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A user's guide to installation,
configuration and operation
Using Mach3Turn
or
The nurture, care and feeding of the Mach3
controlled CNC Lathe or Borer
All queries, comments and suggestions welcomed via [email protected]
Mach Developers Network (MachDN) is currently hosted at:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/mach1mach2cnc/files/
© 2003/4/5 Art Fenerty and John Prentice
Front cover: A vertical borer circa 1914
This preliminary manual for Mach3Turn Beta 7.57
Contents
Contents
1.
Preface ............................................................................................. 1-1
2.
Introducing CNC machining systems............................................ 2-1
2.1
Parts of a machining system ........................................................................................... 2-1
2.2
How Mach3 fits in ........................................................................................................... 2-2
3.
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software ................... 3-1
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.7
Installation ...................................................................................................................... 3-1
Downloading .................................................................................................................... 3-1
Installing........................................................................................................................... 3-1
The vital re-boot ............................................................................................................... 3-2
Convenient desktop icons.................................................................................................. 3-2
Testing the installation ...................................................................................................... 3-3
OCXTest after a Mach3 crash ........................................................................................... 3-3
Notes for manual driver installation and un-installation...................................................... 3-4
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
Screens ............................................................................................................................ 3-4
Types of object on screens ................................................................................................ 3-5
Using buttons and shortcuts............................................................................................... 3-5
Data entry to DRO ............................................................................................................ 3-5
3.2
3.3
Jogging ............................................................................................................................ 3-6
3.4
Manual Data Input (MDI) .............................................................................................. 3-7
3.5
Wizards – CAM without dedicated CAM software........................................................ 3-7
3.6
Running a G-code program .......................................................................................... 3-10
4.
Hardware issues and connecting the machine tool..................... 4-1
4.1
Safety - emphasised......................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2
What Mach3 can control................................................................................................. 4-1
4.3
The EStop control ........................................................................................................... 4-2
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
The PC parallel port ....................................................................................................... 4-2
The parallel port and its history ......................................................................................... 4-2
Logic signals..................................................................................................................... 4-2
Electrical noise and expensive smoke ................................................................................ 4-4
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
Axis drive options............................................................................................................ 4-4
Steppers and Servos .......................................................................................................... 4-4
Doing Axis drive calculations ........................................................................................... 4-5
How the Step and Dir signals work.................................................................................... 4-7
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
Limit and Home switches................................................................................................ 4-7
Strategies.......................................................................................................................... 4-7
The switches..................................................................................................................... 4-8
Where to mount the switches............................................................................................. 4-9
How Mach3 uses shared switches...................................................................................... 4-9
Referencing in action ...................................................................................................... 4-10
Other Home and Limit options and hints ......................................................................... 4-10
4.5
4.6
4.7
Spindle control .............................................................................................................. 4-10
4.8
Spindle index pulse ....................................................................................................... 4-12
4.9
Coolant .......................................................................................................................... 4-13
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4.10
Manual Pulse Generators ............................................................................................. 4-13
4.11
Linear and rotary encoders .......................................................................................... 4-13
4.12
Charge pump - a pulse monitor .................................................................................... 4-14
4.13
Other functions ............................................................................................................. 4-14
5.
Configuring Mach3 for your machine and drives ......................... 5-1
5.1
A configuration strategy ................................................................................................. 5-1
5.2
Defining the native setup units........................................................................................ 5-1
5.3
Initial configuration of engine and ports ........................................................................ 5-1
5.4
Defining input and output signals that you will use ....................................................... 5-3
5.4.1
Axis and Spindle output signals to be used ........................................................................ 5-3
5.4.2
Input signals to be used ..................................................................................................... 5-4
5.4.3
Emulated input signals ...................................................................................................... 5-5
5.4.4
Output Signals .................................................................................................................. 5-5
5.4.5
Defining MPG and encoder inputs..................................................................................... 5-6
5.4.5.1 Encoders................................................................................................................ 5-6
5.4.5.2 MPGs .................................................................................................................... 5-6
5.4.6
Configuring the spindle..................................................................................................... 5-6
5.4.6.1 Coolant control ...................................................................................................... 5-6
5.4.6.2 Spindle relay control .............................................................................................. 5-7
5.4.6.3 Motor Control ........................................................................................................ 5-7
5.4.6.4 General Parameters ................................................................................................ 5-8
5.4.6.5 Pulley ratios ........................................................................................................... 5-8
5.4.6.6 Special function ..................................................................................................... 5-8
5.4.7
Turn Options tab............................................................................................................... 5-8
5.4.7.1 X Mode ................................................................................................................. 5-8
5.4.7.2 Threading defaults.................................................................................................. 5-9
5.5
Testing............................................................................................................................. 5-9
5.6
Tuning motors............................................................................................................... 5-10
Calculating the steps per unit........................................................................................... 5-11
5.6.1.1 Calculating mechanical drive................................................................................ 5-11
5.6.1.2 Calculating motor steps per revolution.................................................................. 5-11
5.6.1.3 Calculating Mach2 steps per motor revolution ...................................................... 5-11
5.6.1.4 Mach2 steps per unit ............................................................................................ 5-12
5.6.2
Setting the maximum motor speed................................................................................... 5-12
5.6.2.1 Practical trials of motor speed............................................................................... 5-12
5.6.2.2 Motor maximum speed calculations...................................................................... 5-13
5.6.3
Deciding on acceleration ................................................................................................. 5-13
5.6.3.1 Inertia and forces.................................................................................................. 5-13
5.6.3.2 Testing different acceleration values..................................................................... 5-14
5.6.3.3 Why you want to avoid a big servo error............................................................... 5-14
5.6.3.4 Choosing an acceleration value............................................................................. 5-14
5.6.4
Saving and testing axis.................................................................................................... 5-14
5.6.5
Repeat configuration process on other axis ...................................................................... 5-15
5.6.6
Spindle motor setup ........................................................................................................ 5-15
5.6.6.1 Configuring PWM and Step & Direction spindle motors....................................... 5-16
5.6.6.2 Motor speed, spindle speed and pulleys ................................................................ 5-16
5.6.6.3 Testing the spindle drive ...................................................................................... 5-17
5.6.1
5.7
Other configuration ...................................................................................................... 5-18
6.
Mach3 controls and running a part program ................................ 6-1
6.1
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2
6.2.1
How the controls are explained in this chapter .............................................................. 6-2
Screen switching controls................................................................................................. 6-2
6.2.1.1 Reset button ........................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2.1.2 Labels .................................................................................................................... 6-2
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6.2.2
Axis position family.......................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2.2.1 Coordinate value DRO ........................................................................................... 6-2
6.2.2.2 X axis mode........................................................................................................... 6-3
6.2.3
Motion control family ....................................................................................................... 6-3
6.2.3.1 Spindle .................................................................................................................. 6-3
6.2.3.2 Feedrate................................................................................................................. 6-3
6.2.4
Jogging, Jog speed and Increments control family ............................................................. 6-4
6.2.4.1 Jogging.................................................................................................................. 6-4
6.2.4.2 Other increments etc............................................................................................... 6-4
6.2.5
Machine Setup control family ........................................................................................... 6-5
6.2.6
Coordinate system display................................................................................................. 6-5
6.2.7
MDI line........................................................................................................................... 6-5
6.2.8
Homing ............................................................................................................................ 6-5
6.2.8.1 Axis with Home switches ....................................................................................... 6-6
6.2.8.2 Axis without Home switches .................................................................................. 6-6
6.2.8.3 Referenced state..................................................................................................... 6-6
6.2.8.4 Moving to Home position....................................................................................... 6-6
6.2.8.5 Machine coordinates .............................................................................................. 6-6
6.2.8.6 Part zero ................................................................................................................ 6-6
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
Using Wizards................................................................................................................. 6-6
What is a Wizard .............................................................................................................. 6-6
Wizard controls................................................................................................................. 6-7
Re-using Wizard generated code ....................................................................................... 6-7
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
Loading and running a G-code part program................................................................ 6-7
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 6-7
Auto Prep ......................................................................................................................... 6-7
Auto Cycle ....................................................................................................................... 6-8
Editing a part program ...................................................................................................... 6-9
Inputting a hand-written program ...................................................................................... 6-9
Running your program ...................................................................................................... 6-9
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
The principles of CNC threading.................................................................................... 6-9
Threading in general ....................................................................................................... 6-10
Speeds and cut depths ..................................................................................................... 6-10
Infeed ............................................................................................................................. 6-10
6.4
6.5
7.
Setting up a job and tool tables ..................................................... 7-1
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
The definition of a part ................................................................................................... 7-1
X axis – diameter/radius.................................................................................................... 7-1
Z axis zero position........................................................................................................... 7-2
7.2
The Controlled Point and tools ....................................................................................... 7-2
7.2.1.1 Effective cutting point............................................................................................ 7-2
7.2.1.2 The Program coordinates and Machine coordinates................................................. 7-3
7.2.1.3 Using different tools............................................................................................... 7-4
7.2.1.4 Summary ............................................................................................................... 7-4
7.3
Referencing the machine................................................................................................. 7-5
7.3.1
Referencing and setup with no home switch ..................................................................... 7-5
7.3.1.1 Setting Home ......................................................................................................... 7-5
7.3.1.2 Setting X by touching............................................................................................. 7-6
7.3.1.3 Setting X by trial machining................................................................................... 7-6
7.3.2
Referencing with a home switch........................................................................................ 7-7
7.3.2.1 Procedure for setting Home Off. ............................................................................. 7-7
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
Chucking stock and setting Z Program Coordinate....................................................... 7-7
Z = 0 at tailstock end of part.............................................................................................. 7-8
Z = 0 at parting off point on part........................................................................................ 7-8
Repetition work ................................................................................................................ 7-8
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
Using more than one tool ................................................................................................ 7-8
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 7-8
The steps in selecting a tool............................................................................................... 7-9
Tool table ....................................................................................................................... 7-10
7.5
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7.5.3.1
7.5.3.2
7.5.3.3
7.5.3.4
7.5.3.5
7.5.3.6
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.3
7.6.4
8.
Format of tool table.............................................................................................. 7-10
Choosing which tool will be master ...................................................................... 7-10
G43, G44 and the sign of tool offsets.................................................................... 7-10
Defining a facing/turning tool's entry in the tool table ........................................... 7-11
Setting tool table for "special" tools...................................................................... 7-12
Wear offsets......................................................................................................... 7-12
Behind the scenes .......................................................................................................... 7-13
Machine Coordinate system ............................................................................................ 7-13
Fixture offsets................................................................................................................. 7-13
Program Coordinates....................................................................................................... 7-14
Other Radius and Diameter mode issues.......................................................................... 7-14
Advanced configuration options ................................................... 8-1
8.1
Configure homing ........................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.1.1 Referencing speeds and direction............................................................................ 8-1
8.1.1.2 Position of home switches ...................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.2
Configure Backlash........................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.3
Configure Soft Limits ....................................................................................................... 8-2
8.1.4
Configure Initial State....................................................................................................... 8-2
8.1.5
Configure other Logic items.............................................................................................. 8-4
8.2
How the Profile information is stored............................................................................. 8-5
9.
Tool tip radius compensation ........................................................ 9-1
9.1
Introduction to compensation......................................................................................... 9-1
9.2
How compensation is specified ....................................................................................... 9-2
9.3
Potential difficulties ........................................................................................................ 9-2
10.
Mach3 G- and M-code language reference ................................. 10-1
10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5
10.1.6
10.1.7
10.1.8
10.1.9
10.1.10
10.1.11
10.1.12
10.1.13
10.1.14
Some definitions ............................................................................................................ 10-1
Linear Axes .................................................................................................................... 10-1
Scaling input................................................................................................................... 10-1
Controlled Point.............................................................................................................. 10-1
Co-ordinated Linear Motion............................................................................................ 10-1
Feed Rate........................................................................................................................ 10-2
Arc Motion ..................................................................................................................... 10-2
Coolant........................................................................................................................... 10-2
Dwell.............................................................................................................................. 10-2
Units............................................................................................................................... 10-2
Current Position.............................................................................................................. 10-2
Selected Plane................................................................................................................. 10-2
Tool Table ...................................................................................................................... 10-2
Tool Change ................................................................................................................... 10-2
Path Control Modes ........................................................................................................ 10-3
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
Interpreter interaction with controls............................................................................ 10-3
Feed and Speed Override controls ................................................................................... 10-3
Block Delete control ....................................................................................................... 10-3
Optional Program Stop control ........................................................................................ 10-3
10.3
Tool File ........................................................................................................................ 10-3
10.4
10.4.1
10.4.2
10.4.3
The language of part programs .................................................................................... 10-3
Overview........................................................................................................................ 10-3
Parameters...................................................................................................................... 10-5
Coordinate Systems ........................................................................................................ 10-5
10.5
10.5.1
10.5.2
10.5.3
Format of a Line ........................................................................................................... 10-5
Line Number................................................................................................................... 10-5
Subroutine labels ............................................................................................................ 10-6
Word .............................................................................................................................. 10-6
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10.5.3.1 Number................................................................................................................ 10-7
10.5.3.2 Parameter Value................................................................................................... 10-7
10.5.3.3 Expressions and Binary Operations ...................................................................... 10-7
10.5.3.4 Unary Operation Value ........................................................................................ 10-8
10.5.4 Parameter Setting............................................................................................................ 10-8
10.5.5 Comments and Messages ................................................................................................ 10-8
10.5.6 Item Repeats................................................................................................................... 10-9
10.5.7 Item order....................................................................................................................... 10-9
10.5.8 Commands and Machine Modes...................................................................................... 10-9
10.6
Modal Groups ............................................................................................................... 10-9
10.7
G Codes ....................................................................................................................... 10-10
10.7.1 Rapid Linear Motion – G00........................................................................................... 10-12
10.7.2 Linear Motion at Feed Rate – G01................................................................................. 10-12
10.7.3 Arc at Feed Rate – G02 and G03 ................................................................................... 10-12
10.7.3.1 Radius Format Arc............................................................................................. 10-12
10.7.3.2 Center Format Arc ............................................................................................. 10-13
10.7.4 Dwell – G04 ................................................................................................................. 10-13
10.7.5 Set Coordinate System Data Tool and work offset tables - G10...................................... 10-13
10.7.6 Plane Selection - G17, G18, and G19 ............................................................................ 10-14
10.7.7 Length Units - G20 and G21 ......................................................................................... 10-14
10.7.8 Return to Home - G28 and G30..................................................................................... 10-14
10.7.9 Reference axes - G28.1 ................................................................................................. 10-14
10.7.10 Threading - G32............................................................................................................ 10-14
10.7.11 Nose Radius Compensation - G40, G41, and G42.......................................................... 10-15
10.7.12 Scale factors G50 and G51............................................................................................ 10-15
10.7.13 Temporary Coordinate system offset – G52................................................................... 10-15
10.7.14 Move in Absolute Coordinates - G53............................................................................. 10-16
10.7.15 Select Work Offset Coordinate System - G54 to G59 & G59 P~ .................................... 10-16
10.7.16 Set Path Control Mode - G61, and G64 ......................................................................... 10-16
10.7.17 Canned Cycle – High Speed Peck Drill G73.................................................................. 10-16
10.7.18 Canned Cycle – Threading G76..................................................................................... 10-17
10.7.19 Canned cycle – Turning G77......................................................................................... 10-17
10.7.20 Canned cycle – Facing G78........................................................................................... 10-17
10.7.21 Cancel Modal Motion - G80.......................................................................................... 10-17
10.7.22 Canned Cycles - G81 to G89......................................................................................... 10-18
10.7.22.1 Preliminary and In-Between Motion ................................................................... 10-18
10.7.22.2 G81 Cycle.......................................................................................................... 10-19
10.7.22.3 G82 Cycle.......................................................................................................... 10-19
10.7.22.4 G83 and G83.1 Cycles....................................................................................... 10-20
10.7.22.5 G85 Cycle.......................................................................................................... 10-20
10.7.22.6 G86 Cycle.......................................................................................................... 10-20
10.7.22.7 G88 Cycle.......................................................................................................... 10-20
10.7.22.8 G89 Cycle.......................................................................................................... 10-21
10.7.23 Set Distance Mode - G90 and G91 ................................................................................ 10-21
10.7.24 G92 Offsets - G92, G92.1, G92.2, G92.3....................................................................... 10-21
10.7.25 Set Feed Rate Mode - G94 and G95 .............................................................................. 10-22
10.7.26 Set Canned Cycle Return Level - G98 and G99 ............................................................. 10-22
10.8
10.8.1
10.8.2
10.8.3
10.8.4
10.8.5
10.8.6
10.8.7
10.8.8
Built-in M Codes ......................................................................................................... 10-23
Program Stopping and Ending – M00, M01, M02, M30................................................. 10-23
Spindle Control – M03, M04, M05................................................................................ 10-23
Tool change – M06 ....................................................................................................... 10-24
Coolant Control – M07, M08, M09 ............................................................................... 10-24
Re-run from first line - M47.......................................................................................... 10-24
Override Control - M48 and M49.................................................................................. 10-24
Call subroutine - M98 ................................................................................................... 10-24
Return from subroutine ................................................................................................. 10-25
10.9
10.9.1
Macro M-codes ........................................................................................................... 10-25
Macro overview............................................................................................................ 10-25
10.10
10.10.1
10.10.2
10.10.3
Other Input Codes ...................................................................................................... 10-25
Set Feed Rate - F........................................................................................................... 10-25
Set Spindle Speed - S.................................................................................................... 10-25
Select Tool – T ............................................................................................................. 10-25
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10.11
Error Handling ........................................................................................................... 10-26
10.12
Order of Execution ..................................................................................................... 10-27
11.
Appendix 1 - Mach3Turn screenshot pullout............................. 11-1
12.
Appendix 2 - Sample schematic diagrams.................................. 12-3
12.
Appendix 2 - Sample schematic diagrams.................................. 12-4
12.1
EStop and limits using relays........................................................................................ 12-4
13.
Appendix 3 - Record of configuration used..................................... 1
14.
Revision history ................................................................................. 2
15.
Index.................................................................................................... 3
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Preface
1.
Preface
Any machine tool is potentially dangerous. Computer controlled machines are
potentially more dangerous than manual ones because, for example, a
computer is quite prepared to rotate an 8" unbalanced cast iron four-jaw chuck
at 3000 rpm!
This manual tries to give you guidance on safety precautions and techniques
but because we do not know the details of your machine or local conditions we
can accept no responsibility for the performance of any machine or any damage or injury
caused by its use. It is your responsibility to ensure that you understand the implications of
what you design and build and to comply with any legislation and codes of practice
applicable to your country or state.
If you are in any doubt you must seek guidance from a professionally qualified expert
rather than risk injury to yourself or to others.
This document is intended to give enough details about how the Mach3Turn software
interacts with your machine tool, how it is configured for different axis drive methods and
about the input languages and formats supported for programming to enable you to
implement a powerful CNC turning system. Typical machine tools that can be controlled
are lathes and vertical boring machines.
A companion document Customising Mach3 (in preparation) explains in detail how to alter
screen layouts, to design your own screens and Wizards and to interface to special hardware
devices.
You are strongly advised to join the online discussion forum for Mach3. This is currently
hosted by Yahoo! A link to join it is on the Company page at www.artofcnc.ca You should
be aware that, while the forum has many engineers with a vast range of experience as
participants, it does not constitute a substitute for a machine tool manufacturer's support
network. If your application requires this level of support then you should buy the system
from a local distributor or an OEM with a distributor network. In that way you will get the
benefits of Mach2 with the possibility of on-site support.
Certain portions of text in this manual are printed "greyed out". They generally describe
features found in machine controllers but which are not presently implemented in Mach3.
The description of a greyed out feature here is not to be taken as a commitment to
implement it at any given time in the future.
Thanks are due to numerous people including the original team who worked at National
Institute for Standards and Testing (NIST) on the EMC project, Steve Blackmore for
pioneering use of Mach2 and Mach3, contribution of CAM post-processors and drafting
and review of documentation, and to all the users of Mach2 and Mach3 without whose
experience, materials and constructive comments this manual could not have been written.
Credits are given for individual utilities and features as these are described in the body of
the manual.
ArtSoft Corporation is dedicated to continual improvement of its products, so suggestions
for enhancements, corrections and clarifications will be gratefully received.
Art Fenerty and John Prentice assert their right to be identified as the authors of this work.
The right to make copies of this manual is granted solely for the purpose of evaluating
and/or using licensed or demonstration copies of Mach3. It is not permitted, under this
right, for third parties to charge for copies of this manual nor to distribute it except in its
entirety. OEM licencing of the software includes access to the source material to allow
detail customisation.
Every effort has been made to make this manual as complete and as accurate as possible but
no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an "as is" basis. The
authors and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity
with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this manual,
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Preface
Use of the manual is covered by the license conditions to which you must agree when
installing Mach3 software.
Windows XP and Windows 2000 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. If
other trademarks are used in this manual but not acknowledged please notify ArtSoft
Corporation so this can be remedied in subsequent editions.
Using Mach3Turn
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Introducing CNC Machining Systems
2.
2.1
Introducing CNC machining systems
Parts of a machining system
This chapter will introduce you to terminology used in the rest of this manual
and allow you to understand the purpose of the different components in a
numerically controlled turning system.
The main parts of a system for numerically controlled turning system are shown in figure
1.1
The designer of a part generally uses a Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided
Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) program or programs on a computer (1). The output of this
Figure 1.1 - Typical NC machining system
program, which is a part program and is often in "G-code" is transferred (by a network or
perhaps floppy disc) (2) to the Machine Controller (3). The Machine Controller is
responsible for interpreting the part program to control the tool which will cut the
workpiece. The axes of the Machine (5) are moved by screws which are powered by servo
motors or stepper motors. The signals from the Machine Controller are amplified by the
Drives (4) so that they are powerful enough and suitably timed to operate the motors.
Although a conventional lathe is illustrated, the machine can be a slant-bed lathe, vertical
borer etc. We will generally use the term "lathe" in this manual to apply to any sort of
turning machine. Separate manuals describe customizing Mach3 and using Mach3 for
controlling a mill or similar machine.
Frequently the Machine Controller will control starting and stopping of the spindle motor
and its speed, will turn coolant on and off and will check that a part program or Machine
Operator (6) are not trying to move any axis beyond its limits.
The Machine Controller also has controls like buttons, a keyboard, potentiometer knobs, a
manual pulse generator (MPG) wheel, or a joystick so that the Operator can control the
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Introducing CNC Machining Systems
machine manually and start and stop the running of the part program. The Machine
Controller has a display so that the Operator knows what is happening.
Because the commands of a G-code program can request complicated co-ordinated
movements of the machine axes, the Machine Controller has to be able to perform a lot of
calculations in "real-time". Historically this made it an expensive piece of equipment.
2.2
How Mach3 fits in
Mach3 is a software package which runs on a PC and turns it into a very powerful and
economical Machine Controller to replace (3) in figure 1.1.
To run Mach3 you need Windows XP (or Windows 2000) ideally running on a 1GHz
processor with a 1024 x 768 pixel resolution screen. A desktop machine will give much
better performance than most laptops and be considerably cheaper. You can, of course use
this computer for any other functions in the workshop (such as (1) in figure 1.1 - running a
CAD/CAM package) but not when it is controlling your machine tool.
Mach3 communicates principally via one (or optionally two) parallel (printer) ports and, if
desired, a serial (COM) port.
The hardware drivers for your machine's axis motors must be designed accept step pulses
and a direction signal. Virtually all stepper motor drivers work like this, as do modern DC
and AC servo systems with digital encoders. Beware if you are converting an old NC
machine whose servos may use resolvers to measure position of the axes as you will have to
provide a complete new drive for each axis.
Using Mach3Turn
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An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
3.
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
You are still reading this so evidently you think Mach3 might be an asset in
your workshop! The best thing to do now is to download a free
demonstration version of the software and try it out on your computer. You
do not need a machine tool to be connected up, indeed for the present it is
better not to have one.
If you have bought a complete system from a reseller then some or all of
these installation steps may have be done for you already.
3.1
Installation
Mach3 is distributed by ArtSoft Corp. via the Internet. You download the package as one
self installing file (which, in the present release, is about 6 megabytes). This will run for an
unlimited period as a demonstration version with a few limitations on the speed, the size of
job that can be undertaken and the specialist features supported. When you purchase a
licence this will "unlock" the demonstration version you have already installed and
configured. Full details of pricing and options are on the ArtSoft Corporation website
www.artofcnc.ca
When you install Mach3 you will get the software for Turning and Milling. In fact the code
for these two functions is common although the user interfaces look very different, being
customised to suit the requirements and workflow of each type of machine. When you gain
experience with Mach3Turn you may find it instructive to see how Mach3's features are
exploited in Mach3Mill and consider if they could be used on your lathe.
3.1.1
Downloading
Download the package from www.artofcnc.ca using the right mouse button and Save Target
as… to put the self-installing file in any convenient working directory (perhaps
Windows\Temp). You should be logged in to Windows as an Administrator.
When the file has downloaded it can be immediately run by using the Open button on the
download dialog or this dialog can be closed for later installation. When you want to do the
installation you merely run the downloaded file. For example you could run Windows
Explorer (right click Start button), and double-click on the downloaded file in the working
directory.
3.1.2
Installing
You do not need a machine
tool connected yet. If you are
just starting it would be better
not to have one connected.
Note where the cable or cables
from the machine tool are
plugged into your PC. Switch
off the PC, the machine tool
and its drives and unplug the
25 pin connector(s) from the
back of the PC. Now switch
the PC back on.
When you run the downloaded
file you will be guided through
the usual installation steps for a
Windows program such as
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
Figure 3.1 – Driver options
3-1
Using Mach3Turn
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
accepting the license conditions and selecting the folder for Mach3. On the Setup Finished
dialog you should ensure that Load Mach3 Driver is checked and Load G2002 Driver is
unchecked and click Finish. You will now be told to reboot before running any Mach3
software.
3.1.3
The vital re-boot
This reboot is vital. If you do not do it then you will get into great difficulties which can
only be overcome by using the Windows Control Panel to uninstall the driver manually. So
please reboot now.
If you are interested in knowing why the reboot is required then read on, otherwise skip to
the next section.
Although Mach3 will appear to be a single program when you are using it, it actually
consists of three parts: a driver which is installed as part of Windows like a printer or
network driver, a graphical user interface (GUI) and an OCX which accepts messages from
and sends replies to the GUI. The reasons for having three parts are complex (for example it
is possible for experts to write their own programs which will control Mach3 without its
GUI) but the driver is the most important and ingenious part.
Mach3 must be able to send very accurately timed signals to control the axes of the machine
tool. Windows likes to be in charge and runs normal user programs when it has nothing
better to do itself. So Mach2 cannot be a "normal user program"; it must be at the lowest
level inside Windows (that is it handles interrupts). Furthermore to do this at the high
speeds possibly required (each axis can be given attention 45,000 times per second) the
driver needs to tune its own code. Windows does not approve of this (it's a trick that viruses
play) so it has to be asked to give special permission. This process requires the reboot. So if
you have not done the re-boot then Windows will give the Blue Screen of Death and the
driver will be corrupt. The only way out of this will be to manually remove the driver.
Having given these dire warnings, it is only fair to say that the reboot is only required when
the driver is first installed. If you update your system with a newer version then the reboot
is not vital. The install sequence does however still ask you to do it. Windows XP boots
reasonably quickly that it is not much hardship to do it every time.
3.1.4
Convenient desktop icons
So you have rebooted! The installation wizard will have created desktop icons for the main
programs. Double-clicking Mach3Turn is the usual way to run the program. Mach3.exe is
the actual user interface code. If you run it, it will ask which Profile you wish to use.
Mach3Mill, Mach3Turn etc. are just shortcuts which run this with a Profile defined by a
"/p" argument in the shortcut target You will usually employ these to start the required
system.
It is now worthwhile to
setup some icons for
desktop shortcuts to other
Mach3 programs. Use
Windows Explorer
(right-click Start) and by
right-clicking on the
Mach3Screen.exe file for
the Screen Designer
create a shortcut to the
file. Repeat this for the
file OCXDriverTest.exe
and KeyGrabber.exe.
Drag these shortcuts onto
your desktop.
Using Mach3Turn
Figure 3.1 – The OCX test program display
3-2
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
3.1.5
Testing the installation
It is now highly recommended to test the system. Mach3 is not a simple program. It takes
great liberties with Windows in order to perform its job; this means it will not work on all
systems due to many factors. For example, QuickTime’s system monitor (qtask.exe)
running in the background can kill it and there will be other programs which you probably
are not even aware are on your system that can do the same. Windows can and does start
many processes in the background; some appear as icons in the systray and others do not
show themselves in any way. Other possible sources of erratic operation are local area
network connections which may be configured to automatically speed detect. You should
configure these to the actual speed 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps of your network. Finally a
machine that has been surfing the Internet may have gained one or more of a host of "robot"
type programs which spy on what you are doing and send data over the 'net to their
originators. This traffic can interfere with Mach3 and is not something you want anyway.
Use a search engine for terms like "Spybot" to locate software to tidy up your machine.
Because of these factors, it is important, though not mandatory, that you test your system
when you suspect something is wrong or you just want to check that an install went well.
Double click the OCXDriverTest icon that you set up. Its screen shot is in figure 3.2.
You can ignore all the boxes with the exception of the Pulse Frequency. It should be fairly
steady around 24,600 Hz but yours may vary, even quite wildly. This is because Mach2
uses the Windows clock to calibrate its pulse timer and, over a short time scale, the
Windows clock can be affected by other processes loading the computer. So you may
actually be using an "unreliable" clock (the Windows one) to check Mach3 and so get the
false impression that Mach3's timer is unsteady. Basically, if you see a similar screen to
figure 3.2, everything is working well so close the OCXDriverTest program and skip to
the section Screens below.
Windows "experts" might be interested to see a few other things. The white rectangular
window is a type of timing analyzer. When it is running it displays a line with small
variations indicated. These variations are the changes in timing from one interrupt cycle to
another. There should be no lines longer than ¼ inch or so on an 17" screen on most
systems. Even if there are variations its possible they are below the threshold necessary to
create timing jitters so when your machine tool is connected you should perform a
movement test to see if jogging and G0/G1 moves are smooth.
You may have one of two things happen to you when running the test which may indicate a
problem.
1. “Driver not found or installed, contact Art.”, this means that the driver is not loaded
into Windows for some reason. This can occur on XP systems which have a corruption
of their driver database, reloading Windows is the cure in this case. Or, you may be
running Win2000. Win2000 has a bug/"feature" which interferes with loading the
driver. It may need to be loaded manually see the next section
2. When the system says, taking over…3…2…1.. and then reboots, one of two things has
occurred. Either you didn’t reboot when asked (told you!!) or the driver is corrupted or
unable to be used in your system. In this case follow the next section and remove the
driver manually, then re-install. If the same thing happens, please notify ArtSoft using
the e-mail link on www.artofcnc.ca and you will be given guidance.
A few systems have motherboards which have hardware for the APIC timer but whose
BIOS code does not use it. This will confuse Mach2 install. A DOS batch file
"SpecialDriver.bat" is available in the Mach3 installation folder. Find it with Windows
Explorer and double-click it to run it. This will make the Mach3 driver use the older
i8529 interrupt controller. You will need to repeat this process whenever you download
an upgraded version of Mach3 as installing the new version will replace the special
driver.
3.1.6
OCXTest after a Mach3 crash
Should you for any reason have a situation when running Mach3 where it crashes - this
might be an intermittent hardware problem or a software bug – then you must run OCXTest
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Using Mach3Turn
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
as soon as possible after Mach3 has failed. If you delay for two minutes then the Mach3
driver will cause Windows to fail with the usual "Blue Screen of Death". Running OCXTest
resets the driver to a stable condition even if Mach3 disappears unexpectedly.
3.1.7
Notes for manual driver installation and un-installation
You only need to read and do this section if you have not successfully run the
OCXDriverTest program.
The driver (Mach3.sys) can be installed and uninstalled manually using the Windows
control panel. The dialog boxes differ slightly between Windows 2000 and Windows XP
but the steps are identical.
♦ Open the Control panel and double-click on the icon or line for System.
♦ Select Hardware and click Add Hardware wizard. (As mentioned before Mach3's
driver works at the lowest level in Windows). Windows will look for any new
actual hardware (and find none).
♦ Tell the wizard you have already installed it and then proceed to the next screen.
♦ You will be shown a list of hardware. Scroll to the bottom of this and select Add a
new hardware device and move to the next screen.
♦ On the next screen you do not want Windows to search for the driver so select
Install the hardware that I manually select from a list (Advanced)
♦ The list you are shown will include an entry for Mach1 pulseing engine. Select
this and go to the next screen.
♦ Click Have disc and on the next screen point the file selector to your Mach3
directory (C:\Mach3 by default). Windows should find the file Mach3.inf. Select
this file and click Open. Windows will install the driver.
The driver can be uninstalled rather more simply.
♦ Open the Control panel and double-click on the icon or line for System.
♦ Select Hardware and click Device Manager
♦ You will be shown a list of devices and their drivers. Mach1 Pulsing Engine has
the driver Mach2 Driver under it. Use the + to expand the tree if necessary. Rightclick on Mach2 Driver gives the option to uninstall it. This will remove the file
Mach3.sys from the Windows folder. The copy in the Mach3 folder will still be
there. Notice that the names here refer to Mach1 and Mach2 even though you are
actually dealing with Mach3. This is quite in order.
There is one final point to note. Windows remembers all the information about the way you
have configured Mach3 in a Profile file. This information is not deleted by un-installing the
driver and deleting other Mach3 files so it will remain whenever you upgrade the system.
However in the very unlikely event that you need a totally clean installation from scratch
then you need to delete the .XML profile file or files.
3.2
Screens
You are now ready to try out a "dry run" Mach3. It will be much easier to show you how to
set up your actual machine tool when you have experimented with Mach3 like this. You can
"pretend" to machine and learn a lot even if you haven't got a CNC machine tool yet. If you
have got one, then do make sure it is not connected to the PC.
Mach3 is designed so that it is very easy to customize its screens to suit the way you work.
This means that the screens you see may not look exactly like those in Appendix 1. If there
are major differences then your system supplier should have given you a revised set of
screenshots to match your system.
Double-click the Mach3Turn icon on your desktop to run the program. You should see the
Welcome screen similar to that in Appendix 1.
Using Mach3Turn
3-4
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
Notice the red Reset button. It will have a flashing Red LEDs (simulation of a light emitting
diode) beside it. If you click the button then the red LEDs go out. Mach3 is ready for
action!
If you cannot stop the red Reset LEDs flashing then you have probably got an old XML
(profile) file on your system or something plugged into your parallel port(s). To reset to the
default XML file: close Mach3, delete the file Mach3Turn.xml in the installation folder
(usually C:\Mach3), and re-start Mach3Turn. If this does not help then you will need to
seek expert help or read the start of Chapter 5. Most of the tests and demonstrations in
this chapter will not work unless Mach3 is reset out of the EStop mode.
3.2.1
Types of object on screens
On the Welcome screen, use the mouse to click the button to switch to the Manual screen.
You will see that it is made up of the following types of object:
♦ Buttons (e.g. Spindle, Home X, etc.)
♦ DROs or Digital Readouts. Anything with a number displayed will be a DRO.
The main ones are, of course the current positions of the X, Z axes and, for most
machines, the spindle speed.
♦ LEDs (in various sizes and shapes)
♦ Toolpath display (blank rectangle on your screen at the moment)
♦ MDI (Manual Data Input) line (blue and below Home X, Home Z, etc. buttons.
There is one further important type of control that is not on the Program Run screen:
♦ G-code display window (with its own scroll bars)
Buttons, DROs and the MDI line are your inputs to Mach3.
DROs can be displays by Mach3 or can be used as inputs by you. The background colour
changes when you are inputting.
The G-code window and Toolpath displays are for information from Mach3 to you. You
can, however, manipulate both of them (e.g. scrolling the G-code window, zooming,
rotating and panning the Toolpath display)
3.2.2
Using buttons and shortcuts
On the standard screens many buttons have a keyboard hotkey. Pressing the shortcut key
when the screen is displayed is the same as clicking the button with the mouse. On the
manual screen the key "Q" is a hotkey for the Quit button. Both return you to the Welcome
screen. On the Welcome screen, you might like to try "M", "A", "T" and "D" as shortcuts to
the Manual, Auto, Tooltable and Diags screens. Although letters are given in uppercase
(for ease of reading) you do not use the shift key when using the shortcuts.
In a workshop it is convenient to minimise the times when you need to use a mouse. If you
are building your own machine you can provide physical switches on a control panel to
control Mach3 by use of a keyboard emulator board (e.g. Ultimarc IPAC) or via the
ModBus interface. Full details of these features are given in the Customising Mach3
manual.
If a button does not appear on the current screen then its keyboard shortcut is not active.
There are certain special keyboard shortcuts which are global across all screens. Chapter 5
shows how these are set up.
3.2.3
Data entry to DRO
You can enter new data into any DRO by clicking in it with the mouse, clicking its hotkey
(where set) or by using the global hotkey to select DROs and moving to the one that you
want with the arrow keys)
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Using Mach3Turn
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
On the Manual screen, try entering a feedrate like 45.3. You must press the Enter key to
accept the new value or the Esc key to revert to the previous one. Clicking the mouse in
another DRO is like Esc. Backspace and Delete are not used when inputting to DROs.
Caution: It is not always sensible to put your own data into a DRO. For example the
display of actual spindle speed is computed by Mach3. Any value you enter will be
overwritten. You can put values into the axis DROs but you should not do it until you have
read Chapter 7 in detail. This is not a way of moving the tool!
3.3
Jogging
You can move the tool relative to any place on your work manually by
using various types of Jogging.
Jogging is available on any screen that has the Jog On/Off button on it
(figure 3.3). This button is a toggle. One click turns jogging on, another
turns it off. A LED indicated when jogging is turned on.
Figure 3.3
For now the easiest way to jog the system is using the Up/Down and Left/Right arrow keys
on your keyboard. Try these out – with Jog switched on! – and see the X and Z DROs
change value. When your machine is connected its tool will be moving. If nothing happens
or it is very slow type the value 5 into the Slow Jog % DRO (see figure 3.5). Do not forget
the Enter key to accept the new value.
The arrow keys are set by default to give you jogging on the main axes.
You can configure these keys (see Chapter 5) to suit your own
preferences – for example for a machine with it tool behind the
centreline.
Beside the Jog On/Off button is the Jog Mode button (figure 3.4).
Associated with this is the Jog Inc LED.
Figure 3.4
If the Jog Inc LED is turned on, by toggling the Jog Mode button, then
each press on the jog key will move the axis by a fixed amount which you can setup.
In figure 3.5 you will see how to configure
continuous jog speed and the size of the step taken
with incremental jogging.
In Continuous mode the chosen axis will jog for as
long as you hold the key down. The speed of jogging
is set by the Slow Jog % DRO. You can enter any
value from 0.1% to 100% to get whatever speed you
want. The - and + buttons beside this DRO will alter
its value in 5% steps (or 0.1% steps when below 5%).
If you depress the Shift key then the jogging will
occur at the full speed of the axis whatever the Slow
Jog Percentage setting. This allows you to quickly
jog to near your destination and then position
accurately.
Figure 3.5 – Jog and other controls
In Inc mode, each press of a jog key will move the
axis by the distance indicated below the Jog Cycle
label. You can set this to whatever value you like by typing into the DRO or use the – and +
buttons to cycle through a set of preset increments. Movement will be at the current
Feedrate. If you have the feedrate defined as a feed per revolution then you must specify a
spindle speed in the S DRO before you get movement. Note that holding the key depressed
gives repeated step jogs because of the Typematic action of the keyboard.
If you have problems with incremental jogging then you can leave it for now. You will find
it very useful when making small controlled movements of the tool when setting up a job on
the machine.
Using Mach3Turn
3-6
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
One or two rotary encoders can be interfaced (via the parallel port input pins) to Mach3 and
can be used as a Manual Pulse Generator (MPG). Each is used to perform step jogging by
turning its knob when in MPG mode. Full details are given later in this manual.
As jogging the three, four or five axes of a mill is more demanding, there are many other
jogging options in Mach3. The two described here are generally suitable for turning. Full
details of other techniques are given in Using Mach3Mill User Guide and Customizing
Mach3.
3.4
Manual Data Input (MDI)
Go to the Manual screen.
This has a single line for data entry. You can click in it to select it or use press Enter which
will automatically select it.
You can type any valid line
that could appear in a part
program and it will be executed
when you press Enter. You can
discard the line by pressing
Figure 3.6 – The empty MDI line
Esc. The Backspace key can be
used for correcting mistakes in your typing.
If you know some G-code commands then you could try them out. If not then try:
G00 X1.6 Z-2.3
Which will move the tool to
coordinates X = 1.6 units and Z
= -2.3 units. (it is G zero not G
letter O). You will see the axis
DROs move to the new
coordinates.
Figure 3.7 – Command typed in MDI line
Try several different commands (or G00 to different places). If you use the up or down
arrow keys while in the MDI line you will see that Mach2 scrolls you back and forwards
through the history of commands you have used. This makes it easy to repeat a command
without having to re-type it. When you select the MDI line you will have noticed a flyout
box giving you a preview of this remembered text.
An MDI line (or block as a line of G-code is sometimes called) can have several commands
on it and they will be executed in the "sensible" order as defined in Chapter 10 - not
necessarily from left to right. For example setting a feed speed by something like F2.5 will
take effect before any feed speed movements even if the F2.5 appears in the middle or even
at the end of the line (block). If in doubt about the order that will be used then type several
separate MDI commands in one by one.
3.5
Wizards – CAM without dedicated CAM software
Figure 3.8 – Sample list of installed Wizards
Mach3 allows the use of add-on screens which allow the automation of quite complex tasks
by prompting the user to provide the relevant information. In this sense they are rather like
the so-called Wizards in much Windows software that guide you through the information
required for a task. The classic Windows Wizard will handle tasks line importing a file to a
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Using Mach3Turn
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
database or spreadsheet. In Mach3Turn, examples of Wizards include reducing the diameter
of a length of bar, turning a taper, putting a radius on a bar end and threading. When you
have gained experience with the system and understand G-code programs you can write
your own Wizards.
For now it is easy to try one out. In the Wizards menu, choose Pick Wizard… A table of the
Wizards installed on your system will be displayed (figure 3.8). As an example click on the
line for Lathe Turning Wizards, which is in the standard Mach3 release, and click Run.
Figure 3.9 – Menu of turning Wizards
The Mach3 screen currently displayed will be replaced by the one shown in figure 3.9.
Click on the OD Taper one as it is simple but quite interesting. You will now be shown a
screen with some default values for the shape to be turned. Enter suitable values. The
example in figure 3.10 is in metric units for radial programming and the feed is mm per
minute.
Figure 3.10 – Parameters of taper entered
When you are satisfied with the taper, click the Post Code button. This writes a G-code part
program and loads it into Mach3. See figure 3.11. The toolpath display shows the cuts that
will be made. You can revise your parameters to take smaller cuts or whatever and re-post
the code.
Using Mach3Turn
3-8
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
Figure 3.11 – G-Code for taper posted
If you wish, you can click Save Settings so the next time you run the Wizard the initial data
will be what is currently defined.
When you click Exit you will be returned to the Mach3 screen that you came from. If this is
not the Auto screen then use Quit Mode to return to the Welcome screen and click on Auto.
There are two screens used in Auto operation. This first one is the Auto Preparation screen.
See figure 3.12. On this screen you can jog the tool, change the spindle speed and define the
Figure 3.12 – Auto Prep Screen
Figure 3.13 – Auto Cycle Screen
current position of the tool in the X or Z axis to be zero. Later when you have the lathe
connected you would probably insert the bar to be turned and use jogging to face its end
and then use the Zero
button to set the tool
Z position as zero. If
you like you can
pretend to do this
now or alternatively
click the Cycle
button to move onto
the Auto Cycle
screen.
The Auto Cycle
screen allows you to
run the part program
produced by the
Wizard.
The path that the tool
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Figure 3.14 – Wizard generated program part-way through its run
3-9
Using Mach3Turn
An overview of Mach3 Machine Controller software
will take is shown on the toolpath display. Different types of move (e.g. rapid moves,
feedrate lines and feedrate arcs) are shown in different colors. This process will be often be
quicker than reading the description here.
Now use Cycle Start to run the program. The DROs will show the movements that the tool
will make on the actual machine and the line on the toolpath display is highlighted as the
tool moves.
This is illustrated in figure 3.14. You can see that the toolpath has been zoomed to show
extra detail and the next line of G-code top be executed is indicated by the highlight in the
G-code window. When the program is running you can pause it with the Feed Hold button
and make it run only one line at a time by selecting Single mode. All these functions are
fully explained later.
3.6
Running a G-code program
Now it is time when you might like to try to input and edit a part program yourself. You
will normally be able to edit programs without leaving Mach3 but, as we have not yet
configured it to know which editor to use, it is easiest to set up the program outside Mach3.
Use Windows Notepad to enter the following lines into a text file and save it in a
convenient folder (My Documents perhaps) as TurnDown.tap
When doing the Save As for your file, you need to choose Type of Save as All Files to stop
Notepad adding a .TXT your filename.
G20 G40 G49 G80 G90 G94(Imperial and standard modes)
G00 X0.3 Z0.05
F4
S1000 M0
G01 X0.28
G01 Z-1.2 (first cut)
G00 X0.3
G00 Z0.05
G01 X0.26
G01 Z-1.2 (second cut)
G00 X0.3
G00 Z0.05
M30 (rewind)
Again all the "0" are zeros in this. Don't forget to press the Enter key after the M30.
Figure 3.15 – Loading G-code entered by hand
Using Mach3Turn
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Now go to the Auto Preparation screen (using Quit mode and going from the Welcome
screen if necessary). Use the Load button and the dialog that it displays to locate and select
your file.
The toolpath will show the simple cuts to be made - figure 3.16. You can now use the Auto
Cycle screen to run your
program
Note: You should always run
your programs from a
harddrive not a floppy drive
or USB "key". Mach3 needs
highspeed access to the file,
which it maps into memory.
The program file must not be
read-only either.
Figure 3.16 – The TurnDown program loaded
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Using Mach3Turn
Hardware issues and connecting your machine tool
4.
Hardware issues and connecting the machine tool
This chapter tells you about the hardware aspects of connections. Chapter 5
gives details of configuring Mach3 to use the connected items.
If you have bought a machine that is already equipped to be run by Mach3
then you will probably not need to read this chapter (except out of general
interest). Your supplier will have given you some documentation on how to
connect the parts of your system together.
Read this chapter to discover what Mach3 expects it is going to control and
how you can connect up standard components like stepper motor drivers and
micro-switches. We will assume that you can understand simple schematic
circuit diagrams; if not, then now is the time to get some help.
On the first reading you might not want to bother with sections after 4.6.
4.1
Safety - emphasised
Any machine tool is potentially dangerous. This manual tries to give you
guidance on safety precautions and techniques but because we do not know
the details of your machine or local conditions we can accept no responsibility
for the performance of any machine or any damage or injury caused by its use.
It is your responsibility to ensure that you understand the implications of what
you design and build and to comply with any legislation and codes of practice
applicable to your country or state.
If you are in any doubt you must seek guidance from a professionally qualified expert
rather than risk injury to yourself or to others.
4.2
What Mach3 can control
Mach3 is a very flexible program designed to control a wide range of lathes and boring
machines (and although not described here, milling type machines). The key characteristics
of such machines controlled by Mach3 are:
♦ Some user controls. An emergency stop (EStop) button must be provided on every
machine
♦ Two axes which are at right angles to each other (referred to as X and Z)
♦ A tool which moves relative to a rotating workpiece. The origin of the axes is fixed in
relation to the workpiece.
And optionally:
♦ Some switches to say when the tool is in the "Home" position
♦ Some switches to define the limits of permitted relative movement of the tool
♦ Controls for the speed and/or direction of the spindle..
♦ A mechanical means of changing the tool that is in use.
♦ A switch or switches which interlock the guards on the machine
Most connections between your machine and the PC running Mach3 will be made through
the parallel (printer) port(s) of the computer. A simple machine will only need one port; a
complex one will need two. Connections for signals which are not time critical can also be
made through a "keyboard emulator" which generates pseudo key presses in response to
input signals or a serial interface using the ModBus protocol.
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Using Mach3Turn
Hardware issues and connecting your machine tool
Mach3 can switch the spindle on, rotating in either direction, and switch it off. It can also
control the rate at which it rotates (rpm) and monitor its angular position for operations like
cutting threads.
Mach3 can turn the two types of coolant on and off.
Mach3 will monitor the
EStop and can take note of
the operation of the
reference switches, the
guard interlock and limit
switches
Mach3 will store the
properties of up to 256
different tools. If, however,
your machine has an
automatic tool changer or
magazine then you will
have to control it yourself.
4.3
1
13
socket
number
25
14
0 volts
(common)
Figure 4.1 - Parallel port female connector
(seen from back of PC)
The EStop control
Every machine tool must have one or more Emergency Stop (EStop) buttons; usually with a
big red mushroom head. They must be fitted so that you can easily reach one from wherever
you might be when you are operating the machine.
Each EStop button should stop all activity in the machine as quickly as is safely possible;
the spindle should stop rotating and the axes should stop moving. This should happen
without relying on software so we are talking about relays and contactors. The circuit
should tell Mach3 what you have done and there is a special, mandatory input for this. It
will generally not be good enough to turn off the AC power for an EStop because the
energy stored in DC smoothing capacitors can allow motors to run on for some considerable
time.
The machine should not be able to run again until a "reset" button has been pressed. If the
EStop button locks, when pushed, then the machine should not start when you release it by
turning its head.
It will not generally be possible to continue machining a part after an EStop but you and the
machine will at least be safe.
4.4
The PC parallel port
4.4.1
The parallel port and its history
When IBM designed the original PC (160k floppy disc drive, 64kbytes of RAM!) they
provided an interface for connecting printers using a 25 conductor cable. This is the
foundation of the Parallel port we have on most PCs today. As it is a very simple way of
transferring data it has been used for many things other than connecting printers. You can
transfer files between PC, attach copy protection "dongles", connect peripherals like
scanners and Zip drives and of course control machine tools using it. USB is taking over
many of these functions and this conveniently leaves the parallel port free for Mach2.
The connector on the PC is a 25 way female "D" connector. Its sockets seen from the back
of the PC are shown in figure 4.1. The arrows give the direction of information flow relative
to the PC. Thus, for example, pin 15 is an input to the PC.
4.4.2
Logic signals
On first reading, you may wish to skip to the next heading and return here if you have to get
involved with the nitty-gritty of interface circuits. It will probably be useful to read it with
the documentation for your axis drive electronics.
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All the signals output by Mach3 and input to it are binary digital (i.e. zeros and ones) These
signals are voltages supplied by the output pins or supplied to the input pins of the parallel
port. These voltages are measured relative to the computer's 0 volt line (which is connected
to pins 18 to 25 of the port connector).
The first successful family (74xx series) of integrated circuits used TTL (transistortransistor logic). In TTL circuits, any voltage between 0 and 0.8 volts is called "lo" and any
voltage between 2.4 and 5 volts is called "hi". Connecting a negative voltage or anything
above 5 volts to a TTL input will produce smoke. 1 The parallel port was originally built
using TTL and to this day these voltages define its "lo" and "hi" signals. Notice that in the
worst case there is only 1.6 volts difference between them.
It is, of course, arbitrary whether we say that a "lo" represents a logic one or a logic zero.
However, as is explained below, "lo" = one is actually better in most practical interface
circuits.
For an output signal to do anything, some current will have to flow in the circuit connected
to it. When it is "hi" current will flow out of the computer. When it is "lo" current will flow
into the computer. The more current you have flowing in, the harder it is to keep the
voltage near zero so the nearer to the permitted limit of 0.8 volts "lo" will become.
Similarly, current flowing out of a "hi" will make the voltage be lower and nearer to the 2.4
volts lower limit. So with too much current the difference between "lo" and "hi" will be
even less than 1.6 volts and things will become unreliable. Finally, it's worth noting you are
allowed roughly 20 times more current flowing into a "lo" than you are allowed flowing out
of a "hi".
So this means that it is best to assign logic 1 to be a "lo" signal. Fairly obviously this is
Figure 4.2 – Three examples of
commercially available breakout boards
1
Some people think that integrated circuits work in some way by using smoke. Certainly no one has ever seen
one work after the smoke has escaped!
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called active lo logic. The main practical disadvantage of it is that the device connected to
the parallel port has to have a 5 volt supply to it. This is sometimes taken from the PC game
port socket , a USB socket or from a power supply in the device that is connected.
Turning to input signals, the computer will need to be supplied with some current (less than
40 microamps) for "hi" inputs and will supply some (less than 0.4 milliamps) for "lo"
inputs.
Because modern computer motherboards combine many functions, including the parallel
port, into one chip we have experienced systems where the voltages only just obey the "hi"
and "lo" rules. You might find that a machine tool that ran on and old system becomes
temperemental when you upgrade the computer. Pins 2 to 9 are likely to have similar
properties (they are the data pins when printing). Pin 1 is also vital in printing but the other
output pins are little used and may be less powerful in a "carefully optimised" design. A
good isolating breakout board (see next section) will protect you from these electrical
compatibility problems.
4.4.3
Electrical noise and expensive smoke
Even if you skipped the previous section you had better read this one!
You will see that pins 18 to 25 are connected to the 0 volt side of the computer's power
supply. All signals inside and outside the PC are relative to this. If you connect many long
wires to it, especially if they run near wires carrying high currents to motors, then these
wires will have currents flowing in then that create voltages which are like noise and can
cause errors. You might can even crash the computer.
The axis and perhaps spindle drives, which you will connect to Mach3 through your parallel
port, are likely to work at between 30 and 240 volts and they will be able to supply currents
of many amps. Properly connected they will do no harm to the computer but an accidental
short circuit could easily destroy the entire computer mother-board and even the CD-ROM
and hard drives as well.
For these two reasons you are very strongly advised to buy a device called an "isolating
breakout board". This will provide you with terminals that are easy to connect to, a separate
0 volt (common) for the drives, home switches etc. and will avoid exceeding the permitted
current in and out of the port. This breakout board, your drive electronics and power supply
should be neatly installed in a metal case to minimise the risk of interference to your
neighbours' radio and television signals. If you build a "rat's nest" then you are inviting
short circuits and tragedy. Figure 4.2 shows three commercial breakout boards.
Note that although the "D" connector on the PC is always a female, different breakout
boards have different gender connectors so you need to use the cable that is supplied with
the board or, if you are buying your own, check if you need a male-to-male or male-tofemale cable.
Here ends the sermon!
4.5
Axis drive options
4.5.1
Steppers and Servos
There are two possible types of motive power for axis drives:
♦ Stepper motor
♦ Servo motor (either AC or DC)
Either of these types of motor can then drive the axes through leadscrews (plain- or ballnut). The maximum speed of the motor will determine any gearing required between the
motor and machine.
Properties of a bipolar stepper motor drive are:
1. Low cost
2. Simple 4-wire connection to motor
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3. Low maintenance
4. Motor speed limited to about 1000 rpm and torque limited to about 3000 ounce
inches. (21 Nm). Getting the maximum speed depends on running the motor or the
drive electronics at their maximum permitted voltage. Getting the maximum torque
depends on running the motor at its maximum permitted current (amps)
5. For practical purposes on a machine tool steppers need to be driven by a chopped
micro-stepping controller to ensure smooth operation at any speed with reasonable
efficiency.
6. Only provides open loop control which means it is possible to lose steps under high
loading and this may not immediately be obvious to the machine user.
On the other hand a servo motor drive is:
1. Relatively expensive (especially if it has an AC motor)
2. Needs wiring for both the motor and encoder
3. Maintenance of brushes is required on DC motors
4. Motor speed in excess of 4000 rpm and a practically unlimited torque (if your
budget can stand it!)
5. Provides closed loop control so drive position is always known to be correct (or a
fault condition will be raised)
In practice stepper motor drives will give satisfactory performance up to something like a
6" centre height lathe unless you
want exceptional accuracy and
speed of operation.
It is worth giving two warnings
here. Firstly, if you have a servo
systems from a old machines it is
probably not digital; in particular it
will not be controlled by a series of
step pulses and a direction signal.
To use an old motor with Mach3
you will need to discard the
resolver (which gave the position)
and fit a quadrature encoder and
you will have to replace all the
Figure 4.3 - Small DC servo motor with encoder (left)
electronics. Secondly beware of
and gearbox
secondhand stepper motors unless
you can get manufacturer's data for
them. They might be designed for 5-phase operation, may not work well with a modern
chopped micro-stepping controller and might have a much lower rated torque than the same
size of modern motor.. Unless you can test them, you may find that they have been
accidentally demagnetised and so be useless. Unless you are really confident of your skills
and experience, then the axis drives should be current products bought from suppliers who
will support them. If you buy right then you will only need to buy once.
4.5.2
Doing Axis drive calculations
A full set of calculations for the axis drives would be very complicated and anyway you
probably do not have all the necessary data (e.g. what is the maximum cutting force you
want to use). Some calculation is, however, necessary for success.
If you are reading the manual for an overview then you might like to skip this section.
Fuller details of the calculations are given in chapter 5.
Example 1 - LATHE CROSS SLIDE
We start with checking the minimum possible move distance. This is an absolute limit to
the accuracy of work done on the machine. We will then check rapid speeds and torque.
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As an example suppose you are designing a 6" lathe cross-slide (X axis) drive. You are
going to use a screw with a 0.1" pitch single start thread and a ball nut. You want to aim for
a minimum move of 0.0001" (two tenths of a thou on the diameter). This is 1/1000 of a
revolution of the motor shaft if it is coupled directly to the screw.
Slide with stepper motor
The minimum step with a stepper motor depends on how it is controlled. There are usually
200 full steps per revolution. You need to use micro-stepping for smooth running over the
full range of feed speeds and many controllers will allow you to have 10 micro-steps per
full step. This system would give 1/2000 of a revolution as the minimum step which is fine.
Next look at the possible rapid feed speed. Assume, conservatively, that the maximum
motor speed is 500 rpm. This would give a rapid of 50 inches/minute or about 5 seconds
for the full slide travel. This would be satisfactory.
At this speed the micro-stepping motor drive electronics need 16,666 (500 * 200 * 10 / 60)
pulses per second. On a 1 GHz PC, Mach3 can comfortably generate 35,000 pulses per
second simultaneously on each of the axes. So there are no problems here.
You now have to choose the torque that the machine will require. One way to measure this
is to set up the machine for the heaviest cut you think you will ever make and, with a long
lever (say 12") on the slide handwheel, turn it at the end with a spring balance (of set of
spring kitchen scales). The torque for the cut (in ounce-inches) is the balance reading (in
ounces) x 12. The other way is to use a motor size and specification that you know works
on someone else's machine with the same type of slide and screw!
As the rapid feed speed was reasonable you could consider slowing it down by 2:1 gearing
(perhaps by a toothed belt drive) which would nearly double the available torque on the
screw and is an easier way of connecting the motor than by using a shaft coupling.
Slide with servo motor
Again we look at the size of one step. A servo motor has an encoder to tell its drive
electronics where it is. This consists of a slotted disc and will generate four “quadrature”
pulses for each slot in the disc. Thus a disc with 300 slots generates 300 cycles per
revolution (CPR) This is fairly low for commercial encoders. The encoder electronics will
output 1200 quadrature counts per revolution (QCPR) of the motor shaft.
The drive electronics for the servo will usually turn the motor by one quadrature count per
input step pulse. Some high specification servo electronics can multiply and/or divide the
step pulses by a constant (e.g. one step pulse moves by 5 quadrature pulses or even 36/17
pulses). This is often called electronic gearing.
As the maximum speed of a servo motor is around 4000 rpm we will certainly need a speed
reduction on the mechanical drive. 5:1 would seem sensible. This gives a movement of
0.0000167" per step which is much better than that required (0.0001")
What maximum rapid speed will we get? With 35,000 step pulses per second we get 5.83
revolutions [35000/(1200 * 5)] of the leadscrew per second. This is OK at about 8 seconds
for 4" travel of the slide. Notice, however, that the speed is limited by the pulse rate from
Mach3 not the motor speed. This is actually only about 1750 rpm in the example. The
limitation would be even worse if the encoder gave more pulses per revolution. It will often
be necessary to use servo electronics with electronic gearing to overcome this limitation if
you have high count encoders.
Finally one would check on available torque. On a servo motor less safety margin is
required than with a stepper motor because the servo cannot suffer from "lost steps". If the
torque required by the machine is too high then the motor may overheat or the drive
electronics raise an over-current fault.
Example 2 – LATHE LONG AXIS
For the Z axis you will need a travel of 600 mm to 1000 mm depending on the length of the
lathe bed..
We might choose a minimum step of 10 microns (0.01 mm) with a screw of pitch 5mm
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Suppose we want to be able to cut a 2 mm pitch thread at 700 rpm spindle speed. This
requires 2 ÷ 5 * 700 = 280 rpm at the Z axis screw. This would be OK with a stepper
driving directly or even with a 2:1 reduction.
The torque calculation on this machine is more difficult than with the cross slide as, with
the mass of the saddle to be moved, inertia, during acceleration and deceleration, is
probably more important than the cutting forces. The experience of others or experiments
will be the best guide. If you join the ArtSoft user group for Mach3 on Yahoo! you will
have access to the experience of hundreds of other users.
4.5.3
How the Step and Dir signals work
Mach3 puts ne pulse (logic
1) on the Step output pin
for each step that the axis is
to make. The Dir output
will have been set before
the step pulse appears.
Step pulse
1
0
Figure 4.4 - Step pulse waveform
The logic waveform will be
like that shown in figure 4.4. The gap between the pulses will be smaller the higher the
speed of the steps.
Stepper drive
electronics usually use
Step if incorrectly 1
the Active Lo
set Active Hi
configuration for Step
0
and Dir signals. Mach3
should be setup so
Figure 4.5 - Wrongly configured output alters step waveform
these outputs are
Active Lo. If this is not done then the Step signal still goes up and down but the drive thinks
that the gaps between the pulses are the pulses and vice-versa and this often causes very
rough or unreliable running of the motor. The "inverted" pulses are shown in figure 4.5.
4.6
Limit and Home switches
4.6.1
Strategies
Limit switches are used to
prevent any linear axis
moving too far and so
causing damage to the
structure of the machine.
Limit switches are less
useful on a lathe than on a
mill because there are more
things to crash into –
especially with the Z axis.
For example, a limit that
prevents a turning tool
hitting the chuck will not
save a carelessly jogged
Figure 4.6 – Limit/Home microswitch mounted on the saddle
boring bar. Similarly it is
is tripped by a plate (below). Other limit switch is above for Xeasy to hit the tailstock
minus movement
with both X-minus and Zplus movements. A switch is, however, always going to be useful at the X-plus limit.
You will probably want to install limit switches to protect the ballscrews and nuts at both
ends of their travel if you have fast and/or powerful axis drives.
An axis may also have a Home switch. Mach3 can be commanded to move one (or both)
axes to the home position. This will need to be done whenever the system is switched on so
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that it knows where the axes are currently positioned. If you do not provide a home switch
then you will have to jog the axes by eye to a reference position.
A home switch for the X axis is exceptionally useful. The reason for this is that, for a given
tool, the X coordinate of the centre-line of the spindle and tailstock should always be zero.
On a mill all the zeros depend on where you put the work on the table and how thick it is
but the lathe centreline is always X = 0.
The home switch for an axis can be at any position and you define this location to Mach3.
Thus the home switches do not have to be at Machine Zero.
As you will have seen, each axis could need three switches (i.e. limit switches at the two
ends of travel and a home switch). So a basic lathe would require six parallel port inputs
for them. This is not much good as a parallel port only has 5 inputs! This problem can be
solved in three ways:
♦ The limit switches are connected to external logic (perhaps in the drive
electronics) and this logic switches off the drives when the limit is reached. The
separate reference switches are connected inputs to Mach3
♦ One pin can share all the inputs for an axis and Mach3 is responsible for
controlling both limits and detecting home
♦ The switches can be interfaced by a keyboard emulator/ModBus.
The first method is best and mandatory for a very large, expensive or fast machine where
you cannot
trust the
software and
its
configuration
to prevent
mechanical
damage.
Switches
connected to
the drive
electronics can
be intelligent
and only allow
motion away
Figure 4.7 – The lathe in fig 4.6 showing its Z limit switches
from a switch
when the limit
is hit. This is safer than disabling the limits so a user can jog the machine off its limits but it
does rely on having a sophisticated drive.
With the second method you only need two inputs to Mach3 and only two switches are
required per axis as one limit and the home can share a switch. This is probably the best
solution for the average lathe.
In the third solution you are constrained
because the keyboard emulator has a much
slower response time that the parallel port
but it is satisfactory for limit switches on a
machine without highspeed feeds. For
details of the keyboard emulator and
ModBus architecture see Mach3
Customisation manual.
4.6.2
470 ohm
resistor
+ limit
to Mach3 input
- limit
The switches
and Ref
There are several choices you need to make
when selecting switches:
(a) If you are going to have two switches
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0 volts
Figure 4.8 - Two NC mechanical switches
give logic OR
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sharing an input then they need to be connected so the signal is a logic "1" if either switch
is operated (i.e. the logical OR function). This is easy with mechanical switches. If they
have normally closed contacts and are wired in series as shown in figure 4.8, then they will
give an Active Hi signal if either switch is operated. Note that for reliable operation you
need to "pull up" the input to the parallel port. As mechanical switches can carry a
significant current a value of 470R is shown which gives a current of about 10 milliamps.
As the wiring to the switches might be quite long and liable to pickup of noise make sure
that you have a good connection to the 0 volt side of your input (the frame of your machine
tool will not be satisfactory) and consider using shielded cable with the shield connected to
the main ground terminal of your controller.
If you use electronic switches like a slotted detector with a LED and photo-transistor, then
you will need some sort of an OR gate (which could be a "wired-or" if an Active Lo input is
driven by open collector transistors).
(b) Optical switches, if out of the way of coolant, should be OK on a metalworking machine
but are liable to malfunction with wood dust.
Don't use magnetic switches (reed switches or Hall effect devices) as the swarf will "fuzzup" the magnet.
(c) The repeatability of the operating point, particularly with mechanical switches, is very
dependent on the quality of the switch and the rigidity of its mounting and actuating lever.
The setup in Figure 4.6 shows a high quality switch with a very rigid actuator. The
repeatability is very important for a switch to be used for home as it will determine the
accuracy parts that are turned.
(d) Overtravel is the movement of the switch that occurs after it has operated. With a limit
switch it can be caused by the inertia of the drive. Choose a switch that will not be damaged
by ¼" or more of overtravel.
4.6.3
Where to mount the switches
The choice of mounting position for switches is often a compromise between keeping them
away from swarf and dust and having to use flexible rather than fixed wiring.
For example figure 4.6 shows switches mounted well away from the cutting tool position.
The Z switches in figure 4.7 have fixed wiring and are out of the way of any coolant..
You might find it convenient to have only one moving cable with the wires in it for both
axes (e.g. put both sets of switches on the saddle). Do not be tempted to share a multi-way
cable between motor and switch wiring. You may want to run two separate cables together
and this will not cause trouble if both a shielded (with braid or foil) and the shields are
grounded to one common point at the electronic drives.
You might find it helpful to look at commercial machines and pictures of examples on the
Master5/Mach1/Mach2 Yahoo! group for more ideas and techniques for switches.
4.6.4
How Mach3 uses shared switches
This section refers to the configuration for small machines where Mach3 rather than
external EStop logic is controlled by the switches (option 2 above).
For a full understanding of this you will also have to read the section in chapter 5 on
configuring Mach3, but the basic principle is easy. You connect the two limit switches to
one input. You define, to Mach3, a direction as the direction to travel to move when looking
for a home switch. The limit switch at that end of the axis is also the home switch.
In normal use when Mach3 is moving an axis and sees its limit input become active, it will
stop running (like an EStop) and display that a limit switch has been tripped. You will be
unable to move the axes unless:
1) Auto limit override is switched on (by a toggle button on the Diagnostics screen). In this
case you can click Reset and jog off the limit switch. You should then reference the
machine
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2) You click Override limits button on the Diagnostics screen. A red flashing LED warns
you of the temporary override. This will again allow you Reset and to jog off the switch
and will then turn itself and the flashing LED off. Again you should reference the
machine. An input signal can also be defined to override the limit switches so you can
wire a switch on your control panel to it.
Note however, although Mach3 uses limited jogging speed when limits are overridden, that
you will not be prevented from jogging further onto the switch and maybe crashing the axis
into a mechanical stop. Take great care.
4.6.5
Referencing in action
When you request referencing (by a button or G-code) the axis (or axes) which have home
switches defined will travel (at a selectable low speed) in the defined direction until the
home switch operates. The axis will then move back in the other direction so as to be off the
switch. During referencing the limits do not apply.
When you have referenced an axis then zero or some other value which is set up in the
Config>Homing/Limits dialog, can be loaded into the axis DRO as its absolute machine
coordinate. If you use a value of zero, then the home switch position is also the machine
zero position of the axis. If the reference goes in the negative direction of an axis (usual for
X and Y) the you might get referencing to load something like -0.25" into the DRO. This
means that the home is quarter of an inch clear of the limit. This wastes a bit of the axis
travel but if you overshoot, when jogging near home, then you will not accidentally trip the
limits. See also Software Limits as another way of solving this problem.
If you happen to be already on a switch in a setup where both limits and home share an
input and ask Mach3 to reference then it will travel in the opposite direction to usual
(because it knows that you are already on the home switch) and stop when you get off the
switch. This is fine when you have a separate home switch or are on the limit at the
reference end of the axis. If, however, you are on the other Limit switch (and Mach2
cannot know this as they are shared) then the axis moves for ever away from the actual
home point until it crashes. So the advice is: always jog carefully off the limit switches,
then reference.
4.6.6
Other Home and Limit options and hints
Separate high accuracy home switch
The X axis on a high precision machine might have a separate home switch to achieve the
required accuracy. Diameters are usually the tightest toleranced dimensions on a part.
Limit switches of multiple axes connected together
Because Mach3 does not take any notice of which limit of which axis has tripped, then all
the limits can be ORed together and fed into one limit input. Each axis can then have its
own reference switch connected to the reference input. A two axis machine still only needs
three inputs.
Home switches of multiple axes connected together
If you are really short of inputs to Mach3 then you can OR the home switches together and
define all home inputs to be that signal. In this case you can only reference one axis at once
– so you need to remove REF All buttons from your screens – and your home switches must
all be at the same end of travel on their respective axes (e.g. maximum positive position).
4.7
Spindle control
There are three different ways in which Mach3 can control your "spindle" or you can ignore
all of these and control it manually.
1. Relay/contactor control of motor On (Clockwise or Counterclockwise) and motor
Off
2. Motor controlled by Step and Direction pulses (e.g. spindle motor is a servo)
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3. Motor controlled by a pulse width modulated signal
1. On/Off motor control
This method requires you to control your spindle speed by hand. This is a major
disadvantage in a lathe where you may want a range of speeds depending on the diameter of
the portion of your job that you are turning. If possible we advise you to allow Mach3 to
control spindle speed.
M3 and a screen button will request that the spindle starts in a clockwise direction. M4 will
request that the spindle starts in an counterclockwise direction. M5 requests that the spindle
stops. M3 and M4 can be configured to activate external output signals which can be
associated with output pins on the parallel ports. You then wire these outputs (probably via
relays) to control the motor contactors for your machine.
Although this sounds straightforward, in practice you need to be very careful. Unless you
really need to run the spindle "backwards" it would be better to treat M3 and M4 as the
same or to allow M4 to activate a signal which you do not connect to anything.
Clearly it is possible, in an error situation, for the clockwise and counterclockwise signals to
be active together. This may cause the contactors to short the mains supply. Special
mechanically interlocked reversing contactors can be obtained and if you are going to allow
your spindle to run counterclockwise then you need to use one. Another difficulty is that the
"G-code" definition says that it is legal to issue an M4 when the spindle is running
clockwise under an M3 (and vice-versa). If your spindle drive is an AC motor, just
changing the direction when running at full speed is going to impose very large forces on
the mechanical drive of the machine and will probably blow the AC fuse or trip a circuit
breaker. Mach3 does have a software facility to impose fixed delays in the output of these
signals but you need to take care, especially with a powerful spindle drive..
See also the note about the limited number of Relay Activation Signals in the section on
Coolant.
2. Step and Direction motor control
If your spindle motor is driven by an invertor with a Step and Direction input or by a
servomotor with a step and direction drive (like the axis drives) then you can configure two
output signals to control its speed and direction of rotation. Mach3 will take account of a
variable step pulley drive or gearbox between the motor and the spindle. For full details see
Motor Tuning in chapter 5
3. PWM motor control
As an alternative to Step and Direction control, Mach3 can output a pulse width modulated
signal whose duty cycle is the percentage of full speed that you require. You could, for
example, convert the
duty cycle of the signal
to a voltage ( PWM
signal on for 0% of time
gives 0 volts 50% gives 5
Ave
volts and 100% gives 10
volts) and use this to
control an induction
motor with a variable
Figure 4.9 – A 20% pulse width modulated signal
frequency inverter drive.
Alternatively the PWM
signal could be used to
trigger a triac in a simple
DC speed controller.
Figures 4.9 and 4.10
show the pulse width at
approximately 20% of
the cycle and 50% of the
cycle.
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Figure 4.10 – A 50% pulse width modulated signal
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In order for the PWM spindle speed signal to be turned into direct current (actually a direct
voltage is generally used as the input to variable speed drives, but you know what we mean)
the pulse signal it must transformed. In essence a circuit is used to find the average of the
pulse width modulated signal. The circuit can be a simple capacitor and resistor or be much
more complex depending (a) on how linear you want the relationship between the width and
the final output voltage and (b) on the speed of response you need to the changing pulse
width.
You need to take care with the electronics as the inputs of many cheap PWM speed
controllers are not isolated from the mains. Further details can be found in the discussion
and files area of the Mach2DN site and by using "PWM converter" or "PWM Digispeed" as
a search term to Google or your favorite search engine.
The PWM signal is output on the spindle Step pin. You may need to take special
precautions to switch off the motor at low speeds using the Motor
Clockwise/Counterclockwise outputs.
Note: Many users have found that PWM and other variable speed spindle drives are often a
serious source of electrical noise which can cause problems with the machine axis drives,
limit switch sensing etc. We strongly recommend you to use an optically isolated breakout
board and take care to shield cables and run the power cables a few inches away from the
control cables.
4.8
Spindle index pulse
When threading, it is essential for Mach2 to know the exact angular position of the spindle.
This can be sensed in one of two ways which are similar to each other.
Figure 4.11 shows a spindle
with a slotted disc on it. The
slots are detected by a sensor
consisting of an infra-red
LED and a photo-transistor
mounted so that the disc
turns between them. They is
on the aluminium block
shown below the disc. Mach3
has an input for one or more
pulses generated each
revolution of the spindle.
It is also possible to use a
reflective opto-sensor
"looking at" white stripes on
a blackened pulley or gear.
This requires more
Figure 4.11 – Spindle position sensor
adjustment when setting it up
to get reliable results but may be easier to arrange.
The disc shown in figure 4.11 has four slots in it. The one at the eight-o'clock position is
wider than the others by at least 50%. The other slots are approximately evenly spaced
around the disc. Precision is not required here as Mach3 calibrates itself and even discovers
the number of slots (or stripes for a reflective sensor) that are in use.
Spindles with a reasonable amount of inertia work fine with just one slot. Our advice is
initially to use one slot or mark unless you already have a disc with more.
For reliable running Mach3 needs a pulse of at least 200 microseconds from the slots. You
can calculate your slot angle or width as follows:
Suppose the maximum speed of your spindle is N (rpm).
The slot angle required alpha (degrees) is given by
alpha = 0.0012 x N
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If the diameter of the disc is D (inches or mm) then the slot width W (in same units) will be
approximately
W = 0.0088 x alpha x D
So for example if maximum spindle speed is 3000 RPM and disc diameter is 110 mm then:
Alpha = 0.0012 x 3000 = 3.6o
Slot width = 0.0088 x 3.6 x 110 = 3.48 mm
Big slot needs to be 50% wider = 3.48 x 1.5 = 5.22 mm
The example in figure 4.11 has three slots at about 4 mm and one about 8 mm wide.
You will see that you cannot use a disc with many slots or holes in it or use a conventional
encoder. The pulse would be too fast.
As well as for timing threading operations, Mach3 also uses the index pulse to display the
actual speed of the spindle and can implement a feed-per-revolution, rather than feed-perminute, based on it.
4.9
Coolant
Output signals can be used to control valves or pumps for flood and mist coolant. These are
activated by screen buttons and/or M7, M8, M9.
Note: While mach3 has six Relay Output signals only three of them are available to be
shared between the four functions of Spindle clockwise, Spindle counterclockwise, Flood
coolant and Mist coolant. You may need to make some compromises in your machine
design.
4.10
Manual Pulse Generators
It is often convenient to
control a CNC lathe by
hand. Mach3 has
powerful jogging
controls but the most
intuitive manual control
can be obtained using
handwheels connected to
encoders (MPGs). Figure
4.12 shows a prototype
control panel that is so
equipped. Traditional
MPGs include detents to
give a click action as
they are turned. For
manual turning some
operators prefer the feel
of the machoine if these
are disabled.
4.11
Figure 4.12 – Bench lathe with control panel including two MPGs
Linear and
rotary encoders
This is an advanced feature which few machines will need to use.
Mach3 has three pairs of inputs to each of which an encoder with quadrature outputs can be
connected (typically these might be "glass scale" encoders - see figure 4.13.) Mach3 will
display the position of each of these encoders on a dedicated DRO. These values can be
loaded from and saved to the main axis DROs.
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Hardware issues and connecting your machine tool
Inside the case of the encoder
is a glass (or sometimes
plastic) strip ruled with lines
(e.g. often 10 microns wide)
separated by the same sized
clear space. A full
explanation is rather long,
but the signal changes every
5 microns of movement so
the resolution of the scale is
5 microns. We can tell which
way it is moving by the
sequence of changes.
Figure 4.13 - Glass scale encoder (awaiting installation)
Mach3 expects logic signals. Some glass scales (e.g certain Heidenhain models) give an
analog sinewave. This allows clever electronics to interpolate to a higher resolution than 5
microns. If you want to use these than you need to square off the waveform with an
operational amplifier/comparator. TTL output encoders will connect directly to the input
pins of the parallel port but, as noise will give false counts, they are better interfaced via
what is known as a Schmitt trigger chip. The scales require a DC supply (often 5 volts) for
the lights and any driver chips in them.
Notice:
(a) the main benefit of using linear encoders on linear axes is that their measurements
do not depend on the accuracy or backlash of the drive screw, belt, chain etc.
(b) that you can not easily use a linear scale as the feedback encoder for a servo drive
as the slightest backlash or springiness in the mechanical drive will make the servo
unstable.
(c) it is not easy to connect the rotary encoders on the servo motor to the encoder
DROs as well even though this would be attractive for manual operation of the axes
with position readout. The problem is that the 0 volt (common) inside the servo drive
used for the motor encoders is almost certainly not the same 0 volt as your PC or
breakout board. Connecting them together will cause problems - don't be tempted to
do it!
4.12
Charge pump - a pulse monitor
Mach3 will output a constant pulse train whose frequency is approximately 12.5 kHZ on
one or both of the parallel ports whenever it is running correctly. This signal will not be
there if the Mach2 has not been loaded, is in EStop mode or if the pulse train generator fails
in some way. This function is often implemented in commercial breakout boards. You can
use this signal to charge a capacitor through a diode pump (hence the name) whose output,
showing Mach3's health, enables your axis and spindle drives etc.
4.13
Other functions
Mach3 has six OEM Trigger input signals which you can assign for your own use. For
example they can be tested in user written macros.
The first three of these inputs can be emulated by keystrokes from the PC keyboard port
instead of being physically wired to a parallel port. Full details of the architecture of Input
Emulation are given in Mach3 Customisation manual. The setup dialog is defined in section
5.
Input #1 can be used to inhibit running of the part program. It might be connected to the
guards on your machine.
The six Relay Activation outputs have already been mentioned under Spindle and Coolant.
Any spares can be used by you and controlled in user written macros.
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And a final thought - before you get carried away with implementing too many of the
features in this chapter, remember that you do not have an unlimited number of
inputs/outputs. Even with two parallel ports there are only ten inputs for supporting all
functions and, although a keyboard emulator will help giving more inputs, these cannot be
used for all functions. Full details are given in chapter 5.
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Configuring Mach3
5.
Configuring Mach3 for your machine and drives
If you have bought a machine tool with a computer running Mach3 then you
will probably not need to read this chapter (except out of general interest).
Your supplier will probably have installed the Mach3 software and set it up
and/or will have given you detailed instructions on what to do.
You are recommended to ensure that you have a paper copy of how Mach3 is
configured should you ever need to re-install the software from scratch.
Mach2 stores this information in an XML file which you can view.
5.1
A configuration strategy
This chapter contains a lot of very fine detail. You should, however, find that the
configuration process is straightforward if you take it step-by-step, testing as you go. A
good strategy is to skim through the chapter and then work with it on your computer and
machine tool. We will assume that you have already installed Mach3 for the dry running
described in chapter 3.
Virtually all the work you will do in this chapter is based on dialog boxes reached from the
Config(ure) menu. These are identified by, for example, Config>Logic which means that
you choose the Logic entry from the Config menu.
5.2
Defining the native setup units
The first thing to decide is whether you wish to
define the properties of your machine in Metric
(millimetres) or Inch units. You will be able to
run part programs in either units whichever you
choose. The maths for configuration will be
slightly easier if you choose the same system as
ballscrew is made in. So a screw with 0.2" lead (5
tpi) is easier to configure in inches than in
millimetres. Similarly a 2mm lead screw will be
easier in millimetres. The multiplication and/or
division by 25.4 is not difficult but is just
something else to think about.
There is, on the other hand, a slight advantage in
Figure 5.1 - Native Units dialog
having the setup units be the units in which you
usually work. This advantage is that you can lock
the DROs to display in this system whatever the part program is doing (i.e. switching units
by G20 and G21).
So the choice is yours. Use Config>Setup Units to choose MMs or Inches (see figure 5.1).
Once you have made a choice you must not change it without going back over all the
following steps or total confusion will reign!
5.3
Initial configuration of engine and ports
The first dialog to use is Config>Ports and Pins. This dialog has many tabs but the initial
one is as shown in figure 5.2.
If you are only going to use one parallel port and it is the one on your computer's
motherboard then the default address of Port 1 of 0x378 (i.e. Hexadecimal 378) is almost
certainly correct.
If you are using one or more PCI add-on cards then you will need to discover the address
each responds to as there seem to be no standards! Run the Windows Control Panel from
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Configuring Mach3
Figure 5.2 - Ports and Axis selection tab
the Windows Start button. Double click on System and choose the Hardware tab. Click the
Device Manager button. Expand the tree for the item "Ports (COM & LPT)".
Double click the first LPT or ECP port. Its properties will be displayed in a new window.
(see figure 5.3) Choose the Resources tab. The first number in the first IO range line is the
address to use. Note the value down and close the Properties dialog.
Note: that installing or removing any PCI card can change the address of a PCI parallel port
card even if you have not touched it.
If you are going to use a second port repeat the above paragraph for it.
Close the Device Manager, System Properties and Control Panel windows.
Enter your first port's
address (do not provide
0x prefix to say it is
Hexadecimal as Mach3
assumes this)
If necessary check
Enabled for port 2 and
enter its address. If you
require a lot of input
signals on your machine
the you can check Pins 29 as Inputs and get 13
inputs on port 2.
You should now choose
the Kernel speed. If you
are using the
demonstration version
(i.e. have not yet
purchased and installed
your license) the you can
only use 25000 Hz. The
kernel speed affects the
maximum pulse rate that
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Figure 5.3 – Finding PCI port address
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Mach3 can output. Unless you are using servo drives on your axes or spindle and they have
high resolution encoders (more than 200 CPR) you can safely leave the speed at 25000 Hz.
Warning: If you change the kernel speed then you must retune all you axes and spindle or
you risk motors stalling and/or the computer locking up.
Unless you have special hardware leave the ModBus Input/Output, USB Mode and MAX
NC mode boxes unchecked.
Now click the Apply button to save these values. This is most important. Mach3 will not
remember values when you change from tab to tab or close the Port & Pins dialog
unless you Apply.
5.4
Defining input and output signals that you will use
Now that you have established the basic configuration it is time to define which input and
output signals you will be going to use and which parallel port and pin will be used for
each. The documentation for your breakout board may give guidance on what outputs to use
if it has been designed for use with Mach3 or the board may be supplied with a skeleton
Profile (.XML) file with these connections already defined.
5.4.1
Axis and Spindle output signals to be used
First view the Motor Outputs tab. This will look like figure 5.4.
Define where the drives for your X and Z axes are connected and click to get a check-mark
Figure 5.4 – Defining the connections for axes and the controlled spindle
Enable these axes. If your interface hardware (e.g. Gecko 201 stepper driver) requires an
active-lo signal ensure that these are checked for the Step and Dir(ection) signals.
You are unlikely to have Y, A, B or C axes when turning so leave these disabled (with a red
cross).
If your spindle speed will be controlled by hand then you have finished this tab. Click the
Apply button to save the data on this tab.
If your spindle speed will be controlled by Mach3 then you need to Enable the spindle and
allocated a Step pin/port for it if it uses pulse width modulated control with relays to control
its direction or to allocate Step and Direction pins/ports if it has full control. You should
also define if these signals are active-lo. When done, click the Apply button to save the
data on this tab.
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5.4.2
Input signals to be used
Now select the Input Signals tab. This will look like figure 5.5.
We assume that you have chosen one of the strategies from chapter 4.6.
Figure 5.5 – Input signals
If you have used strategy one and the limit switches are connected together and trigger an
EStop or disable the axis drives via the drive electronics then you do not check any of the
Limit inputs.
With strategy two you will probably have home switches on the X and Z axes. Enable the
Home switches boxes for these axes and define the Port/Pin to which each is connected. If
you are combining limits and the home switch then you should enable the Limit --, the Limit
++ and Home for each axis and allocate the same pin to Home, Limit— and Limit++.
The configuration shown if figure 5.4 shows a machine with no limit switch at the chuck
end of the Z axis and other axis limits and home being shared.
As with axis drives you will leave Y, A, B and C switch inputs disabled. Notice the scroll
bar to access the rest of the table which is not visible in figure 5.5.
The Input #1 is special in that it can be used to inhibit running a part program when safety
guards are not in place. The other three (and #1 if not used for the guard interlock) are
available for your own use and can be tested in the code of macros. The Input #4 can be
used to connect an external pushbutton switch to implement the Single Step function. You
may wish to configure them later.
Enable and define Index Pulse if you have a spindle sensor with just one slot or mark.
Enable and define Limits Override if you are letting Mach2 control your limit switches and
you have an external button which you will press when you need to jog off a limit. If you
have no switch then you can use a screen button to achieve the same function.
Enable and define EStop to indicate to Mach3 that the user has demanded an emergency
stop.
Enable and define OEM Trigger inputs if you want electrical signals to be able to call OEM
button functions without a screen button needing to be provided.
Enable and define Timing if you have a spindle sensor with more than one slot or mark.
Probe, THCOn, THCUp and THCDown do not apply to Mach3Turn.
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If you have one parallel port then you have 5 available inputs; with two ports there are 10
(or with pins 2 to 9 defined as inputs, 13). It is very common to find that you are short of
input signals especially if you are also going to have some inputs for glass scales or other
encoders. You may have to compromise by not having things like a physical Limit Override
switch to save signals!
You can also consider using a Keyboard Emulator for some input signals.
Click the Apply button to save the data on this tab.
5.4.3
Emulated input signals
If you check the Emulated column for an input then the Port/Pin number and active-lo state
for that signal will be ignored but the entry in the Hotkey column will be interpreted. When
a key-down message is received with code that matches a Hotkey value then that signal is
considered to be active. When a key-up message is received then it is inactive.
The key-up and key-down signals usually come from a keyboard emulator (like the
Ultimarc IPAC or Hagstrom) which is triggered by switches connected to its inputs. This
allows more switches to be sensed than spare pins on your parallel ports but there may be
significant time delays before the switch change is seen and indeed a key-up or key-down
message can get lost by Windows.
Emulated signals cannot be used for Index or Timing and should not be used for EStop.
5.4.4
Output Signals
Use the Output signals tab to define the outputs you require. See figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6 – Output signals
You will probably only want to use one Enable output (as all the axis drives can be
connected to it). Indeed if you are using the charge pump/pulse monitor feature then you
may enable your axis drives from its output.
The Output# signals are for use to control a stop/start spindle (clockwise and optionally
counterclockwise), the Flood and Mist coolant pumps or valves and for control by your own
customized Mach3 buttons or macros.
The Charge Pump line should be enabled and defined if your breakout board accept this
pulse input to continually confirm correct operation of Mach3. Charge Pump2 is used if
you have a second breakout board connected to the second port or want to verify the
operation of the second port itself.
Click the Apply button to save the data on this tab.
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Configuring Mach3
5.4.5
Defining MPG and encoder inputs
Figure 5.5 – Encoder inputs
The Encoder/MPGs tab is used to define the connections and the resolution of linear
encoders or Manual Pulse Generators (MPGs) used for jogging the axes. It is covered here
for completeness of the description of Config>Ports & Pins.
This dialog does not need an active-lo column as, if the encoders count the wrong way it is
merely necessary to swap the pins allocated for A and B inputs.
5.4.5.1
Encoders
The Counts per unit value should be set to correspond to the resolution of the encoder. Thus
a linear scale with rulings at 20 microns produces a count every 5 microns (remember the
quadrature signal), that is 200 counts per unit (millimetre). If you have Native units set as
inches the it would be 200 x 25.4 = 5080 counts per unit (inch). The Velocity value is not
used.
5.4.5.2
MPGs
The Counts per unit value is used to define the number of quadrature counts that need to be
generated for Mach3 to see movement of the MPG. For a 100 CPR encoder, a figure of 2 is
suitable. For higher resolutions you should increase this figure to get the mechanical
sensitivity you want. We find 100 works well with 1024 CPR encoders.
The Velocity value determines the scaling of pulses sent to the axis being controlled by the
MPG. The lower the value given in Velocity the faster the axis will move. Its value is best
set by experiment to give a comfortable speed when spinning the MPG as fast as is
comfortable.
5.4.6
Configuring the spindle
The next tab on Config>Ports & Pins is Spindle Setup. This is used to define the way in
which your spindle and coolant is to be controlled. You may opt to allow Mach3 to do
nothing with it, to turn the spindle on and off or to have total control of its speed by using a
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal or a step and direction signal. The dialog is shown in
figure 5.6.
5.4.6.1
Coolant control
Code M7 can turn Flood coolant on, M8 can turn Mist coolant on and M9 can turn all
coolant off. The Flood Mist control section of the dialog defines which of the output signals
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Figure 5.6 – Spindle setup
are to be used to implement these functions. The Port/Pins for the outputs have already been
defined on the Output Signals tab.
If you do not want to use this function check Disable Flood/Mist Relays.
5.4.6.2
Spindle relay control
If the spindle speed is controlled by hand or by using a PWM signal then Mach3 can define
its direction and when to start and stop it (in response to M3, M4 and M5) by using two
outputs. The Port/Pins for the outputs have already been defined on the Output Signals tab.
If you control the spindle by Step and Direction then you do not need these controls. M3,
M4 and M5 will control the pulse train generated automatically.
If you do not want to use this function check Disable Spindle Relays.
5.4.6.3
Motor Control
Check Use Motor Control if you want to use PWM or Step and Direction control of the
spindle. When this is checked then you can choose between PWM Control and Step/Dir
Motor.
PWM Control
A PWM signal is a digital signal, a "square" wave where the percentage of the time the
signal is high specifies the percentage of the full speed of the motor at which it should run.
So, suppose you have a motor and PWM drive with maximum speed of 3000 rpm then
figure 4.9 would run the motor at 3000 x 0.2 = 600 RPM. Similarly the signal in figure 4.10
would run it at 1500 RPM.
Mach3 has to make a trade off in how many different widths of pulse it can produce against
how high a frequency the square wave can be. If the frequency is 5 Hz the Mach3 running
with a 25000 Hz kernel speed can output 5000 different speeds. Moving to 10Hz reduces
this to 2500 different speeds but this still amounts to a resolution of one or two RPM.
A low frequency of square wave increases the time that it will take for the motor drive to
notice that a speed change has been requested. Between 5 and 10 Hz gives a good
compromise. The chosen frequency is entered in the PWMBase Freq box.
Many drives and motors have a minimum speed. Typically because the cooling fan if very
inefficient at low speeds whereas high torque and current might still be demanded. The
Minimum PWM % box allows you to set the percentage of maximum speed at which Mach3
will stop outputting the PWM signal.
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Configuring Mach3
You should be aware that the PWM drive electronics may also have a minimum speed
setting and that Mach3 pulley configuration (see section x.x) allows you to set minimum
speeds. Typically you should aim to set the pulley limit slightly higher than the Minimum
PWM % or hardware limit as this will clip the speed and/or give a sensible error message
rather than just stopping it.
Step and Direction motor
This may be an variable speed drive controlled by step pulses or a full servo drive.
You can use the Mach3 pulley configuration (see section x.x) to define a minimum speed if
this is needed by the motor or its electronics.
Note that you do not need a servo spindle drive to implement any of the Mach3Turn
functions. Indeed threading can be performed quite successfully even with manual control
of spindle speed.
5.4.6.4
General Parameters
These allow you to control the delay after starting or stopping the spindle before Mach3
will execute further commands (i.e. a Dwell). These delays can be used to allow time for
acceleration before a cut is made and to provide some software protection from going
directly from clockwise to counterclockwise. The dwell times are entered in seconds.
5.4.6.5
Pulley ratios
Mach3 has control over the speed of your spindle motor. You program spindle speeds
through the S word. The Mach3 pulley system allows you to define the relationship
between these for four different pulley or gearbox settings. It is easier to understand how it
works after tuning your spindle motor so it is described in section y.y, below.
5.4.6.6
Special function
Laser mode should always be unchecked.
Use Spindle feedback in sync mode should always be checked.
Closed Loop Spindle Control, when checked, implements a software servo loop which tries
to match the actual spindle speed seen by the Index or Timing sensor with that demanded
by the S word. The exact speed of the spindle is not likely to be important so you are not
likely to need to use this feature in Mach3Turn.
If you do use it then the P, I and D variables should be set in the range 0 to 1. P controls the
gain of the loop and an excessive value will make the speed oscillate, or hunt, around the
requested value rather than settling on it. The D variable applies damping so stabilising
these oscillations by using the derivative (rate of change) of the speed. The I variable takes
a long term view of the difference between actual and requested speed and so increases the
accuracy in the steady state. Tuning these values is assisted by using the dialog opened by
Operator>Calibrate spindle.
Spindle Speed Averaging, when checked, causes Mach3 to average the time between
index/timing pulses over several revolutions when it is deriving the actual spindle speed.
You might find it useful with a very low inertia spindle drive or one where the control tends
to give short-term variations of speed.
5.4.7
Turn Options tab
The final tab on Config>Ports & Pins is Turn Options. See figure 5.7.
5.4.7.1
X Mode
The X Mode checkbox determines whether X coordinates are to be interpreted as the radius
of the part being machined or its diameter.
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You should decide which mode best suits your method of working. Do not be tempted to
chop and change between modes. In particular you must use the mode which corresponds to
the code output by the post processor of your CAM system.
Notice because of the way arcs are defined in G-code, using the wrong mode does not
merely produce a part that is twice or half the expected size.
In diameter mode the X axis DRO displays diameter values and the X word in G-code is
interpreted as a diameter. Offsets in the tool table, for fixtures and the positions of limit
switches are not, however, multiplied by 2; they are actual distances.
Figure 5.7 – Turn Options Tab
5.4.7.2
Threading defaults
Most users will not need to be concerned with these as the CAM post processor or Mach3
Wizard will generally provide the system with all the required information to define a
thread. These default values are, however, the ones that will be used in a given word is
omitted in a G76 (threading) canned cycle.
5.5
Testing
Your software is now configured sufficiently for you to do some simple tests with the
hardware. If it is convenient to connect up the inputs from the limit and home switches then
do so now.
Run Mach3Turn and display the Diagnostics screen (figure 5.8). This has a bank of LEDs
displaying the logic level of the inputs and outputs. Ensure that the external Emergengy
Stop signal is not active (Red Emergency LED not flashing) and press the red Reset button
on the screen. Its LED should stop flashing.
Operate the home or the limit switches. You should see the appropriate LEDs glow yellow
when their signal is active.
Next, if you have associated any Relay outputs with coolant then you can click in the MDI
window and use G-code like M07, M09 etc. to turn the outputs on and off. The appropriate
red output LEDs should light. The machine should also respond or you can monitor the
voltages of the signals at the breakout board with a multimeter.
Warning: As you have not yet completely set up the spindle parameters for a PWM or Step
and Direction drive it is unwise to turn it on yet.
These tests will let you see that your parallel port is correctly addressed and the inputs and
outputs are appropriately connected.
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Configuring Mach3
If you have two ports and all the test signals are on one then you might consider a
temporary modification to your configuration so that one of the home or limit switches is
connected via the second port so that you can check its correct operation. Don't forget the
Apply button when doing this sort of testing. If all is well then you should restore the proper
configuration.
Figure 5.8 – Testing Inputs and Outputs
If you have problems you should sort them out now as this will be much easier than when
you start trying to drive the axes. If you do not have a multimeter then you will have to buy
or borrow a logic probe or a D25 adaptor (with actual LEDs) which let you monitor the
state of its pins. In essence you need to discover if (a) the signals in and out of the computer
are incorrect (i.e. Mach3 is not doing what you want or expect) or (b) the signals are not
getting between the D25 connector and your machine tool (i.e. a wiring or configuration
problem with the breakout board or machine). 15 minutes help from a friend can work
wonders in this situation even if you only carefully explain to him/her what your problem is
and how you have already looked for it! You will be amazed how often this sort of
explanation suddenly stops with words like:
"…… Oh! I see what the problem must be, it's ….."
5.6
Tuning motors
Well after all that detail it's now time to get things moving - literally! This section describes
setting up your axis drives and, if its speed will be controlled by Mach3, the spindle drive.
The overall strategy for each axis is: (a) to calculate how many step pulses must be sent to
the drive for each unit (inch or mm) of movement of the tool or table, (b) to establish the
maximum speed for the motor and (c) to set the required acceleration/deceleration rate.
We advise you to deal with one axis at a time. It will be convenient to do the Z axis first as
this is easiest to use for checking your calculations. You also might wish to try running the
motor before it is mechanically connected to the machine tool.
So now connect up the power to one of your axis driver electronics and double check the
wiring between the driver electronics and your breakout board/computer. You are about to
mix high power and computing so it is better to be safe than smoky!
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Configuring Mach3
5.6.1
Calculating the steps per unit
The number of steps Mach3 must send for one unit of movement depends on the
mechanical drive (e.g. pitch of ballscrew, gearing between the motor and the screw), the
properties of the stepper motor or the encoder on the servo motor and the micro-stepping or
electronic gearing in the drive electronics. We look at these three points in turn then bring
them together.
5.6.1.1
Calculating mechanical drive
You are going to calculate the number of revolutions of the motor shaft (motor revs per
unit) to move the axis by one unit. This will probably be greater than one for inches and
less than one for millimetres but this makes no difference to the calculation which is easiest
done on a calculator anyway.
For a screw and nut you need the raw pitch of the screw (i.e. thread crest to crest distance)
and the number of starts. Inch screws may be specified in threads per inch (tpi). The pitch is
1/tpi (e.g. the pitch of an 8 tpi single start screw is 1 ÷ 8 = 0.125")
If the screw is multiple start multiply the raw pitch by the number of starts to get the
effective pitch. The effective screw pitch is therefore the distance the axis moves for one
revolution of the screw.
Now you can calculate the screw revs per unit
screw revs per unit = 1 ÷ effective screw pitch
If the screw is directly driven from the motor then this is the motor revs per unit. If the
motor has a gear, chain or belt drive to the screw with Nm teeth on the motor gear and Ns
teeth on the screw gear then:
motor revs per unit = screw revs per unit x Ns ÷Nm
For example, suppose our 8 tpi screw is connected to the motor with a toothed belt with a
48 tooth pulley on the screw and an 16 tooth pulley on the motor then the motor shaft pitch
would be 8 x 48 ÷ 16 = 24 (Hint: keep all the figures on your calculator at each stage of
calculation to avoid rounding errors)
As a metric example, suppose a two start screw has 5 millimetres between thread crests (i.e.
effective pitch is 10 millimetres) and it is connected to the motor with 24 tooth pulley on
the motor shaft and a 48 tooth pulley on the screw. So the screw revs per unit = 0.1 and
motor revs per unit would be 0.1 x 48 ÷ 24 = 0.2
5.6.1.2
Calculating motor steps per revolution
The basic resolution of all modern stepper motors is 200 steps per revolution (i.e. 1.8o per
step). Note some older steppers are 180 steps per rev.
The basic resolution of a servo motor depends on the encoder on its shaft. The encoder
resolution is usually quoted in CPR (cycles per revolution) Because the output is actually
two quadrature signals the effective resolution will be four time this value. You would
expect a CPR in the range of about 125 to 2000 corresponding to 500 to 8000 steps per
revolution.
5.6.1.3
Calculating Mach2 steps per motor revolution
We very strongly recommend that you use micro-stepping drive electronics for stepper
motors. If you do not do this and use a full- or half-step drive then you will need much
larger motors and will suffer from resonances that limit performance at some speeds.
Some micro-stepping drives have a fixed number of micro-steps (typically 10) while others
can be configured. In this case you will find 10 to be a good compromise value to choose.
This means that Mach3 will need to send 2000 pulses per revolution for a stepper axis
drive.
Some servo drives require one pulse per quadrature count from the motor encoder (thus
giving 1200 steps per rev for a 300 CPR encoder. Others include electronic gearing where
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you can multiply the
input steps by an
integer value and,
sometimes, the
divide the result by
another integer
value. The
multiplication of
input steps can be
very useful with
Mach3 as the speed
of small servo
motors with a high
resolution encoder
can be limited by the
maximum pulse rate
which Mach3 can
generate.
5.6.1.4
Figure 5.9 – Motor Tuning dialog
Mach2 steps per unit
So now we can finally calculate:
Mach3 steps per unit = Mach3 steps per rev x Motor revs per unit
Figure 5.9 shows the dialog for Config>Motor Tuning. Click a button to select the axis
which you are configuring and enter the calculated value of Mach3 Steps per unit in the box
above the Save button.. This value does not have to be an integer so you can achieve as
much accuracy as you wish. To avoid forgetting later click Save Axis Tuning now.
5.6.2
Setting the maximum motor speed
Still using the Config>Motor Tuning dialog, as you move the Velocity slider you will see a
graph of velocity against time for a short imaginary move. The axis accelerates, maybe has
a flat top running at full speed and then decelerates. Set the velocity slider to maximum for
now. Use the Acceleration slider to alter the rate of acceleration/deceleration (these are
always the same as each other)
As you use the sliders the values in the Velocity and Accel boxes are updated. Velocity is in
units per second. Accel is in units per second2 The maximum velocity you can display will
be limited by the maximum pulse rate of Mach3. Suppose you have configured this to
35,000 Hz and 400 steps per unit then the maximum possible Velocity is 35000/400 = 87.5.
This maximum is, however, not necessarily safe for your motor, drive mechanism or
machine; it is just Mach3 running "flat out". You can make the necessary calculations or do
some practical trials. Let's just try it out first.
5.6.2.1
Practical trials of motor speed
You saved the axis after setting the Steps per unit. OK the dialog and make sure that
everything is powered up. Click the Reset button so its LED stops flashing.
Go back to Config>Motor Tuning and select your axis. Use the Velocity slider to have the
graph about 20% of maximum velocity. Press the cursor Up key on your keyboard. The axis
should move in the Plus direction. If it runs away then choose a lower velocity. If it crawls
then choose a higher velocity. The cursor Down key will make it run the other way (i.e. the
Minus direction).
If the direction is wrong then, Save the axis and either (a) change the Low Active setting
for the Dir pin of the axis in Config>Ports and Pins>Motor Outputs tab (and Apply it) or (b)
check the appropriate box in the Reversals column of Config>Homing/Limits for the axis
that you are using. You can also, of course, just switch off change the wiring. For a stepper
drive you need to reverse one pair of physical connections to the motor from the drive
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electronics. For a brushed-motor servo drive you will need to reverse both the wires to the
armature and the A and B inputs from the encoder.
If a stepper motor hums or screams then you have wired it incorrectly or are trying to drive
it much too fast. The labelling of stepper wires (especially 8 wire motors) is sometimes very
confusing. You will need to refer to the motor and driver electronics documentation.
If a servo motor runs away at full speed or flicks and indicates a fault on its driver then its
armature (or encoder) connections need reversing (see your servo electronics
documentation for more details). If you have any troubles here then you will be pleased if
you followed the advice to buy current and properly supported products - buy right, buy
once!
Most drives will work well with a 1 microsecond minimum pulse width and need no delay
before the Dir pin is changed (Direction PreChange). If you have problems with the test
moves (e.g. motor seems too noisy) first check that your step pulses are not inverted (by
Low active being set incorrectly for Step on the Output Pins tab of Ports and Pins) then you
might try increasing the pulse width to, say, 5 microseconds. The Step and Direction
interface is very simple but, because it "sort of works" when configured badly, can be
difficult to fault-find without being very systematic and/or looking at the pulses with an
oscilloscope.
5.6.2.2
Motor maximum speed calculations
If you feel that you want to calculate the maximum motor speed then read this section.
There are many things which define the maximum speed of an axis:
♦ Maximum allowed speed of motor (perhaps 4000 rpm for servo or 1000 rpm for
stepper)
♦ Maximum allowed speed of the ballscrew (depends on length, diameter, how its
ends are supported
♦ Maximum speed of belt drive or reduction gearbox
♦ Maximum speed which drive electronics will support without signalling a fault
♦ Maximum speed to maintain lubrication of machine slides
The first two in this list are most likely to affect you. You will need to refer to the
manufacturers' specifications, calculate the permitted speeds of screw and motor and relate
these to units per second of axis movement. Set this maximum value in the Velocity box of
Motor Tuning for the axis involved.
The Mach1/Mach2 Yahoo! online forum is a useful place to get advice from other Mach3
users, world-wide, on this sort of topic.
5.6.3
Deciding on acceleration
5.6.3.1
Inertia and forces
No motor is able to change the speed of a mechanism instantly. A torque is needed to give
angular momentum to the rotating parts (including the motor itself) and torque converted to
force by the mechanism (screw and nut etc.) has to accelerate the machine parts and the
tool. Some of the force also goes to overcome friction and, of course, to make the tool cut.
Mach3 will accelerate (and decelerate) the motor at a given rate (i.e. a straight line
speed/time curve) If the motor can provide more torque than is needed for the cutting, the
friction and the inertia forces at the given acceleration rate, then all is well. If the torque is
insufficient then it will either stall (if a stepper) or the servo position error will increase. If
the servo error gets too great then the drive will probably signal a fault condition but even if
it does not then the accuracy of the cutting will have suffered. This will be explained in
more detail shortly.
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5.6.3.2
Testing different acceleration values
Try starting and stopping your machine with different settings of the Acceleration slider in
the Motor Tuning dialog. At low accelerations (a gentle slope on the graph) you will be able
to hear the speed ramping up and down.
5.6.3.3
Why you want to avoid a big servo error
Most moves made in a part program are co-ordinated with two, or more, axes moving
together. Thus in a move from X=0, Y=0 to X=2, Y=1, Mach3 will move the X axis at
twice the speed of the Y axis. It not only co-ordinates the movements at constant speed but
ensures that the speed required relationship applies during acceleration and deceleration but
accelerating all motions at a speed determined by the "slowest" axis.
If you specify too high an acceleration for a given axis then Mach3 will assume it can use
this value but as, in practice, the axis lags behind what is commanded (i.e. the servo error is
big) then the path cut in the work will be inaccurate.
5.6.3.4
Choosing an acceleration value
It is quite possible, knowing all the masses of parts, moments of inertia of the motor and
screws, friction forces and
the torque available from
the motor to calculate what
acceleration can be
achieved with a given
error. Ballscrew and linear
slide manufacturers'
catalogues often include
sample calculations.
However, unless you want
the ultimate in performance
from your machine, we
Figure 5.10 - Establishing a zero position
recommend setting the
value so that test starts and
stops sound "comfortable". Sorry it's not very scientific but it seems to give good results!
5.6.4
Saving and testing axis
Finally don't forget to click Save Axis to save the acceleration rate before you move on.
If you tested the axis drive motor off the machine then now is the time to install it.
Then you should test your acceleration and maximum speed values by executing some G00
moves using Manual Data Input. Mach3 can jog axes more smoothly than it can run them
under program control because it does not have to worry about synchronising the movement
of more than one axis at once when it is jogging. If you have rough sounding movement
then you should slightly reduce the speed and/or acceleration settings.
You should now check your steps per unit calculations by using the MDI on the Diagnostics
screen to make a defined G00 move. For a rough check you can use a steel rule. A more
accurate test can be made with a Dial Test Indicator (DTI)/Clock and a slip gage block.
Suppose you are testing the Z axis and have a 3" gage block.
Use the MDI screen to select inch units and absolute coordinates. (G20 G90) Set up the DTI
away from the chuck touching a flat face of the saddle. Jog the Z axis so the DTI probe just
touches the saddle as in figure 5.10. Ensure you finish by a move in the plus Z direction to
avoid problems with backlash.
Rotate the DTI bezel to zero the reading.
Now click in the Z axis DRO, type 0 (zero) and press Enter.
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Move the table to Z = -3.5 by G00 Z-3.5 The gap should be about three and a half inches. If
it is not then there is something badly wrong with your calculations of the Steps per Unit
value. Check and correct this.
Insert the gage block and move to Z = -3.0 by G00 Z-3.5 This move is in the Z plus
direction as was the jog so the effects of backlash in the mechanism will be eliminated. The
reading on the DTI will give your positioning error. It should only be up to a thou or so.
Figure 5.13 shows the gage in position.
Figure 5.13 - Gage block in position
Remove the gage and G00 Z0 to check the zero value. Repeat the 3" test to get an set of,
perhaps, 20 values and see how reproducible the positioning is. If you get big variations
then there is something wrong mechanically. If you get consistent errors then you can fine
tune the Steps per Unit value to achieve maximum accuracy.
Next you should check that the axis does not lose steps in repeated moves at speed. Remove
the gage block. Use MDI to G00 Z0 and check the zero on the DTI.
Use the editor to input the following program:
F1000 (i.e. faster than possible but Mach2 will limit speed)
G20 G90 G(Inch and Absolute)
M98 P1234 L50 (run subroutine 50 times)
M30 (rewind and stop)
O1234
G01 Z3
G01 Z0 (do a feed rate move and move back)
M99 (return from subroutine)
Click Cycle Start to run it. Check that the motion sounds smooth.
When it finishes the DTI should of course read zero. If you have problems then you will
need to fine tune the maximum velocity or acceleration of the axis.
5.6.5
Repeat configuration process on other axis
With the confidence you will have gained with the first axis you should be able to quickly
repeat the process for the other axis.
5.6.6
Spindle motor setup
If the speed of your spindle motor is fixed or controlled by hand then you can ignore this
section. If the motor is switched on and off, in either direction, by Mach3 then this will have
been setup with the relay outputs.
If Mach3 is to control the spindle speed either by a servo drive that accepts Step and
Direction pulses or by a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) motor controller then this section
tells you how to configure your system.
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Configuring Mach3
5.6.6.1
Configuring PWM and Step & Direction spindle motors.
PWM: We have already looked at configuring a PWM spindle drive. To complete the
spindle setup all you will need to bear in mind is the maximum speed of the motor (i.e. its
speed with a 100% on pulse stream).
A Step & Direction drive is configured on the same dialog as axis drives. First you need to
know the maximum speed that you want your motor to run at. This will depend on its
design and should be available on its rating plate. You can of course opt for a lower speed
than the maker specifies if you wish.
Next you need to work out how many step pulses needed to be input to the drive electronics
to make its shaft turn by one revolution. This will depend on the construction of the motor,
any encoder on its shaft and the any electronic gearing in the drive electronics. You should
be able to work it out from the documentation that is supplied with the motor and its drive.
This number is the value to enter into Steps per Unit in the dialog. If this value is bigger
than 500 then you may have problems getting Mach3 to run the motor at full speed. If you
have electronic gearing then use it to reduce the Steps per Unit for full speed.
Now, rather than setting the velocity by a smooth feel as was described for axes, you must
set Vel to the maximum speed you have chosen. The unit are revolutions per second so if
you want 3000 rpm you need to enter (3000 ÷ 60) = 50.0 in the Vel box.
If you have a large number of Steps per Unit you may find that Mach3 will not allow the
Vel you require. You can get round this by using the electronic gearing of your drive to
reduce the number of steps per unit required or possibly by setting the kernel frequency to
35000 or even 45000 Hz. If you change the kernel speed then you will need to retune the
axes.
Finally you should set the acceleration. This is best done by ear to give a smooth start to the
spindle when running with the highest speed pulleys. You can type a value into the
acceleration box and this can give much lower accelerations that are obtained by the slider.
If you want you can allow acceleration to take around 10 seconds!
Note: Some small lathes have chucks that are screwed onto the spindle nose. Do not allow
these to decelerate too quickly or the chuck may come unscrewed.
5.6.6.2
Motor speed, spindle speed and pulleys
So now you can get Mach3 to control the speed of the motor. When you are machining
what you and the part program (the S word) want to set is the speed of the spindle. The
motor and spindle speed are, of course, related by the pulleys or gears connecting them. We
will use the term "pulley" to cover both sorts of drive in this manual.
The settings for pulleys,
which we ignored earlier, are
on the Spindle Setup tab of
Config>Ports and Pins.
If you do not have motor
speed control then choose
Pulley 4 with a high
maximum speed like 10,0000
rpm and 0 as minimum
speed. This will prevent
Mach3 complaining if you
run a program with a S word
asking for say 6000 rpm.
There are two steps involved
using pulleys. When the
Figure 5.14 – A 4-speed pulley drive on low speed
system is configured (i.e.
what you are doing now) you
define up to 4 available pulley combinations. These are , of course, defined by the physical
sizes of the pulleys or the ratios in a geared head. Then when a part program is being run
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the operator must define, perhaps by switches or entering a number into a DRO which
pulley (1 to 4) is in use.
The machine's pulley ratios are set on the
Config>Ports and Pins Spindle Setup tab
dialog (figure 5.6). Under Pulley Ratios
the minimum and maximum speed of the
four pulley sets are defined together with
the default one to be used. The maximum
speed is the speed at which the spindle
will rotate when the motor is at full
speed. Full speed is achieved by 100%
pulse width in PWM and the set Vel value
on Motor Tuning "spindle Axis" for Step
& Direction.
Figure 5.15 – Pulleys on high speed setting
As an example, suppose the configuration that we will call "Pulley 1" is a step-down of 5:1
from motor to spindle and the maximum speed of the motor is 3600 rpm. That means that
the maximum speed of Pulley 1 will be set to 720 rpm (3600 ÷ 5). Now suppose that Pulley
4 is a step-up of 4:1. With the same motor speed its maximum speed would be set to 14,400
rpm (3600 x 4). The other pulleys (if available) would presumably be intermediate ratios.
The pulleys do not need to be defined in increasing speeds but the numbers should relate in
some logical way to the controls on the machine tool.
The minimum spindle speed is to avoid trying to run a motor below its minimum rating. Set
these (if required) by using the same rations on the minimum motor speed.
Mach3 uses the pulley ratio information as follows:
♦ When the part program executes an S word or a value is entered into the set speed
DRO then the value is compared with the maximum speed for the currently
selected pulley. If the requested speed is greater than the maximum then an error
occurs.
♦ When the part program executes an S word or a value is entered into the set speed
DRO then the value is compared with the minimum speed for the currently
selected pulley. If the requested speed is less than the minimum then an error
occurs.
♦ Otherwise the percentage of the maximum for the pulley that has been requested
and this is used to set the PWM width or the Step pulses are generated to produce
that percentage of the maximum motor speed as set in Motor Tuning for the
"Spindle Axis".
As an example suppose the max spindle speed for Pulley #1 is 1000 rpm. S1100 would be
an error. S600 would give a pulse width of 60%. If the maximum Step and Direction speed
is 3600 rpm then the motor would be "stepped" at 2160 rpm (3600 x 0.6).
You should set your minimum speeds slightly higher than the speed at which your drive
cuts out so that Mach3 knows that there is a problem rather than trying to cut with a
stationary spindle.
5.6.6.3
Testing the spindle drive
If you have a tachometer or stroboscope then you can measure the spindle speed of your
machine. If not you will have to rely on your index or timing sensor and experience.
On the Manual screen, choose a pulley that will allow 900 rpm. Set the belt or gearbox on
the machine to the corresponding position. Then type 900 into the S DRO. Click the
Spindle button to start it. Measure or estimate the speed. If it is wrong you will have to
revisit your calculations and setup.
You might also check the speeds on all the other pulleys in the same way but with suitable
set speeds.
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5.7
Other configuration
There are many other configuration options in Mach3Turn. You can look at these in the
Config menu. You should find that the default values allow you to actually use your
machine quite satisfactorily.
When you wish to look at any of these you should refer to chapter 8, where they are
described in detail.
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Mach3 controls and running a part program
6.
Mach3 controls and running a part program
This chapter is intended for reference to explain the screen controls provided
by Mach3 for setting up and running a job on the machine. It is of relevance
to machine operators and for part-programmers who are going to prove their
programs on Mach3.
6.1
Introduction
This chapter covers a lot of detail. You may wish to skim section 6.2 and then look at the
sections for inputting and editing part programs before returning to the details of all the
screen controls.
Figure 6.1 – Navigation up and down the screens
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Mach3 controls and running a part program
6.2
How the controls are explained in this chapter
Although at first sight you may feel daunted by the range of options and data displayed by
Mach3, this is actually organised in a way to suit the sequence of operations you will
perform when turning (often called the Workflow).
There are screens for Manual operation (Manual),. Preparing for Automatic operation (Auto
Prep), running the part program in an Automatic cycle (Auto Cycle), setting up the Tool
Table (Tool Table) and Diagnosing trouble (Diags).
Screens consist of a set of controls. A control is a button or can refer to the information
displayed by DROs (digital read-outs), labels or LEDs (light emitting diodes).
The LEDs are grouped on an LED panel. Some controls appear in groups (families) on
several screens. These are explained first and then the workflow for some typical jobs is
given. Finally the use of the Diags screen is covered.
A Screen Designer is provided that allows controls to be removed or added from the screens
of a set of screens. You can modify standard screens or design your own screens from
scratch so that you can add any controls to a particular screen if your application requires
this. For details see the Mach3 Customization manual.
6.2.1
Screen switching controls
These controls and the way they navigate around the set of screens is shown in figure 6.1.
The Quit Mode buttons take you back to the Welcome screen and the Back (<) buttons
return you to a logical place to continue work from the current screen.
6.2.1.1
Reset button
All screens have a Reset button. This is a toggle. Before Reset the LEDs will flash red.
When the system has been Reset the LEDs will be dark, the charge pump pulse monitor (if
enabled) will output pulses and any Enable outputs chosen will be active.
6.2.1.2
Labels
There are several "intelligent labels" display things like the last "error" message, the current
modes, the file name of the currently loaded part program (if any) and the Profile that is in
use.
6.2.2
Axis position family
This family is concerned with the
current position of the tool (or more
precisely, the controlled point). See
figure 6.2.
The axes have the following
controls:
6.2.2.1
Coordinate value DRO
These are displayed in the current
units (as set by G20/G21) unless
locked to the setup units on the
Config>Logic dialog. The value is
Figure 6.2 – Axis position family
the coordinate of the controlled
point in the displayed coordinate system. This will generally be the coordinate system of the
current Work Offset (usually 1 - i.e. G54) together with any G52 or G92 offsets applied. It
can however be switched to display Absolute Machine Coordinates.
The Zero button allows you to make the relevant coordinate of the controlled point be 0.0.
This will update the relevant current Work Offset. You can also type a new value into an
Axis DRO. This will modify the current Work Offset to make the controlled point in the
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current coordinate system be the value you have set. The Zero button is just a handy way of
"typing" 0.0 into the DRO.
6.2.2.2
X axis mode
A smart label defines if the machine is set to Radius mode or Diameter mode. This mode
determines how the value in X-axis DROs should be interpreted and what position X-words
define when used in part programs.
6.2.3
Motion control family
The Motion control family allows
you to set up and monitor the speed
of the spindle and of feed-rate motion
of the tool. The controls are shown in
figure 6.3
6.2.3.1
Spindle
The S DRO displays the currently
requested spindle speed. It is set by a
part program or MDI using an S
word, by typing a value into the DRO
and pressing Enter or by clicking the
plus or minus arrows.
Figure 6.3 – Motion control family
The LED above the S DRO glows
when the spindle is running.
The family displays the pulley number and its maximum speed. You can define the pulley
currently in use by typing a number (between 1 and 4) into the Pulley DRO and pressing
Enter.
You cannot run slower than the minimum speed or exceed the maximum speed for the
current pulley. Such a request will generate an error message and clip the speed to the
relevant limit.
The S True DRO displays the actual speed of the spindle as sensed by the Timing or Index
input.
A part program (or the MDI line) can program the spindle speed to aim to give a constant
surface speed (CSS) for cutting. This is particularly useful in operation facing large
diameter stock. CSS mode is entered using the G96 with an S word giving the surface
speed. In this mode the spindle will run faster and faster as the X coordinate of the
controlled point reduces until it reaches its maximum speed.
The S DRO and CSS DRO reflect what is happening and the LED indicates that the CSS
mode is active.
Revolution per minute mode is restored by G97 with an S word giving the speed in RPM.
6.2.3.2
Feedrate
When no part program is running, the F DRO defines the current requested feedrate. It is set
by the F-word in a part program or entered in the MDI line or by typing into the DRO.
When a program is running it will display the actual feedrate being used taking account of
the coordinated motion of the two axes and the maximum speeds that are possible.
A smart label gives the units of the feedrate allowing for whether the machine is in metric
or imperial units.
The feedrate is the speed of movement of the tooltip based on combining the coordinated X
and Z motions. If this would require either axis to go faster than its maximum speed then
the actual feedrate will be suitably clipped.
In feed-per-rev (G95 mode) the actual speed of tool movement will of course depend on the
speed of the spindle as fedback by the Index/Timing sensor. If the spindle speed is nearly or
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actually zero then Mach3 will give an error message and tell you it has sets its own default
value.
The F DRO can be incremented and decremented by
a defined amount using the plus and minus arrows
beside it. The increment is set in the Increments
control family.
Warning: Do take care when using the MDI to
change from feed-per-minute to feed-per-rev modes
as "sensible" feeds are numerically very different in
the two modes. A feed of F = 10 inches per minute
would be a very slow movement but F = 10 inches per
rev at 700 rpm could be dangerous. Care is also
needed with the increment/decrement buttons as a
suitable increment for feed-per-minute will not be
sensible in feed-per-rev.
Figure 6.4 – LEDs panel on Manual
6.2.4
Jogging, Jog speed and Increments control family
6.2.4.1
Jogging
The Jog On button is a toggle which enables and disables jogging
of the machine. Jogging is inhibited on any screen (for example
Auto Cycle) which does not have the Jog On button. There is a
LED on the LEDs panel to show when it is enabled.
For now we will assume that you will jog your machine with the
up and down cursor arrows for the X axis and the
left and right cursor arrows for the Z axis.
Figure 6.5
Associated with Jog On is the Jog Mode button.
Assuming you only use keyboard jogging there are
two modes Continuous and Incremental (or Step)
jogging.
In Continuous the axis moves all the time that the
jog key is held down. The speed of movement is set
by the Slow Jog% DRO in the Increments control
family (see figure 6.6). If the Shift key is depressed
with the jog key then the Slow Jog% value is
ignored and the axis will travel at its fast traverse
rate (as set when you tuned the motor).
In Incremental (Step), which is indicated by the Inc
light on the LEDs panel, the axis will move one
increment or step for each key press. The speed of
movement is set by the current feedrate (F DRO)
Figure 6.6 – Increments family
and feedrate mode (G94/G95). The size of the step
that will be used is shown in the DRO under the Jog Cycle label in the increments family
(i.e. 0.0010 in figure 6.6). You can type whatever value of increment you like into this
DRO. Mach3 has a list of 10 preset increments. This list is cycled and copied into the DRO
using the plus and minus arrows under Jog Cycle. You can create your own list using the
table in the Config>State dialog.
Note: If your jogging keys suddenly do not work it is probably because you have the MDI
line open (see below).
Suitable equipped machines can also be jogged using MPG (manual pulse generator
handwheels). Details of setting this up are give in chapter 8.
6.2.4.2
Other increments etc.
The S Inc. DRO is the value by which the S DRO is changed when its plus and minus
buttons are used.
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The F Inc. DRO is the value by which the F DRO is changed when its plus and minus
buttons are used.
The Tool No. DRO shows the number of the tool currently in use.
6.2.5
Machine Setup control family
This family allows you to setup your machine ready for working. See figure 6.6.
Figure 6.6 – Machine setup family
6.2.6
Coordinate system display
Normally the axis DROs display the coordinates of the controlled point allowing for the
tool offsets and any work offset set by entering a new value into an axis DRO or the Fixture
table. It is this coordinate system in which moves by G00, G01 G02/03 etc. are normally
made. In Diameter mode, the X value will be the diameter of the component that would be
turned at the given setting. This display mode is chosen by the Program Coords. Button and
indicated by the attached LED.
The Machine Coords. Button will display the absolute machine coordinate system. This is
the position of the axes without any offsets applied. You will probably not need to use this
unless you are troubleshooting problems with your offset tables. Machine coordinates are
always distances (i.e. the X value is a radius not a diameter whatever mode the system is set
to)
6.2.7
MDI line
In figure 6.6, the MDI line is shown active. It is a pale color and the cream pop-up shows
some recently executed MDI commands.
You make it active by clicking in the line or typing Enter on a screen with an MDI line.
You can type any line that would appear in a part program and execute it by terminating it
with Enter. The line remains open until it is closed by clicking on another control or
pressing Esc. You can select from the recently executed commands by using the up and
down cursor keys. The backspace and Del keys can be used with the left and right arrows to
correct typing mistakes.
Note: The MDI line is not automatically closed by Enter. If the jogging keys do not work it
is probably because the line is open.
6.2.8
Homing
Before you can do useful work you have to make sure that Mach3 "knows" when the tool
actually is with respect to the work. You will have to give this information whenever the
system is switched on and when the work is moved in the chuck. This process is called
Referencing.
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For the present we assume that you only have one tool (Tool 1). Chapter 7 covers using
several different tools.
6.2.8.1
Axis with Home switches
The buttons Set Home will cause the relevant axis to move slowly in the direction of the
Home switch. The speed and direction are setup using Config>Homing/Limits. For details
see chapter 8. When the switch is hit then the axis will move a short distance in the reverse
direction until it is clear of the switch.
The current absolute position of the axis will then be set to the location of the switch that is
defined in Config>Homing/Limits (often 0.0 for the Z axis and the size of work that would
be turned by Tool 1 for the X axis).
6.2.8.2
Axis without Home switches
With no Home switch defined for an axis, Mach3 will assume that you have jogged the axis
to its home position before pressing Set Home.
The current absolute position of the axis will then be set to the location that is defined in
Config>Homing/Limits (often 0.0 for both axes).
6.2.8.3
Referenced state
The LED panel displays the axis that have been referenced (i.e. is in a known actual
position after homing)
6.2.8.4
Moving to Home position
The Home X or Home Z button moves the corresponding axis to its home position providing
it has been already referenced.
The Home All button does a Home X followed by a Home Z
6.2.8.5
Machine coordinates
The Zero World buttons set the current position of the corresponding axis to 0.0. No
motion takes place. Zero World does not alter the referenced status of the axis so should be
used with care as it will almost certainly alter the action of the Home and Home All
functions.
6.2.8.6
Part zero
This function is described in the context of setting up tools in chapter 7.
6.3
Using Wizards
6.3.1
What is a Wizard
A Mach3 Wizard is a
screen (or set of screens)
which helps automate a
machining task. It shows
you a series of labelled
DROs. There will usually
be a graphic image to
illustrate the data to put
into the DROs. Figure
6.22 illustrates the
external sphere Wizard in
use.
There are two types on
Wizard.
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Figure 6.22 – Data, code and toolpath for a Wizard
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The most common takes the data provided and uses this to write a G-code program to cut
the component specified. Most Wizards will display this code in a G-code window and will
show the related toolpath display.
The other sort of Wizard actually does the machining rather than presenting you with the
part program to run yourself. This sort of Wizard is suitable for simple operations.
Several Wizards are supplied with Mach3Turn but Wizards are also available from third
party suppliers and as contributions from other users on the MachDN forum. If you have
experience in writing G-code then you can implement your own Wizards. Details are given
in Customizing Mach3.
6.3.2
Wizard controls
Although Wizards from different authors will have different screen layouts they should al
have the following controls:
Post Code: This takes the data from the DROs and writes the G-code program to do the
cuts. This will be replaced by an Execute button for a Wizard which does its own
machining.
Save Settings: This will remember the current values of the DROs for the next time you run
the Wizard
Exit: Returns to the main Mach3 screens so that you can run a generated part program
Wizards will generally collect data on the tool, the feedrates and the cut depths that you
require. They will, however, generally assume that you will set a spindle speed, start the
spindle and turn on any coolant required before running the G-code.
6.3.3
Re-using Wizard generated code
When you have posted the code and exited to Mach3 then the generated program will be in
a temporary file. You can use the editor to alter this and of course to save it in a file in one
of your own folders.
The editor can also be used to combine the code from several Wizards to produce a part
program for something like the shaft-end illustrated in figure 7.1. in this way you can
produce quite complicated components without having to use a CAD/CAM system.
6.4
Loading and running a G-code part program
6.4.1
Introduction
A part program
written by hand, by a
Wizard or by a
CAD/CAM system is
run using the Auto
screens.
6.4.2
Auto Prep
The Auto Preparation
screen (figure 6.25)
allows you to load
the G-code file, to
jog and setup the
correct program
coordinate origin
Figure 6.25 – The Auto Preparation screen
(see Chapter 7), to
define a feedrate and
spindle speed (in case the program does not set these).
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The Load button displays an open file dialog to allow you to select and loadva part program
file. When the file is chosen, Mach3 will load and analyse the code. This will generate a
toolpath for it, which will be displayed. The loaded program code will be displayed in the
G-code list window. You
can scroll through this
moving the highlighted
current line using the scroll
bar.
The Recent button displays
a list of recently loaded
files. See figure 6.26
The Unload button closes
the part program file.
After Preparation you
move to the Auto Cycle
screen using the Cycle
button.
6.4.3
Figure 6.26 – Recent file list
Auto Cycle
This screen is used to run and, if necessary amend, a loaded part program. See figure 6.27
The function of its
buttons are defined
as follows:
Cycle Start: This will
run the part program
from the current
block (line) or
continue after a feed
hold or an M00 or
M01 command.
Feed Hold: Will stop
the part program
running as soon as
possible but in a
totally controlled
way so that it can be
restarted. Spindle
Figure 6.27 – Auto Run screen
and Coolant will
stay on if they were
on at the time of the Feed Hold. During Feed Hold you can perform whatever operation,
such a jogging, updating Wear offsets in the tool table, altering spindle speed etc. that is
required to overcome a problem with the machining. Cycle Start will resume the run of the
program.
Stop: Will stop the run of the part program as quickly as possible. Resumption of the run
will not generally be possible and the axes may have lost or gained steps due to the rapid
stop so the lathe needs to be re-referenced.
Single: This button is a toggle. When it is On, Cycle Start will only execute one block and
then pause. This can be useful for debugging a part program.
Tool Adjust: Allows you to edit the offsets of the current tool or to edit the tool table.
Rewind: Rewinds the part program file to the first block.
Edit: Runs the external editor program (whose name is defined in Config>Logic)
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6.4.4
Editing a part program
Provided you have defined a program to be used as the G-code editor (in Config>Logic),
you can edit the code by clicking the Edit button. Your nominated editor will open in a new
window with the
code loaded into it.
When you have
finished editing
you should save
the file and exit the
editor. This is
probably most
easily done by
using the close box
and replying Yes
to the "Do you
want to save the
changes?" dialog.
While editing,
Mach3 is
suspended. If you
click in its window
Figure 6.28 – Editing a part program (with UltraEdit program)
it will appear to be
locked up. You can easily recover by returning to the editor and closing it.
After editing the revised code will again be analysed and used to regenerate the toolpath
and extrema. You can regenerate the toolpath at any time using the Regenerate button.
6.4.5
Inputting a hand-written program
If you want to write a program "from scratch" then it is easiest do so by running the editor
outside Mach3 and saving the file.
It is good practice for a part program to make no assumptions about the state of the machine
when it starts. It should therefore include G17/G18/G19, G20/G21, G40, G49, G61/G62,
G90/G91, G93/G94.
You need to decide whether the program starts with an S word or if you need to set the
spindle speed by hand or by entering a value in the S DRO.
You will need to ensure that a suitable feedrate is set before any G01/G02/G03 commands
are executed. This may be done by an F word or entering data into the F DRO.
Next you may need to select a Tool and apply its offsets with G43 (or G44).
Finally, unless the program has been proved to be valid you should attempt a dry run,
cutting "air" to see that nothing terrible happens.
6.4.6
Running your program
You should monitor the first run of any program with great care. You may find that you
need to override the feed rate or, perhaps, spindle speed to minimise chattering or to
optimise production. When you want to make changes you should either do this on the "fly"
or use the Feed Hold button, make your changes and then click Cycle Start.
6.5
The principles of CNC threading
This section explains how Mach3 implement threading using a single point tool.
We assume that you will use disposable carbide tooling for your threading because it avoids
the difficulty of accurate grinding of the angles when sharpening a high-speed tool. If you
can do this there is, of course, no reason why Machj3Turn will not work with HSS tooling.
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6.5.1
Threading in general
A thread is in principle merely a cut made with a feedrate per revolution of the stock equal
to the thread pitch. In practice one needs to make several passes to get the required thread
depth and each must start at the "same angular position" on the stock.
For threading Mach3 makes use of the pulse from the spindle index sensor to know when to
start cutting (i.e. rather like a thread indicator on a manual lathe tells the operator when to
close the half-nuts). By timing the index pulses it can also work out the feed per minute that
corresponds to the pitch of the thread.
Although the principles are simple, the calculations of where to position Z to start each pass
of the cutting are tedious, so most users will use Mach3 Wizard or a CAD/CAM system to
generate the required G-code.
6.5.2
Speeds and cut depths
Because there is no manual intervention it is usual for a CNC lathe to cut a thread with a
higher spindle speed and more passes than one might use by hand. Unless your Z axis drive
is very slow or you are cutting very coarse threads you should expect to run the spindle
between 400 and 1000 RPM depending on the diameter of the work.
Each pass of the thread should consist of a few pitches of cutting in the air (i.e. a Z
clearance) so the Z axis can accelerate without pitch errors in the actual thread.
6.5.3
Infeed
With manual threading it is usual to set over the topslide so that the feed is down the thread
flank. This controls wear on the tool and optimises finish.
With CNC threading there are various infeed strategies. Full details are given in the tool
insert manufacturer's literature which can be consulted via the Internet. An infeed of slightly
less than half the thread angle (e.g. 29 degrees for 60 degree thread-forms) is suitable for
most work.
The depth of each pass is usually arranged to decrease as the width of the cut increases. In
other words a constant chip volume is cut in each pass. This optimises the life of the tool
and the quality of the cut. The threading Wizard will do this for you.
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7.
Setting up a job and tool tables
This chapter explains how Mach3 works out where exactly you mean when
you ask the tool to move to a given position. It describes the idea of a
coordinate system, defines the Machine Coordinate System and shows how
you can specify the position of the cutting point of each Tool, the position of
the workpiece in the chuck.
You may find it heavy going on the first read. We suggest that you try out
the techniques using your own machine tool. It is not easy to do this just
"desk" running Mach3 as you need to see where an actual tool is and you
will need to understand simple G-code commands like G00 and G01.
Mach3 can be used without a detailed understanding of this chapter but you
will find that using its concepts makes setting up jobs on your machine is
very much quicker and more reliable.
7.1
The definition of a part
Figure 7.1 shows a partially dimensioned drawing of the end of a shaft with a shoulder and
diameter for mounting a bearing, a thread for retaining it and a smaller diameter for a
driving pulley. We will use metric units for this section of the manual as the numbers are
Figure 7.1 – A shaft end dimensioned for manual turning
convenient.
Figure 7.2 shows the finished product with the nut in position.
A G-code program needs to tell the
lathe how to move the tool or tools to
machine the part. The issues with the
two axes are somewhat different.
7.1.1
X axis – diameter/radius
The position of the tool in the Xdirection sets the diameter of the
various parts of the shaft end. X = 0.0
is, of course, an unambiguous
position; the cutting point of the tool
is exactly on the centreline of the
machine. X = 10.0 can, however,
have one of two meanings. It can be
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Figure 7.2 – The machined product
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Setting up a job and tool tables
to turn a part with a diameter of 10 mm or a radius of 10 mm (i.e. diameter of 20). You
choose how you want Mach3 to interpret X values when you set it up (Config>Ports & Pins
– Turn Options tab). Your choice depends on a few things.
A given part program will have been produced for one of Radius or Diameter mode; this
will depend on the post-processor used in the CAM system. If you are going to use existing
part programs then you must use the mode for which they were post-processed.
If you have done a lot of manual turning then you might be used to working with radial
values and wish to continue doing so. In CAD/CAM, the coordinates of the profile to be
turned will be distances from the centreline (i.e. radii). If so choose Radius mode
On the other hand, when you measure a piece of work with a micrometer or calipers you
will get the diameter. It is often handy that this is the value displayed on the X-axis DRO. If
so choose Diameter mode.
So the choice is yours, neither is right or wrong. Once you have chosen, stick to the one
mode. In this chapter we will assume the use of Diameter mode and explain the differences
in setup if you opt for Radius.
7.1.2
Z axis zero position
As with Radius and Diameter mode, if you have an existing part program then this will
determine what position on the part is Z = 0 and you will need to set up the stock in the
machine so the part can be turned without waste. If you are producing your own part
programs, either by CAD/CAM or Mach3 Wizards, then you can choose where Z = 0 will
be on the part. The following gives some guidance.
If the machining is to be on a part of the stock, such as the shaft end shown, then it is often
convenient that the finished end as Z = 0. All machining will be done with negative-Z
values. The stock must, of course, project far enough from the chuck or collet so that the
entire length to be machined is clear of the jaws.
If machining is to produce a component like a pin or a screw then it is often convenient to
use the position where the finished component will be parted-off (e.g. the head of the pin or
screw) as Z = 0. In this case machining is done with positive-Z values and enough stock
must project from the jaws to provide the finished length of the component.
In boring and internal threading operations the tool may be used inside the chuck body so Z
= 0 could even be inside the spindle.
Once again there is no universal right or wrong method. Here we will initially assume that
you choose Z = 0 at the tailstock end of the component and describe the differences in
workflow for other methods. If you are also a CNC mill user then you will recognise this
approach as similar to using the top face of the un-machined stock as Z = 0. Using the
parting-off position is analogous to the surface of a mill table being Z = 0.
7.2
The Controlled Point and tools
The Controlled Point is the X and Z coordinates of a point relative to the origin (X=0 Y=0)
of the component. It is the value generally
displayed by the axis DROs and the part
program (G-code) moves (except with a G53 in
the block) specify where it should be. It is, of
course, where the effective cutting point of the
tool should be. There are two slightly subtle
points in this statement.
7.2.1.1
Effective cutting point
First let's look at what is meant by the
"effective cutting point".
Figure 7.3 shows a tool with a cutting tip that is
quite sharp (i.e. has zero nose radius). A shows
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Figure 7.3 – An idealised tool tip
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the position it cuts
when facing and B
shows where it
cuts when turning.
If it cuts a chamfer
then this will be
cut where A and B
meet so the cuts
will all be correct.
Such a tool would,
however, be much
too weak to use as
its point would
soon snap off.
Figure 7.4 shows a
real tool with a
rather exaggerated
nose radius. A
again shows where
it cuts when facing
and B where it cuts
when turning. So
the intersection of
Figure 7.4 – Cutting with a tool with an exaggerated nose-radius
the lines is the
effective cutting point. You will, however, see that the chamfer does not get cut in the
expected place. CAD/CAM software and Mach3 provide ways of correcting for this but it is
why we cannot talk about a single actual cutting point of the tool; if the nose is radiused
then the cutting point depends on the angle at which the cut is being made.
7.2.1.2
The Program coordinates and Machine coordinates
We have seen that the controlled point is always the X and Z coordinates relative to the
origin of the part being machined.
Figure 7.5 – The Program coordinate system
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Setting up a job and tool tables
Figure 7.5 shows a piece of stock (actually 16 mm in diameter) with the tip on a tool
positioned on the outside diameter at the faced-off end. Superimposed on the picture is a
grid showing the centreline (X = 0) and Z = 0 as the faced end.
When you switch the computer and machine tool on Mach3 does not have any way of
knowing where the cross-slide is positioned so does not know where X = 0 should be.
Similarly, at switch on, it does not know where the saddle is located and whenever a piece
of stock is put in the chuck Mach3 does not know how far it projects and cannot therefore
know where Z = 0 should be.
There are different ways of telling Mach3 where the machine slides actually are and how
this coordinate system (called the Machine Coordinate system) relates to the Program
Coordinate system. These are all explained below. Which you choose to use will depend on
personal preference, the type of work you are doing and whether your lathe has a Home
switch on its X axis.
7.2.1.3
Using different tools
Very few turning jobs will be completed using just one tool. You must be able to change
tools in such a way that a given tool is always located in the same position. This might be
done by an automatic tool changer (for example a rotating turret) or by one of the
proprietary quick change tool systems. A set of tools for use with the Dickson system is
shown in figure 7.6.
Figure 7.6 – Some Dickson system toolholders
Notice that, although the position of any given tool will be in the same position relative to
the cross-slide each time it is used, the Effective Cutting Points of different tools will
generally not be in the same position; indeed, for left and right handed tools, they often
cannot be mounted to cut in the same Z position. This is illustrated in figure 7.7. The saddle
and cross-slide were not moved between the four photographs; only the tool holders were
exchanged.
Mach3 has a Tool Table which stores information about up to 254 different tools to allow
for these difference so the same Program Coordinate system can be used whichever tool
you are using.
The values in the tool table are saved on disc so are remembered when the machine tool and
computer are switched off. The tool table entries only need to be amended when a tool is
changed or, for accurate work, to correct for wear of the tool tip.
7.2.1.4
Summary
To summarise this section:
♦ The Controlled Point is the coordinates to which most G-codes in a part program moves
the machine and the Program Coordinate system values displayed on the axis DROs.
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♦ Mach3 needs to discover where the saddle and cross-slide are set when it and the lathe
are turned on. It keeps track of their subsequent motion using the Machine Coordinate
system.
♦ Tools have an Effective
Cutting Point when
cutting parallel to the X
or Z axes but the tool
nose radius affects
chamfered and radius
cuts.
♦ The Tool Table records
the relative positions on
the machine for each
different tool to be used.
7.3
Referencing the
machine
Referencing is the process of
telling Mach3 where the
saddle and cross-slide of the
lathe actually are. You will
generally do it whenever to
switch on the lathe and start
Figure 7.7 – The tool tip position with different tools
running Mach3 or after a
problem such as an axis stalling through a problem with a part program or operator error
like jogging into the tailstock. Mach3 (unlike some CNC systems) does not insist that you
reference before doing anything else but is good practice to do so.
We will assume that the current
tool is tool number 1 and this
tool is in the tool holder or in
the active position of the
toolchanger. The significance
of this will ecome clear when
you have setup some tool table
entries.
We first explain referencing
with a machine without home
switches and then explain the
differences for an axis which
does have a home switch.
Referencing is done on the
Manual screen. Figure 7.8
shows the relevant buttons.
Figure 7.8 – Controlling referencing and coordinate
systems
7.3.1
Referencing and setup with no home switch
7.3.1.1
Setting Home
Jog the X and Z axes to the location you want to be "home". Then click the Set Home X
button followed by the Set Home Z button. This will define the physical position where you
were when you Set Home as 0.0 in the Machine Coordinate system. (More precisely it is set
to the value in the Home Off. column of the Config>Homing/Limits dialog which is 0 by
default).
The next thing to do is to setup the offset between the Machine Coordinate system and the
Program Coordinate system for the X axis. There are two ways of doing this; you can touch
the tool on the circumference of a piece of known diameter stock or you can take a test cut
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and measure the diameter of the machined stock. You will only have to do this once after
referencing. The setting will stay valid until you reference again or, of course, switch off the
machine.
7.3.1.2
Setting X by touching
This is a quick method, whose accuracy depends on your skill in judging when the tool is
touching the stock and how much run-out there is with the chucked stock. Use the trial
machining method for maximum accuracy.
The aim is to jog the axes so that the tool is just touching the circumference of a piece of
stock with a known diameter. In practice you will not be able to see the gap as you jog X
towards the stock, so you need a feeler gage of some sort.
Cigarette paper is traditional but the plastic foil-like packets from foodstuffs are also useful.
Measure the thickness of the Put the "gage" against the stock and very slowly jog the tool
towards it until you feel the paper/plastic beginning to be caught.
A better method, which does not risk damage to the tooltip by jogging carelessly, is to use a
short length of small diameter ground bar or the shank of a small twist drill as a gage.
About 3mm (1/8") diameter is convenient. Accurately measure the diameter of the gage. By
eye, jog the X axis so that the gap between
tooltip and stock is slightly less than the
diameter of the gage. Now, as you very slowly
jog away from the stock, roll the gage along the
tapered gap formed by the relief on the tool
edge. When it slips through the gap at the
cutting point is exactly the diameter of the gage.
Figure 7.9 shows a situation where the gap is
still slightly too small. The beauty of the
technique is that jogging too far does not crash
the tool into the stock.
Having set the axis to the "touch" you can
calculate the correct offset for the tool. Let the
stock diameter be D and the gage diameter or
thickness be g
Figure 7.9 – Touching with a cylindrical
slip gage
Calculate the position of X (Px):
Mach3Turn in Radius mode:
Px = g + (D / 2)
Mach3Turn in Diameter mode:
Px = (2 x g) + D
Now click the X axis DRO and use the keyboard to type in the value of Px you have
calculated. Press Enter.
You can make some allowance for the stock not being held concentrically in the chuck by
taking three or four values of Px at different angular positions and then averaging. It is,
however, almost certainly quicker to use the trial machining method.
7.3.1.3
Setting X by trial machining
Chuck a short length of stock (12 to 16 mm , say, ½" diameter is fine). Using slow jogging
and/or MDI take a fine turning cut off the diameter. Jog the Z axis, taking great care not to
move X, so you can measure the turned diameter. Call this d. Now calculate the position of
X (Px):
Mach3Turn in Radius mode:
Px = (d / 2)
Mach3Turn in Diameter mode:
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Px = d
7.3.2
Referencing with a home switch
If an axis has a home switch defined, then the action of the Set Home button is different. As
mentioned earlier under configuration, a single physical switch can be used by Mach3 as
both a limit and a home switch. If you have a limit switch on the plus direction of the X axis
(which is the direction where it is easiest to crash into a mechanical stop) then it is
worthwhile using it as a home switch. A home switch can also be used on the Z axis but is
much less useful as the projection of the stock from the chuck is a variable from job to job.
Set Home on an axis configured with a home switch will move the axis at a low speed in the
plus direction until the switch is operated. The axis will then reverses direction until the
switch is no longer operated and stops. The axis position in the machine coordinate system
is then set to the value in the Home Off. column of Config>Homing/Limits.
You need to think which order to Home the axes. Generally it will be better to home X first
the Z as this minimises the chance of the tool crashing into any stock in the machine. You
can of course jog away from the stock before homing to avoid problems.
The advantage of using a good quality, and therefore repeatable, home switch on the X axis
is that its position only
needs to be setup once
when the machine is
configured. Whenever
you turn it on the Home
All button will set
Program Coordinate X =
0 to be the centreline of
the machine.
Figure 7.10 – The Offset data for a home switch
7.3.2.1
Procedure for setting Home Off.
As maximum accuracy is required this should always be done by trial machining.
Set the Home Off. column in Config>Homing/Limits on the row for the X axis to be 0.0
Click the Zero World button on the Manual screen. Use the Machine Coords button to make
the axis DROs display Machine rather than Program coordinates.
Click Set Home for the X axis. This will move the X axis towards the home switch. Shand
by to press the Emergency Stop button in case it moves in the wrong direction of a crash
looks imminent. Jog the Z axis so it is clear of the chuck.
Chuck a small piece of stock and, using jogging and/or MDI, take a fine turning cut off the
diameter. Note the X DRO reading - it should be negative. Ignore the negative sign and call
the positive value X. Jog Z so you can measure the turned stock diameter. Call this D. Now
calculate the Nome Offset (HO):
HO = X + (D / 2)
Set the Home Off. column in Config>Homing/Limits on the row for the X axis to be the
value HO. See figure 7.10.
Now do Set Home again for X. The axis will move and then its DRO should read the value
HO if you are in Radius mode or twice HO in Diameter mode.
Finally take another fine turning cut off the stock diameter. Note the reading on the X DRO,
measure the turned stock and check that the two values correspond. If they do not then you
have either made an error in the HO calculation or the configuration of Steps/Unit is wrong.
7.4
Chucking stock and setting Z Program Coordinate
The final stage before we can run a part program to make a part is to set the offset between
the Machine Coordinates and the Program Coordinates so that Z = 0 is at the appropriate
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Setting up a job and tool tables
place on the stock. Remember that where Z = 0 should be depends on how the part program
has been written. You need to check this if you are unsure.
7.4.1
Z = 0 at tailstock end of part
This is probably the easier situation. Look at the design of the part or the G-code in the part
program and decide the most negative Z value that will be used. The stock must protrude
from the chuck by at least this amount. Add 6mm (¼") for safety and jog the Z axis so it is
this distance from the chuck jaws with X near to zero..
Insert the stock in the chuck so that it is touching the side cutting edge of the tool and
tighten the chuck.
If the end of the stock is already clean and does not need facing then Press the Zero button
for the Z axis.
If you do need to face the end of the stock then jog X out to larger than the stock diameter
and jog Z so that the tool will take a small facing cut. Face the end, repeating the cut if it
does not clean up. Then press the Zero button for the Z axis.
7.4.2
Z = 0 at parting off point on part
In this situation you again look at the design or G-code but looking for the largest positive Z
value used. This will correspond to the tailstock end of the finished part. Jog the tool so its
Z position is at least this distance from the chuck jaws with a additional safety margin of 12
mm (½" ) or so – you need more than the previous case to allow for the groove of the
parting-off cut.
If the end of the stock is already clean and does not need facing then type the calculated
largest Z value into the Z axis DRO and press Enter.
If you do need to face the end of the stock then jog X out to larger than the stock diameter
and jog Z so that the tool will take a small facing cut. Face the end, repeating the cut if it
does not clean up. Then type the calculated largest Z value into the Z axis DRO and press
Enter.
7.4.3
Repetition work
If you are making a series of identical parts then you can save making errors when entering
the Z coordinate of the end of the part by putting the values in the Z DRO by the Part Zero
button. Clicking this button is like typing the values in the X and Z DROs into the
corresponding Axis DROs so you would do this to setup each part after clamping it in the
chuck or facing it off.
Note that you need to arrange that the X axis is already at the position given in its part zero
DRO when you use this button or your part diameters will be all wrong.
7.5
Using more than one tool
7.5.1
Introduction
We have seen that you can write a part program without worrying about the machine that
will run it because Mach3 will convert Program Coordinate values into Machine Coordinate
values using the information given when the machine is setup and the stock loaded into the
chuck. We have also seen that there can be a problem with using different tools because
their Effective Cutting Points will be in different places.
This section shows how to work with many tools. We will assume that you have replaceable
carbide inserts for your tools because these can be exchanged without altering the nominal
cutting position of the tool. If you use HSS tools and sharpen them by grinding, then you
will need to do work resetting the tools offsets after each sharpening. We will assume that
you have a conventional "front" tool-post. Mach3 will function with a rear-post (e.g the
machine shown in figure 4.7) but the detailed setup will depend on whether the tools are set
to cut on the upper or lower faces when one is used.
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Setting up a job and tool tables
7.5.2
The steps in selecting a tool
It will generally be the responsibility of the part program to tell Mach3 which tool is to be
used for any given set of G-code blocks. A CAD/CAM program will select a tool and set
the spindle speed, depth of cut, feedrate etc. to suit the operation being performed be it
roughing, finishing, threading etc.
The process of selecting a tool, using G-code, is more involved than one would suspect at
first glance. This is because it is designed to work efficiently on many different machine
tools; ranging from ones where the tool is changed by hand to where it is chosen from a
range of dozens of possible tools and a tool can be changed in half a second. If you are
using a CAD/CAM system then the work will be done for you but you will need to
understand what is happening to be able to define your tools to Mach3.
The tool changing process has three separate steps:
•
Nominate which tool will be used next. Done with the T-word e.g. T3 nominates
the tool in position (slot) 3 of the toolchanger.
•
Remove the existing tool and replace it by the one nominated by the T-word. This
is done by the M06 command.
•
Correct for the position of the Effective Cutting Point of the new tool. This is done
by the G43 (or G44) command. E.g. G43 H03. The H word in G43/G44 specifies
which entry in the tool table defines the position and shape of the Effective Cutting
Point of the tool.
The next paragraphs explain some details of these steps and you can skip them at first
reading if you wish.
The T word can be used, in a part program, many blocks before the tool is actually loaded
by M06. This can give the machine tool mechanism the chance to get the tool to a
convenient place for a quick change in parallel with machining with the current tool. Some
CAM post-processors output the next T word immediately after an M06.
Mach3 allows M06 to be implemented in many ways. What it does is defined in the
Config>Logic dialog when the lathe is configured. It is possible to have macros which are
called at the start and end of the changing process. The spindle and/or coolant can be
stopped and commands can be sent to control an automatic tool changer. For full details you
need to consult the Mach3 Customization manual.
Notice that, while the number in the T word and the H word can be the same they do not
have to be. They are actually two different things. T specifies the slot in the toolchanger and
H specifies the entry in the tool table. If you have a turret type changer with say 8 tools
permanently installed or a set of Dickson holders then using the same number in both cases
Figure 7.11 – The tool table editor
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Setting up a job and tool tables
is fine. You need to distinguish them if your automatic toolchanger has a limited number of
slots but you can load these with tools from a bigger collection for a given job. In this case
the tool-table needs to list all the tools you have in the collection but the G-Code uses the
appropriate slot position for the T word. For example a UNF threading tool might be tool
number 46 in the tool-table. When you want to do a UNF thread it might go in toolchanger
slot 7 (replacing the ISO form one you use for metric jobs). The tool change sequence
would then be:
T7
M06
G43 H46
7.5.3
Tool table
The whole tool table is displayed by going via the Tool Table button on the Welcome
screen and clicking the Edit Tool Table button. An example is shown in figure 7.11
Tool 0 is a dummy entry. Ignore it as most CAD/CAM systems will not allow you to select
it in a part program. By scrolling the window you can access all the entries up to tool 245.
You are advised to use the lower numbers as some CAD/CAM systems limit the highest
tool number you can use.
7.5.3.1
Format of tool table
The meaning of the columns is as follows:
Tool: The table entry number to be used in G43.G44 H word. The graphic can be used as a
reminder of the shape of the tool. Choose it by cycling through the choices by clicking the
cell in the table
Description: A free text description of the tool function. Displayed by Mach3.
Tip Direction: This is a code defining the direction in which the tool cuts which is used in
tool tip radius compensation. See chapter 9 for details.
Tip Radius: This is used to compensate on angled cutting. See chapter 9 for details.
X offset, Z offset, X wear, Z wear: These are distances defining the position of the
Effective Cutting Point of the tool.
Turret angle: not currently used
There are several ways of describing the relative positions of tool tips (i.e. X offset, Z
offset, X wear etc.) in a tool table. We will describe the Master Tool method. In this, one
tool, usually Tool #1 is the Master Tool. It is the one used to set up the stock in the chuck
and to define the position of the home switch(es). This means that its X and Z offsets and
Wear offsets will always be zero. The offsets of other tools are the differences from the tip
of Tool #1.
You do not have to use the tool table in this way and, indeed, if you have a tool presetter for
your tools you can set the offsets in the table relative to any datum position used by the
presetter.
7.5.3.2
Choosing which tool will be master
The master tool must be able to cut when facing and turning. Ideally you should put a tool
which has light use in as the Master Tool in position 1 of the table. A finishing tool would
therefore be a good choice. If you have a limited choice of tools then you can use your
general turning tool. Make sure the toolholder is clearly labelled "Master – Tool #1".
7.5.3.3
G43, G44 and the sign of tool offsets
The history of the development of G-codes give us a complication here. When you choose a
tool table entry you can tell Mach3 what a positive offset means and so, of course, what a
negative offset means. G43 with a positive offset value means that the tooltip is nearer the
certerline or chuck than that of the Master Tool. G44 with a positive value means that the
tooltip is further from the certerline or chuck than that of the Master Tool.
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Setting up a job and tool tables
Important note: With a given set of data in the tool table you can only use the correct
code. If you are using a CAD/CAM system then it will be configured to output either G43
or G44 when you select a tool. You should discover which is used before you continue –
just draw a trivial part and generate the part program with a tool change in it to see what the
G-code looks like.
We will assume that your system uses G43. If you use G44 then negate the values for
each offset you calculate before you enter it in the tool table.
7.5.3.4
Defining a facing/turning tool's entry in the tool table
Make the current tool be your master tool. Use G43 H1 to use its offsets (which should
always be zero)
Reference the axes.
Set a piece of stock in the chuck, face it at Z = 0 and take a fine turning cut off the
circumference. Carefully check that its diameter (or radius in Radius mode) agrees with the
X axis DRO. The accuracy of every tool will depend on the accuracy of this setting.
Now choose the tool whose entry is to be setup. Make sure its centre height is exactly right.
Decide which tool table number it will be and clearly label it. Do not do G43 for it.
Take a fine turning cut off the circumference of the stock. Note the X DRO value as XDRO.
Measure the diameter of the turned stock and note it a X Actual.
If your lathe is in Diameter mode then:
X Offset = (XDRO – XActual ) / 2
If your lathe is in Radius mode then
X Offset = XDRO – (XActual / 2)
Notice the different position of the divide by 2 in these calculations.
Now touch the side cutting edge of the
tool on the faced end of the stock (see
figure 7.12). For tools which do not make
facing cuts (such as a turning or profiling
tool see method below). Suppose the
feeler gage paper thickness or rod
diameter is g and the Z axis DRO reads
ZDRO then:
Z Offset = ZDRO – g
Now go to the tool table editor (via the
Welcome screen, Tool Table button and
Edit Tool Table button). Choose an icon
and name for the tool and enter the X
Offset and Z Offset data on the row
corresponding to the number written on
the tool. Ensure that X Wear and Z Wear
are zero.
Figure 7.12 – Touching Z with cylindrical gage
Remember to change the sign of the Offset values before you enter them in the table if you
are going to use G44.
You may find it convenient to draw up a sheet of paper with a table for your calculations.
This can also be useful to retain on file if you need to reset the tool table after upgrading
Mach3
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Setting up a job and tool tables
Tool
table
entry #
X DRO
X Actual
X Offset
Z DRO
g
Z Offset
2
15.3
15.7
- 0.2
7.1
3.2
3.9
3
15
14.8
0.1
6.5
3.2
3.3
Figure 7.13 – Example table for recording tool table setup (G43 & Diameter mode)
You can now test the offset values by using MDI to enter G43 (or G44) for the new tool and
jogging by eye so that its effective cutting point is at the "corner" of the stock. The Z axis
DRO should be approximately zero and the X axis DRO be the diameter (or radius) of the
turned stock (i.e. X Actual)
7.5.3.5
Setting tool table for "special" tools
The techniques for special tools are illustrated in figure 7.14.
For tools which will not "face", for example, a threading tool, you need to judge the Z
position where the tip cuts by eye. The Z Offset is then set to the Z DRO value. Fortunately
the exact X position of cuts with this sort of tool is often not too important.
For a parting or grooving tool, you will want to define the tailstock edge as the effective
cutting point. Place a small flat piece of steel against the faced end and jog Z until the tool
touches it. The Z Offset is then set to the Z DRO value
For a boring bar, use a
small flat piece of steel
on the circumference and
set the X Offset in the
way given above having
done a trial turning.
For a centre drill, touch
the diameter of the shank
on a known diameter of
stock. Suppose the stock
diameter is X-Actual, the
slip gage thickness or
diameter (as appropriate)
is g, the diameter of the
drill shank is DrillDia,
and the X axis DRO
reading is XDRO
Figure 7.14 – Setting special tools
If your lathe is in Diameter mode then:
X Offset = (XDRO – (XActual + g + DrillDia/2) ) / 2
If your lathe is in Radius mode then
X Offset = XDRO – ((XActual + g + DrillDia/2) / 2)
7.5.3.6
Wear offsets
So far we have not put any values in the X Wear and Z Wear columns of the tool table.
Whenever the offsets are used by Mach3, the Z Offset and Z Wear are added together to be
the actual Z offset from the master tool. The same applies to X.
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Setting up a job and tool tables
The intention is to allow for the fact that the main offsets are set up with a brand new tip in
the tool but as it wears the size of the turned component will tend to increase. If you find
that a part is oversize with a given worn tool calculate an X Wear offset as follows:
Measure the diametral amount that the component is oversize. Divide this by 2 in order to
get the radial error.. If you use G43, enter this error as a negative value into the X Wear
column of the tool that took the cut. If you use G44 enter it as a positive value.
Z measurements are often less important than diameters but, if needed, you can use the Z
Wear value in the same way. Store the distance by which a turned shoulder is below length
in the Z Wear column as a negative value for G43 and positive value for G44. Notice you
do not divide the error by two in this case.
When you eventually index or replace the worn tip you should be able to get an accurate cut
by resetting the Wear values to zero.
7.6
Behind the scenes
If you find that using the above explanations as recipes works for you then you might like
to skip this section. Some people however would like to know what is actually happening
within Mach3; if so read on.
7.6.1
Machine Coordinate system
As described above Mach3 has a Machine Coordinate System.
For a lathe with home switches, when the machine is referenced, this is fixed in relation to
these switches with the axis zeros (or other fixed values in Config>Homing/Limits) being
the saddle/cross-slide positioned at the switches.
For a lathe with no switches the Machine Coordinate system has its origin or (if Persistent
DROs is checked in Config>Logic) the coordinates when Mach3 was closed down will be
where the saddle/cross-slide is when Mach3 is loaded.
7.6.2
Fixture offsets
Mach3Tuirn, in common with Mach3Mill, has 254 sets of "fixture offsets". These are
enabled by G54, G55, G56, G59.134 etc. It is very unusual in turning to use other than G54
and this is the set of offsets chosen when Mach3 is losaded.
The value of the fixture offsets is stored in a Fixture Table and they generally persist when
Mach3 is closed down and reloaded. The easiest way to set a value of the X of Z offset for
the current fixture (i.e. almost invariably G54 in the case of Turn) is to type the desired
value of the Program Coordinate into the appropriate axis DRO. Mach3 takes the Machine
Coordinate value for the axis and works out the offset required to get the Program
Coordinate typed in.
This is complicated to explain but if you will see how it works if you try entering some
values (use the Z axis at first) on the Manual screen and use the Program Coords. and
Machine Coords. buttons to display values in the two systems.
If you are using Radius mode you will find the X axis works like the Z axis. In Diameter
mode, however, the X Axis DRO in Program Coords. always displays twice the distance of
the controlled point from the centreline of the lathe (i.e. the diameter that will be turned).
There is an option to reload the G54 offsets (usually to zero) from table entry G59.253 (this
is set in Config>Logic) or you can use the Zero World buttons on the Manual screen to set
both Machine Coordinates to zero at the current position of the saddle/cross-slide and to set
the G54 offsets to zero.
The Zero buttons by the axis DROs are exactly equivalent to typing 0.0 into the DRO.
Hopefully it is now clear that G54 offsets are what is being used to define the Program
Coordinate system when stock is set up by trial machining or touching.
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Setting up a job and tool tables
7.6.3
Program Coordinates
A point in the Program Coordinate system will be converted into machine coordinates as
follows:
7.6.4
•
The entry in the tool table, selected by the H word of the active G43 or G44, is used
and the Z offset and Z Wear are added together and the X offset and X Wear are
added together giving the actual tool offset values. If G43 is in effect then these tool
offset values are added to the Program Coordinates. If G44 is in effect then they are
subtracted from the Program Coordinates.
•
If Diameter mode is selected the X coordinate is divided by two to make it a radial
value.
•
The G52 local offsets are applied.
•
The G54 offsets values are then applied to give values in the Machine Coordinate
system.
Other Radius and Diameter mode issues
When Machine Coordinates are displayed and moves are made in the Machine Coordinate
system (G53 in the block) the X coordinate is always a radial distance.
Similarly, the offsets stored in the tool table and fixture table and those defined in
Config>Homing/Limits for the Home switch position and the soft limits are radial values.
We strongly advise you not to change between Radius mode and Diameter mode without
reconfiguring Mach3.
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Advanced configuration options
8.
Advanced configuration options
This chapter describes additional configuration options that you might find
helpful when you have become familiar with the basic operation of your
lathe.
The manual Customizing Mach3 gives details of the techniques you can use
to implement your own control panel, screen layouts and to write Wizards
8.1
Configure homing
8.1.1.1
Referencing speeds and direction
The Config>Homing/Limits dialog allows you to define what happens when a reference
operation (G28, G28.1 or pressing a Set Home screen button) is performed. Figure 8.1
shows the dialog.
The referencing
speed is used to
avoid crashing into
the stop of an axis
at full speed when
looking for the
reference switch.
When you are
referencing, Mach3
has no idea of the
Figure 8.1 – Homing direction speed and action
position of an axis.
The direction it
moves in depends on the Home Neg check boxes. If the relevant box is checked then the
axis will move in the minus direction until the Home input becomes active. If the Home
input is already active then it will move in the plus direction. Similarly if the box is
unchecked then the axis moves in the plus direction until the input is active and the minus
direction if it is already active.
8.1.1.2
Position of home switches
If the Auto Zero checkbox is checked then the axis DROs will be set to the
Reference/Home Switch location value defined in
the Home Off. column (rather than actual Zero)
It is, of course, necessary to have separate limit and
reference switches if the reference switch is not at
the end of an axis.
8.1.2
Configure Backlash
Mach3 will attempt to compensate for backlash in
axis drive mechanisms by attempting to approach
each required coordinate from the same direction.
While this is useful in applications like drilling or
boring, it cannot overcome problems with the
machine in continuous cutting.
The Config>Backlash dialog allows you to give an
estimate of the distance which the axis must back
up by to ensure the backlash is taken up when the
final "forward" movement is made. The speed at
which this movement is to be made is also
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Figure 8.2 – Config Backlash
Using Mach3Turn
Advanced configuration options
specified. See figure 8.2
Note: (a) These settings are only used when backlash compensation is enabled on the
Config>Initial State dialog.
(b) Backlash compensation is a "last resort" when the mechanical design of your machine
cannot be improved!
8.1.3
Configure Soft Limits
As discussed earlier most implementations of limit switches involve some compromises and
hitting them accidentally will require intervention by the operator and may require the
system to be reset
and re-referenced.
Soft limits can
provide a protection
against this sort of
inconvenient
accident.
The software will
refuse to allow the
axes to move outside
the declared range of
the soft limits of the
Figure 8.3 - Soft Limits configuration
X and Z axes. These
can be set in the range -999999 to + 999999 units for each axis. When jogging motion gets
near to the limit then its speed will be reduced when inside an Approach Safety zone. These
values are defined on the Config>Home/SoftLimits dialog. See figure 6.3.
The Slow Zone values are the distance from the limits at which the approach speed is
automatically reduced. If this value is set too big you will reduce the effective working area
of the machine. If they are set too small then you risk hitting the hardware limits.
The defined limits only apply when switched on using the Software Limits toggle button see Limits and Miscellaneous control family for details.
If a part program attempts to move beyond a soft limit then it will raise an error.
8.1.4
Configure Initial State
Config>State opens a dialog which allows you to define the modes which are active when
Mach2 is loaded (i.e. the initial state of the system). It is shown in figure 8.4.
Motion mode: Constant velocity sets G64, Exact Stop sets G61. For details of these option
see Constant Velocity and Exact Stop in chapter 10.
Distance mode: Absolute sets G 90, Inc sets G91
Active plane: Should always be X-Z. This sets G18
I/J Mode: In addition you can set the interpretation to be placed on I & J in arc moves. This
is provided for compatibility with different CAM post-processor and to emulate other
machine controllers. In Inc IJ mode I and J (the center point) are interpreted as relative to
the starting point of a center format arc. This is compatible with NIST EMC. In Absolute IJ
mode I and J are the coordinates of the center in the current coordinate system (i.e. after
application of work, tool and G52/G92 offsets). If circles always fail to display or to cut
properly (especially obvious by them being too big if they are far from the origin) then the
IJ mode is not compatible with you part program.
An error in this setting is the most frequent cause of questions from users when trying
to cut circles.
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Advanced configuration options
Figure 8.4 - Initial State configuration
Backlash (compensation): can be set on or off here (you might have looked for it on
Config>Logic!). The values to be used are on set up on the Config>Backlash dialog.
Initialisation String: is a set of valid G-codes to set the desired initial state of Mach3 when
it is started. These are applied after the values set in the radio buttons above so may
override them. Use the radio buttons wherever possible to avoid confusion. If Use Init on
ALL "Resets" is checked then these codes will be applied however Mach2 is reset – e.g.
after an EStop condition.
Other check boxes:
Persistent Jog Mode, if checked, will remember the Jog Mode you have chosen between
runs of Mach3Turn.
Persistent Offsets, if checked, will save the work and tool offsets in the permanent tables
you have selected between runs of Mach2Mill. See also Optional Offset Save.
Optional Offset Save, if checked, will prompt to check that you want to actually do any save
requested in Persistent Offsets.
Copy G54 from G59.253 on startup, if checked, will re-initiaise the G54 offset (i.e. work
offset 1) values from the work offset 253 values when Mach3 is started. Check this if you
want to start up G54 to always be a fixed coordinate system (e.g. the machine coordinate
system) even if a previous user might have altered it and saved a non-standard set of values.
This is generally most convenient with Mach3Turn
Enhanced Pulsing, if checked, will ensure the greatest accuracy of timing pulses (and hence
smoothness of stepper drives) at the expense of additional central processor time. You
should only select this if you are using a 1.2 GHz processor or faster.
Auto Screen Enlarge, if checked, will cause Mach3 to enlarge any screen, and all the
objects on it, if it has fewer pixels than the current PC screen mode so ensuring that it fills
the entire screen area.
Charge Pump on in EStop gives a continuous output on the charge pump pin. If you use the
charge pump to enable/disable axis drives then you should leave this unchecked.
Z is 2.5D on Output #6 does not apply to Mach3Turn
Jog Increments in Cycle Mode: The Cycle Jog Step button will load the values in the list
into the Step DRO in turn. This is often more convenient than typing into the Step DRO.
Code the special value 999 to switch to Cont Jog Mode.
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8-3
Using Mach3Turn
Advanced configuration options
8.1.5
Configure other Logic items
Miscellaneous features of Mach3 are configured in the Config>Logic dialog (see figure
8.5).
Figure 8.5 - Logic Configuration dialog
G20/G21 Control: If Lock DROs to set up units is checked then even though G20 and
G21 will alter the way X, Y, Z etc. words are interpreted (inch or millimetre) the DROs will
always display in the Setup Unit system.
Tool change: An M6 tool change request can be ignored or used to call the M6 macros
(q.v.). If Auto Tool Changer is checked then the M6Start/M6End macros will be called but
Cycle Start does not need to be pressed at any stage.
Persistent DROs: if checked, then the axis DROs will have the same values on startup as
when Mach2 is closed down. Note that the positions of the physical axes are unlikely to be
preserved if the machine tool is powered down, especially with micro-stepper drives.
Disable Gouge/Concavity checks: if unchecked, then, during cutter compensation (G41
and G42), Mach2 will check if the tool diameter is too large to cut “insider corners” without
gouging the work. Check the box to disable the warning.
Debounce interval/Index Debounce: Is the number of Mach 3 pulses that a switch must be
stable for its signal to be considered valid. So for a system running at 35,000 Hz , 100
would give about a 3 millisecond debounce (100 ÷ 35000 = .0029 secs). The Index pulse
and the other inputs have independent settings.
M01 Control: If checked then the default setting of the "Optional Stop" switch is zero. A
button can be added to the screens to control this dynamically if desired. See Customizing
Mach3.
Pgm end or M30 or Rewind: defines action(s) to take place at end or a rewind of your part
program. Check the required functions. Caution: Before checking the items to remove
offsets and to perform G92.1 you should be absolutely clear on how these features work or
you may find that the current position has coordinates very different from what you expect
at the end of a program.
Angular properties: Generally not applicable to Mach3Turn. An axis defined as angular is
measured in degrees (that is to say G20/G21 do not alter the interpretation of A, B, C
words)
Program safety: When checked, enables Input #1 as a safety cover interlock.
Editor: The filename of the executable of the editor to be called by the G-code edit button.
The Browse button allows a suitable file (e.g. C:\windows\notepad.exe) to be found.
Using Mach3Turn
8-4
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Advanced configuration options
Serial output: Defines the COM port number to be used for the serial output channel and
the baud rate at which it should output. This port can be written to from VB script in a
macro and can be used to control special functions of a machine (e.g. LCD display, toolchangers, axis clamps, swarf conveyor etc,)
Other checkboxes:
Plasma Mode, Not applicable to Mach3Turn
No Angular Discrimination: This is also only relevant to constant velocity working. When
unchecked Mach3 treats changes of direction whose angle is greater than the value set in
the CV Angular Limit DRO as exact stop (even if CV mode is set) to avoid excessive
rounding of sharp corners. Full details of Constant Velocity mode are given in chapter 10.
FeedOveride Persists, if checked, then the selected feed override will be retained at the end
of a part program run.
Allow wave files: Allows a macro to play a wave file for audible warning
Allow speech: Allows the speech synthesiser for initialisation and Help system messages
G04 Dwell param in Milliseconds: If you check this then the command G4 5000 will give a
Dwell in running of 5 seconds. If the control is unchecked it gives a dwell of 1 hour 23
minutes 20 seconds!
Set Charge Pump to 5KHz for Laser Standby Level: Not applicable to Mach3Turn
Use Safe_Z: Not applicable to Mach3Turn.
8.2
How the Profile information is stored
When the Mach3.exe program is run it will prompt you for the Profile file to use. This will
generally be in the Mach3 folder and will have the extension .XML. You can view and print
the contents of Profile files with Internet Explorer (as XML is a mark-up language used on
web pages)
Shortcuts are set up by the system installer to run Mach3.exe with default Profiles for a Mill
and for Turning (i.e. Mach3Mill and Mach3Turn). You can create your own shortcuts each
with a different Profile so one computer can control a variety of machine tools.
This is very useful if you have more than one machine and they require different values for
the motor tuning, or have different limit and home switch arrangements.
You can either run Mach3.exe and choose from the list of available profiles or you can set
up extra shortcuts that specify the profile to use.
In a shortcut, the profile to load is given in the "/p" argument in the Target of the shortcut
properties. As an example you should inspect the Properties of the Mach3Mill shortcut.
This can be done, for example, by right clicking the shortcut and choosing Properties from
the menu.
An .XML file for a profile can be edited by an external editor but you are very strongly
advised not to do this unless you are fully conversant with the meaning of each entry in the
files and your editor will not insert unwanted invisible characters as some users have
encountered very strange effects with mis-formatted files. Notice that some tags (e.g. the
screen layout) are only created when a built-in default value is overridden using Mach3
menus. It is much safer to use Mach2's configuration menus to update the XML
profiles.
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8-5
Using Mach3Turn
Tool nose radius compensation
9.
Tool tip radius compensation
Tool tip radius compensation is a feature of Mach3 which currently under
development. Most CAD/CAM programs can be told the profile of your tool
and will output part programs which cut the part profile which you have
drawn by allowing for the tool tip shape. Because the CAD/CAM software
has a better overall view of the shapes being cut it will generally do a better
job than Mach3 can if you have a complicated profile.
9.1
Introduction to compensation
As we have seen Mach3 controls the movement of the Controlled Point. Figure 9.1 shows a
"sharp pointed" tool cutting a
diameter, a taper and facing.
Now if we have a radiused tip (say
3 mm radius like a 6 mm button
tool) centred where the point was it
will cut the diameter too small as
shown at A in figure 9.2. This can
be corrected by adding 3 mm to the
X coordinate given by the program
(this is of course 6 mm in Diameter
mode). The facing cut would also
be wrong by 3 mm, so 3 mm needs
adding to the Z coordinate too. This
can of course be done by putting
Figure 9.1 – Turning with a "sharp" tool
3.0 in the X Offset and Z Offset
columns of the tool table for the current tool.
This will
mean that the
tool cuts as
in positions
B and D in
figure 9.2.
There is
however a
problem, at
position C,
on the
chamfer. The
centre of the
tool is 4.24
mm away
from the
correct line
of cut (i.e.
the
hypotenuse
of a rightFigure 9.2 – The offset toolpath for a radiused tool tip
angled
triangle with sides 3 mm). It should of course only be 3 mm away.
If Mach3 knows the angle of a chamfer then it is quite easy to calculate the sides of the
triangle to get the hypotenuse 3 mm away from the work. Figure 9.3 shows a 60o chamfer
and some more intricate profiling. The tool at position A is compensated by an offset of 2.6
mm in Z (3 x sin(60)) and 1.5 mm in X (3 x cos (60)) giving a hypotenuse of 3 mm.
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9-1
Using Mach3Turn
Tool nose radius compensation
There are, however
some difficulties
when the tool is
near a corner.
What Mach3 needs
to know is the
angle of the
tangential contact
line. This is not
hard where two
straight lines meet
but is non-trivial
when near curves
like positions B
and C. These
curves may
actually be made
up of moves in
many blocks of Gcode and Mach3
can only know
where the tool
should touch the
profile by looking
ahead.
Figure 9.3 – Tools contacting at different angles
It is generally easiest to allow your CAD/CAM software to take account of this. This
software has an overall view of the shapes. Mach3 only sees a local view.
If you are hand coding or using a Wizard it is useful for Mach3 to do the best with what it
does know.
9.2
How compensation is specified
Mach3 needs to know two things in order to work out whether to add or subtract offsets
when compensating. These are which direction the cut is being made and the direction the
tool tip points.
The direction is given by whether the tool is to be offset to the left or right when looking in
the direction of cutting.
In the example we would offset to the left when cutting from tailstock to chuck with a tool
in the front toolpost as indicated by the arrow.
Compensation offsetting is switched on by G41 or G42. G41 offsets to the left and G42
offsets to the right. G40 switches tip radius compensation off.
G41 and G42 use the tool nose radius and direction of the current tool unless a D word is
specified. If D is specified then its value is the index number in the tool table which
specifies the radius and direction.
9.3
Potential difficulties
Obviously the tool will move when you switch compensation on with G41 or G42. You
should make sure that it is not near the stock when you turn compensation on. A value of
twice the tip radius in the Z direction and four times on the diameter is always safe.
Sometimes when you change the direction of a cut at a corner you will need to change from
right to left hand compensation or vice-versa. You must be sure that the tool will not crash
into the stock when this change is taking place.
Using Mach3Turn
9-2
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G and M-code reference
10. Mach3 G- and M-code language reference
This section defines the language (G-codes etc.) that are understood and
interpreted by Mach3Turn.
The description is oriented towards turning (e.g. concentrates on two axes)
but Mach3Turn and Mach3Mill are a common body of code so many Mill
functions can in fact be used on turning machines. Ask for advice from
ArtSoft Corporation on particular applications.
Information on unused axes is sometimes included in this chapter for
completeness.
10.1
Some definitions
10.1.1
Linear Axes
The X and Z axes form a standard right-handed (although the direction of Y is unimportant)
coordinate system of orthogonal linear axes. Positions are expressed using coordinates in
these axes. A spindle and optionally a tailstock are mounted parallel to the Z axis. The
centreline is generally made to be at X = 0.0.
10.1.2
Scaling input
It is possible to set up scaling factors for each axis. These will be applied to the values of X,
Z, I, K and R words whenever these are entered. This allows the size of features machined
to be altered and mirror images to be created - by use of negative scale factors.
The scaling is the first thing done with the values and things like feed rate are always based
on the scaled values.
The offsets stored in tool and fixture tables are not scaled before use. Scaling may, of
course, have been applied at the time the values were entered (say using G10).
10.1.3
Controlled Point
The controlled point is the notional point whose position and rate of motion are controlled.
Commands like G00 and G01 specify by their X and Z words the new position of the
controlled point and the Axis DROs display it.
10.1.4
Co-ordinated Linear Motion
To drive a tool along a specified path, a machining system must often co-ordinate the
motion of several axes. We use the term "co-ordinated linear motion" to describe the
situation in which, nominally, each axis moves at constant speed and all axes move from
their starting positions to their end positions at the same time. This produces motion in a
straight line, hence the word "linear" in the term. In actual motions, it is often not possible
to maintain constant speed because acceleration or deceleration is required at the beginning
and/or end of the motion. It is feasible, however, to control the axes so that, at all times,
each axis has completed the same fraction of its required motion as the other axes. This
moves the tool along the same path, and we also call this kind of motion co-ordinated linear
motion.
Co-ordinated linear motion can be performed either at the prevailing feed rate, or at rapid
traverse rate. If physical limits on axis speed make the desired rate unobtainable, all axes
are slowed to maintain the desired path.
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Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
10.1.5
Feed Rate
The rate at which the controlled point or the axes move is nominally a steady rate which
may be set by the user. In the Interpreter, the interpretation of the feed rate is as follows
unless inverse time feed rate (G93) mode is being used:
For motion involving one or more of the linear axes (X, Z), the feed rate means length units
per minute along the programmed linear XZ path.
10.1.6
Arc Motion
The pair of the linear axes ( XZ) can be controlled to move in a circular arc in the plane of
that pair of axes.
The feed rate during arc motion is as described in Feed Rate above.
10.1.7
Coolant
Flood coolant and mist coolant may each be turned on independently. They are turned off
together.
10.1.8
Dwell
A machining system may be commanded to dwell (i.e., keep all axes unmoving) for a
specific amount of time. The most common use of dwell is to break and clear chips or for a
spindle to get up to speed. The units in which you specify Dwell are either seconds or
Milliseconds depending on the setting on Configure>Logic
10.1.9
Units
Units used for distances along the X and Z axes may be measured in millimetres or inches.
Units for all other quantities involved in machine control cannot be changed. Different
quantities use different specific units. Spindle speed is measured in revolutions per minute..
Feed rates are expressed in current length units per minute, in current lenth units per
revolution of the spindle or in degrees per minute, as described above.
Warning: We advise you to check very carefully the system's response to changing units
while tool and fixture offsets are loaded into the tables, while these offsets are active and/or
while a part program is executing
10.1.10
Current Position
The controlled point is always at some location called the "current position" and Mach3
always knows where that is. The numbers representing the current position are adjusted in
the absence of any axis motion if any of several events take place:
♦ Length units are changed (but see Warning above)
♦ Tool length offset is changed
♦ Coordinate system offsets are changed.
10.1.11
Selected Plane
There is always a "selected plane", which for turning is the XZ-plane of the machining
system.
10.1.12
Tool Table
Zero or one tool is assigned to each slot in the tool table.
10.1.13
Tool Change
Mach3 allows you to implement a procedure for implementing automatic tool changes
using macros or to change the tools by hand when required.
Using Mach3Turn
10-2
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G and M-code reference
10.1.14
Path Control Modes
The machining system may be put into any one of two path control modes: (1) exact stop
mode, (2) constant velocity mode. In exact stop mode, the machine stops briefly at the end
of each programmed move. In constant velocity mode, sharp corners of the path may be
rounded slightly so that the feed rate may be kept up. These modes are to allow the user to
control the compromise involved in turning corners because a real machine has a finite
acceleration due to the inertia of its mechanism.
Exact stop does what it says. The machine will come to rest at each change of direction and
the tool will therefore precisely follow the commanded path.
Constant velocity will overlap acceleration in the new direction with deceleration in the
current one in order to keep the commanded feedrate. This implies a rounding of any corner
but faster and smoother cutting. The lower the acceleration of the machine axes, the greater
will be the radius of the rounded corner.
It is also possible to define an limiting angle so that changes in direction of more than this
angle will always be treated as Exact Stop even though Constant Velocity is selected. This
allows gentle corners to be smoother but avoids excessive rounding of sharp corners even
on machines with low acceleration on one or more axes. This feature is enabled in the
Configure Logic dialog and the limiting angle is set by a DRO. This setting will probably
need to be chosen experimentally depending on the characteristics of the machine tool and,
perhaps, the toolpath of an individual job.
10.2
Interpreter interaction with controls
The standard screens do not have controls for all these functions but they can be
implemented on custom screens. See Mach3 Customization.
10.2.1
Feed and Speed Override controls
Mach3 commands which enable (M48) or disable (M49) the feed and speed override
switches. It is useful to be able to override these switches for some machining operations.
The idea is that optimal settings have been included in the program, and the operator should
not change them.
10.2.2
Block Delete control
If the block delete control is ON, lines of code which start with a slash (the block delete
character) are not executed. If the switch is off, such lines are executed.
10.2.3
Optional Program Stop control
The optional program stop control (see Config>Logic) works as follows. If this control is
ON and an input line contains an M1 code, program execution is stopped at the end on the
commands on that line until the Cycle Start button is pushed.
10.3
Tool File
Mach3 maintains a tool file for each of the 253 tools which can be used.
Each data line of the file contains the data for one tool. This allows the definition of the tool
tip shape, offsets and radius.
10.4
The language of part programs
10.4.1
Overview
The language is based on lines of code. Each line (also called a "block") may include
commands to the machining system to do several different things. Lines of code may be
collected in a file to make a program.
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10-3
Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
A typical line of code consists of an optional line number at the beginning followed by one
or more "words." A word consists of a letter followed by a number (or something that
evaluates to a number). A word may either give a command or provide an argument to a
command. For example, G1 X3 is a valid line of code with two words. "G1" is a command
meaning "move in a straight line at the programmed feed rate," and "X3" provides an
argument value (the value of X should be 3 at the end of the move). Most commands start
with either G or M (for General and Miscellaneous). The words for these commands are
Parameter
number
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245
5246
Meaning
G28 home X
G28 home Y
G28 home Z
G28 home A
G28 home B
G28 home C
G30 home X
G30 home Y
G30 home Z
G30 home A
G30 home B
G30 home C
Scale X
Scale Y
Scale Z
Scale A
Scale B
Scale C
G92 offset X
G92 offset Y
G92 offset Z
G92 offset A
G92 offset B
G92 offset C
Current Work offset
number
Work offset 1 X
Work offset 1 Y
Work offset 1 Z
Work offset 1 A
Work offset 1 B
Work offset 1 C
Work offset 2 X
Work offset 2 Y
Work offset 2 Z
Work offset 2 A
Work offset 2 B
Work offset C
Parameter
number
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
Meaning
Work offset 3 X
Work offset 3 Y
Work offset 3 Z
Work offset 3 A
Work offset 3 B
Work offset 3 C
Work offset 4 X
Work offset 4 Y
Work offset 4 Z
Work offset 4 A
Work offset 4 B
Work offset 4 C
Work offset 5 X
Work offset 5 Y
Work offset 5 Z
Work offset 5 A
Work offset 5 B
Work offset 5 C
Work offset 6 X
Work offset 6 Y
Work offset 6 Z
Work offset 6 A
Work offset 6 B
Work offset 6 C
And so on every 20
values until
10281
10282
10283
10284
10285
10286
10301
10302
10303
10304
10305
10306
Work offset 254 X
Work offset 254 Y
Work offset 254 Z
Work offset 254 A
Work offset 254 B
Work offset 254 C
Work offset 255 X
Work offset 255 Y
Work offset 255 Z
Work offset 255 A
Work offset 255 B
Work offset 255 C
Figure 10.1 - System defined parameters
Using Mach3Turn
10-4
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G and M-code reference
called "G codes" and "M codes."
The language has two commands (M2 or M30), either of which ends a program. A program
may end before the end of a file. Lines of a file that occur after the end of a program are not
to be executed in the normal flow so will generally be parts of subroutines.
10.4.2
Parameters
A Mach3 machining system maintains an array of 10,320 numerical parameters. Many of
them have specific uses. The parameter which are associated with fixtures are persistent
over time. Other parameters will be undefined when Mach3 is loaded. The parameters are
preserved when the interpreter is reset. The parameters with meanings defined by Mach3
are given in figure 10.1
10.4.3
Coordinate Systems
The machining system has an absolute coordinate system and 254 work offset (fixture)
systems.
You can set the offsets of tools by G10 L1 P~ X~ Z~. The P word defines the tool
number to be set.
You can set the offsets of the fixture systems using G10 L2 P~ X~ Y~ Z~ A~ B~ C~
The P word defines the fixture to be set. The X, Y, Z etc words are the coordinates for the
origin of for the axes in terms of the absolute coordinate system.
You can select one of the first seven work offsets by using G54, G55, G56, G57, G58, G59.
Any of the 255 work offsets can be selected by G59 P~ (e.g. G59 P23 would select
fixture 23). The absolute coordinate system can be selected by G59 P0.
You can offset the current coordinate system using G52, G92 or G92.3. This offset will then
applied on top of work offset coordinate systems. This offset may be cancelled with G92.1
or G92.2.
You can make straight moves in the absolute machine coordinate system by using G53 with
either G0 or G1.
10.5
Format of a Line
A permissible line of input code consists of the following, in order, with the restriction that
there is a maximum (currently 256) to the number of characters allowed on a line.
♦ an optional block delete character, which is a slash "/" .
♦ an optional line number.
♦ any number of words, parameter settings, and comments.
♦ an end of line marker (carriage return or line feed or both).
Any input not explicitly allowed is illegal and will cause the Interpreter to signal an error or
to ignore the line.
Spaces and tabs are allowed anywhere on a line of code and do not change the meaning of
the line, except inside comments. This makes some strange-looking input legal. For
example, the line g0x +0. 12 34z 7 is equivalent to g0 x+0.1234 z7
Blank lines are allowed in the input. They will be ignored.
Input is case insensitive, except in comments, i.e., any letter outside a comment may be in
upper or lower case without changing the meaning of a line.
10.5.1
Line Number
A line number is the letter N followed by an integer (with no sign) between 0 and 99999
written with no more than five digits (000009 is not valid, for example). Line numbers may
be repeated or used out of order, although normal practice is to avoid such usage. A line
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10-5
Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
number is not required to be used (and this omission is common) but it must be in the
proper place if it is used.
10.5.2
Subroutine labels
A subroutine label is the letter O followed by an integer (with no sign) between 0 and
99999 written with no more than five digits (000009 is not permitted, for example).
Subroutine labels may be used in any order but must be unique in a program although
violation of this rule may not be flagged as an error. Nothing else except a comment should
appear on the same line after a subroutine label.
10.5.3
Word
A word is a letter other than N or O followed by a real value.
Words may begin with any of the letters shown in figure 10.2. The table includes N and O
Letter
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Meaning
A-axis of machine
B-axis of machine
C-axis of machine
tool radius compensation number
feedrate
general function (see Table 5)
tool length offset index
X-axis offset for arcs
X offset in G87 canned cycle
Y-axis offset for arcs
Y offset in G87 canned cycle
Z-axis offset for arcs
Z offset in G87 canned cycle
number of repetitions in canned
cycles/subroutines
key used with G10
miscellaneous function (see Table 7)
line number
Subroutine label number
dwell time in canned cycles
dwell time with G4
key used with G10
feed increment in G83 canned cycle
repetitions of subroutine call
arc radius
canned cycle retract level
spindle speed
tool selection
Synonymous with A
Synonymous with B
Synonymous with C
X-axis of machine
Y-axis of machine (not relevant in Turn)
Z-axis of machine
Figure 10.2 - Word initial letters
Using Mach3Turn
10-6
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G and M-code reference
for completeness, even though, as defined above, line numbers are not words. Several
letters (I, J, K, L, P, R) may have different meanings in different contexts.
A real value is some collection of characters that can be processed to come up with a
number. A real value may be an explicit number (such as 341 or -0.8807), a parameter
value, an expression, or a unary operation value. Definitions of these follow immediately.
Processing characters to come up with a number is called "evaluating". An explicit number
evaluates to itself.
10.5.3.1 Number
The following rules are used for (explicit) numbers. In these rules a digit is a single
character between 0 and 9.
♦
A number consists of (1) an optional plus or minus sign, followed by (2) zero to
many digits, followed, possibly, by (3) one decimal point, followed by (4) zero to
many digits - provided that there is at least one digit somewhere in the number.
♦ There are two kinds of numbers: integers and decimals. An integer does not have
a decimal point in it; a decimal does.
♦ Numbers may have any number of digits, subject to the limitation on line length.
Only about seventeen significant figures will be retained, however (enough for all
known applications).
♦ A non-zero number with no sign as the first character is assumed to be positive.
Notice that initial (before the decimal point and the first non-zero digit) and trailing (after
the decimal point and the last non-zero digit) zeros are allowed but not required. A number
written with initial or trailing zeros will have the same value when it is read as if the extra
zeros were not there.
Numbers used for specific purposes by Mach3 are often restricted to some finite set of
values or some to some range of values. In many uses, decimal numbers must be close to
integers; this includes the values of indexes (for parameters and carousel slot numbers, for
example), M codes, and G codes multiplied by ten. A decimal number which is supposed be
close to an integer is considered close enough if it is within 0.0001 of an integer.
10.5.3.2 Parameter Value
A parameter value is the hash character # followed by a real value. The real value must
evaluate to an integer between 1 and 10320. The integer is a parameter number, and the
value of the parameter value is whatever number is stored in the numbered parameter.
The # character takes precedence over other operations, so that, for example, #1+2 means
the number found by adding 2 to the value of parameter 1, not the value found in parameter
3. Of course, #[1+2] does mean the value found in parameter 3. The # character may be
repeated; for example ##2 means the value of the parameter whose index is the (integer)
value of parameter 2.
10.5.3.3 Expressions and Binary Operations
An expression is a set of characters starting with a left bracket [ and ending with a
balancing right bracket ]. In between the brackets are numbers, parameter values,
mathematical operations, and other expressions. An expression may be evaluated to
produce a number. The expressions on a line are evaluated when the line is read, before
anything on the line is executed. An example of an expression is:
[1+acos[0]-[#3**[4.0/2]]]
Binary operations appear only inside expressions. Nine binary operations are defined. There
are four basic mathematical operations: addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and
division (/). There are three logical operations: non-exclusive or (OR), exclusive or (XOR),
and logical and (AND). The eighth operation is the modulus operation (MOD). The ninth
operation is the "power" operation (**) of raising the number on the left of the operation to
the power on the right.
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The binary operations are divided into three groups. The first group is: power. The second
group is: multiplication, division, and modulus. The third group is: addition, subtraction,
logical non-exclusive or, logical exclusive or, and logical and. If operations are strung
together (for example in the expression [2.0/3*1.5-5.5/11.0]), operations in the
first group are to be performed before operations in the second group and operations in the
second group before operations in the third group. If an expression contains more than one
operation from the same group (such as the first / and * in the example), the operation on
the left is performed first. Thus, the example is equivalent to: [((2.0/3)*1.5)(5.5/11.0)] which simplifies to [1.0-0.5] which is 0.5.
The logical operations and modulus are to be performed on any real numbers, not just on
integers. The number zero is equivalent to logical false, and any non-zero number is
equivalent to logical true.
10.5.3.4 Unary Operation Value
A unary operation value is either "ATAN" followed by one expression divided by another
expression (for example ATAN[2]/[1+3]) or any other unary operation name followed
by an expression (for example SIN[90]). The unary operations are: ABS (absolute value),
ACOS (arc cosine), ASIN (arc sine), ATAN (arc tangent), COS (cosine), EXP (e raised to
the given power), FIX (round down), FUP (round up), LN (natural logarithm), ROUND
(round to the nearest whole number), SIN (sine), SQRT (square root), and TAN (tangent).
Arguments to unary operations which take angle measures (COS, SIN, and TAN) are in
degrees. Values returned by unary operations which return angle measures (ACOS, ASIN,
and ATAN) are also in degrees.
The FIX operation rounds towards the left (less positive or more negative) on a number
line, so that FIX[2.8]=2 and FIX[-2.8]=-3, for example. The FUP operation rounds
towards the right (more positive or less negative) on a number line; FUP[2.8]=3 and
FUP[-2.8]=-2, for example.
10.5.4
Parameter Setting
A parameter setting is the following four items one after the other:
♦ a pound character #
♦ a real value which evaluates to an integer between 1 and 10320,
♦ an equal sign = , and
♦ a real value. For example "#3 = 15" is a parameter setting meaning "set parameter
3 to 15."
A parameter setting does not take effect until after all parameter values on the same line
have been found. For example, if parameter 3 has been previously set to 15 and the line
#3=6 G1 x#3 is interpreted, a straight move to a point where x equals 15 will occur and
the value of parameter 3 will be 6.
10.5.5
Comments and Messages
A line that starts with the percent character, %, is treated as a comment and not interpreted
in any way. Printable characters and white space inside parentheses is a comment. A left
parenthesis always starts a comment. The comment ends at the first right parenthesis found
thereafter. Once a left parenthesis is placed on a line, a matching right parenthesis must
appear before the end of the line. Comments may not be nested; it is an error if a left
parenthesis is found after the start of a comment and before the end of the comment. Here is
an example of a line containing a comment: G80 M5 (stop motion)
An alternative form of comment is to use the two characters // The remainder of the line
is treated as a comment
Comments do not cause the machining system to do anything.
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A comment contains a message if MSG, appears after the left parenthesis and before any
other printing characters. Variants of MSG, which include white space and lower case
characters are allowed. Note the comma which is required. The rest of the characters before
the right parenthesis are considered to be a message to the operator. Messages are displayed
on screen in the "Error" intelligent label.
10.5.6
Item Repeats
A line may have any number of G words, but two G words from the same modal group may
not appear on the same line.
A line may have zero to four M words. Two M words from the same modal group may not
appear on the same line.
For all other legal letters, a line may have only one word beginning with that letter.
If a parameter setting of the same parameter is repeated on a line, #3=15 #3=6, for
example, only the last setting will take effect. It is silly, but not illegal, to set the same
parameter twice on the same line.
If more than one comment appears on a line, only the last one will be used; each of the
other comments will be read and its format will be checked, but it will be ignored thereafter.
It is expected that putting more than one comment on a line will be very rare.
10.5.7
Item order
The three types of item whose order may vary on a line (as given at the beginning of this
section) are word, parameter setting, and comment. Imagine that these three types of item
are divided into three groups by type.
The first group (the words) may be reordered in any way without changing the meaning of
the line.
If the second group (the parameter settings) is reordered, there will be no change in the
meaning of the line unless the same parameter is set more than once. In this case, only the
last setting of the parameter will take effect. For example, after the line #3=15 #3=6 has
been interpreted, the value of parameter 3 will be 6. If the order is reversed to #3=6
#3=15 and the line is interpreted, the value of parameter 3 will be 15.
If the third group (the comments) contains more than one comment and is reordered, only
the last comment will be used.
If each group is kept in order or reordered without changing the meaning of the line, then
the three groups may be interleaved in any way without changing the meaning of the line.
For example, the line g40 g1 #3=15 (so there!) #4=-7.0 has five items and
means exactly the same thing in any of the 120 possible orders - such as #4=-7.0 g1
#3=15 g40 (so there!)- for the five items.
10.5.8
Commands and Machine Modes
Mach3 has many commands which cause a machining system to change from one mode to
another, and the mode stays active until some other command changes it implicitly or
explicitly. Such commands are called "modal". For example, if coolant is turned on, it stays
on until it is explicitly turned off. The G codes for motion are also modal. If a G01 (straight
move) command is given on one line, for example, it will be executed again on the next line
if one or more axis words is available on the line, unless an explicit command is given on
that next line using the axis words or cancelling motion.
"Non-modal" codes have effect only on the lines on which they occur. For example, G04
(dwell) is non-modal.
10.6
Modal Groups
Modal commands are arranged in sets called "modal groups", and only one member of a
modal group may be in force at any given time. In general, a modal group contains
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commands for which it is logically impossible for two members to be in effect at the same
time - like measure in inches vs. measure in millimetres. A machining system may be in
many modes at the same time, with one mode from each modal group being in effect. The
modal groups are shown in figure 10.3.
For several modal groups, when a machining system is ready to accept commands, one
member of the group must be in effect. There are default settings for these modal groups.
The modal groups for M codes are:
♦ group 4 = {M00, M01, M02, M30} stopping
♦ group 6 = {M06} tool change
♦ group 7 = {M03, M04, M05} spindle turning
♦ group 8 = {M07, M08, M09} coolant (special case: M07 and M08 may
be active at the same time)
♦ group 9 = {M48, M49} enable/disable feed and speed override controls
In addition to the above modal groups, there is a group for non-modal
G codes:
♦ group 0 = {G04, G10, G28, G30, G53, G92, G92.1, G92.2, G92.3}
Figure 10.3 - Modal groups
When the machining system is turned on or otherwise re-initialized, the default values are
automatically in effect.
Group 1, the first group on the table, is a group of G codes for motion. One of these is
always in effect. That one is called the current motion mode.
It is an error to put a G-code from group 1 and a G-code from group 0 on the same line if
both of them use axis words. If an axis word-using G-code from group 1 is implicitly in
effect on a line (by having been activated on an earlier line), and a group 0 G-code that uses
axis words appears on the line, the activity of the group 1 G-code is suspended for that line.
The axis word-using G-codes from group 0 are G10, G28, G30, and G92.
10.7
G Codes
G codes of the Mach3 input language are shown in figure 10.4 and are the described in
detail.
The descriptions contain command prototypes, set in courier type.
In the command prototypes, the tilde (~) stand for a real value. As described earlier, a real
value may be (1) an explicit number, 4.4, for example, (2) an expression, [2+2.4], for
example, (3) a parameter value, #88, for example, or (4) a unary function value, acos[0], for
example.
In most cases, if axis words (any or all of X~, Z~) are given, they specify a destination
point. Axis numbers relate to the currently active coordinate system, unless explicitly
described as being in the absolute coordinate system. Where axis words are optional, any
omitted axes will have their current value. Any items in the command prototypes not
explicitly described as optional are required. It is an error if a required item is omitted.
In the prototypes, the values following letters are often given as explicit numbers. Unless
stated otherwise, the explicit numbers can be real values. For example, G10 L2 could
equally well be written G[2*5] L[1+1]. If the value of parameter 100 were 2,
G10 L#100 would also mean the same. Using real values which are not explicit numbers
as just shown in the examples is rarely useful.
If L~ is written in a prototype the "~" will often be referred to as the "L number". Similarly
the "~" in H~ may be called the "H number", and so on for any other letter.
If a scale factor is applied to any axis then it will be applied to the value of the
corresponding X, Z word and to the relevant I, K or R words when they are used.
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G00
G01
G02
G03
G04
G10
G15/G16
G17
G18
G19
G20/G21
G28
G28.1
G30
G32
G40
G41/G42
G50
G51
G52
G53
G54
G55
G56
G57
G58
G59
G61/G64
G76
G77
G78
G80
G81
G82
G83
G90
G91
G92
G92.x
G94
G95
G98
G99
Summary of G-codes
Rapid positioning
Linear interpolation
Clockwise circular/helical interpolation
Counterclockwise circular/Helical interpolation
Dwell
Coordinate system origin setting
Polar Coordinate moves in G0 and G1
XY Plane select
XZ plane select
YZ plane select
Inch/Millimetre unit
Return home
Reference axes
Return home
Threading
Cancel nose radius compensation
Start nose radius compensation left/right
Reset all scale factors to 1.0
Set axis data input scale factors
Temporary coordinate system offsets
Move in absolute machine coordinate system
Use fixture offset 1
Use fixture offset 2
Use fixture offset 3
Use fixture offset 4
Use fixture offset 5
Use fixture offset 6 / use general fixture number
Exact stop/Constant Velocity mode
Canned cycle – screw cutting
Canned cycle
Cancel motion mode (including canned cycles)
Canned cycle - drilling
Canned cycle - drilling with dwell
Canned cycle - peck drilling
Absolute distance mode
Incremental distance mode
Offset coordinates and set parameters
Cancel G92 etc.
Feed per minute mode
Feed per rev mode
Initial level return after canned cycles
R-point level return after canned cycles
Figure 10.4 - Table of G codes
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10.7.1
Rapid Linear Motion – G00
(a) For rapid linear motion, program G00 X~ Z~, where the axis words are optional,
except that at least one must be used. The G00 is optional if the current motion mode is
G00. This will produce co-ordinated linear motion to the destination point at the current
traverse rate (or slower if the machine will not go that fast). It is expected that cutting will
not take place when a G00 command is executing.
It is an error if:
♦ all axis words are omitted.
If cutter radius compensation is active, the motion will differ from the above; see Cutter
Compensation. If G53 is programmed on the same line, the motion will also differ; see
Absolute Coordinates.
10.7.2
Linear Motion at Feed Rate – G01
(a) For linear motion at feed rate (for cutting or not), program G1 X~ Z~ where the axis
words are optional, except that at least one must be used. The G01 is optional if the current
motion mode is G01. This will produce co-ordinated linear motion to the destination point
at the current feed rate (or slower if the machine will not go that fast).
It is an error if:
♦ all axis words are omitted.
If cutter radius compensation is active, the motion will differ from the above; see Cutter
Compensation. If G53 is programmed on the same line, the motion will also differ; see
Absolute Coordinates.
10.7.3
Arc at Feed Rate – G02 and G03
A circular arc is specified using either G02 (clockwise arc) or G03 (counterclockwise arc).
The axis of the circle or helix must be parallel to the Y-axis of the machine coordinate
system. The axis (or, equivalently, the plane perpendicular to the axis) is selected with G18
(Y-axis, XZ-plane).
If cutter radius compensation is active, the motion will differ from the above; see Cutter
Compensation.
Two formats are allowed for specifying an arc. We will call these the center format and the
radius format. In both formats the G02 or G03 is optional if it is the current motion mode.
10.7.3.1
Radius Format Arc
In the radius format, the coordinates of the end point of the arc in the selected plane are
specified along with the radius of the arc. Program G2 X~ Z R~ (or use G03 instead of
G02). R is the radius. The axis words are all optional except that at least one must be used.
The R number is the radius. A positive radius indicates that the arc turns through 180
degrees or less, while a negative radius indicates a turn of 180 degrees to 359.999 degrees.
It is an error if:
♦ both of the axis words for the axes of the selected plane are omitted,
♦ the end point of the arc is the same as the current point.
It is not good practice to program radius format arcs that are nearly full circles or are
semicircles (or nearly semicircles) because a small change in the location of the end point
will produce a much larger change in the location of the center of the circle (and, hence, the
middle of the arc). The magnification effect is large enough that rounding error in a number
can produce out-of-tolerance cuts. Nearly full circles are outrageously bad, semicircles (and
nearly so) are only very bad. Other size arcs (in the range tiny to 165 degrees or 195 to 345
degrees) are OK.
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10.7.3.2
Center Format Arc
In the center format, the coordinates of the end point of the arc in the selected plane are
specified along with the offsets of the center of the arc from the current location. In this
format, it is OK if the end point of the arc is the same as the current point. It is an error if:
♦ when the arc is projected on the selected plane, the distance from the current point
to the center differs from the distance from the end point to the center by more
than 0.0002 inch (if inches are being used) or 0.002 millimetre (if millimetres are
being used).
The center is specified using the I and K words. There are two ways of interpreting them.
The usual way is that I and K are the center relative to the current point at the start of the
arc. This is sometimes called Incremental IJ mode. The second way is that I and K specify
the center as actual coordinates in the current system. This is rather misleadingly called
Absolute IJ mode. The IJ mode is set using the Configure>State… menu when Mach3 is set
up. The choice of modes are to provide compatibility with commercial controllers. You will
probably find Incremental to be best. In Absolute it will, of course usually be necessary to
use both I and K words unless by chance the arc's centre is at the origin.
Note: If arcs come out at silly sizes on the toolpath display or the lathe then your part
program is probably not compatible with the IJ Mode setting in Mach3.
Program G02 X~ Z~ I~ K~ (or use G03 instead of G02). The axis words are all
optional except that at least one of X and Z must be used. I and K are the offsets from the
current location or coordinates - depending on IJ mode (X and Z directions, respectively) of
the center of the circle. I and K are optional except that at least one of the two must be used.
It is an error if:
♦ X and Z are both omitted,
♦ I and K are both omitted.
10.7.4
Dwell – G04
For a dwell, program G04 P~ . This will keep the axes unmoving for the period of time in
seconds or milliseconds specified by the P number. The time unit to be used is set up on the
Configure>Logic dialog. For example, with units set to Seconds, G4 P0.5 will dwell for half
a second. It is an error if:
♦ the P number is negative.
10.7.5
Set Coordinate System Data Tool and work offset tables - G10
See details of tool and work offsets for further information on coordinate systems
To set the offset values of a tool, program
G10 L1 P~ X~ Z~ A~, where the P number must evaluate to an integer in the range 0 to
255 - the tool number - Offsets of the tool specified by the P number are reset to the given.
The A number will reset the tool tip radius. Only those values for which an axis word is
included on the line will be reset.
To set the coordinate values for the origin of a fixture coordinate system, program
G10 L2 P~ X~ Z~, where the P number must evaluate to an integer in the range 1 to
255 - the fixture number - (Values 1 to 6 corresponding to G54 to G59) and all axis words
are optional. The coordinates of the origin of the coordinate system specified by the P
number are reset to the coordinate values given (in terms of the absolute coordinate
system). Only those coordinates for which an axis word is included on the line will be reset.
It is an error if:
♦ the P number does not evaluate to an integer in the range 0 to 255.
If origin offsets (made by G92 or G92.3) were in effect before G10 is used, they will
continue to be in effect afterwards.
The coordinate system whose origin is set by a G10 command may be active or inactive at
the time the G10 is executed.
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The values set will not be persistent unless the tool or fixture tables are saved using the
buttons on Tables screen.
Example: G10 L2 P1 x3.5 Z17.2 sets the origin of the first coordinate system (the
one selected by G54) to a point where X is 3.5 and Z is 17.2 (in absolute coordinates).
10.7.6
Plane Selection - G17, G18, and G19
Program G18 to select the XZ-plane which is the only relevant plane for Turn.
10.7.7
Length Units - G20 and G21
Program G20 to use inches for length units. Program G21 to use millimetres.
It is usually a good idea to program either G20 or G21 near the beginning of a program
before any motion occurs, and not to use either one anywhere else in the program. It is the
responsibility of the user to be sure all numbers are appropriate for use with the current
length units.
10.7.8
Return to Home - G28 and G30
A home position is defined (by parameters 5161-5166). The parameter values are in terms
of the absolute coordinate system, but are in unspecified length units.
To return to home position by way of the programmed position, program
G28 X~ Z~ (or use G30). All axis words are optional. The path is made by a traverse
move from the current position to the programmed position, followed by a traverse move to
the home position. If no axis words are programmed, the intermediate point is the current
point, so only one move is made.
10.7.9
Reference axes - G28.1
Program G28.1 X~ Z~ to reference the given axes. The axes will move at the current
feed rate towards the home switch(es), as defined by the Configuration. When the absolute
machine coordinate reaches the value given by an axis word then the feed rate is set to that
defined by Config>Homing/Limits. Provided the current absolute position is approximately
correct, then this will give a soft stop onto the reference switch(es).
10.7.10
Threading - G32
To cut a single pass of a thread program G32 X~ Z~ F~
Before the command the X and Z position of the controlled point should be set to give Z
clearance at the start of the thread (two or three pitches should suffice with a reasonably fast
Z axis). The F word specifies the feed per revolution (i.e. the pitch of the thread to be cut).
The Z word gives the finishing position of the thread and the X word (if present) gives the
X value at the end of the thread.. If X is omitted then it remains unchanged through the cut
(i.e. a parallel thread is cut).
For example (Diameter and G21 modes): Suppose a pieces of stock 12 mm in diameter is
chucked with its faced end as Z=0.0 The preparatory moves could be:
G00 Z4
G00 X11.9 (position at cut depth with Z clearance)
A 1.5 mm pitch thread 0.05 mm deep 25 mm along the bar will be cut by
G32 Z-25 F1.5
And the tool is the retracted to a clear X position by
G00 X14
And returned to the starting clearance.
Mach3 will wait until it knows the spindle speed and position (using the Index signal) and
the accelerate the Z axis in the air so that it is up to the specified "feed" when it cuts. If a
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change in X is specified then this will be executed as motion coordinated with Z giving a
tapered thread (air and cut) from the starting position.
The next pass would require a calculation of the new Z start position, if an angled in-feed is
required. The X movement needs to be calculated to give the desired chip size. Typically
the cut depth will be reduced as the width of the chip rises as the thread is formed.
Multiple start threads are produced by adding an offset (e.g. hapf, one third etc. of a pitch)
to the starting Z positions.
For imperial threads which are usually specified as "threads per inch" the feed is the
reciprocal of the TPI) e.g. 16 TPI is a pitch of 1 / 16 = 0.0625 inch.
G32 is ideal for the code output by a CAD/CAM post-processor, as the writer has total
control of the thread. It is, however, very inconvenient for hand coding on account of the
amount of calculation required to set X and Z correctly. The G76 canned threading cycle is
provided to overcome this difficulty.
10.7.11
Nose Radius Compensation - G40, G41, and G42
To turn cutter radius compensation off, program G40. It is OK to turn compensation off
when it is already off.
To turn nose radius compensation on left (i.e., the cutter stays to the left of the programmed
path when the tool radius is positive), program G41 D~ To turn cutter radius
compensation on right (i.e., the cutter stays to the right of the programmed path when the
tool radius is positive), program G42 D~ The D word is optional; if there is no D word,
the radius of the tool currently in the spindle will be used. If used, the D number should
normally be the slot number of the tool in the spindle, although this is not required. It is OK
for the D number to be zero; a radius value of zero will be used.
It is an error if:
♦ the D number is not an integer, is negative or is larger than the number of carousel
slots,
♦ cutter radius compensation is commanded to turn on when it is already on.
The behavior of the machining system when cutter radius compensation is ON is described
in the chapter 8. Notice the importance of programming adequate clearance at the start and
end of moves and at changes of direction.
10.7.12
Scale factors G50 and G51
To define a scale factor which will be applied to an X, Z, A, B, C, I & J word before it is
used program G51 X~ Z~ A~ B~ C~ where the X, Z etc. words are the scale factors
for the given axes. These values are, of course, never themselves scaled.
It is not permitted to use unequal scale factors to produce elliptical arcs with G2 or G3.
To reset the scale factors of all axes to 1.0 program G50
10.7.13
Temporary Coordinate system offset – G52
To offset the current point by a given positive or negative distance (without motion),
program
G52 X~ Z , where the axis words contain the offsets you want to provide. The axis words
are optional, except that at least one must be used. If an axis word is not used for a given
axis, the coordinate on that axis of the current point is not changed. It is an error if:
♦ all axis words are omitted.
G52 and G92 use common internal mechanisms in Mach3 and may not be used together.
When G52 is executed, the origin of the currently active coordinate system moves by the
values given.
The effect of G52 is cancelled by programming G52 X0 Z0 etc.
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Here is an example. Suppose the current point is at X = 4 in the currently specified
coordinate system, then G52 X7 sets the X-axis offset to 7, and so causes the X-coordinate
of the current point to be -3.
The axis offsets are always used when motion is specified in absolute distance mode using
any of the fixture coordinate systems. Thus all fixture coordinate systems are affected by
G52.
10.7.14
Move in Absolute Coordinates - G53
For linear motion to a point expressed in absolute coordinates, program G01 G53 X~ Z~
(or similarly with G00 instead of G01), where all the axis words are optional, except that at
least one must be used. The G00 or G01 is optional if it is in the current motion mode. G53
is not modal and must be programmed on each line on which it is intended to be active. X
will always be a radial value irrespective of the mode (Radius or Diameter) for which
Mach3 is configured. This will produce co-ordinated linear motion to the programmed
point. If G01 is active, the speed of motion is the current feed rate (or slower if the machine
will not go that fast). If G00 is active, the speed of motion is the current traverse rate (or
slower if the machine will not go that fast).
It is an error if:
♦ G53 is used without G0 or G1 being active,
♦ G53 is used while cutter radius compensation is on.
See relevant chapter for an overview of coordinate systems.
10.7.15
Select Work Offset Coordinate System - G54 to G59 & G59 P~
To select work offset #1, program G54, and similarly for the first six offsets. The systemnumber-G-code pairs are: (1-G54), (2-G55), (3-G56), (4-G57), (5-G58), (6-G59)
To access any of the 254 work offsets (1 - 254) program G59 P~ where the P word gives
the required offset number. Thus G59 P5 is identical in effect to G58.
It is an error if:
♦ one of these G-codes is used while cutter radius compensation is on.
Fixture/Work offsets other than 1 (G54) are not often used when turning..
10.7.16
Set Path Control Mode - G61, and G64
Program G61 to put the machine into exact stop mode, or G64 for constant velocity mode.
It is OK to program for the mode that is already active. These modes are described in detail
above.
10.7.17
Canned Cycle – High Speed Peck Drill G73
The G73 cycle is intended for deep drilling or milling with chip breaking. See also G83.
The retracts in this cycle break the chip but do not totally retract the drill from the hole. It is
suitable for tools with long flutes which will clear the broken chips from the hole. This
cycle takes a Q number which represents a "delta" increment along the Z-axis. Program
G73 X~ Z~ A~ B~ C~ R~ L~ Q~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described in G81 to 89 canned cycles.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate downward by delta or to the Z position,
whichever is less deep.
♦ Rapid back out by the distance defined in the G73 Pullback DRO on the Settings
screen.
♦ Rapid back down to the current hole bottom, backed off a bit.
♦ Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 until the Z position is reached at step 1.
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♦ Retract the Z-axis at traverse rate to clear Z.
It is an error if:
♦ the Q number is negative or zero.
10.7.18
Canned Cycle – Threading G76
Program G76 X~ Z~ Q~ P~ H~ I~ R~ K~ L~ C~ B~ T~ J~ to cut a complete thread.
X - XEnd
Z - ZEnd
Q - Spring Passes. (optional)
P - Pitch
H - Depth of first pass
I - Infeed angle
R - XStart (optional)
K - Z Start (optional)
L - Chamfer (optional)
C - X Clearance
B - Depth Last Pass (optional)
T - Taper (optional)
J - Minimum depth per pass (optional)
The controlled point should give a suitable clearance for air cutting on the Z axis and have
X equal to the crest diameter (radius). This is not necessary if R (the starting X value)
and/or K (the starting Z value) are specified.
The length and depth of the thread are given by X and Z (in relation to the start values). If
the "depth" is negative then the thread is taken as internal.
The C word gives the X clearance for the rapid return motion. It is always specified as
positive and Mach3 handles the reversed direction for an internal thread
The P word gives the pitch of the thread (use 1/TPI for imperial threads)
The Q word gives the number of spring passes (i.e. cuts at the X end position.
The I word gives the infeed angle in degrees. This is Zero for radial infeed and typically 29
degrees for a unified or ISO metric thread or 27 degrees for 55 degree angle forms like
BSW or BSF.
To be completed *********************
Note: This cycle is implemented by the macro M1076.M1S which can be inspected for
implementation details.
10.7.19
Canned cycle – Turning G77
To be completed *************************
Note: This cycle is implemented by the macro M1077.M1S which can be inspected for
implementation details.
10.7.20
Canned cycle – Facing G78
To be completed ******************************
Note: This cycle is implemented by the macro M1078.M1S which can be inspected for
implementation details.
10.7.21
Cancel Modal Motion - G80
Program G80 to ensure no axis motion will occur. It is an error if:
♦ Axis words are programmed when G80 is active, unless a modal group 0 G code
is programmed which uses axis words.
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
10-17
Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
10.7.22
Canned Cycles - G81 to G89
The canned cycles G81 through G89 have been implemented as described in this section.
Two examples are given with the description of G81 below.
All canned cycles are performed with respect to the currently selected plane. In Turn XY
should be selected.
All canned cycles use X, R, and Z numbers in the NC code. These numbers are used to
determine X, R, and Z positions. The R (usually meaning retract) position is along the axis
perpendicular to the currently selected plane (Z-axis for XY-plane). Some canned cycles
use additional arguments.
Notice that non-zero X values are only valid with a twist drill if the toolholder is live (i.e.
turns the drill). If the spindle turns the work then a boring bar is being used.
For canned cycles, we will call a number "sticky" if, when the same cycle is used on several
lines of code in a row, the number must be used the first time, but is optional on the rest of
the lines. Sticky numbers keep their value on the rest of the lines if they are not explicitly
programmed to be different. The R number is always sticky.
In incremental distance mode: when the XY-plane is selected, X, and R numbers are treated
as increments to the current position and Z as an increment from the Z-axis position before
the move involving Z takes place. In absolute distance mode, the X, R, and Z numbers are
absolute positions in the current coordinate system.
The L number is optional and represents the number of repeats. L=0 is not allowed. If the
repeat feature is used, it is normally used in incremental distance mode, so that the same
sequence of motions is repeated in several equally spaced places along a straight line. In
absolute distance mode, L > 1 means "do the same cycle in the same place several times,"
Omitting the L word is equivalent to specifying L=1. The L number is not sticky.
When L>1 in incremental mode with the XY-plane selected, the X position is determined
by adding the given X number either to the current X position (on the first go-around) or to
the X position at the end of the previous go-around (on the repetitions). The R and Z
positions do not change during the repeats.
The height of the retract move at the end of each repeat (called "clear Z" in the descriptions
below) is determined by the setting of the retract mode: either to the original Z position (if
that is above the R position and the retract mode is G98), or otherwise to the R position.
It is an error if:
♦ X, and Z words are both missing during a canned cycle,
♦ a P number is required and a negative P number is used,
♦ an L number is used that does not evaluate to a positive integer,
♦ rotational axis motion is used during a canned cycle,
♦ inverse time feed rate is active during a canned cycle,
♦ cutter radius compensation is active during a canned cycle.
The Z number is sticky, and it is an error if:
♦ the Z number is missing and the same canned cycle was not already active,
♦ the R number is less than the Z number.
10.7.22.1 Preliminary and In-Between Motion
At the very beginning of the execution of any of the canned cycles, with the XY-plane
selected, if the current Z position is below the R position, the Z-axis is traversed to the R
position. This happens only once, regardless of the value of L.
In addition, at the beginning of the first cycle and each repeat, the following move is made:
♦ a straight traverse parallel to the XY-plane to the given X-position at the same time as a
straight traverse of the Z-axis only to the R position, if it is not already at the R position.
Using Mach3Turn
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Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G and M-code reference
Beware of the dual axis nature of the move if the starting or finishing Z lies "within" the
part as a crash of X could occur.
10.7.22.2 G81 Cycle
The G81 cycle is intended for drilling. Program G81 X~ Z~ R~ L~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate to the Z position.
♦ Retract the Z-axis at traverse rate to clear Z.
Example 1. Suppose the current position is (1, 3) and the following line of NC code is
interpreted.
G90 G81 G98 X4 Z1.5 R2.8
This calls for absolute distance mode (G90), old "Z" retract mode (G98) and calls for the
G81 drilling cycle to be performed once. The X number and X position are 4. The Z
number and Z position are 1.5. The R number and clear Z are 2.8. The following moves
take place.
♦ a traverse parallel to the XY-plane to (X=4, Z =3)
♦ a traverse parallel to the Z-axis to (X=4, Z=2.8)
♦ a feed parallel to the Z-axis to (X=4, Z=1.5)
♦ a traverse parallel to the Z-axis to (X=4, Z=3)
Example 2. Suppose the current position is (X=1, Z=3) and the following line of NC code
is interpreted.
G91 G81 G98 X4 Z-0.6 R1.8 L3
This calls for incremental distance mode (G91), old "Z" retract mode and calls for the G81
drilling cycle to be repeated three times. The X number is 4, the Z number is -0.6 and the R
number is 1.8. The initial X position is 5 (=1+4), the clear Z position is 4.8 (=1.8+3), and
the Z position is 4.2 (=4.8-0.6). Old Z is 3.0
The first move is a traverse along the Z-axis to (X=1, Z=4.8), since old Z < clear Z.
The first repeat consists of 3 moves.
♦ a traverse parallel to the XY-plane to (X=5, Z=4.8)
♦ a feed parallel to the Z-axis to (X=5, Z=4.2)
♦ a traverse parallel to the Z-axis to (X=5, Z=4.8)
The second repeat consists of 3 moves. The X position is reset to 9 (=5+4).
♦ a traverse parallel to the XY-plane to (X=9, Z=4.8)
♦ a feed parallel to the Z-axis to (X=9, Z=4.2)
♦ a traverse parallel to the Z-axis to (X=9, Z=4.8)
The third repeat consists of 3 moves. The X position is reset to 13 (=9+4).
♦ a traverse parallel to the XY-plane to (X=13, Z=4.8)
♦ a feed parallel to the Z-axis to (X=13, Z=4.2)
♦ a traverse parallel to the Z-axis to (X=13, Z=4.8)
10.7.22.3 G82 Cycle
The G82 cycle is intended for drilling. Program
G82 X~ Z~ R~ L~ P~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate to the Z position.
♦ Dwell for the P number of seconds.
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
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Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
♦ Retract the Z-axis at traverse rate to clear Z.
10.7.22.4 G83 and G83.1 Cycles
The G83 cycle (often called peck drilling) and G83.1 (rapid peck drilling) is intended for
deep drilling or milling with chip breaking. See also G73. The retracts in this cycle clear the
hole of chips and cut off any long stringers (which are common when drilling in aluminum).
This cycle takes a Q number which distance used by each peck. Program
G83 X~ Z~ R~ L~ Q~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate downward by delta or to the Z position,
whichever is less deep.
♦ For G83 rapid back out to the clear Z. For G83.1 rapid out by the peck distance (Q)
♦ Rapid back down to the current hole bottom, backed off a bit.
♦ Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 until the Z position is reached at step 1.
♦ Retract the Z-axis at traverse rate to clear Z.
It is an error if:
♦ the Q number is negative or zero.
Note: This cycle is implemented by the macro M1083.M1S which can be inspected for
implementation details.
10.7.22.5 G85 Cycle
The G85 cycle is intended for boring or reaming, but could be used for drilling or milling.
Program G85 X~ Z~ R~ L~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate to the Z position.
♦ Retract the Z-axis at the current feed rate to clear Z.
10.7.22.6 G86 Cycle
The G86 cycle is intended for boring. This cycle uses a P number for the number of seconds
to dwell. Program G86 X~ Z~ R~ L~ P~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate to the Z position.
♦ Dwell for the P number of seconds.
♦ Stop the spindle turning.
♦ Retract the Z-axis at traverse rate to clear Z.
♦ Restart the spindle in the direction it was going.
The spindle must be turning before this cycle is used. It is an error if:
♦ the spindle is not turning before this cycle is executed.
10.7.22.7 G88 Cycle
The G88 cycle is intended for boring. This cycle uses a P word, where P specifies the
number of seconds to dwell. Program G88 X~ Z~ R~ L~ P~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate to the Z position.
♦ Dwell for the P number of seconds.
♦ Stop the spindle turning.
♦ Stop the program so the operator can retract the spindle manually.
Using Mach3Turn
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Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G and M-code reference
♦ Restart the spindle in the direction it was going.
10.7.22.8 G89 Cycle
The G89 cycle is intended for boring. This cycle uses a P number, where P specifies the
number of seconds to dwell. program G89 X~ Z~ R~ L~ P~
♦ Preliminary motion, as described above.
♦ Move the Z-axis only at the current feed rate to the Z position.
♦ Dwell for the P number of seconds.
♦ Retract the Z-axis at the current feed rate to clear Z.
10.7.23
Set Distance Mode - G90 and G91
Interpretation of Mach3 code can be in one of two distance modes: absolute or incremental.
To go into absolute distance mode, program G90. In absolute distance mode, axis numbers
(X, Z) usually represent positions in terms of the currently active coordinate system. Any
exceptions to that rule are described explicitly in this section describing G-codes.
To go into incremental distance mode, program G91. In incremental distance mode, axis
numbers (X, Z) usually represent increments from the current values of the numbers.
I and K numbers always represent increments or absolute distances depending on IJ Mode
setting
10.7.24
G92 Offsets - G92, G92.1, G92.2, G92.3
You are strongly advised not to use this legacy feature on any axis where there is another
offset applied. G52 is much easier to use.
To make the current point have the coordinates you want (without motion), program
G92 X~ Z~ , where the axis words contain the axis numbers you want. The axis words
are optional, except that at least one must be used. If an axis word is not used for a given
axis, the coordinate on that axis of the current point is not changed. It is an error if:
♦ all axis words are omitted.
G52 and G92 use common internal mechanisms in Mach3 and may not be used together.
When G92 is executed, the origin of the currently active coordinate system moves. To do
this, origin offsets are calculated so that the coordinates of the current point with respect to
the moved origin are as specified on the line containing the G92. In addition, parameters
5211 to 5216 are set to the X, Z, A, B, and C-axis offsets. The offset for an axis is the
amount the origin must be moved so that the coordinate of the controlled point on the axis
has the specified value.
Here is an example. Suppose the current point is at X=4 in the currently specified
coordinate system and the current X-axis offset is zero, then G92 X7 sets the X-axis offset
to -3, sets parameter 5211 to -3, and causes the X-coordinate of the current point to be 7.
The axis offsets are always used when motion is specified in absolute distance mode using
any of the fixture coordinate systems Thus all fixture coordinate systems are affected by
G92.
Being in incremental distance mode has no effect on the action of G92.
Non-zero offsets may be already be in effect when the G92 is called. They are in effect
discarded before the new value is applied. Mathematically the new value of each offset is
A+B, where A is what the offset would be if the old offset were zero, and B is the old
offset. For example, after the previous example, the X-value of the current point is 7. If
G92 X9 is then programmed, the new X-axis offset is -5, which is calculated by [[7-9] + 3]. Put another way the G92 X9 produces the same offset whatever G92 offset was already
in place.
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
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Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
To reset axis offsets to zero, program G92.1 or G92.2 G92.1 sets parameters 5211 to
5216 to zero, whereas G92.2 leaves their current values alone.
To set the axis offset values to the values given in parameters 5211 to 5216, program
G92.3
You can set axis offsets in one program and use the same offsets in another program.
Program G92 in the first program. This will set parameters 5211 to 5216. Do not use G92.1
in the remainder of the first program. The parameter values will be saved when the first
program exits and restored when the second one starts up. Use G92.3 near the beginning of
the second program. That will restore the offsets saved in the first program.
10.7.25
Set Feed Rate Mode - G94 and G95
Two feed rate modes are recognized: units per minute and units per revolution of spindle.
Program G94 to start the units per minute mode. Program G95 to start the units per rev
mode.
In units per minute feed rate mode, an F word on the line is interpreted to mean the
controlled point should move at a certain number of inches per minute, millimetres per
minute, or degrees per minute, depending upon what length units are being used and which
axis or axes are moving.
In units per rev feed rate mode, an F word on the line is interpreted to mean the controlled
point should move at a certain number of inches per spindle revolution, millimetres per
spindle revolution, or degrees per spindle revolution, depending upon what length units are
being used and which axis or axes are moving.
10.7.26
Set Canned Cycle Return Level - G98 and G99
When the spindle retracts during canned cycles, there is a choice of how far it retracts:
1. retract perpendicular to the selected plane to the position indicated by the R word, or
2. retract perpendicular to the selected plane to the position that axis was in just before the
canned cycle started (unless that position is lower than the position indicated by the R
word, in which case use the R word position).
To use option (1), program G99 To use option (2), program G98 Remember that the R
M-code
M00
M01
M02
M03/04
M05
M06
M07
M08
M09
M30
M47
M48
M49
M98
M99
Meaning
Program stop
Optional program stop
Program end
Rotate spindle clockwise/counterclckwise
Stop spindle rotation
Tool change (by two macros)
Mist coolant on
Flood coolant on
All coolant off
Program end and Rewind
Repeat program from first line
Enable speed and feed override
Disable speed and feed override
Call subroutine
Return from subroutine/repeat
Figure 10.7 - Built in M-codes
Using Mach3Turn
10-22
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G and M-code reference
word has different meanings in absolute distance mode and incremental distance mode.
10.8
Built-in M Codes
M codes interpreted directly by Mach2 are shown in figure 10.7.
10.8.1
Program Stopping and Ending – M00, M01, M02, M30
To stop a running program temporarily (regardless of the setting of the optional stop
switch), program M00.
To stop a running program temporarily (but only if the optional stop switch is on), program
M1.
It is OK to program M00 and M01 in MDI mode, but the effect will probably not be
noticeable, because normal behavior in MDI mode is to stop after each line of input,
anyway.
If a program is stopped by an M00, M01, pressing the cycle start button will restart the
program at the following line.
To end a program, program M02 or M30. M02 leaves the next line to be executed as the
M02 line. M30 "rewinds" the G-code file. These commands can have the following effects
depending on the options chosen on the Configure>Logic dialog:
♦ Axis offsets are set to zero (like G92.2) and origin offsets are set to the default (like
G54).
♦ Selected plane is set to XZ (like G18).
♦ Distance mode is set to absolute (like G90).
♦ Feed rate mode is set to Units per minute mode (like G94).
♦ Feed and speed overrides are set to ON (like M48).
♦ Cutter compensation is turned off (like G40).
♦ The spindle is stopped (like M05).
♦ The current motion mode is set to G01 (like G01).
♦ Coolant is turned off (like M09).
No more lines of code in the file will be executed after the M02 or M30 command is
executed. Pressing cycle start will resume the program (M02) or start the program back at
the beginning of the file (M30).
10.8.2
Spindle Control – M03, M04, M05
To start the spindle turning clockwise at the currently programmed speed, program M03.
To start the spindle turning counterclockwise (CCW) at the currently programmed speed,
program M04. Some lathes have chucks mounted on a screwed spindle nose. Use CCW
rotation with the greatest care if it is available as the chuck will tend to come unscrewed.
For a PWM or Step/Dir spindle the speed is programmed by the S word. For an on/off
spindle control it will be set by the gearing/pulleys on the machine.
To stop the spindle from turning, program M05.
It is OK to use M03 or M04 if the spindle speed is set to zero. If this is done (or if the speed
override switch is enabled and set to zero), the spindle will not start turning. If, later, the
spindle speed is set above zero (or the override switch is turned up), the spindle will start
turning. It is permitted to use M03 or M04 when the spindle is already turning or to use
M05 when the spindle is already stopped but see the discussion on safety interlocks in
configuration for the implications of a sequence which would reverse an already running
spindle.
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
10-23
Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
10.8.3
Tool change – M06
Provided tool change requests are not to be ignored (as defined in Configure>Logic),
Mach3 will call a macro (q.v) M6Start when the command is encountered. It will then wait
for Cycle Start to be pressed, execute the macro M6End and continue running the part
program. You can provide Visual Basic code in the macros to operate your own mechanical
tool changer and to move the axes to a convenient location to tool changing if you wish.
Full details can be found in Customizing Mach3.
If tool change requests are set to be ignored (in Configure>Logic) then M06 has no effect.
10.8.4
Coolant Control – M07, M08, M09
To turn flood coolant on, program M07.
To turn mist coolant on, program M08.
To turn all coolant off, program M09.
It is always OK to use any of these commands, regardless of what coolant is on or off.
10.8.5
Re-run from first line - M47
On encountering an M47 the part program will continue running from its first line. It is an
error if:
♦ M47 is executed in a subroutine
The run can be stopped by the Pause or Stop buttons
See also the use of M99 outside a subroutine to achieve the same effect.
10.8.6
Override Control - M48 and M49
To enable the speed and feed override, program M48. To disable both overrides, program
M49. It is OK to enable or disable the switches when they are already enabled or disabled.
10.8.7
Call subroutine - M98
This has two formats:
(a) To call a subroutine program within the current part program file code M98 P~ L~ or
M98 ~P ~Q The program must contain an O line with the number given by the P word of
the Call . This O line is a sort of "label" which indicates the start of the subroutine. The O
line man not have a line number (N word) on it. It, and the following code, will normally be
written with other subroutines and follow either an M2, M30 or M99 so it is not reached
directly by the flow of the program.
(b) To call a subroutine which is in a separate file code M98(filename)L~
for example M98 (test.tap)
For both formats:
The L word (or optionally the Q word) gives the number of times that the subroutine is to
be called before continuing with the line following the M98. If the L (Q) word is omitted
then its value defaults to 1.
By using parameters values or incremental moves a repeated subroutine can make several
roughing cuts around a complex path or cut several identical objects from one piece of
material.
Subroutine calls may be nested. That is to say a subroutine may contain a M98 call to
another subroutine. As no conditional branching is permitted it is not meaningful for
subroutines to call themselves recursively.
Using Mach3Turn
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G and M-code reference
10.8.8
Return from subroutine
To return from a subroutine program M99 Execution will continue after the M98 which
called the subroutine.
If M99 is written in the main program, i.e. not in a subroutine, then the program will start
execution from the first line again. See also M47 to achieve the same effect.
10.9
Macro M-codes
10.9.1
Macro overview
If any M-code is used which is not in the above list of built-in codes then Mach2 will
attempt to find a file named "Mxx.M1S" in the Macros folder. If it finds the file then it will
execute the VB script program it finds within it.
The Operator>Macros menu item displays a dialog which allows you to see the currently
installed macros, to Load, Edit and Save or Save As the text. The dialog also has a Help
button which will display the VB functions which can be called to control Mach2. For
example you can interrogate the position of axes, move axes, interrogate input signals and
control output signals.
New macros can be written using an external editor program like Notepad and saved in the
Macros folder or you can load an existing macro within Mach2, totally rewrite it and save it
with a different file name.
10.10 Other Input Codes
10.10.1
Set Feed Rate - F
To set the feed rate, program F~
Depending on the setting of the Feed Mode toggle the rate may be in units-per-minute or
units-per-rev of the spindle.
The units are those defined by the G20/G21 (G70/G71) mode.
Depending on the setting in Config>Ports & Pins-Spindle a revolution of the spindle may
be defined as a pulse appearing on the Index input or be derived from the speed requested
by the S word or Set Spindle speed DRO.
The feed rate may sometimes be overidden as described in M48 and M49 above.
10.10.2
Set Spindle Speed - S
To set the speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) of the spindle, program S~ The spindle
will turn at that speed when it has been programmed to start turning. It is OK to program an
S word whether the spindle is turning or not. If the speed override switch is enabled and not
set at 100%, the speed will be different from what is programmed. It is OK to program S0;
the spindle will not turn if that is done. It is an error if:
♦ the S number is negative.
10.10.3
Select Tool – T
To select a tool, program T~ where the T number is slot number for the tool. The tool is
not changed automatically. An M06 is required to effect the change. Offsets are mnot
automatically applied an G43 or G44 is required for this.
It is OK, but not normally useful, if T words appear on two or more lines with no tool
change. It is OK to program T0; no tool will be selected. This is useful if you want the
spindle to be empty after a tool change. It is an error if:
♦ a negative T number is used, or a T number larger than 255 is used.
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
10-25
Using Mach3Turn
G and M-code Reference
10.11 Error Handling
This section describes error handling in Mach3.
Mach3 attempts to report syntax errors in part programs. If, however, a command does not
work as expected or does not do anything check that you have typed it correctly. Common
mistakes are GO, instead of G0 i.e. letter O instead of zero) and too many decimal points in
numbers. Mach3 does not check for axis overtravel (unless software limits are in use) or
excessively high feeds or speeds. Nor does it does not detect situations where a legal
command does something unfortunate, such as machining the chuck.
Using Mach3Turn
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G and M-code reference
10.12 Order of Execution
The order of execution of items on a line is critical to safe and effective machine operation.
Items are executed in the order shown in figure 10.9 if they occur on the same line.
Order
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Item
Comment (including message)
Set feed rate mode (G93, G94, G95)
Set feed rate (F)
Set spindle speed (S)
Select tool
Tool change (M6) and Execute M-code macros
Spindle On/Off (M3, M4, M5)
Coolant On/Off (M7, M8, M9)
Enable/disable overrides (M48, M49)
Dwell (G4)
Set active plane (G17, G18, G18)
Set length units (G20, G21)
Cutter radius compensation On/Off (G40, G41, G42)
Tool table offset On/Off (G43, G49)
Fixture table select (G54 - G58 & G59 P~)
Set path control mode (G61, G61.1, G64)
Set distance mode (G90, G91)
Set canned cycle return level mode (G98, G99)
Home, or change coordinate system data (G10), or set offsets (G92,
G94)
Perform motion (G0 to G3, G12, G13, G80 to G89 as modified by G53
Stop or repeat (M0, M1, M2, M30, M47, M99)
Table 10.9 - Order of execution on a line
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
10-27
Using Mach3Turn
Sample schematic diagrams
11. Appendix 1 - Mach3Turn screenshot pullout
Welcome screen
Manual screen
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
11-1
Using Mach3Turn
Sample schematic diagrams
Auto Preparation screen
Auto Cycle screen
Using Mach3Turn
11-2
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
Sample schematic diagrams
12.
Tool table screen
Diagnostics screen
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
12-3
Using Mach3Turn
Sample schematic diagrams
Appendix 2 - Sample schematic diagrams
12.1
EStop and limits using relays
Computer or breakout +5 volts
RLA
330R
1N4001
from Enable or
charge pump circuit
(active Hi)
330R
Mach2 OK
LED
7406
4K7
To EStop input
(active Lo)
RLB/1
Computer or breakout 0 volts
Control positive (12 volts)
Interface
Reset
+ limit
+ limit
+ limit
+ limit
EStop1
RLB/2
- limit
- limit
- limit
820R
RLB
Interface OK
LED
EStop2
1N4001
- limit
Control 0 volts
Contactor positive (could be same as Control supply)
RLA/1
RLB/3
C1
C2
C3
1N4001
C1/1
C2/1
C3/1
C3/2
Contacts to control DC supply to
steppers/servos, spindle motor
coolant pump etc.
Contactor 0 volts
Figure 12.1 - Sample EStop and Limit switch connections
Notes:
1. This circuit is only illustrative of one possible solution to externally connected limit
switches. If you require reference switches then these should be separate and connected
to Mach3 inputs.
2. Relay contacts are shown in the de-energised position. Limit switches and push buttons
are not operated.
3. Holding Interface Reset pressed will allow the Mach2 Reset button to be pressed and
the axes to be jogged off the limit switches. The Interface Reset will then latch.
Using Mach3Turn
12-4
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
Sample schematic diagrams
4. Relay A needs one NO contact. It must have a 5 volt coil that is at least 150 ohms (i.e.
not require more than 33 milliamps to operate). Omron G6H-2100-5 is suitable with
contacts rated at 1 amp 30 volts DC
5. Relay B needs 1 NC and 2 NO contacts. It can have any convenient coil voltage to suit
an available supply. The common of this should, ideally, not be the PC 0 volt rail to
avoid the long wiring of the limit and EStop switches inducing noise. The Omron MY4
series is suitable having four contacts rated at 5 amps 220 volts AC.
6. The LEDs are optional but useful as an indication of what is happening. The current
limiting resistor for the Interface OK LED needs to be 1.8 kilohms if a 24 volt supply is
used.
7. If the coil voltages are suitable then the contactors can use the "Control" positive and
common supply.
8. The arrangement of contactors (Coils shown as C1, C2, C3) depends on your drive
power supply arrangements and the wiring of the motors in the machine tool. You
should aim to switch the DC supply to the steppers and/or servos after the smoothing
capacitor to ensure a prompt stop. You may wish to rewire the spindle and coolant
motors so that the control contactor does not trip the no-volt release circuitry (i.e. you
may wish to switch the motor leads after the main machine contactors. Do not share
contacts on a given contactor between AC mains and the stepper/servo DC supply on
account of the greatly increased risk of a short circuit between these supplies. Seek
advice if you are unsure, especially before working with 230/415 volt 3-phase
circuits.
9. The catching diodes across the relay and contactor coils are needed to absorb the back
emf when switching the current off in the coils. Contactors may come with suitable coil
suppression circuits built in.
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
12-5
Using Mach3Turn
Record of configuration used
13. Appendix 3 - Record of configuration used
You should keep a paper record of your Mach3 setup!
A complete Mach3 configuration includes a lot of detailed information. You will not wish
to repeat the process step by step when you update your computer.
Mach3 profiles are .XML files and you will probably keep them in the Mach3 folder. Use
Windows Explorer to find the profile you wish to copy and drag it to another folder while
holding down the Control key. You can of course use any other file copying technique if
you prefer.
If you double-click the file name then your web browser (probably Internet Explorer) will
open the .xml file and display it
Figure 13.1 – Internet Explorer displaying Profile
The XML file can be edited by a text editor such as Notepad but this is strongly not
recommended,
The profile file can be useful information to attach to an e-mail when asking for support
from ArtSoft Corp
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
1
Using Mach3Turn
Revision History
14. Revision history
Rev Beta 7.57A-1
26 April 2005
Initial preliminary release
Rev 7-xxA-1
10 February
2005
Drafting version
Using Mach3Turn
2
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
15. Index
Hint: Where there is a choice, most index entries are made using the name of a thing
(e.g. Axis drive) rather than an action (e.g. Tuning) so you will get better results
thinking about the part on which you want information. Thus looking for "Axis drives tuning" will give better results than looking for "Tuning - axis drives". For important
information both entries will probably appear.
If you have difficulty because you tried to look something up and the index
entry was missing, please take a moment to e-mail [email protected]
with a note of (a) the words you were looking up and (b) where in the
manual you found the information you wanted - assuming you did!
configure ..................................................... 8-1
try to avoid .................................................. 8-1
Backlash compensation
switched on and off in Configure Init State... 8-3
Binary operations
defined ...................................................... 10-7
Block
format of code ........................................... 10-5
Block Delete
action of .................................................... 10-3
Blue Screen of Death
action to take after, ...................................... 3-3
Boring manual retract canned cycle
G88 ......................................................... 10-20
Boring and reaming canned cycle
G85 ......................................................... 10-20
Boring with dwell and retract canned cycle
G89 ......................................................... 10-21
Boring with dwell canned cycle
G86 ......................................................... 10-20
Breakout board ................................................ 4-4
Button
control on screens ........................................ 3-5
A
Absolute distance mode
G90..........................................................10-21
Absolute IJ mode..........................................10-13
Absolute machine coordinates
G53 - move in ..........................................10-16
Acceleration
configuring................................................ 5-13
importance of configuration for accuracy ... 5-14
Acknowledgements.......................................... 1-1
Active Hi convention ....................................... 4-4
Active Lo convention....................................... 4-4
Addon CAM function
Wizards for ................................................. 3-7
Angular axes
configure..................................................... 8-4
Angular discrimination
configuration of........................................... 8-5
Arc - center format........................................10-13
Arc - radius format........................................10-12
Arc at feed rate
G02/G03 defined ......................................10-12
Arc motion
defined ...................................................... 10-2
Arcs display or cut incorrectly
wrong IJ Mode setting ................................. 8-2
Auto Cycle screen............................................ 6-8
Auto Prep screen.............................................. 6-7
Axis coordinate DRO
described ..................................................... 6-2
Axis drive design
design calculation ........................................ 4-5
limitation by Mach2 step rate....................... 4-6
minimum possible move .............................. 4-5
rapid speed .................................................. 4-6
Axis drives
role in system .............................................. 2-1
Axis jogging.................................................... 3-6
by MPG....................................................... 3-7
keyboard ..................................................... 3-6
slow speed................................................... 3-6
Axis position family
described ..................................................... 6-2
C
Cancel modal motion
G80 explained ......................................... 10-17
Canned cycle return level
G98/G99.................................................. 10-22
Canned cycles.............................................. 10-18
in-between motion ................................... 10-18
preliminary motion .................................. 10-18
repeats by L word .................................... 10-18
retract defined by R word......................... 10-18
sticky numbers......................................... 10-18
Center format arc ......................................... 10-13
Chucking stock ................................................ 7-7
Circles display or cut incorrectly
wrong IJ Mode setting ................................. 8-2
Code definition syntax explained.................. 10-10
Comments
defined ...................................................... 10-8
Concavity checks ............................................. 8-4
Configure
acceleration ............................................... 5-13
Angular axes................................................ 8-4
backlash ...................................................... 8-1
B
Backlash
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
3
Using Mach3Turn
entering data to ............................................ 3-5
DROs locked to initial units ............................. 8-4
Dwell............................................................. 10-2
G04 - defined........................................... 10-13
DROs locked to initial units......................... 8-4
initial state................................................... 8-2
M30 - action at ............................................ 8-4
Mach3 steps per revolution ........................ 5-11
Mach3 steps per unit.................................. 5-12
max motor speed ....................................... 5-12
motor revs per unit..................................... 5-11
motor steps per revolution.......................... 5-11
motor tuning.............................................. 5-10
permanent DROs ......................................... 8-4
program end - action at ................................ 8-4
pulse widths .............................................. 5-13
referencing .................................................. 8-1
screw revs per unit..................................... 5-11
serial output................................................. 8-5
spindle....................................................... 5-15
steps per unit ............................................. 5-11
tool change action........................................ 8-4
Configure - Ports & Pins.................................. 5-1
Configuring Mach3.......................................... 5-1
Constant velocity mode
G64 - setting.............................................10-16
purpose of explained.................................. 10-3
Continuous jog ................................................ 6-4
Controlled point............................................... 7-2
defined ...................................................... 10-1
Controls
how explained ............................................. 6-2
Coolant
configuring.................................................. 5-6
control of................................................... 10-2
M07 - mist on...........................................10-24
M08 - flood on .........................................10-24
M09 - all off .............................................10-24
Coolant control .............................................. 4-13
Coordinate systems.......................................... 7-1
reference definitions .................................. 10-5
Co-ordinated linear motion
defined ...................................................... 10-1
Coordinates of ref switches .............................. 8-1
Copyright statement......................................... 1-1
Current position
defined ...................................................... 10-2
Cutter radius compensation
G40/G41/G42 defined ..............................10-15
E
Editing G-code program................................... 6-9
Editor program
configure filename for.................................. 8-4
Effective cutting point...................................... 7-2
Emulated input signals ..................................... 5-5
Encoder inputs
defining....................................................... 5-6
Enhanced pulsing
processor requirement for............................. 8-3
EStop
lockout until reset ........................................ 4-2
EStop button
function ....................................................... 4-2
not involving software ................................. 4-2
Exact stop mode
G61 - setting............................................ 10-16
purpose of explained.................................. 10-3
Excecution of words
order of.................................................... 10-27
Expressions
defined ...................................................... 10-7
F
F DRO............................................................. 6-3
F word -feed rate.......................................... 10-25
Fault finding
port addressing and connections................. 5-10
Feed and speed override
controlled by M48/M49 ........................... 10-24
Feed per minute mode...................................... 6-3
Feed per rev mode............................................ 6-3
Feed rate
defined ...................................................... 10-2
F word to set............................................ 10-25
inverse time - G93 ................................... 10-22
units per minute - G94 ............................. 10-22
units per rev - G95................................... 10-22
Feed rate units per rev - G95 ........................ 10-22
Filed subroutine call
M98 ........................................................ 10-24
Fixture coordinate select
G54-G59 defined ..................................... 10-16
Fixture coordinate systems - setting - G10 .... 10-13
Flood coolant................................................. 4-13
D
Debounce
configure..................................................... 8-4
Developers Network
Mach2 - link to................................................ i
Diameter mode
setting ......................................................... 5-8
Diameter/Radius mode, choice......................... 7-1
Digital Readout....................................... See DRO
Direction & Step interface..... See Step & Direction
Disclaimer of liability ...................................... 1-1
Downloading Mach3........................................ 3-1
Drilling canned cycle
G81..........................................................10-19
Drilling with dwell canned cycle
G82..........................................................10-19
DRO
cancelling entry in ....................................... 3-5
caution when changing axis ......................... 3-6
control on screens........................................ 3-5
Using Mach3Turn
G
G00 - rapid linear motion ............................. 10-12
G01 - linear feed rate move .......................... 10-12
G02 - clockwise arc ..................................... 10-12
G03 - counterclockwise arc .......................... 10-12
G04 - dwell.................................................. 10-13
units of P word in ........................................ 8-5
G10 - set coordinate systems ........................ 10-13
G17 - select XY plane.................................. 10-14
G18 - select XZ plane .................................. 10-14
G19 - select YZ plane .................................. 10-14
G20 - inch units - setting .............................. 10-14
G21 - millimetre units - setting..................... 10-14
G28 - return to home.................................... 10-14
4
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
G28.1 - reference axes ..................................10-14
G30 - return to home.....................................10-14
G40 - cutter radius compensation - Off..........10-15
G41 - cutter radius compensation - Left.........10-15
G42 - cutter radius compensation - Right.......10-15
G50 - clear axis scale factors.........................10-15
G51 - set axis scale factors............................10-15
G52 offsets ...................................................10-15
G53 - move in absolute machine coordinates.10-16
G54 - select fixture 1 ....................................10-16
G55 - select fixture 2 ....................................10-16
G56 - select fixture 3 ....................................10-16
G57 - select fixture 4 ....................................10-16
G58 - select fixture 5 ....................................10-16
G59 - select any fixture.................................10-16
G61 - set exact stop mode .............................10-16
G64 - set constant velocity mode...................10-16
G73
pullback DRO ..........................................10-16
G73 – high speed peck drilling canned cycle .10-16
G80 - cancel modal motion ...........................10-17
G81 - drilling canned cycle ...........................10-19
G82 - drilling with dwell canned cycle ..........10-19
G83 - peck drilling canned cycle ...................10-20
G85 - boring and reaming canned cycle.........10-20
G86 - boring with dwell canned cycle ...........10-20
G88 - boring manual retract canned cycle.....10-20
G89 - boring with dwell and retract canned cycle
................................................................10-21
G90 - absolute distance mode........................10-21
G91 - incremental distance mode ..................10-21
G92 - workpiece offsets
interaction with parameters.......................10-22
G92 offsets ...................................................10-21
G93 - feed rate inverse time ..........................10-22
G94 - feed rate units per minute ....................10-22
G98 - canned cycle return level
to old Z ....................................................10-22
G99 - canned cycle return level
to R word .................................................10-22
G-code program
editing......................................................... 6-9
inputting...................................................... 6-9
running........................................................ 6-9
G-code window
control on screens........................................ 3-5
G-codes
summary table ..........................................10-12
Gouge checks .................................................. 8-4
Greyed out text - meaning................................ 1-1
Ground
signal .......................................................... 4-4
I
IJ Mode
defines how G02/G03 are interpreted ........... 8-2
IJ mode - "Absolute".................................... 10-13
IJ mode - Increments.................................... 10-13
Inch units
G20 - setting............................................ 10-14
Incremental distance mode
G91 ......................................................... 10-21
Incremental IJ mode..................................... 10-13
Incremental jogging ......................................... 6-4
Index
defining pin for pulse................................... 5-4
interface for spindle ................................... 4-12
Index pulse
sensing spindle position ............................. 4-12
Initial state
configure ..................................................... 8-2
Input pins
shortage of................................................... 5-5
Input signals
interfacing ................................................. 4-14
Inputs
defining which to be used............................. 5-3
Inputting G-code program ................................ 6-9
Installation
errors after................................................... 3-3
Installation o driver
manual ........................................................ 3-4
Installation of Mach3 ....................................... 3-1
Intelligent labels
described ..................................................... 6-2
Interlock
switch for guards ......................................... 8-4
Interlock - machine guard by Input #1 ............. 5-4
Introduction to Mach3Turn .............................. 2-1
J
Jerky motion with short lines
Constant velofity mode to avoid................. 10-3
Jog keys wont work ......................................... 6-4
Jog step
setting size................................................... 3-6
Jogging....................................... See Axis jogging
Jogging control family ..................................... 6-4
Jogging, continuous ......................................... 6-4
Jogging, incremental (or Step).......................... 6-4
K
Kernel speed
caution when changing after configuration ... 5-3
Keyboard
shortcuts...................................................... 3-5
Keyboard emulator
for additional input signals........................... 5-5
H
Home - return to G28/G30 ............................10-14
Home not at zero ............................................. 7-7
Home offset
setting ......................................................... 7-7
Home switch......................See also Limit switches
purpose ....................................................... 4-7
Home, moving to............................................. 6-6
Homing
introduction................................................. 6-5
Homing to switches ......................................... 6-6
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
L
LED
control on screens ........................................ 3-5
License statement............................................. 1-1
Light Emitting Diode ...............................See LED
Limit switch
defining....................................................... 5-4
Limit switches ................................................. 5-4
5
Using Mach3Turn
Machine modes
defined ...................................................... 10-9
Machine setup control family ........................... 6-5
Macro M-codes............................................ 10-25
Macros
overview on writing................................. 10-25
Manual data input ....................................See MDI
Manual Data Input ..................................See MDI
Manual data input - MDI.................................. 3-7
Manual Pulse Generator ..........................See MPG
Master tool .................................................... 7-10
Maximum spindle speed................................. 5-17
M-code
macros..................................................... 10-25
M-codes - built in
summary table ......................................... 10-23
MDI ................................................................ 3-7
control on screens ........................................ 3-5
use of history............................................... 3-7
MDI line.......................................................... 6-5
Messages
from part program, defined ........................ 10-9
Millimetre units
G21 - setting............................................ 10-14
Minimum spindle speed ................................. 5-17
Mirroring parts............................................... 10-1
Mist coolant................................................... 4-13
Modal groups
defined ...................................................... 10-9
Modal motion, cancelling
G80 explained ......................................... 10-17
Modes
machine - defined ...................................... 10-9
Motion control family
described ..................................................... 6-3
Motor
maximum speed......................................... 5-12
revs per unit............................................... 5-11
steps per revolution.................................... 5-11
tuning........................................................ 5-10
Motor - spindle
control options........................................... 4-10
Motor pulleys ...................................... See Pulleys
Mouse
using Mach3 without ................................... 3-5
MPG for jogging.............................................. 3-7
MPG inputs
defining....................................................... 5-6
MSG,
string introduces an operator message ........ 10-9
cabling ........................................................ 4-9
defining override switch input...................... 5-4
external implementation............................... 4-8
magnetic
applications for........................................ 4-9
manual override........................................... 4-9
microswitches
accuracy of.............................................. 4-9
overtravel ................................................ 4-9
mounting..................................................... 4-9
OR for electronic switches........................... 4-9
purpose ....................................................... 4-7
sharing Mach3 inputs................................... 4-9
sharing Mach3 inputs for ............................. 4-8
Limits - soft ..................................................... 8-2
Line
format of code ........................................... 10-5
Line number
format of ................................................... 10-5
Linear axes
defined ...................................................... 10-1
Linear feed rate move
G01 defined..............................................10-12
Linear glass scale
not part of servo loop................................. 4-14
quadrature interface ................................... 4-13
Loading part program ...................................... 6-7
M
M00 - program stop ......................................10-23
M01 - optional program stop.........................10-23
M02 - program end .......................................10-23
M03 - spindle clockwise ...............................10-23
M04 - spindle counterclockwise ....................10-23
M05 - stop spindle ........................................10-23
M07 - mist coolant on ...................................10-24
M08 - flood coolant on..................................10-24
M09 - all coolant off .....................................10-24
M30 - action at
configure..................................................... 8-4
M30 - program end .......................................10-23
M48 - feed and speed override on..................10-24
M49 - feed and speed override off.................10-24
M98 – filed subroutine call ...........................10-24
M98 - subroutine call....................................10-24
M99 - subroutine return ................................10-25
Mach Developers NetworkDN
link to.............................................................. i
Mach3
charge pump monitor..............See Charge pump
Components of ............................................ 3-2
computer requirements ................................ 2-2
demonstration version.................................. 3-1
how distributed............................................ 3-1
on laptop ..................................................... 2-2
pulse monitor..........................See Charge pump
what features it supports .............................. 4-1
what machines it can control........................ 4-1
MachDN
developers network link................................... i
Machine controller
role in system .............................................. 2-1
Machine coordinate display.............................. 6-5
Machine coordinates
displaying on axis DROs ............................. 6-6
G53 - move in ..........................................10-16
Using Mach3Turn
N
NC machine
parts of ........................................................ 2-1
Noise
on signal ground .......................................... 4-4
Number
format of ................................................... 10-7
O
OCXDiver test program ................................... 3-3
OEM Trigger inputs......................................... 5-4
Offset save dialog ............................................ 8-3
Offsets
G52 ......................................................... 10-15
6
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
selecting on running Mach3.exe ................... 3-2
Program
error handling .......................................... 10-26
Program end
M02/M30 ................................................ 10-23
Program end - action at
configure ..................................................... 8-4
Program stop
M00 ........................................................ 10-23
Pullback DRO
G73 ......................................................... 10-16
Pulley ratios for spindle drive........................... 5-8
Pulley ratios Spindle
pulley ratios................................................. 5-8
Pulleys
explanation of............................................ 5-16
setting max speed of .................................. 5-17
Pulse width modulated control
of motor speed........................................... 4-11
Pulse width modulated spindle .See Spindle, PWM
Pulse widths
configuring................................................ 5-13
PWM........................... See Pulse width modulated
PWM minimum speed limit ............................. 5-7
G92..........................................................10-21
Operators - binary
defined ...................................................... 10-7
Operators - unary
defined ...................................................... 10-8
Optional program stop
M01 .........................................................10-23
Optional stop ................................................... 8-4
Optional Stop
action of .................................................... 10-3
Order of G-code items on line ........................ 10-9
Output signals
interfacing ................................................. 4-14
Outputs
defining which to be used ............................ 5-3
Override
for feed and speed - disabling..................... 10-3
Override feed and speed
controlled by M48/M49 ............................10-24
P
Parallel port
D25 connector pinout .................................. 4-3
general background ..................................... 4-2
Parameter
setting value of .......................................... 10-8
using value of ............................................ 10-7
Parameters
predefined ................................................. 10-3
Part coordinate display..................................... 6-5
Part program
editing......................................................... 6-9
inputting...................................................... 6-9
loading and running..................................... 6-7
repeating indefinitely - M47......................10-24
repeating indefinitely -M99.......................10-25
running........................................................ 6-9
Part Program
running a sample ......................................... 3-7
PC
configuration required ................................. 2-2
Peck drilling canned cycle
G83..........................................................10-20
Peck drilling canned cycle – high speed
G73..........................................................10-16
Permanent DROs
configure..................................................... 8-4
Persistent feed override.................................... 8-5
Persistent jog mode.......................................... 8-3
Persistent offsets.............................................. 8-3
Plane selection
G17/G18/G19 defined ..............................10-14
Port addresses - finding with Windows Control
Panel ........................................................... 5-2
Preface ............................................................ 1-1
Profile
copying and viewing........................................1
display name of profile in use ...................... 6-2
multiple to allow control of several machine
tools ........................................................ 8-5
persistence when upgrading Mach3.............. 3-4
specified in /p argument............................... 8-5
Profiles
how stored................................................... 8-5
selecting on rselected by the /p argument in
shortcut target.......................................... 3-2
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
R
Radius format arc......................................... 10-12
Radius mode
setting.......................................................... 5-8
Radius/Diameter mode, choice ......................... 7-1
Rapid motion
G00 definrd ............................................. 10-12
Reaming and boring canned cycle
G85 ......................................................... 10-20
Re-boot during installation
how to manually uninstall driver if you fail to do
it ............................................................. 3-4
reason for .................................................... 3-2
Recording your configuration.............................. 1
Reference - G28.1........................................ 10-14
Reference switch
defining....................................................... 5-4
Referenced LED
described ..................................................... 6-6
Referencing
configure ..................................................... 8-1
details of Mach3 actions............................. 4-10
introduction ................................................. 6-5
with a home switch ...................................... 7-7
Referencing with home switches ...................... 6-6
Referencing with no home switches.................. 6-6
Repeating part program indefinitely - M47 ... 10-24
Repeating part program indefinitely - M99 ... 10-25
Reset button
described ..................................................... 6-2
Retrofitting old CNC machines
caution ................................................. 2-2, 4-5
Return level after canned cycle
G98/G99.................................................. 10-22
Run a demo part program............................... 3-10
run a G-code program .................................... 3-10
Running G-code program................................. 6-9
S
S DRO............................................................. 6-3
7
Using Mach3Turn
Steps per unit ................................................. 5-11
Subroutine call
M98 ........................................................ 10-24
repeating several times............................. 10-24
Subroutine label
format of ................................................... 10-6
Subroutine return
M99 ........................................................ 10-25
Syntax - Code definition .............................. 10-10
S True DRO .................................................... 6-3
S word - spindle speed ..................................10-25
Safety warning.......................................... 1-1, 4-1
professional advice ............................... 1-1, 4-1
Save offsets ..................................................... 8-3
Scale factor - on axis data - G50, G51 ...........10-15
Scaling coordinates........................................ 10-1
Scaling parts.................................................. 10-1
Screen control
how explained ............................................. 6-2
Screen enlarge
automatic..................................................... 8-3
Screen layouts
sample......................................................... 3-4
Screen switching controls
described ..................................................... 6-2
Screenshots.................................................... 11-1
Screw revs per unit ........................................ 5-11
Secondhand equipment
a caution...................................................... 4-5
Selected plane
defined ...................................................... 10-2
Serial output
configure..................................................... 8-5
Servo motor drives
properties .................................................... 4-5
Set fixture coordinate systems - G10 .............10-13
Setup units
choosing between inch and millimetres ........ 5-1
Shortcuts ...........................See Keyboard shortcuts
Signal
ground......................................................... 4-4
Soft limits............................................. See Limits
Special Mach3.sys driver
installation of............................................... 3-3
need for ....................................................... 3-3
specialdriver.bat............................................... 3-3
Speed and feed override
controlled by M48/M49 ............................10-24
Spindle
CW and CCW control configuring ............... 5-7
M03 - clockwise .......................................10-23
M04 - counterclockwise............................10-23
M05 - stop................................................10-23
PWM control............................................... 5-7
Step and Direction control ........................... 5-8
Spindle control
clockwise/counterclockwise....................... 4-11
interlocking requirements .......................... 4-11
Spindle delays ................................................. 5-8
Spindle drive
configuring.................................................. 5-6
Spindle motor
configuring................................................ 5-15
Spindle speed
maximum, defined for pulleys.................... 5-17
minimum, defined for pulley...................... 5-17
S word to set.............................................10-25
Step & Direction
spindle drive.............................................. 4-11
Step & Direction interface
caution about active hi/lo ............................. 4-7
waveforms................................................... 4-7
Step jogging .................................................... 6-4
Stepper motor drive
properties .................................................... 4-4
Using Mach3Turn
T
T word - tool select ...................................... 10-25
Testing
axis calibration .......................................... 5-14
configuration settings................................... 5-9
for lost steps .............................................. 5-15
Mach3 installation ....................................... 3-3
OCXDiverTest ............................................ 3-3
spindle drive .............................................. 5-17
Threading
cut depths .................................................. 6-10
infeed angles and methods ......................... 6-10
principles..................................................... 6-9
Threading default settings ................................ 5-9
Timing
defining pin for pulse................................... 5-4
Tool
master, choosing........................................ 7-10
stages in selecting and using in part program 7-9
wear offsets ............................................... 7-12
Tool change
supplied M6 macros................................. 10-24
Tool change action
configure ..................................................... 8-4
Tool nose radius compensation
introduction ................................................. 9-1
Tool select
T word..................................................... 10-25
Tool Table ....................................................... 7-4
format of ................................................... 7-10
Toolpath display
control on screens ........................................ 3-5
Tools
allowing for different positions of cutting point
............................................................... 7-4
Touching
to set up X ................................................... 7-6
Trademarks...................................................... 1-2
Trial machining
to setup X .................................................... 7-6
TTL
current sourcing and sinking ........................ 4-3
signal levels................................................. 4-3
U
Unary operators
defined ...................................................... 10-8
Un-installation of driver
manual ........................................................ 3-4
Units
inch, degree ans millimetre ........................ 10-2
W
Wear offsets................................................... 7-12
Wizard
8
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
intial letters................................................ 10-6
standard controls of ..................................... 6-7
Wizard code
editing and reusing ...................................... 6-7
Wizards........................................................... 3-7
example of use............................................. 6-6
Word
format of ................................................... 10-6
Rev Beta 7.57-A1
Z
Z axis zero options........................................... 7-2
Z axis, setting zero........................................... 7-7
9
Using Mach3Turn
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