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Chapter 1
Introduction to Computer
Topic
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Definition of Computer
Computer Basic Operations
Categories of Computer
Computer Parts
Computer Basics Components
Input Devices
Output Devices
Storage Devices
Computer Software
What is Computer?
• Computer is a machine that manipulates data according
to a set of instructions.
• Computer is a programmable machine.
Computer Basic Operations
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Input
Output
Process
Storage
Control
Computer Basic Operations
• Input: It is the process of capturing or acquiring the
information, or it is the process of accepting data or
information, by using input the computer can do any
process.
• Process: It is the transformation process to convert the
input into output.
Computer Basic Operations
• Output: It is the result, which comes from the
transformation process or it is the outcome of the
process.
• Storing: It is the process of storing or retaining the data
or information or instructions, so that the user can retain
and retrieve it whenever required.
Computer Basic Operations
• Controlling: It is the process of directing the manner
and sequence in which all the operations are to be
performed.
Categories of Computer
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Mobile computer
Microcomputer
Mainframe
Supercomputer
Categories of Computer
Laptop
Tablet
Mobile Computer
PDA
Smartphone
Carputer
Categories of Computer
Microcomputer
Desktop
Workstation
Categories of Computer
Mainframe
Categories of Computer
Super Computer
Computer Parts
• Computer can be divided into two parts:
– Hardware
– Software
Computer
Hardware
Software
Computer Parts
• Hardware
– System Unit
– Input Devices
– Output Devices
– Storage Devices
• Software
– Operating System
– Application Software
– Utility Software
System Unit
• The system unit is the core of a computer system.
• The most important of these components is the central
processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor and random
access memory (RAM).
• Almost every other part of your computer connects to
the system unit using cables.
• The cables plug into specific ports (openings), typically
on the back of the system unit.
• Hardware that is not part of the system unit is
sometimes called a peripheral device or device.
System Unit
System Unit
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Motherboard
Processor
Memory
Case
Power supply
Floppy drive
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Hard drive
CD or DVD drive
Video card
Sound card
Modem
System Unit
Case
• The case is the frame or
chassis that houses the
motherboard, power
supply, disk drives,
adapter cards, and any
other physical
components in the
system.
System Unit
Motherboard
• Also known as main
board, system board and
planar.
• It connects all the
components inside the
computer case.
System Unit
Motherboard
System Unit
Processor
• The processor is often
thought of as the "engine“
or “brain” of the
computer.
• It's also called the CPU
(central processing unit).
System Unit
Memory
• The system memory is
often called RAM (for
random access memory).
• This is the primary
memory, which holds all
the programs and data
the processor is using at
a given time.
System Unit
Power Supply
• The power supply feeds
electrical power to every
single part in the PC.
System Unit
Floppy Drive
• The floppy drive is a
simple, inexpensive, lowcapacity, removablemedia, magnetic-storage
device.
System Unit
Hard Drive
• The hard disk is the
primary archival storage
memory for the system.
System Unit
CD or DVD Drive
• CD (compact disc) and DVD
(digital versatile disc) drives
are relatively high-capacity,
removable media, drive
optical drives; many recent
systems include a
rewriteable CD (CD-RW)
along with or combined with
a DVD-ROM drive.
System Unit
Video Card
• The video card controls
the information you see
on the monitor.
System Unit
Sound Card
• It enables the PC to
generate complex
sounds.
System Unit
Modem / Network Card
• Component that allow the
computer to connect to
the network or the
Internet.
Input Devices
• Any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment)
used to provide data and control signals to the computer.
• Allows the user to put data into the computer.
• Common input devices are:
– Keyboard
– Mouse
– Touchscreen
– Scanner
– Webcam
Input Devices
Keyboard
Mouse
Input Devices
Touchscreen
Scanner
Output Devices
• Any piece of computer hardware equipment used to
communicate the results of data processing carried out
by a computer to the outside world.
• Common output devices are:
– Monitor
– Printer
– Speakers
– Projector
Output Devices
Printer
Monitor
Output Devices
Speakers
Projector
Storage Devices
• Refers to computer components, devices, and recording
media that capable of storing data.
• Examples of storage devices:
– Floppy disk
– Hard disk
– Pen drive
– Optical disk
Storage Devices
Floppy disk
• Capacity: 1.44MB
• Portable
• Require floppy disk
drive to read/write
Storage Devices
Hard disk
• Capacity: 100GB –
1TB
• Not portable
Storage Devices
USB Flash drive
• Capacity: 8GB – 1TB
• Portable
Storage Devices
Optical disc
• Capacity:
• CD: 650MB
• DVD: 4.7GB
• BD: 25GB
• Portable
• Require optical disc
drive
Computer Software
• Software is the collection of computer programs,
procedures and documentation that performs different
tasks on a computer system.
• Examples of computer software:
– Operating system
– Application software
– Utility software
Computer Software
Operating System (OS)
• A collection of software that manages computer
hardware resources and provides common services for
computer programs.
• The operating system is a vital component of the system
software in a computer system.
Computer Software
Operating System (OS)
• Examples:
– Windows
– Mac OS
– Linux
– Unix
– Android
Computer Software
Application Software
• Application software, also known as an application or
an app, is computer software designed to help the user
to perform specific tasks.
Computer Software
Application Software
• Examples
– Word processor
– Spreadsheet
– Database Management System
– Presentation software
– Graphic editor
– Video games
Computer Software
Utility Software
• Utility software is designed to help analyze, configure,
optimize or maintain a computer.
Computer Software
Utility Software
• Examples:
– Antivirus
– Disk defragment
– Screensaver
– Disk cleaner
– File manager
Tutorial
Answer all questions.
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Define what computer is.
What are five basic computer operations?
What are four categories of computer?
Explain the difference between input device and output device. Give two
examples for each devices.
5. Give four examples of Operating System.
Tutorial
Identify the following computer components:
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