Office 2010 Bible - Gol Frivilligsentral

Office 2010 Bible - Gol Frivilligsentral
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Microsoft Office 2010
Bible
®
John Walkenbach
Herb Tyson
Michael R. Groh
Faithe Wempen
Lisa A. Bucki
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Microsoft® Office 2010 Bible
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
10475 Crosspoint Boulevard
Indianapolis, IN 46256
www.wiley.com
Copyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN: 978-0-470-59185-7
Manufactured in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections
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Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be
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748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
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To homeless and neglected pets everywhere, in the hope that you
will find a better life and the loving care that you deserve. And to
the many compassionate people involved in animal rescue work, in
thanks for the selfless work that you do.
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About the Authors
John Walkenbach is a bestselling Excel author and has published more than 50 spreadsheet
books. He lives amid the saguaros, javelinas, rattlesnakes, bobcats, and gila monsters in Southern
Arizona – but the critters are mostly scared away by his clayhammer banjo playing. For more
information, Google him.
Herb Tyson is an economist and computer consultant and trainer in the Washington, D.C.,
area. He earned an interdisciplinary doctorate from Michigan State University in 1977 and an
undergraduate degree in Economics and Sociology from Georgetown University in 1973. He is
the author of many computer magazine and ezine articles, as well as more than a dozen computing books, including Teach Yourself Outlook 2000 in 24 Hours, Word for Windows Super Book, Teach
Yourself Web Publishing with Microsoft Word, XyWrite Revealed, Word for Windows Revealed, Your OS/2
Consultant, and Navigating the Internet with OS/2 Warp. Herb is also joint author and technical editor for many other books. He has received the Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional) award
each year for more than 15 years in recognition for helping thousands of Microsoft Word users.
Widely recognized for his expertise, Herb’s clients have included IBM, Wang, the federal government, and the World Bank, as well as numerous law firms and publishers. Herb is also a singer
and songwriter, currently working on his second CD. He and his guitar are no strangers to musical
venues in the Washington, D.C., area. He has performed at the Birchmere, the Kennedy Center,
Jammin’ Java, and coffeehouses, and is a frequent performer at the Mount Vernon Unitarian
Church (where he serves as Webmaster). You can visit Herb’s website at www.herbtyson.com.
Questions about this book and Microsoft Office can be pursued at Herb’s Word 2010 blog, at
http://word.herbtyson.com/.
Michael R. Groh is a well-known author, writer, and consultant specializing in Windows
database systems. His company, PC Productivity Solutions, provides information-management
applications to companies across the country. Over the last 25 years, Mike has worked with a
wide variety of programming languages, operating systems, and computer hardware, ranging
from programming a DEC PDP-8A using the Focal interpreted language to building distributed
applications under Visual Studio .NET and Microsoft SharePoint. Mike was one of the first people
outside Microsoft to see Access in action. He was among a select group of journalists and publishers invited to preview the Access 1.0 beta (then called Cirrus) at the 1992 Windows World
Conference in Chicago. Since then, Mike has been involved in every Microsoft Access beta program, as an insider and as a journalist and reporter documenting the evolution of this fascinating
product. Mike has authored parts of more than 20 different computer books and is a frequent
contributor to computer magazines and journals. Mike has written more than 200 articles and
editorials over the last 15 years, mostly for Advisor Media (San Diego, CA). He frequently speaks
at computer conferences virtually everywhere in the world, and is technical editor and contributor to periodicals and publications produced by Advisor Media. Mike holds a master’s degree
in Clinical Chemistry from the University of Iowa (Iowa City) and an MBA from Northeastern
University (Boston). Mike can be reached at [email protected] Please prefi x the
e-mail subject line with “AccessBible:” to get past the spam blocker on this account.
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About the Authors
Faithe Wempen, M.A., is an A+ Certified hardware guru, Microsoft Office Specialist Master
Instructor, and software consultant with more than 90 computer books to her credit. She has
taught Microsoft Office applications, including PowerPoint, to more than a quarter of a million
online students for corporate clients including Hewlett Packard, CNET, Sony, Gateway, and
eMachines. When she is not writing, she teaches Microsoft Office classes in the Computer
Technology department at Indiana University–Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), does
private computer training and support consulting, and owns and operates Sycamore Knoll Bed
and Breakfast in Noblesville, Indiana (www.sycamoreknoll.com).
Lisa A. Bucki is an author, trainer, and consultant and has been writing and teaching about
computers and software for more than 15 years. She wrote Teach Yourself Visually Microsoft Office
PowerPoint 2007, Microsoft Office Project 2007 Survival Guide, Learning Photoshop CS2, Dell Guide to
Digital Photography: Shooting, Editing, and Printing Pictures, Learning Computer Applications: Projects &
Exercises (multiple editions), and Adobe Photoshop 7 Fast & Easy. Along with Faithe Wempen,
Lisa also co-wrote Windows 7 (brief and expanded editions) for educational publisher Paradigm
Publishing. Lisa has written or contributed to dozens of additional books and multimedia tutorials covering a variety of software and technology topics, including FileMaker Pro 6 for the Mac,
iPhoto 2, Fireworks and Flash from Adobe, Microsoft Office applications, and digital photography. She also spearheaded or developed more than 100 computer and trade titles during her
association with the former Macmillan Computer Publishing (now a division of Pearson).
About the Technical Editor
Justin Rodino started his instructional career working as a guest lecturer at Purdue University.
From Purdue, Justin was a key instructor and courseware developer for Altiris/Symantec where
he became more involved with Microsoft technologies. He is an MCT and MVP and heavily
involved with the Windows and Office teams at Microsoft. Justin has also helped author and
edit many books including the Microsoft Office 2010 Bible. As well as authoring material, Justin
speaks at many Microsoft events and runs his own consulting company.
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Credits
Executive Editor
Carol Long
Senior Project Editor
Adaobi Obi Tulton
Technical Editor
Justin Rodino
Production Editor
Rebecca Anderson
Copy Editor
Cate Caffrey
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Vice President and Executive
Group Publisher
Richard Swadley
Vice President and Executive
Publisher
Barry Pruett
Associate Publisher
Jim Minatel
Project Coordinator, Cover
Lynsey Stanford
Editorial Director
Robyn B. Siesky
Proofreaders
Scott Klemp, Word One New York
Beth Prouty, Word One New York
Editorial Manager
Mary Beth Wakefield
Indexer
Robert Swanson
Marketing Manager
Ashley Zurcher
Cover Designer
Michael E. Trent
Production Manager
Tim Tate
Cover Image
© Joyce Haughey
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T
hanks to Executive Editor Carol Long for sticking with me (Lisa A. Bucki) for my second
experience pulling together the contents of this Bible. Carol, it was a pleasure getting the
job done for you. I also appreciate the recommendation for this project that I received
from my friend Jim Minatel.
Thanks also to Adaobi Obi Tulton, superhero Senior Project Editor. Adaobi, you handled this
monster project while also wrangling a three-year-old at home, with the poise of a person rooted
firmly in tree pose. Namaste.
The authors who contributed chapters from their individual Bible books provided the granite
from which this edifice was built. Thanks to these folks for their excellence and expertise:
l
John Walkenbach, Excel 2010 Bible
l
Herb Tyson, Word 2010 Bible
l
Michael R. Groh, Access 2010 Bible
l
Faithe Wempen, PowerPoint 2010 Bible
I thank Technical Editor Justin Rodino for vetting a huge volume of material under an aggressive
schedule. Your MVP experience was invaluable in making this a better book.
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Introduction ............................................................................................................................xxxix
Part I: Common Office Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1: Welcome to Microsoft Office 2010 ................................................................................3
Chapter 2: Navigating in Office ....................................................................................................23
Chapter 3: Mastering Fundamental Operations ........................................................................... 51
Part II: Creating Documents with Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Chapter 4: Making a Document ...................................................................................................89
Chapter 5: Formatting 101: Font/Character Formatting ............................................................. 121
Chapter 6: Paragraph Formatting ...............................................................................................139
Chapter 7: Styles ........................................................................................................................159
Chapter 8: Page Setup and Sections ........................................................................................... 177
Chapter 9: Tables and Graphics .................................................................................................203
Chapter 10: Data Documents and Mail Merge ............................................................................ 255
Chapter 11: Security, Tracking, and Comments .........................................................................283
Part III: Making the Numbers Work with Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Chapter 12: Using Excel Worksheets and Workbooks ...............................................................309
Chapter 13: Entering and Editing Worksheet Data .................................................................... 327
Chapter 14: Essential Worksheet and Cell Range Operations ....................................................347
Chapter 15: Introducing Formulas and Functions ..................................................................... 391
Chapter 16: Working with Dates and Times .............................................................................. 421
Chapter 17: Creating Formulas That Count and Sum ................................................................453
Chapter 18: Getting Started Making Charts ............................................................................... 479
Chapter 19: Communicating Data Visually ................................................................................497
Part IV: Persuading and Informing with PowerPoint . . . . . . . . . 525
Chapter 20: A First Look at PowerPoint 2010............................................................................. 527
Chapter 21: Creating a Presentation, Slides, and Text ................................................................545
Chapter 22: Working with Layouts, Themes, and Masters .........................................................595
Chapter 23: Working with Tables and Charts ............................................................................ 631
Chapter 24: Using SmartArt Diagrams, Clip Art, and Pictures ..................................................685
Chapter 25: Building Animation Effects, Transitions, and Support Materials ............................ 741
Chapter 26: Preparing and Delivering a Live Presentation .........................................................773
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Contents at a Glance
Part V: Organizing Messages, Contacts,
and Time with Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803
Chapter 27 : Fundamentals of E-mail ........................................................................................805
Chapter 28: Processing and Securing E-mail .............................................................................859
Chapter 29: Working with Contacts...........................................................................................893
Chapter 30: Working with Appointments and Tasks ................................................................. 919
Part VI: Designing Publications with Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . 957
Chapter 31: Introducing Publisher .............................................................................................959
Chapter 32: Design Dazzling Publications with Publisher ........................................................983
Part VII: Managing Information with Access and OneNote . . 1005
Chapter 33: An Introduction to Database Development ........................................................... 1007
Chapter 34: Creating Access Tables ......................................................................................... 1029
Chapter 35: Creating and Entering Data with Basic Access Forms........................................... 1079
Chapter 36: Selecting Data with Queries ................................................................................. 1125
Chapter 37: Presenting Data with Access Reports .................................................................... 1157
Chapter 38: Keeping Information at Hand with OneNote........................................................ 1175
Part VIII: Sharing and Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1197
Chapter 39: SharePoint and SkyDrive ...................................................................................... 1199
Chapter 40: SharePoint Workspace .......................................................................................... 1211
Chapter 41: Integration with Other Office Applications ........................................................... 1227
Appendix A: Customizing Office. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . online
Appendix B: Optimizing Your Office Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . online
Appendix C: International Support and Accessibility Features. . . . . online
Index ........................................................................................................................................ 1245
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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
Part I: Common Office Features
1
Chapter 1: Welcome to Microsoft Office 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Learning about Office Applications ......................................................................................3
Word...........................................................................................................................4
Excel ...........................................................................................................................5
PowerPoint..................................................................................................................8
Outlook .................................................................................................................... 10
Taking Advantage of Other Office Applications.................................................................. 11
Publisher................................................................................................................... 11
Access ....................................................................................................................... 11
OneNote ...................................................................................................................12
Starting an Application .......................................................................................................13
Closing an Application ....................................................................................................... 16
Finding Files ...................................................................................................................... 17
Getting Help .......................................................................................................................19
Browsing Help Contents ...........................................................................................19
Searching Office.com ................................................................................................19
Summary ............................................................................................................................ 21
Chapter 2: Navigating in Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Discoverability.................................................................................................................... 24
The “Results-Oriented” User Interface ...............................................................................25
Ribbons and Things ........................................................................................................... 27
Title Bar ....................................................................................................................28
The Tab Row .............................................................................................................29
KeyTips .....................................................................................................................29
Ribbon ......................................................................................................................30
Quick Access Toolbar ...............................................................................................32
Live Preview .............................................................................................................33
Galleries....................................................................................................................34
The MiniBar or Mini Toolbar .................................................................................... 35
Shortcut or Contextual Menus ..................................................................................36
Enhanced ScreenTips................................................................................................37
Dialog Boxes and Launchers .....................................................................................37
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Contents
Task Panes ................................................................................................................37
Status Bar..................................................................................................................40
Go Backstage with File .......................................................................................................42
Options ..............................................................................................................................43
Truth in Advertising, or What’s in a Name? ..............................................................44
Advanced … versus Not Advanced? ...........................................................................45
Working with Dialog Boxes ................................................................................................48
Navigating Dialog Boxes ...........................................................................................48
Using Tabbed Dialog Boxes ......................................................................................49
Summary ............................................................................................................................50
Chapter 3: Mastering Fundamental Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Working with Files ............................................................................................................. 51
Understanding Office 2010 File Formats .................................................................. 51
Creating a New, Blank File .......................................................................................53
Creating a File with a Document Template ...............................................................54
Saving and Naming a File .........................................................................................57
Opening a File ..........................................................................................................60
Closing a File ............................................................................................................ 61
Printing a File .....................................................................................................................62
Performing a Basic Preview and Print .......................................................................63
Understanding Page Design Settings ........................................................................64
Choosing Print Settings and Printing .......................................................................66
Working with Multiple Windows .......................................................................................69
Switching to Another File or Application Window ...................................................69
Arranging Windows .................................................................................................71
Moving and Copying Information ......................................................................................72
Understanding the Clipboard ...................................................................................72
Selecting Information ...............................................................................................72
Copying .................................................................................................................... 74
Cutting .....................................................................................................................75
Pasting ......................................................................................................................75
Finding and Replacing........................................................................................................78
Spell Checking ...................................................................................................................79
AutoCorrect, AutoFormat, and Actions ..............................................................................82
Styles and Live Preview ......................................................................................................84
Summary ............................................................................................................................85
Part II: Creating Documents with Word
87
Chapter 4: Making a Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Creating a Blank File ..........................................................................................................89
Typing Text ...............................................................................................................89
Using Word Wrap .....................................................................................................90
Inserting versus Overtyping ..................................................................................... 91
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Contents
Using Default Tabs .................................................................................................... 91
Making a New Paragraph ..........................................................................................92
Creating a File from a Template .........................................................................................92
Understanding Templates .........................................................................................93
Creating the File from the Template .........................................................................94
Working with Template Content ..............................................................................94
Saving and File Formats .....................................................................................................96
Convert .....................................................................................................................98
Save & Send (Formerly Publish) ...............................................................................99
Compatibility with Previous Versions of Word.................................................................100
To .doc or Not to .doc ............................................................................................. 102
Persistent Save As ................................................................................................... 103
Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack .......................................................................104
.docx versus .docm ...........................................................................................................104
Converting a .docx File into a .docm File ............................................................... 105
Understanding .docx ........................................................................................................ 105
Navigation Tips and Tricks ............................................................................................... 107
Tricks with Clicks...................................................................................................108
Seldom Screen ........................................................................................................ 110
Keyboard ................................................................................................................ 113
Views ................................................................................................................................ 115
Draft View Is the New Normal View ....................................................................... 115
Print Layout ............................................................................................................ 117
Full Screen Reading ................................................................................................ 117
Web Layout............................................................................................................. 118
Outline (Master Document Tools) .......................................................................... 118
Summary ..........................................................................................................................120
Chapter 5: Formatting 101: Font/Character Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
The Big Picture ................................................................................................................. 121
Styles and Character/Font Formatting ..............................................................................122
Style versus Direct ..................................................................................................123
Character Formatting ....................................................................................................... 124
Formatting Techniques ...........................................................................................125
The Font Group ...................................................................................................... 127
The Font Dialog Box ...............................................................................................134
The Mini Toolbar ....................................................................................................136
Character-Formatting Shortcut Keys ...................................................................... 137
Summary ..........................................................................................................................138
Chapter 6: Paragraph Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Styles and Paragraph Formatting ......................................................................................139
When to Use Styles ...........................................................................................................140
What Exactly Is a Paragraph, Anyway? .............................................................................140
Paragraph-Formatting Attributes ............................................................................ 142
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Contents
Paragraph-Formatting Techniques.......................................................................... 145
Structural Formatting ....................................................................................................... 145
Indentation ............................................................................................................. 145
Alignment ............................................................................................................... 147
Tabs ........................................................................................................................ 148
Paragraph Decoration ....................................................................................................... 151
Numbering/Bullets ................................................................................................. 151
Shading...................................................................................................................154
Borders and Boxes ..................................................................................................156
Random Bonus Tip #1 — Sort Paragraphs That Aren’t in a Table .....................................157
Random Bonus Tip #2 — Move Paragraphs Easily ...........................................................157
Summary ..........................................................................................................................157
Chapter 7: Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Styles Group .....................................................................................................................159
Using Styles ............................................................................................................ 161
Creating and Modifying Styles................................................................................ 163
Quick Style Sets ...................................................................................................... 165
Styles Task Pane ............................................................................................................... 169
Manage Styles ......................................................................................................... 171
Style Inspector ........................................................................................................ 174
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 175
Chapter 8: Page Setup and Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Page Setup Basics.............................................................................................................. 177
Section Formatting ................................................................................................. 178
Styles, Section Formatting, and Paragraph Formatting ........................................... 181
Page Setup Choices ................................................................................................. 182
Page Layout Settings ...............................................................................................188
Page Borders .....................................................................................................................190
The Header and Footer Layer ........................................................................................... 191
Document Sections ................................................................................................. 192
Header and Footer Navigation and Design ....................................................................... 192
Editing the Header and Footer Areas ...................................................................... 192
Header and Footer Styles ........................................................................................ 193
Section Surfing ....................................................................................................... 193
Link to Previous .....................................................................................................194
Different First Page .................................................................................................194
Different Odd & Even Pages ................................................................................... 195
Show Document Text..............................................................................................195
Distance from Edge of Paper ................................................................................... 195
Adding Header and Footer Material .................................................................................196
Page Numbers .........................................................................................................196
Themes .............................................................................................................................200
What Are Themes? ..................................................................................................200
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Contents
Using Built-In Themes ............................................................................................200
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 201
Chapter 9: Tables and Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Quick Start .......................................................................................................................203
Table Basics ......................................................................................................................204
Inserting Tables from Scratch .................................................................................205
Inserting Tables Based on Existing Data .................................................................207
Handling Tables ......................................................................................................209
Table Properties ...................................................................................................... 213
Table Layout and Design .................................................................................................. 215
Modifying Table Layout .......................................................................................... 216
Table Math ..............................................................................................................223
Modifying Table Design ..........................................................................................223
Inserting Pictures from Files ............................................................................................230
If Your Picture Format Isn’t Supported ...................................................................232
Pictures from the Clipboard and Internet .........................................................................234
Manipulation 101 .............................................................................................................234
Wrapping ................................................................................................................235
Dragging and Nudging ...........................................................................................238
Resizing and Cropping ...........................................................................................238
Adjust ..................................................................................................................... 242
Arranging Pictures on the Page...............................................................................244
Inserting Clip Art ............................................................................................................. 245
SmartArt .......................................................................................................................... 247
Inserting SmartArt ................................................................................................. 247
Summary ..........................................................................................................................252
Chapter 10: Data Documents and Mail Merge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Understanding Data Sources ............................................................................................ 255
Choosing the Type of Data Document ..............................................................................257
Restoring a Word Document to Normal .................................................................258
Attaching a Data Source ...................................................................................................258
Selecting Recipients ................................................................................................259
Assembling a Data Document ..........................................................................................264
Merge Fields ...........................................................................................................265
Rules .......................................................................................................................269
Match Fields ........................................................................................................... 271
Preview Results....................................................................................................... 271
Find Recipient ........................................................................................................ 271
Update Labels ......................................................................................................... 273
Highlight Merge Fields ........................................................................................... 274
Auto Check for Errors ............................................................................................. 274
Finishing the Merge ................................................................................................ 274
Mail Merge Task Pane/Wizard..........................................................................................277
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Contents
Step 1: Document Type...........................................................................................277
Step 2: Starting Document ...................................................................................... 278
Step 3: Select Recipients.......................................................................................... 278
Step 4: Write Your Letter ........................................................................................ 279
Step 5: Preview Your Letters ...................................................................................280
Step 6: Complete the Merge ....................................................................................280
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 281
Chapter 11: Security, Tracking, and Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Protection Types ...............................................................................................................283
Restricting Permission (Information Rights Management) .....................................284
Digital Signatures ...................................................................................................288
Document Inspector (Removing Private/Personal Information) .............................290
Formatting and Editing Restrictions .......................................................................292
Password to Open/Modify ......................................................................................296
Comments and Tracked Changes .....................................................................................298
Comments ..............................................................................................................298
Tracked Changes .................................................................................................... 301
Show Markup .........................................................................................................302
Display for Review ..................................................................................................304
Reviewing Pane.......................................................................................................304
Reviewing Comments and Changes .................................................................................305
Accepting and Rejecting Comments .......................................................................305
Accepting and Rejecting Changes ...........................................................................306
Protecting Documents for Review ....................................................................................306
Summary ..........................................................................................................................306
Part III: Making the Numbers Work with Excel
307
Chapter 12: Using Excel Worksheets and Workbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
What Is Excel Good For? ..................................................................................................309
What’s New in Excel 2010?............................................................................................... 310
Understanding Workbooks and Worksheets .................................................................... 311
Moving around a Worksheet ............................................................................................ 314
Navigating with Your Keyboard .............................................................................. 315
Navigating with Your Mouse................................................................................... 316
Introducing Excel’s Ribbon Tabs ...................................................................................... 317
Ribbon Tabs ............................................................................................................ 317
Contextual Tabs ...................................................................................................... 318
Creating Your First Excel Worksheet ................................................................................ 319
Getting Started on Your Worksheet ........................................................................ 319
Filling in the Month Names .................................................................................... 319
Entering the Sales Data ........................................................................................... 319
Formatting the Numbers ........................................................................................320
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Contents
Making Your Worksheet Look a Bit Fancier ............................................................ 321
Summing the Values ...............................................................................................322
Creating a Chart .....................................................................................................322
Printing Your Worksheet ........................................................................................323
Saving Your Workbook ........................................................................................... 324
Summary ..........................................................................................................................325
Chapter 13: Entering and Editing Worksheet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Exploring the Types of Data You Can Use ........................................................................ 327
About Numeric Values ............................................................................................ 327
About Text Entries ..................................................................................................328
About Formulas ...................................................................................................... 329
Entering Text and Values into Your Worksheets ............................................................... 329
Entering Dates and Times into Your Worksheets.............................................................. 331
Entering Date Values............................................................................................... 331
Entering Time Values.............................................................................................. 332
Modifying Cell Contents .................................................................................................. 332
Erasing the Contents of a Cell................................................................................. 332
Replacing the Contents of a Cell ............................................................................. 333
Editing the Contents of a Cell ................................................................................. 333
Learning Some Handy Data-Entry Techniques .......................................................334
Applying Number Formatting ..........................................................................................340
Using Automatic Number Formatting .................................................................... 341
Formatting Numbers by Using the Ribbon .............................................................342
Using Shortcut Keys to Format Numbers ...............................................................342
Formatting Numbers Using the Format Cells Dialog Box .......................................343
Summary ..........................................................................................................................346
Chapter 14: Essential Worksheet and Cell Range Operations . . . . . . . . 347
Learning the Fundamentals of Excel Worksheets.............................................................347
Working with Excel Windows ................................................................................347
Adding a New Worksheet to Your Workbook ......................................................... 352
Deleting a Worksheet You No Longer Need ............................................................ 352
Changing the Name of a Worksheet ....................................................................... 353
Changing a Sheet Tab Color ................................................................................... 353
Rearranging Your Worksheets ................................................................................ 353
Hiding and Unhiding a Worksheet ......................................................................... 355
Controlling the Worksheet View ......................................................................................356
Zooming in or out for a Better View ........................................................................356
Viewing a Worksheet in Multiple Windows ............................................................356
Comparing Sheets Side-by-Side .............................................................................. 359
Splitting the Worksheet Window into Panes .......................................................... 359
Keeping the Titles in View by Freezing Panes ......................................................... 359
Monitoring Cells with a Watch Window ................................................................ 361
Working with Rows and Columns ...................................................................................362
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Inserting Rows and Columns .................................................................................363
Deleting Rows and Columns...................................................................................364
Hiding Rows and Columns .....................................................................................364
Changing Column Widths and Row Heights..........................................................364
Understanding Cells and Ranges ......................................................................................366
Selecting Ranges .....................................................................................................367
Selecting Complete Rows and Columns..................................................................368
Selecting Noncontiguous Ranges ............................................................................368
Selecting Multisheet Ranges....................................................................................369
Selecting Special Types of Cells .............................................................................. 371
Selecting Cells by Searching ...................................................................................372
Copying or Moving Ranges .............................................................................................. 373
Copying by Using Ribbon Commands ................................................................... 374
Copying by Using Shortcut Menu Commands........................................................ 374
Copying or Moving by Using Drag-and-Drop ......................................................... 375
Copying to Adjacent Cells ...................................................................................... 376
Copying a Range to Other Sheets ...........................................................................377
Using the Office Clipboard to Paste ........................................................................377
Pasting in Special Ways .......................................................................................... 379
Using the Paste Special Dialog Box .........................................................................380
Using Names to Work with Ranges ..................................................................................382
Creating Range Names in Your Workbooks ............................................................383
Managing Names ....................................................................................................385
Adding Comments to Cells...............................................................................................387
Formatting Comments............................................................................................388
Working Further with Comments ..........................................................................388
Summary ..........................................................................................................................389
Chapter 15: Introducing Formulas and Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Understanding Formula Basics ......................................................................................... 391
Using Operators in Formulas..................................................................................392
Understanding Operator Precedence in Formulas ..................................................394
Using Functions in Your Formulas .........................................................................396
Entering Formulas into Your Worksheets .........................................................................398
Entering Formulas Manually ..................................................................................400
Entering Formulas by Pointing ...............................................................................400
Pasting Range Names into Formulas ......................................................................401
Inserting Functions into Formulas .........................................................................402
Function Entry Tips................................................................................................404
Editing Formulas ..............................................................................................................404
Using Cell References in Formulas ...................................................................................405
Using Relative, Absolute, and Mixed References .....................................................405
Changing the Types of Your References ..................................................................408
Referencing Cells Outside the Worksheet ...............................................................408
Using Formulas in Tables .................................................................................................409
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Summarizing Data in a Table..................................................................................409
Using Formulas within a Table ............................................................................... 410
Referencing Data in a Table..................................................................................... 412
Correcting Common Formula Errors ............................................................................... 414
Handling Circular References ................................................................................. 415
Specifying When Formulas Are Calculated ............................................................ 416
Tips for Working with Formulas ...................................................................................... 417
Don’t Hard-Code Values ......................................................................................... 417
Using the Formula Bar as a Calculator .................................................................... 418
Making an Exact Copy of a Formula....................................................................... 418
Converting Formulas to Values............................................................................... 419
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 419
Chapter 16: Working with Dates and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
How Excel Handles Dates and Times ............................................................................... 421
Understanding Date Serial Numbers ...................................................................... 421
Entering Dates ........................................................................................................422
Understanding Time Serial Numbers ..................................................................... 424
Entering Times ....................................................................................................... 426
Formatting Dates and Times................................................................................... 426
Problems with Dates ............................................................................................... 427
Date-Related Worksheet Functions...................................................................................430
Displaying the Current Date ................................................................................... 431
Displaying Any Date ............................................................................................... 431
Generating a Series of Dates ................................................................................... 432
Converting a Nondate String to a Date ................................................................... 433
Calculating the Number of Days Between Two Dates .............................................434
Calculating the Number of Workdays between Two Dates ..................................... 435
Offsetting a Date Using only Workdays ..................................................................436
Calculating the Number of Years between Two Dates .............................................436
Calculating a Person’s Age ...................................................................................... 437
Determining the Day of the Year.............................................................................438
Determining the Day of the Week .......................................................................... 439
Determining the Date of the Most Recent Sunday .................................................. 439
Determining the First Day of the Week after a Date ............................................... 439
Determining the Nth Occurrence of a Day of the Week in a Month .......................440
Calculating Dates of Holidays .................................................................................440
Determining the Last Day of a Month.....................................................................443
Determining Whether a Year Is a Leap Year............................................................443
Determining a Date’s Quarter .................................................................................444
Time-Related Functions ...................................................................................................444
Displaying the Current Time ..................................................................................444
Displaying any Time ...............................................................................................445
Calculating the Difference between Two Times ......................................................446
Summing Times that Exceed 24 Hours...................................................................447
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Converting from Military Time...............................................................................449
Converting Decimal Hours, Minutes, or Seconds to a Time ...................................449
Adding Hours, Minutes, or Seconds to a Time........................................................450
Rounding Time Values ............................................................................................450
Working with Non-Time-of-Day Values.................................................................. 451
Summary ..........................................................................................................................452
Chapter 17: Creating Formulas That Count and Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Counting and Summing Worksheet Cells ........................................................................453
Basic Counting Formulas ................................................................................................. 455
Counting the Total Number of Cells .......................................................................456
Counting Blank Cells..............................................................................................456
Counting Non-Blank Cells......................................................................................457
Counting Numeric Cells .........................................................................................457
Counting Text Cells ................................................................................................457
Counting Non-text Cells.........................................................................................457
Counting Logical Values .........................................................................................457
Counting Error Values in a Range...........................................................................458
Advanced Counting Formulas ..........................................................................................458
Counting Cells by Using the COUNTIF Function ..................................................458
Counting Cells Based on Multiple Criteria .............................................................460
Counting the Most Frequently Occurring Entry.....................................................463
Counting the Occurrences of Specific Text .............................................................463
Counting the Number of Unique Values .................................................................465
Creating a Frequency Distribution .........................................................................465
Summing Formulas .......................................................................................................... 470
Summing All Cells in a Range ................................................................................ 470
Computing a Cumulative Sum ................................................................................ 472
Summing the “Top n” Values .................................................................................. 473
Conditional Sums Using a Single Criterion ...................................................................... 474
Summing Only Negative Values.............................................................................. 475
Summing Values Based on a Different Range.......................................................... 475
Summing Values Based on a Text Comparison ....................................................... 476
Summing Values Based on a Date Comparison....................................................... 476
Conditional Sums Using Multiple Criteria........................................................................ 476
Using And Criteria.................................................................................................. 476
Using Or Criteria .................................................................................................... 478
Using And and Or Criteria ..................................................................................... 478
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 478
Chapter 18: Getting Started Making Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
What Is a Chart? ............................................................................................................... 479
Understanding How Excel Handles Charts ......................................................................480
Embedded Charts ................................................................................................... 481
Chart Sheets ...........................................................................................................482
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Creating a Chart ...............................................................................................................484
Hands On: Creating and Customizing a Chart.................................................................485
Selecting the Data ...................................................................................................485
Choosing a Chart Type ...........................................................................................486
Experimenting with Different Layouts ...................................................................486
Trying Another View of the Data ............................................................................487
Trying Other Chart Types ......................................................................................488
Trying Other Chart Styles ......................................................................................488
Working with Charts........................................................................................................490
Resizing a Chart .....................................................................................................490
Moving a Chart .......................................................................................................490
Copying a Chart ..................................................................................................... 491
Deleting a Chart ..................................................................................................... 491
Adding Chart Elements .......................................................................................... 491
Moving and Deleting Chart Elements ..................................................................... 491
Formatting Chart Elements ....................................................................................492
Printing Charts .......................................................................................................492
Understanding Chart Types .............................................................................................493
Choosing a Chart Type ...........................................................................................494
Summary ..........................................................................................................................495
Chapter 19: Communicating Data Visually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
About Conditional Formatting .........................................................................................497
Specifying Conditional Formatting ..................................................................................499
Formatting Types You Can Apply ...........................................................................499
Making Your Own Rules.........................................................................................500
Conditional Formats That Use Graphics .......................................................................... 501
Using Data Bars ...................................................................................................... 501
Using Color Scales ..................................................................................................503
Using Icon Sets .......................................................................................................505
Creating Formula-Based Rules .........................................................................................508
Understanding Relative and Absolute References ...................................................509
Conditional Formatting Formula Examples ........................................................... 510
Working with Conditional Formats ................................................................................. 513
Managing Rules ...................................................................................................... 514
Copying Cells That Contain Conditional Formatting ............................................. 514
Deleting Conditional Formatting ............................................................................ 515
Locating Cells That Contain Conditional Formatting............................................. 515
Introducing Sparklines ..................................................................................................... 515
Sparkline Types ...................................................................................................... 516
Creating Sparklines ................................................................................................ 517
Customizing Sparklines .......................................................................................... 519
Specifying a Date Axis ............................................................................................522
Auto-updating Sparklines .......................................................................................523
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 524
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Part IV: Persuading and Informing with PowerPoint
525
Chapter 20: A First Look at PowerPoint 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
What’s New in PowerPoint 2010? .....................................................................................528
Backstage View .......................................................................................................528
Better Support for Video Import and Editing ..........................................................529
Output to Video and DVD ......................................................................................529
Collaboration ..........................................................................................................529
Other Changes........................................................................................................529
Learning Your Way around PowerPoint ............................................................................530
Starting and Exiting PowerPoint ............................................................................. 531
Changing the View ........................................................................................................... 532
Normal View...........................................................................................................533
Slide Sorter View.....................................................................................................534
Slide Show View ..................................................................................................... 535
Notes Page View......................................................................................................536
Zooming In and Out.........................................................................................................536
Enabling Optional Display Elements ................................................................................538
Ruler .......................................................................................................................538
Gridlines .................................................................................................................539
Guides ....................................................................................................................540
Color/Grayscale/Pure Black and White Views ........................................................ 541
Opening a New Display Window .....................................................................................542
Arranging Windows ...............................................................................................542
Switching among Windows ....................................................................................543
Summary ..........................................................................................................................543
Chapter 21: Creating a Presentation, Slides, and Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Starting a New Presentation .............................................................................................545
Starting a Blank Presentation from Scratch.............................................................545
Starting a Presentation from a Template or Theme .................................................546
Basing a New Presentation on an Existing One ......................................................548
Basing a New Presentation on Content from Another Application..........................550
Saving Your Work ............................................................................................................. 551
Saving for the First Time ........................................................................................ 551
Saving Subsequent Times ....................................................................................... 552
Changing Drives and Folders ................................................................................. 553
Saving in a Different Format ................................................................................... 557
Specifying Save Options .........................................................................................562
Setting Passwords for File Protection................................................................................564
Closing and Reopening Presentations ..............................................................................566
Closing a Presentation ............................................................................................566
Opening a Presentation ..........................................................................................566
Opening a File from a Different Program ...............................................................569
Finding a Presentation File to Open .......................................................................569
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Creating New Slides ......................................................................................................... 570
Creating New Slides from the Outline Pane............................................................571
Creating a Slide from the Slides Pane......................................................................571
Creating a Slide from a Layout ................................................................................572
Copying Slides ........................................................................................................572
Inserting Content from External Sources ......................................................................... 574
Copying Slides from Other Presentations ............................................................... 574
Inserting New Slides from an Outline .................................................................... 576
Opening a Word Document as a New Presentation ................................................ 578
Importing Text from Web Pages ............................................................................. 579
Managing Slides ...............................................................................................................579
Selecting Slides .......................................................................................................580
Deleting Slides ........................................................................................................ 581
Undoing Mistakes ................................................................................................... 581
Rearranging Slides ..................................................................................................582
Using Content Placeholders ..............................................................................................584
Inserting Content into a Placeholder ......................................................................584
Placeholders versus Manually Inserted Objects ......................................................585
Creating Text Boxes Manually ..........................................................................................585
When Should You Use a Manual Text Box?.............................................................586
Creating a Text Box Manually .................................................................................587
Working with Text Boxes .................................................................................................587
Selecting Text Boxes ...............................................................................................587
Sizing a Text Box ....................................................................................................588
Positioning a Text Box ............................................................................................589
Changing a Text Box’s AutoFit Behavior .................................................................590
Summary ..........................................................................................................................593
Chapter 22: Working with Layouts, Themes, and Masters . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Understanding Layouts and Themes ................................................................................595
Themes versus Templates .......................................................................................596
Where Themes Are Stored ......................................................................................597
Themes, Layouts, and Slide Master View ................................................................597
Changing a Slide’s Layout .................................................................................................598
Applying a Theme ............................................................................................................600
Applying a Theme from the Gallery ........................................................................ 601
Applying a Theme from a Theme or Template File .................................................602
Changing Colors, Fonts, and Effects ................................................................................603
Understanding Color Placeholders..........................................................................603
Switching Color Themes .........................................................................................604
Understanding Font Placeholders ...........................................................................605
Switching Font Themes ..........................................................................................606
Changing the Effect Theme ....................................................................................606
Creating and Managing Custom Color and Font Themes .................................................608
Creating a Custom Color Theme.............................................................................608
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Sharing a Custom Color Theme with Others .......................................................... 610
Deleting a Custom Color Theme ............................................................................. 610
Creating a Custom Font Theme .............................................................................. 611
Sharing a Custom Font Theme with Others ........................................................... 611
Deleting a Custom Font Theme .............................................................................. 612
Changing the Background ................................................................................................ 613
Applying a Background Style .................................................................................. 614
Applying a Background Fill .................................................................................... 615
Working with Background Graphics ...................................................................... 616
Working with Placeholders............................................................................................... 617
Formatting a Placeholder ........................................................................................ 618
Moving, Deleting, or Restoring Placeholders .......................................................... 619
Displaying the Date, Number, and Footer on Slides ...............................................620
Customizing and Creating Layouts .................................................................................. 621
Understanding Content Placeholders......................................................................622
Adding a Custom Placeholder .................................................................................622
Deleting and Restoring a Custom Placeholder ........................................................623
Overriding the Slide Master Formatting for a Layout ............................................. 624
Creating a New Layout ........................................................................................... 624
Renaming a Layout .................................................................................................625
Duplicating and Deleting Layouts...........................................................................625
Copying Layouts between Slide Masters .................................................................625
Managing Slide Masters ....................................................................................................626
Creating and Deleting Slide Masters .......................................................................626
Renaming a Slide Master......................................................................................... 627
Preserving a Slide Master ........................................................................................628
Managing Themes ............................................................................................................628
Creating a New Theme ...........................................................................................628
Renaming a Theme ................................................................................................. 629
Deleting a Theme .................................................................................................... 629
Copying a Theme from Another Presentation .........................................................630
Summary ..........................................................................................................................630
Chapter 23: Working with Tables and Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
Creating a New Table ....................................................................................................... 631
Creating a Table with the Insert Table Dialog Box ..................................................632
Creating a Table from the Table Button...................................................................633
Drawing a Table ......................................................................................................633
Moving Around in a Table ................................................................................................ 635
Selecting Rows, Columns, and Cells................................................................................. 635
Editing a Table’s Structure ................................................................................................636
Resizing the Overall Table ...................................................................................... 637
Inserting or Deleting Rows and Columns ............................................................... 637
Merging and Splitting Cells ....................................................................................639
Applying Table Styles .......................................................................................................639
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Formatting Table Cells ..................................................................................................... 641
Changing Row Height and Column Width ............................................................. 641
Table Margins and Alignment.................................................................................642
Applying Borders ....................................................................................................642
Applying Fills .........................................................................................................643
Applying a Shadow to a Table .................................................................................649
Applying a 3-D Effect to a Table .............................................................................649
Changing Text Alignment ...................................................................................... 651
Changing Text Direction ........................................................................................652
Understanding Charts ......................................................................................................652
Parts of a Chart ....................................................................................................... 653
PowerPoint 2010 versus Legacy Charts ...................................................................654
Starting a New Chart ........................................................................................................656
Working with Chart Data .................................................................................................659
Plotting by Rows versus by Columns ......................................................................659
Redefining the Data Range......................................................................................660
Chart Types and Chart Layout Presets .............................................................................662
Working with Labels ........................................................................................................663
Working with Chart Titles ......................................................................................665
Working with Axis Titles ........................................................................................665
Working with Legends............................................................................................667
Adding Data Labels.................................................................................................669
Adding a Data Table................................................................................................671
Controlling the Axes ........................................................................................................672
Using Axis Presets ..................................................................................................672
Setting Axis Scale Options......................................................................................673
Setting a Number Format ....................................................................................... 676
Formatting a Chart ...........................................................................................................677
Clearing Manually Applied Formatting .................................................................. 678
Formatting Titles and Labels .................................................................................. 678
Applying Chart Styles ............................................................................................. 679
Formatting the Chart Area ..................................................................................... 679
Formatting the Legend ...........................................................................................680
Formatting Gridlines and Walls .............................................................................680
Formatting the Data Series .....................................................................................681
Rotating a 3-D Chart ........................................................................................................682
Summary ..........................................................................................................................683
Chapter 24: Using SmartArt Diagrams, Clip Art, and Pictures . . . . . . . . 685
Understanding SmartArt Types and Their Uses ...............................................................685
List..........................................................................................................................686
Process....................................................................................................................686
Cycle .......................................................................................................................687
Hierarchy ................................................................................................................688
Relationship ............................................................................................................689
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Matrix .....................................................................................................................689
Pyramid ..................................................................................................................689
Picture ....................................................................................................................690
Inserting a Diagram.......................................................................................................... 691
Editing SmartArt Text ...................................................................................................... 691
Modifying SmartArt Structure .........................................................................................693
Inserting and Deleting Shapes ................................................................................693
Adding Bullets ........................................................................................................694
Promoting and Demoting Text................................................................................694
Changing the Flow Direction..................................................................................694
Reordering Shapes ..................................................................................................694
Repositioning Shapes ..............................................................................................695
Resetting a Graphic.................................................................................................696
Changing to a Different Diagram Layout ................................................................696
Modifying a Hierarchy Diagram Structure .......................................................................696
Inserting and Deleting Shapes ................................................................................696
Changing a Person’s Level in the Organization .......................................................698
Controlling Subordinate Layout Options ................................................................698
Formatting a Diagram ......................................................................................................699
Applying a SmartArt Style ......................................................................................700
Changing SmartArt Colors ..................................................................................... 701
Manually Applying Colors and Effects to Individual Shapes .................................. 701
Manually Formatting the Diagram Text.................................................................. 702
Making a Shape Larger or Smaller .......................................................................... 702
Resizing the Entire SmartArt Graphic Object ......................................................... 703
Editing in 2-D ......................................................................................................... 703
Changing the Shapes Used in the Diagram ............................................................704
Saving a SmartArt Diagram as a Picture ...........................................................................704
Choosing Appropriate Clip Art......................................................................................... 705
About the Clip Organizer .................................................................................................706
Inserting Clip Art on a Slide .............................................................................................706
Clip Art Search Methods .................................................................................................. 707
Using Multiple Keywords........................................................................................708
Specify Which Media File Types to Find ................................................................708
Work with Found Clips ..........................................................................................708
Working with Clip Art Collections ................................................................................... 710
Opening and Browsing the Clip Organizer............................................................. 710
Using the Clip Organizer to Insert Clip Art ............................................................712
Creating and Deleting Folders ................................................................................712
Moving Clips between Collections..........................................................................713
Cataloging Clips .....................................................................................................713
Deleting Clips from the Clip Organizer ..................................................................715
Making Clips Available Offline ............................................................................... 716
Browsing for More Clips on Office.com .................................................................. 716
Understanding Raster Graphics ........................................................................................ 718
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Resolution ...............................................................................................................720
Color Depth ............................................................................................................723
File Format .............................................................................................................723
Importing Image Files into PowerPoint ............................................................................725
Linking to a Graphic File ........................................................................................ 727
Acquiring Images from a Scanner ........................................................................... 727
Acquiring Images from a Digital Camera ................................................................729
Capturing and Inserting Screenshots .....................................................................730
Sizing and Cropping Photos .............................................................................................732
Sizing a Photo .........................................................................................................732
Cropping a Photo ....................................................................................................733
Resetting a Photo .................................................................................................... 737
Compressing Images ........................................................................................................ 737
Reducing Resolution and Compressing Images
in PowerPoint..................................................................................................... 737
Reducing Resolution with a Third-Party Utility ......................................................739
Summary ..........................................................................................................................739
Chapter 25: Building Animation Effects, Transitions,
and Support Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
Understanding Animation and Transitions ...................................................................... 741
Assigning Transitions to Slides ......................................................................................... 742
Setting Transition Effects and Timings ................................................................... 742
More about Transition Sounds ................................................................................744
Rehearsing and Recording Transition Timings ....................................................... 745
Animating Slide Content .................................................................................................. 747
Understanding Animations..................................................................................... 747
Choosing an Animation Effect ................................................................................ 749
Animating Parts of a Chart .....................................................................................750
The When and How of Handouts ..................................................................................... 755
Creating Handouts ...........................................................................................................756
Choosing a Layout ..................................................................................................756
Printing Handouts .................................................................................................. 757
Setting Printer-Specific Options .............................................................................760
Using the Handout Master ...................................................................................... 762
Setting the Number of Slides per Page .................................................................... 763
Using and Positioning Placeholders ........................................................................764
Setting Handout and Slide Orientation ................................................................... 765
Formatting Handouts ............................................................................................. 766
Creating Speaker Notes .................................................................................................... 766
Typing Speaker Notes ............................................................................................. 767
Changing the Notes Page Layout ............................................................................768
Printing Notes Pages ............................................................................................... 769
Printing an Outline ..........................................................................................................770
Printing Slides ..................................................................................................................770
Summary ..........................................................................................................................771
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Chapter 26: Preparing and Delivering a Live Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . 773
Starting and Ending a Show .............................................................................................773
Using the Onscreen Show Controls .................................................................................. 774
Moving from Slide to Slide...................................................................................... 776
Jumping to Specific Slides.......................................................................................777
Blanking the Screen ................................................................................................778
Using the Onscreen Pen ...................................................................................................779
Hiding Slides for Backup Use ........................................................................................... 781
Hiding and Unhiding Slides ................................................................................... 781
Showing a Hidden Slide during a Presentation .......................................................782
Using Custom Shows ........................................................................................................782
Ideas for Using Custom Shows................................................................................784
Creating Custom Shows.......................................................................................... 785
Editing Custom Shows............................................................................................786
Copying Custom Shows .......................................................................................... 787
Deleting Custom Shows .......................................................................................... 787
Displaying a Custom Show ..................................................................................... 787
Using a Custom Show as the Main Presentation ..................................................... 791
Giving a Presentation on a Different Computer ................................................................792
Copying a Presentation to CD ................................................................................792
Creating a CD Containing Multiple Presentation Files ...........................................794
Setting Copy Options .............................................................................................795
Copying a Presentation to Other Locations ............................................................796
Working with Audiovisual Equipment ............................................................................. 797
Presenting with Two Screens ..................................................................................798
Configuring Display Hardware for Multi-screen Viewing .......................................798
Setting Up a Presentation for Two Screens ..............................................................800
Presenting with Two Screens Using Presenter View ...............................................800
Summary ..........................................................................................................................802
Part V: Organizing Messages, Contacts,
and Time with Outlook
803
Chapter 27: Fundamentals of E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
Setting Up Your E-mail Accounts .....................................................................................805
Automatic E-mail Account Setup ............................................................................806
Manual E-mail Account Setup (POP and IMAP) .....................................................808
Manual E-mail Account Setup (Exchange Server)................................................... 815
Manual E-mail Account Setup (Web)...................................................................... 816
Modifying Account Settings ............................................................................................. 818
Using Outlook Profiles ..................................................................................................... 819
Understanding Profiles ........................................................................................... 819
Creating a New Profile ............................................................................................ 819
Switching Profiles ...................................................................................................820
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Composing and Sending Messages ...................................................................................820
Quick Compose and Send ...................................................................................... 821
Message Addressing Options ..................................................................................822
Changing the Reply To Address ..............................................................................822
Entering Recipients Manually .................................................................................823
Entering Recipients from Your Contacts (Address Book) ........................................823
Sending Attachments .............................................................................................. 824
Reading and Replying to Messages ...................................................................................826
Reading a Message ..................................................................................................826
Replying to and Forwarding Messages....................................................................830
Working with Received Attachments ...................................................................... 831
Understanding the Inbox Display.....................................................................................834
Understanding Files and Folders ......................................................................................834
Outlook Data Files............................................................................................................ 835
Offline Folders File ................................................................................................. 835
Working with Outlook Folders.........................................................................................836
Outlook’s Default Folders .......................................................................................836
Creating a New E-mail Folder.................................................................................837
Creating a New Non–E-mail Folder ........................................................................839
Organizing Folders in Groups ................................................................................ 841
Working with Folders, Groups, and Items ..............................................................842
Deleting Items and Using the Deleted Items Folder ..........................................................844
Setting Options for an Individual E-mail Message............................................................845
Changing the Send Account ...................................................................................846
Saving Sent Items ...................................................................................................846
Sending Items with a Message ................................................................................846
Setting Message Importance and Sensitivity ...........................................................850
Setting Message Restrictions ...................................................................................850
Flagging a Message for Follow-up ........................................................................... 851
Assigning a Message to a Category .........................................................................853
Requesting Delivery and Read Receipts ..................................................................853
Delaying Delivery and Setting Message Expiration .................................................854
Setting Global E-mail Options .......................................................................................... 855
Summary ..........................................................................................................................857
Chapter 28: Processing and Securing E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
Understanding Junk E-mail Filtering ...............................................................................859
Setting Junk E-mail Options.............................................................................................860
Blocking and Allowing Specific Addresses .......................................................................862
Defining Safe Senders .............................................................................................862
Blocking/Allowing Individual Senders....................................................................863
Defining Safe Recipients .........................................................................................864
Defining Blocked Senders .......................................................................................864
International Junk E-mail Options .........................................................................864
Understanding E-mail Rule Basics ....................................................................................865
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Contents
Creating a New Rule .........................................................................................................866
Selecting a Rule Template .......................................................................................867
Editing a Rule Description ......................................................................................867
Finishing the Rule ..................................................................................................867
Creating a Rule from a Blank Template ...................................................................868
Some Rule Examples ........................................................................................................871
Rule Example 1 .......................................................................................................871
Rule Example 2 .......................................................................................................873
Rule Example 3 ....................................................................................................... 874
Managing Rules ................................................................................................................ 876
Protecting against Viruses ................................................................................................877
On-demand E-mail Scan ........................................................................................ 878
Dealing with Attachments ................................................................................................ 878
Automatically Blocked Attachments ....................................................................... 878
Other Attachment Types.........................................................................................880
Sending Blocked File Types ....................................................................................880
Macro Security .................................................................................................................881
Using Certificates and Digital Signatures .........................................................................883
Obtaining a Digital ID ............................................................................................883
Importing/Exporting Digital IDs ............................................................................884
Receiving Digitally Signed Messages.......................................................................886
Obtaining Other People’s Public Keys.....................................................................886
Encrypting and Digitally Signing Messages ............................................................887
Encrypting Messages ..............................................................................................888
Digitally Signing Messages......................................................................................889
HTML Message Dangers ...................................................................................................890
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 891
Chapter 29: Working with Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893
Understanding Outlook Contacts .....................................................................................893
The Contacts Window ......................................................................................................894
Adding a New Contact Group .................................................................................895
Customizing a Contacts View .................................................................................896
Finding Contacts ....................................................................................................898
Adding Contacts ...............................................................................................................900
Adding a Contact Manually ....................................................................................900
Adding a Contact from a Received E-mail ..............................................................901
Adding a Contact from an Outlook Contact ...........................................................901
Sending an E-mail to a Contact or Group .........................................................................902
More about Contacts ........................................................................................................903
The Contact Window..............................................................................................903
Other Contact Displays ..........................................................................................906
Editing the Business Card.......................................................................................909
Dialing the Phone ................................................................................................... 910
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Contents
Sending Contact Information by E-mail ................................................................ 912
Other Contact Actions ............................................................................................ 912
Performing a Mail Merge from Your Contacts................................................................... 915
Working with Multiple Address Books ............................................................................. 917
Setting Contact Options ................................................................................................... 917
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 918
Chapter 30: Working with Appointments and Tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919
Understanding the Outlook Calendar .............................................................................. 919
Using the Calendar ..........................................................................................................920
Working with Calendar Views ................................................................................ 921
Using the To-Do Bar with Appointments................................................................ 924
Working with Appointments ............................................................................................926
Creating a Simple Appointment ..............................................................................926
Editing and Deleting Appointments .......................................................................929
Appointment Options .............................................................................................930
Searching the Calendar ....................................................................................................938
Setting Calendar Options .................................................................................................939
Understanding Tasks ........................................................................................................942
Using the Tasks Feature....................................................................................................942
Creating a New Task.........................................................................................................945
Entering Task Details ..............................................................................................946
Assigning a Task .....................................................................................................946
Specifying Task Recurrence ....................................................................................949
Working with Assigned Tasks ..........................................................................................950
Receiving a Task Assignment ..................................................................................950
Task Status Reports ................................................................................................ 951
Sending a Status Report Manually ..........................................................................952
Other Ways of Viewing Tasks ...........................................................................................952
Viewing Tasks on the To-Do Bar ............................................................................952
Viewing Tasks on the Calendar ..............................................................................952
Setting Task Options ........................................................................................................953
Summary .......................................................................................................................... 955
Part VI: Designing Publications with Publisher
957
Chapter 31: Introducing Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959
The Publisher Workspace .................................................................................................959
Using a Template to Create a Publication .........................................................................963
Working with Text ...........................................................................................................965
Typing Text in a Placeholder ...................................................................................966
Creating a Placeholder and Adding Text .................................................................966
Inserting a Text File ................................................................................................968
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Contents
Resizing, AutoFlow, and Linked Text Boxes ...........................................................969
Formatting Text ...................................................................................................... 971
The Measurement Task Pane .................................................................................. 974
Working with Graphics .................................................................................................... 974
Inserting a Picture File ........................................................................................... 974
Inserting a Clip Art Image ...................................................................................... 976
Changing a Placeholder Picture ..............................................................................977
Formatting Pictures ................................................................................................977
Drawing Lines and Shapes .....................................................................................977
Working with Tables ........................................................................................................ 979
Entering and Editing Table Data ............................................................................ 981
Working with the Table Format .............................................................................. 981
Summary ..........................................................................................................................982
Chapter 32: Design Dazzling Publications with Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . 983
Adding Special Effects ......................................................................................................983
BorderArt ................................................................................................................983
Drop Caps...............................................................................................................986
WordArt .................................................................................................................988
Text Effects and Typography Tools .........................................................................989
Using Building Blocks ......................................................................................................990
Updating a Publication ..................................................................................................... 991
Changing the Background ...................................................................................... 991
Changing Page Settings ..........................................................................................992
Changing Colors .....................................................................................................993
Fine-Tuning Objects .........................................................................................................993
Aligning Objects .....................................................................................................994
Grouping Objects....................................................................................................995
Wrapping and Hyphenating Text ...........................................................................996
Working with Pages..........................................................................................................997
Adding Pages ..........................................................................................................997
Numbering Pages....................................................................................................999
Checking and Printing .....................................................................................................999
Using the Design Checker ......................................................................................999
Printing ................................................................................................................ 1001
Preparing for Outside Printing ...................................................................................... 1001
Summary ........................................................................................................................1003
Part VII: Managing Information with Access and OneNote 1005
Chapter 33: An Introduction to Database Development . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
The Database Terminology of Access..............................................................................1008
Databases ..............................................................................................................1008
Tables....................................................................................................................1009
Records and Fields ................................................................................................ 1011
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Contents
Values ................................................................................................................... 1012
Relational Databases ....................................................................................................... 1012
Access Database Objects and Views................................................................................ 1013
Datasheets............................................................................................................. 1014
Queries ................................................................................................................. 1014
Data-Entry and Display Forms ............................................................................. 1015
Reports ................................................................................................................. 1016
Database Objects .................................................................................................. 1016
A Five-Step Design Method ............................................................................................ 1016
Step 1: The Overall Design — From Concept to Reality ....................................... 1017
Step 2: Report Design ........................................................................................... 1018
Step 3: Data Design............................................................................................... 1019
Step 4: Table Design ............................................................................................. 1022
Step 5: Form Design ............................................................................................. 1026
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1026
Chapter 34: Creating Access Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
Getting Started with Access............................................................................................ 1029
The Templates Section .......................................................................................... 1030
The Office Backstage View .................................................................................... 1031
Creating a Database ........................................................................................................ 1032
The Access 2010 Environment ....................................................................................... 1035
The Navigation Pane ............................................................................................. 1035
The Ribbon ........................................................................................................... 1038
Other Relevant Features of the Access Environment ............................................ 1039
Creating a New Table ..................................................................................................... 1039
The Importance of Naming Conventions .............................................................. 1041
The Table Design Process ..................................................................................... 1043
Adding a New Table to the Database .................................................................... 1043
Using the Table Tools Design Tab ......................................................................... 1047
Working with Fields .............................................................................................1049
Creating a Table.............................................................................................................. 1056
Using AutoNumber Fields .................................................................................... 1057
Completing tblCustomers ..................................................................................... 1057
Setting the Primary Key ................................................................................................. 1057
Choosing a Primary Key ....................................................................................... 1057
Creating the Primary Key ..................................................................................... 1058
Creating Composite Primary Keys ........................................................................ 1059
Indexing Access Tables ...................................................................................................1060
The Importance of Indexes ................................................................................... 1061
Multiple-Field Indexes .......................................................................................... 1061
When to Index Tables ........................................................................................... 1063
Printing a Table Design ..................................................................................................1064
Saving the Completed Table ........................................................................................... 1065
Manipulating Tables .......................................................................................................1066
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Contents
Renaming tables ...................................................................................................1066
Deleting Tables .....................................................................................................1066
Copying Tables in a Database ...............................................................................1066
Copying a Table to Another Database ................................................................... 1067
Adding Records to a Database Table ...............................................................................1068
Opening a Datasheet.............................................................................................1068
Moving within a Datasheet ...................................................................................1069
Using the Navigation Buttons ...............................................................................1069
Entering New Data ............................................................................................... 1070
Saving the Record ................................................................................................. 1071
Understanding Automatic Data-Type Validation ................................................... 1072
Navigating Records in a Datasheet ................................................................................. 1073
Moving between Records ...................................................................................... 1073
Finding a Specific Value........................................................................................ 1074
Changing Values in a Datasheet ..................................................................................... 1076
Manually Replacing an Existing Value .................................................................. 1076
Fields that You Can’t Edit ..................................................................................... 1077
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1077
Chapter 35: Creating and Entering Data with Basic Access Forms . . . . 1079
Adding a Form ............................................................................................................... 1079
Creating a New Form............................................................................................ 1081
Looking at Special Types of Forms ....................................................................... 1085
Resizing the Form Area ........................................................................................1090
Saving Your Form .................................................................................................1090
Working with Controls................................................................................................... 1091
The Different Control Types ................................................................................. 1092
Adding a Control ..................................................................................................1094
Selecting and Deselecting Controls ................................................................................1098
Selecting a Single Control .....................................................................................1098
Selecting Multiple Controls...................................................................................1099
Deselecting Controls............................................................................................. 1100
Manipulating Controls ................................................................................................... 1100
Resizing a Control ................................................................................................ 1100
Sizing Controls Automatically .............................................................................. 1101
Moving a Control .................................................................................................. 1102
Aligning Controls ................................................................................................. 1102
Modifying the Appearance of a Control ................................................................ 1105
Grouping Controls ................................................................................................ 1106
Attaching (and Reattaching) a Label to a Control ................................................. 1106
Changing a Control’s Type ................................................................................... 1107
Copying a Control ................................................................................................ 1108
Deleting a Control ................................................................................................ 1108
Understanding Properties............................................................................................... 1109
Displaying the Property Sheet .............................................................................. 1109
Getting Acquainted with the Property Sheet ........................................................ 1110
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Contents
Changing a Control’s Property Setting ................................................................. 1111
Naming Control Labels and Their Captions ......................................................... 1112
Entering Records in Form View...................................................................................... 1114
The Form View Ribbon Appearance ..................................................................... 1115
Navigating between Fields .................................................................................... 1116
Moving between Records in a Form ..................................................................... 1117
Changing Values in a Form ............................................................................................ 1118
Controls That You Can’t Edit ................................................................................ 1119
Working with Pictures and OLE Objects .............................................................. 1119
Entering Data in a Memo Field ............................................................................. 1120
Entering Data in a Date Field ................................................................................ 1120
Using Option Groups............................................................................................ 1120
Using Combo Boxes and List Boxes ...................................................................... 1122
Switching to Datasheet View................................................................................. 1122
Saving a Record .................................................................................................... 1123
Printing a Form .............................................................................................................. 1123
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1124
Chapter 36: Selecting Data with Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Understanding Queries .................................................................................................. 1126
What Queries Are ................................................................................................. 1126
Types of Queries ................................................................................................... 1129
What Queries Can Do .......................................................................................... 1130
What Queries Return............................................................................................ 1130
Creating a Query ............................................................................................................ 1131
Adding Fields .................................................................................................................1134
Adding a Single Field ............................................................................................1134
Adding Multiple Fields ......................................................................................... 1135
Displaying the Recordset ................................................................................................ 1137
Working with Fields ....................................................................................................... 1138
Selecting a Field in the QBE Grid ......................................................................... 1138
Changing Field Order ........................................................................................... 1138
Resizing Columns in the QBE Grid ...................................................................... 1139
Removing a Field .................................................................................................. 1141
Inserting a Field.................................................................................................... 1141
Providing an Alias for the Field Name .................................................................. 1141
Showing a Field .................................................................................................... 1142
Changing the Sort Order ................................................................................................ 1144
Displaying Only Selected Records .................................................................................. 1145
Understanding Selection Criteria.......................................................................... 1146
Entering Simple String Criteria............................................................................. 1146
Entering Other Simple Criteria ............................................................................. 1148
Printing a Query’s Recordset .......................................................................................... 1149
Saving a Query ............................................................................................................... 1149
Adding More Than One Table to a Query....................................................................... 1150
Working with the Table Pane ......................................................................................... 1151
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Contents
Looking at the Join Line ....................................................................................... 1151
Manipulating Field Lists ....................................................................................... 1152
Moving a Table ..................................................................................................... 1152
Removing a Table.................................................................................................. 1152
Adding More Tables .............................................................................................. 1152
Viewing Table Names ........................................................................................... 1153
Adding Multiple Fields ......................................................................................... 1153
Understanding Multi-Table Query Limitations ............................................................... 1154
Overcoming Query Limitations ............................................................................ 1155
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1156
Chapter 37: Presenting Data with Access Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1157
Introducing Reports ....................................................................................................... 1157
Identifying the Different Types of Reports ............................................................ 1158
Distinguishing between Reports and Forms ......................................................... 1159
Creating a Report, from Beginning to End ..................................................................... 1161
Defining the Report Layout .................................................................................. 1161
Assembling the Data ............................................................................................. 1161
Creating the Report with the Report Wizard ........................................................ 1162
Printing the Report ............................................................................................... 1173
Saving the Report ................................................................................................. 1173
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1174
Chapter 38: Keeping Information at Hand with OneNote . . . . . . . . . . 1175
Who Needs OneNote and Why ...................................................................................... 1175
Touring OneNote ........................................................................................................... 1176
Creating a Notebook....................................................................................................... 1178
Creating a Section .......................................................................................................... 1179
Creating a Page ............................................................................................................... 1180
Inserting Notes ............................................................................................................... 1182
Plain Notes ........................................................................................................... 1182
Tagged Notes ........................................................................................................ 1183
Extra Writing Space.............................................................................................. 1184
Formatting Information ........................................................................................ 1184
Inserting an Outlook Task .............................................................................................. 1184
Inserting a Picture or File ............................................................................................... 1186
Inserting a Screen Clipping ............................................................................................ 1186
Writing on a Page ........................................................................................................... 1188
Using Linked Note Taking.............................................................................................. 1190
Organizing, Finding, and Sharing .................................................................................. 1190
Reorganizing......................................................................................................... 1190
Viewing Tagged Notes .......................................................................................... 1192
Searching Notes .................................................................................................... 1193
Saving Note Information for Others ..................................................................... 1194
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1195
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Contents
Part VIII: Sharing and Collaboration
1197
Chapter 39: SharePoint and SkyDrive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1199
What Happened to Workspace Management? ................................................................1200
Accessing Your SharePoint Server...................................................................................1200
Using Office 2010 with SharePoint 2010 ..............................................................1202
Using Save to SharePoint from Backstage View.....................................................1202
Co-authoring ........................................................................................................1204
Co-authoring Indicators .......................................................................................1205
Save to Web (SkyDrive) ..................................................................................................1206
Creating a SkyDrive Account ................................................................................1206
Accessing SkyDrive Documents ...........................................................................1207
Summary ........................................................................................................................1209
Chapter 40: SharePoint Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211
Who Needs SharePoint Workspace 2010? ...................................................................... 1212
Groove Workspaces versus SharePoint Workspaces ....................................................... 1213
Using the SharePoint Workspace 2010 Client................................................................. 1214
Deleting an Account ............................................................................................. 1214
The SharePoint Workspace 2010 Interface ............................................................ 1215
SharePoint Workspaces .................................................................................................. 1216
Deleting a SharePoint Workspace ......................................................................... 1219
Groove Workspaces ........................................................................................................ 1219
Workspaces .......................................................................................................... 1219
Sending Workspace Invitations ............................................................................ 1221
Canceling Pending Invitations ..............................................................................1222
Accepting Workspace Invitations .........................................................................1222
Working with Groove Documents ........................................................................1223
Shared Folders ................................................................................................................1223
Deleting a Shared Folder ....................................................................................... 1224
Summary ........................................................................................................................1225
Chapter 41: Integration with Other Office Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . 1227
OneNote ......................................................................................................................... 1227
Printing from Word to OneNote ...........................................................................1228
Sending from OneNote to Word ...........................................................................1229
Excel ...............................................................................................................................1229
Using Excel Content in Word ...............................................................................1230
Using Word Content in Excel ...............................................................................1236
PowerPoint .....................................................................................................................1238
Converting Word to PowerPoint Presentations .....................................................1239
Converting PowerPoint Presentations to Word Documents ..................................1239
Outlook ..........................................................................................................................1240
Using the Outlook Address Book in Word............................................................ 1241
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 1243
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Contents
Appendix A: Customizing Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . online
Appendix B: Optimizing Your Office Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . online
Appendix C: International Support and Accessibility Features . . . . . online
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
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W
elcome to the Microsoft Office 2010 Bible. This book provides the information
you need to get up and running with the applications in the latest version of the
Microsoft Office 2010 suite. Inside, you get coverage of these members of the various versions of the Office Suite:
l
Microsoft Word 2010
l
Microsoft Excel 2010
l
Microsoft PowerPoint 2010
l
Microsoft Outlook 2010
l
Microsoft Publisher 2010
l
Microsoft Access 2010
l
Microsoft OneNote 2010
This book brings together chapters from the new versions of the Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and
Access Bibles. You get the best information from experts in each program so that you can get to
work and be productive quickly.
Who Should Read This Book
Office 2010 adds some terrific new features in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access, and fully
integrates the Ribbon interface in Outlook, Publisher, and OneNote. As a result, even experienced Office users can use this book to get up to speed with using the new interface quickly.
Because this book presents information using the friendly, accessible Bible format that combines
straightforward steps and concise reference information, beginners with Office can use it to learn
Office quickly and expand their skills beyond the basics.
How This Book Is Organized
Microsoft Office 2010 Bible organizes information into several parts. In most cases, a part focuses
on a particular application in the suite, so you can jump right to the part for the application
you’re currently using.
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Introduction
Part I: Common Office Features
The chapters in Part I provide the first introduction to the new user interface in the major Office
applications, as well as show how to perform fundamental operations such as working with files.
Part II: Creating Documents with Word
Part II covers using the Microsoft Word 2010 word processing program to create and format textbased documents. In addition to learning how to format words, paragraphs, and pages, you get a
shot at working with more sophisticated features such as tables and mail merge, and even the new
SmartArt diagrams. You also see how document security settings can help protect information.
Part III: Making the Numbers Work with Excel
The chapters in Part III show you how to use the spreadsheet program Microsoft Excel 2010 to
organize and calculate data. After getting a preview of the new features in the program, you learn
how to enter, format, and calculate information. You also see how to create powerful charts that
tell a story about your data and then summarize that data using data bars, sparklines, and conditional formatting.
Part IV: Persuading and Informing with PowerPoint
In Part IV, you learn how to get the word out with the Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 presentation
graphics program. This part explains how to add information, charts, SmartArt diagrams, and
graphics to slides. You also see how to animate and automate a slide show and get expert tips
about going live with your presentation.
Part V: Organizing Messages, Contacts,
and Time with Outlook
The basics for using Microsoft Outlook 2010 appear in Part V. Learn to set up an e-mail account;
compose, send, and respond to messages; organize messages and deal with junk mail and security issues; and manage your contacts, appointments, and to-do list.
Part VI: Designing Publications with Publisher
Part VI introduces you to the Microsoft Publisher 2010 page layout and design program. Learn
how to not only create great-looking publications with Publisher’s flexible tools, but also prep
your publications for professional printing.
Part VII: Managing Information with
Access and OneNote
If you manage detailed lists — with customer or product data, for example — Microsoft Access 2010
and Part VII’s chapters are for you. Get a roadmap here for designing a good database. Learn how to
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Introduction
create tables, fields, and forms, and how to select and present data with queries and reports. Also get
an overview about using OneNote 2010 to track notes and project details and gather project resources
such as links and photos into a notebook-like structure onscreen.
Part VIII: Sharing and Collaboration
Part VIII explains not only how to share information between Office applications, but also how to
use Office 2010 applications with SharePoint Workspace 2010 and SkyDrive on a network or the
Internet.
What Is on the Website
On the Office 2010 Bible website at www.wiley.com/go/office2010bible, you can find
three appendixes to provide supplementary information: Appendix A, “Customizing Office”;
Appendix B, “Optimizing Your Office Installation”; and Appendix C, “International Support and
Accessibility Features.”
Conventions and Features
As you work your way through the text, be on the lookout for these icons that bring your attention to important information:
Caution
This information is important and is set off in a separate paragraph with a special icon. Cautions provide
information about things to watch out for, whether simply inconvenient or potentially hazardous to your data
or systems. n
Tip
Tips generally are used to provide information that can make your work easier — special shortcuts or
methods for doing something more easily than the norm. n
Note
Notes provide additional, ancillary information that is helpful but somewhat outside of the current
presentation of information. n
Cross-Reference
Cross-references point you to other areas in the book that give more detail about the current topic. n
The text also uses specific shortcuts for choosing commands:
l
Mouse. When the text instructs you to choose a command from a menu or the Ribbon
(in the new interface), the command is presented like this: “Choose Home Í Clipboard
Í Copy.” That means to click the Home tab on the Ribbon, look in the Clipboard group,
and click the Copy choice. (Most command sequences include the specific group after
the Ribbon tab.) For another example, “Choose File Í Save” means to click the File tab
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Introduction
and then click Save in the menu that appears. In most command sequences, both parts
of a two-level contextual tab on the ribbon will be included. For example, if a command
is on the Picture Tools Format tab, it will appear as Picture Tools Í Format in the command sequence.
l
Keyboard. Any keyboard shortcuts appear like this: Ctrl+C. That means to press the
Ctrl key and the C key simultaneously and then release them.
Where to Go from Here
Microsoft has released multiple versions of the Microsoft Office 2010 suite, with different
versions including different applications. You can jump right to the parts that offer coverage
for the applications offered in the fl avor of Office that you own.
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Part I
Common Office
Features
IN THIS PART
Chapter 1
Welcome to Microsoft Office
2010
Chapter 2
Navigating in Office
Chapter 3
Mastering Fundamental
Operations
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CH APTER
Welcome to Microsoft
Office 2010
M
icrosoft Office 2010 provides a comprehensive toolkit for tackling
day-to-day productivity and communication tasks for business or
personal purposes. This chapter introduces the individual Office
applications and teaches you skills for getting started using them.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Reviewing the core Microsoft
Office business applications
Looking at additional Office
applications
Learning about Office
Applications
Starting and closing an
application
Microsoft Office 2010 offers a robust set of applications, each tailor-made
to provide the best tools for a particular job. For example, if you’re creating a letter, you may need to work with commands for formatting text. If
you need to total sales figures, you’ll need an automated way to sum the
numbers.
Finding a file
Browsing and finding Help
Office provides applications that enable you to handle each of those aforementioned scenarios and more. Read on to learn which Office applications
to use for creating text-based documents, manipulating numbers, presenting your ideas, or even communicating with others.
Note
Microsoft offers several different versions of the Microsoft Office 2010
software suite, some of which are only available via volume licensing. Each
version includes a different combination of the individual Office programs.
Only Microsoft Word 2010, Microsoft Excel 2010, and Microsoft PowerPoint
2010 are included in all versions. Therefore, depending on the Office version
you’ve purchased, you may not have all of the applications described in this
chapter and further throughout the book. Office 2010 also comes in both
32-bit and 64-bit releases. If you have 64-bit computer system and are running a 64-bit operating system, choosing a 64-bit Office release will ensure
the best performance possible when using Office. n
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Part I: Common Office Features
Note
Microsoft also will be offering Office Web apps, Web-browser-based versions of certain core Office apps, helping eliminate the need for the software to be installed locally on your computer, subsequently enabling online
file sharing and collaboration. Using Office Web apps will store your files in an online location, in the “cloud,”
such as on a SharePoint Server or in a Windows Live SkyDrive account. Access to Office Web apps is included
free with some Office 2010 versions, and as of this writing, Microsoft also plans to make free ad-supported
access available. This book focuses on the locally installed desktop versions of the Office applications, but you
can explore Office Web apps and online storage options if you require remote capabilities of either specific
office applications or your data. n
Word
Word processing — typing, editing, formatting letters, reports, fax cover sheets, and so on — is
perhaps the most common activity performed on a computer. Whether you need to create a
memo at the office or a letter at home, using a word processing program can save you time and
help you achieve polished results.
Microsoft Word has long been the leading word processing program. As one of the core applications in the Office suite, Word provides a host of document-creation tools that have been refined
to be easy to use, yet have comprehensive feature sets should you wish to extend your document
beyond the basics. Using Word to apply a minor bit of text formatting and a graphic can make
even a simple document such as the meeting agenda shown in Figure 1-1 have more impact and
appeal than just plain text alone.
Word enables you to do more than just make your documents look great. Its features can help
you enhance your document text more easily and furthermore create sophisticated elements such
as footnotes, endnotes, and more. You’ll learn about these powerful Word features, among others,
later in this book:
l
Templates. A template is a starter document that supplies the document design, text
formatting, and, often, placeholder text or suggested text. Add your own text and your
document is finished!
l
Styles. If you like a particular combination of formatting settings that you’ve
applied to text, you can save the combination as a style that you can easily apply to
other text.
l
Tables. Add a table to organize text in a grid of rows and columns to which you can
then apply terrific formatting. In Word 2010, you can add a title and a summary to a
table to better describe its contents.
l
Graphics. You can add all types of pictures to your documents and even create
diagrams like the one in Figure 1-2 using the new SmartArt feature. Some SmartArt
layouts even enable you to insert pictures as shown in Figure 1-2.
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l
Mail Merge. Create your own, customized “form letter” wherein each copy is automatically customized for a particular recipient (or list entry). Word’s Merge feature even
enables you to create matching envelopes and labels.
l
Document Security and Review. Word enables you to protect a document against
unwanted changes, as well as to track changes made by other users. Using these features, you can control the document content through a collaboration process.
FIGURE 1-1
Microsoft Word 2010 enables you to create appealing documents.
Excel
Spreadsheet programs — which provide formulas and functions that make it easy to calculate
numerical data — made a critical technology leap in business computing. Business people
no longer need to rely on adding machines, scientific calculators, or accountants to perform
detailed sales or financial calculations. Even a beginning salesperson could insert numbers into a
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spreadsheet, type a few formulas, and have the data automatically calculated. Even better, spreadsheet programs give you the ability to represent data graphically, which communicates the impact
of the data more effectively. Microsoft Excel 2010, shown in Figure 1-3, performs the spreadsheet
duties in the Microsoft Office suite.
FIGURE 1-2
SmartArt diagrams illustrate information in a document.
Excel enables you to build a calculation by creating a formula that specifies the values to calculate and which mathematical operators to use to perform the calculation. Excel also offers
functions — predesigned formulas that perform more complex calculations, such as calculating
accrued interest. Many of Excel 2010’s functions have been updated for increased accuracy and
renamed for consistency with the terminology used in the scientific community. Excel not only
provides tools to assist you in building and error-checking spreadsheet formulas, but it also gives
you many easy choices for formatting the data to make it more readable and professional. You’ll
learn these Excel essentials later in the book, as well as more about these key Excel features:
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l
Worksheets. Within each file, you can divide and organize a large volume of data
across multiple worksheets or pages of information in the file.
l
Ranges. You can assign a name to a contiguous area on a worksheet so that you can
later select that area by name, or use the name in a formula to save time.
l
Number and Date Value Formatting. You can apply a number format that defines how
Excel should display a cell’s contents, indicating details such as how many decimal
points should appear and whether a percentage or dollar sign should be included. You
can also apply a date format to determine how the date appears.
l
Charts. Translate your data into a meaningful image by creating a chart in Excel (as
shown in Figure 1-4). Excel offers dozens of chart types, layouts, and formats to help
you present your results in the clearest way.
FIGURE 1-3
Use the Microsoft Excel 2010 program to organize and calculate numerical data.
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FIGURE 1-4
Excel’s data visualization features, such as sparklines and charting, help you make data more compelling
and easier to evaluate.
l
Specialized Data Formatting. Sometimes it’s more expedient to use cell formatting to
help data have more visual impact rather than creating a separate chart. Excel offers
conditional formatting, a tool that enables it to apply specialized formatting for selected
cells based on the results of the formulas in those cells or the contents of the cells. For
example, if you have a spreadsheet calculating grade averages, you can set up the cells
to be formatted in one color for a passing average and another for a failing average. The
conditional formats include data bars, color scales, icon scales, and more. Excel 2010
offers a new sparklines feature that enables you to create a small chart within a cell.
Refer to Figure 1-4 to see an example.
PowerPoint
To achieve positive outcomes in situations such as persuading customers to buy; convincing
your company’s leadership to invest in developing a new product you’ve conceived; training
members of your team to follow a new operating procedure; or making sure that a group of volunteers understands program requirements — you must deliver your message in a clear, concise,
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convincing, and often visual way. A presentation graphics program helps you inform your audience in situations like those just described, and more.
The Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 presentation graphics program (see Figure 1-5) enables
you to communicate information and ideas via an onscreen slide show or by printing the
pages as handouts. Each slide should present a key topic that you want to convey, along with
a few supporting points or a graphical reinforcement such as a chart or picture. In this way,
PowerPoint helps you to divide information into chunks that audience members can more
easily absorb.
FIGURE 1-5
Use PowerPoint to present your message in informative slides.
Later in the book, you will learn how to create the basic presentation structure and add information as well as use the following PowerPoint features to help reinforce your message:
l
Layouts, Themes, and Masters. These PowerPoint features control the content that
appears on a slide and how the content is arranged, as well as the appearance of all of
the slides. You can quickly redesign a single slide or the entire presentation.
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l
Tables and Charts. Similar to Word and Excel, PowerPoint enables you to arrange
information in an attractively formatted grid of rows and columns. PowerPoint works
with Excel to deliver charted data, so the Excel charting skills you build make developing charts in PowerPoint even easier.
l
Animations and Transitions. You can set up the text and other items on slides to make
a special entrance, such as appearing to fly onto the screen, when you play them in a
slide show. In addition to applying animations on objects, you can apply a transition
that animates how the overall slide appears and disappears from the screen, such as dissolving or wiping in and away.
l
Live Presentations. PowerPoint offers several different ways in which you can customize
and control how the presentation looks when played as an onscreen slide show. In this
book, you will learn tricks such as hiding slides or jumping between slides onscreen.
Outlook
As technology improves, businesses naturally begin to move at a faster and faster pace. The days
of face-to-face conversations for each meeting are a thing of the past, and everyone faces the challenge of tracking more and more contacts and to-dos. The Microsoft Outlook 2010 program in
the Microsoft Office suite can handle your e-mail messages (Figure 1-6), appointment scheduling, contact information, and your to-do list, as well as other various communication tasks. This
program helps you stay in the loop, keeps you organized, and also keeps you up-to-date with all
the action in your work life, including connecting you with social and business networks via the
Outlook Social Connector.
FIGURE 1-6
Send and receive e-mail messages in Microsoft Outlook.
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In addition to learning Outlook e-mail, scheduling, contact management, and to-do list basics
later in the book, you will learn which Outlook settings and tools help prevent messages with
viruses from infecting your computer. Also learn how Outlook can automatically manage
annoying yet pervasive junk mail messages.
Taking Advantage of Other Office
Applications
You may be a user whose needs extend beyond letter writing and number crunching. If you routinely take on special tasks such as creating printed publications or tracking extensive customer
data, you may find yourself working with some of the other applications that are part of certain
editions of Microsoft Office 2010. This section gives you a snapshot of those other applications;
later chapters of the book revisit these topics.
Publisher
Microsoft Publisher 2010 enables you to create publications, which have a greater emphasis on
design than a word processing program typically offers. To help the creative process, Publisher
includes attractive publication designs and templates with placeholders for text and images as
well as other features including decorative rules and backgrounds already in place, as shown in
Figure 1-7.
Tip
The distinction between documents and publications often is a very gray area; however, think of a document
as something printed from a personal printer, either at home or in the office. This usually is something like a
report or proposal. On the other hand, a publication is something typically printed professionally, like business cards or brochures and flyers. Typically, for example, you wouldn’t use Word to prepare a brochure for
professional printing, because many professional print shops require more comprehensive page setup and
design features such as those found in Publisher. n
A later chapter shows you how to handle Publisher’s basics of choosing a publication design and
then adding the text and graphics. You’ll also learn how to add effects such as drop caps and
design gallery objects, and even how to prepare a publication for professional printing.
Access
The Microsoft Access 2010 database program can certainly do heavy lifting when it comes to
managing detailed mountains of data such as customer detail, stock inventory, and order lists
that may have hundreds or thousands of entries. The file that holds such lists is called a database.
Each Access database file actually can hold multiple lists of data, each usually stored in a separate
table, such as the Current Foster Animals table shown in Figure 1-8.
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FIGURE 1-7
Microsoft Publisher provides placeholders and design elements so that you can create eye-catching
publications with minimal design effort.
Access enables you to enter and view data using various forms. You also can set up queries to retrieve
data that matches certain criteria out of your database tables. These queries can be used to generate
reports that consolidate and analyze your data. Later chapters introduce you to these Access skills.
OneNote
It’s a risky proposition to track your professional or educational life via notes scribbled on various scraps of paper or notebook pages. As the notes pile up, it becomes harder and harder to find
relevant information, making it look as though you can’t keep up. If you lose a scrap of paper
containing a critical piece of information, you can put a project in jeopardy.
Microsoft Office OneNote 2010, as seen in Figure 1-9, serves as a type of electronic scrapbook for
notes, reference materials, and files related to a particular activity or project. This way, when you
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need to find all the relevant material related to a specific topic or a particular project, you can flip
right to the applicable notebook tab. You learn to get yourself together with OneNote in a later
chapter.
FIGURE 1-8
A Microsoft Access database organizes lists of information in tables.
Starting an Application
When you launch any of the Office applications, that program and its respective tool set will be
loaded into your computer’s RAM (working memory) so that you can begin working. Starting an
Office application is similar to starting any other application — first finding it in the Start menu
and then clicking on it — however, with Windows Vista and Windows 7, there are new tricks
that make starting applications a little bit easier.
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FIGURE 1-9
Organize notes, files, pictures, and other material in a OneNote notebook.
To find the Office programs in the Start menu:
1. Click the Start button at the left end of the Windows taskbar. The taskbar appears
along the bottom of the Windows desktop. The Start menu opens.
2. Click All Programs. A list of available programs appears. In XP, it appears as a submenu of the Start menu. In Vista and Windows 7, the list appears in the left column of
the Start menu.
3. Click Microsoft Office. The available Office programs appear.
4. Click the desired Office program. The program window appears onscreen (Figure 1-10).
Note
Some applications automatically open a new, blank file when you start them. Others prompt you to create a
new file. Outlook automatically displays personal folder information, whereas OneNote opens the notebook
page that you last worked with. n
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FIGURE 1-10
Use the Start menu to start an Office program
Windows Vista and Windows 7 provide you with a quicker and much simpler way to start any
application, including the Office applications. To do this on either operating system:
1. Click the Start button on the taskbar. The Start menu opens with the blinking insertion point in the Search Programs and Files textbox at the bottom of the menu.
2. Type all or part of the name of the application you want to start. As shown in
Figure 1-11, a list of matching applications (and files with the typed information in
them) appears.
3. Click the desired Office program. The program window appears onscreen.
You also can create a desktop shortcut icon to use to start the program. To do so, simply drag the
application name from the Start menu to the desktop. A shortcut icon will appear. You then can
double-click that icon to start the program.
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FIGURE 1-11
Typing a name in the Search textbox lists matching programs.
Closing an Application
When you finish your work in an application, shutting the application down removes it from
system memory, freeing that memory for other uses. Closing the application also provides the
benefit of closing any possibly sensitive open files to prevent unwanted viewing by others.
You can use one of three methods to shut down any program:
l
Press the Alt and F4 keys simultaneously (Alt+F4).
l
Click the File tab in the upper-left corner of the program window (see Figure 1-12); then
click Exit.
l
Click the X in the upper-right corner, which denotes you’d like to close the program.
If you see a message box similar to the one in Figure 1-12, it means that you haven’t
saved all your changes to the fi le. Click Yes to save your changes. Both the application
and fi le close.
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FIGURE 1-12
A prompt appears to remind you to save file changes.
Finding Files
Searching through folders on a computer’s hard disk to try to find the file you want to work with
sure can waste valuable time you often don’t have. If you’re using Office with Windows 7 (or with
Windows Vista if it has the proper updates installed), you can take advantage of a couple of shortcuts that help you find a file on your system.
As shown previously in Figure 1-12, making an entry in the Search Programs and Files textbox
displays not only matching programs but also files with the search text in the filename or file
contents. Therefore, you can enter all or part of the fi lename or topic (provided the metadata
exists in the file properties) in the Search Programs and Files textbox on the File menu and then
click on the name of the file to open. The application used to create the file opens with the specified file in it.
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Alternatively, you can work in the Open dialog box for any Office program to search for a file.
Use these steps when you’re already working in the application used to create the file:
1. Click File tab Í Open. The Open dialog box appears.
2. Use the folder tree in the pane at the left to select the folder that you think holds
the file to find.
Tip
If you’re not sure even of what folder holds the file, choose a higher-level folder or even a disk icon. Doing so
will search more locations, but this means that the search may take more time. n
3. Type the name of the file to search for in the Search textbox in the upper-right corner of the dialog box. As you type, the Open dialog box lists files with matching names
or contents, as shown in Figure 1-13.
FIGURE 1-13
You can search for a file in the Open dialog box for any Office application.
4. Double-click on the name of the file to open. The file appears in the application.
Note
In Windows XP, you will still have search capabilities. Click the Start button and then click Search in the right
column of the menu. Then click the Documents link under What Do You Want to Search For? to display the
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controls where you can then enter information about the file you’re looking for. If you’ve already displayed
the Open dialog box in an Office application running under XP, you can right-click on any folder in the Open
dialog box and then click Search in the shortcut menu to search for a file. n
Getting Help
Program features sometimes can seem a little obscure, and because the interface has been heavily
redesigned in the Microsoft Office 2010 applications, you may get stuck from time to time when
you’re trying out a feature that you don’t use every day. If you don’t have this book handy, it’s
time to turn to another resource — the Help system for the application that you’re using.
Browsing Help Contents
Regardless of whether you have an Internet connection, you can explore and browse the basic
Help that is installed with each of the Office applications. With an Internet connection, you can
also search Office.com, a repository containing further topics as well as more up-to-date information. To open the application’s Help window, click the round Help (question mark) button at the
right end of the Ribbon or press F1.
The Help window for the program appears and lists general help categories. Click on a category
to view available Help topics in that category (see Figure 1-14). In some cases, you may need
to click on a subcategory to display the topic you need. When you see the topic you need, you can
click the Print button to print it. To move around to additional topics, use the Back and Forward
buttons, as well as clicking on additional links.
When you finish working in the Help window, click the window’s Close button to finish.
Searching Office.com
You can search for help about a particular topic or question using the textbox near the top of the
Help window. If your system is connected to the Internet, simply type the topic to search for into
the textbox and press Enter.
However, if you see Offline displayed near the right end of the Help window status bar, you
might need to double-check your connection to ensure you can search online Help. To search
online for help:
1. Click the drop-down arrow for the Search button and click on a choice under
Content from Office.com in the menu (Figure 1-15). The All Program Name choice
searches all the online Help resources for that application, whereas any of the other
choices under Content from Office Online target the Help search to a specific type of
information.
2. Type the search topic into the Search text box.
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3. Press Enter. The list of matching Help topics appears.
4. Click on the desired topic. The Help for the topic appears in the Help window.
Note
Whether you browse for Help while already connected to the Internet or forced the Help window to search
online, in certain cases clicking on a Help topic link will launch your system’s Web browser and display the
Help and resources there, rather than in the Help window. n
Tip
If you click the Search button drop-down arrow as noted in the preceding Step 1, you can click the Program
Name Help choice under Content from This Computer to search only help installed on your system. For simple questions, this method might display the right Help topic a bit quicker. n
FIGURE 1-14
Browse by clicking on categories, subcategories, and topics.
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F IGURE 1-15
You can request that Office go back online for Help.
Summary
This chapter introduced the programs that are part of the Microsoft Office 2010 system that will
be covered in this book. You learned about core features in the Word (word processing), Excel
(spreadsheet), PowerPoint (presentation graphics), and Outlook (e-mail scheduling and collaboration) programs. You also learned that you can perform more specialized business functions with
Publisher (publication design), Access (database), and OneNote (information management). You
moved on to learn how to start and close any application in Microsoft Office, how to find a file
that’s not quite at your fingertips, and how to use Help, both offline and online, when you need to
learn more.
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CH APTER
Navigating in Office
W
elcome to Office 2010. If you came here from Office 2007, the
changes will seem evolutionary. If you arrived from Office
2003 or an even earlier version of Office, the changes are more
revolutionary. This chapter provides an overview of what’s new since Office
2003 and Office 2007.
If you’re completely new to Office and have been using other applications
such as OpenOffice, you’re likely more accustomed to toolbars and menus
than you are to Office 2010’s Ribbon, so when contrasting Office 2010’s
Ribbon with pre-Office 2007’s interface, you’ll likely immediately grasp just
how different the Ribbon is, even if you never touched Office 2003.
The Ribbon is a set of contextual tools designed to put what you need where
you need it when you need it. When you click one of the major tabs on the
Ribbon, the tools you need for specific tasks should be right where you
need them. The ideal result is that you don’t need to go looking too far for
what you need.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Discoverability
Getting familiar with the
“results-oriented” interface
Learning about Ribbons and
other new things
Using Backstage view
Reviewing your options
Working in dialog boxes
In fact, the Ribbon might actually be considered a kind of toolbar. Instead
of a list of different toolbars accessed from the View menu, however, the
different parts of the Ribbon are organized into tabs and groups. The result
is that more of the tools are exposed to you, making it more likely that
you’ll discover what you need. At least, that’s the theory.
If you’ve used Office 2003 or earlier versions in the past, Office 2010
will seem strange and different. Imagine that you left Earth in the year
1994 — the last time the Office interface was overhauled — and returned
in the year 2010. Over the ensuing 16 years, the interface slowly transitioned from menus and toolbars to the Ribbon.
When considered from that evolutionary perspective, perhaps Office 2010
doesn’t look so different. What you, the space traveler, do not realize,
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however, is that the radical changes occurred not slowly and gradually over more than a decade,
but in one giant leap from Office 11 to Office 12, three years before you landed. You’re not aware
of the “missing link” (Office 2007). Never mind why there was no Office 13.
Discoverability
If pre-2003 versions of Office were driven mostly by functionality and usability, Office 2010’s
catchwords are discoverability and results. Studies show that typical Office users use only a
fraction of the myriad features contained in Office. Yet the same studies show that users often
employ the wrong features. For example, rather than use an indent setting, a user might press the
Spacebar five times (gasp!) or the Tab key once (again gasp, but not quite as loud).
Microsoft’s challenge, therefore, was to design an interface that made discovering the right features easier, more direct, and more deliberate.
Has it succeeded? Well, you’ll have to be the judge.
Let’s suppose you want to create a table. Assuming for the moment that you even know that a table
is what you want, in Word 2003 and earlier you might choose Table Í Draw Table or Table Í
Insert Í Table from the menu. Or perhaps you would click the Table tool on the Standard toolbar,
assuming you recognize the icon as representing that functionality.
The point is that you had to navigate through dense menus or toolbars in order to fi nd the
needed functionality — perhaps not even knowing what that functionality was called. It’s akin
to wandering through a hardware store looking for something that will twist a spiraling piece of
metal into a piece of wood, without knowing whether such a tool actually exists. You don’t even
know what the piece of metal is called, so you wander about, and finally discover, to your utter
delight, the perfect tool … a hammer. Oops! There’s an old saying: when the only tool you have is
a hammer, everything looks like a nail.
Like a hammer, the time-proven Spacebar has been used countless times to perform chores
for which it was never intended. Yes, a hammer can compel a screw to join two pieces of wood
together; and a Spacebar can be used to move text around so it looks like a table. However, just as
a hammered screw makes for a shaky wooden table, a word processing table fashioned together
with spaces is equally fragile. Add something to the table and it doesn’t hold together. Which
table? Take your pick.
In Office 2010, there are no dense menus and toolbars. To insert a table — again assuming you
even know that a table is what you’re looking for — you stare at the Home Ribbon and see nothing that looks remotely like a table.
Thinking that the act of inserting may be what you need, you click Insert, and there you see a
grid with the Office Table under it. You click Table, move the mouse, and perhaps you see what’s
shown in Figure 2-1, as an actual table is previewed inside your document, changing as the
mouse moves. Epiphany! Well, maybe just “Yay!”
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FIGURE 2-1
Office’s Live Preview shows the results of the currently selected Ribbon action.
You might be happy to know that pre-Office 2007’s proprietary .doc document format was replaced by
.docx, which uses XML (eXtensible Markup Language). XML is an open format in the public domain.
At its heart are plain-text commands that can be resolved by Office and a variety of other programs.
The bottom line for the user is that the mysterious so-called binary format is gone, meaning that Office
documents are now harder to corrupt. If they do get corrupted, your work is easier to salvage.
Note
If you’re a glutton for punishment or you like taking risks, Office 2010 still supports its legacy formats. You
can even tell Office to always save documents in earlier formats. This is a good option when you share your
work with users of Office 2003 and earlier. For those same Office 2003 users (as well as Office 2000 and
2002 users), however, Microsoft provides a free compatibility pack that enables them to read Office 2010
documents (although Office 2010–specific enhancements will be lost in the translation). To find the compatibility pack, visit http://office.microsoft.com and search the Downloads tab for compatibility or go
to www.microsoft.com/downloads to find the download. n
The “Results-Oriented” User Interface
If you’re like most users, when you begin a letter or a report, the first thing you do is check
whether you’ve ever written a letter or report like the one you are about to write. If you have written something similar, then you very likely will open it and use it as a starting point.
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If you don’t have a document to use as a starting point, then you check whether there’s an existing template in Microsoft Office’s repertoire. Failing there, you might search online. Indeed, it’s not
uncommon to come across questions in online communities or newsgroups asking if anyone has a
particular type of template, for example, “Does anyone have a template for a resignation letter?”
Knowing that most people don’t prefer to begin documents with a clean slate, so to speak,
Microsoft designed Office to give users what they want. The goal is to offer them a collection of
the results they are probably seeking, to save time and guesswork.
Microsoft has done this in a variety of ways. One of the most prominent is to provide galleries of
already formatted options. Coupled with this is something called Live Preview, which instantly
shows the user the effect of a given option in the current document — not in a preview window!
Rather than focus on a confusing array of tools, Office instead shows a variety of finished document
parts or building blocks. It then goes on to provide context-sensitive sets of effects — also tied to
Live Preview. These are designed to help you sculpt those document parts into, if not exactly what
you want, then something close. The objective at each step is to help you achieve results quickly,
rather than combing through myriad menus and toolbars to discover possibilities. If nothing else,
the interface eliminates several what-if steps in what necessarily is a process of trial and error.
In addition, with each result, Office’s context-sensitive Ribbon changes to show you additional tools that
seem most likely to be appropriate for, or relevant to, the document part that is currently selected. For
example, if a picture is selected, the Picture Tools Í Format tab is displayed, as shown in Figure 2-2.
FIGURE 2-2
A picture is selected, and the Picture Tools Í Format Ribbon is displayed; the result of the Picture Style
gallery selection (Bevel Perspective, in this case) is previewed in the document.
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With each action, Office displays a likely set of applicable tools on the Ribbon. The tools provided
include several galleries, which contain sets of ready-to-use options — you’ll learn more about
galleries later. As the mouse pointer moves over different gallery options, such as the picture styles
shown here, the image in the actual document shows a live preview of the effect of that choice.
As you navigate the Ribbon to additional formatting options and special effects, the Live Preview
changes to reflect the currently selected choice, as shown in Figure 2-3.
FIGURE 2-3
Live Preview shows the result of the selected formatting or effect.
In addition to providing a live preview of many formatting options, Microsoft has also greatly
enhanced and expanded the range of different effects and options. The result, optimally, is documents that look more polished and professional than was possible previously.
Ribbons and Things
At the heart of Office 2010’s results-oriented interface is the Ribbon. The Ribbon is the area above
the document workspace, as shown in Figure 2-4. The Ribbon contains tabs, each with a set of
commands on it. Click to select which Ribbon tab is displayed.
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FIGURE 2-4
Office 2010’s Ribbon, shown in home position on a 22-inch monitor with normal resolution
Exactly what you see in any given Ribbon tab is determined by a number of factors, including the
size of your monitor, your screen resolution, the size of the current Office window, and whether
you’re using Windows’ display settings to accommodate low vision. Hence, what you see might
not always be what is pictured in this book. If you have a very large monitor operating at comparatively high resolution, at most you will see the entirety of the Home tab of the Ribbon, shown
in Figure 2-5.
FIGURE 2-5
At the highest resolution and largest screen size, Office’s Ribbon displays additional gallery options and
text labels.
Note
This Home tab of the Ribbon shows 16 styles from the Style Gallery, as well as additional tools and text
labels in the Clipboard and Editing groups. This is the maximum amount of information you will ever see
in the Home Ribbon. For the picture in Figure 2-5 to be captured, Office was stretched across two 22-inch
monitors, and additional detail stopped appearing when Office became 37 inches wide. Therefore, if you’re
wondering whether you need a 52-inch monitor for Office 2010, you’ll be happy to know that a 42-inch
model will work just fine. n
Tip
Ctrl+F1 toggles the Ribbon on and off, as does clicking the arrow button that is the first button to the right
of the tabs, next to the round Help button. At times the Ribbon is going to look overly large to you. It will
also seem imposing when you’re simply reading a document or when you’re trying to see a graphic and write
about it at the same time. The Ribbon might also be distracting if all you’re doing is composing, and are fluent
in the keystrokes you need to perform basic formatting. For those times, there is Ctrl+F1. To turn the Ribbon
off using the mouse, double-click the current tab; click any tab to turn it back on temporarily. It will automatically hide when you’re done using it. Double-click any tab or press Ctrl+F1 to turn it back on full-time. n
Title Bar
The top bar of the Office window is called the title bar, exhibited in Figure 2-6. Double-clicking
the title bar toggles Office between maximized and restored states. It’s the equivalent of alternately clicking the Maximize and Restore buttons.
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FIGURE 2-6
The title bar
Quick Access Toolbar
Title Bar
The title bar also contains the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT), the name of the document in the current Office window, and what Windows calls the application control caption buttons (the tools for
maximizing, minimizing, restoring, and closing application windows). If you’ve told Office not
to Show All Windows in the Taskbar (in Word, File Í Options Í Advanced Í Display section),
then these caption buttons control all of Office, rather than just the current document
window. In your own case, the title bar might contain other elements as well, such as items
placed there by various Office and Windows add-ins.
Tip
Right-click on different areas of the title bar for available options. For example, if you right-click the Quick
Access Toolbar, you’ll see that it can be customized or placed below the Ribbon; any tool on it can be
instantly removed as well. If you right-click the middle area of the title bar, you’ll see that the window button
options (Move, Size, Minimize, etc.) are available here as well. n
The Tab Row
Shown below the title bar in Figure 2-6 is the Tab row. In addition to the tabs themselves that
you click to control which set of commands is displayed, this line contains the document window control buttons and the Help button (which replaces Help Í Microsoft Office Help from
2003 and earlier Office applications). If you’ve told Office to Show All Windows in the Taskbar
(File Í Options Í Advanced Í Display section in Word), the separate document control caption
buttons will not be present. The tabs can be accessed via the mouse or hot keys. Unlike in menubased Windows applications, however, there are no underlined letters showing you the hot keys.
As noted earlier, double-clicking the currently selected tab hides the Ribbon. Double-click any
tab to unhide it. Ctrl+F1 toggles the Ribbon on and off as well. Once the Ribbon has been turned
off, you can temporarily turn it back on by clicking a tab (or pressing its hot key). Once you’ve
used a tool in that tab, the Ribbon automatically goes back into hiding.
KeyTips
If there are no underlined letters, how do you know which keys to press? Tap the Alt key. As
shown in Figure 2-7, when you tap the Alt key, shortcut keys that work in the current context are
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displayed. “In the current context” might seem like an odd way to phrase it. Why context is relevant will become clear when we talk more about the Ribbon (described in the following section).
For now, however, if you’re working in an Office document, pressing Alt+H will display the Home
tab of the Ribbon, Alt+N the Insert tab, and so on. (Be sure to press Esc to hide all KeyTips before
starting again with Alt.)
FIGURE 2-7
Tap the Alt key to display Office’s context-sensitive hot keys.
Note that I’ve added some additional tools to the QAT, shown in its alternate position below the
Ribbon in Figure 2-7, and that numbered hot keys are associated with them. In addition to
the first nine being accessible via Alt+1 through Alt+9, the last three are accessible via Alt+0L,
Alt+0M, and Alt+0N.
Ribbon
The Ribbon is divided into several different tabs that ostensibly correspond to the Office applications’ former menus. Unlike with the menus, however, there are no expanded drop-down lists
under each main menu item. Instead, each tab exposes a different set of commands. Note that in
Figure 2-4, the Home tab is exposed. Contrast that with Figure 2-8, which displays the Insert tab.
FIGURE 2-8
Each of the tabs exposes a different set of commands. The Insert tab is shown here.
Note that the number of Ribbon tabs you see also varies according to user settings. In Figure 2-8,
you can see the Developer and Add-Ins tabs. In your own setup, these tabs might not appear.
Groups, or Chunks
We’ve already talked about the Ribbon — now it’s time to explore a few tricks and some odd
nomenclature. At the bottom of the Ribbon shown in Figure 2-7, note the names Clipboard,
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Font, and Paragraph. These are known as groups, or chunks. Each contains individual tools
or controls.
If you’re a veteran Office user — perhaps even if not — you’ve probably been wondering what to
do, for example, if the Ribbon is displaying the Page Layout tab and you really want to access the
Home tab’s Editing tools (the ones that contain Find, Replace, Go To, and Select).
In pre-2007 incarnations of Office, access to commonly used commands was always available
via the menu, and often via the Standard and Formatting toolbars. Indeed, these commands
are always available in Office 2010 as well, sort of. When the Page Layout tab is displayed, you
can access any of the Home tab items simply by pressing Alt, H (in sequence), or by clicking the
Home tab.
What if you want to remain focused on Page Layout?
Any item on the Ribbon — individual tools, groups/chunks, and even Dialog Box
Launchers — can be added to the QAT. For example, right-click Bold and choose Add to Quick
Access Toolbar. Now Bold will be available all the time, regardless of which tab is displayed.
Did I mention that Q stands for Quick? Don’t want bold there? Right-click on Bold and choose
Remove from the Quick Access Toolbar.
Let’s try another navigation trick. Tap Alt+P (Page Layout tab). Now press the arrow keys. If
you’re unsteady with the mouse, you can use the four arrow keys to navigate. You can also use
Tab and Shift+Tab to move forward or backward through all the Ribbon commands. When you
get to a command you want to use, press either the Spacebar or the Enter key.
Note
In the previous section, I mentioned that hot keys are context-sensitive. Shouldn’t they work the same way
all the time? One would think so. Alas, Microsoft does not agree, so while Alt+1 might activate the first QAT
command when you tap the Alt key, you cannot count on its always doing the same thing. If you press Alt+H,
now the Alt+1 key applies bold formatting. Hence, context is vital. n
Contextual Tools
In addition to the default set of seven main tabs, additional context-sensitive or contextual tabs
appear depending on what kind of document part is selected. For example, if you choose Insert
Í Header and insert a header from the Header gallery, the Heading & Footer Tools’ Design
subtab is displayed, as shown in Figure 2-9.
Notice that because this particular header format is enclosed in a table, the Table Tools tab is also
exposed. The Table Tools tab has Design and Layout subtabs, each of which is also available in
the current view.
Tip
As you are becoming acclimated to Office 2010, whenever a new tab is exposed, you should click it to explore
what it has to offer. Think of them as hidden drawers that might contain money! This is an aspect of Office
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2010’s discoverability. If you don’t like the design choice in a given gallery, you very likely can change it (and
even add new or changed items to the gallery for future use — more on this later). n
FIGURE 2-9
When a header is selected, the Header & Footer Tools’ Design subtab and associated Ribbon are selected.
Quick Access Toolbar
If you are a veteran pre-Office 2007 user, you might be asking, “Where have all the toolbars
gone?” If you are a longtime veteran, in fact, you might be screaming that question at the top of
your lungs, perhaps adding a colorful adjective or two. All of the toolbars have been collapsed
into the single and less flexible Quick Access Toolbar, or QAT as it is rapidly becoming known.
Shown above the Ribbon in Figure 2-10, the QAT can also be placed below the Ribbon.
FIGURE 2-10
The Quick Access Toolbar, in its default location above the Ribbon tabs, replaces all of Office’s earlier
user-customizable toolbars.
Note
If you have custom templates that rely heavily on carefully crafted custom toolbars and menus, heed caution.
The good news is that some of those toolbars might actually still work in Office 2010 if you upgraded from
Office 2003. Look for them in the Add-Ins Ribbon. The bad news is that Office 2010 no longer contains
customization tools that let you create and modify multiple toolbars. The benefit, though, of Office 2010 is
that you can customize the Ribbon. n
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Live Preview
Live Preview applies the highlighted gallery formatting to the selection in the current document,
enabling you to see the results instantly without actually having to apply that formatting, as
shown in Figure 2-11. As the mouse pointer moves among the different gallery options, the formatting displayed in the body of the document instantly changes.
FIGURE 2-11
Live Preview, showing the results of the Intense Quote style applied to the current paragraph
Note that not all galleries and formatting options produce Live Preview results. For example, in
the Page Layout tab, none of the Page Setup items produces live previews, nor do the paragraph
settings on that Ribbon.
Another time you won’t see Live Preview is when working with dialog boxes, such as the
Paragraph dialog box. Many of those offer internal Preview panels but do not take advantage of
Office 2010’s Live Preview capability.
A gotcha in all this newfangled functionality is that sometimes the gallery itself covers up all or
part of the live preview. This gets old quickly, and can negate much of Live Preview’s functionality, unless you’re blessed with lots of screen real estate. Maybe that 52-inch monitor isn’t such a
bad idea after all.
Fortunately, some galleries and controls have draggable borders that enable you to see more of
what you’re trying to preview, as shown in Figure 2-12. If a control’s border is draggable, this
is indicated by three dots. Notice the three dots in the lower-right corner of the Style gallery in
Figure 2-11, and in the bottom border of the Fonts drop-down in Figure 2-12. On the lower-right
corner, the three dots indicate that the border can be rolled up and to the left. On the bottom, the
three dots indicate that the border can be rolled up.
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FIGURE 2-12
Some Live Preview controls can be rolled up to reveal document details that otherwise would be covered.
Sometimes, however, it’s easiest simply to go ahead and apply the formatting, rather than jump
through hoops. If necessary, you can always use the venerable Ctrl+Z (Undo) if you don’t like the
result.
Caution
When using Live Preview, it’s very easy to forget to click on the desired gallery or formatting command when
you come to it. Particularly in extensive lists (such as lists of fonts, colors, or styles), it’s possible to get exactly
the right effect without noticing what it’s called. In the case of colors, you usually don’t even have a name to
use as a guide. Sometimes, the hand really is quicker than the eye. Once you move your mouse away from
your selection, the gallery closes. You might have to reinspect that entire list to find exactly what you already
found so don’t forget to click! n
Galleries
Up to now, the term gallery has been used as if it were a common everyday Office term. Well,
it is — but it has taken on expanded meaning in Ribbon-oriented Office. Simply put, a gallery
is a set of formatting results or pre-formatted document parts. Virtually every set of formatting
results or document parts in Word 2010 (indeed, in all of Office 2010) might be called a gallery,
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although Office itself does not use the word gallery to refer to every feature set. Some, such as the
lists of bullets, are called libraries instead.
Galleries include document styles, themes, headers, footers, page colors, tables, WordArt, equations,
symbols, and more. The Style Gallery is shown in the previous section, in Figure 2-11. Galleries often
work hand-in-hand with the Live Preview feature. Imagine that you’re paging through a coffee-table
volume of paintings, and each time you point to a different painting, your own house and garden
are transformed to reflect the style and period of the painting. Point at a different painting, and your
house and garden are retransformed, as the selected item is transformed when using Live Preview.
As noted earlier, however, not every gallery results in a Live Preview. As you begin to take
advantage of this feature, you will quickly start to miss it when it’s not available. Office 2010 has
added some new galleries that Office 2007 did not have, such as the Artistic Effects gallery in the
Picture Tools Format tab in Word.
The MiniBar or Mini Toolbar
Another feature in Office 2010 is the MiniBar, more formally known as the Mini toolbar. The
MiniBar is a set of formatting tools that appears when you first select text. It is not context-sensitive
and always contains an identical set of formatting tools. There is no MiniBar for graphics and other
non-text objects.
When you first select text, the MiniBar appears as a ghostly apparition. When you move
the mouse pointer closer to it, it becomes more solid, as shown in Figure 2-13. If you move the
mouse pointer far enough away from it, it fades away completely.
FIGURE 2-13
The MiniBar appears when text is first selected.
Note
Once the MiniBar disappears, you cannot resurrect it by hovering the mouse over the selection. You can,
however, display the MiniBar and the current shortcut menu by right-clicking on the selection. Note also
that only the mouse triggers the MiniBar. If you display the pop-up context menu by pressing Shift+F10 or
by tapping the Menu button on a Windows keyboard, the MiniBar will not appear. n
Some users will love the MiniBar, others will hate it. I recommend that you give it a try. It exists
to provide convenient and discoverable access to commands that are otherwise less convenient
and less accessible, unless you are an avid keyboarder.
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When the Home tab is exposed, the MiniBar might seem superfluous, as all of the MiniBar’s
components are replicated in that tab. However, consider for a moment how far the mouse has
to travel to access those formatting commands. With the MiniBar, the mouse pointer usually
has to travel less than an inch or so.
For those with repetitive motion injuries, this can save a lot of wear and tear on the wrist.
If you decide that the MiniBar gets in the way, you can turn it off. Even when it is turned off,
however, you can still summon it by right-clicking on the current selection.
Note
Unlike many Ribbon tools, the MiniBar tools do not produce live previews of formatting and other effects.
If you need to see a live preview, use the Ribbon instead. n
Shortcut or Contextual Menus
Although the menu system of Office 2003 and earlier has been almost entirely replaced by
Ribbons, Office’s shortcut menus, sometimes called contextual or pop-up menus, remain. Shown
in Figure 2-14, shortcut menus remain largely unchanged from Office 2003, except for the fact
that when text is selected, the MiniBar accompanies the pop-up.
FIGURE 2-14
When you right-click on a selection, a context-sensitive shortcut menu appears, along with the MiniBar.
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Note
Although shortcut menus remain in Office 2010, the ability to customize them is gone. n
Enhanced ScreenTips
Another Office 2010 feature is Enhanced ScreenTips. Enhanced ScreenTips are expanded feature
descriptions designed to make features more discoverable, as well as to reduce the frequency
with which you’ll need to press the F1 key for Help.
Shown in Figure 2-15, an Enhanced ScreenTip magically appears when you hover the mouse
pointer over a tool. If you hover the mouse pointer over an exposed gallery item (such as
a style), however, you will see a Live Preview of the gallery item instead of an Enhanced
ScreenTip.
FIGURE 2-15
Enhanced ScreenTips explain the selected feature, reducing the need to press F1.
Enhanced
ScreenTip
Dialog Boxes and Launchers
Even though Office 2010’s philosophy focuses on the results-oriented Ribbon, some features
and functions remain tied to traditional dialog boxes. Dialog boxes can be launched in several
ways, including by direct keystrokes and what Microsoft calls Dialog Box Launchers. Dialog Box
Launchers are the arrows pointing southeast in the lower-right corner of some Ribbon groups, as
shown in Figure 2-16.
In many instances, Office’s dialog boxes have not been overhauled or greatly enhanced for this
release. However, if you look closely, you often will see several changes, some subtle and others
not so subtle. Figure 2-17 contrasts the Paragraph dialog boxes from Word 2010 and Word 2007.
Sometimes, if you look really closely, new features will leap out at you!
Task Panes
Word 2003 sported a collection of 14 task panes (or more, depending on what features were
installed and in use). You activated the task pane by pressing Ctrl+F1, and it included Getting
Started, Styles and Formatting, Clipboard, Mail Merge, and others. As noted earlier in this chapter, in Office 2010, Ctrl+F1 toggles the Ribbon on and off.
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FIGURE 2-16
Clicking a Dialog Box Launcher displays a dialog box.
FIGURE 2-17
Can you spot the differences between the Word 2010 and Word 2007 dialog boxes? Without seeing the
two versions side-by-side, you might never notice Word 2010’s new Text Effects button!
Word 2010 Font Dialog
Word 2007 Font Dialog
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If Ctrl+F1 is now used for something else, how do you activate the task panes in Office 2010
applications? The short answer is that task panes, as a cohesive concept, have been mostly
abandoned. Office 2010 still has some task panes, but you can’t access them using a dropdown menu as you could in Office 2003, and you can’t access the entire collection of task
panes using a single keystroke. Instead, they will appear as needed (and possibly when you
aren’t expecting them). Think of them as dialog boxes that enable you to type while they’re
onscreen.
For example, in the Home tab in Word 2010, click the Styles Dialog Box Launcher. This displays
the Styles task pane. Now click the drop-down arrow to the left of the X in the upper-right
corner of the task pane, as shown in Figure 2-18. Instead of a list of task panes, you get three
options that control only this task pane. Task panes can be docked on the left or right side of
the document window, or can be dragged and displayed wherever it’s convenient — including
completely out of Office’s window frame. Just move the mouse pointer over the Styles title bar
and drag. To return it, just drag it back, or double-click the floating task pane’s title bar.
FIGURE 2-18
Office 2010’s task panes are independent of each other and can’t be selected from a common pull-down control.
Other Word 2010 features that manifest as independent task panes include the Navigation pane
(new in Word 2010), the Mail Merge Wizard, Clip Art, Protect Document, Research, Document
Management, the Clipboard, and the Style Inspector. While it might seem a bit odd for Microsoft
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to have unbundled the task panes, a quick look at Figure 2-19 hints at a decided advantage of the
independent approach. While you probably won’t need to have them all onscreen at once, it’s nice
to know that you’re not limited to just one task pane at a time.
FIGURE 2-19
You can display multiple task panes at the same time, should you feel a compelling need for clutter.
Status Bar
Now we turn to the status bar. Shown in Figure 2-20, the status bar is the bar at the bottom of an
Office application window. The status bar provides more than 20 optional pieces of information
about the current document, depending on the application. Right-click the status bar to display
its customization options.
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FIGURE 2-20
Office 2010’s status bar adds several new collaboration features.
Do you need to keep track of the word count in a Word document? Not only does Word update
the Word count continuously, but if you select text, its status bar tells you how many words are
selected: 180/5,644 means that 180 words are selected out of a total of 5,644.
Note
The Customize Status Bar menu stays onscreen until you click somewhere else in the application window.
That means that you can enable or disable as many options as you want without having to repeatedly rightclick the status bar. Notice also that the Customize Status Bar menu displays the current status too, so if you
just want to quickly refer to it to find out what language you’re using — but don’t really want Language on the
status bar — you don’t have to put it on the status bar and then remove it. Note additionally that the status
items aren’t just pretty pictures. For example, clicking the Page item takes you to the Go To Page dialog box.
Clicking the Macro Recording item opens the Record Macro dialog box. n
To dismiss the customization menu, simply click the status bar or anywhere else in the document,
press Esc, Enter, or the Spacebar.
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Go Backstage with File
Office 2007’s Office button has been replaced by a File tab in Office 2010, which displays the
Backstage view. Only it’s not really a tab because it doesn’t act like other tabs. Either way, it will
make a lot of users happy. The File button, which has been clicked in Figure 2-21, displays the
Backstage view. Here you’ll find a number of top-level commands that you ordinarily expect to
find in a File menu.
FIGURE 2-21
Office 2010’s File tab replaces Office 2007’s Office button.
In Office’s File tab, some of the commands — Info, Recent, New, Print, Save & Send, and
Help — have additional screens and commands.
As shown in Figure 2-22, it pays to explore in Word 2010 and the other Office applications.
By clicking each of the expandable commands in Office’s File tab or Backstage view, the seasoned
Office user will quickly discover several features hiding in each panel — recent fi les, document templates, printer commands, sharing options, and more. You’ll also fi nd legacy features
hiding there. Users coming from Word 2007 will be happy to know that you no longer need to
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download an add-in to gain PDF and XPS capabilities. Those are available in Word 2010 right
out-of-the-box.
FIGURE 2-22
A cornucopia of sharing options is found in the Backstage Save & Send window.
Caution
To exit Backstage view, don’t click the X. Instead, press Esc or click a different tab (such as the Home tab). If
you click the X in the upper-right corner, Office not only closes Backstage, but closes the program too. n
Options
When you wanted to change something about Office 2003 or earlier, you had multiple places to
look, including Tools Í Options, Tools Í Customize, Help Í About Í Disabled Items, Help Í
Check for Updates, File Í Permission, Tools Í Protect, and Tools Í AutoCorrect Options, to
name but a few. In Office 2010, “change central” is now one place: Options. To get there, choose
File Í Options to display the Options dialog box for the application in use, such as the example
shown in Figure 2-23.
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FIGURE 2-23
The Options dialog box features Information icons to clarify selected options.
Note
Figure 2-23 is neatly resized so that it’s no longer very large, as it initially is. The good news is that you can
resize the Options dialog box. The bad news is that Office does not remember that you resized it, and the
next time you open it, it’s back to full size. In fact, in some dual-monitor configurations, it’s possible that
Options won’t obey Windows’ normal rules, and Options will span both monitors each and every time you
open it. n
Although all of Office’s options are now in one place in each application, so to speak, that doesn’t
necessarily make them any easier to find. Navigating Office Options can be daunting.
Truth in Advertising, or What’s in a Name?
The Options dialog for each Office application has numerous sections, sometimes called tabs, on
the left. Do not be fooled by the labels. Note that one of the tabs is called Advanced. Microsoft’s
idea of advanced, however, might not be the same as yours. What’s optional for someone else
might be essential for you.
Microsoft’s logic is to try to put at the top of the list the controls and options it thinks you are
most likely to want to change. The first set, General, is therefore the group it thinks will matter
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most to the typical user. If you’re reading the Office 2010 Bible, however, you might not be a
typical user. Keep this in mind as you look at the various tabs.
Another caveat is that the labels aren’t even objectively accurate. For example, there is a tab
labeled Display in Word. If you don’t find the display option you’re looking for there, don’t give
up. Some display options actually reside in General, such as Show Mini Toolbar on Selection,
Enable Live Preview, and Open E-mail Attachments in Full Screen Reading View.
Several display options are also sheltered under the Advanced umbrella, including great Word
favorites such as the Show Document Content options, the Display options, and Provide
Feedback with Animation (under General). If you’re keeping track, there’s a General tab, and
there’s a General section within the Advanced tab. Which General are we supposed to salute?
Still other display options are to be found hiding in various other dark corners and recesses. If
you can’t find something you know must be there, check the index in this book.
Options are covered further in Appendix A, available online at www.wiley.com/go/office2010bible. I urge you to click on each of the tabs available in the Office application that you’re
working in to explore the different options that are available. Mostly, this is so you can learn
the answer to “Where did they hide it?” Additionally, however, it will enable you to learn about
options and features you might not otherwise be aware of.
Advanced . . . versus Not Advanced?
If you’re at all like me, you might be wondering, “How did Microsoft decide what’s advanced and
what’s not advanced?” We’ll probably never know. More important than understanding the logic,
however, is simply becoming familiar with the lay of the land so you know where things are,
rather than having to look all over the place every time you want to know how to change a setting.
For example, the Advanced tab for Word, partially shown in Figure 2-24, has 12 major sections
(depending on how you count them, of course). Also depending on how you count, the Advanced
tab in Word offers more than 150 different settings, including the Layout options.
Remember those nice information icons so prevalent in the General tab? The Advanced tab has
only six of them! Out of more than 150 different settings, there are information icons for only six!
Scroll down a bit so you can see both the Save and Preserve Fidelity sections at the same time.
Is there any doubt in your mind what Prompt before Saving Normal Template means? Not in
mine either.
Now look at Embed Linguistic Data. Do you really know exactly what that means? I didn’t
(I looked it up, so I know now, but there’s no cute information button to tell you). Why, do you
suppose, did Microsoft choose to provide cute little information buttons for the options whose
meanings, for the most part, are already patently obvious? Clearly, it must not know what Embed
Linguistic Data means either!
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FIGURE 2-24
Word’s Advanced options contain more than 150 settings.
To find out what these advanced options are, simply select the option and press F1. Not much
help, right? Okay, then, type embed linguistic data into the Search box (including the quotes)
and click Search for the really helpful view shown in Figure 2-25.
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Tip
In many instances, but not always, you can find help on what you want by typing the exact feature name
(e.g., embed linguistic data) into the Search box, pressing Enter (which usually returns no results), and then
clicking the All of Office.com link. n
FIGURE 2-25
Office’s Help system sometimes does not provide the needed answer.
Sometimes you will find useful help much more quickly by following the tip shown above, or
simply by searching the Web for information about the feature in question. Note that even when
you can find help in Microsoft’s Knowledge Base, that help often is couched in technical language
or refers you to other locations in Help. Searching other sources online often nets you more useful information because the very existence of such sources likely is the result of someone’s frustration in trying to parse the “official” sources.
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Part I: Common Office Features
Working with Dialog Boxes
Many Office commands display a dialog box, which is simply a way of getting more information
from you. For example, if you choose Review Í Changes Í Protect Sheet from Excel’s Ribbon,
Excel can’t carry out the command until you tell it what parts of the sheet you want to protect.
Therefore, it displays the Protect Sheet dialog box, shown in Figure 2-26.
FIGURE 2-26
Dialog boxes request additional information about executing a command.
Office dialog boxes vary in how they work. You’ll find two types of dialog boxes:
l
Typical Dialog Box. A modal dialog box takes the focus away from the spreadsheet.
When this type of dialog box is displayed, you can’t do anything in the worksheet until
you dismiss the dialog box. Clicking OK performs the specified actions, and clicking
Cancel (or pressing Esc) closes the dialog box without taking any action. Most Office
dialog boxes are this type.
l
Stay-on-Top Dialog Box. A modeless dialog box works in a manner similar to a toolbar.
When a modeless dialog box is displayed, you can continue working in the Office application, and the dialog box remains open. Changes made in a modeless dialog box take
effect immediately. For example, if you’re applying formatting to a chart, changes you
make in the Format dialog box appear in the chart as soon as you make them. A modeless dialog box has a Close button but no OK button.
Most people find working with dialog boxes to be quite straightforward and natural. If you’ve
used other programs, you’ll feel right at home. You can manipulate the controls either with your
mouse or directly from the keyboard.
Navigating Dialog Boxes
Navigating dialog boxes is generally very easy — you simply click the control you want to activate.
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Although dialog boxes were designed with mouse users in mind, you can also use the keyboard.
Every dialog box control has text associated with it, and this text always has one underlined letter (a hot key or an accelerator key). You can access the control from the keyboard by pressing Alt
and then the underlined letter. You also can press Tab to cycle through all the controls on a dialog box. Pressing Shift+Tab cycles through the controls in reverse order.
Tip
When a control is selected, it appears with a dotted outline. You can use the Spacebar to activate a selected
control. n
Using Tabbed Dialog Boxes
Many Office dialog boxes are tabbed dialog boxes: That is, they include notebook-like tabs, each
of which is associated with a different panel.
When you click a tab, the dialog box changes to display a new panel containing a new set of controls. Excel’s Format Cells dialog box, shown in Figure 2-27, is a good example. It has six tabs,
which makes it functionally equivalent to six different dialog boxes.
FIGURE 2-27
Use the dialog box tabs to select different functional areas in the dialog box.
Tabbed dialog boxes are quite convenient because you can make several changes in a single dialog box. After you make all your setting changes, click OK or press Enter.
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Tip
To select a tab by using the keyboard, press Ctrl+Page Up or Ctrl+Page Down, or simply press the first letter
of the tab that you want to activate. n
Office 2007 introduced a new style of modeless tabbed dialog box in which the tabs are on the
left, rather than across the top. Office 2010 also uses this style. Figure 2-28 shows the Format
Shape dialog box, which is modeless tabbed. To select a tab using the keyboard, press the up- or
down-arrow key and then Tab to access the controls.
FI GURE 2-28
A tabbed dialog box with tabs on the left
Summary
In this chapter, you’ve had a look at many of the exciting facets of Office 2010. You’ve seen the
philosophy behind the Ribbon (discoverability). You’ve also learned several ways in which Office
2010 is similar to earlier versions, and several ways in which it’s different. You should now know
what people are talking about when they mention Ribbon tabs, the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT),
Live Preview, Enhanced ScreenTips, and Galleries.
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CH APTER
Mastering Fundamental
Operations
Y
ears ago, computer program developers began to standardize commands and functions, even in programs with significantly different
purposes. Microsoft’s Office suite was a pioneer in meeting the needs
of users by standardizing names for menus and commands and by placing
familiar tools in all of their applications. This chapter discusses features,
commands, and tasks that many of the Microsoft Office 2010 applications
have in common.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding the file formats
used by Office applications
Creating, saving, opening, and
closing files
Choosing page and printer
settings
Working with Files
Previewing and printing a file
Computer files are part of a framework for managing data created and
stored on a computer. When you create information in a program, such as
a letter, you save that information in a file and assign the file a memorable
name. When you want to work with the file at a later time, you can identify the file by its name and subsequently open the file in the program.
Although the ins and outs of creating and using files can differ among
Office programs, after you have learned to work with files in one Office
application, you should be able to work with files in any other Office application. The skills you learn next will come in handy when you need to
work with files in various Office programs.
Opening, selecting, and
arranging windows
Improving text with Find and
Replace and checking spelling
Using formatting and correction
shortcuts
Previewing and applying styles
Understanding Office 2010 File
Formats
Every program saves data in a particular fi le format that reflects how the
program identifies, organizes, and interprets the information contained
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within the fi le. You can typically identify which program was used to create a file in one of
two ways:
l
The file’s icon in a Windows folder window or a dialog box, such as the Open dialog
box, identifies the program used to create the file. All files created in a particular program use the program’s icon. Figure 3-1 shows the file icons for some of the key Office
programs. (The size and appearance of the icons vary depend on the view selected in
Windows or the dialog box.)
FIGURE 3-1
A file’s icon reflects the program used to create the file.
PowerPoint file icon
l
Word file icon Publisher file icon
Access file icon
Excel file icon
A three- to five-letter filename extension (such as .docx for Word 2007 files) also identifies the program used to create the file. Although filename extensions often are hidden,
you may see the extension when viewing the properties of a file or browsing to find a
file in Windows.
The file formats for the 2007 releases of Word, Excel, and PowerPoint dramatically changed
to use the Microsoft Office Open XML Formats, and the Office 2010 versions retain the XML
formats. The Microsoft Office Open XML format is based on a wider standard called eXtensible
Markup Language (XML), a method of describing data that was designed to facilitate sharing data
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between different systems. To signify their XML roots, the filename extensions for Word, Excel,
and PowerPoint now include an x: .docx for Word documents, .xlsx for Excel workbooks, and
.pptx for PowerPoint presentations. The change to XML-based fi le formats enables the applications to create smaller, more secure files that can be shared more easily.
Note
If an Office 2010 file has been saved in a special macro-enabled format, it will have the .docm (Word),
.xlsm (Excel), or .pptm (PowerPoint) filename extension and its file icon will include an explanation point
on a yellow page. n
Access 2010 also retains the .accdb database file format rather than the older .mdb file format
for versions prior to 2007. The Access file format and the database engine that drives it give
tighter integration with SharePoint and Outlook 2010. There are also some special variations of
the Access file format, including an execute-only database file (.accde) and a runtime version
(.accdr). Although Access can read tables from database files created in earlier Access versions
for backward compatibility, older Access versions cannot read tables from an Access 2010 database file. Publisher 2010 files continue to use the .pub filename extension.
The Office 2010 Word, Excel, and PowerPoint applications also can save and open fi les
based on the Open Document Format (ODF) v1.1 standard. The specific fi le format names
vary depending on the application — OpenDocument Text (*.odt) for word processing,
OpenDocument Spreadsheet (*.ods), and OpenDocument Presentations (*.odp) support of
these formats means that Office applications can work with fi les created using an OpenOffice
application, further reducing barriers to collaboration. The primary Office 2010 applications also can save fi les in the portable XPS (XML Paper Specification) and PDF (Portable
Document Format) fi le types. You can double-click an XPS document in a folder window to
open it in XPS Viewer (Windows 7) or Internet Explorer (Windows Vista). Viewing a PDF fi le
requires the free Adobe Reader application that you can download from any number of locations online.
Creating a New, Blank File
When you start some of the Office applications — such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint — the
application automatically opens a new, blank file for you. You can then begin adding and formatting the content you want to preserve for yourself or other readers or viewers.
If you’re working with an existing file and need to create another blank file, you can do so at any
time, using one of the following two methods:
l
Press Ctrl+N. The blank file appears immediately.
l
Click the File tab in the upper-left corner of the program window and then click New.
The Backstage view appears and presents new file options, like the one for Excel shown
in Figure 3-2. Double-click the Blank document type icon, which closes the Backstage
view and immediately opens the new document onscreen. Because the Blank document
type icon is usually selected by default, you also can simply click the Create button in
the lower right, under the document preview.
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FIGURE 3-2
You can create a blank file using the New command in Backstage view.
Double-click
Because of its more complicated file structure, Access requires you to take a few more setup steps
when you create a new database fi le. If you double-click the Blank Database icon after starting
Access or choosing the New command, Access prompts you to enter a name for the fi le. After you
click Create (Figure 3-3), you then must set up the first table that will hold the data you’ll enter.
Chapter 34 covers the process for creating an Access table.
Tip
Outlook doesn’t use files, so you’ll learn how to work with its messages and information when we
cover Outlook. Both the Publisher and OneNote programs have a somewhat unique process for setting
up a new file, and you’ll learn about each process in the applicable chapters. n
Creating a File with a Document Template
You can avoid starting from scratch when creating a file by selecting a template. A template
includes predefined content and attractive formatting, both of which you can adapt for your own
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uses. For example, Excel includes a Loan Amortization template that includes all the formulas
required to calculate payments on a loan; you plug in the loan terms, and it will fi nalize the
results. The worksheet presents you with precise principal and payment information for any
payment date in the life of the loan. As shown in Figure 3-4, this template also includes the
formatting needed to organize and highlight the information.
FIGURE 3-3
Access prompts you to enter a filename immediately.
Name the
file
Some templates install on your system’s hard disk when you install Office. Microsoft also enables
you to browse and download templates stored online at Office.com, giving you the opportunity to
take advantage of new templates as Microsoft adds them to the site.
Whether you choose an installed template or download a new template, the process for using a
template to create a new fi le is roughly the same:
1.
Choose File Í New. The Backstage view appears, showing choices for creating files.
2a. Click Sample Templates in the Available Templates section in the center of the view.
OR
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Part I: Common Office Features
2b. Click on a template category in the Office.com Templates section, and then click on
one of the type icons that appears.
3.
Click on a template thumbnail. As shown in Figure 3-5, a preview of the template
appears at the right side of the dialog box.
FIGURE 3-4
Templates include starter information and formatting.
Tip
If you don’t see the template you want in one of the available categories, type a keyword or description for
the type of template that you need into the Search Office.com for Templates textbox. Then click the Start
Searching (right arrow) button beside it to find matching templates. n
4. Click Create (for an installed template) or Download. If you selected a template
installed on your system, the new file appears. An online template may take a few
seconds to a few minutes to download, and then the new file will appear.
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FIGURE 3-5
The Office application displays a preview of the selected template.
Use this text box to search
for a template online
Note
The first time you download a template, the Microsoft Office Genuine Advantage message box may appear
to inform you that Microsoft will verify that you have a legitimate copy of Office as a requirement of the
download process. To turn off this message for future downloads, click the Do Not Show This Message Again
checkbox to check it before clicking Continue. n
Note
PowerPoint also enables you to create a file by applying a design theme. Although themes don’t include any
content, they do provide attractive, consistent formatting for all the slides in a presentation. To create a file
with a theme, click Themes under Available Templates and Themes in the Backstage view, click on a theme
icon to see its preview, and then click Create. n
Saving and Naming a File
When you create a new file, the application assigns it a temporary name. If you create more than
one new file in Excel, for example, the program will assign the temporary filenames sequentially,
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that is, Book1, Book2, and so on. To replace the temporary filename and to make sure that your
work in a file gets preserved on your computer’s hard disk or a network drive, you need to save
the file. The application you’re saving with will automatically apply the file format extension to
whatever filename you specify during the Save process.
If you are using Windows Vista or Windows 7, use the following steps to save a newly created file:
1. Click File Í Save or press Ctrl+S. The Save As dialog box appears.
2. If you don’t see a navigation pane or list at the left side of the dialog box, click the
Browse Folders button. This expands the dialog box to include a pane where you can
choose a disk or folder in which to save the file. The Browse Folders button changes to
the Hide Folders button, which you can click at any later time to suppress the folder
display.
3a. If you don’t see the list of disks in Windows 7, click the triangle to the left of Computer
in the navigation pane. The list of available disks appears. You also could navigate to a
location where you would like to save your file using Libraries in the navigation pane.
OR
3b. In Windows Vista, click the up arrow to the right of Folders in the left pane. The
Folders list with the folder tree for navigating to disks and folders expands.
4. Click the triangle to the left of any disk or folder to display its contents, if needed.
A triangle appears beside only folders that have subfolders within them, so you may not
see any triangles beside folder icons.
5. Click on the desired folder in the tree. This selects the folder as the save location.
Figure 3-6 displays a selected folder.
Note
If you’re using Windows XP, select File Í Save to open the Save As dialog box. You can use the Save In
drop-down list and the list of folders in the Save As dialog box to navigate to the folder where you want to
save the file. Enter a filename in the File Name text box, and then click Save. n
6. Drag over the contents of the File Name text box and type a new name. Make sure
your filename not only describes the file’s contents but also includes information such
as a date to distinguish it from other similar files.
7. Click Save. The program saves the file and displays the new filename in the title bar
onscreen.
As you continue working with a file, you should save it periodically to ensure that your latest
changes are included in the stored version. That way, in the event of a power surge or problem
with your computer, you won’t lose much work. Saving every 10 minutes proves good insurance
for your file. To save your latest changes, click the Save button on the Quick Access toolbar or
press Ctrl+S. If you must, you can click the Microsoft Office button and then click Save, but why
choose two steps when you can choose one?
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FIGURE 3-6
Choose a save location and enter a filename.
Selected folder
Files created in the 2010 versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access cannot be opened with
versions of those programs prior to the 2007 versions by default. (You can download and install
a compatibility pack to handle the files; information is available by going to the main Office
website at http://office.microsoft.com and searching for “office compatibility pack,” with
or without quotation marks. If the compatibility pack for the 2010 file formats is not available,
install and use the one for the 2007 formats.) If a user running an older version of one of these
applications needs to open one of your files, you may need to save a copy of the file in a compatible format. Here’s how:
1. Click File Í Save As. The Save As dialog box appears.
2. Click the Save As Type drop-down list. A list of other file formats that you can select
for the copy you’re creating appears, like the one shown in Figure 3-7.
3. Click the desired Save As format.
4. Specify a save location and filename in the Save As dialog box. The process works
just as described in the previous set of steps about saving a new file.
5. Click Save.
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FIGURE 3-7
Choose an alternative format for the file copy.
Click a format
Opening a File
Opening a file you’ve previously saved loads the file back into the program so that you can
review, change, or print it. The Open process works a lot like the Save process. You select the
folder in which you stored the file and then select the file to open, as follows:
1. Click File Í Open or press Ctrl+O. The Open dialog box appears.
2a. If you don’t see the list of disks in Windows 7, click the triangle to the left of
Computer in the navigation pane. The list of available disks appears. You also
could navigate to a save location using the Libraries choices in the navigation pane,
if desired.
OR
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2b. In Windows Vista, click the up arrow to the right of Folders in the left pane. The
Folders list with the folder tree for navigating to disks and folders expands.
3. Click the triangle to the left of any disk or folder to display its contents, if needed.
A triangle appears beside only folders that have subfolders within them, so you may
not see any triangles beside folder icons.
4. Click on the folder that holds the file to open in the tree. The files stored in the
folder appear in the dialog box.
5. Click on the file to open.
6. Click Open. The file loads in the program.
Note
If you’re using Windows XP, select File Í Open to open the Open dialog box. You can use the Look In
drop-down list and the list of folders in the dialog box to navigate to the folder that holds the file to open.
Click on the file and then click Open. n
Tip
In some Office applications, the Open button includes a drop-down list arrow. Click on a file to select it. You
can then click the Open button drop-down arrow to see additional options for opening the file, such as the
Open and Repair command. n
Tip
Double-click on a file’s icon in any Windows folder window to open the file within the application in which it
was created. n
Closing a File
Closing a file that you’ve finished working on removes the file from the system’s working memory.
Only a few years ago, closing a file was a necessity because most computers had limited amounts
of working memory. Today’s powerful computers make that less of an issue, but there are some
other equally important reasons to close a file after you finish making changes. For example, you
may want to close a file so that it’s not visible onscreen for security or privacy reasons. Closing a
file also reduces the chance of the file being corrupted by a power fluctuation or a system error; it
also gives you a reminder to save your changes to the file if you haven’t already done so.
Some Office applications offer a Close (X) button for the file window itself, located below the
application Close (X) button near the upper-right corner of the program window. Clicking the file
window Close button closes the file. Other Office applications may not include a file window Close
button. If that’s the case, you can close the current file by clicking the File tab and then clicking
Close. The keyboard shortcut Alt+F+C will close the current file as well in some Office applications.
If you haven’t saved your most recent changes to the file being closed, a reminder message like
the one shown in Figure 3-8 appears.
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FIGURE 3-8
Click Save to save the file before closing it.
Printing a File
With the crisp, vibrant output produced by today’s cheap color printers, who would want a
paperless office? Although the Internet and faster computer networks have made electronic transmission a common and accepted means of sharing documents, many circumstances still call
for — if not require — that information be shared on paper:
l
Legal documents such as contracts that need to be signed, initialed, dated, or otherwise
stamped are still largely handled on paper. Standards for digital signatures are still evolving, and most users still print a hard copy of a contract or agreement for official filing.
l
When a reader or viewer won’t have a computer or connection at hand and will need
to take notes, you need to provide a hard copy. For example, participants in seminars
typically don’t bring along a notebook and prefer to take their notes on a hard copy of a
presentation.
l
When you want to make a strong impression, hard copy is still preferred. Although
e-mail is increasingly accepted as a standard business practice for many communications,
sometimes it doesn’t measure up. For example, it might be acceptable to e-mail a proposal to a potential new client, but hand-delivering a hard copy and then following up by
e-mail shows that you still care enough to make a personal effort to get the business.
l
When you need a fresh perspective on a document, you can get it by working from
hard copy. Reading through a printed copy of a document can help you catch text and
formatting mistakes you previously missed, while also enabling you to make additional
notes and engage in proofreading tricks such as reading the document backward.
l
When you want to provide a more constant, visible reminder, you need a hard copy.
Whether it’s putting up a flyer at the grocery store about a found cat or giving a recognition certificate to a valued volunteer, hard copy is still the only useful format.
With all the great documents you can create in Office, you’ll be proud to publish and share hard
copies. This section explains how to set up and print your files.
Note
This section on printing assumes that a printer is installed on your system or network and that the printer is
powered on and has ample paper and ink or toner in it. n
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Performing a Basic Preview and Print
Previewing and printing used to be separate operations in previous versions of Office applications. The Backstage view in Office 2010 enables you to preview the printout and select print
settings, so you can adjust the document as needed without having to go back and forth between
the preview and a separate setup dialog box. You can preview and print the document using the
current settings for the printer with only a few mouse clicks if you want to use the default print
settings.
Viewing a preview and printing the document is easy:
1. Click File Í Print. The Backstage view shows the preview and printing settings, as
shown in Figure 3-9.
FIGURE 3-9
Preview the printout and choose print settings in Backstage view.
Move between pages
Change the preview zoom
2. Use the Zoom slider to adjust the preview zoom as desired. The Zoom slider appears
in the lower right of the preview. You also can use the Zoom Out and Zoom In buttons
at either end of the slider to adjust the view.
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3. Use the Previous Page and Next Page buttons to move between pages if the document has multiple pages. These buttons appear at lower left below the preview.
4. Click Print. The document prints.
Tip
If you prefer the keyboard to the mouse, you can use this rather long keyboard shortcut for performing a
quick print: Alt+F+P+P. n
Tip
You can add a Quick Print button to the Quick Access toolbar. Clicking that button then prints the current file
directly. To add the button, click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar drop-down arrow at the right end of
the Quick Access toolbar; then, click Quick Print. n
Understanding Page Design Settings
Some document settings affect the overall page design not only in terms of looks but also in making the document print correctly from the printer. The most important page settings you need to
specify when it comes to printing fall into three categories:
l
Margins. The margin is the white space between the edge of the paper and the information printed on the page. Most printers require at least 0.25 inches of margin on each
edge of the document. If you specify a smaller margin than required by your printer,
you could cause some of the printed information to appear “cut off.” In some cases, you
need to specify special-purpose margins such as mirrored margins, for which the inside
(center) margins of each two-page spread are wider to allow for binding the pages.
l
Orientation. You can choose to present information from a file in Portrait (tall) or Landscape (wide) format. When you choose a portrait orientation such as that used for a typical
letter, the printer prints the text parallel to the shorter edges of the paper. When you choose
a landscape orientation such as that often used for worksheets or presentation slides, the
printer rotates the information and prints horizontal to the longer edges of the paper.
l
Size. If you want to print on paper other than standard-sized sheets, you need to choose
that paper size for the document’s page design or setup. This choice automatically
adjusts the document contents to fit within the margins on the specified sheet size.
Because page design settings vary quite a bit between applications, it’s not possible to cover each
and every choice here. Later chapters detail some of the settings that pertain to particular Office
applications. So, here’s an idea of where you can fi nd the page settings you need to check or
change before sending a file to the printer:
l
On the Page Layout or Design Tab of the Ribbon. The Ribbon tab can be used to format the page or design and typically includes a Page Layout section with the options
for changing crucial page settings. Clicking on a choice here typically displays a menu
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or gallery, as shown in Figure 3-10, of specific settings; click on the one you want to
apply to the document.
FIGURE 3-10
The Page Layout or Design tab of the Ribbon offers page design settings.
l
In the Backstage View after You Click Print. As shown in Figure 3-9, the Settings area
offers settings for orientation and margin. These settings work just like the corresponding settings found on the Ribbon.
l
In the Page Setup Dialog Box. The Page Setup dialog box for an application offers general page formatting options such as margin settings, as well as choices specific to the
application that you’re using. For example, the Page Setup dialog box for Excel includes
a Sheet tab, on which you can indicate such details as whether gridlines should print
(Figure 3-11). To open the Page Setup dialog box, you can click the Dialog Box Launcher
for the Page Setup group on the Page Layout or Design tab of the Ribbon (Figure 3-12).
After you make your choices in the dialog box, click OK to apply them to the document.
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FIGURE 3-11
Page Setup options vary from application to application.
FIGURE 3-12
Click the Dialog Box Launcher for the Page Setup group.
Dialog Box Launcher
Choosing Print Settings and Printing
As opposed to being specific to the design of the pages of the document being printed, additional
settings pertain to the nature of the hard copy being produced. These settings include which
printer to use, which pages of the file to print, how many copies to print, what print quality to
use, and so on. You choose all these types of settings in the Backstage view after clicking Print at
the left side of the view.
Although settings such as which pages to print and how many copies to print are the same in
most circumstances, other choices vary depending on the application or the selected printer. For
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example, Excel has additional options for enabling you to print only the current worksheet or the
entire workbook file. And choosing an inkjet printer generally enables you to select whether you
want to print in just black ink or in full color.
Despite those types of differences, the process for choosing a printer and print settings and fi nishing the print job is about the same in every application:
1. Click File Í Print or press Ctrl+P. The Backstage view appears with its associated
print settings.
2. Select the printer to use from the Printer drop-down list. The printer becomes the
current or active printer (Figure 3-13).
FIGURE 3-13
Choose printout settings in the Backstage view after clicking Print.
Specify the number of copies
Choose a printer
Choose what to print
Choose other settings
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3. Specify what pages to print in the Pages textbox under settings. You also can use the
drop-down list above the textbox to choose one of the available settings for the current
application, such as printing the Document Properties for a Word document.
4. Specify how many copies to print in the Copies box. In some cases, you also can
choose to collate the printed pages.
5. Choose other print settings as desired. For example, you might change zoom settings
or print to a file rather than paper.
Note
Clicking the Options button in the lower-left corner of the dialog box opens another dialog box that includes
additional print options, such as whether to print hidden text in Word. n
6. Click the Printer Properties link below the selected printer. The dialog box that
appears has additional print settings, as in the example shown in Figure 3-14.
FIGURE 3-14
Properties for the selected printer enable you to fine-tune the print job even further.
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7. Choose settings in the printer’s Properties dialog box as needed, and then click
OK. The Print dialog box reappears.
8. Click Print. The application prints the file to the specified printer.
Tip
If you prefer to e-mail a file rather than print it, you can send it from right within some of the Office applications. Select File Í Save & Send Í Send Using E-mail, and then click on the desired sending format to continue the process. n
Working with Multiple Windows
Every time you open another file in an Office application, the file opens in its own file window.
You can have multiple programs and files open to help you multitask — to jump between different jobs you’re working on and to look at information stored in a number of different files and
applications.
The taskbar is a band or bar that appears by default along the bottom of the Windows desktop.
A button for programs that you open appears on the taskbar in Windows 7. In Windows Vista
and XP, you may see a separate taskbar button for each open file. The Office applications work
with Windows to provide you with multiple options for navigating between open file and application windows, including using the taskbar.
Switching to Another File or Application Window
Switching to another open file makes it the active file in its application. When you use the taskbar
to switch between open files, Windows switches to the application for that file, if applicable. You
can use one of the following techniques to navigate to another file or application in Office and
Windows:
l
View Tab on Ribbon. To switch to another open file window in an application, click
the View tab on the Ribbon, click Switch Windows, and then click on the name of
the file to select, as shown in the example in Figure 3-15. The selected file becomes the
active file.
FIGURE 3-15
Using the Ribbon to switch between open files.
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l
Taskbar. If a single file for the application is open, click the taskbar button for the file to
open, which immediately makes the file appear in its application. If the taskbar button represents more than one open file, clicking it displays a menu with the name for each open
file in Windows XP or Vista. Windows 7 displays a thumbnail of each open file, instead.
Whether you see a menu or a thumbnail, click the file you want to open to select it.
l
Shortcut Key Combination. If you press and hold the Alt+Tab key combination, a
task-switching box with an icon for each open file, as well as for the Windows desktop, appears. Continue holding down the Alt key as you press and release the Tab key
until you’ve highlighted the desired file icon; then, release both keys. The last file you
selected opens onscreen in its application.
l
Stack the Windows. Both Windows 7 and Windows Vista enable you to stack windows on screen, as shown in Figure 3-16, and choose the one you want from the stack.
This feature is called Aero Flip 3D in Windows 7. In Windows 7, press the Windows
Logo Key+Tab. Press Tab or an arrow key to cycle through the windows, and when the
document you want is on top of the stack, click it. In Windows Vista, click the Switch
Between Windows button on the Quick Launch toolbar, then click on the window for
the file (and application) you want to switch to.
FIGURE 3-16
Windows 7 and Windows Vista provide a visual way to switch between open file and application windows.
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Arranging Windows
Arranging windows sizes all the open fi les in an application and positions them so that the fi les
fi ll the available space in the application window without overlapping. (Word and PowerPoint
actually size multiple instances of the application window to fill the screen.) This feature
enables you to review and compare the information in multiple fi les more easily, or to perform
an action such as moving or copying information from one fi le to another, as described in the
next section.
The View tab of the Ribbon includes an Arrange All button in the Window group. Click that button to arrange the open file windows, as in the example shown in Figure 3-17. Note that some
applications also include Cascade, which stacks the open windows so that you can switch to
another window by clicking on its title bar.
FIGURE 3-17
Arranging file windows makes file contents more accessible.
To arrange all the open fi le and program windows on the Windows desktop, right-click
on a blank area of the taskbar (not a taskbar button) and then click Show Windows Side
by Side.
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Moving and Copying Information
A template can save you time by providing starter content for a document, but that starter content is not your own, unique information. When needed, you can reuse information you’ve
created in one file in a new file by moving or copying that information.
Microsoft has dedicated significant effort over time to ensure that the Office applications
can accept information from one to another so that users can build documents that integrate
content created from different applications. For example, you can use an Excel worksheet to
perform complicated calculations and then reuse that information in Word or PowerPoint.
This section shows you how simple techniques enable you to work quickly and have consistent
content by moving or copying information.
Note
See Chapter 41, “Integration with Other Office Applications,” to learn more specifics about reusing information between applications. n
Understanding the Clipboard
The Windows Clipboard enables users to copy information between virtually any two applications, as long as the applications are relatively compatible in terms of the fi le formats they use.
Windows transfers information you copy or cut from a file to the Clipboard, a temporary holding
area in the system’s working memory. You can paste the information from the Clipboard into
another location in the same file or into another file altogether. The information stays on the
Clipboard until you copy or paste something else or shut down the computer.
Many Microsoft Office applications actually work with Office’s own version of the Clipboard, called
the Office Clipboard, which improves on the capabilities of the Windows Clipboard. Whereas the
Windows Clipboard can hold only one copied or cut item, the Office Clipboard (Figure 3-18) can
hold up to 24.
Selecting Information
Before you can copy or cut information to place it in the Clipboard, you have to select, or highlight, the information. Most users today prefer to use the mouse to select text or other onscreen
content by clicking on it or dragging over it. Although selection methods can vary between Office
applications, here are some basic techniques to know:
l
In Word, drag over text to select it. Word also offers a variety of shortcut techniques,
such as double-clicking on a word to select it, or triple-clicking on a paragraph to select
the whole paragraph.
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l
In applications that use text placeholders, such as PowerPoint and Publisher, click
on the placeholder to select or activate it, and then drag over the specific text to
select.
l
In Excel worksheets and Access tables, drag diagonally over cells to select the group of
cells. For example, in Figure 3-19, you can see that the range A4:E8 is selected because
the heavy black cell selector appears around the selected range and the row and column
headings for the selected cells appear highlighted.
FIGURE 3-18
Multiple cut or copied items appear on the Office Clipboard for pasting.
l
To select another type of item such as a graphic, simply click on it. Black selection handles and a selection box appear around the object. You can Shift+click additional objects
to add them to the selection.
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Copying
Copy a selection when you want to reuse information from one location in one or more other
locations. Copying a selected item leaves the original intact and places a duplicate on the
Clipboard. You can use one of three methods to copy a selection that you’ve already made:
l
Press Ctrl+C.
l
Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, and then click the Copy button in the Clipboard
group. Figure 3-20 shows the Ribbon buttons for copying, cutting, and pasting.
FIGURE 3-19
Drag diagonally to select worksheet cells.
FIGURE 3-20
The Home tab has tools for copying and moving a selection.
Cut
Copy
Click to open Office Clipboard
Paste
l
Right-click on the selection, and choose Copy in the shortcut menu.
Note
After you copy or cut a range of cells in Excel, a flashing marquee appears around the selected range to
remind you to paste. Press Esc to clear the marquee if you decide not to paste the information. This also
removes the data from the Clipboard. n
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Cutting
Cutting also places the selection on the Clipboard but removes the selection from its original
location rather than make a duplicate. So, when you want to move information from one file
to another, you first cut the selection from its original location and then paste it into position in
another file.
As with copying, you can use one of three methods to cut:
l
Press Ctrl+X.
l
Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, and then click the Cut button in the Clipboard
group.
l
Right-click on the selection, and click Cut in the shortcut menu.
Caution
After you cut information from a text document or placeholder, be sure to take a look at the location from
which you cut. In many instances, you might need to delete extra line spaces or add new spaces between
words. n
Pasting
Pasting places an item from the Clipboard into a new location within the same file or in a completely different file or application. For example, Figure 3-21 shows the selection from Figure 3-19
pasted from Excel onto a PowerPoint slide. Pasting finishes the overall activity of either copying
or moving information between locations. The method you use to paste in Office depends on
whether you need to use the Office Clipboard, which enables you to paste multiple selections or a
selection other than the most recent item you cut or copied.
To paste directly:
1. Click to position the insertion point at the location in which you want to paste
the item. Switch to the fi le fi rst, if needed. In some cases, you might have to click
within a text placeholder fi rst. In Excel, click the upper-left cell in the range to
paste to.
2. Perform the paste. As when copying or cutting, you can use one of three techniques to
issue the Paste command:
l
Press Ctrl+V.
l
Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, and then click the top portion of the Paste button
in the Clipboard group.
l
Right-click on the location where you want the selection inserted, and then click on
one of the buttons under Paste Options in the shortcut menu.
3. (Optional) Click the Paste Options button, which appears at the lower-right
corner of the pasted selection, and choose one of the formatting or other
options that appears.
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Tip
In Excel, you also can press Enter to paste after selecting a destination cell. This method clears the blinking
marquee from the copied or cut material, in contrast to the three techniques listed in the previous step. n
FIGURE 3-21
Pasting to finish copying and moving text enables you to deliver a powerful, consistent message by combining information you’ve developed in a variety of applications.
Using the Office Clipboard enables you to take advantage of multiple selections that you’ve copied or cut. To paste using the Office Clipboard:
1. Click to position the insertion point at the location in which you want to paste
the item. Again, switch to the destination file first, if needed.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon.
3. Click the Dialog Box Launcher button in the Clipboard group. The Clipboard task
pane opens at the left side of the window.
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4. Click on the item to paste in the task pane. As shown in Figure 3-22, the pasted
item appears in the destination location. You can then resize and format it as needed in
the destination.
FIGURE 3-22
Use the Office Clipboard to paste multiple selections.
Click item to paste
Use to choose paste options
5. (Optional) Click the Paste Options button that appears at the lower-right corner
of the pasted selection, and choose one of the formatting or other options that
appears.
6. Select additional paste locations and paste additional selections as needed.
7. Click the Close (X) button on the task pane window to close the task pane.
Tip
If you plan to use the Office Clipboard to paste multiple selections in a document, copy or cut all the
selections before opening the Clipboard and pasting. Doing so can save you time moving back and forth
between files. n
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Finding and Replacing
Lengthy, complex business files can hold a ton of information, and who wants to spend all day
using the Page Down key and scrolling to try to find one bit of information? Luckily, you can use
the Find feature to search for a particular word or phrase. For example, if you need to find the
section of a construction contract that deals with site remediation, you can fi nd the phrase “site
remediation.” Even better, you can use the Replace feature to correct words you’ve misspelled or
to change phrases or names. For example, if you’ve mistakenly spelled Artur Consulting as Arthur
Consulting throughout a proposal for a new client, you can replace all instances of the spelling
boo-boo with the correction.
Finding and replacing work in a very similar fashion, so you can use the following steps for either
operation:
1. Press Ctrl+Home. This step moves the insertion point to the beginning of the document
so that the Find or Replace operation starts from the top.
2. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon.
3. Click Find & Replace in the Editing Group, and then click Find or Replace. The Find
and Replace dialog box appears. The Find tab that appears for a fi nd includes a Find
What textbox, whereas the Replace tab that appears for a replace also includes a Replace
With textbox.
Note
In Excel, click the Find & Select button on the Home tab, and then click either Find or Replace. In
Word, clicking Find opens a Navigation pane at the left. In most Office applications, you also can
press Ctrl+F to start a find. The Find and Replace dialog box varies in appearance from application
to application. n
4. Type the entry to find in the Find What textbox.
5. Type the replacement entry, if any, in the Replace With textbox.
6. Specify additional options, if needed. The available options vary depending on the
application. For example, in Word, you can click the More button and then specify
choices such as matching case or matching a prefi x or suffi x.
7. Click Find Next. The application highlights the first matching instance of the search
word or phrase, as shown in Figure 3-23.
8. Click on a button for replacing the found text, if applicable:
l
Replace. Replaces only the highlighted instance of the matching word or phrase.
l
Replace All. Replaces all instances of the matching word or phrase.
l
Find Next. Skips to the next match without making a replacement.
9. Repeat Steps 7 and 8 as needed to proceed through the find or replace operation.
10. Click OK in the message that tells you that the search has been completed.
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Tip
Some Office applications offer special methods for finding information. For example, Outlook enables you to
find messages from a particular sender or having a particular subject. Access enables you to save and reuse a
query, which finds information matching one or more criteria. n
FIGURE 3-23
The found match is selected (highlighted).
Spell Checking
Typos have no place in professional business documents, whether delivered electronically or in
hard-copy form. You always want to put your best foot forward and make sure that your files are
attractive, clear and easy to follow, and typo free.
By default, many of the Office applications quietly check your spelling for you as you type. If
you see a telltale red squiggle appear underneath a word, that means that the application thinks
you’ve misspelled the word — according to the application’s own dictionary, anyway. If you see
a wavy red underline underneath a word, right-click on the word. As shown in Figure 3-24, you
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Part I: Common Office Features
can then click on a correction in the shortcut menu that appears to replace the typo with the correction, or click Add to Dictionary so that the word is no longer fl agged as a misspelling.
FIGURE 3-24
Right-click on any word with a red wavy outline and then click on a correction.
If you’ve finished creating the document and have moved on to the fine-tuning stage, you should
always run a complete spell check to catch any typos that you might have missed earlier. Use
these steps to run the check, and use the most common options for dealing with potential
misspellings:
1. Press Ctrl+Home. This step moves to the beginning of the document so that the spellchecking operation will start from there.
2. Click the Review tab on the Ribbon.
3. Click Spelling & Grammar (Word) or Spelling (other apps) in the Proofing Group.
The Spelling dialog box appears with the first potential misspelling highlighted, as
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shown in Figure 3-25. Some applications enable you to start a spelling check simply
by pressing F7.
FIGURE 3-25
The spelling check highlights the suspected word and displays it in the Not in Dictionary textbox of the
Spelling dialog box.
Note
Word can check grammar in addition to spelling every time you run a spell check. A green squiggle may appear
under any potential grammar error in the document. Appendix A, which is on this book’s website, explains
where you can find the settings for controlling how spelling and grammar checking behave in Word. n
4. Click on a button to tell the spelling check how to proceed:
l
Ignore. Skips only the currently found instance of the suspected word without replacing it.
l
Ignore All. Skips all instances of the suspected word without replacing it.
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l
Change. Replaces only the currently found instance of the suspected word with the
current selection in the Suggestions list. (Click on another suggestion before clicking
on this button, if needed.)
l
Change All. Replaces all instances of the suspected word with the current selection in the
Suggestions list. (Click on another suggestion before clicking on this button, if needed.)
l
Add. Adds the suspected word to the dictionary so that it will be skipped in future
spelling checks.
5. Repeat Step 4 as needed to proceed through the spelling check.
6. Click OK in the message that tells you that the spelling check has been completed.
Tip
It’s critical to proofread your files even after spell checking. No spell checker can pick up on every wrong
word choice — such as when you use then instead of than or their instead of there. Therefore, you still need
to apply your own intelligence in perfecting your documents. n
AutoCorrect, AutoFormat, and Actions
These three features provide a trio of conveniences that many users have come to take for granted.
The AutoCorrect feature makes certain corrections as you type. For example, it capitalizes the first
word of a sentence if you’ve failed to do so, or it can change a typo such as acessories to accessories.
The AutoFormat feature supplies automatic formatting, such as creating true fraction characters or
automatic numbered lists. The Actions feature enables commands on the Additional Actions submenu of the shortcut menu when you click on particular types of data such as a date. Click on the
button that appears with the data, and you’ll see a menu of special operations pertaining to that
data, such as seeing your calendar or finding an address.
Most users will want to keep these features working as they were originally installed. However,
in other cases, you may want to turn off one or more aspects of these features, such as whether
AutoFormat converts web or e-mail addresses to hyperlinks or whether the Actions feature fl ags
dates.
You can access the settings for all three of these features in the AutoCorrect dialog box. To display the dialog box, click the File tab, and then click Options. Click the Proofi ng category in the
list at the left side of the Options dialog box that appears and then click the AutoCorrect Options
button. The AutoCorrect dialog box appears.
Change settings on each of the tabs as needed and then click OK to apply your changes. Here’s a
look at the tabs and the changes you might want to make:
l
AutoCorrect. Clear the checkbox beside any of the standard corrections that you want
the program to stop making. If you want to add your own correction to the list of typos
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that AutoCorrect fi xes, type entries in the Replace and With textboxes (see Figure 3-26),
and then click Add.
l
AutoFormat as You Type. On this tab (Figure 3-27), clear the checkbox beside any of
the formatting changes to disable that change.
l
Actions. As on the other two tabs, clear or check checkboxes as needed to disable or
enable Actions features. The Enable Additional Actions in the Right-Click Menu checkbox turns actions on and off altogether.
l
Math AutoCorrect. Word enables you to type certain keystroke combinations to insert
characters not found on the keyboard, many of which are mathematical symbols. The
majority of the keystrokes are a backslash (\) followed by two or more additional letters.
For example, you can type \infty to insert the (infinity) symbol. Use this tab to learn
what symbols you can insert and to add keystroke combinations for other symbols if
applicable.
FIGURE 3-26
You can create a new typo correction for AutoCorrect.
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FIGURE 3-27
Choose which AutoFormatting changes the application will make.
Styles and Live Preview
Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Publisher, in particular, offer powerful formatting choices loosely
known as styles, which are typically found on a contextual Design tab that appears when you
select an element such as a table onscreen. The styles might be found in a Ribbon group or gallery
named “Styles” or something similar. For example, Figure 3-28 shows the gallery of styles available
in the Table Styles group of the Table Tools Design tab that you can use when you’ve selected a
collection of cells in an Excel worksheet.
Style choices work with an Office feature called Live Preview. When you move your mouse pointer
over a choice in a gallery like the one shown in Figure 3-28, the selected object temporarily
changes to show you how it would look if you applied the highlighted style. In this way, you can
quickly “try on” various looks for the selected item. When the Live Preview shows you the look
you want, you can click the selected style to apply it to the selected item.
Tip
If you prefer not to use the Live Preview feature, you can turn it off. Click the File tab and click Options, and
then clear the Enable Live Preview checkbox in the General options. n
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FIGURE 3-28
Click on a style to apply all its formatting choices to the selected object.
Summary
You now should have a good grounding in tasks common to most of the Office applications. In
this chapter, you learned how to create, save, open, and close files. You learned how to check out
how a file will look when printed, how to tweak page and printer settings, and how to print. The
chapter also showed you how you can work in multiple files and applications, move easily between
different files and programs, and how to move or copy information from one file or program to
another. Finally, you saw how you can polish a document by replacing text, spell checking, making automatic corrections and formatting changes, and viewing and using the sophisticated styles
offered in some Office 2010 applications.
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Part II
Creating Documents
with Word
IN THIS PART
Chapter 4
Making a Document
Chapter 5
Formatting 101: Font/Character
Formatting
Chapter 6
Paragraph Formatting
Chapter 7
Styles
Chapter 8
Page Setup and Sections
Chapter 9
Tables and Graphics
Chapter 10
Data Documents and
Mail Merge
Chapter 11
Security, Tracking, and Comments
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CH APTER
Making a Document
R
egardless of your background with prior generations of Microsoft
Word, this chapter will help you get started quickly. If you’re new
to Word, this chapter escorts you through the basics, so you’re
ready to begin your journey toward becoming an expert. If you’ve been
using Word for years, there are many new wrinkles in Word 2010 that I’ll
point out along the way. This chapter explores navigation nuances, view
variations, and saving options. You’ll also learn some navigation tricks and
take a tour of Word’s views.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Creating a blank file
Using a template
Saving
Word’s “XML”-based documents
Stick with .doc or upgrade
to .docx?
Creating a Blank File
Navigation tricks
When you start the Office 2010 Word application using the Start menu,
it creates a new, blank document file by default for you. This document
file has the placeholder name Document1 until you save it to assign a more
specific name, as described later in the chapter. You can immediately start
entering content into this blank document.
Getting to the view you want
If you need another blank document, you can create it at any time by
following these steps:
1. Select File Í New. The New Document dialog box appears.
2. Click the Blank Document icon if it isn’t selected by default.
3. Click Create. The new, blank document appears.
Typing Text
When you create a new, blank document, you can begin typing text to fi ll
the page. As you type, each character appears to the right of the blinking
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vertical insertion point. You can use the Backspace and Delete keys to delete text, the Spacebar to
enter spaces, and all the other keys that you’re using for typing.
Word also enables you to start a line of text anywhere on the page using the Click and Type
feature. (This feature only works in the Print Layout view, so to learn more about that view,
see the section called “Views” later in this chapter.) To take advantage of Click and Type, move
the mouse pointer over a blank area of the page. If you don’t see formatting symbols below the
I-beam mouse pointer, click once. This enables Click and Type and displays its special mouse
pointer. Then, you can double-click to position the pointer on the page and type your text.
Figure 4-1 shows snippets of text added to a page using Click and Type.
FIGURE 4-1
Double-click and type anywhere on the page.
Click and Type mouse pointer
Using Word Wrap
By default, the margins for a blank document in Word 2010 are 1 inch on the left and the
right. When you type enough text to fill each line, hitting the right margin boundary, Word
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automatically moves the insertion point to the next line. This automated feature is called word
wrap, and it’s a heck of a lot more convenient than having to make a manual carriage return at the
end of each line.
If you adjust the margins for the document, word wrap always keeps your text within the
new margin boundaries. Similarly, if you apply a right indent, divide the document into
columns, or create a table and type in a table cell, word wrap automatically creates a
new line of text at every right boundary. Just keep typing until you want or need to start
a new paragraph (covered shortly). Later chapters cover changing margins and indents and
working with tables.
Inserting versus Overtyping
Like its prior versions, Word 2010 offers two modes for entering text: Insert mode and Overtype mode. In Insert mode, the default mode, if you click within existing text and type, Word
inserts the added text between the existing characters, moving text to the right of the insertion point farther right to accommodate your additions, and rewrapping the line as needed. In
contrast, when you switch to Overtype mode, any text you type replaces text to the right of the
insertion point.
Overtyping is a fine method of data entry — when it’s the mode that you want. Unfortunately, in
older Word versions, the Insert key on the keyboard toggled between Insert and Overtype modes
by default. Because the Insert key is often found above or right next to the Delete key on the keyboard, many a surprised user would accidentally hit the Insert key and then unhappily type right
over his text.
In Word 2010, the Insert key’s control of Overtype mode is turned off by default. You can use the
Word Options dialog box to turn Overtype mode on and off, and also to enable the Insert key’s
control of Overtype mode. Select File Í Word Options, and then click Advanced in the
list at the left side of the Word Options dialog box. Use the Use Overtype Mode checkbox
(Figure 4-2) to toggle Overtype mode on and off, and the Use the Insert Key to Control Overtype
Mode checkbox to toggle the Insert key’s control of Overtype mode on and off. Click OK to apply
your changes.
Using Default Tabs
Every new, blank document has default tab stops already set up for you. These tabs are set at
1/2-inch (0.5-inch) intervals along the whole width of the document between the margins.
To align text to any of these default tab stops, press the Tab key. You can press Tab multiple
times if you need to allow more width between the information that you’re using the tab stops
to align.
Tip
To display the rulers so that you can better work with text alignment features like tabs in a document,
click the View Ruler button that appears at the top of the vertical scroll bar at the right side of the Word
window. n
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FIGURE 4-2
The Word Options dialog box enables you to turn Overtype mode on and off.
Control overtype mode
and the Insert key
Making a New Paragraph
In legacy versions of Word, when you wanted to create a new paragraph in a blank document, you
had to press the Enter key twice. That’s because the default body text style didn’t provide for any
extra spacing after a paragraph mark, which is a hidden symbol inserted when you press Enter.
Starting with Word 2007, pressing Enter by default not only inserts the paragraph mark to create a new paragraph, but also inserts extra spacing between paragraphs to separate them visually
and eliminate the need to press Enter twice. As shown in Figure 4-3, when you press Enter after
a paragraph, the insertion point moves down to the beginning of a new paragraph, and Word
includes spacing above the new paragraph.
Creating a File from a Template
You need not start every document that you create from scratch. You can instead select a template
that supplies design settings and in many cases starter text on which you can base your own
document content. The Office applications offer many templates, both installed on your system
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Chapter 4: Making a Document
and available online. In Word, you can choose from a variety of different templates to get your
document started.
FIGURE 4-3
Press Enter to create a new paragraph in Word.
Understanding Templates
Every new document you create in Word 2010 — even a blank document — is based on a
template that specifies basic formatting for the document such as margin settings and default
text styles. When you create a blank document, Word automatically applies the default global
template, Normal.dotm.
In other instances, you can select a specific template to use as the basis for a new document.
A template can include not only design elements, but also labels and starter text and placeholders
for your information. For example, you can select a Fax template that holds predefi ned labels
and positions for recipient name, fax number, and more. Or, you can choose a Resume template
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that defines a nice layout with placeholders that you select and replace to add your own resume
information.
Installing Word 2010 installs a variety of letter, resume, fax, and report templates on your system.
Word also enables you to download templates from dozens of different categories from Office.com.
There are downloadable templates for brochures, business cards, memos, purchase orders, and more.
Creating the File from the Template
Using a template for a new fi le starts out just like creating a blank file. The New section of
Backstage view enables you to browse for and select a template and, in most cases, to see a preview before you select the template to use. Follow these steps to create a new document based on
a template:
1. Select File Í New. The New section of Backstage view appears.
2. Click either Sample Templates in the Templates section or a template category
under Office.com Templates. Thumbnails and names for the available templates in the
selected category appear in the middle section of the dialog box.
3. Click on the desired folder if a set of folders appears.
4. Click the thumbnail for the desired template. A preview for the template appears at
the right, as shown in Figure 4-4.
5. Click the Create button to create the new file from an installed template, or click
Download to create the new document from a selected online template. If you’re
downloading a template, the Microsoft Office Genuine Advantage dialog box may
appear.
6. If it does, click Continue to validate your software installation and download the
template.
The new document appears onscreen.
Note
Some of the templates available via Office.com were created in earlier Word versions. Those documents will
open in Compatibility mode, which is described later in this chapter. n
Working with Template Content
As shown in Figure 4-5, a template might hold a variety of different sample contents and
placeholders.
You can work with these placeholders and other contents as follows to fi nish your document:
l
Graphics Placeholders. The box at the top of Figure 4-5 that says Your Logo Here is a
placeholder for a graphic. Click the placeholder to select it, click the Insert tab on the
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Ribbon, and then click the Picture or Clip Art choice in the Illustrations group to select
a replacement item. Chapter 9, “Tables and Graphics,” provides more information about
working with artwork in your Word documents.
l
Labels for Text. If you were to click to the right of the colon for any of the label items
listed immediately below the Project Initiation Checklist in Figure 4-5, the insertion
point would appear at a precise position, ready for you to enter the text to go with the
label.
l
Gray Field Placeholders. Template text that appears with square brackets and gray
shading is text form fields. Clicking one of these placeholders selects the entire placeholder, and then any text you type replaces the placeholder contents.
l
Other Text. You can supplement the template’s contents by adding your own text
anywhere in the document.
l
Styles. Templates also include predefined styles (formatting) that you can apply to text
that you add. See Chapter 7 to learn more about applying styles to text.
FIGURE 4-4
Preview a template before making a new document from it.
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FIGURE 4-5
Replace template placeholders with your own content.
Saving and File Formats
What good are any of these tools if the information never leaves the Word window? At the end
of the day, the goal is to create letters, reports, brochures, pamphlets, books, web pages, blogs,
and other publications that take on some kind of semi-permanent existence. As long as you see
Document1 in Word’s title bar, you run the risk of losing your investment of time and creativity.
Word is like most other Windows programs. When you’re ready to commit your work to disk,
just choose File Í Save from the menu. Whoops! What menu?
Like most other Windows programs, you can press Ctrl+S to save the current document. If
it is new and hasn’t been named, you’ll see the Save As dialog box shown in Figure 4-6, or
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something similar. If the document isn’t new, Ctrl+S does an immediate save using the existing
fi lename.
FIGURE 4-6
Add frequently used folders to the Favorites area (see the following tip) to make saving and opening files
faster.
Tip
To add a folder to the Favorites area, select and drag the folder from the list of files and folders and drop it
into the Favorites area. For example, in Figure 4-6, the Additional Documents from Web folder is selected.
When dragging, make sure that you drop the folder into an existing link. The line and screen tip in Figure 4-6
provide positive confirmation that the folder will land in Favorites — not in an adjacent folder. n
Note also the Save as Type field under File Name. The list of formats you will see varies depending on how much of Office was installed. To have the fullest array of save options, you should do
two things.
First, in Word or Office setup (in Programs and Features in Windows’ Control Panel), navigate to
Office 2010’s (or Word 2010’s) Installation Options section, and set Converters and Filters to Run
All from My Computer, as shown in Figure 4-7. Click Continue as needed to complete the installation. Note that you need do this only if the full set of converters isn’t already installed.
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FIGURE 4-7
To maximize your Save and Open options, install the full set of converters.
The second thing to do is to go to the Microsoft Office website and download the converter pack.
Installed, this pack adds the fullest range of converters to your Office 2010 setup. Note that the
location and name of this free add-on varies. At this writing, however, it is located here:
www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=cf196df0-70e5-45958a98-370278f40c57&DisplayLang=en
You can also search Microsoft’s website for OCONVPCK.EXE.
Convert
You will see the Convert option (in the Info tab when you click File) only if the current file is
from an earlier Word format (e.g., Word 97–Word 2003, which causes [Compatibility Mode] to
appear after the filename in Word’s title bar). Clicking the Convert button converts the current
file into .docx format.
Caution
Make a copy of the file or save the file under a new name before clicking Convert. The Convert option
renames the original file — the .doc version will be gone. The first time you convert, Word does alert you
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to what it’s doing, but if you’re like most users, you won’t read the fine print and you’ll click Do Not Ask
Me Again about Converting Documents. If you do happen to click that option, in the future there will be no
warning; and if you’re like me, you will forget it was there the first time.
When you convert, Word converts the document currently displayed to .docx format. At that point, the notation [Compatibility Mode] disappears from Word’s title bar, but the displayed name still shows .doc instead
of .docx. Even so, at this point, you can still recover the original file by closing the file without saving the
changes. Until you save, the converted file exists only in the current window.
However, if you now save the file, Word immediately renames it using the new extension (.docx for a
plain vanilla Word 2010 document file, or .docm for a Word 2010 document file that contains macros).
Once converted, the original .doc file is gone forever! After the fact, you can perform a Save As and
resave the file in the original format. However, I’m not going to guarantee that it will be byte-for-byte
identical to the original. n
Save & Send (Formerly Publish)
Word 2010 has replaced Word 2007’s Publish set of commands with Share. Shown in Figure 4-8,
these options all result in Word content’s ending up online. Depending on what else you have
installed, you might see different options from those pictured. You can send files using e-mail,
save files to the Web, or collaborate with SharePoint.
FIGURE 4-8
Word 2010 has a variety of sharing options for putting Word content online.
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The Publish as Blog Post feature enables you to publish directly from Word to supported blogs.
Which blogs are supported? At this time, Windows Live Spaces, Blogger, SharePoint blog,
Community Server, TypePad, and WordPress are supported. You might also have success with
some services that support common blog APIs.
You also can use Change File Type to save in another file format, or create a document that can
be viewed outside of Word with Create PDF/XPS Document.
Compatibility with Previous Versions
of Word
Word 2003’s file format was basically unchanged since Word 97. Feature enhancements necessitated the modification of Word’s binary format over the years, such as when document versioning
and floating tables were introduced.
Even so, you can still open most Word 2003 files in Word 97, and the documents will look basically the same. Only if you use newer features will you see a difference, and usually that just
means reduced functionality rather than lost data or formatting.
Word 2010, Word 2007, and Word 2003 users will continue to see interoperability. However, Word
2010’s and 2007’s native format is radically different from — and better than — the old format. The
new format boasts a number of improvements over the older format:
l
Open Format. The basic file is in ZIP format, an open standard, which serves as a
container for .docx and .docm files. Additionally, many (but not all) components are
in XML (eXtensible Markup Language) format. Microsoft makes the full specifications
available for free, and they may be used by anyone royalty-free.
l
Compression. The ZIP format is compressed, resulting in files that are much smaller.
Additionally, Word’s binary format has been mostly abandoned (some components,
such as VBA macros, are still written in binary format), resulting in files that ultimately
resolve to plain text, and that are much smaller.
l
Robustness. ZIP and XML are industry-standard formats with precise specifications
that offer fewer opportunities to introduce document corruption. Hence, the frequency
of corrupted Word files should be greatly reduced.
l
Backward Compatibility. Although Word 2010 and Word 2007 have a slightly different
format, they still fully support the opening and saving of files in legacy formats. A user
can opt to save all documents in an earlier format by default. Moreover, Microsoft makes
available a Compatibility Pack that enables Word 2000–2003 users to open and save
in the new format. In fact, Word 2000–2003 users can make the .docx format their
default, providing considerable interoperability among users of the different versions.
l
Extensions. Word 2010 has four native file formats: .docx (ordinary documents),
.docm (macro-enabled documents), .dotx (templates that cannot contain macros),
and .dotm (templates that are macro-enabled, such as Normal.dotm).
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Calling the x-file format XML format actually is a bit of a misnomer. XML is at the heart of Word’s
x format; however, the files saved by Word are not XML files. You can verify this by trying to
open one using Internet Explorer. What you see is decidedly not XML. Some of the components
of Word’s x files, however, do use XML format.
As indicated, Word 2010 and 2007 or 2000–2003 users will still be able to read and write to
each others’ files, assuming that the Word 2000–2003 users install the free Office Compatibility
Pack. Even so, Word will sometimes warn you that features might be lost when you convert to a
different format.
Word itself runs an automatic compatibility check when you attempt to save a document in a
format that’s different from the current one. You can, without attempting to save, run this check
yourself at any time from Word 2010. To see whether features might be lost in the move from one
version of Word to another, open the document in Word 2010. Choose File Í Info Í Check for
Issues Í Check Compatibility.
For the most part, Word 2010 does a good job of checking compatibility when trying to
save a native .docx fi le in .doc format. For example, if you run the Compatibility Checker
on a Word 2010 document containing advanced features, you will be alerted, as shown in
Figure 4-9.
FIGURE 4-9
Using the Compatibility Checker to determine whether converting to a different Word version will cause a
loss of information or features.
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When moving in the other direction — checking a Word 2003 (or earlier) document for
compatibility with Word 2010 — the Checker usually will inform you that “No compatibility
issues were found.” Note, however, that the Compatibility Checker doesn’t check when you fi rst
open a document formatted for Word 2003 (or earlier). Nor does it check when you convert a fi le.
It’s not until you try to save the file that it warns you, as shown in Figure 4-10.
FIGURE 4-10
Word 2010 warns you when saving a document that contains multiple versions saved in Word 2003
or earlier.
Caution
The Compatibility Checker does not warn you if you open a file that uses Word’s Versioning feature. Word
2010 comes with a tool for dealing with multiple document versions that were saved in a single file, but Word
will not alert you to the fact that the current file contains versioned changes until or unless you try to save
the file in .docx format. Note also that Word 2010 itself cannot fully access or properly save a versioned file,
even if you tell Word 2010 to work in Word 2003 format. Hence, if you save such a file in Word 2010 — even
if you tell it to save in Word 2003 format — all versioning information will be lost! n
To .doc or Not to .doc
If you have the option to use Word’s old format, rather than the new format, why shouldn’t you
do that? Isn’t old usually more reliable and better tested than new? Well, that’s certainly a plausible
argument, but consider the fragility of Word’s binary .doc format. Have you ever experienced
document corruption? With a proprietary binary file format, the larger and more complex
the document, the more likely corruption becomes. It doesn’t take much for a Word file to become
inaccessible to Word’s default Open command.
Another issue is document size. Consider a simple Word document that contains just the phrase
Hello, Word. When saved in Word 97–2003 format, that basic file is 26K. That is to say, to store
those 11 characters, it takes Word about 26,000 characters!
The same phrase stored in Word 2010’s .docx format requires just 10K. Make no mistake: That’s
still a lot of storage space for just those 11 characters, but it’s a lot less than what’s required by
Word 2003. The storage savings you get won’t always be that dramatically different, but over time
you will notice a difference. Smaller files mean not only lower storage requirements but faster
communication times as well.
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Still another issue is interoperability. When a Word user gives a .doc file to a WordPerfect,
OpenOffice, or other word processor user, it’s a very sure bet that something is going to get lost in
translation, even though WordPerfect claims to be able to work with Word’s .doc format. Such
documents seldom look identical or print identically, and the larger and more complex they are,
the more different they look.
With Word’s adoption of an open formatting standard, it is possible for WordPerfect and other
programs to more correctly interpret how any given .docx file should be displayed. Just as the
same web page looks and prints nearly identically when viewed in different web browsers, a
Word .docx file should look and print nearly identically regardless of which program you use to
open it (assuming it supports Word’s .docx format).
Persistent Save As
If, despite the advantages of using the new format, you wish to use Word’s .doc format, you
can do so. Choose File Í Options Í Save choice. As shown in Figure 4-11, set Save Files in this
Format to Word 97–2003 Document (*.doc).
FIGURE 4-11
You can tell Word to save in any of a variety of formats by default.
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Note that even if you set .doc or some other format as your default, you can still override that
setting at any time by using Save As and saving to .docx or any other supported format. Setting
one format as the default does not lock you out of using other formats as needed.
Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack
As noted earlier, Microsoft makes available a free enhancement that enables Word 2003 users to
open and save files in the new format. In fact, this enhancement also works with Word 2002.
Instructions for downloading and installing the converters are in flux, as is the location of the
Compatibility Pack. Try the following search in Google:
site:microsoft.com “office compatibility pack”
At this time, the first hit listed is the correct location.
.docx versus .docm
With Word 2010 come four XML-based file formats:
l
.docx: An ordinary document containing no macros
l
.docm: A document that either contains macros or is macro-enabled
l
.dotx: A template that does not contain macros
l
.dotm: A template that either contains macros or is macro-enabled
It is important for some purposes for users to be able to include macros not just in document
templates, but in documents as well. This makes documents that contain automation a lot
more portable. Rather than having to send both document and template — or, worse, a template masquerading as a document — you can send a document that has macros enabled.
Note
When Word macro viruses first started appearing, ordinary Word documents could not contain macros — only templates could. Therefore, one of the most popular ways of packaging macro viruses was in a
.dot file that had been renamed with a .doc extension. The virus itself often was an automatic macro (typically AutoExec) that performed some combination of destruction and propagation when the rogue .dot
file was first opened. A common precaution was to press Shift as you opened any Word file — .doc or
.dot — to prevent automatic macros from running. In fact, even with various advances in security and antivirus software, pressing Shift when you open an unfamiliar Word document is still not being overcautious.
In recent versions of Word, .doc files can legitimately contain macros, so I’m not really sure the situation has
improved much. I still reach for the Shift key, do a quick inspection to determine whether any macros are hiding inside, and then proceed. Often, though, Word 2010 will warn you when a document contains macros. n
Because Word 2003 documents can contain legitimate macros, there is no outward way to know
whether any given .doc document file contains macros. If someone sends you a .doc file, is
opening it safe?
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While it’s not clear that the new approach — distinct file extensions for documents and templates
that are macro-enabled — is going to improve safety a lot, it does provide more information for the
user. This is true especially in business environments, where people don’t deliberately change fi le
extensions. If you see a file with a .docm or .dotm extension, you know that it contains macros
and that it might warrant careful handling.
Moreover, if a document file has been deliberately mis-renamed, Word will refuse to open it.
Whether it’s a .docx file that’s been renamed to .docm or vice versa, you will see the message
box shown in Figure 4-12.
FIGURE 4-12
Word 2010 refuses to open a .docx or .docm file that has deliberately been mis-renamed.
Converting a .docx File into a .docm File
If you want to convert a .docx file so that it can contain macros, you must use Save As and
choose Word Macro-Enabled Document (*.docm) as the file type. You can do this at any
time — it doesn’t have to be when the document is first created. You can also remove any macros
from a .docm file by saving it as a Word document (*.docx).
Even so, you can create or record a macro while editing a .docx fi le, and even tell Word to
store it in a .docx fi le. There will be no error message, and the macro will be available for running in the current session. However, when you fi rst try to save the fi le, you will be prompted
to change the target format or risk losing the VBA project. If you save the fi le as a .docx anyway and close the fi le, the macro will not be saved.
Understanding .docx
As indicated earlier, Word’s new .docx format doesn’t entirely use XML format. Rather, the
main body of your document is stored in XML format, but that fi le isn’t stored directly on
disk. Instead, it’s stored inside a ZIP fi le, which gets a .docx, .docm, .dotm, or .dotx fi le
extension.
To verify this, create a simple Word 2010 file, and save and close it. Next, rename it to add a
.zip extension. Finally, use Windows Explorer to display the contents of that ZIP fi le, as shown
in Figure 4-13.
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FIGURE 4-13
When viewed as ZIP files, most .docx files contain three main folders and a Content Types XML document.
Word .docx files can contain additional folders as well, such as one named customXml. This
folder is used if the document contains content control features that are linked to document
properties, an external database or forms server, and so on.
The main parts of the Word document are inside the folder named word. A typical word folder
for a simple document is shown in Figure 4-14.
FIGURE 4-14
The Word document’s main components are stored inside the .docx file in the folder named word.
The main text of the document is stored in document.xml. Using an XML Editor, you could
actually make changes to the text in document.xml, replace the original file with the changed
one, rename the file so that it has a .docx extension instead of .zip, and open the file in Word,
and those changes would appear.
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What’s an XML Editor?
When you double-click an XML file, it just opens Internet Explorer, which doesn’t let you edit anything.
Luckily, there are specialized XML Editors that you can use. You can also use Expression Web or SharePoint
Designer. You can also use anything that edits plain-text files, such as Notepad.
More complex Word files contain additional elements. Shown in Figure 4-15 is an expanded
folder view of a .docx file that contains clip art, an embedded Excel chart, several pictures, and
some SmartArt, as well as custom XML links to document properties.
FIGURE 4-15
In a .docx file, images are stored in the word\media folder.
Tip
You can replace the images in a .docx file without editing the file in Word. Rename the .docx file so that
it has a .zip extension. Extract the images stored in the word\media folder so you can see what’s what.
Give the replacement images the same respective names as the existing ones. Replace the contents of the
word\media folder with the new images. Finally, replace the .zip extension with the original extension.
Presto! And you never touched Word! This might not make ergonomic sense for just a few images, but if you
have dozens, it could save you a substantial amount of time. n
Navigation Tips and Tricks
Bible readers already know the basics of using the Windows interface, so this book skips the stuff
that I think every Windows user already knows about, and instead covers aspects of Word that
you might not know about. In our great hurry to get things done, ironically, we often overlook
simple tips and tricks that might otherwise make our computing lives easier and less hurried or,
at the very least, more entertaining.
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Tricks with Clicks
We all know about double-clicking, but not everyone knows the benefits of triple-clicking,
Ctrl+clicking, and Alt+clicking.
Triple-Clicking
When you triple-click inside a paragraph, Word selects the entire paragraph. However, where you
click makes a difference. If you triple-click in the left margin, rather than in a paragraph, and the
mouse pointer’s shape is the arrow shown in Figure 4-16, the entire document is selected.
FIGURE 4-16
A right-facing mouse pointer in the left margin indicates a different selection mode.
Is triple-clicking in the left margin faster and easier than pressing Ctrl+A? Not necessarily, but
it might be if your hand is already on the mouse. In addition, if you want the MiniBar to appear,
the mouse method will summon it, whereas Ctrl+A won’t.
Ctrl+Clicking
Want something faster than triple-clicking? If you just happen to have one hand on the mouse
and the other on the keyboard, Ctrl+click in the left margin. That also selects the entire document and displays the MiniBar.
If you Ctrl+click in a paragraph, the current sentence is selected. This can be handy when you
want to move, delete, or highlight a sentence. As someone who sometimes highlights as they
read, you might also find that this can help focus on a particular passage when simply reading
rather than editing.
Alt+Clicking
If you Alt+click a word or a selected passage, Word looks up the word or selection using Office’s
Research pane. Do you ever accidentally invoke the Research pane? Want a good way to turn it
off? Well…stop looking, because it doesn’t exist.
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Note
If you’re an advanced Word user, you probably don’t want to accept this. You’re probably thinking “Herb
doesn’t know that you can intercept the built-in Research command and replace it with a dummy macro,
thereby disabling this behavior.” Well, you caught me. Go ahead and try it. I’ll wait.
Back already? That’s right. You can indeed prevent the Research command on the Review ribbon tab of the
Ribbon from doing anything, but that doesn’t tame the Alt+click shortcut. It’s more persistent than a horsefly. n
Alt+Dragging
You can use Alt+drag to select a vertical column of text — even if the text is not column-oriented.
This can be useful when you are working with monospaced fonts and there is a de facto columnar setup. Once a selection is made, any character- or font-oriented formatting can be applied to
it, as shown in Figure 4-17. The selection can also be deleted. Note that if the text is proportionally spaced, anything that affects the size and therefore the ostensible columnar orientation will
undo the selection. The effect can be rather bizarre.
FIGURE 4-17
With the Alt key pressed, you can drag to select a vertical swath of text.
Shift+Click
Click where you want a selection to start, and then Shift+click where you want it to end. You can
continue Shift+clicking to expand or reduce the selection. This technique can be really useful if
you have difficulty dragging to highlight exactly the selection you want.
Multi-Selecting
A few versions of Word ago, it became possible to make multiple noncontiguous selections in a
document. While many know this, many more don’t. To do it, make your first selection. Then,
hold down the Ctrl key to make additional selections. Once you’ve made as many selections as
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you want, you can then apply the desired formatting to them, copy all of the selections to the
clipboard, paste the contents of the clipboard over all of the selections, and so on.
Seldom Screen
I’ve already reviewed a few new features that you’ll see on the Word screen. Word 2010’s repertoire is so vast, however, that you might never notice a few features — some relatively new and
some old. In this section, I point out features that are often overlooked (even by longtime users)
and that you might find useful.
Split Box
Shown in Figure 4-18, the split box is used to divide the current document into two horizontal views. Move the mouse over the top of the vertical scroll bar so that the pointer changes
(refer to Figure 4-18). At that point, you can drag down to divide the window into two panes.
Alternatively, you can double-click the split box to divide the window into two equal panes.
FIGURE 4-18
Double-click or drag the split box to display the current document in two panes.
Split Box
Why would you want to do that? Well, you might not have two monitors, but you need to look at
a table or a figure while you write about it. In a single pane this can be challenging, especially if
what you type keeps causing the figure to move out of view.
As another example, you might want to have an Outline view of your document in one pane
while maintaining a Print Layout view in the other, as shown in Figure 4-19. When viewing a
document in two split panes, note that the status bar reflects the status of the currently active
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pane. Not only can you display different views in multiple panes, but you can display them at
different zoom levels as well.
FIGURE 4-19
Split panes can be displayed in different views, enabling you see Outline and Print Layout at the same time.
View rulers
View rulers
You can remove the split by dragging it up or down, leaving the desired view in place, or doubleclicking anywhere on the split line. Alternatively, if the Ribbon’s View tab is displayed, click
Remove Split in the Window group.
View Rulers
Another sometimes-overlooked tool is the ruler toggle control, also shown in Figure 4-19. This control toggles the horizontal and vertical (if it’s on) rulers on and off. It cannot control them separately.
The presence of the ruler toggle on both panes of a split document window might lead you to
assume that the upper and lower rulers can be toggled independently. They cannot.
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Select Browse Object
While we’re visiting over there on that side of the Word screen, let’s take a look at another
sometimes-overlooked control — Select Browse Object. Shown in Figure 4-20, this control determines what happens when you click the Previous or Next buttons that are immediately above
and below the Select Browse Object control. It also determines what happens when you press
Ctrl+Page Up or Ctrl+Page Down.
FIGURE 4-20
Select Browse Object determines the actions performed by the Previous and Next buttons.
Select Browse
Object
By default, the browse object is set to Page. Clicking the Previous or Next button performs Page
Up or Page Down actions. When the default object type is active, the browse buttons (Up and
Down) are black. When a non-default object type is active, the browse buttons change to blue.
For example, click the Select Browse Object button and choose Browse by Table. If you hear an
error beep, that means that the current document does not contain any tables between the insertion point and the end of the document. Nonetheless, the browse buttons turn blue, and they
now mean Previous Table and Next Table.
If you ever click a browse button and don’t get the expected default Page Up/Page Down behavior,
take a look at the color. If the button is blue, then that’s the problem. To reset the browse behavior to the default, click the Select Browse Object button and choose Page.
What makes this a little tricky is that there are ways other than clicking that button to change
browse behavior. For example, if you perform a search, the browse buttons now become Find
Previous and Find Next. If you perform a Go To and go to the next field, then Previous Field/
Next Field become the browse actions. Hover your mouse pointer over each of the 12 object
types to explore the possibilities. If you keep these objects in mind, then this feature can become
a tool, rather than just an annoyance.
Note
One browse feature is Browse by Edits. Word remembers the current and previous three places where editing
occurred (anything that changes the status of the document from saved to dirty*). Hence, when Browse by Edits
is the browse behavior, the Previous and Next buttons cycle the insertion point among those four locations.
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The Shift+F5 keystroke (assigned to the GoBack command) performs the same action as the Previous button
when the browse object is set to Browse by Edits. n
*When a document contains a savable change — one that will actually change the contents of the file when saved to disk — it
is marked by Word as dirty. Some actions make a file dirty, and some don’t. If you simply press Page Up or Page Down, or
otherwise scroll around in the document, that does not affect the saved/dirty status. If you type a character, perform some formatting, or change a document’s properties, however, that will make the file dirty, requiring a save to preserve those changes.
Typing a character and immediately deleting it also makes a file dirty.
Keyboard
With Word 2007 and 2010 come some keyboard changes from Word 2003 and earlier. Perhaps
surprisingly, as you’ll learn, most legacy keystrokes still work, even though Word’s menus
are gone.
What works differently? One of my favorite keystrokes is Ctrl+Shift+S, which in Word 2003 and
earlier moved the focus to the Style control on the Formatting toolbar. Given that there is no
Formatting toolbar in Word 2010 and that there is no comparable Style control on the ribbon,
Ctrl+Shift+S pretty much has to be at least a little different. If you still have Word 2003, open
it, press Ctrl+Shift+S, tap the first letter of a style that’s not currently selected, and then use the
down-arrow key to go to the style you had in mind. Press Enter to apply the style.
Now try the same thing in Word 2010. Pressing Ctrl+Shift+S activates the Apply Styles task
pane, and the keystrokes otherwise seem to work the same way. However, the Apply Styles task pane
doesn’t go away. It stays there — in your way, more likely than not.
How do you dismiss the Apply Styles task pane? Well, you could click its X, although that defeats
the shortcut key non-mouse advantage of Ctrl+Shift+S. Unfortunately, pressing the Esc key simply returns the focus to the document without dismissing Apply Styles. To dismiss it (as well as
any other task pane) using the keyboard, press Ctrl+space, C. Note that for this to work, the task
pane must have the focus, so you might need to press Ctrl+Shift+S and then Ctrl+space, C to get
it to work. Did I mention that not all changes are improvements?
Other Built-In Keystrokes
Word boasts a broad array of keystrokes to make writing faster. If you’re a fast touch-typist, you
might not care to have to reach for the mouse to make a word bold or italic. You might not want
to reach for the mouse to create a hyperlink. If you’ve been using Word for a long time, you very
likely have memorized many keystrokes (some of them that apply only to Word, and others not)
that make your typing life easier. You’ll be happy to know that most of those keystrokes still work
in Word 2010.
Rather than provide a list of all of the key assignments in Word, I’m going to show you how to
make one yourself. Start by pressing Alt+F8. In the Macro Name field, type listcommands,
and press Enter. In the List Commands dialog box, choose Current Keyboard Settings, and
press Enter.
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Presto! You now have a table showing all of Word’s current keyboard settings. If you’ve reassigned
any built-in keystrokes to other commands or macros, your own assignments are shown in place
of Word’s built-in assignments. If you’ve redundantly assigned any keystrokes, all assignments
will be shown. For example, Word assigns Alt+F8 to ToolsMacro. I also assigned Ctrl+Shift+O
to it. Therefore, my ListCommands table shows both assignments. The table also shows those
assignments and commands you haven’t customized.
Tip
If you want a list of Word’s default built-in assignments, open Word in safe mode (hold down the control key
as Word is starting and then click Yes) and repeat this exercise. n
Office 2003 Menu Keystrokes
One of Microsoft’s aims was to assign as many legacy menu keystrokes as possible to the equivalent
commands in Word 2007 and 2010, so if you’re used to pressing Alt+I, B to choose Insert Í Break
in Word 2003, you’ll be glad to know it still works. So does Alt+O, P for Format Í Paragraph.
Liking this so far, are you? Great!
Now try Alt+H, A for Help Í About. It doesn’t work. In fact, none of the Help shortcuts work,
because that Alt+H shortcut is reserved for the Ribbon’s Home tab. Some others don’t work either,
but at least Microsoft tried.
Some key combinations can’t be assigned because the corresponding commands have been eliminated. There are very few in that category. Some other legacy menu assignments haven’t been made
in Word 2010 because Microsoft is grappling with some conflicts between how the new and old
keyboard models work. There are, for example, some problems with Alt+F because that keystroke
is used to select the File tab. For now at least, Microsoft has resolved to use a different approach for
the Alt+F assignments. Press Alt+I and then press Alt+F to compare the different approaches.
Custom Keystrokes
You can also make your own keyboard assignments. To get a sneak peak, choose File Í Options Í
Customize Ribbon Í Customize.
Tip
If you’re a keyboard aficionado, to simplify your life, assign Alt+K (it’s unassigned by default) to the
ToolsCustomizeKeyboard command. Then, whenever you see something you want to assign, press Alt+K and
you’re off and running. To assign Alt+K, choose File Í Options Í Customize Ribbon Í Customize. Set Categories
to All Commands. In Commands, tap the T key to skip to the Ts. Find and select ToolCustomizeKeyboard. Click
Press New Keyboard Shortcut Key, and then press Alt+K (or whatever other assignment you might find preferable
or more memorable). Make sure that Save Changes In is set to Normal.dotm (assuming you don’t want it saved
somewhere else). Click Assign, and then click Close, and click Cancel to dismiss the Word Options dialog box. If
you’ve told Word to prompt before saving changes in Normal.dotm, then make sure you say Yes to saving this
change (when prompted). n
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Views
To expand the ways of working with documents, Word offers many different environments you
can use, called views. For reading and performing text edits on long documents with a minimum
of UI (user interface) clutter, you can use Full Screen Reading view. For composing documents
and reviewing text and basic text formatting, you can choose a fast-display view called Draft
view.
For working with documents containing graphics, equations, and other non-text elements,
where document design is a strong consideration, there’s Print Layout view. If the destination of
the document is online (Internet or intranet), Word’s Web Layout view removes paper-oriented
screen elements, enabling you to view documents as they would appear in a web browser.
For organizing and managing a document, Word’s Outline view provides powerful tools that
enable you to move whole sections of the document around without having to copy, cut, and
paste. An extension of Outline view, Master Document view enables you to split large documents
into separate components for easier management and workgroup sharing.
Draft View Is the New Normal View
If you’re someone accustomed to working with Word 2003 in Normal view, you might be
alarmed to see the view options in Word 2010. Shown in Figure 4-21, they include Print Layout,
Full Screen Reading, Web Layout, Outline, and Draft. Where’s Normal?
FIGURE 4-21
Word 2003’s Normal view is called Draft view in Word 2010.
Document Views
Document Views
Normal as a view name is history. What was Normal is now called Draft. Internally, though,
when you click on Draft either in the View tab of the Ribbon or on the status bar, Word still uses
the ViewNormal command. You can confirm this with the following tip.
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Tip
You can determine Word’s name for most Ribbon or status bar-based commands with a simple keystroke
and a click. First, switch to Print Layout view so that the Draft view command will have an effect. Next,
press Ctrl+Alt and the plus (+) sign on the number pad. This turns the mouse pointer into the cloverleaf pattern shown in Figure 4-22. Use that pointer to click (just about) any tool. Word responds by displaying the
Customize Keyboard dialog. The Commands box displays the actual command’s name, as shown in Figure 4-23.
When in cloverleaf mode, Word returns to normal when the Customize Keyboard dialog box is closed, or you
can hasten the return to normal by pressing the Esc key. n
FIGURE 4-22
The cloverleaf mouse pointer indicates that the ToolsCustomizeKeyboardShortcut command
has been activated.
FIGURE 4-23
Cloverleaf mode (the result of the ToolsCustomizeKeyboardShortcut command) displays the next Word
command or macro you perform in Word; it responds to mouse and keyboard actions.
If Word is really running ViewNormal, what happened to Draft view? It’s still there. In Word’s
Options dialog box, choose Advanced. Near the bottom of the Show Document Content options,
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notice the option to Use Draft Font in Draft and Outline Views. You can also choose the font and
point size to use for Draft.
Tip
When you need to distinguish among an uppercase i (I), a lowercase L (l), the number one (1), and the vertical
line segment (|, usually typed with Shift+\ on most U.S. keyboards), the font that I’ve found makes the distinction clearest is Comic Sans. It’s also a very comfortable and readable font, its non-professional-sounding
name notwithstanding. If after applying Comic Sans you’re still uncertain as to what’s what, try toggling
the case. Properly distinguishing among these characters, as well as between 0 (zero) and O (capital o), can
make a world of difference when you are trying to convey part numbers, serial numbers, user names, and
passwords. n
For editors and writers, Normal view was the workhorse view before Word 2007. It enabled them
to focus on just words. When you coupled it with wrapping text to fit the window, you could
take off the reading glasses and zoom to any magnification you liked. You didn’t have to monkey
around with the horizontal scroll bar or bothersome floating pictures to see what was written.
It was also faster because its simplicity required less computer memory. You could let the layout
editors worry about the placement of pictures and other formatting nuances. If you’re used to
thinking Normal view, then in Word 2010 think Draft view with the Draft Font view turned off.
If you plan to toggle between Draft and Draft Font views very often, you should know that Word
has a built-in ViewDraft command that toggles the Use Draft Font setting on and off. To make
it more accessible, you might either assign it to a keyboard shortcut or put it onto the Quick
Access Toolbar (QAT) for ready access. In the QAT customization dialog box, it’s in the All
Commands list.
Caution
If you do use the View Í Draft command, be advised that font and point size changes will not be reflected
in what you see onscreen. This can be good if the original is a legal contract written in 4-point type. It can
be bad, however, if you don’t toggle out of Draft mode before sending a .doc file to someone else for review,
particularly if you’ve been careless with the font and point-size formatting. n
Print Layout
If Normal view (now Draft view) was the workhorse view for Word 2003, Print Layout is destined
to be the workhorse view for Word 2010. That’s because one of Word 2010’s strongest features,
Live Preview, does not work in Draft view. Live Preview works only in Print Layout and Web
Layout.
Full Screen Reading
Full Screen Reading view is similar to Word 2003’s Reading Layout view. Shown in Figure 4-24,
the Word 2010 view uses more of the screen than the comparable Word 2003 view did. By default,
Reading mode does not permit editing. Often, this is exactly what you want. But not always.
Switch a document into Full Screen Reading view and peruse the different options.
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Tip
Full Screen Reading view offers a variety of ways to scroll up and down: Page Down/Page Up, Space/Shift+
Space, Enter/Shift+Enter, Right/Left arrow keys, Down/Up arrow keys, the Next/Previous graphic controls at
the bottom of the window, and the scroll wheel on your mouse. n
FIGURE 4-24
Word 2010’s Full Screen Reading view features several view options.
Web Layout
Web Layout is designed for composing and reviewing documents that will be viewed online
rather than printed. Hence, information such as page and section numbers is excluded from the
status bar. If the document contains hyperlinks, they are displayed underlined by default, as
shown in Figure 4-25. Background colors, pictures, and textures are also displayed.
Outline (Master Document Tools)
The final distinct Word view is Outline. Outlining is one of Word’s most powerful and least-used
tools for writing and organizing your documents. To avail yourself of this tremendous resource, the
easiest way is simply to use Word’s Heading styles. Heading levels one through nine are available
through styles named Heading 1 through Heading 9. You don’t need to use all nine levels — most
users find that the first three or four are adequate for most structured documents. If your document
is organized with the built-in heading levels, then a wonderful world of document organization is at
your fingertips.
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FIGURE 4-25
Web Layout suppresses paper-oriented information such as page and section numbers, and includes
web-oriented features such as underlined hyperlinks and background colors and textures.
As suggested by the title of this section, Outline view has a split personality, of sorts. As an
outline manager, this view can be used on any document with heading styles that are tied to outline levels. (If you don’t want to use Word’s built-in Heading styles, you can use other styles and
assign them to different outline levels.)
Outline view’s other personality is the Master Document manager. Compare the two Ribbons
shown in Figure 4-26. Both say Outlining, yet the lower Ribbon contains additional tools. To
display the additional tools, click Show Document.
FIGURE 4-26
Click Show Document to display the Master Document tools.
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A little warning about the Master Document feature: This is an extremely powerful document
control feature for users who are working on parts of the same document. It provides a way to
carefully control the checking out and checking in of document parts, as well as to manage problems inherent in working with very large documents.
In previous versions of Word, the Master Document feature was quite unstable, leading to the
adage: “There are two kinds of master document users: those whose documents are corrupted,
and those whose documents will soon be corrupted.” Is this harsh assessment still true, or does
the existence of a Word document format based on XML relegate those concerns to history?
The jury is in: the Master Document feature in Word 2010 remains word processing’s answer to
Conan the Destroyer. Use it only if you enjoy pain and frustration.
Summary
In this chapter, you’ve seen a variety of ways to start a Word 2010 document as well as several
navigation techniques that might be new to you. You’ve also explored how to modify Word’s view
to fit your work style and needs, and some of the finer points about saving, converting, and publishing in Word 2010. Finally, putting it all together, you should now have no problem doing the
following:
l
Creating a blank file or one using a template
l
Saving a file
l
Converting Word 2003 documents to Word 2010, and vice versa
l
Impressing your friends with cool navigation trick and tips
l
Viewing your work in different ways for different kinds of writing and editing
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CH APTER
Formatting 101: Font/
Character Formatting
O
ne of the more difficult conceptual hurdles in understanding Word
is the way formatting is conceived. Some people think about formatting as a stream. You turn it on here, and it remains on until
you turn it off later.
However, Word’s formatting mindset is not stream-oriented — it’s objectoriented. Rather than turn formatting on in one place and off in another in
order to format a block of text, you format objects such as letters, words,
paragraphs, tables, pictures, and so on. However, saying the O word (object)
causes some people’s eyes to glaze over.
Another way to think about formatting is in units. Formatting can be
applied to any unit you can select. The smallest unit that can be formatted
is a single character. Discrete units larger than characters are words,
sentences, paragraphs, document sections, and the whole document.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding character
styles versus direct character
formatting
Character-formatting
techniques
Character-formatting tools
Using character formatting
keyboard shortcuts
The Big Picture
Word has four levels of formatting: character, paragraph, section, and document.
Things such as bold, italic, points, and superscript are called character or font
formatting and can be applied to as little as a single character. I’ll talk about
the other levels of formatting in later chapters.
Personally, I don’t like the adjective “font” formatting, because most people — including me — think of fonts as things like Times New Roman,
Arial, and Tahoma. For me, “character formatting” is a lot clearer and less
confusing, but because Word’s Home tab on the Ribbon has a group called
Font, as shown in Figure 5-1, we’re kind of stuck with that terminology.
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We’re all stuck with another term too: text-level formatting, which really means the same thing as
font and character formatting. It helps, however, to think in terms of character formatting, as a
character is the smallest thing you can format in Word.
FIGURE 5-1
Much, but not all, of the character (or font) formatting is accessible from the Home Ribbon’s Font group.
Note
OK. I lied. Technically, the smallest thing you can “format” is a point between two characters, but the word
“format” is debatable in this case. To split hairs, you can insert a bookmark at a point so that no characters
are enclosed. Is that formatting? I don’t think so, but somebody else might. n
Note also that the Font group on the Home tab does not contain access to all character-level formatting. Language (English, English UK, Spanish, etc.), which can be applied down to a single
character, is not shown there. Moreover, the Font group contains case (upper, lower, title, etc.),
which isn’t formatting at all. This type of capitalization is distinct from small caps and all caps,
both of which are considered character formatting.
Styles and Character/Font Formatting
A few Word versions ago, possibly while many users weren’t watching, Microsoft added a new type
of style to Word. Before that there was just one type of style — the paragraph style — and styles
could be applied only to a whole paragraph. It soon became clear, however, that a more flexible,
sophisticated style was needed — one that could be applied to characters within a paragraph.
The character style was born. Using this new invention, it was suddenly possible to create styles
for formatting book titles, article titles, names, phone numbers, Internet links — you name it.
Later in this book (Chapter 7) you’ll fi nd an entire chapter dedicated to styles, but to understand
character formatting, there’s a little you need to know at the outset, so please bear with me for
another couple of paragraphs.
Even if you yourself never apply a style using Word’s vast array of formatting tools, two styles are
always in effect: a paragraph style and a character style. To demonstrate this, display the Styles
pane by clicking the Styles Dialog Box Launcher at the bottom-right corner of the Styles group
on the Home tab. Then click the middle icon at the bottom of the Styles task pane to display the
Style Inspector, shown in Figure 5-2. You can dismiss the Styles pane if it’s distracting.
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FIGURE 5-2
Use the Style Inspector when you want to fully examine the styles and direct formatting in use (direct
formatting is identified by the word Plus in the Style Inspector).
Here the two styles applied are Normal (the default paragraph style) and Default Paragraph Font
(the default character style for Normal). The latter is the name of the Normal style’s default
character style.
Style versus Direct
I just went through that whole rigmarole so that I could explain that you have two ways to apply
character formatting. You can use a style to apply character formatting, or you can apply character
formatting directly. As you’re typing along, it’s really quite easy to apply bold, italic, or underlining to text. That’s called direct formatting, and often there’s no reason for you to format any other
way. After all, the goal is to create a functional document in as short a time as possible.
Given that creating and applying styles involves more thought, preparation, and work than using
direct formatting, it would appear that using direct formatting works better for my twin goals of
speed and functionality. However, a shortcut is only as good as the time it saves you. If it ends up
taking more time, then it wasn’t really a shortcut at all.
For example, suppose that each time I need to type a book title I press Ctrl+B (for bold), type the
book title, and then press Ctrl+B again to toggle bold off. That doesn’t seem too onerous, right?
Suppose my editors now tell me that they don’t like book titles formatted that way. Instead, they
want me to use bold small caps. Now I have to change the book title references so that they
match the editors’ requirements. If all book titles and only book titles were formatted as bold,
I could use Word’s Replace feature to simply replace bold with bold and small caps, but what if
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I’ve applied bold to something other than a book title? (The chances are good that I have!) Now
I’m left carefully plodding through the document looking for things that look like book titles.
Or worse, suppose I need to correct the formatting error not in just one document file, but in
dozens of files? I have a lot of work to do, right? That Ctrl+B shortcut doesn’t seem like a very
good shortcut anymore, does it?
If, instead, each time I wanted a book title I had applied a character style named Book Title, I’d be
in much better shape. That way I could simply modify the Book Title style, and all of my book
titles would obediently change. Even if the formatting “error” were propagated over dozens of
different documents, I could change the definition of the style in the template on which those
documents are based, use the Automatically Update Document Styles feature, and I’d be done.
The commandment is this: If the formatting is something you will need to repeatedly apply to certain
categories of text (such as book titles, programming commands, jargon, etc.), create a character style and
use it.
If, conversely, the use is ad hoc and not something for which you’ll have a recurring need, then
go ahead and use direct formatting. For example, when I’m writing a letter or memo and want to
use bold for emphasis, I use direct formatting. When I’m writing a formal report and am formatting the name of a journal and a journal article, I use a style.
Tip
To make using styles less onerous, you can assign keyboard shortcuts to them. From Word Options, select
Customize Ribbon in the list at the left and choose Customize. Set Categories to Styles. Choose the style,
click Press New Shortcut Key, press the desired key(s) (i.e., the exact combination you want to assign, such as
Alt+9, Ctrl+Shift+F7, etc.), and then click Assign Í Close. Don’t forget to click Assign! n
Character Formatting
There are at least six ways of directly applying various kinds of character formatting:
l
Using the Font group on the Home tab of the Ribbon
l
Using the Font dialog box (Ctrl+D or Ctrl+Shift+F, or click the Font Dialog Box
Launcher)
l
Using the Mini toolbar (hover the mouse over selected text)
l
Using shortcut keys
l
Using the Font group or components placed on the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT)
l
Using the Language tool on the status bar
In this section I’ll describe these methods and try to give you a sense of which ones to use. A lot
depends on your working style, but your choice can also depend on what you happen to be doing.
On any given day I’ll probably use at least five of the six methods.
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Formatting Techniques
To apply character formatting, you have three basic options:
l
Stream Method. Apply formatting before you start typing a word or passage, and then
turn it off when you’re done. For example, click the Bold tool, type a word, and then
click the Bold tool again.
l
Selection Method. Select the text you want formatted and then apply the formatting.
l
Whole-Word Method. Click anywhere in a word and then choose the desired
formatting.
Note
The whole-word method is settings-dependent. It will work by default, but it will not work if you’ve turned
off When Selecting, Automatically Select Entire Word in the Editing Options section of Word Options Í
Advanced. n
It would be redundant to repeat the basic steps for each and every formatting type. The techniques
described here apply to all character formatting described in this chapter.
Repeat Formatting (F4)
A tremendous time-saver in Word is the Repeat Formatting command, invoked by the F4 key.
Actually, F4 will repeat typing and many other actions too, but I find it most useful for repeating
formatting.
Suppose, for example, that you’re scanning a newsletter looking for people’s names, which need
to be made bold. There’s John Smith, so you select his name and press Ctrl+B. Thereafter, however,
it might be faster to position one hand on the mouse and the other on the F4 key. Click Jane;
press F4. Click Doe; press F4. Or click to select Jane Doe as a phrase, and then press F4. The F4
key enables you to temporarily forget about pressing Ctrl+B, right-clicking, or traveling to the top
of the Word menu in search of a formatting tool.
Now let’s try something else. Click on a word and press Ctrl+B to make it bold. Now press Ctrl+I.
Now the text is bold and italic. Click on another word and press F4. It’s only italic! That’s because
F4 repeats only the most recent formatting (or other action).
Note that F4 and Ctrl+Y both do the same thing. Which you use is your choice. Many prefer F4
because it can be pressed with one finger. Others prefer Ctrl+Y because it doesn’t involve as much
of a stretch as F4.
Tip
If you have multiple or compound character formatting to repeatedly apply to a non-style-formatted series of
words or selections, use the Font dialog box instead of individual commands. When you use the Font dialog
box, all changes applied when you click OK become a single formatting event to the F4 key, so F4 can now
apply multiple types of character formatting all at once. n
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Copy Formatting
Sometimes, the moment for using F4 has passed, yet you’re still left needing to reapply compound
formatting. I’m assuming that for whatever reason you’re not using a character style. Be that as it
may, there are two common methods for copying formatting: the Format Painter and the Copy
Formatting keystroke. Note that these tools aren’t limited to character formatting. They’ll work
with many other kinds of formatting as well.
Format Painter
To use the Format Painter, click or select the item whose formatting you want to copy. If you
want to clone that formatting just once, click the Format Painter in the Clipboard group on the
Home tab of the Ribbon, shown in Figure 5-3. If you want to apply that formatting multiple
times, double-click the Format Painter.
FIGURE 5-3
Use the Format Painter in the Clipboard group to copy formatting.
Format Painter
mouse pointer
Note that the mouse pointer turns into a paintbrush.
Honestly! That’s what it’s supposed to be!
Next, if you’re copying formatting to a whole word, click the word you want formatted. Presto!
If you’re copying to any other group of characters, use the mouse pointer to select the destination
text. If you double-clicked the Format Painter, continue this until you’re done. Press Esc or click
the Format Painter again to exit Format Painting mode.
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Keyboard Method
If you don’t care for clicking the Format Painter button, that’s perfectly OK. You’ll need to know
about two keystrokes:
l
Ctrl+Shift+C. Copy Format.
l
Ctrl+Shift+V. Paste Format.
This works very much like the Format Painter. Click in or select the text whose formatting
you want to copy, and press Ctrl+Shift+C. Observe the mouse pointer. It’s the Format Painter
pointer! Now, move to or select the text onto which you want the formatting copied, and press
Ctrl+Shift+V. Note that there is no keyboard equivalent for the multi-copy method (doubleclicking on the Format Painter), but you can combine the two methods, initiating the process by
double-clicking the Format Painter and then ending it using Ctrl+Shift+V.
Clear Formatting
There are several degrees of clearing formatting. Here I’ll talk about two of them:
l
Clear direct character formatting (ResetChar)
l
Clear all formatting (ClearAllFormatting)
The first is the venerable Ctrl+Spacebar command known and loved by many in every version of
Word they can remember. It’s also a widely misunderstood command. This command does not
remove all character formatting. It removes all direct character formatting. So if the selected text’s
formatting all comes from styles applied to the text — regardless of how bizarre or compound
the formatting might be — Ctrl+Spacebar will have no effect whatsoever.
For example, when you apply the Heading 1 style to a section of text, that text becomes bold.
Ctrl+Spacebar can’t touch that bold formatting since it was applied through the style rather than
via Ctrl+B or the Bold tool. If you use direct formatting to italicize a word in an otherwise nonitalicized heading, however, now Ctrl+Spacebar can remove it.
The second type of formatting removal is completely new to Word 2007 and 2010. It is accessible
via the Clear Formatting tool on the Home tab of the Ribbon, shown in Figure 5-4. This command
is quite different from Ctrl+Spacebar.
Using this new command is the functional equivalent of copying a selection to the Clipboard and
then using Paste Special Í Unformatted Text to paste it back into the document. It strips out all
formatting.
The Font Group
The Font group is shown in Figure 5-5. The Font group is compressed or expanded depending
on the width of the current Word window. In its full glory, the Font group can display up to 15
separate tools (not including the Font Dialog Box Launcher, which I’ll talk about in a moment).
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FIGURE 5-4
The Clear Formatting tool is actually misplaced in the Ribbon. It affects not only character/font formatting,
but paragraph and style formatting as well.
FIGURE 5-5
The Font group is Word’s discoverable way of applying character formatting.
Grow Font Shrink Font
Text Effects
Highlighter
Four of the Font tools feature Live Preview:
l
Font (e.g., typeface name, such as Calibri)
l
Font/Point Size
l
Highlight color
l
Text color
As shown in Figure 5-6, Live Preview shows you the results of the selected (but not yet applied)
formatting. Two of the Live Preview controls — Font and Font/Point Size — can be rolled up and
out of the way, as shown in Figure 5-6. The other two cannot.
As shown in Figure 5-7, there’s also a sixteenth control — the Font Dialog Box Launcher. The
Font dialog box is nearly identical to its counterpart from Word 2007 — except that Word
2007’s Character Spacing tab is now the Advanced tab in Word 2010. If you upgraded directly
from Word 2003, you’ll also notice that Text Effects have been moved from the Font tab to the
Advanced tab and are quite different from the Word 2003 feature. Word 2010’s new Text Effects
are closely tied to the new implementation of WordArt.
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FIGURE 5-6
Dots at the bottom of a Live Preview control indicate that it can be rolled up and out of the way.
FIGURE 5-7
Use the Font Dialog Box Launcher to display the nearly full-service dialog box.
Some of the icons in the Font group might seem a bit obscure and indistinct. Hover the mouse
pointer over each of the controls to see what it does. Notice that for many of the controls, if
shortcut keys exist, they are indicated in the Enhanced ScreenTip. However, this is not the end
of the story. Some tools, for whatever reason, might not show the shortcuts. Jump ahead to
“Character-Formatting Shortcut Keys” later in this chapter if you’re just dying to know what’s
assigned to what.
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Typeface or Font
Some call it font, some call it typeface. Some skirt the nomenclature issue by simply saying what
typeface or font they want (Times New Roman, Arial, etc.). Whatever you call it, it’s key to a
document’s appearance.
Upgrade Note
In Word 2003, you could move the focus to the Font tool in the toolbar by pressing Ctrl+Shift+F. That
precise functionality no longer exists in Word 2007 and later. Instead, that keystroke now does the same
thing as Ctrl+D, which is to show the Font dialog box.
Font Size
Font or Point Size controls the height of the font, generally measured in points. A point is 1 ⁄ 72
of an inch, so 12 points would be 12 ⁄ 72 (or 1 ⁄6) of an inch. For Word, a font set’s point size is the
vertical distance from the top of the highest ascending character to the bottom of the lowest
descending character.
You aren’t limited to the range of sizes you see in the Font tab. Word can go as low as 1 point and
as high as 1,638 points. Plus, you can set the height in increments of half a point. Hence, a point
size of 1,637.5 is perfectly valid.
As with typeface, Word 2007 and later will not let you make a key assignment that takes you
directly to the exposed Font Size control. While Ctrl+Shift+P did that in Word 2003 and earlier,
Ctrl+Shift+P now simply takes you to the Font dialog box, where Size is highlighted.
Grow/Shrink Tools and Keyboard Shortcuts
Text size can also be controlled with the Grow Font and Shrink Font tools (refer to Figure 5-5). If
you hover the mouse pointer over these, you’ll also learn that they both have shortcuts, Ctrl+Shift+>
and Ctrl+Shift+<, respectively.
Note
The ScreenTip actually says Ctrl+> and Ctrl+<, and technically that’s right because > and < are a shifted
period and comma, respectively. Personally, though, I’d rather have you understand exactly what keys to
press than stand on ceremony. n
If you click the drop-down arrow next to the Font Size tool, you’ll notice that the font sizes listed
do not consistently increase by twos. Instead, they go from 8 to 12 in increments of one, then
from 12 to 28 in increments of two, and then leap to 36, 48, and 72. The Grow and Shrink Font
tools follow the listed increments.
If you want a finer degree of control (e.g., when you’re trying to make text as large as possible
without spilling onto an additional page), you should know about two additional default shortcut keys: Ctrl+[ and Ctrl+]. These two commands shrink or enlarge the selected characters by
1 point. The extra granularity often is just what you need to find the largest possible font you can
fit inside a given space, such as a page, table, or textbox.
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Color
Word has three color settings that can be applied at the character level:
l
Text Color. The color of the characters themselves
l
Shading. The color of the background immediately behind the text
l
Highlighting. The electronic equivalent of those neon-colored felt markers you use to
annoy people who ask you to read things you don’t want to read
Text Color
Text color is pretty self-explanatory, except when it’s not. Most of us know what red, black, and
blue are, but what is automatic? Automatic can be black or white, and is based on the shading.
If the shading is so dark that black text can’t be read without difficulty, Word automatically
switches the display color to white.
Shading
We’ll talk about design considerations in a later chapter. For now, note a few things about shading that sometimes escape notice. Looking at the Home tab on the Ribbon and the placement of
Shading (second from the right under Paragraph), you might be tempted to believe that shading
is paragraph-level formatting. Indeed, it sure acts that way. With nothing selected, Shading acts
on the entire current paragraph. (You’ll learn more about this later.)
However, if you select a single word or character, Shading suddenly acts like a character-formatting
attribute. Well, that’s what it is. Because people seldom vary the shading within any given paragraph, it is treated as a paragraph attribute by Word’s interface. And yet, just like Font, Font/Point
Size, Bold, and Italic, shading is a character attribute.
As shown in Figure 5-8, shading also affects the display of text color. In this case, the shading
color is maroonish, which you can’t tell in the printed version of this book. Keep the character
aspect of shading in mind when we look at the Font dialog box, coming up shortly.
FIGURE 5-8
Despite its placement in the Home tab of the Ribbon, shading can be applied to a selection of characters.
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Highlighting
The Text Highlight Color control — more generally known as the highlighter — is shown in
Figure 5-5. It actually has four modes of operation. Most people are aware of one mode or
another, but not all four.
One method is to select text and then click the highlighter. This is the method that most users
are aware of. It’s pretty effective, but it might not reflect the actual highlighting process.
A second method is to turn the highlighter on by clicking the Text Highlight Color tool, and then
to use the mouse to select areas you want highlighted. The highlighter mouse pointer stays active
until you click the Text Highlight Color tool again, or until you press the Esc key.
A third method can be used to apply highlighting to all occurrences of a given word or phrase
in a document, using the most recently applied highlighting color. Press Ctrl+F to open the Find
dialog box. Type the word or phrase of interest, and then choose Reading Highlight Í Highlight
All, as shown in Figure 5-9.
FIGURE 5-9
Use Find to apply a reading highlight to every occurrence of a word or phrase in your document.
A fourth highlighting method is one I fi nd a bit more useful than the Reading Highlight feature. It works from the Replace dialog box. Press Ctrl+H (Replace). In the Find What field, type
the word or phrase you want to highlight. Clear the contents of the Replace With field, and in
Replace’s lower-left corner, choose Format Í Highlight. Click Replace All to apply highlighting to all occurrences of the Find What text. Highlighting inserted this way is more robust than
highlighting inserted via the Reading Highlight feature and will not disappear if you choose to
manipulate highlighting manually.
Note that when the Replace With field is blank but has associated formatting, the formatting is
applied to text that matches the Find What text. If both formatting and Replace With text are
absent, Replace deletes all occurrences of the matching text.
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You can also choose not to print highlighting. This gives you the best of both worlds. You can
mark up a document for your own benefit, and then — if you wish — print it out without the
highlighting. Not only is this good for keeping internal guides private, it also saves money on
yellow ink. To prevent the printing (or displaying) of highlighting, choose File Í Options, select
Display in the list at the left, and remove the check next to Show Highlighter Marks. If you hover
over the information while you’re here, the tip informs you that this controls both display and
printing. Click OK when you’re done.
Tip
If you use the select-and-highlight method, Word undoes the selection after you apply highlighting. This can be
really irritating if you use the wrong color, but if you immediately press Ctrl+Z or click Undo, Word not only
undoes the highlighting, it also reselects that section of text so you can take another stab at highlighting it. n
Change Case
Changing case doesn’t really fit in here, but that’s precisely why it’s included. Case is not formatting. Case is a choice of what capitalization to use — uppercase, lowercase, or some combination
thereof. Why does Microsoft put it in the Font group? I don’t know for sure, but it’s probably
because it can affect groups of characters and doesn’t really fit anywhere else.
The fi rst thing you need to know is that you cannot use any variation of this command to
affect style defi nitions in your document. For example, you can’t apply lowercase to text, turn
it into a style, and then use that style to format Internet keywords. It could be useful, but
this feature must await some distant version of Word as yet unannounced. (For now, you can
include all caps or small caps as elements of a Word style, not that that helps with Internet
addresses.)
Language
Note that Language is not included in the Font group of the Home tab. You’ll also notice that it’s
not present in the Font dialog box either, so how do you know it’s a character-formatting attribute? Two reasons: First, it can be applied to a single character in a document. Second, it can be
included in a character style definition, as shown in Figure 5-10.
You set the language using the Language tool on the status bar. If you don’t see it, then right-click
the status bar and click to enable Language. Among the Language tool’s more useful features
is the Do Not Check Spelling or Grammar setting, which you can apply to text. This can be
handy for technical jargon and programming keywords that you might not want checked.
Conversely, Detect Language Automatically, the last feature shown in Figure 5-11, can create issues. With that setting turned on, it’s possible for text to unintentionally be tagged as
some other language, resulting in large sections of text being fl agged as misspelled. If the
corresponding proofi ng tools are not installed, the text is not checked at all, even though it’s
not actually formatted as Do Not Check. This can leave large sections of text unintentionally unchecked. You should turn that setting off unless you actually need it. It is enabled by
default!
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FIGURE 5-10
Language is included among the attributes associated with a character style.
To set the default for all documents based on the current template, choose the desired language
as well as the desired settings for the last two options, and then click Default. Confirm the settings by clicking Yes. Note that even though the confirmation box doesn’t mention the latter two
settings, they are included in the changes made to the underlying template.
The Font Dialog Box
The Font dialog box, shown in Figure 5-12, can be a useful tool when you’re applying multiple character format changes at the same time. Note, however, that the Font dialog box and the Font group on
the Home tab of the Ribbon do not provide identical capabilities. Not only doesn’t the Font dialog provide any Live Preview at all (just the static preview box), it contains different commands and settings.
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FIGURE 5-11
The Do Not Check Spelling or Grammar option can be useful for technical writers. Detect Language
Automatically can cause problems for chronically bad spellers!
FIGURE 5-12
Only some of the functionality of the Font dialog’s two tabs is replicated on the Home tab of the Ribbon.
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Most font attributes are largely self-explanatory. Experiment with them to see the different
effects. Conspicuously missing from the Home tab of the Ribbon are the controls in the Font
dialog box’s Advanced tab, shown in Figure 5-12. Note the Scale and Spacing controls.
Scale is used to stretch or compress the actual characters. Spacing is used to expand or condense only the spacing. Scaling and spacing expansion are demonstrated on the text shown
in Figure 5-13. The top sample was scaled up 150 percent. The characters and spaces were
all stretched horizontally. The bottom sample was expanded by 2.8 points. An additional
2.8 points of spacing were inserted between each character. Even though both samples are
nearly identical in height and width, the top sample actually looks larger.
FIGURE 5-13
Scaling and horizontal spacing can yield texts of identical length and height, but with very different
appearances.
Position is used to raise or lower the selected characters by a specified number of points. Unlike
spacing, which can vary by as little as 0.1 point, position’s smallest gradation is 0.5 point. This
tool is sometimes used to adjust subscripts and superscripts if the built-in versions don’t accomplish the desired effect or you need the subscripts and superscripts to be the same size as the
surrounding text.
Tip
If you have a recurring need to adjust subscripts and superscripts, you might consider creating a character
style that gives you the desired formatting. n
OpenType Features
New in Word 2010 are the OpenType features, which are shown in Figure 5-12, in the Advanced
tab. Developed largely by Microsoft, OpenType is the successor to TrueType fonts, which helped
in making fonts scalable. OpenType adds additional features that allow you to manipulate
some of the more intricate aspects of fonts and number spacing. If you have problems aligning
numbers in numbered lists, you might care to examine the OpenType features more carefully.
I encourage you to consult www.microsoft.com/typography/WhatIsOpenType.mspx and
www.microsoft.com/typography/otspec/ or other online sources if you want to know more
about these features.
The Mini Toolbar
Yet another tool for applying formatting is the Mini toolbar. Introduced in Word 2007, this feature is fully explained in Chapter 2. Shown in Figure 5-14, the Mini toolbar has a sampling of
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character-formatting tools from the Home tab of the Ribbon. Unlike the ribbon tools, however,
none of the Mini toolbar’s tools provide Live Preview.
FIG URE 5-14
The Mini toolbar has a sampling of character-formatting tools from the Home tab of the Ribbon.
The Mini toolbar’s singular but important claim to fame for many users will be its ergonomic utility. When you need something on it, it’s right there, close to the text. Many of its tools are easily
accessible via direct keystrokes, as you’ll see in the next and final section in this chapter.
Character-Formatting Shortcut Keys
Many of the character-formatting commands discussed in this chapter are accessible via builtin keyboard shortcuts. Longtime users of Word undoubtedly have many of them committed to
memory. Newcomers, however, might need a quick guide. As you navigate your way through
Word 2010, keep your eyes open. Quite often, Word will show you its built-in key assignments.
To make sure this happens, do the following:
l
In File Í Options Í General, set ScreenTip Style to something other than Don’t Show
ScreenTips.
l
In Word Options Í Advanced Í Display section, enable Show Shortcut Keys in
ScreenTips.
Table 5-1 provides a quick reference of keyboard shortcuts related to character formatting. This
list might not be exhaustive.
TABLE 5-1
Default Character-Formatting Keyboard Shortcuts
Command
Keystroke
All Caps
Ctrl+Shift+A
Bold
Ctrl+B, Ctrl+Shif t+B
Copy formatting
Ctrl+Shift+C
Font dialog box
Ctrl+D, Ctrl+Shift+F
Highlighting
Alt+Ctrl+H
continued
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TABLE 5-1
(continued)
Command
Keystroke
Hyperlink
Ctrl+K
Italics
Ctrl+I
Paste Formatting
Ctrl+Shift+V
Font/Point size
Ctrl+Shift+P
Font/Point size: decrease by 1 point
Ctrl+[
Font/Point size: decrease to next preset
Ctrl+Shift+<
Font/Point size: increase by 1 point
Ctrl+]
Font/Point size: increase to next preset
Ctrl+Shift+>
Remove non-style character formatting
Ctrl+Spacebar
Small Caps
Ctrl+Shift+K
Subscript
Ctrl+=
Superscript
Ctrl+Shift+=
Symbol font
Ctrl+Shift+Q
Toggle case of selected text
Shift+F3
Underline
Ctrl+U
Words Only Underline Style
Ctrl+W
Summary
For most of us, the most important thing about the documents we create is the choice of words.
Character formatting is mostly about formatting words. In this chapter, you’ve seen the variety of
things you can do to words and characters. You should now be able to do the following:
l
Apply character formatting to a text selection of any size, from a single character up to a
complete document.
l
Choose whether to apply formatting directly or to use a character style.
l
Decide, from among the variety of formatting tools, which one to use in any given
formatting situation.
l
Remove unwanted character formatting.
l
Save time by using shortcut keystrokes and shortcut techniques.
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CH APTER
Paragraph Formatting
E
verything you type in Word resides in paragraphs. Even if you type
nothing at all, in fact, every Word document — even one that you
believe is completely empty — contains at least one paragraph. The
key to knowing that a paragraph is present is the ubiquitous paragraph
mark: ¶. If you don’t see them in Word right now, perhaps you have them
turned off. Pressing Ctrl+Shift+8 toggles them and the other nonprinting
characters on and off.
Also called a pilcrow or an alinea, in Word the paragraph mark is the repository of paragraph formatting. Delete a paragraph’s pilcrow, and you’ve
extinguished its soul. A little dramatic? Perhaps, but Word is filled with
drama. Just ask anybody who ever wrestled with numbering in Word 2000.
In this chapter I’ll go into detail about paragraph formatting, and along
the way I’ll try to demystify aspects that seem to leave people scratching
their heads. You’ll also learn about the interaction between selected Word
options and the nuances of paragraph formatting.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding paragraph
formatting
Using direct paragraph
formatting versus using styles
Indentation and alignment
Applying numbering and bullets
Applying shading and borders
Bonus tips
Styles and Paragraph Formatting
One of Word’s challenges is that there often are multiple ways to do the
same thing. For any given set of circumstances, however, only one way is
the most efficient. The challenge is to see through the clutter and determine
which way is best.
“I don’t use styles,” is something I hear quite frequently, but that can’t be
true. If you’re using Word, you’re always using two styles: a paragraph style
and a character style. When people say, “I don’t use styles,” they mean that
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they use just a single paragraph style, called Normal, and a single character style, called Default
Paragraph Font. More to the point, they mean that they simply ignore the existence of styles.
Any formatting variation such astylists might achieve is made through variant or direct formatting. I’m not going to sit here snobbishly and tell you that paying no attention to styles is a sin
(although, come to think of it, this is a Bible…). There are times when you have to do something
ASAP, and if ignoring styles gets that “The building is on fire!” memo finished sooner than fumbling with unfamiliar tools and concepts, then so be it.
This chapter will tell style-shunners what paragraph formatting is, what it’s for, and how to use
it. It also will tell style-users the same things, but the latter will have a broader context for it all as
well as a strategy, because paragraph formatting is integral to paragraph-style formatting.
When to Use Styles
The same commandment that applies to character-style formatting (see Chapter 5) applies to
paragraph-style formatting. If it’s a one-time ad hoc need, direct paragraph formatting is entirely
appropriate. For example, if it’s a centered heading on a one-time announcement you’re going to
tack to a bulletin board, feel free to simply press Ctrl+E.
On the other hand, if it’s formatting that you’re going to need again and again, then use a style.
For example, if it’s one of several headings in a monthly newsletter you’re going to be assembling
for the next five years, either adopt and adapt built-in heading styles to suit the need, or create
your own styles. The more work styles can do for you, the less time you’re going to have to spend
formatting and reformatting.
What Exactly Is a Paragraph, Anyway?
With apologies to Mrs. Hewitt, my eighth-grade English teacher, a paragraph is everything
between two different paragraph marks. Shown in Figure 6-1, all of numbered item 1 is a single
paragraph. Note, however, that a single sentence separated by two paragraph marks is also a complete paragraph — to Word — as is a paragraph mark that contains no associated text at all.
Many new Word users often are distracted by the display of nonprinting characters (such as paragraph marks, manual line breaks, spaces, and tabs). As shown in Figure 6-1, however, displaying
them can give you essential clues about what’s going on in a document.
Sometimes it’s useful to use a manual line break within a paragraph while still keeping it as a
single paragraph. This most often is done within numbered or bulleted paragraphs. That way, any
paragraph formatting you do to any part of the paragraph is done to the entire paragraph (such
as the main indentation and numbering), despite its disjointed appearance. If the paragraphs are
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numbered or bulleted, a manual line break prevents a new number or bullet from being assigned
to the disjointed portion.
FIGURE 6-1
A paragraph is everything between two paragraph marks.
Paragraph
mark
Manual line
break
Paragraph
mark
If you’re in the habit of working with nonprinting characters turned off, you might find that it’s
useful to occasionally turn them on when trying to diagnose the behavior of text. You can toggle
them by pressing Ctrl+Shift+8. If any marks don’t toggle, then check File Í Options Í Display to
see whether any are set to be displayed all the time.
Another useful diagnostic aid in analyzing paragraph formatting is the Reveal Formatting pane,
shown in Figure 6-2. You display it by pressing Shift+F1. It shows all the formatting that’s common to the selected text or that’s applied at the insertion point. It has three segments: Font (character formatting), Paragraph, and Section. (Thanks to Word’s thesaurus, I just neatly sidestepped
having to refer to the bottom segment as the section section.) It also displays the selected text, if
any, using the current common formatting, as best it can. If nothing is selected, it displays the
words Sample Text using common current formatting.
Why do I say that it displays the common formatting? That’s because the selected text might not
be formatted homogeneously. In this case, although you can’t see it, the sentence in the text was,
“It was a dark and stormy night.” Because some formatting (bold and italic in this case) might not
be common to the entire selection, you can’t use Reveal Formatting to determine whether a given
selection contains any formatting of a particular type.
Notice that the Reveal Formatting pane does not tell you what style is applied. We will look
at other tools later on that help us with styles. In this chapter, we focus only on the paragraph
segment.
Tip
The Reveal Formatting pane is not accessible from the Ribbon interface. If you want to be able to access it
from the QAT, you can add it. To do so, right-click the QAT and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar. Set
Choose Commands From to Commands Not in the Ribbon. Click in the list and tap the S key to accelerate to
that part of the alphabet, and then tap the up-arrow key five times to select Reveal Formatting. Click Add Í
OK, and you’re done. n
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FIGURE 6-2
Press Shift+F1 to toggle the Reveal Formatting pane. It shows all the formatting in effect for the selection.
Paragraph-Formatting Attributes
Paragraph formatting, like character formatting, can be applied with a wide variety of tools that
apply certain paragraph attributes. Many of those attribute controls, but not all, can be found in
the Paragraph group in the Home tab of the Ribbon, shown in Figure 6-3. Indents and spacing,
both of which are paragraph attributes, are located on the Paragraph group of the Page Layout tab
of the Ribbon, also shown in Figure 6-3. Several attributes missing from the Ribbon are on the
horizontal rulers: left and right indent, hanging and paragraph indent, and tab settings.
Many paragraph attributes — but again, not all — are also found in the Paragraph dialog box,
shown in Figure 6-4. You can display the Paragraph dialog box by clicking the Dialog Box
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Launcher in the lower-right corner of the Ribbon’s Paragraph groups, by double-clicking any of
the indent controls on the horizontal ruler, or by pressing the legacy keystrokes Alt+O followed
immediately by Alt+P.
FIGURE 6-3
The Paragraph sections in the Home and Page Layout tabs of the Ribbon contain several paragraphformatting controls.
Paragraph group from
Home Ribbon tab
Paragraph group from
Page Layout Ribbon tab
FIGURE 6-4
The Paragraph dialog box contains controls for most, but not all, of Word’s paragraph attributes.
Missing from the dialog box, of course, are tab settings, which you can access by clicking Tabs in
the Indents and Spacing section of the dialog box. Also missing are borders and shading, which
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you can access by clicking Borders and Shading from the bottom of the Border tool’s list of settings (in the Home tab of the Ribbon), shown in Figure 6-5.
FIGURE 6-5
The Borders and Shading dialog box can be accessed from the bottom of the Borders control in the
Paragraph group of the Home tab.
You might be wondering from all this how to determine whether a setting is a paragraph-formatting
attribute. One way is to see whether the attribute can be applied to a paragraph without the whole
paragraph’s being selected. For example, if you click anywhere inside a paragraph and click the
Center button in the Paragraph group of the Home tab of the Ribbon, the whole paragraph is centered. The same “anywhere-in-the-paragraph” rule is true for each of the other alignment options.
The same applies to borders, shading, indentation, bullets, numbering, and line spacing.
Note, however, that two “paragraph-formatting” attributes behave according to the “if nothing
is selected, format the whole paragraph” rule, but behave differently if part (but not all)
of a paragraph is selected. These two are Shading and Borders. While they generally are considered
paragraph formatting, they also can be character formatting.
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Paragraph-Formatting Techniques
Two techniques can be used for all paragraph-formatting attributes. As noted, you can simply
place the insertion point in the paragraph you want and then choose the attribute (using the
Ribbon, a dialog box, a keystroke, the shortcut menu, or the Mini toolbar).
The other technique is to select a range of paragraphs (up to and including the entire document).
Note that even though shading and border formatting can apply to a selection of characters/
words, if the selection includes or spans a paragraph mark, the formatting is applied to the
entirety of all the paragraphs in the selection, even those that aren’t fully selected.
Structural Formatting
Paragraph formatting can be thought of as encompassing two concepts:
l
Structural Formatting. Attributes that affect the overall structure of the text, such as
alignment, indentation, tabs, and so on
l
Decorative Formatting. Attributes that affect the interior appearance of the text, such
as shading, borders, numbering, and bullets
This section deals with structural formatting. Decorative formatting is addressed in the section
that follows.
Indentation
Indentation typically is used for automatically indenting the first line of paragraphs, block-indenting
quotes, and setting up hanging indentation for bulleted or numbered text. Preset indentation can be
set via the Decrease Indent and Increase Indent controls in the Paragraph group of the Home tab on
the Ribbon.
Tip
You can also perform Decrease Indent and Increase Indent using the Backspace and Tab keys, respectively. To
do this, first choose File Í Options Í Proofing Í AutoCorrect Options. Click the AutoFormat As You Type
tab, and then in the bottom set of options, click Set Left- and First-Indent with Tabs and Backspaces to select
it. Then click OK twice. This feature is enabled by default in Word, but many people turn it off because the
feature sometimes appears to be broken (i.e., doesn’t work the way the user expects it to). Also note that it
does not perform identically to the Ribbon Decrease Indent and Increase Indent controls.
When this setting is enabled, the Tab and Backspace (also Shift+Tab, if you prefer symmetry) work as advertised, but only when the paragraph is not empty, and only if the insertion point is as far left as it can go
(in any line in the paragraph). If the insertion point is anywhere else, the keys have their normal effects. Note
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that the first press of the Tab key (if the insertion point is at the beginning of the paragraph) indents only the
first line of the paragraph. Subsequent presses indent the entire paragraph.
Special rules apply for the Backspace key. Backspace decreases the indent only when an indentation is actually set. If there is a negative indent and a first-line or hanging indent, the first Backspace press removes the
hanging or first-line indent. If there is a negative indent and no hanging/first-line indent, Backspace resets the
indent to zero.
This is all potentially confusing enough that you might want to turn the setting off. In any case, if you turn it
on, watch the ruler and the text when you press Tab or Backspace. One last thing: To insert an actual tab at
the beginning of a paragraph when this setting is enabled, press Ctrl+Tab. This is also how you insert a tab
into a table. n
You can set more precise indentation using the Indent Left and Right settings controls in the
Paragraph group of the Page Layout tab of the Ribbon. A first-line or hanging indent typically is
set with the mouse drag controls on the horizontal ruler, as shown in Figure 6-6.
FIGURE 6-6
The ruler provides GUI controls for indentation.
Hanging indent
First-line
indent
Left indent
Right indent
Tip
If you have trouble grabbing the ruler’s tiny indent controls, you can use the tab/indent selection control at
the left end of the horizontal ruler. Click the (usually) L-shaped control to cycle through the different tabs and
indents and stop at the indent control that’s giving you problems. With that control selected, you can now set
a first-line or hanging indent by clicking the desired position on the ruler. n
If you press the Alt key while manipulating the ruler’s indent controls, Word displays the measurement, allowing for more informed positioning. Depending on your screen’s resolution,
however, you might sometimes need to use the Paragraph dialog box’s Special settings, shown in
Figure 6-7. Here the settings are identical to those shown in Figure 6-6.
Mirror Indents
Word 2007 and Word 2010 aren’t all just a fl ashy new interface. Keen observers who’ve used
Word 2003 or earlier versions no doubt notice the Mirror Indents addition to the Paragraph
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dialog box. When this is enabled, Left and Right become Inside and Outside, as shown in Figure
6-8. This enables your indent settings to accommodate book-style printing. Note that this is different from Mirror Margins, which is a Page Setup setting discussed in Chapter 8, “Page Setup
and Sections.”
FIGURE 6-7
The Paragraph dialog box is ideally suited to users who need more precision for their settings.
Alignment
Horizontal alignment determines how any given paragraph is oriented. The four options are Left,
Right, Centered, and Justified. You can set these using the respective controls in the Paragraph
group on the Home tab of the Ribbon. They can also be made with the four Alignment options in
the Paragraph dialog box. And finally, they can be set with Ctrl+L, Ctrl+R, Ctrl+E, and Ctrl+J.
Note
How Ctrl+E ever came to mean center is a mystery to me, but it seems to mean center in a wide variety
of Windows programs. Maybe it’s because it contains two Es. In any case, Ctrl+C is reserved for Copy to
Clipboard, so the purely intuitive choice for Center was already taken. n
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FIGURE 6-8
Mirror Indents was introduced in Word 2007.
Tabs
Tab is largely passé for many modern computer users. That’s because better control can be
effected with tables. Ever wonder why we call them tabs and tables? We call them tabs because
that’s short for “tabulation.” And we call them tables for the same reason. If you want the exact
etymology, try the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).
By default, a new document doesn’t have any explicit tabs set. However, when no explicit tabs are
set, Word uses default preset tabs every 0.5 inch. When you set a tab, all the built-in preset tabs
to the left of the one you set are removed, leaving the manually inserted tab and all remaining
preset tabs to the right.
You can set tabs using the horizontal ruler line or the Tabs dialog box. Using the ruler line, you
first determine the type of tab by clicking the Tab control at the left end of the ruler. As indicated
earlier, this control cycles not only among Word’s built-in five tabs, but also among first-line and
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hanging indent controls as well. The five built-in Tab types are shown in Figure 6-9. When the
desired tab type is displayed, click the lower portion of the ruler (below the eighth-inch marks)
to set the desired tab(s). You can drag them for better placement; holding the Alt key while dragging shows you the exact location.
FIGURE 6-9
Tabs can be set visually by means of the ruler line.
To remove a tab using the ruler, simply drag it down and away from the ruler until the mouse
pointer is no longer in the ruler area.
If you prefer the steadiness and precision of typing in the settings you want, use the Tabs dialog
box, shown in Figure 6-10. Activate the Tabs dialog box by choosing Tabs from the Paragraph
dialog box, or by double-clicking any existing tab in the ruler line.
FIGURE 6-10
Use the Tabs dialog box to set and clear tabs, set the default tab stop interval, and set a tab leader.
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Notice that the Tab dialog box also lets you set tab leaders — dashed or solid lines typically used
to help the reader visually line up text and numbers. Tab leaders often are used in tables of contents and indexes, such as the one shown in Figure 6-11.
FIGURE 6-11
Tab leaders are a visual aid that help the reader correctly align associated text.
Tabs versus Tables
If you can use tabs and you can use tables, when should you use which? Years of using Word has
convinced me that pseudo-tables, as I like to call tables that are created using tabs, are a lot more
fragile than actual tables. They’re also a lot less flexible.
Even so, there are times when tabs give you precisely what you want, and in a way that a table
either can’t or can’t without your jumping through hoops. If you want lines connecting two
tabbed items, while there are other ways to accomplish the same effect, it’s almost always faster
and easier to use tab leaders.
If you need to create an underscored area for a signature or other fill-in information on a paper
form, the solid tab leader line is definitely the way to go, even though you could draw lines where
you want them instead, using Insert Í Shapes Í Line (holding down the Shift key as you draw
to keep the line perfectly horizontal, of course). However, graphical lines have a way of not always
staying where you put them, so you’ll usually find that it’s much more efficient and predictable to
just use a leader line.
Tip
To create a signature or other fill-in area, type the prompt (Name:, Phone:, etc.). Use the Tab selection
tool to choose a right tab, and then click on the horizontal ruler line where you want the fill-in line to end,
to insert a right-aligned tab. Double-click the tab you just created. In the Tabs dialog box, choose Leader
Option 4 (solid underscore), and click OK. This creates something like what is shown in Figure 6-12. (If you
accidentally insert a new tab when you try to double-click, make sure you zap it while visiting the Tabs
dialog box.) n
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FIGURE 6-12
Tab leader lines are ideal for creating underscored fill-in areas for paper forms.
Incidentally, using a table, you can create a fill-in area that looks identical to that one. Create
a table with one row. Size it so that Name: is a narrower column and the second column ends
where you want the fill-in area to end. Next, use the Borders tool to turn off all borders in the
table. Finally, use the Bottom Border tool to turn on just the bottom border in the second column’s cell. For me, however, this is a lot more work just to prove a point.
Another situation in which tabs give you what you want is with simple document headers. The
default header for Word 2010 documents contains a center tab and a right-align tab. This enables
you to easily create a header with text to the left, centered text, and right-aligned text, simply by
separating those three components with tabs. Tabs also can be useful inside actual tables for aligning numbers at the decimal point. (As noted earlier, to insert a tab inside a table, press Ctrl+Tab.)
However, for more complex presentations of information, particularly when you might need
organizational control (copying and moving rows and columns), it’s much better and much more
natural to use a table.
Paragraph Decoration
A second kind of paragraph formatting is something that might be termed paragraph decoration.
This includes shading, boxes, bullets, and other semi-graphical elements that help the writer call
attention to particular paragraphs, or that help the reader understand the text better.
Numbering/Bullets
Numbering in Word has always been a bit of a sore point. That’s because, historically, it has proven
to be both confusing and fraught with odd quirks. Let’s pretend for the moment that numbering
and bullets work perfectly and never give the user grief. To test this, let’s assume we’re using the
Word 2007/2010 .docx format, rather than Word 2003’s (or earlier) legacy .doc format.
You can apply numbering or bullets simply by clicking the Numbering or Bullets button on the
Paragraph tab of the Ribbon’s Home tab. You can click the Numbering or Bullets button and just
start typing. When you’re done with your list, simply press Enter twice.
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Note
If Automatic bulleted lists or Automatic numbered lists are enabled, then you don’t even need to click the
Numbering or Bullets tool. To begin a numbered list, simply type 1. and press the Spacebar, and Word automatically replaces what you typed with automatic number formatting. Other variations work, too, such as
1<tab>. To begin a bulleted list, simply type * and press the Spacebar. When you want to end either kind of
list, press Enter twice. n
You can also apply numbering or bullets to an existing list. Just select the list and click
either tool. If the list has levels (e.g., created by a Tab press before certain subitems), then the
Numbering tool uses different and appropriate numbering schemes for each level.
Note that Bullets and Numbering both offer Live Preview of the resulting list. Multilevel List,
however, does not.
Line Numbering
Line numbering, which is different from numbered lists, often is used in legal documents such as
affidavits. The numbering allows for ready reference to testimony by page and line number. Line
numbering itself, however, is not a paragraph-formatting attribute. It is a section-formatting attribute. Line numbering is turned on with the Line Numbers menu in the Page Setup group of the
Page Layout tab of the Ribbon, or the Line Numbers option in the Layout tab of the Page Setup
dialog box, shown in Figure 6-13.
FIGURE 6-13
Line numbering is a section-formatting attribute, but it can be turned off in any given paragraph.
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So why am I talking about line numbering here if it’s not a paragraph-formatting attribute? I’m
talking about it here because although line numbering isn’t a paragraph attribute, suppressing
line numbering is a paragraph attribute. Figure 6-14 shows examples of line numbering suppressed for the heading paragraphs but not the body text paragraphs. (Note that line numbers do
not display in Draft or Outline views.)
FIGURE 6-14
While line numbering is a section-formatting attribute, the ability to suppress it is a paragraph attribute.
To suppress line numbering in any given paragraph, put the insertion point in that paragraph,
display the Paragraph dialog box (double-click any of the indent controls on the horizontal
ruler), and enable Suppress Line Numbers in the Line and Page Breaks tab, as shown in
Figure 6-15.
Additional Paragraph Controls
Figure 6-15 shows additional paragraph-level formatting controls:
l
Widow/Orphan Control. Prevents a solitary paragraph line from being stranded on a
page all by itself (widows precede the main portion of the paragraph, while orphans
follow it).
l
Keep with Next. Forces a paragraph to appear with the paragraph that follows. This
is used to keep headings together with at least the first few lines of the first paragraph
under that heading. It is also used to keep captions and pictures, figures, tables, and so
on, on the same page.
l
Keep Lines Together. Prevents a paragraph from breaking across two pages.
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l
Page Break Before. Forces an automatic page break before the paragraph. This often is
used to force each chapter to begin on a new page.
l
Don’t Hyphenate. Instructs Word not to perform hyphenation in a given paragraph.
This often is done by those trying to reproduce a quote and maintain its integrity with
respect to the words and position of the original being quoted.
FIGURE 6-15
Line numbers can be suppressed on a paragraph-by-paragraph basis.
Shading
Paragraph shading, as well as shading of individual words, can be performed graphically with
Live Preview via the Shading choice in the Paragraph group of the Home tab of the Ribbon,
shown in Figure 6-16.
Additional shading options can be viewed in the Shading tab in the Borders and Shading dialog
box. In addition to color shading, you can also choose to apply patterns. Patterns often are more
useful when you’re preparing documents for grayscale printing in which shading variations
might be too subtle. To display the Borders and Shading dialog box, click the drop-down arrow
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next to the Border button in the Paragraph group of the Home tab of the Ribbon, and select
Borders and Shading (at the bottom of the list).
FIGURE 6-16
When nothing is selected, shading is applied to the whole paragraph. Unlike many other paragraph
formatting attributes, shading can be a character-formatting attribute as well.
Caution
Note that the Border button changes to the last border option you picked using the drop-down arrow.
Therefore, if the last option you picked was Borders and Shading, that’s what the main Border button
becomes (for now, anyway). n
What’s That Dot?
In Figure 6-16, notice the square dot to the left of the shaded paragraph. That dot has nothing to
do with the shading or with the fact that that paragraph is selected. The square dot appears to the
left of a paragraph when any of the following attributes are assigned to that paragraph:
l
Keep with next
l
Keep lines together
l
Page break before
l
Suppress line numbers
These options can all be found in the Line and Page Breaks tab of the Paragraph dialog box,
shown in Figure 6-15.
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Borders and Boxes
Some call them borders, some call them boxes. I call them … borders and boxes. Unlike Shading,
Borders do not provide Live Preview. You can choose from the Border control’s drop-down
options, or you can instead select the Borders and Shading option at the end of the drop-down
list to display the dialog box shown in Figure 6-17.
FIGURE 6-17
The Borders and Shading dialog box provides complete control over a paragraph’s border.
Because the drop-down doesn’t provide Live Preview, I often find working in the dialog box
to involve a bit less trial-and-error. The basic technique is to choose a box/border design (Box,
Shadow, or 3-D), and then customize as you see fit. You can click the boxes or the borders in the
Preview area to turn individual sides on or off. By alternately clicking Style, Color, or Width and
the line segments you want to format, you can even create a box with four completely different
sides. (Did I fail to mention that this chapter is about formatting, not tacky design?)
Additionally, you can adjust the distance between the border and paragraph text by clicking
Options in the lower-right corner of the dialog box. You can individually adjust the distance for
any of the four sides.
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Random Bonus Tip #1 — Sort Paragraphs
That Aren’t in a Table
You’ve seen Sort in the Paragraph group and in the Table Layout tab of the Ribbon, but you
might not know that it works on any list — even one that’s not in a table. Select the items
you want sorted, and click the Sort tool in the Home Ribbon’s Paragraph group. Or, if you’re
a keyboard junkie, try using the same menu keystrokes you used in earlier versions of Word
(Alt+A, Alt+S).
Random Bonus Tip #2 — Move
Paragraphs Easily
If you ever have two paragraphs that you need to quickly swap, don’t reach for the mouse.
Instead, put the insertion point into either paragraph and use Shift+Alt+Up or Shift+Alt+Down to
drag the current paragraph up or down so that it changes places with the other paragraph. These
are outlining keystrokes, but they work great for this sort of thing as well. You can also quickly
move rows around in tables.
Summary
In this chapter we’ve explored the ins and outs of direct paragraph formatting. You should have
also learned that anything you can do to a paragraph, you can enshrine in a style. You should
now be able to do the following:
l
Decide when to use direct formatting, and when to use a style.
l
Distinguish between paragraph-formatting attributes and other kinds of attributes.
l
Properly indent and align any paragraph, as well as determine how to find and use the
appropriate tools.
l
Apply and remove bullets and numbering.
l
Use shading and boxes to highlight paragraphs.
l
Explain at the next cocktail party what those strange square dots are at the left side of
certain paragraphs.
l
Decide when to use tabs versus when to use a table.
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CH APTER
Styles
S
tyles are the seat of power in Word — any version, not just Word
2010. Word 2007 introduced additional tools that make using styles
for formatting more powerful and more flexible. The dizzying array
of options might leave you scratching your head in wonder and amazement,
but perhaps in confusion as well. In fact, much of how Word 2010 goes
about its business might seem shrouded in mystery, since there are so many
unfamiliar elements, particularly if you leapfrogged past Word 2007.
This chapter sorts things out — solving the mysteries, reducing the confusion, and giving you a handle on which tools to use for what. It looks at
concepts and tools, such as Quick Styles and Quick Style Sets, the Style
Inspector, the Apply Styles task pane, and the Styles task pane. It ties these
features together and shows how they relate to legacy Word 2003 tools,
such as the Modify Styles dialog box and the Organizer.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding the ins and outs
of the Styles group on the
Ribbon
Using, creating, and modifying
styles
Using, creating, and modifying
Quick Style Sets
Managing styles
Inspecting styles
Styles Group
The most visible Ribbon control for applying and changing styles is the
Styles group in the Home tab of the Ribbon. Seemingly simple, the Styles
group is the tip of a rather large iceberg.
On its face are four controls, shown in Figure 7-1: the Quick Style Gallery,
Style Sets, Expand gallery, and the Dialog Box Launcher, which displays the
Styles task pane.
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Note
The word quick very likely will confuse many users. You might also notice that the term Quick Style also
applies to the gallery used for SmartArt. These are not related. One way to deal with the disconnect is to
think of them as different kinds of styles — one you apply to text elements, the other you apply to certain
kinds of graphic elements. We will look at SmartArt styles in Chapter 9, “Tables and Graphics.” n
FIGURE 7-1
The Styles group is the command and control center for styles.
Style Sets
Display Styles
task pane
Quick Style Gallery
More (Expand
gallery and display
additional options)
In a normal screen configuration and resolution, the Quick Style Gallery shows only three to eight
styles. In a very high-resolution setup with a sufficiently wide monitor, it can show up to 17 styles.
Clicking the More button shows more of the styles in the Quick Style Gallery, as shown in Figure 7-2.
If there are still more styles in the gallery, you can access them using the vertical scroll bar or by
dragging the right corner control to expand or shrink the size of the gallery.
FIGURE 7-2
The Style Gallery can be scrolled and made larger or smaller.
Scroll Style
Gallery
Drag to expand or
shrink Style Gallery
The Styles group also provides access to Style Sets. If you click Change Styles, you see additional
choices, as shown in Figure 7-3. The options shown — Clean, Default (Black and White), Distinctive,
and so on, are carefully constructed sets of styles that are coordinated to help you quickly change the
look of your document. (You’ll see where those Style Sets come from later in this chapter.)
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FIGURE 7-3
Style Sets offer additional coordinated styles to help you achieve a different look for your documents.
Notice also the Colors and Fonts controls. These tools work with themes, which aren’t the same
thing as styles. Like Style Sets, themes can be used to dramatically change the appearance of your
document. Unlike Style Sets, however, they are tied to the use of theme elements in your document. One way to think about themes is as design elements that affect the aesthetic appearance of
a document. Styles, on the other hand, are geared more to the formatting of text and paragraphs.
Note
Themes were a feature new to Word 2007 and do not work with compatibility mode documents. In the
Change Styles list, Style Set is available, but Colors and Fonts are not. These features are available not only
when you’re working with *.docx documents, but also when you’re working with Web-oriented documents
(*.mht, *.htm, *.html, etc.). Themes are explored in Chapter 8, “Page Setup and Sections.” n
The effect of different Style Sets — indeed, seeing any effect at all — depends on your having
used styles in your document. If you simply use the style Normal, then at most applying a new
Style Set will change the font. For maximum benefit from Word’s style features, you need to lay
the proper foundation, which means using styles to differentiate different kinds of text (headings,
body, captions, etc.).
Using Styles
When you first start typing in any Word document, you’re automatically using the default style.
Ordinarily, that would be Normal.
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Note
The style named Normal is wholly independent of the Word template named Normal.dotm. Normal.dotm
contains many different styles, and one of them happens to be named Normal. In fact, every Word template
contains a style named Normal. This is nothing more than an unfortunate, confusing, and creativity-challenged
choice of names. They could have named Word’s default style Base or Body, and I really wish they had. It would
make notes like this one unnecessary. Fortunately, Normal view was renamed Draft view as of Word 2007, so at
least we no longer have to deal with that added bit of confusion. n
As you type different parts of any document, you should consider applying an appropriate style. For
example, if you type a heading, consider applying a heading style to it, such as Heading 1, 2, or 3.
To do this, click the heading style in the Quick Styles Gallery, as shown in Figure 7-4. If Heading 1
isn’t showing, click the More button to the right of the Styles, also shown in Figure 7-4.
FIGURE 7-4
Click a style in the Quick Style Gallery to apply it to the current paragraph or selection.
More
Selected
paragraph
Apply Styles Task Pane
If you’re accustomed to Word 2003 or earlier, you can also apply a style in a way that’s similar. In Word
2003 you could either click in the Style drop-down tool or press Ctrl+Shift+S. There is no default Style
drop-down in Word 2010, but Ctrl+Shift+S activates the Apply Styles task pane, shown in Figure 7-5.
Once the Apply Styles task pane is visible, it can be used much like Word 2003’s Style tool.
FIGURE 7-5
Press Ctrl+Shift+S to activate the Apply Styles task pane, which is Word 2010’s substitute for pre-Ribbon
Word’s Style tool in the Formatting toolbar.
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Tip
In the preceding paragraph, I said that there is no default Style drop-down tool. However, there is one that
you can add to the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT) — it is the “classic” Style drop-down tool that appeared in
the Formatting toolbar in Word 2003 and earlier. You can use it for setting the style using the mouse. More
importantly, it displays the style assigned to the insertion point all the time, unlike the Quick Style Gallery.
To add this tool to your QAT, right-click the QAT and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar. Make sure
that For All Documents (Default) is selected in the Customize Quick Access Toolbar drop-down list. Open
the Choose Commands From drop-down list, and click Commands Not in the Ribbon. Click in the list of
commands and tap the T key. This displays the first command starting with T but also exposes all the commands beginning with Style. Click on the command named just Style. When you hover the mouse over it, the
ScreenTip says Style (StyleGalleryClassic). With Style selected, click Add to add it to the QAT. Click OK, and
you’re done. n
Creating and Modifying Styles
Often, when you use a built-in heading style, it does not suit your needs. The font or point
size might be wrong, or the spacing might be off. No problem — you can change it. Or, if you
still need the existing style but want a slightly different version for another purpose, create a
new style.
Caution
When experimenting with styles, do not experiment on the only copy of a document or template that you
have. Make a copy of the document and/or template in question and work with the copy. That way, you have
a fallback position when and if you either change your mind or make a colossal formatting mistake. n
To change an existing style, right-click the style in the Quick Style Gallery and choose Modify.
This displays the Modify Style dialog box shown in Figure 7-6. Make the desired change to the
style. If the formatting you need to change isn’t shown, click Format in the lower-left corner, and
choose from the seven different categories of formatting.
Caution
Keep Automatically Update turned off unless you absolutely need it (e.g., if your company’s policy requires
that it be used). The Automatically Update setting can bring much joy or much sorrow. If it is enabled, when
you make changes to Heading 3, for example, those changes are automatically incorporated into the style’s
definition. All other text in the document formatted with that style will automatically change to reflect the
changes in the style’s definition. If you’re using styles correctly, this can bring great joy.
If, on the other hand, you’ve misused Body Text throughout the document, applying direct formatting in various locations to make it look right, then you could be in for an unpleasant shock. Suppose a modified Body
Text style is sometimes used on a heading, other times used for a caption, and yet other times used for other
purposes. Each time you modify the Body Text style in one place, all other instances in your document will
also change, undoing your careful direct formatting. This can happen without your realizing it because the
updated instances may be miles away in another part of the document. By the time you see what’s happening,
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it might be too late for a Ctrl+Z miracle. On the bright side, the Automatically Update option does not exist
for the Normal style. This option was the cause of much grief in Word 2003 and earlier. Its post–Word 2003
removal from the Normal style has prevented a great many mishaps! n
While there is a special New Style dialog box you can use (available from the bottom of the Styles
task pane and the Manage Styles dialog box, e.g.), you aren’t limited to that method. In Figure 7-6,
where it says “Heading 3,” you can type a new style name. When you click OK, the style is created!
FIGURE 7-6
Use the Modify Style dialog box to make changes to a style.
Style-by-Example
Another way to modify a style assumes that Automatically Update is not enabled, and that Prompt
to Update Style is enabled. Choose File Í Options Í Advanced, and in the Editing options section, click to enable Prompt to Update Style. Assuming that Automatically Update is not enabled
for a given style, you can now perform what’s sometimes called style-by-example. We also need
to assume that you’re not using the Normal style, as it plays by different rules (Automatically
Update doesn’t work for Normal).
Use whatever formatting controls you like — Ribbon, keyboard shortcuts, dialog boxes, and so
on — to tweak text so that it looks the way you want. When you’ve got it looking just so, you can
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either create a new style or modify the current one. Note that you should modify a given style
only if you want all other text formatted with that style to be formatted the same way.
To create a new style, type the new style name in the Style Name box in the Apply Styles task
pane, and then press Enter to apply it.
To modify the existing style, click Reapply on the Apply Styles task pane. Or reapply the current
style using some other method, such as the Quick Style Gallery or a keyboard shortcut. Word
now prompts you with the dialog box shown in Figure 7-7. Note that you will never see this dialog box if the current style is Normal. Normal is designed to resist easy changes that might have
major unintended consequences.
FIGURE 7-7
The Advanced Word option Prompt to Update Style tells Word to prompt you when you attempt to reapply
a style (other than Normal) to text that contains formatting that differs from the current style’s settings.
Choose the Update option to redefine the current style according to the formatting in the current
selection (that’s what “recent changes” really means — it doesn’t mean “changes made in the last
week or two”). The Reapply option will undo your direct formatting and reapply the original style.
Note that Automatically Update the Style from Now On enables the Automatically Update checkbox
in the Modify Style dialog box. Think long and hard before you ever check that checkbox!
Quick Style Sets
Quick Style Sets are a potentially confusing weapon in Word’s formatting arsenal. Quick Style
Sets get their information from a set of .dotx (not macro-enabled) templates. In the Styles group
of the Home tab of the Ribbon, choose Change Styles Í Style Set and look at the names: Clean,
Default (Black and White), Distinctive, Elegant, and so on.
These sets correspond to .dotx files stored in C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\
OFFICE14\1033\QuickStyles, as shown in Figure 7-8. (The path may vary depending on
what Windows and Office builds — 64-bit versus 32-bit — and versions you have installed.)
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Note
These .dotx files contain no text or other formatting, but only style information for 135 built-in styles that
Microsoft’s designers chose to include. (No, this is not the entire list; a few notable missing styles are footnote,
endnote, header, and footer, which come from the underlying document template, rather than from the Quick
Style Set.) To see a list of these styles, copy one of the .dotx files to another file and give it an extension of .zip.
Using the technique described in Chapter 4, drill down to the Word folder and take a look at styles.xml. n
FIGURE 7-8
The Quick Style Sets are stored as .dotx files and can be changed or customized by the user.
When you apply a new Quick Style Set by choosing Change Styles Í Style Set in the Styles group
and clicking one of the displayed sets, Word replaces the style definitions in the current document
with those contained in the corresponding .dotx file. It effectively overlays a new document template over what you’re already using (even though the name of the underlying document template
does not change). All style-formatted text that uses any of the styles in the replaced Quick Style Set
is affected.
I emphasize style-formatted because if paragraphs have direct formatting applied, that formatting
will not be overridden. Only the attributes of the selected text that are applied through a style are
changed. For example, if you manually change the alignment of a series of paragraphs from centered to left-aligned, any alignment formatting in a Quick Style Set you apply will be ignored.
Modifying and Creating Quick Style Sets
Quick Style Sets are not carved into stone. You can modify the ones that Microsoft provides, and
you can create your own.
You should modify the ones that Microsoft provides, by the way, only when a built-in Quick Style
Set’s original form is something you wouldn’t be caught dead using. While you can recover the
original, it’s easier to simply use a different name, such as Classic Bert, so you recognize the variation as your own (assuming your name is Bert).
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To easily modify a set that Microsoft provides, open a document that is affected by a Quick Style
Set, and apply the Style Set you want to use, using Change Styles Í Style Set in the Styles group
of the Home tab. Next, modify any styles you want changed. Finally, choose Change Styles Í
Style Set Í Save as Quick Style Set, as shown in Figure 7-9.
FIGURE 7-9
You can modify the built-in Quick Style Sets or add your own.
In the Save Quick Style Set dialog, specify the name of the built-in set you want to modify or
override. Suppose, for example, that you want a custom version of the Elegant Quick Style Set. In
the File Name field, type Elegant (you don’t need to type the .dotx extension). Note that this will
not actually modify or overwrite the original file. Then click Save. Or, to create your own Quick
Style Set, type a new name (such as My Elegant) and choose Save.
If creating your own Style Set named Elegant doesn’t overwrite Word’s version, then how does
Word know to use yours instead of its own? As indicated earlier in this chapter, Word keeps
its own Quick Style Sets in one of the Microsoft Office Program Files folders. It saves your
Quick Style Sets, however, to the C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\
QuickStyles folder (in Windows 7). When you display the Quick Style Sets list by choosing
Change Styles Í Style Set from the Styles group, Word builds the list from a combination of the
user folder and its own folder, giving priority to any user-created Quick Style Set names that are
the same as any Quick Style Set names that ship with Word.
To revert to a Quick Style Set that comes with Word, simply delete or rename your own. In general, however, you increase your options by not giving your Quick Style Sets the same names as
those that come with Word.
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Tip
Do you have customized styles in your Normal.dotm file? (If you don’t know, then this tip does not apply
to you.) If you do, before working with Quick Style Sets, protect your original Normal.dotm Quick Style Set
by saving it as a unique Quick Style Set. To do this, press Ctrl+N to create a new document window based on
Normal.dotm. In the Styles group of the Home tab, choose Change Styles Í Style Set Í Save as Quick Style
Set. In File Name, choose a name that’s unambiguous, such as My normal dotm quick styles. n
Changing Your Mind
If you’ve been experimenting with Quick Style Sets but now want to revert either to the document’s own styles or to those of the underlying template, you probably can (if you made a backup
copy of the document and/or template, as suggested earlier, then there’s no “probably” about it).
Using the built-in Reset method, for you to be able to revert to the document’s own original styles,
the document must not have been saved and closed. Even when the document has been saved, you
often can revert to the document’s original styles as of when the document was opened by pressing Ctrl+Z repeatedly until it stops doing anything. However, if you have done a lot of editing, you
sometimes cannot Undo all the way back to the beginning of the editing session.
Assuming that you have not yet saved the document, to revert to the document styles that were
in effect at the beginning of the current editing session, choose Change Styles Í Style Set in the
Styles group of the Home tab. Click Reset Document Quick Styles, highlighted in Figure 7-10.
FIGURE 7-10
As long as the current document hasn’t been saved and closed since the last Quick Style Set change, you
can revert to the document’s original set of Quick Styles.
To be able to revert to the styles of the underlying template, you must not have saved Quick Style
Set changes to the underlying template. Otherwise, reverting won’t do anything other than reapply
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styles that are already in effect. Unlike in the document itself, where a mere Save doesn’t prevent
you from being able to go back to square one, saving to the underlying template does commit the
style changes. If you did that, see the tip at the end of the preceding section.
Assuming that you haven’t saved a Quick Style Set to your current document template, you can
revert to its styles. Choose Change Styles Í Style Set Í Reset to Quick Styles from Template
(refer to Figure 7-10) in the Styles group of the Home tab.
Styles Task Pane
Conceptually, the Styles task pane is the replacement for Word 2003’s Styles and Formatting
task pane. Shown in Figure 7-11, the Styles task pane provides some of the same functionality,
but not all. It also offers some functionality that Word 2003’s earlier task pane didn’t have.
Remember that you open this pane by clicking the Dialog Box Launcher in the Styles group
of the Home tab.
FIGURE 7-11
Right-click a style in the Styles task pane for style-specific options.
New Style
Manage Styles
Style Inspector
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In Figure 7-11, notice that the styles have three kinds of icons next to them: ¶, a, or ¶a.
The ¶ means that it’s a paragraph style only. You cannot apply it to only part of a paragraph, and
you can apply it by placing the insertion point anywhere in the target paragraph.
The a icon means that it’s a character/text style. It is applied only to selected text. You can apply
it to a single word (assuming that When Selecting, Automatically Select Entire Word is enabled
in the Editing Options section of Word Options — accessed using File Í Options). You can also
apply it to a single character or an entire document.
The ¶a icon means that the style can be used as either a character style or a paragraph style. If
nothing is selected or if parts of two or more paragraphs are selected, the style is applied to the
entire paragraph(s) touched by the selection. If only part of a single paragraph is selected, the
style is applied only to selected text.
Does this mean that Heading styles, which use ¶a, can be applied to something less than a full
paragraph? You betcha! This can be exceedingly useful when you want to include headings at the
beginning of paragraphs, particularly when you want to save vertical space in the document. This
is not a new feature, by the way; you could do it as far back as Word 2000.
The options you get when you right-click or use the drop-down arrow in the Styles task pane
vary according to Word’s Options settings as well as whether the selected style is built in or usercreated. In Figure 7-11 the built-in Heading 1 style excludes the Delete option. You cannot delete
a built-in style. You can hide it, but you can’t deep-six it.
The Update option at the top of the menu appears even if the option Prompt to Update Styles is
not enabled (File Í Options Í Advanced Í Editing Options). If you have that option turned off
but need the capability, the Styles task pane provides ad hoc access to it.
Two extremely useful options are Select All # Instance(s) and Remove All # Instance(s). The
Remove All option is extremely useful for cleaning up a document’s extraneous formatting. It
does not delete the text in question. Instead, it removes the style wherever it is used and resets
the formatting of those occurrences to the default style for the current document. Ordinarily, that
would be Normal.
The Select option is equally useful. To change a given style to a different style, you might consider using Find and Replace. Indeed, that is an option. However, it’s not necessary. Click Select
All # Instances, and then click the desired style in the Styles task pane. Or, once the instances
are selected, use manual/direct formatting to sculpt the text just the way you want it, and then
choose New Style at the bottom of the Styles task pane.
Note
In Figure 7-11, why would Select All and Remove All say “Not Currently Used” when the style is, in fact, in
use? This is an artifact of a Word Options setting. Choose File Í Options Í Advanced Í Editing Options
section and click to disable Keep Track of Formatting. Now Select All and Remove All will work. The problem
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stems from the way in which Word keeps track of formatting, which it does by making tiny incremental
changes to the underlying style. The result is that when Keep Track of Formatting is used, Word disallows the
Select All and Remove All features. n
Remove from Quick Style Gallery does not remove the style from the document. Instead, it
removes the style from the Quick Style Gallery listing of styles. If the style is not currently in
the Quick Style Gallery, the command in the pop-up will be Add to Quick Gallery instead.
Manage Styles
Another option available from the Styles task pane is the Style Manager button, which opens the
Manage Styles dialog box shown in Figure 7-12. Use this dialog box to create, modify, and (if they
are user-created) delete styles.
FIGURE 7-12
Manage Styles gives you complete control over styles.
Use the manager also as a launch pad for the Organizer, via the Import/Export button, which
enables you to copy styles between different templates and documents, as well as to rename and
delete styles. (Again, only user-created styles can be deleted.)
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Recommended Styles
The Recommend tab, shown in Figure 7-13, controls which styles show up on the list of recommended styles. The “recommended” option shows up in each of the style-related task panes, and
applies to the styles that are displayed in the Quick Style Gallery. For any style you can choose to
Show, Hide Until Used, or Hide. It’s a great way to focus the options when you want to exercise
strong control over document formatting.
FIGURE 7-13
Use the Recommend tab to control what styles show up when you restrict style controls to displaying
“recommended” styles.
In the recommended list of styles, you can apply your changes one at a time or by using standard
Windows selection techniques to select multiple styles. Note the Select All and Select Built-in
buttons, too, which enable you to quickly distinguish between Word’s standard styles and usercreated styles.
Use the Move Up/Move Down/Make Last/Assign Value tools to determine the recommended
order. You can even alphabetize them, if that makes more sense to you.
Restricted Styles
You’ve heard of the style police? Well, grab your badge! For even stronger style enforcement, the
Restrict tab lets you restrict which styles can be used. This is a good tool for designing templates
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and forms in which you want extremely tight control over the formatting of content. It’s also
useful in setting up training classes for Word, when you might want to tame the options a bit to
avoid overwhelming the novice user.
Additionally, if you want to enforce the use of only styles — and not direct formatting — the
restricted styles capability provides a way to do it. Use Limit Formatting to Permitted Styles,
shown at the bottom of Figure 7-14, to accomplish this feat. This can be useful when you’re setting up forms and templates for specific tasks for which the resulting document formatting must
adhere to strict requirements.
FIGURE 7-14
The Restrict tab enables you to make direct formatting off-limits.
By restricting formatting only to certain styles, you effectively prevent the use of direct formatting
tools. As shown in Figure 7-15, when formatting is restricted to Normal and Heading 1 through
Heading 5, most of the Font and Paragraph group controls on the Home tab of the Ribbon are
dimmed as unavailable.
Note that not only can you limit formatting only to permitted styles; you can also block Theme
and Quick Style switching. If you want to tame artistic tendencies of users whose mission statement doesn’t include using up all the colored ink or toner, this provides an avenue of attack. Did
I mention that this stuff is better than a whip?
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FIGURE 7-15
In this scenario, formatting is limited to Normal and Headings 1 through 5, which puts the Font and
Paragraph direct formatting controls off-limits.
Unrestricted formatting
Formatting restricted to
permitted styles
Style Inspector
The Style Inspector enables you to quickly determine whether the current formatting is applied
wholly through a style, or whether direct formatting is in effect. In Figure 7-16, notice that under
the paragraph and text (character) styles there is a box with the word Plus. In the lower panel it
says “Plus: <none>,” which indicates that no direct text/character formatting has been applied. In
the upper panel, however, it shows that left alignment has been applied directly, along with a left
indent of 0.38 inch and a line spacing of 1.5 lines. In the current mystery, it appears that someone mistakenly applied the Heading 3 style to regular body text and then tried to compensate
using direct formatting.
FIGU RE 7-16
The Style Inspector can help you diagnose formatting ailments.
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Summary
In this chapter we’ve explored a variety of features. You now know how to apply Quick Styles;
how to choose and modify Quick Style Sets (as well as create your own); and how to create, modify, and delete user-created styles. In addition, when a style can’t be deleted, you now know why.
You should also be able to do the following:
l
Use the Manage Styles dialog box to hide and restrict styles and direct formatting.
l
Use Apply Styles to apply, create, and modify styles.
l
Use the Styles pane to quickly select all occurrences of any given style.
l
Use the Style Inspector to solve formatting mysteries.
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CH APTER
Page Setup and Sections
T
his chapter examines some concepts that might be a bit challenging if you’re new to Word, or perhaps even if you’re not new to
Word. Grasping these concepts, however, opens up the marvelous
and potential-filled world of section formatting, which enables you to do
wonderfully creative things with your documents.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Formatting sections
Understanding page layout
Working with section breaks
Page Setup Basics
Setting page borders
To fully grasp what this part of the chapter is about, you’re going to have to
make sure that you can see section breaks and other nonprinting formatting
characters. Although some users think these characters are an eyesore and
distract from the basic business of putting words into the computer, they
should instead be viewed as flashlights that illuminate otherwise dark corners that are home to the secret and mysterious powers of Microsoft Word.
It’s time to turn on those flashlights, assuming they’re not already on.
In Figure 8-1, the upper paragraph has nonprinting formatting marks
turned on, whereas the lower paragraph has them turned off. You press
Ctrl+Shift+8 to toggle them on and off, or click the Show/Hide (¶) button in
the Paragraph section of the Home Ribbon tab. To truly understand what’s
happening in this chapter, as well as what’s happening in your documents,
you should toggle those nonprinting formatting characters on — at least for
now. From here on out in this chapter, it’s assumed that you can actually
see what’s being talked about. Otherwise you’ll miss out on all the fun, and
you’ll remain in the dark.
Understanding the header/
footer layer
Designing and navigating
headers and footers
Working with page numbers
Working with themes
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FIGURE 8-1
These two paragraphs are identical, but in the upper one, Ctrl+Shift+8 has been pressed to toggle
nonprinting formatting marks on.
Space
Paragraph
mark
Section
break
Page setup is an interesting concept in Word. It’s interesting because the phrase really isn’t
about “setting up” a page. It’s really about setting up section formatting. We’ve talked earlier
about distinct units of formatting — letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs. For Microsoft
Word, section formatting is large-scale formatting that usually affects the entire document. The
scale of section formatting is so encompassing, in fact, that it can’t be contained in styles. To
contain section formatting, you need a whole document or a whole document template.
Section Formatting
Word uses section breaks to separate distinctly formatted parts of a document. Most documents,
in fact, have just a single section. Only when you need to apply different section formatting
within the same document do you need to create a document that contains more than one
section. Different sections are necessary for variations in the following kinds of formatting:
l
Headers and Footers. Includes changes in page numbering style (except for Different
First Page settings).
l
Footnotes. Can be set to be numbered continuously or set to restart numbering on
every new page or section.
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l
Changes in Line Numbering Style. Except for suppression on a paragraph-by-paragraph
basis.
l
Margins. Indentation can vary within a section, but not margins.
l
Orientation. Landscape versus portrait (actually done through paper size).
l
Paper Size. 8.5 ⫻ 11 (letter), 8.5 ⫻ 14 (legal), 7.25 ⫻ 10.5 (executive),
A4 (210.03 ⫻ 297.03 mm), and so on.
l
Paper Source. Upper tray, envelope feed, manual feed, and so on.
l
Columns. Snaking newspaper-style columns, the number of which cannot vary within
a document section.
Section Breaks
Word uses four kinds of section breaks. What kind of break you use depends on why you’re
breaking:
l
Next Page. Causes the new section to begin on the next page.
l
Continuous. Enables the current and next section to coexist on the same page. Not all
kinds of formatting can coexist on the same page, so even if you choose Continuous,
Word will sometimes force the differently formatted content onto a new page. Section
formatting that can be different on different parts of the same page includes the number
of columns, left and right margins, and line numbering.
l
Even Page. Causes the new section to begin on the next even page. If the following page
would have been odd, then that page will be blank (unless it has header/footer content,
which can include watermarks).
l
Odd Page. Causes the new section to begin on the next odd page. If the following page
would have been even, then that page will be blank, except as noted for the Even Page
break.
If you set up a letter in which the first page is to be printed on letterhead, but subsequent pages
are to be printed on regular stock (using different paper feed methods), the first page must be in a
separate document section. If you set up a letter for which the first or last page is an envelope, the
envelope must be in a separate section — for multiple reasons, because envelopes typically use a
different printer paper source, different orientation (landscape), and different margin settings.
Inserting Section Breaks
To insert a section break, in the Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon, as shown
in Figure 8-2, click Breaks. Word displays a variety of different kinds of breaks, including the
four types of section breaks. Click the desired section break.
Tip
If you’re inserting multiple breaks of the same kind to section off part of a document to be formatted, after
inserting the first section break you can use F4 (Repeat) to insert subsequent breaks. Keep in mind that if you
do something else after inserting a break, F4 will repeat that other action rather than insert another break. n
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FIGURE 8-2
The icons next to the four section break types provide a graphic hint of what the different breaks do.
Automatic Section Breaks
Because some kinds of formatting require a section break in order to vary within a document,
Word automatically inserts one or more section breaks when you apply “qualifying” formatting
to selected text. Sometimes it gets those breaks right, sometimes not. You’ll have to be vigilant if
you’re going to rely on this feature.
For example, suppose you want an interior set of paragraphs to be formatted in three columns,
while the adjacent areas are formatted as a single column. Select the paragraphs you want
to differentiate, and in the Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon, choose
Columns Í Three Columns. Word automatically inserts Continuous section breaks before and
after the selected text to cordon it off for the distinct formatting. If you’re lucky, that’s what it
does, that is.
Sometimes, but not always, Word will insert the wrong kind of section break before and/or after
the selected text. It’s never quite clear why, but when that happens the best recourse is to press
Ctrl+Z to undo the attempt, bracket the target text with the desired type of section breaks, and
then apply the formatting to the section you want formatted differently.
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Styles, Section Formatting, and Paragraph
Formatting
Styles can contain font/character-formatting attributes and paragraph-formatting attributes.
However, they cannot contain section-formatting attributes. Therefore, for example, you cannot
create a style that would enable you to format a given selection with three columns and 1.5-inch
left and right margins. Stand by for a few minutes, however, and you’ll see how you can indeed
effectively create a style for section formatting, although it’s not really a style.
Recall that in Chapter 6, “Paragraph Formatting,” you learned that the paragraph mark is the
repository of paragraph formatting. Similarly, the section break is the repository of section formatting. If you delete a section break, the current section adopts the formatting of the section
that follows, that is, the section whose section break is still intact.
Where is the section break in a document that has only one section? In fact, most documents
have only a single section, so this is a serious and valid question. There is an implied section
break at the end of the document, so if you insert a section break into a single-section document,
the formatting for section 1 resides in that section break, and the formatting for section 2 effectively resides in the permanent paragraph mark at the end of the document.
Permanent? Yes, permanent. If you don’t believe it, with paragraph marks displayed, delete everything in a document. Now delete that last paragraph mark. You can’t do it! (You can hide it by
clicking the Show/Hide button in the Paragraph group in the Home ribbon, but that’s cheating,
because it’s not really gone.)
Saving Section Formatting for Reuse
If section formatting can’t reside in a style, then how can you save it for later use? Suppose you
often use a very precise set of section formatting attributes — margins and columns, for example — and want to save them for use in other documents. There is a way, but it doesn’t involve
using what’s traditionally called a style. Instead, use a Quick Part or a Building Block.
To do this, insert section breaks — Continuous or Next Page, as needed — to bracket the area to
be formatted. Format the first section break in as vanilla or typical a way as possible. This first
section break will be used to shield existing text from the new formatting when the Building
Block or Quick Part is inserted into an existing document. If it’s inserted at the beginning of a
document, the vestigial section break can then be deleted.
Format the area between the first section break and the second as needed (see the next section,
“Page Setup Choices,” to learn about a handy all-in-one-place location to set section formatting,
or display the Page Layout tab).
Finally, select both section breaks and the interior matter (it doesn’t have to contain text because
section formatting resides in the section break), and choose Insert Í Text Í Quick Parts Í
Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery. In the Create New Building Block dialog box, in the Name
box, type a descriptive name for the item as well as a longer description. If you’ll need this item
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frequently, save it to the Quick Parts Gallery. (Otherwise, you might as well save it as AutoText.)
Use the Category drop-down setting to choose Create New Category. In the Create New Category
dialog box, as shown on the right in Figure 8-3, type a category name that you can later recall to
access all your custom section formatting. Click OK, twice.
FIGURE 8-3
Use Quick Parts or Building Blocks to create reusable section styles.
Now, whenever you want this particular kind of formatting, it’s there waiting for you. Choose
Insert Í Text Í Quick Parts, and if it’s in the Quick Parts Gallery, click it to insert it. If it’s in
AutoText or elsewhere, choose the Building Blocks Organizer. Click the Category heading to sort
by category, select the item, and then click Insert. Or, if it’s a simple name, type it and press F3.
Or press Enter when the AutoComplete tip appears, assuming AutoComplete tips are turned on:
File Í Options Í Advanced Í Editing Options (last one in the list).
Page Setup Choices
For access to section formatting, click the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon. The Page Setup group
provides access to several section formatting attributes, as well as to the Page Setup dialog box, as
shown in Figure 8-4. (Click the group’s Dialog Box Launcher to display it.) The Page Setup group
also contains Hyphenation, which is not a section-formatting attribute. As discussed in Chapter 6,
hyphenation is a paragraph-formatting attribute. (The Margins and Paper tabs of the Page Setup
dialog box are shown in later figures.)
Tip
If the Page Layout tab isn’t selected, you can also activate the Page Setup dialog box by double-clicking the
vertical ruler, if it’s displayed, or even by double-clicking the left edge of the Word window in the document
area (i.e., anywhere below the horizontal ruler and above the horizontal scroll bar). n
If you click the Line Numbers drop-down arrow, note that the fi fth option — Suppress for
Current Paragraph, shown in Figure 8-5 — actually is inaccurate. The feature should say
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Suppress for Selected Paragraphs. If you choose this option, line numbers for the current paragraph (even if no text is selected) or for the entire selection are suppressed.
FIGURE 8-4
The Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon provides access to section formatting and the
Page Setup dialog box.
FIGURE 8-5
Suppress for Current Paragraph suppresses line numbering for the current paragraph or all paragraphs in the
current selection.
Margins
Using the Margins drop-down in the Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab, shown in Figure 8-6,
you can apply a variety of different preset margin settings. If the document contains multiple sections, each of the presets will be applied only to the current document section if nothing is selected,
or only to the selected sections if multiple sections are included in the selection.
If you want more precise control, choose Custom Margins, which opens the Page Setup dialog
box to the Margins tab, shown in Figure 8-7. From here you can control all margins as needed
and apply the change where you want. If text is selected, then Selected Sections and Selected Text
replace This Section and This Point Forward, respectively, in the Apply To drop-down list.
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FIGURE 8-6
The Margins drop-down offers a selection of preset margins, including the Office 2003 Default, just in case
you want to reminisce.
You can also adjust the top and bottom margins by dragging the gray-and-white boundary in the
vertical ruler to the left of the document window (depending on your Color Scheme choice in
the General settings in the Word Options dialog box, you might see shades of blue or some other
color rather than gray). To increase the top margin, drag the top border down. To increase the
bottom margin, draw the bottom border up. In either case, press the Alt key to display the margin setting as you’re dragging.
Orientation
Orientation refers to whether the page is laid out horizontally (Landscape) or vertically (Portrait — the
default orientation). You might sometimes need to rotate a page to Landscape in order to fit a
particular picture, chart, table, or other object. It should be emphasized, however, that making a
single page Landscape carries with it many consequences that might be considerably worse and
harder to deal with than trying to find a way to rotate the object itself.
Consider page numbers and other header and footer content. If the whole page is changed to
Landscape, then the header and footer now rotate as well. To have the headers and footers located
in the correct positions relative to Portrait-oriented pages takes a bit of strategizing. The usual
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approach is to set up different headers and footers for the solitary Landscape page. To get the orientation correct, you might consider putting the header and footer material into either a textbox
or a single-cell borderless table in which the text has been rotated 90 degrees.
FIGURE 8-7
Using the Margins tab of the Page Setup dialog box, you can control how/where the new
formatting is applied.
Alternatively, you can keep the orientation as Portrait and rotate the table, chart, or picture instead.
For pictures and charts, rotation isn’t challenging. With Wrapping (Picture Tools Format tab of the
Ribbon, in the Arrange group) set to anything other than In Line with Text, simply rotate the picture or chart 90 degrees using the rotation handle.
Tables are a bit more challenging, but you have several options. If you’re just now creating the
table, select the entire table and in the Table Tools Layout tab, Alignment group, click Text
Direction to rotate the text so that it can be read if you tilt your head to the right or left. Keep in
mind that columns and rows are reversed. It’s not necessarily easy to work this way, but it can be
done, as shown in Figure 8-8.
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FIGURE 8-8
With all text in a table rotated 90 degrees, it’s possible to create a sideways table, rather than have to
change orientation within a document.
Another option would be to copy the table to the clipboard, choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste
Í Paste Special, and paste the table into the document as a picture. Because it’s now a picture,
you can choose any floating wrapping style and then rotate the table as needed so that it fits comfortably, but sideways, in a Portrait-oriented Word document page. As above, headers and footers
will display in Portrait mode because you haven’t changed the paper orientation.
The downside is that sometimes the graphics resolution of this technique isn’t perfect. You’ll have
to decide if it’s acceptable and legible. Plus, to make changes in the table, you need to maintain a
copy of the actual table and remake the conversion as needed.
Another negative is that once you’ve done this to a table, you won’t be able to edit it anymore. If
you decide to go this route, you might consider saving the non-graphic version of the table as a
Building Block in the current template. This way it will still be accessible if you need to modify it.
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A variation on this approach, if the table fits into a window from which you can copy it, is to use
screen-capture software to take a picture of the table. This approach often yields more predictable
and better-quality graphics, but it has the same drawbacks as the previous approach, and you must
have a sufficiently large monitor and amenable screen-capture software (such as the Snipping Tool
built into Windows 7 or SnagIt, from www.TechSmith.com, which is highly flexible).
Size
Size refers to paper size. Several preset standard sizes are available from the Size drop-down in
the Page Setup group of the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon, as shown in Figure 8-9. Clicking
More Paper Sizes displays the Paper tab in the Page Setup dialog box. Although it says “More
Paper Sizes,” that’s not actually what you get. The more refers to the Custom Size setting at the
bottom of the Paper Size list, which enables you to set any size up to 22 inches. This assumes that
your printer supports something that large.
FIGURE 8-9
Click More Paper Sizes to display the Paper tab in the Page Setup dialog box.
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Columns
Use the Columns tool in the Page Setup group on the Page Layout tab of the Ribbon to set the
number of columns either in the current section or in all sections in the current selection if text is
selected.
Page Layout Settings
We’ve already looked at the Margins and Paper tabs in the Page Setup dialog box. The Layout tab,
visible in Figure 8-10, houses additional settings, some of which often go unnoticed. Headers and
Footers settings are also set in the Layout tab; see “Header and Footer Navigation and Design”
later in this chapter for a full discussion.
FIGURE 8-10
The Different Odd and Even and Different First Page header/footer settings enable you to set different
headers and footers without using another section break.
If the Page Layout tab is selected, the quickest way to display the Layout tab of the Page Setup dialog
box is to click Line Numbers Í More Line Numbering in the Page Setup group, even if you’re not
interested in line numbering. If the Page Layout tab isn’t showing, you can double-click on the
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vertical ruler or between the horizontal ruler and the bottom of the ribbon area to display the Page
Setup dialog box, and then click the Layout tab.
Fixing or Changing a Section Break
The Section Start setting shown in Figure 8-10 is a bit cryptic and confusing to many users, but
it can be extremely useful. Have you ever ended up with the wrong kind of section break? For
example, suppose you want a Continuous section break, but you have a New Page, Odd, or Even
section break instead. This can happen either because you inserted the wrong kind of break or
because Word inserted the wrong kind of break automatically.
The ordinary impulse is to delete the wrong one and insert the kind you want. Sometimes, however, despite your best efforts, you still end up with the wrong kind of break.
To cure this, put the insertion point into the section that is preceded by the wrong kind of break.
Activate the Page Setup dialog box using any of the techniques described earlier. Click the Layout
tab to display the dialog box view shown in Figure 8-10. Set Section Start to the kind of section
break you want, and click OK.
Vertical Page Alignment
Another often-unnoticed feature in Word is the Vertical Alignment setting on the Layout tab of
the Page Setup dialog box. By default, Word sets the vertical alignment to Top, and most users
never discover the additional options shown in Figure 8-11. Because it is a section formatting
attribute, you can set vertical alignment for the whole document or just for selected sections.
FIGURE 8-11
Word provides four different types of vertical page alignment.
Vertical alignment can be extremely useful for particular parts of a publication — such as the
title page for a format report, booklet, or book — as well as for short letters, brochures, newsletters, and flyers. For title pages, setting the vertical alignment to Centered is almost always more
efficient than trying to insert the right number of empty paragraphs above the top line, or trying
to set the Spacing Before to just the right amount (in the Paragraph group of the Page Layout tab
of the Ribbon). For one-page notices, vertical alignment is also often just what the doctor ordered.
For some newsletters and other page-oriented publications, setting the alignment to Justified
serves a couple of purposes. Not only does it make the most use of the whole sheet of paper, but
it adjusts line spacing to do it. Hence the appearance is smoother than it might be otherwise.
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This setting also lets you optimize the point size if you want to make the font as large as possible
without spilling onto another page.
Page Borders
The last Page Setup setting we’ll look at is page borders. A page border is a line, a set of lines, or
decorative artwork that appears around the perimeter of the page. You see them a lot on title
pages as well as on flyers and brochures.
To insert a page border, in the Page Layout tab of the Ribbon, choose Page Borders in the Page
Background group, which displays the dialog box shown in Figure 8-12. The dialog box offers
the same options you saw earlier in Chapter 6, “Paragraph Formatting,” under “Borders and
Boxes.” In addition, however, you have more than 150 Art options you can use to create decorative borders, although some of these might look pretty cheesy compared to the professional
graphics you can create with SmartArt.
FIGURE 8-12
For page borders, you can insert a variety of different lines, or choose from more than 150 built-in
Art items.
For placing a border around a title page, you can set Apply to This Section — First Page Only.
Other options here are Whole Document, This Section, and This Section — All Except First Page.
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To control the placement of the page border with respect to the edge of the text or paper, click Options
to open the Border and Shading Options dialog box, shown in Figure 8-13. Note that when you’re
setting page borders, paragraph-related options are grayed out. Using the Measure From box, you
can set the distance of the page border either from the text or from the edge of the paper.
FIGURE 8-13
Use Border and Shading Options if your page border crowds the text too much.
The Header and Footer Layer
When you’re working in Print Layout view, any text in the header and footer layer usually shows
up as grayish text at the top, bottom, or side of your document. To access those areas, doubleclick where you want to edit — even if you don’t see any text there. This brings the header and
footer areas to the surface, as shown in Figure 8-14.
Headers and footers also display in the Print Preview in Backstage view. There, however, because
the view is supposed to represent what you’ll see when the document is printed, the header and
footer areas aren’t gray and isolated. The same is true in Full Screen Reading view. Note that in
the Print Preview and Full Screen Reading view, you cannot perform normal editing — neither to
normal text nor to text in headers and footers. In Full Screen Reading view, however, you can insert
comments. This chapter assumes that you are working in Print Layout view, so that all kinds of
editing are possible. If you don’t see what’s shown in the screen shots, then check your view setting.
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FIGURE 8-14
Header and Footer tabs clarify what and where headers and footers are. With headers and footers open for
editing, the document body text turns gray.
Document Sections
Figure 8-14 indicates the document section number in the Header and Footer tabs at the left end
of each area. Word documents can be single-section or multi-section. You might use multiple sections for a variety of reasons, particularly in long documents. Some users place each chapter of
a document in a separate section, with additional sections being used for front matter (tables of
contents, tables of figures, foreword, etc.) and back matter (index, glossary, etc.).
Section formatting enables you to use different kinds of numbering for different sections. It also
allows different header and footer text in different sections. For example, the header or footer
might include the name of each chapter, or the word Index or Glossary.
Header and Footer Navigation and Design
Word provides several different tools that enable you to control the way headers and footers are
displayed and formatted. In this section you’ll learn what those are and where to fi nd them in
Word 2010.
Editing the Header and Footer Areas
The main set of controls is contained in the Header & Footer Tools Design tab of the Ribbon,
shown in Figure 8-15. To display the tab, double-click the header or footer area in a document.
Or, from the Insert tab, choose Header Í Edit Header (or Footer Í Edit Footer) in the Header &
Footer group. Once the header/footer layer is open for editing, either the header or footer can be
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edited, as can items inserted into the side area (e.g., page numbers in the side margins),
as well as watermarks.
FIGURE 8-15
The Header & Footer Tools Design tab on the Ribbon provides complete control over headers and footers.
Notice the Go to Header and Go to Footer commands in the Navigation group of the tab. You
can use those commands to quickly switch back and forth between the header and footer areas,
but, as suggested by Figure 8-14, both areas are equally accessible. You do not need to click Go to
Header or Go to Footer — you can simply click where you want to edit.
Note
Although header and footer material can reside in the side margins, you cannot open the header or footer
area for editing by double-clicking in the side margins. The double-click method for opening headers and
footers works only in the top and bottom margin areas. n
Header and Footer Styles
By default, Word’s headers and footers use built-in paragraph styles named Header and Footer.
Each is formatted with a center tab and a right-aligned tab to facilitate placement of text and
other items. This enables you to have three distinct components, one each at the left, center,
and right within the header or footer, without having to resort to using a table, textbox, or other
device (although tables and textboxes are perfectly acceptable in headers and footers).
For example, to create a header with a left-adjusted document name, a centered date, and a rightadjusted author’s name, you would enter the document name, press Tab, enter the date, press
Tab, and finally type the author’s name, as shown in Figure 8-16.
FIGURE 8-16
The default header style makes three-part headers easy.
Section Surfing
When editing the header/footer layer of a document, you can use the mouse or keyboard keys to
navigate as needed. As long as you don’t double-click in the text area of the document, the header
and footer area remains open for business.
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In a long document that contains many sections, however, scrolling can be tedious and imprecise. For greater control and precision, you can use the Previous Section and Next Section tools
in the Navigation group of the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
Note
When the header and footer areas are open for editing, the Browse Object’s Next Section and Previous
Section buttons located at the base of the vertical scroll bar will not have the expected effects. Yes, they
move you to the next and previous sections, but they also switch the focus back to the main text layer. n
Link to Previous
Different document sections can contain different headers and footers. When Link to Previous is
selected for any given header or footer, that header or footer is the same as that for the previous
section. By default, when you add a new document section, its headers and footers inherit the
header and footer settings of the previous section.
To unlink the currently selected header or footer from the header or footer in the previous section
(which will allow the current section to maintain a distinct header or footer), click Link to Previous
in the Navigation group of the Header & Footer Tools Design tab to toggle it off. Observe the difference between the upper and lower Link to Previous buttons shown in Figure 8-17.
FIGURE 8-17
Link to Previous is a toggle that can be turned on or off independently for the header and footer in each
document section.
Note that headers and footers in any section have independent Link to Previous settings. While
Link to Previous initially is turned on for all new sections that are created, when you turn it off
for any given header, the corresponding footer remains linked to the previous footer. This gives
you additional control over how document information is presented.
Different First Page
Most formal reports and, indeed, many other formal documents do not use page numbers on
the first page. To keep users from having to make such documents multi-section documents,
Word lets you set an exception for the fi rst page of each document section. To enable this
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option for any given document section, display a header or footer in that section and click the
Different First Page option in the Options group of the Header & Footer Tools Design tab
(refer to Figure 8-15).
In a way, this is like a “link to previous” option that you can apply to different document sections. Unlike with Link to Previous, however, there is no telltale toggle tool to tell you the setting
for the current section. Instead, there’s a checkbox that indicates whether the option is turned on
or off. As you navigate across different header and footer areas in a multi-section document, the
checkmark appears or disappears to indicate the setting for the current section. Also unlike with
the Link to Previous option, Different First Page cannot be different for the header and the footer.
You cannot suppress just one. To accomplish that you would need distinct document sections
(separated by a section break).
Different Odd & Even Pages
You can, without using section breaks, instruct Word to maintain different headers and footers
on odd and even pages. This feature is often used in book/booklet printing, where the header/
footer always appears closest to the outside edge of the paper — on the left for left-hand pages,
and on the right for right-hand pages. The Different Odd & Even Pages checkbox, also in the
Options group of the Header & Footer Tools Design tab, works in the same way as the Different
First Page option and is set per section, not individually for each header and footer.
Show Document Text
Sometimes having document text showing is useful and helps provide a frame of reference for
headers and footers. At other times, however, it can be distracting and can make it harder to
identify header and footer text, particularly if you’re actually using gray fonts in the header or
footer area. Displayed text also can make it difficult to access graphics that are stored in the
header or footer layer.
By default, Show Document Text is enabled. To hide document text, click to remove the check mark
next to Show Document Text in the Options group of the Header & Footer Tools Design tab.
Distance from Edge of Paper
Headers and footers are printed in the margin area. The margin is the area between the edge of
the paper and the edge of the text layer in the body of the document. If the header or footer is
too tall for a given page, Word reduces the height of the text layer on the fly so that the header or
footer can be printed. That is, it will be printed if the distance between the top of the header or
the bottom of the footer and the respective edge of the paper is as large as the nonprintable areas
of the paper.
Printers have a nonprintable area around the perimeter of the paper. This is an area in which it is
mechanically impossible for a given printer to print. Windows’ printer drivers do a good job of
calculating the margin so that the printer does not try to print in the nonprintable region. When
the margin is too small, Word will warn you.
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Word does not warn you, however, if the header or footer extends too far into the margin. When
this happens, all or part of the header or footer is cut off. Everything might look fine in the Print
Preview in Backstage view and there is no warning, but part of the footer or header will be printed
in the “twilight zone.”
You can rein the document in using the Header from Top and Footer from Bottom settings in the
Header & Footer Tools Design tab’s Position group. If you find that the header or footer is being
cut off, determine how much is being cut off and make that much additional allowance. For
example, if 0.25 inch of text is being cut off of the footer, then increase Footer from Bottom by
that amount.
Adding Header and Footer Material
You can put a variety of things into headers and footers, ranging from filenames and various
other document properties (author, title, date last printed/modified, etc.) to page numbers and
even watermarks. Inserting most text and graphics that will actually be printed in the top or
bottom margin is straightforward. There are some special cases, however, such as page numbers,
side margin matter, and background images and watermarks that require special attention.
Page Numbers
A common use for headers and footers is to display page numbers. To include page numbers in
Word 2010, several methods are available — some new as of Word 2007, and some legacy. This
section focuses mostly on the new ways because they provide extraordinary ease, flexibility, and
variety not found in pre-Ribbon Word (2003 and earlier). When the legacy ways are best, however, that’s where we’ll turn.
Insert Page Numbers
Inserting page numbers in Word has never been easier. First, decide where you want the page
numbers to appear (top, bottom, or side margin). Then click anywhere on the first page in the
document section where you want the number to appear. As noted earlier, documents can contain multiple sections, and each section can have independent headers and footers, which means
they also can be numbered independently.
In the Insert tab’s Header & Footer group, use the Page Number drop-down, as shown in
Figure 8-18, and choose Top of Page, for example.
Select the option that corresponds to where you want the page number to appear:
l
Top of Page
l
Bottom of Page
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l
Page Margins (see “Where Do Page Margin Numbers Really Go?” a little later in this
section)
l
Current Position (use this option when the insertion point is already exactly where you
want the page number to appear)
FIGURE 8-18
Word 2010 has extensive galleries with a variety of page number formats from which to choose.
The bottom of the page is the most common choice for word processing documents, but there are
times when the top or side works better for a particular document. Select the desired destination.
Word displays several preset page number options.
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When you find a Page Number Gallery item that suits your fancy, click it to insert the page number into the header or footer (according to which option you chose to get here). Note that you can
also right-click the gallery item to see additional options, which are shown in Figure 8-19.
FIGURE 8-19
Right-click a Page Number Gallery item for additional options.
To see the true nature of a Page Number Gallery item, right-click it and choose Edit Properties.
Where Do Page Margin Numbers Really Go?
When you insert the page number in the page margin, Word 2010 inserts it into the header as a
floating textbox to which a page field code was added. If you try to double-click that page number, nothing happens!
You can, however, use the Select Objects tool (in the Editing group in the Home tab of the
Ribbon, choose Select Í Select Objects), which can grasp any graphic.
Another way to bring the number into reach is to edit the header. In the Header & Footer group
of the Insert tab, choose Header Í Edit Header. You can now click the side page number and edit
to your heart’s content.
Deleting Page Numbers
To delete page numbers, move to the document section that contains the numbering you want
to remove. In the Header & Footer group of the Insert tab, click Page Number Í Remove Page
Numbers.
Remove Page Numbers removes all page numbers from headers and footers in the current section — including those in the side margins. It does not remove page numbers from other document sections.
Formatting Page Numbers
You can choose the page numbering format before or after you insert a page number. On the
Insert tab of the Ribbon, choose Page Number Í Format Page Numbers, to display the Page
Number Format dialog box, shown in Figure 8-20. Options are explained in Table 8-1.
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FIGURE 8-20
Word provides flexible page numbering options.
TABLE 8-1
Page Number Options
Option
Purpose
Number
format
Specifies numbering scheme: 1, 2, 3; A, B, C; a, b, c; I, II, III; or i, ii, iii. Provides an
additional option to bracket Arabic numbers with dashes (to bracket others, edit the
header or footer directly, as shown later in this chapter).
Include
chapter
number
Applies a chapter numbering scheme such as I-1, II-5, III-43, where I, II, and III are
chapter numbers and chapters are formatted in a Heading 1 through Heading 9 style,
with numbering included in the style definition.
Chapter starts
with style
Available only if “Include chapter number” is enabled. For this option to work, chapter
numbers must be formatted in a Heading 1 through Heading 9 style, and numbering
must be included in the style.
Use separator
Specifies the separator to use between chapter and page numbers.
Continue
from previous
section
Indicates whether the current section’s numbering is connected with that of the
previous section. Use this option when distinct sections are being used for a
reason other than to create distinct numbering, such as when switching sections to
accommodate changes from Portrait to Landscape and back again.
Start at
Use this to specify a starting number other than 1.
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Additional options that affect page numbers, such as whether headers or footers are displayed on
the first page of a document or document section, were discussed earlier in this chapter, under
“Different First Page.”
Themes
Before you leave the overall topic of formatting Word documents, you should consider one last
formatting quick change you can make in a document — changing its theme.
Note
Note also that the Themes feature set does not work in Compatibility Mode. There is no mechanism for storing Word 2010 theme information in the standard Word 97–2003 document format, even though Word 2003
has its own different brand of theme formatting. n
What Are Themes?
Themes are coordinated sets of colors, fonts, table formats, and other graphic elements used to
change the overall look of a document while leaving its content unchanged. Word 2010 comes
with more than three dozen built-in themes.
The use of themes hinges on using certain Word 2010 formatting features in a particular way.
Unless a given document has been designed to use theme elements, you might quickly conclude
that themes are broken. They are not.
Another important thing to know about themes is that they are not part of style formatting. There
is no way to associate or assign a theme with a particular style. Themes are applied to the entire
document, wholly apart from styles.
Each overall theme encompasses three different elements:
l
Theme Colors. Controls the colors used in tables, graphic objects, and some other
document elements like headers and footers.
l
Theme Fonts. Controls the heading and body fonts used in the document.
l
Theme Effects. Controls whether certain document elements use effects like glows
or shadows.
Using Built-In Themes
The themes appear in a gallery, and when Live Preview is enabled, you can try on themes for
the document before applying the one you want. To change the theme, click the Page Layout
tab on the Ribbon, and then click the Themes button in the Themes group. Move the mouse
pointer over various themes to preview the look each applies (Figure 8-21), and then click the
theme to apply.
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FI GURE 8-21
Choosing a theme updates the colors and fonts in the document.
Notice that there are three additional buttons in the Themes group. These are the Theme Colors,
Theme Fonts, and Theme Effects buttons, respectively, and you can use them to change overall
factors of the document’s appearance without changing the whole theme. You can save any combination of Theme Colors, Theme Fonts, and Theme Effects settings as a new overall document
theme; to start the process, click the Themes button and then click the Save Current Theme
choice at the bottom of the gallery that appears.
Summary
In this chapter, you’ve learned about the difference between section and paragraph formatting,
and exactly what section formatting is. You now know how to create new document sections, as
well as why you might want to. You’ve also learned what headers and footers are, what they’re
used for, how to use them, and how to navigate them. You finished by seeing how applying a new
theme can polish the look of your document. You should now be able to do the following:
l
Convert a next page section break into a continuous section break, and vice versa.
l
Vertically align a section of a document.
l
Change the paper size and paper feed for the envelope section of a document.
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l
Place decorative or line borders around specific pages.
l
Create page numbers in your documents.
l
Edit headers and footers.
l
Apply a new theme.
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CH APTER
Tables and Graphics
T
ables are one of Word’s most powerful and useful tools. They’re
extremely flexible and easy to create and manipulate, both directly
and via the Ribbon. Thanks to a gaggle of galleries, it’s easy to create
professional-looking tables quickly and with minimal effort. Live Preview
comes to life when it comes to working with tables.
This chapter won’t help you decide whether to include pictures. It won’t tell
you what pictures to use. It will, however, show you where to find pictures
if you don’t have any, how to insert pictures and other graphics, how to
work with pictures once they’re in your document, and how to negotiate
the precarious relationship between pictures and text.
So, pull up a chair!
IN THIS CHAPTER
Creating a table quickly
Creating tables from scratch
Using table styles
Handling tables, rows, columns,
and cells
Understanding table layout
and design
Inserting pictures from files
Finding pictures on the Internet
Quick Start
Working with graphics
The quickest way to create a table in Word is to use one that already exists.
It might not be exactly what you want, but it often will be closer to what
you want than if you create one from scratch. It helps if you can see a picture, of course, and Word 2010 includes many images of tables. From the
Insert tab on the Ribbon, choose Table Í Quick Tables for a view similar to
what is shown in Figure 9-1.
Using clip art
Using Word 2010’s
SmartArt tools
Scroll through the gallery to see if there’s something you like — something
that compares favorably with the table in your mind’s eye. If there is, click
on it. If it has too many rows, you can delete the ones you don’t need. If it
has too few columns, you can add a few more. If the proportions and other
attributes aren’t quite right, you can use Word’s table tools to make them
right. The point is that you hit the ground running.
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FIGURE 9-1
The Quick Tables Gallery offers several pre-formatted tables.
Table Basics
One way to think about a table is as a container for information. The container consists of
horizontal rows and vertical columns. If someone speaks of a five-by-four (5 4) table, by
convention and agreement this refers to a table that is five columns wide and four rows high.
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If the terminology is foreign to you, think of rows as you would rows of seats in a theater. Think
of columns as vertical columns on a building. Rows go across, and columns go up and down.
Inserting Tables from Scratch
There are three basic methods for creating a table from scratch. One is to use the Table tool to select
the numbers of rows and columns you want. On the Insert tab of the Ribbon, click Table in the
Tables group. After you release the mouse button, drag the mouse down through the table grid. As
you move the mouse, the selected table dimensions change, and Word shows a Live Preview in the
document window, as shown in Figure 9-2. Click the mouse when you see what you want.
FIGURE 9-2
When a 5 4 table is selected in the Table tool grid, a 5 4 Live Preview appears in the
document window.
Cell marker
Table borders
A second method for creating a table from scratch is by using the Insert Table dialog box. To get
its attention, choose Table Í Insert Table in the Tables group of the Insert tab of the Ribbon. As
shown in Figure 9-3, you choose the number of columns and rows, select an AutoFit behavior,
and click OK. If you’d like Word to remember to default to the dimensions you choose, then click
the Remember Dimensions for New Tables option.
Tip
When nonprinting formatting marks are displayed (Ctrl+Shift+8), cell markers display in each cell, showing
where the cells are, as indicated in Figure 9-2. Toggling the cell markers reveals the location for table cells
in a table without borders when no gridlines are displayed. Cell markers, incidentally, display whenever
paragraph marks do. n
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FIGURE 9-3
If your hands aren’t steady, use the old-fashioned dialog box to choose the number of columns and rows
using spin controls.
The third method for inserting a table from scratch is to draw it using the Draw Table tool. To
begin, choose Insert Í Tables Í Table Í Draw Table. Drag a rectangle to inscribe the outer
boundary of your table shell, and then use the Draw Table tool (or pen) to carve out the desired
cells. Use the tools in the Table Tools Design tab’s Draw Borders group to set line style, weight,
and color for the table borders. Use the Eraser tool to remove unwanted table parts. See “Borders
and Table Drawing” and “The Table Eraser” later in this chapter for additional information.
AutoFit Behavior
Notice the AutoFit Behavior options shown in Figure 9-3. These same AutoFit options are also
available from the right-click menu, as shown in Figure 9-4. Keep this in mind if you need to
change the formatting once a table is fully populated.
The Fixed Column Width option is straightforward enough. When you choose this option, the
column widths remain fi xed unless you explicitly change them by dragging or by using some
other method. Note that fixed is not the same as equal. The column widths might be equal also,
but that’s a different concept.
The middle option — AutoFit to Contents — is a formatting attribute that causes a table to automatically resize as you add or remove material. It’s not a temporary setting, so don’t freak out
when the table acts as if it were made out of elastic when you add or remove text in existing cells.
The third option — AutoFit to Window — is misnamed. It should be “AutoFit to left and right
margins.” This option means that the table will remain as wide as the document text itself,
regardless of how much text you stuff into the cells. If you add text disproportionately to any
given column, that column will automatically resize, making the other columns correspondingly
narrower. But the table itself will maintain the width of the document text.
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FIGURE 9-4
When the insertion point is inside a table, table-related options are displayed on the right-click menu.
Inserting Tables Based on Existing Data
As suggested elsewhere in this book, there is a correspondence between the word tab and the
word table. Although the proportion of the word processing population that was raised on typewriters is rapidly dwindling, many of us still survive in the wild. Those who took typing classes
learned how to fashion tables using the tab stops and the Tab key. Tab stops are metal hardware
on a typewriter that literally stop the carriage when you press the Tab key.
Microsoft knows that tab and table both have the same root. As a result, Word can readily convert your tab-delineated tables into real tables. The easiest way begins with selecting the “table”
(although it might look like a table, Word doesn’t agree). In the Tables group on the Insert tab of
the Ribbon, click Table Í Insert Table. Word instantly determines how many rows and columns
there are and encloses your data in a table. As shown in Figure 9-5, the results are basic, but
functional. For example, although you often end up with the expected number of rows and
columns, one or both might be too wide.
You can fi x the width problem easily. Right-click anywhere in the table and choose AutoFit Í
AutoFit to Contents (refer to Figure 9-4).
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FIGURE 9-5
Word easily converts a tabbed “table” into an actual Word table.
Note
There are other methods for converting text to tables, but they all take more effort. For example, you can
create a table shell (an empty table) that fits the dimensions of the data you have, select it, and then drag
your tabbed data into it. n
Convert Text to Table Dialog Box
Alternatively, you can use the Convert Text to Table dialog box as an intermediary. Select the
data to be converted, and choose Table Í Convert Text to Table in the Tables group of the Insert
tab. This displays the Convert Text to Table dialog box, shown in Figure 9-6.
This method doesn’t produce instant results, but it does let you set the AutoFit behavior ahead
of time, as well as choose a different column delimiter if the one Word guesses (usually tabs) is
incorrect.
It’s also a useful diagnostic tool when the quick method illustrated earlier yields unexpected
results, such as more or fewer columns than you expected. When you get the wrong table dimensions, press Ctrl+Z, investigate the data, make any corrections, and try again.
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FIGURE 9-6
The Convert Text to Table dialog box guesses how many rows and columns to create.
You can get the wrong number of columns if there are too many tabs (sometimes obscured as a
result of formatting issues) or if some rows use spaces instead of tabs to achieve the table look.
Figure 9-5 demonstrates the utility of displaying nonprinting formatting characters, such as tabs.
In this case, the user relied on built-in tab stops rather than setting a custom tab in the tabbed
table. As a result, alignment required two tabs for some of the shorter items (Books, Pens, and
Pencils), and only one tab for each of the others. The result confuses Word, which assumes that
there are three columns, rather than two. When this happens, dismiss the dialog box, find and
remove the extra tabs, and try again. Don’t worry about setting a properly aligned tab, because
you’re converting the tabbed data into a table anyway; the table will handle the alignment for you.
Convert Table to Text Dialog Box
What goes around comes around. Sometimes it’s necessary or useful to convert an existing table
to text. You might want to do this if the data needs to be provided to someone else in a different
form. Some statistical programs will accept CSV (comma-separated values) data, but not Word
tables. Or you might simply find it easier to manipulate the data in text form and then transform
it back into a table. Whatever the reason, it’s easy.
First, save your document (because it’s easy to make mistakes too). Next, select the table you
want to convert. On the Table Tools Layout tab of the Ribbon, click Convert to Text in the Data
group at the right. In the Convert Table to Text dialog box, choose the desired horizontal delimiter and then click OK. Note that if the table contains nested tables, then the Convert Nested
Tables option will be available.
Handling Tables
Word tables feature several kinds of handles and mouse pointers that enable you to manipulate and select cells, rows, columns, and entire tables. The table handle, shown in Figure 9-7,
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is displayed only when part of the table is selected, and only when all formatting marks are
displayed (File Í Options Í Display Í Show All Formatting Marks). Row- and column-sizing
handles, on the other hand, are not affected by the display setting.
FIGURE 9-7
Handles enable you to resize rows and columns by dragging, as well as to select and move whole tables.
Table handle
Row-sizing handle
Use the row-sizing handle to drag the row to make it larger or smaller. Press the Alt key while
dragging to display the measurements on the vertical ruler (even if the vertical ruler currently is
not displayed).
You can resize columns in a similar way by dragging the column-sizing handles (they look like
the row handles flipped 90°). Again, pressing the Alt key while dragging displays the measurements, this time on the horizontal ruler, enabling you to drag with a little more precision. You
can modify the results by pressing the Ctrl (control) or Shift keys while dragging. Experiment to
see which method yields the desired results. Remember: Ctrl+Z is your friend.
The entire table can be resized proportionally with the resize handle that appears at the lowerright corner. Hover the mouse pointer over that corner until you see a diagonal arrow, and drag
to expand or shrink the table.
Selecting Tables, Rows, and Columns
Click the table handle to select the entire table. You can also select an entire table by right-clicking
anywhere in it and choosing Select Table. If you’re Ribbon-oriented, you can always select the table
by clicking anywhere in it to reveal the Table Tools tabs, shown in Figure 9-8, and then clicking
Select Í Select Table in the Table group of the Table Tools Layout tab.
There is also a keyboard method for selecting tables but it’s a nuisance to remember and to use.
With the insertion point anywhere in the table, and Num Lock engaged, press Alt+Shift+5 on the
numeric keypad. If Num Lock isn’t engaged, press Shift+5 on the numeric keypad instead. Unless
it’s Thursday, of course, in which case…
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FIGURE 9-8
Use the Table Tools Layout tab to access various table selection and manipulation tools.
If you’re using the keyboard, selecting the cell marker selects the cell. Hold down the Shift
key and use the arrow keys to expand the selection to other cells. If you’re using the direct
mouse method, move the mouse pointer so that it is the small diagonal black arrow indicated
in Figure 9-9. You can drag to expand the selection to include additional cells. Or hold the
Ctrl key and use the select cell pointer to select additional discrete cells.
FIGURE 9-9
Word’s mouse pointer changes shape to indicate what action a click will perform.
Select cell
Select column
Select row
To select a row without using the Ribbon, move the mouse pointer to the left of the row so
that it assumes the Select Row shape, and click. Drag to expand the selection to include
contiguous rows, or Ctrl+click using the select row pointer to select additional noncontiguous
rows.
To select a column without using the Ribbon, move the mouse pointer so that it takes on the
Select Column shape, and click. Again, drag to expand the selection to include additional contiguous columns, or Shift+click using the Select Column Pointer to select additional discrete/
noncontiguous columns.
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Copying Table Matter
When copying all or part of a table from one table to another, you need to consider the dimensions of the source and the target. Sometimes when you paste into the new table, the whole table
is pasted into a single cell! That’s hardly ever what you want!
As a general rule, when you’re pasting table matter, the receiving dimensions should match the
sending dimensions. If you’re trying to paste a 4 × 5 set of cells into a table whose dimensions
are 6 × 8, copy the 4 × 5 source to the Clipboard, select the desired 4 × 5 location in the receiving table, and then paste. Pasting without first selecting sometimes works, but sometimes doesn’t.
The situation can get even weirder when you’re pasting between Word and Excel, so have that
Ctrl+Z (undo) command standing by.
To control what happens with respect to formatting, see the File Í Options Í Advanced Í Cut,
Copy, and Paste section. Use the top four pasting options to specify what happens when you
paste under a variety of circumstances. If necessary, temporarily enable the desired behavior,
perform the paste, and then go back to reset the defaults.
Moving and Copying Columns
To move one or more adjacent columns, select them and then drag to the desired column. Release
the mouse button anywhere in the destination column. The selected column(s) will move to the
position of the destination column, which will scoot to the right. To move one or more selected
columns to the right of the rightmost column, drop the selection at what appears to be outside
the right edge of the table. As shown in Figure 9-9, there are cell markers to the right of the
table’s right boundary. When moving columns to the right side of the table, drop them on those
exterior markers.
To copy one or more columns, hold the Ctrl key as you drop. The selection will be inserted at the
drop point, using the same location rules that apply when you’re moving columns.
Moving and Copying Rows
Rows can be moved and copied in the same way as columns, except with respect to the last row.
The last row does not have exterior cell markers. If you drop a selection of one or more rows onto
the last row of a table, the selection will be placed above the last row. If you drop it after the last
row, the selection will be appended to the table, but the formatting will often change.
Instead, when you want to move rows after the last current row, drop them on the last row. Then
put the insertion point anywhere in the last row and press Ctrl+Shift+up-arrow to move the last
row up to where you want it.
Tip
Anytime you want to move table rows around, Ctrl+Alt+up-arrow and Ctrl+Alt+down-arrow can be used
to push the current row up or down in the table. If you’re moving a single row, you don’t need to select
anything. If you’re moving multiple contiguous rows, select them first. n
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Table Properties
If you prefer to manipulate tables non-graphically, click Properties in the Table Tools Layout tab,
or right-click a table and choose Table Properties to display the dialog box shown in Figure 9-10.
Use the Table tab to control overall layout and behavior; use the other tabs to control row, column,
and cell characteristics.
FIGURE 9-10
Use Table Properties to control overall alignment, indentation, and positioning of tables.
Preferred Width
Preferred width sets a target width for the table. The preferred width can’t be absolute, however,
because tables contain text and data and are further constrained by paper and margin settings.
Note that the preferred width is overridden by AutoFit settings.
Alignment
The Table Alignment setting in the Table Properties dialog box affects the entire table with
respect to the current left and right margins. If the table extends from the left margin to the right
margin, which is the default for tables inserted in Word, then the alignment controls seemingly
will have no effect. This makes it easy not to notice if they’re changed. If you later narrow the
table, its placement on the page might suddenly seem askew. That’s the time to visit the Table
Properties dialog box to see what’s going on.
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Table alignment is a sore spot for some users because table alignment and text alignment within
cells are different things. Whereas table alignment can be set via the alignment tools on the
Ribbon, if the entire table is not selected, then the Home tab’s paragraph alignment tools affect
only the selected portion of the table.
The Cell Alignment option, shown in Figure 9-11, affects only selected cells. The Alignment
group tools in the Table Tools Layout tab also affect only selected cells.
FIGURE 9-11
Cell Alignment affects only the text inside cells, even if the entire table is selected.
The bottom line is that if you’re having trouble centering your table, center it using the Alignment
control in the Table tab of the Table Properties dialog box.
The Indent from Left setting beside the Alignment settings in the Table Properties dialog box
controls how far the table is from the left margin. There is no Ribbon control for this setting, and
it cannot be set with the ruler line.
Note that Indent from Left is available only when Text Wrapping is set to None (see Figure 9-10)
and Alignment is set to Left. When Around is enabled under Text Wrapping, use Positioning to
set the distance from the left, as shown in the section that follows.
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Text Wrapping
Tables can be inserted in line with other text, or they can be moved/dragged so that text outside
the table wraps around them, as shown in Figure 9-12. You can achieve wrapping by selecting
the appropriate option in the Table Properties dialog box, or you can force it by dragging a table
to the desired location using its handle. This automatically changes the Text Wrapping setting
from None to Around.
FIGURE 9-12
Tables can be positioned for text wrapping, like graphics.
When Text Wrapping is set to Around, the Position button becomes active. Click it to open the
Table Positioning dialog box. The dialog box settings work much like the positioning settings for
graphics. Most of the settings here need no further explanation.
The Move with Text option controls whether the table’s vertical position is governed by the paragraph to which it is anchored. If Move with Text is enabled, the vertical position can be relative
to only the paragraph. Use this setting if the paragraph’s content and the table’s content are intertwined so that the table would not make sense except in that paragraph. This often is the setting
you want for research reports.
Turn off Move with Text if the location of the table is not logically tied to a particular paragraph.
This setting might be more in keeping with the design of a brochure or a newsletter in which the
table’s contents are relevant to the entire document and should appear in a particular location for
aesthetic reasons.
Table Layout and Design
Word 2010’s Table Tools Layout and Table Tools Design tabs provide you with most of what you
need to create tables that are both aesthetically appealing and functional. Naturally, Word can’t
do all of the work. It’s up to you to decide on presentation. When you get stuck for ideas, however, sometimes the Ribbon provides just the touch of inspiration, or just the right suggestion or
hint to speed you along your way.
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In many ways, although the Table Tools Design tab appears first in the Ribbon, Table Tools
Layout logically comes first. Layout determines whether or not your presentation is logical,
whether it is meaningful to the reader, and ultimately whether it helps prove whatever point
you’re trying to make. After all that, design is icing on the cake.
So far we’ve looked at several basic tools that help you achieve the right structure for your tables.
In this section we’re going to look at how to mold tables into shape and then polish them for
presentation.
Note
Many of the Ribbon techniques described in this section are also available in the right-click shortcut menu. If
you prefer the shortcut menu to the Ribbon, press Ctrl+F1 to dismiss the Ribbon and go for it! n
Modifying Table Layout
Once you have your basic table, what do you do with it? We all know that situations, ideas, and
data change. Let’s look at how to cope with change.
Note that all references to the Layout tab in this section actually refer to the Table Tools Layout
tab on the Ribbon. We can save ink and trees by saying that up front rather than each and every
time the need arises. Note that none of the layout tools provide Live Preview. Live Preview must
wait for the Table Tools Design tab discussion.
Deleting Tables and Table Parts
Sometimes you need to trim your tables by deleting rows or columns. Sometimes you have to
delete the entire table. Sometimes this simple act can prove more daunting and challenging than
you expect. If you select a table and tap the Delete key, the data inside the table is deleted, but the
table shell itself is still there! “Good trick! Now make it go away!” you exclaim. The same thing
sometimes happens when you try to delete a cell, a row, or a column.
Tip
When the Delete key doesn’t do what you want, try the Backspace key instead. n
Rather than say this a half dozen times, let’s just say it once. If you want to remove the contents
of a cell, row, column, or table, select what you want to remove and tap the Delete key. In the
sections that follow we’ll be looking at table structure, not contents.
Deleting Tables
As you’ve seen, you can’t just select a table and tap the Delete key. That would be too logical and
easy. Instead, select the table and tap the Backspace key. Goodbye, table. Why? Who knows?
It works.
Alternatively, click anywhere in the table (no need to select anything) and in the Table Tools
Layout tab’s Rows & Columns group, choose Delete Í Delete Table, as shown in Figure 9-13.
Again, the table is gone. If you absolutely, positively need to know how to do it using the Delete
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key, insert a paragraph above or below the table (but outside the table) and include it in the selection. Now when you press Delete the table disappears.
FIGURE 9-13
Delete the current cell, column, row, or table using the Layout tab’s Delete tool.
You can also delete the table by cutting it to the Clipboard. Select the table and click the Cut tool
on the Home tab, or press Ctrl+X (or Shift+Delete). Of course, this clutters the Clipboard, which
you might not want cluttered.
Deleting Rows, Columns, and Cells
To delete the current row or column, you have the same options: Select the offending rows or
columns and press Backspace, or choose Delete Í Delete Columns, Delete Í Rows, or Delete Í
Cells from the Table Tools Layout tab’s Delete menu in the Rows & Columns group (refer to
Figure 9-13).
When deleting cells, Word needs a little more information. You are prompted as shown in
Figure 9-14. Make your selection and click OK. Now you know how those rag-eared tables
you sometimes see lost their corner cells!
FIGURE 9-14
Word prompts to find out how to handle the rest of the column or row when you delete a single cell.
Inserting Rows, Columns, and Cells
To insert a row or column into a table, click in the row or column adjacent to where you
want to insert, and then click Insert Above, Insert Below, Insert Left, or Insert Right in the
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Rows & Columns group of the Table Tools Layout tab, depending on where you want the new
row or column to appear. If you miss, you can always drag the new row or column where you
want it.
Tip
To add a new row to the end of an existing table, put the insertion point in the bottom-right cell and press
the Tab key. To add additional rows, press F4 (repeat). Or hold the Tab key until it repeats, and then continue
holding until the table has the desired number of new rows. To add a new interior row, click outside the right
side of the table above where you want the new row to appear, and press Enter. n
To insert multiple rows or columns, you have a couple of options. Select the number of rows or
columns you want to insert, and then click the appropriate insert tool. Word will insert as many
rows or columns as you have selected. Alternatively, insert a single row or column, and then
press the F4 (repeat) key for each additional row or column you need.
To insert cells, select the cell(s) adjacent to where you want the new one(s) to appear, and click
the Dialog Box Launcher in the bottom-right corner of the Rows & Columns group of the Table
Tools Layout tab. You’ll see a dialog box containing the identical options shown in Figure 9-14.
Choose your desired action and click OK.
Controlling How Tables Break
Sometimes you don’t particularly care how tables break across pages, but sometimes you do.
When you have an opinion, select the row or rows in question, and click Properties in the Table
group of the Table Tools Layout tab (or right-click the selection and choose Table Properties from
the shortcut menu). In the Row tab under Options, Allow Row to Break across Pages is enabled
by default. Clear this option if you absolutely, positively don’t want the selected row(s) to break,
and then click OK.
To force a table to break at a particular point, move the insertion point to anywhere in the row
where you want the break to occur, and then press Ctrl+Enter. Note that this doesn’t simply force
the table to break at that point; it actually breaks the table into two tables. If the Repeat as header
row at the top of each page checkbox is enabled on the Row tab of the Table Properties dialog
box, it won’t be inherited by the new table. You’ll need to copy the heading row to the new table
and reinstate the setting, if needed.
Merge
Sometimes you need to merge columns, rows, or cells. Merging cells is easy. Select the cells you
want to merge, and click Merge Cells in the Merge group of the Table Tools Layout tab (refer to
Figure 9-13).
Tip
You want it even easier? Use the table eraser in the Table Tools Design tab. Click the Eraser tool in the Draw
Borders group, and then click on the table line segment. Click the Eraser tool again, or press the Esc key to
turn it off. Jump ahead to “The Table Eraser” later in this chapter for more exciting details. n
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Word can’t really merge rows or columns. Suppose, for example, that your table has three
columns, and you need to merge each of the cells in two adjoining rows. What you want to end
up with is one new row with three new combined cells. If you select both rows and click Merge
Cells, however, Word treats that as a request to merge all the cells in the selection, and you end
up with one big cell. This is illustrated in Figure 9-15. There is no way around this. If you want
the middle result, you must merge each set of cells separately (in other words, merge A and F,
and then merge B and G). To effect a merge of the columns while retaining the rows, you would
need to merge A and B, and then F and G.
FIGURE 9-15
Word cannot merge into multiple cells.
Splitting Cells, Rows, and Columns
At first it seemed that one cell, row, or column was fi ne, but later you decide that the logic of the
presentation calls for two (or more) where there once was one. In any divorce, amicable or not,
one has to divvy up the jointly held property. Like a few of the shadier attorneys, Word seems to
think that everything should go to one party, while the other gets nothing.
If we reverse the situation illustrated in Figure 9-15, to make a long story short, we end up with
all of the data in the upper row, as shown in Figure 9-16.
FIGURE 9-16
When you split cells, Word’s distribution logic probably won’t agree with yours.
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When you split cells using Word’s default divorce attorney, you’re going to have to manually
redistribute the goodies after the split. You get to be the judge!
A better way to manage and control split-ups is to use the Draw Table tool, described later in
this chapter. In the Draw Borders group of the Table Tools Design tab, click the Draw Table tool
to set it in motion. Use the tool to draw a line in a cell between the items you want to separate.
The items above the new line go north, and the ones below the line head south.
Horizontal splits are often harder to control. The trick is to make sure that items are horizontally
displayed and separated either by at least two spaces or by a tab (press Ctrl+Tab to insert a tab
inside a table). It can still be tedious, but it’s a bit more direct than using the dialog box, and you
have a bit more control and precision.
With luck you’ll only have four cells to contend with, rather than 400. If you have 400, it might
be time to record a macro.
Cell Size
When you’re using a table to lay out a form, cell measurements sometimes have to be precise,
especially when you’re trying to align a Word document with preprinted forms. When cell height
and width need to be controlled precisely, click the corresponding boxes in the Cell Size group
on the Table Tools Layout tab, shown in Figure 9-17. Note that cell height cannot vary for any cell
within any given row.
FIGURE 9-17
Use the Cell Size group to specify the precise height and width of rows and columns.
When you need rows to have a uniform height, click the Distribute Rows button. If rows are of
different heights — as sometimes happens when you’re converting part of an Excel spreadsheet
into a Word table — this command determines the optimal height and equalizes the height of all
selected rows or of all rows in the table if no rows are selected.
Similarly, click Distribute Columns to set selected or all columns to the same width. If different
rows have different widths, this command will not equalize the whole table. It works only when
all the rows have the same width. If any differ (e.g., if row 2 is 4 inches and all the other rows are
3.5 inches, giving the table a ragged left and/or right edge), it won’t equalize them all. To remedy
this, drag the right border(s) of shorter or longer rows so that they all align on the left and right.
Alignment
Alignment offers nine options, as shown in Figure 9-18. To set or change cell alignment, click in
or select the cells you want to change, and then click the desired tool. As noted elsewhere, many
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users confuse cell alignment with table alignment. With the whole table selected, this tool will
at most set the individual alignment of each cell and won’t have any effect on table alignment.
Instead, select the whole table and use the Paragraph Alignment tool in the Home tab, or use the
Alignment setting in the Table Properties dialog box.
FIGURE 9-18
Word offers nine options for cell alignment.
Text Direction
To control text direction in table cells, click the Text Direction tool in the Alignment group of the
Table Tools Layout tab. This option often enables you to simulate rotating a wide table so it fits on
a page using Portrait orientation.
Cell Margins and Cell Spacing
Word provides several different kinds of controls for cell margins. Cell margin is the distance
between the cell contents and the cell walls. Proper margins can keep cells from becoming too
crowded. Additional spacing sometimes helps achieve a precise look. It can also prevent data
from printing over the borders when you’re using a table to format data for printing on preprinted forms. To set cell margins and cell spacing, click Cell Margins in the Alignment group
of the Table Tools Layout tab, shown in Figure 9-18. This displays the Table Options dialog box
shown in Figure 9-19.
FIGURE 9-19
If your table is too crowded, increase the default cell margins.
Despite the text in the dialog box, it does not set the default cell margins or spacing for tables. It
sets those only for the currently selected table.
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Cell spacing can be used to create the rather cool effect shown in Figure 9-20. This gives the table
the appearance of having a distinct box inside each table cell.
FIGURE 9-20
Cell spacing can give tables a more dramatic appearance.
Tables That Span Multiple Pages
When a table spans multiple pages, Word can automatically repeat one or more heading rows to
make the table more manageable. When the need arises, select the target table’s heading rows
(you can have multiple heading rows), and click Repeat Header Rows in the Data group of the
Table Tools Layout tab. The selected heading rows are then repeated where necessary. The setting
can be toggled on or off for each individual table. Because the number of heading rows can vary,
this setting cannot be made the default for all tables, nor incorporated into a style definition.
This setting has no observable effect on tables that display or print on a single page. It also has no
effect on pages displayed in Web view, because web pages are seamless and pageless in concept.
Sorting Tables
Word provides a flexible and fast way to sort data in tables. It can also sort lists that aren’t in
tables. To sort a table, click anywhere in the table and click the Sort button in the Data group of
the Table Tools Layout tab. Word displays the Sort dialog box, shown in Figure 9-21. If the table
has headings at the top of each column, enabling the Header Row setting does two things. First,
it provides labels in the Sort By and Then By drop-down lists. Second, it excludes the header row
from the sort. Unlike the previous feature, this one allows only a single header row.
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FIGURE 9-21
The Sort command lets you sort by up to three fields.
To sort, set Sort By to the first field. Setting Type to Text, Number, or Date affects the way data is
sorted. For Year and Age, shown here, sorting by number ensures that the correct sorting order
will be used. Choose the desired order, Ascending or Descending. If you have additional sort
fields, use Then By to include up to two of them. Click Options to determine additional settings,
including how fields are separated (for non-table sorts), whether to make the sort case-sensitive,
and the sorting language. Click OK to close Sort Options, and then click OK to do the sort.
Table Math
Word can perform some calculations using the Formula choice in the Data group of the Table
Tools Layout tab shown earlier in Figure 9-8. However, this feature is limited and subject to
hard-to-spot errors. If you use Word for math, double-check all calculations using a calculator or
Excel. But if you have Excel and you need math in tables, then use Excel, period. You can then
link the results to Word. See Chapter 41 for additional information on using Excel with Word.
Modifying Table Design
Word 2010 provides several powerful tools to help you quickly enhance the look and feel of your
tables. One of these tools, Table Styles, features Live Preview. In this section, we’ll look only at
the features contained in the Table Tools Design tab of the Ribbon, shown in Figure 9-22.
Table Styles
Word 2010 has several preset table styles that you can apply to any table. They provide a wide
variety of different kinds of formatting that can be previewed live in your table. You can use these
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styles to ensure a consistent, professional look. You can also modify them and save the modified
versions for later use.
FIGURE 9-22
The Table Tools Design tab on the Ribbon provides access to six preset table style options and a gallery of
table styles.
To use a table style, click anywhere in the target table, and then click the Table Tools Design tab
on the Ribbon. In the Table Styles group, hover the mouse over different styles and observe the
changes to your table. As you move the mouse, ScreenTips displays the name of the selected table
style (such as Table Colorful 2). A Live Preview of the selected style also appears on the table, as
shown in Figure 9-23.
FIGURE 9-23
As you move the mouse over different table styles, the currently selected table displays a Live Preview of
the formatting.
More
button
If you see a style you like, click it to apply it to your table. If it’s not perfect, you can modify it. If
you don’t see a style you like, click the More button to the right of the table styles that are showing. Word will display the full Table Style Gallery, showing custom, plain, and built-in table
styles, as shown in Figure 9-24.
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FIGURE 9-24
The Table Style Gallery enables you to test-drive dozens of built-in table styles.
To modify the currently displayed table style, click Modify Table Style just below the Table Style
Gallery, which will display the Modify Style dialog box, shown in Figure 9-25. You can use the
Modify Style dialog box to apply style formatting, as described in Chapter 7.
For additional options, right-click a table style in the gallery to call up the menu shown in
Figure 9-26. Note the Set as Default option, which enables you to set the selected table style as
the default for all tables in the current document or as the default for all future tables in documents based on the current template. This enables you to easily achieve a consistent look for
tables you add to your documents.
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FIGURE 9-25
If you type a new name, the style will be saved as a custom style in the Table Styles Gallery.
FIGURE 9-26
For additional options, right-click any table style in the gallery.
Note
Making this your default table style does not apply the style to existing tables. You would need to do that
using the method described earlier (albeit one table at a time). Note also that the Modify Style dialog box
for table styles lacks the Automatically Update option. That denies you the potential utility or the disastrous
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consequences (take your pick) to which that button might lead given the preponderance of documents based
on the Normal.dotm templates. n
Table Style Options
The Table Style Options group on the Table Tools Design tab provides access to six options,
shown earlier in Figure 9-22, that it can automatically apply to your table. For these to work, the
table must have been formatted with one of the Built-In table styles instead of the style under
Plain tables shown in Figure 9-24. Click to apply those features to your tables, or remove checks
to turn the corresponding features off. The table style options provided are as follows:
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Header Row. Applies special formatting to the entire top row in your table.
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First Column. Applies special formatting to the entire first column.
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Total Row. Applies special formatting to the last row, except for the first cell.
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Last Column. Applies special formatting to the last column, except for the top cell.
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Banded Rows. Alternates shading in rows to create a horizontal striping effect. This
helps the reader focus on specific rows.
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Banded Columns. Alternates shading in columns to create vertical stripes, focusing the
reader on columnar comparisons.
Each of the style options works together with the table styles. Each table style might have any of
these attributes enabled. Use the checkboxes to add or remove attributes.
Shading
Shading refers to the background color for tables, which can be applied individually to cells, rows,
or columns, or to a complete table. Shading sometimes is used to draw attention to one or more
elements of a table.
Shading is a Live Preview attribute. Similar to the method shown in Chapters 5 and 6, you apply shading to a table by selecting the part of the table you want shaded and then using the Shading tool, as
shown in Figure 9-27. You also can use the Shading tool on the Home tab of the Ribbon to shade a table.
FIGURE 9-27
If you apply one of the theme colors to shade a table, the table shading will change when different themes
are applied.
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Borders and Table Drawing
Borders are lines that separate a table into cells, rows, and columns. You’ve seen in other chapters
that borders are not unique to tables and can be applied to characters and paragraphs as well.
They also can be applied to other Word document elements, such as textboxes, frames, and graphics. Any of the border tools can be used to control borders in tables. None of the border tools offers
Live Preview, although the Borders and Shading dialog box does provide a generic preview.
You have two strategies for working with borders. You can use the holistic approach by launching
the Borders and Shading dialog box. For a detailed description of how to apply borders using the
Borders and Shading dialog box, see the “Borders and Boxes” section in Chapter 6.
The second strategy uses an ad hoc approach, by using the Borders, Line Style, Line Weight, Pen
Color, Draw Table, and Eraser tools in the Table Tools Design tab, shown in Figure 9-28. Much,
if not all, of what you can do using the Borders and Shading dialog box you can also do using the
Borders tool, in combination with the Draw Borders group choices in the Table Tools Design tab.
Use whichever method works better for you, and it doesn’t have to be the same method or set of
tools each time.
FIGURE 9-28
Use the Borders tool and its friends to perform ad hoc editing on table borders.
Line Style
Line Weight
Borders
Pen/line
Color
Borders and
Shading dialog
You should experiment with the Borders tool and its friends to get a feel for how they work. Even
if you generally prefer the dialog box approach, the individual tools are great when you want to
touch up or polish the look of a table. Keep in mind that you can use Ctrl+Z to remove the last
effect applied, and F4 to reapply the most recent effect to a new selection.
When you use the Borders tool, it applies the current style, weight, and color shown in the Draw
Borders group. For example, if you use the Borders tool in the configuration shown in Figure 9-28,
the line style will be the triple line shown, 2¼ points, and black (which might be hard to see in
a book with grayscale pictures). Therefore, to apply a black, 2¼ point triple line to the outside
perimeter of the currently selected table cells, rows, columns, or complete table, choose Borders Í
Outside Borders, as shown in Figure 9-29.
You can also change existing borders using the Draw Table tool. Like the Borders tool, the Draw
Table tool takes its cue from the currently selected style, weight, and color.
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FIGURE 9-29
Use the Borders tool to apply borders by name, remove borders (No Border), draw a horizontal line, display
gridlines, and launch the Borders and Shading dialog box.
To change a particular border to blue without changing the other border attributes, for example,
use the style and weight controls to reset those controls so that they match the current border
settings. Use the Pen Color control to choose the shade of blue that you want. Finally, click Draw
Table to turn the tool on (the button will look pushed in), and then click each of the borders you
want to be blue. Note that the Draw Table tool affects only one border at a time.
To turn the Draw Table tool off, either click it again (it’s a toggle) or press the Esc key.
Note
Using either the Draw Table tool or the Borders tool, it’s possible to place ugly diagonal lines in table cells.
Unfortunately, the effect is purely visual, not functional. You cannot place data above and below those lines.
Some folks use these lines to indicate that the cells contain no data. Some might well imagine that emptiness
or subtle shading conveys the same information, and somewhat more elegantly and eloquently. It’s all a matter of style and aesthetics. If you want ugly diagonal lines and X marks in your tables (yes, the diagonals can
go both ways at the same time), it’s entirely up to you. It’s your table. n
Drawing Tables from Scratch
You can also use the Draw Table tool to draw tables from scratch. In the Tables group of the
Insert tab of the Ribbon, choose Table Í Draw Table. Use the table pen to drag to form an
overall outline of the table. Then use the pen to add rows or columns, as shown in Figure 9-30.
If necessary, you can use the Table Tools Layout tab tools later to touch up any cell, row, or
column dimensions that need to be adjusted.
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FIGURE 9-30
Use the Draw Table tool to create tables from scratch, as well as to expand, extend, and modify existing
tables.
The Table Eraser
The Eraser tool in the Draw Borders group of the Table Tools Design tab is a powerful tool, and
perhaps misunderstood. The Eraser actually erases parts of tables. It doesn’t merely remove border lines. It actually deletes the table structure it touches.
No, it won’t leave a hole in the middle of the table where non-table text can leak through
(although that would be really cool). What it can do, however, is turn interior cells into a larger
interior cell. Or, if you’ve ever wanted to knock a table’s block off, now’s your chance. You can use
the table eraser to remove corner cells from tables. In some presentations the top-left corner cell
serves no purpose, so why tolerate its presence? Erase it!
To dismiss the Eraser, either click the Eraser tool again to toggle it off, or press the Esc key. The
Eraser also goes away if you click outside a table, that is, in regular text.
Inserting Pictures from Files
Is a picture really worth a thousand words? It’s up to you. Pictures that are merely decorative
might simply clutter up a document and make it more time-consuming to send to somebody and
more expensive to print. But used carefully, pictures enable you to show the reader what you
mean. Yes, used the right way, pictures can save many paragraphs of explanation, so perhaps a
picture is worth a thousand words — maybe more. If not, there wouldn’t be so many pictures in
this book, helping to illustrate ideas.
You can insert pictures in Word in several ways, using pictures from a variety of different graphics formats. We’ll look at formats shortly.
If you have pictures on removable media — such as SD (secure digital), CF (compact flash),
CD, DVD, or USB drive — it’s usually best if those pictures have been copied to your hard drive
before you proceed. While you can insert directly from such sources, or from a local area network
(LAN) or over the Internet, you have more options available to you if the fi les are on your own
computer in a location that is always accessible.
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You might also have pictures available from a webcam, another camera, or a scanner connected
to your computer. Assuming that the formats are supported, those also can be inserted into
Word — but usually not directly. You’ll usually copy them to your hard drive first.
While it’s not necessary, computing life is usually easier when pictures, sounds, and other files
are where Word and other programs expect them to be. In the case of pictures, the expected location is your Pictures Library (or My Pictures, if you’re not using Windows 7). You’ll see why in
this chapter. I’m going to assume that you’ve either copied the picture(s) you want to use to one of
the folders in the Pictures Library or that you otherwise know where to find them.
I’m also going to assume that you’re working with Word 2010 .docx files, and not Word 97–2003
Compatibility Mode files. This matters because things are a bit different in Compatibility Mode.
In Compatibility Mode, linking of picture files is accomplished with the INCLUDEPICTURE field.
In Word 2010 mode, linking is accomplished with XML relationships.
To insert a picture at the current insertion point, choose Picture in the Illustrations group of the
Insert tab, which displays the Insert Picture dialog box. Assuming that the picture is listed there,
select it, but don’t double-click it yet. As shown in Figure 9-31, click the drop-down arrow next
to Insert to view the Insert options.
FIGURE 9-31
When you insert a picture, Word’s default search location is the Pictures Library.
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When you’re inserting a picture this way, Word offers three options:
l
Insert. The picture is embedded in the current document. If the original is ever deleted
or moved, it will still exist in your document. If the original is ever updated, however,
your document will not reflect the update. The document file will be larger because the
original image is stored in the .docx file. If neither file size nor updates are important,
this is the best option.
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Link to File. A link to the picture is inserted, and the picture is displayed in the document. The document file will be smaller — often dramatically smaller — because the
image is external to the Word document. If the original file is moved or deleted, it will
no longer be available for viewing in the document, and you will see the upsetting and
confusing message shown in Figure 9-32 (see the following Caution for more information). On the other hand, if the image is modified or updated, the update will be available and displayed in Word. If file size is an issue but the availability of the image file is
not, then this is the best option.
l
Insert and Link. The image is both embedded in the document and linked to the original file. If the original file is updated, the picture in the document will be updated to
reflect changes in the original. Because the file is embedded, the document will be larger
than it would be if only linked. However, the document will not be larger than it would
be if only inserted. If file size is not an issue but updates are, this is the best option.
FIGURE 9-32
If a linked, non-embedded picture is moved, renamed, or deleted, Word will not be able to display it.
Caution
If a link is broken, it can be confusing to discover the name of the missing file(s), especially if you’re accustomed to Word 2003 or earlier. That’s because linked files are not linked via field codes. You can’t toggle field
codes to discover the name. If you right-click the picture, there is no menu item that will tell you the name of
the file. To discover the name, choose File Í Info Í Edit Links to Files. In the Links dialog box, the name of
the file is shown next to “Source File.” n
If Your Picture Format Isn’t Supported
If the picture you want doesn’t appear in Word’s Insert Picture dialog box but you know that
it’s really there, in the lower-right corner, drop down the File Type list shown in Figure 9-33 to
verify that Word supports the format. If your picture format isn’t supported, there are several
possible reasons.
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FIGURE 9-33
Word supports many popular graphics formats, but some formats do not come with Word 2010.
The most popular picture format, used by most digital cameras, is JPEG or JPG, which stands
for Joint Photographic Experts Group. Word 2010 comes with a converter that supports .jpg
files. Other Word 2010–supported popular formats include .gif, which is heavily used on the
Internet (because of support for transparent backgrounds, which makes such images better
suited for web page design), .png, .wmf, and .bmp. Note that the latter three formats are natively
supported by Word and do not require special converters.
Which formats are supported by your installation of Word depends on several things. Several
graphics converters are installed as part of Office 2010’s Shared Features. Other converters installed
by other programs might also be available. If you had Office 2000 or Office XP installed on your
computer and upgraded to Office 2010, additional converters possibly were installed as well.
If your file uses any of the formats that come with Office 2010 but they don’t show up in the
Pictures Library, it’s probable that you didn’t install any of the converters. To add the missing
converters, from the Windows Control Panel search for Programs and Features, and locate
Microsoft Office 2010. The precise name depends on which flavor of Office 2010 you have.
Click Change Í Add or Remove Features Í Continue. Expand Office Shared Features Í
Converters and Filters Í Graphics Filters. Drop down the arrow by Graphics Filters and choose
Run All from My Computer. While you’re here, you might want to install all the text filters as
well. You never know when they might come in handy. Click Continue and follow any instructions (which might or might not include inserting the original Office 2010 install disc). When
you’re done, go back and check whether your picture format is now supported.
If your file format isn’t supported natively by Word 2010, try searching for a converter pack on
Microsoft’s support site for Office and see what you can find. Choose File Í Help Í Check for
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Updates. Once there, type converter pack in the Search box, and click Go. As of this writing,
several are listed, although it’s not clear that they add any graphics-conversion capabilities to
Word 2010. A specific Internet search for the format you need might be more productive. If that
fails and you have a photo-editing program of some kind, try opening the file using that program,
then save the file in a format that Word can handle, such as JPEG.
Pictures from the Clipboard and Internet
You can also insert pictures from the Clipboard and from your Internet browser (usually, but not
always). To use the Clipboard, display the picture in any Windows program that supports graphics, and use that program’s controls to select and copy the picture to the Clipboard. If all else
fails, try right-clicking the picture and choosing Copy or Copy Picture. Then, in Word, move to
where you want the picture, and press Ctrl+V (or click Paste in the Clipboard group of the Home
tab of the Ribbon).
Sometimes the copy-and-paste method works from Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome,
and other popular browsers — other times not. When the Clipboard method fails or when you
want a copy of the file itself (not simply the embedded version in a Word document), you can try
several things.
In Firefox, right-click the picture and choose Save Image As. In Save Image, navigate to where
you want to store the file, accept the name shown or type a new one (no need to type an extension — Firefox automatically supplies it), and click Save. In Internet Explorer, right-click the
picture and choose Save Picture As. Again, navigate to the desired location, pick a filename, and
click Save.
Tip
If you’re harvesting several files from an Internet browser, open a copy of Windows Explorer and navigate to
where you want to store the pictures. Using the left mouse button, drag the pictures from your browser and
drop them into Windows Explorer. Click Yes to confirm the copying of each file, and then continue. Before
doing this, however, please make sure that you have a right to do this. Many pictures on the Internet are copyright protected. n
There are a number of ways to find pictures on the Internet, from surfing to explicitly searching.
Google itself has an Image Search feature. From Google’s home page, click Images. In the Image
Search page, type the search text (enclose in quotes to search for a whole name), and click Search
Images. Another common technique is to include the word “gallery” in the search, although these
days you’d probably find a lot of Office 2010 gallery hits!
Manipulation 101
Now that you’ve got those pictures, what are you going to do with them? Word 2010 provides
many cool tools that really expand your presentation options. What you can do with pictures
depends on how they live in the Word document. We’ll look at the various wrapping options and
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their implications and then move on to working with pictures, knowing that there are some constraints. Keep in mind also that this discussion is about working with Word 2010 format documents. If we were to deal with Word 97–2003 format, this book might need another 900 pages
because the methods are so different.
Wrapping
Wrapping is the term used to classify the various ways in which pictures (as well as other graphics)
are used in a Word document. It helps to understand that a Word document has several different
layers. Where you normally compose text is called the text layer. There are also drawing layers that
are both in front of and behind the text layer. A graphic inserted in front of the text layer will cover
up text, unless the graphic is semi-transparent, in which case it will modify the view of the text.
Graphics inserted behind the text layer act as a backdrop, or background, for the text.
Additionally, there is the header and footer layer. This is where headers and footers reside. This
area is behind the text area. If you place a graphic into a header or footer, the graphic will appear
behind the text. Dim graphics placed in the header and footer layer often serve as watermarks.
Sometimes the word CONFIDENTIAL will be used in the header and footer layer, branding each
page of the document as a caution to readers.
Setting Wrapping and Wrapping Defaults
Wrapping determines how graphics interact with each other and with text. To set the wrapping
behavior of a graphic, click the graphic and then click the Wrap Text tool in the Arrange group
of the Picture Tools Format tab, or in the Page Layout tab. Choose the desired wrapping from the
menu that appears.
You can also set the default wrapping. If you’re a long-time Word user, you likely already have a
default wrapping style that suits your generic needs. If not, then in time you likely will fi nd that
you frequently change the wrapping from the default to something else. If that happens a lot, you
can save yourself a step by setting the wrapping default to your usual setting.
To set the default wrapping style for most graphic objects you insert, paste, or create, choose File Í
Options Í Advanced. In the Cut, Copy, and Paste section, use Insert/Paste Pictures As to set wrapping to any of the options shown in Figure 9-34. This setting determines the default for most, but
not all, graphics inserted into Word.
Notable exceptions are shapes and textboxes. Shapes and textboxes can be set to any wrapping
style after the fact, but they are always inserted as In Front of Text. Another exception, of sorts,
stems from the fact that if you copy a picture from one part of a document and paste it elsewhere,
it will inherit the wrapping style of the original picture and won’t use your default.
Knowing how you plan to use a picture and what you need to do to it should determine the
wrapping setting. Wrapping effects and typical uses are shown in Table 9-1. Wrapping comes in
two basic flavors: In line with text (in the text layer) and floating (in the graphics layer, which
includes the other six wrapping formats shown in Table 9-1). Floating means that the picture can
be dragged anywhere in the document and isn’t constrained in the way that pictures in the text
layer of the document are.
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FIGURE 9-34
Wrapping behavior determines what you can do with a picture in Word.
TABLE 9-1
Wrapping Styles
Wrapping Setting
Effect/Application
In line with text
Inserted into text layer. Graphic can be dragged, but only from one paragraph
marker to another. Typically used in simple presentations and formal reports.
Square
Creates a square hole in the text where the graphic is. Text wraps around the
graphic, leaving a gap between the text and the graphic. The graphic can be
dragged anywhere in the document. Typically used in newsletters and flyers with
a fair amount of white space.
Tight
Effectively creates a hole in the text where the graphic is, of the same shape
as the overall outline of the graphic, so that text flows around the graphic.
Wrapping points can be changed to reshape the hole that the text flows around.
The graphic can be dragged anywhere in the document. Typically used in denser
publications in which paper space is at a premium and where irregular shapes
are acceptable and even desirable.
Behind text
Inserted into the bottom or back drawing layer of a document. The graphic
can be dragged anywhere in the document. Typically used for watermarks and
page background pictures. Text flows in front of the graphic. Also used in the
assembling of pictures from different vector elements.
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Wrapping Setting
Effect/Application
In front of text
Inserted into the top drawing layer of a document. The graphic can be dragged
anywhere in the document. Text flows behind the graphic. Typically used only
on top of other pictures or in the assembling of vector drawings, or when you
deliberately need to cover or veil text in some way to create a special effect.
Through
Text flows around the graphic’s wrapping points, which can be adjusted. Text
is supposed to flow into any open areas of the graphic, but evidence that this
actually works is in short supply. For all practical purposes, this appears to have
the same effects and behavior as Tight wrapping.
Top and bottom
Effectively creates a rectangular hole the same width as the margin. Text flows
above and below, but not beside, the graphic. The picture can be dragged
anywhere in the document. Typically used when the graphic is the focal point
of the text.
For Tight and Through wrapping, you can change the wrap points. To edit the wrap points, click the
picture (you might need to click twice), and then choose Wrap Text Í Edit Wrap Points from the Arrange
group in the Picture Tools Format tab, or from the Arrange group in the Page Layout tab, as shown in
Figure 9-35. If too much white space is showing, you can reduce it by moving the wrap points closer to
the object. If you want to create a special effect in the form of a starburst or other pattern, you can drag the
wrap points outward and inward.
FIGURE 9-35
Use Edit Wrap Points to change the way text flows around a picture.
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Dragging and Nudging
You can move any graphic by dragging it, and some graphics can be dropped anywhere in the
document. Graphics inserted as In Line with Text, however, can be dropped only at a paragraph
mark. All other graphics can be dragged and dropped anywhere. The techniques described in
this section apply only to floating graphics (i.e., not In Line with Text). As described earlier, what
happens when you drag a graphic is determined by the wrapping that is applied.
To drag a graphic, click to select it, and then drag it where you want it to go. You can also nudge
a selected floating graphic. Select it, and then use the arrow keys to nudge it in any of the four
directions.
To drag in discrete steps using Word’s built-in invisible drawing grid, hold the Alt key as you
drag. If you make Word’s gridlines visible (View Í Show Í Gridlines), however, the effect of the
Alt key is reversed. Now holding Alt while dragging makes Word ignore the grid, as shown in
Figure 9-36. With the grid displayed, arrow key nudging also changes. Now the arrow keys move
the picture in grid steps. Press the Ctrl key to nudge in smaller gradations. Each grid mark is an
eighth of an inch.
FIGURE 9-36
Enable Gridlines in the View tab for help in planning graphic placement.
Note that gridlines is a Word-wide display setting. If you have other documents open in the same
Word session, they too will be gridded. Why am I suddenly craving waffles?
Resizing and Cropping
Resizing changes the physical dimensions of the picture as it is displayed in your document.
Resizing in Word will not make the associated fi le (or the image stored in the .docx file) any
larger or smaller. If you make it smaller and then later make it larger, you still retain the original
file resolution.
Cropping refers to blocking out certain portions of a picture by changing its exterior borders.
You can crop out distracting or unnecessary details. Again, cropping in Word does not affect the
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actual picture itself, only the way it is displayed in Word. The fact that Word doesn’t change the
actual image is a big plus, because you preserve your options if you later change your mind.
Caution
Resizing and cropping in Microsoft Office Picture Manager and other graphics programs does change the picture itself. Keep this distinction in mind. Once you’ve saved a cropped or resized picture in Picture Manager,
you can’t get the original back (unless you saved a backup copy, of course). n
Resizing
You can resize a picture by typing the measurements or by dragging. To resize by dragging, click
on the picture and then move the mouse pointer so that it’s over one of the eight sizing handles.
The mouse pointer changes into a double arrow, as shown in Figure 9-37. Drag until the picture
is the desired size and then release the mouse button. Note that dragging the corner handles
maintains the aspect ratio of the picture, whereas dragging the side handles can be used to
stretch or compress the picture.
FIGURE 9-37
Resize a picture or other graphic by dragging any of the eight sizing handles.
Hold down the Ctrl and/or Alt keys while dragging to modify the way resizing occurs:
l
To resize symmetrically, causing the picture to increase or decrease by the same amount
in opposite directions, hold down the Ctrl key while dragging.
l
To drag in discrete steps, hold down the Alt key while dragging; if gridlines are displayed, the Alt key’s behavior is reversed, as indicated earlier.
You can combine these options. For example, holding down the Alt and Ctrl keys at the same
time forces Word to resize in discrete steps while resizing symmetrically.
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Note
Use the solitary green handle above the center of the picture to rotate the picture. n
To specify the size of the picture exactly, click in the Height and/or Width box in the Size group
in the Picture Tools Format tab and specify the desired dimension. By default, these settings
maintain the aspect ratio automatically. To distort the picture, click the Dialog Box Launcher in
the Size group of the Picture Tools Format tab. Remove the check next to Lock Aspect Ratio, as
shown in Figure 9-38.
FIGURE 9-38
Lock Aspect Ratio is enabled by default; to distort a picture’s dimensions, turn it off.
Tip
If a picture is not in line with text, you can resize and rotate using the arrow keys. Alt+left-arrow/right-arrow
rotates the picture. Shift+up-arrow/down-arrow/left-arrow/right-arrow resizes the picture symmetrically. If
you add the Ctrl key at the same time, the rotation or resizing is done in finer gradations. n
Cropping
To crop a picture, click the Crop button in the Size group in the Picture Tools Format tab. The
selected picture sprouts cropping handles, as does the mouse pointer. Move the pointer over any
of the eight cropping handles and drag to remove the part of the picture you want to hide, as in
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the example in Figure 9-39. Note that the Alt key crops in discrete steps. You can also crop using
the Size dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-39.
FIGURE 9-39
Crop to hide part of a picture to focus the reader’s attention.
Picture Styles
Word 2010 provides a variety of tools for controlling the presentation of graphics. To the extent
possible, use the Ribbon to apply the basic effects; then use additional tools to refine the effect for
more precision, if needed. The Picture Styles Gallery provides a variety of different presentation
styles. Click a picture to activate the Picture Tools Format tab. In the Picture Styles group, shown
in Figure 9-40, click the More tool to expose more of the gallery.
FIGURE 9-40
Click the More button to expose more picture styles.
As suggested by Figure 9-41, when you move the mouse, each style is applied to the selected picture (or pictures). Note that the speed of Live Preview is heavily affected by the size of the graphic
file. If the picture is 2 MB, Live Preview is going to be a lot slower than if the file were only 50 KB.
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FIGURE 9-41
Effects of each style are previewed as you move the mouse.
Picture Effects
Additional effects can be applied and refined with the Picture Effects tool, also contained in the
Picture Styles group of the Picture Tools Format tab. There are literally millions of different permutations of effects you can apply, a small sampling of which are shown in Figure 9-42. Take a
few years off to explore the different combinations.
Adjust
Word also features seven tools for adjusting picture attributes, shown in Figure 9-43. Use the
tools to accomplish a number of common tasks:
l
Remove Background. Lets you automatically/selectively remove portions of a picture
based on color patterns. For example, this feature can remove everything from a picture
except for a single object, such as a flower or a car. This set of tools requires considerable practice to get the desired results, so I encourage you to practice with the tools provided in the Background Removal tab until you get the hang of them.
l
Corrections. Sharpen, soften, and adjust the brightness of images for better printing or
onscreen presentation (Live Preview).
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Color. Applies different color masks to achieve antiquing, sepia tone, grayscale, and a
variety of other color effects (Live Preview).
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Artistic Effects. Provides 23 special effects, such as pencil sketch, blurring, charcoal
sketch, paint strokes, and others (Live Preview).
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l
Compress Pictures. Reduces the size of the picture stored in the file to the minimum
needed for a given application.
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Change Picture. Replaces the picture with a different one. Picture Styles and Effects
applied carry over to the replacement picture, as do changes applied with other tools
in the Adjust group. Cropping and resizing, however, do not.
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Reset Picture. Removes formatting applied with Picture Styles, Picture Effects, and
other Adjust tools (except for Change and Compress).
FIGURE 9-42
Applying picture effects to different Picture Styles Gallery effects produces myriad combinations.
FIGURE 9-43
Word 2010 has seven tools for adjusting pictures.
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Arranging Pictures on the Page
Word has additional tools for quickly controlling the position of pictures, both two-dimensionally on the document page and with respect to other objects in the graphical layer. In the Arrange
group of the Picture Tools Format tab (see Figure 9-44), click Position. The In Line with Text
option here is identical to the one listed under Wrap Text. The other options, however, aren’t
duplicated elsewhere.
FIGURE 9-44
Position gives you a Live Preview of nine fixed positions.
Some pictures need to be in a particular location in order to make sense. In newsletters,
brochures, and many other publications, however, some pictures are intended as general illustrations. Position on the page can be decided on the basis of aesthetics and balance rather than logic
and the relationship between a given picture and a particular passage in the text.
More Layout Options invokes the Layout dialog box, shown in Figure 9-45. This replaces the
Advanced Layout dialog box from Word 2007 and earlier, which had only two tabs.
Additional options of interest include the following:
l
Move Object with Text. Associates a picture with a particular paragraph so that the
paragraph and the picture will always appear on the same page. This setting affects only
the vertical position on the page. Although Word will allow you to check this option
and Lock Anchor at the same time, once you click OK, the Move Object with Text
option is cleared.
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l
Lock Anchor. This setting locks the picture’s current position on the page. If you have
trouble dragging a picture, verify that it is set to one of the floating wrapping options
(anything but In Line with Text) and that Lock Anchor is turned off. Pictures that have
been positioned with any of the nine Position presets shown in Figure 9-16 will also
resist dragging.
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Allow Overlap. Use this setting to allow graphical objects to cover each other up. One
use for this is to create a stack of photographs or other objects. This feature is also
needed for layered drawings.
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Layout in Table Cell. This setting enables you to use tables for positioning graphics on
the page.
FIGURE 9-45
Layout enables you to precisely control and set the position of graphics on the page.
Inserting Clip Art
Clip art provides another source of decoration for your documents and is frequently used in
newsletters and flyers. Part of Office’s Shared Features set, depending on what Office program
you have and how much of the Shared Features you have installed, Clip Art has hundreds or
even thousands of little pieces of royalty-free art that you can use anywhere.
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To insert clip art at the insertion point, click Insert Í Illustrations Í Clip Art. To accept the
defaults, type a search term (e.g., cars) and click Go, as shown in Figure 9-46. When clip art
appears, scroll through the list. When you find something you want to use, click it to insert it
into your document.
FIGURE 9-46
The Clip Art pane uses local clip art as well as clip art from Office.com.
To control where the Clip Art pane searches, use the Results should be drop-down shown in
Figure 9-47. To search only your local collection, remove the check next to Include Office.com
Content. You can further control the scope of the search by limiting the search to only a particular
kind of media. By default, Word searches for all media types — including videos and audio. Note
also that we talked earlier about where to find photographs on the Web. Now you know another
source. With Results should be set only to Photographs and with Include Office.com Content
enabled, you can quickly see a list of photographs available for download from Microsoft.
Note
As shown in the section, “If Your Picture Format Isn’t Supported,” earlier in this chapter, if you lack local
clip art, check Office 2010’s Setup settings and verify that clip art was actually fully installed. Check the
Clip Organizer choice, and choose Run All from My Computer. Or, you can selectively install individual
components. n
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FIGURE 9-47
Use the Results Should Be drop-down list to control the scope of a search for clip art.
SmartArt
Thanks to SmartArt there’s a cornucopia of professional graphics available for use in Word 2010.
If this book had color screen shots you would be dazzled by the kinds of sparkling, shiny, bubbly
diagrams you can now make with Word. Best of all, although SmartArt is seemingly bottomless
in its variety, the techniques are intuitive and simple to use.
SmartArt, introduced in Word 2007, replaced the Insert Diagram and Insert Organization
Chart features of Word 2003 (and earlier). The legacy six-item Diagram Gallery (still available
in Compatibility Mode) has been completely revamped and replaced with SmartArt. Moreover,
the plain two-dimensional (2-D) formatting has been replaced by 3-D formatting that’s so slick it
looks like something you’d find in the pages of a major magazine. Let’s just hope that Word users
have some excellent data and content to go with all this slickness.
Inserting SmartArt
To insert SmartArt, in the Illustrations group of the Insert tab, click SmartArt. As shown in
Figure 9-48, there are eight categories, plus All, which enables you to peruse the entire gallery. Clicking a thumbnail preview in the middle panel displays a larger preview on the right.
A description lists the intended use of the selected item. When you find something that looks
appropriate, either double-click it or click it and then choose OK. Note that SmartArt is inserted
like other graphics, such as pictures, and will use your default wrapping style. See “Wrapping”
earlier in this chapter.
Word inserts the shape into your document with the text entry area ready to accept information,
as shown in Figure 9-49. To enter text for the SmartArt diagram, click in the Type Your Text
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Here box (the text pane) and start typing. As you type on the left, text is displayed in the corresponding SmartArt component on the right.
FIGURE 9-48
Word 2010 has more than 160 different SmartArt gallery items divided into eight different categories.
FIGURE 9-49
A new SmartArt object.
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There are a variety of different ways to enter and format text. The following is not intended to be
exhaustive; it’s simply a list of things that work. Note that some actions can also be performed via
the Create Graphic group in the SmartArt Tools Design tab, shown at the left in Figure 9-50.
FIGURE 9-50
The SmartArt Tools Design tab provides direct access to many useful tools.
l
To move to the next item, press the down arrow. Use the other arrow keys to navigate
in the text entry box as well.
l
To add a new item to the list, press Enter, either at the end of the list of items or above
an existing item.
l
To demote the current item, press the Tab key.
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To promote the current item, press Shift+Tab.
l
To delete an item, select it and press the Backspace key.
l
To change the font for an item, select the text you want to change, mouse over the
selection, and use the Mini toolbar.
l
The text pane can be moved and resized if it’s in the way: Drag it to a more convenient
location or drag any of the four sides to resize the text area.
l
To dismiss the text pane, click the X. To redisplay the text pane, click either of the
arrows at the left end of the diagram (see Figure 9-51).
FIGURE 9-51
Click the arrows at the left end of the diagram to toggle the text pane.
You can also enter text directly without using the text pane. Click in the SmartArt item and type.
Right-click the item to see a list of options, as shown in Figure 9-52. To add a shape above the
selected item, right-click and choose Add Shape Í Add Shape Before.
Note that basic paragraph and character formatting can be applied to SmartArt shapes. Indents,
bullets, and numbering cannot be; nor can styles. You can assign a style to the overall diagram;
however, effects are limited unless the SmartArt item is In Line with Text.
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FIGURE 9-52
When working directly with the SmartArt item, right-click to see actions and formatting options.
To change the font used in all the text in a SmartArt object, display the text pane, click in it,
press Ctrl+A to select the contents of the text area, and then right-click and set the desired font.
You’re not limited to the shapes you start out with, nor must each item be the same shape.
To change the shape of any given item, select the item, right-click it, choose Change Shape,
and select an alternative. Keep in mind, however, that not every shape works for every type of
diagram.
Tip
If you have a list — hierarchical or not — that you would like to convert into a SmartArt object, select the list
and copy it to the Clipboard before choosing the SmartArt tool. Once your SmartArt object appears, click
in the text pane. Press Ctrl+A to select the placeholder list, and then press Ctrl+V to paste the list over the
placeholder. n
Changing Layout
You can change layout at any time. Select the SmartArt graphic and use the Layouts gallery on
the SmartArt Tools Design tab, shown in Figure 9-53, to choose a different layout. Note that the
gallery provides a Live Preview. You aren’t limited to applying the same class (List, Hierarchy,
Process, Cycle, etc.). SmartArt will adapt the different designs using the relationship levels
currently applied.
SmartArt Styles
SmartArt Styles apply a variety of preset formatting to your SmartArt diagrams — again, using
Live Preview. As suggested by Figure 9-54, a great deal of care, thought, and artistry has gone
into the design of SmartArt Quick Styles.
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FIGURE 9-53
SmartArt will apply any layout to any hierarchical list.
FIGURE 9-54
The Quick Style Gallery puts a basic spin on your graphics; you can refine these further using the SmartArt
Tools Format Ribbon.
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SmartArt Formatting
SmartArt provides several additional tools for further sculpting your diagrams. Shown in
Figure 9-55, use the SmartArt Tools Format tab to add the finishing touches.
FI GURE 9-55
Formatting tools include Shapes, Shape Styles, and WordArt Styles.
Use the SmartArt Tools Format tab choices as follows:
Shapes Group
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Edit in 2-D. When you click a shape, a 2-D version appears for more direct editing.
l
Change Shape. Change the selected shape into any of dozens of Word’s shapes.
l
Larger or Smaller. Expand or shrink the selected shape.
Shape Styles Group
l
Shape Style Gallery. Choose from three dozen different patterns of outlines and fills.
l
Shape Fill. Choose your own custom fill for the selected shape.
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Shape Outline. Choose a custom outline for the selected shape.
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Shape Effects. Choose from a variety of effects — shadow, reflection, glow, soft edges,
bevel, and 3-D — to change individual shapes.
WordArt Styles Group
Choose from several different filled-block lettering styles.
Summary
In this chapter, you’ve learned just about everything there is to know about tables and graphics.
You know a quick way to insert a whole table, and several ways to create a table from scratch. You
also know how to modify and format tables using a variety of tools and techniques. You learned
how to insert graphics, Clip Art, and SmartArt, and how to work with the formatting for those
objects. You should now be able to do the following:
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Copy material from one table into another, even if the dimensions don’t match. Use the
table Eraser to remove unwanted parts of tables.
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Use table styles to add zest and color to your tables.
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l
Create tables from existing non-tabular data.
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Use the Ribbon tools to modify table layout and design.
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Determine whether Word supports the graphic format of your pictures.
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Achieve any wrapping effect when working with text and graphics.
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Present a hierarchical text list into SmartArt.
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CH APTER
Data Documents
and Mail Merge
L
et’s face it. The term mail merge is entirely too narrow to fully
reflect the range of what can be done using Word’s Mail Merge
features.
Setting up a mail merge or data document involves several steps, some of
which must be done before others can happen:
1. Set the document type. Letter, e-mail, envelope, labels, or
directory.
2. Associate a data source with the document. New, Outlook
contact, or some other source.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Attaching a data source to a
data document
Editing data
Assembling a data document
Merging to a printer
Using the Mail Merge Wizard
3. Design your data document by combining ordinary document
features with Word merge fields.
4. Preview the finished document by testing to see how it looks
with different data records.
5. Finish the process by merging the data document with the
data source, creating a printed result, a saved document, or an
e-mailed document.
Understanding Data Sources
When you perform a mail merge, Word inserts an individual set of information (such as a recipient’s name and mailing address) into a copy of a
document to customize or personalize the document. The sets of information come from a data source — a file that organizes information into fields
and records of information. For example, for a mailing address, the person’s
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first name, last name, street number, city, state, and ZIP code represent the different fields; all the
field entries for a single recipient comprise a single record.
In most cases, the data source that you use for a merge will be a file created in another application, most typically in Excel or Access. You also can use the contact information from Outlook.
You can even use information from a Word file or other Word processing file. The key with data
sources is that the information in the data source file must be properly divided into fields and
records. In Excel, you can enter the field names in row 1 and each record below the field names.
In Access, the table will already define the field names and records. In a word processing file, you
can enter the field names on the first line, and press Enter to start each new record; you include
a delimiter such as a comma or a tab between each field name and field entry so that Word can
correctly separate the information to perform the merge.
Chances are, your data source may be a file that’s already been created for another purpose. If
you use an existing source, your file format options include the following:
l
Outlook contacts
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Office Database Connections (*.odc)
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Access Databases (pre-version 12: *.mdb, *.mde)
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Access 12 and later Databases (*.accdb, *.accde)
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Microsoft Office Address Lists (*.mdb)
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Microsoft Office List Shortcuts (*.ols)
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Access Projects (*.ade, *.adp)
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Microsoft Data links (*.udl)
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ODBC File DSNs (*.dsn)
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Excel Files (*.xlsx, *.xlsm, *.xlsb, *.xls)
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Web Pages (*.htm, *.html, *.asp, *.mht, *.mhtml)
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Rich Text Format (*.rtf)
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Word Documents (*.docx, *.doc, *.docm, *.dot)
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Text Files (*.txt, *.prn, *.csv, *.tab, *.asc)
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Microsoft Works Databases (*.wdb)
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Outlook Personal Address Books (*.pab)
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Lotus 1-2-3 Files (*.wk?, *.wj?)
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Paradox Files (*.db)
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dBASE Files (*.dbf)
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Database Queries (*.dqy, *.rqy)
If your data isn’t already entered in another type of fi le, many users create a data source file first,
but Word can accommodate creating a data source on-the-fly during the merge process described
in this chapter.
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Choosing the Type of Data Document
To choose the type of data document, in the Start Mail Merge group of the Mailings tab, click
Start Mail Merge, as shown in Figure 10-1. Some of the options are obvious, others are not. There
are basically two kinds of data documents you can design. For one kind, each data record (a set of
data items or fields describing a person, company, product, etc.) will result in a single document,
such as a form letter, a mass e-mail, a product specification sheet, or an invoice. For the other
kind, a single document is produced in which multiple records can appear on any given page.
This approach is needed for creating directories, catalogs, and sheets of labels.
FIGURE 10-1
Letters, e-mail messages, and envelopes use one record per output document, whereas labels and
directories use multiple records for each output document.
Contrast, for example, using an envelope (with a different address on each envelope) with using
a sheet of labels (with a different address on each label). If you have only one address and want
to print only one envelope or label, you don’t need a data document. When you plan to crank out
stacks of envelopes, each with a different address, or sheets of labels for which no two contain the
same information, you need the approach described in this chapter.
As shown in Figure 10-1, Word offers five flavors of the two basic types of data documents:
l
Letters. Use this option for composing and designing mass mailings for which only
the recipient information varies from page to page. Use this approach too when you’re
preparing sheets containing product or other item specifications with one piece of paper
per product or item. You might use this approach, for example, not only when sending
out a form letter or invoices, but also when producing a job manual wherein each page
describes a different job title, and job information is stored in a database.
l
E-mail Messages. This is identical in concept to the form letter, except that it is
geared to paperless online distribution. Contrast this with using multiple e-mail
addresses in the To, Cc, or Bcc fields. Using e-mail merge, each recipient can receive
a personalized e-mail. Using multiple addresses, each recipient receives the identical
e-mail.
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l
Envelopes. This is also identical in concept to the form letter, except that the resulting
document will be envelopes. As a result, when you choose this option, Word begins by
displaying the Envelope Options dialog box.
l
Labels. Use this option to print to one or more sheets of labels. This combines Word’s
capability to print to any of hundreds of different label formats with the capability to
associate a database with a document, printing many addresses (data records) on the
same page, rather than the same address on each label.
l
Directory. This is similar in concept to labels, in that you print from multiple data
records on a single page. Use the directory approach when printing a catalog or any
other document that requires printing multiple records per page.
To choose the kind of document, choose Start Mail Merge in the Start Mail Merge group of the
Mailings tab, and click the kind of document you want to create.
If you want step-by-step guidance through the process, note an additional option at the bottom
of the Start Mail Merge list — the Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard. Use this option if you’re
unfamiliar with the mail merge process. The Mail Merge Wizard process is described later in
this chapter.
Restoring a Word Document to Normal
Sometimes, either by accident, temporary need, or whatever, a Word document becomes associated with a data file, and you want to restore a document to normal non–mail-merge status. To
restore a Word document to normal, in the Start Mail Merge group of the Mailings tab, choose
Start Mail Merge Í Normal Word Document. Note that when you restore a document to Normal
status, several tools on the Mailings tab that were formerly available are now grayed out as
unavailable. If you later decide that you need to again make the document into a data document,
you will need to reestablish the data connection.
Tip
If there’s a chance that you’ll later need to restore a data connection and if document storage space isn’t
a concern, rather than break the data connection for a document, save a copy of the document, giving it a
name that lets you know that it has a data connection. Although establishing a data connection isn’t all that
difficult or time-consuming, you can usually save some time and guesswork by not having to reinvent that
particular wheel. n
Attaching a Data Source
After you establish the type of data document for the merge, you need to attach a data source to
it. In the Start Mail Merge group of the Mailings tab, choose Select Recipients, as shown in
Figure 10-2.
Note that once you’ve attached a data source to the document, Edit Recipient List and a number
of other tools on the Mailings tab are no longer grayed out. If you plan to use the entire database,
you can skip the following section.
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FIGURE 10-2
A document isn’t really a data document until you attach a data source to it using one of the Select
Recipients options.
Selecting Recipients
If you don’t plan to use the entire database, you can use the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box,
shown in Figure 10-3, to select just the recipients you want to use. Use the check boxes shown to
include or exclude records. To quickly deselect all records, clear or select the check box at the top
of the list, just to the right of Data Source.
FIGURE 10-3
Select just the target recipients using the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box.
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Editing Data
Depending on your data source, you sometimes can edit it by clicking the database in the Data
Source box and then clicking Edit. When your data source is Outlook contacts, note that Edit
is not an option. To change your Outlook data, you must use Outlook. Once you’ve made your
change in Outlook, you can then refresh the records you see in the Mail Merge Recipients list by
highlighting the data source and clicking Refresh.
Sorting Records
When editing non-Outlook data, you can sort using Word controls. Click the arrow next to a
field to drop down a list of sort options, shown in Figure 10-4. For example, if you want to filter
out records for which the company name is blank, click the Company drop-down arrow and
choose Blanks. To select only records for which the e-mail address is not blank, click Nonblanks.
To restore the list to show all records, choose the All option.
FIGURE 10-4
Quickly select records for which the current field is blank or nonblank by choosing Blanks or Nonblanks.
To sort by multiple fields at the same time, in the Mail Merge Recipients dialog box, choose Sort
under Refine Recipient List. This displays the Filter and Sort dialog box, shown in Figure 10-5.
FIGURE 10-5
You can sort by up to three fields.
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Use this dialog box to sort by multiple criteria. For example, if letters are being handdelivered within a company, it might be useful to sort by floor and then by room number,
assuming those are separate fields. (Often, sorting just by room number accomplishes both
at the same time.)
Filtering Records
Word also enables you to filter records to either include or exclude records with data fields
matching specific criteria. To filter records, click Filter under Refine Recipient List. Here, you
again get the Filter and Sort dialog box, but the Filter Records tab this time, as shown in
Figure 10-6. Use the options shown to filter by specific values. As shown here, you can use it to
include specific ZIP codes. Although the dialog box initially shows just six filter fields, you are
not limited to that many. It’s not clear what the upper limit is, but you can specify 94, I’m told. I
stopped testing at 45.
FIGURE 10-6
You can specify multiple filter criteria.
Although the dialog box shown in Figure 10-6 shows just the Equal To comparison, you can
make a total of 10 comparisons (see Figure 10-7).
FIGURE 10-7
Include records based on 10 comparison operators.
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Tip
When filtering by ZIP code, if your database contains nine-digit ZIP codes, use the Contains filter rather than
the Equal To filter. Using Equal To, you would need to specify all nine digits in the filter. n
Understanding AND and OR
When setting up filters, you can make two kinds of comparisons: AND and OR. If all we had were
one or the other, there would be no problem; but we have both, and we don’t have parentheses to
help clarify the comparisons.
It helps to understand that AND and OR apply to each pair of rules. You also need to understand
that the AND rule is harder to satisfy, in that it requires that two conditions be met. Depending on
what comes before or follows, each AND/OR effectively divides the list of filters into sets of filters
that are being evaluated. However, by being careful with filters, you can avoid combinations that
are impossibly difficult to understand.
Suppose the filters contain the comparisons shown in Table 10-1. The first AND applies to the
Alexandria and VA filters. The second AND applies to the Hampton and VA filters. This set of
filters requires that records must be in Alexandria, VA, OR in Hampton, VA.
TABLE 10-1
Understanding OR and AND Operators
Operator
Field
Comparison
Compare to
City
Equal to
Alexandria
AND
State
Equal to
VA
OR
City
Equal to
Hampton
AND
State
Equal to
VA
Finally, understand that it’s perfectly possible to set up filters that make no logical sense. Hence,
Table 10-1 could have been set up with all of the Operators set to AND. There would be no matching records, of course. It’s up to you to examine the collection of resulting data records to make
sure that your logic is being applied as you think it should be.
Duplicates
Databases often contain duplicate records. When mailing or e-mailing, especially, you want to
avoid sending the same person duplicate messages. When sending invoices to large companies,
this can cause problems, especially if they are received and processed by different people, resulting in double payment and further paperwork downstream.
To find duplicates, click the Find Duplicates link in the lower section of the Mail Merge
Recipients dialog box. Word now displays the Find Duplicates dialog box, shown in Figure 10-8.
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If you identify duplicates, remove the checks next to them to exclude them from the data merge.
Look carefully, however, because Word’s criteria for what constitutes a duplicate might be different from your own.
FIGURE 10-8
Beware of Word’s ability to find duplicates. Some “duplicates” aren’t duplicates at all!
Caution
Caveat duplicates! In Figure 10-8, Word identifies nine entries as duplicates, which clearly aren’t. Word uses
First and Last Name to identify duplicates. If your database contains only company names and no First and
Last Name fields (which isn’t unexpected when all you have is the name of the establishment), you cannot use
this feature to reliably identify duplicates. n
Find Recipient
If your database is especially large, using Find Recipient can be faster than pawing through the
listings manually. Click the Find Recipient link in the lower portion of the Mail Merge Recipients
dialog box to display the Find Entry dialog box shown in Figure 10-9. Alternatively, click the
Find Recipient tool in the Preview Results group of the Mailings tab of the Ribbon.
Type the search text in the Find field, choose All Fields or a specific field, and then click Find
Next. Note that the search is not case-sensitive. If there are matches, Word highlights the first
match in the Mail Merge Recipients dialog, and the Find Entry dialog box stays onscreen. Click
Find Next to move to successive matches in the database.
Return to this tool later, after your data document has been constructed, to preview specific data
records. It’s better to iron out problems before committing your merge to paper or e-mail.
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FIGURE 10-9
Use Find Entry to search for text in any or all data fields.
Validate Addresses
The Validate Addresses link works with third-party software, such as that provided with
stamps.com and other electronic postage services. If you don’t have such software installed,
you’ll see the message shown in Figure 10-10. These services vary, but basically they check
against a huge database of valid street addresses to determine whether the selected address and
ZIP code combination really exists. This can save considerably on costs because it can prevent
you from mailing to addresses that might actually be somewhere in the middle of a lake (if the
street were extended to where an address logically would fall).
FIGURE 10-10
If you don’t have address validation software installed, Word invalidates your attempt to run the Validate
address command.
Assembling a Data Document
Regardless of which data document type you choose (letter, e-mail, envelopes, labels, or
directory), the process is similar. There are some additional considerations for multi-recordper-page documents, however, so we will look at those separately after discussing the
common elements.
When designing a letter or e-mail you plan to send to multiple recipients using the Merge feature,
it’s often a good idea to draft the document as you want it to appear, using placeholders for information pertaining to the intended recipient, as shown in the following example:
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Dear [name]:
We are writing to inform you that the warranty for [product] which you purchased
on [purchasedate] will expire on [expirationdate].
If you would like to extend your warranty, you must take advantage of our extended
warranty coverage plans before [expirationdate]. Costs for extending the warranty are:
1 Year: [oneyearwarranty]
2 Years: [twoyearwarranty]
3 Years: [threeyearwarranty]
Please use the enclosed card and envelope to extend your warranty before it’s too late!
Yours truly,
[salesagent]
When you’re done, edit your document and substitute merge fields for the placeholders.
Merge Fields
After setting the data document type (using Start Mail Merge), associating a database with it
(using Select Recipients), narrowing the list of recipients or records just to those records you plan
to use, and drafting the data document, the next step is to insert merge fields into your document
where you want the corresponding data fields to appear.
Note
Merge fields are special Word fields that correspond to the data fields in your database. For example, if you
have a data field called Company, then you would insert the company name into your data document by using
a MergeField field code with the name Company in it: { MERGEFIELD Company }. In your data document,
that field displays either as «Company» or as the name of the company associated with the current record in
the data set. Use the Mailings tab’s Preview Results button in the Preview Results group to toggle between the
merge field name and actual data. n
To insert a merge field, position the insertion point where you want the field to appear (or select
the placeholder if you’re replacing a placeholder with a merge field). In the Write & Insert Fields
group of the Mailings tab, choose Insert Merge Field, as shown in Figure 10-11. Click the field
you want to insert. Using a combination of text and merge fields that you insert, complete the
assembly and wording of your document. Note that in addition to individual merge fields that
you can insert using the Insert Merge Field tool, you can use special sets of merge fields to save
time: Address Block and Greeting Line.
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FIGURE 10-11
Merge fields are data tokens that you use where you want actual data fields to appear in the
data document.
Address Block
The Address Block contains several elements that you can select from the Insert Address Block
dialog box. To determine the contents of the address block, click Address Block in the Write &
Insert Fields group of the Mailings tab, as shown in Figure 10-12.
FIGURE 10-12
Use the Address Block tool to launch the Insert Address Block dialog box.
When you click Address Block, the Insert Address Block dialog box, shown in Figure 10-13,
appears. Notice that it contains three sections for selecting, previewing, and correcting your
Address Block information (if there are problems). Make your selections as indicated, and then
click OK.
l
Specify Address Elements. Use this section to tell Word how to define the Address
Block. You can include the recipient’s name (in a variety of formats), the company name,
and the postal address, as well as the country or region. If desired, you can suppress the
country or region, always include it, or include it only if it’s different from the country
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selected. You can also tell Word to format the address according to the destination
country or region.
FIGURE 10-13
Use the Insert Address Block dialog box to choose the Address Block elements for the
current data document.
l
Preview. Use the First, Previous, Next, and Last buttons to preview different addresses
as they will appear with the selected options. It’s a good idea to preview a good sampling in case some parts of the address are treated differently from how you expect, or
if there are problems with missing data that will leave holes in the Address Block. (Click
Preview Results if you see merge field names instead of data.)
l
Correct Problems. If the preview isn’t what you expect, click Match Fields to change
the different data elements with which each of the fields listed is associated, as shown in
Figure 10-14.
If you plan to reuse the Address Block data either for the same database or for other databases
that contain the same field names, click to enable the Remember This Matching ... setting.
Greeting Line
The Greeting Line merge field, like the Address Block field, is a collection of different data
elements and plain text designed to save you entry time when composing data documents.
Click Greeting Line in the Write & Insert Fields group of the Mailings tab. This displays
the Insert Greeting Line dialog box shown in Figure 10-15. Proper operation of a number of
aspects of the Greeting Line merge field depends on your having several potentially obscure
data elements available and filled out, such as nickname, spouse’s nickname, and the color of
their children’s socks. Unless you or someone with whom you work is obsessively compulsive
about data entry, you’re not likely to find some aspects of this terribly useful.
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FIGURE 10-14
Use the Match Fields dialog box to associate each of 11 items with data fields from your database
for the Address Block.
FIGURE 10-15
Set and preview Greeting Line components.
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Use the Preview buttons to test your selected Greeting Line options against your actual data.
If something doesn’t look quite right, click Match Fields and use the controls shown in
Figure 10-16 to associate the Greeting Line components with the correct merge data fields.
FIGURE 10-16
Use the Match Fields dialog box to associate Greeting Line merge field components with data elements
from your database.
Rules
In assembling a data document, you sometimes need to control or modify how data and records
are processed. Word provides nine commands to help you do that, as shown in Figure 10-17. The
entries in the Rules drop-down list of the Write & Insert Fields group show how those Rule keywords are displayed in the data document.
These rules are tied to specific Word field codes, and are explained in Table 10-2. Note that many
of these are supported by dialog boxes that guide you through proper syntax, making them easy
to use and understand.
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FIGURE 10-17
Use the Rules drop-down list of Word fields to control how data is merged with the data document.
TABLE 10-2
Merge Rules
Field
Usage/Purpose
ASK
This field prompts you to provide information and assigns a bookmark to the answer
you provide; the information is stored internally. A reference to the bookmark can
then be used in the mail merge document to reproduce the information you type.
A default response to the prompt can also be included in the field. The ASK field
displays as an empty bookmark in the mail merge document. You might use this field
in conjunction with an IF field to prompt for missing information during a merge.
FILLIN
This field prompts you to enter text and then uses your response in place of the
field in the mail merge document. This is similar to the ASK field, except that the
information can be used only in one place.
IF
This is used in mail merge documents to control the flow and to create a conditional
statement that controls whether specific mail merge fields are printed or included in
the merged document.
MERGESEQ
This field provides a counter of mail merge documents that actually result from a
merge. If you merge the entire database and do not change the base sorting and if no
records are skipped, then MERGESEQ and MERGEREC will be identical.
MERGEREC
When doing a mail merge, the MERGEREC field serves as a counter of records in the
data file and doesn’t count the number of documents actually printed. This field is
incremented by the presence of NEXT and NEXTIF fields. If you skip records using
SKIPIF, MERGEREC is incremented nonetheless.
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Field
Usage/Purpose
NEXT
The NEXT field is used to include more than one record in a given document.
Ordinarily, when doing a mail merge, one document is printed for each record. With
the NEXT field, however, you can include multiple records in a single document. This
can be useful when you need to refer to several addresses from a data file. When
doing a label merge, the NEXT field is provided automatically, and appears as
« Next Record ».
NEXTIF
The NEXTIF statement works like the NEXT field except that it advances to the
next record only if an expression being evaluated is true. A typical use is to skip a
given record if a particular key field is blank. For example, in an e-mail merge, if
you haven’t otherwise excluded records with blank e-mail addresses, you can use
NEXTIF to do it.
SET
The SET field is used to change the text referred to by a bookmark. SET often is used
in conjunction with IF to conditionally change how particular text is defined based
on external factors, such as the current date, or internal factors, such as the value(s)
of particular fields.
SKIPIF
The SKIPIF field is used to cancel processing of the current database record during
a mail merge. For example, you might use it to screen out a particular ZIP code.
Match Fields
The Match Fields button in the Write & Insert Fields group displays the Match Fields dialog box
shown in Figure 10-18. If the dialog box and fields look familiar, it’s no accident. The “special
features” notation referred to at the top of the Match Fields dialog box refers to the Address Block
and Greeting Line. If you’ve already visited the Match Fields dialog boxes in those respective dialogs, you can forego the pleasure of another visit. In addition, if you aren’t using Address Block
and Greeting Line fields, you can safely ignore this tool.
Preview Results
At any time as you go along, if you want to see what actual data will look like in your document,
click the Preview Results button in the Preview Results group of the Mailings tab of the Ribbon to
toggle between a data token (merge field name) and actual data, as shown in Figure 10-19. Note
that because the merge fields actually are field codes, they can also be displayed in a third way,
also shown in Figure 10-19.
In the Preview Results section of the Mailings toolbar, shown in Figure 10-20, you can use the
First, Previous, Next, Last, and Go To Record tools to display any data record.
Find Recipient
To search for a specific data record or for records whose data you want to preview, click the Find
Recipient tool in the Preview Results group. This displays the Find Entry dialog box shown earlier in Figure 10-9. Refer to the discussion earlier in this chapter.
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FIGURE 10-18
When launched from the Mailings tab, the Match Fields dialog box is a marriage of the Match Fields dialogs
available from within the Insert Address Block and Insert Greeting Line dialog boxes.
FIGURE 10-19
Data merge fields can be displayed in three different ways in your document.
Token
Displayed
data result
Underlying
ADDRESSBLOCK
field code
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FIGURE 10-20
Use the Preview Results tools to ensure that the merge will produce the results you want.
Update Labels
When the data document type is Labels, there are two ways to proceed. The easy way is to
carefully edit just the first label cell by inserting whatever merge fields you need. When you’re
finished, click Update Labels. Word copies all text, merge fields, and formatting from the first cell
into each of the other cells, after the Next Record control. The result is that each sheet of labels
will contain data from the same number of label cells. A sheet containing nine labels will use
data from nine database records.
The hard way to do labels is to ignore the existence of the Update Labels tool and to carefully edit
each of the table cells, inserting the merge fields you want to use. Note that Word automatically
provides the Next Record field in each of the table cells, as shown in Figure 10-21. If you manually populate the cells, additional merge fields should be inserted after the Next Record control.
If you insert merge fields before the Next Record control, data from the same record used for the
first cell will be used.
FIGURE 10-21
When you insert a merge field into the first label cell, Word automatically puts the Next Record field into
each of the other cells.
Why would you choose to do it the hard way? You might do it that way if you need to do something else in each data field that can’t be accomplished by Word automatically copying the first
table cell to each of the other label cells.
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Highlight Merge Fields
Use the Highlight Merge Fields tool to highlight all of the merge fields in your data. This can be
useful if you’re working on a complex document and need to recheck the logic and placement of
merge fields. This is especially true if you’ve turned on Preview Results and are looking at actual
data results, rather than the merge fields themselves.
If, for example, you expect a given merge field result to appear in two places in the document, this tool enables you to fi nd those locations more easily so you can verify that the
correct text appears. If you’re using conditional rules, such as Skip Record If, Next Record If,
and If, this also helps you focus on the results so you can verify that the rules are working as
expected.
Auto Check for Errors
To avoid wasting paper and other resources, when you think you’re done, click Auto Check for
Errors in the Preview Results group to display the options shown in Figure 10-22.
FIGURE 10-22
Rather than waste paper or send out errant e-mails, use the error checking tool to avoid logical errors or
other unwanted surprises.
The options are as follows:
l
Simulate the Merge and Report Errors in a New Document. Use this option to examine any and all errors in a new document.
l
Complete the Merge, Pausing to Report Each Error as It Occurs. Use this option
once you’ve determined that there are errors, so you can observe the error in action.
l
Complete the Merge without Pausing. Report Errors in a New Document. Use this
option to go ahead and complete the merge without stopping at each error, sending the
error report to a new document.
Finishing the Merge
Once the data document is ready and has been thoroughly debugged and certified as error-free,
it’s time to go through the final motions. The Finish & Merge button in the Finish group of
the Mailings tab provides three options, shown in Figure 10-23, regardless of the type of data
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document chosen. Think twice before accidentally clicking Send E-mail Messages if the document is a set of labels or a directory!
FIGURE 10-23
Word offers three options for completing the merge.
Edit Individual Documents
Use the Edit Individual Documents option if you want to save your merged results for future use.
For example, suppose you have a set of labels that seldom changes and that you need to print out
every week. Rather than go through the mail merge exercise each week, save a copy of the labels
and then print them each time you need them. That way, you don’t need to go through the whole
mail merge routine unless the underlying database changes.
You might also choose this option if you don’t trust other ways of proofing the results. Instead
of printing from the Mailings tab controls, send the results to a new document where you can
examine each of them, and then print when you’re ready.
When you choose this option, Word displays the Merge to New Document dialog box, shown in
Figure 10-24. If you want Word to create a limited number of output documents, either choose
Current Record or indicate a From/To range. Click OK to create the new document with the
merged data.
FIGURE 10-24
Select the desired records to merge, and click OK.
Note
If you choose this option for an e-mail merge, the resulting document(s) will not be useful except for proofing
the e-mails. To actually send the e-mails, you have to choose the Send E-mail Messages option. n
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Print Documents
Choose the Print Documents option when you’re certain that the merge will give you the results
you want and your boss is at the door asking, “Where are those letters?” When you click Print
Documents, Word displays the dialog box shown earlier in Figure 10-24, this time sporting a
Merge to Printer title bar. The same options prevail. Choose wisely and click OK to immediately launch yet another dialog box, the Print dialog box. Make any additional choices and
decisions, including which printer to use, cross your fingers, and click OK.
Tip
If you don’t trust all of the previews and error checks at this stage, you’ve probably been burned by mail
merge in the past. If you still want to be sure before wasting a tree, use the Name drop-down list to see
whether you have an option that produces electronic images of printed pages, rather than actual printed
pages. Using Office 2010 and Windows 7, you have both XPS and PDF options to create digital documents in
lieu of actual printouts. Then you can review what amounts to your best possible Print Preview. n
Send E-mail Messages
Choose the Send E-mail Messages option if you’re working on an e-mail merge. When
you click Send E-mail Messages, Word displays the Merge to E-mail dia log box, shown in
Figure 10-25.
FIGURE 10-25
Make sure you fill out the Subject line field!
In addition to the Send Records options (All, Current Record, and From/To), Word provides
three additional options:
l
To. If the proposed e-mail address data field is not correct, used the drop-down arrow
to replace it with the correct address field.
l
Subject Line. This is very important. Not including a Subject line will often flag the
e-mail as spam by various systems. Be sure to include the subject for an added level of
completeness.
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l
Mail Format. Many e-mail recipients wisely have their e-mail options set up to read
all e-mail as plain text (this gives them a shot at preventing any automatic naughtiness
from being executed when e-mail is opened). The options provided are Attachment,
Plain Text, and HTML, the latter being the default. Although Attachment seems like a
good compromise for formatted e-mail, this option provides no way for you to include
any message text for the body of the e-mail. When and if you use this option, make sure
the Subject line isn’t blank.
Mail Merge Task Pane/Wizard
YAHOO stands for you always have other options. YAHOO applies here as well. Your other option is
to use the Mail Merge Wizard, rather than the individual tools in the Mailings tab. If you need a
little more hand-holding when doing a mail merge, Word has the hand ready and waiting, in the
form of the Mail Merge Wizard. To travel down this particular road, start a new blank document
(or open a document you want to use as the basis for a data document). On the Mailings tab,
click the Start Mail Merge button in the Start Mail Merge group, and choose the Step by Step Mail
Merge Wizard. This opens the Mail Merge task pane, shown in Figure 10-26.
FIGURE 10-26
Choosing the Mail Merge Wizard opens the Mail Merge task pane.
Step 1: Document Type
In Step 1, shown in Figure 10-26, choose the type of data document you want to create. Later, if
you need to restore this to a normal document, in the Mailings tab, choose Start Mail Merge Í
Normal Word Document. Click Next: Starting Document.
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Step 2: Starting Document
In Starting Document, Word provides three options. Note that when you choose any of these
options, Word explains the option in the lower part of the task pane. The options are as follows:
l
Use the Current Document. Start from the current document and use the Mail Merge
Wizard to add recipient information (merge fields).
l
Start from a Template. Start from a template, which you can customize as needed
by adding merge fields and/or other contents. If you choose this option, click “Select
Template” to be shown a list of all of the available templates (at least the ones that
Word knows about). Note that despite the option’s wording, it does not present you
with a list of “ready-to-use mail merge” templates.
l
Start from Existing Document. Open an existing mail merge or other document,
and change it to fit the current need by changing the contents or recipients. Recent
mail merge documents, if any, will be listed. If the one you want isn’t listed, click
Open to navigate to the one you want, select it, and then click Open again.
After homing in on the starting document, choose Next: Select Recipients at the bottom of the
task pane.
Step 3: Select Recipients
In Step 3, select from Use an Existing List, Select from Outlook Contacts, and Type a New List.
These options are shown in Figure 10-27.
FIGURE 10-27
Select the desired recipients option and then click Next: Write Your Letter.
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If you click Type a New List and then click Create, Word displays the New Address List dialog
box. Type your data into the fields shown, tabbing or clicking to get to the next entry field. To
accept the current entry and enter a new record, click New Entry. To remove an entry, click
Delete Entry.
The New Address List dialog box can be used for addresses, but doesn’t need to be. If the list of
data elements or fields doesn’t meet your needs, click Customize Columns, which displays the
Customize Address List dialog box. To add a field, select the field above where you want to add
the new field, and click Add. Type the field name in the space provided, and click OK. To delete a
field, select the field and click Delete. To rename a field, select it, click Rename, type a new name
in the To field, and click OK. (To add a field at the beginning, select the first field and click Add,
as before. The added field will be second on the list, not first. Select the added field, and then
click Move Up.) To rearrange the fields, click a field you want to move, and then click Move Up or
Move Down, as needed. When you’re done customizing the fields, click OK to return to the New
Address List dialog box.
When you’re finished entering data, click OK. Word now prompts you to save the file as a
Microsoft Office Address Lists file (Access Database). Note that this is the only Save as Type
option. Type a name and click Save.
Step 4: Write Your Letter
In Step 4, you are greeted with four options:
l
Address Block. This leads to the dialog box shown in Figure 10-13. See the discussion
under “Address Block” for additional details.
l
Greeting Line. The Greeting Line option displays the dialog box shown in Figure 10-15.
See the “Greeting Line” section for more information.
l
Electronic Postage. As indicated previously, the functioning of this option requires the
installation of third-party software that enables you to apply postage to items you send.
l
More Items. This option displays the dialog box shown in Figure 10-28. It is a shame
that this thoroughly confusing dialog box appears as part of the Mail Merge Wizard.
If you choose Address Fields, the dialog box shows you a list of all of the fields in its
vocabulary, many or most of which are probably irrelevant to the attached database.
Choose Database Fields instead to see a list of what’s actually available for use in this
merge.
Tip
In theory, you move the insertion point to where you want a merge field to appear, click More items, select
the field, and click Insert. Dismiss the dialog box and repeat this series of actions for each merge field. In
practice, however, if you know which fields you want to insert, go ahead and insert them all at once, and then
cut-and-paste them where you want them to go. n
Use a combination of text and merge fields to write the data document, inserting merge fields
where you want database fields to appear. When you’re done, click Step 5: Preview Your Letters.
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FIGURE 10-28
Ignore the Address Fields option. The associated database fields are listed when you choose
Database Fields.
Step 5: Preview Your Letters
In Step 5, shown in Figure 10-29, use the controls shown to move from record to record in your
database. Note that the << and >> tools correspond to the Previous and Next buttons in the
Mailings tab of the Ribbon. There’s no reason you can’t use the far more flexible and useful tools
in the Ribbon.
Notice that the Find a Recipient and Edit Recipient List options perform identical actions, respectively, as the Find Recipient and Edit Recipient List Ribbon tools discussed earlier in this chapter.
About the only useful tool in this set is the Exclude This Recipient option, which is the equivalent
of choosing Edit Recipient List from the Mailings tab and removing the check next to the currently selected record.
Step 6: Complete the Merge
The contents of the Step 6 panel vary depending on the document type. As shown in
Figure 10-29, when the document type is a letter, the options are to send the merged
results to the printer or to send them to “individual letters.” Actually, that’s not at all what
the option does. Instead, it sends all of the merged letter results to a single new document,
in which the individual letters are separated by section breaks.
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FIGURE 10-29
Use Steps 5 and 6 to preview the data document and complete the merge.
Summary
In this chapter, you’ve learned how to use each of the Mail Merge tools in the Mailings Ribbon
to begin a mail merge, attach a database to a data document, insert merge fields, and complete a
data merge. You’ve also seen that this feature isn’t just for mail merge, but has many other uses as
well. You should now be able to do the following:
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Attach a data source to a Word document and select just the records you want.
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Within limits, use Word tools to discover duplicate data records.
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Insert composite merge fields, such as the Address Block and Greeting Line, as well as
control how those fields are constituted.
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Use the Mail Merge Wizard.
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CH APTER
Security, Tracking,
and Comments
N
ot too terribly long ago, about the only way you could protect a
Word document was to password-protect it using a password
technology that was decidedly easy to crack. Password-cracking
solutions abounded and were available free or practically free. Word has
come a long way since then and now offers a variety of different kinds of
protection that are a lot better than what was available for Word 97 and
earlier, although nothing is 100 percent secure.
Not only does improved technology make protection stronger, but the variety of types of protection has expanded as well. This chapter looks at the
types of document protection available to Word users and describes how to
use them.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Protecting documents
Setting permissions
Information Rights Management
and Word
Using digital signatures
Using passwords to protect
Word documents
Inserting comments
Protection Types
Tracking changes
One of the unfortunate things about a piece of software as complicated
as Word 2010 is that privacy settings aren’t all centrally located. This can
make discovering the full range of what’s available a bit difficult. Word
2010 is a bit improved over Word 2007 on this score, but it still helps to
have a guide. To save you the trouble of searching desperately to find what
you can control, here’s the definitive list of the different types of protection
(and pseudo-protection) Word 2010 offers, and where to fi nd them:
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Permission. Restricts a document so that it can be opened and/or
changed only by specific individuals. Select File Í Info Í Protect
Document Í Restrict Permission by People.
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Digital Signature. Signs a document with a digital signature
to provide assurance that you are the source of the document.
Select File Í Info Í Protect Document Í Add a Digital Signature.
Reviewing comments
and changes
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Inspect Document. Inspects the document to see if it contains private or sensitive
information or data. Select File Í Info Í Check for Issues Í Inspect Document.
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Mark as Final. Marks a document as final to let recipients know that the document is
considered the final revision. This setting makes the document read-only and makes it
unavailable for additional typing, editing, proofing, or tracking changes. Note that this
setting is advisory only — you can still click the big Edit Anyway button and remove
the Mark as Final setting. Recipients with earlier versions of Word who have installed
the Office 2010 Compatibility Pack won’t even see the file as read-only. Hence, this kind
of gentle protection would have to be combined with something more substantial to be
meaningful.
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Style Formatting Restrictions. Limits formatting to a selection of styles, as well as
blocks Theme, Scheme, or Quick Style Set switching. Protection here is by password
and is therefore less secure and robust than when using permissions. Select File Í Info
Í Protect Document Í Restrict Editing Í Limit Formatting to a Selection of Styles.
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Editing Restrictions — Read Only. Offers password protection, which is not very
secure, along with exceptions of specific areas of the document. Exceptions can be
made wholesale, or you can limit them to individuals with specific Windows Live
ID–associated e-mail addresses. Select File Í Info Í Protect Document Í Restrict
Editing Í Allow Only This Type of Editing in the Document Í Read only.
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Editing Restrictions — Tracked Changes. Allows only tracked changes to be made.
Select File Í Info Í Protect Document Í Restrict Editing Í Allow Only This Type of
Editing in the Document Í Tracked Changes.
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Editing Restrictions — Fill-In Forms. Allows filling in of form fields and content
controls. Select File Í Info Í Protect Document Í Restrict Editing Í Allow Only This
Type of Editing in the Document Í Filling in Forms.
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Editing Restrictions — Comments. Allows only comments. Exceptions can be made
for selected areas of the document, for everyone, or for specific individuals (using
Windows Live ID–associated e-mail addresses). Select File Í Info Í Protect Document
Í Restrict Editing Í Allow Only This Type of Editing in the Document Í Comments.
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Password to Open/Modify. Lets you specify a password to open and/or modify the
document. This protection is not the same as the Editing Restrictions’ No Changes
setting. You must choose one or the other. Select File Í Save As Í Tools Í General
Options.
The rest of this section looks at each of these, showing how you enable protection and assessing
the degree of protection provided.
Restricting Permission (Information Rights
Management)
A relatively new and strong way to protect your documents uses an Information Rights
Management server to authenticate users who create or receive documents or e-mail that have
restricted permissions. To begin the process — assuming you’re using an enterprise-enabled
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version of Office — choose File Í Protect Document Í Restrict Permission by People Í Manage
Credentials Í Add. As noted in Figure 11-1, some enterprises have their own rights management servers. If you don’t have access to one, you can use Microsoft’s free trial Information Rights
Management service.
FIGURE 11-1
If you don’t already have access to an Information Rights Management service, you can sign up to
use a free trial service.
To use this service, you and all users with whom you share rights-managed documents or e-mail
must have Windows Live ID–registered e-mail addresses. The biggest risk is that Microsoft might
at some point end the free trial service. You’ll then have three months in which to move to a
different rights management server, subscribe to whatever service Microsoft offers (assuming it
replaces the free trial service with a for-pay service), or remove rights management protection
from your documents so you don’t lose access to them.
To restrict permission by using Information Rights Management, choose File Í Info Í Protect
Document Í Restrict Permission by People Í Restricted Access. If you do not have Rights
Management software installed on your computer, the dialog box shown in Figure 11-1 appears.
If you choose to proceed, a five-step wizard walks you through the process of setting up rights
management and associating your Windows Live account.
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If you are not logged on to the rights management server account you want to use, or if you need
to specify, add, or remove a user account, choose File Í Info Í Protect Document Í Restrict
Permission by People Í Manage Credentials, which displays the Select User dialog box, shown
in Figure 11-2. If you need to add a Windows Live or other account, click Add. To remove an
account, select the one you want to remove and click Remove. Select the account you want to use
(if desired, enable Always Use this Account), and then click OK.
FIGURE 11-2
Most rights management users have only one rights management account.
Setting Up Information Rights Management
In the Service Sign-Up dialog box, choose Yes, I Want to Sign up for This Free Trial Service from Microsoft
and click Next. In the Welcome to the Windows RM Account Certification Wizard, choose Yes, I Have
a Windows Live ID. (They are so prevalent at this point that this section assumes that you have one. If
you don’t, choose the No option and follow that detour, and then join back up with the next step once
you’ve set up your Windows Live account). Click Next.
In Specify Your E-mail Address, type the address associated with the Windows Live account you want
to use for rights management, and then click Next. In Select Certificate Type, read the descriptions of
Standard and Temporary, make your choice, and then click Next Í Finish.
If credentials are already associated, and/or when you click OK in the dialog box shown in
Figure 11-2, Word displays the Permission dialog box shown in Figure 11-3. Type the e-mail
addresses of people with permission to read and change the document in the boxes provided.
E-mail addresses should be separated with semicolons. The system automatically checks e-mail
addresses you enter, but if it doesn’t happen quickly enough for you, click the Check Names tools
to the right of the address boxes. A colored icon next to the name means that the person has a
Windows Live ID and is currently online. A gray icon means either that they’re not online or that
the address isn’t a valid Windows Live ID.
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FIGURE 11-3
You can use rights management to limit who can read and change a document.
To see more options, click More Options, not surprisingly, which displays the different
Permission dialog box shown in Figure 11-4. Note that you can set an expiration date for permissions you grant. In addition, recipients of the document will not be able to print, copy, or access
document content programmatically (e.g., use a program to extract XML data) unless the corresponding options are checked. For additional protection, if you don’t want to receive requests
for additional permission, remove the check next to Users Can Request Additional Permissions
From. Once you’ve selected permissions, click Set Defaults to make the selected permissions the
default for future documents upon which you restrict permissions.
Click Require a Connection to Verify a User’s Permission to require that individuals to whom you
are granting permissions be connected to the rights management server, either over the Internet
or over the respective intranet. Note that if you have not installed the Windows RMS client for
Rights Management Services, this option will be grayed out as unavailable.
When you click OK in either of the dialog boxes shown in Figure 11-3 or Figure 11-4, Word
adds the Permission Is Currently Restricted bar at the top of the document window, as shown in
Figure 11-5.
Removing Access Restrictions
When and if there is no longer a need to restrict access to a document, choose File Í Info Í
Protect Document Í Restrict Permission by People Í Unrestricted Access. Click Yes to the
prompt that asks if you’re sure you want to remove permission. Note that you’re not removing
permission. Rather, you’re removing permission restrictions.
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FIGURE 11-4
You can set an expiration date as well as restrict permission to copy or print a document.
FIGURE 11-5
The Permission Is Currently Restricted message bar appears when you limit access to the document.
Digital Signatures
A digital signature is an electronic certificate that provides a way for recipients to verify that a
document or e-mail actually came from the sender. Can these certificates really provide such
verification? That’s an article of faith, perhaps — an appropriate enough concept for a Bible, one
supposes. Use and trust digital signatures according to your own personal beliefs. You assume
any and all risks.
Note
Personally, I don’t trust digital signatures. When I receive e-mail containing a digital signature, warning bells
immediately go off because nobody with whom I exchange e-mail uses digital signatures. Hence, the only
e-mails I ever get that have digital signatures have been part of some scam to try to convince me to share various account numbers. The bottom line? If you receive something important and the validity of the signature is
an issue, call the sender to verify the contents. n
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How to Digitally Sign a Word Document
To digitally sign a Word document, choose File Í Info Í Protect Document Í Add a Digital
Signature. If this is the first time you’ve used this feature or if you didn’t previously choose Don’t
Show This Message Again, Word displays the dialog box shown in Figure 11-6. If you already
have a digital signing certificate, click Yes. Otherwise, you can dismiss the dialog box (if you’ve
changed your mind) or click Signature Services from the Office Marketplace.
FIGURE 11-6
If you don’t already have a digital signing certificate, click Signature Services from the Office Marketplace
to learn about for-fee and for-free services.
If you choose the Signature Services option, Word takes you to a Digital Signing site on the
Microsoft Office website. There, you can use a commercial service to buy a digital certificate. As
this is being written, at least one certificate authority is offering a free digital signature to private
individuals (non-business).
If you choose OK and the document has not been saved, you are prompted to save the file as a
Word document. Word then displays the Sign dialog box, shown in Figure 11-7. You do not need
to provide a purpose for signing the document, but you can if you want. To see exactly what you
are signing and what information is provided along with the signature, click the link at the top of
the dialog box: See Additional Information about What You Are Signing. If the Signing As identity/certificate isn’t the one you want to use, click Change. If everything is as you want it, click
Sign, and the Signature Confirmation message appears, as shown in Figure 11-8.
FIGURE 11-7
If you’re not sure about the signing identity, click Change to see additional signing certificates as well as
information about this one.
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FIGURE 11-8
Don’t sign a document until you’re finished making changes to it.
Removing a Signature
Once you’ve signed a document, the document is locked against further changes until the signature is removed. Unlike document permissions, a digital signature can be removed from a Word
document by anyone with the appropriate version of Word. Once removed, however, it can be
signed only by the owner of a signing certificate. Hence, if you remove my signature, you can edit
the file I sent you and make any changes you want to. However, you will not be able to restore my
signature.
Caution
Let’s be honest here. You can use a free service to obtain a certificate with my name on it and affix that signature to a document and claim that I signed it. However, if it comes from the same CA (Certificate Authority)
I used, it can’t be associated with my e-mail address, which proves it’s not really my signature; and if it
doesn’t come from the same CA, I can use that as proof that it’s not really my signature. Presumably, there
are ways to determine whether a signature is valid, but there are ways to make a forged signature look valid,
and not everyone is sufficiently skeptical. Forewarned is forearmed. n
To remove a signature from a document, choose File Í Info Í View Signatures (unless the
Signatures pane is already showing). Right-click the signature and choose Remove Signature. In
the Remove Signature prompt dialog box, click Yes.
Don’t let the words “permanently” and “cannot be undone” throw you. This simply means that
you can’t remove someone’s signature, change that $1,000 fee to $100,000, and then reaffi x their
signature. Once you remove someone’s signature, only they can put it back.
Document Inspector (Removing Private/Personal
Information)
You can use the Document Inspector to see what private or personal information resides in a file
and remove it. The Document Inspector checks for the kinds of information and content shown
in Figure 11-9. To display the Document Inspector, choose File Í Info Í Check for Issues Í
Inspect Document. By default, all six areas are checked. Remove checks if you don’t want those
kinds of information removed. For example, if the purpose for sending a document to someone
is to convey the XML data it contains, remove the check next to Custom XML Data. On the other
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hand, if the document might contain colorful comments about someone’s draft, you probably
do want to inspect it for those. When the right checks are checked and the wrong checks are
unchecked, click Inspect.
FIGURE 11-9
Use the Document Inspector to remove private/proprietary information before passing a document along to
someone else.
The Document Inspector inspects the current document for each of the types of material or data
indicated. If it finds any, the Document Inspector dialog box is redisplayed, with Remove All buttons next to each type of content that was found, as shown in Figure 11-10.
Caution
Make a backup copy of the document before using Remove All. Once you remove the content using the
Document Inspector, you can’t get it back using Undo. Particularly for comments and data, if they are content you need to preserve, make a backup copy of the document. n
There is no facility in the Document Inspector for further inspecting to see exactly what it found.
You have two options: Click Remove All to do exactly that, or click Close and conduct a closer
personal inspection. You can remove the content yourself manually or you can return to the
Document Inspector and use Remove All once you’re satisfied that you really want it removed.
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FIGURE 11-10
A red exclamation mark means that the Document Inspector found potentially sensitive content, and the
check mark indicates that the specified type of content was not found.
What Is Invisible Content?
A new feature in Word 2010 — one that both Excel and PowerPoint 2007 had — is the ability
to format graphical objects as invisible, as long as they do not have wrapping set to In Line with
Text. To see how this works, open any .docx document that contains floating graphics. In the
Editing group of the Home tab on the Ribbon, choose Select Í Selection Pane.
Each qualified object will have an eye icon (or, an eye-con) next to it. Clicking the icon makes the
associated object invisible. You can use this to hide shapes, text boxes, SmartArt, and charts. You
cannot unbundle parts of a chart or SmartArt object — it’s all or nothing.
When you click Remove All in the Document Inspector, it actually does remove the hidden objects. It doesn’t just make them visible. So, exercise caution if you really do need those
objects — it’s a good idea to create a for-distribution copy of the document.
Formatting and Editing Restrictions
Rights management represents one general area of document protection, and it is certainly more
formidable and secure than most of what you can do using formatting and editing restrictions.
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However, if you choose not to install and use rights management software, the Restrict
Formatting and Editing settings can provide a measure of protection.
Limit Formatting to a Selection of Styles
To limit formatting to certain styles, in the Review or Developer tabs of the Ribbon, choose
Restrict Editing in the Protect Group of the Review tab on the Ribbon, which displays the Restrict
Formatting and Editing pane shown in Figure 11-11, and then click to place a check next to
Limit Formatting to a Selection of Styles. To choose which styles, click Settings. The Formatting
Restrictions dialog box now appears, also shown in Figure 11-11.
FIGURE 11-11
With Limit Formatting to a Selection of Styles checked, click Settings to choose those limits.
The Formatting Restrictions dialog box provides the following options:
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Checked Styles. Place a check next to each style you want to allow. Remove checks
for styles you want to disallow. Note that the styles listed might be limited based on
settings in the Manage Styles dialog box, discussed in Chapter 7. See Chapter 7 if you
need to liberate additional styles from captivity before they will display here. Note that
Normal is not included in the list. As much as you might like to, you can’t deny access
to the Normal style.
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Recommended Minimum. If the list is too inclusive, click Recommended Minimum,
and then add or remove checks as needed.
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None. If the style list is way too inclusive, then choose None, and place a check next to
just those you want to allow.
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All. If the style list is way too restrictive, then click All and remove the check next to
those you want to disallow.
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Allow AutoFormat to Override Formatting Restrictions. If AutoFormat’s rules and
practices are sufficiently rigorous for your purposes, click to allow this option.
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Block Theme or Scheme Switching. Choose this option to limit formatting to the currently applied theme or scheme.
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Block Quick Style Set Switching. Choose this option to use style definitions from the
current document and template only.
When you’re ready to proceed, click OK in the Formatting Restrictions dialog box. Word
next displays a message box informing you that the document may include styles that are not
allowed. Click Yes if you want disallowed styles or formatting removed. Note that if any styles are
removed, text will be reformatted using Normal (even if the default paragraph style, set in File Í
Options Í Advanced Í Editing Options, is set to something else).
When you’re ready to proceed, click Yes, Start Enforcing Protection in the Restrict Formatting
and Editing pane. Optionally, you can password-protect your formatting restrictions. Even if the
level of protection isn’t as strong as rights management, it’s still better than nothing, assuming
the hapless users upon whom you are imposing the restrictions can’t be trusted. (Sniff.) Click OK
when you’re done.
Note
Other than being an ornery cuss, why would you want to impose formatting restrictions? Some publishing
processes depend on only certain styles being used. There are macros or other programs that process files
so that they can be fed into other parts of the publishing process. If other styles are used, the process breaks
down and requires manual intervention. Hence, it’s better if only the allowed styles are used. In other cases,
enterprise-wide formatting standards are strictly imposed to ensure that all documents have a consistent and
professional look. Enforcing style restrictions is one way to do that. n
With formatting restrictions in place, several formatting tools, commands, and keystrokes are
grayed out as unavailable in the Font and Paragraph groups of the Home tab. The Change Case
“formatting” tool isn’t grayed out, however. That’s because case is not formatting; it’s simply a
choice of which characters to use.
No Changes (Read-Only)
You can protect all or part of a document against changes. You can make different exceptions for
different users. Suppose, for example, that you have a document that has been written by a group
of people. You want each individual to be able to edit his or her own section, but not that of others. At the same time, you don’t want to have to manage different documents.
The solution is to create a document with a specific area for each individual. You make the entire
document read-only, but you make an exception for each individual’s section so that the individual responsible can make changes as needed.
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To set a document as read-only, click Restrict Editing in the Protect Group of the Review tab on
the Ribbon to display the Restrict Formatting and Editing pane. In the Editing restrictions section, click the check box to Allow Only This Type of Editing in the Document, and use the dropdown arrow to set it to No Changes (Read Only).
To make an exception, select the part of the document to which you want to allow changes
by someone (or everyone). This selection can be any part of the document — a single letter,
word, sentence, line, paragraph, and so on. If you want the exception to apply to everyone,
click the check box next to Everyone. Or, if other groups are listed, you can place a check next
to any of them.
To make an exception for individuals, if they are listed, click to place a check by their names.
If the individuals aren’t listed (or if no individuals are listed at all), click More Users. In Add
Users, type the user IDs or e-mail addresses for the individuals you want to exempt from
the read-only proscription, as shown in Figure 11-12. When you click OK, Word attempts to
verify the names/addresses you added. If they are verified, they are added to the list of
individuals.
FIGURE 11-12
You can combine network and Internet e-mail addresses.
Back in the Restrict Formatting and Editing pane, you need to place a check by the name(s) and
e-mail address(es) you added, and then click Yes, Start Enforcing Protection. Add and confirm
a password if desired, as shown in Figure 11-13, noting that the document is not encrypted
and is susceptible to hacking by malicious users. If you enabled User Authentication, the top
part of the dialog box becomes unavailable, and Word will use Information Rights Management
to control the permissions. The document is encrypted, and users are authenticated using
Windows Live.
Comments
This protection option is identical to the No Changes (Read Only) type of protection except that
all users can insert comments wherever they want to. Refer to the preceding discussion, adding
to it that comments are enabled everywhere.
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FIGURE 11-13
Choose the degree of protection desired.
Tracked Changes
Another option is to allow editing, but only tracked changes. That way, you can see who changed
what, and when. This is an important feature in controlling the editing/revision process. To protect a document for tracked changes, click Restrict Editing in the Protect group of the Review tab
on the Ribbon. In the Restrict Formatting and Editing pane, click to enable Editing Restrictions,
and set the drop-down type to Tracked Change.
To turn protection on, click Yes, Start Enforcing Protection. The Start Enforcing Protection dialog
box appears, where you can set and confirm a password. Note that User Authentication is not
available for this kind of protection. When you click OK, protection is enabled, and the document switches into Track Changes mode. To turn protection off — which is necessary for accepting/rejecting tracked changes — click Stop Protection. If the Restrict Formatting and Editing
pane has long since disappeared and the time comes to turn protection off, you can toggle it back
on using the Protect Document tool in the Review tab.
Filling in Forms
To protect a fill-in form that you’ve created in Word, click Restrict Editing in the Protect group of
the Review tab of the Ribbon. In the Restrict Formatting and Editing pane, click to enable Allow
Only This Type of Editing in the Document, open the drop-down list, and click Filling in Forms.
Click Yes, Start Enforcing Protection.
Password to Open/Modify
A final kind of protection is well hidden in Word 2010. It was a bit less hidden in Word 2003 and
earlier, although still not overly conspicuous. This legacy feature offers the same weak protection
already noted, in that passwords aren’t impossibly difficult to hack and crack. The bottom line:
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Use this kind of protection at your own risk. It is essentially worthless and offers minimal, if any,
protection. Worse, it offers the illusion of protection, and thinking a document is well protected
when it’s not is perhaps worse than no protection at all, because you are unlikely to be as careful
with the document as you would be if you knew it were completely unprotected.
Applying Passwords to Open and/or Modify a Word Document
You can set two different passwords — one that enables a user to open the document, and
another that enables the user to make changes. To enable this kind of password protection,
choose File Í Save As. In the lower-right corner of the Save As dialog box, choose Tools Í
General Options, to display the General Options dialog box shown in Figure 11-14. Type a password in Password to Open, and/or in Password to Modify. Both are optional.
FIGURE 11-14
File encryption options are not available when applying Open and Modify passwords to a Word document.
The Read-Only Recommended option applies only if there is no password for modifying the
document. If this option is enabled, the user is provided a read-only recommendation when the
file is opened, and an easy way to select read-only.
When you click OK, you are prompted to confirm any passwords and are returned to the Save As
dialog box. Click Save to save the document with the password settings.
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Note
If you click the Protect Document button and the Restrict Formatting and Editing pane is not already showing, it is displayed behind the Save As dialog box, and the General Options dialog box goes away. If the
Restrict Formatting and Editing pane is not already showing, clicking the Protect Document button simply
causes the General Options dialog box to close, leaving users scratching their heads. n
When you try to open the file, you are prompted for the relevant passwords. If you know the
password to open but not the password to modify, you can click Read Only to open the document in “read-only” mode. Why the quotes? Because it’s only the file itself that is read-only. The
document can be edited, unlike when using other kinds of protection discussed earlier. If you
save the file under a new name, the new file will inherit the password settings, but if you copy the
file to the Clipboard and then paste it and save it under a new name, the protection is history.
Comments and Tracked Changes
Comments and tracked changes are two ways Word provides for reviewing others’ Word documents. Comments themselves are pretty easy to explain. They are notes, questions, suggestions,
and other kibitzing that a reader engages in when reading a Word document. Comments are not
integrated into the text as edits. They might suggest edits, and it’s not unusual to copy the text of
a suggestion from inside a comment and paste it into the text, but comments themselves aren’t
part of the flow.
Tracked changes, however, are part of the flow. Tracked changes are insertions and deletions
made to a Word document. You can see what was inserted or deleted, by whom, and when. That
way, if you have multiple edits, you can see which edit was made first. This can help in deciding
how to integrate competing edits, as can “by whom” — especially if one “whom” is higher up the
food chain than the other.
With comments and tracked changes, as with many Word features, there is the proverbial
chicken-and-egg problem. Do you need to learn how to insert tracked changes and comments
first, or how to view them first? If starting with viewing seems odd, a little explanation is in order.
If you’re already familiar with comments and tracked changes, it doesn’t really matter. You’ll be
reading these sections for nuance — looking for things you didn’t already know. If you aren’t
familiar with tracking and comments, however, chances are good that your first exposure will
come not from wanting to know how to insert them, but from encountering them and wondering
how to deal with them. Is this the chicken or the egg? That depends on which comes first....
Comments
Comments are much like footnotes. In fact, it’s not at all unusual to convert comments into
footnotes or endnotes. The point is that they are references in the text, but aren’t part of the text
themselves. Instead, they are like meta text. They comment about the text itself. It would interrupt the flow if comments displayed inline with the text.
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Viewing Comments
There are multiple ways to display comments and tracked changes: inline, in a Reviewing pane,
and as balloons. Comments themselves aren’t actually displayed inline, although indicators that
a comment is present are. When comments are displayed inline, they are indicated by initials
and brackets in the text, as shown in Figure 11-15. When they are displayed in balloons, only the
brackets show inline with the text.
FIGURE 11-15
The text of a comment is not displayed inline with text in the document.
Comment text itself displays in one of three ways:
l
ScreenTip. Shown in Figure 11-16. Comments display as ScreenTips regardless of
whether display is set to inline or balloon. Hover the mouse over the bracketed area to
display the ScreenTip.
l
Reviewing Pane. Shown in Figure 11-17. Editing of Comments takes place in the
Reviewing pane when display is set to inline.
l
Balloon. Shown in Figure 11-18. Editing of comments takes place in the margin when
display is set to balloon.
FIGURE 11-16
Hover the mouse over a comment (inside the brackets) to display the text of the comment as a ScreenTip.
FIGURE 11-17
When the reviewer’s initials are inline, right-click them and choose Edit Comment to display the
Reviewing pane.
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FIGURE 11-18
Balloons are displayed and edited in the margin.
To set comments to display as balloons, in the Tracking group of the Review tab on the Ribbon,
choose Show Markup Í Balloons Í Show Revisions in Balloons, as shown in Figure 11-19.
Alternatively, choose Show Only Comments and Formatting in Balloons. To set comments to
display inline (which isn’t really correct, because comments themselves do not display inline),
choose Show All Revisions Inline.
FIGURE 11-19
Two of the three Balloons options put comments in balloons.
Inserting, Editing, and Deleting Comments
To insert a new comment, click New Comment in the Comments group of the Review tab on
the Ribbon. If display is set to inline, type the comment in the Reviewing pane. If display
is set to balloons, you’ll type your comment inside a balloon in the margin of your document. When you’re done, you can click in the text to return to normal editing. If you entered
the text in the Reviewing pane, you can also click the X or press Alt+Shift+C to close the
Reviewing pane.
To edit a comment, right-click the comment (brackets or initials) and choose Edit Comment. As
mentioned, where editing takes place depends on whether display is set to inline or balloons.
To delete a comment, right-click the comment in the text (brackets or initials), and choose Delete
Comment. Or, if your wrist needs more exercise, click the comment until Delete becomes available in the Comments group of the Review tab, and then click Delete.
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Tracked Changes
Unlike comments, tracked changes can be displayed inline. You also have a variety of options
regarding which aspects of tracked changes to display.
Track Changes Options
To see the main set of tracking options, choose Track Changes Í Change Tracking Options
in the Tracking group of the Review tab on the Ribbon. This displays the considerable Track
Changes Options dialog box shown in Figure 11-20. Options are in five groups:
l
Markup. These control the formatting and colors to use when displaying insertions,
deletions, and comments, as well as how to display lines indicating where changes have
been made. The default formatting is to use underlining for insertions and strikethrough for deletions. If Color is set to By Author, Word automatically chooses different
colors for different authors. Note, however, that while your comments might display as
green on your computer, they might display as magenta on somebody else’s. Therefore,
if you’re describing a change in a phone conversation, don’t assume the other party is
seeing exactly what you’re seeing.
l
Moves. These control the formatting and colors to use when displaying text that was
moved from one location to another in the document. If you don’t want to track moves,
remove the check next to Track Moves.
l
Table Cell Highlighting. These options control the display of table edits — inserted,
deleted, merged, and split cells.
l
Formatting. These control how formatting changes are represented. If you don’t want
to track formatting changes, remove the check next to Track Formatting. Note that this
doesn’t affect the display of tracked formatting. It controls whether formatting is tracked
at all. When you turn this off, existing tracked formatting changes remain in the document, but subsequent formatting changes are not tracked at all. To hide tracked formatting changes, choose Show Markup and remove the check next to Formatting.
l
Balloons. The balloon settings here correspond to the Balloons settings in the Review
tab on the Ribbon. When set to Never, all of the additional settings in the Balloons section of the Track Changes Options dialog box are grayed as unavailable. When set to
Always or Only for comments/formatting, you can set the width of balloons, which
margin they appear in, and whether there are lines connecting tracked change balloons
with the location of the changes in the text. Use the Paper orientation setting to rotate
pages as needed (to Landscape) if you want to fit the full text width in addition to showing tracked changes in balloons.
Turn on Tracked Changes
To enable tracked changes, click the Track Changes button in the Tracking group of the Review
tab. Notice that the upper and lower portions of that button are separate. Use the upper portion
to toggle tracked changes, and use the lower portion to choose Track Changes, Change Tracking
Options, or Change User Name.
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FIGURE 11-20
Use Track Changes Options to change how/if changes are tracked and displayed.
Alternatively, if Track Changes is displayed in the status bar, you can click it to toggle tracking on and off. If Track Changes is not displayed, right-click the Status bar and click to place a
check next to Track Changes. Once there, click Track Changes to turn tracking on or off. Track
Changes can also be toggled using Ctrl+Shift+E.
Show Markup
If your comments don’t display, it’s possible that they are turned off. In the Review tab, click the
drop-down arrow next to Show Markup in the Tracking group to display the options shown in
Figure 11-21.
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FIGURE 11-21
Click Show Markup in the Tracking group of the Review tab to control the kinds of markup that
Word displays.
Show Markup options affect only the display of markup. They do not affect whether changes are
tracked. The display options are as follows:
l
Comments. Choose to display or not display comments.
l
Ink. When using a table or other system that supports pen annotations, use this option
to choose whether to display the original ink markup (in addition to the text conversion
thereof).
l
Insertions and Deletions. Use this setting to control the display of textual edits (insertions and deletions). Some users prefer to deal separately with textual and formatting
edits. With this option enabled and Formatting display turned off, you can selectively
focus.
l
Formatting. Use this setting to hide or show formatting changes.
l
Markup Area Highlight. Use this setting to turn shading of the markup area
(i.e., where balloons display) on or off.
l
Balloons. Use to control the use of “balloons” for revisions and comments.
l
Reviewers. Use this setting to selectively show or hide specific reviewers’ edits and
comments.
l
Highlight Updates. When co-authoring a document on a SharePoint server, this option
highlights updates by the other author(s).
l
Other Authors. When co-authoring, this option lists other authors currently working
on the same document.
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Display for Review
Use the Display for Review drop-down list in the Tracking group of the Review tab to determine
exactly what displays when a document contains tracked changes. The Display for Review dropdown list offers four choices (shown in Figure 11-22):
l
Final: Show Markup. Inserts are shown in context with deletions shown either in balloons or in the Reviewing pane.
l
Final. All markup is hidden, and you see the document as it would appear if all changes
were accepted.
l
Original: Show Markup. Inserts are shown in balloons or in the Reviewing pane, and
deletions are shown in context with strikethrough (or whatever formatting is used to
indicate deletion).
l
Original. All markup is hidden, and you see the document as it appeared before any
markup occurred. This is how the document would appear if all changes were rejected.
FIGURE 11-22
Word can display the document from four different points of view.
Tip
It’s often hard to gauge the effects of changes. It can be helpful to switch between Final and Original so you
can properly assess the full impact of changes, especially when comparing paragraphs that have undergone
substantial editing. n
Reviewing Pane
The Reviewing pane is potentially much more substantial than what’s shown in Figure 11-17.
The Reviewing pane can be displayed vertically, as shown there, or horizontally as shown in
Figure 11-23. In the latter, you see a cross-section of the different elements contained in the
Reviewing pane.
To toggle the Reviewing pane, click Reviewing Pane in the Tracking group of the Review tab on
the Ribbon. To choose between vertical and horizontal display, click the drop-down arrow next
to Reviewing Pane, and choose Reviewing Pane Vertical or Horizontal.
The Reviewing pane is independent of balloons. If you prefer to edit some comments in the balloons and others in the Reviewing pane, the choice is yours. However, choosing one or the other
will give you more screen real estate to work with.
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FIGURE 11-23
The Reviewing pane shows comments and tracked changes, as well as changes in headers, footers,
text boxes, footnotes, and endnotes.
Reviewing Comments and Changes
Use the Changes group in the Review tab of the Ribbon, shown in Figure 11-24, to review
changes to determine whether you want to accept or reject them. Use Next or Previous to navigate to the nearest comment or change. Use Accept and Reject to integrate or remove changes.
You can also right-click a change and choose Accept or Reject.
F IGURE 11-24
Accept All Changes Shown is available only when some changes are hidden.
Accepting and Rejecting Comments
You cannot accept or reject a comment per se. Accepting a comment leaves it alone. Rejecting a
comment deletes it.
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Accepting and Rejecting Changes
When you accept a change, it is converted from a tracked change into regular text. When you
accept a deletion, it is removed entirely from the document.
When you reject an insertion, it is deleted. When you reject a deletion, the original text is
restored.
When you accept formatting changes, they are applied to the final version of the text. When you
reject formatting changes, the formatting is removed.
Note that the Accept and Reject buttons in the Changes group of the Review tab both have upper
and lower sections. The lower section of the Accept button features the options shown in
Figure 11-24. Reject has similar options. Note that the third option, Accept All Changes Shown,
is available only if one or more kinds of changes are hidden in the Show Markup tool.
Protecting Documents for Review
When you send a document to someone, you can protect it so that any changes they make are
marked as changes. You can protect it for Tracked Changes or for Comments, but not both at the
same time. See the “Comments” and “Tracked Changes” sections earlier in this chapter in the
material on document protection.
Summary
In this chapter, you’ve learned about the many different and potentially confusing kinds of document protection and security available in Word. You should now have a good idea about which
forms of protection and security are useful, and which ones give only a false sense of security.
You’ve also learned about tracking changes and commenting on Word documents. You should
now be able to do the following:
l
Enable Track Changes in a document, and protect that document so that only that kind
of editing can be performed.
l
Use Information Rights Management to set strong protection for Word documents.
l
Use Word’s legacy password protection, while understanding that it’s feeble protection
at best.
l
Set options that let you display a variety of different elements when tracking changes in
a document.
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Part III
Making the Numbers
Work with Excel
IN THIS PART
Chapter 12
Using Excel Worksheets
and Workbooks
Chapter 13
Entering and Editing
Worksheet Data
Chapter 14
Essential Worksheet and Cell
Range Operations
Chapter 15
Introducing Formulas
and Functions
Chapter 16
Working with Dates and Times
Chapter 17
Creating Formulas that Count
and Sum
Chapter 18
Getting Started Making Charts
Chapter 19
Communicating Data Visually
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CH APTER
Using Excel Worksheets
and Workbooks
T
his chapter serves as an introductory overview of Excel 2010. If
you’re already familiar with a previous version of Excel, reading this
chapter is still a good idea. You’ll find that Excel 2010 is very similar
to Excel 2007. However, both Excel 2007 and Excel 2010 are different from
every previous version — very different.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding what Excel is
used for
Learning what’s new in Excel
2010
What Is Excel Good For?
Excel, as you probably know, is the world’s most widely used spreadsheet
program and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. Other spreadsheet programs are available, but Excel is by far the most popular and has become
the world standard.
Much of the appeal of Excel is due to the fact that it’s so versatile. Excel’s
forte, of course, is performing numerical calculations, but Excel is also
very useful for non-numeric applications. Here are just a few of the uses for
Excel:
l
Number Crunching. Create budgets, analyze survey results, and
perform just about any type of financial analysis you can think of.
l
Creating Charts. Create a wide variety of highly customizable
charts.
l
Organizing Lists. Use the row-and-column layout to store lists
efficiently.
l
Accessing Other Data. Import data from a wide variety of
sources.
l
Creating Graphical Dashboards. Summarize a large amount of
business information in a concise format.
Learning the parts of Excel’s
window
Introducing the Ribbon user
interface, shortcut menus,
and dialog boxes
Navigating Excel worksheets
Introducing Excel with a quick
hands-on session
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l
Creating Graphics and Diagrams. Use Shapes and SmartArt to create professionallooking diagrams.
l
Automating Complex Tasks. Perform a tedious task with a single mouse click with
Excel’s macro capabilities.
What’s New in Excel 2010?
When a new version of Microsoft Office is released, sometimes Excel gets lots of new features.
And sometimes it gets very few new features. In the case of Office 2010, there weren’t very many
radical changes; however, Excel did get a makeover. Here’s a quick summary of what’s new in
Excel 2010 compared to its predecessor, Excel 2007:
l
64-bit Version. If your hardware (and Windows version) supports it, you can install
the 64-bit version, which enables you to take full advantage of the speed of a 64-bit
computer and operating system, if your computer has both.
Note
Most people do not require the 64-bit version, and using it might cause some add-ins to not function; however, the functionality has been added to support this architecture, which is creating more of a stronghold in
today’s marketplace. n
l
Sparkline Charts. Create small in-cell charts to summarize a range of data graphically.
See Chapter 19.
l
Slicers. This is a new feature in Excel that allows you to filter and display data in pivot
tables, by clicking buttons
l
New Pivot Table Formatting Options. You have more control over the appearance of
pivot table reports.
l
Draft Mode for Charts. If you use many heavily formatted charts, you can choose to
display them in draft mode for improved performance.
l
Conditional Formatting Enhancements. Data bar conditional formatting can display
in a solid color, and the bars provide a more accurate display. See Chapter 19.
l
Function Enhancements. Some Excel worksheet fi nancial and statistical functions have
been improved in terms of numerical accuracy.
l
Image Editing Enhancements. You have much more control over graphic images
inserted into a workbook, including the ability to remove nonessential parts from the
background of an image.
l
Screen Capture Tool. You can easily capture a window from a different program and
then insert the image on a worksheet with a single click.
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l
Paste Preview. When you copy a range of cells, the Paste command displays various
options with a live preview so you can see how the paste operation will look.
l
Equation Editor. Creates and displays (non-calculating) mathematical equations and
embeds them on a worksheet.
l
Faster. Microsoft made some improvements to the calculation engine, and fi les load a
bit faster.
l
New Security Features. Workbooks downloaded from the Internet or from e-mail
attachments are opened in Protected View mode. Workbooks can be designated as
trusted and don’t need to reside in special trusted folders.
l
Solver. Excel 2010 includes a new version of the Solver add-in, which is useful for solving
some complex problems.
l
Enhancements to VBA. Operations that used to require old XLM macros can now be
performed directly using VBA macro commands. In addition, macro recording now
works for operations such as chart shape formatting.
Note
This book includes coverage of some of the new features, but not all. For a comprehensive look at what Excel
now offers, look for the Excel 2010 Bible by John Walkenbach (2010, Wiley, New York). n
Understanding Workbooks
and Worksheets
The work you do in Excel is performed in a workbook file, which appears in its own window. You
can have as many workbooks open as you need. By default, Excel 2010 workbooks use an .xlsx
file extension.
Each workbook comprises one or more worksheets, and each worksheet is made up of individual
cells. Each cell contains a value, a formula, or text. A worksheet also has an invisible draw layer,
which holds charts, images, or diagrams. Each worksheet in a workbook is accessible by clicking
the tab at the bottom of the workbook window. In addition, workbooks can store chart sheets.
A chart sheet displays a single chart and is also accessible by clicking a tab.
Newcomers to Excel are often intimidated by all the different elements that appear within Excel’s
window. After you become familiar with the various parts, it all starts to make sense.
Figure 12-1 shows the default layout of Excel when opening a new workbook. As you look at the
figure, refer to Table 12-1 for a brief explanation of the items shown in the figure.
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FIGURE 12-1
The Excel screen has many useful elements that you will use often.
Application close
Window maximize/restore
Application maximize/restore
Application minimize
Row number
Name box
Quick Access Toolbar
File tab
Title bar
Tabs
Active cell
indicator
Macro recorder
Sheet tab scroll buttons
Help
Minimize the Ribbon
Formula bar
Window
minimize
Status bar
Ribbon
Insert worksheet button
Page view buttons
Horizontal scrollbar
Zoom control
Window close
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TABLE 12-1
Parts of the Excel Screen That You Need to Know
Name
Description
Active cell indicator
The dark outline seen in cell A1 indicates the currently active cell (one of the
17,179,869,184 cells on each worksheet).
Application Close
button
The X button in the upper-right corner. Clicking this button closes Excel.
Application Minimize
button
Clicking this button to the left of the Close button minimizes the Excel
window.
Column letters
Letters across the top of the worksheet ranging from A to XFD — one for each
of the 16,384 columns in the worksheet. You can click a column heading to
select an entire column of cells or drag a column border to change its width.
File tab
Click this button to open Backstage view, which contains many options for
working with your document such as printing and setting Excel options.
Formula bar
When you enter information or formulas into a cell, it appears in this line.
Help button
Clicking this button displays the Excel Help system window.
Horizontal scrollbar
Use this tool to scroll the sheet horizontally.
Macro recorder
indicator
Click to start recording a VBA macro. The icon changes while your actions
are being recorded. Click again to stop recording.
Minimize Ribbon
button
Clicking this small button with the up arrow just to the left of the Help button
hides the Ribbon, giving you a bit more space onscreen. When you click a
tab, the Ribbon reappears.
Name box
Located to the left of the formula bar, this box displays the active cell address
or the name of the selected cell, range, or object.
Page View buttons
Change the way the worksheet is displayed by clicking one of these buttons.
Quick Access Toolbar
This customizable toolbar above the File tab holds commonly used
commands. The Quick Access Toolbar is always visible, regardless of which
tab is selected.
Ribbon
This is the main location for Excel’s commands. Clicking an item in the tab list
changes the Ribbon that displays.
Row numbers
Numbers along the left side ranging from 1 to 1,048,576 — one for each row
in the worksheet. You can click a row number to select an entire row of cells.
continued
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TABLE 12-1
(continued)
Name
Description
Sheet tabs
Each of these notebook-like tabs represents a different sheet in the workbook.
A workbook can have any number of sheets, and each sheet has its name
displayed in a Sheet tab.
Insert Worksheet
button
By default, each new workbook that you create contains three sheets. Add a
new sheet by clicking the Insert Worksheet button (which is displayed to the
right of the last sheet tab).
Sheet tab scroll buttons
Use these buttons to scroll the sheet tabs to display tabs that aren’t visible.
Status bar
This bar displays various messages as well as the status of the Num Lock,
Caps Lock, and Scroll Lock keys on your keyboard. It also shows summary
information about the range of cells that is selected. Right-click the status bar
to change the information that’s displayed.
Tabs
Click these tabs to display a different Ribbon, similar to a menu.
Title bar
This displays the name of the program and the name of the current workbook,
and also holds some control buttons that you can use to modify the window.
Vertical scrollbar
Use this to scroll the sheet vertically.
Window Close button
Clicking this button closes the active workbook window.
Window Maximize/
Restore button
Clicking this button increases the workbook window’s size to fill Excel’s
complete workspace. If the window is already maximized, clicking this button
“unmaximizes” Excel’s window so that it no longer fills the entire screen.
Window Minimize
button
Clicking this button minimizes the workbook window, and it displays as
an icon.
Zoom control
Use this slider to zoom your worksheet in and out.
Moving around a Worksheet
This section describes various ways to navigate through the cells in a worksheet. Every worksheet
consists of rows (numbered 1 through 1,048,576) and columns (labeled A through XFD). After
column Z comes column AA, which is followed by AB, AC, and so on. After column AZ comes
BA, BB, and so on. After column ZZ is AAA, AAB, and so on.
The intersection of a row and a column is a single cell. At any given time, one cell is the active cell.
You can identify the active cell by its darker border, as shown in Figure 12-2. Its address (its column
letter and row number) appears in the Name box. Depending on the technique that you use to
navigate through a workbook, you may or may not change the active cell when you navigate.
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Notice that the row and column headings of the active cell appear in different colors to make it
easier to identify the row and column of the active cell.
FIGURE 12-2
The active cell is the cell with the dark border—in this case, cell C8.
Navigating with Your Keyboard
Not surprisingly, you can use the standard navigational keys on your keyboard to move around
a worksheet. These keys work just as you’d expect: The down arrow moves the active cell down
one row, the right arrow moves it one column to the right, and so on. Page Up and Page Down
move the active cell up or down one full window. (The actual number of rows moved depends on
the number of rows displayed in the window.)
Tip
You can use the keyboard to scroll through the worksheet without changing the active cell by turning on
Scroll Lock, which is useful if you need to view another area of your worksheet and then quickly return to
your original location. Just press the Scroll Lock key and use the navigation keys to scroll through the worksheet. When you want to return to the original position (the active cell), press Ctrl+Backspace. Then, press
Scroll Lock again to turn it off. When Scroll Lock is turned on, Excel displays Scroll Lock in the status bar at
the bottom of the window, just below the worksheet tabs. n
The Num Lock key on your keyboard controls how the keys on the numeric keypad (should you
have one) behave. When Num Lock is on, the keys on your numeric keypad generate numbers.
Many keyboards have a separate set of navigation (arrow) keys located to the left of the numeric
keypad. The state of the Num Lock key doesn’t affect these keys.
Table 12-2 summarizes all the worksheet movement keys available in Excel.
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TABLE 12-2
Excel Worksheet Movement Keys
a
Key
Action
Up arrow ( )
Moves the active cell up one row.
Down arrow ( )
Moves the active cell down one row.
Left arrow ( ) or Shift+Tab
Moves the active cell one column to the left.
Right arrow ( ) or Tab
Moves the active cell one column to the right.
Page Up
Moves the active cell up one screen.
Page Down
Moves the active cell down one screen.
Alt+Page Down
Moves the active cell right one screen.
Alt+Page Up
Moves the active cell left one screen.
Ctrl+Backspace
Scrolls the screen so that the active cell is visible.
a
Scrolls the screen up one row (active cell does not change).
a
Scrolls the screen down one row (active cell does not change).
a
Scrolls the screen left one column (active cell does not change).
a
Scrolls the screen right one column (active cell does not change).
With Scroll Lock on.
Navigating with Your Mouse
To change the active cell by using the mouse, click another cell; it becomes the active cell. If the
cell that you want to activate isn’t visible in the workbook window, you can use the scroll bars to
scroll the window in any direction. To scroll one cell, click either of the arrows on the scroll bar.
To scroll by a complete screen, click either side of the scroll bar’s scroll box. You also can drag the
scroll box for faster scrolling.
Tip
If your mouse has a wheel, you can use the mouse wheel to scroll vertically. Also, if you click the wheel and
move the mouse in any direction, the worksheet scrolls automatically in that direction. The more you move
the mouse, the faster the scrolling. n
Press Ctrl while you use the mouse wheel to zoom the worksheet. If you prefer to use the mouse
wheel to zoom the worksheet without pressing Ctrl, choose File Í Options and select the
Advanced section. Place a check mark next to the Zoom on Roll with Intellimouse checkbox.
Using the scroll bars or scrolling with your mouse doesn’t change the active cell. It simply scrolls
the worksheet. To change the active cell, you must click on a new cell after scrolling.
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Introducing Excel’s Ribbon Tabs
Excel offers the same command and user interface features as the other Office 2010 applications,
including the Ribbon, shortcut menus, dialog boxes, and more. Chapter 2 provides more
details about how to choose commands and settings. The tabs on the Ribbon vary depending
on which application you’re using, so this section provides a brief introduction to the tabs
offered by Excel.
Ribbon Tabs
The commands available in the Ribbon vary, depending on which tab is selected. Excel’s Ribbon
is arranged into groups of related commands. Here’s a quick overview of Excel’s tabs.
l
Home. You’ll probably spend most of your time with the Home tab selected. This tab
contains the basic Clipboard commands, formatting commands, style commands,
commands to insert and delete rows or columns, plus an assortment of worksheet
editing commands.
l
Insert. Select this tab when you need to insert something in a worksheet — a table, a
diagram, a chart, a symbol, and the like.
l
Page Layout. This tab contains commands that affect the overall appearance of your
worksheet, including some settings that deal with printing.
l
Formulas. Use this tab to insert a formula, name a cell or a range, access the formula
auditing tools, or control how Excel performs calculations.
l
Data. Excel’s data-related commands are on this tab.
l
Review. This tab contains tools to check spelling, translate words, add comments, or
protect sheets.
l
View. The View tab contains commands that control various aspects of how a sheet is
viewed. Some commands on this tab are also available in the status bar.
l
Developer. This tab isn’t visible by default. It contains commands that are useful for
programmers. To display the Developer tab, choose File Í Options and then select
Customize Ribbon. In the Customize the Ribbon section on the right, place a check
mark next to Developer and then click OK.
l
Add-Ins. This tab is visible only if you loaded an older workbook or add-in that customizes the menu or toolbars. Because menus and toolbars are no longer available in Excel
2010, these user interface customizations appear on the Add-Ins tab.
The appearance of the commands on the Ribbon varies, depending on the width of Excel window. When the window is too narrow to display everything, the commands adapt; some of them
might seem to be missing, but the commands are still available. Figure 12-3 shows the Home tab
of the Ribbon with all controls fully visible. When you make the Excel window narrower, some
groups may display a single icon. However, if you click the icon, all the group commands are
available to you.
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FIGURE 12-3
The Home tab of the Ribbon
Contextual Tabs
In addition to the standard tabs, Excel 2010 also includes contextual tabs like the other Office
applications. Whenever an object (such as a chart, a table, or a SmartArt diagram) is selected,
specific tools for working with that object are made available in the Ribbon.
Figure 12-4 shows the contextual tab that appears when a chart is selected. In this case, it has
three contextual tabs: Design, Layout, and Format. These tabs offer the commands for working
with charts in Excel, so you are likely to use them often. Notice that the contextual tabs contain
a description (Chart Tools) in Excel’s title bar. When contextual tabs appear, you can, of course,
continue to use all the other tabs.
FIGURE 12-4
When you select an object, contextual tabs contain tools for working with that object.
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Chapter 12: Using Excel Worksheets and Workbooks
Creating Your First Excel Worksheet
This section presents an introductory hands-on session with Excel. If you haven’t used Excel, you
may want to follow along on your computer to get a feel for how this software works.
In this example, you create a simple monthly sales projection table along with a chart.
Getting Started on Your Worksheet
Start Excel (Start Í All Programs Í Microsoft Office Í Microsoft Excel 2010) and make sure
that you have an empty workbook displayed. To create a new, blank workbook if one is not open,
press Ctrl+N (the shortcut key for File Í New Í Blank Workbook Í Create).
This example sales projection workbook will consist of two columns of information. Column
A will contain the month names, and column B will store the projected sales numbers. Start by
entering some descriptive titles into the worksheet. Here’s how to begin:
1. If needed, move the cell pointer to cell A1 (the upper-left cell in the worksheet) by
using the navigation (arrow) keys. The Name box displays the cell’s address.
2. Type Month into cell A1 and press Enter. Depending on your setup, Excel either
moves the cell pointer to a different cell, or the pointer remains in cell A1.
3. Move the cell pointer to B1.
4. Type Projected Sales, and again press Enter.
The text extends beyond the cell width, but don’t worry about that for now.
Filling in the Month Names
In this step, you enter the month names in column A.
1. Move the cell pointer to A2 and type Jan (an abbreviation for January). At this point,
you can enter the other month name abbreviations manually; alternatively, you can let
Excel do some of the work by taking advantage of the Auto Fill feature.
2. Make sure that cell A2 is selected. Notice that the active cell is displayed with a heavy
outline. At the bottom-right corner of the outline, you’ll see a small square known as
the fill handle. Move your mouse pointer over the fill handle, click, and drag down until
you’ve highlighted from A2 down to A13.
3. Release the mouse button, and Excel automatically fills in the month names.
Your worksheet should resemble the one shown in Figure 12-5.
Entering the Sales Data
Next, you provide the sales projection numbers in column B. Assume that January’s sales are
projected to be $50,000, and that sales will increase by 3.5 percent in each subsequent month.
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FIGURE 12-5
Your worksheet, after entering the column headings and month names
1. Move the cell pointer to B2 and type 50000, the projected sales for January. You
could type a dollar sign and comma to make the number more legible, but you do the
number formatting a bit later.
2. To enter a formula to calculate the projected sales for February, move to cell B3
and enter the following: =B2*103.5%. When you press Enter, the cell displays 51750.
The formula returns the contents of cell B2, multiplied by 103.5%. In other words,
February sales are projected to be 3.5% greater than January sales.
3. The projected sales for subsequent months use a similar formula. But rather than
retype the formula for each cell in column B, once again take advantage of the Auto Fill
feature. Make sure that cell B3 is selected. Click the cell’s fill handle, drag down to cell
B13, and release the mouse button.
At this point, your worksheet should resemble the one shown in Figure 12-6. Keep in mind that
except for cell B2, the values in column B are calculated with formulas. To demonstrate, try changing
the projected sales value for the initial month, January (in cell B2). You’ll find that the formulas
recalculate and return different values. These formulas all depend on the initial value in cell B2.
Formatting the Numbers
The values in the worksheet are difficult to read because they aren’t formatted. In this step, you
apply a number format to make the numbers easier to read and more consistent in appearance:
1. Select the numbers by dragging from cell B2 down to cell B13.
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Tip
Don’t drag the fill handle this time, though, because you’re selecting cells, not filling a range. n
2. Choose Home Í Number, click the drop-down Number Format control (it initially
displays General), and select Currency from the list. The numbers now display with
a currency symbol and two decimal places. Much better!
FIGURE 12-6
Your worksheet, after creating the formulas
Making Your Worksheet Look a Bit Fancier
At this point, you have a functional worksheet, but it could use some help in the appearance
department. Converting this range to an “official” (and attractive) Excel table is a snap:
1. Move to any cell within the range you’ve just entered.
2. Choose Insert Í Tables Í Table. Excel displays its Create Table dialog box to make
sure that it guessed the range properly.
3. Click OK to close the Create Table dialog box. Excel applies its default table formatting and also displays its Table Tools Design contextual tab.
4. Click outside the table so you can see it. Your worksheet should look like Figure 12-7.
5. If you don’t like the default table style, just select another one from the Table Tools
Í Design Í Table Styles group. Notice that you can get a preview of different table
styles by moving your mouse over the Ribbon. When you find one you like, click it, and
style will be applied to your table.
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FIGURE 12-7
Your worksheet, after converting the range to a table
Summing the Values
The worksheet displays the monthly projected sales, but what about the total projected sales for
the year? Because this range is a table, it’s simple:
1. Choose any cell in the table.
2. Choose Table Tools Í Design Í Table Style Options Í Total Row. Excel automatically adds a new row to the bottom of your table, including a formula that calculated the
total of the Projected Sales column.
3. If you’d prefer to see a different summary formula (for example, average), click cell
B14 and choose a different summary formula from the drop-down list.
Creating a Chart
How about a chart that shows the projected sales for each month?
1. Activate any cell in the table.
2. Choose Insert Í Charts Í Column, and then select one of the 2D (two-dimensional)
column chart types. Excel inserts the chart in the center of your screen.
Tip
To move the chart to another location, move the mouse pointer over its border and drag it. To change the
appearance and style of the chart, use the commands on the three Chart Tools contextual tabs. n
Figure 12-8 shows the worksheet with a column chart. Your chart may look different, depending
on the chart layout or style you selected.
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Chapter 12: Using Excel Worksheets and Workbooks
FIGURE 12-8
The table and chart
Printing Your Worksheet
Printing your worksheet is very easy (assuming that you have a printer attached and that it works
properly):
1. Make sure that the chart isn’t selected. If a chart is selected, it will print on a page by
itself. To deselect the chart, just press Esc or click any cell.
2. To make use of Excel’s page layout view, click the Page Layout View button on the
right side of the status bar. (The Page Layout View button is the middle button in the
cluster of three located just to the left of the zoom control in the bottom-right corner
of the screen.) Excel then displays the worksheet page by page so that you can easily
see how your printed output will look. Figure 12-9 shows the worksheet zoomed out
to show a complete page. In Page Layout view, you can tell immediately whether the
chart is too wide to fit on one page. If the chart is too wide, drag a corner to resize it.
Alternatively, you can move the chart below the table of numbers or modify the page
margins.
3. When you’re ready to print, choose File Í Print.
At this point, you can change certain print settings. For example, you can choose to print in
landscape rather than portrait orientation. Make the change, and you see the result in the preview area. When you’re satisfied, click the Print button in the upper-left corner. The page is
printed, and you’re returned to your workbook.
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FIG URE 12-9
Viewing the worksheet in Page Layout mode
Saving Your Workbook
Until now, everything that you’ve done has occurred in your computer’s memory. If the power
should fail, all may be lost — unless Excel’s AutoRecover feature happened to kick in. It’s time to
save your work to a file on your hard drive.
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1. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. (This button looks like an
old-fashioned floppy disk, popular in the previous century.) Because the workbook
hasn’t been saved yet and still has its default name, Excel responds with the Save As
dialog box.
2. In the box labeled File Name, enter a name (such as Monthly Sales Projection), and
then click Save or press Enter. Excel saves the workbook as a file. The workbook
remains open so that you can work with it some more.
Note
By default, Excel saves a backup copy of your work automatically every 10 minutes. To adjust the AutoRecover
setting (or turn it off), choose File Í Options, and click the Save choice in the Excel Options dialog box.
However, you should never rely on Excel’s AutoRecover feature. Saving your work frequently is a good idea. n
If you’ve followed along, you may have realized that creating this workbook was not at all difficult.
But, of course, you’ve barely scratched the surface. The remainder of this book covers these tasks
(and many, many more) in much greater detail.
Summary
This chapter touched on the new features of the Excel 2010 spreadsheet program. You learned the
difference between a workbook and a worksheet, as well as how to navigate around Excel. You
finished up by creating your first spreadsheet, including adding labels and values, building a simple sum formula, treating your information as a table, and even charting and printing. Well done!
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CH APTER
Entering and Editing
Worksheet Data
T
his chapter describes what you need to know about entering, using,
and modifying data in your Excel worksheets. As you will see, Excel
doesn’t treat all data equally. Therefore, you need to learn about the
various types of data that you can use in an Excel worksheet.
Exploring the Types of Data
You Can Use
An Excel workbook can hold any number of worksheets, and each worksheet is made up of more than 17 billion cells. A cell can hold any of three
basic types of data:
l
A numerical value
l
Text
l
A formula
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding the types of data
you can use
Entering text and values into
your worksheets
Entering dates and times into
your worksheets
Modifying and editing
information
Using built-in number formats
A worksheet can also hold charts, diagrams, pictures, buttons, and other
objects. These objects aren’t contained in cells. Rather, they reside on the
worksheet’s draw layer, which is an invisible layer on top of each worksheet.
About Numeric Values
Numeric values represent a quantity of some type: sales amounts, number of
employees, atomic weights, test scores, and so on. Values also can be dates
(such as Feb-26-2011) or times (such as 3:24 a.m.).
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Cross-Reference
Excel can display values in many different formats. Later in this chapter, you see how different format options
can affect the display of numerical values (see “Applying Number Formatting”). n
Excel’s Numeric Limitations
You may be curious about the types of numeric values that Excel can handle. In other words, how large
can numbers be? And how accurate are large numbers?
Excel’s numbers are precise up to 15 digits. For example, if you enter a large value, such as
123,456,789,123,456,789 (18 digits), Excel actually stores it with only 15 digits of precision. This 18-digit
number displays as 123,456,789,123,456,000. This precision may seem quite limiting, but in practice, it
rarely causes any problems.
One situation in which the 15-digit accuracy can cause a problem is when entering credit card numbers.
Most credit card numbers are 16 digits, but Excel can handle only 15 digits, so it substitutes a zero for
the last credit card digit. Even worse, you may not even realize that Excel made the card number invalid.
The solution? Enter credit card numbers as text. The easiest way is to pre-format the cell as Text (choose
Home Í Number and choose Text from the drop-down Number Format list). Or you can precede the
credit card number with an apostrophe. Either method prevents Excel from interpreting the entry as a
number.
Here are some of Excel’s other numeric limitations:
Largest positive number: 9.9E+307
Smallest negative number: –9.9E+307
Smallest positive number: 1E–307
Largest negative number: –1E–307
These numbers are expressed in scientific notation. For example, the largest positive number 9.9E+307
is “9.9 times 10 to the 307th power” — in other words, 99 followed by 306 zeros. Keep in mind, though,
that this number has only 15 digits of accuracy.
About Text Entries
Most worksheets also include text in their cells. You can insert text to serve as labels for values,
headings for columns, or instructions about the worksheet. Text is often used to clarify what the
values in a worksheet mean.
Text that begins with a number is still considered text. For example, if you type 12 Employees
into a cell, Excel considers the entry to be text rather than a value. Consequently, you can’t use
this cell for numeric calculations. If you need to both use the number 12 in calculations and
indicate that the number 12 refers to employees, enter 12 into a cell and then type Employees
into the cell to the right.
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Chapter 13: Entering and Editing Worksheet Data
About Formulas
Formulas are what make a spreadsheet a spreadsheet. Excel enables you to enter powerful formulas
that use the values (or even text) in cells to calculate a result. When you enter a formula into a
cell, the formula’s result appears in the cell. If you change any of the values used by a formula,
the formula recalculates and shows the new result.
Formulas can be simple mathematical expressions, or they can use some of the powerful functions
that are built into Excel. Figure 13-1 shows an Excel worksheet set up to calculate a monthly loan
payment. The worksheet contains values, text, and formulas. The cells in column A contain text.
Column B contains four values and two formulas. The formulas are in cells B6 and B10. Column D,
for reference, shows the actual contents of the cells in column B.
FIGURE 13-1
You can use values, text, and formulas to create useful Excel worksheets.
Cross-Reference
You can find out much more about formulas in Chapter 15. n
Entering Text and Values into
Your Worksheets
To enter a numeric value into a cell, move the cell pointer to the appropriate cell, type the
value, and then press Enter or one of the navigation keys. The value is displayed in the cell and
also appears in the Formula bar when the cell is selected. You can include decimal points and
currency symbols when entering values, along with plus signs, minus signs, and commas (to
separate thousands).
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Note
If you precede a value with a minus sign or enclose it in parentheses, Excel considers it to be a
negative number. n
Entering text into a cell is just as easy as entering a value: Activate the cell, type the text, and then
press Enter or a navigation key. A cell can contain a maximum of about 32,000 characters — more
than enough to hold a typical chapter in this book. Even though a cell can hold a large number of
characters, you’ll find that it’s not possible to actually display all these characters.
Tip
If you type an exceptionally long text entry into a cell, the Formula bar may not show all the text. To display
more of the text in the Formula bar, click the bottom of the Formula bar and drag down to increase the height
(see Figure 13-2). Also useful is the Ctrl+Shift+U keyboard shortcut. Pressing this key combination toggles the
height of the formula bar to show either one more row or the previous size. n
FIGURE 13-2
The Formula bar, expanded in height to show more information in the cell.
What happens when you enter text that’s longer than the current width of its column? If the
cells to the immediate right are blank, Excel displays the text in its entirety, appearing to
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Chapter 13: Entering and Editing Worksheet Data
spill the entry into adjacent cells. If an adjacent cell isn’t blank, Excel displays as much of
the text as possible. (The full text is contained in the cell; it’s just not displayed.) If you need
to display a long text string in a cell that’s adjacent to a non-blank cell, you can take one of
several actions:
l
Edit your text to make it shorter.
l
Increase the width of the column.
l
Use a smaller font.
l
Wrap the text within the cell so that it occupies more than one line. Choose Home Í
Alignment Í Wrap Text to toggle wrapping on and off for the selected cell or range.
Entering Dates and Times
into Your Worksheets
Excel treats dates and times as special types of numeric values. Typically, these values are formatted so that they appear as dates or times because we humans fi nd it far easier to understand these
values when they appear in the correct format. If you work with dates and times, you need to
understand Excel’s Date and Time system.
Entering Date Values
Excel handles dates by using a serial number system. The earliest date that Excel understands is
January 1, 1900. This date has a serial number of 1. January 2, 1900, has a serial number of 2,
and so on. This system makes it easy to deal with dates in formulas. For example, you can enter a
formula to calculate the number of days between two dates.
Most of the time, you don’t have to be concerned with Excel’s serial number date system. You
can simply enter a date in a familiar date format, and Excel takes care of the details behind the
scenes. For example, if you need to enter June 1, 2007, you can simply enter the date by typing
June 1, 2007 (or use any of several different date formats). Excel interprets your entry and stores
the value 39234, which is the serial number for that date.
Note
The date examples in this book use the U.S. English system. Depending on your Windows regional settings,
entering a date in a format (such as “June 1, 2011”) may be interpreted as text rather than a date. In such a
case, you need to enter the date in a format that corresponds to your regional date settings — for example,
1 June 2011. n
Cross-Reference
For more information about working with dates, see Chapter 16. n
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Entering Time Values
When you work with times, you simply extend Excel’s date serial number system to include
decimals. In other words, Excel works with times by using fractional days. For example, the date
serial number for June 1, 2011, is 40695. Noon on June 1, 2011 (halfway through the day), is
represented internally as 40695.5 because the time fraction is added to the date serial number to
get the full date/time serial number.
Again, you normally don’t have to be concerned with these serial numbers (or fractional serial
numbers, for times). Just enter the time into a cell in a recognized format.
Cross-Reference
See Chapter 16 for more information about working with time values. n
Modifying Cell Contents
After you enter a value or text into a cell, you can modify it in several ways:
l
Erase the cell’s contents.
l
Replace the cell’s contents with something else.
l
Edit the cell’s contents.
Note
You can also modify a cell by changing its formatting. However, formatting a cell affects only a cell’s
appearance. Formatting does not affect its contents. Later sections in this chapter cover formatting. n
Erasing the Contents of a Cell
To erase the contents of a cell, just click on the cell and press Delete. To erase more than one cell,
select all the cells that you want to erase and then press Delete. Pressing Delete removes the cell’s
contents but doesn’t remove any formatting (such as bold, italic, or a different number format)
that you may have applied to the cell.
For more control over what gets deleted, you can choose Home Í Editing Í Clear. This command’s
drop-down list has five choices:
l
Clear All. Clears everything from the cell — its contents, its formatting, and its cell
comment (if it has one).
l
Clear Formats. Clears only the formatting and leaves the value, text, or formula.
l
Clear Contents. Clears only the cell’s contents and leaves the formatting (similar to
using the Delete key).
l
Clear Comments. Clears the comment(s) (if any) attached to the cell.
l
Clear Hyperlinks. Removes hyperlinks contained in the selected cells. The text
remains, but the cell no longer functions as a clickable hyperlink.
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Note
Clearing formats doesn’t clear the background colors in a range that has been designated as a table unless you
replace the table style background colors manually. n
Replacing the Contents of a Cell
To replace the contents of a cell with something else, just activate the cell and type your new
entry, which replaces the previous contents. Any formatting applied to the cell remains in place
and is applied to the new content.
Tip
You can also replace cell contents by dragging and dropping or by pasting data from the Clipboard. In both
cases, the cell formatting will be replaced by the format of the new data. To avoid pasting formatting, choose
Home Í Clipboard Í Paste Í Values, or Home Í Clipboard Í Paste Í Formulas. n
Editing the Contents of a Cell
If the cell contains only a few characters, replacing its contents by typing new data usually is
easiest. However, if the cell contains lengthy text or a complex formula and you need to make
only a slight modification, you probably want to edit the cell rather than re-enter information.
When you want to edit the contents of a cell, you can use one of the following ways to enter
Edit mode:
l
Double-click the cell to edit the cell contents directly in the cell.
l
Select the cell and press F2 to edit the cell contents directly in the cell.
l
Select the cell that you want to edit, and then click inside the Formula bar to edit the
cell contents in the Formula bar.
You can use whichever method you prefer. Some people fi nd editing directly in the cell easier;
others prefer to use the Formula bar to edit a cell.
Note
After you click Advanced in the list at the left side of the Excel Options dialog box, the options that appear
at the right contain a section called Editing Options. These settings affect how editing works. (To access this
dialog box, choose File Í Options.) If the Allow Editing Directly In Cells option isn’t enabled, you can’t edit a
cell by double-clicking. In addition, pressing F2 allows you to edit the cell in the Formula bar (not directly in
the cell). n
All of these methods cause Excel to go into Edit mode. (The word Edit appears at the left side of
the status bar at the bottom of the screen, replacing the word Ready.) When Excel is in Edit mode,
the Formula bar displays two new icons: the X and the CheckMark (see Figure 13-3). These icons
are also called the Cancel and Enter buttons, respectively. Clicking the X icon cancels editing
without changing the cell’s contents. (Pressing Esc has the same effect.) Clicking the CheckMark
icon completes the editing and enters the modified contents into the cell; pressing Enter has the
same effect.
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FIGURE 13-3
While editing a cell, the Formula bar displays two new icons.
The X icon The CheckMark icon
When you begin editing a cell, the insertion point appears as a vertical bar, and you can perform
the following tasks:
l
Add new characters at the location of the insertion point. You can move the insertion
point by:
l
Using the navigation keys to move within the cell.
l
Pressing Home to move the insertion point to the beginning of the cell.
l
Pressing End to move the insertion point to the end of the cell.
l
Select multiple characters. Press Shift while you use the navigation keys.
l
Select characters while you’re editing a cell. Use the mouse. Simply click and drag the
mouse pointer over the characters that you want to select.
Learning Some Handy Data-Entry Techniques
You can simplify the process of entering information into your Excel worksheets and make
your work go quite a bit faster by using several useful tricks, described in the following
sections.
Automatically Moving the Cell Pointer after Entering Data
By default, Excel automatically moves the cell pointer to the next cell down when you press the
Enter key after entering data into a cell. To change this setting, choose File Í Options and click
Advanced at the left (see Figure 13-4). The checkbox that controls this behavior is labeled After
Pressing Enter, Move Selection. If you enable this option, you can choose the direction in which
the cell pointer moves (down, up, left, or right). Your choice is completely a matter of personal
preference. I prefer to keep this option turned off. When entering data, I use the navigation keys
rather than the Enter key (see the next section).
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FIGURE 13-4
You can use the Advanced tab in Excel Options to select several helpful input option settings.
Using Navigation Keys instead of Pressing Enter
Instead of pressing the Enter key when you’re fi nished making a cell entry, you also can use any
of the navigation keys to complete the entry. Not surprisingly, these navigation keys send you
in the direction that you indicate. For example, if you’re entering data in a row, press the rightarrow (Æ) key rather than Enter. The other arrow keys work as expected, and you can even use
Page Up and Page Down.
Selecting a Range of Input Cells before Entering Data
Here’s a tip that most Excel users don’t know about: When a range of cells is selected, Excel
automatically moves the cell pointer to the next cell in the range when you press Enter. If the
selection consists of multiple rows, Excel moves down the column; when it reaches the end of
the selection in the column, it moves to the first selected cell in the next column.
To skip a cell, just press Enter without entering anything. To go backward, press Shift+Enter. If
you prefer to enter the data by rows rather than by columns, press Tab rather than Enter. Excel
continues to cycle through the selected range until you select a cell outside of the range.
Using Ctrl+Enter to Place Information into Multiple Cells Simultaneously
If you need to enter the same data into multiple cells, Excel offers a handy shortcut. Select all
the cells that you want to contain the data; enter the value, text, or formula; and then press
Ctrl+Enter. The same information is inserted into each cell in the selection.
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Entering Decimal Points Automatically
If you need to enter lots of numbers with a fi xed number of decimal places, Excel has a useful tool
that works like some adding machines. Access the Excel Options dialog box (File Í Options) and
click the Advanced tab. Select the checkbox Automatically Insert a Decimal Point, and make sure
that the Places box is set for the correct number of decimal places for the data you need to enter.
When this option is set, Excel supplies the decimal points for you automatically. For example,
if you specify two decimal places, entering 12345 into a cell is interpreted as 123.45. To restore
things to normal, just clear the Automatically Insert a Decimal Point checkbox in the Excel
Options dialog box. Changing this setting doesn’t affect any values you’ve already entered.
Caution
The fixed decimal places option is a global setting and applies to all workbooks (not just the active workbook).
If you forget that this option is turned on, you can easily end up entering incorrect values or cause some
major confusion if you are using a shared computer. n
Using Auto Fill to Enter a Series of Values
The Excel Auto Fill feature makes inserting a series of values or text items in a range of cells easy.
It uses the fill handle (the small box at the lower right of the active cell). You can drag the fill
handle to copy the cell or automatically complete a series.
Figure 13-5 shows an example. I entered 1 into cell A1 and 3 into cell A2. Then I selected both
cells and dragged down the fill handle to create a linear series of odd numbers. The figure also
shows that the Auto Fill Options button that, when clicked, displays some additional Auto Fill
options.
FIGURE 13-5
This series was created by using Auto Fill.
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Tip
If you drag the fill handle while you press and hold the right mouse button, Excel display a shortcut menu
with additional fill options. n
Using AutoComplete to Automate Data Entry
The Excel AutoComplete feature makes entering the same text into multiple cells easy. With
AutoComplete, you type the first few letters of a text entry into a cell, and Excel automatically
completes the entry based on other entries that you already made in the column. Besides reducing
typing, this feature also ensures that your entries are spelled correctly and are consistent.
Here’s how it works. Suppose that you’re entering product information in a column. One of your
products is named Widgets. The first time that you enter Widgets into a cell, Excel remembers it.
Later, when you start typing Widgets in that same column, Excel recognizes it by the first few
letters and finishes typing it for you. Just press Enter, and you’re done. To override the suggestion,
just keep typing.
AutoComplete also changes the case of letters for you automatically. If you start entering widget
(with a lowercase w) in the second entry, Excel makes the w uppercase to be consistent with the
previous entry in the column.
Tip
You also can access a mouse-oriented version of AutoComplete by right-clicking on the cell and choosing Pick
From Drop-Down List from the shortcut menu. Excel then displays a drop-down box that has all the entries in
the current column, and you just click the one that you want. n
Keep in mind that AutoComplete works only within a contiguous column of cells. If you have a
blank row, for example, AutoComplete identifies only the cell contents below the blank row.
If you find the AutoComplete feature distracting, you can turn it off by clicking Advanced in
the list at the left side of the Excel Options dialog box. Remove the check mark from Enable
AutoComplete for cell values.
Forcing Text to Appear on a New Line within a Cell
If you have lengthy text in a cell, you can force Excel to display it in multiple lines within the cell:
Press Alt+Enter to start a new line in a cell.
Note
When you add a line break, Excel automatically changes the cell’s format to Wrap Text. But unlike normal text
wrap, your manual line break forces Excel to break the text at a specific place within the text, which gives you
more precise control over the appearance of the text than if you rely on automatic text wrapping. n
Tip
To remove a manual line break, edit the cell and press Delete when the insertion point is located at the end of
the line that contains the manual line break. You won’t see any symbol to indicate the position of the manual
line break, but the text that follows it will move up when the line break is deleted. n
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Using AutoCorrect for Shorthand Data Entry
You can use the AutoCorrect feature to create shortcuts for commonly used words or phrases.
For example, if you work for a company named Consolidated Data Processing Corporation, you can
create an AutoCorrect entry for an abbreviation, such as cdp. Then, whenever you type cdp, Excel
automatically changes it to Consolidated Data Processing Corporation.
Excel includes quite a few built-in AutoCorrect terms (mostly common misspellings); furthermore,
you can add your own. To set up your custom AutoCorrect entries, access the Excel Options dialog box (File Í Options) and click the Proofing tab. Then click the AutoCorrect Options button to
display the AutoCorrect dialog box. In the dialog box, click the AutoCorrect tab, check the option
labeled Replace Text As You Type, and then enter your custom entries. (Figure 13-6 shows an
example.) You can set up as many custom entries as you like. Just be careful not to use an abbreviation that might appear normally in your text.
FIGURE 13-6
AutoCorrect allows you to create shorthand abbreviations for text you enter often.
Tip
Excel shares your AutoCorrect list with other Office applications. For example, any AutoCorrect entries you
created in Word also work in Excel. n
Entering Numbers with Fractions
To enter a fractional value into a cell, leave a space between the whole number and the fraction.
For example, to enter 6 7⁄8, enter 6 7/8 and then press Enter. When you select the cell, 6.875
appears in the Formula bar, and the cell entry appears as a fraction. If you have a fraction only
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(e.g., 1 ⁄8), you must enter a zero first, like this — 0 1/8 — or Excel will likely assume that you’re
entering a date. When you select the cell and look at the Formula bar, you see 0.125. In the cell,
you see 1 ⁄8.
Simplifying Data Entry by Using a Form
Many people use Excel to manage lists in which the information is arranged in rows. Excel
offers a simple way to work with this type of data through the use of a data entry form that
Excel can create automatically. This data form works with either a normal range of data or
with a range that has been designated as a table (choose Insert Í Tables Í Table). Figure 13-7
shows an example.
FIGURE 13-7
Excel’s built-in data form can simplify many data-entry tasks.
Unfortunately, the command to access the data form is not on the Ribbon. To use the data form,
you must add it to your Quick Access Toolbar or add it to the Ribbon. The instructions that
follow describe how to add this command to your Quick Access Toolbar:
1. Right-click the Quick Access Toolbar, and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar.
The Quick Access Toolbar choices in the Excel Options dialog box appear.
2. In the Choose Commands From drop-down list, choose Commands Not in the
Ribbon.
3. In the list box on the left, select Form.
4. Click the Add button to add the selected command to your Quick Access Toolbar.
5. Click OK to close the Excel Options dialog box.
After performing these steps, a new icon appears on your Quick Access Toolbar.
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To use a data entry form, follow these steps:
1. Arrange your data so that Excel can recognize it as a table by entering headings for
the columns in the first row of your data entry range.
2. Select any cell in the table, and click the Form button on your Quick Access
Toolbar. Excel displays a dialog box customized to your data (refer to Figure 13-7).
3. Fill in the information. Press Tab to move between the textboxes. If a cell contains
a formula, the formula result appears as text (not as an edit box). In other words, you
can’t modify formulas using the data entry form.
4. When you complete the data form, click the New button. Excel enters the data into a
row in the worksheet and clears the dialog box for the next row of data.
Entering the Current Date or Time into a Cell
If you need to date-stamp or time-stamp your worksheet, Excel provides two shortcut keys that
do this task for you:
l
Current Date. Ctrl+; (semicolon)
l
Current Time. Ctrl+Shift+; (semicolon)
The date and time are from the system time in your computer. If the date or time is not correct in
Excel, use the Windows Control Panel to make the adjustment.
Note
When you use either of these shortcuts to enter a date or time into your worksheet, Excel enters a static value
into the worksheet. In other words, the date or time entered doesn’t change when the worksheet is recalculated.
In most cases, this setup is probably what you want, but you should be aware of this limitation. If you want
the date or time display to update, use one of these formulas:
=TODAY()
or
=NOW()
n
Applying Number Formatting
Number formatting refers to the process of changing the appearance of values contained in cells.
Excel provides a wide variety of number formatting options. In the following sections, you
see how to use many of Excel’s formatting options to quickly improve the appearance of your
worksheets.
Note
The formatting that you apply works with the selected cell or cells. Therefore, you need to select the cell
(or range of cells) before applying the formatting. Also remember that changing the number format does not
affect the underlying value. Number formatting affects only the appearance. n
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Values that you enter into cells normally are unformatted. In other words, they simply consist of
a string of numerals. Typically, you want to format the numbers so that they’re easier to read or
are more consistent in terms of the number of decimal places shown.
Figure 13-8 shows a worksheet that has two columns of values and a third column to help
explain the format. The first column consists of unformatted values. The cells in the second
column are formatted to make the values easier to read. The third column describes the type of
formatting that was applied.
FIGURE 13-8
Use numeric formatting to make it easier to understand what the values in the worksheet represent.
Tip
If you move the cell pointer to a cell that has a formatted value, the Formula bar displays the value in its
unformatted state because the formatting affects only how the value appears in the cell — not the actual
value contained in the cell. n
Using Automatic Number Formatting
Excel is smart enough to perform some formatting for you automatically. For example, if you
enter 12.2% into a cell, Excel knows that you want to use a percentage format and applies it for
you automatically. If you type commas to separate thousands (such as 123,456), Excel applies
comma formatting for you. And if you precede your value with a dollar sign, the cell is formatted
for currency (assuming that the dollar sign is your system currency symbol).
Tip
A handy default feature in Excel makes entering percentage values into cells easier. If a cell is formatted to
display as a percent, you can simply enter a normal value (e.g., 12.5 for 12.5%). To enter values less than 1%,
precede the value with a zero and a period (e.g., 0.52 for 0.52%). If this automatic percent-entry feature isn’t
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working (or if you prefer to enter the actual value for percentages), access the Excel Options dialog box and
click Advanced in the list at the left. In the Editing Options section, locate the Enable Automatic Percent Entry
checkbox and remove the check mark. n
Formatting Numbers by Using the Ribbon
The Home Í Number group in the Ribbon contains controls that let you quickly apply common
number formats (see Figure 13-9).
FIGURE 13-9
You can find number formatting commands in the Number group of the Home tab.
1
2
5
3
6
4
Figure 13-9 identifies the tools in the Number group by number. Following is a description of
each of those tools:
1. The Number Format drop-down list contains 11 common number formats.
2. The Accounting Number Format button applies a dollar sign, thousands separator
(comma), and two decimal places. Use its drop-down list to select a currency format.
3. The Percent Style formats the cell value with a percent sign. Enter values as decimals to
create percentages, such as .75 for 75%.
4. The Comma Style button adds a thousands separator (comma) and two
decimal places.
5. Click the Increase Decimal button to add decimal places.
6. Click the Decrease Decimal button to remove decimal places.
When you select one of these controls, the active cell takes on the specified number format. You
also can select a range of cells (or even an entire row or column) before clicking these buttons. If
you select more than one cell, Excel applies the number format to all the selected cells.
Using Shortcut Keys to Format Numbers
Another way to apply number formatting is to use shortcut keys. Table 13-1 summarizes the
shortcut-key combinations that you can use to apply common number formatting to the selected
cells or range.
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TABLE 13-1
Number-Formatting Keyboard Shortcuts
Key Combination
Formatting Applied
Ctrl+Shift+~
General number format (i.e., unformatted values)
Ctrl+Shift+$
Currency format with two decimal places (negative numbers appear in
parentheses)
Ctrl+Shift+%
Percentage format, with no decimal places
Ctrl+Shift+^
Scientific notation number format, with two decimal places
Ctrl+Shift+#
Date format with the day, month, and year
[email protected]
Time format with the hour, minute, and a.m. or p.m.
Ctrl+Shift+!
Two decimal places, thousands separator, and a hyphen for negative values
Formatting Numbers Using the Format Cells
Dialog Box
In most cases, the number formats that are accessible from the Number group on the Home tab
are just fine. Sometimes, however, you might want more control over how your values appear.
Excel offers a great deal of control over number formats through the use of the Format Cells
dialog box, shown in Figure 13-10. For formatting numbers, you need to use the Number tab.
You can bring up the Format Cells dialog box in several ways. Start by selecting the cell or cells
that you want to format, and then do one of the following:
l
Choose Home Í Number and click the small Dialog Box Launcher icon (arrow in the
lower-right corner of the Number group).
l
Choose Home Í Number, click the Number Format drop-down list, and choose More
Number Formats from the drop-down list.
l
Right-click on the cell, and choose Format Cells from the shortcut menu.
l
Press Ctrl+1 (the number one).
The Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box displays 12 categories of number formats from
which to choose. When you select a category from the list box, the right side of the tab changes to
display the appropriate options.
The Number category on the Number tab has three options that you can control: the number
of decimal places displayed, whether to use a thousands separator, and how you want negative
numbers displayed. Notice that the Negative Numbers list box has four choices (two of which
display negative values in red), and the choices change depending on the number of decimal
places and whether you choose to separate thousands.
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FI GURE 13-10
When you need more control over number formats, use the Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box.
The top of the tab displays a sample of how the active cell will appear with the selected number
format (visible only if a cell with a value is selected). After you make your choices, click OK to
apply the number format to all the selected cells.
When Numbers Appear to Add Incorrectly
Applying a number format to a cell doesn’t change the value — only how the value appears in the worksheet. For example, if a cell contains 0.874543, you may format it to appear as 87%. But if that cell is
used in a formula, the formula uses the full value (0.874543), not the displayed value (87%).
In some situations, formatting may cause Excel to display calculation results that appear incorrect,
such as when totaling numbers with decimal places. For example, if values are formatted to display
two decimal places, you may not see the actual numbers used in the calculations. But because
Excel uses the full precision of the values in its formula, the sum of the two values may appear to
be incorrect.
Several solutions to this problem are available. You can format the cells to display more decimal places.
You can use the ROUND function on individual numbers and specify the number of decimal places Excel
should round to. Alternatively, you can instruct Excel to change the worksheet values to match their displayed format. To do so, access the Excel Options dialog box and click the Advanced tab. In the When
Calculating This Workbook section, check the Set Precision as Displayed checkbox.
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Caution
Selecting the Set Precision as Displayed option changes the numbers in your worksheets to permanently
match their appearance onscreen. This setting applies to all sheets in the active workbook. Most of the time,
this option is not what you want. Make sure that you understand the consequences of using the Set Precision
as Displayed option. n
The following are the number-format categories, along with some general comments:
l
General. The default format; it displays numbers as integers, as decimals, or in scientific
notation if the value is too wide to fit in the cell.
l
Number. Enables you to specify the number of decimal places, whether to use a thousands separator (or 1000 separator, usually a comma in the U.S. ) to separate thousands,
and how to display negative numbers (with a minus sign, in red, in parentheses, or in
red and in parentheses).
l
Currency. Enables you to specify the number of decimal places, whether to use a
currency symbol, and how to display negative numbers (with a minus sign, in red,
in parentheses, or in red and in parentheses). This format always uses a thousands
separator.
l
Accounting. Differs from the Currency format in that the currency symbols always
align vertically.
l
Date. Enables you to choose from several different date formats.
l
Time. Enables you to choose from several different time formats.
l
Percentage. Enables you to choose the number of decimal places and always displays a
percent sign.
l
Fraction. Enables you to choose from among nine fraction formats.
l
Scientific. Displays numbers in exponential notation (with an E), for example,
2.00E+05 = 200,000; 2.05E+05 = 205,000. You can choose the number of decimal
places to display to the left of E.
l
Text. When applied to a value, causes Excel to treat the value as text (even if it looks
like a number). This feature is useful for such items as part numbers.
l
Special. Contains additional number formats. As an example, in the U.S. version of
Excel, the additional number formats are Zip Code, Zip Code +4, Phone Number, and
Social Security Number.
l
Custom. Enables you to define custom number formats that aren’t included in any other
category.
Tip
If a cell displays a series of hash marks (such as #########), it usually means that the column isn’t wide
enough to display the value in the number format that you selected. Either make the column wider or change
the number format. If that doesn’t fix the problem, try applying a different number format, as the applied
format may not match the data. n
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Summary
This chapter showed you the techniques you need to know to enter the contents for any worksheet
in Excel. You learned how Excel treats different types of information — text, numbers, and formulas.
You saw how to enter each type of information into a cell, as well as how to edit or replace a cell
entry. The chapter shared handy data-entry shortcuts such as Auto Fill and finished by explaining
what number formats are and how to apply them. Continue in the book to learn how to work with
groups of cells called ranges.
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CH APTER
Essential Worksheet
and Cell Range Operations
T
his chapter covers some basic information regarding workbooks,
worksheets, and windows. You will discover tips and techniques to
help take control of your worksheets. The result? You’ll be a more
efficient Excel user.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding Excel worksheet
essentials
Controlling your views
Learning the Fundamentals
of Excel Worksheets
In Excel, each file is called a workbook, and each workbook can contain one
or more worksheets. You may find it helpful to think of an Excel workbook as
a paper notebook and worksheets as pages in the notebook. As with a notebook, you can view a particular sheet, add new sheets, remove sheets, and
copy sheets.
The following sections describe the operations you can perform with
worksheets.
Manipulating the rows and
columns
Understanding Excel cells
and ranges
Selecting cells and ranges
Copying or moving ranges
Using names to work
with ranges
Adding comments to cells
Working with Excel Windows
Each Excel workbook file is displayed in a window. A workbook can hold any
number of sheets, and these sheets can be either worksheets (sheets consisting of rows and columns) or chart sheets (sheets that hold a single chart). A
worksheet is what people usually think of when they think of a spreadsheet.
You can open as many Excel workbooks as necessary at the same time.
Figure 14-1 shows Excel with four workbooks open, each in a separate
window. One of the windows is minimized and appears near the lower-left
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corner of the screen. (When a workbook is minimized, only its title bar is visible.) Worksheet
windows can overlap, and the title bar of one window is a different color. That’s the window that
contains the active workbook.
FIGURE 14-1
You can open several Excel workbooks at the same time.
The workbook windows that Excel uses work much like the windows in any other Windows
program. Each window has three buttons at the right side of its title bar. From left to right, they
are Minimize, Maximize (or Restore), and Close. When a workbook window is maximized, the
three buttons appear directly below the Excel title bar.
Workbook windows can be in one of the following states:
l
Maximized. Fills the entire Excel workspace. A maximized window doesn’t have a title
bar, and the workbook’s name appears in the title bar for Excel. To maximize a window,
click its Maximize button.
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l
Minimized. Appears as a small window with only a title bar. To minimize a window,
click its Minimize button.
l
Restored. A non-maximized size. To restore a maximized or minimized window, click
its Restore button.
If you work with more than one workbook simultaneously (which is quite common), you need to
know how to move, resize, and switch among the workbook windows.
Moving and Resizing Windows
To move a window, make sure that it’s not maximized. Then drag its title bar with your mouse.
To resize a window, drag any of its borders until it’s the size that you want it to be. When you
position the mouse pointer on a window’s border, the mouse pointer changes to a double-sided
arrow, which lets you know that you can now drag to resize the window. To resize a window
horizontally and vertically at the same time, drag any of its corners.
Note
You can’t move or resize a workbook window if it’s maximized. You can move a minimized window, but
doing so has no effect on its position when it is subsequently restored. n
If you want all of your workbook windows to be visible (i.e., not obscured by another window),
you can move and resize the windows manually, or you can let Excel do it for you. Choosing
View Í Window Í Arrange All displays the Arrange Windows dialog box, shown in Figure 14-2.
This dialog box has four window-arrangement options. Just select the one that you want and
click OK. Windows that are minimized aren’t affected by this command.
FIGURE 14-2
Use the Arrange Windows dialog box to quickly arrange all open non-minimized workbook windows.
Switching among Windows
At any given time, only one workbook window can be the active window. The active window
accepts your input and is the window upon which your commands work. The active window’s
title bar is a different color, and the window appears on top of all of the other windows. To work
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in a different window, you need to make that window active. You can make a different window
the active workbook in several ways:
l
Click on another window, if it’s visible. The window you click on moves to the top
and becomes the active window. This method isn’t possible if the current window is
maximized.
l
Press Ctrl+Tab (or Ctrl+F6) to cycle through all open windows until the window that
you want to work with appears on top as the active window. Pressing Shift+Ctrl+Tab
(or Shift+Ctrl+F6) cycles through the windows in the opposite direction.
l
Choose View Í Window Í Switch Windows, and select the window that you want
from the drop-down list (the active window has a check mark next to it). This menu
can display as many as nine windows. If you have more than nine workbook windows
open, choose More Windows (which appears below the nine window names).
l
Click on the icon for the window in the Windows taskbar. This technique is available
only if the Show All Windows in the Taskbar option is turned on. You can control this
setting from the Advanced tab of the Excel Options dialog box (in the Display section).
Tip
Most people prefer to do most of their work with maximized workbook windows, which enables you to see
more cells and eliminates the distraction of other workbook windows getting in the way. At times, however,
viewing multiple windows is preferred. For example, displaying two windows is more efficient if you need to
compare information in two workbooks or if you need to copy data from one workbook to another. n
When you maximize one window, all of the other windows are maximized, too (even though
you don’t see them). Therefore, if the active window is maximized and you activate a different
window, the new active window is also maximized.
Tip
You also can display a single workbook in more than one window. For example, if you have a workbook with
two worksheets, you may want to display each worksheet in a separate window to compare the two sheets.
All of the window-manipulation procedures described previously still apply. Choose View Í Window Í New
Window to open an additional window in the active workbook. n
Closing Windows
If you have multiple windows open, you may want to close those windows that you no longer
need. Excel offers several ways to close the active window:
l
Choose File Í Close.
l
Click the Close button (the X icon) on the workbook window’s title bar. If the workbook
window is maximized, its title bar is not visible, so its Close button appears directly
below the Excel Close button.
l
Press Ctrl+W.
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When you close a workbook window, Excel checks whether you made any changes since the last
time you saved the file. If you have made unsaved changes, Excel prompts you to save the file
before it closes the window. If not, the window closes without a prompt from Excel.
Activating a Worksheet
At any given time, one workbook is the active workbook, and one sheet is the active sheet in
the active workbook. To activate a different sheet, just click its sheet tab, located at the bottom of
the workbook window. You also can use the following shortcut keys to activate a different sheet:
l
Ctrl+Page Up. Activates the previous sheet, if one exists.
l
Ctrl+Page Down. Activates the next sheet, if one exists.
If your workbook has many sheets, all of its tabs may not be visible. Use the tab scrolling controls (see Figure 14-3) to scroll the sheet tabs. The sheet tabs share space with the worksheet’s
horizontal scroll bar. You also can drag the tab split control to display more or fewer tabs.
Dragging the tab split control simultaneously changes the number of tabs and the size of the
horizontal scroll bar.
FIGURE 14-3
Use the tab controls to activate a different worksheet or to see additional worksheet tabs.
Tab scrolling controls
Tab split control
Tip
When you right-click on any of the tab scrolling controls, Excel displays a list of all of the sheets in the
workbook. You can quickly activate a sheet by selecting it from the list. n
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Adding a New Worksheet to Your Workbook
Worksheets can be an excellent organizational tool. Instead of placing everything on a single worksheet,
you can use additional worksheets in a workbook to separate various workbook elements logically.
For example, if you have several products whose sales you track individually, you may want to assign
each product to its own worksheet and then use another worksheet to consolidate your results.
The following are three ways to add a new worksheet to a workbook:
l
Click the Insert Worksheet control, which is located to the right of the last sheet tab.
This method inserts the new sheet after the last sheet in the workbook.
l
Press Shift+F11. This method inserts the new sheet before the active sheet.
l
Right-click a sheet tab, choose Insert from the shortcut menu, and click the General tab
of the Insert dialog box that appears. Then select the Worksheet icon and click OK. This
method inserts the new sheet before the active sheet.
Deleting a Worksheet You No Longer Need
If you no longer need a worksheet or if you want to get rid of an empty worksheet in a workbook,
you can delete it in either of two ways:
l
Right-click on its sheet tab and choose Delete from the shortcut menu.
l
Activate the unwanted worksheet, and choose Home Í Cells Í Delete Í Delete Sheet.
If the worksheet contains any data, Excel asks you to confirm that you want to delete
the sheet. If you’ve never used the worksheet, Excel deletes it immediately without
asking for confirmation.
Tip
You can delete multiple sheets with a single command by selecting the sheets that you want to delete. To
select multiple sheets, press Ctrl while you click the sheet tabs that you want to delete. To select a group
of contiguous sheets, click the first sheet tab, press Shift, and then click the last sheet tab. Then use either
method to delete the selected sheets. n
Caution
When you delete a worksheet, it’s gone for good. Deleting a worksheet is one of the few operations in Excel
that can’t be undone. n
Changing the Default Number of Sheets in Your
Workbooks
By default, Excel automatically creates three worksheets in each new workbook. You can change this
default behavior. For example, I prefer to start each new workbook with a single worksheet. After all,
you can easily add new sheets if and when they’re needed. To change the default number of worksheets:
1. Choose File Í Options to display the Excel Options window.
2. Click General in the list at the left.
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3. Under the section When Creating New Workbooks, change the value for the Include This Many
Sheets setting and then click OK.
This change affects all new workbooks but has no effect on existing workbooks.
Changing the Name of a Worksheet
The default names that Excel uses for worksheets — Sheet1, Sheet2, and so on — aren’t very
descriptive. If you don’t change the worksheet names, remembering where to fi nd things in
multiple-sheet workbooks can be a bit difficult. That’s why providing more meaningful names
for your worksheets is often a good idea.
To change a sheet’s name, double-click on the sheet tab. Excel highlights the name on the sheet
tab so that you can edit the name or replace it with a new name.
Sheet names can be up to 31 characters, and spaces are allowed.
Caution
The following characters CANNOT be used in sheet names:
: colon
/ slash
\ backslash
[ ] square brackets
? question mark
* asterisk n
Keep in mind that a longer worksheet name results in a wider tab, which takes up more space
onscreen. Therefore, if you use lengthy sheet names, you won’t be able to see very many sheet
tabs without scrolling the tab list.
Changing a Sheet Tab Color
Excel allows you to change the color of your worksheet tabs. For example, you may prefer to
color-code the sheet tabs to make identifying the worksheet’s contents easier.
To change the color of a sheet tab, right-click on the tab and choose Tab Color from the shortcut
menu. Then select the color from the color submenu (gallery) that appears.
Rearranging Your Worksheets
You may want to rearrange the order of worksheets in a workbook. If you have a separate
worksheet for each sales region, for example, arranging the worksheets in alphabetical order
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may be helpful. You may want to move a worksheet from one workbook to another. (To move a
worksheet to a different workbook, both workbooks must be open.) You can also create copies
of worksheets.
You can move or copy a worksheet in the following ways:
l
Right-click on the sheet tab and choose Move or Copy to display the Move or Copy
dialog box (see Figure 14-4). Use this dialog box to specify the operation and the
location for the sheet.
l
To move a worksheet, move the mouse pointer over the worksheet tab, press and hold
the left mouse button, and drag it to its desired location (either in the same workbook or
in a different workbook). When you drag, the mouse pointer changes to a small sheet,
and a small arrow guides you.
l
To copy a worksheet, click on the worksheet tab and press Ctrl while dragging the tab to
its desired location (either in the same workbook or in a different workbook). When you
drag, the mouse pointer changes to a small sheet with a plus sign on it.
FIGURE 14-4
Use the Move or Copy dialog box to move or copy worksheets in the same or another workbook.
Tip
You can move or copy multiple sheets simultaneously. First, select the sheets by clicking their sheet tabs while
holding down the Ctrl key (or the Shift key for sequential sheets). Then you can move or copy the set of sheets
by using the preceding methods. n
If you move or copy a worksheet to a workbook that already has a sheet with the same name, Excel
changes the name to make it unique. For example, Sheet1 becomes Sheet1 (2). You probably want
to rename the copied sheet to give it a more meaningful name. See “Changing the Name of a
Worksheet,” earlier in this chapter.
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Note
When you move or copy a worksheet to a different workbook, any defined names and custom formats also
get copied to the new workbook. n
Hiding and Unhiding a Worksheet
In some situations, you may want to hide one or more worksheets. Hiding a sheet may be useful if you don’t want others to see it or if you just want to get it out of the way. When a sheet
is hidden, its sheet tab is also hidden. You can’t hide all the sheets in a workbook; at least one
sheet must remain visible.
To hide a worksheet, right-click on its sheet tab and choose Hide. The active worksheet
(or selected worksheets) will be hidden from view.
To unhide a hidden worksheet, right-click on any sheet tab and choose Unhide. Excel
opens its Unhide dialog box that lists all hidden sheets. Choose the sheet that you want to
redisplay and click OK. When you unhide a sheet, it appears in its previous position among
the sheet tabs.
Note
You can only unhide one sheet at a time; therefore, if you wish to unhide multiple hidden sheets, you must
repeat these steps for each sheet. n
Preventing Sheet Actions
To prevent others from unhiding hidden sheets, inserting new sheets, renaming sheets, copying sheets,
or deleting sheets, protect the workbook’s structure as follows:
1. Choose Review Í Changes Í Protect Workbook.
2. In the Protect Workbook dialog box, click the Structure option.
3. (Optional) Provide a password.
After performing these steps, several commands will no longer be available when you right-click on a
sheet tab: Insert, Delete Sheet, Rename Sheet, Move or Copy Sheet, Tab Color, Hide Sheet, and Unhide
Sheet.
Caution
There are tools on the Internet that will assist in cracking Excel’s password protection mechanisms, so don’t
assume that any workbook is 100% secure. n
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Controlling the Worksheet View
As you add more information to a worksheet, you may find that navigating and locating what
you want gets more difficult. Excel includes a few options that enable you to view your sheet, and
sometimes multiple sheets, more efficiently. This section discusses a few additional worksheet
options at your disposal.
Zooming in or out for a Better View
Normally, everything you see onscreen is displayed at 100%. You can change the zoom percentage
from 10% (very tiny) to 400% (huge). Using a small zoom percentage can help you to get a
bird’s-eye view of your worksheet to see how it’s laid out. Zooming in is useful if your eyesight
isn’t quite what it used to be and you have trouble deciphering tiny type. Zooming doesn’t change
the font size, nor does it have any effect on printed output.
Tip
Excel contains separate options for changing the size of your printed output. (Use the controls in the Page
Layout Í Scale to Fit group.) n
Figure 14-5 shows a window zoomed to 10% and a window zoomed to 400%.
You can easily change the zoom factor of the active worksheet by using the Zoom slider located
on the right side of the status bar. Drag the slider, and your screen transforms instantly.
Another way to zoom is to choose View Í Zoom Í Zoom, which displays a dialog box. Choosing
View Í Zoom Í Zoom to Selection zooms the worksheet to display only the selected cells (useful
if you want a particular range of cells to fill the workbook window).
Tip
Zooming only affects the active worksheet, so you can use different zoom factors for different worksheets.
Also, if you have a worksheet displayed in two different windows, you can set a different zoom factor for each
of the windows. n
Cross-Reference
If your worksheet uses named ranges (see “Using Names to Work with Ranges” later in the chapter), zooming
your worksheet to 39% or less displays the name of the range overlaid on the cells. Viewing named ranges in
this manner is useful for getting an overview of how a worksheet is laid out. n
Viewing a Worksheet in Multiple Windows
Sometimes, you may want to view two different parts of a worksheet simultaneously — perhaps
to make referencing a distant cell in a formula easier. Or you may want to examine more than
one sheet in the same workbook simultaneously. You can accomplish either of these actions by
opening a new view to the workbook, using one or more additional windows.
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FIGURE 14-5
You can zoom in or out for a different view of your worksheets.
To create and display a new view of the active workbook, choose View Í Window Í New
Window.
Excel displays a new window for the active workbook, similar to the one shown in Figure 14-6.
In this case, each window shows a different worksheet in the workbook. Notice the text in the
windows’ title bars: climate data.xlsx:1 and climate data.xlsx:2. To help you keep track of the
windows, Excel appends a colon and a number to each window.
Tip
If the workbook is maximized when you create a new window, you may not even notice that Excel created the
new window. If you look at the Excel title bar, though, you’ll see that the workbook title now has :2 appended
to the name. Choose View Í Window Í Arrange All and choose one of the Arrange options in the Arrange
Windows dialog box to display the open windows. If you select the Windows of Active Workbook checkbox,
only the windows of the active workbook are arranged. n
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FIGURE 14-6
Use multiple windows to view different sections of a workbook at the same time.
A single workbook can have as many views (i.e., separate windows) as you want. Each window
is independent. In other words, scrolling to a new location in one window doesn’t cause scrolling
in the other window(s). However, if you make changes to the worksheet shown in a particular
window, those changes are also made in all views of that worksheet.
You can close these additional windows when you no longer need them. For example, clicking
the Close button on the active window’s title bar closes the active window but doesn’t close the
other windows for the workbook.
Tip
Multiple windows make copying or moving information from one worksheet to another easier. You can use
Excel’s drag-and-drop procedures to copy or move ranges. n
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Comparing Sheets Side-by-Side
In some situations, you may want to compare two worksheets that are in different windows. The
View Side by Side feature makes this task a bit easier.
First, make sure that the two sheets are displayed in separate windows. (The sheets can be in
the same workbook or in different workbooks.) If you want to compare two sheets in the same
workbook, choose View Í Window Í New Window to create a new window for the active
workbook. Activate the fi rst window; then choose View Í Window Í View Side by Side. If
more than two windows are open, you see a dialog box that lets you select the window for the
comparison. The two windows appear next to each other.
When using the View Side by Side feature, scrolling in one of the windows also scrolls the other
window. If you don’t want this simultaneous scrolling, choose View Í Window Í Synchronous
Scrolling (which is a toggle). If you have rearranged or moved the windows, choose View Í
Window Í Reset Window Position to restore the windows to the initial side-by-side arrangement. To turn off the side-by-side viewing, choose View Í Window Í View Side by Side again.
Keep in mind that this feature is for manual comparison only. Unfortunately, Excel doesn’t
provide a way to actually point out the differences between two sheets.
Splitting the Worksheet Window into Panes
If you prefer not to clutter your screen with additional windows, Excel provides another option
for viewing multiple parts of the same worksheet. Choosing View Í Window Í Split splits
the active worksheet into two or four separate panes. The split occurs at the location of the cell
pointer. If the cell pointer is in row 1 or column A (but not cell A1), this command results in a
two-pane split. Otherwise, it gives you four panes. You can use the mouse to drag the individual
panes to resize them.
Figure 14-7 shows a worksheet split into two panes. Notice that row numbers aren’t continuous.
The top pane shows rows 8 through 21, and the bottom pane shows rows 1020 through 1029.
In other words, splitting panes enables you to display widely separated areas of a worksheet in a
single window. To remove the split panes, choose View Í Window Í Split again.
Keeping the Titles in View by Freezing Panes
If you set up a worksheet with row or column headings, these headings will not be visible when
you scroll down or to the right (unless you are in a table, which you’ll learn about later). Excel
provides a handy solution to this problem: freezing panes. Freezing panes keeps the headings
visible while you’re scrolling through the worksheet.
To freeze panes, start by moving the cell pointer to the cell below the row that you want to
remain visible while you scroll vertically, and to the right of the column that you want to remain
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visible while you scroll horizontally. Then, choose View Í Window Í Freeze Panes, and select
the Freeze Panes option from the drop-down list. Excel inserts dark lines to indicate the frozen
rows and columns. The frozen row and column remain visible while you scroll throughout the
worksheet. To remove the frozen panes, choose View Í Window Í Freeze Panes, and select
the Unfreeze Panes option from the drop-down list.
FIGURE 14-7
You can split the worksheet window into two or four panes to view different areas of the worksheet at the
same time.
Figure 14-8 shows a worksheet with frozen panes. In this case, rows 1 through 4 and column
A are frozen in place. This technique allows you to scroll down and to the right to locate some
information while keeping the column titles and the column A entries visible.
The vast majority of the time, you’ll want to freeze either the first row or the first column. The
View Í Window Í Freeze Panes drop-down list has two additional options: Freeze Top Row
and Freeze First Column. Using these commands eliminates the need to position the cell pointer
before freezing panes.
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FIGURE 14-8
Freeze certain columns and rows to make them remain visible while you scroll the worksheet.
Tip
If you designated a range to be a table (by choosing Insert Í Tables Í Table), you may not even need to
freeze panes. When you scroll down, Excel displays the table column headings in place of the column letters.
Figure 14-9 shows an example. The table headings replace the column letters only when a cell within the
table is selected. n
Monitoring Cells with a Watch Window
In some situations, you may want to monitor the value in a particular cell as you work. As you
scroll through the worksheet, that cell may disappear from view. A feature known as Watch
Window can help. A Watch Window displays the value of any number of cells in a handy window
that’s always visible.
To display the Watch Window, choose Formulas Í Formula Auditing Í Watch Window. The
Watch Window appears in the task pane, but you can also drag it and make it float over the
worksheet.
To add a cell to watch, click Add Watch and specify the cell that you want to watch. The Watch
Window displays the value in that cell. You can add any number of cells to the Watch Window,
and you can move the window to any convenient location. Figure 14-10 shows the Watch
Window monitoring four cells.
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FIGURE 14-9
When using a table, scrolling down displays the table headings where the column letters normally appear.
FIGURE 14-10
Use the Watch Window to monitor the value in one or more cells.
Tip
Double-click on a cell in the Watch Window to immediately select that cell. n
Working with Rows and Columns
This section discusses worksheet operations that involve complete rows and columns (rather
than individual cells). Every worksheet has exactly 1,048,576 rows and 16,384 columns, and
these values can’t be changed.
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Note
If you open a workbook that was created in a version of Excel prior to Excel 2007, the workbook is opened in
Compatibility Mode. These workbooks have 65,536 rows and 256 columns. To increase the number of rows
and columns, save the workbook as an Excel 2010 .xlsx file and then reopen it. n
Inserting Rows and Columns
Although the number of rows and columns in a worksheet is fi xed, you can still insert and delete
rows and columns if you need to make room for additional information. These operations don’t
change the total number of available rows or columns, rather, inserting a new row moves down
the other rows to accommodate the new row. The last row is simply removed from the worksheet if it’s empty. Inserting a new column shifts the columns to the right, and the last column is
removed if it is empty.
Note
If the last row isn’t empty, you can’t insert a new row. Similarly, if the last column contains information, Excel
doesn’t let you insert a new column. Attempting to add a row or column in such cases displays a warning
dialog box. Click OK and then remove the contents of the non-blank cells to continue. n
To insert a new row or rows, you can:
l
Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Right-click and choose Insert from the shortcut menu.
l
Move the cell pointer to the row that you want to insert and then choose Home Í
Cells Í Insert Í Insert Sheet Rows. If you select multiple cells in the column, Excel
inserts additional rows that correspond to the number of cells selected in the column
and moves the rows below the insertion down.
The procedures for inserting a new column or columns is similar, but you choose Home Í
Cells Í Insert Í Insert Sheet Columns.
You also can insert cells, rather than just rows or columns. Select the range into which you want
to add new cells and then choose Home Í Cells Í Insert Í Insert Cells (or right-click on the
selection and choose Insert). To insert cells, the existing cells must be shifted to the right or
shifted down. Therefore, Excel displays the Insert dialog box shown in Figure 14-11 so that you
can specify the direction in which you want to shift the cells.
FIGURE 14-11
You can insert partial rows or columns by using the Insert dialog box.
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Deleting Rows and Columns
You may also want to delete rows or columns in a worksheet. For example, your sheet may
contain old data that is no longer needed.
To delete a row or rows, use either of these methods:
l
Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking on the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Right-click and choose Delete from the shortcut menu.
l
Move the cell pointer to the row that you want to delete, and then choose Home Í
Cells Í Delete Sheet Rows. If you select multiple cells in the column, Excel deletes all
rows in the selection.
Deleting columns works in a similar way. If you discover that you accidentally deleted a row or
column, select Undo from the Quick Access Toolbar (or press Ctrl+Z) to undo the action.
Hiding Rows and Columns
In some cases, you may want to hide particular rows or columns. Hiding rows and columns may
be useful if you don’t want users to see particular information, or if you need to print a report
that summarizes the information in the worksheet without showing all the details.
To hide rows or columns in your worksheet, select the row or rows that you want to hide by
clicking in the row or column header. Then right-click and choose Hide from the shortcut
menu. Or, you can use the commands on the Home Í Cells Í Format Í Hide & Unhide
drop-down list.
A hidden row is actually a row with its height set to zero. Similarly, a hidden column has a column
width of zero. When you use the navigation keys to move the cell pointer, cells in hidden rows or
columns are skipped. In other words, you can’t use the navigation keys to move to a cell in a hidden
row or column.
Unhiding a hidden row or column can be a bit tricky because selecting a row or column that’s
hidden is difficult. The solution is to select the columns or rows that are adjacent to the hidden
column or row. (Select at least one column or row on either side.) Then right-click and choose
Unhide. For example, if column G is hidden, select columns F and H.
Another method is to choose Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Go To (or press F5) to select
a cell in a hidden row or column. For example, if column A is hidden, you can press F5 and
specify cell A1 (or any other cell in column A) to move the cell pointer to the hidden column.
Then you can choose Home Í Cells Í Format Í Hide & Unhide Í Unhide Columns.
Changing Column Widths and Row Heights
Often, you’ll want to change the width of a column or the height of a row. For example, you can
make columns narrower to accommodate more information on a printed page. Or you may want
to increase row height to create a “double-spaced” effect.
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Excel provides several different ways to change the widths of columns and the height of rows.
Changing Column Widths
Column width is measured in terms of the number of characters of a fi xed pitch font that will fit
into the cell’s width. By default, each column’s width is 8.43 units, which equates to 64 pixels (px).
Tip
If hash marks (#) fill a cell that contains a numerical value, the column isn’t wide enough to accommodate the
information in the cell. Widen the column to solve the problem. n
Before you change the column width, you can select multiple columns so that the width will be
the same for all selected columns. To select multiple columns, either click-and-drag in the column
border or press Ctrl while you select individual columns. To select all columns, click the button
where the row and column headers intersect. You can change column widths by using any of the
following techniques:
l
Drag the right column border with the mouse until the column is the desired width.
l
Choose Home Í Cells Í Format Í Column Width, and enter a value in the Column
Width dialog box.
l
Choose Home Í Cells Í Format Í AutoFit Column Width to adjust the width of the
selected column so that the widest entry in the column fits. Rather than selecting an
entire column, you can just select cells in the column, and the column is adjusted based
on the widest entry in your selection.
l
Double-click on the right border of a column header to set the column width automatically to the widest entry in the column.
Tip
To change the default width of all columns, choose Home Í Cells Í Format Í Default Width. This command
displays a dialog box into which you enter the new default column width. All columns that haven’t been
previously adjusted take on the new column width. n
Caution
After you manually adjust a column’s width, Excel will no longer automatically adjust the column to accommodate longer numerical entries. You need to change the column width manually. n
Changing Row Heights
Row height is measured in points (a standard unit of measurement in the printing trade — 72 pt
is equal to 1 inch). The default row height using the default font is 15 pt, or 20 px.
The default row height can vary, depending on the font defi ned in the Normal style. In addition,
Excel automatically adjusts row heights to accommodate the tallest font in the row. So, if you
change the font size of a cell to 20 pt, for example, Excel makes the row taller so that the entire
text is visible.
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You can set the row height manually, however, by using any of the following techniques. As with
columns, you can select multiple rows.
l
Drag the lower row border with the mouse until the row is the desired height.
l
Choose Home Í Cells Í Format Í Row Height, and enter a value (in points) in the
Row Height dialog box.
l
Double-click on the bottom border of a row to set the row height automatically to the
tallest entry in the row. You also can choose Home Í Cells Í Format Í AutoFit Row
Height for this task.
Changing the row height is useful for spacing out rows and is almost always preferable to
inserting empty rows between lines of data.
Understanding Cells and Ranges
Most of the work you do in Excel involves cells and ranges. Understanding how best to manipulate
cells and ranges will save you time and effort. The remainder of this chapter discusses a variety of
techniques that you can use to help increase your efficiency.
A cell is a single element in a worksheet that can hold a value, some text, or a formula. A cell is
identified by its address, which consists of its column letter and row number. For example, cell
D12 is the cell in the fourth column and the twelfth row.
A group of cells is called a range. You designate a range address by specifying its upper-left cell
address and its lower-right cell address, separated by a colon.
Some examples of range addresses are shown in Table 14-1.
TABLE 14-1
Range Addresses
C24
A range that consists of a single cell (column C, row 24)
A1:B1
Two cells that occupy one row and two columns (row 1, columns A and B)
A1:A100
100 cells in column A
A1:D4
16 cells (four rows by four columns, rows 1 to 4, columns A to D)
C1:C1048576
An entire column of cells. This range also can be expressed as C:C.
A6:XFD6
An entire row of cells. This range also can be expressed as 6:6.
A1:XFD1048576
All cells in a worksheet. This range also can be expressed as either
A:XFD or 1:1048576.
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Selecting Ranges
To perform an operation on a range of cells in a worksheet, you must first select the range. For
example, if you want to make the text bold for a range of cells, you must select the range and then
choose Home Í Font Í Bold (or press Ctrl+B).
When you select a range, the cells appear highlighted. The exception is the active cell, which
remains its normal color. Figure 14-12 shows an example of a selected range (B5:C8) in a worksheet. Cell B5, the active cell, is selected but not highlighted.
FIGURE 14-12
When you select a range, it appears highlighted, but the active cell within the range is not highlighted.
You can select a range in several ways:
l
Press and hold the left mouse button and drag, highlighting the range. Then release the
mouse button. If you drag to the end of the screen, the worksheet will scroll.
l
Press the Shift key while you use the arrow keys to select a range.
l
Press F8 and then move the cell pointer with the arrow keys to highlight the range.
Press F8 again to return the arrow keys to normal movement.
l
Type the cell or range address into the Name box and press Enter. Excel selects the cell
or range that you specified.
l
Choose Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Go To (or press F5) and enter a range’s
address manually into the Go To dialog box. When you click OK, Excel selects the cells
in the range that you specified.
Tip
While you’re selecting a range, Excel displays the number of rows and columns in your selection in the Name
box (located on the left side of the Formula bar). As soon as you finish the selection, the Name box reverts to
showing the address of the active cell. n
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Selecting Complete Rows and Columns
Often, you’ll need to select an entire row or column. For example, you may want to apply the
same numerical format or the same alignment options to an entire row or column. You can select
entire rows and columns in much the same manner as you select ranges:
l
Click on the row or column border to select a single row or column.
l
To select multiple adjacent rows or columns, click on a row or column border and drag
to highlight additional rows or columns.
l
To select multiple (nonadjacent) rows or columns, press Ctrl while you click on the row
or column borders that you want.
l
Press Ctrl+Spacebar to select a column. The column of the active cell (or columns of the
selected cells) is highlighted.
l
Press Shift+Spacebar to select a row. The row of the active cell (or rows of the selected
cells) is highlighted.
Tip
Press Ctrl+A to select all cells in the worksheet, which is the same as selecting all rows and all columns. If
the active cell is within a table, you may need to press Ctrl+A two or even three times to select all cells in the
worksheet, as it will select table data first, select the header rows second, and select all the cells in the worksheet last. You can also click the area at the intersection of the row and column borders to select all cells. n
Selecting Noncontiguous Ranges
Most of the time, the ranges that you select are contiguous — a single rectangle of cells. Excel also
enables you to work with noncontiguous ranges, which consist of two or more ranges (or single
cells) that aren’t next to each other. Selecting noncontiguous ranges is also known as a multiple
selection. If you want to apply the same formatting to cells in different areas of your worksheet,
one approach is to make a multiple selection. When the appropriate cells or ranges are selected,
the formatting that you select is applied to them all. Figure 14-13 shows a noncontiguous range
selected in a worksheet. Three ranges are selected: A2:C3, A5:C5, and A9:C10.
You can select a noncontiguous range in several ways:
l
Select the first range (or cell). Then press and hold Ctrl as you drag the mouse to highlight additional cells or ranges.
l
From the keyboard, select a range as described previously (using F8 or the Shift key).
Then press Shift+F8 to select another range without canceling the previous range
selections.
l
Enter the range (or cell) address in the Name box and press Enter. Separate each range
address with a comma.
l
Choose Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Go To (or press F5) to display the Go To
dialog box. Enter the range (or cell) address in the Reference box, and separate each
range address with a comma. Click OK, and Excel selects the ranges.
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FIGURE 14-13
Excel enables you to select noncontiguous ranges.
Note
Noncontiguous ranges differ from contiguous ranges in several important ways. One obvious difference is
that you can’t use drag-and-drop methods (described later) to move or copy noncontiguous ranges. n
Selecting Multisheet Ranges
In addition to two-dimensional (2-D) ranges on a single worksheet, ranges can extend across
multiple worksheets to be 3-D ranges.
Suppose that you have a workbook set up to track budgets. A common approach is to use a separate worksheet for each department, making it easy to organize the data. You can click a sheet tab
to view the information for a particular department.
Say you have a workbook with four sheets: Totals, Operations, Marketing, and Manufacturing.
The sheets are laid out identically. The only difference is the values. The Totals sheet contains
formulas that compute the sum of the corresponding items in the three departmental worksheets.
Assume that you want to apply formatting to the sheets — for example, make the column headings
bold with background shading. One (albeit not-so-efficient) approach is to format the cells in each
worksheet separately. A better technique is to select a multisheet range and format the cells in all the
sheets simultaneously. The following is a step-by-step example of multisheet formatting, using the
workbook shown in Figure 14-14.
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FIGURE 14-14
In Group mode, you can work with a 3-D range of cells that extend across multiple worksheets.
1. Activate the Totals worksheet by clicking its tab.
2. Select the range B3:F3.
3. Press Shift and click the Manufacturing sheet tab. This step selects all worksheets
between the active worksheet (Totals) and the sheet tab that you click — in essence,
a 3-D range of cells (see Figure 14-14). Notice that the workbook window’s title bar
displays [Group] to remind you that you’ve selected a group of sheets and that you’re
in Group mode.
4. Choose Home Í Font Í Bold, and then choose Home Í Font Í Fill Color to apply
a colored background. Excel applies the formatting to the selected range across the
selected sheets.
5. Click one of the other sheet tabs. This step selects the sheet and also cancels Group
mode; [Group] is no longer displayed in the title bar.
When a workbook is in Group mode, any changes that you make to cells in one worksheet also
apply to all the other grouped worksheets. You can use this to your advantage when you want to
set up a group of identical worksheets because any labels, data, formatting, or formulas you enter
are automatically added to the same cells in all the grouped worksheets.
Note
When Excel is in Group mode, some commands are disabled and can’t be used. In the preceding example, for
example, you can’t convert all these ranges to tables by choosing Insert Í Tables Í Table. n
In general, selecting a multisheet range is a simple two-step process: select the range in one sheet,
and then select the worksheets to include in the range. To select a group of contiguous worksheets,
you can press Shift and click the sheet tab of the last worksheet that you want to include in the
selection. To select individual worksheets, press Ctrl and click the sheet tab of each worksheet
that you want to select. If all the worksheets in a workbook aren’t laid out the same, you can
skip the sheets that you don’t want to format. When you make the selection, the sheet tabs of the
selected sheets appear with a white background, and Excel displays [Group] in the title bar.
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Tip
To select all sheets in a workbook, right-click on any sheet tab, and choose Select All Sheets from the shortcut
menu. n
Selecting Special Types of Cells
As you use Excel, you may need to locate specific types of cells in your worksheets. For example,
wouldn’t it be handy to be able to locate every cell that contains a formula — or perhaps all the
cells whose value depends on the current cell? Excel provides an easy way to locate these and
many other special types of cells. Simply choose Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Go To
Special to display the Go to Special dialog box, shown in Figure 14-15.
FIGURE 14-15
Use the Go to Special dialog box to select specific types of cells.
After you make your choice in the dialog box, Excel selects the qualifying subset of cells in the
current selection. Often, this subset of cells is a multiple selection. If no cells qualify, Excel lets
you know with the message “No cells were found.”
Tip
If you bring up the Go to Special dialog box with only one cell selected, Excel bases its selection on the
current worksheet. Otherwise, the selection is based on the selected range. n
Tip
When you select an option in the Go to Special dialog box, be sure to note which suboptions become available. For example, when you select Constants, the suboptions under Formulas become available to help you
further refine the results. Likewise, the suboptions under Dependents also apply to Precedents, and those
under Data Validation also apply to Conditional Formats. n
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Selecting Cells by Searching
Another way to select cells is to use Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Find (or press Ctrl+F),
which allows you to select cells by their contents. Click the Options button to display additional
choices for refining the search.
Enter the text that you’re looking for; then click Find All. The dialog box expands to display
all the cells that match your search criteria. For example, Figure 14-16 shows the dialog box
after Excel has located all cells that contain the text March. You can click on an item in the
list, and the screen will scroll so that you can view the cell in context. To select all the cells in
the list, fi rst select any single item in the list. Then press Ctrl+A to select them all. Note that
the Find and Replace dialog box allows you to return to the worksheet without dismissing the
dialog box.
FIGURE 14-16
The Find and Replace dialog box, with its results listed.
Tip
You can use the ? (matches a single character) or * (matches multiple characters) wildcards to search. To
search for a question mark or an asterisk, precede the character with a tilde character (~). n
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Copying or Moving Ranges
As you create a worksheet, you may fi nd it necessary to copy or move information from one
location to another. Excel makes copying or moving ranges of cells easy. Here are some common
things you might do:
l
Copy a cell to another cell.
l
Copy a cell to a range of cells. The source cell is copied to every cell in the destination
range.
l
Copy a range to another range. Both ranges must be the same size.
l
Move a range of cells to another location.
The primary difference between copying and moving a range is the effect of the operation on the
source range. When you copy a range, the source range is unaffected. When you move a range,
the contents are removed from the source range.
Note
Copying a cell normally copies the cell’s contents, any formatting that is applied to the original cell (including
conditional formatting and data validation), and the cell comment (if it has one). When you copy a cell that
contains a formula, the cell references in the copied formulas are changed automatically to be relative to
their new destination (unless you have formatted the cell references to be absolute). n
Copying or moving consists of two steps (although shortcut methods do exist):
1. Select the cell or range to copy (the source range) and copy it to the Clipboard. To
move the range instead of copying it, cut the range rather than copying it.
2. Move the cell pointer to the range that will hold the copy (the destination range)
and paste the Clipboard contents.
Caution
When you paste information, Excel overwrites any cells that get in the way without warning you. If you find
that pasting overwrote some essential cells, choose Undo from the Quick Access Toolbar (or press Ctrl+Z). n
Note
When you copy a cell or range, Excel surrounds the copied area with an animated border (sometimes referred
to as marching ants). As long as that border remains animated, the copied information is available for pasting.
If you press Esc to cancel the animated border, Excel removes the information from the Clipboard. n
Because copying (or moving) is used so often, Excel provides many different methods. I discuss
each method in the following sections. Copying and moving are similar operations, so I point out
only important differences between the two.
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Copying by Using Ribbon Commands
Choosing Home Í Clipboard Í Copy transfers a copy of the selected cell or range to the
Windows Clipboard and the Office Clipboard. After performing the copy part of this operation,
select the cell that will hold the copy and choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste.
Rather than choosing Home Í Clipboard Í Paste, you can just activate the destination cell and
press Enter. If you use this technique, Excel removes the copied information from the Clipboard
so that it can’t be pasted again. If you’re copying a range, you don’t need to select an entire
same-sized range before you click the Paste button. You need only activate the upper-left cell in
the destination range.
Note
If you click the Copy button more than once before you click the Paste button, Excel may automatically
display the Office Clipboard task pane. To prevent this pane from appearing, click the Options button at
the bottom and then click Show Office Clipboard Automatically. You can display the Office Clipboard
when needed by clicking the Dialog Box Launcher icon in the bottom-right corner of the Home Í
Clipboard group. Chapter 3 explains how to use the Clipboard. n
New Feature
The Home Í Clipboard Í Paste control contains a drop-down arrow that, when clicked, gives you
additional Paste Option icons. The Paste Preview icons are new to Excel 2010. These icons are explained
later in this chapter (see “Pasting in Special Ways”). The difference is that you can preview how the pasted
information will appear.
Copying by Using Shortcut Menu Commands
If you prefer, you can use the following shortcut menu commands for copying and pasting:
l
Right-click on the range, and choose Copy (or Cut) from the shortcut menu to copy
the selected cells to the Clipboard.
l
Right-click and choose Paste from the shortcut menu that appears to paste the
Clipboard contents to the selected cell or range.
For more control over how the pasted information appears, use one of the buttons under Paste
Options in the shortcut menu (see Figure 14-17).
The copy and paste operations also have shortcut keys associated with them:
l
Ctrl+C copies the selected cells to both the Windows and Office Clipboards.
l
Ctrl+X cuts the selected cells to both the Windows and Office Clipboards.
l
Ctrl+V pastes the Windows Clipboard contents to the selected cell or range.
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FIGURE 14-17
The Paste Icons on the shortcut menu provide more control over how the pasted information appears.
Tip
Most other Windows applications also use these shortcut keys. n
Using Paste Options Buttons When Inserting and
Pasting
Some cell and range operations — specifically inserting, pasting, and filling cells by dragging — result in
the display of an Options button. Clicking the Options button displays choices for completing the insert
or paste, such as whether to keep the original formatting from the copied material. For example, if you
copy a range and then paste it to a different location, a Paste Options button appears at the lower-right
of the pasted range. Click the Paste Options button (or press Ctrl), and you see choices that enable you
to specify how the data should be pasted, such as values only or formatting only.
Some users find these Options buttons helpful, and others think that they’re annoying. (Count me
in the latter group.) To turn off these Options buttons, choose File Í Options and click Advanced in
the list at the left. Remove the check marks from the two options under Cut, Copy, and Paste labeled
Show Paste Options Buttons When Content is Pasted and Show Insert Options Buttons, and then
click OK.
Copying or Moving by Using Drag-and-Drop
Excel also enables you to copy or move a cell or range by dragging. Be aware, however, that
dragging and dropping does not place any information on either the Windows Clipboard or the
Office Clipboard.
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Caution
The drag-and-drop method of moving does offer one advantage over the cut-and-paste method — Excel warns
you if a drag-and-drop move operation will overwrite existing cell contents. However, you do not get a warning if a drag-and-drop copy operation will overwrite existing cell contents. n
To copy using drag-and-drop, select the cell or range that you want to copy, and then press Ctrl
and move the mouse to one of the selection’s borders (the mouse arrow pointer is augmented
with a small plus sign). Then, simply drag the selection to its new location while you continue to
press the Ctrl key. The original selection remains behind, and Excel makes a new copy when you
release the mouse button. To move a range using drag-and-drop, don’t press Ctrl while dragging
the border.
Tip
If the mouse pointer doesn’t turn into an arrow when you point to the border of a cell or range, you need
to make a change to your settings. Access the Excel Options (File Í Options) dialog box, click Advanced in
the list at the left, and place a check mark on the option labeled Enable Fill Handle and Cell Drag-and-Drop
under Editing Options. Click OK to apply the change. n
Copying to Adjacent Cells
Often, you need to copy a cell to an adjacent cell or range. This type of copying is quite common
when working with formulas. For example, if you’re working on a budget, you might create a formula to add the values in column B. You can use the same formula to add the values in the other
columns. Rather than re-enter the formula, you can copy it to the adjacent cells.
Excel provides additional options for copying to adjacent cells. To use these commands, activate
the cell that you’re copying and extend the cell selection to include the cells that you’re copying
to. Then issue the appropriate command from the following list for one-step copying:
l
Home Í Editing Í Fill Í Down (or Ctrl+D) copies the cell to the selected range below.
l
Home Í Editing Í Fill Í Right (or Ctrl+R) copies the cell to the selected range to the
right.
l
Home Í Editing Í Fill Í Up copies the cell to the selected range above.
l
Home Í Editing Í Fill Í Left copies the cell to the selected range to the left.
None of these commands places information on either the Windows Clipboard or the Office
Clipboard.
Tip
You also can use Auto Fill to copy to adjacent cells by dragging the selection’s fill handle (the small square
in the bottom-right corner of the selected cell or range). Excel copies the original selection to the cells that
you highlight while dragging. For more control over the Auto Fill operation, drag the fill handle with the
right mouse button, and if you click the Auto Fill Options button, you’ll get a shortcut menu with additional
options after completing the Auto Fill. n
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Copying a Range to Other Sheets
You can use the copy procedures described previously to copy a cell or range to another worksheet, even if the worksheet is in a different workbook. You must, of course, activate the other
worksheet before you select the location to which you want to copy.
Excel offers a quicker way to copy a cell or range and paste it to other worksheets in the same
workbook.
1. Select the range to copy.
2. Press Ctrl and click the sheet tabs for the worksheets to which you want to copy
the information. Excel displays [Group] in the workbook’s title bar.
3. Choose Home Í Editing Í Fill Í Across Worksheets. A dialog box appears to ask
you what you want to copy (All, Contents, or Formats).
4. Make your choice and then click OK. Excel copies the selected range to the selected
worksheets; the new copy occupies the same cells in the selected worksheets as the
original occupies in the initial worksheet.
Caution
Be careful with the Home Í Editing Í Fill Í Across Worksheets command because Excel doesn’t warn you if
the destination cells contain information. You can quickly overwrite lots of cells with this command and not
realize it! Make sure you check your work, and use Undo if the result isn’t what you expected. n
Using the Office Clipboard to Paste
Whenever you cut or copy information in an Office program, such as Excel, you can place the
data on both the Windows Clipboard and the Office Clipboard. When you copy information to
the Office Clipboard, you append the information to the Office Clipboard instead of replacing
what is already there. With multiple items stored on the Office Clipboard, you can then paste the
items either individually or as a group.
To use the Office Clipboard, you first need to open it. Use the dialog launcher on the bottom
right of the Home Í Clipboard group to toggle the Clipboard task pane on and off.
Tip
To make the Clipboard task pane open automatically, click the Options button near the bottom of the task
pane, and choose the Show Office Clipboard Automatically option. n
After you open the Clipboard task pane, select the fi rst cell or range that you want to copy
to the Office Clipboard, and copy it by using any of the preceding techniques. Repeat this
process, selecting the next cell or range that you want to copy. As soon as you copy the information, the Office Clipboard task pane shows you the number of items that you’ve copied and
a brief description (it will hold up to 24 items). Figure 14-18 shows the Office Clipboard with
four copied items.
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FIGURE 14-18
Use the Clipboard task pane to copy-and-paste multiple items.
When you’re ready to paste information, select the cell into which you want to paste information.
To paste an individual item, click on it in the Clipboard task pane. To paste all the items that
you’ve copied, click the Paste All button (which is at the top of the Clipboard task pane). The
items are pasted, one after the other. The Paste All button is probably more useful in Word, for
situations in which you copy text from various sources and then paste it all at once.
You can clear the contents of the Office Clipboard by clicking the Clear All button.
The following items about the Office Clipboard and its functioning are worth noting:
l
Excel pastes the contents of the Windows Clipboard (the last item you copied to the
Office Clipboard) when you paste by choosing Home Í Clipboard Í Paste, by pressing
Ctrl+V, or by right-clicking and choosing Paste from the shortcut menu.
l
The last item that you cut or copied appears on both the Office Clipboard and the
Windows Clipboard.
l
Pasting from the Office Clipboard also places that item on the Windows Clipboard. If
you choose Paste All from the Office Clipboard toolbar, you paste all items stored on the
Office Clipboard onto the Windows Clipboard as a single item.
l
Clearing the Office Clipboard also clears the Windows Clipboard.
Caution
The Office Clipboard has a serious problem that makes it virtually worthless for Excel users: if you copy a
range that contains formulas, the formulas are not transferred when you paste to a different range. Only the
values are pasted. Furthermore, Excel doesn’t even warn you about this fact. n
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Pasting in Special Ways
You may not always want to copy everything from the source range to the destination range. For
example, you may want to copy only the formula results rather than the formulas themselves. Or
you may want to copy the number formats from one range to another without overwriting any
existing data or formulas.
To control what is copied into the destination range, choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste, and use
the drop-down menu shown in Figure 14-19. When you hover your mouse pointer over an icon,
you’ll see a preview of the pasted information in the destination range. Click on the icon to use
the selected Paste option.
FIGURE 14-19
Excel offers several pasting options, with preview. Here, the information is copied from D4:E7 and is being
pasted beginning at cell D10.
The Paste options are as follows:
l
Paste (P). Pastes the cell’s contents, formats, and data validation from the Windows
Clipboard.
l
Formulas (F). Pastes formulas, but not formatting.
l
Formulas & Number Formatting (O). Pastes formulas and number formatting only.
l
Keep Source Formatting (K). Pastes formulas and all formatting.
l
No Borders (B). Pastes everything except borders that appear in the source range.
l
Keep Source Column Width (W). Pastes formulas, and also duplicates the column
width of the copied cells.
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l
Transpose (T). Changes the orientation of the copied range. Rows become columns,
and columns become rows. Any formulas in the copied range are adjusted so that they
work properly when transposed.
l
Merge Conditional Formatting (G). This icon is displayed only when the copied cells
contain conditional formatting. When clicked, it merges the copied conditional formatting with any conditional formatting in the destination range.
l
Values (V). Pastes the results of formulas. The destination for the copy can be a new
range or the original range. In the latter case, Excel replaces the original formulas with
their current values.
l
Values & Number Formatting (A). Pastes the results of formulas, plus the number
formatting.
l
Values & Source Formatting (E). Pastes the results of formulas, plus all formatting.
l
Formatting (R). Pastes only the formatting of the source range.
l
Paste Link (N). Creates formulas in the destination range that refer to the cells in the
copied range.
l
Picture (U). Pastes the copied information as a picture.
l
Linked Picture (I). Pastes the copied information as a “live” picture that is updated if
the source range is changed.
l
Paste Special. Displays the Paste Special dialog box (described in the next section).
Using the Paste Special Dialog Box
For yet another pasting method, choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste Í Paste Special to display
the Paste Special dialog box (see Figure 14-20). You can also right-click and choose Paste Special
from the shortcut menu to display this dialog box. This dialog box has several options, which I
explain in the following list.
Note
Excel actually has several different Paste Special dialog boxes, each with different options. The one displayed
depends on what’s copied. This section describes the Paste Special dialog box that appears when a range or
cell has been copied. n
Tip
For the Paste Special command to be available, you need to copy a cell or range. (Choosing Home Í
Clipboard Í Cut doesn’t work.) n
l
All. Pastes the cell’s contents, formats, and data validation from the Windows
Clipboard.
l
Formulas. Pastes values and formulas, with no formatting.
l
Values. Pastes values and the results of formulas (no formatting). The destination for
the copy can be a new range or the original range. In the latter case, Excel replaces the
original formulas with their current values.
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l
Formats. Copies only the formatting.
l
Comments. Copies only the cell comments from a cell or range. This option doesn’t
copy cell contents or formatting.
l
Validation. Copies the validation criteria so the same data validation will apply. Data
validation is applied by choosing Data Í Data Tools Í Data Validation.
l
All Using Source Theme. Pastes everything, but uses the formatting from the document
theme of the source. This option is relevant only if you’re pasting information from a
different workbook and the workbook uses a different document theme from that of the
active workbook.
l
All Except Borders. Pastes everything except borders that appear in the source range.
l
Column Widths. Pastes only column width information.
l
Formulas and Number Formats. Pastes all values, formulas, and number formats
(but no other formatting).
l
Values and Number Formats. Pastes all values and numeric formats, but not the
formulas themselves.
l
All Merging Conditional Formats. Merges the copied conditional formatting with any
conditional formatting in the destination range. This option is enabled only when you
are copying a range that contains conditional formatting.
In addition, the Paste Special dialog box enables you to perform other operations, described in
the following sections.
FIGURE 14-20
The Paste Special dialog box
Performing Mathematical Operations without Formulas
The options listed in the Operation section of the Paste Special dialog box let you perform an arithmetic operation on values and formulas in the destination range. For example, you can copy a range
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to another range and select the Multiply operation. Excel multiplies the corresponding values in
the source range and the destination range and replaces the destination range with the new values.
This feature also works with a single copied cell, pasted to a multicell range. Assume that you
have a range of values and you want to increase each value by five percent. Enter 105% into any
blank cell, and copy that cell to the Clipboard. Then select the range of values, and bring up the
Paste Special dialog box. Select the Multiply option, and each value in the range is multiplied by
105 percent.
Caution
If the destination range contains formulas, the formulas are also modified. In many cases, this is not what
you want. n
Skipping Blanks when Pasting
The Skip Blanks option in the Paste Special dialog box prevents Excel from overwriting cell
contents in your paste area with blank cells from the copied range. This option is useful if you’re
copying a range to another area but don’t want the blank cells in the copied range to overwrite
existing data.
Transposing a Range
The Transpose option in the Paste Special dialog box changes the orientation of the copied range.
Rows become columns, and columns become rows. Refer to Figure 14-19 to see an example. Any
formulas in the copied range are adjusted so that they work properly when transposed. Note that
you can use this checkbox with the other options in the Paste Special dialog box.
Tip
If you click the Paste Link button in the Paste Special dialog box, you create formulas that link to the source
range. As a result, the destination range automatically reflects changes in the source range. n
Using Names to Work with Ranges
Dealing with cryptic cell and range addresses can sometimes be confusing. (This confusion
becomes even more apparent when you deal with formulas, which are covered in Chapter 15.)
Fortunately, Excel allows you to assign descriptive names to cells and ranges. For example, you
can give a cell a name such as Interest_Rate, or you can name a range JulySales. Working with
these names (rather than cell or range addresses) has several advantages:
l
A meaningful range name (such as Total_Income) is much easier to remember than a cell
address (such as AC21).
l
Entering a name is less error-prone than entering a cell or range address.
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l
You can quickly move to areas of your worksheet either by using the Name box, located
at the left side of the Formula bar (click on the arrow to drop down a list of defined
names) or by choosing Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Go To (or F5) and specifying the range name.
l
Creating formulas is easier. You can paste a cell or range name into a formula by using
Formula AutoComplete.
l
Names make your formulas more understandable and easier to use. A formula such as
=Income-Taxes is more intuitive than =D20-D40.
Creating Range Names in Your Workbooks
Excel provides several different methods that you can use to create range names. Before you
begin, however, you should be aware of some important rules about what is acceptable:
1. Names can’t contain any spaces. You may want to use an underscore character to
simulate a space (such as Annual_Total).
2. You can use any combination of letters and numbers, but the name must begin
with a letter. A name can’t begin with a number (such as 3rdQuarter) or look like a cell
reference (such as QTR3). If these are desirable names, though, you can precede the
name with an underscore, for example, _3rd Quarter and _QTR3.
3. Symbols (except for underscores and periods) aren’t allowed.
4. Names are limited to 255 characters, but it’s a good practice to keep names as short
as possible yet still meaningful and understandable.
Caution
Excel also uses a few names internally for its own use. Although you can create names that override Excel’s
internal names, you should avoid doing so. To be on the safe side, avoid using the following for names: Print_
Area, Print_Titles, Consolidate_Area, and Sheet_Title.
To delete a range name or rename a range, see “Managing Names,” later in this chapter. n
Using the New Name Dialog Box
To create a range name, start by selecting the cell or range that you want to name. Then, choose
Formulas Í Defined Names Í Define Name. Excel displays the New Name dialog box, shown in
Figure 14-21. Note that this is a resizable dialog box. Drag a border to change the dimensions.
Type a name in the Name text field (or use the name that Excel proposes, if any). The selected cell
or range address appears in the Refers To text field. Use the Scope drop-down list to indicate the
scope for the name. The scope indicates where the name will be valid, and it’s either the entire
workbook or a particular sheet. If you like, you can add a comment that describes the named
range or cell. Click OK to add the name to your workbook and close the dialog box.
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FIGURE 14-21
Create names for cells or ranges by using the New Name dialog box.
Using the Name Box
A faster way to create a name is to use the Name box (to the left of the Formula bar). Select the
cell or range to name, click the Name box, and type the name. Press Enter to create the name.
(You must press Enter to actually record the name; if you type a name and then click in the
worksheet, Excel doesn’t create the name.)
The Name box is a drop-down list and shows all names in the workbook. To choose a named
cell or range, click the Name box and choose the name. The name appears in the Name box, and
Excel selects the named cell or range in the worksheet.
Using the Create Names from Selection Dialog Box
You may have a worksheet that contains text that you want to use for names for adjacent cells
or ranges. For example, you may want to use the text in column A to create names for the corresponding values in column B. Excel makes this task easy to do.
To create names by using adjacent text, start by selecting the name text and the cells that you want
to name. (These items can be individual cells or ranges of cells.) The names must be adjacent to
the cells that you’re naming. (A multiple selection is allowed.) Then, choose Formulas Í Defined
Names Í Create from Selection. Excel displays the Create Names from Selection dialog box,
shown in Figure 14-22. The check marks in this dialog box are based on Excel’s analysis of the
selected range. For example, if Excel finds text in the first row of the selection, it proposes that you
create names based on the top row. If Excel didn’t guess correctly, you can change the checkboxes.
Click OK, and Excel creates the names. Using the data in Figure 14-22, Excel creates six names:
January for cell B1, February for cell B2, and so on.
Note
If the text contained in a cell would result in an invalid name, Excel modifies the name to make it valid. For
example, if a cell contains the text Net Income (which is invalid for a name because it contains a space), Excel
converts the space to an underscore character. If Excel encounters a value or a numeric formula where text
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should be, however, it doesn’t convert it to a valid name. It simply doesn’t create a name — and does not
inform you of that fact. n
Caution
If the upper-left cell of the selection contains text and you choose the Top Row and Left Column options,
Excel uses that text for the name of the entire data, excluding the top row and left column. So, after Excel
creates the names, take a minute to make sure that they refer to the correct ranges. If Excel creates a name
that is incorrect, you can delete or modify it by using the Name Manager (described next). n
FIGURE 14-22
Use the Create Names from Selection dialog box to name cells using labels that appear in the worksheet.
Managing Names
A workbook can have any number of names. If you have many names, you should know about
the Name Manager, shown in Figure 14-23.
The Name Manager appears when you choose Formulas Í Defined Names Í Name Manager
(or press Ctrl+F3). The Name Manager has the following features:
l
Displays information about each name in the workbook. You can resize the Name
Manager dialog box and widen the columns to show more information. You can also
click on a column heading to sort the information by the column.
l
Allows you to filter the displayed names. Clicking the Filter button lets you show only
those names that meet a certain criterion. For example, you can view only the worksheet level names.
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l
Provides quick access to the New Name dialog box. Click the New button to create a
new name without closing the Name Manager.
l
Lets you edit names. To edit a name, select it in the list and then click the Edit button.
You can change the name itself, modify the Refers To range, or edit the comment.
l
Lets you quickly delete unneeded names. To delete a name, select it in the list and
click Delete.
FIGURE 14-23
Use the Name Manager to work with range names.
Caution
Be extra careful when deleting names. If the name is used in a formula, deleting the name causes the formula
to become invalid. (#NAME? is displayed.) However, deleting a name can be undone, so if you find that formulas return #NAME? after you delete a name, choose Undo from the Quick Access toolbar (or press Ctrl+Z)
to get the name back. n
If you delete the rows or columns that contain named cells or ranges, the names contain an
invalid reference. For example, if cell A1 on Sheet1 is named Interest and you delete row 1 or
column A, the name Interest then refers to =Sheet1!#REF! (i.e., to an erroneous reference). If you
use Interest in a formula, the formula displays #REF.
Tip
The Name Manager is useful, but it has a shortcoming: it doesn’t let you display the list of names in a
worksheet range so you can view or print them. Such a feat is possible, but you need to look beyond the
Name Manager.
To create a list of names in a worksheet, first move the cell pointer to an empty area of your worksheet — the
list is created at the active cell position and overwrites any information at that location. Press F3 to display
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the Paste Name dialog box, which lists all the defined names. Then click the Paste List button. Excel creates a
list of all names in the workbook and their corresponding addresses. n
Adding Comments to Cells
Documentation that explains certain elements in the worksheet can often be helpful. One way
to document your work is to add comments to cells. This feature is useful when you need to
describe a particular value or explain how a formula works.
To add a comment to a cell, select the cell and use any of these actions:
l
Choose Review Í Comments Í New Comment.
l
Right-click the cell and choose Insert Comment from the shortcut menu.
l
Press Shift+F2.
Excel inserts a comment that points to the active cell. Initially, the comment consists of your
name, as specified in the Excel Options dialog box. Enter the text for the cell comment, and then
click anywhere in the worksheet to hide the comment. You can change the size of the comment
by dragging any of its borders. Figure 14-24 shows a cell with a comment.
FIGURE 14-24
You can add comments to cells to help clarify important items in your worksheets.
Cells that have a comment display a small red triangle in the upper-right corner. When you move
the mouse pointer over a cell that contains a comment, the comment becomes visible.
You can force a comment to be displayed even when its cell is not activated. Right-click on the
cell and choose Show/Hide Comments. Although this command refers to “comments” (plural), it
affects only the comment in the active cell. To return to normal (make the comment appear only
when its cell is activated), right-click on the cell and choose Hide Comment.
Tip
You can control how comments are displayed. Display the Advanced settings in the Excel Options dialog box
(File Í Options). In the Display section, select the No Comments or Indicators option from the For Cells with
Comments, Show list. n
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Formatting Comments
If you don’t like the default look of cell comments, you can make some changes. Right-click on
the cell and choose Edit Comment. Select the text in the comment and use the commands of the
Font and the Alignment groups (on the Home tab) to make changes to the comment’s appearance.
For even more formatting options, right-click on the open comment, and choose Format
Comment from the shortcut menu. Excel responds by displaying the Format Comment dialog
box, which allows you to change many aspects of its appearance, including color, border,
and margins.
Tip
You can also display an image inside a comment. Right-click on the cell, and choose Edit Comment. Then
right-click the comment’s border and choose Format Comment. Select the Colors and Lines tab in the Format
Comment dialog box. Click the Color drop-down list and select Fill Effects. In the Fill Effects dialog box, click
the Picture tab and then click the Select Picture button to specify a graphics file. Figure 14-25 shows a comment that contains a picture. n
FIGURE 14-25
This comment contains a graphics image.
Working Further with Comments
Comments are there to present information, and you need to know how to read and display
comments. Here are additional key actions you’ll perform with comments:
l
Reading Comments. To read all comments in a workbook, choose Review Í Comments
Í Next. Keep clicking Next to cycle through all the comments in a workbook. Choose
Review Í Comments Í Previous to view the comments in reverse order.
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l
Hiding and Showing Comments. If you want all cell comments to be visible (regardless of the location of the cell pointer), choose Review Í Comments Í Show All
Comments. This command is a toggle; select it again to hide all cell comments. To
toggle the display of an individual comment, select its cell and then choose Review Í
Comments Í Show/Hide Comment.
l
Editing Comments. To edit a comment, activate the cell, right-click, and then choose
Edit Comment from the shortcut menu. Or, select the cell and press Shift+F2. After you
make your changes, click any cell.
l
Deleting Comments. To delete a cell comment, activate the cell that contains the comment, and then choose Review Í Comments Í Delete. Or, right-click and then choose
“Delete Comment” from the shortcut menu.
l
Printing Comments. Comments do not print by default. Click the Dialog Box Launcher
in the Page Layout Í Page Setup group. In the Page Setup dialog box, click the Sheet
tab. Make your choice from the Comments drop-down list — At End of Sheet or As
Displayed on Sheet. Click OK to close the Page Setup dialog box. Or, click the Print
button to print the worksheet.
Summary
This chapter taught essential skills dealing with worksheets, cells, and ranges. Among the wide
variety of skills covered, you learned to create, copy, move, rename, and change the view of
worksheets. You also learned to work with rows and columns within sheets, performing actions
including resizing, inserting, and deleting rows and columns. The chapter moved on to teach you
about cells and ranges, covering how to make various kinds of selections, to naming ranges and
adding comments to cells. The next chapter moves on to covering formulas and functions to
perform calculations.
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CH APTER
Introducing Formulas
and Functions
F
ormulas are what make a spreadsheet program so useful. If it weren’t
for formulas, a spreadsheet would simply be a glorified word processing document that has great support for tabular information. You use
formulas in your Excel worksheets to calculate results from the data stored
in the worksheet. When data changes, the formulas calculate updated
results with no extra effort on your part. This chapter introduces formulas
and functions and helps you get up to speed with these important elements.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding formula basics
Entering formulas and functions
into your worksheets
Understanding how to use
references in formulas
Understanding Formula Basics
Correcting common formula
errors
A formula consists of special code entered into a cell. It performs a calculation of some type and returns a result, which is displayed in the cell.
Formulas use a variety of operators and worksheet functions to work with
values and text. The values and text used in formulas can be located in
other cells, which makes changing data easy and gives worksheets their
dynamic nature. For example, you can see multiple scenarios quickly by
changing the data in a worksheet and letting your formulas do the work.
Tips for working with formulas
A formula can consist of any of these elements:
l
Mathematical operators, such as + (for addition) and
* (for multiplication)
l
Cell references (including named cells and ranges)
l
Values or text
l
Worksheet functions (such as SUM or AVERAGE)
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Note
When you’re working with a table, a feature introduced in Excel 2007 enables you to create formulas that use
column names from the table, which can make your formulas much easier to read. I discuss table formulas
later in this chapter. (See “Using Formulas in Tables.”) n
After you enter a formula, the cell displays the calculated result of the formula. The formula itself
appears in the Formula bar when you select the cell, however.
Table 15-1 shows a few examples of formulas.
TABLE 15-1
Sample Formulas
Formula
Description
=150*.05
Multiplies 150 times 0.05. This formula uses only values, and it always returns the
same result. Alternatively, you could enter the value 7.5 into the cell.
=A1+A2
Adds the values in cells A1 and A2.
=IncomeExpenses
Subtracts the value in the cell named Expenses from the value in the cell named
Income.
=SUM(A1:A12)
Adds the values in the range A1:A12.
=A1=C12
Compares cell A1 with cell C12. If the cells are identical, the formula returns TRUE;
otherwise, it returns FALSE.
Tip
Formulas always begin with an equal sign so that Excel can distinguish them from text. n
Using Operators in Formulas
Excel lets you use a variety of operators in your formulas. Operators are symbols that indicate
what mathematical operation you want the formula to perform. Table 15-2 lists the operators
that Excel recognizes. In addition to these, Excel has many built-in functions that enable you
to perform additional calculations.
TABLE 15-2
Operators Used in Formulas
Operator
Name
+
Addition
–
Subtraction
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Operator
Name
*
Multiplication
/
Division
^
Exponentiation
&
Concatenation
=
Logical comparison (equal to)
>
Logical comparison (greater than)
<
Logical comparison (less than)
>=
Logical comparison (greater than or equal to)
<=
Logical comparison (less than or equal to)
<>
Logical comparison (not equal to)
You can, of course, use as many operators as you need to perform the desired calculation.
Table 15-3 shows some examples of formulas that use various operators.
TABLE 15-3
Formulas with Operators
Formula
What It Does
=”Part-”&”23A”
Joins (concatenates) the two text strings to produce Part-23A.
=A1&A2
Concatenates the contents of cell A1 with cell A2. Concatenation works
with values as well as text. If cell A1 contains 123 and cell A2 contains
456, this formula would return the text 123456.
=6^3
Raises 6 to the third power (216).
=216^(1/3)
Raises 216 to the 1/3 power. This is mathematically equivalent to
calculating the cube root of 216, which is 6.
=A1<A2
Returns TRUE if the value in cell A1 is less than the value in cell A2.
Otherwise, it returns FALSE. Logical-comparison operators also work
with text. If A1 contains Bill and A2 contains Julia, the formula would
return TRUE because Bill comes before Julia in alphabetical order.
=A1<=A2
Returns TRUE if the value in cell A1 is less than or equal to the value in cell
A2. Otherwise, it returns FALSE.
=A1<>A2
Returns TRUE if the value in cell A1 is not equal to the value in cell A2.
Otherwise, it returns FALSE.
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Understanding Operator Precedence in Formulas
When Excel calculates the value of a formula, it uses certain rules to determine the order in
which the various parts of the formula are calculated. You need to understand these rules if you
want your formulas to produce the desired results.
Table 15-4 lists the Excel operator precedence. This table shows that exponentiation has the
highest precedence (performed first), and logical comparisons have the lowest precedence
(performed last).
TABLE 15-4
Operator Precedence in Excel Formulas
Symbol
Operator
Precedence
^
Exponentiation
1
*
Multiplication
2
/
Division
2
+
Addition
3
–
Subtraction
3
&
Concatenation
4
=
Equal to
5
<
Less than
5
>
Greater than
5
You can use parentheses to override Excel’s built-in order of precedence. Expressions within
parentheses are always evaluated first. For example, the following formula uses parentheses to
control the order in which the calculations occur. In this case, cell B3 is subtracted from cell B2,
and then the result is multiplied by cell B4:
=(B2-B3)*B4
Excel computes a different answer if you enter the formula without the parentheses:
=B2-B3*B4
Because multiplication has a higher precedence, first cell B3 is multiplied by cell B4. Then this
result is subtracted from cell B2.
It’s a good idea to use parentheses even when they aren’t strictly necessary. Doing so helps to
clarify what the formula is intended to do. For example, the following formula makes it perfectly
clear that cell B3 should be multiplied by cell B4, and the result subtracted from cell B2. Without
the parentheses, you would need to remember Excel’s order of precedence.
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=B2-(B3*B4)
You can also nest parentheses within formulas — that is, put them inside other parentheses. If
you do so, Excel evaluates the most deeply nested expressions first — and then works its way out.
Here’s an example of a formula that uses nested parentheses:
=((B2*C2)+(B3*C3)+(B4*C4))*B6
This formula has four sets of parentheses — three sets are nested inside the fourth set. Excel
evaluates each nested set of parentheses and then sums the three results. This result is then
multiplied by the value in cell B6.
Although the preceding formula uses four sets of parentheses, only the outer set is really necessary.
If you understand operator precedence, it should be clear that you can rewrite this formula as:
=(B2*C2+B3*C3+B4*C4)*B6
But most would agree that using the extra parentheses makes the calculation much clearer.
Every left parenthesis, of course, must have a matching right parenthesis. If you have many
levels of nested parentheses, keeping them straight can sometimes be difficult. If the parentheses don’t match, Excel displays a message explaining the problem — and won’t let you enter the
formula.
Caution
In some cases, if your formula contains mismatched parentheses, Excel may propose a correction to your
formula. Figure 15-1 shows an example of the Formula AutoCorrect feature. You may be tempted simply to
accept the proposed correction, but be careful — in many cases, the proposed formula, although syntactically
correct, isn’t the formula you intend, and it will produce an incorrect result. n
FIGURE 15-1
The Excel Formula AutoCorrect feature sometimes suggests a syntactically correct formula, but not the
formula you had in mind.
Tip
Excel lends a hand in helping you match parentheses. When the insertion point moves over a parenthesis
while you’re editing a cell, Excel momentarily makes the parenthesis character bold and displays it in a
different color — and does the same with its matching parenthesis. n
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Using Functions in Your Formulas
Many formulas you create use worksheet functions. These functions enable you to greatly enhance
the power of your formulas and perform calculations that are difficult (or even impossible) if you
use only the operators discussed previously. For example, you can use the TAN function to calculate the tangent of an angle. You can’t do this complicated calculation by using the mathematical
operators alone.
Examples of Formulas That Use Functions
A worksheet function can simplify a formula significantly.
Here’s an example. To calculate the average of the values in 10 cells (A1:A10) without using a
function, you’d have to construct a formula like this:
=(A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6+A7+A8+A9+A10)/10
Not very pretty, is it? Even worse, you would need to edit this formula manually if you added
another cell to the range. Fortunately, you can replace this formula with a much simpler one that
uses one of Excel’s built-in worksheet functions, AVERAGE:
=AVERAGE(A1:A10)
The following formula demonstrates how using a function can enable you to perform calculations
that are not otherwise possible. Say you need to determine the largest value in a range. A formula
can’t tell you the answer without using a function. Here’s a formula that uses the MAX function to
return the largest value in the range A1:D100:
=MAX(A1:D100)
Functions also can sometimes eliminate manual editing. Assume that you have a worksheet
that contains 1,000 names in cells A1:A1000, and the names appear in all-capital letters. Your
boss sees the listing and informs you that the names will be mail-merged with a form letter. Alluppercase letters is not acceptable; for example, JOHN F. SMITH must now appear as John F.
Smith. You could spend the next several hours re-entering the list — ugh — or you could use a
formula, such as the following, which uses the PROPER function to convert the capitalized text in
cell A1 to the “proper case,” upper and lowercase:
=PROPER(A1)
Enter this formula once in cell B1, and then copy it down to the next 999 rows. Then select
B1:B1000 and choose Home Í Clipboard Í Copy to copy the range. Next, with B1:B1000 still
selected, choose Home È Clipboard È Paste Values (V) to convert the formulas to values. Delete
the original column, and you’ve just accomplished several hours of work in less than a minute.
One last example should convince you of the power of functions. Suppose you have a worksheet
that calculates sales commissions. If the salesperson sold more than $100,000 of product, the
commission rate is 7.5 percent; otherwise, the commission rate is 5.0 percent. Without using a
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function, you would have to create two different formulas and make sure that you use the correct
formula for each sales amount. A better solution is to write a formula that uses the IF function to
ensure that you calculate the correct commission, regardless of sales amount:
=IF(A1<100000,A1*5%,A1*7.5%)
This formula performs some simple decision-making. The formula checks the value of cell A1. If
this value is less than 100,000, the formula returns cell A1 multiplied by 5 percent. Otherwise, it
returns what’s in cell A1 multiplied by 7.5 percent. This example uses three arguments, separated
by commas. This is discussed further in the upcoming section, “Function Arguments.”
New Functions in Excel 2010
Excel 2010 contains more than 50 new worksheet functions.
Before you get too excited, understand that nearly all of the new functions are simply improved versions
of existing statistical functions. For example, you’ll find five new functions that deal with the Chi Square
distribution: CHISQ.DIST, CHISQ.DIST.RT, CHISQ.INV, CHISQ.INV.RT, and CHISQ.TEST. These are
very specialized functions, and the average Excel user will have no need for them.
Excel 2010 offers only three new functions that might appeal to a more general audience:
l AGGREGATE. A function that calculates sums, averages, and so on, with the ability to ignore errors
and/or hidden rows
l NETWORKDAYS.INTL.
An international version of the NETWORKDAYS function, which returns the
number of workdays between two dates
l WORKDAY.INTL.
An international version of the WORKDAY function, which returns a date before
or after a specified number of workdays
Keep in mind that if you use any of these new functions, you can’t share your workbook with someone
who uses an earlier version of Excel.
Function Arguments
In the preceding examples, you may have noticed that all the functions used parentheses. The
information inside the parentheses is the list of arguments.
Functions vary in how they use arguments. Depending on the function, it may use
l
No arguments
l
One argument
l
A fi xed number of arguments
l
An indeterminate number of arguments
l
Optional arguments
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An example of a function that doesn’t use an argument is the NOW function, which returns the
current date and time. Even if a function doesn’t use an argument, you must still provide a set of
empty parentheses, like this:
=NOW()
If a function uses more than one argument, you must separate each argument with a comma.
The examples at the beginning of the chapter used cell references for arguments. Excel is quite
flexible when it comes to function arguments. An argument can consist of a cell reference, literal
values, literal text strings, expressions, and even other functions. Here are some examples of
functions that use various types of arguments:
l
Cell Reference. =SUM(A1:A24)
l
Literal Value. =SQRT(121)
l
Literal Text String. =PROPER(“john smith”)
l
Expression. =SQRT(183+12)
l
Other Functions. =SQRT(SUM(A1:A24))
Note
A comma is the list-separator character for the U.S. version of Excel. Some other versions may use a semicolon. The list separator is a Windows setting, which can be adjusted in the Windows Control Panel (the Region
and Language Options dialog box, Additional Settings button in Windows 7). n
More about Functions
All told, Excel includes more than 400 functions. And if that’s not enough, you can purchase
additional specialized functions from third-party suppliers — and even create your own custom
functions (by using VBA) if you’re so inclined.
Some users feel a bit overwhelmed by the sheer number of functions, but you’ll probably find that
you use only a dozen or so on a regular basis. And as you’ll see, the Excel Insert Function dialog
box (described later in this chapter) makes it easy to locate and insert a function, even if it’s not
one that you use frequently.
Cross-Reference
You’ll find many examples of Excel’s built-in functions in Chapters 16 and 17. n
Entering Formulas into Your Worksheets
As mentioned earlier, a formula must begin with an equal sign to inform Excel that the cell contains a formula rather than text. Excel provides two ways to enter a formula into a cell: manually
or by pointing to cell references. The following sections discuss each way in detail.
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Excel provides additional assistance when you create formulas by displaying a drop-down list
that contains function names and range names. The items displayed in the list are determined
by what you’ve already typed. For example, if you’re entering a formula and then type the letter
L, you’ll see the drop-down list shown in Figure 15-2. If you type an additional letter, the list
is shortened to show only the matching functions. To have Excel autocomplete an entry in that
list, use the navigation keys to highlight the entry, and then press Tab. Notice that highlighting a function in the list also displays a brief description of the function. See the sidebar “Using
Formula AutoComplete” for an example of how this feature works.
FIGURE 15-2
Excel displays a drop-down list when you enter a formula.
Using Formula AutoComplete
The Formula AutoComplete feature (introduced in Excel 2007) makes entering formulas easier than ever.
Here’s a quick walk-through that demonstrates how it works. The goal is to create a formula that uses
the AGGREGATE function to calculate the average value in a range that I named TestScores. The AVERAGE
function will not work in this situation because the range contains an error value.
1. Select the cell that will hold the formula, and type an equal sign (=) to signal the start of a formula.
2. Type the letter A. You get a list of functions and names that begin with A. This feature is not casesensitive, so you can use either uppercase or lowercase characters.
3. Scroll through the list, or type another letter to narrow down the choices.
4. When AGGREGATE is highlighted, press Tab to select it. Excel adds the opening parenthesis and
displays another list that contains options for the first argument for AGGREGATE.
5. Select 1 - AVERAGE and then press Tab. Excel inserts 1, which is the code for calculating the
average.
6. Type a comma to separate the next argument.
continued
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continued
7. When Excel displays a list of items for the AGGREGATE function’s second argument, select 2 - Ignore
Error Values, and then press Tab.
8. Type a comma to separate the third argument (the range of test scores).
9. Type a T to get a list of functions and names that begin with T. You’re looking for TestScores, so narrow it down a bit by typing the second character (e).
10. Highlight TestScores and then press Tab.
11. Type a closing parenthesis and then press Enter.
The completed formula is
=AGGREGATE(1,2,TestScores)
Formula AutoComplete includes the following items (and each type is identified by a separate icon):
l
Excel built-in functions
l
User-defined functions (functions defined by the user through VBA or other methods)
l
Defined names (named using the Formulas È Defined Names È Define Name command)
l
Enumerated arguments that use a value to represent an option (only a few functions use such
arguments, and AGGREGATE is one of them)
l
Table structure references (used to identify portions of a table)
Entering Formulas Manually
Entering a formula manually involves, well, entering a formula manually. In a selected cell, you simply type an equal sign (=) followed by the formula. As you type, the characters appear in the cell and
in the Formula bar. You can, of course, use all the normal editing keys when entering a formula.
Entering Formulas by Pointing
Even though you can enter formulas by typing in the entire formula, Excel provides another
method of entering formulas that is generally easier, faster, and less error-prone. This method still
involves some manual typing, but you can simply point to the cell references instead of typing
their values manually. For example, to enter the formula =A1+A2 into cell A3, follow these steps:
1. Move the cell pointer to cell A3.
2. Type an equal sign (=) to begin the formula. Notice that Excel displays Enter in the
status bar (bottom left of your screen).
3. Press the up arrow twice. As you press this key, Excel displays a faint moving border
around cell A1, and the cell reference appears in cell A3 and in the Formula bar. In
addition, Excel displays Point in the status bar.
4. Type a plus sign (+). A solid-color border replaces the faint border, and Enter reappears
in the status bar.
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5. Press the up arrow again. The moving border encompasses cell A2, and adds that cell
address to the formula.
6. Press Enter to end the formula.
Tip
You can also point to the data cells (select them) by using your mouse. n
Pasting Range Names into Formulas
If your formula uses named cells or ranges, you can either type the name in place of the address
or choose the name from a list and have Excel insert the name for you automatically. Two ways to
insert a name into a formula are available:
l
Select the name from the drop-down list. To use this method, you must know at least
the first character of the name. When you’re entering the formula, type the fi rst character and then select the name from the drop-down list.
l
Press F3. This action displays the Paste Name dialog box. Select the name from the list,
and then click OK (or just double-click on the name). Excel will enter the name into
your formula. If no names are defined, pressing F3 has no effect.
Figure 15-3 shows an example. The worksheet contains two defined names: Expenses and Sales.
The Paste Name dialog box is being used to insert a name (Sales) into the formula being entered
in cell B10.
FIGURE 15-3
Use the Paste Name dialog box to quickly enter a defined name into a formula.
Cross-Reference
See Chapter 14 for information about defining names. n
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Inserting Functions into Formulas
The easiest way to enter a function into a formula is to use Formula AutoComplete (the dropdown list that Excel displays while you type a formula). To use this method, however, you must
know at least the first character of the function’s name.
Another way to insert a function is to use the Function Library group on the Formulas tab
(see Figure 15-4). This method is especially useful if you can’t remember which function you
need. When entering a formula, click the function category (Financial, Logical, Text, etc.) to get
a list of the functions in that category. Click on the function that you want, and Excel displays its
Function Arguments dialog box. This is where you can enter the function’s arguments. In addition, you can click the Help on This Function link to learn more about the selected function.
FIGURE 15-4
You can insert a function by selecting it from one of the function categories.
Yet another way to insert a function into a formula is to use the Insert Function dialog box (see
Figure 15-5). You can access this dialog box in several ways, listed on the next page.
FIGURE 15-5
The Insert Function dialog box
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l
Choose Formulas È Function Library È Insert Function.
l
Use the Insert Function command, which appears at the bottom of each drop-down list
in the Formulas È Function Library group.
l
Click the Insert Function icon, which is directly to the left of the Formula bar. This
button displays fx.
l
Press Shift+F3.
The Insert Function dialog box shows a drop-down list of function categories. Select a category,
and the functions in that category are displayed in the list box. To access a function that you
recently used, select Most Recently Used from the drop-down list.
If you’re not sure which function you need, you can search for the appropriate function by using
the Search for a Function field at the top of the dialog box.
1. Enter your search terms and click Go. You get a list of relevant functions. When
you select a function from the Select a Function list, Excel displays the function (and
its argument names) in the dialog box along with a brief description of what the
function does.
2. When you locate the function you want to use, highlight it and click OK. Excel then
displays its Function Arguments dialog box, as shown in Figure 15-6.
3. Specify the arguments for the function. The Function Arguments dialog box will vary,
depending on the function you’re inserting, and it will show one textbox for each of the
function’s arguments. To use a cell or range reference as an argument, you can enter
the address manually or click inside the argument box and then select (i.e., point to) the
cell or range in the sheet.
4. After you specify all the function arguments, click OK.
FIGURE 15-6
The Function Arguments dialog box
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Tip
Yet another way to insert a function while you’re entering a formula is to use the Function List to the left of
the Formula bar. When you’re entering or editing a formula, the space typically occupied by the Name box
displays a list of the functions you’ve used most recently. After you select a function from this list, Excel
displays the Function Arguments dialog box. n
Function Entry Tips
Here are some additional tips to keep in mind when you use the Insert Function dialog box to
enter functions:
l
You can use the Insert Function dialog box to insert a function into an existing formula.
Just edit the formula and move the insertion point to the location at which you want to
insert the function. Then open the Insert Function dialog box (using any of the methods
described earlier) and select the function.
l
You can also use the Function Arguments dialog box to modify the arguments for a
function in an existing formula. Click the function in the Formula bar, and then click
the Insert Function button (the fx button, to the left of the Formula bar).
l
If you change your mind about entering a function, click the Cancel button.
l
How many boxes you see in the Function Arguments dialog box depends on the number of arguments used in the function you selected. If a function uses no arguments, you
won’t see any boxes. If the function uses a variable number of arguments (such as the
AVERAGE function), Excel adds a new box every time you enter an optional argument.
l
As you provide arguments in the Function Arguments dialog box, the value of each
argument is displayed to the right of each box.
l
A few functions, such as INDEX, have more than one form. If you choose such a function, Excel displays another dialog box that lets you choose which form you want to use.
l
As you become familiar with the functions, you can bypass the Insert Function dialog
box and type the function name directly. Excel prompts you with argument names as
you enter the function.
Editing Formulas
After you enter a formula, you can (of course) edit that formula. You may need to edit a formula
if you make some changes to your worksheet and then have to adjust the formula to accommodate the changes. Or the formula may return an error value, in which case you have to edit the
formula to correct the error.
The following are some of the ways to get into Edit mode:
l
Double-click on the cell, which enables you to edit the cell contents directly in the cell.
l
Press F2, which enables you to edit the cell contents directly in the cell.
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l
Select the cell that you want to edit, and then click in the Formula bar. This enables you
to edit the cell contents in the Formula bar.
l
If the cell contains a formula that returns an error, Excel will display a small triangle
in the upper-left corner of the cell. Activate the cell, and you’ll see an Error Checking
button. Click the button, and you can choose one of the options for correcting the error.
(The options will vary according to the type of error in the cell.)
Tip
You can control whether Excel displays these formula-error-checking indicators in the Formulas section of the
Excel Options dialog box. To display this dialog box, choose File È Options, and then click Formulas. If you
remove the check mark from Enable Background Error Checking, Excel no longer displays the indicators. n
While you’re editing a formula, you can select multiple characters either by dragging the mouse
pointer over them or by pressing Shift while you use the navigation keys.
Tip
If you have a formula that you can’t seem to edit correctly, you can convert the formula to text and tackle it
again later. To convert a formula to text, just remove the initial equal sign (=). When you’re ready to try again,
type the initial equal sign to convert the cell contents back to a formula. n
Using Cell References in Formulas
Most formulas you create include references to cells or ranges. These references enable your formulas to work dynamically with the data contained in those cells or ranges. For example, if your
formula refers to cell A1 and you change the value contained in A1, the formula result changes
to reflect the new value. If you didn’t use references in your formulas, you would need to edit the
formulas themselves in order to change the values used in the formulas.
Using Relative, Absolute, and Mixed References
When you use a cell (or range) reference in a formula, you can use three types of references:
l
Relative. The row and column references can change when you copy the formula to
another cell because the references are actually offsets from the current row and column. By default, Excel creates relative cell references in formulas.
l
Absolute. The row and column references do not change when you copy the formula
because the reference is to an actual cell address. An absolute reference uses two dollar
signs in its address: one for the column letter and one for the row number (e.g., $A$5).
l
Mixed. Either the row or column reference is relative, and the other is absolute. Only
one of the address parts is absolute (e.g., $A4 or A$4).
The type of cell reference is important only if you plan to copy the formula to other cells (cuttingand-pasting has a differing effect, as described further on in this section). The following examples
illustrate this point.
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Figure 15-7 shows a simple worksheet. The formula in cell D2, which multiplies the quantity by
the price, is
=B2*C2
FIGURE 15-7
Copying a formula that contains relative references
This formula uses relative cell references. Therefore, when the formula is copied to the cells below
it, the references adjust in a relative manner. For example, the formula in cell D3 is
=B3*C3
But what if the cell references in D2 contained absolute references, like this?
=$B$2*$C$2
In this case, copying the formula to the cells below would produce incorrect results. The formula
in cell D3 would be exactly the same as the formula in cell D2.
Now I’ll extend the example to calculate sales tax based on a sales tax rate stored in cell B7 (see
Figure 15-8). In this situation, the formula in cell E2 is
=(B2*C2)*$B$7
FIGURE 15-8
Formula references to the sales tax cell should be absolute.
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The quantity is multiplied by the price, and the result is multiplied by the sales tax rate stored in
cell B7. Notice that the reference to B7 is an absolute reference. When the formula in E2 is copied
to the cells below it, cell E3 will contain this formula:
=(B3*C3)*$B$7
Here, the references to cells B2 and C2 were adjusted, but the reference to cell B7 was not —
which is exactly what I want because the cell that contains the sales tax never changes.
Figure 15-9 demonstrates the use of mixed references. The formulas in the C3:F7 range calculate
the area for various lengths and widths. The formula in cell C3 is
=$B3*C$2
FIGURE 15-9
Using mixed cell references
Notice that both cell references are mixed. The reference to cell B3 uses an absolute reference
for the column ($B), and the reference to cell C2 uses an absolute reference for the row ($2). As
a result, this formula can be copied down and across, and the calculations will be correct. For
example, the formula in cell F7 is
=$B7*F$2
If C3 used either absolute or relative references, copying the formula would produce incorrect
results.
Note
When you cut and paste a formula (move it to another location), the cell references in the formula aren’t
adjusted. Again, this is usually what you want to happen. When you move a formula, you generally want it to
continue to refer to the original cells. n
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Changing the Types of Your References
You can enter non-relative references (i.e., absolute or mixed) manually by inserting dollar signs
in the appropriate positions of the cell address. Or you can use a handy shortcut: the F4 key.
When you’ve entered a cell reference (by typing it or by pointing), you can press F4 repeatedly to
have Excel cycle through all four reference types.
For example, if you enter =A1 to start a formula, pressing F4 converts the cell reference to =$A$1.
Pressing F4 again converts it to =A$1. Pressing it again displays =$A1. Pressing it one more time
returns to the original =A1. Keep pressing F4 until Excel displays the type of reference that you want.
Note
When you name a cell or range, Excel (by default) uses an absolute reference for the name. For example, if
you give the name SalesForecast to B1:B12, the Refers To box in the New Name dialog box lists the reference
as $B$1:$B$12. This is almost always what you want. If you copy a cell that has a named reference in its formula, the copied formula contains a reference to the original name. n
Referencing Cells Outside the Worksheet
Formulas can also refer to cells in other worksheets — and the worksheets don’t even have to be
in the same workbook. Excel uses a special type of notation to handle these types of references.
Referencing Cells in Other Worksheets
To use a reference to a cell in another worksheet in the same workbook, use this format:
SheetName!CellAddress
In other words, precede the cell address with the worksheet name, followed by an exclamation
point. Here’s an example of a formula that uses a cell on the Sheet2 worksheet:
=A1*Sheet2!A1
This formula multiplies the value in cell A1 on the current worksheet by the value in cell A1
on Sheet2.
Tip
If the worksheet name in the reference includes one or more spaces, you must enclose it in single quotation
marks. (Excel does that automatically if you use the point-and-click method.) For example, here’s a formula
that refers to a cell on a sheet named All Depts:
=A1*’All Depts’!A1 n
Referencing Cells in Other Workbooks
To refer to a cell in a different workbook, use this format:
=[WorkbookName]SheetName!CellAddress
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In this case, the workbook name (in square brackets), the worksheet name, and an exclamation
point precede the cell address. The following is an example of a formula that uses a cell reference
in the Sheet1 worksheet in a workbook named Budget:
=[Budget.xlsx]Sheet1!A1
If the workbook name in the reference includes one or more spaces, you must enclose it (and
the sheet name) in single quotation marks. For example, here’s a formula that refers to a cell on
Sheet1 in a workbook named Budget For 2011:
=A1*’[Budget For 2011.xlsx]Sheet1’!A1
When a formula refers to cells in a different workbook, the other workbook doesn’t have to be
open. If the other workbook is open, you can simply enter the file name. If the workbook is
closed, however, you must add the complete path to the reference so that Excel can fi nd it. Here’s
an example:
=A1*’C:\My Documents\[Budget For 2011.xlsx]Sheet1’!A1
A linked file can also reside on another system that’s accessible on your corporate network. The following formula refers to a cell in a workbook in the files directory of a computer named DataServer:
=’\\DataServer\files\[budget.xlsx]Sheet1’!$D$7
Tip
To create formulas that refer to cells not in the current worksheet, point to the cells rather than entering their
references manually. Excel takes care of the details regarding the workbook and worksheet references.
The workbook you’re referencing in your formula must be open if you’re going to use the pointing method. n
Note
If you point to a different worksheet or workbook when creating a formula, you’ll notice that Excel always
inserts absolute cell references. Therefore, if you plan to copy the formula to other cells, make sure that you
change the cell references to relative before you copy. n
Using Formulas in Tables
A table is a specially designated range of cells, set up with column headers. In this section, you’ll
learn how to work with formulas inside tables.
Summarizing Data in a Table
Figure 15-10 shows a simple table with three columns. To create a table, enter the data including
a header row with the column names. Click within the table range, and then convert the range
to a table by choosing Insert Í Tables Í Table. Note that the table is named Table1 by default
(provided it is the first table you create in the workbook).
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FIGURE 15-10
A simple table with three columns of information
If you’d like to calculate the total projected and total actual sales, you don’t even need to write a
formula. Simply click a button to add a row of summary formulas to the table:
1. Activate any cell in the table.
2. Place a check mark next to Table Tools È Design È Table Style Options È
Total Row.
3. Activate a cell in the Total Row and use the drop-down list to select the type of
summary formula to use (see Figure 15-11). For example, to calculate the sum
of the Actual column, select SUM from the drop-down list in cell D15. Excel creates
this formula:
=SUBTOTAL(109,[Actual])
For the SUBTOTAL function, 109 is an enumerated argument that represents SUM. The second
argument for the SUBTOTAL function is the column name, in square brackets. Using the column
name within brackets creates “structured” references within a table. (This is discussed further in
the upcoming section, “Referencing Data in a Table.”)
Note
You can toggle the Total Row display via Table Tools È Design È Table Style Options È Total Row. If you turn
it off, the summary options you selected will be displayed again when you turn it back on. n
Using Formulas within a Table
In many cases, you’ll want to use formulas within a table to perform calculations that use other
columns. For example, in the table shown in Figure 15-11, you may want a column that shows
the difference between the Actual and Projected amounts. To add this formula:
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1. Activate cell E2 and type Difference for the column header. Excel automatically
expands the table for you to include the new column.
2. Move to cell E3 and type an equal sign to signify the beginning of a formula.
3. Press the left arrow key. Excel displays [@Actual], which is the column heading, in
the Formula bar.
4. Type a minus sign (hyphen) and then press the left arrow key twice. Excel displays
[@Projected] in your formula.
5. Press Enter to end the formula. Excel copies the formula to all rows in the table.
FIGURE 15-11
A drop-down list enables you to select a summary formula for a table column.
Figure 15-12 shows the table with the new column.
Examine the table, and you find this formula for all cells in the Difference column:
=[@Actual]-[@Projected]
Although the formula was entered into the first row of the table, it’s not necessary to enter it in
that row. Any time a formula is entered into an empty table column, it will automatically fill all
the cells in that column. And if you need to edit the formula, Excel will automatically copy the
edited formula to the other cells in the column.
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Note
The “at” (@) symbol that precedes the column header represents “this row.” n
FIGURE 15-12
The Difference column contains a formula.
These steps use the pointing technique to create the formula. Alternatively, you could have
entered the formula manually using standard cell references rather than column headers. For
example, you could have entered the following formula in cell E3:
=D3-C3
If you type the cell references, Excel will still copy the formula to the other cells automatically.
One thing should be clear, however, about formulas that use the column headers instead of cell
references: they are much easier to understand.
Referencing Data in a Table
Excel offers some other ways to refer to data that’s contained in a table, by using the table name
and column headers.
Note
Remember that you don’t need to create names for tables and columns. The table itself has a range name,
which is provided when you create the table (e.g., Table1), and you can refer to data within the table by using
the column headers — which are not range names. n
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You can, of course, use standard cell references to refer to data in a table, but using the table
name and column headers has a distinct advantage: The names adjust automatically if the
table size changes by adding or deleting rows. In addition, formulas that use table names and
column headers will adjust automatically if you change the name of the table or give a new name
to a column.
Refer to the table (Table1) shown in Figure 15-11. To calculate the sum of all the data in the table,
use this formula:
=SUM(Table1)
This formula will always return the sum of all the data (excluding calculated Total Row values, if
any), even if rows or columns are added or deleted. And if you change the name of Table1, Excel
will adjust formulas that refer to that table automatically. For example, if you renamed Table1
to AnnualData (by using the Name Manager or by using Table Tools Í Design Í Properties Í
Table Name), the preceding formula would change to:
=SUM(AnnualData)
Most of the time, you want to refer to a specific column in the table. The following formula
returns the sum of the data in the Actual column:
=SUM(Table1[Actual])
Notice that the column name is enclosed in square brackets. Again, the formula adjusts automatically if you change the text in the column heading.
Even better, Excel provides some helpful assistance when you create a formula that refers to data
within a table. Figure 15-13 shows the Formula AutoComplete feature helping to create a formula
by showing a list of the elements in the table. Notice that, in addition to the column headers in
the table, Excel lists other table elements that you can reference: #All, #Data, #Headers, #Totals,
and @ - This Row.
FIGURE 15-13
The Formula AutoComplete feature is useful when creating a formula that refers to data in a table.
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Correcting Common Formula Errors
Sometimes, when you enter a formula, Excel displays a value that begins with a hash mark (#).
This is a signal that the formula is returning an error value. You must correct the formula (or
correct a cell that the formula references) to get rid of the error display.
Tip
If the entire cell is filled with hash-mark characters, the column isn’t wide enough to display the value. You
can either widen the column or change the number format of the cell. n
In some cases, Excel won’t even let you enter an erroneous formula. For example, the following
formula is missing the closing parenthesis:
=A1*(B1+C2
If you attempt to enter this formula, Excel informs you that you have unmatched parentheses,
and it proposes a correction. Often, the proposed correction is accurate, but check it carefully
just in case it’s not quite right.
Table 15-5 lists the types of error values that may appear in a cell that has a formula. Formulas
may return an error value if a cell to which they refer has an error value. This is known as the
ripple effect — a single error value can make its way into lots of other cells that contain formulas
that depend on that one cell.
TABLE 15-5
Excel Error Values
Error Value
Explanation
#DIV/0!
The formula is trying to divide by zero. This also occurs when the formula attempts to
divide by what’s in a cell that is empty (i.e., by nothing).
#NAME?
The formula uses a name that Excel doesn’t recognize. This can happen if you delete a
name that’s used in the formula or if you have unmatched quotes when using text.
#N/A
The formula is referring (directly or indirectly) to a cell that uses the NA function to
signal that data is not available. Some functions (e.g., VLOOKUP) can also return #N/A.
#NULL!
The formula uses an intersection of two ranges that don’t intersect. (This concept is
described later in the chapter.)
#NUM!
A problem with a value exists; for example, you specified a negative number where a
positive number is expected.
#REF!
The formula refers to a cell that isn’t valid. This can happen if the cell has been deleted
from the worksheet.
#VALUE!
The formula includes an argument or operand of the wrong type. An operand is a value
or cell reference that a formula uses to calculate a result.
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Handling Circular References
When you’re entering formulas, you may occasionally see a Circular Reference Warning message, as shown in Figure 15-14, indicating that the formula you just entered will result in a
circular reference. A circular reference occurs when a formula refers to its own value — either
directly or indirectly. For example, you create a circular reference if you enter =A1+A2+A3
into cell A3 because the formula in cell A3 refers to cell A3. Every time the formula in A3 is
calculated, it must be calculated again because A3 has changed. The calculation could go
on forever.
FIGURE 15-14
If you see this warning, you know that the formula you entered will result in a circular reference.
When you get the circular reference message after entering a formula, Excel gives you two
options:
l
Click OK, and Excel displays a Help screen that tells you more about circular references.
l
Click Cancel to enter the formula as is.
Regardless of which option you choose, Excel displays a message in the left side of the status bar
to remind you that a circular reference exists.
Caution
Excel won’t tell you about a circular reference if the Enable Iterative Calculation setting is in effect.
You can check this setting in the Formulas section of the Excel Options dialog box. If Enable Iterative
Calculation is turned on, Excel performs the circular calculation exactly the number of times specified
in the Maximum Iterations field (or until the value changes by less than 0.001 or whatever value is in
the Maximum Change field). In a few situations, you may use a circular reference intentionally. In these
cases, the Enable Iterative Calculation setting must be on. However, it’s best to keep this setting turned
off so that you’re warned of circular references. Usually a circular reference indicates an error that you
must correct. n
Usually, a circular reference is quite obvious and easy to identify and correct. But when a circular
reference is indirect (as when a formula refers to another formula that refers to yet another formula that refers back to the original formula), it may require a bit of detective work to get to the
root of the problem.
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Intentional Circular References
You can sometimes use a circular reference to your advantage. For example, suppose your company has a
policy of contributing 5 percent of its net profit to charity. The contribution itself, however, is considered
an expense — and is therefore subtracted from the net profit figure. This produces a circular reference.
The Contributions cell contains the following formula:
=5%*Net_Profit
The Net Profit cell contains the following formula:
=Gross_Income-Expenses-Contributions
These formulas produce a resolvable circular reference. If the Enable Iterative Calculation setting is on,
Excel keeps calculating until the Contributions value is, indeed, 5 percent of Net Profit. In other words,
the result becomes increasingly accurate until it converges on the final solution.
Specifying When Formulas Are Calculated
You’ve probably noticed that Excel calculates the formulas in your worksheet immediately. If you
change any cells that the formula uses, Excel displays the formula’s new result with no effort on your
part. All this happens when Excel’s Calculation mode is set to Automatic. In Automatic Calculation
mode (which is the default mode), Excel follows these rules when it calculates your worksheet:
l
When you make a change — enter or edit data or formulas, for example — Excel immediately calculates those formulas that depend on new or edited data.
l
If Excel is in the middle of a lengthy calculation, it temporarily suspends the calculation
when you need to perform other worksheet tasks; it resumes calculating when you’re
finished with your other worksheet tasks.
l
Formulas are evaluated in a natural sequence. In other words, if a formula in cell
D12 depends on the result of a formula in cell D11, Excel calculates cell D11 before
calculating D12.
Sometimes, however, you may want to control when Excel calculates formulas. For example,
if you create a worksheet with thousands of complex formulas, you’ll fi nd that processing can
slow to a snail’s pace while Excel does its thing. In such a case, set Excel’s calculation mode to
Manual — which you can do by choosing Formulas Í Calculation Í Calculation Options Í
Manual (see Figure 15-15).
Tip
If your worksheet uses any tables with extensive amounts of data, you may want to select the Automatic
Except for Data Tables option. Large data tables calculate notoriously slowly. n
Note
A data table is not the same as a table created by choosing Insert Í Tables Í Table. n
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FIGURE 15-15
You can control when Excel calculates formulas.
When you’re working in Manual Calculation mode, Excel displays Calculate in the status bar
when you have any uncalculated formulas. You can use the following shortcut keys to recalculate
the formulas:
l
F9. Calculates the formulas in all open workbooks.
l
Shift+F9. Calculates only the formulas in the active worksheet. Other worksheets in the
same workbook aren’t calculated.
l
Ctrl+Alt+F9. Forces a complete recalculation of all formulas.
Note
Excel’s Calculation mode isn’t specific to a particular worksheet. When you change the Calculation mode, it
affects all open workbooks, not just the active workbook. n
Tips for Working with Formulas
In this section, you’ll find a few additional tips and pointers relevant to formulas.
Don’t Hard-Code Values
When you create a formula, think twice before you use any specific value in the formula. For
example, if your formula calculates sales tax (which is 6.5%), you may be tempted to enter a
formula, such as the following:
=A1*.065
A better approach is to insert the sales tax rate in a cell — and use the cell reference. Or you can
define the tax rate as a named constant, using the technique presented earlier in this chapter.
Doing so makes modifying and maintaining your worksheet easier. For example, if the sales tax
rate changed to 6.75 percent, you would have to modify every formula that used the old value. If
you store the tax rate in a cell, however, you simply change that one cell — and Excel updates all
the formulas.
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Using the Formula Bar as a Calculator
If you need to perform a quick calculation, you can use the Formula bar as a calculator. For
example, enter the following formula — but don’t press Enter:
=(145*1.05)/12
If you press Enter, Excel enters the formula into the cell. But because this formula always returns
the same result, you may prefer to store the formula’s result rather than the formula itself. To do
so, press F9 and watch the result appear in the Formula bar. Press Enter to store the result in the
active cell. (This technique also works if the formula uses cell references or worksheet functions.)
Making an Exact Copy of a Formula
When you copy a formula, Excel adjusts its cell references when you paste the formula to a different location. Sometimes, you may want to make an exact copy of the formula. One way to do this
is to convert the cell references to absolute values, but this isn’t always desirable. A better approach
is to select the formula in Edit mode and then copy it to the Clipboard as text. You can do this in
several ways. Here’s a step-by-step example of how to make an exact copy of the formula in A1 and
copy it to A2:
1. Double-click A1 (or press F2) to get into Edit mode.
2. Drag the mouse to select the entire formula. You can drag from left to right or from
right to left. To select the entire formula with the keyboard, press Shift+Home.
3. Choose Home È Clipboard È Copy (or press Ctrl+C). This copies the selected text
(which will become the copied formula) to the Clipboard.
4. Press Esc to leave Edit mode.
5. Select cell A2.
6. Home È Clipboard È Paste (or press Ctrl+V) to paste the text into cell A2.
You also can use this technique to copy just part of a formula, if you want to use that part in
another formula. Just select the part of the formula that you want to copy by dragging the mouse,
and then use any of the available techniques to copy the selection to the Clipboard. You can then
paste the text to another cell.
Formulas (or parts of formulas) copied in this manner won’t have their cell references adjusted
when they are pasted to a new cell. That’s because the formulas are being copied as text, not as
actual formulas.
Tip
You can also convert a formula to text by adding an apostrophe (’) in front of the equal sign. Then, copy the
formula as usual and paste it to its new location. Remove the apostrophe from the pasted formula, and it
will be identical to the original formula. And don’t forget to remove the apostrophe from the original formula
as well. n
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Converting Formulas to Values
If you have a range of formulas that will always produce the same result (so-called dead formulas),
you may want to convert them to values. For example, if you use the RANDBETWEEN function to
create a set of random numbers (in cells A1:A20) and you don’t want Excel to recalculate those
random numbers each time you press Enter, you can convert the formulas to values. Just follow
these steps:
1. Select A1:A20.
2. Choose Home Í Clipboard Í Copy (or press Ctrl+C).
3. Choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste Values (V).
4. Press Esc to cancel Copy mode.
Summary
This chapter taught you the key details about entering formulas to perform calculations in cells.
You learned about formula operators and the correct precedence in formulas, as well as how
built-in functions help you perform sophisticated calculations. You also saw a host of techniques
and shortcuts that will make your formula building faster and easier than ever.
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CH APTER
Working with Dates
and Times
M
any worksheets contain dates and times in cells. For example,
you might track information by date or create a schedule based
on time. Beginners often find that working with dates and times
in Excel can be frustrating. To work with dates and times, you need a
good understanding of how Excel handles time-based information. This
chapter provides the information you need to create powerful formulas
that manipulate dates and times.
Note
IN THIS CHAPTER
Using dates and times in Excel
Reviewing Excel date-related
functions
Exploring Excel time-related
functions
The dates in this chapter correspond to the U.S. English language date format:
month/day/year. For example, the date 3/1/1952 refers to March 1, 1952, not
January 3, 1952. I realize that this setup may seem illogical, but that’s the way
Americans have been trained. I trust that the non-American readers of this
book can make the adjustment. n
How Excel Handles Dates
and Times
This section presents a quick overview of how Excel deals with dates and
times. It includes coverage of the Excel program’s date and time serial number system, and it offers tips for entering and formatting dates and times.
Understanding Date Serial Numbers
To Excel, a date is simply a number. More precisely, a date is a serial number
that represents the number of days since the fictitious date of January 0,
1900. A serial number of 1 corresponds to January 1, 1900; a serial number
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of 2 corresponds to January 2, 1900, and so on. This system makes it possible to deal with dates
in formulas. For example, you can create a formula to calculate the number of days between two
dates (just subtract one from the other).
Excel support dates from January 1, 1900, through December 31, 9999 (serial number =
2,958,465).
You may wonder about January 0, 1900. This nondate (which corresponds to date serial number 0)
is actually used to represent times that aren’t associated with a particular day. This concept becomes
clear later in this chapter (see “Entering Times”).
To view a date serial number as a date, you must format the cell as a date. Choose Home Í
Number Í Number Format. This drop-down control provides you with two date formats. To
select from additional date formats, see “Formatting Dates and Times,” later in this chapter.
Choose Your Date System: 1900 or 1904
Excel supports two date systems: the 1900 date system and the 1904 date system. Which system you use
in a workbook determines what date serves as the basis for dates. The 1900 date system uses January 1,
1900, as the day assigned to date serial number 1. The 1904 date system uses January 1, 1904, as the base
date. By default, Excel for Windows uses the 1900 date system, and Excel for Macintosh uses the 1904
date system. Excel for Windows supports the 1904 date system for compatibility with Macintosh files.
You can choose the date system for the active workbook in the Advanced section of the Excel Options
dialog box. (It’s in the When Calculating This Workbook subsection.) You can’t change the date system
if you use Excel for Macintosh.
Generally, you should use the default 1900 date system. And you should exercise caution if you use two
different date systems in workbooks that are linked. For example, assume that Book1 uses the 1904 date
system and contains the date 1/15/1999 in cell A1. Assume that Book2 uses the 1900 date system and
contains a link to cell A1 in Book1. Book2 displays the date as 1/14/1995. Both workbooks use the same
date serial number (34713), but they’re interpreted differently.
One advantage to using the 1904 date system is that it enables you to display negative time values. With
the 1900 date system, a calculation that results in a negative time (e.g., 4:00 PM – 5:30 PM) cannot be
displayed. When using the 1904 date system, the negative time displays as –1:30 (i.e., a difference of
1 hour and 30 minutes).
Entering Dates
You can enter a date directly as a serial number (if you know the serial number) and then format
it as a date. More often, you enter a date by using any of several recognized date formats. Excel
automatically converts your entry into the corresponding date serial number (which it uses for
calculations), and it also applies the default date format to the cell so that it displays as an actual
date rather than as a cryptic serial number.
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For example, if you need to enter June 18, 2010, into a cell, you can enter the date by typing June
18, 2010 (or any of several different date formats). Excel interprets your entry and stores the value
40347, the date serial number for that date (provided you’re using the 1900 date system, which I’ll
assume from here on in my descriptions). It also applies the default date format, so the cell contents
may not appear exactly as you typed them.
Note
Depending on your regional settings, entering a date in a format such as June 18, 2010, may be interpreted as
a text string. In such a case, you need to enter the date in a format that corresponds to your regional settings,
such as 18 June 2010. n
When you activate a cell that contains a date, the Formula bar shows the cell contents formatted
by using the default date format — which corresponds to your system’s short date format. The
Formula bar doesn’t display the date’s serial number. If you need to find out the serial number for
a particular date, format the cell with a nondate number format.
Tip
To change the default date format, you need to change a system-wide setting. From the Windows Control
Panel, select Clock, Language, and Region (Windows 7 and Vista) or Regional and Language Options
(Windows XP). The exact procedure varies, depending on the version of Windows you use. Look for the dropdown list that enables you to change the Short Date Format. The setting you choose determines the default
date format that Excel uses to display dates in the Formula bar. n
Table 16-1 shows a sampling of the date formats that Excel recognizes (using the U.S. settings).
Results will vary if you use a different regional setting.
TABLE 16-1
Date Entry Formats Recognized by Excel
Entry
Excel Interpretation (U.S. Settings)
6-18-10
June 18, 2010
6-18-2010
June 18, 2010
6/18/10
June 18, 2010
6/18/2010
June 18, 2010
6-18/10
June 18, 2010
June 18, 2010
June 18, 2010
Jun 18
June 18 of the current year
June 18
June 18 of the current year
continued
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TABLE 16-1
(continued)
Entry
Excel Interpretation (U.S. Settings)
6/18
June 18 of the current year
6-18
June 18 of the current year
18-Jun-2010
June 18, 2010
2010/6/18
June 18, 2010
As you can see in Table 16-1, Excel is rather flexible when it comes to recognizing dates entered
into a cell. It’s not perfect, however. For example, Excel does not recognize any of the following
entries as dates:
l
June 18 2010
l
Jun-18 2010
l
Jun-18/2010
Rather, it interprets these entries as text. If you plan to use dates in formulas, make sure that
Excel can recognize the date you enter as a date; otherwise, the formulas that refer to these dates
will produce incorrect results.
If you attempt to enter a date that lies outside of the supported date range, Excel interprets it as
text. If you attempt to format a serial number that lies outside of the supported range as a date,
the value displays as a series of hash marks (#########).
Searching for Dates
If your worksheet uses many dates, you may need to search for a particular date by using the Find and
Replace dialog box (Home Í Editing Í Find & Select Í Find; or Ctrl+F). Excel is rather picky when it comes
to finding dates. You must enter the date as it appears in the Formula bar. For example, if a cell contains a
date formatted to display as June 19, 2010, the date appears in the Formula bar using your system’s short
date format (e.g., 6/19/2010). Therefore, if you search for the date as it appears in the cell, Excel won’t
find it. But it will find the cell if you search for the date in the format that appears in the Formula bar.
Understanding Time Serial Numbers
When you need to work with time values, you extend the Excel date serial number system to
include decimals. In other words, Excel works with times by using fractional days. For example,
the date serial number for June 1, 2010, is 40330. Noon (halfway through the day) is represented
internally as 40330.5.
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The serial number equivalent of 1 minute is approximately 0.00069444. The formula that follows
calculates this number by multiplying 24 hours by 60 minutes, and dividing the result into 1.
The denominator consists of the number of minutes in a day (1,440).
=1/(24*60)
Similarly, the serial number equivalent of 1 second is approximately 0.00001157, obtained by the
following formula:
1/(24 hours ¥ 60 minutes ¥ 60 seconds)
In this case, the denominator represents the number of seconds in a day (86,400).
=1/(24*60*60)
In Excel, the smallest unit of time is one one-thousandth of a second. The time serial number
shown here represents 23:59:59.999 (one one-thousandth of a second or .001 second before
midnight):
0.99999999
Table 16-2 shows various times of day along with each associated time serial number.
TABLE 16-2
Times of Day and Their Corresponding Serial Numbers
Time of Day
Time Serial Number
12:00:00 AM (midnight)
0.00000000
1:30:00 AM
0.06250000
7:30:00 AM
0.31250000
10:30:00 AM
0.43750000
12:00:00 PM (noon)
0.50000000
1:30:00 PM
0.56250000
4:30:00 PM
0.68750000
6:00:00 PM
0.75000000
9:00:00 PM
0.87500000
10:30:00 PM
0.93750000
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Entering Times
As with entering dates, you normally don’t have to worry about the actual time serial numbers.
Just enter the time into a cell using a recognized format. Table 16-3 shows some examples of time
formats that Excel recognizes.
TABLE 16-3
Time Entry Formats Recognized by Excel
Entry
Excel Interpretation
11:30:00 am
11:30 AM
11:30:00 AM
11:30 AM
11:30 pm
11:30 PM
11:30
11:30 AM
13:30
1:30 PM
Because the preceding samples don’t have a specific day associated with them, Excel (by default)
uses a date serial number of 0, which corresponds to the nonday January 0, 1900. Often, you’ll
want to combine a date and time. Do so by using a recognized date-entry format, followed by
a space, and then a recognized time-entry format. For example, if you enter 6/18/2010 11:30
in a cell, Excel interprets it as 11:30 a.m. on June 18, 2010. Its date/time serial number is
40347.479166667.
When you enter a time that exceeds 24 hours, the associated date for the time increments accordingly. For example, if you enter 25:00:00 into a cell, it’s interpreted as 1:00 a.m. on January 1, 1900.
The day part of the entry increments because the time exceeds 24 hours. Keep in mind that a time
value without a date uses January 0, 1900, as the date.
Similarly, if you enter a date and a time (and the time exceeds 24 hours), the date that you entered
is adjusted. If you enter 9/18/2010 25:00:00, for example, it’s interpreted as 9/19/2010 1:00:00 a.m.
If you enter a time only (without an associated date) into an unformatted cell, the maximum time
that you can enter into a cell is 9999:59:59 (just less than 10,000 hours). Excel adds the appropriate number of days. In this case, 9999:59:59 is interpreted as 3:59:59 p.m. on 02/19/1901. If you
enter a time that exceeds 10,000 hours, the entry is interpreted as a text string rather than a time.
Formatting Dates and Times
You have a great deal of flexibility in formatting cells that contain dates and times. For example,
you can format the cell to display the date part only, the time part only, or both the date and
time parts.
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You format dates and times by selecting the cells and then using the Number tab of the Format
Cells dialog box, as shown in Figure 16-1. To display this dialog box, click the Dialog Box
Launcher icon in the Number group of the Home tab. Or, click Number Format and choose More
Number Formats from the list that appears.
FIGURE 16-1
Use the Number tab in the Format Cells dialog box to change the appearance of dates and times.
The Date category shows built-in date formats, and the Time category shows built-in time formats. Some formats include both date and time displays. Just select the desired format from the
Type list and then click OK.
Tip
When you create a formula that refers to a cell containing a date or a time, Excel sometimes automatically
formats the formula cell as a date or a time. Often, this automation can be helpful; other times, it can be
an annoyance. To return the number formatting to the default General format, choose Home Í Number Í
Number Format and choose General from the drop-down list. Or, press Ctrl+Shift+~. n
If none of the built-in formats meets your needs, you can create a custom number format. Select
the Custom category and then type the custom format codes into the Type box.
Problems with Dates
Excel has some problems when it comes to dates. Many of these problems stem from the fact that
Excel was designed many years ago. Excel designers basically emulated the Lotus 1-2-3 program’s
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limited date and time features, which contain a bug that was duplicated intentionally in Excel.
(You can read why in a bit.) If Excel were being designed from scratch today, I’m sure it would be
much more versatile in dealing with dates. Unfortunately, users are currently stuck with a product
that leaves much to be desired in the area of dates.
Excel’s Leap Year Bug
A leap year, which occurs every four years, contains an additional day (February 29). Specifically,
years that are evenly divisible by 100 are not leap years, unless they are also evenly divisible
by 400. Although the year 1900 was not a leap year, Excel treats it as such. In other words,
when you type 2/29/1900 into a cell, Excel interprets it as a valid date and assigns a serial number of 60.
If you type 2/29/1901, however, Excel correctly interprets it as a mistake and doesn’t convert it to
a date. Rather, it simply makes the cell entry a text string.
How can a product used daily by millions of people contain such an obvious bug? The answer
is historical. The original version of Lotus 1-2-3 contained a bug that caused it to treat 1900 as a
leap year. When Excel was released some time later, the designers knew of this bug and chose to
reproduce it in Excel to maintain compatibility with Lotus worksheet files.
Why does this bug still exist in later versions of Excel? Microsoft asserts that the disadvantages of
correcting this bug outweigh the advantages. If the bug were eliminated, it would mess up millions
of existing workbooks. In addition, correcting this problem would possibly affect compatibility
between Excel and other programs that use dates. As it stands, this bug rarely causes problems
because most users don’t use dates prior to March 1, 1900.
Pre-1900 Dates
The world, of course, didn’t begin on January 1, 1900. People who use Excel to work with
historical information often need to work with dates before January 1, 1900. Unfortunately,
the only way to work with pre-1900 dates is to enter the date into a cell as text. For example,
you can enter July 4, 1776, into a cell, and Excel won’t complain.
Tip
If you plan to sort information by old dates, you should enter your text dates with a four-digit year, followed
by a two-digit month, and then a two-digit day: for example, 1776-07-04. This format will enable accurate
sorting. n
Using dates as text works in some situations, but the main problem is that you can’t perform any
manipulation on a date that’s entered as text. For example, you can’t change its numerical formatting, you can’t determine which day of the week this date occurred on, and you can’t calculate
the date that occurs 7 days later.
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Inconsistent Date Entries
You need to exercise caution when entering dates by using two digits for the year. When you do
so, Excel has some rules that kick in to determine which century to use. And those rules vary,
depending on the version of Excel that you use.
Two-digit years between 00 and 29 are interpreted as twenty-first century dates, and two-digit
years between 30 and 99 are interpreted as twentieth century dates. For example, if you enter
12/15/28, Excel interprets your entry as December 15, 2028. But if you enter 12/15/30, Excel
sees it as December 15, 1930, because Windows uses a default boundary year of 2029. You
can keep the default as is or change it via the Windows Control Panel. From the Region and
Language Options dialog box, click the Additional Settings button to display the Customize
Format dialog box. Select the Date tab and then specify a different year.
Figure 16-2 shows this dialog box in Windows 7. This procedure may vary with different versions
of Windows.
FIGURE 16-2
Use the Windows Control Panel to specify how Excel interprets two-digit years.
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Tip
The best way to avoid any surprises is to simply enter all years using all four digits for the year. n
Date-Related Worksheet Functions
Excel has quite a few functions that work with dates. These functions are accessible by choosing
Formulas Í Function Library Í Date & Time.
Table 16-4 summarizes the date-related functions available in Excel.
TABLE 16-4
Date-Related Functions
Function
Description
DATE
Returns the serial number of a particular date.
DATEVALUE
Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number.
DAY
Converts a serial number to a day of the month.
DAYS360
Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year.
EDATEa
Returns the serial number of the date that represents the indicated number of
months before or after the start date.
EOMONTHa
Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified
number of months.
MONTH
Converts a serial number to a month.
NETWORKDAYSa
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates.
NETWORKDAYS
.INTL b
An international version of the NETWORKDAYS function, which allows non-standard
weekend days.
NOW
Returns the serial number of the current date and time.
TODAY
Returns the serial number of today’s date.
WEEKDAY
Converts a serial number to a day of the week.
WEEKNUMa
Returns the week number in the year.
WORKDAY*
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number
of workdays.
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Function
Description
WORKDAY
.INTL b
An international version of the WORKDAY function, which allows non-standard
weekend days.
YEAR
Converts a serial number to a year.
YEARFRACa
Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date
and end_date.
a
In versions prior to Excel 2007, these functions are available only when the Analysis ToolPak add-in is installed.
Indicates a function new to Excel 2010.
b
Note
Excel 2010 includes two new worksheet functions related to dates: NETWORKDAYS.INTL and WORKDAY.INTL.
These functions include an additional argument in which you can specify non-standard weekend days. If you
consider Saturday and Sunday to be non-working weekend days, the older versions of these functions will work
fine, otherwise, use the new functions to have the option of including weekend days. n
Displaying the Current Date
The following formula uses the TODAY function to display the current date in a cell:
=TODAY()
You can also display the date combined with text. The formula that follows, for example, displays
text, such as Today is Friday, April 9, 2010:
=”Today is “&TEXT(TODAY(),”dddd, mmmm d, yyyy”)
It’s important to understand that the TODAY function is not a date stamp. The function is updated
whenever the worksheet is calculated. For example, if you enter either of the preceding formulas
into a worksheet, the formulas display the current date. And when you open the workbook tomorrow, they will display the current date (not the date when you entered the formula).
Tip
To enter a date stamp into a cell, press Ctrl+; (semicolon). This action enters the date directly into the cell
and does not use a formula. Therefore, the date will not change. n
Displaying Any Date
You can easily enter a date into a cell by simply typing it while using any of the date formats
that Excel recognizes. You can also create a date by using the DATE function, which takes three
arguments: the year, the month, and the day. The following formula, for example, returns a
date comprising the year in cell A1, the month in cell B1, and the day in cell C1:
=DATE(A1,B1,C1)
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Note
The DATE function accepts invalid arguments and adjusts the result accordingly. For example, the following
formula uses 13 as the month argument and returns January 1, 2010. The month argument is automatically
translated as month 1 of the following year.
=DATE(2009,13,1) n
Often, you’ll use the DATE function with other functions as arguments. For example, the formula
that follows uses the YEAR and TODAY functions to return the date for the U.S. Independence Day
(July 4) of the current year:
=DATE(YEAR(TODAY()),7,4)
The DATEVALUE function converts a text string that looks like a date into a date serial number.
The following formula returns 40412, which is the date serial number for August 22, 2010:
=DATEVALUE(“8/22/2010”)
To view the result of this formula as a date, you need to apply a date number format to the cell.
Caution
Be careful when using the DATEVALUE function. A text string that looks like a date in your country may not
look like a date in another country. The preceding example works fine if your system is set for U.S. date formats, but it returns an error for other regional date formats because Excel is looking for the eighth day of the
22nd month! Doing so will return #VALUE! n
Generating a Series of Dates
Often, you want to insert a series of dates into a worksheet. For example, in tracking weekly
sales, you may want to enter a series of dates, each separated by 7 days. These dates will serve to
identify the sales figures.
In some cases you can use the Excel Auto Fill feature to insert a series of dates. Enter the first
date, and drag the cell’s fill handle while holding the right mouse button. Release the mouse button and select an option from the shortcut menu (see Figure 16-3) — Fill Days, Fill Weekdays,
Fill Months, or Fill Years.
For more flexibility, enter the first two dates in the series, and choose Fill Series from the shortcut
menu. For example, to enter a series of dates separated by 7 days, enter the first two dates of the
series, and select both cells. Drag the cell’s fill handle while holding the right mouse button. In
the shortcut menu, choose Fill Series. Excel completes the series by entering additional dates,
separated by seven days.
The advantage of using formulas (instead of Auto Fill) to create a series of dates is that when you
change the first date, the others update automatically. You need to enter the starting date into a
cell and then use formulas (copied down the column) to generate the additional dates.
The following examples assume that you enter the first date of the series into cell A1 and the formula into cell A2. You can then copy this formula down the column as many times as needed.
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FIGURE 16-3
Using Auto Fill to create a series of dates
To generate a series of dates separated by 7 days, use this formula:
=A1+7
To generate a series of dates separated by 1 month, you need to use a more complicated formula
because months don’t all have the same number of days. This formula creates a series of dates,
separated by 1 month:
=DATE(YEAR(A1),MONTH(A1)+1,DAY(A1))
To generate a series of dates separated by 1 year, use this formula:
=DATE(YEAR(A1)+1,MONTH(A1),DAY(A1))
To generate a series of weekdays only (no Saturdays or Sundays), use the formula that follows.
This formula assumes that the date in cell A1 is not a weekend day.
=IF(WEEKDAY(A1)=6,A1+3,A1+1)
Converting a Nondate String to a Date
You may import data that contains dates coded as text strings. For example, the following text
represents August 21, 2010 (a four-digit year followed by a two-digit month, followed by a twodigit day):
20100821
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To convert this string to an actual date, you can use a formula, such as the following. (It assumes
that the coded data is in cell A1.)
=DATE(LEFT(A1,4),MID(A1,5,2),RIGHT(A1,2))
This formula uses text functions (LEFT, MID, and RIGHT) to extract the digits, and then it uses
these extracted digits as arguments for the DATE function.
Calculating the Number of Days Between
Two Dates
A common type of date calculation determines the number of days between two dates. For
example, say you have a fi nancial worksheet that calculates interest earned on a deposit
account. The interest earned depends on the number of days the account is open. If your sheet
contains the open date and the close date for the account, you can calculate the number of days
the account was open.
Because dates are stored as consecutive serial numbers, you can use simple subtraction to calculate
the number of days between two dates. For example, if cells A1 and B1 both contain a date, the
following formula returns the number of days between these dates:
=A1-B1
If cell B1 contains a more recent date than the date in cell A1, the result will be negative.
Note
If this formula does not display the correct value, make sure that cells A1 and B1 both contain actual
dates — not text that looks like a date. n
Sometimes, calculating the difference between two days is more difficult. To demonstrate, consider the common fence-post analogy. If somebody asks you how many units make up a fence,
you can respond with either of two answers: the number of fence posts or the number of gaps
between the fence posts. The number of fence posts is always one more than the number of
gaps between the posts.
To bring this analogy into the realm of dates, suppose that you start a sales promotion on
February 1 and end the promotion on February 9. How many days was the promotion in effect?
Subtracting February 1 from February 9 produces an answer of 8 days. Actually, though, the promotion lasted 9 days. In this case, the correct answer involves counting the fence posts, not the
gaps. The formula to calculate the length of the promotion (assuming that you have appropriately
named cells) appears like this:
=EndDay-StartDay+1
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Calculating the Number of Workdays between
Two Dates
When calculating the difference between two dates, you may want to exclude weekends and
holidays. For example, you may need to know how many business days fall in the month of
November. This calculation should exclude Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. The NETWORKDAYS
function can help out.
Note
In versions prior to Excel 2007, the NETWORKDAYS function was available only when the Analysis ToolPak
add-in was installed. This function is now part of Excel and doesn’t require an add-in. n
The NETWORKDAYS function calculates the difference between two dates, excluding weekend days
(Saturdays and Sundays). As an option, you can specify a range of cells that contain the dates of
holidays, which are also excluded. Excel has no way of determining which days are holidays, so
you must provide this information in a range.
Figure 16-4 shows a worksheet that calculates the workdays between two dates. The range
A2:A11 contains a list of holiday dates. The two formulas in column C calculate the workdays
between the dates in column A and column B. For example, the formula in cell C15 is
=NETWORKDAYS(A15,B15,A2:A11)
FIGURE 16-4
Using the NETWORKDAYS function to calculate the number of working days between two dates
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This formula returns 4, which means that the 7-day period beginning with January 1 contains
four workdays. In other words, the calculation excludes one holiday, one Saturday, and one
Sunday. The formula in cell C16 calculates the total number of workdays in the year.
Note
Excel 2010 includes an updated version of the NETWORKDAYS function, named NETWORKDAYS.INTL. This
new version is useful if you consider weekend days to be days other than Saturday and Sunday. n
Offsetting a Date Using only Workdays
The WORKDAY function is the opposite of the NETWORKDAYS function. For example, if you start a
project on January 4 and the project requires 10 working days to complete, the WORKDAY function
can calculate the date you will fi nish the project.
Note
In versions prior to Excel 2007, the WORKDAY function was available only when the Analysis ToolPak add-in
was installed. The function is now part of Excel and doesn’t require an add-in. n
The following formula uses the WORKDAY function to determine the date that is 10 working days
from January 4, 2010. A working day consists of a weekday (Monday through Friday).
=WORKDAY(“1/4/2010”,10)
The formula returns a date serial number, which must be formatted as a date. The result is
January 18, 2010 (four weekend dates fall between January 4 and January 18).
Caution
The preceding formula may return a different result, depending on your regional date setting. (The hardcoded date may be interpreted as April 1, 2010.) A better formula is
=WORKDAY(DATE(2010,1,4),10) n
The second argument for the WORKDAY function can be negative. And, as with the NETWORKDAYS
function, the WORKDAY function accepts an optional third argument (a reference to a range that
contains a list of holiday dates).
Note
Excel 2010 includes an updated version of the WORKDAY function, named WORKDAY.INTL. This new version is
useful if you consider weekend days to be days other than Saturday and Sunday. n
Calculating the Number of Years between
Two Dates
The following formula calculates the number of years between two dates. This formula assumes
that cells A1 and B1 both contain dates:
=YEAR(A1)-YEAR(B1)
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This formula uses the YEAR function to extract the year from each date and then subtracts one
year from the other. If cell B1 contains a more recent date than the date in cell A1, the result is
negative.
Note that this function doesn’t calculate full years. For example, if cell A1 contains 12/31/2010
and cell B1 contains 01/01/2011, the formula returns a difference of 1 year even though the dates
differ by only 1 day. See the next section for another way to calculate the number of full years.
Calculating a Person’s Age
A person’s age indicates the number of full years that the person has been alive. The formula in
the previous section (for calculating the number of years between two dates) won’t calculate this
value correctly. You can use two other formulas, however, to calculate a person’s age.
The following formula returns the age of the person whose date of birth you enter into cell A1.
This formula uses the YEARFRAC function. (The third argument is for the basis, which basically
means to count in increments of one day.)
=INT(YEARFRAC(TODAY(),A1,1))
Note
In versions prior to Excel 2007, the YEARFRAC function was available only when the Analysis ToolPak add-in
was installed. The function is now part of Excel, and does not require an add-in. n
The following formula uses the DATEDIF function to calculate an age. (See the sidebar, “Where’s
the DATEDIF Function?”)
=DATEDIF(A1,TODAY(),”Y”)
Where’s the DATEDIF Function?
One of Excel’s mysteries is the DATEDIF function. You may notice that this function does not appear in
the drop-down function list for the Date & Time category; nor does it appear in the Insert Function dialog
box. Therefore, when you use this function, you must always enter it manually.
The DATEDIF function has its origins in Lotus 1-2-3, and apparently Excel provides it for compatibility
purposes. For some reason, Microsoft wants to keep this function a secret. The function has been available since Excel 5, but Excel 2000 is the only version that ever documented it in its Help system.
DATEDIF is a handy function that calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates.
The function takes three arguments: start_date, end_date, and a code that represents the time unit
of interest. Here’s an example of a formula that uses the DATEDIF function (it assumes that cells A1 and
A2 contain dates). The formula returns the number of complete years between those two dates.
=DATEDIF(A1,A2,”y”)
continued
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continued
The following table displays valid codes for the third argument. (You must enclose the codes in quotation marks.)
Unit Code
Returns
“y”
The number of complete years in the period
“m”
The number of complete months in the period
“d”
The number of days in the period
“md”
The difference between the days in start_date and end_date. The months and years
of the dates are ignored.
“ym”
The difference between the months in start_date and end_date. The days and years
of the dates are ignored.
“yd”
The difference between the days of start_date and end_date. The years of the dates
are ignored.
The start_date argument must be earlier than the end_date argument or else the function returns
an error.
Determining the Day of the Year
January 1 is the first day of the year, and December 31 is the last day. But what about all of
the days in between? The following formula returns the day of the year for a date stored in
cell A1:
=A1-DATE(YEAR(A1),1,0)
Here’s a similar formula that returns the day of the year for the current date:
=TODAY()-DATE(YEAR(TODAY()),1,0)
The following formula returns the number of days remaining in the year after a particular date
(assumed to be in cell A1):
=DATE(YEAR(A1),12,31)-A1
Here’s the formula modified to use the current date:
=DATE(YEAR(TODAY()),12,31)-TODAY()
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When you enter either formula, Excel may apply date formatting to the cell. You may need to
apply a nondate number format to view the result as a number.
To convert a particular day of the year (e.g., the 90th day of the year) to an actual date in a specified year, use the following formula, which assumes that the year is stored in cell A1 and that the
day of the year is stored in cell B1:
=DATE(A1,1,B1)
Determining the Day of the Week
The WEEKDAY function accepts a date argument and returns an integer between 1 and 7 that corresponds to the day of the week. The following formula, for example, returns 7 because the first
day of the year 2011 falls on a Saturday:
=WEEKDAY(DATE(2011,1,1))
The WEEKDAY function uses an optional second argument that specifies the day-numbering system for the result. If you specify 2 as the second argument, the function returns 1 for Monday,
2 for Tuesday, and so on. If you specify 3 as the second argument, the function returns 0 for
Monday, 1 for Tuesday, and so on.
Tip
You can also determine the day of the week for a cell that contains a date by applying a custom number
format. A cell that uses the following custom number format displays the day of the week, spelled out:
dddd n
Determining the Date of the Most Recent Sunday
You can use the following formula to return the date for the previous Sunday (or any other day of
the week). If the current day is a Sunday, the formula returns the current date:
=TODAY()-MOD(TODAY()-1,7)
To modify this formula to find the date of a day other than Sunday, change the 1 to a different
number between 2 (for Monday) and 7 (for Saturday).
Determining the First Day of the Week after a Date
This next formula returns the specified day of the week that occurs after a particular date.
For example, use this formula to determine the date of the first Monday after June 1, 2010. The
formula assumes that cell A1 contains a date and cell A2 contains a number between 1 and 7
(1 for Sunday, 2 for Monday, etc.).
=A1+A2-WEEKDAY(A1)+(A2<WEEKDAY(A1))*7
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If cell A1 contains June 1, 2010 (a Tuesday), and cell A2 contains 7 (for Saturday), the formula
returns June 5, 2010. This is the first Saturday after June 1, 2010.
Determining the Nth Occurrence of a Day of the
Week in a Month
You may need a formula to determine the date for a particular occurrence of a weekday. For
example, suppose that your company’s payday falls on the second Friday of each month and you
need to determine the paydays for each month of the year. The following formula makes this type
of calculation:
=DATE(A1,A2,1)+A3-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,A2,1))+
(A4-(A3>=WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,A2,1))))*7
The formula in this section assumes that
l
Cell A1 contains a year.
l
Cell A2 contains a month.
l
Cell A3 contains a day number (1 for Sunday, 2 for Monday, etc.).
l
Cell A4 contains the occurrence number (e.g., 2 to select the second occurrence of the
weekday specified in cell A3).
If you use this formula to determine the date of the second Friday in November 2010, it returns
November 12, 2010.
Note
If the value in cell A4 exceeds the number of the specified day in the month, the formula returns a date from
a subsequent month. For example, if you attempt to determine the date of the fifth Friday in November 2010
(there is no such date), the formula returns the first Friday in December. n
Calculating Dates of Holidays
Determining the date for a particular holiday can be tricky. Some, such as New Year’s Day and
U.S. Independence Day, are no-brainers because they always occur on the same date. For these
kinds of holidays, you can simply use the DATE function. To enter New Year’s Day (which always
falls on January 1) for a specific year in cell A1, you can enter this function:
=DATE(A1,1,1)
Other holidays are defined in terms of a particular occurrence of a particular weekday in a
particular month. For example, Labor Day falls on the first Monday in September.
Figure 16-5 shows a workbook with formulas that calculate the date for 11 U.S. holidays. The
formulas, which reference the year in cell A1, are listed in the sections that follow.
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New Year’s Day
This holiday always falls on January 1:
=DATE(A1,1,1)
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
This holiday occurs on the third Monday in January. This formula calculates Martin Luther King,
Jr. Day for the year in cell A1:
=DATE(A1,1,1)+IF(2<WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,1,1)),7-WEEKDAY
(DATE(A1,1,1))+2,2-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,1,1)))+((3-1)*7)
FIGURE 16-5
Using formulas to determine the date for various holidays
Presidents’ Day
Presidents’ Day occurs on the third Monday in February. This formula calculates Presidents’ Day
for the year in cell A1:
=DATE(A1,2,1)+IF(2<WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,2,1)),7-WEEKDAY
(DATE(A1,2,1))+2,2-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,2,1)))+((3-1)*7)
Easter
Calculating the date for Easter is difficult because of the complicated manner in which Easter is
determined. Easter Day is the first Sunday after the next full moon that occurs after the vernal
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equinox. I found these formulas to calculate Easter on the Web. I have no idea how they work.
And they don’t work if your workbook uses the 1904 date system. (Read about the difference
between the 1900 and the 1904 date system earlier in this chapter.)
=DOLLAR((“4/”&A1)/7+MOD(19*MOD(A1,19)-7,30)*14%,)*7-6
This one is slightly shorter, but equally obtuse:
=FLOOR(“5/”&DAY(MINUTE(A1/38)/2+56)&”/”&A1,7)-34
Memorial Day
The last Monday in May is Memorial Day. This formula calculates Memorial Day for the year in
cell A1:
=DATE(A1,6,1)+IF(2<WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,6,1)),7-WEEKDAY
(DATE(A1,6,1))+2,2-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,6,1)))+((1-1)*7)-7
Notice that this formula actually calculates the first Monday in June and then subtracts 7 from
the result to return the last Monday in May.
Independence Day
This holiday always falls on July 4:
=DATE(A1,7,4)
Labor Day
Labor Day occurs on the first Monday in September. This formula calculates Labor Day for the
year in cell A1:
=DATE(A1,9,1)+IF(2<WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,9,1)),7-WEEKDAY
(DATE(A1,9,1))+2,2-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,9,1)))+((1-1)*7)
Columbus Day
This holiday occurs on the second Monday in October. This formula calculates Columbus Day for
the year in cell A1:
=DATE(A1,10,1)+IF(2<WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,10,1)),7-WEEKDAY
(DATE(A1,10,1))+2,2-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,10,1)))+((2-1)*7)
Veterans Day
This holiday always falls on November 11:
=DATE(A1,11,11)
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Thanksgiving Day
Thanksgiving Day is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. This formula calculates
Thanksgiving Day for the year in cell A1:
=DATE(A1,11,1)+IF(5<WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,11,1)),7-WEEKDAY
(DATE(A1,11,1))+5,5-WEEKDAY(DATE(A1,11,1)))+((4-1)*7)
Christmas Day
This holiday always falls on December 25:
=DATE(A1,12,25)
Determining the Last Day of a Month
To determine the date that corresponds to the last day of a month, you can use the DATE function. However, you need to increment the month by 1 and use a day value of 0. In other words,
the “0th” day of the next month is the last day of the current month.
The following formula assumes that a date is stored in cell A1. The formula returns the date that
corresponds to the last day of the month.
=DATE(YEAR(A1),MONTH(A1)+1,0)
You can use a variation of this formula to determine how many days are in a specified month.
The formula that follows returns an integer that corresponds to the number of days in the month
for the date in cell A1:
=DAY(DATE(YEAR(A1),MONTH(A1)+1,0))
Determining whether a Year Is a Leap Year
To determine whether a particular year is a leap year, you can write a formula that determines
whether the 29th day of February occurs in February or March. You can take advantage of the
fact that the Excel DATE function adjusts the result when you supply an invalid argument — for
example, a day of 29 when February contains only 28 days.
The following formula returns TRUE if the year of the date in cell A1 is a leap year. Otherwise, it
returns FALSE.
=IF(MONTH(DATE(YEAR(A1),2,29))=2,TRUE,FALSE)
Caution
This function returns the wrong result (TRUE) if the year is 1900. See “Excel’s Leap Year Bug,” earlier in this
chapter. n
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Determining a Date’s Quarter
For fi nancial reports, you may fi nd it useful to present information in terms of quarters. The
following formula returns an integer between 1 and 4 that corresponds to the calendar quarter
for the date in cell A1:
=ROUNDUP(MONTH(A1)/3,0)
This formula divides the month number by 3 and then rounds up the result.
Time-Related Functions
Excel also includes several functions that enable you to work with time values in your formulas.
This section contains examples that demonstrate the use of these functions.
Table 16-5 summarizes the time-related functions available in Excel. These functions work with
date serial numbers. When you use the Insert Function dialog box, these functions appear in the
Date & Time function category.
TABLE 16-5
Time-Related Functions
Function
Description
HOUR
Returns the hour part of a serial number.
MINUTE
Returns the minute part of a serial number.
NOW
Returns the serial number of the current date and time.
SECOND
Returns the second part of a serial number.
TIME
Returns the serial number of a specified time.
TIMEVALUE
Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number.
Displaying the Current Time
This formula displays the current time as a time serial number (or as a serial number without an
associated date):
=NOW()-TODAY()
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You need to format the cell with a time format to view the result as a recognizable time. The
quickest way is to choose Home Í Number Í Number Format and select Time from the dropdown list.
Note
This formula is updated only when the worksheet is calculated. n
Tip
To enter a time stamp (that doesn’t change) into a cell, press Ctrl+Shift+: (colon). n
Displaying any Time
One way to enter a time value into a cell is to just type it, making sure that you include at least one
colon (:). You can also create a time by using the TIME function. For example, the following formula
returns a time comprised of the hour in cell A1, the minute in cell B1, and the second in cell C1:
=TIME(A1,B1,C1)
Similar to the DATE function, the TIME function accepts invalid arguments and adjusts the result
accordingly. For example, the following formula uses 80 as the minute argument and returns
10:20:15 AM. The 80 minutes are simply added to the hour, with 20 minutes remaining.
=TIME(9,80,15)
Caution
If you enter a value greater than 24 as the first argument for the TIME function, the result may not be what
you expect. Logically, a formula such as the one that follows should produce a date/time serial number of
1.041667 (i.e., 1 day and 1 hour).
=TIME(25,0,0)
In fact, this formula is equivalent to the following:
=TIME(1,0,0) n
You can also use the DATE function along with the TIME function in a single cell. The formula
that follows generates a date and time with a serial number of 39420.7708333333 — which
represents 6:30 p.m. on December 4, 2010:
=DATE(2010,12,4)+TIME(18,30,0)
The TIMEVALUE function converts a text string that looks like a time into a time serial number.
This formula returns 0.2395833333, the time serial number for 5:45 a.m.:
=TIMEVALUE(“5:45 am”)
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To view the result of this formula as a time, you need to apply number formatting to the cell. The
TIMEVALUE function doesn’t recognize all common time formats. For example, the following
formula returns an error because Excel doesn’t like the periods in “a.m.”
=TIMEVALUE(“5:45 a.m.”)
Calculating the Difference between Two Times
Because times are represented as serial numbers, you can subtract the earlier time from the later
time to get the difference. For example, if cell A2 contains 5:30:00 and cell B2 contains 14:00:00,
the following formula returns 08:30:00 (a difference of 8 hours and 30 minutes):
=B2-A2
If the subtraction results in a negative value, however, it becomes an invalid time; Excel displays
a series of hash marks (#######) because a time without a date has a date serial number of 0. A
negative time results in a negative serial number, which cannot be displayed — although you can
still use the calculated value in other formulas.
If the direction of the time difference doesn’t matter, you can use the ABS function to return the
absolute value of the difference:
=ABS(B2-A2)
This “negative time” problem often occurs when calculating an elapsed time — for example,
calculating the number of hours worked given a start time and an end time. This presents no
problem if the two times fall in the same day. But if the work shift spans midnight, the result is
an invalid negative time. For example, you may start work at 10:00 p.m. and end work at 6:00 a.m.
the next day. Figure 16-6 shows a worksheet that calculates the hours worked. As you can
see, the shift that spans midnight presents a problem (cell C3).
FIGURE 16-6
Calculating the number of hours worked returns an error if the shift spans midnight.
Using the ABS function (to calculate the absolute value) isn’t an option in this case because it
returns the wrong result (16 hours). The following formula, however, does work by essentially
calculating the hours as if they occurred on the same day:
=IF(B2<A2,B2+1,B2)-A2
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Tip
Negative times are permitted if the workbook uses the 1904 date system. To switch to the 1904 date system,
use the Advanced section of the Excel Options dialog box. Select the Use 1904 Date System option. But
beware! When changing the workbook’s date system, if the workbook uses dates, the dates will be off by 4
years. For more information about the 1904 date system, see the sidebar, “Choose Your Date System: 1900 or
1904,” earlier in this chapter. n
Summing Times that Exceed 24 Hours
Many people are surprised to discover that when you sum a series of times that exceed 24 hours,
Excel doesn’t display the correct total. Figure 16-7 shows an example. The range B2:B8 contains
times that represent the hours and minutes worked each day. The formula in cell B9 is
=SUM(B2:B8)
As you can see, the formula returns a seemingly incorrect total (17 hours, 45 minutes). The
total should read 41 hours, 45 minutes. The problem is that the formula is displaying the
total as a date/time serial number of 1.7395833, but the cell formatting is not displaying the
date part of the date/time. The answer is incorrect because cell B9 has the wrong number
format.
To view a time that exceeds 24 hours, you need to apply a custom number format for the cell so
that square brackets surround the hour part of the format string. Applying the number format
here to cell B9 displays the sum correctly:
[h]:mm
FIGURE 16-7
Incorrect cell formatting makes the total appear incorrectly.
Figure 16-8 shows another example of a worksheet that manipulates times. This worksheet keeps
track of hours worked during a week (regular hours and overtime hours).
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FIGURE 16-8
An employee timesheet workbook
The week’s starting date appears in cell D5, and the formulas in column B fi ll in the dates for the
days of the week. Times appear in the range D8:G14, and formulas in column H calculate the
number of hours worked each day. For example, the formula in cell H8 is
=IF(E8<D8,E8+1-D8,E8-D8)+IF(G8<F8,G8+1-G8,G8-F8)
The first part of this formula subtracts the time in column D from the time in column E to get the
total hours worked before lunch. The second part subtracts the time in column F from the time in
column G to get the total hours worked after lunch. Next, the IF function is used to accommodate
overnight shift cases that span midnight — for example, an employee may start work at 10:00 p.m.
and begin lunch at 2:00 a.m. Without the IF function, the formula returns a negative result.
The following formula in cell H17 calculates the weekly total by summing the daily totals in
column H:
=SUM(H8:H14)
This worksheet assumes that hours in excess of 40 hours in a week are considered overtime
hours. The worksheet contains a cell named Overtime, in cell C23. This cell contains a formula
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Chapter 16: Working with Dates and Times
that returns 40:00. If your standard workweek consists of something other than 40 hours, you
can change this cell.
The following formula (in cell H18) calculates regular (non-overtime) hours. This formula returns
the smaller of two values: the total hours or the overtime hours.
=MIN(E17,Overtime)
The final formula, in cell H19, simply subtracts the regular hours from the total hours to yield the
overtime hours.
=E17-E18
The times in I8:I14 may display time values that exceed 24 hours, so these cells use a custom
number format:
[h]:mm
Converting from Military Time
Military time is expressed as a four-digit number from 0000 to 2359. For example, 1:00 a.m.
is expressed as 0100 hours, and 3:30 p.m. is expressed as 1530 hours. The following formula
converts such a number (assumed to be in cell A1) to a standard time:
=TIMEVALUE(LEFT(A1,2)&”:”&RIGHT(A1,2))
The formula returns an incorrect result if the contents of cell A1 do not contain four digits. The
following formula corrects the problem, and it returns a valid time for any military time value
from 0 to 2359:
=TIMEVALUE(LEFT(TEXT(A1,”0000”),2)&”:”&RIGHT(A1,2))
Following is a simpler formula that uses the TEXT function to return a formatted string, and then
uses the TIMEVALUE function to express the result in terms of a time:
=TIMEVALUE(TEXT(A1,”00\:00”))
Converting Decimal Hours, Minutes, or Seconds
to a Time
To convert decimal hours to a time, divide the decimal hours by 24. For example, if cell A1
contains 9.25 (representing hours), this formula returns 09:15:00 (9 hours, 15 minutes):
=A1/24
To convert decimal minutes to a time, divide the decimal hours by 1,440 (the number of minutes
in a day). For example, if cell A1 contains 500 (representing minutes), the following formula
returns 08:20:00 (8 hours, 20 minutes):
=A1/1440
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To convert decimal seconds to a time, divide the decimal hours by 86,400 (the number of
seconds in a day). For example, if cell A1 contains 65,000 (representing seconds), the following
formula returns 18:03:20 (18 hours, 3 minutes, and 20 seconds):
=A1/86400
Adding Hours, Minutes, or Seconds to a Time
You can use the TIME function to add any number of hours, minutes, or seconds to a time. For
example, assume that cell A1 contains a time. The following formula adds 2 hours and 30 minutes
to that time and displays the result:
=A1+TIME(2,30,0)
You can use the TIME function to fill a range of cells with incremental times. Figure 16-9 shows
a worksheet with a series of times in 10-minute increments. Cell A1 contains a time that was
entered directly. Cell A2 contains the following formula, which is copied down the column:
=A1+TIME(0,10,0)
Rounding Time Values
You may need to create a formula that rounds a time to a particular value. For example, you may
need to enter your company’s time records rounded to the nearest 15 minutes. This section presents examples of various ways to round a time value.
The following formula rounds the time in cell A1 to the nearest minute:
=ROUND(A1*1440,0)/1440
FIGURE 16-9
Using a formula to create a series of incremental times
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The formula works by multiplying the time by 1,440 (to get total minutes). This value is passed
to the ROUND function, and the result is divided by 1,440. For example, if cell A1 contains
11:52:34, the formula returns 11:53:00.
The following formula resembles this example, except that it rounds the time in cell A1 to the
nearest hour:
=ROUND(A1*24,0)/24
If cell A1 contains 5:21:31, the formula returns 5:00:00.
The following formula rounds the time in cell A1 to the nearest 15 minutes (a quarter of
an hour):
=ROUND(A1*24/0.25,0)*(0.25/24)
In this formula, 0.25 represents the fractional hour. To round a time to the nearest 30 minutes,
change 0.25 to 0.5, as in the following formula:
=ROUND(A1*24/0.5,0)*(0.5/24)
Working with Non-Time-of-Day Values
Sometimes, you may want to work with time values that don’t represent an actual time of day.
For example, you may want to create a list of the fi nish times for a race or record the amount
of time you spend in meetings each day. Such times don’t represent a time of day. Rather, a
value represents the time for an event (in hours, minutes, and seconds). The time to complete
a test, for example, may be 35 minutes and 45 seconds. You can enter that value into a cell as
00:35:45.
Excel interprets such an entry as 12:35:45 a.m., which works fine. (Just make sure that you format
the cell so that it appears as you like.) When you enter such times that do not have an hour component, you must include at least one zero for the hour. If you omit a leading zero for a missing hour,
Excel interprets your entry as 35 hours and 45 minutes.
Figure 16-10 shows an example of a worksheet set up to keep track of a person’s jogging activity.
Column A contains simple dates. Column B contains the distance in miles. Column C contains
the time it took to run the distance. Column D contains formulas to calculate the speed in miles
per hour. For example, the formula in cell D2 is
=B2/(C2*24)
Column E contains formulas to calculate the pace, in minutes per mile. For example, the formula
in cell E2 is
=(C2*60*24)/B2
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FI GURE 16-10
This worksheet uses times not associated with a time of day.
Columns F and G contain formulas that calculate the year-to-date distance (using column B) and
the cumulative time (using column C). The cells in column G are formatted using the following
number format (which permits time displays that exceed 24 hours):
[hh]:mm:ss
Summary
In this chapter, you learned how Excel treats dates and times as serial numbers. You can use
dates and times in formulas, so long as you understand how the serial numbers work. This
chapter also introduced you to some Excel functions that work with dates and times, and
showed you specific, handy examples of formulas you can build to tackle certain date and time
calculation tasks.
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CH APTER
Creating Formulas
That Count and Sum
M
any of the most common spreadsheet questions involve counting
and summing values and other worksheet elements. It seems that
people are always looking for formulas to count or to sum various
items in a worksheet. This chapter attempts to answer the vast majority of
such questions. It contains many examples that you can easily adapt to your
own situation.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Counting and summing cells
Creating basic counting
formulas
Entering advanced counting
formulas
Counting and Summing
Worksheet Cells
Using formulas for performing
common summing tasks
Generally, a counting formula returns the number of cells in a specified
range that meet certain criteria. A summing formula returns the sum of the
values of the cells in a range that meet certain criteria. The range you want
counted or summed may or may not consist of a worksheet database.
Table 17-1 lists the Excel worksheet functions that come into play when
creating counting and summing formulas. Not all these functions are
covered in this chapter.
Adding conditional summing
formulas using a single
criterion
Creating conditional summing
formulas using multiple
criteria
Note
If your data is in the form of a table, you can use filtering to accomplish many
counting and summing operations. Just set the filter criteria, and the table
displays only the rows that match your criteria (the non-qualifying rows in the
table are hidden). Then you can select formulas to display counts or sums in
the table’s total row. n
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TABLE 17-1
Excel Counting and Summing Functions
Function
Description
COUNT
Returns the number of cells that contain a numeric value.
COUNTA
Returns the number of non-blank cells.
COUNTBLANK
Returns the number of blank cells.
COUNTIF
Returns the number of cells that meet a specified criterion.
COUNTIFSa
Returns the number of cells that meet multiple criteria.
DCOUNT
Counts the number of records that meet specified criteria; used with a worksheet
database.
DCOUNTA
Counts the number of non-blank records that meet specified criteria; used with a
worksheet database.
DEVSQ
Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from the sample mean; used
primarily in statistical formulas.
DSUM
Returns the sum of a column of values that meet specified criteria; used with a
worksheet database.
FREQUENCY
Calculates how often values occur within a range of values and returns a vertical array
of numbers. Used only in a multicell array formula.
SUBTOTAL
When used with a first argument of 2, 3, 102, or 103, returns a count of cells that
comprise a subtotal; when used with a first argument of 9 or 109, returns the sum of
cells that comprise a subtotal.
SUM
Returns the sum of its arguments.
SUMIF
Returns the sum of cells that meet a specified criterion.
SUMIFSa
Returns the sum of cells that meet multiple criteria.
SUMPRODUCT
Multiplies corresponding cells in two or more ranges and returns the sum of those
products.
SUMSQ
Returns the sum of the squares of its arguments; used primarily in statistical formulas.
SUMX2PY2
Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two ranges; used
primarily in statistical formulas.
SUMXMY2
Returns the sum of squares of the differences of corresponding values in two ranges;
used primarily in statistical formulas.
SUMX2MY2
Returns the sum of the differences of squares of corresponding values in two ranges;
used primarily in statistical formulas.
a
These functions were introduced in Excel 2007.
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Getting a Quick Count or Sum
The Excel status bar can display useful information about the currently selected cells — no formulas
required. Normally, the status bar displays the sum and count of the values in the selected range. You
can, however, right-click to bring up a menu with other options. You can choose any or all the following:
Average, Count, Numerical Count, Minimum, Maximum, and Sum.
Basic Counting Formulas
The basic counting formulas presented in this section are all straightforward and relatively
simple. They demonstrate the capability of the Excel counting functions to count the number of
cells in a range that meet specific criteria. Figure 17-1 shows a worksheet that uses formulas (in
column E) to summarize the contents of range A1:B10 — a 20-cell range named Data. This range
contains a variety of information, including values, text, logical values, errors, and empty cells.
FIGURE 17-1
Formulas in column E display various counts of the data in A1:B10.
About This Chapter’s Examples
Most of the examples in this chapter use named ranges for function arguments. When you adapt these
formulas for your own use, you’ll need to substitute either the actual range address or a range name
defined in your workbook.
continued
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continued
Also, some examples consist of array formulas. An array formula is a special type of formula that enables
you to perform calculations that would not otherwise be possible. You can spot an array formula because
it’s enclosed in curly brackets when it’s displayed in the Formula bar. In addition, this syntax is used for
the array formula examples presented in this book. For example:
{=Data*2}
When you enter an array formula, press Ctrl+Shift+Enter (not just Enter) but don’t type the curly brackets
(Excel inserts the brackets for you). If you need to edit an array formula, don’t forget to use Ctrl+Shift+Enter
when you finish editing (otherwise, the array formula will revert to a normal formula, and it will return
an incorrect result).
Counting the Total Number of Cells
To get a count of the total number of cells in a range (empty and non-empty cells), use the following formula. This formula returns the number of cells in a range named Data. It simply multiplies
the number of rows (returned by the ROWS function) by the number of columns (returned by the
COLUMNS function).
=ROWS(Data)*COLUMNS(Data)
This formula will not work if the Data range consists of noncontiguous cells. In other words, Data
must be a rectangular range of cells.
Counting Blank Cells
The following formula returns the number of blank (empty) cells in a range named Data:
=COUNTBLANK(Data)
The COUNTBLANK function also counts cells containing a formula that returns an empty string.
For example, the formula that follows returns an empty string if the value in cell A1 is greater
than 5. If the cell meets this condition, the COUNTBLANK function counts that cell.
=IF(A1>5,””,A1)
You can use the COUNTBLANK function with an argument that consists of entire rows or columns.
For example, this next formula returns the number of blank cells in column A:
=COUNTBLANK(A:A)
The following formula returns the number of empty cells on the entire worksheet named Sheet1.
You must enter this formula on a sheet other than Sheet1, or it will create a circular reference.
=COUNTBLANK(Sheet1!1:1048576)
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Counting Non-Blank Cells
To count non-blank cells, use the COUNTA function. The following formula uses the COUNTA
function to return the number of non-blank cells in a range named Data:
=COUNTA(Data)
The COUNTA function counts cells that contain values, text, or logical values (TRUE or FALSE).
Note
If a cell contains a formula that returns an empty string, that cell is included in the count returned by COUNTA,
even though the cell appears to be blank. n
Counting Numeric Cells
To count only the numeric cells in a range, use the following formula (which assumes the range is
named Data):
=COUNT(Data)
Cells that contain a date or a time are considered to be numeric cells. Cells that contain a logical
value (TRUE or FALSE) aren’t considered to be numeric cells.
Counting Text Cells
To count the number of text cells in a range, you need to use an array formula. The array formula
that follows returns the number of text cells in a range named Data:
{=SUM(IF(ISTEXT(Data),1))}
Counting Non-text Cells
The following array formula uses the Excel ISNONTEXT function, which returns TRUE if its argument refers to any nontext cell (including a blank cell). This formula returns the count of the
number of cells not containing text (including blank cells):
{=SUM(IF(ISNONTEXT(Data),1))}
Counting Logical Values
The following array formula returns the number of logical values (TRUE or FALSE) in a range
named Data:
{=SUM(IF(ISLOGICAL(Data),1))}
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Counting Error Values in a Range
Excel has three functions that help you determine whether a cell contains an error value:
l
ISERROR: Returns TRUE if the cell contains any error value (#N/A, #VALUE!, #REF!,
#DIV/0!, #NUM!, #NAME?, or #NULL!).
l
ISERR: Returns TRUE if the cell contains any error value except #N/A.
l
ISNA: Returns TRUE if the cell contains the #N/A error value.
You can use these functions in an array formula to count the number of error values in a range.
The following array formula, for example, returns the total number of error values in a range
named Data:
{=SUM(IF(ISERROR(data),1))}
Depending on your needs, you can use the ISERR or ISNA function in place of ISERROR.
If you would like to count specific types of errors, you can use the COUNTIF function. The
following formula, for example, returns the number of #DIV/0! error values in the range
named Data:
=COUNTIF(Data,”#DIV/0!”)
Advanced Counting Formulas
Most of the basic examples presented earlier in this chapter use functions or formulas that perform conditional counting. The advanced counting formulas represented here contain more
complex examples for counting worksheet cells, based on various types of criteria.
Counting Cells by Using the COUNTIF Function
The COUNTIF function, which is useful for single-criterion counting formulas, takes two
arguments:
l
Range: The range that contains the values that determine whether to include a particular cell in the count
l
Criteria: The logical criteria that determine whether to include a particular cell in
the count
Table 17-2 lists several examples of formulas that use the COUNTIF function. These formulas
all work with a range named Data. As you can see, the criteria argument proves quite fl exible. You can use constants, expressions, functions, cell references, and even wildcard
characters (* and ?).
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TABLE 17-2
Examples of Formulas Using the COUNTIF Function
Formula
Description
=COUNTIF(Data,12)
Returns the number of cells containing the value 12.
=COUNTIF(Data,”<0”)
Returns the number of cells containing a negative value.
=COUNTIF(Data,”<>0”)
Returns the number of cells not equal to 0.
=COUNTIF(Data,”>5”)
Returns the number of cells greater than 5.
=COUNTIF(Data,A1)
Returns the number of cells equal to the contents of
cell A1.
=COUNTIF(Data,”>”&A1)
Returns the number of cells greater than the value in
cell A1.
=COUNTIF(Data,”*”)
Returns the number of cells containing text.
=COUNTIF(Data,”???”)
Returns the number of text cells containing exactly
three characters.
=COUNTIF(Data,”budget”)
Returns the number of cells containing the single word
budget (not case sensitive)
=COUNTIF(Data,”*budget*”)
Returns the number of cells containing the text budget
anywhere within the text.
=COUNTIF(Data,”A*”)
Returns the number of cells containing text that begins
with the letter A (not case-sensitive).
=COUNTIF(Data,TODAY())
Returns the number of cells containing the current date.
=COUNTIF(Data,”>”&AVERAGE(Data))
Returns the number of cells with a value greater than
the average.
=COUNTIF(Data,”>”&AVERAGE(Data)+
STDEV(Data)*3)
Returns the number of values exceeding three standard
deviations above the mean.
=COUNTIF(Data,3)+COUNTIF(Data,-3)
Returns the number of cells containing the value 3 or –3.
=COUNTIF(Data,TRUE)
Returns the number of cells containing logical TRUE.
=COUNTIF(Data,TRUE)+COUNTIF
(Data,FALSE)
Returns the number of cells containing a logical value
(TRUE or FALSE).
=COUNTIF(Data,”#N/A”)
Returns the number of cells containing the #N/A error
value.
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Counting Cells Based on Multiple Criteria
In many cases, your counting formula will need to count cells only if two or more criteria are
met. These criteria can be based on the cells that are being counted or based on a range of corresponding cells.
Figure 17-2 shows a simple worksheet that I use for the examples in this section. This sheet
shows sales data categorized by Month, SalesRep, and Type. The worksheet contains named
ranges that correspond to the labels in row 1.
FIGURE 17-2
This worksheet demonstrates various counting techniques that use multiple criteria.
Note
Several of the examples in this section use the COUNTIFS function, which was introduced in Excel 2007.
There are alternative versions of the formulas, which should be used if you plan to share your workbook with
others who use an earlier version of Excel. n
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Using And Criteria
An And criterion counts cells if all specified conditions are met. A common example is a formula
that counts the number of values that fall within a numerical range. For example, you may want
to count cells that contain a value greater than 100 and less than or equal to 200. For this example, the COUNTIFS function will do the job:
=COUNTIFS(Amount,”>100”,Amount,”<=200”)
Note
If the data is contained in a table, you can use table referencing in your formulas. For example, if the table is
named Table 1, you can rewrite the preceding formula as:
=COUNTIFS(Table1[Amount],”>100”,Table1[Amount],”<=200”)
This method of writing formulas does not require named ranges. n
The COUNTIFS function accepts any number of paired arguments. The first member of the pair is
the range to be counted (in this case, the range named Amount); the second member of the pair
is the criterion. The preceding example contains two sets of paired arguments and returns the
number of cells in which Amount is greater than 100 and less than or equal to 200.
Prior to Excel 2007, you would need to use a formula like this:
=COUNTIF(Amount,”>100”)-COUNTIF(Amount,”>200”)
The formula counts the number of values that are greater than 100 and then subtracts the number of values that are greater than or equal to 200. The result is the number of cells that contain a
value greater than 100 and less than or equal to 200. This formula can be confusing because the
formula refers to a condition — ”>200” — even though the goal is to count values that are less
than or equal to 200. Yet another alternative technique is to use an array formula, like the one
that follows. You may find it easier to create this type of formula:
{=SUM((Amount>100)*(Amount<=200))}
Note
When you enter an array formula, remember to use Ctrl+Shift+Enter but don’t type the brackets. Excel
includes the brackets for you. n
Sometimes, the counting criteria will be based on cells other than the cells being counted. You
may, for example, want to count the number of sales that meet the following criteria:
l
Month is January, and
l
SalesRep is Brooks, and
l
Amount is greater than 1000
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The following formula (for Excel 2007 and Excel 2010) returns the number of items that meet all
three criteria. Note that the COUNTIFS function uses three sets of pairs of arguments:
=COUNTIFS(Month,”January”,SalesRep,”Brooks”,Amount,”>1000”)
An alternative formula, which works with all versions of Excel, uses the SUMPRODUCT function.
The following formula returns the same result as the previous formula:
=SUMPRODUCT((Month=”January”)*(SalesRep=”Brooks”)*(Amount>1000))
Yet another way to perform this count is to use an array formula:
{=SUM((Month=”January”)*(SalesRep=”Brooks”)*(Amount>1000))}
Using Or Criteria
To count cells by using an Or criterion, you can sometimes use multiple COUNTIF functions. The
following formula, for example, counts the number of sales made in January or February:
=COUNTIF(Month,”January”) + COUNTIF(Month,”February”)
You can also use the COUNTIF function in an array formula. The following array formula, for
example, returns the same result as the previous formula:
{=SUM(COUNTIF(Month,{“January”,”February”}))}
But if you base your Or criteria on cells other than the cells being counted, the COUNTIF function
won’t work. (Refer to Figure 17-2.) Suppose that you want to count the number of sales that meet
the following criteria:
l
Month is January, or
l
SalesRep is Brooks, or
l
Amount is greater than 1000
If you attempt to create a formula that uses COUNTIF, some double counting will occur. The solution is to use an array formula like this:
{=SUM(IF((Month=”January”)+(SalesRep=”Brooks”)+(Amount>1000),1))}
Combining And and Or Criteria
In some cases, you may need to combine And and Or criteria when counting. For example,
perhaps you want to count sales that meet the following criteria:
l
Month is January, and
l
SalesRep is Brooks, or SalesRep is Cook
This array formula returns the number of sales that meet the criteria:
{=SUM((Month=”January”)*IF((SalesRep=”Brooks”)+
(SalesRep=”Cook”),1))}
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Counting the Most Frequently Occurring Entry
The MODE function returns the most frequently occurring value in a range. Figure 17-3 shows a
worksheet with values in the range A1:A10 (named Data). The formula that follows returns 10
because that value appears most frequently in the Data range:
=MODE(Data)
FIGURE 17-3
The MODE function returns the most frequently occurring value in a range.
To count the number of times the most frequently occurring value appears in the range (in other
words, the frequency of the mode), use the following formula:
=COUNTIF(Data,MODE(Data))
This formula returns 5 because the modal value (10) appears five times in the Data range.
The MODE function will only work with numeric values. It simply ignores cells that contain text.
To find the most frequently occurring text entry in a range, you need to use an array formula.
To count the number of times the most frequently occurring item (text or values) appears in a
range named Data, use the following array formula:
{=MAX(COUNTIF(Data,Data))}
This next array formula operates like the MODE function except that it works with both text
and values:
{=INDEX(Data,MATCH(MAX(COUNTIF(Data,Data)),COUNTIF(Data,Data),0))}
Counting the Occurrences of Specific Text
The examples in this section demonstrate various ways to count the occurrences of a character
or text string in a range of cells. Figure 17-4 shows a worksheet used for these examples. Various
text strings appear in the range A1:A10 (named Data); cell B1 is named Text.
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FIGURE 17-4
This worksheet demonstrates various ways to count character strings in a range.
Entire Cell Contents
To count the number of cells containing the contents of the Text cell (and nothing else), you can
use the COUNTIF function as the following formula demonstrates:
=COUNTIF(Data,Text)
For example, if the Text cell contains the string Alpha, the formula returns 2 because two cells in
the Data range contain this text. This formula is not case-sensitive, so it counts both Alpha (cell
A2) and alpha (cell A10). Note, however, that it does not count the cell that contains Alpha Beta
(cell A8).
The following array formula is similar to the preceding formula, but this one is case-sensitive:
{=SUM(IF(EXACT(Data,Text),1))}
Partial Cell Contents
To count the number of cells that contain a string that includes the contents of the Text cell, use
this formula:
=COUNTIF(Data,”*”&Text&”*”)
For example, if the Text cell contains the text Alpha, the formula returns 3 because three cells
in the Data range contain the text alpha (cells A2, A8, and A10). Note that the comparison is not
case-sensitive.
If you need a case-sensitive count, you can use the following array formula:
{=SUM(IF(LEN(Data)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(Data,Text,””))>0,1))}
If the Text cells contain the text Alpha, the preceding formula returns 2 because the string
appears in two cells (A2 and A8).
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Total Occurrences in a Range
To count the total number of occurrences of a string within a range of cells, use the following
array formula:
{=(SUM(LEN(Data))-SUM(LEN(SUBSTITUTE(Data,Text,””))))/
LEN(Text)}
If the Text cell contains the character B, the formula returns 7 because the range contains seven
instances of the string. This formula is case-sensitive.
The following array formula is a modified version that is not case-sensitive:
{=(SUM(LEN(Data))-SUM(LEN(SUBSTITUTE(UPPER(Data),
UPPER(Text),””))))/LEN(Text)}
Counting the Number of Unique Values
The following array formula returns the number of unique values in a range named Data:
{=SUM(1/COUNTIF(Data,Data))}
Note
The preceding formula is one of those “classic” Excel formulas that gets passed around the Internet. I don’t
know who originated it. n
Useful as it is, this formula does have a serious limitation: If the range contains any blank cells, it
returns an error. The following array formula solves this problem:
{=SUM(IF(COUNTIF(Data,Data)=0,””,1/COUNTIF(Data,Data)))}
Creating a Frequency Distribution
A frequency distribution basically comprises a summary table that shows the frequency of each
value in a range. For example, an instructor may create a frequency distribution of test scores.
The table would show the count of A’s, B’s, C’s, and so on. Excel provides several ways to create
frequency distributions. You can
l
Use the FREQUENCY function.
l
Create your own formulas.
l
Use the Analysis ToolPak add-in.
l
Use a pivot table.
The FREQUENCY Function
Using the FREQUENCY function to create a frequency distribution can be a bit tricky. This function
always returns an array, so you must use it in an array formula that’s entered into a multicell range.
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Figure 17-5 shows some data in the range A1:E25 (named Data). These values range from 1 to
500. The range G2:G11 contains the bins used for the frequency distribution. Each cell in this
bin range contains the upper limit for the bin. In this case, the bins consist of <=50, 51–100,
101–150, and so on.
FIGURE 17-5
Creating a frequency distribution for the data in A1:E25.
To create the frequency distribution, select a range of cells that corresponds to the number of
cells in the bin range (in this example, select H2:H11 because the bins are in G2:G11). Then enter
the following array formula into the selected range (press Ctrl+Shift+Enter):
{=FREQUENCY(Data,G2:G11)}
The array formula returns the count of values in the Data range that fall into each bin. To create a
frequency distribution that consists of percentages, use the following array formula:
{=FREQUENCY(Data,G2:G11)/COUNT(Data)}
Figure 17-6 shows two frequency distributions — one in terms of counts and one in terms of
percentages. The figure also shows a chart (histogram) created from the frequency distribution.
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FIGURE 17-6
Frequency distributions created by using the FREQUENCY function.
Using Formulas to Create a Frequency Distribution
Figure 17-7 shows a worksheet that contains test scores for 50 students in column B (the range
is named Grades). Formulas in columns G and H calculate a frequency distribution for letter
grades. The minimum and maximum values for each letter grade appear in columns D and E.
For example, a test score between 80 and 89 (inclusive) earns a B. In addition, a chart displays
the distribution of the test scores.
The formula in cell G2 that follows counts the number of scores that qualify for an A:
=COUNTIFS(Grades,”>=”&D2,Grades,”<=”&E2)
You may recognize this formula from a previous section in this chapter (see “Counting Cells
Based on Multiple Criteria”). This formula was copied to the four cells below G2.
Note
The preceding formula uses the COUNTIFS function, which first appeared in Excel 2007. For compatibility
with previous Excel versions, use this array formula:
{=SUM((Grades>=D2)*(Grades<=E2))}
n
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FIGURE 17-7
Creating a frequency distribution of test scores.
The formulas in column H calculate the percentage of scores for each letter grade. The formula in
H2, which was copied to the four cells below H2, is
=G2/SUM($G$2:$G$6)
Using the Analysis ToolPak to Create a Frequency Distribution
The Analysis ToolPak add-in, distributed with Excel, provides another way to calculate a frequency distribution.
1. Enter your bin values in a range.
2. Choose Data Í Analysis Í Analysis to display the Data Analysis dialog box. If this
command is not available, see the sidebar, “Is the Analysis ToolPak Installed?”.
3. In the Data Analysis dialog box, select Histogram and then click OK. You should see
the Histogram dialog box shown in Figure 17-8.
4. Specify the ranges for your data (Input Range), bins (Bin Range), and results
(Output Range), and then select any options. Click OK. Figure 17-9 shows a frequency distribution (and chart) created with the Histogram option.
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FIGURE 17-8
The Analysis ToolPak’s Histogram dialog box.
FIGURE 17-9
A frequency distribution and chart generated by the Analysis ToolPak’s Histogram option.
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Caution
Note that the frequency distribution consists of values, not formulas. Therefore, if you make any changes to
your input data, you need to rerun the Histogram procedure to update the results. n
Is the Analysis ToolPak Installed?
To make sure that the Analysis ToolPak add-in is installed, click the Data tab. If the Ribbon displays the
Data Analysis command in the Analysis group, you’re all set. If not, you’ll need to install the add-in:
1. Choose File Í Options to display the Excel Options dialog box.
2. Click Add-Ins in the list on the left.
3. Select Excel Add-Ins from the Manage drop-down list.
4. Click Go to display the Add-Ins dialog box.
5. Place a check mark next to Analysis ToolPak.
6. Click OK.
If you’ve enabled the Developer tab, you can display the Add-Ins dialog box by choosing Developer Í
Add-Ins Í Add-Ins.
Note
In the Add-Ins dialog box, you see an additional add-in, Analysis ToolPak - VBA. This add-in is for programmers, and you don’t need to install it. n
Using a PivotTable to Create a Frequency Distribution
If your data is in the form of a table, you may prefer to use a PivotTable to create a histogram.
Figure 17-10 shows the student grade data summarized in a PivotTable in columns D and E. The
data bars were added using conditional formatting.
Summing Formulas
The examples in this section demonstrate how to perform common summing tasks by using formulas. The formulas range from very simple to relatively complex array formulas that compute
sums by using multiple criteria.
Summing All Cells in a Range
It doesn’t get much simpler than this. The following formula returns the sum of all values in a
range named Data:
=SUM(Data)
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FIGURE 17-10
Using data bars within a PivotTable to display a histogram.
The SUM function can take up to 255 arguments. The following formula, for example, returns the
sum of the values in five noncontiguous ranges:
=SUM(A1:A9,C1:C9,E1:E9,G1:G9,I1:I9)
You can use complete rows or columns as an argument for the SUM function. The formula that
follows, for example, returns the sum of all values in column A. If this formula appears in a cell
in column A, it generates a circular reference error:
=SUM(A:A)
The following formula returns the sum of all values on Sheet1 by using a range reference that
consists of all rows. To avoid a circular reference error, this formula must appear on a sheet other
than Sheet1:
=SUM(Sheet1!1:1048576)
The SUM function is very versatile. The arguments can be numerical values, cells, ranges, text
representations of numbers (which are interpreted as values), logical values, and even embedded
functions. For example, consider the following formula:
=SUM(B1,5,”6”,,SQRT(4),A1:A5,TRUE)
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This odd formula, which is perfectly valid, contains all the following types of arguments, listed
here in the order of their presentation:
l
A single cell reference: B1
l
A literal value: 5
l
A string that looks like a value: “6”
l
A missing argument: , ,
l
An expression that uses another function: SQRT(4)
l
A range reference: A1:A5
l
A logical value: TRUE
Caution
The SUM function is versatile, but it’s also inconsistent when you use logical values (TRUE or FALSE). Logical
values stored in cells are always treated as 0. However, logical TRUE, when used as an argument in the SUM
function, is treated as 1. n
Computing a Cumulative Sum
You may want to display a cumulative sum of values in a range — sometimes known as a running
total. Figure 17-11 illustrates a cumulative sum. Column B shows the monthly amounts, and column C displays the cumulative (year-to-date) totals.
FIGURE 17-11
Simple formulas in column C display a cumulative sum of the values in column B.
The formula in cell C2 is
=SUM(B$2:B2)
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Notice that this formula uses a mixed reference — that is, the first cell in the range reference always
refers to the same row (in this case, row 2). When this formula is copied down the column, the
range argument adjusts such that the sum always starts with row 2 and ends with the current row.
For example, after copying this formula down column C, the formula in cell C8 is
=SUM(B$2:B8)
You can use an IF function to hide the cumulative sums for rows in which data hasn’t been
entered. The following formula, entered in cell C2 and copied down the column, is
=IF(B2<>””,SUM(B$2:B2),””)
Figure 17-12 shows this formula at work.
FIGURE 17-12
Using an IF function to hide cumulative sums for missing data.
Summing the “Top n” Values
In some situations, you may need to sum the n largest values in a range — for example, the top
10 values. If your data resides in a table, you can use autofiltering to hide all but the top n rows
and then display the sum of the visible data in the table’s total row.
Another approach is to sort the range in descending order and then use the SUM function with an
argument consisting of the first n values in the sorted range.
A better solution — which doesn’t require a table or sorting — uses an array formula like this one:
{=SUM(LARGE(Data,{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}))}
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This formula sums the 10 largest values in a range named Data. To sum the 10 smallest values,
use the SMALL function instead of the LARGE function:
{=SUM(SMALL(Data,{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}))}
These formulas use an array constant comprised of the arguments for the LARGE or SMALL function. If the value of n for your top-n calculation is large, you may prefer to use the following variation. This formula returns the sum of the top 30 values in the Data range. You can, of course,
substitute a different value for 30.
{=SUM(LARGE(Data,ROW(INDIRECT(“1:30”))))}
Conditional Sums Using a Single Criterion
Often, you need to calculate a conditional sum. With a conditional sum, values in a range that meet
one or more conditions are included in the sum. This section presents examples of conditional
summing by using a single criterion.
The SUMIF function is very useful for single-criterion sum formulas. The SUMIF function takes
three arguments:
l
Range: The range containing the values that determine whether to include a particular
cell in the sum.
l
Criteria: An expression that determines whether to include a particular cell in the sum.
l
Sum_range: Optional. The range that contains the cells you want to sum. If you omit
this argument, the function uses the range specified in the first argument.
The examples that follow demonstrate the use of the SUMIF function. These formulas are based on
the worksheet shown in Figure 17-13, set up to track invoices. Column F contains a formula that
subtracts the date in column E from the date in column D. A negative number in column F indicates a past-due payment. The worksheet uses named ranges that correspond to the labels in row 1.
FIGURE 17-13
A negative value in column F indicates a past-due payment.
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Let a Wizard Create Your Formula
Excel ships with the Conditional Sum Wizard add-in. After you install this add-in, you can invoke the
wizard by choosing Formulas Í Solutions Í Conditional Sum.
You can specify various conditions for your summing, and the add-in creates the formula for you (always
an array formula). The Conditional Sum Wizard add-in, although a handy tool, is not all that versatile.
For example, you can combine multiple criteria by using an And condition but not an Or condition.
To install the Conditional Sum Wizard add-in:
1. Choose File Í Options to display the Excel Options dialog box.
2. Click the Add-Ins tab on the left.
3. Select Excel Add-Ins from the Manage drop-down list.
4. Click Go to display the Add-Ins dialog box.
5. Place a check mark next to Conditional Sum Wizard.
6. Click OK.
If you’ve enabled the Developer tab, you can display the Add-Ins dialog box by choosing Developer Í
Add-Ins Í Add-Ins.
Summing Only Negative Values
The following formula returns the sum of the negative values in column F. In other words, it returns
the total number of past-due days for all invoices. For this worksheet, the formula returns –63.
=SUMIF(Difference,”<0”)
Because you omit the third argument, the second argument (“<0”) applies to the values in the
Difference range.
You don’t need to hard-code the arguments for the SUMIF function into your formula. For example, you can create a formula, such as the following, which gets the criteria argument from the
contents of cell G2:
=SUMIF(Difference,G2)
This formula returns a new result if you change the criteria in cell G2.
Summing Values Based on a Different Range
The following formula returns the sum of the past-due invoice amounts (in column C):
=SUMIF(Difference,”<0”,Amount)
This formula uses the values in the Difference range to determine whether the corresponding
values in the Amount range contribute to the sum.
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Summing Values Based on a Text Comparison
The following formula returns the total invoice amounts for the Oregon office:
=SUMIF(Office,”=Oregon”,Amount)
Using the equal sign in the argument is optional. The following formula has the same result:
=SUMIF(Office,”Oregon”,Amount)
To sum the invoice amounts for all offices except Oregon, use this formula:
=SUMIF(Office,”<>Oregon”,Amount)
Summing Values Based on a Date Comparison
The following formula returns the total invoice amounts that have a due date after May 1, 2010:
=SUMIF(DateDue,”>=”&DATE(2010,5,1),Amount)
Notice that the second argument for the SUMIF function is an expression. The expression uses
the DATE function, which returns a date. Also, the comparison operator, enclosed in quotes, is
concatenated (using the & operator) with the result of the DATE function.
The formula that follows returns the total invoice amounts that have a future due date (including
today):
=SUMIF(DateDue,”>=”&TODAY(),Amount)
Conditional Sums Using Multiple Criteria
The examples in the preceding section all used a single comparison criterion. The examples in
this section involve summing cells based on multiple criteria.
Figure 17-14 shows the sample worksheet again, for your reference. The worksheet also shows the
result of several formulas that demonstrate summing by using multiple criteria.
Using And Criteria
Suppose that you want to get a sum of the invoice amounts that are past due and associated with
the Oregon office. In other words, the value in the Amount range will be summed only if both
of the following criteria are met:
l
The corresponding value in the Difference range is negative.
l
The corresponding text in the Office range is Oregon.
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If the worksheet won’t be used by anyone running a version prior to Excel 2007, the following
formula does the job:
=SUMIFS(Amount,Difference,”<0”,Office,”Oregon”)
F IGURE 17-14
This worksheet demonstrates summing based on multiple criteria.
The array formula that follows returns the same result and will work in all versions of Excel:
{=SUM((Difference<0)*(Office=”Oregon”)*Amount)}
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Using Or Criteria
Suppose that you want to get a sum of past-due invoice amounts or ones associated with the
Oregon office. In other words, the value in the Amount range will be summed if either of the
following criteria is met:
l
The corresponding value in the Difference range is negative.
l
The corresponding text in the Office range is Oregon.
This example requires an array formula:
{=SUM(IF((Office=”Oregon”)+(Difference<0),1,0)*Amount)}
A plus sign (+) joins the conditions; you can include more than two conditions.
Using And and Or Criteria
As you may expect, things get a bit tricky when your criteria consist of both And and Or operations. For example, you may want to sum the values in the Amount range when both of the following conditions are met:
l
The corresponding value in the Difference range is negative.
l
The corresponding text in the Office range is Oregon or California.
Notice that the second condition actually consists of two conditions joined with Or. The following array formula does the trick:
{=SUM((Difference<0)*IF((Office=”Oregon”)+
(Office=”California”),1)*Amount)}
Summary
This chapter provided valuable tips and tricks that will assist in creating formulas that handle
particular counting and summing operations in a worksheet. Applying any of the previous examples covered here will save you significant time while making our worksheets into more powerful
business tools.
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CH APTER
Getting Started Making
Charts
W
hen most people think of Excel, they think of crunching rows
and columns of numbers. But as you probably know already,
Excel is no slouch when it comes to presenting data visually in
the form of a chart. In fact, Excel is probably the most commonly used software for creating charts.
This chapter presents an introductory overview of the Excel program’s
charting ability.
Note
IN THIS CHAPTER
Exploring charting in Excel
Understanding how Excel
handles charts
Using embedded charts versus
chart sheets
Reviewing the parts of a chart
One of the new features in Excel 2010 is sparklines. A sparkline is a minichart that’s displayed in a single cell. Because this feature is significantly
different from standard charts, I devote a significant portion of Chapter 19
to sparklines. n
Seeing some chart examples
What Is a Chart?
A chart is a visual representation of numerical values. Charts (also known
as graphs) have been an integral part of spreadsheets since the early days
of Lotus 1-2-3. Charts generated by early spreadsheet products were quite
rudimentary, but they have improved significantly over the years. Excel
provides you with the tools to create a wide variety of highly customizable charts.
Displaying data in a well-conceived chart can make your numbers more
understandable. Because a chart presents a picture, charts are particularly
useful for summarizing a series of numbers and their interrelationships.
Making a chart can often help you spot trends and patterns that may
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otherwise go unnoticed. If you’re unfamiliar with the elements of a chart, see the sidebar later in
this chapter, “Parts of a Chart.”
Figure 18-1 shows a worksheet that contains a simple column chart that depicts a company’s
sales volume by month. Viewing the chart makes it very apparent that sales were down in the
summer months (June through August), but they increased steadily during the final four months
of the year. You could, of course, arrive at this same conclusion simply by studying the numbers.
But viewing the chart makes the point much more quickly.
FIGURE 18-1
A simple column chart depicts the monthly sales volume.
A column chart is just one of many different types of charts that you can create with Excel. I
discuss all chart types later in this chapter so that you can make the right choice for your data.
Understanding How Excel Handles Charts
Before you can create a chart, you must have some numbers — sometimes known as data. The
data, of course, is stored in the cells in a worksheet. Normally, the data that a chart uses resides
in a single worksheet, but that’s not a strict requirement. A chart can use data that’s stored in a
different worksheet or even in a different workbook.
A chart is essentially an object that Excel creates upon request. This object consists of one or
more data series, displayed graphically. The appearance of the data series depends on the selected
chart type. For example, if you create a line chart that uses two data series, the chart contains
two lines, each representing one data series. The data for each series is stored in a separate row or
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column. Each point on the line is determined by the value in a single cell and is represented by
a marker. You can distinguish each of the lines by its thickness, line style, color, or data markers
(squares, circles, etc.).
Figure 18-2 shows a line chart that plots two data series across a 12-month period. Different data
markers are used (squares versus circles) to identify the two series, as shown in the legend at the
bottom of the chart. The chart clearly shows that the sales in the Eastern Region are declining
steadily, while Western Region sales are relatively constant.
FIGURE 18-2
This line chart displays two data series.
A key point to keep in mind is that charts are dynamic. In other words, a chart series is linked
to the data in your worksheet. If the data changes, the chart is automatically updated to reflect
the changes.
After you create a chart, you can always change its type, change the formatting, add new data
series to it, or change an existing data series so that it uses data in a different range.
A chart is either embedded in a worksheet or displayed on a separate chart sheet. It’s very easy to
move an embedded chart to a chart sheet (and vice versa).
Embedded Charts
An embedded chart basically floats on top of a worksheet, on the worksheet’s drawing layer. The
charts shown previously in this chapter are both embedded charts.
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As with other drawing objects (such as Shapes or SmartArt), you can move an embedded chart,
resize it, change its proportions, adjust its borders, and perform other operations. Using embedded
charts enables you to print the chart next to the data that it uses.
To make any changes to the actual chart in an embedded chart object, you must click on it to
activate the chart. When a chart is activated, Excel displays the Chart Tools context tab. The
Ribbon provides many tools for working with charts.
With one exception, every chart starts out as an embedded chart. The exception is when you
create a default chart by selecting the data and pressing F11. In that case, a column chart using
default settings is immediately created on a chart sheet.
Chart Sheets
When a chart is on a chart sheet, you view it by clicking on its sheet tab. Chart sheets and
worksheets can be interspersed in a workbook.
To move an embedded chart to a chart sheet, click on the chart to select it, and then choose
Chart Tools Í Design Í Location Í Move Chart. Excel displays the Move Chart dialog box,
shown in Figure 18-3. Select the New Sheet option and provide a name for the chart sheet (or
accept Excel’s default name). Click OK, and the chart is moved, and the new chart sheet is
activated.
FIGURE 18-3
The Move Chart dialog box lets you move a chart to a chart sheet.
Tip
This operation also works in the opposite direction: You can select a chart on a chart sheet and relocate it
to a worksheet as an embedded chart. In the Move Chart dialog box, choose Object In, and then select the
worksheet from the drop-down list. n
When you place a chart on a chart sheet, the chart occupies the entire sheet. If you plan to print a
chart on a page by itself, using a chart sheet is often your better choice. If you have many charts,
you may want to put each one on a separate chart sheet to avoid cluttering your worksheet. This
technique also makes locating a particular chart easier because you can change the names of the
chart sheets’ tabs to provide a description of the chart that it contains.
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The Excel Ribbon changes when a chart sheet is active, similar to the way it changes when you
select an embedded chart.
Excel displays a chart in a chart sheet in WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) mode: The
printed chart looks just like the image on the chart sheet. If the chart doesn’t fit in the window,
you can use the scroll bars to scroll it or adjust the zoom factor. You also can change its orientation (tall or wide) by choosing Page Layout Í Page Setup Í Orientation.
Parts of a Chart
Refer to the accompanying chart as you read the following description of the chart’s elements.
The particular chart is a combination chart that displays two data series: Calls and Sales. Calls are plotted
as vertical columns, and the Sales are plotted as a line with square markers. Each column (or marker on
the line) represents a single data point (the value in a cell). The chart data is stored in the range A1:C7.
It has a horizontal axis, known as the category axis. This axis represents the category for each data point
(January, February, etc.).
It has two vertical axes, known as value axes, and each one has a different scale. The axis on the left is
for the columns (Calls), and the axis on the right is for the line (Sales).
The value axes also display scale values. The axis on the left displays scale values from 0 to 1,400, in major
unit increments of 200. The value axis on the right uses a different scale: 0 to 120, in increments of 20.
continued
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continued
A chart with two value axes is appropriate because the two data series vary dramatically in scale. If the
Sales data was plotted using the left axis, the line would barely be visible.
Most charts provide some method of identifying the data series or data points. A legend, for example,
is often used to identify the various series in a chart. In this example, the legend appears on the bottom
of the chart. Some charts also display data labels to identify specific data points. This chart displays data
labels for the Calls series, but not for the Sales series. In addition, most charts (including the example
chart) contain a chart title and additional labels to identify the axes or categories.
It also contains horizontal grid lines (which correspond to the left value axis). Grid lines are basically
extensions of the value axis scale, which makes it easier for the viewer to determine the magnitude of
the data points.
All charts have a chart area (the entire background area of the chart) and a plot area. The plot area shows
the actual chart, and in this example, the plot area has a different background color.
Charts can have additional parts or fewer parts, depending on the chart type. For example, a pie chart
has slices and no axes. A three-dimensional (3-D) chart may have walls and a floor. You can also add
many other types of items to a chart. For example, you can add a trend line or display error bars. In other
words, after you create a chart, you have a great deal of flexibility in customizing the chart.
Creating a Chart
Creating a chart is fairly simple:
1. Make sure that your data is appropriate for a chart.
2. Select the range that contains your data.
3. Choose Insert Í Charts, select a chart type, and then click a subtype. Excel creates
the chart and places it in the center of the window.
4. (Optional) Use the commands in the Chart Tools contextual tabs to change the look
or layout of the chart or add or delete chart elements.
Tip
You can create a chart with a single keystroke. Select the range to be used in the chart and then press Alt+F1
(for an embedded chart) or F11 (for a chart on a chart sheet). Excel displays the chart of the selected data,
using the default chart type. The default chart type is a column chart; however, you can customize this. Start
by creating a chart of the type that you want to be the default type. Select a chart and choose Chart Tools
Í Design Í Type Í Change Chart Type. In the Change Chart Type dialog box, select the type you’d like as
default, and then click the Set As Default Chart button. n
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Hands On: Creating and Customizing
a Chart
This section contains a step-by-step example of creating a chart and applying some customizations.
If you’ve never created a chart, this is a good opportunity to get a feel for how it works.
Figure 18-4 shows a worksheet with a range of data. This data is customer survey results by
month, broken down by customers in three age groups. In this case, the data resides in a table
(created by choosing Insert Í Tables Í Table), but that’s not a requirement to create a chart.
FIGURE 18-4
The source data for the hands-on chart example.
Selecting the Data
The first step is to select the data for the chart. Your selection should include such items as labels
and series identifiers (row and column headings). For this example, select the range A4:D10. This
range includes the category labels but not the title (which is in A1).
Tip
If your chart data is in a table (or is in a rectangular range separated from other data), you can select just a
single cell. Excel will usually select the range for the chart accurately (i.e., the entire table). n
Note
The data that you use in a chart doesn’t need to be in contiguous cells. You can press Ctrl and make a multiple selection. The initial data, however, must be on a single worksheet. If you need to plot data that exists on
more than one worksheet, you can add more series after the chart is created. In all cases, however, data for a
single chart series must reside on one sheet. n
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Choosing a Chart Type
After you select the data, select a chart type from the Insert Í Charts group. Each control in this
group is a drop-down list, which lets you further refine your choice by selecting a subtype.
For this example, choose Insert Í Charts Í Column Í Clustered Column. In other words,
you’re creating a column chart, using the clustered column subtype. Excel displays the chart
shown in Figure 18-5.
FIGURE 18-5
A clustered column chart.
You can move the chart by dragging any of its borders. You can also resize it by dragging one of
its corners.
Experimenting with Different Layouts
The chart looks pretty good, but it’s just one of several predefined layouts for a clustered column
chart.
To see some other configurations for the chart, select the chart and apply a few other layouts in
the Chart Tools Í Design Í Chart Layouts group.
Note
Every chart type has a set of layouts that you can choose from. A layout contains additional chart elements,
such as a title, data labels, axes, and so on. You can add your own elements to your chart, but often, using a
predefined layout saves time. Even if the layout isn’t exactly what you want, it may be close enough that you
need to make only a few adjustments. n
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Figure 18-6 shows the chart after selecting a layout that adds a chart title and moves the legend
to the bottom. The chart title is a text element that you can select and edit (the figure shows the
generic title). For this example, Customer Satisfaction by Age Group would be a good title.
FIGURE 18-6
The chart, after selecting a different layout.
Tip
You can link the chart title to a cell so the title always displays the contents of a particular cell. To create a
link to a cell, click on the chart title, type an equal sign (=), click on the cell, and press Enter. Excel displays
the link in the Formula bar. In the example, the content of cell A1 is perfect for the chart title. n
Experiment with the Chart Tools Í Layout tab to make other changes to the chart. For example,
you can remove the grid lines, add axis titles, relocate the legend, and so on. Making these
changes is easy and fairly intuitive.
Trying Another View of the Data
The chart, at this point, shows six clusters (months) of three data points in each (age groups).
Would the data be easier to understand if you plotted the information in the opposite way?
Try it. Select the chart and then choose Chart Tools Í Design Í Data Í Switch Row/Column.
Figure 18-7 shows the result of this change. This chart also utilizes a different layout, which provides more separation between the three clusters.
Note
The orientation of the data has a drastic effect on the look of your chart. Excel has its own rules that it uses
to determine the initial data orientation when you create a chart. If Excel’s orientation doesn’t match your
expectation, it’s easy enough to change. n
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FIGURE 18-7
The chart, after changing the row and column orientation and choosing a different layout.
The chart with this new orientation reveals information that wasn’t so apparent in the original
version. The <30 and 30–49 age groups both show a decline in satisfaction for March and April.
The 50+ age group didn’t have this problem, however.
Trying Other Chart Types
Although a clustered column chart seems to work well for this data, there’s no harm in checking out some other chart types. Choose Design Í Type Í Change Chart Type to experiment
with other chart types. This command displays the Change Chart Type dialog box, shown in
Figure 18-8. The main categories are listed on the left, and the subtypes are shown as icons.
Select an icon and click OK, and Excel displays the chart using the new chart type. If you don’t
like the result, select Undo.
Tip
You can also change the chart type by selecting the chart and using the controls in the Insert Í Charts
group. n
Figure 18-9 shows a few different chart type options using the customer satisfaction data.
Trying Other Chart Styles
If you’d like to try some of the prebuilt chart styles, select the chart and choose Chart Tools Í
Design Í Chart Styles gallery. You’ll find an amazing selection of different colors and effects, all
available with a single mouse click.
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FIGURE 18-8
Use this dialog box to change the chart type.
FIGURE 18-9
The customer satisfaction chart, using four different chart types.
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Tip
The styles displayed in the gallery depend on the workbook’s theme. When you choose Page Layout Í
Themes Í Themes to apply a different theme, you’ll have a new selection of chart styles designed for the
selected theme. n
Working with Charts
This section covers some common chart modifications:
l
Resizing and moving charts
l
Copying a chart
l
Deleting a chart
l
Adding chart elements
l
Moving and deleting chart elements
l
Formatting chart elements
l
Printing charts
Note
Before you can modify a chart, the chart must be activated. To activate an embedded chart, click on it. Doing
so activates the chart and also selects the element that you click. To activate a chart on a chart sheet, just
click on its sheet tab. n
Resizing a Chart
If your chart is embedded, you can freely resize it with your mouse. Click on the chart’s border.
Handles (gray dots) appear on the chart’s corners and edges. When the mouse pointer turns into
a double arrow, click and drag to resize the chart.
When a chart is selected, choose Chart Tools Í Format Í Size to adjust the height and width
of the chart. Use the spinners, or type the dimensions directly into the Height and Width
controls.
Moving a Chart
To move a chart to a different location on a worksheet, click on the chart and drag one of its borders. You can use standard cut-and-paste techniques to move an embedded chart. In fact, this
is the only way to move an embedded chart from one worksheet to another. Select the chart and
choose Home Í Clipboard Í Cut (or press Ctrl+X). Then activate a cell near the desired location
and choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste (or press Ctrl+V). The new location can be in a different
worksheet or even in a different workbook. If you paste the chart to a different workbook, it will
be linked to the data in the original workbook.
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To move an embedded chart to a chart sheet (or vice versa), select the chart and choose Chart
Tools Í Design Í Location Í Move Chart to display the Move Chart dialog box. Choose New
Sheet, and provide a name for the chart sheet (or use the Excel-proposed name).
Copying a Chart
To make an exact copy of an embedded chart on the same worksheet, activate the chart, press
and hold the Ctrl key, and drag. Release the mouse button, and a new copy of the chart is created.
To make a copy of a chart sheet, use the same procedure, but drag the chart sheet’s tab.
You also can use standard copy-and-paste techniques to copy a chart. Select the chart (an embedded chart or a chart sheet) and choose Home Í Clipboard Í Copy (or press Ctrl+C). Then activate a cell near the desired location and choose Home Í Clipboard Í Paste (or press Ctrl+V).
The new location can be in a different worksheet or even in a different workbook. If you paste the
chart to a different workbook, it will be linked to the data in the original workbook.
Deleting a Chart
To delete an embedded chart, press Ctrl and click on the chart (to select the chart as an object).
Then press Delete. When the Ctrl key is pressed, you can select multiple charts and then delete
them all with a single press of the Delete key.
To delete a chart sheet, right-click on its sheet tab and choose Delete from the shortcut menu. To
delete multiple chart sheets, select them by pressing Ctrl while you click the sheet tabs.
Adding Chart Elements
To add new elements to a chart (such as a title, legend, data labels, or gridlines), use the controls
on the Chart Tools Í Layout tab. These controls are arranged into logical groups, and they all
display a drop-down list of options.
Moving and Deleting Chart Elements
Some elements within a chart can be moved: titles, legend, and data labels. To move a chart
element, simply click on it to select it. Then drag its border.
The easiest way to delete a chart element is to select it and then press Delete. You can also use the
controls on the Chart Tools Í Layout tab to turn off the display of a particular chart element. For
example, to delete data labels, choose Chart Tools Í Layout Í Labels Í Data Labels Í None.
Note
A few chart elements consist of multiple objects. For example, the data labels element consists of one label
for each data point. To move or delete one data label, click once to select the entire element, and then click a
second time to select the specific data label. You can then move or delete the single data label. n
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Formatting Chart Elements
Many users are content to stick with the predefined chart layouts and chart styles. For more
precise customizations, Excel allows you to work with individual chart elements and apply additional formatting. You can use the Ribbon commands for some modifications, but the easiest way
to format chart elements is to right-click on the element and choose Format from the shortcut
menu. The exact command depends on the element you select. For example, if you right-click on
the chart’s title, the shortcut menu command is Format Chart Title.
The Format command displays a stay-on-top tabbed dialog box with options for the selected
element. Changes that you make are displayed immediately, but in some cases you need to
deactivate the control by pressing Tab to move to the next control. You can keep this dialog box
displayed while you work on the chart. When you select a new chart element, the dialog box
changes to display the properties for the newly selected element.
Note
In Excel 2007, the designers removed the ability to double-click on a chart element to display the corresponding Format dialog box. In response to user complaints, double-clicking on a chart element has been reinstated
in Excel 2010. n
Figure 18-10 shows the Format Axis dialog box, which is displayed by right-clicking on the vertical axis and selecting Format Axis from the shortcut menu — or by simply double-clicking on
the vertical axis.
Tip
If you apply formatting to a chart element and decide that it wasn’t such a good idea, you can revert to the
original formatting for the particular chart style. Right-click on the chart element, and choose Reset to Match
Style from the shortcut menu. To reset the entire chart, select the chart area when you issue the command. n
Printing Charts
Printing embedded charts is nothing special — you print them the same way that you print a
worksheet. As long as you include the embedded chart in the range that you want to print, Excel
prints the chart as it appears onscreen. When printing a sheet that contains embedded charts, it’s a
good idea to preview first (or use Page Layout view) to ensure that your charts do not span multiple
pages. If you created the chart on a chart sheet, Excel always prints the chart on a page by itself.
Tip
If you activate an embedded chart and choose File Í Print and then click the Print button, Excel prints the
chart on a page by itself and does not print the worksheet. n
If you don’t want a particular embedded chart to appear on your printout, use the Properties tab
of the Format Chart Area dialog box. To display this dialog box, double-click on the background
area of the chart. In the Properties tab of the Format Chart Area dialog box, clear the Print
Object checkbox.
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FIGURE 18-10
Each chart element has a formatting dialog box. This one is used to format a chart axis.
Understanding Chart Types
People who create charts usually do so to make a point or to communicate a specific message.
Often, the message is explicitly stated in the chart’s title or in text contained within the chart.
The chart itself provides visual support.
Choosing the correct chart type is often a key factor in the effectiveness of the message.
Therefore, it’s often well worth your time to experiment with various chart types to determine
which one conveys your message best.
In almost every case, the underlying message in a chart is some type of comparison. Examples of
some general types of comparisons include the following:
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Compare Item to Other Items. A chart may compare sales in each of a company’s sales
regions.
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Compare Data over Time. A chart may display sales by month and indicate trends
over time.
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l
Make Relative Comparisons. A common pie chart can depict relative proportions in
terms of pie “slices.”
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Compare Data Relationships. An XY chart is ideal for this comparison. For example,
you might show the relationship between marketing expenditures and sales.
l
Frequency Comparison. You can use a common histogram, for example, to display the
number (or percentage) of students who scored within a particular grade range.
l
Identify “Outliers” or Unusual Situations. If you have thousands of data points,
creating a chart may help identify data that is not representative.
Choosing a Chart Type
A common question among Excel users is, “How do I know which chart type to use for my data?”
Unfortunately, this question has no cut-and-dried answer. Perhaps the best answer is a vague
one: “Use the chart type that gets your message across in the simplest way.”
Figure 18-11 shows the same set of data plotted by using six different chart types. Although all
six charts represent the same information (monthly “Website Visitors”), it looks quite different
from one chart to another.
The column chart (upper left) is probably the best choice for this particular set of data because
it clearly shows the information for each month in discrete units. The bar chart (upper right) is
similar to a column chart, but the axes are swapped. Most people are more accustomed to seeing
time-based information extend from left to right rather than from top to bottom.
The line chart (middle left) may not be the best choice because it seems to imply that the data is
continuous — that points exist in between the 12 actual data points. This same argument may be
made against using an area chart (middle right).
The pie chart (lower left) is simply too confusing and does nothing to convey the time-based
nature of the data. Pie charts are most appropriate for a data series in which you want to emphasize proportions among a relatively small number of data points. If you have too many data
points, a pie chart can be impossible to interpret.
The radar chart (lower right) is clearly inappropriate for this data. People aren’t accustomed to
viewing time-based information in a circular direction!
Fortunately, changing a chart’s type is easy, so you can experiment with various chart types until
you find the one that represents your data accurately, clearly, and as simply as possible.
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F IGURE 18-11
The same data plotted using six different chart types.
Summary
This chapter introduced Excel charts, including the differences between embedded charts and
separate chart sheets, and parts of a chart. You learned how to create a chart; move, resize, and
copy a chart; and how to work with chart elements. For many uses, the information in this chapter is sufficient to create a wide variety of charts.
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CH APTER
Communicating Data
Visually
T
his chapter explores conditional formatting, one of Excel’s most
versatile features. You can apply conditional formatting to a cell so
that the cell looks different, depending on its contents. Microsoft
made significant enhancements to conditional formatting in Excel 2007,
and it’s now a useful tool for visualizing numerical data. You’ll find a few
more conditional formatting improvements in Excel 2010.
This chapter also introduces sparklines and presents examples that demonstrate how they can be used in your worksheets. A sparkline looks like
a small chart within a single cell.
IN THIS CHAPTER
Understanding Excel’s
Conditional Formatting
feature
Using the graphical conditional
formats
Using conditional formatting
formulas
About Conditional Formatting
Reviewing tips for using
conditional formatting
Conditional formatting enables you to apply cell formatting selectively and
automatically, based on the contents of the cells. For example, you can set
things up so that all negative values in a range have a light-yellow background color. When you enter or change a value in the range, Excel examines
the value and checks the conditional formatting rules for the cell. If the value
is negative, the background is shaded. If not, no formatting is applied.
Introducing the new sparklines
graphics feature
Conditional formatting is a useful way to quickly identify erroneous cell
entries or cells of a particular type. You can use a format (such as bright-red
cell shading) to make particular cells easy to identify.
Making a sparkline display
only the most recent data
Adding sparklines to a
worksheet
Customizing sparklines
Figure 19-1 shows a worksheet with nine ranges, each with a different type
of conditional formatting rule applied. Here’s a brief explanation of each:
l
Greater than 10. Values greater than 10 are highlighted with a
different background color. This rule is just one of many numeric
value related rules that you can apply.
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l
Above Average. Values that are higher than the average value are highlighted.
l
Duplicate Values. Values that appear more than one time are highlighted.
l
Words that Contain X. If the cell contains X (upper- or lowercase), the cell is highlighted.
l
Data Bars. Each cell displays a horizontal bar, proportional to its value.
l
Color Scale. The background color varies, depending on the value of the cells. You can
choose from several different color scales or create your own.
l
Icon Set. One of several icon sets. It displays a small graphic in the cell. The graphic
varies, depending on the cell value.
l
Icon Set. Another icon set, with all but one icon hidden.
l
Custom Rule. The rule for this checkerboard pattern is based on a formula:
=MOD(ROW(),2)=MOD(COLUMN(),2)
FIGURE 19-1
This worksheet demonstrates a few conditional formatting rules.
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Specifying Conditional Formatting
To apply a conditional formatting rule to a cell or range, select the cells and then use one of the
commands from the Home Í Styles Í Conditional Formatting drop-down list to specify a rule.
The choices are as follows:
l
Highlight Cell Rules. Example rules include highlighting cells that are greater than
a particular value, between two values, contain specific text string, a date, or have
duplicate values.
l
Top Bottom Rules. Examples include highlighting the top 10 items, the items in the
bottom 20 percent, and items that are above average.
l
Data Bars. Applies graphic bars directly in the cells, proportional to the cell’s value.
l
Color Scales. Applies background color, proportional to the cell’s value.
l
Icon Sets. Displays icons directly in the cells. The icons depend on the cell’s value.
l
New Rule. Enables you to specify other conditional formatting rules, including rules
based on a logical formula.
l
Clear Rules. Deletes all the conditional formatting rules from the selected cells.
l
Manage Rules. Displays the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager dialog box, in
which you create new conditional formatting rules, edit rules, or delete rules.
Excel 2010 Improvements
If you’ve used conditional formatting in Excel 2007, you’ll find several improvements in Excel 2010:
l
Data bars display proportionally.
l
Data bars can display in a solid color with a border. Previously, data bars were displayed with
a gradient.
l
Data bars handle negative values much better.
l
You can specify minimum and maximum values for data bars.
l
You can create customized icon sets.
l
Hiding one or more icons in an icon set is easy.
Formatting Types You Can Apply
When you select a conditional formatting rule, Excel displays a dialog box specific to that rule.
These dialog boxes have one thing in a common: a drop-down list with common formatting
suggestions.
Figure 19-2 shows the dialog box that appears when you choose Home Í Styles Í Conditional
Formatting Í Highlight Cells Rules Í Between. This particular rule applies the formatting if
the value in the cell falls between two specified values. In this case, you enter the two values
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(or specify cell references) and then use choices from the drop-down list to set the type of formatting to display if the condition is met.
FIGURE 19-2
One of several different conditional formatting dialog boxes.
The formatting suggestions in the drop-down list are just a few of thousands of different formatting
combinations. If none of Excel’s suggestions are what you want, choose the Custom Format option
to display the Format Cells dialog box. You can specify the format in any or all of the four tabs:
Number, Font, Border, and Fill.
Note
The Format Cells dialog box used for conditional formatting is a modified version of the standard Format Cells
dialog box. It doesn’t have the Alignment and Protection tabs, and some of the Font formatting options are
disabled. The dialog box also includes a Clear button that clears any formatting already selected. n
Making Your Own Rules
For do-it-yourself types, Excel provides the New Formatting Rule dialog box, shown in Figure 19-3.
Access this dialog box by choosing Home Í Styles Í Conditional Formatting Í New Rules.
Use the New Formatting Rule dialog box to re-create all the conditional format rules available
via the Ribbon, as well as new rules. First, select a general rule type from the list at the top of
the dialog box. The bottom part of the dialog box varies, depending on your selection at the top.
After you specify the rule, click the Format button to specify the type of formatting to apply if the
condition is met. An exception is the first rule type, which doesn’t have a Format button (it uses
graphics rather than cell formatting).
Here is a summary of the rule types:
l
Format All Cells Based on Their Values. Use this rule type to create rules that display
data bars, color scales, or icon sets.
l
Format Only Cells That Contain. Use this rule type to create rules that format cells
based on mathematical comparisons (greater than, less than, greater than or equal to,
less than or equal to, equal to, not equal to, between, not between). You can also create
rules based on text, dates, blanks, non-blanks, and errors. This rule type is very similar
to how conditional formatting was set up in previous versions of Excel.
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l
Format Only Top or Bottom Ranked Values. Use this rule type to create rules that
involve identifying cells in the top n, top n percent, bottom n, and bottom n percent.
l
Format Only Values That Are Above or Below Average. Use this rule type to create
rules that identify cells that are above average, below average, or within a specified
standard deviation from the average.
l
Format Only Unique or Duplicate Values. Use this rule type to create rules that
format unique or duplicate values in a range.
l
Use a Formula to Determine Which Cells to Format. Use this rule type to create rules
based on a logical formula. See “Creating Formula-Based Rules,” later in this chapter.
FIGURE 19-3
Use the New Formatting Rule dialog box to create your own conditional formatting rules.
Conditional Formats That Use Graphics
This section describes the three conditional formatting options that display graphics: data bars,
color scales, and icon sets. These types of conditional formatting can be useful for visualizing the
values in a range.
Using Data Bars
The data bars conditional format displays horizontal bars directly in the cell. The length of the
bar is based on the value of the cell, relative to the other values in the range.
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Note
The Data Bars feature has improved significantly in Excel 2010. Data bars now display proportionally (just like
a bar chart), and there is now an option to display data bars in a solid color (no more forced color gradient) and
with a border. In addition, negative values can now display in a different color, and appear left of an axis. n
A Simple Data Bar
Figure 19-4 shows an example of data bars. It’s a list of tracks on Bob Dylan albums, with the
length of each track in column D. I applied data bar conditional formatting to the values in
column D. You can tell at a glance which tracks are longer.
FIGURE 19-4
The length of the data bars is proportional to the track length in the cell in column D.
Tip
When you adjust the column width, the bar lengths adjust accordingly. The differences among the bar lengths
are more prominent when the column is wider. n
Excel provides quick access to 12 data bar styles via Home Í Styles Í Conditional Formatting
Í Data Bars. For additional choices, click the More Rules option, which displays the New
Formatting Rule dialog box. Use this dialog box to
l
Show the bar only (hide the numbers).
l
Specify Minimum and Maximum values for the scaling.
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l
Change the appearance of the bars.
l
Specify how negative values and the axis are handled.
l
Specify the direction of the bars.
Note
Oddly, the colors used for data bars are not theme colors. If you apply a new document theme, the data bar
colors do not change. n
Using Data Bars in Lieu of a Chart
Using data bars conditional formatting can sometimes serve as a quick alternative to creating a
chart. Figure 19-5 shows a three-column table of data (created by using Insert Í Tables Í Table),
with data bars conditional formatting applied in the third column. The third column of the table
contains references to the values in the second column. The conditional formatting in the third
column uses the Show Bars Only option, so the values are not displayed.
FIGURE 19-5
This table uses data bars conditional formatting.
Figure 19-6 shows an actual bar chart created from the same data. The bar chart takes about the
same amount of time to create and is a lot more flexible. But for a qu