OpenText Exceed User`s Guide

OpenText Exceed User`s Guide
OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
User’s Guide
Version 15
OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Rev.: 2/27/15
This documentation has been created for software version 15.0. It is also valid for subsequent software versions as long as no new document version is
shipped with the product or is published at https://knowledge.opentext.com.
Open Text SA
40 Avenue Monterey, Luxembourg, Luxembourg L-2163
Tel: 35 2 264566 1
Open Text Corporation
275 Frank Tompa Drive, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 0A1
Tel: +1-519-888-7111
Toll Free Canada/USA: 1-800-499-6544 International: +800-4996-5440
Fax: +1-519-888-0677
Support: http://support.opentext.com
For more information, visit https://www.opentext.com
Copyright © 2015 Open Text SA and/or Open Text ULC (in Canada). All Rights Reserved.
Trademarks owned by Open Text SA or Open Text ULC (in Canada). All rights reserved.
Exceed onDemand includes the following third-party software:
Portions of the code have been contributed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology
OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics Inc.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/) Copyright© 19982005 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young ([email protected]) Copyright © 1995-1998 Eric Young ([email protected])
Portions of the code are based on the work of the VirtualGL Project.
Portions of the code are based on the work of the FLTK Project.
Exceed includes the following third-party software:
Portions of the code have been contributed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
This product includes software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/) Copyright © 1999-2000 The Apache
Software Foundation. All rights reserved.
Exceed 3D and Exceed XDK include the following third-party software:
OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics Inc.
Exceed XDK includes the following third-party software:
Portions of the code have been contributed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology
OpenText Secure Shell, and HostExplorer, Exceed include the following third-party software:
This product includes software developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Copyright 1992-2005 by the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. All rights reserved.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/) Copyright © 19982005 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young ([email protected]) Copyright © 1995-1998 Eric Young
([email protected]). All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
No Warranties and Limitation of Liability
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the features and techniques presented in this publication. However, OpenText Corporation and its affiliates
accept no responsibility and offer no warranty whether expressed or implied, for the accuracy of this publication.
ii
Contents
Chapter 1: Introducing Exceed
1
Welcome to Exceed .................................................................................................... 3
Exceed and X Windows .............................................................................. 3
The Exceed Interface .................................................................................................. 4
Exceed Applications and Tools ................................................................................. 6
Exceed Tools .............................................................................................. 6
Security Tools ............................................................................................. 7
Other Exceed Products .............................................................................................. 7
Exceed 3D ................................................................................................... 7
User Files .................................................................................................................... 8
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
11
Connecting ............................................................................................................... 13
Starting X Clients Using a Remote Process .............................................. 13
About Window Managers ....................................................................................... 14
Starting Local Window Managers ............................................................ 15
Starting Remote X Window Managers ..................................................... 16
Displaying X Clients ................................................................................. 18
Location of Menu Commands ................................................................. 18
Multiple X Display Support ..................................................................... 19
Entering Data Using the Mouse and Keyboard ....................................... 21
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Copying and Pasting in Exceed ............................................................................... 22
Edit Menu Commands ............................................................................. 23
Copying and Pasting Data ........................................................................ 23
Copying and Pasting Graphics ................................................................. 24
Copying and Pasting Between X Selection and File ................................. 26
Copying and Pasting Between X Clients .................................................. 27
Setting Print Settings ................................................................................ 27
Accessing Hosts and Starting Applications ............................................................ 28
About Xstart ............................................................................................. 28
Startup Files .............................................................................................. 29
Startup Methods ....................................................................................... 30
Xstart Events ............................................................................................. 31
Creating Startup Files .............................................................................................. 31
Creating Shortcuts .................................................................................... 34
Running an Xstart File ............................................................................. 34
Launching Windows Applications ........................................................... 35
Typical Xstart Commands ........................................................................ 36
Responding to an Xstart Timeout ............................................................ 37
Displaying Xstart Login Information ....................................................... 38
Displaying the Xstart Host Reply Window .............................................. 39
Browsing for Hosts and Applications ....................................................... 40
Xstart Host and Application Files ............................................................ 44
Listing NIS Maps on the System .............................................................. 45
Load Optimization ................................................................................... 46
Using Xstart on VMS Systems ................................................................................ 49
TCP/IP Transports ................................................................................... 49
Startup Modes .......................................................................................................... 50
Selecting an X Client Startup Mode ......................................................... 50
Passive Startup Mode ............................................................................... 51
XDMCP Query Startup Mode .................................................................. 52
XDMCP Indirect Startup Mode ............................................................... 53
XDMCP Broadcast Startup Mode ............................................................ 55
XDMCP Timeouts .................................................................................... 57
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Contents
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
59
Advanced Xstart Features ........................................................................................ 61
Using Login Macros ................................................................................. 61
Creating a Global Login ........................................................................... 63
Defining User ID and Password Macros .................................................. 65
Remembering Host Passwords ................................................................. 65
Managing the Password List in Xstart ..................................................... 65
Password Expiry Prompts ........................................................................ 66
Changing Hosts, IDs, and Passwords Across Multiple Files .................... 67
Running Multiple Exceed Sessions .......................................................... 67
Starting Multiple X Clients or Windows Programs ................................. 68
Running Xstart from a Command Line ................................................... 69
Environment Variables ............................................................................................ 71
Setting the DISPLAY Environment Variable ........................................... 71
Command Line Syntax for Starting X Clients ......................................... 72
About Xsession ......................................................................................................... 73
Running Multiple Xstart Profiles ............................................................. 74
Entering Startup Information .................................................................. 75
Working with Xsession ............................................................................ 77
Xsession File Sequence ............................................................................. 79
Starting Multiple Exceed X Servers .......................................................... 80
Exceed Display Controller Console ......................................................... 81
Common Desktop Environment (CDE) ................................................................ 81
Using Desktop Environments for Linux .................................................. 82
Running Multiple CDE Sessions .............................................................. 83
Securing Connections .............................................................................................. 84
OpenText Secure Shell ............................................................................. 84
Kerberos ................................................................................................... 85
X11 Authentication .................................................................................. 85
Password Aging ........................................................................................ 86
Chapter 4: Xconfig
87
About Xconfig and its Mandatory Settings ............................................................ 91
Viewing or modifying configuration files created with Xconfig ........................... 92
Starting Xconfig and displaying the relevant settings ............................................ 95
Using Xconfig menus .............................................................................................. 95
Configuring your keyboard .................................................................................... 98
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Using the XKeys Utility to Customize the Keyboard .......................................... 102
About the Xkeys Utility .......................................................................... 102
Modifying a Keyboard File ..................................................................... 105
Mapping a New Keysym to an Existing Key ........................................... 106
Deleting a Keysym Mapped to a Key ...................................................... 108
Mapping a Macro to an Existing Key ..................................................... 109
Macro Events .......................................................................................... 109
Creating Compose-Key Sequences ......................................................... 110
Managing Keysyms and Keysym Sets ..................................................... 110
PrintScrn Key Support ........................................................................... 111
Adding a Physical Key ............................................................................ 112
Deleting a Physical Key .......................................................................... 113
About Keyboard and Mouse Wheel Macros ........................................................ 114
Creating a New Macro ........................................................................................... 114
Modifying Macros ................................................................................................. 115
Macro Shortcuts .................................................................................................... 115
Configuring CJK Keyboard Input (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) ................. 116
Special Considerations for Traditional Chinese .................................... 118
Configuring Mouse Wheel Movements and Middle Button Emulation ............ 121
Mapping a Macro to the Mouse Wheel ............................................................... 123
Configuring Communication Settings ................................................................. 124
Creating or Editing the Host List .......................................................................... 127
Host List File Syntax .............................................................................................. 128
Configuring Security Settings ............................................................................... 128
Host Access Control List Syntax ............................................................ 130
Creating and Editing the Host Access Control List ............................... 131
Creating the User Access Control List ................................................... 132
Authorizing X Clients ............................................................................. 133
Configuring Display and Video Settings .............................................................. 134
Configuring Single Window Mode Screen Settings ............................................ 135
Configuring Multiple Window Mode Screen Settings ........................................ 141
Adding or Removing Screens at the Screen tab ................................................... 143
Creating or Editing a Local XRDB Database ....................................................... 143
Configuring Common Settings for Display and Video ....................................... 147
Configuring Video Settings ................................................................................... 151
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Contents
Configuring Advanced Settings for Display and Video ...................................... 152
Configuring the Copy, Paste, and X Selection ..................................................... 155
Configuring Fonts .................................................................................................. 157
Editing the Font Database ..................................................................................... 160
Understanding Font Database Settings ................................................................ 162
Adding and Changing Font Directories ................................................. 164
Changing Paths in the Font Database .................................................... 165
Changing the Font Directory Search Order ........................................... 166
Adding and Changing Font Servers ....................................................... 167
Accessing the Font Server (Advanced Settings) ................................................... 168
Making Fonts Scalable ........................................................................................... 170
Creating Font Aliases ............................................................................. 170
Creating Several Aliases ......................................................................... 171
Alias File Format .................................................................................... 172
Encoding File Support ........................................................................... 174
Setting Up Remote Font Architecture ................................................... 174
Configuring OpenGL settings for Exceed 3D and GLX ...................................... 177
MESA Server Side Software OpenGL Rendering ................................................. 180
Configuring X Protocol Settings ........................................................................... 181
Configuring the Protocol tab ................................................................. 182
Configuring X Protocol Extensions ...................................................... 182
Understanding X Protocol Extensions ................................................................. 183
Configuring Performance Settings ....................................................................... 188
Configuring Troubleshooting Settings ................................................................. 189
Viewing the Log File .............................................................................................. 191
Handling Denied Requests for Colors .................................................................. 192
Handling Denied Requests for Fonts .................................................................... 193
Configuring Power Management Settings ........................................................... 194
Configuring System Administration Settings ...................................................... 195
Restricting Access to Xconfig ................................................................................ 197
Configuring Accessibility Settings ........................................................................ 198
Chapter 5: Introducing Exceed 3D
201
About Exceed 3D ................................................................................................... 203
Overview and Features ........................................................................... 203
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Exceed 3D Requirements ...................................................................................... 204
Graphics Cards ....................................................................................... 204
GLX Protocol ......................................................................................................... 204
OpenGL Extensions ................................................................................ 204
OpenGL Direct Rendering ..................................................................... 206
Troubleshooting Problems with Graphics Cards ................................................ 207
Chapter 6: Introducing Exceed XDK
209
Introducing Exceed XDK ...................................................................................... 211
Sample Source Code ............................................................................... 211
Extensions Support ................................................................................ 212
X11 Motif and OpenGL Version Support ............................................................ 213
Exceed XDK Files ................................................................................................... 215
Exceed XDK Runtime Control Variables ............................................... 217
Sample Local X, Motif, and OpenGL Clients ....................................................... 221
Sample Programs .................................................................................... 223
Exceed Tools .......................................................................................................... 223
Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
225
About Developing Local X Clients ....................................................................... 227
Development Overview ......................................................................................... 227
Functions Specific to the Exceed XDK ................................................... 228
Memory Management ............................................................................ 229
XtAppAddInput Function ...................................................................... 229
Gethostname Function ........................................................................... 229
Checking X Connection Status ............................................................... 230
Starting a Microsoft Application Inside an X Application ..................... 230
Setting the Locale for an X Client .......................................................... 230
Accepting Localized Input ...................................................................... 231
Header File Type Renaming ................................................................... 231
Using Multiple Screens for Local X Clients ........................................... 231
Storing X Image Data in a Memory Segment ......................................... 232
Exceed XDK Shared Memory Extension Files ........................................ 232
Developing Local X Applications Using Visual C++ .......................................... 234
Developing GUI (Windows) Applications ............................................. 234
Developing Console Applications .......................................................... 234
Local X Console Application .................................................................. 235
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Contents
Developing Local Motif Clients ............................................................................ 235
Creating Support for Wheel Mouse ....................................................... 236
Linking with Visual C++ and GCC Static Motif Libraries .................... 237
Compiling the UIL Files of Local Motif Clients .................................... 237
Creating .dlls Containing Standard or Custom Widget Classes ............ 238
Developing Local OpenGL X Applications ......................................................... 239
Using the OpenGL X Development Kit ................................................. 240
Developing Local Arabic or Hebrew Clients Using CTL ..................................... 241
Developing Local X Clients Using Dynamic Load of XLC/XIM/XOM .............. 242
Building an X Client Using Visual C++ ............................................................... 243
Preparing the Source Code for Visual C++ Use .................................... 243
Using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard .......................................... 244
Creating and Building a Project Manually ............................................. 247
Building an X Client Using a Makefile .................................................. 249
Building an X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC Compiler ..................................... 250
Building a GNOME/Linux X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC Compiler 250
Troubleshooting .................................................................................................... 251
Chapter 8: Exceed XDK — Japanese Locale Support
253
Using Japanese Locale Support ............................................................................. 255
Using Kinput2 ........................................................................................................ 256
Keystroke Conversion Tables ................................................................................ 257
Key Bind ................................................................................................. 257
MoveCursor ........................................................................................... 257
InputMode ............................................................................................. 258
CharCodeConversion ............................................................................. 258
Dictionary .............................................................................................. 258
Roman Character Conversion ................................................................ 259
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
263
Exceed Diagnostics ................................................................................................ 265
Troubleshooting Xstart .......................................................................... 265
Logs and Trace Operations .................................................................... 266
Required Port Numbers ......................................................................... 268
Resolving Connection Problems ............................................................ 268
Tracing Server Operation ....................................................................... 269
Viewing Server Error Messages .............................................................. 270
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Appendix B: HWM
273
About HWM ........................................................................................... 275
A Quick Tour of HWM .......................................................................... 275
HWM Configuration File ...................................................................................... 277
Formatting Rules .................................................................................... 278
Functions ................................................................................................................ 280
Statements .............................................................................................................. 282
HWM Virtual Desktop ........................................................................... 283
Font Statements ...................................................................................... 286
Window Statements ............................................................................... 286
Color Statements .................................................................................... 287
Icon Manager Statements ....................................................................... 287
Menu Definitions ................................................................................... 289
Mouse Button Bindings .......................................................................... 291
Preprocessor Statements ........................................................................ 293
About the Exceed Virtual Desktop ....................................................................... 295
Navigating the Exceed Virtual Desktop ................................................. 296
Configuring the Exceed Virtual Desktop ............................................... 297
x
Contents
xi
Chapter 1
Introducing Exceed
Welcome to Exceed
Exceed and X Windows
3
3
The Exceed Interface
4
Exceed Applications and Tools
Exceed Tools
Security Tools
6
6
7
Other Exceed Products
Exceed 3D
7
7
User Files
8
Chapter 1: Introducing Exceed
Welcome to Exceed
Exceed transforms your computer into a fully functional X Window
terminal. It lets you run and display UNIX applications (X clients) from a
Microsoft Windows environment. Exceed integrates your Windows desktop
with environments such as UNIX, Linux, VMS, X Window System, IBM
mainframes, and the Internet. Exceed is an integrated part of the OpenText
Connectivity product family, which provides organizations with a
comprehensive network connectivity solution.
Exceed includes innovative features that accelerate performance, simplify
system administration, and optimize personal computing. Users are
shielded from the complexities of network computing by working within
the familiar Microsoft Windows environment. System administrators are
provided with tools to set up, configure, and administer PCs remotely to
ensure consistency among systems.
Use Exceed on your local computer to:
•
Access powerful applications and information running on networked
hosts.
•
Establish simultaneous connections to different computers running
X clients.
•
Use an X window manager to display the visual interface you are
familiar with from your X environment.
Exceed and X Windows
In the X Window environment, the Exceed X server is also referred to as an
X Window terminal or display server. Without Exceed X server software,
X applications are accessible only via X terminals, UNIX, Linux, or VMS
workstations.
Exceed works with your network transport software or your modem to
access X Window applications on hosts running the X Window System. A
host can be any machine using an operating system that is running the X
Window environment.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
The figure below shows how Exceed lets your PC access the X Window
environment.
X connections over TCP/IP
Dial-up (LBX)
LAN
UNIX
WAN
Secure Shell
Linux
OpenText Secure Shell add-on
The Exceed Interface
Exceed Task Menu
The Exceed task menu is accessed by right-clicking on the Exceed icon on
the Windows taskbar once Exceed is running. If Exceed does not appear in
the taskbar, right-click the Exceed icon in the Windows system tray, select
Tools and then click Show Main Icon.
For more information, see
“Setting the Window
Manager for Exceed” on
page 15.
If you are running an X application in multiple window mode with Default
To Native as the window manager, you can access the Exceed menu by
right-clicking the Exceed icon in the title bar of the window.
You can use the Exceed task menu to perform the following tasks:
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Chapter 1: Introducing Exceed
•
accessing applications such as Xstart, Xsession, and Xconfig to
configure settings for the current session
•
perform Exceed XDMCP Broadcasts which let you start the Exceed X
server in XDMCP Broadcast mode. For more information, see
“XDMCP Broadcast Startup Mode” on page 55.
•
perform Exceed XDMCP Queries which let you start the Exceed X
server in XDMCP Query mode. For more information, see “XDMCP
Query Startup Mode” on page 52.
Exceed Menu
The Exceed main menu is accessed by right-clicking on the Exceed preview
that is displayed when you hover over the Exceed icon on the Windows
taskbar when Exceed is running. If Exceed does not appear in the taskbar,
right-click the Exceed icon in the Windows system tray, select Tools and
then click Show Main Icon.
For more information, see
“Setting the Window
Manager for Exceed” on
page 15.
If you are running an X application in multiple window mode with Default
To Native as the window manager, you can access the Exceed menu by
right-clicking the Exceed icon in the title bar of the window.
You can use the Exceed main menu for many general tasks including:
•
reloading databases for RGB, font, and keyboard
•
performing copy and paste actions
•
displaying the virtual desktop window
•
switching the keyboard
•
resetting the server
•
toggling between the Windows desktop and the X server backdrop
•
specifying whether mouse or touch actions on the Windows desktop are
processed by Exceed
•
viewing Exceed Help
The Exceed menu includes the File, Edit,View, Tools, and Help submenus.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Exceed Toolbar
The Exceed toolbar is displayed when you open Exceed. The toolbar is a
convenient way to perform typical Exceed menu actions while a session is
running. You can drag and drop the toolbar to a desired location on your
screen, or you can dock it by dragging it to the edge of your screen.
If the Exceed toolbar is not displayed, select View on the Exceed main menu,
select Toolbar on the View menu, and then select Show.
For more information on
customizing the Exceed
toolbar, see Exceed Help.
You can also customize the Exceed toolbar to include buttons for Exceed
menu commands or other applications. For example, you can add buttons
for actions such as reloading the keyboard, showing workspaces, and
resetting the server.
Exceed Applications and Tools
You can also set up the
connection manually.
Exceed contains several startup applications and tools that let you connect
to a host and display UNIX, Linux, VMS and X applications on your PC.
On the Star t menu, navigate to the OpenText Exceed program group to access
the following applications:
Exceed Exceed is a PC X server that displays graphical UNIX, Linux, and
X applications on your computer.
Exceed Connection Manager Exceed Connection Manager lets you view,
create, rename, delete, and modify Xstart, Xsession, and Xconfig files from a
single user interface. For more information, see Exceed Help.
Exceed Tools
On the Start menu, navigate to the OpenText Exceed program group, and
point to Exceed Tools to access the following:
Exceed XDMCP Broadcast Lets you start the Exceed X server in XDMCP
Broadcast mode. For more information, see “XDMCP Broadcast Startup
Mode” on page 55.
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Chapter 1: Introducing Exceed
Exceed XDMCP Query Lets you start the Exceed X server in XDMCP
Query mode. For more information, see “XDMCP Query Startup Mode”
on page 52.
Xconfig Lets you customize Exceed properties. Starting Xconfig from the
Star t menu opens the default .xcfg file. To modify the .xcfg file for the
current session, start Xconfig from the Exceed menu or the Exceed toolbar.
For more information, see Chapter 4: Xconfig.
Xsession Lets you start the Exceed X server and multiple X
clients/Windows programs simultaneously. You can also access Xsession
from the Exceed menu, or the Exceed toolbar. For more information, see
“About Xsession” on page 73.
Xstart Use Xstart to create Xstart (.xs) startup files and create shortcut
icons to start regular X clients, such as your UNIX, Linux and
X applications. When you click on a shortcut icon, it automatically
establishes a host connection, logs on, and then starts an X client or runs a
host-based script. You can access Xstart from the Exceed menu or the
Exceed toolbar. For more information, see “About Xstart” on page 28.
Security Tools
On the Start menu, navigate to the OpenText Exceed program group, and
select Security Tools to access the following:
OpenText Kerberos An OpenText client implementation of the Kerberos
security authentication protocol developed at MIT. For more information,
see OpenText Kerberos Help.
Other Exceed Products
Exceed 3D
Exceed 3D is not included
with Exceed. For more
information, contact your
sales representative.
Exceed 3D lets you display OpenGL-based X applications. OpenGL is a 3D
graphics software interface that lets you create interactive programs that
produce still or animated 3D color objects, including shading, lighting, and
other effects. Exceed 3D interprets OpenGL calls from an X application, and
sends the information to the video card on your computer.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
User Files
Depending on how your OpenText products are set up, user files can be
categorized as either per-user or shared user. There can also be global user
files.
Per-User
Per-user files are application or service files that, when changed, affect only
the user who is making the change (that is, the currently logged in user).
An example of a per-user file is HostEx.ini. If you configure HostEx.ini
with HostExplorer to Not Prompt On Window Close for a particular user, then
other users of the machine are not affected.
Another example of a per-user file is Exceed.xcfg. If you configure
Exceed.xcfg with Xconfig to use a certain display, then other users of the
machine are not affected.
Note: Each user of the product on the machine receives a
personal user directory.
The following is the default location for per-user files. By default, this
location is hidden:
C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Hummingbird\Connectivity\
version
where Username is the name of the user and version is the version number
of your product.
Shared User
Shared user files are stored in the same location, so that any changes to the
files affect all shared users.
The following is the default location for shared user files:
C:\ProgramData\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version
where version is the version number of your product.
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Chapter 1: Introducing Exceed
Global User
The global user folder is available to all users of the machine. Generally, the
global user folder is intended as writable by administrators and readable by
all users. In certain cases, folder permissions may be changed to allow
everyone write access.
Files such as user profiles and mandatory settings are accessible from the
global folder on the local machine (regardless of the current user). They can
also be made accessible from a central location (for example, a network
share) to multiple users when they install the product. During installation
(on supported Microsoft Windows platforms), these files are copied locally
to a shared folder under the All Users folder.
The following is the default location for global user files:
C:\ProgramData\Hummingbird\Connectivity\
version\Global
where version is the version number of your product.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
10
Chapter 2
Connecting to Hosts and Running
X Clients
Connecting
Starting X Clients Using a Remote Process
19
19
About Window Managers
Starting Local Window Managers
Starting Remote X Window Managers
Displaying X Clients
Location of Menu Commands
Multiple X Display Support
Entering Data Using the Mouse and Keyboard
20
21
22
24
24
25
27
Copying and Pasting in Exceed
Edit Menu Commands
Copying and Pasting Data
Copying and Pasting Graphics
Copying and Pasting Between X Selection and File
Copying and Pasting Between X Clients
Setting Print Settings
28
29
29
30
32
33
33
Accessing Hosts and Starting Applications
About Xstart
Startup Files
Startup Methods
Xstart Events
34
34
35
36
37
Creating Startup Files
Creating Shortcuts
Running an Xstart File
Launching Windows Applications
37
40
40
41
Typical Xstart Commands
Responding to an Xstart Timeout
Displaying Xstart Login Information
Displaying the Xstart Host Reply Window
Browsing for Hosts and Applications
Xstart Host and Application Files
Listing NIS Maps on the System
Load Optimization
42
43
44
45
46
50
51
52
Using Xstart on VMS Systems
TCP/IP Transports
55
55
Startup Modes
Selecting an X Client Startup Mode
Passive Startup Mode
XDMCP Query Startup Mode
XDMCP Indirect Startup Mode
XDMCP Broadcast Startup Mode
XDMCP Timeouts
56
56
57
58
59
61
63
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Connecting
To connect to remote clients, you must specify the following:
•
a startup method (usually through TCP/IP)
•
a valid account on a UNIX host (with user ID and password)
If you are connecting for the first time, consider the following information
on connecting to hosts:
•
“Starting X Clients Using a Remote Process” on page 13
•
“Creating Startup Files” on page 31 and “Running an Xstart File” on
page 34
•
“Creating Shortcuts” on page 34
•
“XDMCP Broadcast Startup Mode” on page 55
After connecting to a host, ensure that you know the syntax to:
•
Set display environment variables on different host systems. For more
information, see “Setting the DISPLAY Environment Variable” on
page 71.
•
Start a specific window manager (if applicable). For more information,
see “About Window Managers” on page 14.
Note: You can start clients in background mode in UNIX by typing
an ampersand (&) at the end of the command.
Starting X Clients Using a Remote Process
You can connect to clients using a remote process when Exceed starts (for
example, an XDM script). Ideally, use an Xterm or some other terminal
emulator, such as TELNET, which gives you a command prompt on the host
to let you start other clients.
Note: Unless you are using a local window manager (that is, either
HWM or Native window manager), the first X client you start must
be a remote X window manager.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Before starting, do the following:
For more information, see
“Setting the DISPLAY
Environment Variable” on
page 71.
•
Set the startup mode for Xconfig to passive. For more information, see
“Running an Xstart File” on page 34.
•
Start Exceed.
•
•
If you are using HWM, start the window manager.
Determine whether the DISPLAY variable is already defined on the
host. If not, enter it on the command line. Otherwise, your X client will
not run.
Regardless of whether the DISPLAY environment variable is defined,
you can start X clients using the appropriate command line syntax for
your transport. Enter the command at the terminal emulator prompt.
About Window Managers
A window manager interprets requests or commands entered on the
computer and sends them to the Exceed X server. The X server sends the
request to the X application, and the application sends instructions to the
Exceed X server to display.
Multiple window mode
creates a new window for
each X client.
You can select the window manager you want to use in either single or
multiple window mode. Only one window manager can run on a particular
X display at a time.
Although window managers are Exceed clients, they may not display their
own windows at startup. However, most X window managers have
configurable menu systems.
Note: If you run an X window session without a window manager,
you cannot perform window operations, such as resizing, moving,
and iconizing. Overlapping windows can make hidden parts of
underlying windows inaccessible.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Setting the Window Manager for Exceed
Exceed can use local and remote window managers. Local window
managers run on the local machine, while remote window managers run on
a remote host. Running Exceed with a remote X window manager generally
increases network traffic and may decrease overall system performance.
To set the window manager:
1
In Xconfig, select Display And Video.
2
On the Screen tab, select one of the following options in the Window
Manager area:
•
Native—Uses the native Microsoft window manager for the
window manager.
•
X—Any X window manager, local or remote, is used for the
window manager. You must start the window manager, as it does
not start by default.
•
Default To Native—The native window manager is used by default.
However, if a local or remote X window manager is running, it
replaces the native window manager. After the X window manager
is terminated, the native window manager is used.
Starting Local Window Managers
For more information, see
“HWM Configuration File”
on page 277.
With Exceed, instead of using a remote window manager application, you
can use a local window manager, such as the native Microsoft window
manager, or HWM. To use a local window manager, you need to specify it in
Xconfig. For HWM, you also need to start the window manager.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To specify the local window manager:
1
In Xconfig, select Display And Video.
2
On the Screen tab, select one of the following options in the Window
Manager area, depending on the local window manager you want to use:
Window
Manager
Option
Notes
Native
Native
The native Microsoft window manager cannot
be used in single window mode.
HWM
X
Hummingbird (Motif-like) Window Manager
can be used in single or multiple window
mode.
Default To Native
Note: For more information on Native, X, and Default To Native
options, see “Setting the Window Manager for Exceed” on
page 15.
To start HWM:
On the Start menu, navigate to the OpenText Exceed product group, select
Exceed Tools, and click HWM.
If you are running Exceed in either single or multiple window mode, you
can double-click the HWM icon.
Starting Remote X Window Managers
If a remote window manager resides on one of your hosts, you can use it in
single window mode or in multiple window mode. To use a remote
X window manager, you need to specify it in Xconfig and then start the
window manager.
You can start X window managers in the same way that you start any
X client in passive startup mode. If you are running in XDMCP startup
mode, the remote window manager is likely specified in the hosts startup
file.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
To specify the remote window manager:
For more information on
these options, see “Setting
the Window Manager for
Exceed” on page 15.
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Display And Video.
2
On the Screen page, select the X or Default To Native option in the
Window Manager area.
To start a remote X window manager:
1
Connect to the remote host using any startup method, such as Xstart,
Xsession, or TELNET.
2
Provide a user ID, password, and any other login information required.
3
Type and execute the command to start the window manager.
You can use one of the following window manager startup commands:
Window Manager
Startup Command Syntax †
DEC (UNIX)
[path/]dxwm&
OpenLook
[path/]olwm&
AIX
[path/]aixwm&
DEC (VMS)
[path/]SPAWN/NOWAIT/INPUT=NL RUN 
SYS$SYSTEM:DECW$WINMGR
KDE (Linux)
[path/]startkde&
GNOME (Linux)
[path/]gnome-session&
Note: For GNOME sessions using EsounD, you need to
grant access to port 16001 in the Windows Firewall Settings.
For Windows 7 and later, you have to disable EsounD on the
host or install an EsounD server from a third party provider.
For detailed information on this issue, refer to the Release
Notes.
†
You must specify the DISPLAY environment variable or command line parameter so
that the remote window manager knows which display it should use to connect.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Displaying X Clients
X clients are displayed depending on the window mode, which is based on
your preferences. By default, the Exceed X server operates in multiple
window mode and the window manager is configured to default to native.
To specify the window mode:
1
In Xconfig, click Display And Video.
2
On the Screen tab, select a window mode:
•
Single Window Mode—Presents all clients in a single Exceed
window. You can use any X window manager (local or remote) as
your window manager.
Note: If you minimize the Exceed X server to an icon in single
window mode, active client windows are no longer visible.
•
Multiple Window Mode—Each client you start creates a new
window on your display. You can use either the native (Microsoft
Windows) or any X window manager (local or remote) as your
window manager.
Location of Menu Commands
Multiple Window Mode To access the Exceed menu, right-click Exceed
on the taskbar with Exceed running. If the Exceed menu is hidden,
right-click the taskbar icon in the system tray.
The location of Edit menu commands vary depending on whether you are
running the native window manager or an X window manager in multiple
window mode:
Native Window Manager—The Copy Rectangle and Copy All
commands (To File, Printer, or Clipboard) appear on the Control menu
(click the Control menu at the top left of the X client window) on the Edit
submenu.
X Window Manager—The Copy Rectangle and Copy All commands (To
File, Printer, or Clipboard) appear on the Control menu of Exceed and on
the Exceed toolbar.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Single Window Mode To access menus, right-click Exceed in the taskbar.
Alternatively, right-click the title bar of the Exceed window. To move menus
to a menu bar in the Exceed window, click Move Menu on the Tools menu. To
return the menus to being right-click accessible, click Move Menu again.
Multiple X Display Support
Exceed supports multiple X displays. Users can run multiple simultaneous
copies of the Exceed X server (limited by available memory and resources)
as long as each copy has a unique display number. This feature is useful for
users who want to establish multiple XDM (X Display Manager) sessions
with different hosts.
Note: The easiest way to start up multiple simultaneous copies of
the Exceed X server is to use Xsession. For more information, see
“About Xsession” on page 73.
Command Line Parameters
The Exceed X server (Exceed.exe) supports several command line
parameters that specify the display number, file name, and host. If you want
a particular command line parameter to default to its current Xconfig value
in the Exceed.xcfg configuration file, then do not specify the parameter on
the command line.
For example, to start the Exceed X server in single window mode on display
1 with an XDMCP Query startup mode to an xdmhost host, specify the
following:
exceed.exe -d 1 -m query -h xdmhost -w single
To specify the display number and configuration file name:
Use the following syntax:
-d display#
-f filename.xcfg
where display# represents a display number from 0 – 9999 inclusive and
filename.xcfg is the configuration file name.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To specify the host name (optional):
Use the following syntax:
-m [passive|query|indirect|broadcast]
-h hostname
-w [multiple|single]
where hostname represents the connection host for the XDMCP Query or
XDMCP Indirect startup modes.
X Display Support Limitations
There are some limitations on multiple X display support. For example:
•
Since X displays may share the same configuration file, do not make
changes to your configuration while the Exceed X server is running.
•
Since only one X display can own the desktop/root window and the
configuration file is shared, do not enable multiple window mode
settings if you are using the multiple X display feature.
In particular, do not enable the Root Mouse Action To X in the Multiple
Window Mode Advanced dialog box. To access this dialog box, click
Display And Video in Xconfig, select Multiple in the Window Mode area of
the Screen page, and click Advanced. You can still use the Root Mouse
Actions To X toolbar button, but make sure that the setting is selected for
only one X display at a time.
•
Colormaps are not shared between X displays which may result in color
flashing in 256 color video mode when you change the focus between
windows that are on different X displays.
•
Multiple copies of the Exceed X server cannot share a single log file, so
each copy of the Exceed X server has a log file name that is based on the
log file name in the configuration file and the display number of the
server.
For example, if the log file name in your configuration file is
exceed.log, then each copy of the Exceed X server will use
exceeddisplay#.log as the log file name, where display# is the display
number of the Exceed X server.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
To disable support for multiple X displays:
Do the following:
•
Create an XServer key under the following key in the registry:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\
•
Create a (DWORD) value named DisableMultipleXDisplays and set
the value to 1.
Entering Data Using the Mouse and Keyboard
You can use a two- or three-button Windows-compatible mouse with
Exceed. To help you input data using your X Window terminal, Exceed also
supports international keyboards.
You can perform any of the following changes, which are transparent to the
X protocol:
•
Type an X Window-supported character or string of characters using
user-defined keystrokes by modifying the basic keyboard layout. For
more information, see “Modifying a Keyboard File” on page 105.
•
Simplify accented key entry by defining compose-key sequences. For
more information, see “Creating Compose-Key Sequences” on
page 110.
•
Customize keyboard and mouse options and preferences. For more
information, see “Modifying a Keyboard File” on page 105 and
“Configuring Mouse Wheel Movements and Middle Button
Emulation” on page 121.
•
Customize or create new keyboard layouts with XKeys, a graphical
keyboard utility. For more information, see “Using the XKeys Utility to
Customize the Keyboard” on page 102.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Copying and Pasting in Exceed
To print data, you must set
up your printer using Print
Setup on the Exceed Edit
menu. For more
information, see “Setting
Print Settings” on page 27.
Exceed provides functionality that lets you copy and paste between
Windows and X applications. You can copy, paste, and print selected
rectangles of information, entire windows, and X selections. For example,
you may want to copy and paste data, such as long path specifications,
command lines, or sections of script files.
The copying and pasting procedure varies depending on the source and
destination of the data, such as:
•
between Windows-based applications (for example, Microsoft Word,
Notepad, Paintbrush, Telnet, HostExplorer Basic, Xstart)
•
between Windows-based applications and X clients displayed on your
PC (that is, displaying to your Exceed X server)
•
between X clients displayed on your PC
In the X environment, the X selection is a buffer with a specific name that
stores the data you select within an X client window. It is the mechanism
that you use to copy data from X to Windows or vice versa. If data is not
being copied to or pasted from X selections, make sure that the correct X
selection type is defined.
For more information, see
“Copying and Pasting
Between X Clients” on
page 27.
The X client determines the X selection that is used. In most cases, the
PRIMARY X selection is used, but other selections are available, such as
SECONDARY, CLIPBOARD, and CUT_BUFFER0 to CUT_BUFFER7.
Some X clients can use more than one X selection.
To define the X selection:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click X Selection.
2
On the X Selection page, select the X selection associated with edit
operations.
3
You can also automate copying and pasting using the Auto Copy X
Selection and Auto Paste To X Selection options.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Edit Menu Commands
For information on
automatic copying and
pasting, see “Automatic
Copy and Paste” on
page 218.
The copy and paste commands are available on the Exceed menu by
selecting Edit. Most commands are similar to those in other Windows
applications, and some commands use an X selection.
The Edit menu includes the following commands:
Copy Rectangle –>To Clipboard | To Printer | To File—Copies a selected
rectangle of the active X client window (multiple window mode) or the
Exceed X server root window (single window mode) to a destination (such
as Clipboard, printer, or file). After clicking Copy Rectangle, the cursor
changes to a crosshair. To define an area to copy, click anywhere within the
window and drag the mouse to define a rectangle. Releasing the mouse
button copies the selected rectangle to the specified destination.
Copy All –>To Clipboard | To Printer | To File—Copies all visible portions
of the active X client window (multiple window mode) or the server root
window (single window mode) to the specified destination (such as
Clipboard, printer, or file).
Copy X Selection –>To Clipboard | To Printer | To File—Copies the X
selection to the specified destination (such as Clipboard, printer, or file).
Paste To X Selection –> From Clipboard | From File—Pastes the contents
of Clipboard or a file to the X selection. Any X client requesting the
selection can paste the associated data as long as it supports the data type
reported in the selection.
Note: You can paste data from the Windows Clipboard to another
Windows application as long as the destination application
supports the data or format type.
Copying and Pasting Data
If you are having difficulty
cutting and pasting data,
check that Windows
Clipboard contents appear
in Clipboard Viewer.
You can copy data to Windows Clipboard, a file, or to the printer. If you
copy and paste using Clipboard, you can use csv and biff formats.
To copy data:
Copy data to Windows Clipboard using an appropriate Windows
application, such as Paint.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To paste text:
1
On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select Paste To X Selection, and then
click From Clipboard.
2
Click the right mouse button in the X client window. It may be
necessary to click the right and left mouse buttons simultaneously in
the X client window.
To paste data:
On the Exceed menu, select Edit and do any of the following:
•
To paste data from Clipboard, click From Clipboard.
•
To paste data from a file, click From File.
To clear the X selection buffer:
On the Exceed menu, select Edit and click Clear X Selection.
Copying and Pasting Graphics
Exceed lets you copy images from X to the Windows Clipboard. You can
copy an entire window or a partial window by dragging a rectangle over the
window.
You can also paste images from the clipboard into an X client. The method
of pasting an image to X is based on ICCCM (Inter-Client Communication
Conventions Manual). Many X clients support the copying and pasting of
graphics to other X clients, but only through ICCCM X selections.
For a technical description of copying and pasting images, refer to
seltest.doc, located in the Exceed installation directory. For an example of
copying and pasting images, refer to seltest.c. These files are in the
following location:
C:\Program Files\Hummmingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\Info
To build Seltest, you must upload it to a host where an Xlib development
environment is available.
To compile Seltest on a UNIX host:
Use the following syntax:
24
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
cc -o seltest seltest.c -lX11
where the library file libX11.a is on your path.
To paste images from Clipboard to Seltest:
1
Copy an image to the Windows Clipboard using an appropriate
Windows application, such as Paintbrush.
2
Run Exceed.
3
In the left pane of Xconfig, click X Selection. Check that the X selection
setting is set to PRIMARY.
4
Run Seltest from an Xterm or TELNET window. This ensures that
information is output to the standard output stream. Seltest initially
displays an empty window.
5
Do one of the following:
6
•
Single window mode—On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select Paste
To X Selection, and then click From Clipboard.
•
Multiple window mode—On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select
Paste To X Selection.
Click the right mouse button in the Seltest window.
Seltest requests the current PRIMARY selection information and displays
the selection target types that are available in the Xterm or TELNET
window. If an image is available, it is displayed in the Seltest window. The
amount of time it takes to display the image in the Seltest window varies
depending on network load, image size, and color resolution. In most cases,
it should not take longer than 30 seconds.
To copy images from Seltest to Clipboard:
1
Follow the previous procedure for pasting a clipboard image to the
Seltest client.
2
Clear the contents of Clipboard by clicking Delete on the Edit menu of
Windows Clipboard.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
3
On the Exceed menu, select Edit and click Clear X Selection. If you are in
multiple window mode, this causes the server to give up ownership of
the PRIMARY selection.
4
Click the left mouse button in the Seltest window. Seltest requests
ownership of the PRIMARY selection and associates the image it is
displaying in its window with the PRIMARY selection.
5
Do one of the following:
•
Single window mode—On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select Copy
X Selection and click To Clipboard.
•
6
Multiple window mode—On the Exceed menu, select Edit and click
Copy X Selection. This causes the server to ask the PRIMARY
selection owner (Seltest) for the PRIMARY selection image data.
The server copies the image to the clipboard.
Display the Windows Clipboard Viewer to verify the image was
transferred from the Seltest client to the clipboard.
Copying and Pasting Between X Selection and File
You can copy the current X selection to a destination file. You can also paste
the current X selection from a source file. By default, the X selection is
copied/pasted from a file located in the Exceed User directory.
To copy the X selection to a destination file:
On the Exceed menu, select Edit, and click Copy X Selection To File. In the
dialog box that opens, select the destination file and click Save.
To paste the X selection from a source file:
On the Exceed menu, select Edit, and click Paste File To X Selection. In the
dialog box that opens, select the source file and click Open.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Copying and Pasting Between X Clients
If your computer is
properly configured,
copying and pasting
between different locales is
supported. You can specify
the locales in the Regional
Settings in Control Panel.
If two X clients running on your computer support the same X selection,
you can copy and paste between these X clients.
To copy and paste between X clients:
1
Place the data that you want to copy in the X selection buffer.
2
On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select Copy X Selection, and then click
To Clipboard. This places a copy of the X selection in Clipboard.
Note: You can define the X selection type used by the destination
client. For more information, see “Copying and Pasting in Exceed”
on page 22.
3
On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select Paste To X Selection, and then
click From Clipboard.
4
Use the X client-specific method to paste the X selection data.
Setting Print Settings
You can specify print settings for printing the current selection.
To set print specifications:
To specify the printer you
want to use, click Print
Setup on the Exceed
menu, which opens a print
dialog box.
On the Exceed menu, select Edit, select a copy command, and then click To
Printer. The Copy To Printer dialog box lets you specify sizing and scaling
options for printing the current selection. To have Exceed automatically size
the selection, select the Best Fit or Stretch To Page option.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Accessing Hosts and Starting Applications
About Xstart
Xstart automates the process of accessing hosts and starting applications.
Use Xstart to create Xstart (.xs) startup files and create shortcuts to UNIX,
Linux, and X applications. Clicking one of these shortcuts automatically
establishes a host connection, logs on, and then starts an X application.
X Client Setup
In Xstart, the specified startup method, host, user ID, password, and
command are stored in the .xs file. The X client is started using this
information, along with various other Xstart settings.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Xstart with Profile Spaces
If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature, and your
Exceed administrator has enabled it, then you can use any Profile Space to
save and run Xstart startup files.
Note:
• Using the GlobalExceed.ini file, which is located in the
Global User directory, Administrators can enable or disable
Profiles Spaces for all users, or allow users to enable it if
required.
• Xstart startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file (.ses)
must reside in the same Profile Space as the Xsession file.
To open Xstart:
On the Star t menu, navigate to the OpenText Exceed program group, point to
Exceed Tools, and then click Xstar t.
If Exceed is already running, you can also right-click Exceed in the taskbar,
and then click Xstar t under Tasks.
Startup Files
By installing an Xstart shortcut to an .xs file, you can double-click it to start
Exceed and run the startup X client. You can also create script files for
Web-based applications that require a user name and password.
Note:
• If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature,
and your Exceed administrator has enabled it, then you can
use any Profile Space to save and run Xstart startup files.
• Xstart startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file (.ses)
must reside in the same Profile Space as the Xsession file.
When you save an Xstart file, it is saved according to the following:
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
By default, startup files are saved in the Profile directory for the
currently logged in user, but you can specify another location.
The default location for startup files:
C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Hummingbird\
Connectivity\version
•
If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature, and the
Exceed administrator has enabled it, then you can use any available
Profile Space. Xstart startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file
(.ses) must reside in the same Profile Space as the Xsession file.
Note: Administrators can use the GlobalExceed.ini file to enable
or disable profiles spaces for all users, or allow users to enable it if
required. GlobalExceed.ini is located in the Global User
directory.
Startup Methods
In Xstart, select one of the following startup methods to establish the host
connection:
30
Startup Method
Description
Secure Shell
Encrypts remote X windows communications. This
option is available only if you have OpenText Secure
Shell installed.
REXEC
Requires a password to connect to the host. You can
also use REXEC to run local X clients on other PCs on
your network if they are running the Xstartd service.
RSH (Remote Shell)
Similar to REXEC except that no password is required.
Before using RSH, your computer must be authorized
for RSH access on your host.
RLOGIN (Remote Login)
Requires a password.
TELNET
Requires a password. This startup method includes
Kerberos V5 authentication and encryption for added
security.
Local Application
Launches Windows applications (such as
HostExplorer FTP, Exceed, or HWM) on the local host.
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Xstart Events
When you run an Xstart file, the following occurs:
1
The Xstar t Information dialog box opens when you click Run if one or
more options in the Local Prompt area are set to Ask User on the Prompts
page of the Xstar t Settings dialog box.
After account credentials have been verified, Exceed starts and retries
the connection for the length of time specified in the Timeouts area on
the Network page of the Xstar t Settings dialog box.
2
After you have connected, the command specified in the Command box
in Xstart is sent to the host specified in the Host box. If the command
starts a client, the client session begins. The initial socket closes after the
length of time specified in the Close box in the Timeouts area of the
Network page.
3
If the Show Host Reply option is selected on the Network page, host or
client messages are displayed in a window. You can copy text from this
window to the clipboard.
To open the Xstart Settings dialog box:
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
Creating Startup Files
When you create a startup file, you need to select a startup method, define
the host, user ID, and password, and specify a command to run on the host.
You can also specify local or remote login prompts when Xstart runs.
Command Example
Use the following command to start the Xterm client on a UNIX host:
[path/]xterm -display mypcname:displaynumber &
where:
•
path is the location of Xterm on the host
•
mypcname corresponds to your network node or address
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
displaynumber is the display number you entered on the Communication
page (accessible by clicking Communication in Xconfig). The display
number is usually zero (0).
To create a startup file and connect to the host:
Options that do not apply
to the selected startup
method are dimmed.
1
Open Xstart. For more information, see “About Xstart” on page 28.
2
In the Star tup area, select a method from the Method box. The method
depends on the transport that you are using and the host to which you
want to connect. For more information, see “Startup Methods” on
page 30.
3
In the Connection area, specify the information required to connect to
the host, log in, and execute a command to start an application.
a) In the Host box, type the host to which you want to connect, or click
Browse to select one from a list of hosts on the network and the X
applications available.
Note: To configure a host table, or edit the default hostdb.txt,
click Settings in the Startup area. In the Xstart Settings dialog box,
click the Other tab, and then click the Configure button next to
Hosts in the Browse Methods area.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
For more information, see
“Using Login Macros” on
page 61 and “User ID and
Password Macros” on
page 61.
b) Type a valid user ID and password for the host to which you want
to connect. If you have defined a user ID and password macro, you
can use it to fill in your user ID or password.
For more information, see
“Using Login Macros” on
page 61 and “Command
Macros” on page 62.
You can type the @d, @a, @:, and @# command macros as shortcuts in
the Command box. The @d macro selects the proper IP address if the
machine has more than one address. For more information, see
Command Macros.
c) In the Command box, type a command to run on the host. The
command that you type depends upon the program type (X
Window or Windows application), your host system, and how it is
set up.
You can specify parts of the command using the available command
macros by clicking Browse to select an application from a database.
Note: To configure an application database table, or edit the
default appdb.txt, click Settings in the Startup area. In the Xstart
Settings dialog box, click the Other tab, and then click the
Configure button next to Applications in the Browse Methods area.
4
In Xstart, click Save.
In Xstart, click Create Shor tcut on the File menu to create a shortcut locally
or on the network. To connect to the host, select Launch.
To specify local or remote login prompts when Xstart runs:
1
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
2
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, do the following:
a) To provide a description for the Xstart file, click the Other tab. On
the Other page, specify the description (maximum 40 characters) in
the Description box.
b) To create a command on the Exceed client startup menu, select the
Show On Exceed Star tup Menu option to display the description. The
description also appears in Xsession if the Xstart file is added to the
session.
c) In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, click OK.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
3
In Xstart, click Save.
Creating Shortcuts
You can create an Xstart or Xsession shortcut on the desktop, or in a local or
network folder. You can double-click the Xstart or the Xsession shortcut to
start Exceed and run the startup X client.
To create an Xstart or Xsession shortcut:
1
Do one of the following:
•
In Xstart, open the .xs file.
•
In Xsession, open the .ses file.
2
On the File menu, click Create Shortcut on the File menu.
3
In the Browse For Folder dialog box, select a location for the shortcut.
To change the default icon, right-click the shortcut and click Properties to
open the Windows Properties dialog box. To modify the shortcut caption,
right-click the shortcut and click Rename.
Running an Xstart File
When you use Xstart to start the X server, it is recommended that you set
the startup mode to passive.
To set the startup mode to passive:
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Communication. On the Communication tab,
select Passive in the Mode box.
To run an Xstart file:
Do one of the following:
34
•
In Xstart, click Launch to start the X client using the startup
information currently displayed in the Xstart window.
•
In Xsession, click Launch to start Xstart files listed in the Session
Contents area.
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
•
Use any Windows Run dialog box to run an Xstart file using the Xstart
command line syntax.
•
If the Profile Space feature is installed and enabled, you can run the
startup file from Connection Central.
•
Use shortcut commands to run Xstart files from the Exceed menu by
selecting Tools, selecting Client Star tup or Session Startup, and then
clicking a shortcut command.
•
Double-click a shortcut located on the desktop, or in a local or
network folder.
•
On the Exceed menu, select Tools, select Client Startup, and then
click a shortcut command.
•
On the Exceed menu, select Tools, select Session Startup, and then
click a shortcut command (assuming the Xsession includes the
proper Xstart file).
•
Right-click the Exceed icon in the Windows taskbar and click Xstart
in the Tasks list.
•
Right-click the Exceed icon in the Windows taskbar and click
Xsession in the Tasks list.
Launching Windows Applications
You can launch Windows applications on hosts using Xstart.
Command Line Switches
The following are possible command line switches:
-o <filename>
Specifies the Exceed
configuration file.
-w <multiple|single>
Specifies the window mode.
-m <passive|query|indirect|broadcast>
Specifies connection method.
-h <hostname>
Specifies the remote host.
-n
Name for the window title bar.
Note: Adding @h adds the host
name to the title bar.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
-d
Display setting.
-f <filename.xcfg>
Specifies an xconfig file (other
than the default).
You can start Exceed using command line switches that effectively override
Xconfig settings. For example, you could type in the following in the
Command box located in Xstart:
"C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\
Exceed.exe" -w single -m query -h Host1 -n Host1 -d 2
In this example, you can run several different X servers (Exceed.exe) on
various hosts using different configuration parameters.
To launch Windows applications:
1
In Xstart, select Local Application in the Method box.
2
In the Command box, specify the application and related options. For
more information, see “Creating Startup Files” on page 31.
Typical Xstart Commands
You can type the following host commands in the Command box located in
Xstart.
UNIX C Shell Users
If you have defined the necessary environment variables, in the C shell
resource file (.cshrc), you can type the command to invoke an X client.
For example, type the following command to start Xterm:
xterm -ls &
UNIX Bourne Shell Users
For more information, see
“Command Parameters”
on page 51.
Since the Bourne shell startup file (.profile) is not called when Xstart logs
onto the host, we recommend that you include the PATH and DISPLAY
variables on the command line.
The syntax is:
-display mypcname:0 &
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
where mypcname is the IP address of the Exceed X server, and & indicates that
the application should start in the background.
For Sun Sparc hosts, since you cannot specify the OPENWINHOME and
LD_LIBRARY_PATH variables on a single command line, consider creating
a UNIX shell script on the host to perform these functions.
For example, the following script, called start_xterm, starts an xterm:
#!/bin/sh
OPENWINHOME=/usr/openwin
export OPENWINHOME
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=path
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
path /xterm -ls -display mypcname:0 &
where usr is the appropriate directory on the host, path is the directory
where the Xterm is located, and mypcname is the network node specification
of your computer.
Once you have created the start_xterm script, type the following in the
Xstart file Command box:
sh start_xterm &
Responding to an Xstart Timeout
When Xstart times out waiting for a prompt (an answer from the host), the
Enter Reply For Prompt dialog box opens, requiring your input to proceed. To
respond to the prompt, use the Reply box. You can reply again or send
revised login information or commands.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Displaying Xstart Login Information
When you run an .xs file, the Xstart Information dialog box may open
depending on the local prompt options selected on the Prompts page of the
Xstar t Settings dialog box. When you click OK in the Xstar t Information dialog
box, Exceed attempts to connect.
To set local prompts:
38
1
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
2
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, specify the local prompts on the
Prompts page. Select one of the following prompt types for each item in
the Local Prompts area:
•
Hide—If all local prompt options are set to Hide, the Xstart
Information dialog box does not open when you a run a file.
•
Show Only—For the corresponding local prompt, the Xstart
Information dialog box displays the information.
•
Ask User—For the corresponding local prompt, the Xstar t
Information dialog box prompts for the information before making
the connection. You can specify Ask User for: the host you want to
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
connect to, the user ID, the command sent to the host, the display
ID number, and the password.
Displaying the Xstart Host Reply Window
You can display a host reply window when you run Xstart, which is useful
for troubleshooting connections and displaying errors. You can copy
information from the Host Reply window to the Windows Clipboard.
To set the display of the host reply window:
1
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
2
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, click the Network tab.
3
On the Network page, select the Show Host Reply option to display a host
reply window when you run Xstart.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To hide or close the host reply window:
You can hide the Host Reply window when the connection opens. It
re-displays when the X client terminates. When the connection closes, click
OK to close this window.
Click Close to terminate the remote execution command socket monitoring
the host replies. Click Copy to copy text from the Host Reply window to
Windows Clipboard.
Browsing for Hosts and Applications
To browse for hosts and applications in Xstart, you must specify which
methods and options to use in the Browse Hosts and Browse Applications
dialog boxes.
To set browsing options:
1
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
2
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, click the Other tab.
3
On the Other page, click the Configure button next to Hosts to open the
Browse Hosts dialog box, or the Configure button next to Applications to
open the Browse Applications dialog box. For more information, see:
•
Browse Hosts/Applications dialog box: Method page
•
Browse Hosts dialog box: Options page
•
Browse Applications dialog box: Options page
Browse Hosts/Applications dialog box: Method page
This page lets you specify the file retrieval method for the Browse Hosts and
Browse Applications dialog boxes.
Method—Specifies the file retrieval method.
For more information about
hostsdb.txt, see “Host
Address File” on page 44.
For more information about
appdb.txt, see “Application
Database File” on page 45.
40
•
File—Uses the hostdb.txt file as a source for the host browse and
appdb.txt as a source for the application browse. You can create and
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
maintain these files. The hostdb.txt file lists IP addresses and their
associated hosts. This information affects which hosts Xstart browses.
For example:
123.45.67.89
boethius
The appdb.txt file lists applications and their typical locations on
various servers in the form:
#category/application
/full/path/to/binary
For example:
#Terminals
Terminals/dtterm
/usr/dt/bin/dtterm
#Window managers
Window managers/fluxbox
/usr/bin/fluxbox
Note: The stdappdb.txt file, which contains applications and their
typical locations on various servers, is located in the Exceed User
directory. For more information, see the Installation Guide.
An application may be listed here, and consequently appears
when you browse for applications, but there is no automatic
confirmation that the application itself is in the specified directory.
•
NIS and NIS+ file retrieval
methods are available only
after configuring them in
Directory Services
Explorer.
•
FTP—Uses files on an FTP server as the source for the host and the
application browse. You can only access these files, not edit them.
Source files are similar to those described for the File method. To
properly configure the Browse Hosts or Browse Applications tabs using
FTP, you must provide a server name, user name, password, account (if
applicable), and path. In the File box, enter the name and location of the
source file on the FTP server.
NIS—Uses NIS (Network Information Service) maps hosts.byaddr as a
source for the host browse and appdb as a source for the application
browse. The system administrator on the UNIX side must create these
maps.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
NIS+ —Uses NIS+ maps hosts (as a source for the host browse) and
appdb (as a source for the application browse). The system
administrator on the UNIX side must create these maps.
Edit—Opens an editing tool, where you can modify the selected file.
Browse—Opens a browse dialog box, where you can select a different file.
Browse Hosts dialog box: Options page
The Options page let you specify the options for the Browse Hosts dialog box.
This page contains the following options:
To refresh the Host browse,
click Refresh in the Browse
For Hosts dialog box,
which opens when you
click Browse next to the
Host box in Xstart.
Remember Browse Information—Controls whether Exceed remembers
(caches) browse information. If the check box is cleared, information is not
cached and each browse retrieves the applications file. If the check box is
selected, information is cached and you can use the cached or locally saved
list of applications and only refresh the browse from the source Once A Day
(the default) or Only On Manual Refresh. Even if you select Once A Day, you
can still use Refresh to update the information.
Click Default to restore original settings.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Browse Applications dialog box: Options page
The Options page let you specify the options for the Browse Applications
dialog box.
This page contains the following options:
Remember Browse Information—Controls whether Exceed remembers
(caches) browse information. If the check box is cleared, information is not
cached and each browse retrieves the applications file. If the check box is
selected, information is cached and you can use the cached or locally saved
list of applications and only refresh the browse from the source Once A Day
(the default) or Only On Manual Refresh. Even if you select Once A Day, you
can still use Refresh to update the information.
Note: To force a refresh (regardless of the settings), hold down the
Shift key before launching Xstart or an Xstart startup file.
Use Application Startup Macro And Expand When Running Command—
Determines whether the selected browse item is inserted in the Xstart
Command box as an application macro, or as the full path and application
name. If inserted as a macro, it expands when the startup session runs.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Append To Browse Dialog Selection—Appends a string (variables, macros,
flags, and so on) to the end of the item selected in the Browse dialog box
(click Browse on the Methods page).
Default—Restores original settings.
Xstart Host and Application Files
Host Address File
The hostdb.txt file lists IP addresses and corresponding host names that
affect which hosts Xstart browses.
For example:
123.45.67.89
boethius
Host List File
The rupdb.txt file lists hosts that are running an rpcd daemon that
supports the rstatd service. This service is capable of running the rup
command, which returns status information about the host, including the
service load. The rup command is a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and the
rpcd daemon handles all incoming RPCs.
Xstart consults rupdb.txt when running Load Optimization by sending a
rup RPC to each host in rupdb.txt to find the least busy one. You can use
section names in rupdb.txt to associate applications with host names.
The following syntax rules apply:
44
•
Lines beginning with # are comments and are ignored by the system.
•
Section names are enclosed in square brackets [ ].
•
If you do not provide a name in the Section Name(s) box on the Options
page of the Browse Load Optimization dialog box, then the system inserts
the name [Default Section] in the rupdb.txt file. For more
information, see “Load Optimization” on page 46.
•
You can use any combination of alphabetic characters, spaces,
capitalization, and numbers in section names. If you want to list more
than one application in a section name, separate them with commas.
•
When you add the hosts, type only one host on each line. Host names
may be in short or full form, for example, irix or irix.domain.com.
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
For example:
[xclock]
onefish
twofish
[xterm]
redfish
bluefish
In this example, the hosts onefish and twofish support the xclock
application; the hosts redfish and bluefish support the Xterm application.
When you specify an application in the section, Xstart queries only those
hosts following each section. This prevents Xstart from contacting a host
that does not run the desired application.
Note: The appdb.txt file lists hosts that must be running rstatd.
Therefore, the list of hosts in appdb.txt is a subset of the hosts
listed in rupdb.txt, which is itself a subset of the hosts in
hostdb.txt.
Application Database File
The appdb.txt file lists host names, application category/nicknames, and
full path names for applications on remote hosts. Xstart uses appdb.txt to
determine which hosts run a particular application.
For example:
solaris/mailtool: /usr/bin/mailtool
where solaris is the host, mailtool is the application, and
/usr/bin/mailtool is the application path.
Listing NIS Maps on the System
The Browse NIS Maps dialog box in Xstart lists the configured NIS maps
available to your system. These can be standard maps, such as hosts.byaddr
which lists available hosts by their IP addresses, or custom maps set up by
your system administrator, such as appdb, which references all the
applications available to your system.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
For the NIS maps available for host or application browsing, check with
your system administrator.
Load Optimization
This feature makes Xstart connections more efficient. The connection is
redirected to another host if the original host is already accommodating
many connections.
When you run the Xstart file, the system locates the specified host. If that
host is busy, the system finds the host best able to accommodate the
connection, based on the search format you specified.
Methods
To configure Xstart for load optimization, select a method on the Method
page of the Browse Load Optimization dialog box.
The following options are available:
For more information about
rupdb.txt, see “Host List
File” on page 44.
46
•
File—Xstart scans the rupdb.txt file for available hosts and tries to run
the application on the least busy host. You can create and maintain this
file, and save it in the User directory. This method is the easiest to run
and is convenient if the desired application resides on every host in
rupdb.txt (such as Xterm). If the application runs on certain hosts only
(not necessarily the least busy ones), then this method could fail.
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
For more information about
appdb.txt, see “Application
Database File” on page 45.
Alternatively, you can use rupdb.txt in conjunction with appdb.txt
(provided you have previously created appdb.txt). In this case, select
the Use Applications File option on the Options page. By comparing the
two files, Xstart figures out what subset of hosts in rupdb.txt have the
desired application and selects from those only.
•
NIS and NIS+ file retrieval
methods are available only
after configuring them in
Directory Services
Explorer.
•
FTP—Uses a file on an FTP server as the source for available hosts. You
can read a file this way but not edit it. To properly configure load
optimization by FTP, enter the server name, user name, password, and
account (if applicable) in the fields provided. In the File box, enter the
name and location of the source file on the FTP server.
NIS—Uses an NIS (Network Information Service) map rupdb as a
source for available hosts. Before browsing, you must configure
Directory Services. The system administrator on the UNIX side must
create the map.
•
NIS+ —Uses an NIS+ map rupdb as the source for available hosts.
Before browsing, you must configure Directory Services. The system
administrator on the UNIX side must create the map.
•
Broadcast—Sends out a broadcast on the network. This option is
limited to queries within your subnet, unless you type an address for
another subnet. If you selected Use Applications File on the Options page,
then Xstart broadcasts the rup RPC to the subset of hosts in appdb.txt
that run the desired application. If Use Applications File is not selected,
then Xstart broadcasts to all hosts on the subnet. Using this method,
you do not need a rupdb.txt file.
•
Browse Applications—Uses an application database file (appdb.txt) to
get a list of hosts to check.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Options
To specify options for load optimization, select a method on the Options
page of the Browse Load Optimization dialog box.
The following options are available:
Use Applications File—Specifies that Xstart uses rupdb.txt in conjunction
with appdb.txt.
Section Name(s)—Specifies one or more section names (separated by
commas). These are defined in rupdb.txt. Each section name field can
include one or more section names (separated by commas).
Timeout—Sets a timeout value from 0 to 9999 milliseconds. If Broadcast
was selected on the Method page, this time is the total time that Xstart waits
for answers from remote hosts. If other methods were selected, this time is
the maximum time to wait for an answer from each host.
Remember Browse Information—For more information, see the
description in “Browse Hosts dialog box: Options page” on page 42.
Default—Restores original settings.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
To optimize loads on hosts:
1
Create the Xstart file. For more information, see “Creating Startup
Files” on page 31.
2
In Xstart, click Settings.
3
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box click the Other tab.
4
In the Browse Methods area, select Load Optimization and then click
Configure.
5
In the Browse Load Optimization dialog box, do the following:
6
•
On the Method page, select a method and provide the appropriate
information.
•
On the Options page, provide application file
information/parameters and browse information parameters.
Click OK.
When you run the Xstart file, the system locates the host you specified. If
that host is busy, the system finds the host best able to accommodate the
connection, based on the search formats specified.
Using Xstart on VMS Systems
You can use Xstart on VMS systems by selecting the correct startup method
for your transport software and entering all of the required information in
the Xstart window.
TCP/IP Transports
You can use Xstart on a VMS system running TCP/IP if your VMS system
supports REXEC or RSH. Alternatively, you can use TELNET to connect
and start remote applications.
You must create a script on the host containing the DISPLAY environment
variable specification and the command to start the X client. You can then
use REXEC or RSH to connect to the host and execute the script.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Startup Modes
Selecting an X Client Startup Mode
For more information, see
“Configuring
Communication Settings”
on page 124.
In Xconfig, you can select the startup mode for the client. The startup mode
determines the sequence of events when you start Exceed, including
automatic host connection. The startup mode you use depends on your
transport, your host, and your preferences.
To select an X client startup mode:
50
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Communication.
2
On the Communication page, select one of the following startup modes
from the Mode box:
•
Passive Mode—Before using HostExplorer, Xstart, Xsession, or a
remote process to manually connect to a host and start an X client,
select Passive. This startup mode does not connect to a specific host
when it starts Exceed. You must know the UNIX commands
required to run X clients.
•
XDMCP Query—Connects to, and queries, the host specified in
the Connect Host box of the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box
(accessible by selecting XDCMP Query in the Mode box on the
Communication page and clicking the Configure button).
•
XDMCP Indirect—Connects to, and queries, the host specified in
Connect Host in the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box. After
connecting, a general request is made for X display management
(XDM) to start clients on the host and broadcast the request to one
or more other hosts.
•
XDMCP Broadcast—Broadcasts an XDM request to hosts included
in the Host List file (xdmcp.txt) or to the address in the Broadcast
Address box of the Transpor t Settings dialog box.
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
Passive Startup Mode
Passive startup mode lets you start Exceed without connecting to a specific
host. If you plan to use Xstart or Xsession to manually connect to a host and
start X clients, or if you are using a remote process such as TELNET or an
Xterm to start clients, you must use this startup mode.
Note: If you are not using a local window manager (that is, either
HWM or native window manager), you must start a remote X
window manager.
Before starting Exceed:
•
For more information about
DISPLAY, see “Setting the
DISPLAY Environment
Variable” on page 71.
•
Start the HWM window manager. You can double-click the appropriate
shortcut. You must know how to run X clients. Enter commands in the
Command box. Depending on whether your host is UNIX or VMS, the
command line varies.
Determine whether the DISPLAY environment variable is already
defined on the host. If not, enter it on the command line. Otherwise,
your X client will not run.
Command Parameters
The following is a list of available command parameters:
Parameter
Explanation
path
The directory containing the application you want to run
on the host to which you are connected. If you have
pre-configured the PATH environment variable on your
host, you may not need to enter it on the command line.
application
The executable name of the application.
parameters
Any application parameters that you want to specify.
-display
The command line option that introduces the display
specification of Exceed. This specification contains the
mypcname, transportindicator, and
displaynumber parameters.
If you have pre-configured the DISPLAY environment
variable on your host, you do not need to enter your
display specification on the command line.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Parameter
Explanation
mypcname
The name or network address of the computer running
Exceed.
displaynumber
The Exceed display number. You can specify this value
on the Communication page (by clicking
Communication in Xconfig). Typically, the display
number is zero (0).
&
Indicates that this UNIX application should run in the
background.
XDMCP Query Startup Mode
When you start Exceed, XDMCP Query startup mode automatically
connects to the host specified in the Connect Host box of the XDMCP Startup
Modes dialog box. After you log in, Exceed queries the host that starts the
clients specified in the host XDM session (script) file.
Note: XDMCP Query startup mode assumes that the host
supports the X Display Manager Control Protocol and contains a
session file (script) to start clients.
Before starting Exceed:
•
Ensure that the host is running the X Display Manager (XDM).
•
Verify the name or network node specification is correct for the host
you are connecting to (as specified in the Connect Host box in the
XDMCP Startup Modes dialog box). To access this dialog box, refer to the
following procedure.
•
Ensure an XDM session file exists—Xstart verifies that an XDM session
file (client starter script) exists on the host.
To configure Exceed to use XDMCP Query startup mode:
52
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Communication.
2
On the Communication page, select XDMCP Query in the Mode box. Leave
the Display Number set to the default value of 0 unless your system
administrator tells you otherwise.
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
3
Click Configure.
4
In the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box, type the name of the host to
which you want to connect at server startup in the Connect Host box. If
you leave the box blank, Exceed prompts for a host name at runtime.
5
Modify any additional XDM settings displayed in the XDMCP Startup
Modes dialog box.
To start X clients:
Before starting X clients,
make sure that Exceed is
configured to start in
XDMCP Query startup
mode using Xconfig.
1
Start Exceed and run XDMCP Query. One way to do this is to navigate
to the OpenText Exceed program group on the Start menu, point to
Exceed Tools, and click Exceed XDMCP Query.
2
In the Exceed XDMCP Query dialog box, type a host name or IP address
and click OK.
3
Log in to the host. Exceed queries the host, starting clients listed in its
XDM session (script) file.
4
To start additional X clients, you can use another startup application
(that is, Xstart, Xsession, or TELNET).
XDMCP Indirect Startup Mode
When you start Exceed, XDMCP Indirect startup mode sends a query to the
host specified in the Connect Host box of the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog
box. Either the host starts, or it broadcasts a request for one or more other
hosts to start clients.
Note: This startup mode assumes that the host supports the
X Display Manager Control Protocol and contains a session file
(script) to start clients.
Before starting Exceed:
•
Ensure that the host is running the X Display Manager (XDM).
•
Verify the name or network node specification for the host you are
connecting to (as specified in the Connect Host box in the XDMCP
Star tup Modes dialog box). To access this dialog box, refer to the
following procedure.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
Ensure an XDM session file exists—Xstart verifies that an XDM session
file (client starter script) exists on the host.
To configure Exceed to use XDMCP Indirect mode:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Communication.
2
On the Communication page, select XDMCP Query in the Mode box. Leave
the Display Number set to the default value of 0 unless your system
administrator tells you otherwise.
3
Click Configure.
4
In the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box, specify the hosts that you want
to receive the broadcast.
5
Specify additional XDM settings as necessary, and click OK.
If the Select First Display Manager option is selected in the XDMCP Star tup
Modes dialog box, Exceed connects to the first display manager that
responds to the broadcast and the Login Information dialog box prompts you
to log in to the host.
If the Select First Display Manager option is cleared, Exceed opens the Display
Manager Chooser dialog box, prompting you to select a host to manage the
display. After you make a selection, the Login Information dialog box prompts
you to log in. Once successfully logged in to the host, clients specified in the
XDM session file (script) are run.
To start X clients:
Before starting X clients,
make sure that Exceed is
configured to start in
XDMCP Query startup
mode using Xconfig.
54
1
Start Exceed and run XDMCP Query. Navigate to the OpenText Exceed
program group on the Start menu, point to Exceed Tools, and click
Exceed XDMCP Query.
2
Log in to the host specified in the Connect Host box. After a connection
is established, the host either starts clients or broadcasts a request for
one or more other hosts to start clients, depending on information in
the XDM session file (script).
Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
3
The host that becomes the display manager depends on the Select First
Display Manager setting in the XDMCP Startup Modes dialog box.
If this setting is checked, the first responding host becomes the display
manager, and the Login Information dialog box appears for you to log in
to that host.
If this setting is not checked, the Display Manager Chooser dialog box
opens. You must select a host to be the display manager. After you
choose, the Login Information dialog box opens for you to log in to the
host.
4
To start additional X clients, you can use another startup application
(that is, Xstart or Xsession).
XDMCP Broadcast Startup Mode
When you start Exceed, XDMCP Broadcast startup mode broadcasts an X
connection request to the network hosts. You can broadcast to hosts in the
host list file (xdmcp.txt) and/or those referenced by the broadcast address.
Multicast addressing limits the sending of packets to a specific group of
hosts. This avoids a broadcast to every host on the network. You can specify
an address in the XDMCP area of the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box.
Note: This startup mode assumes that the host supports the X
Display Manager Control Protocol and contains a session file
(script) to start clients.
Before starting Exceed:
•
Ensure that the host is running the X Display Manager (XDM).
•
Verify the name or network node specification is correct for the host
you are connecting to (as specified in the Connect Host box in the
XDMCP Startup Modes dialog box). To access this dialog box, refer to the
following procedure.
•
Ensure an XDM session file exists—Xstart verifies that an XDM session
file (client starter script) exists on the host.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To configure Exceed to use XDMCP Broadcast mode:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Communication.
2
On the Communication tab, select XDMCP Broadcast in the Mode box.
Leave the Display Number set to the default value of 0 unless your system
administrator tells you otherwise.
3
Click Configure.
4
In the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box, specify the hosts that you want
to receive the broadcast.
You can add the broadcast host names to the Host List file (by default,
xdmcp.txt). If you select Broadcast/Multicast, Exceed broadcasts to the
address specified in the Address box.
5
Specify additional XDM settings as necessary.
If Select First Display Manager is selected in the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog
box, Exceed connects to the first display manager that responds to the
broadcast and the Login Information dialog box prompts you to log in to the
host.
If Select First Display Manager is cleared, Exceed opens the XDMCP Display
Manager Chooser dialog box which prompts you to select a host to manage
the display. After making a selection, the Login Information dialog box
prompts you to log in. Once successfully logged in to the host, clients
specified in the XDM session file (script) are run.
To start an X client:
Before starting X clients,
make sure that Exceed is
configured to start in
XDMCP Broadcast startup
mode using Xconfig.
1
Navigate to the OpenText Exceed program group on the Star t menu,
point to Exceed Tools, and click Exceed XDMCP Broadcast.
2
Exceed starts and broadcasts a request to hosts listed in the Host Access
Control file to start clients specified in their scripts.
The host that becomes the display manager depends on whether Select
First Display Manager is selected in the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box.
If selected, the host connects to the first display manager.
Note: To specify a host that is not listed in the Host List file, type
the address in the Host box, and click Add.
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Chapter 2: Connecting to Hosts and Running X Clients
3
If you want to run additional X clients, you can use a separate startup
application (that is, Xstart, Xsession, or TELNET).
XDMCP Timeouts
The XDMCP Idle dialog box indicates that the host has not responded to your
XDMCP request and Exceed has timed out. The timeout is set to 126
seconds.
•
To force the server to reset after timing out, click Retry.
•
To force Exceed into Passive mode until the server resets, click Passive.
•
To exit Exceed, click Exit.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
58
Chapter 3
Advanced Connection Methods
Advanced Xstart Features
Using Login Macros
Creating a Global Login
Defining User ID and Password Macros
Remembering Host Passwords
Managing the Password List in Xstart
Password Expiry Prompts
Changing Hosts, IDs, and Passwords Across Multiple Files
Running Multiple Exceed Sessions
Starting Multiple X Clients or Windows Programs
Running Xstart from a Command Line
73
73
75
77
77
77
78
79
79
80
81
Environment Variables
Setting the DISPLAY Environment Variable
Command Line Syntax for Starting X Clients
83
83
84
About Xsession
Running Multiple Xstart Profiles
Entering Startup Information
Working with Xsession
Xsession File Sequence
Starting Multiple Exceed X Servers
Exceed Display Controller Console
85
86
87
89
91
92
93
Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
Using Desktop Environments for Linux
Running Multiple CDE Sessions
93
94
95
Securing Connections
OpenText Secure Shell
Kerberos
X11 Authentication
Password Aging
96
96
97
97
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Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
Advanced Xstart Features
Using Login Macros
You can use macros as shortcuts in the User ID, Password, and Command
boxes of Xstart.
User ID and Password Macros
For more information, see
“Creating a Global Login”
on page 63.
For more information, see
“Defining User ID and
Password Macros” on
page 65.
You can use the following macros to specify your user ID and password in
Xstart.
Macro
Description
@u or @U
Inserts the user ID, depending on the startup mode.
@p or @P
Inserts the password, depending on the startup mode.
@h or @H
Inserts the host name, depending on the startup mode.
@w or @W
Inserts the Windows user name.
%w
Inserts your Windows user ID.
You can also use @u or @U and @p or @P to specify default login information in
Xstart.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Command Macros
In Xstart, the Command box lets you send a UNIX command to the host.
The command you type depends on your host system and how it is
configured. You can use the following macros when specifying a command.
These macros are automatically defined by Xstart; you do not need to
perform additional steps to define them.
Macro
Description
@d or @D
Inserts the display environment specification. Do not use with
VMS systems.
For example, type the following command to start xterm:
xterm -display @d &
@a or @A
Inserts the network address.
For example, type the following command to start xterm:
xterm -display @a:0 &
@m
Inserts security information as part of the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1
(Xauthority) security feature. At run time, Xstart replaces @m with
the required security information and key and sends this
information to the host. Xstart also adds the key to the local
database, and Exceed then uses this key to authenticate
X applications. If you select the Enable User Access Control List
option on the Security page in Xconfig, only X connections
started by Xstart with the @m macro in the command line are
accepted.
For example, type the following command to start xterm using
Xauthority security:
@m/usr/openwin/bin/xterm -sb -ls -display @d&@;
@:
Inserts the display transport identifier.
For example, type the following command to start xterm:
xterm -display @[email protected]:0 &
@#
Inserts the Display Number as configured on the Communication
page in Xconfig.
For example, type the following command to start xterm:
xterm -display @[email protected]:@# &
@@
62
Inserts the @ character.
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
Macro
Description
@#
(Local Application method only) Inserts the Display Number.
@!
(Local Application method only) Starts Exceed if it is not already
running.
Creating a Global Login
This feature lets you cache your password, so that during an Xstart session,
you log in just once. The system caches the password until you either exit
Exceed or manually empty the cache. For example, you may need to
manually empty the cache if you are leaving your computer unattended for
a long period of time.
To create a universal login:
For more information, see
“Creating Startup Files” on
page 31.
1
Create an Xstart file using Xstart.
2
In Xstart, click Options on the Tools menu. The Xstar t Global Options
dialog box opens.
3
In the Login Macros area, do the following:
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
For more information, see
“User ID and Password
Macros” on page 61.
•
User ID (@u)—Type a global user name. @u or @U automatically
inserts this default user ID in the Xstar t Information dialog box for
each connection you make.
•
Password (@p)—Type a global password. An asterisk displays for
each character. @p or @P automatically inserts this default password
in the Xstar t Information dialog box for each connection you make.
4
In the Password List area, create a password list by providing one or
more host names and a corresponding user ID and password for each
host.
5
Select an option from the Remember Password drop-down list.:
6
•
No—The password is not remembered and must be typed for each
connection.
•
Until X Session Loaded Or X Server Exits—If the host recognizes
the user ID and password, further connections to that host by the
user ID do not require a password unless either the Xsession
finishes loading or the Exceed X server exits.
•
Until X Server Exits—If the host recognizes the user ID and
password, further connections to that host by the user ID do not
require a password unless the Exceed X server exits.
•
Until X Server And Xstart Exit—If the host recognizes the user ID
and password, further connections to that host by the user ID do
not require a password unless both the Exceed X server and Xstart
exit.
Ensure that the Warn On Insecure Connections check box is selected if
you want a warning message to appear each time a user attempts to
establish an unsecured connection using Exceed. If you do not select
this option, this warning message does not appear.
To secure your connection sessions, Exceed offers Secure Shell
encryption and authentication, which is available only if you purchase
and install OpenText Secure Shell.
64
7
Click OK to close the Xstar t Global Options dialog box.
8
In Xstart, click Save on the File menu.
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
To manually empty the password cache:
1
In Xstart, open an Xstart file by clicking Open on the File menu.
2
Click Options on the Tools menu. The Xstar t Global Options dialog box
opens.
3
In the Password List area, click Delete All. This empties the cache, so that
the next time you run or create an Xstart connection, the system
prompts for a password.
Defining User ID and Password Macros
You can use a user ID and password macro to automatically provide your
user ID or password.
To define user ID and password macros:
For more information, see
“User ID and Password
Macros” on page 61.
1
In Xstart, click Options on the Tools menu.
2
In the Xstar t Global Options dialog box, type a user name and password
in the Login Macros area. Macro @u (or @U) inserts the user name and
macro @p (or @P) inserts the password automatically in the Xstart
Information dialog box.
3
Continue to configure and save your Xstart file as appropriate.
Remembering Host Passwords
For a description of
available password
options, see “Creating a
Global Login” on page 63.
Use the Xstart Global Options dialog box to specify the Remember Password
state for a specific host, as well as user ID and password. To access this
dialog box, click Options on the Tools menu in Xstart. After Xstart recognizes
the login combination, it uses the appropriate Remember Password rule.
Note: If you cannot browse, you may need to configure Host
browsing in the Browse Hosts dialog box. In Xstart, click Settings
in the Startup area. In the Xstart Settings dialog box, click the
Other tab. On the Other page, click Configure for Hosts in the
Browse Methods area.
Managing the Password List in Xstart
You can add or modify password entries for Xstart files.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To add or update password entries:
1
In Xstart, open an Xstart file by clicking Open on the File menu.
2
Click Options on the Tools menu. The Xstar t Global Options dialog box
opens.
3
Specify values for the Host, User ID, and Password boxes. Next, select a
rule from the Remember Password drop-down list box, and then click
Add. If an entry already exists for the host and user ID you specified, you
have the option of updating the entry when you click Add.
4
Click Yes in the confirmation dialog box that opens to apply your
changes.
To delete password entries:
1
In Xstart, open an Xstart file by clicking Open on the Tools menu.
2
Click Options on the Tools menu. The Xstar t Global Options dialog box
opens.
3
Do one of the following in the dialog box:
•
To delete all password list entries, leave all boxes blank and click
Delete All.
•
To delete all password list entries for a specific user ID, specify the
value in the User ID box and click Delete All.
•
To delete all password list entries for a specific host, specify the
value in the Host box and click Delete All.
•
To delete all password list entries for a specific user ID on a specific
host, specify the host in the Host box and the user ID in the User ID
box and click Delete.
Password Expiry Prompts
Xstart detects UNIX password expiry prompts that require the user to
change the password. This applies to Rlogin, TELNET, and Secure Shell
start methods.
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Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
Changing Hosts, IDs, and Passwords Across Multiple
Files
You can change your host, user ID, and password across multiple Xstart files
at the same time.
To change information across multiple files:
1
In Xstart, click Find And Replace in the Tools menu. The Find And Replace
dialog box opens.
2
In the Location area, browse to the directory in which you want to
perform your search. The User directory is selected by default.
3
In the Find area, specify the item(s) you want to change using the Host,
User ID, and/or Password boxes.
4
In the Replace area, specify your new information. If you are changing
the password, you must type the new password in the Password box and
then re-type it in the Confirm Password box.
5
Click one of the following buttons:
•
Replace All—Lets you apply changes to all Xstart files meeting the
defined criteria.
•
Replace—Lets you apply changes to individual files.
6
In the Confirm Change dialog box that opens, review your proposed
change(s) and use the Change, Next, or Change All buttons to apply the
appropriate action to the specified Xstart file.
7
Repeat steps 2 – 6 as many times as necessary, then click Close in the
Find And Replace dialog box.
Running Multiple Exceed Sessions
For detailed user interface
information, see Exceed
Help.
You can run multiple instances of the Exceed X server. If you open Exceed
while another instance of Exceed is running, the Exceed Multiple Sessions
dialog box opens. It prompts you to decide whether to run multiple sessions
or to run just one session.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
If Do Not Prompt For Multiple Sessions is selected on the Common Settings
page, or if the option was selected in a previous Exceed Multiple Sessions
dialog box, then the Exceed Multiple Sessions dialog box does not open when
subsequent Exceed sessions are run. To re-enable the appearance of this
dialog box, clear the Do Not Prompt For Multiple Sessions check box on the
Common Settings page.
To run another instance of Exceed, select Run Multiple Sessions on the
Common Settings tab of the Display and Video page in Xconfig. If this
option is not selected (and Do Not Prompt For Multiple Sessions is selected),
then neither the prompt dialog box nor another Exceed session opens.
Starting Multiple X Clients or Windows Programs
Xstart is designed specifically for starting X clients. Local Application
startup method lets you start any Windows application, including an FTP
or TELNET session. If you use additional command line parameters
supported by FTP and TELNET, you can create an Xstart file (and shortcut)
that automatically connects to the host.
Using Xstart Commands
When creating an Xstart file, you can put multiple commands in the
Command box in Xstart. This feature is useful for simultaneously starting
X applications that you commonly use, such as expense reports, calendar,
and e-mail applications. To use this feature, all of the X applications must
reside on the same host.
Note: You may need to edit the command line to accommodate a
particular host. For example, each command is separated by a
semi-colon. However, some UNIX hosts do not accept
semi-colons.
Using Xsession
Xsession sequentially executes a series of program/client startup files. It lets
you create icons to run:
68
•
Exceed using different initial window and startup modes
•
multiple Xstart files
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
Running Xstart from a Command Line
You can run Xstart from a command line to start an X client directly from a
Windows shell. Use the following command line syntax in the Windows
Run dialog box:
home/xstart [-m Method] [-h Host] [-u UserID] [-p Password] 
[-c Command] [-l|-l-] [-t CloseTimeout]
or
home/xstart Settings.xs [-m Method] [-h Host] [-u UserID] 
[-p Password] [-c Command] [-l|-l-] [-t CloseTimeout] 
where:
•
home is your User directory.
•
Settings.xs is the name of an Xstart settings file. If the Xstart file name
is preceded by a path, Xstart searches that directory. Otherwise, it
searches the User directory.
Note: Options specified after the Settings.xs parameter
override settings in the .xs file provided that the options are
placed to the right of the file specification. If an .xs file is
specified without command line options, Xstart uses information
in the file to start the X client.
•
items enclosed in [ ] are available options.
Command Line Options
Spaces within a command
must be enclosed in
double quotation marks: 
" ".
The following table describes command line parameters:
Parameter
Description
-m Method
Method can be REXEC, RSH, TELNET, RLOGIN, SSH, or
local, each representing the supported startup method.
-h Host
Host is the host to which you want to connect. Type either
the host name or its network address.
-u UserID
UserID is the login name used to log in to the host.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Parameter
Description
-p Password
Password is the host password for the startup method.
-c Command
Command is the action executed by the host. If the
command contains spaces, it must be enclosed in double
quotes (for example, “my command”).
-l|-l-
Login Information prompt. Type either:
• (Minus sign, lowercase L) The Xstart Login Information
dialog box opens at run time and prompts for a host,
user ID, password, and command.
• (Minus sign, lowercase L, minus sign) Xstart does not
prompt for login information.
-t CloseTimeout
CloseTimeout is the number of seconds the remote
execution facility socket remains open after the host has
acknowledged receipt of the command.
Note: You can run multiple Xstart files simultaneously with
Xsession. You can create an Xsession file (.ses) that includes
multiple client or application startup files (.xs). You can also
create a shortcut that lets you start the files included in the
Xsession.
To start an xterm on a host called Sparcy, using REXEC:
home\xstart -m rexec -h sparcy -u user -p abcdabcd -c "xterm ls -display pc:0&"
To start an xterm on a host called Sparcy, using RSH:
home\xstart -m rsh -h sparcy -u user -c "xterm -ls -display
pc:0&"
To use the file xterm.xs located in the User directory to start an X client:
home\exceed\xstart xterm.xs
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Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
Environment Variables
DISPLAY and PATH variables are often defined for the host session. For
example, X clients use DISPLAY to determine which X server to use. You
can specify these variables:
•
on the command line
•
for the current X window session
You can save the DISPLAY variable in the startup file (UNIX hosts: .cshrc
for the C shell, or .profile for the Bourne shell). The startup file
automatically sets any variables needed when a user logs in. To include your
DISPLAY variable in the startup file, add the commands described in the
next topic.
Note: You may want to verify that the DISPLAY environment
variable does not already exist in the host startup file. If DISPLAY
has been set, it appears in the list of environment variables for
your computer on the host.
To view this list, enter the command corresponding to your host:
• UNIX: "env" or "printenv" ("echo $DISPLAY" gives the current
value
• VMS: "SHOW DISPLAY"
Setting the DISPLAY Environment Variable
You can specify the DISPLAY on the Xstart command line that starts the X
client. The syntax is:
-display mypcname:0 &
where mypcname is the IP address of the Exceed X server, and & indicates that
the application should start in the background.
For the Current X Window Session
If you set the DISPLAY variable on the host, you have to specify it when you
start a client. The command to set your DISPLAY variable depends on your
shell.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
C shells normally display a % prompt.
setenv DISPLAY mypcname:0
Bourne shells normally display a $ prompt.
DISPLAY=mypcname:0
export DISPLAY
Note: If you are running Open Windows on a Sun Sparcstation, set
the following environment variables after setting the display:
OPENWINHOME=/usr/openwin
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/openwin/lib
For both variables, replace usr with the directory on the host
where the X Window system files are located.
Command Line Syntax for Starting X Clients
UNIX Hosts
If DISPLAY is not defined, you can start X clients using the following
command line syntax:
[path/]application [parameters] -display mypcname:displaynumber &
If DISPLAY is defined, you can start X clients using this command line
syntax:
[path/]application [parameters] &
VMS Hosts
You can specify DISPLAY on the client startup command only if you are
using Xstart with certain command line syntax shown missing. Otherwise,
you must define DISPLAY on the host.
If DISPLAY is defined, you can start X clients using this command line
syntax:
RUN SYS$SYSTEM:DECW$application
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Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
For example:
RUN SYS$SYSTEM:DECW$CLOCK
Note: There is no space after the colon (:) in the specified
command line.
About Xsession
See page 75 for a sample
Xsession Window.
Xsession lets you start multiple X clients or Windows programs (including
TELNET, TN3270, and FTP settings files) simultaneously. Each Xsession file
(.ses) references multiple Xstart startup files (.xs), each of which is
configured to automate the process of accessing hosts and starting
applications. Therefore, before starting an Exceed session using Xsession,
you must create an Xstart file for each X client and Windows application
that you want Xsession to start. The information required by individual
programs resides in the Xstart files associated with the Xsession file.
Windows 7 users can pin
specific Xsession files to
the Xsession jump list.
When you run an Xsession file, the .xs files run in the order specified. You
can indicate whether you want to start the Exceed X server when you run
the Xsession file. If so, you can also specify the initial window and startup
modes. You can install a shortcut that lets you run the files included in the X
session.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Using Xsession with Profile Spaces
If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature, and the
Exceed administrator has made the feature available, then you can use any
available Profile Space to save and run Xsession files.
Note:
• Using the GlobalExceed.ini file, which is located in the
Global User directory, administrators can enable or disable
profiles spaces for all users, or allow users to enable it if
required.
• Xstart startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file (.ses)
must reside in the same Profile Space as the Xsession file.
Running Multiple Xstart Profiles
To run multiple connections, create an Xsession file. Xsession lets you
combine .xs files into a single .ses file that starts multiple X clients or
Windows programs (including HostExplorer, TN3270, and FTP settings
files) simultaneously.
In Xsession, click Options on the Tools menu. In the Xsession Options dialog
box, you can specify the following:
74
•
Whether the Exceed X server lists the file in its Session Star tup submenu
(accessible by clicking Tools on the Exceed menu) and the Exceed
toolbar Session Startup button.
•
Whether Exceed automatically starts before running the clients or
programs.
•
If you want Xsession to start the Exceed X server automatically, you can
also specify the initial window and startup modes.
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
You can create different
Xsessions to run different
window managers
simultaneously.
Xsession provides other useful options such as specifying a configuration
file with custom settings, window modes, and startup modes. If you select
these settings within Xsession, they override Xconfig settings.
Note:
• By default, all Xsession files are saved in the Profile directory
for the currently logged in user, but you can specify another
location. The .ses file extension is appended automatically.
• If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature,
then you can use any available Profile Space to save and run
Xsession files. Xstart startup files (.xs) referenced by an
Xsession file (.ses) must reside in the same Profile Space as
the Xsession file.
Entering Startup Information
You may find it useful to create Xsession files that just start the X server with
a specific startup mode and window mode. This lets you install custom
icons to start the X server in different ways and to selectively override the
default settings in Xconfig.
The Xsession displays information about Xstart files in the current Xsession.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
For information on creating
an Xstart file, see “Creating
Startup Files” on page 31.
Use the Up and Down arrows in the Actions column to rearrange the
Xsession startup sequence. Use the X in the Actions column to delete an
Xstart file from the current Xsession. Use the Pencil in the Actions column
to open the Xstart file for editing.
For more details about
Xsession menus, see
Exceed Help.
File menu commands let you create new Xsessions, open existing Xsessions,
save Xsessions, and create shortcuts. View menu commands let you toggle
the toolbar (on or off), set button size, or reload (update and redraw) the
list of available Xstart files. This is useful if you are adding or deleting Xstart
files while running Xsession.
Actions menu commands let you add Xstart files to the current Xsession,
modify existing Xstart files, and remove Xstart files. Repair Xstar t lets you
find and select a file which the application cannot locate (for example, if it
was moved, deleted, or renamed since it was first added to the Xsession).
The missing file is replaced by the selected file. You can also rearrange Xstart
files.
Tools menu commands let you reload your Xsession or open the Xsession
Options dialog box.
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Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
Xstart Launch Interval
applies to Xstart programs
only. Local applications are
started immediately.
Xsession settings override
the defaults in Xconfig.
Use the General area to specify the interval between the startup of each
Xstart file.
You can type a Session Description (up to 40 characters) which becomes the
caption for the Session Star tup menu command (and the menu that displays
when you click Client Startup on the Exceed toolbar). To create this
command, select Show On Exceed Star tup Menu. If you did not specify a
Session Description, Xsession uses the file name (without the extension) for
the (menu command) caption.
The Run X Server option starts Exceed automatically when the Xsession file
is run. To restart the server with the server options specified in the Xsession
file before running any programs, select Prompt For Server Restar t. You can
specify an Exceed X server configuration file.
You can specify further overrides under Startup Option Overrides. Select
Single, Multiple, or Default (whatever is specified on the Xconfig Screen page)
window mode. If the window mode is Multiple, select a window manager.
Select a startup mode (Default is the mode specified on the Xconfig
Communication page). If XDMCP Query or XDMCP Indirect is selected, specify
the network address of the connect host.
Warning! To apply the new Xsession settings, you must restart the
server.
Working with Xsession
To create or modify an Xsession file:
1
2
In Xsession, do one of the following:
•
To create an Xsession file—Click Add Xstar t at the bottom of the
Session Contents area to locate and select a .xs file. Repeat as
necessary.
•
To modify an Xsession file—Click Open on the File menu to locate
and select a .ses file.
Use the icons in the Session Contents area to edit, remove, or rearrange
your .xs file(s).
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
3
On the File menu, click Save. Xsession files are automatically saved with
an .ses extension in one of the following locations:
•
By default, all Xsession files are saved in the Profile directory.
•
If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature and
the Exceed administrator has made it available, then you can use
any available Profile Space to save and run Xsession files. Xstart
startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file (.ses) must reside
in the same Profile Space as the Xsession file.
To specify options for the current Xsession file:
1
In Xsession, click Options on the Tools menu. The Xsession Options
dialog box opens.
2
In the General area, do the following as necessary:
•
To change the time between startup of .xs files, modify the Xstart
Launch Interval setting. The default value is 2 seconds.
•
To provide a brief description of the current Xsession file, use the
Session Description box. This description becomes the caption for
the file when it appears on the Session Startup menu (accessible by
clicking Tools on the Exceed menu). If you do not provide a
description, Xsession uses the current Xsession file name as the
caption.
•
Use the Parameters For Xstar t box to add command line parameters
to the selected Xstart file. For more information, see “Running
Xstart from a Command Line” on page 69.
•
To list the current Xsession file on the Session Star tup menu for
Exceed, select Show On Exceed Startup Menu. If you select this
option, the file also appears in the list that appears when you click
Session Star tup on the Exceed toolbar.
The file is displayed with the caption as specified by the Session
Description box mentioned above. For information on how to access
the Session Star tup menu, see the previous bulleted item.
•
78
To launch a new Exceed session for each Xsession profile you run,
select Launch New Exceed Session. Exceed launches a session with
an incremented display number for each new Xsession.
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
3
If you want to automatically start the Exceed X server with your
Xsession file, do the following:
a) Select Run Exceed X Server.
b) In the Exceed Configuration area, specify the Xconfig file that you
want your Xsession file to run.
4
In the Star tup Options Overrides area, select the appropriate startup
options for your Exceed sessions. These options override the defaults in
Xconfig.
5
If you want Xsession to prompt for confirmation before restarting the
server (each time the file is run), select Prompt For X Server Restar t.
6
Click OK to apply your changes and close the Xsession Options dialog
box.
7
In Xsession, click Save on the File menu. Xsession files are automatically
saved with an .ses extension in one of the following locations:
•
By default, all Xsession files are saved in the Profile directory.
•
If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature and
the Exceed administrator has made it available, then you can use
any available Profile Space to save and run Xsession files. Xstart
startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file (.ses) must reside
in the same Profile Space as the Xsession file.
Xsession File Sequence
To troubleshoot a
connection, see “Exceed
Diagnostics” on page 265
and “Chapter 2:
Connecting to Hosts and
Running X Clients” on
page 11.
The following describes the sequence of events when you run an Xsession
session. You can use this information to help you troubleshoot connection
issues.
1
If Run Exceed X Server is selected in the Xsession Options dialog box
(accessible by clicking Options on the Tools menu in Xsession), and the
X server was not previously started, the X server starts.
If the X server is already running and you selected Prompt For X Server
Restar t, Xsession prompts you to restart the server.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
2
The pause between the start of profiles corresponds to the Xstar t Launch
Interval specified in the General area of the Xession Options dialog box.
Profiles start according to the order listed in the Session Contents area of
the Xsession file (.ses).
Starting Multiple Exceed X Servers
The easiest way to startup multiple, simultaneous instances of the Exceed
X server is to use Xsession.
To start multiple Exceed X servers:
1
In Xsession, click Options on the Tools menu. The Xsession Options
dialog box opens.
2
In the Session Description box, provide a description for the current
Xsession file. For more information on how this description is used, see
“Working with Xsession” on page 77.
3
Select Run Exceed X Server.
4
Click OK to save the session and close the Xsession Options dialog box.
5
In Xstart, create and save a profile (specifying Local Application as the
startup method) for each instance of the Exceed X server. For each
profile, ensure that:
•
the command line is fully specified or that settings in Exceed.xcfg
are suitable
•
a unique display number is used for each instance
Note:
• Multiple X display support has certain restrictions. For more
information, see Multiple X Display Support.
• If your installation of Exceed includes the Profile Space feature
and the Exceed administrator has made it available, then you
can use any available Profile Space to save and run Xsession
files. Xstart startup files (.xs) referenced by an Xsession file
(.ses) must reside in the same Profile Space as the Xsession
file.
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Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
6
In Xsession, add the Xstart profiles to your Xsession file by clicking Add
on the Actions menu.
7
Save your Xsession file by clicking Save or Save As on the File menu.
Optionally, create a shortcut to enable a double-click startup of the
session by clicking Create Shor tcut on the File menu.
Exceed Display Controller Console
For more details about the
Exceed Display Controller
Console, see Exceed Help.
Display numbers are used for differentiating between multiple instances of
Exceed and are required to correctly map X server input and output. The
Exceed Display Controller Console (a Microsoft Management Console
plug-in) provides an interface for setting parameters that control display
numbers in the Display Manager.ini file. The left pane displays a tree of
the types of display number settings, which can be expanded to view
various options. Select an option to view settings in the right pane.
For more information about Microsoft Management Console, consult the
Microsoft Windows documentation.
Note: Exceed Display Controller Console is available only for
terminal servers/remote desktop servers that are running
Windows Server 2008 (32 and 64 bit), Server 2008/2012 R2 (64
bit).
Common Desktop Environment (CDE)
A handshake is an activity
that keeps two computers
or programs synchronized
(such as the CDE display
manager and the X
protocol). It usually
involves the exchange of
messages or packets of
data between two systems.
When you log in to the UNIX host via the CDE display manager using
XDMCP, a handshake implemented by the X protocol is employed. CDE
does not begin unless it detects a supported X server (that is, Exceed).
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
To start CDE:
1
Ensure CDE is configured properly on a UNIX host.
2
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Display and Video. On the Screen page
that opens, select either the Multiple or Single window mode.
Note: If you select multiple window mode and you are using the
Windows (native) window manager, verify that the Cascade
Windows option is not selected.
3
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Communication. On the Communication
page that opens, select XDMCP Broadcast from the Mode drop-down list.
4
Click Save.
5
Start Exceed.
6
From the XDMCP Display Manager Chooser, select a UNIX host, and click
OK. The greeter opens.
7
Log in to the UNIX host.
The CDE session manager starts and the interface displays on your
computer.
Using Desktop Environments for Linux
There are two main types of X Graphical Desktop Environments in Linux.
Depending on which one you chose when you installed Linux, either KDE
or GNOME is set as the default desktop.
82
•
KDE—K Desktop Environment uses KWin as its window manager.
•
GNOME—GNU Network Object Model Environment works with
window managers such as Enlightenment, Sawmill, and Window
Maker.
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
KDE and GNOME run on a Linux host and are displayed on the remote
computer using standard X protocol.
Note: For GNOME sessions using EsounD, you need to grant
access to port 16001 in the Windows Firewall Settings. For
Windows 7 and later, you must disable EsounD on the host or
install an EsounD server from a third party provider. For detailed
information on this issue, refer to the Release Notes.
Running Multiple CDE Sessions
Running multiple CDE sessions requires passing command line parameters
to Exceed.exe.
To create multiple Xstart sessions (each with specific command line
parameters):
1
In Xstart, create an Xstart file by selecting Local Application as the
startup mode, and click Settings. The Xstar t Settings dialog box opens.
2
In the General area of the Other page, provide an explanation or label
(such as CDEHostA) in the Description box, and click OK to close the
Xstar t Settings dialog box.
3
In Xstart, specify the exceed.exe command and its appropriate
parameters in the Command box.
For example:
exceed.exe -d l -m query -h host -w single -n session
where:
-d 1 specifies the display number
-m query specifies the startup mode
-h host specifies the connect host
-w single specifies the window mode
-n session specifies the session name that appears in the title bar
(single window mode)
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
4
Click Run on the Action menu to test the startup file. If the session runs
successfully, close the Exceed window, and then save the startup file by
clicking Save or Save As on the File menu.
5
On the File menu, click New. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each startup file.
Be sure to type a unique description (such as CDEHostB, CDEHostC,
and so on) for each session.
To run Common Desktop Environment (CDE) sessions with Xsession:
You can also add files by
dragging and dropping
.xs files into the Session
Contents list.
1
In Xsession, click Add on the Tools menu to add Xstart files (.xs) to
your Xsession. Xsession lists the files in Session Contents.
2
If necessary, use the Xsession Options dialog box (accessible by clicking
Options on the Tools menu in Xsession) to make additional changes to
your Xsession file. You can also modify or reorder your Xstart sessions
within Xsession by using the Modify, Move Up, or Move Down buttons.
For more information, see “Working with Xsession” on page 77.
3
Click Run on the Tools menu to test the CDE sessions.
4
If the Xstart sessions run successfully and you are satisfied with how the
overall Xsession runs, click Save on the File menu. Optionally, create a
shortcut to enable a double-click startup of the session by clicking
Create Shor tcut on the File menu.
Securing Connections
OpenText Secure Shell
To secure your connection sessions, Exceed offers Secure Shell encryption
and authentication, which is available only if you purchase and install
OpenText Secure Shell. OpenText Secure Shell is a client implementation of
the Secure Shell protocol (SSH-2).
To make an Exceed X Window session secure, specify Secure Shell as the
startup method in Xstart. The connection parameters specified in Xstart are
used to establish a Secure Shell tunnel to the target host:
•
84
Host
Chapter 3: Advanced Connection Methods
•
User ID
•
Authentication Method
For more information, consult the OpenText Secure Shell documentation.
Kerberos
This option is available only for the TELNET startup method. Select this
option to enable use of Kerberos V5, and to select and configure options.
Kerberos is an authentication service developed at MIT for open network
computing environments. Kerberos works by assigning a key, called a ticket,
to each user that logs on to the network. The ticket is then embedded in
messages to identify the sender of the message.
For more information, refer to OpenText Kerberos Help.
X11 Authentication
For certain environments, user-level security is controlled by a binary file,
.Xauthority. It contains cookies that associate an IP address with a binary
value. When an X11 application runs, the file is accessed and then the
appropriate cookie is extracted and sent to the X server (typically located on
another computer). If the X server accepts the cookie, then the connection
succeeds.
For more information, see
“OpenText Secure Shell”
on page 84.
For a higher level of security, consider using OpenText Secure Shell (a client
implementation of the SSH-2 Secure Shell protocol) for X11 tunnelling and
port forwarding. This product is a TCP-based client/server protocol that
provides authentication, encryption, and data integrity.
X11 authentication options in Secure Shell interact with Exceed. When an
unknown X client tries to connect, Exceed prompts for a decision to allow
or refuse the connection. Allowing the connection depends on whether the
X client is trusted or untrusted.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Password Aging
Password aging is a common tool used to ensure a modest level of security.
Changing the password periodically reduces the potential damage caused by
intruders who gain access to the network by using stolen user credentials.
However, frequent password change also inconveniences end-users and
reduces productivity because, in some cases, the passwords are stored in
many application profiles. Users must manually replace the aged password
with the new password.
For more information, see
“Password Expiry
Prompts” on page 66.
86
Exceed can handle password aging events and automatically propagate the
changes to Xstart profiles. Users do not have to manually update Xstart
profiles with the new password. Xstart detects UNIX password expiry
prompts that require the user to change password. This applies to Rlogin,
TELNET, and Secure Shell start methods.
Chapter 4
Xconfig
About Xconfig and its Mandatory Settings
103
Viewing or modifying configuration files created with Xconfig
104
Starting Xconfig and displaying the relevant settings
107
Using Xconfig menus
107
Configuring your keyboard
110
Using the XKeys Utility to Customize the Keyboard
About the Xkeys Utility
Modifying a Keyboard File
Mapping a New Keysym to an Existing Key
Deleting a Keysym Mapped to a Key
Mapping a Macro to an Existing Key
Macro Events
Creating Compose-Key Sequences
Managing Keysyms and Keysym Sets
PrintScrn Key Support
Adding a Physical Key
Deleting a Physical Key
114
114
117
118
120
121
121
122
122
123
124
125
About Keyboard and Mouse Wheel Macros
126
Creating a New Macro
126
Modifying Macros
127
Macro Shortcuts
127
Configuring CJK Keyboard Input (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean)
128
Special Considerations for Traditional Chinese
130
Configuring Mouse Wheel Movements and Middle Button
Emulation
133
Mapping a Macro to the Mouse Wheel
135
Configuring Communication Settings
136
Creating or Editing the Host List
139
Host List File Syntax
140
Configuring Security Settings
Host Access Control List Syntax
Creating and Editing the Host Access Control List
Creating the User Access Control List
Authorizing X Clients
140
142
143
144
145
Configuring Display and Video Settings
146
Configuring Single Window Mode Screen Settings
147
Configuring Multiple Window Mode Screen Settings
153
Adding or Removing Screens at the Screen tab
155
Creating or Editing a Local XRDB Database
155
Configuring Common Settings for Display and Video
159
Configuring Video Settings
163
Configuring Advanced Settings for Display and Video
164
Configuring the Copy, Paste, and X Selection
167
Configuring Fonts
169
Editing the Font Database
172
Understanding Font Database Settings
Adding and Changing Font Directories
Changing Paths in the Font Database
Changing the Font Directory Search Order
Adding and Changing Font Servers
174
176
177
178
179
Accessing the Font Server (Advanced Settings)
180
Making Fonts Scalable
Creating Font Aliases
Creating Several Aliases
Alias File Format
Encoding File Support
Setting Up Remote Font Architecture
182
182
183
184
186
186
Configuring OpenGL settings for Exceed 3D and GLX
189
MESA Server Side Software OpenGL Rendering
192
Configuring X Protocol Settings
Configuring the Protocol tab
193
194
Configuring X Protocol Extensions
194
Understanding X Protocol Extensions
195
Configuring Performance Settings
200
Configuring Troubleshooting Settings
201
Viewing the Log File
203
Handling Denied Requests for Colors
204
Handling Denied Requests for Fonts
205
Configuring Power Management Settings
206
Configuring System Administration Settings
207
Restricting Access to Xconfig
209
Configuring Accessibility Settings
210
Chapter 4: Xconfig
About Xconfig and its Mandatory Settings
This section describes Xconfig, a utility for configuring Exceed settings. The
settings are used when you run an X client.
Which settings you can configure in Xconfig
The default Xconfig settings suit most systems. Typically, changes you make
in Xconfig take effect immediately. In some cases, Exceed displays a message
indicating that the setting cannot be updated until the server is reset. Note
that a server reset terminates all X clients.
Xconfig enables you to configure the following settings:
Settings for...
See more...
Input Devices
• Configuring your keyboard
Communication
• Configuring Communication Settings
Security
• Configuring Security Settings
Display and Video
• Configuring Display and Video Settings
X Selection
• Configuring the Copy, Paste, and X Selection
Fonts
• Configuring Fonts
Open GL
• Configuring OpenGL settings for Exceed 3D and
GLX
X Protocol
• Configuring X Protocol Settings
Performance
• Configuring Performance Settings
Troubleshooting
• Configuring Troubleshooting Settings
Power Management
• Configuring Power Management Settings
System Administration
• Configuring System Administration Settings
Accessibility
• Configuring Accessibility Settings
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
XconfigMandatory Settings
Xconfig mandatory settings lets administrators lock certain individual
settings so that users cannot change them. By default, all settings are
initially available for configuration. This option is available only for
Administrators or users with elevated (administrative) privileges.
To lock certain settings and options from within Xconfig:
From the Xconfig File menu, select Mandatory Settings. When this option is
selected, a green lock icon appears for all the Xconfig settings.
To toggle between unlocked and locked state, click the lock icon.
•
unlocked (green lock) and
•
locked or mandatory (red lock)
Locked (mandatory) settings are saved to Mandatory.xcfg (located in the
Global directory).
Viewing or modifying configuration files created with Xconfig
This section contains the following topics:
•
“Location of default Exceed.xcfg file” on page 92
•
“Accessing an Xconfig file” on page 93
Location of default Exceed.xcfg file
The default configuration file (Exceed.xcfg.) is a per-user file. Per-user files
affect only the user who is making the change (the user who is currently
logged in). For example, if you configure Exceed.xcfg to use a certain
display, other users of the machine are not affected.
The default location for per-user files is:
C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Hummingbird\
Connectivity\version\Exceed
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
where Username is the name of the user and Version is the version number
of your OpenText product.
Note: Each user of the product on the machine receives a
personal User directory located in the product subfolder. See
“User Files” on page 8.
Accessing an Xconfig file
This section describes how to access an Xconfig file, using the command
line or the Xsession utility.
To view or modify an Xconfig file using the command line:
•
Specify /f and the full path to the configuration file on the Exceed
X server command line.
To view or modify an Xconfig file from Xconfig:
1
Start Xconfig. See “Starting Xconfig and displaying the relevant
settings” on page 95.
2
From the File menu, select Open. A dialog box is displayed. It allows you
to locate and select a configuration file (*.xcfg).
To specify an Xconfig file in the Xsession utility:
1
Right-click the Exceed icon in the taskbar. From the menu that is
displayed, select Xsession.
The Xsession utility is started.
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94
2
From the Tools menu, select Options. The Xsession Options dialog box is
displayed.
3
Under Exceed Configuration, in the Xconfig File box, specify the
configuration file. You may also click the Browse button, to browse for
the file.
4
Select Prompt For X Server Restar t.
5
Click OK.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Starting Xconfig and displaying the relevant settings
This section describes how to start the Xconfig utility.
Starting Xconfig
To start the Xconfig utility:
1
Right-click on the Exceed icon in taskbar.
2
From the menu that is displayed, select Xconfig. The utility is started.
Accessing Xconfig categories of settings
This section describes how to access the Exceed settings you want to modify
in Xconfig.
To access the configuration settings you want to modify:
1
Start Xconfig. By default, the Xconfig main page (Input Devices) is
displayed.
2
Click the relevant item in the Xconfig left pane. For example, to display
Communication settings, click Communication, in the left pane.
Alternatively, start Xconfig, display the Settings menu, and select the
menu option of your choice. For more details about all available menus,
see “Using Xconfig menus” on page 95.
Using Xconfig menus
This section lists the Xconfig menus and their options.
The following menus are available:
•
“File menu in Xconfig” on page 96
•
“Settings menu in Xconfig” on page 96
•
“Actions menu in Xconfig” on page 97
•
“Help menu in Xconfig” on page 98
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File menu in Xconfig
This section describes the File menu options in Xconfig.
Menu option
Description
Open
Opens a dialog box for locating and selecting a
configuration file (*.xcfg).
Save
Saves the modifications you made.
Save As
Opens a dialog box for saving the current
configuration file under a new name. By default,
Exceed.xcfg is the configuration file name.
Mandatory Settings
Displays icons beside certain settings and options that
system administrators can lock (make mandatory), or
unlock. This option is available only for Administrators
or users with administrative privileges.
To toggle between unlocking or locking an option or
setting, click the icon next to this option or setting.
Note: Green lock indicate that the option or setting is
not locked. Red icon indicates the locked option or
setting. For more details, see “Xconfig Mandatory
Settings” on page 203
Exit
Saves any changes made to the current configuration
file and exits Xconfig.
Settings menu in Xconfig
This section describes the Settings menu options in Xconfig.
96
Menu option
Description
Keyboard Input
Display the Keyboard Input tab of the Input Devices
page.
Mouse Input
Display the Mouse Input tab of the Input Devices page.
CJK Input
Display the CJK (Chinese/Japanese/Korean) Input tab
of the Input Devices page.
Communication
Display the Communication page.
Security
Display the Security page.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Menu option
Description
Screen Definition
Display the initial (Screen) tab of the Display and Video
page in Xconfig.
Video
Display the initial (Screen) tab of the Display and Video
page in Xconfig.
X Selection
Display the X Selection page.
Font
Display the Font page.
OpenGL
Display the OpenGL page.
Protocol
Displays the X Protocol page.
Performance
Displays the Performance page.
Troubleshooting
Displays the Troubleshooting page.
Power Management
Displays the Power Management page.
System Administration
Displays the System Administration page.
Accessibility
Displays the Accessibility page.
Actions menu in Xconfig
This section describes the Actions menu options in Xconfig.
Menu option
Description
Launch Exceed With
Current Settings
Launches a new instance of Exceed using the current
settings.
Change My Password
Opens the Xconfig Password dialog box. Enter your
old password and the new password, and confirm the
change. See “Restricting Access to Xconfig” on
page 197.
Restore To Default
Settings
Restores default settings (the settings in Exceed.xcfg).
Add Screen
Adds screens (up to 4, the initial screen being 0).
Remove Screen
Removes the highest numbered screen (except for
Screen 0, which is the initial screen).
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Help menu in Xconfig
This section describes the Help menu options in Xconfig.
Menu option
Description
View Help
Launches the Help file for Xconfig. You may select the
option or press the F1 function key on the keyboard.
About Xconfig
Display the information about Xconfig.
Configuring your keyboard
This section describes the Input Devices settings for your keyboard, and
how to modify them.
This section contains the following topics:
•
“Which keyboard settings you can configure” on page 99
•
“Primary or Alternative keyboard settings” on page 99
•
“Window Modifiers Behavior for Your Keyboard” on page 100
•
“Keyboard Hook” on page 101
Keyboard files are provided. They contain keyboard layout and symbol
mappings. Keyboard files are stored in the User directory and have a .kbf
extension. See “User Files” on page 8.
Exceed support international keyboards. See “International Keyboards” on
page 1. Where the keyboard file name differs from the name of the country,
the file name appears in parentheses ( ) beside it.
Note: If you are running a Chinese, Japanese, or Korean (CJK)
Windows operating system (provided Microsoft IME is installed
and enabled), the Input Devices include a settings page for CJK
input.
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•
To customize your keyboard further, you will need to use the XKeys
utility. See “Using the XKeys Utility to Customize the Keyboard” on
page 102.
Which keyboard settings you can configure
Use the Keyboard Input tab of the Input Devices page to configure:
•
Keyboard Mapping—customize the current keyboard file, select an
alternative keyboard file, or allow clients to modify keyboard mapping).
For detailed customizing of keyboard files, you will need to use the
XKeys key mapping utility.
•
Windows Modifier Behaviour—map Shift and Alt keys for Exceed;
associate keyboard keys with X keysyms and compose key sequences.
•
Other—select whether Keyboard Hook is used
Primary or Alternative keyboard settings
This section describes how to select a primary or alternative keyboard file,
and configure whether Exceed users can modify them on their computers.
•
By default, Exceed automatically detects an existing keyboard as the
primary keyboard (automatically determines the keyboard defined in
Windows Control Panel).
To configure the Primary or Alternative keyboard mappings:
1
Ensure that you have a copy of the original keyboard file, as a
precaution.
Note: By default, keyboard files are stored in the User directory
and have a .kbf extension.If you are not using a supported
keyboard, or if you are using a keyboard without a separate cursor
keypad and 12 function keys, you can create a custom keyboard
file to interact with Exceed.
2
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab of
the Input Devices page is displayed.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
3
Under Keyboard Mapping, select the Primary and/or Alternate keyboard
file you want to use.
•
The Primary box displays the name of the current primary keyboard
file.
•
The Alternate box displays the name of the current alternative
keyboard file. Displays the name of the alternate keyboard file. By
default, the U.S. English keyboard us.kbf is used.
4
Perform the task of your choice:
•
To change the individual settings of either the Primary or Alternate
keyboards, click Edit. To change the individual settings of a
keyboard file not listed in the lists, Browse to the file, and then click
Edit.
The XKeys key mapping utility is displayed. Customize the file as
desired, and save the changes. See “Using the XKeys Utility to
Customize the Keyboard” on page 102. See also “Modifying a
Keyboard File” on page 105.
•
To allow users to modify keyboard files from their computers, select
Allow Clients To Modify Keyboard Mapping .
You may now proceed to configure the Windows Modifier Behavior.
Window Modifiers Behavior for Your Keyboard
This section describes how to associate keyboard keys with X keysyms, and
compose key sequences.
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab of
the Input Devices page is displayed.
2
Under Windows Modifier Behavior, define how the Alt keys, Windows
key, and Shift keys are interpreted by Exceed. The drop-down list box
lists the following options for each key type:
To Windows—causes the left and right keys to be sent through to
Windows.
To X—causes the left and right keys to be sent through to X.
Left To Windows, Right To X —causes the left key to be sent through
to Windows and the right key to be sent through to X.
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
Right To Windows, Left To X—causes the right key to be sent through
to Windows and the left key to be sent through to X.
•
Alt Key—Defines whether Alt key sequences are directed to
Microsoft Windows or to X Window clients. On keyboards that
contain two Alt keys, use the Left To/Right To options to assign the
Alt keys on the left and right-hand side of the keyboard separately.
•
Windows Key—Defines how the Windows keys on your keyboard
are interpreted by Exceed. You can choose from the same options as
listed for the Alt key. Each Windows key can control a different
function.
Note: The Windows key does not exist in the default keyboard file.
To map the Windows key, you must add it manually. See Adding a
Physical Key for more information.
•
Shift Key—Defines how the Shift keys on your keyboard are
interpreted by Exceed. The drop-down list box lists the following
options:
Map Both Left And Right—causes the left and right Shift keys to be
treated separately.
Map Left As Right—any time you press a Shift key on your keyboard,
it is treated as a Right Shift.
Map Right As Left—any time you press a Shift key on your keyboard,
it is treated as a Left Shift.
Keyboard Hook
This section describes the Keyboard Hook option.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
Use Keyboard Hook—Ties Exceed into the system keyboard. When
switching the focus from a desktop application and to an X window,
Exceed informs the X application about the corrected keyboard state.
Warning! Certain desktop applications (such as screen readers)
do not work properly if Use Keyboard Hook is selected. If you
want to enable the accessibility feature, you need to clear the Use
Keyboard Hook option. See “Configuring Accessibility Settings”
on page 198.
Using the XKeys Utility to Customize the Keyboard
This section describes how to use the XKeys utility to configure keyboard
files. The XKeys utility simplify the process of keyboard files mapping.
This section contains the following topics:
•
“About the Xkeys Utility” on page 102
•
“Modifying a Keyboard File” on page 105
•
“Mapping a New Keysym to an Existing Key” on page 106
•
“Deleting a Keysym Mapped to a Key” on page 108
•
“Mapping a Macro to an Existing Key” on page 109
•
“Macro Events” on page 109“Creating Compose-Key Sequences” on
page 110
•
“Managing Keysyms and Keysym Sets” on page 110
•
“PrintScrn Key Support” on page 111
•
“Adding a Physical Key” on page 112
•
“Deleting a Physical Key” on page 113
About the Xkeys Utility
This section describes XKeys utility. This key-mapping utility is used to
simplify the process of keyboard files mapping. It has been designed to
communicate with an X protocol host.
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
The following changes are transparent to the X protocol:
•
modify any basic keyboard layouts to send an X Window-supported
character or string of characters using user-defined keystrokes
•
define the sequences that simplify entering accented keys (using
Compose Key options)
•
customize keyboard and mouse options and preferences in the Xconfig
Input Settings dialog box
•
customize or create new keyboard layouts
Note: Back up a keyboard file before modifying it. Start the XKeys
utility, and from the File menu select Save As. name the new copy
of the file. This ensures that the copy of the original file remains
intact, in case you need to revert to it.
Note: Every key you want to use must be defined in your keyboard
file. To define a key, describe the symbol(s) it can generate in the
No Shift, Shift, Mode Switch, and Shift Mode Switch states. The
key definition is represented by a keysym (key symbol)
hexadecimal value corresponding to the symbol generated in a
specific state. An undefined key symbol does not function in any
X application.
To open the XKeys utility:
1
In Xconfig, display the Keyboard Input tab of the Input Devices page.
2
In the Keyboard Mapping area, select a .kbf file, and then click Edit (the
button is available for either the Primary or Alternate keyboard files). The
XKeys mapping utility is displayed.
3
To load a different keyboard file so that you can modify it:
•
From the XKeys File menu, select Open. This will allow you to locate
and select the file.
•
Back up the file, before modifying it. From the File menu, select
Save As. This ensures that the original file is intact if you need to
revert to it.
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To use different modes of XKeys configuration:
1
From the View menu, select the Mapping Mode or the Layout Mode.
•
Mapping Mode—Allows you to customize a keyboard file, associate
X Keysyms to keys, compose key sequences, and build macros.
•
2
104
Layout Mode—Allows you to customize a keyboard file by adding or
repositioning physical keys. Use this mode to create a new layout, or
modify an existing one.
Proceed to modify the keyboard file. Note that you can accommodate
non-standard keyboards by manually editing the keyboard text file or
by using XKeys.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Modifying a Keyboard File
This section describes how to customzie your keyboard, by modifying an
existing keyboard file.
Note: Create a backup of the original keyboard file before you
customize it. After you load the file into XKeys, click Save As from
the File menu and specify another file name. This ensures that the
original file is intact if you need to revert to it.
The following table describes various scenarios for modifying a keyboard
file:
You want to..
Details
Make a key on your
keyboard generate a
particular X Keysym
Map the Keysym to a key on your keyboard.See topic
“Mapping a New Keysym to an Existing Key” on
page 106
Send multiple Keysyms
to the remote host, using
a single key
To forward multiple Keysyms, create a macro or a
string of symbols, and map it to a key.See “Mapping a
Macro to an Existing Key” on page 109.
Generate a special
Keysym that consists of
an unknown accented
character
To generate a special Keysym, define a compose-key
sequence to forward that special Keysym to the
remote host. See topic “Creating Compose-Key
Sequences” on page 110.
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You want to..
Details (Continued)
Resolve the situation
where your keyboard
does not have a
separate cursor keypad
Map existing keys to generate the symbols on a cursor
keypad.
Create a keyboard file
for mathematical
symbols or for other
Keysyms that are not
available
Use Keysym File Editor to add custom Keysyms and
create new Keysym Sets.See “Managing Keysyms and
Keysym Sets” on page 110.
Create a keyboard file
for mathematical
symbols or for an
alphabet (such as
Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek,
and Hebrew)
Create a new keyboard file using the New command
on the XKeys File menu and map the symbol to each
key.
Use extra keys on your
non-standard physical
keyboard to send
Keysyms to a remote
host
To add a physical key to a keyboard file, you must
change the layout of the keys.See “Adding a Physical
Key” on page 112.
Mapping a New Keysym to an Existing Key
This section describes how to modify the mapped key on your keyboard to
generate a different Keysym. Click Mapping on the XKeys Edit menu (in
Mapping Mode only) to display a mapping dialog box.
Note: You cannot map a Keysym to a non-standard key unless
you have included it by changing the layout of the keyboard file.
For more information, see “Adding a Physical Key” on page 112.
For example, change the current Keysym mapping of the Backspace key to
any of the following:
•
106
the delete Keysym
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
a special character (such as æ or þ) defined in a compose-key sequence
Note: You can map a compose-key sequence in the X Compose
Mapping dialog box. The X Compose Mapping dialog box has the
same functionality as the XKeys mapping dialog box.
To map a new Keysym:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab is
displayed.
2
Select a primary or alternate keyboard file, and click Edit.
3
Select the key that you want to map. Do so by clicking the key in the
XKeys window (Mapping Mode) or pressing the corresponding key on
your keyboard. You can view the current mappings in the Mapping For
Key Labelled: Keysym group box.
4
Select Mapping on the Edit menu. An XKeys mapping dialog box opens.
You can view the current mappings for the key you specified in the
Mapping For Key Labelled: Keysym group box.
5
Click any of the following states: Unshifted, Shifted, Mode Switch, Shift
Mode Switch. To delete the current mapping for this state, click Clear
Mapping .
6
Select a Keysym Set from the Symbol Set list. Each Keysym Set contains
a different list of Keysyms, which are displayed in the Keysyms list.
Note: If you do not know which Keysym Set a Keysym belongs to,
you can search for it by entering the Keysym in the Search box
and clicking Find. XKeys selects the appropriate Keysym Set in
the Symbol Set list, and then highlights the closest match in the
Keysyms list. If the first Keysym matched is not correct, click Find
until you find the symbol.
7
Select the Keysym that you want to map to this key in the Keysyms list
and click Select Keysym. The mapping is changed for the state you
selected earlier.
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8
Select a modifier state in the X Key States area. You can assign any
combination of modifiers. If you would like the key to auto-repeat
when held down, enable the Repeat check box.
Note: Select only one Mod key.
9
To map different Keysyms to the remaining states, repeat steps 5 – 8.
10 Click OK. The Current X Mapping panel in the XKeys window now
displays the new mappings.
Note: To change the keycap text on a key, select Layout Mode
from the View menu. Once in Layout mode, press the key on your
physical keyboard to select it and type the keycap text in the
abbreviation box.
Deleting a Keysym Mapped to a Key
To delete a Keysym mapped to a key:
108
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab is
displayed.
2
Select a primary or alternate keyboard file, and click Edit.
3
Select the key that you want to map by clicking the key in the XKeys
window (Mapping Mode) or pressing the corresponding key on your
keyboard. You can view the current mappings in the Mapping For Key
Labelled: Keysym area.
4
Click Mapping on the Edit menu to open a mapping dialog box. You can
view the current mappings for the key you specified in the Mapping For
Key Labelled: Keysym group box.
5
Click any of the following states: Unshifted, Shifted, Mode Switch, Shift
Mode Switch. To delete the current mapping for this state, click Clear
Mapping .
6
To delete the mapping for another state, repeat the previous step.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Mapping a Macro to an Existing Key
Use the Macros dialog box to add, edit, and delete a macro. You can display
the Macros dialog box by selecting Macro on the XKeys Edit menu.
Note: You cannot map a Keysym to a non-standard key unless
you have included the key by changing the layout of the keyboard
file. For more information, see “Adding a Physical Key” on
page 112.
To map a macro:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab is
displayed.
2
Select a primary or alternate keyboard file, and click Edit.
3
On the XKeys Edit menu, click Macros.
4
In the Macros dialog box, click Add. The Macro Binding dialog box opens.
5
Click Browse. The Macro Selector dialog box opens.
6
Click Add. The New Macro Proper ties dialog box opens.
7
Specify a macro Name and Description.
8
Click Star t Record and type the keys and key combinations that you
want to be a part of this macro.
9
Click Stop Record to end recording. Click OK.
10 In the Macro Selector dialog box, click OK.
11 In the Macro Binding dialog box, select a key from the Bind Key list to
attach the macro to, including any modifiers from the Modifier area.
12 Click OK. The macro is added to the list in the Macros dialog box.
Macro Events
A macro recorded in the New Macro Properties dialog box displays an event
list representing actual keystrokes: the name of the key pressed and the
physical action of either pressing or releasing the key.
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Creating Compose-Key Sequences
Create compose-key sequences to access additional symbols by typing two
keystrokes. For example, Keystroke 1 + Keystroke 2 or Composing Key +
Keystroke 2.
To define the compose-key sequence:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab is
displayed.
2
Select a primary or alternate keyboard file, and click Edit.
3
On the XKeys Edit menu, select Compose Sequences. The Compose
Sequence dialog box opens.
4
Click Add to define a new compose-key sequence. The Build Compose
Sequence dialog box opens.
5
Click Keystroke 1, and then press a key on your keyboard to use as the
composing key.
6
Choose a modifier from the Modifiers For Keystroke 1 group box.
7
Click Keystroke 2, and then press a key on your keyboard.
8
If you want to map this compose sequence, click Next. The X Compose
Mapping dialog box opens. It is a similar to the mapping dialog box that
appears when you click Mapping on the Edit menu.
9
Click Finish.
Managing Keysyms and Keysym Sets
The Keysym File Editor is a powerful tool for managing custom Keysyms
and Keysym Sets. To open the Keysym File Editor dialog box, click Keysym on
the XKeys Edit menu.
To add custom Keysyms to an existing Keysym Set:
110
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices. The Keyboard Input tab is
displayed.
2
Select a primary or alternate keyboard file, and click Edit.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
3
On the XKeys Edit menu, click Keysyms. The Keysysm File Editor dialog
box opens.
4
On the Key Symbols page, select the Set Name of the Keysym Set into
which you want to place the custom symbol.
5
Click Add Keysym. The Add KeySym dialog box opens.
6
Type a KeySym name and a hexadecimal value.
7
Click OK.
To add or create a new Keysym set:
1
In the Keysysm File Editor dialog box, click the Symbol Sets tab.
2
On the Symbol Sets page, click Add Set. The Add Set Name dialog box
opens.
3
Type a name in the New Set Name box.
4
Click OK. The name appears in the list on the Key Symbols page; the
remaining boxes appear empty, indicating that this is a new Keysym set.
5
Add a custom Keysym by following the previous procedure.
PrintScrn Key Support
This section describes how to map the PrintScrn key.
To use the PrintScrn key:
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
1
Using Xconfg, edit the selected keyboard file. Add the PrntScrn key to
the layout. See “Adding a Physical Key” on page 112.
2
After the key has been added, switch to Mapping Mode and map the key
to an X Keysym.
Note:
• Before customizing a keyboard file, back up the original. To do
this, load the keyboard file. From the Xkeys File menu, select
Save As, and name the backup file. This preserves the original
file in case you need to revert to it later.
• Every key you want to use must be defined in your keyboard
file. To define a key, describe the symbol(s) it can generate in
the No Shift, Shift, Mode Switch, and Shift Mode Switch states.
The key definition is represented by a keysym (key symbol)
hexadecimal value corresponding to the symbol generated in
a specific state. An undefined key symbol does not function in
any X application.
Adding a Physical Key
Standard 101-key and 102-key layouts are found in the Exceed User
directory. If you are using a non-standard keyboard, you need to add keys.
You can perform this task in two ways:
•
Start with a default keyboard and add the extra keys.
•
Start from scratch and build a completely new layout.
To add a new physical key to an existing keyboard file:
112
1
In the Xconfig left pane, click Input Devices. The Keyboard tab is
displayed.
2
Select a primary or alternate keyboard file, and click Edit. The XKeys
utility is displayed.
3
From the XKeys View menu, click Layout Mode.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
4
Press a key on your keyboard that is currently not defined in your
keyboard file. Once the key is placed in the XKeys window, move and
reshape it to match your physical keyboard layout.
5
In the Abbreviation box, type the key cap you wish XKeys to display on
the key. The key is added to the keyboard layout. You can map
X symbols to the new key.
To create a new keyboard layout:
Note: Create a completely new keyboard layout only if your
keyboard is substantially different than the supplied layouts.
1
In Mapping Mode, click New on the XKeys File menu. Do not use an
existing keyboard layout when prompted. A blank XKeys screen
displays.
2
On the XKeys View menu, select Layout Mode.
3
One at a time, press each key on your keyboard. XKeys places each key
on the supplied grid below the mouse cursor. As keys are added, move
and reshape the key to match the physical layout of your keyboard. Keys
may be moved using standard drag and drop methods.
4
To modify the text displayed on a key cap, replace the text in the
Abbreviation box. This is useful when Windows supplies a long key
description.
5
You can now map X Keysym values to each physical key.
Deleting a Physical Key
You can delete keys in Layout mode. Highlight a key and select Delete from
the XKeys Edit menu. A message box appears to confirm the deletion.
Note: You can also delete keys in Layout mode by moving the
mouse pointer over the key and then clicking the right mouse
button.
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3
Keyboard and Mouse Wheel Macros
About Keyboard and Mouse Wheel Macros
This section describes how to use macros to modify the keyboard you want
to use with your X applications. Y
You can:
•
add, modify, and delete macros or parts of macros
•
insert a macro action
•
select, add, edit, delete, and import macros to use with a mouse wheel
Inserting a Macro Action
In the Edit Macro Properties dialog box, click a macro, and then click Insert.
In the Insert Action Item dialog box, select an insert option. After you click
OK, the Edit Macro Action dialog box opens. Edit the Action Type, Key, and
Event Type.
Selecting a Macro
In the Macro Selector dialog box, you can select, add, edit, delete, and
import macros to use with a mouse wheel. Macros are useful for adding
functionality to your mouse and keyboard for X applications. To add a
macro to the list, click Add.
Creating a New Macro
To create a new macro:
114
1
Open the Macro Selector dialog box for keyboard or mouse input.
2
Click Add.
3
Complete the following boxes in the New Macro Properties dialog box:
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
Name—The name of the macro to appear in the list of macros.
•
Description—Some word cues to remind you what the macro is for.
4
Click Start Record. Complete the key sequence exactly as you want the
macro to behave.
5
When you are finished, click Stop Record.
6
Create other macros as required, by repeating steps 2-5. Click OK to
save the macros and return to the Macro Selector dialog box.
Modifying Macros
To edit the action of a macro, select it, and then click Edit. In the Edit Macro
Action dialog box, you can edit the following:
Action Type
Keystroke or Command
Key
Scancode—Lets you change the key in
the macro. To add a key to the macro,
click Next Key Typed.
Event Type
Key Press, Key Release or Key Press +
Key Release—Let you change the kind
of action required for the macro.
Macro Shortcuts
You can use a shortcut from Exceed on the Windows taskbar to launch a
macro under multiple window mode. Click Exceed on the Windows
taskbar, and then press the same key/keys to which you bound a particular
macro in the Macro Binding dialog box. This launches the macro.
Since this method does not involve X clients, keystroke action types are
ignored and only macros with command action types are invoked. These
action types are defined in the Edit Macro Action dialog box.
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Configuring CJK Keyboard Input (Chinese, Japanese, and
Korean)
This section describes how to configure the Input Devices settings for the
Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages, and how to modify them.
The CJK Input icon appears in Xconfig only if you are running a CJK
Windows operating system (provided Microsoft IME is installed and
enabled).
Use the CJK Input tab of the Input Devices page to configure how to enter and
pass Chinese, Japanese, or Korean (CJK) text to an X client.
To enter CJK text in an X client, you need to run an Input Method (IM)
server.
Note: The CJK Input icon appears in Xconfig only if you are
running a CJK Windows operating system or supported Microsoft
Windows platforms (provided Microsoft IME is installed and
enabled).
You can configure Exceed to use either an external X client as the IM server
or an IM server built into the X server. To use the Microsoft Windows Input
Method Editor (IME) to enter text in an X client, you must configure
Exceed to use an IM server built into the X server.
You can select one of the following input methods to enter CJK text:
116
•
Select Use Input Server On The Host to use an input method server
X client.
•
Select Protocol to use an Input Method Server built into the Exceed
X server.
•
Select Copy And Paste to use copy and paste commands to input CJK
text.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Using an Input Method Server X Client
For information on the
remote Input Method
Server, refer to your host
documentation.
Use the Use Input Method Server On The Host option to enter CJK text using
whatever mechanism the input method (IM) server X client supports.
Select this option if you are using an external IM server X client.This means
the Exceed X server will not support internal CJK input methods. This
option does not permit the use of the Microsoft Windows IME to enter CJK
text.
The available IM Server X clients vary by host type. The following table
shows the IM Servers typically available on specific host types:
Host Type
IM Server
HP
xkim/xjim/xsim/stim
Solaris
htt
Digital
dxhangulim/dxhanyuim/dxhaziim/dxjim
Using an Input Method Server Built into the Exceed X Server
Select the Protocol option.
The Exceed X server internally manages an Input Method Server and uses
the Microsoft Windows IME to enter CJK text. When you enter text, Exceed
uses one of the selected protocols to pass text to the X client.
Exceed registers and manages an Input Method Server for each protocol
selected in the Protocol Selection area. This means that you can enable
multiple protocols, and each X client can use the protocol of its choice. We
recommend that you enable all available protocols.
Specifying Locale (Ximp/XIM)—Exceed supports most of the standard
encoding names. In most cases, you do not have to specify the encoding
name. However, if your X clients are running in a non-standard encoding
environment, enter the appropriate locale name.
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Using Copy and Paste to Input CJK Text
Select the Copy And Paste option. Exceed does not register an Input Method
(IM) Server when this option is selected; it uses the Microsoft Windows
IME to enter CJK text. Rather than using an IM Server to pass text to the
X client, it copies the text into the X selection and tries to paste the
X selection CJK text into the X client.
Exceed supports two copy and paste input methods. One is designed for
Kterm and the other for OpenLook. Select the copy and paste method you
want to use in the Use Environment area. If the CJK text is not automatically
pasted into your X client, you need to use the X client Paste operation to
paste the CJK text.
Special Considerations for Traditional Chinese
Exceed supports both Simplified and Traditional Chinese.
Because there is no standard encoding in Traditional Chinese
environments, Exceed can support only one encoding name at a time. By
default, Exceed supports the HP-BIG5 (HP Traditional Chinese
Environment) encoding. If you want to use the BIG5-0 (Digital Traditional
Chinese Environment) encoding, you need to make changes to the Exceed
initialization file and the xlc_locale file.
To input Traditional Chinese using the BIG5-0 (Digital Traditional
Chinese Environment) encoding:
1
Open Exceed.xcfg in a text editor. Near the end of the file, locate the
following XML tag just after the <Undocumented> tag:
<CJK_BIG5EncodingName>HP-BIG5</CJK_BIG5EncodingName>
This tag lets you input Traditional Chinese in an HP environment.
Modify the tag to the following and save the file:
<CJK_BIG5EncodingName>BIG5-0</CJK_BIG5EncodingName>
118
2
Open the xlc_locale file on your computer.
3
Under the heading fs1, modify as follows:
•
# used for HP-UX
•
# charset HP-BIG5:GLGR
Chapter 4: Xconfig
4
•
# used for Digital UNIX
•
charset
BIG5-0:GLGR
Under the heading cs1, modify as follows:
•
# used for HP-UX
•
# ct_encoding
HP-BIG5:GLGR:\x1b\x25\x2f\x30\x80\x8aHP-BIG5\x02
•
# used for Digital UNIX
•
ct_encoding 
BIG5-0:GLGR:\x1b\x25\x2f\x32\x80\89BIG5-0\x02
5
Restart Exceed if it is running.
To view the Traditional Chinese HP Common Desktop environment:
1
Download the following Chinese Big5 fonts:
•
uwb5-16m.bdf.gz
•
eb5-24f.bdf.gz
You can also search for the fonts on the Internet (for example, by using
an FTP search engine).
2
Decompress the GZIP compressed fonts.
3
In Xconfig Font Settings, select Compile Fonts in the Font Settings dialog
box and compile the downloaded .bdf fonts to the .fon format.
4
Copy uwb5-16m.fon and eb5-24f.fon to the Home\font\chinese
directory.
5
Import the font aliases:
a) Select Import Alias in the Font Settings dialog box.
b) Select chinese.ali in the Exceed User directory.
c) For the Limit Impor t To Selected Font Directory option, select
Home\font\chinese.
d) Click Import.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
6
If Exceed is running, on the Exceed menu, select File, select Reload
Database, and click Font.
To view the Traditional Chinese Digital Common Desktop environment:
1
Follow the steps in the previous procedure.
2
Create a new font subdirectory in the Home\font directory.
3
Download the following fonts from a Digital UNIX host that supports
Traditional Chinese into the new font directory created in step 2:
•
adecw_hei_cns11643_16_16_75.pcf
•
adecw_screen_cns11643_16_18_75.pcf
•
adecw_screen_cns11643_24_24_75.pcf
•
jdecw_screen_decsuppl_8_18.pcf
•
jdecw_screen_decsuppl_12_24.pcf
4
In Xconfig Font Settings, select Compile Fonts in the Font Settings dialog
box and compile the downloaded .pcf fonts to the .fon format.
5
Add the new font directory to the font database and move it to the top
of the font database list using the Move Up button.
6
Import the font aliases. To import the font aliases:
a) Select Import Alias in the Font Settings dialog box.
b) Select the dec_tw.ali file in the Exceed User directory.
c) For the Limit Import To Selected Font Directory option, select the new
subdirectory created in step 2 from the Home\font directory.
d) Click Impor t.
7
120
If Exceed is running, right-click Exceed on the Windows taskbar, select
File, select Reload Database, and click Font.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Configuring Mouse Wheel Movements and Middle Button
Emulation
This section describes how to configure the following mouse settings.
•
mouse wheel movement
•
middle-button emulation (adding a virtual middle button to your
two-button mouse)
To customize macros and how they are mapped to the mouse wheel, see
“Mapping a Macro to the Mouse Wheel” on page 123.
To configure mouse settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices, and then the Mouse Input
tab. The tab is displayed.
2
Configure the available Mouse Wheel settings:
•
Wheel movement is ignored—Select this option to invalidate all
mouse wheel input.
•
Wheel movement scrolls Root window (In Single Window Mode only)—
Select this option to enable scrolling in the main root window only.
•
Wheel movement invokes macro—Select this option to map the
wheel movement to a macro. This is the only option that lets you
scroll in Multiple Window Mode. For instructions on how to map
to a macro, see “Mapping a Macro to the Mouse Wheel” on
page 123.
•
3
Wheel movement sends Mouse button event (button 4/5/6/7)—Use
button 4/5/6/7 events to scroll the windows of existing
X applications. ButtonPress and ButtonRelease events are sent
according to the mouse wheel motion (up/down).
Configure the Middle Button Emulation and its behavior. This allows you
to add middle-button capabilities to your two-button mouse. A virtual
middle button is created for your two-button mouse.
•
Select the Middle Button Emulation check box to enable the feature.
•
In the Click Interval box, enter the value of your choice. This value
indicates how much time needs to pass between clicking the left and
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
right mouse buttons before the middle-button emulation will
occur.
4
In the Movement Threshold box, enter the value of your choice. This
value specifies how many pixels the mouse is allowed to move during
the clicks to still be considered a middle-button mouse. The value
indicates pixel movement that is allowed when you click the left and
right mouse buttons. If you stay within the specified number of pixels,
you are indicating to the system that middle button emulation is to be
used.
Click both left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to emulate a
middle mouse button.
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
Mapping a Macro to the Mouse Wheel
This section describes how to map a macro to the mouse wheel, for specific
X applications. You need to perform this task, because otherwise
X Windows does not recognize the mouse wheel.
To map a macro to the mouse wheel:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Input Devices, and then click the Mouse
Input tab. the tab is displayed.
2
Select Wheel Movement Invokes Macro, and then click Macro Bindings.
The Mouse Wheel Macro Bindings dialog box is displayed.
3
In the Assigned Wheel Macros area, select a mouse action combination,
and then click the adjacent browse button. The Macro Selector dialog
box is displayed.
4
Click Add. The New Macro Proper ties dialog box is displayed.
5
In the Name and Description boxes, type the function of the new macro
and a brief description. For example, type vi_scroll_up and Scroll
Up.
6
After you have decided on the keys you want to map to the mouse
wheel, in the Event List area, click Start Record.
7
Type the key sequence on the keyboard. When you are finished, the
application stops recording automatically. Click OK to return to the
Macro Selector dialog box.
8
Select your new macro from the list, and then click OK.
9
The new macro is associated with the wheel action you selected. Click
OK to return to the Mouse Input page.
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Configuring Communication Settings
This section describes the Communication settings. They determine the
sequence of events that occur when you start Exceed, including whether a
host connection is made automatically.
Use this Xconfig page to configure:
•
Startup mode used by Exceed — Passive or XDMCP. The mode you use
depends on your host and preferences.
•
Network Adapters—configure which IP address and adapter are used;
specify external addresses for connecting through a virtual private
network (VPN))
•
Auto Close Connection—configure whether the connection is closed
automatically under certain conditions
•
List of network providers
To access and configure the Communication settings:
•
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Communication. Alternatively, from the
Settings menu, select Communication. The Communication page is
displayed.
Startup
Mode—This drop-down list contains two basic categories of server startup
modes: Passive and XDMCP (X Display Manager Control Protocol).
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
Mode
Details
Passive
This mode starts the server without making an initial attempt to
connect to a specific host. Use Passive mode if you intend to
use TELNET, Xstart, Xsession, or a remote process to connect to
a host and start an X client.
XDMCP
XDM lets you manage X displays. It allows for centralized
control over the X environment and provides an added measure
of security. XDM provides an X-based login function and
generates authorization information that can be used by Exceed
to control which users on which hosts may be given access to
an Exceed X server display.
If you use an XDMCP startup mode, you do not need a separate
startup application to start X clients (that is, Xstart, Xsession, or
TELNET). However, you may use these applications to start
additional X clients.
XDMCP lets you automatically activate the particular XDMCP
connection process whenever you start Exceed. After you start
Exceed and successfully log in to XDM, the clients listed in the
XDM session script file will be started.
For more information, click an XDMCP startup mode link:
• XDMCP Query Startup Mode
• XDMCP Broadcast Startup Mode
• XDMCP Indirect Startup Mode
Configure—Opens the XDMCP Startup Modes dialog box where you can
configure additional XDMCP settings.
Display Number—Specifies which port the client connects to. The default
display number is 0.
Network Adapters
The Network Adapters section allows you to specify which network adapter
and which IP address to use.
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Xconfig now allows user control over which interface(s) the Exceed X Server
listens on, both through configuration file settings and command line
settings, especially but not exclusively on multihomed hosts.
Task
Details
Specify which adapter to
use, if you have multiple
adapters
A new command line option allows you to specify
which Exceed adapter to use as the DISPLAY. Enter the
following command:
exceed.exe -adapter n
where n = 1 or 2 or 3.
Specify which IP
address to use and
where to apply it
If you have multiple adapter or Virtualized Network,
you can configure the IP address Exceed will use and
how this IP address needs to be applied.
In Xconfig, under Communication tab > Network
Adapter, select one of the following three options:
• Adapter IP Address: Type an IP address
• Network Interface: Select which adapter you want
Exceed to use.
• Virtualized IP address: use if you have virtualized
network
After you have configured the IP address Exceed
should use, specify how the IP address will be applied:
• In Exceed Title—the IP address will be displayed in
the Exceed Windows title bar, and the Full Screen
Toolbar.
• For XDMCP Session: Exceed will send this IP
address as the DISPLAY to XDMCP Server
• To Set DISPLAY Variable: Exceed will set the DOS
environment DISPLAY=”the IP address for Exceed
to use”
Auto Close Connection
The Auto Close Connection settings determine conditions under which
Exceed terminates a connection.
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
Auto Close Connection—If you enable this option, Exceed terminates a
connection under one of the following two conditions:
Use X Screen Saver Time—The connection terminates when the screen
saver activates.
After __ Hours __ Minutes—The connection terminates after the
specified time if the host is inactive.
•
Close Even When Application Is Active—The connection terminates if
the host is still generating output, for example, during processes such as
data compiling.
Other
Click Network Providers to control and optimize the order of network service
providers.
Creating or Editing the Host List
This section describes the Host List file. This text file contains the names
and Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of all hosts that receive the broadcast
request, when you start the server in the XDMCP Broadcast startup mode.
The file lets you restrict access to your Exceed X server to specific hosts. By
default, the host list is the Xdmcp.txt file in your Exceed User directory.
To create a new host list:
1
Open a text editor such as Notepad.
2
List the host names. Specify only one symbolic host name or constant
address per line.
3
Save the file.
After you create a new file, you can use it in the XDMCP startup modes.
To add a host to the xdmcp.txt file:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Communication.
2
From the Mode list, select XDMCP Broadcast.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
3
Click Configure. The XDMCP Startup Modes dialog box opens.
4
Enable Host List File.
5
Click Edit to open Xdmcp.txt in a text editor.
6
To add to the list, type the name or Internet Protocol (IP) address of the
host you want to add on a new line.
7
Save the file and exit Notepad.
Host List File Syntax
The Host List file is a text file containing the names and addresses of all
hosts that receive broadcast requests. You can use the Host List File option
(in the XDMCP Broadcast area of the XDMCP Star tup Modes dialog box) to
edit the file or enable/disable its use. The default file Xdmcp.txt is located in
the Exceed User directory.
Text on any line following a number sign (#) is ignored. Completely blank
lines and all carriage-control characters are also ignored. The format of
information lines is as follows:
•
Host names are not case-sensitive.
•
The address is specified in Internet Protocol (IP) address notation.
Configuring Security Settings
This section describes how to configure the Security settings in Xconfig.
Security options can either restrict or allow access to specific features of the
Exceed X server. You can also:
128
•
control the hosts that can run X clients using Exceed
•
edit the Host Access Control List (xhost.txt)
•
edit the User Access Control List (xauth)
•
specify or edit the Security Policy File
Chapter 4: Xconfig
To access and configure the Security settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Security. The Security page is
displayed.
2
Modify the settings and click Save.
Host Access Control List
This area contains options that restrict access to your Exceed X server by
specific hosts. By default, the Host Access Control List is the xhost.txt file
in the User directory.
Note: If you select the xhost.txt file, you can use only Passive
startup mode on the Communication page.
File, Edit, Browse— Specify another file through one of the following
methods:
•
Type its full path (if other than the Exceed User directory) and file name
in the File box. You can locate it by clicking Browse adjacent to the File
box.
•
Modify the Host Access Control List file in a text editor by clicking Edit.
The xhost.txt file is open in the text editor. In this file you can
document the list of host names or IP addresses that can connect to
Exceed.
This list can use wild cards. For example:
rnd*.opentext.com
rnd.*.com
rnd.opentext.???
10.3.15.*
10.3.*
Under Host Access Control List, you can also enable the following settings:
•
No Host Access—Instructs Exceed to use an empty Host Access Control
List to regulate access (that is, no hosts are allowed access).
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•
Allow Connection from Local X clients —Select this option if you
want to enable local X clients to connect.
•
Any Host Access—Terminates use of the Host Access Control List and
allows unrestricted access to all hosts on the network.
•
Allow Clients To Modify Host Access Control List—Regulates client
modification of the Host Access Control List (xhost.txt).
Enable User Access Control List
This option enables security at the user level (rather than at the host level)
without using XDMCP. By default, this setting is not selected. For optimal
security when enabling this setting, clear the Allow Clients To Modify Host
Access Control List option, and select the Host Access Control List option.
User-level security is controlled by an .Xauthority file (by default, xauth),
which is read each time the server is started or reset. You can create an
.Xauthority file using the host-based Xauth utility. To make this binary file
available to Exceed, download it from the host and copy it to the User
directory. To select an .Xauthority file other than the default xauth file,
click Browse.
Connection Warnings
Warn On Unauthorized Connections—Opens a warning dialog box
whenever an unauthorized X client tries to connect. By default, Exceed
refuses unauthorized connections. The warning gives you the opportunity
to accept or refuse unauthorized X application connections.
Warn On Authorized Connections—Opens a warning dialog box
whenever an authorized X client tries to connect.
Host Access Control List Syntax
The Host Access Control List is a text file containing the names and
addresses of all hosts with access to the Exceed server. Use the Host Access
Control List File area on the Security page in Xconfig to specify options.
The default file xhost.txt is located in the Exceed User directory. A
number sign (#) at the beginning of a line means the line is treated as a
comment and is ignored. An information line has the following format:
•
130
Host names are not case-sensitive.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
The address is specified in Internet Protocol (IP) address notation.
Creating and Editing the Host Access Control List
This section describes how to:
•
add a host to the Host Access Control List
•
create and use a different Host Access Control List
The Host Access Control List is a text file. This text file allows you to provide
access to your Exceed X server to specific hosts. The default Host Access
Control List file (xhost.txt) is located in the User directory.
To add a host to the xhost.txt file:
1
In the left pane Xconfig, click Security. Alternatively, from the Settings
menu, select Security. The Security page is displayed.
2
In the Host Access Control List area, click File.
3
Click Edit to open the Host Access Control List in a text editor.
4
To add to the list on a separate line in this file, specify the name or
Internet Protocol (IP) address of the host that you want to add.
Note: Host names are not case-sensitive. Lines beginning with a
number sign (#) are treated as comments.
5
Save the file and exit Notepad.
6
To reload the list, right-click Exceed on the Windows taskbar. On the
File menu, point to Reload Database, and then click Access Control Lists.
To create and select a new host access control list:
1
Open a text editor, such as Notepad.
2
List the host names. You can specify only one symbolic host name or
constant address per line.
3
Save the file.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
4
Go to Xconfig, and display the Security page. In the left pane of
Xconfig, click Security. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu,
select Security. The Security tab is displayed.
5
Select Enable User Access Control List.
6
If the file you created is not listed, click Browse. to locate it. Locate and
select the file. Ensure that it is specified in the File field.
Creating the User Access Control List
This section describes how to create the User Access Control List. This text
file allows you to restrict access to your Exceed X server at a user level
(rather than at the host level).
By default, the User Access Control List for user-level security, is the
.Xauthority file.You cannot edit this file on your computer. You must edit it
on the host.
The file contains cookies that represent each client. A successful connection
is established if the cookie sent by the client matches the one on the
X server. Exceed includes a Windows version of the Xauth program.
Individual cookies can be directly merged to the local .Xauthority file. This
simplified method of synchronizing the .Xauthority file benefits
organizations that rely heavily on this type of user-level security.
To create the user access control file:
1
Create an .Xauthority file on your host using the host-based xauth
utility. For more information, refer to the man pages on the xauth
utility available in UNIX.
2
Enable xstartd using InetD (in Control Panel, double-click OpenText
InetD).
3
Propagate your DISPLAY (where DISPLAY is the Exceed X server
IP Address:DisplayNumber) to the Exceed X server by using the
following command on the host:
"xauth nextract - Exceed_Xserver_IP_Address:DisplayNumber 
rexec -l your_pc_username -p your_pc_password 
Exceed_Xserver_IP_Address xauth nmerge -"
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
4
Go to Xconfig, and display the Security page. In the left pane of
Xconfig, click Security. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu,
select Security. The Security tab is displayed.
5
Select Enable User Access Control List.
6
If the file you created is not listed, click Browse to locate and select the
file.
7
To reload the list, right-click Exceed on the Windows taskbar. On the
File menu, point to Reload Database, and then click Access Control Lists.
Authorizing X Clients
This section describes how to authorize X clients.
In Xconfig, the Security page authorizes X clients in stages.
If an X client tries to connect to the Exceed X server in a non-XDMCP
startup mode, the following authorization occurs:
•
If the user access control is enabled and the X client passes the
authorization screening, it is allowed to run.
•
If the X client originates on a host specified in the Host Access Control
List, or if host access control is disabled, the client is allowed to run.
To manage access for X clients:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Security. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select Security. The Security tab is displayed.
2
To disable host access control:
•
3
Click No Host Access. If you select Enable User Access Control and
want full security, use a Host Access Control List with no entries.
This is equivalent to selecting the No Host Access option.
To ensure that the X client is not refused:
•
Clear the check box Allow Clients To Modify Host Access Control List.
If you do not clear the check box, the client may be refused.
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2
Configuring Display and Video Settings
This section describes how to configure display and video settings for
Exceed.
This section contains the following topics:
•
“Configuring Single Window Mode Screen Settings” on page 135
•
“Configuring Multiple Window Mode Screen Settings” on page 141
•
“Adding or Removing Screens at the Screen tab” on page 143
•
“Creating or Editing a Local XRDB Database” on page 143
•
“Configuring Common Settings for Display and Video” on page 147
•
“Configuring Video Settings” on page 151
•
“Configuring Advanced Settings for Display and Video” on page 152
Accessing Display and Video settings
To configure Display and Video settings:
4
134
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Display and Video. The Display and
Video page opens, with its initial tab, Screen, displayed. Configure the
desired settings:
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Configuring Single Window Mode Screen Settings
This section describes how to configure the Screen settings, in Single
Window Mode.
The settings include:
•
use of multiple monitors and number of display screens (logical and
physical screens)
•
window panning
•
loading of the XRDB database
•
enabling, adding or removing screens
By default, one screen (Screen 0) is available. Screen 0 cannot be deleted or
disabled. Up to eight screens may be supported.
The following options are available on the Screen # tab on the Display and
Video page once you have selected a screen (other than Screen 0) in the left
pane.
Enabling additional screens
Select the following option:
•
Enable Screen—Enables additional screens (Screen 1, Screen 2, and
Screen 3).
You may clear the option to disable a screen for certain applications.
Screen 0 cannot be disabled.
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Monitor Settings at the Screen tab
To display an X session, you can:
•
use all monitors that are attached to your machine, or
•
specify which monitors you want to use.
To configure monitor use:
Under Use monitor(s), select the option of your choice.
136
Monitor Option
Details
All
Enables the use of all available monitors.
Only Primary
Enables the use of only your primary monitors.
All Non-Primary
Enables the use of all non-primary monitors.
Specified
Lets you specify which monitors to use. Type the
monitor number in the adjacent box. Up to 32 monitors
are supported. To use multiple monitors, you must
install multiple video cards or a video card that
supports multiple monitors on your computer.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
5
In the available text field, enter the monitor number.
The interpretation of monitor numbers depends on the resolution of a
single monitor setting. For supported Microsoft Windows platforms, if
you set the resolution values to 0, Exceed uses monitor numbers that
correspond to the numbers displayed for each monitor in your
Windows Control Panel Display settings.
For all platforms, if these resolution values are non-zero, your monitors
are numbered starting at 1 (for the monitor in the top left corner of
your Windows desktop) and increment by one for each monitor (as you
move left to right and top to bottom).
The monitor numbers for a screen must represent monitors that are
adjacent to each other and of the same color format. If you have
configured Multiple Window Mode for a screen, the monitor numbers
used by this screen cannot be identical to those used by any other screen
configured for Multiple Window Mode.
Note that you can tile multiple monitors over the Windows desktop if:
•
they are all set to the same resolution (width, height, and color
format)
•
collectively they form a complete rectangle
For example, consider the following scenario:
Single (virtual)
monitor resolution
(pixels).
Total resolution
(pixels) of all
(physical) monitors
as determined by
Exceed.
1024
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
768
Assuming the shaded
selection is assigned
to another screen,
then any combination
of 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 that
form a rectangle can
be specified for the
current screen.
256
256
The shaded selection
appears in Monitor(s)
to Use for Screen as
3,4,7,8,11,12.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Window Mode Settings at the Screen tab
Select the Single Window Mode.
•
Multiple Window Mode—Each client you start creates its own new
window. The native (Microsoft Windows) or the X Window manager
(local or remote) handles all window functions. The default window
manager in multiple window mode is Default To Native. If this option is
selected, Exceed looks for another window manager; if none exist,
Exceed uses Microsoft Windows to manage the window. For more
details, see “Configuring Multiple Window Mode Screen Settings” on
page 141.
•
Single Window Mode—Presents all clients in a single Exceed window.
A local or a remote X Window manager controls all window functions.
If several screens are used, you can mix and match window modes.
If Multiple Window Mode is selected for a particular screen, the
monitor numbers used by this screen cannot be identical to those used
by any other screen that is also configured to use Multiple Window
Mode. The monitor numbers must be unique.
Panning Setting at the Screen tab
This option lets you pan across the server window to view parts of client
windows that are off screen when you are running the native window
manager (Microsoft Windows). Do this by ensuring that the client window
has focus (it is on top of other windows), and then move the mouse pointer
to the edge of the screen.
The panning method depends on whether or not the Full Screen setting,
under Root Size , is selected.
138
•
Full Screen is selected—you can pan up or down to display or hide
the window title bar, and left or right to display or hide part of the
Windows desktop. When you select Full Screen, you cannot adjust
the panning controls (speed and amount).
•
Full Screen is disabled— the window pans according to the panning
controls.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
To configure the Panning feature:
1
Select your Window Mode (Multiple or Single).
2
If Multiple Window mode is used, ensure that Fit Window to Display.,
under Window Manager, is disabled.
3
If Single Window Mode is selected, select or disable Full Screen option.
Under Root Size, select Full Screen check box.
4
Select or clear the Panning check box.
The following Panning options may be selected, if Full Screen option is
disabled:
Speed—Slow, Medium, or Fast. The default speed is Slow. When
you set the speed to Slow, you can pan by moving the mouse
pointer to the edge of the screen repeatedly. When the speed is
Medium or Fast, you can pan by positioning the mouse pointer on
the appropriate edge of the window.
Amount—The incremental percentage of the window size in which
panning occurs. You can enter any value between 1 and 100 in the
Amount text box.
Auto Load XRDB
Select this option if you want the Exceed X server to automatically load the
local resource database each time it restarts or resets.
The local resource database is named in the File text box. By default, the file
is named xrdb.txt.
A sample xrdb.txt file is stored in the following location:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\Info
To use this file without changing the contents of the XRDB file text box,
copy this file to your User directory. If the Auto Load XRDB setting is not
selected, you must manually load the local resource database. to do so,
display the Exceed File menu, and select the relevant XRDB option.
Server Visual
Defines the color characteristics for the specified screen of your Exceed X
server display.
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AutoSelect—Automatically selects the server Visual setting.
PseudoColor Emulation—Supports dynamic colormaps of 16 or 256
colors. Under normal circumstances, the PseudoColor Emulation setting is
appropriate.
Note: A TrueColor driver supports PseudoColor mode.
TrueColor—Use this setting if your display driver supports 32,768 or more
simultaneous colors on your video adapter.
Root Size
Sets the size of the server root window (in pixels). You can make the root
window larger than your screen. The maximum root window size is 8192 x
8192 pixels. A width or height of 0 implies that the root size is equal to the
size of your screen. For certain applications to run, you may need to make
the root size larger than your screen.
A width or height of 0 implies that the root size is equal to the size of the
client area of a maximized window when Exceed menus open on the
Control menu box (that is, with no menu bars or scroll bars). If you make
the root size larger than the client window, you can use the panning feature
or scroll bars to view any hidden parts of the root.
Full Screen—Sets the size of the server root window to the full size of the
screen. If this option is selected, you cannot adjust the panning controls
(speed and amount).
Window Appearance (Single Window Mode only)
Save Geometry On Exit—Saves the server window geometry (that is,
window position, size, and state) when you exit the server and restores it
when you start the server and enter single window mode. The setting for
this option is saved when you terminate the server.
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
Configuring Multiple Window Mode Screen Settings
This section describes how to configure the Screen settings in Multiple
Window Mode.
Most of the settings from the Single Window Mod may be reused. For initial
details, see “Configuring Single Window Mode Screen Settings” on
page 135. This section contains additional details, for settings that affect
Multiple Window Mode.
When Multiple Window mode is enabled, at the Screen tab, the following
new settings become available
•
Window Manager—Lets you select the window manager to use in
multiple window mode. Select one of the following from the list:
•
Native—Microsoft Windows is used as the window manager.
Common Desktop Environment (CDE) sessions do not support
the Native window manager.
•
•
X—Any X window manager, local or remote, is used as the window
manager. You must start the window manager because no window
manager is started by default.
•
Default to Native—By default, the Windows window manager is
used. However, if a local or remote X window manager is started, it
replaces the Windows window manager. After the X window
manager is terminated, Windows is again used as the window
manager.
•
Panning is available only when you are using the Windows Window
Manager.
•
If you are using an X window manager and want to open the X
window manager menus when you click the Windows desktop, you
can either:
enable the Root Mouse Actions To X option in the Advanced Multiple
Window Mode dialog box
Note: Normal Windows desktop mouse actions do not work when
this option is enabled.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
change the setting as needed using the Root Mouse Actions to X button
on the Exceed X server toolbar
Fit Window To Display—Sends a request to any client that creates a
window larger than the size of your screen to make the window the size of
your screen.
Note: If you enable Panning, do not enable Fit Window to
Display.
Cascade Windows—Tells the server to cascade all top-level client windows
for which a client does not specify any position.
Advanced Settings
Root Mouse Actions To X—Lets you specify whether mouse actions on the
Windows desktop are processed by the Exceed X server.
By enabling the Root Mouse Actions to X option, you can click the
Windows desktop to access X window manager menus. Normal Windows
desktop mouse actions do not work while this mode is enabled. To change
the state immediately, toggle this setting in Xconfig or press a button on the
server toolbar.
Track Mouse—Tells the server to keep track of the location of the mouse
even when it is outside an X client window. When selected, a client like
Xeyes follows the mouse around your screen.
Delay Window Mapping—Some X clients erroneously expect a window
map request to be delayed, or they do not draw the contents of their
windows. Other X clients expect windows to be mapped immediately
because they expect no window manager to be running at the time (as is the
case with some XDM Login clients).
When you run an X client with a remote window manager, the fact that
window manager and Exceed X server are not running on the same machine
causes a delay in mapping windows. In multiple window mode, however,
you are using a local window manager; therefore, no such delay exists. Use
the Delay Window Mapping option to determine whether window mapping
is delayed in multiple window mode.
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Chapter 4: Xconfig
Adding or Removing Screens at the Screen tab
By default, one X screen (Screen 0) is available.
Note: To use multiple monitors, you need to install multiple video
cards on your computer.
To add or remove X screens:
1
Click Add Screen button, in the upper right corner of the Screen tab.
The new screen is added, and listed in the left pane of Xconfig, under
Display and Video.
2
To remove the screen, select it in the left pane of the Xconfig, under
Display and video. At the Screen tab, click the Remove Screen button.
You cannot delete screen 0. Screens must be deleted in reverse
numerical order. That is, if you have six screens (0,1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), you
cannot delete screen 3 before deleting screen 4.
As an alternative to deleting a screen, you can disable it by clearing the
Enable Screen option, at the Screen tab If you disable a screen, all
higher-numbered screens are disabled as well. Up to eight X screens are
supported. This feature is useful if you need the data split across
multiple monitors or divided into many screens.
Creating or Editing a Local XRDB Database
This section describes how to create or edit a local XRDB database.
This resource database resides on your computer instead of on the host. It
defines properties that clients can use. The local resource database defaults
to the xrdb.txt file in the User directory.
If you have created more screens than the default (Screen 0), you can set
XRDB database settings independently in each screen’s page. Click Display
And Video. The Screen tab is displayed. Click Edit (in the Auto Load XRDB
area) on the Screen page to modify the database.
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Load and remove the XRDB database using commands on the File submenu
(available on the Exceed menu). To automatically reload the XRDB
database with the server, select the Auto Load XRDB setting on the Screen
page. You can also create an entirely new file or download a database from
the host.
RGB Database Syntax
The RGB database associates symbolic color names with specific Red,
Green, and Blue values. X clients request these values and/or color names
when displaying information on your screen.
File Syntax
Each valid line in the rgb.txt file has the following format:
Example:
R
G
B
70
130
180
SteelBlue
Interpretation—The color named SteelBlue has a Red value of 70, a Green
value of 130 and a Blue value of 180.
RGB values must be in the range 0 through 255. The colorname field in the
text file is not case-sensitive and spaces are ignored.
Note: The Exceed log file keeps track of any client requests for
colors not defined in the RGB database. You can then add these
colors to the database for future use.
XRDB File Format
In the resource file:
144
•
Empty lines are ignored.
•
Tab characters are always converted to a single space.
•
Lines starting with an exclamation mark (!) are ignored.
•
Lines starting with a number sign (#) are preprocessor statements (see
below).
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
Every line must provide a resource specification as follows:
resourceName : text
•
Spaces located before resourceName, the colon, and the start of the text
as well as at the end of the line are ignored.
•
resourceName may contain only the following characters:
. a-z A-Z 0-9 _ -
Preprocessor Statements
Preprocessor statements let you set if…else conditions that define the
xrdb.txt statements to process. You can use preprocessor statements to
perform functions such as testing the resolution and color display of the
video adapter and monitor before deciding which resource database
statements to use.
A preprocessor statement is any statement that starts with a number sign
(#).
Expressions in Preprocessor Statements
#if
Specifies an expression in a format described in the #endif example
below. If the expression is true, successive statements are processed.
Otherwise, they are not processed.
Note: #if and #endif statements can be nested.
#endif
An #endif statement marks the range of each #if statement. For
example:
#if Planes == 8 ! test for 256 colors
color ... ! specify color statements
#endif
#else
You can use one #else statement within an #if...#endif range. The
#else statement has the effect of swapping the result of the #if for all
the statements until the next #endif.
Expressions in preprocessor statements take the following form, with the
parameters separated by at least one space:
id operator constant
where id can be any of the following:
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
•
xpixels—The width of the screen in pixels.
•
ypixels—The height of the screen in pixels.
•
planes—The number of video planes. The number of colors is 2planes
(that is, 4 planes specifies 16 colors; 8 planes, 256).
•
color—Indicates if Exceed visual supports color. If the default
server-visual supports color, then Color is set to 1; otherwise, it is set to
0. Use this setting to test whether the default server-visual supports
color (for example, PseudoColor, StaticColor, TrueColor visuals).
•
static—Indicates the type of colormaps supported. If the server
supports only static, read-only colormaps, static is set to 1. Otherwise, it
is set to 0. Use this setting to test if the server mode supports static
read-only colormaps or dynamic read/write colormaps.
and operator can be any of the following where constant is a decimal
numeric value (for example: Xpixels == 80):
Operator
Definition (where n is a decimal numeric value)
==
TRUE if <id> is equal to n
<>
TRUE if <id> is not equal to n
<
TRUE if <id> is less than n
<=
TRUE if <id> is less than or equal to n
>
TRUE if <id> is greater than n
>=
TRUE if <id> is greater than or equal to n
For example, to see if a video resolution is available that is greater than or
equal to 1024 pixels wide, use the following:
#if xpixels >= 1024
To test for 256-color capability:
#if planes == 8
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Configuring Common Settings for Display and Video
This section describes how to configure common Display and Video
settings.
To configure the common settings
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Display and Video.
2
Click the Common Settings tab.
3
Select or clear the options of your choice, and click Save.
Native Window Manager Focus Policy
Lets you choose whether a window has focus while the pointer is pointed
only at the window or whether you need to click in the window.
Note: The window is not brought to the front when it is given
focus with the pointer. To bring the window to the front, click your
left mouse button on the window caption or on its sizing border.
Select one of the following options from the drop-down list:
Focus
Description
Click
Click the left mouse button on the window to give it focus.
Pointer
Move the mouse pointer into the window to give it focus.
Reset and Exit
Reset X Server When Last X Client Exits—Automatically resets the server
when the last client connection is closed. This option is selected by default.
Exit On X Server Reset—Terminates the Exceed server when the last client
connection is closed.
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Close Warning on Exit—Opens the Exceed Close Warning dialog box
whenever you enter a command that shuts down the server. The dialog box
prompts you to confirm or cancel the action (it also includes options to not
repeat the warning, and to save the session including geometry and
workspaces).
Save Session On Exit—(Native Window Manager Only) Exceed remembers
applications (either Local X applications or applications started using an
Xstart file) and their locations.
Other
Hide X Server Menu Items—Prevents users from performing tasks from
the menu.
Use Desktop Work Area—Uses the entire desktop and excludes the Always
On Top option for the Exceed toolbar.
Enable Workspaces—Workspaces imitate the Common Desktop
Environment (UNIX) and GNOME (Linux). You can arrange X clients in
different workspaces and enable multiple workspaces.
Note: If you have installed OpenText Secure Shell to secure
Workspace-enabled Exceed sessions, ensure that the
Dynamically Acquire X11 Cookies option is disabled in OpenText
Secure Shell. Exceed will generate the correct cookie and make it
available to OpenText Secure Shell.
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Single Window Mode Resizing policy
Exceed allows Fixed, Scaled, and Dynamic resizing of the root window and
its contents. When launching Exceed in Single Window Mode on monitors
that use different resolutions, the root window uses the resolution of the
smallest display. This eliminates the need for scroll bars.
Setting
Details
Fixed
In this mode, a user (or the system) defines the size of
the root window. By default, an X session uses Fixed
resizing policy. If you click the Maximize button in the
toolbar, the main window is restored to its original
position and size.
Note: Scroll bars appear automatically, when Fixed
policy is in use. GLX applications will be terminated
when you switch from Fixed to Scaled resizing policy.
Dynamic
Allows you to resize the window dynamically. The X
application (such as the KDE environment) will reflect
this and fit in the new window. For example, you may
switch from Single to Multiple Monitor Mode (or vice
versa). The X applications will renegotiate the new root
window size and be redrawn appropriately based on
the new information. They would not be distorted as it
might happen in the Scaled mode. The minimum size
of the window has been set to 800x600. You cannot
resize the window to be smaller. When the window is
maximized, the window and root window will cover the
work area.
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Setting
Details (Continued)
Scaled
When you resize the window, the size of the root
window does not change, but the contents of the X
session scale up/down accordingly. For example, if
multiple X sessions are running, the user may view
them as thumbnails. Scaling does not affect the
behavior of UNIX applications, because the root
window size remains the same.
When you select the Scaled policy you have the
following options:
• Select Maintain Aspect Ratio—In this case, the
contents of the X session scale so that their original
ratio is preserved, and the objects in the main
window do not appear distorted.
• Do not select Maintain Aspect Ratio—In this case,
the main window of the X session and its contents
will be resized, but their original ratio will not be
maintained, and the objects in the window may
appear distorted.
Note: You cannot switch directly from a Scaled to
Dynamic policy, or Dynamic to Scaled. You must switch
to and apply Fixed resizing policy, before choosing
Scaled or Dynamic.
Do Not Prompt for Multiple Sessions
Do Not Prompt For Multiple Sessions—If this option is enabled, Exceed
does not open the Exceed – Multiple Sessions dialog box when other
instances of Exceed are run.
Run Multiple Sessions—Runs multiple instances of Exceed. If the Do not
Prompt for Multiple Sessions check box is cleared, the Exceed – Multiple
Sessions dialog box prompts you to select options for each session.
Do Not Prompt for Display Settings Change
Do Not Prompt For Display Settings Change—Prevents Exceed from
prompting for a server reset if display settings (for example, resolution or
color depth) were changed.
Always Reset Server—Resets the server automatically when display settings
have changed.
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Exceed Toolbar Configuration File
This area lets you specify an Exceed toolbar configuration file (.tb). These
files let you determine the language, availability and location of toolbar
buttons in your X session. You can also use them to configure custom
application buttons.
Select a file from the drop down list of files, located in the Exceed program
file location. If the file you require is located elsewhere, click Browse. If you
want to edit the settings in the selected file, click Edit to open the Customize
Toolbar dialog box.
Configuring Video Settings
This section describes how to configure Video settings, to customize the
video mode and colors displayed by Exceed.
You can set monitor width and height, associate names with Red, Green,
and Blue values in an RGB database, and specify the icon defaults for native
window manager mode.
To access the Video tab and edit the settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Display And Video.
2
Click the Video tab. This Xconfig tab controls the video mode and colors
displayed by your Exceed X server.
3
Change the available settings.
4
Click Save, to save your settings to the configuration file. To restore
original video settings, click Load Defaults.
Screen
Specify In mm—Lets you adjust the screen size using the Width and Height
text boxes. Width and height define the viewable portion of the screen in
millimeters (1 inch equals 25.4 mm). If either of these boxes is 0, the server
uses the values returned by the Windows display driver. Because most X
clients ignore the screen width and height data, the default values of 0 are
sufficient in most cases.
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Compute Based On Monitor DPI (Dots Per Inch)—Calculates the screen
size based on the monitor dots per inch. Default values are 75 and 100.
Palette
Optimize Colormaps To Reduce Flashing On Focus Change—Determines
how the Exceed X server interacts with the Windows color palette. Select
this option to try reducing flash when changing focus from one window to
another.
RGB Database
Associates text names with the Red, Green, and Blue values displayed on
your monitor. The RGB Database is the file in the User directory. To open
the database in a text editor, click Edit. Select the appropriate keyboard file
in the list or click Browse to select a file from another directory. Default
locations for User files.
Native Window Manager Icon Defaults
Lets you define the default foreground and background icon colors as well
as which default client icon to use with the native window manager. You can
specify the icon colors using names that are listed in the RGB database, or
you can specify an RGB triple (for example, 255 255 255). Click Change Icon
to open a dialog box that lets you locate and select a different icon.
Configuring Advanced Settings for Display and Video
This section describes how to configure the Advanced Settings tab. This tab
contains native window manager options and various other options
affecting display and video.
To access the Advanced tab and edit the settings:
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1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Display And Video.
2
Click the Advanced tab.
3
Change the available settings.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
4
Click Save, to save your settings to the configuration file. To restore
original video settings, click Load Defaults.
This Xconfig page contains the following options:
Native Window Manager
Map Window Without Motif Input—Motif input is a window property
that specifies which window requires keyboard input. Selecting this option
means the user can put input into any window.
Configure Window Position To Client—Sets the window position to that
of the client window.
Pad Motif Window—Puts one extra layer on the frame window. Some
applications expect this extra layer.
Native Window Manager Tooltip—Enables tooltips when the cursor
hovers over a toolbar button.
Allow Primary Window On Top—Lets the primary window appear on top
of any transient (secondary) dialog box.
Draw On Moving Window—If you move a window that is displaying an
animated X client (such as Ico), selecting this option forces the window to
keep drawing.
Draw On Resizing Window—If you resize a window that is displaying an
animated X client (such as Ico), selecting this option forces the window to
keep drawing.
No Focus On Window Raise—Keeps the focus on the lower window unless
the X application sets the focus on the upper window. This option is
selected by default.
On Focus Raise Window To Top—Raises the window in focus to the top of
the screen. Even if the X application doesn’t require it, the window is
restacked to the top.
Warn On X Client Exit—Displays a warning dialog box when you close an
X client in multiple window mode with the native window manager.
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Other
Show Multiple Monitor Warnings—Causes warning dialog boxes to be
displayed when using multiple monitors that have differing video settings.
To resolve incompatible settings, Exceed runs using a default Screen
configuration. For further details, consult the Exceed log file. This option is
selected by default.
Force Window To Foreground—Forces the X application window to the
foreground. This option is selected by default.
Raise Window On Click—Forces the X application window to the
foreground of a Microsoft application window when clicked.
Multiple Color Depths Support—Enables advertisement of all supported
visuals. This lets certain X applications display correctly (for example, if 8bit PseudoColor or 24-bit TrueColor is the default visual on a high-color
video device). Clearing this option means that Exceed advertises only the
default visual.
Sun Microsystems Compatible Colormap—Enables Sun Microsystemscompatible colors and affects the default settings of the PseudoColor
Emulation server visual (by default, the X server allocates the color black to
cell zero, and the color white to cell one when PseudoColor Emulation is
enabled). Selecting this option reverses the allocation: black is allocated to
cell one, and white is allocated to cell zero.
User Installed Colormap—Use in PseudoColor emulation mode only
(select PseudoColor from the Server Visual drop-down list on the Screen
page and select TrueColor in Windows' video settings). Exceed can emulate
colormaps when in PseudoColor Emulation mode. Most applications set
each window to a certain colormap. For these applications, this option
should be cleared. However, some applications (incorrectly) assume only
one colormap is visible at any time. When this option is selected, windows
that have requested the default colormap will use the installed colormap
(via the InstallColormap protocol request) instead.
2D Overlay—Treats the 2D overlay window as if it were placed on the main
layer. This option avoids unnecessarily having to recalculate and redraw all
windows on the main layer if the 2D overlay window is repositioned.
Depth 12 PseudoColor—Allow depth-12 PseudoColor Emulation for
screens set to high color or true color.
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Layered Windows Support—When this option is selected, window layers
do not have to be redrawn.
Prevent Center Dialog Across Monitors—Ensures that when multiple
monitors are used, dialogs are not displayed in the center of the viewing
area (across two or more monitors). When this option is enabled, dialogs
that would otherwise span two or more screens are displayed entirely within
a single physical screen.
This option repositions only those dialog boxes that are centered (centermapped vertically and horizontally ) by their parent applications. Dialog
boxes mapped otherwise will retain their mapped position and may appear
across multiple monitors.
Configuring the Copy, Paste, and X Selection
This section describes how to configure the ability to copy, paste and select
content in an X application.
To configure X Selection settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click X Selection. The X Selection page is
displayed.
2
Select the options of your choice.
3
Click Save.
The following options are available at the X Selection page.
•
X Selection Associated With Edit Operations—Lets you identify the
correct X selection type. Most X applications use the PRIMARY
selection. With X clients that support SECONDARY or CLIPBOARD,
you can change the X selection. For old X clients that do not support
the X selection mechanism, you can choose from CUT_BUFFER0
through CUT_BUFFER7. If a client supports a different selection than
those listed, type the name of the custom X selection in the box.
•
Auto Copy X Selection—When the X selection changes, the contents of
the X selection are automatically copied to Clipboard.
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•
Copy On Focus Loss—Copies the X selection to Clipboard when the
window containing the X selection loses focus.
•
Auto Paste To X Selection—When the content of Clipboard changes, it
is automatically pasted to the X selection.
•
Grab Clipboard Retry Time (ms)—If Clipboard is unavailable, try
again after the specified interval (in milliseconds).
•
Auto Paste Delay Time (ms)—Copies the X selection to the Windows
Clipboard after the specified time (in milliseconds).
Specifying X Selection Type
You can select the type of X selection commands using the X Selection
commands for copying and pasting on the Edit submenu (available on the
Exceed menu). X selection settings and options are saved when you
terminate the server.
Automatic Copy and Paste
You can set your system to automatically copy and paste X selections.
This saves time and is especially useful for high volume copying and
pasting.
To set copying and pasting of X selections to automatic:
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1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click X Selection. The X Selection page is
displayed.
2
Select the following options as required:
Select
To
Auto Copy X Selection
Copy the contents of the X selection to the
Clipboard.
Copy On Focus Loss
Copy the contents of the X selection to the
Clipboard when the window containing the
X selection is not in focus.
Auto Paste To X Selection
Paste the contents of the Clipboard when the
Clipboard contents change.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
3
Click Save.
Using a Temporary Storage Buffer
Copying and pasting processes use a temporary buffer to hold data until it is
cleared or replaced. This is similar to Windows Clipboard. The buffer being
used depends upon whether you are running Windows applications or
X applications.
The X selection an X client uses, and how it is used, depends on the client.
Most systems use the PRIMARY X selection, but other selections such as
SECONDARY, CLIPBOARD, and CUT_BUFFER0 to CUT_BUFFER7 are
also defined. Some clients can make use of more than one X selection.
To specify the X selection buffer:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click X Selection. The X Selection page is
displayed.
2
Select the buffer type.
3
Click Save.
Configuring Fonts
This section describes how to configure Font settings for an Exceed font
database. You can:
•
add fonts, font directories, and font servers to the database
•
select default text and cursor fonts
•
create font font aliases
•
enable automatic font substitution
•
compile fonts
•
make fonts scalable
•
extract logical font names
•
recode Unicode fonts using encoding files
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To access and configure Fonts settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. Alternatively, from the Xconfig
Settings menu, select the Font option. The initial tab, Font, is displayed.
2
Configure Font Database settings.
3
•
File—Displays the file name for the font database.
•
View—Opens the Font Database dialog box in view mode.
•
Edit—Opens the Font Database dialog box in edit mode, which lets
you manage the font database.
•
Browse—Opens a dialog box that lets you browse for another font
database.
Configure Font Defaults settings. Specify the default text font.
About Font Database and Font Servers
This section describes font related information: font database and font
server.
The Exceed installation includes font databases that support the
International CDE.
The font database supports:
•
scalable fonts
•
font servers
You can create multiple font sets and load the one(s) you want to use at runtime. Exceed can automatically connect to a font server running on the
XDMCP host server. The font database is stored in the lfp.xdb file in the
directory where Exceed is installed. .
Specific fonts in the font database are stored in font directories and on font
servers. Exceed also supports pseudo fonts for Unicode.
A font database can contain X raster (bitmap) fonts in .fon and .wff
format, True Type scalable fonts, and pseudo fonts (fonts provided by the
operating system and made available to X clients). X raster fonts can be
made scalable.
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Font Directories and Font Servers
To access font directories and servers in the font database:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. The Font tab is displayed.
2
Click Edit. A window opens listing all Use the buttons in the Font
Database dialog box to make the necessary changes.
When an X client requests a font, Exceed searches each font directory or
server in the font database in the order they are listed in the Font Database
dialog box. The search continues until the requested font is found.
Fonts
To add, change, or delete individual fonts within the selected font directory
or server in the Font Database dialog box, click Font List. This displays the
fonts contained in the selection. The Font Database dialog box also provides
buttons that let you view the font, font properties, font information, and
character information.
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Editing the Font Database
This section describes how to edit a font database.
To view and edit the font database:
160
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. The initial tab, Font, is
displayed. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu, select the Font
option.
1
Click Edit. The Font Database: file – Xfonts dialog box is displayed. This
dialog box lists all the font directories and font servers in the font
database.
2
Use the buttons and options in the Font Database: file – Xfonts dialog box
to make the following changes:
•
add, change, or delete font directories in the database
•
add, change, or delete font servers in the database
•
change the paths of the font directories/servers
•
add Windows or X fonts
•
import ot export aliases
Chapter 4: Xconfig
3
•
display the Font List, to view physical and logical font names
•
determine (resolve) the physical font names of logical fonts
•
rebuild the database
Place the font directories/servers containing the most commonly
requested fonts at the top of the list to reduce the amount of time it
takes to find a match. Click Move Up and Move Down to change the
display (search) order.
To add, change, or delete fonts:
1
In the Font Database: file – Xfonts dialog box, select a font directory or
server, and then click Font List. The Font List dialog box opens displaying
the fonts contained in the selection.
2
Use the buttons in the Font List dialog box to make the following
changes:
•
add, change, and delete fonts
•
load another font database file
•
view font lists for each database, create aliases, and scale fonts
•
rebuild font databases
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3
After you have made changes, click OK in the Font List dialog box, and
again in the Font Database dialog box. The modified file (.xdb extension)
is saved in the directory where Exceed is installed.
Note: When you install fonts, you should install both 75 dpi and
100 dpi fonts for best font matching. Additionally, if the monitor
size is greater than 1024 x 768, in the Font Database dialog box,
place the 100 dpi font in a higher priority than the 75 dpi font.
Understanding Font Database Settings
This section describes Font Database settings you can configure. For more
details on how to access the Font Database settings, see “Editing the Font
Database” on page 160.
Font Database
The default font database is lfp.xdb which is located in the User directory.
This file is created during installation. You can modify the font database
according to your needs. Click Save As to save modifications and type a new
file name. Click Browse to locate and select another .xdb file.
Default locations for User files
The font database box displays the following information:
Status—The following characters indicate the accessibility of the font
directory or server at startup: "L" (Load), "K" (Keep), "I" (Inactive), “N”
(Directory Not Available), and "P" (Physical Font Name Match Allowed).
For more details, about these options, see “Changing Paths in the Font
Database” on page 165.
Font List File—For each font directory, the font database file name
(without extension) is listed. For each font server, the name of the cache
used by the server is listed.
Font Path—Displays the path to the font directory and font server included
in the font database.
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Buttons
An array of buttons lets you manage the font database:
Add Font Directory—Opens the Add Font Directory dialog box.
Add Font Server—Opens the Add Server dialog box.
Change—If a font directory is selected, this button opens the Change Font
Directory dialog box. If a font server is selected, this button opens the
Change Font Server dialog box.
Change All—Opens the Change All Font Directories/Servers dialog box.
Delete—Prompts you to confirm deletion of the selected font database file
or font server.
Add Windows Fonts—Opens the Add Windows Fonts dialog box.
Add X Fonts—Opens the Add X Fonts dialog box.
Import Alias—Opens the Import Alias dialog box.
Export Alias—Opens the Export Alias dialog box.
Font List—Opens the Font List dialog box.
Resolve Font Name—Opens the Resolve Font Name dialog box.
New—Opens the font database under a file name prefixed with
“untitled_lfp”.
Open—Opens a dialog box for locating and selecting a font database file.
Save—Saves the font database.
Save As—Opens a dialog box for saving the font database under a different
file name.
Move Up, Move Down—Moves the selected font directory or server up or
down in the list. Exceed searches for fonts by browsing through each font
directory or server in the order listed. Use this feature if fonts in certain
directories can meet matching criteria and you want to give those
directories higher priority. For a long list of directories, you can reduce
waiting periods while a match is found by moving directories/servers
containing frequently requested fonts to the top of the list.
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Adding and Changing Font Directories
The Add Font Directory button in the Font Database dialog box lets you add a
font directory to the font database. The Change button lets you edit the
selected font directory. These buttons open a similar dialog box: Add Font
Directory or Change Font Directory, respectively.
To add a font directory:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. The initial tab, Font, is
displayed. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu, select the Font
option.
2
Click Edit. The Font Database: file – Xfonts dialog box opens listing all
font directories and servers in the font database.
3
Click Add Font Directory. The Add Font Directory dialog box opens.
4
Specify a path and file name (*.fdb), or browse to a location.
5
Select Status options.For more details about these options, see
“Changing Paths in the Font Database” on page 165.
6
Click OK. The directory is added to the bottom of the font database list.
To change a font directory:
1
In the Font Database dialog box, click Change. The Change Font Directory
dialog box opens.
2
Make changes to the path, file name, and directory status as necessary.
3
Click OK.
Note: Reloading the font database implements any changes you
make. To reload the font database while the server is running,
right-click the Exceed button on the taskbar. On the File menu,
point to Reload Database, and then click Font.
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Changing Paths in the Font Database
To change the path in the font database:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. The initial tab, Font, is
displayed. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu, select the Font
option.
2
On the Font tab, click Edit. The Font Database dialog box opens.
3
Click Change All. The Change All Font Paths dialog box opens.
4
Type the prefix pattern you want to search for in the Find text box and
the pattern you want to replace it with in the Replace text box. For
example, to move font directories from F:\EXCEEDW to C:\EXCEED, type
F:\EXCEEDW in the Find box and C:\EXCEED in the Replace box.
5
To change the status of font directories that match the Find pattern, click
State in the Change Status area and select the new status you want to
assign (Load, Keep, Inactive).
•
State
Load—When the Exceed X server starts or restarts, the font directory is
loaded automatically (or when the default font path is manually
reloaded or requested by a client) or a connection is automatically made
to the font server.
Keep—This is similar to Load state except the font directory or font
server connection is kept resident at all times. It remains resident even if
a client forces a new path that does not include the Keep directory or
server.
Inactive—The font directory is not automatically loaded or a
connection with the font server is not re-established when the Exceed
X server starts. However, a client such as Xset may manually load an
inactive font directory.
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6
To change the Physical Font Name Match Allowed setting for font
directories that match the Find pattern:
Click Match in the Change Status area, and enable or disable Physical
Font Name Match Allowed.
Physical Font Name Match Allowed—Corresponds to a font file name
without the extension. Physical font names are displayed in the left
most column of the Xconfig Font List dialog box. The Match option is
available only for font directories.
Note: To change only the status or Physical Font Name Match
Allowed setting of font directories or servers, leave the Find text
box blank. This indicates that the changes should be made to all
font directories and servers.
7
Click Next to find the first font directory or server that matches the Find
pattern. Xconfig displays the name of the first matching font directory
or font server.
8
To replace the Find pattern with the Replace pattern in this font
directory or server, click Change. To skip this font directory or server
and go to the next match, click Next. To make changes to all matching
font directories or servers, click Change All.
Changing the Font Directory Search Order
Exceed sequentially searches each individual directory and font server in the
font database for X client font requests based on their listed order in the
Font Database dialog box. You may want to move font directories or servers
containing frequently requested fonts to the top of the font database list to
minimize the time needed to find them.
To change the font directory search order:
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1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. The initial tab, Font, is
displayed. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu, select the Font
option.
2
On the Font tab, click Edit. The Font Database dialog box opens.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
3
Select the font directory or server to move and click Move Up or Move
Down as necessary.
Note: If a font server stops running, the Exceed X server
automatically reconnects when the server is running again.
Adding and Changing Font Servers
You can add or change font servers for a particular database by using the
Font Database dialog box.
To add a font server:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. The initial tab, Font, is
displayed. Alternatively, from the Xconfig Settings menu, select the Font
option.
2
On the Font tab, click Edit. The Font Database dialog box is displayed.
3
Click Add Font Server. The Add Font Server dialog box opens.
4
Specify a host name or IP address, a transport protocol, and a server
port.
5
Select Status options (Load, Keep, Inactive).
6
Click OK. The server is added to the bottom of the font database list.
To change a font server:
1
In the Font Database dialog box, select a font server and click Change.
The Change Font Directory dialog box opens.
2
Make changes to the font server and status as necessary.
3
Click OK.
Note: Reloading the font database implements any changes you
make. To reload the font database while the server is running,
right-click the Exceed button on the taskbar. On the File menu,
point to Reload Database, and then click Font.
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Accessing the Font Server (Advanced Settings)
This section describes the advanced font management settings. The section
describes how to control access to the font server, after you have added it to
your list of font databases, you can control how it is accessed.
To access the Advanced settings on your Fonts page:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Fonts. Alternatively, from the Xconfig
Settings menu, select the Font option. The initial tab, Font, is displayed.
1
Click the Advanced tab. The tab is displayed.
2
Modify the settings, and click Save.
Font Servers
Synchronous Operation—Font server requests are completely processed
before Exceed continues servicing X clients. This option should be selected
only for troubleshooting. By default, other X clients are serviced while an X
client is waiting for the response from the font server.
Timeouts (secs.)—Specify the Read and Write Timeout values (from 0
through 999) for font servers. By default, the Read timeout is 30 seconds
and the Write timeout is 5 seconds. After timeout, Exceed assumes the font
server is no longer available and closes the connection. If the timeout is too
short, delays caused by network traffic might cause Exceed to unnecessarily
disconnect from the font server. If the timeout is too long and the font
server is unavailable, an excessive delay occurs before Exceed closes the
connection. Default values favor a reliable connection, not the quick
response. If the timeout is set for a quick response, the Enable Auto Reopen
option should be selected.
Enable Auto Reopen—Instructs Exceed to try reconnecting to the font
server if the connection is broken. If the font server is unavailable, periodic
attempts to reconnect will slow down Exceed. If the font server is reliable,
you can clear this option.
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Enable Cache—Instructs Exceed to locally cache fonts from the font server.
Each font is obtained from the font server once. If the same X applications
are usually run and all necessary fonts are cached, then there is virtually no
need for the font server. Font access from the cache is faster than from the
font server. This option is enabled by default.
Local Fonts First—Searches local fonts first. Usually, the search priority is
from top to bottom in the font database list. This option overrides the font
search order set by the X client, assuming that the X client assigns a higher
priority to the font server over local fonts. This is useful where the local font
database can provide most of the fonts necessary to run X applications. This
option is disabled by default.
Default Resolution for Scalable Fonts
From the drop-down list, select a resolution. Exceed uses this value to
calculate font size in pixels. This is useful where the X client specifies size of
a requested font in points but does not specify the resolution. If this value is
set to zero, then the resolution is defined automatically by the screen
resolution.
Other Options
Automatic Font Substitution—Substitutes the closest matching font for
any font request that cannot be filled and would otherwise result in an error.
Optimize For Java VM—This option works around issues with some Java
VM (buffer overflow) running on UNIX hosts (Java applications are more
sensitive to large font databases than X applications).
Use Typographic Font Size—Specifies use of the absolute font size
(according to the font family specification). By default, this option is
enabled.
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Making Fonts Scalable
The Make Scalable button in the Font List dialog box lets you transform the
selected font (resize, rotate, slant, and so on). Scalable fonts let you open
and use font sizes that do not correspond to physical font files. Font scaling
does not occur automatically; if you want to make a font scalable, you must
create a scalable font entry.
To scale fonts:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Fonts. The Font tab is displayed.
2
Click Edit. The Font Database dialog box opens.
3
Select the font path and directory containing the font you want to scale.
4
Click Font List. The Font List dialog box opens.
5
Select the real font that you want to make scalable.
6
Click Make Scalable. A scalable entry is created. It has a physical name of
(scalable) and appears at the end of the font list.
All the real fonts in this font directory that you can derive from the
scalable entry are now scalable. To determine which fonts are scalable,
click View Font while this scalable entry is selected. Note that they all
have a similar XLFD logical name. At run time, Exceed chooses a closest
real font from the list of fonts to be scaled.
Creating Font Aliases
In some cases, X clients may request a font not included in the database.
The server responds by issuing a “Font not available” error message and
logging the logical name or search pattern of that font in the log file.
You can use a font alias to link the requested font to an existing font with
similar characteristics. After you create the font alias, clients can request the
previously denied font so that the server can deliver the font alias.
Note: Check the log file regularly for denied font requests.
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To create a font alias:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Fonts. The Font tab is displayed.
2
Click Edit. The Font Database dialog box opens.
3
Click Font List. The Font List dialog box opens.
4
Click Search to find an existing font resembling the requested font
pattern. If you do not find one in this directory, try another directory
until you find one that you consider a reasonable match.
5
Click Make Alias in the Font List dialog box.
6
Type or paste the font name in the box.
7
Click OK.
The font alias appears immediately below the logical font name in the
second column of the Font List dialog box.
Creating Several Aliases
To create several aliases at the same time, create an alias file containing all of
the desired aliases. An alias file is a text file that you can create or edit in any
text editor, such as Windows Notepad. You can then import the contents of
the alias file into the font database.
Importing Alias Files
You can import a file containing aliases into the font database.
To import an alias file:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Fonts. The Font tab is displayed.
2
Click Edit. The Font Database dialog box opens.
3
Click Import Alias.
4
In the Impor t Alias dialog box, type the path of the alias file being
imported in the From box or click Browse.
5
In the To box, select a destination path from the drop-down list. By
default, the entry selected in the Font Database dialog box is initially
displayed.
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6
Click Import to start importing.
7
Repeat steps 4 – 6 for each alias file you want to import.
8
Click Close.
Exporting Alias Files
The Export Alias dialog box lets you export aliases from the font database.
Using this feature, you can export a group of aliases to a file so that you can
distribute them among other Exceed users in your company.
To export an Alias file:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Fonts. The Font tab is displayed.
2
Click Edit. The Font Database dialog box opens.
3
Click Expor t Alias.
4
In the Expor t Alias dialog box, select the source path in the From box. By
default, the entry selected in the Font Database dialog box is initially
displayed. Select the desired Output Type.
5
Type the destination path in the To box or click Browse.
6
Click Expor t to start exporting.
7
Repeat the above steps for each alias file you want to export.
8
Click Close.
Alias File Format
To create several aliases at the same time, create a file containing all the
desired aliases. You can then import the contents of the alias file into the
font database. You can create an alias file in any text editor, such as
Windows Notepad.
Guidelines
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•
Each line in a standard X alias file contains two columns separated by
spaces or tabs.
•
Lines in the alias file have a certain format. If spaces or quotation marks
are part of either an alias name or a line, enclose the name in quotation
Chapter 4: Xconfig
marks ("). Within the name, use the backslash character (\) before any
quotation mark or space. For example, if you want to enter the line
ABC"DEF fixed, then type "ABC\"DEF" fixed
Within names, you can use the standard wildcard characters * and ?.
For example:
myfont-*-courier-bold-r-normal--*-*-*-*-m-*-iso8859-1
FILE_NAMES_ALIASES lines, typically used to automate physical font alias
matching, are ignored. However, you can enable physical name
matching by using the Physical Font Name Match Allowed check box in
the Add Font Directory dialog box.
•
The following non-standard source file statements are supported:
a) Enter comments by placing a # (number sign) as the first character
on a source line.
b) Alias names can be limited to a particular directory in the font
database using the following source line:
+Y
where Y is the name of any directory listed in the database. For
example:
+C:\EXCEED\FONT\75DPI
By default, a + line remains in effect until the next + line is
encountered. A + line not followed by a path resets the search to the
entire database.
c) Specifying a $ as the first character of a path in an alias file implies
the Exceed Home\Font directory. For example:
$andrew
This specifies the Home\Font\Andrew directory.
d) If the alias name ends in a period (.), the extension is removed. The
server also removes trailing . tags from font name patterns.
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Encoding File Support
Exceed offers encoding file (.enc) support for the recoding of
Unicode-encoded fonts (iso 10646-1) to a specified encoding. Before you
begin, however, you must ensure that the User directory contains the
following:
•
an encodings.dir file
•
a subdirectory called encodings in which you can place the encoding
files (.enc).
To make use of encoding files, create an alias to the Unicode font you want
to recode. You must ensure that the Unicode font contains all of the glyphs
specified in the .enc file the font alias refers to. If a glyph is missing in the
Unicode font, it will be absent from all text created with the alias font.
Setting Up Remote Font Architecture
By default, Exceed installs and makes use of fonts locally. However, you can
place fonts in a central network location and configure each installation of
Exceed to use these remote fonts.
To implement this architecture, you need a machine to serve as the remote
font repository. For the purpose of this procedure, we will call the
repository FONTREP. This name represents the PC name. All Exceed
installations must have access to FONTREP to access the remote fonts.
This procedure assumes that the installation uses the default location and
that the installation is performed by the user “Administrator”.
To set up remote fonts:
1
On FONTREP, perform a complete installation of Exceed ensuring that
the installation includes all of the fonts that your users require.
2
Share the following font directory and set the proper permissions for
users.
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\
Font\
The remote administrator should have full control and Exceed users
who will connect to FONTREP should have read access at the
minimum.
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3
Copy the *.fdb and lfp.xdb files from the User directory to the Exceed
Font folder.
The folder is in the following location:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\Font\
4
Rename the relocated lfp.xdb file to shared.xdb.
5
Edit the registry on the client machines that are using
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Hummingbird\Connectivity
\version\Exceed.
To do this, create a new String Value for SharedFontDir and assign the
value \\FONTREP\font, which is the directory that you shared
previously.
6
On FONTREP, launch Xconfig. In the left pane of Xconfig, click Fonts.
The Font tab is displayed.
7
On the Font page, browse to and select \\fontrep\font\shared.xdb. Use
the fully qualified rather than the local path.
8
Click Edit to open the Font Database dialog box. Ensure that all font
paths begin with \\FONTREP\font\.
If the paths differ, click Change All. In the Change All Font Paths dialog
box, find and replace the default location, C:\Program Files\
Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\Font\, with the shared
location, \\FONTREP\font.
For example, the font paths should read:
\\FONTREP\font\misc\
\\FONTREP\font\75dpi\
9
Save the changes, and exit Xconfig.
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To deploy remote fonts using Sconfig:
1
On FONTREP or any other PC that users can access, perform an
administrative installation (c:\admin) of Exceed.
2
Copy the modified exceed.xcfg you created on FONTREP to
C:\admin\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\
version\Default User\Exceed on the system where you performed the
administrative installation.
3
Launch Sconfig to customize this administrative installation. In the left
pane, click Features, and expand the Exceed version tree that appears in
the right pane. Expand the Exceed item and disable Exceed Fonts.
4
In the left pane, click Registry and set the following:
•
in the Root box, type HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
•
in the Data Type box, select REG_SZ.
•
in the Key box, type SOFTWARE\Hummingbird\Connectivity
\version\Exceed
•
in the Value Name box, type SharedFontDir
•
in the Value Data box, type \\FONTREP\font
5
Save the changes, which will create a Transform file (font.mst).
6
Do the following on each client machine:
a) Connect to the system where you performed the administrative
installation. In this case, the font.mst file will be in the root
directory of the administrative copy.
b) Run the following command:
Setup /v”TRANSFORMS=font.mst”
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7
When the installation is complete, the client systems are configured to
use the remote fonts remotely on FONTREP. To confirm this, launch
Font Management in Xconfig again. The font database should point to
\\FONTREP\font\shared.xdb. If you click Edit on the Font page, the
various font paths should be prefixed with \\FONTREP\font.
Note: By default, the font server’s cache will be located in the
FS_cache folder under the \\FONTREP\font directory. If you want
the font server’s cache to reside locally, use the FSCacheDir
environment variable to specify the desired location.
Configuring OpenGL settings for Exceed 3D and GLX
This section describes how to configure OpenGL settings. It also describes
how Exceed allows applications that use the Mesa OpenGL client library to
use server-side software OpenGL rendering.
The OpenGL page is available only if you have Exceed 3D installed.
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To configure OpenGL settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click OpenGL. The OpenGL page is
displayed. 
Alternatively, display the Xconfig X Protocol page, and its Extension
tab. At this tab, enable the GL option, and click Configure. A dialog box
is displayed, allowing you to set (select or clear) the OpenGL
configuration.
2
Configure the OpenGL options of your choice:
OpenGL Setting
Details
Enable OpenGL
Enable the GLX extension so applications can use
OpenGL.
Recommended setting: Enabled
Disabling this option will prevent applications from
using GLX. If an application supports multiple drawing
methods, disabling GLX may force it to use a non-GLX
drawing method.
Why you may want to disable GLX:
• Work around application bug in GLX rendering path
• Work around application slow performance in GLX
rendering path
• Avoid requiring OpenGL-supporting video card on
Exceed host
Direct Rendering
Increase performance for applications running on the
local host by passing OpenGL rendering commands
directly to the GPU.
Recommended setting: Enabled
When enabled, applications that are linked with
hclglx.dll can pass their OpenGL rendering commands
directly to the GPU. This can greatly increase
performance compared to indirect rendering, where all
rendering commands must first pass through the X
server.
Applications that are not on the local host, or are not
linked with hclglx.dll, will fall back to indirect rendering.
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OpenGL Setting
Details
Hardware Acceleration
Use the local GPU instead of software for OpenGL
rendering.
Recommended setting: Enabled
Attempt to use a hardware-accelerated OpenGL driver
for rendering. If none is available, or this option is
disabled, the Microsoft Software OpenGL renderer is
used. The software renderer is slower and supports
fewer OpenGL features, notably disabling GLX 1.3
support.
RDP sessions cannot access hardware acceleration
and always use the software renderer. Because this
option switches OpenGL drivers, disabling it is useful
for troubleshooting, to determine if an application
crash or rendering issue is related to a specific
OpenGL driver.
One Visual Per Pixel
Format
Provide applications with a full list of Visuals, one for
every Pixel Format the video card supports.
Recommended setting: Enabled
Each Pixel Format on the local video card supports
different OpenGL capabilities, such as color depth,
stencil buffer, or double buffering.
When this option is disabled, only a handful of Visuals
with reasonably diverse capabilities are made
available to applications. If an application complains
that it cannot find a suitable visual, make sure this
option is enabled.
Sometimes applications do not correctly specify
required visual capabilities which can result in errors or
rendering issues. In such a case, disable this option to
make the application choose a different visual.
Related undocumented flag:
GLXRequiredVisualFBConfigAttribs
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OpenGL Setting
Details
Overlay Support
Advertise hardware overlay plane support.
Recommended setting: Disabled
Some applications use hardware overlay planes to
draw parts of the user interface (UI). This option is
disabled by default, because most applications do not
need overlay support, and it prevents careless
applications from accidentally selecting an overlay
visual.
To function, this option requires hardware support in
the GPU and overlay support enabled in the video
driver. Typically only workstation-class GPUs support
hardware overlays.
GLX 1.3 Support
Support and advertise GLX 1.3+ features
Recommended setting: Enabled
GLX 1.3 notably adds support for FBConfigs and
PBuffers and allows applications to use more
advanced OpenGL functionality.
Sometimes applications have different rendering paths
for GLX 1.3+ vs. lower GLX versions.
Disabling GLX 1.3 may cause an application to choose
a different method of rendering and work around
drawing or other issues.
MESA Server Side Software OpenGL Rendering
This section describes how Exceed handles applications that use Mesa
OpenGL client library.
By default, Exceed now allows applications that use the Mesa OpenGL client
library to use server-side software OpenGL rendering. This means that
Mesa (version 7.1 and later) uses its internal Software Rasterizer to render
OpenGL and sends the resulting image to display in Exceed.
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For some applications this may increase performance. For other
applications, this may decrease performance. To disable this and force the
previous default behaviour of indirect OpenGL rendering on the Exceed
host, set the following environment variable before launching the
application:
LIBGL_ALWAYS_INDIRECT=y
For example:
LIBGL_ALWAYS_INDIRECT=y glxgears
Applications that run on hosts with NVIDIA or AMD OpenGL drivers
installed are not affected, and will continue to use indirect OpenGL
rendering as always.
To disable Mesa software rendering completely and revert to the previous
Exceed 14 behaviour, open your system registry and navigate to the
following key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Hummingbird\Connectivity\15.00\Exceed\
XServer
Create a new DWORD value named MesaVisualCompat and set its value to 0.
This will disable Mesa software-based OpenGL rasterizer and force the use
of LIBGL_ALWAYS_INDIRECT=y on the application server, to make indirect
rendering work.
Configuring X Protocol Settings
This section describes the X Protocol settings.
These settings govern how the X protocol is interpreted, and thus regulate
how Exceed operates.
X protocol settings you need to:
•
configure settings on the Protocol tab
•
configure extensions (enable a specific extension, and make specific
extensions available to untrusted clients)
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Configuring the Protocol tab
This section describes how to configure the settings located on the Protocol
tab of the X Protocol configuration page.
To configure the settings at the Protocol tab:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click X Protocol. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select Protocol. The Protocol tab is displayed.
2
Under Compatibility, select or clear the following settings:
•
DECwindows Compatibility—Provides DECwindows
compatibility.
•
X Conformance Test Compatibility—Configures Exceed to pass
certain tests in the X Conformance Test Suite (X Test Suite) that it
would normally fail. These failures occur because some X clients
have problems for which the Exceed X server has benign
workarounds. You should also select Allow Clients To Modify Host
Access Control List on the Security page to pass certain X Test Suite
tests. To access the Security page, click Security, Access Control And
System Administration in Xconfig.
Additionally, selecting this option overrides the Delay Window
Mapping option (in the Multiple Window Mode Advanced dialog box).
If Allow Clients To Modify Host Access Control List is selected, there is
no delay on window mapping.
•
Enable Custom Vendor String—Lets you specify the vendor string
that is passed to clients at connection time (in the connection
block). If your client requires a specific vendor string, select Enable
Custom Vendor String , type the Vendor String in the box, and click OK.
Configuring X Protocol Extensions
This section describes how to:
•
182
enable or disable X Protocol extensions
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
make some extensions available to untrusted clients (by selecting them
in the right pane of the Extensions tab)
Warning! If the All Extensions entry is cleared in the right list box
after being selected, then extensions remain selected. You must
clear each one to disallow access by untrusted clients.
To access and configure the X Protocol extensions:
1
In the Xconfig left pane, click X Protocol. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select Protocol. The X Protocol page is displayed.
2
Click the Extensions tab. The tab is displayed.
3
Under Enable Extensions:
•
4
Under Enable Extensions for Untrusted Clients
•
5
Select the check box next to the extensions you want to enable.
Clear the check boxes for the extensions you want to disable.
Select the check box next to the extensions you want to enable.
Clear the check boxes for the extensions you want to disable.
Click OK to save your selections.
Click Default to restore
the original protocol
extension selections for
the Xconfig configuration
file (initially
Exceed.xcfg).
Understanding X Protocol Extensions
This section lists the supported extensions. For details on how to enable
them or disable them, see “Configuring X Protocol Extensions” on
page 182.
Default Protocol Extensions
The following extensions are the Xconfig defaults for Exceed.xcfg:
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184
•
BIG-REQUESTS—Lets clients extend the length box in protocol
requests to a 32-bit value from the standard X protocol of 2[18] bytes
long. This is useful for certain graphics extensions and other extensions
that transmit complex information to the server. This extension enables
the use of protocol requests that are longer than 262140 bytes.
•
DAMAGE—Lets clients be notified whenever something is drawn to a
window. This feature is useful for virtual network computing (VNC)
servers, for screen magnifiers, and for clients using the Composite
extension to update the screen.
•
DOUBLE-BUFFER (X11R6.1 DOUBLE-BUFFER extension)—Lets
applications draw images to a back buffer. When the image is
completely rendered there, it can be swapped into the role of the front
buffer, which makes the image. Thus, only completely rendered images
are shown and remain visible during the entire time it takes to render a
new frame. The result is flicker-free animation.
•
RANDR—The resize and rotate extension (RandR) lets clients modify
the size, accelerated visuals, and rotation of an X screen. It also informs
clients when screens were resized or rotated, and it lets them discover
which visuals have hardware acceleration available.
•
RECORD—Enables support for recording all core X protocol and
arbitrary extension protocol completely within the X Server. When the
extension is requested to intercept a specific protocol by one or more
clients, the protocol data is formatted and returned to the recording
clients. The extension provides a mechanism for capturing all events,
including input device events that go to no clients. The extension does
not provide data compression before intercepted protocol is returned to
the recording clients.
•
RENDER—Enables anti-aliased text and alpha-blending on the Exceed
X server. Newer desktop environments (such as the latest versions of
KDE and GNOME) use the RENDER extension for anti-aliased text.
•
SECURITY—Enables the protocol needed to provide enhanced server
security. This extension cannot be exposed to untrusted clients. This
extension introduces the notion of secure and insecure extensions. A
secure extension is believed to be safe for use by untrusted clients; that
is, there are no known significant security concerns that an untrusted
client could use to destroy, modify, or steal data from trusted clients. All
extensions not considered secure are called insecure.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
SHAPE—Allows for arbitrary window and border shapes. It causes the
server to report the SHAPE extension when queried by a client for the
list of supported extensions. By default, this setting is selected. Drawing
operations on non-rectangular windows are slower than on rectangular
windows. Certain clients use non-rectangular windows instead of
rectangular windows if the SHAPE extension is present. To improve the
performance of these clients, disable the SHAPE extension before
starting the client.
•
SYNC—Enables the X11R6 synchronization extension. This extension
provides primitives that let synchronization between clients take place
entirely within the Exceed X server. It removes any error introduced by
the network and makes it possible to synchronize clients on different
hosts running different operating systems.
The SYNC extension is important for multimedia applications, which
synchronize audio, video, and graphics data streams. This extension
also provides internal timers within the Exceed X server to which client
requests can be synchronized. This lets you implement simple
animation applications without any round-trip requests. It also makes
the best use of buffering within the client, network, and server.
•
•
XFIXES—A collection of improvements for deficiencies in the core
protocol, including:
•
Save Set processing changes
•
notification when a selection changes
•
server-side region objects
•
cursor tracking
•
cursor names (labels)
XINERAMA—Allows applications and window managers to use two or
more physical displays as one display. The display behavior may differ
depending on the window manager used. If you enable this extension,
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ensure that the Use All Monitors setting (Xconfig, Screen Definitions) for
screen 0 is also enabled.
Note:
• It is recommended that you use TrueColor (24 or 32-bit) on
each display, but display setting inconsistencies do not pose a
problem for most window managers. It is also recommended
that you do not use 8-bit (256 color) modes.
• The physical configuration of monitors in anything other than a
horizontal or vertical row can cause inconsistent behavior.
•
XInputExtension—Enables the X Input Extension Protocol (X11R6
synchronization extension). Any kind of input device may be used as an
extension input device. This extension is designed to accommodate new
types of input devices that may be added in the future. Starting with the
core X keyboard and pointer, new devices need have only their new
classes (unique numbers) registered to be recognized by this extension;
they do not need an entire new extension for each new device.
•
X-Resource—Lets clients query the X server about its usage of various
resources. It is a developer tool to assist with making server resource
usage more efficient and to debug server-side resource leakage.
•
XTEST—Client/server extensions required for hands off validation of
the X11 server. They provide access to write-only server resources (for
example, the cursor associated with a specific window) and remote
activation of certain input device events (such as controlling the
pointing device or pressing a key or button).
More information about other protocol extensions.
Other Protocol Extensions
The following are the extensions not selected by default in Exceed.xcfg:
•
186
Composite—Lets clients request that all drawing to window is
redirected to an off-screen buffer. Though the DAMAGE extension, the
client (called a compositing manager) can know which areas of a
window are modified and render the windows on screen. By using the
drawing requests (from both the core protocol and the RENDER
Chapter 4: Xconfig
extension), the compositing manager can create special effects, such as
translucent windows.
•
GLX—Enables support for OpenGL, a high-performance 3D-oriented
renderer. When this extension is selected at the Extensions tab of X
protocol page, you may click the Configure button. A dialog box is
displayed, allowing you to configure GLX functionality. See also
“Configuring OpenGL settings for Exceed 3D and GLX” on page 177.
•
MIT-SHM (Shared Memory)—Lets local X clients store ximage data in
a memory segment that is shared with the local X server. This precludes
having to send the ximage over the Xlib interprocess communication
channel. For large images, using this facility can result in an increase in
performance.
•
XKEYBOARD—Provides improved layout and features for keyboards
(for example, Russian and Hungarian).
•
XVideo—Utilizes hardware capacities to speed up video playback and
to reduce total CPU time on both systems running Exceed and the X
client. It also provides server-side video adjustment for brightness,
contrast, and hue if the hardware supports it.
The Xvideo extension is comprised of two parts:
•
Image playback—Depending on the capacities of the system video
card, Exceed can utilize the color space conversion or hardware
scaling provided by the video card to play back video frames of
certain formats and to rescale video frames to the desired size.
•
Video stream—Exceed provides interfaces to play back the video
stream from live sources such as web cams. Exceed also supports
still image capture from those video streams to X windows.
Note: To successfully make use of XVideo functionality, ensure
that the following is true:
• Your hardware provides the required capacities.
• Xvideo support is available and enabled in the video playback
software (the X client).
• As X applications typically run on a remote host, Xvideo shared
memory should not be used. Please refer to the X application’s
documentation for more information.
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Performance Settings
Configuring Performance Settings
This section describes how to configure the following Performance settings:
•
Drawing Settings
•
Advanced Settings
The settings are used to:
•
adjust Microsoft Windows system resources used by Exceed for various
performance-related drawing techniques
•
configure Exceed for optimal graphics performance for your current
video configuration
To configure Performance settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Performance. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select the Performance option. The Performance
tab is displayed.
2
Modify the Drawing and Advanced settings.
Drawing Settings
Under Drawing, modify:
Draft Mode—Selected by default, this option improves performance, but
results in a slight and generally unnoticeable reduction in drawing accuracy.
Batch Requests—Can help improve the performance of the Exceed X
Server.
Backing Store—Reduces network traffic and improves window refresh
speed at the expense of window drawing speed and memory. You can set the
following options that determine the conditions under which the backing
store is used:
•
188
None—Never saves the contents of the X application window.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
•
When Mapped—Backing store is provided to all mapped windows if
the application requests it. Window content is saved only when the X
application is drawing to the window when it is mapped. (In this
context, mapped means not minimized.)
•
Always—Always attempt to preserve the contents of any window,
whether or not it is mapped, if the application requests it.
Advanced Settings
Read On WriteBlocked—Continues processing X application requests even
when the application temporarily stops responding to a reply or event.
Oversized Cursors—Lets the X application create cursors larger than 32 by
32 pixels.
Configuring Troubleshooting Settings
For detailed information
about the user interface
and how to access it, see
Exceed Help.
This section describes the troubleshooting settings that you can configure.
Use the Troubleshooting page in Xconfig to modify the following settings:
•
Log Settings
•
Trace Settings
They allow you to:
•
specify font and other information that is written to the log file
•
view the log file (Exceed.log)
•
trace Exceed activity from startup
To view or modify the troubleshooting settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Troubleshooting. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select the Troubleshooting option. The
Troubleshooting tab is displayed.
2
Modify the following groups of settings: Enable Log and Trace.
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Log Settings
•
Enable Log
This setting activates the Exceed built-in logging functionality. Initially,
the Enable Log option is selected, and Exceed logs information to the
file specified in this text box. By default, the Exceed.log file is stored in
the User directory. You can specify another file by typing the full name
and path in this box. To open this file in a text editor, click View.
When you select the Enable Log setting, you can also enable and disable
any of the following:
•
Log Font Opens—Lets you log all requests to open fonts. Select this
option only for troubleshooting purposes. Do not forget to clear this
option when you are finished troubleshooting. By default, this setting is
not selected.
•
Log Window And Command Names—Causes Exceed to log the initial
settings of the WM_COMMAND and WM_NAME properties on
Input/Output root-level windows. This is useful when you are trying to
determine which client is associated with a particular network socket.
Select this option only for troubleshooting purposes. Do not forget to
clear this option when you finish troubleshooting. By default, this
setting is not selected.
•
Log GLX Information—Logs all OpenGL requests. Select this option
only for troubleshooting purposes. Do not forget to clear this option
when you are finished troubleshooting. By default, this setting is not
selected.
•
Log Connection Error—Logs connection errors.
•
Log XDMCP Progress Status—Logs all XDMCP progress status.
Trace Settings
The Trace group box lets you enable or disable any of the following:
•
190
Trace Initially On—Do not select the Trace Initially On setting unless
you want to trace the dialog between the server and the first client.
When you select this option, the trace starts when the server does, and
all dialog between the server and the first client, including XDM, is
Chapter 4: Xconfig
traced. The trace file is output to the User directory with a .trx file
name extension.
Warning! Select this setting only when absolutely necessary; it
severely degrades server performance. Do not forget to clear this
setting after performing your trace.
•
Slow Trace—Lets you trace situations even when the server hangs. If
the server hangs and the PC must be rebooted, the current trace file is
likely unavailable; this setting lets you compensate for this situation.
Warning! Use this setting only when absolutely necessary, as it
severely degrades server performance.
Viewing the Log File
This section describes how to display a log file, from the Troubleshooting
page, or the Exceed menu.
The following information about X applications and their connections may
be logged:
•
remote port, IP address, socket # connection
•
initial data connection from X applications
•
who closed the connection and error number indicating the reason for
closing
•
rejection of an X application request to connect to Exceed
•
names of fonts requested by clients but not found
•
names of fonts substituted if the Automatic Font Substitution (Font
Database dialog box) and Log Font Opens (Troubleshooting page) options
are selected
•
names of colors requested but not found in the RGB database
•
Open GLX information
•
which application is being loaded
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To display a log file from Xconfig:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Troubleshooting. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select the Troubleshooting option. The
Troubleshooting tab is displayed.
2
Click the View button, next to the name of the file.
3
Select a log file you want to view, and click OK.
To display a log file from the Exceed menu:
From the File menu, select View Log.
Handling Denied Requests for Colors
This section describes what happens if a f a client requests a color that the
server cannot supply.
In this case, the requested color name appears in the log file. You can view
the log file on the Troubleshooting page in Xconfig. Add these colors to the
RGB database for future use.
To add colors to the RGB database:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Display And Video. The initial tab,
Screen, is displayed.
2
Click the Video tab.
3
Click Edit to open the RGB text file in a text editor.tab.
4
Add a new entry to the database for the color name requested and
assign Red, Green, and Blue values for that color name. The assigned
Red, Green, and Blue values are arbitrary; they may or may not be
related to the actual color name. An entry is made for the color to
ensure that a color is returned to the client when requested instead of
creating a "Color not found" error.
For example:
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A failed request for the color was logged.
239255242Melon
Interpretation—The next time a client requests the color Melon, the
RGB combination of 239, 255, 242 will generate the color. This may or
may not be the color that the client visualized, but a color is returned
and the operation proceeds.
5
Save the modified rgb.txt file.
6
Right-click Exceed on the Windows taskbar, select File menu, select
Reload Database, and then click RGB to reload the RGB database.
Note: Exiting and restarting the server also reloads the database.
This color is now available to X clients.
Handling Denied Requests for Fonts
If a client requests a font that the server cannot supply, the name of the
requested font appears in the log file. To view the log file, click View in the
Xconfig Troubleshooting page.
To resolve requests for missing fonts, you can:
•
create font aliases
•
compile the font source in .bdf or .pcf format using the Xconfig Font
Compiler
•
enable automatic font substitution
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Power Management
Configuring Power Management Settings
This section describes how to configure the following Power Management
Settings:
•
Refuse Sleep
•
User Interaction
•
Presentation
•
Wake Up
To configure the Power Management settings:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Power Management. Alternatively, from
the Xconfig Settings menu, select the Power Management option.
2
At the Power Management tab, select or clear the options of your choice.
Refuse Sleep
Select one of the options below to indicate under what circumstances the
system should not enter sleep mode. If you are running connections to
remote hosts, select the Always option.
194
•
Always—Always refuse sleep requests.
•
When Connected—Exceed refuses the sleep requests when there is a
connection to an X server, either local or remote.
•
When Remotely Connected—Exceed refuses the sleep requests when
there is remote connection to an X server.
•
When Remote Client Is Active Within (sec.)—Exceed refuses the sleep
requests when a remote connection is active within the specified time
(in seconds).
Chapter 4: Xconfig
User Interaction
Maintains the display even if the system enters sleep mode.
Select a time interval (Grace Period Before Sleep) from the list to determine
how long the system should standby before entering sleep mode.
Examples of user interaction are mouse or keyboard actions, drawing,
change of geometry, or other data exchanges between the Exceed X server
and the X clients.
Presentation
Causes the system to reset after sleeping for a long period of time.
Prevent display from being shut down—Maintains the display even if the
system enters sleep mode (due to a Windows setting that turns the monitor
off).
Wake Up
Server reset after critical sleep—Causes the system to reset after sleeping
for a long period of time. For example, an extended sleep period might be
caused by some critical situation such as low battery power.
Configuring System Administration Settings
This section describes how to configure system administration settings. The
System Administration page can be locked by the system administrator.
In this case, you cannot disable settings.
To configure the System Administration features:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click System Administration. Alternatively,
from the Settings menu, select System Administration. The page is
displayed.
2
Select or clear the relevant option. If you select a particular check box,
the associated feature is disabled.
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3
Click Save. Selections are enforced the next time you start Xconfig.
The following features may be disabled (if the check box is selected) or
enabled (if the check box is cleared):
196
Options
Result
Disable Features
Select this check box to access the list of features.
Test Extensions
X clients cannot test X11 servers by simulating
X events (such as keystrokes and mouse clicks).
Trace
The Trace command is not available on the Exceed File
submenu. No trace file is created.
X Client Native Window
Manager Exit
In the Client window, the Exit button is unavailable.
Also, the close command on the pop-up menu (rightclick the client window title bar) is unavailable.
X Server Copy/Paste
On the Exceed menu, all copy and paste commands
are not available on the Edit submenu. Also, all toolbar
copy and paste buttons are unavailable.
X Server Exit
On the Exceed menu, the Exit command is not
available on the File submenu.
X Server Reset
On the Exceed menu, the Server Reset command is
not available on the Tools submenu.
X Server Toolbar Close
When enabled, the Exceed toolbar cannot be closed.
Xstart Browse Hosts and
Applications
Xstart Browse buttons are unavailable. These buttons
open the Browse For Hosts dialog boxes.
Xstart Browse Hosts and
Applications
Configuration
On the Other page of the Xstart Settings dialog box,
the Configure buttons are not available. These buttons
open the Browse Hosts/Applications dialog boxes.
Xstart Load Optimization
On the Other page of the Xstart Settings dialog box,
the Load Optimization option is not available. Also, the
Configure button that opens the Browse Load
Optimization dialog box is not available.
Chapter 4: Xconfig
Options
Result
Xstart Password Save
The Xstart file cannot be saved or run. A warning
informs users that saving of passwords is disabled.
Xstart Remember
Password
In the Xstart Global Options dialog box, the Password
List area (including Remember Password functionality)
is unavailable.
Xstart RLOGIN Startup
Method
The Xstart file cannot be saved or run. A warning
informs users that this method is disabled.
Xstart RSH Startup
Method
The Xstart file cannot be saved or run. A warning
informs users that this method is disabled.
Restricting Access to Xconfig
This section describes how to set a password to:
•
restrict access to Xconfig and specific Xconfig settings
•
restrict access to configuration settings on the System Administration
page.
To specify a password for the first time:
1
In Xconfig, from the Actions menu, select Change My Password.
2
In the New Password text box, type the password of your choice.
3
In the Confirm Password text box, retype the password.
4
Click OK. The next time you start Xconfig, the new password is
implemented.
To change an existing password:
1
Type your current password in the Old Password text box.
2
Type your new password in the New Password text box and then retype
it in the Confirm Password text box.
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3
Click OK to save your changes. The next time you start Xconfig, the
new password is implemented.
To remove password protection:
1
Type your current password in the Old Password text box, and leave the
other two text boxes blank.
2
Click OK to save your changes. The next time you start Xconfig, this
password is removed. Note that if you do not use a password, anyone
can make changes to the settings formerly protected by this password.
2
Accessibility
Configuring Accessibility Settings
This section describes how to configure Exceed Accessibility settings.
These settings enable access to information about the user interface.
elements.
To configure Accessibility settings for Exceed:
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click Accessibility. Alternatively, from the
Xconfig Settings menu, select the Accessibility option. The Accessibility
tab is displayed.
2
Select the Enable Accessibility check box.
•
198
Enable Accessibility—Gives visually impaired users the capability
to read the X display by means of support for Microsoft Active
Accessibility (MSAA). Users with visual impairments can use
MSAA compliant screen reading applications, such as Microsoft
Narrator, to read and listen to the screen of Motif X Window
applications. This feature is not available with 64-bit versions of the
product.)
Chapter 4: Xconfig
3
Depending on how your system is configured, you may be prompted to
turn off (clear) the following option (located under Input Devices >
Keyboard: Use Keyboard Hook).
Click Yes, to turn off this option, which prevents key input echo from
working properly with the Accessibility feature. By clicking Yes, you will
disable the keyboard echo (the appearance of letters on the screen as
someone types).
4
Select or clear the option of your choice (available if the Enable
Accessibility is selected):
•
Readiness Check Interval (ms)—The default is 5000 milliseconds.
Setting it to 0 means that Exceed does not wait until all the
information is ready for collecting by a screen reader when an X
client window is created.
•
Maximum Number Of Times To Check—The default is 5. This
determines the number of times Exceed attempts to detect
accessibility information. If accessibility information is ready for a
screen reader, the X client window opens. If all attempts fail, the X
client window still opens but without accessibility information.
This happens when an X client is launched on a system where
accessibility modules are not installed.
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Chapter 5
Introducing Exceed 3D
About Exceed 3D
Overview and Features
215
215
Exceed 3D Requirements
Graphics Cards
216
216
GLX Protocol
OpenGL Extensions
OpenGL Direct Rendering
216
216
218
Troubleshooting Problems with Graphics Cards
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Chapter 5: Introducing Exceed 3D
About Exceed 3D
To order Exceed 3D,
contact your sales
representative. For contact
information, see
Appendix C: General
Accessibility and
Customer Support.
Exceed 3D lets you view three-dimensional (3D) applications under Exceed
and create 3D applications using Exceed XDK. This section contains
important information about Exceed 3D and instructions for installing
Exceed 3D. Unless otherwise specified, all references to Windows 7/Server
2008 and later are referred to generically as Windows.
Overview and Features
Exceed 3D lets you use the Exceed X server to display OpenGL-based 3D
applications. Exceed 3D provides support for OpenGL 1.2 and GLX 1.4.
OpenGL is an industry-standard 3D graphics software interface. It lets you
create interactive programs that produce still or animated 3D color objects
with shading, lighting, and other effects. GLX is the X Window System
extension that implements OpenGL.
Exceed 3D supports:
•
OpenGL version 1.2, GLX 1.3 (if supported by your graphics adapter),
and GLX 1.4
•
RGBA and color index modes on all video devices, including True Color
16-bit and 32-bit color video cards
•
overloaded visuals to support OpenGL extended attributes such as
double and single buffering
•
direct rendering
•
hardware acceleration (if supported by your graphics adapter)
•
overlays (if supported by your graphics adapter)
•
stereo (if supported by your graphics adapter)
•
texture3D (if supported by your graphics adapter)
For demonstration purposes, sample programs are shipped with Exceed
XDK.
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Exceed 3D Requirements
Before you install Exceed 3D, make sure the computer on which you are
installing it meets the following minimum system requirements:
•
Microsoft Windows 7/8/8.1/Server 2008, Server 2008 R2/Server 2012
R2
•
Microsoft Visual C/C++ Version 4.2 or higher to develop OpenGL X
clients
Graphics Cards
A graphics card
specifically designed to
support OpenGL should
support overlay.
Most current high performance graphics cards support OpenGL, but some
are not specifically designed for OpenGL, which could cause problems with
some UNIX software if it requires specific OpenGL-related features. For
more information, contact your UNIX software vendor to see which
hardware they support, or contact your graphics card manufacturer.
GLX Protocol
Exceed 3D includes GLX, the OpenGL extension for the X Window System.
OpenGL Extensions
For detailed information about extensions, see the OpenGL Extension
Registry:
http://oss.sgi.com/projects/ogl-sample/registry/index.html
The registry is maintained by Silicon Graphics, Inc. and provides standards,
specifications, naming conventions, guidelines, and other related
documentation.
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Extensions supported by Exceed 3D
Exceed 3D supports the following OpenGL extensions:
Note: Your graphics adapter must also support these extensions.
GL_ARB_depth_texture
GL_ARB_multitexture
GL_ARB_point_parameters
GL_ARB_shadow
GL_ARB_shadow_ambient
GL_ARB_texture_border_clamp
GL_ARB_texture_compression
GL_ARB_texture_cube_map
GL_ARB_texture_env_add
GL_ARB_texture_env_combine
GL_ARB_texture_env_crossbar
GL_ARB_texture_env_dot3
GL_ARB_texture_mirrored_repeat
GL_ARB_texture_non_power_of_two
GL_ARB_vertex_blend
GL_ARB_window_pos
GL_EXT_abgr
GL_EXT_blend_color
GL_EXT_blend_logic_op
GL_EXT_blend_minmax
GL_EXT_blend_subtract
GL_EXT_cmyka
GL_EXT_convolution
GL_EXT_copy_texture
GL_EXT_framebuffer_object
GL_EXT_histogram
GL_EXT_misc_attribute
GL_EXT_packed_pixels
GL_EXT_pixel_transform
GL_EXT_point_parameters
GL_EXT_polygon_offset
GL_EXT_rescale_normal
GL_EXT_subtexture
GL_EXT_texture
GL_EXT_texture_env_add
GL_EXT_texture_env_combine
GL_EXT_texture_filter_anisotropic
GL_EXT_texture_object
GL_EXT_texture3D
GL_EXT_vertex_array
GL_HP_convolution_border_modes
GL_PGI_misc_hints
GL_PGI_vertex_hints
GL_SGI_color_matrix
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GL_SGI_color_table
GL_SGI_texture_color_table
GL_SGIS_detail_texture
GL_SGIS_generate_mipmap
GL_SGIS_sharpen_texture
GL_SGIS_texture_border_clamp
GL_SGIS_texture_edge_clamp
GL_SGIS_texture_filter4
GL_SGIS_texture_lod
GL_SGIS_texture_select
GL_SGIS_texture4D
GL_SGIX_clipmap
GL_SGIX_depth_texture
GL_SGIX_fog_offset
GL_SGIX_interlace
GL_SGIX_shadow
GL_SGIX_shadow_ambient
GL_SGIX_texture_add_env
GL_SGIX_texture_lod_bias
GL_SGIX_texture_multi_buffer
GL_SGIX_texture_scale_bias
GL_SUN_global_alpha
GL_SUN_vertex
GLX_EXT_import_context
GLX_EXT_texture_from_pixmap
GLX_EXT_visual_info
GLX_EXT_visual_rating
OpenGL Direct Rendering
Exceed 3D supports OpenGL direct rendering for improved local GLX
client performance when the client is running on the same PC as the X
server display. Direct rendering does not support a color index with any
depth.
Note: If you have problems with resizing an OpenGL window,
turn off direct rendering. These problems are caused by the
Microsoft implementation of OpenGL.
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Troubleshooting Problems with Graphics Cards
If you suspect that Exceed 3D has not selected the correct graphics card for
your application, the following instructions may help you investigate the
problem:
1
Select the Log GLX Information check box in the Troubleshooting dialog
box of the Xconfig application.
2
Run the Exceed X server. On the Tools menu, click Log File to view the
Exceed log file. This file lists the available OpenGL pixel formats that are
implemented by your graphics card and by Microsoft software.
3
Run the Xglinfo demo program and view the output in the Local X
Console window. The output lists the visuals supported by the Exceed X
server. (By default, the Local X Console window closes after all Local X
clients exit. To change this option, in the Local X Console, click Close on
Last Client Exit.)
4
Run your application and view the Exceed log file again. The OpenGL
pixel format selected by the Exceed X server for your application is
written to the log file.
By examining this output, you can determine if the Exceed X server
selected the right graphics card for your application. If not, contact
Customer Support. You may be asked to send the following log files:
exceed.log and xlib.log, located in your Exceed user directory.
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Chapter 6
Introducing Exceed XDK
Introducing Exceed XDK
Sample Source Code
Extensions Support
223
223
224
X11 Motif and OpenGL Version Support
225
Exceed XDK Files
Exceed XDK Runtime Control Variables
227
229
Sample Local X, Motif, and OpenGL Clients
Sample Programs
233
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Exceed Tools
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Chapter 6: Introducing Exceed XDK
Introducing Exceed XDK
Exceed XDK is a set of .dlls, include files, and libraries that you can use to
develop GUI or console local X clients that run on your PC instead of a
UNIX or Linux host. You can develop a local client using Exceed XDK, or
you can port the code of an existing UNIX or Linux X application and
rebuild the project so that the application runs locally on a PC. You can also
develop OpenGL X applications with 3D capabilities for Windows.
Exceed XDK includes the Motif User Interface Language compiler (UIL), a
Motif Window Manager (MWM) that supports double-byte and multi-byte
character sets, and various additional Motif include files and libraries for
developing local Motif clients. Local Motif clients are clients that use the
current implementation of the OSF/Motif Widget set and are built to run
on your PC instead of a UNIX host.
In order to develop local X clients, you must have programming knowledge
of these operating systems and the X Window System. Use Microsoft Visual
C++ or CYGWIN gcc compilers and linkers to build your local X client.
This section describes the following:
•
what Exceed XDK provides
•
how to use Exceed XDK to develop a local X client (including how to
port a UNIX or Linux X client to a PC and recompile it)
•
how to use the built-in Japanese and other locale-support components
Note: No development components in this version of Exceed
XDK—including header files, import/static libraries, and sample
source code—are intended for use with any development
components of Exceed XDK earlier than version 6.
Sample Source Code
Exceed XDK contains the source files for compiling and linking the Circles,
Ico, Xlogo, HelloMotif, Periodic, and Pplane programs in the XDK source
directory.
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Extensions Support
Exceed XDK (hclglx.lib) supports the following OpenGL extensions:
Your graphics adapter
must also support these
extensions.
GL_ARB_imaging
GL_ARB_multitexture
GLX_ARB_get_proc_address
GL_ARB_texture_env_add
GL_ARB_texture_env_combine
GL_EXT_abgr
GL_EXT_blend_color
GL_EXT_polygon_offset
GL_EXT_texture
GL_EXT_texture3D
GL_EXT_subtexture
GL_EXT_copy_texture
GL_EXT_histogram
GL_EXT_convolution
GL_SGI_color_table
GL_EXT_texture_object
GL_EXT_vertex_array
GL_EXT_blend_minmax
GL_EXT_blend_subtract
GL_EXT_blend_logic_op
GL_EXT_texture_env_combine
GL_EXT_texture_env_add
Among these extensions, you can only use GLX_ARB_get_proc_address with
Exceed direct rendering mode. This extension lets Exceed virtually support
any extension that it does not support directly. Exceed can get extension
functions directly from the hardware driver.
Extensions Not Supported
Some extensions are not supported, for example GL_NV_vertex_program .
However, it is possible to use an unsupported extension by calling the
glXGetProcAddressARB function.
For example:
typedef void (APIENTRY * PFNGLBINDPROGRAMNVPROC )
(GLenum target, GLuint id );
PFNGLBINDPROGRAMNVPROC pfnBindProgramNV = NULL ;
char *exten = ( char * ) glGetString( GL_EXTENSIONS );
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if( strstr( exten, "GL_NV_vertex_program" ) )
pfnBindProgramNV = ( PFNGLBINDPROGRAMNVPROC )
glXGetProcAddressARB( "glBindProgramNV" );
Note: This example is for direct rendering only. The results of
using extension GL_NV_vertex_program in another mode
(rendering through Exceed) are unpredictable.
X11 Motif and OpenGL Version Support
This version of Exceed XDK supports X11R7.0, Motif 1.2.4, Motif 2.0.3, and
Motif 2.1.30 with Complex Text Layout (CTL).
Support to run X11R5 local clients built using (GLX 4, OpenGL 1.2, and)
versions of Exceed XDK prior to Version 6 is also included if you install the
X11R5 Local X Clients Runtime component. However, you cannot create
X11R5 clients with this version of Exceed XDK.
International Support
This version of Exceed XDK includes extensions that support user input of
the Euro and Latin-9 currency symbols.
Exceed XDK provides support for developing and running X applications
using all major European languages, as well as Japanese, Chinese, and
Korean. This version of Exceed XDK also supports X11 Internationalization
(I18N).
In addition, if you are using Motif 2.1.30 CTL, you can use Exceed XDK to
develop context-sensitive local Arabic or Hebrew applications.
Motif Tools Libraries (Xmt 2.1.2)
Exceed XDK includes support for X Motif tools. You can build Xmt
applications with Motif 2.0.x and Motif 1.2.x. Exceed XDK provides two
pairs of static libraries (HumXmt.lib and XmtStatXm.lib) can be used with
dynamic and static Xm libraries. You can find Xmt header files in folders in
this location:
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C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\Version\Exceed\
XDK\Include\Xmt
These libraries are not yet
available for Cygwin.
For complete documentation of the Xmt library, consult Motif Tools:
Streamlined GUI Design and Programming with the Xmt by David Flanagan
(published by O’Reilly & Associates, Inc.).
Note: A license (required to use Xmt libraries) is included with
“Motif Tools: Streamlined GUI Design and Programming with the
Xmt”.
Motif and OpenGL GCC Static Libraries
Motif Widget Set (libXmSt.a) and Motif Resource Manager (libMrmSt.a)
static libraries for Motif 1.2.4, Motif 2.0.3, and Motif 2.1.30 CTL are now
available for a gcc compiler under the CYGWIN environments on Win32
systems.
These libraries can be found in the following locations:
•
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Gcc\Lib (for Motif 1.2.4 applications)
•
Home\Xdk\Gcc\Lib (for Motif 2.0.3 and OpenGL applications)
•
Home\Xdk\Motif21\Gcc\Lib (for Motif 2.1.30 CTL applications)
Home directory refers to the default location, C:\Program Files\
Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\product, but another location may be
specified in the OpenText Setup Wizard during installation.
GNOME/Linux Files
This version of Exceed XDK provides library and header files for
GNOME/Linux development with a CYGWIN gcc compiler. These files can
be found in the following location: Home\Xdk\Gcc\
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Exceed XDK Files
For more information, see
“Building a GNOME/Linux
X Client Using a CYGWIN
GCC Compiler” on
page 43.
The table below lists Exceed XDK files that are installed and the directories
in which they are installed. Home directory refers to the default location
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\product but
another location may be specified in the OpenText Setup Wizard during
installation. There are various types of User directories. For more
information about installation directories and installed (user) files, see the
Installation Guide.
Directory Name
Directory Contents
Home
Xlib.dll, Xt.dll, Xaw.dll, Xmu.dll, Xm.dll, HCLXt.dll,
HCLXaw.dll, HCLXmu.dll, HCLXm.dll, HCLXm12.dll,
HCLXm21.dll, HCLIce.dll, HCLXiert.dll, HCLSm.dll,
HCLXi.dll, HCLXtst.dll, HCLXp.dll, HCLShm.dll,
layout.dll, humxim.dll, humxom_ar.dll, HCLMrm.dll,
HCLMrm12.dll, HCLMrm21.dll, HCLXaw3d.dll, HumXpm.dll,
HumXRender.dll, HumXRandr.dll, HumXComposite.dll,
HumXDamage.dll, HumXEvie.dll, HumXFixes.dll,
HumXKBFile.dll, and sample local X clients.
Also includes the Motif User Interface Compiler (UIL) and the
sample Motif clients. Uil.exe is for use with Motif 2.0.x X clients,
Uil12.exe is for use with Motif 1.2.x X clients, and Uil21.exe is
for use with Motif 2.1.x X clients.
Home\Xdk\Include\GL
Include files for OpenGL libraries.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Glw
Include files for OpenGL libraries.
Home\Xdk\Include\Xmt
Include files for the Motif Tools library.
Home\Xdk\Include\Xm
Include files for the Motif 2.0.x Widget library.
Home\Xdk\Include\Mrm
Include files for the Motif 2.0.x Resource Manager library.
Home\Xdk\Include\UIL
Include files for the Motif 2.0.x User Interface Language library.
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Include\Xm
Include files for the Motif 1.2.x Widget library.
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Include\Mrm
Include files for the Motif 1.2.x Resource Manager library.
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Include\Uil
Include files for the Motif 1.2.x User Interface Language library.
Home\Xdk\Motif21\Include\Xm
Include files for the Motif 2.1.x Widget library.
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Directory Name
Directory Contents
Home\Xdk\Motif21\Include\Mrm
Include files for the Motif 2.1.x Resource Manager library.
Home\Xdk\Motif21\Include\Uil
Include files for the Motif 2.1.x User Interface Language library.
Home\Xdk\Src
Subdirectories containing source code for the sample local X
and Motif 2.0.x clients.
Home\Xdk\Lib (32 bit)
Import libraries: Xlib.lib, HCLXmu.lib, HCLSm.lib,
HCLIce.lib, HCLXiert.lib, HCLXi.lib, HCLXtst.lib,
HCLShm.lib, HCLXp.lib, HumXpm.lib, HumXRender.dll,
HumXRandr.dll, HumXComposite.dll, HumXDamage.dll,
HumXEvie.dll, HumXFixes.dll, and HumXKBFile.dll.
Home\Xdk\Libx64 (64 bit)
Combination import libraries and static data: HCLXt.lib,
HCLxaw3d.lib, HCLXaw.lib, and XmStatXt.lib.
Also includes the Motif Widget library HCLXm.lib (import library
and static data), XmStatic.lib (static library), the Resource
Manager libraries (HCLMrm.lib is the import library and
MrmStat.lib is the static library), Motif Tools static libraries
HumXmt.lib and XmtStatXm.lib, and the User Interface
Language static library (HCLUil.lib) for Motif 2.0.x.
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Lib (32 bit)
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Libx64 (64 bit)
Home\Xdk\Motif21\Lib (32 bit)
Home\Xdk\Motif21\Libx64 (64 bit)
The Motif Widget library HCLXm.lib (import library and static
data), XmStatic.lib (static library), the Resource Manager
libraries (HCLMrm.lib is the import library and MrmStat.lib is
the static library), Motif Tools static libraries HumXmt.lib and
XmtStatXm.lib, and the User Interface Language static library
(HCLUil.lib) for Motif 1.2.x.
The Motif Widget library HCLXm.lib (import library and static
data), XmStatic.lib (static library), the Resource Manager
libraries (HCLMrm.lib is the import library and MrmStat.lib is
the static library), and the User Interface Language static library
(HCLUil.lib) for Motif 2.1.x.
Home\Xdk\Motif12\Gcc\Lib
GCC import and static libraries for Motif 1.2.x.
Home\Xdk\Motif21\GCC\Lib
GCC import and static libraries for Motif 2.1.x.
Home\Xdk\GCC\Lib
GCC import and static libraries for X, Motif 2.0.x, and OpenGL.
Home\Xdk\GCC\Include
Common include files for GNOME/Linux development.
Home\Xdk\GCC\Include\Gtk
GTK files for GNOME/Linux development.
Home\Xdk\GCC\Include\Gdk
GDK files for GNOME/Linux development.
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Directory Name
Directory Contents
Home\Xdk\Include\X11
Include files for compiling local X clients.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Extensions
Include files for X Extensions.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Bitmaps
X11 bitmap files.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Xaw
Include files for the Athena Widget Set.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Xmu
Include files for X miscellaneous utility library.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Xaw3d
Include files for the Athena 3D Widget Set.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Ice
Include files for inter-client exchange library.
Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Sm
Include files for session management library.
User
User-configurable resource files, such as the .Xdefaults file and
application resource files (including application resource files for
the sample X clients). Also includes the X Error Database file
and the X Keysym Database file.
Any binary User Interface files (.uid) and application resource
files for the sample local Motif clients are also located here.
User\Locale
Contains locale files database, locale aliases database, and
various subdirectories containing locale database files for each
different locale.
User\SJ3
Supporting directories for Kinput2 (Japanese XIM server).
User\SJ3DEF
For more information regarding the files included in Exceed XDK, see the
file XDKFiles.txt located in your Home\Info directory.
Exceed XDK Runtime Control Variables
Runtime control over Exceed XDK libraries is provided with the settings
described in the table at the end of this section. These settings are defined in
the environment or the registry database. Exceed XDK initially searches for
runtime control variables in the environment (set with the DOS command
SET). If it cannot find the variables there, it searches the registry database for
the variable values under the following keys:
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•
If you installed the software for use by a single user:
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Hummingbird\Connectivity\
version\Exceed\XDK
•
If you installed the software for use by multiple users:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Hummingbird\Connectivity\
version\Exceed\Xdk
where version is the version number of the software.
If Exceed XDK cannot find the variable values in these locations, it searches
under the Exceed key in the same order.
Some of these entries replace the corresponding environment variables
described in the MIT X Window documentation. If a variable is not
defined, then the default value is used.
Note: When specifying values for these variables, the path
specifications must follow the DOS or NTFS conventions.
The following table lists and describes Exceed XDK runtime variables.
Variable Name
Description and Default
BITMAPDIR
The location of the directory containing bitmaps read by clients at runtime.
Default: Home\Xdk\Include\X11\Bitmaps
DISPLAY
The name of the default display on which local X clients are displayed. The
display name should also include the display number.
Default: LOCALPC:0.0
Note: LOCALPC is a special keyword indicating that local X clients should be
displayed on the local PC.
HOME
The equivalent of your Home directory on UNIX. It is added to the search path
for several types of files.
Default: Exceed Home directory.
HOMEDIR
HOMEDIR=drive:path
Default: Exceed Home directory.
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Variable Name
Description and Default
LANG
If you are running Local X clients, LANG defines the locale that you want to
use. For example, to use Japanese, you would set LANG to ja_JP.SJIS or
to japanese.
You can put your language-specific resource files under User\LANG.
Also, if you are developing local X clients, you need to call
setlocale(LC_ALL, "") to indicate to the C runtime library that your
application will use the locale associated with the LANG environment variable
instead of the C locale.
Default: the default system locale.
LOGFILE
(XDK-specific variable)
The name of the file to which Local X Console messages are logged. Logging
only occurs if the LOGGING variable (described below) is set to YES. For
more information, see the Exceed User’s Guide.
Default: User\XLib.log
LOGGING
Specifies whether messages are logged to a file.
If this variable is set to YES, then messages sent to the Local X Console are
logged to a file. Otherwise, messages are not logged. For more information,
see the Exceed User’s Guide.
The name of the log file is specified by the LOGFILE variable (described
above).
Default: YES
MULTITHREADALERT
(XDK-specific variable)
Specifies an action the X client can take if it is multithreaded and is
experiencing problems (such as freezing until the mouse is moved). You can
specify one of three values: 0, 1, or 2.
The first option (0) sets the X client to do nothing.
The second option (1) sets the X client to be ready for XtAppAddInput or
XtAppAddTimeOut (either of which is set by another thread).
The third option (2) sets the X client to be ready for XtAppAddInput or
XtAppAddTimeOut (set by another thread) and gives the client protection
from freezing when there is no X event data to read.
All three options can reside under the Exceed or Xdk keys. All have a string
value.
Default: 0 (do nothing)
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Variable Name
Description and Default
NAMEDPIPEONBREAK
(XDK-specific variable)
Specifies a behavior if Named Pipe is closed or broken. This variable can
have one of two values: 0 or 1.
The first option (0) calls a designated callback function only when some data
is found. This functionality is consistent with how Named Pipe Xt Input
function was handled in versions of Exceed XDK prior to version 8.0.
The second option (1) calls a specified callback function when data was
found or if Named Pipe is closed or broken.
Default: 0
RESOURCE_NAME
The default file name of an X resource.
Default: the client’s name.
RUNXSERVERIPADDR
(XDK-specific variable)
Specifies a local host name to start the X server automatically. For example,
you can specify this variable as either 127.0.0.1 or DisplayName, where
the first is a specific IP address and the second is your local display name.
If you do not specify this variable, the display is treated as a remote one.
Default: not specified.
UIDPATH
UIDPATH=%U;drive:path\%U;
drive:path\%U
Default:%U;XAPPLRESDIR\%U;
HOME\%U
WMDPATH
WMDPATH=%S;drive:path\%S;
drive:path\%S
Default:
%S;XAPPLRESDIR\%S;
HOME\%S
XAPPLRESDIR
The directory containing the Xt resource files.
The format is: XAPPLRESDIR=drive:path
Default: Exceed User directory.
XBMLANGPATH
XBMLANGPATH=%B;
drive:path\%B;drive:path\%B
Default:
%B;XAPPLRESDIR\%B;
HOME\%B
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Variable Name
Description and Default
XENVIRONMENT
The full path and file name of an Xdefaults file (if you create one).
Default: User\.Xdefaults
XFILESEARCHPATH &
XUSERFILESEARCHPATH
The full path for Xt resource files. The syntax for these paths is described in
the MIT documentation for the X Window System. If a path contains more
than one directory, use a semicolon (;) to separate them.
Default: Depends on the values for your Exceed Home directory and
XAPPLRESDIR described above.
XKEYSYMDB
The full path and file name of an X keysym database.
Default: User\Xkeysymdb
XLOCALEDIR
The directory containing locale database and alias files.
Default: User\LOCALE
XMODIFIERS
Specifies how the locale modifiers are configured.
Default: not specified.
XSERVERCONNECTION
RETRIES
Specifies the number of attempts made by the local X client to establish a
server connection.
(XDK-specific variable)
Default: 3 attempts.
Sample Local X, Motif, and OpenGL Clients
Exceed XDK includes several sample local X, Motif, and OpenGL clients.
Some of the samples include source code. To run one of these clients,
double-click its icon in the Local X Clients folder.
Below is a brief description of the sample local X and Motif clients included
with Exceed XDK. The icon associated with each client is shown beside the
description.
Bitmap
A local X client used for creating and editing X bitmap files.
Circles A local X client that shows the alpha-channel capability of the
Render extension. Source code location: Home\Xdk\Src\Circles
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Editres A local X client that lets users and application developers view the
full widget hierarchy of any X Toolkit application that speaks the Editres
protocol. Editres can also help you construct resource specifications, apply
the resource to the application, and view the results dynamically. Once you
are satisfied with the resource specification, Editres appends the resource
string the your X Resources file.
Note: To use Editres with Motif applications, you need to make
some changes to the source code. For more information, see
“Developing Local Motif Clients” on page 26.
Ico A local X client that displays a bouncing icosahedron. Ico is useful for
testing the speed of your system and display. Source code location:
Home\Xdk\Src\Ico
Maze A local X client that draws a random maze and finds the solution.
Maze is useful for testing the speed of your system and display.
MotifAnim A Motif client in which both its animation and user interface
is defined with the User Interface Language (UIL) compiler. It also
demonstrates the use of the UIL compiler.
Periodic A Motif client that demonstrates the use of most existing Motif
widgets. It also demonstrates the UIL compiler. Source code location:
Home\Xdk\Src\Periodic
Seltest A sample implementation of an X client that demonstrates
copying and pasting graphics between Windows Clipboard and the X
Selection.
Showcmap
Xdpyinfo
Console.
A local X client that displays a map of the system colors.
A local X client that prints X server information to the Local X
Xev The X Event Tester that when running, writes information to the
Local X Console about X events such as key presses, mouse movements, and
button clicks.
Xlogo A local X client that displays the X Window System logo. Source
code location: Home\Xdk\Src\Xlogo
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Xmt Mockup
library.
A local X cient that demonstrates features of the Xmt
Sample Programs
For demonstration purposes, the following sample programs are shipped
with Exceed 3D.
Atlantis A local X client that demonstrates the movement of objects. It
uses the hclglut.lib library.
Insect A local X client that shows a walking insect. It uses the hclaux.lib
library and Color Index mode.
Vulcan Gunner A local X client that demonstrates lighting and
animation. It uses the hclglut.lib libary.
XGLinfo A local X client that displays GLX visual configurations. It
returns XGL information from the server.
ZoomDino A local X client that uses OpenGL overlay and shows a
zooming dinosaur (if the overlay is supported by your graphics adapter).
Exceed Tools
The following Exceed tools are shipped with Exceed XDK.
MWM
MWM is a local implementation of the Motif window manager. To access
MWM, navigate to the OpenText Exceeed XDK program group, and then
click MWM.
Kinput2
Kinput2 is an input server for X11R6 applications requiring Japanese text
input, including Kana-Kanji conversion. To access Kinput2, navigate to the
OpenText Exceed program group, point to Exceed Tools, and click Kinput2
XIM Server.
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Chapter 7
Developing Local X Clients
About Developing Local X Clients
239
Development Overview
Functions Specific to the Exceed XDK
Memory Management
XtAppAddInput Function
Gethostname Function
Checking X Connection Status
Starting a Microsoft Application Inside an X Application
Setting the Locale for an X Client
Accepting Localized Input
Header File Type Renaming
Using Multiple Screens for Local X Clients
Storing X Image Data in a Memory Segment
Exceed XDK Shared Memory Extension Files
239
240
241
241
241
242
242
242
243
243
243
244
244
Developing Local X Applications Using Visual C++
Developing GUI (Windows) Applications
Developing Console Applications
Local X Console Application
246
246
246
247
Developing Local Motif Clients
Creating Support for Wheel Mouse
Linking with Visual C++ and GCC Static Motif Libraries
Compiling the UIL Files of Local Motif Clients
Creating .dlls Containing Standard or Custom Widget Classes
247
248
249
249
250
Developing Local OpenGL X Applications
Using the OpenGL X Development Kit
251
252
Developing Local Arabic or Hebrew Clients Using CTL
253
Developing Local X Clients Using Dynamic Load of XLC/XIM/
XOM
254
Building an X Client Using Visual C++
Preparing the Source Code for Visual C++ Use
Using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard
Creating and Building a Project Manually
Building an X Client Using a Makefile
255
255
256
259
261
Building an X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC Compiler
Building a GNOME/Linux X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC
Compiler
262
Troubleshooting
263
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About Developing Local X Clients
For more information, see
“Developing Local X
Applications Using Visual
C++” on page 234 and
“Local X Console
Application” on page 235.
You can use the contents of the Exceed XDK in conjunction with an
application development tool to create a local X client. The Exceed XDK lets
you create two types of local X client applications:
•
•
GUI application (Win32)—Makes use of the Local X Console
application to display output.
Console application—Runs in a DOS shell. These applications use
STDIN for console input and STDOUT and STDERR for console output.
Methods for Creating X Clients
You can create a local X client of either type with one of two methods: you
can write your own code, or you can port an existing client from the UNIX
or Linux host to your PC and rebuild. When Microsoft Visual C++ is used,
your client code must reflect the differences between the X Window System
(as described in MIT documentation) and Exceed XDK, and, more
importantly, between Microsoft Visual C++ and UNIX C/C++ standard
functions and header files.
In most cases, when you use CYGWIN GCC compilers and the Exceed XDK
development environment, you do not have to change your code. To
develop local X clients, you must have programming knowledge of these
operating systems and the X Window System.
For important information on redistributing Exceed XDK components
with your local clients, please contact your sales representative.
Development Overview
This section describes what you need to know about Exceed XDK in order
to develop a local X client.
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Functions Specific to the Exceed XDK
The following additional functions are included in the Exceed XDK. They
are specific to the OpenText implementation of Xlib.
Function
Description
HCLSelect
Used in conjunction with the XConnectionNumber
API to check the status of connections.
lprintf
lfprintf
lputchar
lputc
lputs
lfputc
lfputs
lperror
hfprintf
hputc
hfputc
hputs
hperror
Prints to both the Local X Console (system console)
and the log file (if logging is turned on).
These functions replace the original functions and
those similar to the original ones (printf, fprintf,
fputchar, putc, puts, fputc, fputs, perror).
Xgetenv
Xgetenv is similar to getenv function except it returns
environment variables related to X/Motif. Replaces the
system getenv function when XGETENV is defined as
a compiler flag.
gettimeofday
Returns the time of day. This function is accurate to a
millisecond.
Note: For functions that take file ID as a first parameter, the
redirection works for only SYSERR and SYSOUT. Otherwise, they
work the same as the original ones.
The prototypes for the above functions are provided in the XlibXtra.h and
X.h files in the home\XDK\INCLUDE\X11 directory, where home is the directory
in which the software is installed.
Previous versions of the Exceed XDK also included functions for initializing
the Xlib, Xaw, Xm, and Xt libraries (HCLXlibInit, HCLXawInit, HCLXmInit,
and HCLXtInit). In this latest version, however, initialization is hidden so
that it is transparent for porting, meaning that you no longer need to call an
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initialization function. If for some reason your compiler has difficulty with
Xm initialization, you may need to add MOTIFAPP as an additional
preprocessor definition; for more information, see “Troubleshooting” on
page 251.
Memory Management
Xlib contains its own memory management routines, including Xfree,
Xmalloc, and Xcalloc. In order to maintain compatibility with future
versions of the Exceed XDK, use these routines instead of Microsoft WIN32
memory management routines.
Memory allocated by these Xlib routines should be freed using Xlib
routines. Similarly, memory that is freed using Xlib routines should be
allocated by Xlib routines.
XtAppAddInput Function
The XtAppAddInput function supports the following input types:
Type
Mask
HCL socket
XtInputReadMask, XtInputWriteMask,
XtInputExceptMask
Winsock socket
XtInputReadWinsock, XtInputWriteWinsock
File
XtInputReadFileHandle
Pipe
XtInputReadFileHandle
Named pipe
XtInputReadNamedPipe
Gethostname Function
Xlib.dll exports the gethostname function. A function by this name is also
exported by the Windows Sockets .dll.
We do not recommend that you use the Xlib.dll version of this function; it
is provided by Xlib only for backwards compatibility. In order to ensure that
you are using the Windows Sockets version of this function, and not the
Xlib.dll version, your link statement must include Wsock32.lib before
Xlib.lib.
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Checking X Connection Status
You can use the HCLSelect API in conjunction with XConnectionNumber to
check the status of X connections. The HCLSelect API takes the same
parameters and returns the same type as the Windows Sockets select API.
The only difference between the two APIs is that HCLSelect supports
connection numbers as returned by Xlib, while select does not.
The following example shows how to use the HCLSelect API. This example
specifies a connection number (i) and then requests various types of
information (&rfds, &wfds, &efds, &nowait) about that connection.
i = XConnectionNumber(dpy);
FD_SET(i, &rfds);
n = HCLSelect(0, &rfds, &wfds, &efds, &nowait);
Starting a Microsoft Application Inside an X Application
To start a Microsoft application (such as Internet Explorer), inside an X
application, and give it focus, use the HumAllowSetFocusWindow function:
void HumAllowSetFocusWindow(Display *dpy, DWORD pid)
where Display *dpy points to the display structure of the X application, and
DWORD pid is the process identification of the Microsoft application.
Setting the Locale for an X Client
For more information about
setting locales, see the
LANG environment variable
description in “Exceed
XDK Runtime Control
Variables” on page 7.
The runtime control variable XLOCALEDIR replaces XNLSPATH used in
X11R5. The default value for XLOCALEDIR is user\LOCALE. The
locale.dir file (in user\LOCALE) replaces the nls.dir file used in X11R5.
Locale aliases are supported. You can specify your locale alias in the
locale.alias file in the user\LOCALE directory.
Setting the proper locale in your X client depends on the following
conditions.
Same Encoding in the Operating System and the X Client
If you are developing an X Toolkit application and the encoding of your
operating system is the same as that for your X client, you do not need to
specify a setlocale function because it will be called automatically from
inside the Hclxt.dll.
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Different Encoding in the Operating System and the X Client
If you are developing an X Toolkit application and the encoding of your
operating system is different than that for your X client, you should not use
the system setlocale function. Rather, you should call the _Xsetlocale
function; you can call it explicitly or use the X_LOCALE macro to call it.
Use this function in two ways:
•
Specify a second parameter of the _Xsetlocale function. For example:
_Xsetlocale(LC_ALL, "jaJP.euc");
where jaJP.euc is the locale and encoding name.
•
Do not specify a second parameter and instead set the LANG variable.
For example:
_Xsetlocale(LC_ALL, "");
You then need to set the LANG variable to jaJP.euc.
Accepting Localized Input
X11R6 XIM support is included on the server side. This support lets local X
clients accept localized input when displaying to an X server that supports
X11R6 XIM (such as the X Server in Exceed 6.0.2 or higher).
Header File Type Renaming
The type BOOL in the X header files has been renamed to XBOOL to resolve
possible conflicts with the Windows header file definition. This renaming is
the same as in previous versions of the Exceed XDK.
Using Multiple Screens for Local X Clients
The Exceed XDK lets you use different screens with your local X clients. If
the display name is specified as :0.X (where X is the screen number), Xlib
assumes that the local client is to be displayed locally to LOCALPC:0.X.
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Storing X Image Data in a Memory Segment
The shared-memory extension allows local X clients to store Ximage data in
a memory segment that is shared with the local X server. When you work
with large images, this facility can greatly enhance performance because you
do not have to send the Ximage over the Xlib interprocess communication
channel.
When using the shared-memory extension, make sure that the MIT-SHM
option is enabled.
To use shared-memory Ximages:
1
Create the shared memory Ximage structure.
2
Create a shared memory segment to store the image data.
3
Inform the X server about the shared memory segment.
4
Use the shared Ximage much like a normal image.
For more information, refer to the MIT documentation.
To enable the MIT-SHM option:
1
Run the Xconfig utility.
2
Double-click the Protocols icon.
3
In the Protocols dialog box, click Extensions.
4
Enable the MIT-SHM option.
Exceed XDK Shared Memory Extension Files
Use the following files with the Exceed XDK shared memory extension. In
this table, the home directory refers to the directory in which the software is
installed.
For example:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\Exceed\
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where version is the version number of the software.
File Name
Description
Hclshm.dll
This .dll contains an implementation of the following four UNIX
shm functions: shmget, shmat, shmdt, and shmctl. It is located
in your home directory.
HCLSHM.h
This include file contains UNIX shm function prototypes that are
not part of X11R6.8. It is located in your
home\XDK\INCLUDE\X11 directory.
Note: This header file includes the shm.h file. If you are using
any shm definitions in addition to functions, then only this file
needs to be included.
SHM.h
This header file contains the UNIX shm definitions. It is located in
your home\XDK\INCLUDE\X11 directory.
HCLSHM.lib
This file is the Import library for the Hclshm.dll. It is located in
your home\XDK\LIB directory.
Note: The SHM functions do not represent a complete UNIX
implementation. You can use these functions to share memory
only between local X clients developed for use with the Exceed X
server. You cannot use these functions for any other purpose.
Restrictions on the Exceed XDK Shared-Memory Extension
The restrictions on the Exceed XDK Shared-Memory Extension are as
follows:
•
Shared-memory pixmaps are not supported.
•
You can share memory between X clients and an Exceed X server only
when they are running on the same computer.
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Developing Local X Applications Using Visual C++
Developing GUI (Windows) Applications
If you are creating a GUI application, your local client application requires a
WinMain procedure. A WinMain procedure is provided in the static part of the
library Xlib.lib, located in the home\XDK\LIB directory. The WinMain
procedure in the Xlib library calls your main procedure.
If you are porting a client receiving input via STDIN, use an alternate method
of receiving input, such as a Windows dialog box.
For information about
logging, see “Functions
Specific to the Exceed
XDK” on page 228.
lprintf and other Exceed XDK print functions provided in Xlib.dll are
similar to the standard C print function, except they redirect output to the
Local X Console and Xlib log file (when the LOGGING flag is set to “YES”).
However, output strings are limited to 2 KB per function call.
Compiling and Linking
When creating a GUI application, you also need the standard files required
for compiling and linking a Microsoft Windows 32- or 64-bit application
(for example, an .rc resource file).
Developing Console Applications
To develop local X clients as console applications, you need to compile and
link your application as a console application type.
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Local X Console Application
The complete menu structure of the Local X Console application is shown
in the table below:
Menu
Function Name
Function Definition
File
Save/Save As
Saves the contents of the local console to
a file.
Print
Prints the contents of the local console.
Copy
Copies the selected contents of the local
console to the Windows clipboard.
Clear All
Clears the entire contents of the local
console.
Select All
Selects the entire contents of the local
console.
Undo
Undoes the previous "Clear All" operation.
Find
Finds a string in the local console.
Find Next
Finds the next string in the local console.
View
Toolbar
Enables you to display or hide the toolbar.
Client Control
Client Manager
Displays the Client Manager dialog box.
Option
Close on last exit
Closes the local console dialog box when
the last local X client is closed.
Help
Help
Loads the Help.
Edit
Developing Local Motif Clients
This section builds on the general information provided in “Development
Overview” on page 227. After you have familiarized yourself with that
information, read this section for Motif-specific instructions.
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The Exceed XDK provides the source code and makefile for two sample
local Motif clients, as shown in the following table.
Client Name
Code Location
HelloMotif
home\XDK\SRC\HELLOMOT directory
Periodic
home\XDK\SRC\PERIODIC directory
You can study the source code as examples of Motif clients modified to run
locally. For important information on redistributing Motif Development
Kit components with your local clients, refer to the license agreement.
Using Editres
You can also use Editres, a tool that lets you view the full widget hierarchy of
any X Toolkit application that speaks the Editres protocol.
To use Editres with a Motif application, you need to make the following
changes to your source code.
1
Add the following code right after the application’s shell widget (in this
case, toplevel) is created:
XtAddEventHandler(toplevel, (EventMask)0, TRUE,
_XEditResCheckMessages, NULL);
2
When you compile, make sure you link against HCLXmu.lib (because it
has the _XEditResCheckMessages function inside).
Creating Support for Wheel Mouse
The Exceed XDK supports wheel mouse functionality for text-related Motif
widgets.
To create support for a while mouse, users of the local Motif X client must
configure the appropriate X Server setting. For example, if they are using
Exceed as the X server, they must:
1
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Open XConfig by doing one of the following:
•
On the Exceed Tools menu, click Configuration.
•
On the Exceed toolbar, or double-click the Xconfig icon.
Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
2
In the Mouse Input dialog box, select the Wheel Movement Sends Mouse
Button Event (Button 4/5) option.
Button event 4 should be used for “Up” and button event 5 should be
used for “Down”.
Linking with Visual C++ and GCC Static Motif Libraries
If you are linking with the static version of the Motif libraries
(XmStatic.lib), define the symbol XMSTATIC in your compiler preprocessor
definitions. Doing so ensures that you use the correct prototype definitions
when you compile. Use MrmStat.lib (static Mrm library) with
XmStatic.lib.
Using XT with XmStatic.lib
Also, if you are linking with XmStatic.lib, link with the library
Xmstatxt.lib instead of Hclxt.lib. You must use Hclxt.lib if you are
using the .dll version of Motif and linking with Hclxm.lib.
Linking with GCC Static Motif Libraries
To link against GCC static Motif libraries, use libXmSt.a and libMrmSt.a
instead of libXm.a and libMrm.a.
Compiling the UIL Files of Local Motif Clients
You can compile a local .uil file of a Motif client using the Motif UIL
Compiler, which is itself a local Motif client. It can be found in the Exceed
home directory. There are three versions of the UIL compiler: UIL.exe is for
use with Motif 2.0.x X clients, UIL12.exe is for use with Motif 1.2.x X
clients, and UIL21.exe is for use with Motif 2.1.30 CTL.
To use the Motif UIL compiler, type the following command:
home\uil.exe file name -o binfile
where home is the directory in which the software is installed, file name is
an ASCII text file written in the Motif UIL and -o binfile specifies the
output file for the generated binary code.
For example:
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"c:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\uil.exe" <CR>
"c:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\XDK\Src\Hellomotif\hellomotif.uil" -o <CR>
"c:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\XDK\Src\Hellomotif\hellomotif.uid" <CR>
where version is the version number of the software and <CR> indicates that
the given text must be entered as one line with a carriage return at the end.
Creating .dlls Containing Standard or Custom Widget
Classes
When creating a .dll, you can use the standard widget classes that come
with the Exceed XDK or you can define custom widget classes. If you choose
to define custom widget classes, read this entire section to note compiler
differences.
Specifying Widget Classes
You cannot directly specify a widget class structure name; you need to use a
pointer to it instead. You have the following options:
•
CustomClassRec—Cannot be specified inside the .dll
•
CustomWidgetClass—Can be specified inside the .dll
Use the following function to initialize a custom widget class .dll:
void HCLXmVaFixWCs(customWidgetClass1, superclass1,
customWidgetClass2, superclass2, ... , NULL);
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This function is used for proper superclass assignment in a .dll. It should
be called from the inside of the .dll to initialize it. The first parameter of
each pair specifies the new widget class. The second parameter of each pair
specifies the superclass for the new widget class. You can add multiple pairs
in the string depending on the number of new widget classes you want to
create, though the final parameter of the string must be NULL.
Note: In earlier versions of the Exceed XDK, you could use the
HCLFixStPointers and HCLFixWidgetClass functions to create a
custom widget class. These two functions are still supported, but
their functionality has been combined into the new
HCLXmVaFixWCs function.
Using Custom Widget Classes for a Microsoft Visual C++
Compiler
When creating .dlls involving custom widget classes, you must use the
_declspec(dllexport) declaration for each widget class in the .dll. These
special declarations allow proper address references to widget classes when
importing them in another .dll.
When creating an executable or a .dll that uses a custom widget classes
.dll, you must use _declspec(dllimport) to import the custom widget
classes.
Using Custom Widget Classes for a GCC Compiler
You must call the HCLXmInitDll function from inside the .dll to initialize
the widget classes.
Developing Local OpenGL X Applications
Exceed XDK provides a full suite of GLX libraries and tools required for
developing three-dimensional OpenGL X applications on Windows
systems.
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Using the OpenGL X Development Kit
The Open GL X Development Kit supports the following:
Libraries
Description
hclglx.lib
libglx.a
The core set of GLX functions. All functions are prefixed with gl
or glX.
hclglu.lib
libglu.a
The OpenGL Utility support library (except all NURBS functions).
All functions are prefixed with glu.
hclnurbs.lib
libnurbs.a
All Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) functions from the
OpenGL Utility library. All functions are prefixed with glu.
hclaux.lib
libaux.a
The auxiliary library, providing a simple interface that is
independent of the Window System. All functions are prefixed
with aux and tk.
hclglut.lib
libglut.a
The OpenGL Utility Toolkit library. All functions are prefixed with
glut.
glwstati.lib
libglw.a
The OpenGL Drawing Area Widget static library. It lets you draw
3D graphics using one visual and a 2D user interface using
another visual.
Note: If you use two different visuals, your application may not
display the correct colors simultaneously. Specifically, if your 3D
graphics use the RGBA color mode (the TrueColor visual) and
your 2D user interface uses the default visual, set the Xconfig
Server Visual Screen Definition setting to TrueColor.
Exceed XDK includes dynamic link libraries for creating OpenGL X
applications. Developers who resell commercial OpenGL X applications
created with these libraries are not required to pay licensing fees.
Note: If you use Motif dynamic link libraries, you need to pay
royalties to OSF. For more information, see the Licensing
Agreement shipped with this product.
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Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
Developing Local Arabic or Hebrew Clients Using CTL
If you are using Motif 2.1.30 with Complex Text Layout (CTL), you can
develop context-sensitive Arabic or Hebrew applications.
This section builds on the general information provided in “Development
Overview” on page 227. After you have familiarized yourself with that
information, use this procedure for Arabic- or Hebrew-specific
instructions.
The Exceed XDK supports Windows TrueType fonts for the Arabic
language. As well, in addition to UNIX encoding for the Arabic language
(ISO 8859-6), you can now use Windows encoding 1256 (described in step
3 of the procedure below). For Hebrew applications, CTL layout methods
are only used when you set the locale to IW.
To develop an Arabic or Hebrew application with Motif 2.1.30 CTL:
1
Develop your source code in accordance with X11 standards.
2
Build your application using the hclxm.lib (Xm library) and Motif
header files (located in the home\XDK\MOTIF21\LIB\ directory, where
home is the directory in which you installed the software), as well as any
other necessary files.
3
Call the _XsetLocale function at the beginning of your application’s
source "main" function.
For Arabic
applications
• For UNIX encoding, set the locale to ar_CTL:
_XsetLocale(0, "ar_CTL");
• For Windows encoding, set the locale to
ar_WINCTL:
_XsetLocale(0, "ar_WINCTL");
For Hebrew
applications
4
• Set the locale to IW:
_XsetLocale(0, "IW");
Define CTL as a preprocessor definition when you compile your
application. If you are using Microsoft Visual C++ Studio (version 6.0
or later), you can add preprocessor definitions by doing the following:
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
a) On the Project menu, click Settings and then click the C/C++ tab. In
the upper left of the tab, from the Settings For drop-down list, select
All Configurations.
b) From the Category drop-down list, select Preprocessor. In the
Preprocessor definitions field, add the string CTL.
c) Click OK to save the settings and exit the dialog box.
5
Compile and link your project.
Developing Local X Clients Using Dynamic Load of
XLC/XIM/XOM
Xlib.dll (part of the Exceed XDK) partially supports the X11
Internationalization (I18N) from Sun Microsystems. With this
functionality, you can dynamically load XIM, XOM, and XLC modules. Use
this functionality to switch to a different language on the fly.
Note: For this functionality to work, you must write the appropriate
code to support this functionality, and you need to have the
correct language-specific XLC, XIM, and XOM .dll files.
Activating the Functionality
If you make no changes to your code, Xlib.dll treats XLC, XIM, and XOM
as an integrated part of the X11 binary. It does not dynamically load them.
To activate a dynamic load regime of XLC, XIM, and XOM, you need to
specify USE_DYNAMIC_XIO as a compiler flag when you build the
application:
-DUSE_DYNAMIC_XIO
You also need to supply the application with an information file
(XI18N_OBJS) that lists the required XLC, XIM, and XOM .dll files. Make
sure this information file is in the following directory:
USERDIR\LOCALE\<local_name>
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Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
Building an X Client Using Visual C++
This section describes how to build an X client using a Visual C++
development tool. It assumes the following:
•
You have read the general development notes previous to this section, as
well as the sections specific to GUI, console, Motif, or Arabic/Hebrew X
clients (depending on the type of application you are developing).
•
You have already written the source code (taking into account the
development information described in the earlier sections of this
chapter) or ported existing code from a UNIX machine to your PC. All
source code must be compliant with X11 standards.
Once you have the source code and are familiar with the Exceed XDK
development particulars, you can use this section to learn how to:
•
Prepare your source code for Visual C++ use.
•
Create and build a project using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard, a
component of Microsoft Visual C++ Studio (version 6.0 or later); this
method is the most automated.
•
Create and build a project manually using any version of Microsoft
Visual C++ Studio.
•
Build an X client using a makefile.
For information about building an X client using a CYGWIN GCC
compiler, see “Building an X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC Compiler” on
page 250 and “Building a GNOME/Linux X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC
Compiler” on page 250.
Preparing the Source Code for Visual C++ Use
Once you have written or ported the source code for the X client, you need
to prepare it in the following way. Regardless of whether you are using the
Exceed XDK Application Wizard, creating and building a project manually,
or using a makefile, you must follow this procedure.
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To prepare your code for Visual C++ development:
For more information, see
“Memory Management”
on page 229.
1
In the source code, change memory allocation and de-allocation
routines to their Xlib counterparts.
2
Check for any incompatibilities between Windows and UNIX,
including the following:
a) Ensure that there is no UNIX-dependent code that is incompatible
with Microsoft Windows. For example, you must rewrite code that
uses such items as timers, mailboxes, and STDIN (for GUI
applications).
b) Ensure that the code does not use any keywords reserved for the
Windows C compiler as variables, labels, or application-defined
function names.
3
For more information, see
“Functions Specific to the
Exceed XDK” on page 228.
Ensure that all functions are properly prototyped.
The prototypes for functions specific to the HCL implementation of
Xlib are provided in the XlibXtra.h and X.h files in the
home\XDK\INCLUDE\X11 directory (where home is the directory in which
you installed the software).
4
Compile and link your client.
Using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard
The Exceed XDK Application Wizard lets you build Motif and X Window
projects; it operates within the user interface of Microsoft Visual C++
Studio (Version 6.0 or later). You can use the wizard to create an empty
project that has the proper include paths, preprocessor definitions, and link
libraries.
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When using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard, you can choose one of
the following application-type options from the drop-down list.
After you click Finish in the
wizard, a screen shows a
summary of your choices.
This Option...
Creates an Empty Project that Contains:
Athena Widget
The Athena Widget Set Library, along with necessary
lower-level libraries.
Motif 1.2.4
The Motif library for version 1.2.4, along with necessary
lower-level libraries.
Motif 2.0.3.
The Motif library for version 2.0.3, along with necessary
lower-level libraries.
Motif 2.1 CTL
The Motif library for version 2.1.30 with Arabic or Hebrew
CTL support, along with necessary lower-level libraries.
MRM 1.2.4
The MRM and Motif libraries for version 1.2.4, along with
necessary lower-level libraries.
MRM 2.0.3
The MRM and Motif libraries for version 2.0.3, along with
necessary lower-level libraries.
MRM 2.1
The MRM and Motif libraries for version 2.1 with Arabic
CTL support, along with necessary lower-level libraries.
X only
Only the X11 library.
Xt Application
The XT and X11 libraries for version 1.2.4, along with
necessary lower-level libraries.
The wizard also lets you choose the following project options:
GUI Application—The wizard creates an empty GUI application in the
type that you specify above. If you do not click this option, the wizard
creates a console application.
Static Motif Libraries—The wizard uses static versions of MRM and/or
Motif libraries to create the project. If you do not click this option, the
wizard uses .dll versions.
.dll—The wizard creates an empty project that can produce a .dll. If you
do not select this option, the project will produce an executable.
Loadable X i18n Architecture—Defines a preprocessor macro that forces
the XDK to use dynamic logging of XLC, XIM, and XOM.
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To create and build a project using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard:
1
Create an empty Visual C project:
a) On the File menu of Microsoft Visual C++ Studio, click New and
then click the Projects tab.
b) Double-click the Exceed XDK AppWizard icon.
c) In the wizard, specify a location for the project. You can browse for
a location or type one directly into the field. For example:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\XDK\SRC\
where version is the version number of the software.
d) Specify a project name and click OK.
e) Select an application type (such as Athena Widget) and click Finish.
Scan the resulting new project information to make sure it is
correct and click OK. On the Project menu, click Add To Project, Files.
Add all source files to the project.
2
If needed, include additional libraries:
a) On the Project menu, click Settings and click the Link tab.
b) In the upper left of the tab, from the Settings For drop-down list,
select All Configurations.
c) From the Category drop-down list on the tab, select Input; type the
library paths in the Object/Library Modules field.
d) When finished, click OK to save the settings and close the dialog
box.
For most application types, the wizard automatically includes the
standard libraries, but you may want to customize the settings or add
additional ones.
3
246
On the Build menu, click Build ProjectName (where ProjectName is the
name of your project that Visual Studio automatically inserts into the
menu item).
Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
4
On the Build menu, click Execute ProjectName (where ProjectName is the
name of your project that Visual Studio automatically inserts into the
menu item).
Note: If the Exceed directory is not included in the default project
path, the execution may not work. In this case, do the following:
• On the Project menu of Microsoft Visual C++ Studio, click
Settings and click the Debug tab.
• From the Category drop-down list, choose General.
• Type the Exceed directory path into the Working Directory
field.
• On the Build menu, click Execute ProjectName (where
ProjectName is the name of your project that Visual Studio
automatically inserts into the menu item).
Creating and Building a Project Manually
Instead of using the Exceed XDK Application Wizard, which requires
version 6.0 (or later) of Microsoft Visual C++ Studio, you can build a Visual
C++ project manually.
To create and build a project manually:
1
Create an empty Visual C project:
a) On the File menu of Microsoft Visual C++ Studio, click New and
then click the Projects tab.
b) In the main window of this tab, select either Win32 Application (for a
GUI application) or Win32 Console Application (for a console
application).
c) Specify a location for the project. You can browse for a location or
type one directly into the field. For example:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\XDK\SRC\
where version is the version number of the software.
d) Specify a project name and click OK.
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e) In the resulting dialog box, choose to create an empty project and
click Finish. Scan the resulting new project information to make
sure it is correct and click OK.
2
Customize the project to work with the Exceed XDK:
a) On the Project menu, click Settings and then click the C/C++ tab. In
the upper left of the tab, from the Settings For drop-down list, select
All Configurations. (All of the subsequent settings described in this
procedure, regardless of the tab on which they are located, should
be for All Configurations).
b) From the Category drop-down list, select Code Generation. From the
Use Run-time Library drop-down list, select Multithreaded .dll.
c) From the Category drop-down list, select Preprocessor. In the
Include Additional Directories field, type the Exceed XDK include
path (the location at which you’ve installed the Exceed XDK
include files). For example:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\XDK\include\
where version is the version number of the software.
d) Click the Link tab of the Settings dialog box. From the Category
drop-down list, select Input. In the Additional Library Path field, type
the Exceed XDK lib path (the location at which you’ve installed the
Exceed XDK lib files). For example:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\XDK\lib\
e) When finished, click OK to save the settings and close the dialog
box.
3
On the Project menu, click Add To Project, Files. Add all source files to
the project.
4
On the Project menu, click Settings and then click the Link tab. From the
Category drop-down list, select Input. In the Object/Library Modules field,
type the names of the necessary libraries for the X client.
For example:
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Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
HCLSm.lib HclXaw.lib HclXmu.lib HclXt.lib xlib.lib
When finished, click OK to save the settings and close the dialog box.
5
On the Build menu, click Build ProjectName (where ProjectName is the
name of your project that Visual Studio automatically inserts into the
menu item).
6
On the Build menu, click Execute ProjectName (where ProjectName is the
name of your project that Visual Studio automatically inserts into the
menu item).
Note: If the Exceed directory is not included in the default project
path, the execution may not work. In this case, do the following:
• On the Project menu of Microsoft Visual C++ Studio, click
Settings and click the Debug tab.
• From the Category drop-down list, choose General.
• Type the Exceed directory path into the Working Directory
field.
• On the Build menu, click Execute ProjectName (where
ProjectName is the name of your project that Visual Studio
automatically inserts into the menu item).
Building an X Client Using a Makefile
You can build an X client using a Microsoft Visual C++ makefile.
To build an X client using a makefile:
1
Locate the source files for the X client (either files you have written from
scratch or ones you have copied from the UNIX host to your PC).
2
Create a makefile that contains the proper Exceed XDK include and
library paths.
3
Build the application.
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Building an X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC Compiler
The following procedure describes how to build an X client using either a
CYGWIN GCC compiler.
To build an X client using a GCC compiler:
1
Locate the source files for the X client (either files you have written from
scratch or ones you have copied from the UNIX host to your PC).
2
Do one of the following:
3
•
From the command line, start the GCC compiler, specifying proper
Exceed XDK include and library paths and other parameters.
•
Create a makefile that includes the proper Exceed XDK include and
library paths. You may also want to specify additional
compiler-specific options in the updated makefile.
Compile and link your X client using the CYGWIN shell.
Building a GNOME/Linux X Client Using a CYGWIN GCC
Compiler
The following procedure describes how to build a GNOME/Linux X client
using a CYGWIN GCC compiler.
You can find the required libraries and header files in the following location:
home\XDK\GCC\
where home refers to the directory in which the Exceed XDK software is
installed.
To build a GNOME/Linux X client using a GCC compiler:
1
Locate the source files for the X client (either files you have written from
scratch or ones you have copied from the Linux host to your PC).
2
Do one of the following:
•
250
From the command line, start the GCC compiler, specifying proper
Exceed XDK include and library paths and other parameters.
Chapter 7: Developing Local X Clients
•
3
Create a makefile that includes the proper Exceed XDK include and
library paths. You may also want to specify additional compilerspecific options in the updated makefile.
Compile and link your X client using the CYGWIN shell.
Troubleshooting
This section provides some problem-solving tips for problems commonly
encountered when developing local X clients with the Exceed XDK.
•
If you are developing an internationalized client and your operating
system’s encoding is different than that for your X client, you need to
call the _Xsetlocale function. For more information, see “Setting the
Locale for an X Client” on page 230.
•
When you develop Arabic or Hebrew CTL applications, you have to
specify CTL as your preprocessor definition. In Microsoft Visual C++
Developer’s Studio (Version 6.0 or later), you can add preprocessor
definitions on the C/C++ tab of the project settings dialog box: on this
tab, from the Category drop-down list, choose Preprocessor. In the
Preprocessor definitions field, add the string CTL.
•
When you develop Motif applications and you are linking with the
static version of the Motif libraries (XmStatic.lib), you must define the
symbol XMSTATIC in your compiler preprocessor definitions. Doing
so ensures that you use the correct prototype definitions when you
compile.
•
Reserved Keywords—Check for words that are reserved keywords in the
PC C compiler but not in the UNIX host C compiler. For example,
using exit as a variable may cause unpredictable results.
•
Compiler Options—Ensure that the compiler and linker options are
correct. You can find the correct options in the sample make files in the
source directory.
•
Path Names—Ensure that the Exceed XDK .dlls are either on your
path or in your current default directory.
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252
Chapter 8
Exceed XDK — Japanese Locale
Support
Using Japanese Locale Support
267
Using Kinput2
268
Keystroke Conversion Tables
Key Bind
MoveCursor
InputMode
CharCodeConversion
Dictionary
Roman Character Conversion
269
269
269
270
270
270
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Using Japanese Locale Support
For more information
regarding Exceed support
for the Japanese Locale,
see Xconfig Help.
The Xlib.dll and the X server included in Exceed XDK both support the
X11R6 X Input Method (XIM). If your X client has been internationalized,
users can input Japanese in your X client using a Microsoft
Windows-compatible Japanese IME (Input Method Editor) in Japanese
Windows. If you are developing an internationalized client, observe the
following conditions.
Note: Performing a typical installation does not install Japanese
Locale Support. Instead, you must perform a custom installation
and select the Japanese Locale Support component.
Same Encoding in the Operating System and the X Client
If you are developing an X Toolkit application and the encoding of your
operating system is the same as that for your X client, you do not need to
specify a setlocale function because it will be called automatically from
inside the Hclxt.dll.
Different Encoding in the Operating System and the X Client
If you are developing an X Toolkit application and the encoding of your
operating system is different than that for your X client, you should not use
the system setlocale function. Rather, you should call the _Xsetlocale
function; you can call it explicitly or use the X_LOCALE macro to call it.
You can use this function in two ways:
Specify a second parameter of the _Xsetlocale function. For example:
_Xsetlocale(LC_ALL, "jaJP.euc");
where jaJP.euc is the locale and encoding name.
Do not specify a second parameter and instead set the LANG variable. For
example:
_Xsetlocale(LC_ALL, "");
You then need to set the LANG variable to jaJP.euc.
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Using Kinput2
Kinput2 is an input server for X11R6 applications requiring Japanese text
input, including Kana-Kanji conversion.
Internationalized clients using X11R6 Xlib connect to Kinput2 using the X
Input Method Protocol (X11R6 standard). Clients requiring Kana-Kanji
conversion services for Japanese text send a request to Kinput2, which
receives the request, performs Kana-Kanji conversion, and sends the
converted text back to the client.
Kinput2 supports the following input styles:
•
root-window
•
off-the-spot
•
over-the-spot
To start Kinput2:
1
Double-click the Kinput2 icon to start Kinput2 and open the Local X
Console.
2
On the Client Control menu in the Local X Console application, click
Client Manager.
You can then see that Kinput2 is in the Active Clients list, meaning that
Kinput2 is started and is ready to accept connections from X clients.
Note: You must install Japanese fonts to ensure that Kinput2
functions correctly. Japanese fonts are not automatically
installed when you select Kinput2.
To terminate Kinput2:
256
1
Select Kinput2 from the Active Clients list under Client Manager in the
Local X Console.
2
Click Terminate Client.
Chapter 8: Exceed XDK — Japanese Locale Support
Keystroke Conversion Tables
The following tables list the keystrokes possible for Japanese locale support.
Key Bind
Purpose
Keystroke
Convert Mode On/Off
SHIFT+SPACE
Convert/CandidateList
Ctrl+J
NextCandidate
Ctrl+N
Previous Candidate
Ctrl+P
Confirm
Ctrl+L
ExtendService
Ctrl+O
ShrinkSentence
Ctrl+I
CancelChange
Ctrl+G
MoveCursor
Purpose
Keystroke
DeleteCharacter
Ctrl+H
Up
Ctrl+P
Down
Ctrl+N
Forward
Ctrl+F
Backward
Ctrl+B
Home
Ctrl+A
End
Ctrl+E
Undo
Ctrl+U
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InputMode
Purpose
Keystroke
InputSpecialCharacter
Ctrl+Q or F10
Input JIS Code
F5
InputFullStop
F6
ChangeMode
F9
CharCodeConversion
Purpose
Keystroke
ToDoubleByteKatakana
F1
ToDoubleByteHiragana
F2
ToSingleByteKatakana
F3
ToDoubleByte
F4
Dictionary
258
Purpose
Keystroke
RegisterDictionary
Ctrl+T
UnregisterDictionary
Ctrl+V
Escape from the mode
ESC
Chapter 8: Exceed XDK — Japanese Locale Support
Roman Character Conversion
Make sure you input all characters in the correct case. The conversion table
for characters A, I, U, E, and O is as follows:
Roman
Character
A
I
U
E
O
A
a
i
u
e
o
K
ka
ki
ku
ke
ko
C
ca
ci
cu
ce
co
S
sa
si/shi
su
se
so
T
ta
ti/tsyi/chi
tu/tsu
te
to
N
na
ni
nu
ne
no
H
ha
hi
fu
he
ho
P
pa
pi
pu
pe
po
M
ma
mi
mu
me
mo
Y
ya
yi
yu
ye(ie)
yo
R
ra
ri
ru
re
ro
L
la
li
lu
le
lo
W
wa
wi
wu
we
wo
G
ga
gi
gu
ge
go
Z
za
zi/ji
zu
ze
zo
D
da
di
du/dsu
de
do
B
ba
bi
bu
be
bo
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The conversion table for Roman characters ya, yi, yu, ye, and yo is as
follows:
Roman
Character
ya
K
kya
G
gya
Sy
sya
Sh
sha
J
ja
Jy
jya
Sw
260
yi
gyi
shi
jyi
yu
ye
yo
kyu
kye
kyo
gyu
gye
gyo
syu
sye
syo
shu
she
sho
ju
je
jo
jyu
jye
jyo
swi
swe
Th
tha
thi
thu
the
tho
Ty
tya
tyi
tyu
tye
tyo
Tsy
tsya
tsyu
tsye
tsyo
Ch
cha
chu
che
cho
Cy
cya
cyu
cye
cyo
Dy
dya
dyi
dyu
dye
dyo
Dh
dha
dhi
dhu
dhe
dho
Dw
dwa
dwi
dwu
dwe
dwo
Ny
nya
hyi
nyu
nye
nyo
Hy
hya
hyi
hyu
hye
hyo
By
bya
byi
byu
bye
byo
Py
pya
pyi
pyu
pye
pyo
Hw
hya
hyi
hyu
hye
hyo
Chapter 8: Exceed XDK — Japanese Locale Support
Roman
Character
ya
yi
yu
ye
yo
My
mya
myi
myu
mye
myo
Ry
rya
ryi
ryu
rye
ryo
Ly
lya
lyi
lyu
lye
lyo
V
vyo
The conversion table for characters a, i, u, e, and o is as follows:
Roman
Character
a
i
u
e
o
wh
wha
whi
whu
whe
who
qw
qwa
qwi
qwu
qwe
qwo
fw
fwa
fwi
fwu
fwe
fwo
vy
vya
vyi
vyu
vye
kw
kwa
kwi
kwu
kwe
kwo
qa
qa
qi
qe
qo
gw
gwa
gwi
gwu
gwe
gwo
ts
tsa
tsu
tse
tso
tw
twa
twi
twu
twe
two
f
fa
fi
fe
fo
v
va
ve
vo
x
xa
xi
xu
xe
xo
xy
xya
xyi
xyu
xye
xyo
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The table for key input order is as follows:
Key Input in Order
nn/n'
n
xtu/xtu
tu
xwa
wa
vya
vy
xwi
wi
xwe
we
xwo
wo
xka/xca
ka
xke
ke
—
- (prolonged sound)
x-
- (hyphen)
x,
, (comma)
,
262
(comma)
.
° (full stop)
x.
. (period)
X[
 (key parenthesis)
X]
 (key parenthesis)
X/
• (central black dot)
Appendix A
Troubleshooting
Exceed Diagnostics
Troubleshooting Xstart
Logs and Trace Operations
Required Port Numbers
Resolving Connection Problems
Tracing Server Operation
Viewing Server Error Messages
277
277
278
280
280
281
282
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Exceed Diagnostics
This section describes possible solutions to problems that you may
encounter while using Exceed. To troubleshoot issues, the following
methods are available:
•
Diagnosing using progress messages.
•
Diagnosing using logs and trace operations.
Troubleshooting Xstart
Progress Messages
Usually, the first step in troubleshooting a connection is displaying system
progress messages.
To display progress messages:
1
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
2
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, click the Network tab.
3
On the Network page, select any of the following options in the
Troubleshooting area:
•
Show Progress—Reveals what is happening while you try to
connect and start an application.
•
Show Host Reply—Displays a summary of the startup information,
the macros you used displayed in expanded form, and what reply
was given by the host or application.
Common Error Messages
The common error messages are as follows:
Correct user name and password—System does not connect If the host
does not return an invalid name or password message, there may be
something wrong with the communications link. For more information, see
“Checking Your Setup” on page 268.
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Host returns invalid name or password message If you receive an
invalid name or password message but the system is connecting, the login
information is incorrect.
Host returns “Command not found” or “No such file or directory”
message If you receive either message but the system is connecting, there
may be something wrong with the path, or the parameters or syntax of the
command specified in the Command box in Xstart. For more information,
see “Checking Your Setup” on page 268.
Xstart connects but the client does not start The client may not be
getting enough time to start before the initial Xstart socket closes down. For
more information, see “Checking That the Client Has Enough Time to
Start” on page 269.
The Client is not authorized to run on the server To verify
authorization, examine the Exceed.log file for errors.
On the Troubleshooting page, click View.
For problems with permissions, edit the Host Access Control List file.
In the left pane of Xconfig, select Security. On the Security page, edit the
Host Access Control List file (select File, specify the file name, and then click
Edit). You may have to also edit the file indicated in the Enable User Access
Control List area.
Logs and Trace Operations
Exceed provides Troubleshooting settings in its Xconfig utility.
Troubleshooting in Xconfig
You can specify options for troubleshooting to view the log file, to set what
information is recorded in the log file, and to enable tracing. There are two
main methods of active troubleshooting available: logging and tracing.
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Appendix A: Troubleshooting
You can log information into a file for later inspection. You can log Font
Open requests, the initial settings of the WM_COMMAND and
WM_NAME properties on InputOutput root level windows, and all
OpenGL requests.
Note: OpenGL support requires Exceed 3D. OpenGL is an
industry-standard three-dimensional graphics software interface.
It lets you create interactive programs that produce still or
animated 3D color objects with shading, lighting, and other
effects. GLX is the X Window System extension which implements
OpenGL.
You can also conduct tracing to record all protocol traffic between the
Exceed X server and the host to a binary file. On the Troubleshooting page in
Xconfig, there are options that can help with the trace. For example, you
can turn on tracing as soon as the Exceed X server starts, which means that
the dialog with the first X client is recorded. You can also select the Slow
Trace option, which writes all information directly to the file without
buffering any of the data. This is helpful if you are tracing a situation where
the Exceed X server crashes because any buffered information would be lost.
The trace stops when the Exceed X server terminates. If you turned tracing
on by clicking Trace on the Exceed File menu, you can terminate tracing by
selecting Trace again. If tracing was turned on in the Troubleshooting page in
Xconfig, you should clear the Trace Initially On option as soon as possible.
Otherwise, whenever the Exceed X server is restarted, tracing begins again.
Warning! Tracing creates large disk files on your system, and can
impair Exceed X server performance. Therefore, use tracing only
when you are troubleshooting a problem.
To specify troubleshooting options:
In Xconfig, click Troubleshooting, and then click the Troubleshooting tab.
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Required Port Numbers
The table below lists incoming ports that are required for various
components or protocols. To avoid conflicts, ensure other applications are
not using these ports. If your organization uses a firewall, you can block or
allow network traffic where appropriate.
Component
Port(s)
Bootstrap
67
Finger
79
FTP/SFTP
21
Lpq/Lpr
515
TELNET
23
Tftp
69
Network Time
37
Xstart/REXEC
512
Exceed
6000-6999
Secure Shell
22
XDMCP
177
Resolving Connection Problems
For more information, see
“Progress Messages” on
page 265.
If you cannot connect to a host or cannot start X clients with Xstart, you can
enable the Show Progress and Show Host Reply boxes on the Network page of
the Xstar t Settings dialog box.
Checking Your Setup
A quick way to verify that your setup is working properly is to type an
invalid password for the REXEC startup method or an invalid ID name for
the RSH startup method.
•
268
If the host does not return an invalid name or password message, there
is a problem with the communications link. For example, the host is not
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
running or it does not support REXEC or RSH. There may also be a
problem with your transport configuration.
•
If the host returns an invalid name or password message, the system is
connecting but the login information is incorrect.
•
If you receive an invalid name or password message, the connection is
working. However, there may be something wrong with either the
syntax or the parameters of the command you typed in the Command
box in Xstart. You may need to type DISPLAY or PATH variables on the
command line.
Checking That the Client Has Enough Time to Start
If the Xstart file seems to connect with the host properly but a client does
not start, the client may not have enough time to start before the initial
Xstart socket closes down. On the Network page of the Xstar t Settings dialog
box, set the Close box in the Timeouts area to -1 (minus one), select the
Show Host Reply option, and then click OK. To access the Xstart Settings
dialog box, click Settings in Xstart.
The Close setting at -1 keeps the first socket open even after the client socket
is established. The Show Host Reply option displays all host-generated
messages in a host reply window. If the client seems to start properly, try
different values in the Close box until you find a value that gives the client
enough time to start and then closes down the initial socket.
Tracing Server Operation
Exceed uses tracing to captures data transferred between the Exceed X
server and X clients, font servers, and XDMCP servers. All traces create a
binary file with an extension of .trx in the Exceed User directory.
Warning! Tracing the X protocol writes all protocol traffic between
Exceed and the host to a file. This quickly creates large disk files,
which can severely impair server response time.
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Tracing a Fatal Error
If the server hangs, select Slow Trace on the Troubleshooting page of Xconfig.
The Slow Trace option outputs all data transferred to the trace file. Since
buffers are not used, this procedure severely degrades server performance
and should be specified only when necessary.
Tracing Dialog with First X Client
To examine Exceed interaction with the first X client, turn tracing on from
Xconfig to begin the trace when Exceed starts. Make sure you clear this
option when you are finished troubleshooting.
Tracing a Session
You can turn on tracing temporarily while Exceed is running using the Trace
command on the Exceed File menu.
To turn on tracing:
1
In Xconfig, select Troubleshooting.
2
Select Trace Initially On to turn tracing on. You should turn on tracing
for troubleshooting purposes only.
3
On the Exceed menu, select File and click Inser t Trace Comment.
4
In the Exceed Trace File dialog box, specify a comment related to the
problem and then click OK.
To turn off tracing:
The trace stops when you
close Exceed.
On the Exceed menu, select File and click Trace, which removes the check
mark that indicates that the tracing is on. Make sure that you clear the Trace
Initially On option on the Troubleshooting page in Xconfig. Otherwise, Exceed
automatically turns tracing on when it restarts.
Viewing Server Error Messages
You can find server error messages in the log file, trace files, and special
Xstart or TELNET windows. Examine the log file if an X session terminates
abnormally. You may also want to check the log file periodically to ensure
that X font and color requests are being met.
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Appendix A: Troubleshooting
To display the log file:
Do one of the following:
•
On the Exceed menu, point to Tools, and then click Log File.
•
Click Log File on the Exceed toolbar.
•
In Xconfig, click Troubleshooting. On the Troubleshooting page, click
View.
General Errors
You can check Exceed operations using tracing. Once enabled, all X
protocol traffic between Exceed and the host is written to a file.
Transport Errors
If an error is generated before you establish connection, it usually means it
was not possible to connect to the host. Although a transport error is
generated, the actual cause may be that a host connection was not available.
Transport errors are reported in the log file as follows:
message (e)
where message is a text message indicating the nature of the error and e
represents an error code associated with your network transport. For more
information on transport errors, see your network transport
documentation.
Host-Generated Error Messages
If you have established a TELNET host session, messages normally
displayed in a terminal emulation window appear in the TELNET window.
In Xstart, you can view host-generated messages. Host or client messages
are saved in a log file while the initial socket remains open.
To log the entire session:
1
In Xstart, click Settings in the Star tup area.
2
In the Xstar t Settings dialog box, click the Network tab.
3
On the Network page, set the Close box in the Timeouts area to -1 (minus
one).
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Denied Font Requests
If an X client requests a font that Exceed cannot provide, the font name or
search pattern is noted in the log file.
Denied Color Requests
If an X client requests a color that Exceed cannot provide, the color is noted
in the log file.
272
Appendix B
HWM
About HWM
A Quick Tour of HWM
289
289
HWM Configuration File
Formatting Rules
291
292
Functions
294
Statements
HWM Virtual Desktop
Font Statements
Window Statements
Color Statements
Icon Manager Statements
Menu Definitions
Mouse Button Bindings
Preprocessor Statements
296
297
300
300
301
301
303
305
307
About the Exceed Virtual Desktop
Navigating the Exceed Virtual Desktop
Configuring the Exceed Virtual Desktop
309
310
311
Appendix B: HWM
About HWM
HWM is a local, Motif-like window manager. Like remote, host-based
window managers, HWM provides a graphical interface that you can use to
start and exit clients, as well as position and iconize the windows on your
display.
You can run multiple
instances of HWM within
multiple Exceed instances.
Unlike other window managers running on the host, HWM is a local X
client that runs on your computer. Running locally speeds up window
management functions while reducing network traffic. You can run HMW
in single or multiple window mode.
To start HWM:
On the Start menu, navigate to the OpenText Exceed product group, point to
Exceed Tools, and click HWM. Depending on how you configured HWM, the
HWM Virtual Desktop and/or the Icon Manager display.
Note: You can run HWM either when the X server is operating in
Single Window mode, or in Multiple Window mode when configured
for X, or Default To Native Window Manager.
A Quick Tour of HWM
Depending on the window
mode, specific options
may have to be selected
for the system menu to be
displayed when you click
the Windows desktop.
The System menu, also referred to as the control menu or context menu, is
the main menu in HWM. The System menu contains most of the HWM
commands, including standard functions that let you raise a window, move
a window up and down, refresh the display, and kill a client.
For example, when you choose the Kill Client command, the pointer
changes to a skull and crossbones. You can exit an application by choosing
this command, moving the pointer to the application window, and then
clicking the left mouse button.
The System menu also contains the following submenus:
Window Ops menu Contains commands that let you create icons, move,
resize, raise, lower, zoom/unzoom, refresh, and close a window. You can
display this menu by selecting it from the System menu or by clicking
Window Ops in the client window.
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When you select a Window Ops command from the client window, the
operation takes place on the client. When you select a Window Ops
command from the System menu, the operation takes place on the next
client that you click.
Desktop Settings menu Contains commands that show or hide the
Virtual Desktop, the Icon Manager, or any X clients displayed as icons.
For more information about
Local Commands or
adding X clients to the X
Commands menu, see the
examples under “Active
Functions” on page 290.
Local Commands menu Contains commands to open Xconfig, Xstart, or
open Hwmcfg.src for editing in Notepad.
X Commands menu Initially, this is an empty menu. You can add
commands that start X clients by editing the HWM configuration file. You
can also display this menu by right-clicking the X server window
background.
Root Window menu Contains commands that let you change the pattern
or color of the X server window (root window) background. Your selection
is implemented immediately.
Note: If you are running in multiple window mode, you must make
sure that the Root Drawing option is set to either Background or Full
Support. If Root Drawing is set to None, then the changes you make
using the Root Window menu will not take effect.
To access the Root Drawing option, click Display And Video in
Category View in Xconfig. On the Screen page, click Advanced. In the
Multiple Window Mode Advanced dialog box, make the modifications
as necessary.
Exit/Restart menu
HWM.
Contains commands that let you exit or restart
Note: The Help command displays a quick reference table that
shows you how to invoke various HWM and Virtual Desktop
functions using keystroke or mouse button combinations.
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Appendix B: HWM
To access the system menu (single window mode):
In HWM, click anywhere in the X server window background. If the cursor
is in a client window, you can also display this menu by holding down the
Alt key and clicking.
To specify the display of the system menu (multiple window mode):
1
In the left pane of Xconfig, click the desired multiple window mode
Screen #. The Screen # tab is displayed.
•
Select Root Mouse Actions To X, and then click OK. Alternatively, you
can select Root Mouse Actions To X on the Exceed X server toolbar.
2
To enable the HWM Virtual Desktop:
Run HWM to open the Virtual Desktop. Include the following
VirtualDesktop statement in your HWM configuration file:
VirtualDesktop
Note: You can disable the Virtual Desktop by inserting an
exclamation mark (!) at the beginning of this line. For more
information on Virtual Desktop statements, see “HWM Virtual
Desktop” on page 283.
HWM Configuration File
HWM operates according to the specifications in the hwmcfg.src
configuration file, located in the User directory.
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This text file is loaded each time you start or restart HWM. You can
customize HWM by editing the Hwmcfg.src. You can display the HWM
specifications when the application is running.
Note: This file is annotated to help you understand the functions and
statements in it. We recommend that you make a backup of the
configuration file before customizing it. This ensures that the original
file remains intact if you need to revert to it. Changes to HWM
configuration file take effect when you restart HWM.
To edit the HWM configuration file:
For more information on
the system menu, see “A
Quick Tour of HWM” on
page 275.
In HWM, select Local Commands and then click Edit HWM Config on the
system menu.
Formatting Rules
The following sections outline some basic formatting rules to consider
when customizing the configuration file.
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Appendix B: HWM
Configuration File Syntax
Component
Formatting Rule
Statements
Exclamation Mark (!)
Appears at the beginning of the line and indicates that this
line is a comment.
#If...#Then
Preprocessor statements must always begin with a
number sign (#). For more information, see “Preprocessor
Statements” on page 293.
Menus
Submenus
Submenus must always be defined before they can be
included in another menu.
Lines
Backslash (\)
Continued Rows
Indicates that this line continues onto the next line.
Continued rows must appear sequentially in the
configuration file. You cannot have blank lines between
continued lines.
Tokens
Usage/Spacing
Each statement should consist of one or more tokens
separated by one or more spaces.
Note: A token is either a series of non-space characters,
or any sequence of characters enclosed by matching
quotation marks (for example, “a b/c? d*e”).
Case Sensitivity
Tokens that are HWM functions are not case-sensitive. Any
string that displays as text on the screen is case-sensitive.
Backslash (\)
Within a string, the backslash character (\) starts an
escape sequence (see the Supported Character Escape
Sequences table below).
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OpenText™ Exceed™ User's Guide
Supported Character Escape Sequences
Sequence
Function
\\
Represents a single backslash (\).
\n
Generates a newline character (0x0A).
\r
Generates a carriage return character (0x0D).
\xdd
Formulates any byte value except 0. Each d is a hexadecimal digit.
\u
Inserts the default user path. A trailing \ is also inserted, if needed.
For example, "\uhwmcfg.src" is equivalent to:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Default User\Exceed\hwmcfg.src
\i
Inserts the home\info path. A trailing \ is also inserted, if needed.
For example, "\ixrdb.txt" is equivalent to:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\info\xrdb.txt
\h
Inserts the home path. A trailing \ is also inserted, if needed. For
example, "\hexceed.exe" is equivalent to:
C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\version\
Exceed\Exceed.exe
\
Continues a single line, onto the next line.
\?
Enters a wildcard character that is otherwise used to delineate a
string or start an escape sequence.
Note: A question mark (?) denotes any wildcard character.
Functions
Functions are commands in the configuration file that perform specific
actions. If you invoke any of the functions that affect a single window (such
as iconify, refresh, zoom) from a menu that is bound to that window, the
function operates immediately. However, if you invoke the same function
from a menu that is not bound to the window, you have to click the left
mouse button in the appropriate window to perform the operation.
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Appendix B: HWM
The following table lists the supported functions:
Function
Description
Nop
Specifies a no operation token.
Iconify
Iconifies/restores a window.
Menu menu_name
Activates the named menu. When this function is called,
HWM places the upper left corner of the menu at the
current mouse position.
Move
Raises and moves a window or icon.
Resize
Raises and resizes a window.
Zoom
Zooms/unzooms a window.
Refresh
Forces a redraw of the selected window.
RefreshScreen
Refreshes the entire screen.
ShowIconMgr
Shows/raises the Icon Manager.
HideIconMgr
Removes the Icon Manager.
ShowIcons
Displays client icons.
HideIcons
Hides client icons.
Up
Circulates a window up.
Down
Circulates a window down.
Top
Raises a window to the top.
Bottom
Lowers a window to the bottom.
Kill
Kills a client.
Exit
Exits HWM.
Restart
Restarts the window manager (and rereads the
Hwmcfg.src file).
Freesel
Releases ownership of the PRIMARY selection.
Setroot
Changes the appearance of the root window.
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Statements
Statements are a sequence of actions in the HWM configuration file
(Hwmcfg.src) that carry out a specific function in HWM. Editing the
statements in Hwmcfg.src lets you customize HWM. When used in a
Hwmcfg.src file, a single statement carries out a single action, while a series
of statements carries out a complex sequence of actions.
The following sections describe the representative statements in the
Hwmcfg.src file in the order they appear in the file. However, not all
statements listed are included in the default configuration.
The supported HWM statements can be grouped into the following
categories:
•
Virtual Desktop statements
•
Font statements
•
Window statements
•
Color statements
•
Icon Manager statements
•
Menu Definition statements
•
Mouse Button Binding statements
Note: You can disable any of the statements in the configuration file
by inserting a comment indicator or exclamation mark (!) at the
beginning of the statement.
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HWM Virtual Desktop
The HWM Virtual Desktop is the first section in the configuration file. The
following statements appear in the default configuration file:
Statements
Description
VirtualDesktop
Opens the Virtual Desktop when you run HWM. You can
disable the Virtual Desktop by inserting an exclamation mark
(!) at the beginning of this line.
The syntax for this statement is as follows:
VirtualDesktop
VdeskScale
Specifies the scale of the Virtual Desktop window.
number defines the scale of the Virtual Desktop in comparison
to your screen. This value indicates the number of screen
pixels that each pixel of the Virtual Desktop represents. By
default, the value is 20. Therefore, each pixel on the Virtual
Desktop represents 20 pixels on your screen.
The syntax for this statement is as follows:
VdeskScale number
StickyVdesk
Places the Virtual Desktop within itself to prevent the Virtual
Desktop itself from being displayed from within the Virtual
Desktop window. This statement ensures that you will not
inadvertently move the Virtual Desktop off the screen.
The syntax for this statement is as follows:
StickyVdesk
Note: If you want the Virtual Desktop to appear as a rectangle
within the Virtual Desktop window, insert an exclamation mark
(!) at the beginning of this statement.
DoubleClick
Specifies double-click span in milliseconds. The default is 300
as shown in the following syntax:
DoubleClick_msec 300
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Statements
Description
FadedMenus
To specify faded menus, remove the exclamation mark (!)
from the beginning of the statement.
The syntax for this statement is as follows:
FadedMenus
Note: The Render extension must be active.
borderwidth
Sets the 3D border width to the desired number of pixels. The
default is 8 as shown in the following syntax:
borderwidth 8
nocascade
If you do not want to cascade windows, remove the
exclamation mark (!) from the beginning of this statement:
!nocascade
positionisframe
To specify (x, y) coordinates for your client window (not for its
frame), remove the comment indicator (!) from the beginning
of this statement:
!positionisframe 0
Note: You must also uncomment (remove the ! from)
nocascade to set (x, y) coordinates for the window.
Other Supported HWM Virtual Desktop Statements
There are other statements that control the operation of HWM Virtual
Desktop that are not included in the default configuration file. Other
supported HWM Virtual Desktop statements are as follows:
color vdesk Sets the foreground (screen frame) and background color of
the Virtual Desktop. The syntax for these statements are as follows:
color vdesk foreground colorname
color vdesk background colorname
VdeskGeom Specifies the placement of the HWM Virtual Desktop
window. The syntax for this statement is as follows:
VdeskGeom [+|-]x[+|-]y
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This statement only works if windows are automatically placed (for
example, if NoGhost is specified in Hwmcfg.src). A single + or - must
precede each x and y.
The parameters are described as follows:
Parameter
Description
+x
Specifies the horizontal position of the window, where x is the
number of pixels from the left edge of the server root window to the
left border of the Virtual Desktop.
-x
Specifies the horizontal position of the window, where x is the
number of pixels from the right edge of the server root window to the
right border of the Virtual Desktop.
+y
Specifies the vertical position of the window, where y is the number
of pixels from the top edge of the server root window to the top
border of the Virtual Desktop.
-y
Specifies the vertical position of the window, where y is the number
of pixels from the bottom edge of the server root window to the
bottom border of the Virtual Desktop.
VdeskButton Lets you configure which mouse button is needed to drag
the server window frame or client windows to a new location. The syntax
for this statement is as follows:
VdeskButton b1 b2
Note: b1 is the button that moves the frame; b2 is the button that
moves the client windows. The values for b1 and b2 can be either 1, 2
or 3, which represent the left, middle and right buttons on the mouse,
respectively. The values for b1 and b2 must be different. The default is
VdeskButton 3 1, where the left button (number 1) moves the client
windows and the right button (number 3) moves the frame.
For more information on
bind statements, see
“Mouse Button Bindings”
on page 291.
ShowVdesk/HideVdesk Lets you show or hide the Virtual Desktop when
the Virtual Desktop is enabled via an preceding VirtualDesktop statement.
The syntax for this statement is as follows:
ShowVdesk
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HideVdesk
Note: Statements and functions can also be called using mousebutton bind statements. For example, to show the Virtual Desktop
whenever you hold down Alt-Shift and then click the right mouse
button, use the following statement:
bind alt shift b3 showvdesk
Font Statements
For more information on
preprocessor statements,
see “Preprocessor
Statements” on page 293.
The preprocessor statement shown below sets the font used by HWM. It
uses the preprocessor #if...#else...#endif format to set one of two different
fonts, depending on the size of the server screen.
#if Xpixels >= 1024
font 10x20
#else
font 6x10
#endif
Window Statements
The following window statements let you move, resize, and focus windows:
NoGhost Lets you instruct HWM to automatically place and size client
windows. The syntax for this statement is as follows:
NoGhost
To move and resize client windows when they first appear on your screen,
add an exclamation mark (!) to this statement. The windows then appear as
outlines, which you can place anywhere on the screen or Virtual Desktop.
ClickToFocus Lets you focus client windows. This statement, by default,
requires that you click a client window to focus and raise it. The syntax for
this statement is as follows:
ClickToFocus [raise] 1
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If you want the pointer to focus the window, insert an exclamation mark (!)
before this statement. The raise parameter is optional. You can also specify
one of 1 (left), 2 (middle), or 3 (right) to indicate which mouse button to
click.
Color Statements
Color statements set the colors that HWM displays for windows, menus,
icons, dialogs, and the Icon Manager.
3D Effect HWM achieves its 3D effect by using three colors. In each of
the areas where you can set background and foreground color, HWM
allocates a third color that is a shade of the background. If colors are not
specified for WINDOW, TRANSIENT, ICON, ICONMGR, or MENU,
HWM assumes the colors are black and white, with gray shading.
Setroot color_specification Specifies the color of the root server window.
The syntax for this statement is as follows:
Setroot color_specification
The following table describes different types of color_specification.
Color_Specification
Description
default
Resets the server root window to its default.
solid color
Changes the server root window to a solid color, where
color is any color defined in the RGB database. If the
color name contains spaces or tabs, enclose it in
quotation marks (" ").
bitmap filespec
[fg color bg color]
Changes the server root window to the pattern
described in the file filespec, where filespec
specifies a standard X11 bitmap. You can optionally
specify the foreground and background color.
Icon Manager Statements
The Icon Manager configuration statements that appear in the default
configuration file are listed as follows:
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IconMgrOn Enables the Icon Manager when you run HWM. The syntax
for this statement is as follows:
IconMgrOn
This statement automatically displays the Icon Manager in the server
window. You can disable the Icon Manager by inserting an exclamation
mark (!) at the beginning of this line.
stickyIconMgr Prevents the Icon Manager itself from being displayed
from within the Virtual Desktop window. This statement ensures that you
will not inadvertently move the Icon Manager off the screen while using the
Virtual Desktop. The syntax for this statement is as follows:
stickyIconMgr
If you want the Icon Manager to appear as a rectangle within the Icon
Manager window, add a (!) before this statement.
HideIcons Hides any client that is currently iconified. The syntax for this
statement is as follows:
HideIcons
If you want the icons displayed, you can replace this statement with the
ShowIcons function.
Other Supported Icon Manager Statements
There are additional supported statements that are related to the operation
of HWM Icon Manager. The following statements are not included in the
default Hwmcfg.src file:
IconImage Associates a specific bitmap file to act as an icon for a
particular client window. The syntax for this statement is as follows:
IconImage window-name bitmap
For example, you can use the bitmap file provided in the Info directory (by
default, C:\Program Files\Hummingbird\Connectivity\
version\Exceed\Info) as an icon for an xterm window by using the
following statement:
IconImage xterm "\bird.bit"
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You can also associate a pixmap to be used as the default HWM icon for
clients that do not specify an icon by using the following statement:
IconPixmap filespec
Note: filespec must specify a standard X11 bitmap file.
For more information on
the x and y variables, see
“VdeskGeom” on
page 284.
IconMgrGeom Specifies the placement of the Icon Manager window. The
syntax for this statement is as follows:
IconMgrGeom [+|-]x[+|-]y
Menu Definitions
Menu names are 
case-sensitive.
The configuration file also lets you configure how menus appear on HWM.
Menu definitions start with the word menu, followed by the name of the
menu enclosed in quotation marks (" ") and ending with the word
endmenu. Any items that appear on the menu are defined on the lines in
between these two words.
All HWM menus appear in the menu definition section. They can be
divided into two categories: menus with inactive menu functions and
menus with active functions.
Inactive Functions
Menus with inactive functions are menus that do not perform any
operations. They present information, rather than provide menu
commands.
For example, the VdeskHelp menu has no active functions. Lines that do not
invoke functions (or blank lines on a menu), are exited with nop, which
indicates No Operation. Strings in the menu definition, or text enclosed in
quotation marks (" "), display on the menu using the default font specified
in this file.
Note: Blank lines on the menu are indicated with an empty string ("").
For example:
menu VdeskHelp
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"Click on
With Mouse Button
Function"
nop
"--------
---------------
--------"
nop
"anywhere
Alt Shift right
Show VirtualDesktop"
nop
"anywhere
Alt Shift left
Hide VirtualDesktop"
nop
" "
"in Vdesk
nop
left
Move the view"
"in Vdesk on a window right Move 
and/or show the name of a window"
nop
nop
endmenu
Active Functions
Menus with active function menu items execute a specific operation or
invoke a specific submenu when the user chooses it from the menu. For
example, the Window Ops menu includes items which perform various
window functions:
menu "Window Ops"
"Iconify"
iconify
"Move"
move
"Resize"
resize
"Raise"
top
"Lower"
bottom
"Zoom"
zoom
"Refresh"
refresh
"Close"
kill
endmenu
For more information on
this menu, see “A Quick
Tour of HWM” on
page 275.
To start an application from an HWM menu, use “run” with the specified
command. You can use the Local Commands menu to execute local
Windows or X apps. For example:
menu "Local Commands"
"Xconfig"
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run "xconfig"
Appendix B: HWM
Xsession"
run "xsession"
"Xstart"
run "xstart"
"Hwm config"
run "notepad hwmcfg.src"
endmenu
You can use the X Commands menu to start remote X clients using Xstart.
For example:
menu "X Commands"
"XTerm Packard"
run "xstart packard.xs"
endmenu
Mouse Button Bindings
The mouse button bindings section of the Hwmcfg.src file lets you display a
menu or perform a function by either binding it to a mouse button, or to a
mouse button and keystroke combination.
In general, the syntax for a bind statement is:
bind [location] [modifier] button menu_or_function
Mouse button binding parameters are described in the chart below:
Mouse Button Binding Parameters
Location1
Description
Root (or R)
Binding is valid on the root window.
Window (or W)
Binding is valid on a window.
Icon (or I)
Binding is valid on an icon.
Left (or L)
Binding is valid on a window banner's left
button (typically the Window Ops button).
OutsideRight (Right, OR, or R)
Binding is valid on a window banner's
outside right button (typically the zoom
button).
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Mouse Button Binding Parameters
InsideRight (or IR)
Binding is valid on a window banner's
inside right button (typically the button to
iconify).
Middle (Mid or M)
Binding is valid on a window banner's title
bar, that is, outside of the buttons.
Modifier2
Description
Shift (or S)
<Shift> required.
Control (CTRL or C)
<Ctrl> required.
Mod1 (ALT or A)
Mod1 required.
Mod2... Mod 5
Mod2... Mod5 required.
Button3
Description
B1 (or 1)
Mouse button 1 (left).
B2 (or 2)
Mouse button 2 (middle).
B3 (or 3)
Mouse button 3 (right).
1
If none of Root, Window, Icon, Left, Right, InsideRight, or Middle are
specified, all are assumed.
2 Alt is used as a synonym for Mod1, as this is the modifier associated with the Alt
key in the keyboard files supplied with Exceed.
3 Only one of B1, B2, or B3 can be specified in any one statement.
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Appendix B: HWM
Preprocessor Statements
Preprocessor statements let you set if...else conditions that define which
statements in the Hwmcfg.src file are processed. The following preprocessor
statements are supported:
Statement
Description
#if expression
Used to specify an expression. Expression format is
described in the Expressions in Preprocessor
Statements section below. If the expression is true,
successive statements are processed. If the
expression is false, successive statements are not
processed.
#endif
This statement marks the end of the range of the #if
statement. For each #if statement there must be one
#endif statement.
#else statement(s)
You can use one #else statement within each
#if...#endif range. If the expression in the associated
if statement is false, all statements between #else
and the associated #endif are processed.
For example:
#if Planes == 8 !test for 256 colors
color active transient foreground blue
color inactive window background red
color...!specify colors
#else
color active transient foreground white
color inactive window background black
color...!different colors
#endif
Note: #if...#endif statements can be nested, that is
if...#endif ranges can be placed within each other.
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Expressions in Preprocessor Statements Expressions in preprocessor
statements take the following format, and the fields must be separated by
one space:
id operator constant
These fields are discussed in the following table:
Field
Description
id
xpixels
The width of the server screen in pixels.
ypixels
The height of the server screen in pixels.
Planes
Represents the number of video planes. The number of colors is
2planes, that is, 4 planes specifies 16 colors; 8 planes specifies 256
colors.
Color
Used to test whether or not the server supports color. (For example:
PseudoColor or StaticColor.) If the default server supports color,
Color is set to 1. Otherwise, it is set to 0.
Static
Used to test whether or not the server supports static read-only
colormaps or dynamic read/write colormaps. If the server supports
only static colormaps, Static is set to 1. If the server supports
dynamic colormaps, Static is set to 0.
VdeskOn
Used to test whether the Virtual Desktop is specified in Hwmcfg.src.
If the Virtual Desktop is specified, VdeskOn is set to 1, otherwise it is
0.
operator
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==
TRUE if ID is equal to constant.
<>
TRUE if ID is not equal to constant.
<
TRUE if ID is less than constant.
<=
TRUE if ID is less than or equal to constant.
Appendix B: HWM
Field
Description
>
TRUE if ID is greater than constant.
>=
TRUE if ID is greater than or equal to constant.
constant
constant
A decimal numeric value.
About the Exceed Virtual Desktop
The Exceed Virtual Desktop window represents the entire area of your
virtual screen. The top left corner of this box corresponds with the top left
corner of your physical screen, which is only a portion of the virtual screen
area.
The Virtual Desktop can represent an area many times larger than the actual
server root window. It displays an overview of the entire contents of the
server root window, including those X clients that are currently 
off-screen. You can use this extended desktop area to display and work with
numerous Microsoft Windows-based applications and X applications
running the native window manager without crowding the work area.
The Exceed Virtual Desktop Window
Colored boxes within the Virtual Desktop window represent open
application windows. The box that contains the color used by Windows for
active application title bars represents the currently active application. Light
gray boxes represent inactive application windows.
A red frame outlines the portion of the Virtual Desktop that is visible on
your display. This frame can be moved by right-clicking it and dragging it to
the desired location. If you move it to a client application, that gives it the
focus. Each active client appears as a shaded box. When you click in a
shaded box, the name of the client appears in the Virtual Desktop title bar.
The client window with the focus appears with its title bar, border color,
and shaded box in the highlight color.
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You can position client windows anywhere within the Virtual Desktop by
clicking the window and dragging it to the desired location. When you
release the mouse button, the window moves to the specified location.
Navigating the Exceed Virtual Desktop
Minimized applications do
not appear in the Virtual
Desktop window.
When you click and hold the left mouse button on a box representing an
application window, the title bar caption appears in the title bar of the
Exceed Virtual Desktop window. You can use this feature to find
applications that are currently off-screen. You can right-click any area
within the virtual desktop to display that area on your physical screen.
The following keyboard navigation is available when Exceed Virtual
Desktop has focus:
•
Use the Tab key to change the selected application in the Virtual Desktop
window.
•
Press the Esc key to de-select applications.
•
Use the up/down/right/left arrow keys to navigate the Vir tual Desktop
window and to move selected applications.
•
If you enabled Direct Placement in the Vir tual Desktop Options dialog box,
you can move the current window by right-clicking anywhere in the
Virtual Desktop window.
•
If you enabled Use Virtual Desktop Workspaces in the Vir tual Desktop
Options dialog box, you can use the numeric keys or the hot keys on
your keyboard to shift the display onto a specific virtual display area.
You can also right-click the Virtual Desktop title bar and select the
virtual display area you want to view.
•
To use Function keys to toggle between workspaces, use the Workspaces
Configuration dialog box to specify workspace names and function key
combinations. For more information, see Exceed Help.
To move an application:
Click and hold the application box drag it to the new location in the Virtual
Desktop.
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Configuring the Exceed Virtual Desktop
You can modify the look and behavior of the Virtual Desktop and enable
features that let you parse, name, and navigate the virtual area. For more
information on configuring the Virtual Desktop, see Exceed Help.
To configure the virtual desktop:
1
On the Exceed Menu, select Tools, and click Virtual Desktop.
Alternatively, click Vir tual Desktop on the Exceed toolbar.
2
In the Vir tual Desktop window, right-click on the Virtual Desktop title
bar and click Options on the menu that appears.
3
Use the Vir tual Desktop Options dialog box to make the necessary
modifications.
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