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US005467288A
United States Patent 1191
[11]
Patent Number:
Fasciano et al.
[45]
Date of Patent:
5,467,288
Nov. 14, 1995
[54]
DIGITAL AUDIO WORKSTATIONS
PROVIDING DIGITAL STORAGE ANI)
DISPLAY 011* VIDEO INFORMATION'
5,111,409
5,121,470
5,151,998
5/ 1992 Gasper et al. ........................ .. 395/ 154
6/1992 Trautman
.. 395/140
9/1992 Capps ........ _.
395/800
5,202,961
4/1993 Mills et a1. .
.. 395/159
[75]
Inventors: Peter J. Fasciano, Natick, Mass.; Curt
5’204’969
4/1993 Capps et a1"
" 395,800
A Rawle
R’ H
-
Windham NH _ Thomas
3121
egg’
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cw
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or e
-
-’
,
ac “me
Leéthurbye Newton; Jeifl‘ey L- Bede",
Arlmgton, both of Mass.; James ARavan, Jr., Nashua, NH.
[73]
[22]
5,220,611
6/1993 Nakamura et al. .
5,227,892
7/1993 Lince ........... ..
5,249,289
9/1993
Thamm et a1
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
0322100 611989
0390048 10/1990
European Pa 011 .
European Pat. o1r..
0526064
2/1993
European Pat. Off. .
App1_ No; 45,658
2235815
3/1991
United Kingdom .
2245745
l/1992
United Kingdom .
WO88/02958
4/1988
WIPO .
WO9l/03053
3/1991
WIPO .
Apr. 9, 1993
R
elmd
.. 395/600
5,274,758 12/1993 Boitel et a1. .......................... .. 395/154
5,343,451 8/1993 lizuka .................................... .. 395/600
-
Assignee: Avid Technology, Inc., Tewksbury,
Mass-
Filed:
381/48
358/335
U. .
'
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S Apphcatm“
Data
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
[63] gfallltfitgrllzt‘iion'in'pm of Ser‘ No‘ 861052’ Apr‘ 10’ 1992’
S. Ades et al., “Voice Annotation and Editing in a Worksta
tion Environment”, Proceedings Avios ’86, Voice I/O Sys
'
[51] Int. Cl.6 .................................................... .. G06F 17/00
[52] US. Cl. ....................................................... .. 364/514 R
[58] Field Of Search ........................... .. 364/514; 395/152,
tems Applications Conference, Sep. 16-18, 1986, pp. 13-28.
L,
_
d
( ‘St comm“ 0“ me“ Page)
395/154; 360/8’ 14-1’ 143
References Cited
Primary Examiner-Ellis B. Ramirez
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wolf, Green?eld & Sacks
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
[57]
ABSTRACT
3 787 617
1/1974 Fiori ..................................... .. 360/143
The inventi‘m dimmed herein is a digital audio workstation
4,067,049
4,214,273
1,1978 Kocy et a1. '
7/1930 Hunt et aI ,_
for the audio portions of video programs. It combines audio
editing capability with the ability to immediately display
360/143
360/14
4,249,218
,2/1981 Davis et a1.
4,251,688
2/1981
Furner . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .. 179/1
360/13
tion detects an operator’s indication of a point or segment of
4,375,083
4,641,253
2/1933 Maxemchak
2,1937 Ma§m ---- --
-- 364/900
-- 395/154
audio information and uses it to retrieve and display the
video images that correspond to the indicated audio pro
4’868’687
EDt?lPger "
9,1989 psgtllsetzlm'
360/13
gramming. Another aspect of the invention is a labeling and
notation system for recorded digitized audio or video infor
4,937,685
6/1990 Barker et 61:. ........................ ..m360/14.1
mati‘m- The System Pnwides a means of Storing in associa'
4:945:566
4,956,806
7/1990 Mergel et a1. .......................... .. 381/41
9/1990 cmwe er a1_
_ 364/900
tion with a Particular Point Of the audio or videO information
a digitized voice or textual message for later reference
4,974,178 11/1990 Izeki et al. ..
5,033,804
7/1991
video images associated with the audio program. The inven
364/523
Fan's .......... ..
regarding that information.
312/72
5,045,940 9/1991 Peters et al.
364/514
5,065,345 11/1991 Knowles et a1. ...................... .. 395/154
m1’,
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DISKlSl
5,467,288
Page 2
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
D. C. Swinehart et al., “An Experimental Environment for
Voice System Development”, no date.
P. V. Rangan et al., “A Window-Based Editor for Digital
Video and Audio”, no date.
Rangan et al.; “Window-Based Editor for Digital Video and
Audio”; IEEE Jan. 7-10, 1992.
Kirby et al.; “The Exploitation and Realization of a Random
Access Digital Audio Editor,” IEEE 1988.
Little et al.; “Multimedia Object Models for Synchroniza
tion and Databases.” IEE Feb. 5-9, 1990.
Sakata; “Development and Evaluation of an In-House Mul
timedia Desktop Conference System.” IEEE Apr. 1990.
“Volume History Display For A Personal Computer Audio
Editor”, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 30, No. 10,
Mar. 1988, New York, pp. 355-356.
“Three-Level Audio Object Display For A Personal Com—
puter Audio Editor”, IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin,
vol. 30, No. 10, Mar. 1988, New York, pp. 351-353.
Kn'eg, P., “Multimedia-Computer und die Zukunft des Film!
Videoschnitts,” Femseh Und Kino-Technik, 45 J ahrqana—
Nr. 5, pp. 252-254 (1991).
Mark Schubin, “The Rise of Random Access,” Videography
(Aug. 1989) pp. 25-32.
Gould, “Speech Filing-An Of?ce System For Principles”,
IBM System Journal, vol. 23, No. 1, 1984.
Ruiz, “Voice and Telephony Applications For The Office
Workstation”, IEEE 1985.
Terry, “Managing Stored voice in the Etherphone System”,
ACM 1986.
Mackay et al., “Virtual Video Editing In Interactive Multi
media Applications”, ACM 1989.
US. Patent
Nov. 14, 1995
Sheet 6 of 10
5,467,288
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Sheet 7 of 10
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Nov. 14, 1995
Sheet 8 of 10
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Nov. 14,1995
Sheet 9 0f 10
5,467,288
CLIP DRAGGEDm
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Nov. 14, 1995
Sheet 10 0f 10
5,467,288
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5,467,288
1
2
DIGITAL AUDIO WORKSTATIONS
PROVIDING DIGITAL STORAGE AND
DISPLAY OF VIDEO INFORMATION
any case much less than the one-thirtieth of a second for a
full video frame. The invention adds to this digital audio
editing capability the ability to digitize, store and display
video information as well. It can detect an operator’s indi
cation of a point or segment of audio information and use it
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED
to retrieve and display the video images that correspond to
the indicated audio programming.
APPLICATION
This application is a continuation-in-part of application
Ser. No. 07/867,052 ?led Apr. 10, 1992, now abandoned.
the same time point or segment as the indicated audio
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
tor to indicate a time oifset, in which case the video
The invention relates to the ?eld of digital audio editing.
More speci?cally, it is a system for editing the digital audio
portion of video programs.
information displayed is oifset from the indicated audio
Generally, the video information displayed will be from
information. However, the invention also allows the opera
information by the time period indicated by the operator.
In any event, the video information is displayed essen
15
audio information by the operator. This is the key advantage
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Digital audio provides signi?cant bene?ts over traditional
analog audio recording, including more ease and precision
in editing, easier addition of special audio effects, and the
elimination of sound quality degradation in successive gen
tially immediately upon the indication of the associated
of the use of digital random access rather than linearly stored
video signals.
20
The speed and random access of digital video retrieval
allow several useful capabilities in preferred embodiments
of the invention. For example, the invention can repeatedly
play a segment of the video information while allowing the
operator- to move the audio segment associated with that
erations of recordings. Digital audio can also be stored in a
‘computer memory and read directly to provide instant
random access to any point on the program, For all of these
video segment forward or backward in time so as to syn
reasons, digital audio workstations are common in the video 25
chronize events in the audio and video segments. Another
and ?lm industries.
useful feature is the invention’s ability to repeatedly play a
The basic process of editing a video or ?lm program with
segment of the video information while successively playing
digital audio generally begins with the production of a video
different versions of a segment of the audio information
program with preliminary audio tracks. The program is then
associated with that video segment so as to enable the
taken to a digital audio workstation, where more tracks are 30 operator to choose the best version of that audio segment.
added, sound effects are built, and the existing tracks are
cleaned up. At this stage, in contrast with the ?rst, video
based stage, the audio editing is done in a more narrow and
precise time frame than the one-thirtieth second period of an
individual video frame or the one twenty-fourth second
period of a ?lm frame; therefore, the editing is known as
35
“sub-frame” editing. Finally, in the last stage of the audio
production, the program receives the ?nal mixing and
“sweetening” of the audio tracks.
Preferred embodiments of the invention also provide
additional audio capabilities. The workstation includes a
visual timeline that displays the waveforms of the audio
information. This feature provides a visual representation of
the overall audio program for the convenience of the opera
tor. The preferred embodiment also provides fast and intui
tive means of editing the audio segments by using computer
user-interface techniques of cutting, pasting, and dragging.
Finally, another aspect of the invention is a labeling and
notation system for recorded digitized audio or video infor
mation. The system provides a means for storing in asso
ciation with a particular point of the audio or video inf0r~
audio editing with the video portion of the program. The
mation a digitized voice or textual message for later
editing typically requires, among other things, synchroniza 45 reference
regarding that information. This aspect of the
tion of the audio e?ects with the action in the video program.
invention can be thought of as the equivalent in recording of
As noted above, if the digital audio program is stored in a
adhesive-type notes in paper documents.
computer memory, it can be accessed immediately, greatly
It is the second and ?nal stages of this process in which
the invention is most useful. Those stages and the sub~frame
precision they require , necessitate close interaction of the
facilitating this editing process. (United Kingdom patent
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Application No. 2,245,745 discloses an application of this
capability.) However, with current systems the video pro
For a better understanding of the present invention,
gram is stored on a normal video tape recorder, which
requires a great deal of time to rewind or fast-forward to the
together with other and further objects, advantages and
capabilities thereof, reference is made to the accompanying
drawings, which are incorporated herein by reference and in
desired editing point and must be pre-rolled to its full speed
for precise editing. Hence, the potential editing speed and
which:
convenience of the digital audio process is held back by the 55
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a digital audio workstation
use of conventional video recording.
in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 shows the display screen organization used in the
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
digital audio workstation;
The invention disclosed herein takes full advantage of the
potential of digital audio editing by combining it with
integrated digital video capabilities. The invention is a
digital audio workstation that provides the necessary facili
ties to store digital audio information and edit it with the
required time precision. The basic editing precision for
digital audio is generally the digital sampling period (usually
approximately one-forty-thousandth of a second) , and is in
65
FIG. 3 shows the timeline window used in the display
screen of the digital audio workstation;
FIG. 4 shows the deck control window used in the display
screen of the digital audio workstation;
FIG. 5 shows the workreel window used in the display
screen of the digital audio workstation;
FIG. 6 shows the locator window used in the display
5,467,288
3
4
screen of the digital audio workstation;
FIG. 7 shows the record settings window used in the
display screen of the digital audio workstation;
FIG. 8 shows the external deck control window used in
the display screen of the digital audio workstation;
video capture and frame store unit 20. The video capture and
frame store unit 20 can be a Nuvista unit from Truevision.
Digital video information is supplied through a pixel engine
22 and an expander/compressor 24 to a disk accelerator 26.
The pixel engine 22 is described in application Ser. No.
07/807,433 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,309,528) ?led Dec. 13,
1991 and in U.S. Pat. No. 5,045,940, issued Sep. 3, 1991 to
Peters et al, which are hereby incorporated by reference. The
expander/compressor 24 compresses and decompresses
FIG. 9 shows the clip editor window used in the display
screen of the digital audio workstation; and
FIGS. 10A—10H illustrate edit operations performed on
the display screen of the digital audio workstation.
10
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
EMBODIMENT
Digital recording of audio and video information has
video information as described in copending application Ser.
Nos. 07/807,433, ?led Dec. 13, 1991; (now U.S. Pat. No.
5,309,528) 07/807,117 ?led Dec. 13, 1991; and 07/807,269
?led Dec. 13, 1991 and by G. K. Wallace in “The JPEG Still
Picture Compression Standard”, Comm. 0f the ACM, April
15
signi?cant advantages over conventional analog recording.
Although these advantages include greater precision and
?exibility in the editing process, the primary bene?t when
1991, Vol. No. 4, pages 31-44, which are hereby incorpo
rated by reference. The expander/compressor 24 is prefer
ably implemented using a CL-550 processor from C-Cube.
is probably the nearly instant access to any program point.
The disk accelerator 26 is an optional component of the
digital audio workstation and can, for example, be a type
SCSI-2 accelerator from A'I'I‘O Technology. The disk accel
erator 26 transfers video and audio digital information to and
Conventional recording generally stores material linearly,
from one or more disk storage units 28. The disk storage unit
video and audio are stored on digital random access media
typically on a magnetic tape, as with a video tape recorder.
28 can be a Winchester type magnetic disk available, for
Therefore, to access a particular point on the recording, the
example, from Micropolis, Maxtor and Hewlett Packard, or
an M0 or phase change type optical disk available, for
tape must be moved to that point. Digital recording, in
contrast, allows the recorded information to be stored in a
computer memory, where it can be accessed at random with
25
example, from Panasonic, Sony and Maxoptics.
The video capture and frame store unit 20 supplies video
information to a monitor 30 which, for example, have a 19
inch display screen. The video information supplied to the
monitor 30 can also be supplied to an optional video
negligible delay.
Although digital audio workstations are available which
take advantage of the bene?ts of digital recording for audio
programs, such systems remain tied to conventional linear 30 recorder 32. A tape deck control unit 34 supplies control
recording for the video portions of their programs. The
digital audio workstation disclosed herein uses the imme
diate random access possible with digital video storage to
provide immediate display of the appropriate video portion
of a recorded program when the audio portion is being
edited. The invention eliminates the need for the editor to
wait for a conventional video tape recorder to reach the
correct position. This allows the editor to work more quickly
and, in addition, allows the introduction of capabilities not
available with current systems, as described in the following
35
signals to the multitrack audio recorder and playback unit
and to the video recorder 32. As indicated by dashed lines
40, 42, 44, 46 and 48, the computer 14 controls the com
ponents of the digital audio workstation.
The digital audio workstation shown in FIG. 1 is used for
audio editing and permits viewing of the video information
40
that is associated with the audio. The synchronization of
audio and video information is essentially as described in
U.S. Pat. No. 5,045,940. Multiple audio inputs are applied to
audio input converter and processor 10 and are converted to
paragraphs.
The invention is a computer-based system similar in some
respects to currently available editing systems. It has the
typical structure of a general-purpose computer, with a
45
central processing unit, memory, and various means for
interacting with an operator. This general con?guration is
well-known in the art and is typi?ed by commercially
digital audio, if necessary. Optionally, the digital audio can
be compressed. However, the digital audio is typically not
compressed. The video information is also converted to
digital format, if necessary, and is compressed by the picture
codec 24. A preferred form of compression and decompres
sion is JPEG. The digital audio and video information is
stored on disk storage unit 28 in a process that is the reverse
available systems such as the Avid Media Composer, manu
of that described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,045,940. The stored
audio and video information can then be read from the disk
factured by Avid Technology, Inc., Tewksbury, Massachu
setts (which, however, is largely a video, rather than audio,
storage unit 28 for editing and other operations performed
by the digital audio workstation, as described below. The
system provides essentially “instant” access to the video and
audio information, as compared with prior art systems which
required winding of video tapes to access desired video
editing system) .
A block diagram of a digital audio workstation in accor
dance with a preferred embodiment of the invention is
shown in FIG. 1. Multiple audio inputs, which may be 55
segments.
analog or digital, are supplied to an audio input converter
and processor 10 from a multitrack audio recorder and
The user interface for controlling operation of the digital
playback unit (not shown) . The audio input converter and
audio workstation is illustrated in FIGS. 2-9. Information is
processor 10 can, for example, be supplied by Digidesign.
presented to the user using windows display technology.
The output of the audio input converter and processor 10 on 60 Various windows on the display screen contain information
line 12 is a stream of digital audio information supplied to
relating to various information of interest. Control opera
a computer 14. The computer 14 can, for example, be an
tions are performed by using a mouse to position a cursor on
Apple Macintosh 11x, Hfx or Quadra 950. The computer 14
is connected to a monitor 16, typically having a 19 inch
display screen.
Video input information is supplied from a video play
back unit (not shown) in NTSC, PAL or other format to a
a desired selection and then clicking the mouse on the
desired selection. Other mouse operations are described
65
below.
The components of the display screen on monitor 30 are
shown in FIG. 2. A timeline window 60 shows the current
5,467,288
5
6
timeline and contains controls for track select, output enable,
record enable, track safety and ganging of audio tracks. A
sync safety buttons 100 prevent the following operations on
tracks where this function is enabled: (1) placement of clips
while in track insert mode; (2) replacement of regions while
in track insert mode; and (3) all alignment operations. Edit
deck control window 62 controls the operation of the
multitrack audio player. The deck control window 62
includes buttons for play, stop, record, etc., as well as mark
in and mark out locations. It also contains controls for being
time code master, slave, or local. A locator window 64 is
used to store points of interest within the multitrack timeline
enable buttons 102 enable or disable editing on a track to
prevent accidental editing or recording onto a ?nished track.
The following operations are enabled when a track is
enabled: selection of regions in the track and copying of
regions out of the track.
and allows fast access to up to 100 user de?ned points within
An edit tools area is located above the timeline 80 and
10
a sequence. A monitor window 66 shows the output of the
contains buttons for creating and modifying edits on selected
video track.
tracks in the timeline. The edit tools include an edit palette
The display screen of the monitor 16 contains the window
110, edit command buttons 112 and an edit status area 114.
elements shown in FIG. 2. A workreel window 70 is used to
The edit palette 110 allows timeline editing to be performed
hold audio clips as well as sequences within edited video and
in one of several modes. Each palette mode is indicated by
audio. An external reels window 72 shows external or library
a different icon. Palette modes include: (1) “select” for
reels that have clips and sequences that can be auditioned
selecting regions in the timeline edit; (2) “track shift” for
and imported into the workreel. Auxiliary windows 74 are
moving a selected region vertically to another track; (3)
“align” for moving a selected region horizontally in time;
and (4) “move” for moving a selected region vertically
and/or horizontally. The edit command buttons 112 operate
used for miscellaneous operations as described below. A
locator window 76 is similar to the locator window 64
described above.
The timeline window 60 contains a number of separate
elements as shown in FIG. 3. A timeline 80 gives a graphical
on regions of the timeline that have previously been
selected. The edit command buttons 112 include: (1) “cut”
representation of the sequence currently being edited. Time
for removing the selected region and joining the ends; (2)
line 80 includes a time code track 82, a video track 84 and
“lift” for removing the selected region and not filling the
eight audio tracks 86, 88, etc. The timeline 80 is a scrolling
space; and (3) “add edit” for causing an edit to be made at
the current position on the selected tracks. The edit status
area 114 allows editing of transition parameters and includes
Timeline. Clips move under a current position bar 122. The
direction of scrolling representing normal forward playback
is a user preference. The timeline 80 displays‘the top eight
currently assigned audio tracks of an N-channel player. The
the following functions: (1) “crossfade position sets whether
time code track 82 can be used to go to a location visible in
transition time code; (2) “crossfade time” sets the length of
the crossfade; and (3) “crossfade midpoint” sets the mid
point attenuation of the crossfade function, from —6 db to —3
a crossfade happens before, in the middle, or after the
the current timeline view. Clicking in the time code track
locates to that location. Dragging causes the timeline to
scroll. Mark in/rnark out values in the deck control window
are indicated on the timeline by vertical dashed lines.
A universe bar 90 is located under the timeline 80. The
db in 0.5 db increments.
Timeline window 60 also includes a current time code
display 120 located above the current position bar 122. The
time cede display 120 is subfrarne accurate in that there is a
two digit subframe number appended to the frame number.
A place/replace mode setting menu 124 indicates the current
placement mode when there is no selected region in the.
timeline and the current replace mode when there is a
universe bar shows the current position within the entire
sequence. Clips are represented by single pixel high lines in
the universe bar. The user may click into the universe bar 90
to instantly locate to any position within the current
sequence. The universe bar current-position line may be
dragged from its current location to allow rough scrolling.
selected region in the timeline. With no region currently
selected in the timeline, the menu 124 permits selection of
Record enable buttons 92 indicate which tracks are
one of the following modes: overwrite placement, track
enabled to record. As used herein, the term “buttons” refers
to buttons that appear on the display screen and can be 45 insert placement and clip insert placement. When a region is
selected in the timeline, the menu 124 permits selection of
selected by use of the mouse as described above. Diiferent
colors indicate play, enable and currently recording. When
the deck is stopped, clicking on these buttons toggles
between play and enable. When play mode is entered,
one of the following replace modes: ?ll replace, track insert
clicking on an enabled button begins recording on that
channel. Solo enable buttons 94 disable the output of the
used to control the multitrack audio recorder. The deck
replace, clip insert replace, loop replace and loop inverse
replace. The deck control window 62, shown in FIG. 4, is
control window includes play, record and stop controls,
mark in/out time code displays, various “nudge” functions
for modifying the current timeline position and a synchro
nization mode selection 160. The synchronization mode
selection allows local, master and slave modes of synchro
deck. Clicking on a solo button when one or more of the
other solo buttons are enabled causes this button to be
enabled and the other solo buttons to be disabled. If none of
the other buttons is enabled, then all tracks are enabled, 55
nization. The main feature of the deck control is a set of
Track select icons 96 are pop-up menus with text values
standard motion control functions including play, stop,
ranging from Al to A24 for choosing which logical track is
played on which physical channel. The track select icon for
the video track contains the selections V and V+G for
projects that Incorporate graphics. Graphic overlays may be
represented on the video timeline.
Track gang buttons 98 are used to lock audio tracks
60
shuttle, fast forward and rewind.
The play button is unique in that it implements a menu of
play modes. There is also a “big red button” or record button
140 for entering record mode, which is separate from the
record enable. The enable selects which tracks to record. The
record button causes the machine to go into and out of record
together for synchronization safety. Each track may be
mode. The play button menu contains the following play
assigned a gang letter from A to H by using a pop-up menu.
Selecting a region in a track that is ganged to another track 65 modes: (1) “play” for standard play operation; (2) “play
in-out” plays from mark in to mark out; (3) “rehearse” plays
causes the same region of the ganged track to be selected as
through the current position with preroll and postroll; (4)
well. There is no gang assignment for the video track. Video
5,467,288
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8
“rehearse postroll” plays from the current position to pos
troll; and (5) “rehearse preroll” plays from preroll to current
position. The play button menu changes when the record
is for setting up punch in and punch out points for record and
automatic dialog replacement. The format of the locator
window 64 is generally as follows. The ?elds in the locator
window include locator number 202, time code value 204
button is in record mode to allow the selection of one of the
for each locator and a ?eld 206 for comments. The user can
following recording modes: (1) “recor ” for standard record
operation; (2) “record in-out” records from mark in to mark
out; (3) “loop record” used to enter loop record mode; and
(4) “log” used to set up a logging session. During a logging
go to a location de?ned by a locator by the following
methods, (1) by double clicking on a locator in the locators
window; (2) by using the next locator button and the
previous locator button in the deck control window 62; (3)
by hitting the tab key on the keyboard to go to the next
session, no media ?les are recorded, and o?line clips are
generated.
locator after the current position or shift-tab to go to the
The mark in and mark out time code displays 150 and 152
locator before the current position; and (4) by entering a
are subframe accurate in that there is a two digit subframe
locator number on the numeric keypad of the workstation
keyboard. The user can set a locator by the following
methods: (1) select the time code ?eld of the locator in the
locator window and enter a time code value; (2) click the set
locator button on the deck control window which sets the
lowest-numbered unused locator to the current time code
value; (3) use the keyboard to set the lowest-numbered
unused locator to the current time code value; and (4) double
number appended to the frame number separated by a
decimal point. The deck control window 62 also includes
nudge one frame buttons 154 and nudge 10 frames buttons
156. A transition to edit is selected by using go-to-transition
buttons 158. The go-to-transition buttons 158 only apply to
selected tracks when one or more tracks are selected. The
selected transition is highlighted by changing the color of
the timeline centerbar on the selected transition’s track. If
click on a locator in the window to set that locator to the
current time code value. Locators appear on the timeline as
marks over the time code track.
there is more than one transition at that location, the user
must hit the go-to-transition buttons repeatedly to select the
desired transition. If track is ganged to another track, then
the transition for the ganged track is selected as well.
The auxiliary windows 74 include: (1) an audio window
that contains meters for setting input levels and fader
The deck control window 62 includes a pop-up menu 160 25 controls for setting clip output levels; (2) a record settings
to select one of the following synchronization modes: (1)
“local” in which the system operates locally with no attach
ment or synchronization to any other external device; (2)
window that allows various digitizing parameters to be set
prior to recording audio and/or video; (3) an external deck
control window to control any external decks and to set the
“master” in which the system sends out commands to
external decks to cause them to be synchronized to the
system; and (3) “slave” in which the system follows an
external time code. The local mode is the default mode. In
time code offsets for master mode; (5) a clip editor window,
invoked by double clicking on a clip in a reel, that allows the
this mode, the deck control operates locally upon the digital
sequence represented by the timeline. In the master mode, an
adjusted prior to recording video.
external deck locks itself to the system. In the slave mode,
the system and an external deck are in sync. However, the
external deck controls the system.
The monitor window 66 is the simplest, since it contains
only the video track at the current position of the timeline.
There are no controls in the monitor window. While playing
the sequence or any portion of the sequence, the monitor
user to set in, out and sync points and to create subclips; and
(6) a video tool window that allows video parameters to be
35
window displays frames in rapid sucession, thus creating a
The audio window contains audio bar graph meters for
each of the 4 or 8 output channels of the timeline, input/repro
switches which allow the output mode of each audio channel
to be selected (“input” means monitor the A/D input and
“repro” means monitor the disk output) and faders for
setting the level of the current clip for each channel in the
timeline. The function of each meter depends on the input]
repro mode. In input mode, the meter is an input meter; in
repro mode the meter is an output meter.
moving picture.
A record settings window 220 is shown in FIG. 7. The
The workreel window 70, shown in FIG. 5, contains a list 45 record settings window allows the current record settings to
of audio and video clips. Audio clips are represented in the
be set. This window permits setting the workreel into which
window with a waveform icon followed by the following
to record, setting the video resolution, setting the disk drives
information: (1) the name 180 of the clip, (2) the number of
to record onto and the channel selected for recording.
tracks 182, (3) sample rate (not shown) , (4) duration (not
An external deck control window 230 is shown in FIG. 8.
shown) , (5) the start time code 184 and end time code 186,
The external deck control window permits the position and
(6) a mark in point 188 and a mark out point (not shown) ,
locked offset of external decks to be set up and controlled.
(7) a sync point (not shown) , (8) the physical audio channel
The external deck control window permits up to Three
the clip was recorded from (not shown) , and (9) optional
external decks to be controlled. Separate motion control
comments. Those ?elds not visible at any particular time can
buttons for positioning the external deck with respect to the
be found and made visible by scrolling the window contents 55 current system time code are provided. The current time
horizontally by clicking the scroll bar below the window.
Clips are placed in the timeline by click dragging them from
code or the offset from the system time code track are
the workreel window into the timeline window. This is the
basis for all placement operations. Double clicking on a clip
editor window is invoked when the user double clicks on a
clip in a reel. This window allows the user to set the mark
displayed. A clip editor window is shown in FIG. 9. The clip
in a reel causes it to play out of the channel it was recorded 60 in and mark out points and the sync points for the clip. In
into. This allows clips in the workreel to be rehearsed before
operation, the memory of the workstation‘s computer is ?rst
loaded with the digitized tracks of video and audio infor
mation for the program. Then the workstation responds to
placement.
The locator window 64, shown in FIG. 6, is used for
marking points of interest in the timeline. There are 100
locators available. Locators are diiferent from marks in that
marks are used for editing operations, whereas locators are
used simply for getting around. Another use for the locator
65
the editor’s commands, in the manner known in the art, to
adjust the levels of the various tracks, add new audio
information from prerecorded libraries, mix the audio from
various tracks, etc. Since it is a digital workstation, the editor
5,467,288
9
10
also has the capability to move audio from one track to
digital audio workstation of the invention also allows more
another or forward or backward in time. This can be accom
sophisticated techniques. For example, the editor can indi
cate beginning and ending times for a program segment, and
the system can repeatedly replay the video sequence for that
plished in several different ways known to those skilled in
the art, but a preferred approach is to use the cutting, pasting,
and dragging functions familiar from Macintosh and Win
example, the computer monitors the editor’s movement of a
segment. Then the editor can request the system to move the
audio program forward or backward in time by short incre
ments to obtain the best synchronization of the audio and
cursor on the computer screen and reads the cursor’s posi
tion on the audio display to determine, using methods known
in the art, the time segment of the audio signal that The
and receive operator input from a keyboard or other device
regarding The desired amount of time shifting.) It is the
dows-based computer systems. With these techniques, for
editor is referencing. The computer then monitors similar
video. (The workstation computer can, for example, request
10
digital video system’s ability to provide repeated compari
sons over a short time that allows the editor to use this
cursor movements to determine the time location, in that or
another signal, to which the editor would like to move that
technique; the delay in rewinding a conventional video
audio signal segment. The precision of digital audio work
recorder would make it impractical at best.
Another somewhat similar technique also relies on
stations is one of their key advantages, and both conven
tional workstations and the apparatus of the invention can
15
typically edit audio waveforms to a precision of approxi
mately one-forty-thousandth of a second (the digital sam
repeated playing of a particular video sequence. However,
instead of repeatedly playing the same audio sequence
(moved in time) with the video, different takes of the same
It is in its control of video information that the invention
audio events can be played to determine which is the best
match for the video. This technique allows direct compari
son of the different takes, and, again, with the invention the
differs from conventional digital audio workstations.
immediate access time makes the process much more useful.
Whereas conventional systems use a video tape recorder to
Yet another feature of the invention can be used with
either audio or video information. This feature takes advan
tage of the nonlinear nature of digital data storage in a
pling time) , or in any event much less than the one-thirtieth
of a second for a full video frame.
view the video images than correspond to a given audio
segment, the invention uses a video recorder only once: to
example from Avid Technology, Inc., Tewksbury, Mass.)
slightly di?erent way. Since the time structure of digital data
storage is not tied rigidly to the movement of a tape, it is
possible to introduce interpolations in the data without
interrupting the playback of information. This can be done,
Alternatively, the invention can use previously digitized
for example, by storing the interpolations in the digital data
information. Using the video signal in digital form allows
stream, but surrounded by codes indicating that the infor
play the original video program so it can be digitized and
stored in the computer. (This is accomplished using Tech
niques known in the art and commercially available, as for
mation between the codes is not to be interpreted as part of
the video information no be accessed immediately, just as
the audio or video data. The invention uses this capability to
the audio information is. The video information is stored
allow storage of notations with the data. More speci?cally,
with a time code that is preferably, though not necessarily,
the same as that used for the audio information. The work 35 the editor can store a note regarding the program at a
particular point in the program; then, when that point in the
station computer searches the digital video ?le for the time
program is reached, the notation will appear to the operator,
code of interest, and retrieves the video image snored with
either as text on the screen or as an audio voice message.
that particular time code.
This permits the use in recording of the equivalent of
adhesive-type notes in paper documents. The advantages of
Immediate access to yideo information has several uses.
The most basic is in a simple editing process such as
synchronization of audio events to video ones. With con
ventional systems, the editor needs to rewind or fast forward
this technique are apparent in the ease and speed with which
notations can be made for later reference. Like the other
aspects of the invention, this feature uses the capabilities of
digital media storage to add speed and convenience to the
the video player to a point prior to the event of interest, start
the player so it has time to reach its proper speed, and then
adjust the relationship of the audio and video signals. After
any editing of the audio, the process needs to be repeated,
and the required forward and reverse winding for each
iteration of this process takes a a great deal of time. The
present invention eliminates this winding time by providing
45
editing process.
Operation of the digital audio workstation is now
described in detail. A typical ?rst step is to bring the project
to be edited into the system. This can be done by transfer of
hard disks from compatible systems, such as the Media
direct access to the video. For example, if the editor indi 50 Composer sold by Avid Technology, Inc. of Tewksbury,
Massachusetts. Alternatively, a sequence ?le can be trans
cates, by, for instance, using a computer mouse to place a
ferred by ?oppy disk, and the video can be digitized from
cursor on the display a point in the audio program, the
video tape. In another approach, a project may be loaded into
computer can use methods known in the art to translate the
the system by importing an edit decision list (EDL) . An
cursor position to a time reference. The computer can then
search for the same time reference in the video ?le to access 55 EDL ?le is read from ?oppy disk and is converted into a
sequence. The sequence is then automatically digitized. In
the corresponding point in the video program, and display
yet another approach, source material can be digitized from
the video image for the indicated point immediately on the
screen. Another possibility is for the editor to indicate a
video tape using the record features of the record settings
segment, rather Than a point, of the audio waveform (using,
and deck control windows.
When the video and audio for the project are stored in the
60
workstation’s memory, it is likely that additional audio
source material will be required, such as sound effects, voice
overdubs, etc. This can be done by recording into a workreel
or recording directly into the timeline as follows. The
65 simplest way to record additional audio is to record into a
for example, the same well-known mouse-based method of
user interaction) ; The workstation would then immediately
display the video sequence for that audio segment. More
over, the displayed video does not need to be that from The
same time as The audio; in could just as easily be the video
programming from, for example, one second before or after
the indicated audio if such a display were useful to the editor.
The combination of digital video and digital audio in the
workreel using the record features of the record settings and
deck control windows. Recording audio directly into the
5,467,288
11
12
timeline is similar to recording to a workreel, except that
channels are enabled for recording with record enable but
a silence gap to be left in place of the selected region. A cut
tons located on the timeline.
button causes downstream material to shift forward to ?ll the
space.
'
When the material for a project is brought into the system
and is on-line, it must be placed in the timeline before it can
Replace editing is used to refer to any editing operation
that replaces a selected region with another region. Replace
editing is implemented by selecting a region on a timeline to
be replaced and then dragging a replacement clip from a reel
be edited. If a sequence already exists, it can be clicked on
in the workreel and dragged into the universe bar, thereby
possibly replacing a previous sequence that was being
edited, If the starting source material exists only as indi
or clip editor window into the timeline over the replaced
area. There are several modes of replace editing.
vidual clips and not as a sequence then the timeline must be
In ?ll replace editing mode, shown in FIG. 10D, the
selected region is replaced with the clip such that the
replacement can at most only ?ll the selected region. If the
selected region represents t seconds, only the ?rst t seconds
of the replacement clip will be used. If the replacement clip
cleared ?rst. The source clip can be dragged from the
workreel into the timeline, and a new sequence is automati
cally created.
Clips from a workreel are placed into a sequence by
dragging them from a workreel window into the timeline.
When a clip is dragged into the timeline window, an outline
15
region is replaced by the entirety of the replacement clip. If
appears showing the length of the clip and number of
channels. The overlay in the edit status area indicates the
track and starting time code location at which the top
channel of the clip will be placed. When a clip is placed in
the timeline, one of the following edits is performed,
depending on the mode selected in the placement mode
select area in the timeline: (1) overwrite placement, (2) track
insert placement, or (3) clip insert placement.
Overwrite placement is illustrated in FIG. 10A. A clip
dragged into the timeline overwrites the current material.
Track insert placement is illustrated in FIG. 10B. A clip
dragged into the timeline is inserted at the placement point,
and the material that was originally after the placement point
is moved down. Clip insert placement is illustrated in FIG.
10C. A clip is inserted without causing the rest of the clips
in the track to ripple down. If the insert point is in silence,
then there must be enough silence after the insert point to
accommodate the entire clip to be placed, or the operation
fails.
Once clips are placed in a sequence in the timeline, further
editing can be performed directly in the timeline. Several
types of editing can be performed. In order to perform edit
operations within the timeline, a desired section to edit must
?rst be selected. A selected region is displayed in the
20
25
30
t seconds of silence before the start of the next clip in the
replace” mode, a short replacement clip ?lls a larger selected
region by repeating the smaller clip, as shown in FIG. 10G.
In some situations, there is not enough source material
35
available to generate a loop without the repetitiveness of the
loop being heard. The “loop inverse replace” mode reverses
the direction of every other loop (plays the samples in
reverse order) , thereby reducing the repetition rate as shown
in FIG. 10H.
The digital audio workstation has a loop record mode
which is used to build multiple-take clips. This function may
be used in automatic dialog replacement (ADR) , replace
ment of environmental sounds (Foley processing) and for
eign language dialog replacement. The process has two
45
phases: cue track preparation and track recording. Track
preparation involves marking in and out points for the
segments of audio that will be rerecorded. Track recording
is the building of multiple take clips by taking each segment
iteratively while allowing the user to accept or reject each
take and moving to the next segment on demand. Loop
double clicking on a track between two marks will select the
region on that track between the two marks.
A selected region can be aligned by using the align palette
the replacement clip is of diiTerent length from the selected
region, the rest of the track after the selected region changes
alignment. In clip replace editing mode, shown in FIG. 10F,
the selected region is replaced by the entirety of the replace
ment clip. If the replacement clip is of different length from
the selected region, then only the end of the clip after the
selected region changes alignment. If the replacement clip is
longer than the selected region by t seconds, there must be
track or the operation is disallowed. Many sound eifects
involve taking a short sound eifect (babbling brook, birds,
etc.) and “looping” or repeating it to ?ll the scene. In “loop
timeline as one or more shaded areas. A selected region can
be de?ned by using the select palette tool to drag select a
section. This is done by clicking on a point in the timeline
and, while holding the mouse down, dragging the cursor to
another location and releasing the mouse. Also, single
clicking on a component will select that component. Finally,
is less than t seconds, silence ?lls the difference. In Track
insert replace editing mode, shown in FIG. 10E, the selected
record is implemented as a separate window . The loop
50
tool. The align cursor mode is entered by clicking on the
segment is a clip and the loop record mode loops over clips
in one track, called the cue track and records one or more
align palette tool. Then, the selected region is clicked and
destination tracks. The cue track may simultaneously be a
dragged horizontally. There are two special features that can
be accessed while the align palette tool is active. Scrub align
allows the region to be heard as it passes under the timeline
current position bar. Loop/nudge allows the alignment to be
destination track.
The loop record mode may run manually, wherein loop
55
playback starts by pressing the enter key, or automatically,
wherein each clip loops automatically. A restart delay is the
performed by entering the relative time code values with the
numeric keypad, causing the new alignment to be rehearsed
number of seconds before the loop begins another pass. To
automatically.
region by placing a mark in point and a mark out point,
begin loop recording one or more tracks, the user selects a
Track shifting causes a selected region to be moved to 60 record enables the desired tracks, and presses the record
another track. A selected region is aligned by using the track
shift palette tool. Move operations allow a selected region to
be moved with two degrees of freedom (track and position)
. A match cut can be made within a clip by positioning a clip
under the timeline current position bar, selecting the clip and
pressing the add edit button. A selected region can be
removed from the timeline in two ways. A lift button causes
65
button. Pressing the enter key on the keypad starts the
timeline playing at the current mark in minus preroll. The
timeline goes into record mode upon reaching the mark in
point and records the enabled tracks until reaching the mark
out point. At the end of play, the user may press either the
plus keypad key, which accepts the current take, or the
minus keypad key, which rejects it. After one of the keys is
5,467,288
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14
entered, the timeline positions to the current preroll point. In
a particular time period indicated.
4. The workstation of claim 1, wherein the accessed video
information is displayed essentially immediately upon the
an automatic session, the loop restarts after the user speci?ed
delay time. Otherwise, pressing play or the enter key starts
the multitrack for another take. Pressing star on the keypad
selection of the associated audio information.
5. The workstation of claim 1, further comprising means
for displaying a visual timeline which represents waveforms
of the audio information.
6. The workstation of claim 1, further comprising means
for indicating segments of the digital audio information on
causes the session to move onto the next clip. The current
mark out becomes the new mark in. The timeline positions
to the new preroll point, and a new set of takes may be
recorded.
Beep tones are played before the mark in. The user can
specify the number of beep tones to be played, their spacing,
their frequency, their duration and their physical output
channel.
The loop record mode provides highly e?icient ADR and
by using computer user-interface techniques of cutting,
pasting, and dragging.
Foley processing. Typically, multiple takes are required to
for repeatedly playing a segment of the digital video infor
obtain a desired ?nal result. Prior art systems required
considerable recycling time between takes because of the
requirement to rewind the video tape. Furthermore, unac
ceptable takes were discarded after each try. Much of the
time involved in a session was spent waiting for rewinding
of tapes. In accordance with the present invention, virtually
instant access to the beginning of video clips is provided,
a computer display and for allowing editing those segments
7. The workstation of claim 1, further comprising a means
15
mation while allowing the operator to move the digital audio
segment associated with that video segment forward or
backward in time so as to synchronize events in the digital
audio segment and the digital video information.
thereby eliminating rewinding delay. Furthermore, multiple
8. The workstation of claim 1, further comprising a means
for repeatedly playing a segment of the digital video infor
mation while successively playing different versions of a
segment of the digital audio information associated with the
takes can be recorded and retained as a coherent group. Each
digital video information so as to enable the operator to
separate Take of the group may be chosen as active and,
furthermore, segments of different takes can be combined to
provide a desired ?nal result.
The digital audio workstation of the present invention
provides a number of highly advantageous features. As
20
25
digital audio information, a digitized voice or textual mes
described above, this system permits high quality digital
audio editing with instant access to the associated picture. 30
The audio can be edited at any point during the associated
video frame. Typically, video frames are approximately 1/30
of a second. The audio is typically sampled at a rate of 44.1
kHz or 48 kHz. Audio can be edited at any of_ the audio
sample boundaries and is not limited to the video frame
boundaries. The ability to instantly access audio and video,
sage for later reference regarding the digital audio informa
tion.
10. The workstation of claim 1, further comprising a
means for digitizing analog video information to produce the
digital video information for storage.
11. The workstation of claim 10, wherein the accessed
video information is from an identical time portion as the
35
combined with the loop record mode, provides highly e?i
cient ADR and Foley processing, as described above. Mul
tiple tracks of audio information can be layered, with each
clip having different start and stop points. ‘
While there have been shown and described what are at
choose one version of the digital audio segment.
9. The workstation of claim 1, further comprising a means
for storing, in association with a particular point of the
40
indicated audio information.
12. The workstation of claim 10, wherein the accessed
video information is offset from the selected audio informa
tion by a particular time period indicated.
13. The workstation of claim 10, wherein the accessed
video information is displayed essentially immediately upon
the selection of the associated audio information.
14. The workstation of claim 10, further comprising
means for displaying a visual timeline which represents
present considered the preferred embodiments of the present
invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that
waveforms of the audio information.
various changes and modi?cations may be made therein
15. The workstation of claim 10, further comprising
without departing from the scope of the invention as de?ned 45
means for indicating segments of the digital audio informa
tion on a computer display and for allowing editing those
by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
segments by using computer user-interface techniques of
cutting, pasting, and dragging.
1. A digital audio workstation comprising:
a. means for storing digital audio information;
b. means for selecting a portion of digital audio informa
50
tion at audio sampling times spaced apart by less than
one-thirtieth of a second;
c. a computer-readable randomly-accessible storage
medium in which digital video information is stored
and is associated in time with the digital audio infor
or backward in time so as to synchronize events in the digital
55
mation;
d. means for detecting selection by an operator of the
portion of digital audio information; and
e. means for accessing the digital video information based
on the selected portion of digital audio information
selected by the operator.
2. The digital audio workstation of claim 1, wherein the
accessed video information is from an identical time portion
65
as the indicated audio information.
3. The workstation of claim 1, wherein the accessed video
information is offset from the selected audio information by
16. The workstation of claim 10, further comprising a
means for repeatedly playing a segment of the digital video
information while allowing the operator to move the digital
audio segment associated with that video segment forward
audio segment and the digital video information.
17. The workstation of claim 10, further comprising a
means for repeatedly playing a segment of the digital video
information while successively playing dilferent versions of
a segment of the digital audio information associated with
the digital video information so as to enable the operator to
choose one version of the digital audio segment.
18. The workstation of claim 10, further comprising a
means for storing, in association with a particular point of
the digital audio information, a digitized voice or textual
message for later reference regarding the digital audio
information.
19. A digital audio workstation comprising:
5,467,288
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16
means for storing multiple tracks of digital audio infor
after manual initiation by a user.
mation;
27. A method for editing digital audio comprising the
steps of:
means for storing video information having frame rate
and synchronized to said digital audio information in a
storage medium that provides non-linear and random
access to any selected portion of said video informa
storing multiple tracks of digital audio information;
tion;
means for selecting a portion of said multiple tracks of
digital audio information at a resolution less than the
>. . O
frame rate of the video information; and
means for displaying portions of said video information
associated with said digital audio information during
editing of said digital audio information.
20. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 19
wherein said means for selecting a portion of said multiple
tracks of digital audio information includes means for edit
ing said digital audio information at times corresponding to
audio sampling boundaries.
21. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 20
wherein said means for selecting a portion of said multiple
tracks of digital audio information includes
means for generating a timeline display containing infor
20
audio information in a selected clip;
25
means for displaying a list of available audio clips in a
workreel; and
30
for automatically repeating said selected portion of video
information after a predetermined delay.
26. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 24
wherein said means for repeatedly displaying a selected
portion of said video information in a loop includes means
for displaying said selected portion of video information
the video information; and
displaying portions of said video information associated
with said digital audio information during editing of
said digital audio information.
28. The method of claim 27 wherein said step of selecting
a portion of said multiple tracks of digital audio information
includes editing said digital audio information at times
corresponding to audio sampling boundaries.
29. The method of claim 28 wherein the step of selecting
a portion of said multiple tracks of digital audio information
generating a timeline display containing information rep
resentative of said multiple tracks of digital audio
information in a selected clip;
displaying a list of available audio clips in a workreel; and
audio clips from said workreel to said timeline to
provide an edited clip in said timeline.
30. The method of claim 29 further including the step of
controlling recording and playback of said digital audio
information.
35
31. The method of claim 29 further including the step of
associating locators representative of speci?c events with
speci?c subframe locations in said digital audio information
and accessing said speci?c subframe locations by selecting
one of said locators.
24. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 19
wherein said means for displaying portions of said video
information includes means for repeatedly displaying a
selected portion of said video information in a loop and
wherein said means for selecting a portion of said multiple
tracks of digital audio information includes means for
recording digital audio information each time the selected
portion of said video information is played.
25. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 24
wherein said means for repeatedly displaying a selected
portion of said video information in a loop includes means
information at a resolution less than the frame rate of
selecting audio clips in said workreel and transferring said
further including means for controlling recording and play
back of said digital audio information.
23. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 21
further including means for associating locators representa
tive of speci?c events with speci?c subframe locations in
said digital audio information and means for accessing said
speci?c subframe locations by selecting one of said locators.
selecting a portion of said multiple tracks of digital audio
includes the steps of:
mation representative of said multiple tracks of digital
means for selecting audio clips in said workreel and
transferring said audio clips from said workreel to said
timeline to provide an edited clip in said timeline.
22. A digital audio workstation as de?ned in claim 21
storing video information having a frame rate and syn—
chronized to said digital audio information in a storage
medium that provides non-linear and random access to
any selected portion of said video information;
32. The method of claim 27 wherein said step of display
ing portions of said video information includes repeatedly
displaying a selected portion of said video information in a
45
loop and wherein said step of selecting a portion of said
multiple tracks of digital audio information includes record
ing digital audio information each time the selected portion
of said video information is played.
33. The method of claim 32 wherein said repeatedly
displaying a selected portion of said video information in a
loop includes automatically repeating said selected portion
50
of video information after a predetermined delay.
34. The method of claim 32 wherein said step of repeat
edly displaying a selected portion of said video information
in a loop includes displaying said selected portion of video
information after manual initiation by a user.
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