PIM 31 Manual v3_Dec_2010
2
Contents
1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 7
2
SAFETY SUMMARY ..................................................................................... 8
3
4
5
6
2.1
SYMBOLS ............................................................................................... 8
2.2
DISCLAIMER ......................................................................................... 10
2.3
POWER REQUIREMENTS ................................................................... 11
2.4
PIM 31 SERIES PACKING LIST............................................................ 12
PIM 31 ELEMENTS ..................................................................................... 13
3.1
PIM 31 FRONT PANEL ......................................................................... 13
3.2
PIM 31 BACK PANEL ............................................................................ 15
PRECAUTIONS ........................................................................................... 16
4.1
USING HIGH PERFORMANCE RF ACCESSORIES ............................ 19
4.2
USING HIGH PERFORMANCE RF CABLES ........................................ 21
POWERING PIM 31 UP/DOWN .................................................................. 22
5.1
Powering UP .......................................................................................... 22
5.2
POWERING DOWN .............................................................................. 23
GETTING STARTED ................................................................................... 25
6.1
7
THE FIRST MEASUREMENT ............................................................... 25
PIM 31 OPERATION ................................................................................... 29
7.1.1
7.2
Operations Menu Tree .................................................................... 31
FIELD MODE ......................................................................................... 32
7.2.1
Field Mode Elements....................................................................... 32
7.2.2
Carrier Entry .................................................................................... 34
7.2.3
Site Entry......................................................................................... 37
7.2.4
Comments ....................................................................................... 39
7.2.5
History Screen ................................................................................. 40
7.2.6
Data Management ........................................................................... 41
7.2.7
Log Files and Content ..................................................................... 41
7.2.8
Log File Management...................................................................... 43
7.2.9
Data Copy ....................................................................................... 43
3
7.2.10
Data Delete Log Files .................................................................. 44
7.2.11
Data Delete Carrier & Site............................................................ 46
7.3
System Menu ......................................................................................... 47
7.3.2
7.4
8
System Menu Functional Block ....................................................... 49
Analyzer Mode ....................................................................................... 54
7.4.1
Frequency Mode ............................................................................. 56
7.4.2
Time Mode ...................................................................................... 57
7.4.3
Sweep Mode ................................................................................... 58
Pull Down Menus ......................................................................................... 61
8.1
File ......................................................................................................... 62
8.1.1
Start / Stop History Save ................................................................. 62
8.1.2
Screen Capture / Print ..................................................................... 63
8.1.3
Initialize Program ............................................................................ 64
8.1.4
Quit.................................................................................................. 64
8.2
9
System Management ............................................................................. 65
8.2.1
Self Check ....................................................................................... 65
8.2.2
PIMD Management ......................................................................... 66
Remote Application and TCP/IP Setup ........................................................ 67
9.1
Installation and connection setup for remote control:............................. 67
9.1.1
Install PIM31 Remote Software ....................................................... 67
9.1.2
Known issues that might occur during installation on Windows OS:67
9.1.3
Setting IP address of PIM31............................................................ 67
9.1.4
Connecting PIM31 and PC. ............................................................. 68
9.1.5
Setting IP Address of PC................................................................. 68
9.1.6
Check the network connection status of PIM31 and PC.................. 69
9.2
10
Using PIM31 Remote Application: ......................................................... 70
9.2.1
Enter IP address and Port ............................................................... 70
9.2.2
List of remote commands ................................................................ 71
PIM31 Reporter Software.......................................................................... 72
10.1
Installation .......................................................................................... 72
10.2
PIM 31 Reporter settings .................................................................... 73
4
11
What is PIM? ............................................................................................. 77
11.1
11.1.1
Manufacturing & Design ............................................................... 77
11.1.2
Mechanical ................................................................................... 77
11.1.3
Environment ................................................................................. 78
11.2
12
What Causes PIM?............................................................................. 77
How to test PIM .................................................................................. 78
PIM 31 Technical Information ................................................................... 80
12.1
Tester Types....................................................................................... 80
12.2
Specifications (Data Sheet) ................................................................ 81
13
12.2.1
Transmitter Specification.............................................................. 81
12.2.2
Receiver Specifications ................................................................ 81
12.2.3
System Specifications .................................................................. 81
12.2.4
Environmental .............................................................................. 82
12.2.5
Dimensions and Weight ............................................................... 82
Maintenance ............................................................................................. 83
13.1
Block Diagram .................................................................................... 83
13.2
Performance Check ............................................................................ 84
13.2.1
13.3
14
Testing Analyzer operation status ................................................ 84
Performance Verification .................................................................... 86
13.3.1
Tx Signal Power Level ................................................................. 86
13.3.2
Tx Signal Frequency .................................................................... 88
13.3.1
Rx Power and Receiving Frequency ............................................ 90
Accessories ............................................................................................... 93
Appendix A ......................................................................................................... 94
Warranty Statement ........................................................................................ 94
Appendix B ......................................................................................................... 96
EC Declaration of Conformity .......................................................................... 96
Appendix C ......................................................................................................... 97
Special Units Packing List ............................................................................... 97
Appendix D ......................................................................................................... 98
PIM31 F07 UL ................................................................................................. 98
5
Manual Version Control ...................................................................................... 98
Contact ............................................................................................................. 110
6
1 INTRODUCTION
Thank you for choosing a Boonton test system. The PIM31 is a high performance
instrument that allows users to make reliably, highly accurate measurements of
passive intermodulation, in systems and / or components. Our test systems are
built to the highest quality standards. We strive to provide the most reliable, state
of the art test equipment allowing our customers to have the utmost confidence in
the results of their testing. To ensure you can utilize all functions and features of
this test system, we strongly recommend you familiarize yourself with this manual
prior to operating your PIM31 test system. This manual contains valuable
information on the safe operation of the PIM31 test set and a brief technical
background on passive intermodulation.
7
2 SAFETY SUMMARY
2.1 SYMBOLS
This safety requirement symbol (located on the rear panel) has
been adopted by the International Electro-technical Commission,
Document 66 (Central Office) 3, Paragraph 5.3, which directs that
an instrument be so labeled if, for the correct use of the instrument,
it is necessary to refer to the instruction manual. In this case it is
recommended that reference be made to the instruction manual
when connecting the instrument to the proper power source. Verify
that the correct fuse is installed for the power available.
The CAUTION symbol denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an
operational procedure, practice or instruction that, if not followed,
could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the
instrument and accessories. Do not proceed beyond a CAUTION
symbol until its conditions are fully understood and met.
The NOTE symbol is used to mark information which should be
read. This information may be very useful to the operation when
with the subject covered in this section.
The HINT symbol is used to identify additional comments which are
outside of the normal format of the manual, however can give the
user additional information about the subject.
8
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of
operation and maintenance of the Boonton PIM 31 Passive Intermodulation Test
System. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings
elsewhere in this manual violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and
intended use of the instrument. Boonton Electronics Corporation assumes no
liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
INSTRUMENT MUST BE GROUNDED
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be
connected to an electrical ground. The instrument is equipped with a
three conductor, three prong AC power cable. The power cable must
either be plugged into an approved three-contact electrical outlet or used
with a three-contact to a two-contact adapter with the (green) grounding
wire firmly connected to an electrical ground at the power outlet.
DO NOT OPERATE THE INSTRUMENT IN AN EXPLOSIVE
ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or
fumes.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component
replacement and internal adjustments must be made by qualified
maintenance personnel only. Never replace components or operate the
instrument with the covers removed and the power cable connected.
Even with the power cable removed, dangerous voltages may be
present. Always remove all jewelry (rings, watches, etc.) and discharge
circuits before touching them. Never attempt internal service or
adjustment of the test system unless another person, capable of
rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
9
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT
Do not substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification of the
instrument. Return the instrument to Boonton Electronics for repair to
insure that the warranty and safety features are maintained.
NON IONIZING RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION HAZARD
This device generates Radio Frequency (RF) energy under normal
operation, and should always be operated in accordance with local and
national licensing laws. RF energy in the 700 to 1,000 MHz and 1,800 to
2,200 MHz with a total power of up to 50W Watts or +47 dBm is present
at the test port during testing. The Test Port is to be terminated into a
non radiating 50 ohm load to reduce the risk of RF exposure. Do not
switch RF Power On if Test Port is open or load is unknown.
ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD
The device is supplied with 90 to 264 Volt AC. Prior to AC connection
always inspect the power cord and instrument case for damage. If
damage is observed, do not use until inspected and repaired by an
authorized Boonton Service center.
2.2 DISCLAIMER
PIM 31 test systems transmit two settable CW RF signals, with a power of up to
25W each, to measure passive intermodulation of components and transmitting
systems.
Wireless Telecom Group and its subsidiaries are under no circumstances
accountable for use of PIM31 test systems not conforming to laws and
regulations of national and local authorities. Customer / user bear the full
responsibility and legal accountability to use PIM31 only in a lawful manner.
10
2.3 POWER REQUIREMENTS
The PIM 31 Series is equipped with a switching power supply that provides
automatic operation from a 90 to 260 volt, 47 to 63 Hz, single-phase, AC power
source. Maximum power consumption is 750W / 750 VA
Caution
For bench-top use, choose a clear, uncluttered area. For field use,
choose a dust free environment. Ensure that there is at least 2" of
clearance at the fan air intake on the front panel and bottom vents,
and the exhaust vents on the back panels to allow for proper air
circulation.
Before powering the unit up make sure the instrument does not
show indications of exposure to extensive force like dents, torn off
pieces or loose parts in the case.
11
2.4 PIM 31 SERIES PACKING LIST
PIM 31 Series Test Systems are shipped complete and are ready to use upon
receipt.
Note
Save the original packing material and container to reship the
instrument, if necessary. If the original materials (or suitable
substitute) are not available, contact Boonton Electronics to
purchase replacements. Store packing materials always in dry
environment. If frequent used in the field with we strongly
recommend purchasing our PIM 31 Transit Case. See chapter
Accessories for ordering information.
Unless otherwise ordered * , your will receive:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PIM 31 Series Passive Intermodulation Test System
Line Cord with 90 deg connector
USB Mouse
USB Roll-Up Keyboard
2 Connector Savers
Low PIM Cable 3m (10ft)
Low PIM Load 50W
Torque Wrench
* PIM 31 and accessories are available in customized versions / packages. Please refer to
Appendix A for specific package lists.
12
3 PIM 31 ELEMENTS
3.1 PIM 31 FRONT PANEL
Number
1
2
3
4
Element
Power Switch
Description
Function similar to a PC:
one short push – PIM31 powers up,
Another short push – controlled power
down
Holding it for 3 second – powers unit
down immediately
See also chapter Powering PIM31
up/down.
Note: Main Power Switch on the back
must be in ON Position
LAN connector
For factory use only
USB Ports (3)
USB Ports for mouse, keyboard and
Memory Stick
RF Port w/ protection RF Port,
cap
Always use protection cap when PM31
13
5
6
Audio
Touch Screen
Display
7
RF Power On
8
Front Panel Air
Vents
9
Type Label
is not in use.
Loudspeaker for audio signals
Touch screen display 800x600.
Never use sharp devices to push buttons
on the screen
RF-Power light indicates when RF
Power is present.
Always allow for proper airflow, prevent
alien objects or dust from being sucked
in.
Provides information about PIM31 Tx/Rx
frequency bands
14
3.2 PIM 31 BACK PANEL
Number Element
1
Main Power supply
2
Main Power Switch
3
4
5
VGA Port
Communications port
10 MHz Reference
out
Air Flow Fan
Air Flow Fan
6
7
Description
AC Supply: 90-264V, 750W / 750VA
use 90 deg connector only
Fuse: 4A / 230V or 8A / 110V
PIM31 contains protection circuitry to control
RF Power during operation and during
powering on/off cycles.
After switching Main Power Switch On wait 2
seconds before pushing Front Power Button.
Fans may Briefly run after power off.
Note: Do not use Main Power Switch while
system is in operation mode, vital files may
get corrupted Always use the Front Power
Button to power the system down.
Allows using an external VGA Monitor
Factory use only
10 MHz reference output to synchronize
external equipment
Always ensure sufficient air flow
Always ensure sufficient air flow
15
4 PRECAUTIONS
Caution
DO NOT touch RF Connecting parts of components with bare
fingers.
Even the smallest amount of sweat on the conductors can cause
oxidation, which will reduce the performance of the element and
can cause PIM. Elements Included:
•
•
•
•
•
Caution
RF Port of PIM31
Low PIM Cables
Low PIM Load
Low PIM Adapters
All components in the transmitting path of the System under
Test or DUT.
DO NOT switch on RF power without load or antenna attached.
Switching RF power on without termination, results in the full
transmitted energy of the test system being reflected back into the
test system. This can overstress the system cause damage. The
load ensures energy flow from the test system to the load, which
transforms all RF energy into heat.
Caution
DO NOT operate the PIM31 in any active systems.
The PIM31 is a very sensitive Test System that allows testing and
analyzing passive RF components. Under no circumstances should
the tester be operated when the RF path is active, no outside
carrier signals should be present in the RF path under test. This
includes all active signals even when they are operating in different
frequency bands. Operation with active signals present will cause
serious damage to the instrument.
16
Caution
DO NOT connect or disconnect any accessory or component
of the test setup with RF power switched on.
Even at low RF power levels, spark discharge can occur with
sudden energy flow or flow disruption.. Spark discharge - must be
avoided, because it will alter the surface of the pins and connection
areas. “Burned” surfaces will not only reduce the performance of
the component, but can also cause permanent PIM.
Caution
DO NOT operate test system and load without connector
savers.
All connectors wear out when used frequently. Connector savers on
the RF Port and the load port(s). help to prevent costly repairs of
the PIM31 Boonton connector savers offer negligible influence on
measurements. We suggest to always leaving the connector saver
attached to the tester / load to ensure they are always utilized.
Replace them when they wear out, and their performance
deteriorates. For order information please refer to the chapter
accessories.
Caution
DO NOT mount components directly on the PIM31.
Always use a cable between PIM31 and DUT. The connector of the
PIM31 is a high quality, high precision element. It is designed to
withstand tangential forces that occur when connector savers or
cables are torqued on with the appropriate force. The RF Port
connector is not designed to support the weight of a component.
17
Caution
DO NOT block air vents.
Due to its high RF output power, PIM31 consumes up to 750W.
This energy has to be disposed. While these test systems have
protection against overheating, it is vital to keep air vents clear of
any obstructions that would prevent or limit the air flow.
Air vent locations
•
•
•
Front Panel
Back Panel
Bottom
Keep clearance at least 15 cm / 6 inches for Front and Back Panel
Vents, and 4cm / 1.5 for the bottom vent.
Caution
DO NOT bent cable tighter than 40 cm / 16 inches of diameter.
Cables that come with the PIM31 offer a combination of high
quality, low PIM, and high reliability. The test cable is a vital piece
of the measurement setup, and a damaged or worn cable will
influence PIM measurements... The structure of Boonton’s PIM
cable offers customer friendly utilization in the field and in the
factory it allows for a bending radius of 20 cm / 8 inches. Tighter
bending will permanently alter the cable structure, which will cause
performance loss and can cause permanent PIM, rendering the
cable unusable. See also chapter: Using the Cable.
Caution
DO NOT over-torque the RF Port connector and accessories.
The best performance of RF connectors is achieved when the
connections are made with the correct torque. Too much of a
torque can permanently deform PINs and connections areas, too
little torque can hinder the electron flow, varying the impedance or
in some cases can cause spark discharge. All these effects can
damage the components permanently. To ensure proper
connections always use the torque-wrench that comes standard
with the PIM31.
18
Caution
DO NOT use sharp devices at the touch screen.
Users can operate PIM31 test systems but utilizing the touch
screen or via keyboard/mouse. The user interface is designed
specifically for field use; all vital operations can be conveniently
accessed via the touch screen interface. Do not use sharp devices;
they can damage the touch screen. The touch screen, display and
CPU are a single integrated module. In case of service the
complete module has to be exchanged. To prevent costly repairs,
use only your fingers or very dull devices to interact with the
screen.
4.1 USING HIGH PERFORMANCE RF ACCESSORIES
PIM test sets combine very high output power, with extremely sensitive receivers.
Note: The sensitivity of the PIM 31 receiver is many times greater than the
sensitivity of a Base Station. Any unwanted influence generated by poor
performing accessories will reduce the accuracy of the desired measurement. To
ensure quality measurements great care has to be taken; not only for the test
system but also for the cables and accessories. Remember you want to measure
the PIM of the device under test, not a poor performing or worn accessory.
Prevent unnecessary force:
Nearly all RF connectors are designed to allow for manual
connection. To ensure a proper connection, RF connectors should
be manually mated, push in to seat the center pin, then hand
tightened until seated. The torque wrench should only be used to
tighten the last ½ turn or less. Improper connections will cause
performance loss. This includes under torquing and over torquing.
Both, over and under-torquing, result in weak connections which
contribute to PIM. Over tightening may damage the connector and
lead to visible metal fragments in the connector’s surface. All
damaged connectors and connectors savers should be replace
prior to testing.
19
Keep Accessories clean:
Dust and dirt may affect test results. Make sure accessories are
stored properly and clean. Please use the protective caps - to keep
the accessories free from contamination. Never use sharp devices
to remove any contamination because scraping can cause metal
chips in the contact areas, which will generate PIM. If any dirt,
corrosion or any other foreign matter needs to be removed use
special RF contact cleaning tabs and / or compressed air.
Keep Accessories dry:
Even the best plating will wear if accessories are frequently used.
Moisture will cause oxidation. Prevent moisture by using supplied
protective caps and keeping accessories stored properly. Many
connectors are weather sealed to prevent moisture from entering
the contact area. If you discover moisture use RF contact cleaning
tabs and blow dry with compressed air.
Check for wear and tear:
All metal to metal surface subjected to movement will eventually
show the effects of wear and tear. In the case of PIM
measurements the results appear as an increase in PIM level.
Check your accessories frequently to ensure that they are working
properly. Once you have determined that an accessory is no longer
performing as it should, replace it with a new device. When you
received the replacement, dispose of the old one to prevent
accidental reuse. Check chapter on Accessories for ordering
information of spare and replacement accessories. Accessories are
key to accurate PIM measurements. Although properly functioning,
they are also wear and tear items and will need to be replaced.
20
4.2 USING HIGH PERFORMANCE RF CABLES
Cables are as vital to proper PIM testing as any of the other accessories are.
Treat them with the appropriate care. All hints listed above for accessories apply
to cables as well. Always use cable caps to protect connectors when the cable is
not in use. The bending radius for the PIM31 cable delivered by Boonton is 20cm
/ 8 inches. To prevent damage, coil cable no tighter than 40 cm / 16 inches in
diameter. A transit case for PIM31 systems is available. This case has dedicated
space for test systems, accessories and also the low PIM cable. For more
information please refer to the chapter on accessories.
“Treat accessories and cables for what they are:
High precision measurement devices”
PIM tests measure the device in the testing path that generates the highest level
of PIM. Worn or malfunctioning accessories lead to inaccurate measurements.
Remember you want to measure the PIM level for the RF path or device under
test, not a worn accessory or test cable. Inspect your accessories and cables
prior to each use, and treat them as part of a high precision measurement
device.
21
5 POWERING PIM 31 UP/DOWN
5.1 Powering UP
PIM 31 test systems power up in a similar fashion to a desktop PC. However,
there is one exception: significant RF power has to be controlled and managed..
For this reason PIM 31 series test systems contain a protection system to protect
the hardware, e.g. prevents unusual on/and off cycles ( e.g. 3 cycles per
second). When used normally, the user will not even recognize that these
protective mechanisms are working.
Preparations for powering up:
Ensure that the main outlet has proper grounding.
Connect the correct power cable to the tester
Connect the power cable to the main outlet
•
Switch on the PIM31 main power switch at
the backside of the unit. Allow for a short
delay before switching on front power
button. (This will allow protection circuitry
to enable all PIM 31 modules).
•
Push Start Button briefly at the front panel.
The system will boot up automatically and show the user interface in the Field
Mode.
22
5.2 POWERING DOWN
PIM31 can be powered down in different ways listed below. It is not
recommended to power down simply by “Pulling the plug” or
switching off the Main Switch on the back panel.
Exiting
The proper way is to Exit the UI is by pressing the
red exit button. This will generate an exit pop up.
Respond to the pop-up menu’s choice Yes / NO to
power the system down or not. This method ensures
the RF is switched off properly, all UI and computer
processes are terminated in an orderly fashion, and
data files are closed.
Forced Termination
Holding the Start Button on the front panel for 3 seconds generates a soft
reset. RF is switched off, and all vital files will be closed and stored. In
this mode, the urgency to power off the unit trumps handling and closing
all files. Some information, e.g. log data may be lost.
Caution
Main Switch
When not following the proper shutdown sequence and using the Main
switch on the back to terminate power it is likely that files get corrupted,
and the test system may be harmed.
Note: Cooling fans may become operational after the main switch is
placed in the off position until discharge of all internal capacitors is complete;
typically within 5 seconds
23
Caution
“Pulling the Plug”
This “method” should be avoided under all circumstances. It can
damage the hardware and corrupt files. This “method” is
especially critical if the RF port is still connected to a grounded
system under test. Residual discharges may flow via RF Ground /
Shield. With the main connector no longer plugged in, ground
connection is also disrupted.
24
Caution
6 GETTING STARTED
Before starting to measure components with PIM31 systems, users are urged to
familiarize themselves with the precautions (Don’ts) in the chapter below.
Improper operation and handling can cause bodily harm or damage the
instrument.
6.1 THE FIRST MEASUREMENT
Preparations:
•
•
•
Mount connector saver to RF Port and Load (if not already mounted)
Connect Low PIM cable to Test system (Note: always connect the test
cable to the instrument prior to connecting to the DUT)
Connect Load to cable.
At this point the RF Button is visible but inactive. Power levels and the
frequencies of the carrier signals must be set in order to activate the RF button.
To do so, pushing the “Carrier” button displays a list of Carrier signal settings.
Since this is the first boot up, the list is empty. To enter carrier parameters, push
“New” at the Carrier Select screen. Now we can enter a Carrier name,
frequencies and power levels. With growing list of carriers, meaningful carrier
25
names help to recognize the settings: Example 20W_869_896 means: power of
the signals is 20W, and the frequencies used are 869 MHz and 896MHz.Every
entry or change needs to be confirmed by pushing the “Enter” button. Once our
entries are complete, we return to the previous screen, “Carrier List” by pushing
the green Return button. The list shows now a carrier entry. By pushing the
Green return button we come back to the Field Mode screen.
26
PIM 31 test systems provide not only accurate PIM analysis, they also allow
users to log data that is specific to a particular test setup or particular base
station site. At a later point, measurements can be recalled for comparison and to
analyze if the performance has changed. This particular information has to be
entered as well. The process is similar to the Carrier entry, except this time we
push the “Site” button. As with the carrier, the system lists all available Sites (or
Tests). Since we have not entered a Site the list is still empty.
Note: Site information is linked to particular Carriers. If a different Carrier
is selected the associated list of Sites (Tests) corresponds to Sites that
were entered under this Carrier.
Now we can enter detailed base station or measurement setup information. Once
completed, we return to the initial Field Mode Screen. The selected Site (Test)
information is now visible in the appropriate fields and the RF Button is now
active.
27
By pressing the RF Button, the system initializes, and starts measuring PIM. A
second push of the RF button stops measurements and transmission of RF
signal carriers. The last PIM reading is held and shown in grey.
Note: PIM 31 test systems switch RF Power off after 30mins (default).
Other cycles or “Always On” can be selected. For more information
refer to chapter System Menu.
28
7 PIM 31 OPERATION
PIM31 Test Systems were developed to measure and analyze PIM data of RFcomponents, cables, or complete RF systems.
Operation Modes for Different Applications: Field Mode / Analyzer Mode
Depending on the application, the users’ requirements will be different. The main
task at a base station site is to quickly analyze the RF Path, and document the
measurements. If unacceptable PIM levels are detected the PIM31 can be used
to identify and pin-point problematic components. When testing base stations,
typically, the frequency and power settings of the test equipment are site specific.
Focus lies on quick measurement and documentation of data. PIM31 test
systems provide this easy to use functionality in the Field Mode. All base station
test parameters can be stored in the PIM31 test system, including feeder and
sector information. By selecting the base station, the user is ready to go. For
preventive maintenance it can be very helpful to compare actual with historical
data, which the PIM31 offers this as well. Measurements can be stored in the
system as .log files. Whenever data are logged, the log field stores
measurements, test system settings, and even complete information of the base
station. The operator can view the historical data of a base station at any time
and analyze if readings have changed compared to historical measurements.
29
Similar conditions apply when components are tested. The instrument settings do
not change, but for quality reasons every measurement has to be documented.
For measuring RF Components, the Field Mode is a very comfortable and
efficient
If more detailed information about the DUT is required, it can be accessed by
using the Analyzer Mode of the PIM31 test system. In this mode the user can
analyze multiple intermodulation products at the same time (Frequency Mode),
can record graphical traces over a longer time period (Time Mode) and can
frequency sweep DUTs (Sweep Mode) to ensure it performs within the complete
frequency band within specification.
The following chapters Field Mode and Analyzer Mode provide more detailed
information.
30
7.1.1 Operations Menu Tree
PIM 31 Test systems are designed to provide an efficient workflow. The Menu
Tree shows the overall menu structure of the PIM31.
31
7.2 FIELD MODE
7.2.1 Field Mode Elements
The following chapter describes the Display elements of the Field Mode screen.
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
File Menue
B
Carrier Field:F1
C
System management
E
Carrier Field:F2
F
PIM Value dBm
G
IM Frequency
H
Status Indicator Field
Pull down Menu, choices:
“Quit”, same function as Exit Button
See also chapter Pull-down Menus
Shows Frequency (MHz) and Power level(dBm) of first
carrier signal.
Pull down Menu, choices:
“Self Test”, tests PIM 31 functionality with RF ON and
OFF
See also chapter Pull-down Menus
Frequency (MHz) and Power level(dBm) of second
carrier signal.
Measured PIM value numerically in dBm. Displays last
value after RF Power is turned off.
Frequency (MHz) if strongest IM signal in the receiving
band and indicates which IM it is (3,5,7,9,11,13 or 15).
Shows status and activities of PIMM31:
ALC – Automatic Level Control
32
I
RSSI
J
PIM Value dBc
K
Voltage Warning
L
Bar Graph PIM
indicator
M
Display fields (3)
Site, Feeder, Sector
N
RF On / Off Switch
O
P
RF Indicator light
System
Q
Audio On/Off
R
Analyzer
S
EXIT
T
Record
U
Carrier
V
Site
W
History
X
Data
AUD – Audio On
REC –Data Recording
SPU – Soft Power Up
RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) in dBm.
External signals at the receiving frequency / frequencies
may disturb PIM measurements. For accurate PIM
measurements RSSI should always be below
-130dBm.
Measured PIM value numerically in dBc. The unit dBc
describes a measurement relative to the carriers, in this
case the carrier signals transmitted by the test system.
Displays last value after RF power is turned off
Warning Sign appears when RF Power is switched on.
Voltage at the RF-port can reach up t 50V.
Graphical display of PIM measurement. Range is:
-175dBc (start green bar) to -110dBc (end red bar).
Default threshold green/red is -153dBc. See System
Menu for further information.
Detailed Information of selected Site (e.g. Base Station
Location), and Site specific information like Feeder line
and antenna sector.
Also often used to describe test setup, e.g. “Site:
20W_Combiner_Test”
One Push switched RF ON,
Second push switches RF ON.
The button is only active if Carrier parameters have
been set and Site information is available.
For further information see menus:
Carrier Select and Site Select
Indicates when RF-power is ON
Opens System menu.
See Chapter System Menu for further information
Audio Signal when measurement passes green/red
threshold of Bar Graph
Opens Analyzer Menu
For more information see chapter Analyzer Mode
Triggers Power down sequence.
Active only when RF-power is OFF.
In single mode (default), log measurement and system
data of current measurement.
In auto mode, start/stop for recording continuous log
sequences.
For further information on recorded data and auto mode
see chapters Data and System Menu
Opens Carrier Select screen.
For more information see chapter Carrier Select:
Active only when RF-Power is OFF
Opens Site Select screen.
For more information see chapter Site Carrier:
Active only when RF-Power is OFF
Opens Site History screen
For more information see chapter Site Carrier:
Active only when RF-Power is OFF
Opens Data menu (copy log files, delete log files, sites
33
and carriers)
For more information see chapter Data
Active only when RF-Power is OFF
7.2.2 Carrier Entry
Carrier Signal settings specify the frequencies of the transmitting RF signals and
their power level. Site information allows to a) specify the tested site in detail or
to specify component tests more closely. All settings entered with Carrier signals
or Site/Test information are recorded when measurement data is logged, this
allows for detailed analysis after a series of tests has been completed.
Furthermore settings and vital measurements are stored in the system so that
historical data related to site information can be viewed for comparison, e.g. if
systems are deteriorating. For more information on this see chapter “History
Screen”.
Carrier Select
Once carriers have been stored in the system, they can be easily recalled. The
screenshot shows a list of 2 carriers with related information on transmit
frequencies and power levels.
34
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Carrier
B
Selected Carrier
C
Page Indicator &
Jump arrows
D
New
E
Edit
F
Return
Carrier specific information on frequencies and
power levels stored in the PIM31.
The yellow background indicates the carrier that is
selected and will be used for test after pressing
Return
If more than 6 different carrier signals are stored in
the PIM31, the current page and number of pages
are shown.
Inner arrows: One page jumps in both directions
Outer arrows: Jump to Pos1 or End of list
Carriers are selected by clicking / tapping them.
Opens Edit Carrier screen without carrier name.
Note: Once the carrier name has been entered, it
cannot be changed (only deleted) at a later time.
Opens Carrier Edit screen, allowing the
modification of frequencies or power levels.
Returns to previous screen.
PIM 31 Carrier Edit
35
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Carrier 1
Parameter
B
Carrier Name
C
Carrier 2
Parameter
D
ALC
E
F
Return
IM
G
123 / ABC
H
Delete
I
Enter
J
Keyboard
K
L
Space
Capitals
Sets power level and frequency of carrier signal 1:
Note: when entering this field a numeric keyboard
is displayed. A new or changed value is accepted
by pushing the Enter button (I)
When entering new carrier information, the cursor
is set to this field and marked orange for editing.
The name will be stored by pushing “Enter” (I)
Sets power level and frequency of Carrier Signal 2:
Note: when entering this field a numeric keyboard
is displayed. A new or changed value is accepted
by pushing “Enter” (I)
Auto Level Control – for utmost accuracy it is
recommended to set ALC to ON (default).
For more information see chapter “System Menu”.
Returns to previous site.
Automatically calculates and displays the next IM
product that lies in the receiving band of the PIM31
Toggles the touch screen keyboard between
characters and numeric.
Deletes last character / character to the left of the
cursor
Entries are stored in the system when the “Enter”
button is pressed
Keyboard, toggles between characters and
numeric
Space
Upper case entries
Note: When using an external keyboard do not use commas in
names or descriptions. Log Data is stored in a CSV (Commaseparated value) text form. Commas in the description will mix up
fields that are assigned for particular values, relevant e.g. when
importing data in a spreadsheet or database. The touch screen
keyboard does not offer commas for entry.
36
7.2.3 Site Entry
As with Carriers, Sites (or Tests) and linked information can be stored in the
memory of the PIM31. Once Sites have been stored in the system, they can be
easily recalled. The screenshot shows a list of 4 Sites with related information on
feeder and sector.
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Site
B
Selected Site
C
Page Indicator &
Jump arrows
D
New
E
Edit
F
Return
Sites, with information on feeder and sector stored
in the PIM31.
The yellow background indicates that this site is
selected and will be used for data logging.
If more than 6 different sites are stored in the
PIM31, the current page and number of pages are
shown.
Inner arrows: One page jumps in both directions
Outer arrows: Jump to Pos1 or End of list
Sites are selected by clicking / tapping them.
Opens Edit Site screen without site name.
Note: Once the site name has been entered, it
cannot be changed (only deleted) at a later time.
Opens Site Edit screen, allowing the modification
of site related information.
Returns to previous screen.
37
PIM 31 Site Edit
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
B
C
Carrier Name
Comment
Site / Test Name
D
Sector
E
F
Return
Feed
G
User
H
123 / ABC
I
Delete
J
Enter
Carrier signal to which site information is related to.
Allows additional entries related to the Site or Test.
Site / test name
New or changed entries are stored by pushing
“Enter” (J)
Additional information (Sector)
New or changed entries are stored by pushing
“Enter” (J)
Returns to previous site.
Additional information (Feeder)
New or changed entries are stored by pushing
“Enter” (J)
Additional information (User)
New or changed entries are stored by pushing
“Enter” (J)
Toggles the touch screen keyboard between
characters and numeric.
Deletes last character / character to the left of the
cursor
Entries are stored in the system when the Enter
button is pressed
38
K
Keyboard
L
M
Space
Capitals
Keyboard, toggles between characters and
numeric
Space
Upper case entries
Note: When using an external keyboard do not use commas in
names or descriptions. Log Data is stored in a CSV (Commaseparated value) text form. Commas in the description will mix up
fields that are assigned for particular values, relevant e.g. when
importing data in a spreadsheet or database. The touch screen
keyboard does not offer commas for entry.
7.2.4 Comments
Site information allows users to add comments that provide further information
about the Site or the Test. Comments are not stored in the log file.
PIM 31 – Site Information - Comment
Site Info
Name
Carrier 1
More
Feeder Alpha shows sporadic PIM values up to - 83.5 dBc. High RSSI
readings.
Site
Info
Q
W
E
R
T
Y
U
I
O
P
A
S
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
-
Z
X
C
V
B
N
M
.
39
123
ENTER
7.2.5 History Screen
Log data is stored in the test system memory whenever the REC button is
pushed. Log data stores the measurements, tester settings, and site related
information. With this capability operators can view historic information of specific
sites, allowing them to compare current and former measurements and analyze if
their performance has changed over time..
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Site
B
Log Data Set
C
Log Data Set
D
Page Indicator &
Jump arrows
E
Return
Site (test) information including Site name, Feeder,
and Sector
Shows historical information of measurement:
Date, Time, PIM reading, Frequencies, Power
levels and RSSI
As in A. The cursor is just for visually aiding the
user.
If more than 6 different sets of log data are stored
in the PIM31, the current page and number of
pages are shown.
Inner arrows: One page jumps in both directions
Outer arrows: Jump to Pos1 or End of list
Returns to previous site.
40
7.2.6 Data Management
The following chapter describes the Data Menu and Data structure.

Recording / Record - Button
PIM31 can store measurement data manually (default) or automatically with
predetermined intervals. When the “Record” button in the “Field Mode” screen is
pushed, the system stores one data set in a log file. The recorded measurement
data is stored in a log file. This file is stored in ASCII text format with CSV
structure. (Comma-Separated Values), allowing convenient importing of log data
into databases or spreadsheet applications.
For more information about Automatic Mode refer to chapter “System Menu”.
Note: While it is theoretically possible to enter commas in descriptive
fields like Carrier Name, Site, Feeder and Sector, it is strongly
suggested to refrain from such practice. In a CSV structure, text after
the comma will be taken as new value when importing into a database
or spreadsheet which will mix up field assignments. Important
information will be at an incorrect location.
7.2.7 Log Files and Content
With PIM31 firmware versions 1.2 and later, log file names are a combination of
Carrier, Site, Feeder, Sector, Date and Time. This way every log data file is
absolutely unique and allows for easy identification:
PIM31_SITE_FEEDER_SECTOR_YYYYMMDD_HHMMSS.log
Previous firmware versions used the nomenclature:
PIM31_YYYYMMDD_HHMMSS.log
Log files are stored in the directory C:/PIM 31 /History
Users do not need to access this directory directly since the data features of
PIM31 test system offer a convenient way to extract and copy the data.
Information stored in log files is listed in the table below.
41
Content (comma separated)
Variable
Format
Date
Time
PIM (dBc)
PIM (dBm)
RSSI (dBm)
F1 (MHz)
F2 (MHz)
IM 3 (MHz)
F1 (dBm)
F2 (dBm)
IM3 Bandwidth (Hz)
PIM 31 Type
Model
Serial Number
HW Version
SW Version
OS Version
Carrier
Site Name
Feeder
User
“Wireless Telecom Group”
“PIM 31 Data Log”
Cal date
CHKSUM
YYYYMMDD
HHMMSS
-XXX.X
-XXX.X
-XXX.X
XXXX.X
XXXX.X
XXXX.X
XX.X
XX.X
XXXXX
XXX
String - 40 Characters max
String - 40 Characters max
String - 40 Characters max
String - 40 Characters max
String - 40 Characters max
String - 70 Characters max
String - 70 Characters max
String - 40 Characters max
String - 70 Characters max
String
String
YYYYMMDD
XXX
Description
Signed Field
Signed Field
Signed Field
Frequency 1 in MHz
Frequency 2 in MHz
IM3 Frequency in MHz
F1 Power level in dBm
F1 Power Level in dBm
IM 3 Bandwidth in Hz
Example: “F03”
Serial number of test system
Hardware version
Software version installed
Operating system
Carrier name
Site / Test description
Feeder description
User name / Initials
For internal use
For internal use
Date of Last Calibration
For future use
Added with firmware version 1.2 and later.
SECTOR
BarGraph_RG
String - 40 Characters max
-XXX
RFON
String:
RECINTRV
String
ALC
String - 3 Characters max
42
Sector description.
Value of Bar Graph green /red
threshold (–dBc).
RF On time in seconds,
1m,2m,5m,10m,20m,30m,60m,
120m,180m or “Always On”
Lists Recording interval time
and units or “OFF”
“ON” or “OFF”
7.2.8 Log File Management
All measurements are stored in separate log files. When transferring files to an
external drive (e.g. memory stick), all log data is merged into one file for ease of
importing into databases and spreadsheets.
Default drive directory and file name of the merged log data-sets is:
D:\Site Info\PIM31_Site_all.log
The default setting can be overwritten when specific locations or filenames are
required (requires keyboard).
7.2.9 Data Copy
Data copies selected log files to one merged log file at a particular directory.
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Copy location
B
Erase Yes/No
Drive, directory and file name of the merged log data
file.
Selects if log files are to be deleted after files have been
copied.
Note: Historical site information is no longer available
when related log data are erased.
43
C
Site
D
History
E
F
Copy
Site
G
Advanced
H
I
Default
Return
Default: No
Allows copying of log data from a specific Site or all
Sites the PIM 31 contains. Specific Sites can be
selected via the Site Button
Selection: Specific, All
Default: Specific
Allows copying of log data recorded at specific dates
Selection: Today, Specific, All, Date, Period
Date or Period require entry in YY/MM/DD format.
Press enter to store setting
Default: Today
Executes copy process
Opens Site Selection screen.
Marked Site on Site Selection screen will be transferred
to Data Menu after Return
Opens Data Delete menu (allows deletion of log data
without copying)
Sets default values
Returns to previous site.
7.2.10 Data Delete Log Files
The Data Delete Menu allows the user to delete specific log files or all log files. In
this mode the data is not copied before it is deleted so extreme care need to be
taken because with lost log files, historical data of related sites is no longer
available.
44
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Carrier
B
Site
C
History
D
Delete
Selection to erase log data of a specific Carrier, All
Carriers or none.
Specific Carriers can be selected via the Carrier button
Selection: None, Specific, All
Default: None
Selection to erase log data of a specific Site, all sites or
none.
Specific Sites can be selected via the Site button
Selection: None, Specific, All
Default: None
Allows deletion of log data recorded at specific dates
Selection: Today, Specific, All, Date, Period
Date or Period require entry in YY/MM/DD format.
Press enter to store setting
Default: Today
Executes deletion
E
Carrier
F
Site
G
H
I
Advanced
Default
Return
Opens Carrier Selection screen.
Marked Carrier on Carrier Selection screen will be
transferred to Data Delete Menu after Return
Opens Site Selection screen.
Marked Site on site Selection screen will be transferred
to Data Delete Menu after Return
Opens Data Carrier & Site Delete menu
Sets default values
Returns to Data Copy site.
45
7.2.11 Data Delete Carrier & Site
This Menu allows users to delete Sites and/or Carriers. After the
deletion process, all Carrier and/or Site related settings and data,
including log data, will be erased.
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Carrier
B
Site
C
Sites Only
Sites & Carriers
D
Delete
E
Carrier
Selection to erase a specific Carrier, All Carriers or
none.
Specific Carriers can be selected via the Carrier button
Selection: None, Specific, All
Default: None
Selection to erase a specific Site, all sites or none.
Specific Sites can be selected via the Site button
Selection: None, Specific, All
Default: None
Selection of only Sites are erased or both Sites and
Carriers.
Selection: Sites only, Sites & Carriers
Default: Sites only
Executes deletion of Sites / Sites & Carriers (all settings
and data will be lost)
Opens Carrier Selection screen.
Marked Carrier on Carrier Selection screen will be
transferred to Data Site & Carries Delete Menu after
Return
46
F
Site
G
H
Default
Return
Opens Site Selection screen.
Marked Site on site Selection screen will be transferred
to Data Site & Carrier Delete Menu after Return
Sets default values
Returns to Data Copy site.
7.3 System Menu
The System Menu provides information about the PIM31 test system. Information
shown includes software version, hardware version, and memory space available
for log data. This menu allows users to modify the default settings of the PIM31.
The need to modifying basic settings may be required during regular testing.
Advanced settings should only be modified by advanced operators since they
influence how the PIM31 measures PIM.
System Information and Buttons
Note: This screenshot has been taken form a PIM31 SW Simulator running on a
PC, therefore some values are displayed as 0s
47
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
B
Model
TX Frequencies
C
RX Frequencies
Model type of PIMI31. .
Transmitting frequency range, tester type
dependent
Receiving frequency range, tester type dependent
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
SW Version
HW Version
Operation System
Free Space
Cal Date
Serial Number
Basic / Advanced
K
L
Default
Return
Software Version of PIM31
Hardware version of PIM31
Operation system and service pack used
Memory space available for data logging.
Calibration Date of PIM31
Serial number of PIM 31:
Toggles between Basic mode and Advanced
mode:
Basic mode: RF On Time, REC Interval
Advanced mode: Access to all settings
See chapter System Function Block for detailed
information.
Sets default values.
Returns to previous site.
48
7.3.1.1 PIM 31 Memory Space
PIM 31 Passive intermodulation test systems come with a total of
5.75 GB of user accessible memory. This memory is used to store
log data and site setup information. The average size of a Log data
set is 250 Bytes. With a drive segmentation of 512 Byte per block,
PIM 31 test systems can store more than 11 Million data sets.
7.3.2 System Menu Functional Block
7.3.2.1 RF ON TIME
By default, PIM 31 test systems will switch RF
power off after 30mins. This prevents
unnecessary transmission of RF power if the
system has been left on unintended.
RF-ON periods: 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 20m, 60m, 120m, 360m or “Always On”.
Default: 30min
49
7.3.2.2 REC Interval
PIM 31 test systems record measurements
whenever the Record button is pushed. Multiple
pushes create multiple, corresponding individual
log files. If measurements need to be analyzed
over a longer of time, PIM 31 test systems can
record log data automatically by setting the REC
interval to a value other than “OFF”, which will
record data automatically at the interval entered.
When RF power is activated in the Field mode
screen pressing the Record once starts
recording, the second push stops recording.
The Status Indicator field will show the REC
symbol lit during recording. If RF power is
switched off during recording, data logging stops.
REC Intervals: 1s, 2s, 5s, 10s, 20s, 30s, 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 15m, 30m, 1h, 2h,
5h, 12h, 24h and “OFF”,
Default: OFF
50
7.3.2.3 Filter BW
Advanced Mode Only.
Default filter bandwidth of the PIM31 receiver is
1.2 kHz; which is the optimized setting for best
performance. Increasing bandwidth opens the
receiver, allowing to “see” if signals are present
close to the receiving signal frequencies. If
Change of Filter Bandwidth effects all IM
frequencies that fall in the receiving range of the PIM31.Decreasing the filter
bandwidth allows to eliminate unwanted signals very close to the receiving signal
frequencies. Possible Filter BW settings are:
Filer BW: 300Hz, 600Hz, 1.2kHz, 2.4kHz,5kHz,10kHz, 12kHz, 15kHz ,25kHz
50kHz
Default:1.2 KHz
Note: Varying filter bandwidth influences the amount of RF energy
measured by the PIM31 receiver.
Wider Filter BW
measurement values increase
(lower negative number),
Tighter Filter BW
measurement values decrease (higher negative
numbers).
7.3.2.4 SPU Time
Advanced Mode Only.
SPU (Soft Power-Up) gradually ramps up the
RF output power, starting from 20dBm, to the
actual power level. When the PIM31 amplifiers
switch the RF Power on, the full power is
practically immediately present at the RF Port.
Depending on the DUT, this can sometimes cause strong reflections. Antennas
which are directly (only with a short cable) connected to the RF port of the PIM31
51
are prone to such reflections. If the returned energy is too high, PIM31 will switch
off to protect its hardware. A remedy is to simply increasing RF power gradually.
SPU Time: Increments 1s, Settings range 0sec to 60sec
Default: 0s
Example: With a power setting for 43dBm and SPU of 10s it takes 10 seconds to
ramp RF power up from 20dBm to 43dBm
Note: PIM31 starts measuring immediately after RF power is present at
the RF Port. During the period power is ramping up, PIM
measurements are lower than the ones at the final power level.
Remember, PIM is measured in dBc – power relative to the carrier:
Lower carrier power equals lower PIM readings.
To ensure users do not misinterpret a “good” reading during power
ramp-up, a blinking “SPU” marker is shown during the time. Measurements
should not be considered valid when the red SPU indicator is flashing. Please
wait for this indicator to disappear before considering the measurement valid.
52
7.3.2.5 BAR Graph G/R
Advanced Mode Only
The Bar Graph’s green/red threshold is -153dBc
by default. The switch from green to red is an
optical indicator if a DUT is within limits or if it
exceeds them. PIM measurement values higher
than the set threshold can
provide an audible indicator.
Obviously Audio has to be
switched on in the Field Mode
screen. Maxhold is an important
feature which holds the
maximum value during PIM
measurements. In this example
the maxhold value is -147 dBc.
Bar Graph g/r: -60dBc to 180dBc in 1dB increments
Default: -153 dBc
7.3.2.6 Precision Tx Levels
Advanced Mode Only
ALC (Auto Level Control) provides an extra
boost of Tx Signal accuracy. When measuring
PIM, two RF carrier signals are combined and
transmitted into a passive RF component (DUT). Depending on its quality, the
DUT generates more or less intermodulation energy. For best measurement
accuracy the injected signals should closely match their power levels. With ALC:
ON, the PIM31 will synchronize these power levels perfectly. Increased accuracy
costs a bit more time. Setting Tx power levels with will 0.05 to 0.2 sec longer than
with ALC: OFF. With the exception of high volume production, this additional time
is not an issue, so it is recommended to always leave ALC ON.
53
Default: ON
7.4 Analyzer Mode
The Analyzer Mode of the PM 31 offers more possibilities to analyze PIM
measurements. It contains of 3 Sub modes:
•
•
•
Frequency
Time
Sweep
The Analyzer mode is selected by pressing the Analyzer button
while in the Field Mode Screen. Returning to field mode is
possible by pressing the return button. RF Power needs to be
OFF
Frequency and power values can be set directly without utilizing Carrier or Site
information. For larger display we recommend to use an external monitor.
As in the Field Mode, the Analyzer Mode allows to log data over a period of time.
In this mode only the settings and measurement values are recorded. The
analyzer mode allows taking screenshots. This is helpful due to the graphic
display and measurement traces. Analyzing an image often reveals more details
than analyzing numeric values.
For more information on data logging and screen shots see chapter “Pull-Down
menus”.
54
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Pull-Down menu
B
Carrier display
C
Graphical display
D
Zoom Out
E
F
Tx/Rx
RF Power Button
G
Return
H
Parameter Setting
Allows Screenshots, data logging, and self test. For
more information refer to chapter Pull-Down
menus.
Carrier signal information: Frequencies, Power
levels
Shows up to 4 IM signals as a vertical bar. Position
on the x-axis indicates frequency and length
indicates power level. Color of the bars refers to
the colors of the numeric displays (N-Q).
The graphical display is floating, meaning the
center area can be moved for better convenience
and visibility of important display information.
Moving by touching grid part of the display and the
screen and drawing it to the desired location
Allows modification of the range from -60 to -200
dBc to -100 to 200dBc, which provides a better
resolution.
Shows internal communication activity to modules.
Switches RF Power ON / OFF
The Button inscription shows what happens if the
button is pushed. In the shown screenshot RF
power is ON, the next button push will switch RF
power OFF.
Brings PM 31 back to Field Mode. Works only
when RF Power is OFF
Allows modification of frequencies and power
levels used in Analyzer Time and Frequency mode.
Works only with RF Power OFF
55
I
Reference Line
J
Reference IM
K
Frequency
L
Time
M
Sweep
N
Numeric field 1
O
Numeric field 2
P
Numeric field 3
Q
Numeric field 4
Moves reference line for audible indication of
measurements that exceed the limit. Same as
Green/Red threshold of Bar graph in field mode.
Range -60 to -200 dBc
Selects if particular IM products (faster) or All IM
products (more comprehensive) that fall into the
receiving band of the PIM31. The test system can
show up to 4 IM signals at the same time.
Graphic Display Frequency mode: IM signals
shown as vertical bar, indicating power and
frequency. Signal colors relate to numeric display
Graphic display – Time Mode: IM signals shown as
moving horizontal line, indicating power (changes)
over time. Signal color relates to numeric display
Graphic display Sweep mode. Signals are “swept”
over a range to test wide frequency range
Strongest IM Signal in the receiver band
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency
Second strongest IM Signal in the receiver band
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency
Third strongest IM Signal in the receiver band
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency
Forth strongest IM Signal in the receiver band
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency
7.4.1 Frequency Mode
In Frequency mode IM products are displayed as vertical bars, where the
positions indicate the frequencies and the length the power level. Up to 4 signals
can be shown at the same time. Different colors are used when more IM
products are shown. PIM products are also shown numerically, where the colors
of the bars correlates with the colors of the 4 numeric displays.
56
7.4.2 Time Mode
In Time mode IM products are displayed as a horizontally moving line, where the
position indicates the power level over the time. This display is very helpful to test
immediate PIM variations, like loose connections. Any change is immediately
visible. Time mode shows a 10 seconds window, but more information up to 10
minutes may be recorded. Move past traces to the window by touching, holding
and drawing it to right until the wanted information is appears.
The screenshot shows two IM signals IM3 and IM5 With -149.0 dBc IM3 exceeds
the reference limit of -153.0 dBc. IM5 measured -176.8 dBc. Frequency
information of the IM signals is provided in the numeric displays. In this example
(M3 is 846.5 MHz and IM5 824.0 MHz.
57
7.4.3 Sweep Mode
IM products in linear environment are frequency independent. Many passive
components show a frequency response that is less linear or strongly frequency
dependent. The sweep mode increments / decrements carrier signals by 1 MHz.
covering a Tx range that results in a sweep of the complete Rx frequency range.
Any deviations of PIM measurements that are frequency dependent are
immediately visible.
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Pull-Down menu
B
Carrier display
C
Graphical display
Allows Screenshots, data logging, and self test. For
more information refer to chapter “Pull-Down
menus”.
Carrier signal information: Frequencies, Power
levels
Shows two traces (red / yellow) of an IM product
that are generated by
a) sweeping the lowest frequency upwards – red
trace and after that
b) sweeping highest frequency carrier signal
58
D
E
F
TX Range
Tx/Rx
RF Power Button
G
Return
H
Parameter Setting
I
Reference Line
K
Frequency
L
Time
M
Sweep
N
Hold
O
Single
P
Sweep Edit
Q
Freq Up/Down
downwards –yellow trace.
Increments are 1 MHz
IM signals as a vertical bar. Position on the x-axis
indicates frequency and length indicates power
level. Color of the bars refers to the colors of the
numeric displays (N-Q).
The graphical display is floating, meaning the
center area can be moved for better convenience
and visibility of important display information.
Moving by touching grid part of the display and the
screen and drawing it to the desired location
Shows Range of up-sweep and down-sweep..
Shows internal communication activity to modules.
Switches RF Power ON / OFF
The Button inscription shows what happens if the
button is pushed. In the shown screenshot RF
power is OFF, the next button push will switch RF
power ON.
Brings PM 31 back to Field Mode. Works only
when RF Power is OFF
To set power levels for the sweep cycles:
Menu comes up only with RF Power OFF
Note: frequency setting in the parameter menu is
not relevant for sweep measurements. Sweep Edit
(P) sets frequency ranges.
Moves reference line for audible indication of
measurements that exceed the limit. Same as
Green/Red threshold of Bar graph in field mode.
Range -60 to -200 dBc
Graphic Display Frequency mode: IM signals
shown as vertical bar, indicating power and
frequency. Signal colors relate to numeric display
Graphic display – Time Mode: IM signals shown as
moving horizontal line, indicating power (changes)
over time. Signal color relates to numeric display
Graphic display Sweep mode. Signals are “swept”
over a range to test wide frequency range
Hold Off blue, On red. While sweeping,
measurement can be held immediately.
Single Off –Blue, On -red. Determines if a single
sweep or continuous sweeps are measured.
Opens Sweep Edit menu, allowing to set:
End of Lower Tx range, Start of Higher Tx range,
Selection of measured IM (in case more than one
are in the range), sweep increment time (default
100ms, range 10ms to 2000ms)
Only for visualization of Tx sweep ranges
59
Element
Name
Description / Display
A
Reference IM
B
Freq 1 Sweep
C
Freq 2 Sweep
D
Sweep Cycle
E
Set
Allows selection of IM product (in case more than
one are in the swept range)
Start Frequency of up-sweep
Default: lowest Tx frequency the tester can
generate
Start frequency of down-sweep
Default: lowest Tx frequency the tester can
generate
Time between setting and measurement of
increments
Stores settings and returns to Analyzer Sweep
Mode
Note: Sweep mode requires setting the power levels (Parameter
button) and also to define the sweep frequency range (Sweep Edit
Button).
60
8 Pull Down Menus
Pull down Menus offer additional features and allow users to set some system
parameters. They allow also performing a self test of the PIM31 test system.
Three Pull-Down menus are available:
•
•
File
o Start History Save
o Stop History Save
o Screen Capture
o Initialize Program
o Quit
System Management
o Self Test
o PIMD management
o Connection check *
Field Mode offers a subset of Pull-Down menus, Analyzer mode offers all of
them. The features available in field mode
File
Start History Save
Stop History Save
Screen Capture
Initialize Program
Quit
System Management
Self Test
PIMD management
Connection check *
Help
Contact information
*Connection check is for factory use only.
61
Field
Mode
Analyzer
Mode
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8.1 File
8.1.1 Start / Stop History Save
This feature allows users to log measurements over a period of time in Analyzer
mode. The log files are stored in TSV (Tab Separated Value) ASCII text format.
Values listed are:
Date, Time, Carrier1 (MHz), Carrier2 (MHz), Output Level1 (dBm), Output Level2
(dBm), Offset (dB), ALC On/Off, Screen Mode, IM Number (Order), IM
Frequency (MHz), IM Measure(dBc), Direction, Measure Mode/Pass IM
Level/decision
Note: PIM 31 does not support Offset, Measure Mode/Pass and IM
Level/decision. This are reserved for other test systems. The log data will show a
hyphen “-“in these columns. Direction is always reverse for PIM31 test systems.
Each log cycle requires manual start, entering a file name, and manual stop. File
name directory and drive can be chosen at liberty.
62
8.1.2 Screen Capture / Print
This menu provides capabilities to capture a screen shot from any Graphical
Display of the Analyzer Mode. Capturing a screen shot requires manual trigger,
entering a file name, drive and directory. By default, the file name consists of
date and time, but can be modified by the user. The file is stored in jpeg format
by pressing the blue save button. The stored file has a size of about 150kB. In
addition to the graphic display and IM related information the screen capture
procedure allows the user to enter equipment information and a serial number for
the DUT.
Note: Only the graphic display and relevant information is stored with
the screen shot. Active measurements will be stopped during the
screen capture process.
63
8.1.3 Initialize Program
Initialize should only be
triggered if the system shows
signs of irregular function. It
sets system values to default
values, manual settings may
be lost.
8.1.4 Quit
Quit has the same functionality as Exit in the Field Mode. The user will be asked
if he really wants to quit the PIM 31. If answered YES, the system will power
down. Quit works only with RF power OFF
64
8.2 System Management
8.2.1 Self Check
Self check provides information about the PIM 31 test system. To
allow the self check routine to test all modules, it needs to be
performed with RF Power ON
Name
HPAx Output
HPAx ON/OFF
HPAx Temperature
HPAx Over Power
HPAx Temp Status
Synthesizerx Lock
HPAx Reverse
Local Osc Lock
Fan Operating
Description
RF Output power level (should be +/- 0.2
db within the set limits – ALC ON)
Status of RF Power (ON/OFF)
Temperature of amplifiers.
Reverse Power
On Fail (too hot), System will shut down
Synthesizers of Transmitter and Receiver
locked
Reverse PIM measurement blocks status
Local Oscillator functionality
Operation status of 6 fans
65
8.2.2 PIMD Management
PIMD management allows setting some system and measurement
parameters. With the exception of Sound On /Off, it is not required to
change these settings.
Name
Equipment Selection
Filter Bandwidth
IM Level Sound
SET
CLOSE
Description
Not relevant for PIM31, since these
provide only one frequency band.
Default 1.2 kHz
For further information refer to chapter
“System Menu”.
If ON, sound occurs when PIM level
exceeds reference line.
Stores settings
Returns To Analyzer Mode
66
9 Remote Application and TCP/IP Setup
PIM31 Remote Control Panel is the software to control the PIM31 unit from any
PC using a TCP/IP cable connection. This section explains how to setup the
PIM31 unit for TCP/IP from any PC and also the use of the remote application.
The software can be downloaded from the Boonton official website under
Products “Manuals & Software”.
9.1 Installation and connection setup for remote control:
9.1.1 Install PIM31 Remote Software
•
Download the PIM31 Remote Control software from Boonton’s official
website under product’s “Manuals & Software” section
•
Follow screen instructions during the installation process
•
Click on “Remote_ctr_V1.2.exe” icon from PC’s desktop to open the
software.
9.1.2 Known issues that might occur during installation on Windows OS:
Error message as “Component MSWINSCK.OCX or one of its
dependencies not correctly registered: a file missing or invalid”.
If you do not see this message continue with 9.1.3
Solution:
• Search internet or other computers for the missing windows system
file “MSWINSCK.OCX”,
• Download and save that file into your PC under any folder
• Copy the file into Windows System32 folder
C:/Windows/System32/
•
Click the executable file “Remote_ctr_V1.2.exe” again
9.1.3 Setting IP address of PIM31
•
Go to the “Control Panel” of the PIM31’s desktop screen and open the
“Network Connections” icon.
67
•
•
Right click the “Local Area Connection” icon and open the properties
window.
Select the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” from the list and enter the IP
address in input field.
Check “Use the following IP address”
Enter IP Address: 192.168.0.10 (for example)
(The last number can be any number between 0 and 254 but should be
higher than that of the PC’s IP address)
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.0
•
Press OK button when done
•
•
•
9.1.4 Connecting PIM31 and PC.
Connect the PIM31 unit to a PC with a regular LAN cable (not crossed type).
9.1.5 Setting IP Address of PC
•
•
•
Go to “Control Panel”, find & open the “Network Connections” icon.
Right click the “Local Area Connection” and open the properties window.
Select the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” from the list and enter the IP
address in input field.
68
•
•
•
Enter IP Address: 192.168.0.1 (for example)
(the last number should be lower than the same of PIM31 IP address)
Enter Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: (Leave it as blank because it does not affect the operation)
9.1.6 Check the network connection status of PIM31 and PC
The network connection status for both PIM31 and the PC can be verified by
following as below:
a. Tray icon on the status bar.
b. Check the normal status with clicking the network icon.
Note: Connecting PIM31 and PC will disconnect Wireless link of the PC.
69
9.2 Using PIM31 Remote Application:
Before using the remote application the following default settings for both
IP address and port number need to be verified.
9.2.1 Enter IP address and Port
• Open the “PIM31 Remote Control” software from desktop
• Verify that the IP Address is same as PIM31:
Default :
192.168.0.10
• Enter Port
3100
•
•
•
•
•
•
Press”Connect” button.
The “Equipment Get” buttons is now enabled
With proper connection PIM31 should now show “Remote Control” on
its screen
Press “Equipment Get” button.
The model is now shown in the Equipment field and the settings of
equipment are shown as well.
Change settings by overwriting the relevant fields and push “Set” button.
Pressing “RF ON” activates the RF and measurements are done
automatically.
“RSSI” can be pushed while RF is off
70
9.2.2 List of remote commands
Below are the lists of remote commands which can be executed remotely either
by using Telnet or HyperTerminal with a regular type of LAN cable connection
to the PIM31 unit. It is recommended to add “\r\n” at the end of each remote
command if proprietary applications to execute the following commands are
used. This avoids problems to complete the command executions.
Command
*IDN?
*RST
F1
F2
P1
P2
SET
ALC
BW
RF
STAtus
GET
F1
F2
P1
P2
ALC
BW
RF
ERRor
PIM
RSSI
Parameter
Frequency
Frequency
Power
Power
ON, 1
OFF,0
index
ON, 1
OFF,0
Return value
Product, Model
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
F1,F2,P1,P2,
ALC,BW,RF
Frequency
Frequency
Power
Power
1,0
index
1,0
Last Error
PIM, Order,
IM Frequency
RSSI
71
Unit
MHz
MHz
dBm
dBm
Description
1:True , 0:False(Out of Range)
1:True , 0:False(Out of Range)
1:True , 0:False(Out of Range)
1:True , 0:False(Out of Range)
1:True , 0:False
1:True , 0:False
1:True , 0:False
1:True , 0:False
1:True , 0:False
MHz
MHz
dBm
dBm
Error Log of Last command
10 PIM31 Reporter Software
PIM31 Data Manager creates report files in a PDF format. This software allows to
conveniently generating report files after collecting measurement data from a
multitude of base stations and locations. This application can be downloaded
from Boonton’s official website under product’s “Manuals & Software” section.
Note: To be processed, PIM31 log data has to be stored on a USB memory stick
connected to one of the PC’s USB ports.
10.1 Installation
•
During installation the user need to select the option to include PDF
creator software which comes free with this installation file.
72
•
Check the box during installation progress for PDF creator as below
10.2 PIM 31 Reporter settings
•
Copy the log file from the PIM31 unit by using any USB memory stick and
transfer them into the PC by creating any folder
•
Select the “Load Data” button from the PIM31 Data Management
Software in order to open the collected log file.
73
•
Open the collected log file name from the folder location of your PC.
•
File Menu “PDF File Name” allows selecting desired naming conventions
for the PDF report file.
74
•
Select the measurement(s) you want to have as PDF report by checking
the appropriate box(es).
•
“Store PDF” creates and stores a PDF report file. It can be saved at any
folder location of your PC.
The example on the next page shows a typical report file.
75
76
11 What is PIM?
PIM distortion is caused by non-linear mixing of two or more frequencies in
passive devices like cables and connectors. Ideal passive devices are
considered linear. In reality any linear component has a non-linear factor that can
cause PIM distortion. For optimal operation of RF systems, PIM has to be kept at
a very low level that has virtually no influence on the network operation. PIM
signals are generally unwanted because they can interfere with signals in a
receive path.
11.1 What Causes PIM?
Passive intermodulation can be caused by a variety of factors. PIM distortion is
often the result of flaws in component design and manufacturing processes. PIM
distortion may also be caused by wear and tear on components due to
mechanical constraints or environmental conditions.
11.1.1 Manufacturing & Design
• Use of ferromagnetic materials, such as nickel or steel, within the current
path. Especially at higher power levels, PIM can be generated due to
hysteresis effect of these materials and the non-linear voltage to current
ratio.
• Contaminations, like particles from machining operations or soldering
splatters that touch current carrying surfaces.
• Separation of current carrying contact zones through irregular contact
surfaces, corrosion and insufficient contact pressure.
• Dissimilar metals at contact areas.
• Insufficient thickness of plated metal causing RF heating through the skin
effect of RF.
• Bad solder joints.
11.1.2 Mechanical
• Poor mechanical alignment of components
• Too much or too little torque at connections
• Contaminated connectors
77
11.1.3 Environment
• Daily temperature variations, thermal loading by the sun and RF heating
vary junctions and can cause, often intermittent, PIM distortions.
• Wind-induced vibrations vary junctions, and can weaken or break down
joints.
• Airborne dirt and moisture cause oxidation of materials and cause PIM
distortion.
The antenna in the picture shows
oxidation within the power divider.
Tests with vector analyzer line
sweep test would not reveal the
problem; however PIM testing
detected the issue immediately
11.2 How to test PIM
PIM testing for field applications requires the injection of two CW signals (f1 and
f2) into a system under test. Intermodulation products (IM) of the 3rd, 5th, 7th…
order, caused by faulty components, appear immediately. The strongest
intermodulation product is usually that of the 3rd order (IM3). Frequencies of
these intermodulation products can be calculated as follows:
fIM3L = (2 x f1) – f2
fIM3H = (2 x f2) – f1
The picture below shows an example of passive intermodulation. Frequencies f1
(869 MHz) and f2 (894 MHz) are located in the Tx range, causing intermodulation
fIM3L (844 MHz) and fIM3H (919 MHz). Both IM products can cause serious
interference.
78
A visual example of intermodulation caused by two CW signals. Ideally, test
frequencies f1 and f2 should be at the edge of the transmit guard bands, so that
the IM3 products fIM3L and fIM3H fall at the edge of the receive band(s), usually
utilized as guard bands. This minimizes interference within the system under test
and also eliminates potential interference in other wireless bands
IM3 serves as an example. With IM3 as a result of PIM, other IM products (IM5,
IM7, IM9, IM11, …) will be present as well, and can impact base station
performance significantly.
79
12 PIM 31 Technical Information
12.1 Tester Types
PIM 31 Type
Tx Band
Rx Band
Technology
F01
869-896 MHz
824-851 MHz
CDMA (850)
F02
925-960 MHz
880-915 MHz
E-GSM (900)
F03
1805-1880 MHz
1710-1785 MHz
DCS (1800)
F04
1930-1990 MHz
1850-1910 MHz
PCS (1900)
F05
2110-2170 MHz
1920-2060 MHz
UMTS/WCDMA
(2100)
F06
935-960 MHz
890-915 MHz
GSM (900)
F07U
730-759 MHz
776-788 MHz
LTE-US (700-U)
F07L
730-759 MHz
701-716 MHz
LTE-US (700-L)
F07UL
730-759 MHz
776-788 MHz
701-716 MHz
LTE-US (700_UL)
F08
2010-2025 MHz
1900-1920 MHz
TD-SCDMA (2000)
F09
2010-2155 MHz
1710-1755 MHz
AWS
F10
2620-2690 MHz
2500-2570 MHz
IMT-E (2600)
80
12.2 Specifications (Data Sheet)
12.2.1 Transmitter Specification
Carrier Power Adjustable Level
Carrier Power Resolution / Accuracy
Frequency Range see version table
Frequency Increment
Frequency Accuracy (typical)
Frequency Tuning Lock Time (typical)
Reverse Power Protection
(Include ON/OFF Function)
12.2.2 Receiver Specifications
Reverse IM
Accuracy
Average Noise Floor
Dynamic Range (typical)
Measurement Interval
Effective IF Bandwidth
(Operator selectable)
Operational Input Power
Input Power without damage
Warm-Up Time for specified accuracy
+20 to + 44 dBm
0.25 dB / ±0.35 dB
200 kHz
2 ppm
1 ms
43 dBm / 5 sec
-132 dBm / -175 dBc
±0.35 dB
-138 dBm (1.2 k filter)
96 dB
(reference -90 dBm)
100 to 350 ms
300, 600, 1.2k, 2.4k,
5k, 10k, 12k, 15k, 25k
50kHz
- 45 dBm RMS
- 10 dBm max
5 minutes
12.2.3 System Specifications
RF Connector DIN 7-16
(3) USB ports
VGA output
REF Out 10MHz
User Interface Display 7” TFT with touch screen display
IM Measurement Alarms Audio / visual
Operating Voltage 90 to 264 V (50-60 Hz)
Power requirements 750 VA max
81
12.2.4 Environmental
Operating Temperature
0° to 40°C
32° to 104°F
85% RH
2000 Meters / 6560 ft
Humidity (non-condensing)
Max Altitude
12.2.5 Dimensions and Weight
All types except F02 and F07UL
Dimensions (W/D/H)
396 x 521 x 236 (mm)
15.6 x 20.5 x 9.3 (in)
23.8 kg / 52.3 lb
Weight:
F02
Dimensions (W/D/H)
396 x 602 x 236 (mm)
15.6 x 23.7 x 9.3 (in)
25.3 kg / 55.7 lb
Weight (PIM31-F02)
F07UL
Dimensions (W/D/H)
396 x 602 x 274 (mm)
15.6 x 23.7 x 10.8 (in)
31.2 kg / 68.5 lb
Weight
82
13 Maintenance
13.1 Block Diagram
83
13.2 Performance Check
To maintain maximum performance, it is highly recommended to conduct a basic
test of the PIM31 on a daily basis.
The following components are required for the performance test:
•
Low-IM Termination Load (Boonton 50W Low PIM Load)
•
Low PIM Cable
Install the test set-up as shown:
13.2.1 Testing Analyzer operation status
•
Connect the Low PIM Load to a PIM 31 test system with torque wrench
•
Set PIM 31 to Analyzer Mode
•
Set the frequencies of carrier signals 1 and 2.
•
Set the power levels to 43 dBm (20W) – with ALC: ON
84
•
Switch RF Power ON
•
The PIM Signal(s) should be at a level below -160 dBc.
If the reading is higher (lower negative value), switch RF OFF, disconnect
connections and re-connect them.
Repeat test
If the reading is still above -160dBc replace low PIM cable and retest.
Hint: Low PIM cables wear out with use. If a cable does not
longer perform in the desired way, dispose of it and replace it
with a new cable. Worn out cables can cause unnecessary work
and costs. Trying to repair a base station with a worn out cable
will lead to no avail.
•
Switch “RF Power OFF
•
Set the PIM 31 to Field Mode
•
Since the PIM 31 test system is connected to a low PIM load (not to an
active antenna), the RSSI value shows the noise floor of the instrument.
•
RSSI should be below -130dBm
85
13.3 Performance Verification
Performance Verification measures output signals and frequency accuracy /
selectivity of the PIM31.
13.3.1 Tx Signal Power Level
The following components are required for the performance verification.
•
50W Low-PIM Termination Load (Boonton 95960501A)
•
Low PIM Cable (Boonton: 95960401A)
•
High Power coupler 30dB coupling (with known linearity)
•
RF Power Meter (Boonton 4540 w/ Sensor 51071A)
Install the test set-up as shown:
86
•
Connect the Coupler, Low PIM Load and Power Meter to the PIM 31 test
system (use torque wrench)
•
Set the PIM 31 to Analyzer Mode
•
Set frequencies of carrier signals 1 and 2 to the start and end frequency of
the provided frequency band.
•
Set the power level of each signal to 40 dBm (20W) – with ALC: ON
•
Switch RF Power ON
•
With offset compensation of the coupler (30dB) the power meter should
read 43dBm +/- 1.0dB.
If the reading deviates, switch RF power OFF, disconnect connections,
reconnect and repeat the test.
If the reading is off by more than 1 dBm, the deviation could be caused
by an malfunctioning attenuator or amplifier in the PIM 31 Test System.
In this case, contact your nearest Boonton Service Center.
With the reading within limits, continue procedure:
•
•
•
•
Increase Signal Levels by 1dB,
Measure power
Repeat until Signal Levels are both at 43dBm.
With offset compensation of the coupler (30dB) the power meter should
read now: 46dBm +/- 1.0dB
•
Switch “RF Power OFF
87
13.3.2 Tx Signal Frequency
In order to measure the accuracy of carrier frequencies, use the following
components and equipment.
•
Spectrum Analyzer
•
High power coupler 30 dB
•
50W Low PIM Load
Install the test set-up as shown:
88
•
Connect the Coupler, Low PIM Load and Spectrum Analyzer to the PIM
31 test system (use torque wrench)
•
Set Spectrum Analyzer to proper measurement range
•
Set the PIM 31 to Analyzer Mode
•
Set the frequencies of carrier signals 1 and 2 to the start and end
frequency of the provided frequency band.
•
Set the power level of each signal to 40 dBm (20W) – with ALC: ON
•
Switch RF Power ON
•
Spectrum analyzer should show both PIM 31 frequencies with +/-200 kHz
accuracy.
If the reading deviates, switch RF power OFF, disconnect connections,
reconnect and repeat the test.
If the reading is off by more than 200 kHz, it may be an indication that
the synthesizer module is malfunctioning. In this case, contact your
nearest Boonton Service Center.
With the reading in limits, continue procedure:
•
Increase on F1 Signal frequency by 1MHz
•
Measure both frequencies
•
Repeat the process you are no longer able to increase the signal
frequency F1
•
If done, set F1 back to start frequency
•
Decrease F2 by 1 MHz
•
Measure both frequencies
•
Repeat the process you are no longer able to decrease the signal
frequency F2
•
Switch “RF Power OFF
89
13.3.1 Rx Power and Receiving Frequency
The following measurements have to be executed with
utmost care:
If too much power is applied to the PIM31 test system, the
receiver module will be damaged.
If the RF output power of the PIM31 is accidentally switched
ON, it will damage the Signal Generator.
In order to measure the accuracy and frequency selectivity of the receiver, the
following components and
•
Signal Generator
Install the test set-up as shown:
•
Set the PIM31 to Field Mode
•
Set frequencies of carrier signal 1 and 2 to the start and end frequency of
the provided frequency band.
•
Set the power level of each signal to 20 dBm (100mW) – with ALC: ON
•
Set the Filter bandwidth of the PIM31 to 1.2 kHz (default).
•
To avoid damage, RF Power of the PIM 31 must be OFF
90
•
Set Signal Generator to IM3 frequency.
•
Apply signal to PIM 31 (-60dBm to -120dBm)
•
RSSI should measure the applied power
•
If the reading is off by more than +/- 0.5 dB but not worse than
+/-15 dB, it may be an indication that receiver is out of
calibration. If the measurement shows a level lower than
-125dBm, the receiver does not detect the frequency at all. It
may be asynchronous. In the cases described above, contact
your nearest Boonton Service Center.
With the reading in limits, continue procedure:
•
Change the frequency of the RF Generator by 2.5 kHz.
•
The receiver will filter the signal out and the RSSI reading of PIM31
should be lower than -125dBm.
With the reading in limits, continue procedure:
•
Increase the PIM 31 Signal frequency F1 by 1 MHz
•
Set Signal Generator to the frequency that correlates to the IM3 product of
frequencies F1 and F2
•
Read the RSSI on PIM31; the value should be equal to +/-1 dB of Signal
Generator’s Power level.
•
Repeat the process you are no longer able to increase the signal
frequency F1 due to band restrictions
•
If done, set F1 back to start frequency
•
Decrease PIM31 Signal frequency F2 by 1 MHz
•
Set Signal Generator to Frequency that results for IM3 product of
frequencies F1 and F2
91
•
Read RSSI on PIM31; value should be +/-1 dB of to Signal Generator’s
Power level.
•
Repeat the process you are no longer able to decrease the signal
frequency F2
•
Set PIM 31 Signal frequencies F1 and F2 back to Start and End
frequencies of PIM31 band.
•
Set Signal Generator to Frequency that results for IM3 product of
frequencies F1 and F2
•
Read the RSSI value on PIM31; the value should be equal to +/-1 dB of
the Signal Generator’s Power level.
•
Change the power level of the Signal Generator by 5dB.
Never exceed -60dBm
•
Read RSSI on PIM31; value should be equal to +/-1 dB of the Signal
Generator’s Power level.
•
Repeat until power level range of -60dBm to -120dBm has been covered
•
Switch RF Signal of Signal Generator OFF
If the readings from the previously listed procedures deviate by more than
+/- 1 dB, contact your nearest Boonton Service Center.
92
14 Accessories
Test Cable for 20W PIM tester 3m (10ft) - Low PIM,
95960401A
DIN7/16(m)-DIN7/16(m)
Load 50W - Low PIM, DIN7/16 (m) - DIN7/16(f)
95960501A
PIM Source for 20W PIM tester - through technology
95960601A
(requires termination load)
Connector Saver DIN7/16(m)-DIN7/16(f)
95951101A
Adaptor 7/16 (f) - 7/16 (f), low PIM
95950301A
Adaptor 7/16 (f) - N (m), low PIM
95950401A
VZW Torque Wrench 18lbs
95951001A
PIM Source for 20W PIM tester - through technology
95960601A
(requires termination load)
Transit Case 1 for PIM31 with standard size body, holds also 95960701A
accessories & cable
Transit Case 2 for PIM31 with extended size body, (e.g. F02
95960801A
& F07UL) holds also cable
Accessory Bag
70047300A
Roll-up Keyboard (USB)
48401100A
USB Mouse
48401200A
93
Appendix A
Warranty Statement
Boonton Electronics warrants the PIM 31to the original Purchaser to be free from
defects in material and workmanship and to operate within applicable
specifications for a period of two years from date of shipment. Test cable(s) and
connector savers are not covered under warranty. Boonton Electronics further
warrants that its instruments will perform within all current specifications under
normal use and service for two years from date of shipment. These warranties do
not cover sealed assemblies which have been opened, or any item which has
been repaired or altered without Boonton’s authorization. Boonton’s warranties
are limited to either the repair or replacement, at Boonton’s option, of any product
found to be defective under the terms of these warranties. There will be no
charge for parts and labor during the warranty period. The Purchaser shall
prepay inbound shipping charges to Boonton or its designated service facility and
shall return the product in its original or an equivalent shipping container.
Boonton or its designated service facility shall pay shipping charges to return the
product to the Purchaser for domestic shipping addresses. For addresses
outside the United States, the Purchaser is responsible for prepaying all shipping
charges, duties and taxes (both inbound and outbound).
At Boonton's option, an extended Warranty period may be available for an
additional charge. Please contact one of our sales offices for further information.
If an extended warranty option has been purchased, the extended period is
substituted for the 2 year period above. Note that the extended warranty does not
extend the instrument's calibration interval past 12 months. The instrument must
be maintained in a calibrated (instrument having received calibration or
verification at recommended interval) state throughout the warranty period to be
eligible for warranty service to remedy "out of spec" operation.
94
Instrument Verification Definition:
Instrument verification is comprised of the following:
Inspection:
Each unit is inspected for damage and wear and tear. Key
functions are checked. The inspection is carried out both
external and internally. Any damaged or malfunction is noted
on the service report, providing the user with an overview of
the equipment’s status.
Maintenance:
Units sent in for verification undergo a standard maintenance
procedure. The instrument is cleaned of dust and marks on
both the inside and outside. Most Boonton testers have EMI
protection cover and screen can impair visibility. Fans and
filters are cleaned to enhance cooling and the device’s
lifespan.
Verification:
All specified values which can deviate over time are checked.
This includes all paths a signal can take for measurement.
Instrument Calibration Definition:
Instrument calibration is comprised of Instrument Verification PLUS the following:
Alignment:
If equipment has drifted out of verification limits then the
instrument will be aligned. Alignment tunes the unit into the
center of these verification limits. This results in maximum
measurement precision. Only Boonton, as manufacturer has
the competence necessary to provide such alignment.
Documentation: Together with the calibrated instrument the user receives
documents which certify and describe the status of this
instrument. The Calibration Certification declares the
conformity of the unit with published specifications. A
Calibration Report shows all test points with rated value,
verification limit and measurement uncertainty. The service
report provides the user with status of his instrument.
95
Appendix B
EC Declaration of Conformity
25 Eastmans Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054 USA
EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Manufacturer: Boonton Electronics
Equipment Type: PASSIVE INTERMODULATION ANALYZER
Model No(s): PIM 31
Boonton Electronics hereby declares that the above described
product(s) conforms to European community (EC) Council Directives
89/336/EEC//93/68/EEC and Standards: Test Cert Number CPS
A0136869
Issue Date: 04/15/10
Issue Place: Parsippany, NJ, USA
Dom A Lauria
Quality Assurance Manager
96
Appendix C
Special Units Packing List
PIM31-F01 S/1
99770102A
48401100A
48401200A
95951101A
56810400A
98906200A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Instrument 869-896 MHz
Base Instrument PIM31-F01
Roll-up Keyboard
USB Mouse
Connector Saver
Power Cord
PIM31 Manual
PIM31-F04 S/1
99770402A
48401100A
48401200A
95951101A
56810400A
98906200A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Instrument
Base Instrument PIM31-F01
Roll-up Keyboard
USB Mouse
Connector Saver
Power Cord
PIM31 Manual
PIM31 Accessory Kit S/1
95960701A
95960501A
95960601A
95960401A
95951001A
95951101A
95950301A
95950401A
95951401A
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
PIM 31 Transit Case
50W Low PIM Load
PIM Source 20 W through
Test Cable 3M 7/16M-7/16M
Torque Wrench 18 Ft/lbs
Connector Saver
Adaptor 7/16 (f) - 7/16 (f), low PIM
Adaptor 7/16 (f) – N (m), low PIM
Adaptor 7 /16 (f) – N (f), low PIM
97
Appendix D
PIM31-F07-UL Operation
This section describes the operation and functionalities of the PIM31-F07-UL PIM
Analyzer which are relevant to this particular model only. All other information
regarding safety and precautions are identical to other PIM31 models, and are
described in chapter 2 of this instruction manual. The unit has a single, Analyzer
mode of operation, displaying frequency, time and sweep functions.
PIM31-F07-UL Front Panel
Number
1
Element
Power Switch
Description
Functions similar to a PC:
One short push – PIM31 powers up.
Another short push – controlled power
down.
Holding for 3 seconds – powers unit
down immediately.
See also chapter Powering PIM31
up/down.
Note: Main Power Switch on the back
must be in ON position.
98
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
USB Ports (3)
USB ports for mouse, keyboard and
memory stick.
LAN connector
For factory use only.
RF Port w/ protection RF Port.
cap
Always use protection cap when PIM31
is not in use.
Audio
Loudspeaker for audio signals.
Touch Screen
Touch screen display 800x600.
Display
Never use sharp objects to push buttons
on the screen.
RF Power On
RF power light indicates when RF Power
is present.
Type Label
Provides information about PIM31 Tx/Rx
frequency bands.
Front Panel Air
Always allow for proper airflow, and
Vents
prevent alien objects or dust from being
sucked in.
PIM31-F07-UL Back Panel
99
Number Element
1
Main Power supply
2
Main Power Switch
3
10 MHz Reference
out
Air Flow Fan
Air Flow Fan
4
5
Description
AC Supply: 90-264V, 750W / 750VA
use 90 deg connector only.
Fuse: 4A / 230V or 8A / 110V.
PIM31 contains protection circuitry to control
RF power during operation and during power
on/off cycles.
After switching Main Power Switch on, wait 2
seconds before pushing Front Power Button.
Fans may briefly run after power off.
Note: Do not use Main Power Switch while
system is in operation mode as vital files
may be corrupted. Always use the Front
Power Button to power the system down.
10 MHz reference output to synchronize
external equipment.
Always ensure sufficient air flow.
Always ensure sufficient air flow.
Getting Started
(1) Powering Up:
PIM 31 test systems power up in a similar fashion to a desktop PC. However,
there is one exception: Significant RF power has to be controlled and managed.
For this reason, PIM 31 Series instruments contain a system to protect the
hardware and prevent unusual on / off cycles (such as 3 cycles per second).
When operated normally, the user will not be aware of these protective
measures.
•
Briefly press the start button on the front panel.
100
The system will boot up automatically and show the user interface in Analyzer
Mode, as shown below:
(2) Before Making Measurements:
Before starting to measure components with the PIM31-F07-UL system, users
are urged to familiarize themselves with the precautions & safety procedures.
Improper operation and handling can cause bodily harm, or damage the
instrument.
Preparations:
•
•
•
Attach a connector saver to both the RF Port and to the Load (if not
already attached).
Connect the Low PIM cable to the Test system (Note: always connect the
test cable to the instrument prior to connecting to the DUT).
Connect the Load to the test system.
101
At this point the power levels and frequencies of the carrier signals must be set
before the RF output can be enabled. To do so, touch the drop down arrows
corresponding to each carrier to change their values. Alternatively, double
clicking on the field will display a virtual keyboard.
The PIM Analyzer’s input panel is as shown below:
(3) Saving History log files:
The PIM Analyzer software has an option to manually save the history log file.
Whilst taking a measurement, the user can select “Start History Save” and “Stop
History Save” under the “File” menu bar.
102
(4) PIM31-F07-UL Operation Modes:
F07-UL Test Systems were developed to measure and analyze the PIM
performance of RF components, cables and complete RF systems. The unit
operates in Analyzer Mode, enabling the user to analyze multiple intermodulation
products at the same time (Frequency Mode); observe graphical traces over a
longer time period (Time Mode); frequency sweep DUTs to check PIM
performance across the complete frequency band (Sweep Mode).
Below is an example screenshot of Time Mode operation:
103
And an example screenshot of Sweep Mode is shown below:
(5) Powering Down:
The PIM31-F07-UL unit should be powered down by pressing the Power Switch.
It is not recommended to power down by simply “pulling the plug” or switching off
the Main Switch on the back panel.
104
PIM31-F07-UL LTE Analyzer Mode:
The PIM31 LTE Analyzer software enables the user to analyze PIM
measurements in greater depth due to its three modes of operation:
•
•
•
Element
Frequency
Time
Sweep
Name
Description / Display
A
Pull-Down menu
B
Parameter Setting
for Carrier 1
C
Parameter Setting
for Carrier 2
D
Graphical display
for Upper Band
Allows screenshots, data logging and self test. For
more information refer to the Pull-Down Menus
chapter.
Allows modification of frequencies and power levels
used in Analyzer Time and Frequency modes.
Works only with RF Power OFF.
Allows modification of frequencies and power levels
used in Analyzer Time and Frequency modes.
Works only with RF Power OFF.
Shows up to 2 highest IM signals for upper band as
a vertical bar. Position on the x-axis indicates
frequency, and length indicates power level. Color
of the bars refers to the colors of the numeric
displays (O-P).
105
E
Graphical display
for Lower Band
F
Carrier display
G
ALC
H
I
Tx/Rx
RF Power Button
J
Reference Line
K
Reference IM
L
Frequency
M
Time
N
Sweep
O
Numeric field 1 for
upper band
P
Numeric field 2 for
upper band
Q
Numeric field 3 for
lower band
R
Numeric field 4 for
lower band
Shows up to 2 highest IM signals for lower band as
a vertical bar. Position on the x-axis indicates
frequency, and length indicates power level. Color
of the bars refers to the colors of the numeric
displays (Q-R).
Carrier signal information: Displays frequencies and
power levels.
Allows the Automatic Level Control feature to be
turned ON or OFF.
Shows internal communication activity of modules.
Switches RF Power ON / OFF
The Button inscription shows what happens if the
button is pushed. In the displayed screenshot RF
power is ON, and the next button push will switch
RF power OFF.
Moves reference line to set the limit for audible
indication of measurements.
Selects particular IM products (faster) or all IM
products (more comprehensive) that fall into the
receive bands of the PIM31-F07-UL. The test
system can show up to 4 IM signals at the same
time, providing a maximum of 2 IM Signals for each
receive band.
Graphical display – Frequency mode: IM signals
shown as vertical bar, indicating power and
frequency. Signal colors relate to numeric display.
Graphical display – Time mode: IM signals shown
as moving horizontal line, indicating power level
changes over time. Signal colors relate to numeric
display.
Graphical display – Sweep mode: Signals are
“swept” to test receiver frequency range.
Strongest IM Signal in the upper receive band.
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency.
Second strongest IM Signal in the upper receive
band.
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency.
Strongest IM Signal in the lower receive band.
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency.
Second strongest IM Signal in the lower receive
band.
Information shown: Power (dBc & dBm) and IM
frequency.
106
Frequency Mode:
In Frequency mode, IM products are displayed as vertical bars whose positions
indicate frequencies, and whose lengths indicate power level. Up to 2 signals can
be shown at the same time for each receiver band. Different colors are used
when more IM products are displayed. PIM products are also shown numerically,
and the colors of the bars correlate with the colors of the 4 numeric displays.
Time Mode:
In Time mode, IM products are displayed as a horizontally moving line, with the
position indicating the power level over time. This display is very helpful when
testing instantaneous PIM variations caused by effects such as loose
connections. Any change is immediately visible. Time mode displays a 10
second window, but up to 10 minutes of information may be recorded. Move
through traces captured in the window by touching, holding and drawing it to the
right or left until the section of interest appears.
Sweep Mode:
IM products in a linear environment are frequency independent. However, many
passive components show a frequency response that is less linear, or strongly
frequency dependent. The sweep mode increments / decrements carrier signals
by 1 MHz, covering a TX range which results in a sweep of the complete Rx
frequency range. Any deviations of PIM measurements that are frequency
dependent are immediately visible.
107
Attaching Carrier/Site info with Screen Capture/ Print:
This menu provides the capability to capture a screen shot from any graphical
display on the LTE Analyzer. Capturing a screen shot requires a manual button
press and entering a file name, drive and directory. By default, the file name
consists of date and time, but can be modified by the user. The file is stored in
jpeg format by pressing the blue “File Save” button. The stored file has a size of
about 150kB. In addition to the graphical display and IM related information, the
screen capture procedure allows the user to enter equipment information, user
name, remarks and a serial number for the DUT. The user can also enter each
individual carrier or site description in these fields as an attachment to the screen
capture file, as highlighted below.
Note: Only the graphical display and relevant information is stored
with the screen shot. Active measurements will be stopped during the
screen capture process.
108
Manual Version Control
Rev
Comments
Date
Approved
1
First release
2/18/2010
WD
2
Second release
9/8/2010
MA
3
Third release
12/6/2010
MA
109
Contact
Wireless Telecom Group Inc.
25 Eastmans Rd
Parsippany, NJ 07054
Sales Offices
United States
Parsippany, NJ
Tel: +1 973 386 9696
Fax: +1 973 386 9191
www.boonton.com
United Kingdom
Cheadle Hulme, Cheshire
Tel: +44 (0) 161 486 3380, +44 (0) 7881 771 634
Singapore
Tel: +65 9487 5983
Lebanon
City Rama Zone Rose, Dekwaneh
Tel: +961 71 486 136653,+971 50 171 3625
110
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