracket that is bolted to the engine.
A jackshaft may be used to drive the compressor.
The compressor may rotate in either direction.
13
OFF-ENGINE COMPRESSOR MOUNTING
Engine motion is a torsional load, concentric around the crankshaft. At the crankshaft
center, the engine is stationary which allows off-engine mounting of the compressor.
Side loads on the clutch pulley do not affect the compressor since the construction of
the free wheel pulley puts all loads on the compressor case. This protects the
compressor bearing and shaft seal from failure and leaks from side load. The
compressor is a very smooth device and may be hard mounted on the engine beds or
other structural members attached to the hull. It will not introduce any vibration or noise
by this mounting, and in many cases a much stronger mount is possible. The drive belt
will not transmit any engine vibration to the boat. The compressor pulley and the engine
drive pulley are large and will provide plenty of belt contact without excessive tightening,
so off-mounting will not "ground-out" a flex mounted engine.
PULLEY MOUNTING ON ENGINES
IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT THE EXTRA PULLEY BE MOUNTED TO THE ENGINE
CRANK PULLEY USING LOCK WASHERS OR THREAD LOCK ADHESIVE /
SEALANT.
FAILURE TO LOCK ATTACHMENT BOLTS WILL ALLOW THE BOLTS TO LOOSEN,
CAUSING DAMAGE AND POSSIBLE DANGER FROM FLYING PARTS.
BOLTS SHOULD BE TIGHTENED TO A TORQUE SETTING RECOMMENDED FOR
THE DIAMETER AND GRADE OF BOLT BEING USED.
Recommended adhesive/sealant: Loctite 271 by Loctite corporation of Newington, CT.
and Cleveland, OH.
COMPRESSOR BELTS
Various belts are available with an "A" section (1/2"). Specify a high power belt.
Fractional horsepower belts will stretch and wear rapidly. Cogged belts and Kevlar
strand reinforced belts are available but not essential.
Belt length is measured on the back edge of a belt. An easy way to get a belt size is to
wrap masking tape around the pulleys with the compressor in the loose position. Break
the tape in one place and peel it off. Measure the tape to get the belt length. When the
belt size is determined record the brand and part number. Each belt manufacture has a
different sizing.
14
CONDENSER
The condenser should be connected into
the raw water line to the engine after the
in-line strainer.
The SEA FROST condenser will not
restrict water flow to the engine, but be
certain to avoid restrictions in the water line
by ensuring sufficient hose ID from the
through hull to engine.
It may be connected on the discharge
side of the engine's raw water pump, be
certain it receives the full flow of the coldest
water.
It MUST be mounted vertically: the zinc
element is at the bottom
ZINC SERVICE ACCESS
The zinc anode must be accessible as periodic checking is required. For best service
access to the zinc, mount the condenser with the zinc away from the bulkhead. There
is an alternate zinc location on the bottom. Swap locations of the plastic plug and the
zinc plug. Use pipe thread sealant on the threads. Tighten carefully. (See page 9)
Water must enter the bottom of the condenser and exit the top.
Be sure water fittings are tight. A leaky water fitting may prevent engine pump
priming by leaking air into the circuit especially if the condenser is installed above the
water line.
15
BLOCK
The SEA FROST block is 6 1/4" x 9" x 13 3/4" (excluding the mounting tabs). It must
be solidly fixed within the icebox. It should be mounted high in the box to take
advantage of natural convection.
Leave 2" clearance (more is better) between the inside top of the box and the top of
the block for ice making.
The block copper tubing should exit the icebox wall to a place where the Valve Unit
(V/U) can be fitted, such as a hanging locker, sail locker, or the engine compartment.
This provides the cleanest easiest installation. There is some moisture created by the
V/U if it is not properly insulated so accessibility for insulation application must be
considered. However, if the icebox location is such that the V/U cannot be mounted
outside, it is acceptable to install it on the inside of the box. The V/U operation is not
effected by its temperature.
The block must be installed in the horizontal mode.
The mounting tab has been drilled and countersunk for 1/4" fasteners. The tab may
be drilled out for larger fasteners. Through bolting with a large backing plate of plywood
or to an existing bulkhead will distribute the load and provide a good mount.
Support may be provided by a cleat or shelf. Shelving around the block may be used
as a cold zone. However, keep in mind that air flow is required to cool all sections of
the box, so don't restrict airflow with excessive shelving.
A drilling template should be made. Drill 1-1/4" holes for the refrigerant tubes
completely through the icebox wall if the V/U is externally fitted. This allows recesses
for the white nylon bulkhead fittings on the block, and also facilitates removal of the
block without having to ruin the connection tubes by cutting the Swagelok nuts and
ferrules off, allowing clearance for the swage attached nuts. The larger holes also allow
adding a moisture seal to any wooden bulkhead that has been drilled by filling the holes
with the spray foam provided.
Note: The fittings on the back of the block are not connection points: there are no
internal joints in this system. Therefore field repairs cannot be made if the copper tubes
are damaged or cut too short.
16
PLATES
SEA FROST holdover plates mount with
a "Wellnut" expandable neoprene blind
hole fastener. See the instruction tag
packed with the plate. A template or the
part itself should be used to locate the
mounting holes. Drill 1/4" pilot holes then
increase them to 1/2". Install the screw into
the mounting tab then screw the mount onto
the screw. Install the plate pushing the
rubber mounts into the pre-drilled holes.
Tighten the screws.
PLATE LOCATION
The plate size, location, and plumbing are designed for each application. This
additional information is provided with each individual system.
VALVE UNIT V/U
For appearance and convenience of installation, the valve unit may be mounted
outside the icebox. In certain applications and multiple plate systems it may be best to
mount it inside. Location of the V/U in multiple plate systems is indicated in the design
layout from our application engineer.
On an externally mounted V/U two 1/2" Swagelok fittings fasten the V/U to tubing
protruding through the icebox wall. Before cutting the tubing:
1. Leave a minimum of 1 1/4" of tube beyond the bulkhead.
2. Allow room for wrench access.
On any installation:
The Valve Unit may be mounted in any position.
90-degree elbows can be factory installed on the Valve Unit to reduce the space
requirements if necessary.
The tubing will support the Valve Unit.
The tubing must bottom in the fitting. A pencil mark 1" from the tube end should be
flush with the fitting nut face when the tube is seated in the fitting.
17
The V/U will attract moisture. If it is mounted externally to the cabinet be sure it is
accessible for proper insulation installation after the system has been leak checked and
operationally tested.
For final installation the V/U see the Swagelok text.
SUCTION PRESSURE UNIT ~ S/P/U
The S/P/U is an epoxy cast rectangular block measuring 4" X 5 1/2" and 2" thick. This
part contains the system access ports for charging and servicing the system. The
access ports are located between the tube connection fittings. The tube connections
are 1/2" and 1/4".
The S/P/U is connected into the 1/2" tubing 1' to 4' from the compressor suction hose
end. The 1/4" line from the RFD connects to the S/P/U. Then continues to the V/U.
(See the drawing on page 24.)
The S/P/U may be positioned as is convenient (sideways, upside down, vertical,
horizontal.) The tubing has no directional requirement (input on left side or right side.)
When mounting the S/P/U, position the insulation foam wrap behind it first. This
insulation will then be wrapped around the section nearest the 1/2" tubing to prevent
sweating.
INSTALLATION RULES FOR THE S/P/U
The S/P/U must be connected 1 to 4 feet from the suction hose end. (Extending this
distance may reduce the performance of the system.)
The tubing connected to the S/P/U must
be routed allowing room for the 134-A
service valves to connect to the ports
between the tube connectors. The service
valves will require 4" of clear space on
each end of the S/P/U.
The S/P/U must be insulated to prevent
unwanted moisture from collecting and
dripping.
18
NOTES ON SWAGELOK FITTINGS
Swagelok fittings come to you completely assembled, finger-tight. (Pieces a,b, and c in
Drawing #1 are already together). They are ready for immediate use.
Disassembly before use can result in dirt and foreign material getting into the fitting and
causing leaks and you also risk damaging the threads if nuts are removed. If
disassembly is necessary, reassemble per drawing.
This is a double ferrule system. The most serious installation problem encountered with
SEA FROST is the improper assembly of these fittings. Be absolutely sure that you
assemble all fittings as in Drawing #1.
To ease assembly slacken the fitting nut slightly before assembly. Then retighten with
fingers before tightening with a wrench. (This is to avoid cross threading.)
Step 1. Always leave two inches of straight, undistorted tubing leading to all Swagelok
fittings to allow proper connection.
Step 2. Prior to inserting 1/2" tubing into the Swagelok tube fitting, make a pencil mark
1" from end of tube. Prior to inserting 3/8" tubing, make a pencil mark 3/4" from the end
of the tube. With 1/4" tubing make a mark 5/8" from the end.
Step 3. Insert clean, smooth tubing with the pencil mark into the Swagelok tube fitting.
You can be sure the tube is resting firmly on the shoulder of the fitting when the pencil
mark is flush with the nut. This mark will also indicate that the tube has not moved
before tightening. (As the fitting is tightened the space from the pencil mark to the
shoulder will increase.)
Step 4. Tighten the Swagelok nut to a wrench snug* position. Scribe the nut with a
pencil at the 6:00 o'clock position (see drawing #1, step # 2).
* Wrench snug is the first point in the assembly tightening when the tube cannot be
pulled from the fitting, (i.e. when the ferrules tighten enough to contact the tubing).
Step 5. Now, while holding the fitting body with a back-up wrench, tighten the nut oneand-one-quarter turns ( 1-1/4). To do so, watch the scribe mark, make one complete
revolution, and continue to the 9:00 o'clock position. (See drawing #1, step #3).
19
DRAWING 1
STEP 1
Simply insert the tubing into the
SWAGELOK tube fitting. Make sure that
the tubing rest firmly on the shoulder of
the fitting and that the nut is wrench
snug.
STEP 2
Before tightening the SWAGELOK nut,
scribe the nut at the six o'clock position.
STEP 3
Now, while holding the fitting body steady
with a backup wrench, tighten the nut 1 1/4
turns. Watch the scribe mark, make one
complete revolution and continue to the 9
o'clock position. By scribing the nut at the 6
o'clock position as it appears to you, there
will be no doubt as to the starting position.
When tightened 1 1/4 turns to the 9 o'clock
position you can easily see that the fitting
has been properly installed.
20
SWAGELOK FITTINGS ARE TO BE TIGHTENED TO A TORQUE SPEC, NOT INFINITE
TIGHTNESS. BE SURE YOUR STARTING POINT IS WRENCH SNUG. A DISTORTED
TUBE MIGHT GIVE A FALSE STARTING POINT.
* When making all connections, USE TWO WRENCHES. Don't allow the fittings to turn
or twist when tightening.
RECONNECTING PRE-SWAGED FITTINGS
Connections can be disconnected and retightened many times.
When reconnecting, insert the tubing with pre-swaged ferrules into the fitting until the
front ferrule seats in the fitting. Tighten the nut by hand. After tightening to wrench
snug, rotate the nut about one-quarter turn with a wrench.
SWAGELOK PERFORMANCE
Swagelok fittings have built-in spring interaction between the ferrules. This
compensates for temperature changes and allows the fittings to be reconnected many
times. As the fitting is tightened, a burnishing occurs between the body of the fitting and
the ferrules and between the ferrules and the tube. This action provides the tightest
connection available.
21
HOSE TO COMPRESSOR FITTINGS
REMOVE THE PLASTIC CAPS FROM COMPRESSOR PORTS.
To install a tube "O" ring fitting on the compressor, inspect the hose ends to be sure
they are clean and free from burrs. Apply a drop of oil to the backside of the nut. This
will lubricate the nut to allow proper tightening. Install the proper "O" ring on the hose
fitting. Uncap the compressor port, removing the nylon cap and rubber insert plug.
Insert the correct fitting in the compressor port. Tighten the nut wrench snug. Using a
back up wrench on the compressor port, tighten one quarter of a turn more. This fitting
should feel tighter than a SWAGELOK. The elbow should not rotate when tightening is
complete.
22
RUNNING THE LINES
See the schematic diagram. Prior to making up connections see "Swagelok Fittings"
and "Hose-to-compressor Fittings" texts.
PLANNING
1) The hose assemblies connecting the compressor to the copper tubing allow for
movement of the compressor after installation to enable work on and around the engine
with out having to disconnect the system. Leave some slack in the hoses and have
both hoses directed the same way to allow compressor movement as necessary for
access to anticipated repair areas. Hoses without adequate slack will cause failure of
the fittings from engine vibration.
2) Keep tube runs as short as possible. The suction (return) line should be as direct as
possible with a minimum number of bends.
3) THE RFD IS FITTED WITH A SIGHT GLASS. THIS GLASS MUST BE VISABLE
FOR CHARGING AND SERVICING THE SYSTEM. It can be viewed from the top at up
to a 45-degree angle but not from the bottom or side. (A mirror installed above the
glass is one way of saving a poorly planned installation. Avoid this if possible.) Be sure
the sight glass is easily visible!
Observe the inlet/outlet on RFD when mounting it. The glass is offset toward the outlet.
The 3/8" (larger) connector accepts the line from the condenser. The 1/4" (smaller)
fitting connects to the line leading to the S/P/U. The RFD should be unpacked and
installed only after all the lines are run and all other fittings are made.
23
4) Helpful tools.
Coil spring-type tube benders are available for 3/8"-1/2" O.D. tube. These springs are
slid over the tube. The bend is formed in the spring then the spring is removed by
unscrewing.
Mini tube cutter: "IMP" by Gould Imperial requires less than 1 1/2" radius clearance
for the cut. This is essential to trim the block or plate tubing.
LINE CONNECTION PLAN
The compressor hose with the smaller elbow fitting, attaches to the discharge side of
the compressor. The other end of the hose has a 3/8" Swagelok fitting. A 3/8" tube
goes from the hose to the top of the condenser. From the bottom of the condenser, 3/8"
tube runs to the RFD. From the RFD, 1/4" tube goes to the Suction Pressure Unit
(S/P/U). From the S/P/U, 1/4" tube connects to the V/U. The return line from the V/U is
1/2" tube to the S/P/U. From the S/P/U, 1/2" tube returns to the Swagelok-to-hose
fitting. The compressor hose then returns to the compressor.
NOTE: It is best to install the S/P/U in the direct line of the 1/2" tube path. The 1/4"
liquid line path is easily doubled back through the S/P/U on its way from the RFD to the
V/U.
RFD (Receiver Filter Drier)
DO NOT OPEN THE RFD UNTIL ALL THE OTHER CONNECTIONS HAVE BEEN
MADE AND YOU ARE READY TO COMMISSION THE SYSTEM.
Because the RFD contains desiccant to absorb moisture
and the absorption is limited, it is important to unpack
and install it after all other connections are made.
Leaving the RFD installed on a partially open system
may reduce its capacity by allowing it to absorb moisture
in free air before the system is sealed.
The RFD is a reservoir for excess refrigerant. The RFD
also contains a sight glass in the top. (Please refer to the
planning section regarding location and "readability" of
the sight glass) A pick-up tube extends from the bottom
of the canister to the outlet. For proper function of the
reservoir, the RFD must be VERTICAL to ensure proper
operation at various heel angles.
24
MOUNTING THE RFD
The inlet is 3/8" from the condenser and the 1/4" connection is toward the S/P/U. The
sight glass is offset on the RFD toward the outlet. The RFD is mounted using the
smaller plastic bracket and a plastic tie wrap. Tie wraps with screws should be used to
support the tubes.
INSULATING THE LINES
Insulating should be the last step after leak testing because it will cover fittings that must
be leak-checked. On long uninterrupted lengths of tubing the insulation can be slipped
over the tube before attaching Swagelok fittings. Insulation should be installed only on
dry lines, and only after spraying with Krylon clear coat.
The suction return line is cold and will attract moisture (as frost) when running. The
suction return line includes all the exposed 1/2" tubing and the larger fittings. The entire
V/U will also frost as well as the section of the S/P/U connected to 1/2" tubing. It is
important to insulate the 1/2" line, the V/U, SPU, and all the fittings along the line to
prevent moisture from gathering.
INSTALL THE INSULATION IN A MANNER THAT WILL NOT TRAP WATER AROUND
A LOW POINT. Trapping salty bilge water in the insulation will reduce the operating life
of tubing and fittings. If the insulation is split and wrapped over the tube, install it with
the split side down.
Tubing within the icebox need not be insulated.
Closed cell foam is provided to insert the tube into, or to split and wrap onto the tubes
that are impossible to feed into the insulation. The foam wrap should be taped with
vinyl electrician's tape
TIE WRAPS
Tie wraps should be used to support the wiring, tubing, and insulation. There is a screw
hole in the end of each wrap that is used for mounting. Loosely loop the wrap, mount
the screw loosely, snug the wrap, tighten the screw, and trim the excess. Be sure not
to leave a sharp edge that might cut someone.
25
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The electrical system for the SEA FROST system includes a Control Panel comprised
of a timer switch, pilot light, circuit breaker, and a high pressure cutout switch in the
S/P/U.
CONTROL PANEL LOCATION
In choosing a location for the control panel, find the best location within the cabin
nearest the cockpit and engine controls. The panel is not waterproof. The system may
want to be activated whenever the engine is run.
OPERATION
With 12 volts DC available to the panel, turning the timer clockwise will engage the
compressor clutch, indicated by the pilot light. The unit can be shut off by turning the
timer to "O" or shutting off the 12-volt supply. In the latter case, the timer will run down
by itself. If the system is turned on when the engine is off, the compressor clutch will
engage, but no cooling will take place. The light will come on, and normal operating
current will be drawn from the battery.
AMPERAGE DRAW
The compressor clutch will draw 3 to 3.5 amps per hour at 12 volts when the timer is
operated. (A 24-volt system will draw 1.5 to 1.75 amps per hour.) The timer panel
breaker is rated at 7 amps and the wire is rated to about 20 amps. The supply to the
timer should have at least a ten-amp breaker.
Because the compressor is switched on only when the engine is on, no power is
consumed from the batteries.
TIMER
The timer is a spring wound device that must be "cocked" in order for it to disconnect
when it returns to the "off" position. For this reason, it is necessary to turn it clockwise
past "10". After the timer is cocked, it may be set to any time reading and may be
manually overridden to "off".
26
WIRING
The electrical system is shown in the diagram. The red wire is connected to a source of
12 volts DC and should be protected by a fuse or breaker of 10 to 15 amps. The blue
wire is the power to the compressor clutch, and is connected to the black wire on the
compressor with a butt connector. The brown wires are connected to the S/P/U by
using crimp type insulated female connectors. Connect the white wire to the phillips
head screw on the compressor (adjacent to the black feed wire) along with the 3 ft.
white wire in the kit. This 3 ft. white wire is run to the engine block and is connected to
a suitable bolt using the 3/8" ring terminal provided. All wires should be routed after the
panel is installed and supported every 18" (minimum). Leave enough slack in the wire
behind the panel to allow removal of the panel for service. Wires may be tied into
existing wire ways. Cut off any excess wire before making the connector.
27
DISPLACING OIL IN NEWLY INSTALLED COMPRESSOR
The compressor is shipped with the proper amount of oil for the system. THE OIL MUST
BE DISPLACED FROM THE CYLINDERS BEFORE THE COMPRESSOR MAY BE
TURNED BY THE BOAT’S ENGINE. After completing all the connections, turn the outer
face of the compressor drive disk at least five turns by hand.
ASSEMBLY INSPECTION CHECK LIST
[
] 1. Check the lines to be sure they are properly routed. Check to see that the
compressor discharge connects to the top of the condenser and the water line
enters the bottom.
[
] 2. Check that the RFD sight glass can be seen.
[
] 3. Check all the connections with wrenches to be sure they have been made up.
Refresh your knowledge by re-reading the Swagelok instructions.
[
] 4. Check the pulley and compressor bolts for tightness.
[
] 5. Check to make sure the compressor is mounted in an upright position.
[
] 6. Check the panel wiring by engaging the timer switch. The pilot lamp should
come on, and compressor clutch should click.
[
] 7. Check the neatness of the installation, sufficient service access, secure wiring,
tubing, and hoses supported to prevent damage and chafing.
[
] 8. Check the condenser zinc access to see that it is serviceable.
[
] 9. Check the service access of the S/P/U. The service access ports must allow
attachment of the connecting valves.
[
] 10. Check (after leak checking and testing) that the system is properly insulated.
28
REFRIGERANT HANDLING AND SAFETY
Do Not proceed with any aspect you do not fully understand know what results to
expect. Understand that pressure exists in refrigeration systems. Be careful.
GENERAL SAFETY THIS IS IMPORTANT. READ THIS!
R-134a is safe if handled properly. Avoid breathing vapors and prolonged skin exposure.
Avoid using in areas of open flames. The vapor is heavier than air and may reduce
oxygen available for breathing. Use with sufficient ventilation to keep exposure below
recommended limits. Do not mix with air for leak testing or use with air for any
purpose above atmospheric pressure. Liquid R-134a will freeze the skin. It’s especially
dangerous to the irreparable tissues of the eyes.
Do not pressurize an empty system with R-134a without first evacuating the
system with a vacuum pump.
NEVER operate a system with the high side (discharge) open to the refrigerant supply.
Pressurization of the refrigerant container could cause it to burst.
WARNING. When charging or working on the system with the engine running, watch
for MOVING BELTS AND PULLEYS. Loose clothes and long hair can pull you into a
belt. PLEASE BE CAREFUL.
NEVER connect or disconnect gauges to a system while the compressor is operating
PROCEDURES FOR WORKING WITH R-134a
1) A new uncharged system must be evacuated before adding R-134a.
2) An R-134a system must only be pressurized with R-134a or nitrogen.
3) Only service tools dedicated to R-134a are to be used. No parts, tubing, fittings,
receivers, dryers, service gauges, or any refrigerant carrying components may be fitted
to a R-134a system from a used system or from a CFC based system. Damage caused
by the use of parts not supplied by Sea Frost for a R-134a system will cancel all claims
against Sea Frost.
4) No oil is to be added to the engine drive system but the PAG oil supplied by Sea
Frost, labeled and capped for engine drive use. No oil is to be added to a system
with out prior consultation with Sea Frost.
5) The oils used in R-134a systems are extremely moisture sensitive (hydroscopic). Do
not leave any tube end or component connection open to air while assembling the
system. Be sure to use only new, capped copper tubing and be sure to cap the copper
coil after cutting it.
29
ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM ~ SERVICE ACCESS PORTS
The access ports are two small-capped valves on the S/P/U. The ports are labeled
"Discharge" and "Suction". These ports are the service access to the system. To
access these ports the proper connecting valve must be used.
Be sure the plastic port caps are installed tightly after charging or service. The
caps are to seal the ports. Without the caps the ports may leak.
NOTE: THIS SYSTEM IS CHARGED WITH R-134a. IT MUST BE CHARGED WITH
R-134a ONLY. ONLY DEDICATED R-134a GAUGES AND EQUIPMENT ARE TO BE
USED. ANY CONTAMINATION FROM CFC BASED REFRIGERANTS WILL
DESTROY THIS SYSTEM.
GAUGES
Gauges must be used in the evacuation and charging. They will provide information on
the operation of the system when troubleshooting.
A gauge sets consist of two gauges installed in a manifold with two hand wheel valves
and hoses to connect the gauges to the system. The left gauge (blue) is a compound
device; it indicates pressure and also vacuum. The right gauge (red) indicates pressure
only. The hand wheels open a center port (yellow) to the left or right side respectively.
Operation of the hand wheels is only necessary when moving refrigerant or evacuating.
With the hand wheels closed, the gauges read the pressures of the connection points.
At the end of the red and blue service hoses are R-134a connecting valves.
30
R-134a SERVICE CONNECTING VALVES
The R-134a connecting valves on the gauge hose ends are quick connect fittings with a
specially designed valve that when turned opens and closes the hose end while
opening the access service port.
CONNECTING GAUGES TO AN UNCHARGED SYSTEM
To connect the connecting valves to the access service ports, remove the protective
sealing caps from the S/P/U. Note that the ports are of different sizes. The larger
diameter port is the discharge side and the smaller port is the suction side. Pull back
the collar on the connecting valve and push it over the appropriate access port. Turn
the connecting valve clockwise to open. It is important to open each connecting valve
carefully. Do not force valve or turn it to it’s stop. Forcing the connecting valve will
bend the service port core valve causing a leak. During the service operation these
valves are left open. Control of refrigerant and vacuum is by the manifold hand wheels.
TO INSTALL GAUGES ON A CHARGED SYSTEM, with the system off, attach the
connecting valves to the S/P/U. Proceed to "Venting the Gauge Set".
VENTING THE GAUGE SET
If the gauge set is not fitted with sealing valves or has not been purged with refrigerant,
vent the hoses at the manifold body by opening the hand wheels to an open center
hose for a few seconds allowing some of the system refrigerant to purge the hoses of
air.
DISCONNECTING GAUGES
Disconnecting the gauge set after running the system may be done by turning off
the discharge connecting valve first. Remove the connecting valve and re-cap the port
on the S/P/U. Turn off the refrigerant supply. Both hand wheels on the manifold set
may be opened and the compressor operated to extract the refrigerant from the
manifolds. When the pressure in both gauges drops to the low side operating pressure
turn off the hand wheels and the connecting valve. Turn off the compressor. Remove
the remaining connecting valve and re-cap the access port.
Disconnecting the gauge set on a static system may be done by turning off the
connecting valves and disconnecting them from the access ports on the S/P/U. Re-cap
the access ports.
Refer to the gauge drawing on page 32.
Adding charge to a working system should be done through the suction side (blue).
31
(See Safety) The center hose is connected to the can tap. Be sure to vent the hoses to
displace any air that might be in them. Keep your gauges clean. Inspect the rubber
gaskets and "o" rings on the hose ends. Leak-check the gauge valve packing and all
hose connections. Check and reset the "O" on the low side gauge to atmospheric
pressure, if necessary.
TAPPING A CAN OF REFRIGERANT
Be sure the can of R-134a is clean and dry. Any contaminants on the top of the can or
in the hose will enter the system. Turn the can tap valve counterclockwise to retract the
piercing point, then thread the valve body onto the can. Be certain that the gasket is
present and is smooth and elastic. With the can upright, screw the valve until the point
pierces the can and the rubber gasket has sealed. The can is now tapped. The
refrigerant flow is now regulated with the can tap valve.
VENTING THE CHARGE HOSE
To avoid pulling air or other contaminants into the system, it is necessary to vent the air
from the hose that is used to carry R-134a to the system. To vent the hose, open the
can tap valve with the can upright (vapor) then loosen the center hose fitting at the
manifold. After several seconds of venting tighten the hose end fitting.
LIQUID OR VAPOR
Refrigerant is either a vapor or liquid. To supply vapor to a system, keep the refrigerant
can in the upright position. To supply liquid to the system, invert the can, valve down.
Be sure the can is handled carefully to ensure the correct refrigerant condition is
supplied.
CHANGING CANS
Close the can tap valve on the empty can. Unscrew the can from the valve. Some
pressure may be present. Let this drop before completely removing the can tap. Switch
the tap to the other can. The compressor should be turned off while changing cans.
COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE
Evacuation with a Vacuum Pump
Evacuation removes air, readying the system for charging.
Connect a gauge set to the S/P/U access ports.
Connect the gauge center hose to a high vacuum pump. Start the pump and slowly
open the suction gauge hand wheel. As the vacuum drops below 20 inches open both
hand wheels fully.
32
Evacuation Leak Test
Evacuate the system to the best vacuum (lowest pressure). Close the hand wheels to
the pump. Observe the vacuum gauge and be sure the pressure remains constant for 5
minutes. If the pressure rises rapidly check all the connections again. Re-evacuate to
the lowest pressure and test by holding a vacuum with the gauges closed. Be sure the
system will hold this vacuum. Proceed by opening the hand wheels and continuing the
evacuation process for 30 minutes or more.
The "Evacuation Leak Check" is a preliminary check and is not to be considered
a system leak check. A micron gauge can be used to measure vacuum. Proper
dehydration and evacuation should be in the range of 200 to 500 microns.
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
Introducing Initial Charge
After the evacuation leak test and pump down shut off the hand wheels, disconnect the
center hose from the pump and connect it to the refrigerant supply. Vent the hose from
the can tap (refrigerant supply) to the gauge body. With the refrigerant can (12 oz) in
the inverted (liquid) position, open the discharge hand wheel and feed in about 1/2 of a
can of refrigerant (6 to 8 ounces). Close the hand wheel and begin an inspection of all
the connections in the system. Begin leak checking.
LEAK CHECKING
Leak checking is a very important step, which should be done with diligence. A leak
will cripple this system. Please take the time needed to be sure all connections are
tight. Check every connection even the ones that were pre-made in manufacture.
The "Evacuation Leak Check" is a preliminary check and is not to be considered
a system leak check.
Leak checking a Charged System
Refrigerant in a saturated condition, part liquid and part vapor will exert a pressure that
is a function of its temperature. The higher the temperature the higher the pressure will
be. Avoid leak checking in cold weather.
A refrigerant leak will show with moderate pressure. A leak is not a function of
pressure. Pressure is only required to aid in detection.
In cold weather, it is possible to raise the pressure in the system by warming the plate
with a light bulb left in close proximity to the plate for several hours.
There are two ways to leak-check a pressurized system:
33
1. Soap bubbles (a solution of dish soap and water works well).
2. R-134a electronic leak detector (probe senses the presence of refrigerant
molecules). We recommend both procedures.
To Check with Bubbles
Soap each connection and observe all sides of the connection with a bright light and a
mirror. A leak will blow bubbles. Without careful examination and plenty of pressure
this test is not reliable.
To Check with an Electronic Detector
Use a detector designed for R-134a. Slowly trace the area with the probe. Refrigerant
is heavier than air, therefore, trace below the fitting. Most units can be calibrated to
home in on a leak. We use and recommend electronic detection. TIF brand detectors
can accurately detect leaks as low as 1/2 oz loss per year. This sensitivity exceeds
SAE leak specifications. Be sure to test the operation of the detector before and after
you leak check the system
If A Leak is Detected
Try tightening the fitting nut slightly. (See Swagelok fitting instructions) If the leak is not
stopped, it is possible that the fitting was assembled incorrectly. Discharge the system,
and then disconnect the fitting for inspection. After reassembly, proceed to the leak
check procedure.
SPECIAL NOTES
Propellants and solvents in sprays and foams may upset electronic detectors.
To confirm a leak detected with a detector use bubbles and be sure it is a leak and
not some erroneous vapor that is upsetting the machine.
Electronic detectors do not function below 40.F.
A good leak detector is able to pick up leaks as low as 1/2 oz per year.
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
1. Continue after a thorough leak check by opening the discharge hand wheel valve
with the can inverted to introduce more refrigerant. The system is designed for 24
ounces or two cans of refrigerant. Shake the can to determine the amount remaining. If
one can is accepted change cans. Install as much of the total charge as possible by
this method. Close the discharge hand wheel.
34
2. Turn the compressor drive disk several times by hand. Refer to page 29. Displacing
oil in newly installed compressor.
3. Operate the engine at 1000 to 1200 rpm. Turn on the compressor at the Sea Frost
Control Panel by turning the timer clockwise.
4. The sight glass will show a stream of foam, indicating a partial charge. Install the
balance of the total charge by opening the suction hand wheel with the refrigerant
supply in the vapor position. The new system charge should be 24 ounces. (See
READING THE SIGHT GLASS) On charging a system in temperatures over 80
degrees F. the sight glass will usually clear as the return line from the V/U becomes
frosted.
5. When the sight glass runs clear, top off with approximately 4 oz. (1/4 of can), subject
to the formula in "PROPER CHARGE AMOUNT: MAXIMUM CHARGE."
6. On a new system, turn off the compressor for several minutes after charging, and
then restart it. Run the engine at slow speed (under 1200 rpm) with several on/off
compressor operations. Allow 2 minute "off" periods between 2 to 15 minutes operating
periods. This distributes the oil. When charging is complete, stop the compressor and
allow the entire system to equalize and the fittings to dry, an hour in most conditions.
7. When observation and test operation have been complete, close the gauge
connecting valves and disconnect them from the system. Re-cap the access ports on
the SPU.
8. Re-check all the connection points for leaks with an electronic leak detector.
9. Spray the Krylon acrylic coating, or similar rust inhibitor, on all the fittings and
components when they are dry.
10. BREAK-IN PERIOD. During the first four hours of operation of a new compressor,
limit the compressor running times to thirty minutes with an hour rest period and engine
speeds to below 1200 rpm. Monitor the charge level.
READING THE SIGHT GLASS
A clear sight glass, when the compressor is operating, signifies a sufficiently charged
SEA FROST Engine Drive System. To determine the meaning of "clear", notice the
appearance of the RFD sight glass when the system is at rest with the compressor off.
This is a "clear" glass.
35
WARNING: A clear sight glass can also indicate a completely EMPTY system.
Anytime the compressor is started, white foam should appear in the sight glass
indicating that the refrigerant is present. This foam may disappear quite quickly
but, IF NO FOAM IS EVIDENT and the system is not cooling, the system is empty.
DO NOT OPERATE THE SYSTEM in this empty condition. Operation in this mode
will ruin the compressor. Turn off the main breaker to the control panel or remove
the compressor drive belt to prevent operation until the system can be properly leak
tested and recharged.
Fast moving white foam with the compressor operating indicates an insufficient charge
level. Watch closely for a transition from foam to total liquid, indicated by a clear sight
glass. This transition point can be missed if proper attention is not given. Also, it is
possible for the sight glass to show large bubbles even when the charge is sufficient, so
it is important to differentiate between "foam" and "bubbles". The foam condition has
velocity and direction; the bubbles are large, temporary, and nearly stationary. Do not
try to chase away these larger bubbles with more refrigerant; overcharging will then
occur. Air in the system may give a false sight glass reading, which could lead to
overcharging. If in doubt, discharge a suspected overcharged system to continuous
foam and slowly add refrigerant to clear the glass. MONITOR THE SIGHT GLASS
CONTINUALLY since the glass will not indicate when the system is overcharged.
In a warm system when the plate is above freezing (32.F) upon start-up, the sight glass
may take several minutes to clear. A cold system, in cold water, may show a clear
glass within seconds of start-up.
RFD SIGHT GLASS DETAIL
CLEAR OR EMPTY
STATIONARY BUBBLES
FOAM (LOW CHARGE)
PROPER CHARGE AMOUNT
THE ENGINE DRIVE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO HOLD 24 OUNCES. THIS IS EQUAL
TO 2 CANS OF R-134a AS SUPPLIED WITH THE SYSTEM. THIS IS THE MAXIMUM
CHARGE. The sight glass must clear by the time the return line (suction/large diameter
line) goes below 32 degrees F.
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GENERAL INFORMATION
OPERATING PRESSURES will vary with rpm, water temperature, and water flow.
Generally, the discharge will peak with a warm plate in two minutes. Increasing
pressure indicates an overcharge or no water flow. The suction pressure will drop to 25
psi rapidly, and will then drop two pounds per minute or faster to a slight vacuum. The
1/2" suction line will freeze and after extended operation the suction pressure will rest at
a slight vacuum. Suction pressure will drop more rapidly when the seawater is cold. A
vacuum will be indicated sooner. A deep vacuum indicates the V/U is frozen or plugged.
Failure to "pull down" indicates the V/U is malfunctioning or flooding.
The compressor case will feel warm.
The V/U has been operated prior to shipment. There are no field superheat
adjustments.
See pages 43-45 for operating pressure trend charts.
SPECIAL NOTE
WE DO NOT RECOMMEND charging SEA FROST gear with BULK CYLINDERS since
it is hard to determine how much refrigerant has been installed. The feed pressure with
a bulk cylinder can be higher which may cause skipping through the condenser, causing
bubbles in the sight glass. However, if bulk cylinders are used, keep the suction feed
pressure below 20 psi and add vapor only.
R-134a will become cloudy and indicate similar foaming in the sight glass as the
pressure on the discharge side of the systems becomes too great. Adding charge to
clear this condition will damage the compressor.
CHECKING THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE ~ PERIODIC INSPECTION
Checking the refrigerant charge must be incorporated into a routine maintenance
schedule.
1. Locate the RFD (receiver filter drier). The location of this part varies from boat to
boat, but it is often found in the engine compartment, in a locker, or beneath the cabin
sole. It is a blue metal can about 9 inches high and 3 inches in diameter, with brass
fittings connecting it to copper tubing. If you do not locate the RFD quickly, follow the
tubing route from the engine compartment to the icebox. Along the route you will find
the RFD along with other SEA FROST components. The RFD has a sight glass for
viewing the flow of the refrigerant.
2. Start the boat's engine. Check to be sure the engine is pumping water.
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3. Locate the SEA FROST timer panel. With the engine running at a fast idle (900 to
1200 rpm), and while looking into the sight glass in the RFD, have a helper turn the
Panel Timer knob past "10" to cock the switch and start the compressor. The engine
should load. An empty system will put very little load on the engine.
4. MONITOR THE SIGHT GLASS CONTINUALLY. If the sight glass does not show the
presence of refrigerant within a minute of operation the system is empty. TURN OFF
THE COMPRESSOR and follow the procedure in the "TROUBLE SHOOTING" section.
5. If the white foam is evident watch closely for the transition to clear. If the glass
indicates insufficient charge level, additional charge will be needed. Turn off the
compressor. Attach a can of R-134a with a properly vented charge hose to the suction
access port. Monitoring the sight glass continually, start compressor and slowly add
refrigerant vapor until the glass clears. Top off with about 4 ounces. Do not
overcharge the system.
6. Feel the SEA FROST plate in the icebox five minutes after starting the compressor.
If the sight glass clears yet the plate temperature does not drop after 5 minutes of
operation, stop the compressor and follow the procedure in "TROUBLE SHOOTING".
7. If the proper charge is indicated, make ice and go sailing.
DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM
Before the connections or components can be disassembled, the refrigerant must be
recovered. Connect a gauge set to the suction access port. Slowly recover the
refrigerant, (keeping the pressure under 20 psi) into an approved reclaiming system.
Do not loosen any connections until the system shows 10” vacuum for 10 minutes.
To discharging an overcharged system, discharge into a recovery machine at the same
20 psi rate for a minute at a time. Be sure the gauge hand wheel is off before starting
the compressor.
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TROUBLESHOOTING
The most common problems that can occur in a SEA FROST Engine Drive System are:
1. Loss of refrigerant charge resulting from leaks.
2. Moisture or dirt plugging the valve.
3. Compressor malfunction due to loss of refrigerant charge.
4. High-pressure switch cycling due to overcharge or lack of water flow.
STEP 1. Gather information as to the nature of the problem before operating the
system. A leak often leaves a trace of oil. Inspect fittings, hoses, and tubing for wear,
corrosion, and chafe. Do not operate the compressor until the trouble is corrected.
The high pressure switch cycling is indicated by the compressor and indicator lamp
turning off when starting a warm system, or if the cooling water is not flowing.
Determine the condition by checking the water flow from the engine exhaust. If the
water flow is not at fault recover some refrigerant. (See DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM)
The compressor should not be operated during recovery. This is a trial and error
procedure until the compressor stays on without cycling during initial pull down. Check
the sight glass for proper charge. Be sure the sight glass still clears.
For further troubleshooting, attach purged gauges to S/P/U access ports or observe the
temperature of the lines. See pages 43-45 for operating pressure trends.
If the icebox and SEA FROST plate is warm and pressure readings are below 50
psi with the compressor off (in 50 degree F or higher ambient conditions), pressurize the
system with R-134a and leak-check.
If the pressure readings are over 50 psi with the compressor off, proceed to check
charge level via sight glass and charge if needed. CHARGE LOSS INDICATES A
LEAK THAT MUST BE CORRECTED.
STEP 2. If the system continues to operate improperly after Step 1, check for moisture
or dirt plugging the valve. Run the system, observing closely the gauge readings and
plate temperature, noting the following.
A. If system is warm upon start-up, a DIRT-PLUGGED Valve will show an immediate
deep vacuum reading on suction side. Consult SEA FROST for cleaning techniques.
B. A MOISTURE-PLUGGED VALVE is indicated by a deep vacuum reading on the
suction side after 1 to 5 minutes of normal operation from warm, FOLLOWED BY any
combination of these symptoms:
The temperature at the compressor discharge fitting and the copper tube at the top
of the condenser drops from hot to warm.
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The temperature of the suction line from the V/U increases.
Moisture enters either through suction side leaks or during initial installation and will
freeze at the V/U, reducing or eliminating refrigeration activity. Turning off the system
and allowing the V/U to warm to above freezing then restarting, may temporarily solve
the problem. If not, change the RFD as follows.
STEP 3. To change a saturated RFD, allow the system to warm to ambient
temperature, thereby preventing moisture from condensing in the system. A light bulb
in the icebox will speed the warming of the plate. WARNING: BEFORE
DISASSEMBLY OF ANY PART IN THIS SYSTEM BE SURE THE REFRIGERANT IS
COMPLETELY RECOVERED. With a backup wrench holding the brass body of the
Swagelok fittings, loosen and back off the nuts. The tubing may be pulled out of the
fittings. Remove the RFD. Replace only with an identical RFD by size and color. THE
SEA FROST RFD is a drier and also a receiver/filter. The desiccant and the oil in the
Sea Frost RFD are special to this system and R-134a. Installation of the wrong part
or oil will destroy the system.
NOTE: This system contains a measured amount of lubricating oil. Be sure the RFD
being installed is a blue SEA FROST Engine Drive RFD. Record all component
exchanges in the on-board owner's manual.
Follow the "re-make" instructions for Swagelok fittings.
Reminder: To ensure removal of system moisture use a high vacuum pump, and
evacuate the system with the highest possible ambient and plate temperatures. A light
bulb or heat lamp in contact with plate is a good technique.
Recharge. Refer to "New System Charging".
MOISTURE IS A SYMPTOM. Carefully leak-check the low side of the system if
moisture becomes a problem. Moisture leaks in! Look for an oily fitting.
CALL US WITH ANY QUESTIONS
603-868-5720
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MAINTENANCE FOR UNITS IN TROPICAL WATERS
ZINCS
THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PROCEDURE. A FULL FLOW SEA FROST
CONDENSER WITHOUT A ZINC OR WITHOUT THE BONDING STRAP
CONNECTED WILL LAST A VERY SHORT TIME. BE SURE TO CHECK THE WEAR
BY INSPECTION. REPLACE EVERY SIX MONTHS OR SOONER IF INSPECTION
REVEALS EXCESSIVE WEAR.
IF THE ZINC BREAKS IN THE BRASS PLUG, REMOVE THE REMAINING ZINC BY
MELTING IT WITH A PROPANE TORCH.
ALKALI SCALE
CONDENSERS WILL SCALE AFTER SEVERAL YEARS IN WARM WATER CAUSING
HIGHER HEAD PRESSURES DUE TO THE SCALE INTERFERING WITH THE HEAT
EXCHANGE. REMOVE THE ZINC AND PLUG THE HOLE IN THE CONDENSER
WITH A 3/8” NPT PIPE PLUG. WARNING: LEAVING THE ZINC IN PLACE MAKES A
BIG BATTERY UPON ADDING ACID. THIS WILL PRODUCE HEAT AND SMOKE.
DON'T FORGET TO REMOVE THE ZINC. REMOVE THE TOP HOSE ON THE
CONDENSER AND POUR *MURIATIC ACID INTO THE CONDENSER UNTIL IT
BOILS OUT THE TOP.
WARNING: BE SURE TO FOLLOW SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ON THE MURIATIC
ACID CONTAINER.
MOST MURIATIC ACID IS BOTTLED AT 5%-7%. THIS CONCENTRATION IS
WHAT WE RECOMMEND.
BOILING (FOAMING) WILL STOP IN (4 OR 5 MINUTES. THERE IS NO DANGER OF
DAMAGE TO THE CONDENSER. RECONNECT HOSE TO THE ENGINE AND
START THE ENGINE WITH THE THROUGH HULL OPEN. AFTER A MINUTE OR
TWO OF OPERATION TO FLUSH OUT THE ACID, SHUT OFF THE ENGINE AND
THROUGH HULL AND REPLACE THE ZINC.
CLUTCH COILS
THESE FAIL FROM HEAT BREAKING DOWN THE WIRE INSULATION IN THE
WINDING. DAMAGING HEAT CAN BE CAUSED BY OPERATION WITH TOO MUCH
CHARGE AND BY SCALING. CLEAN THE CONDENSER. BE SURE THE CHARGE
IS MINIMUM FOR A CLEAR GLASS. NO MORE THAN 24 ozs IS NEEDED FOR
MOST SYSTEMS. A SINGLE PLATE OR BLOCK SYSTEM WILL NEED LESS THAN
24 ozs OF REFRIGERANT.
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