SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g

SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g
An Oracle White Paper
October 2012
SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage
Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Preface .............................................................................................. 3
Naming Conventions and Terms ....................................................... 3
Configuration Guidelines ................................................................... 6
Operating System specific Configuration Steps ............................. 6
Mandatory OS Software Components and Kernel Parameters ............. 6
OS groups .............................................................................................. 7
OS users ................................................................................................. 8
Directories .............................................................................................. 9
Symbolic Links ...................................................................................... 10
Environment of the 'oracle' user ........................................................... 10
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Configuration Guidelines ...... 12
Removing old Oracle Grid Infrastructure software ............................... 12
Oracle ASM disks ................................................................................. 13
Installing and configuring the GRID Software Stack ............................ 13
Installing the Oracle RDBMS Software ................................................ 14
Oracle Executable OS Group ID´s ....................................................... 14
Post Database Creation ....................................................................... 14
Oracle SQL*Net Configuration ............................................................. 15
Major Differences between Installations with and without ASM.... 17
OS User 'ora<dbname>' ....................................................................... 17
Server Parameter File .......................................................................... 17
SAP BR*Tools ...................................................................................... 18
Initialization Parameters ....................................................................... 19
Miscellaneous ....................................................................................... 20
Summary of important SAP notes ................................................ 21
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Planning Oracle ASM Disk Group Configuration .............................. 21
Oracle ASM Redundancy ............................................................ 22
Oracle ASM Disk Group Naming Conventions ............................. 23
Variant 1 – small to medium data volumes, restore time not critical .... 23
Variant 2 – medium to large data volumes, restore time important ..... 24
Variant 3 – very large data and data change volumes, restore time crucial
25
Oracle ASM Compatibility Attributes ............................................ 26
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Preface
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Oracle ASM is the preferred storage
platform for SAP systems running on Oracle Real Application Clusters as well as for
SAP systems running on a single instance Oracle Database.
This document is intended as complementary configuration guideline in addition to
the “Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide” which is available on the Oracle
Technology Network and in addition to the white paper “Moving your SAP database
to Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2 – A Best Practices Guide”
which can be downloaded from SAP SDN.
Although most of the configuration guidelines in this document are the same for
Oracle RAC databases with Oracle ASM and Oracle single instance databases with
Oracle ASM this document only covers the configuration steps for Oracle single
instance databases with Oracle ASM. Oracle RAC with Oracle ASM is discussed in
detail in the according Oracle RAC specific white paper.
Before discussing the installation and configuration guidelines the document gives
you an overview of the specific terminology used in the Oracle ASM environment.
Furthermore, we will discuss some special considerations that should be kept in
mind about how Oracle ASM works differently compared to conventional storage
solutions and what the Oracle ASM disk group configuration recommendations and
naming conventions are.
This document is based on Oracle Database Release 11.2.0.2 and 11.2.0.3.
Naming Conventions and Terms
The following naming conventions and terms are used in this document:
Name or
Synonym
Description / Purpose
Oracle ASM
Oracle Automatic Storage Management is basically a volume
manager for all Oracle Database related files and ACFS Volumes
(Oracle ASM Cluster File System Volumes).
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Oracle ASM
Disk
An Oracle ASM disk is usually a physical disk with a logical
partition on it. On Linux/Unix platforms the logical partition
should span the whole physical disk.
Oracle ASM
Disk Group
A number of Oracle ASM disks form an Oracle ASM disk group.
An Oracle ASM disk group has 1 or more “failure groups”.
Failure Group
A named group to which an Oracle ASM disk belongs to. Oracle
ASM guarantees not to store the same data twice within a failure
group. Redundancy is achieved by distributing the same data to
multiple failure groups.
OCR
Oracle Cluster Repository
RMAN
Oracle Recovery Manager
ACFS
Oracle ASM Cluster File System is a cluster file system that uses
Oracle ASM as the underlying volume manager infrastructure.
<DGNAME>
<DBNAME>
<dbname>
<DGNAME> specifies the name of an ASM disk group.
Example: ‘+ARCH’
Specifies the name of the database (e.g. C11).
<DBNAME> is derived from the Oracle initialization parameter
'db_name'. If 'db_unique_name' is set it is derived from
'db_unique_name'.
<DBSID>
<dbsid>
Specifies the name of the database instance. For single instance
databases <DBSID> usually equals <DBNAME> e.g. C11.
With RAC the number of the instance is appended e.g. C111,
C112, etc.
The environment variable ORACLE_SID is usually set to
<DBSID>.
<SAPSID>
<sapsid>
Specifies the name of the SAP system id.
It is used for OS user names like <SAPSID>adm e.g. c11adm as
well as for authentication of the OS user with Oracle e.g.
OPS$<SAPSID>ADM.
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
OUI
Oracle Universal Installer is the installation tool for Oracle GRID
and Oracle Database Software installations.
<IHRDBMS>
RDBMS Software Installation Home. The installation Oracle
Home directory where the Oracle RDBMS Software is installed.
If you are running one database instance from the Oracle Home
install the software to '/oracle/<DBNAME>/11202'.
<OHGRID>
If you are running multiple databases from the same Oracle Home
install the software to '/oracle/RDBMS/11202'.
The path of the Oracle Home where the GRID Software was
installed.
On Unix/Linux platforms it is
‘/oracle/GRID/11202’, ‘/oracle/GRID/11203’, …
Related environment variables:
ORACLE_BASE='/oracle/BASE' (see SAP note #1521371)
ORACLE_HOME='/oracle/GRID/11202'
LD_LIBRARY_PATH or
SHLIB_PATH='/oracle/GRID/11202/lib'
<OHRDBMS> The runtime path of the Oracle Home where the RDBMS
Software was installed. This is a symbolic link to <IHRDBMS>.
If you are running one database from the Oracle Home:
Examples
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112' -> '/oracle/<DBNAME>/11202'
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112' -> '/oracle/<DBNAME>/11203'
If you are running multiple databases from the Oracle Home:
Examples
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112' -> '/oracle/RDBMS/11202'
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112' -> '/oracle/RDBMS/11203'
Related environment variables:
ORACLE_BASE='/oracle' (see SAP note #1521371)
ORACLE_HOME='/oracle/<DBNAME>/112
LD_LIBRARY_PATH or
SHLIB_PATH='/oracle/<DBNAME>/112/lib'
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Note: In cluster environments it is recommended to place
<OHRDBMS> on a shared cluster file system.
Configuration Guidelines
Operating System specific Configuration Steps
Mandatory OS Software Components and Kernel Parameters
Refer to the Oracle platform specific installation guide of your OS platform for a list
of mandatory OS software components and install them before you proceed to
install Oracle GRID or Oracle RDBMS Software. For Linux there is a list of
required rpm´s for each distribution supported by Oracle. Modify the UNIX/Linux
kernel parameters and OS limits to meet the requirements.
Accessing Attached Disks
multipath and udev
In order to make the disk devices destined for Oracle ASM visible in a schematic
manner with clearly speaking device names we recommend to use multipath and
udev rules. This is especially important for more complex Oracle ASM
configurations with multiple storage subsystems at different locations where the
disks need to be identified and mapped to the same device names by each
clusternode. These configurations are discussed in the whitepaper 'SAP with Oracle
Real Application Clusters 11g Release 2 and Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release
2 - Advanced Configurations & Techniques'.
It is very important to configure disk drivers and multipath to report IO errors as
fast as possible because the upper layers (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM)
depend on fast response times. If failed IO´s are not recognized fast enough or
retried for several seconds or minutes Oracle Clusterware may evict cluster nodes or
Oracle Database may run into timeouts (controlfile enqueue, IO, …).
On Linux make sure the following parameters are set in multipath.conf:
dev_loss_tmo=2
fast_io_fail_tmo=1
fail_if_no_path
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Oracle ASMLIB
On Linux platforms Oracle ASMLIB can be used as an alternative to multipath and
udev. Oracle ASMLIB consists of a Linux kernel module and administration utilities
and needs to be downloaded and installed separately (several rpm´s). It allows you to
"stamp" each Oracle ASM disk with a symbolic name using the 'oracleasm' tool. In
addition it will fade in the disk devices into the Linux device tree at
'/dev/oracleasm/disks/<symbolic name>'.
Oracle ASMLIB has to be installed by user 'root'!
OS groups
Group
dba
Comments
OS group that is required for OS-authentication for 'connect / as
sysdba'. Users belonging to this group can be removed from the group
after the installation if you want to disable OS-authentication and use
password file authentication instead.
oper
OS group that is required for OS-authentication for 'connect / as
sysoper'. Users belonging to this OS group can be removed from the
group after the installation if you want to disable OS-authentication and
use password file authentication instead.
oinstall
This OS group will be set as the group for all directories and files that
will be installed during the software installation. Only the oracle
executable will be changed to owner 'oracle:asmadmin'. This will be
discussed later in this document.
asmadmin The membership in this OS group guarantees read/write access to the
Oracle ASM disks (= the devices).
asmdba
Required to be able to create files on Oracle ASM.
asmoper
Optional OS group for users that should be able to start/stop the
Oracle ASM instance.
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
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Example:
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
groupadd
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
500
501
502
503
504
505
dba
oinstall
asmadmin
oper
asmdba
asmoper
OS users
User
oracle
Comments
The 'oracle' user is used for the installation of the Oracle GRID
software as well as for the installation of Oracle RDBMS software.
This includes all patchset installations with OUI and patch
installations with 'opatch' and/or 'mopatch'. This user is the
software owner and the user under which the oracle software will be
run.
Primary group: oinstall
Additional groups:
dba, oper, asmadmin, asmdba, asmoper
Example:
$ useradd -g oinstall \
-G dba,oper,asmdba,asmoper,asmadmin \
oracle
<sapsid>adm The <sapsid>adm user is the owner of the SAP system software.
For DB specific tasks (e.g. sqlplus and SAP BR*Tools) it also
requires membership in the some RDBMS / Oracle ASM specific
groups.
Primary group: sapsys
Additional groups: dba, oper, asmdba, asmoper
Example:
$ useradd -g sapsys \
-G dba,oper,asmdba,asmoper \
c11adm
Important: <SAPSID>adm requires the environment variable
SAPDATA_HOME to be set to '/oracle/<DBNAME>'.
Example: SAPDATA_HOME=/oracle/C11
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Example:
useradd -g oinstall -G dba,oper,asmdba,asmoper,asmadmin
oracle
useradd -g sapsys -G dba,oper,asmdba,asmoper c11adm
Notes
 The 'grid' user mentioned in various Oracle documents cannot be used in
SAP environments as it will cause certain SAP administrations tasks to
fail.
 In SAP installations with Oracle ASM the 'ora<dbname>' user is not
required anymore! It is recommended to remove this user.
 After removing ora<dbname> user from the OS you should drop the
corresponding database user 'OPS$ORA<DBNAME>' and create the user
OPS$ORAORACLE instead.
SQL> drop user “OPS$ORA<DBNAME>”
SQL> create user “OPS$ORAORACLE” identified externally;
SQL> grant SAPDBA to “OPS$ORAORACLE”
 The default home directory for the 'oracle' user is '/home/oracle'.
Directories
Directory
Owner
/oracle
oracle:oinstall
/oracle/<DBNAME>/saparch
oracle:oinstall
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapbackup
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapcheck
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapprof
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapreorg
/oracle/<DBNAME>/saptrace
Access
Bits
drwxr-xr-x
drwxrwxrx
Comments
Oracle base
directory under
which all Oracle
specific
subdirectories
(e.g. for software
installations or
diagnostic files)
will be created.
SAP BR*Tools
specific
subdirectories
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
/oracle/GRID/11202
oracle:oinstall
drwxr-x---
/oracle/<DBNAME>/11202
oracle:oinstall
drwxr-xr-x
Installation
Oracle Home for
the GRID
Software Stack
(<OHGRID>)
Installation
Oracle Home for
the RDBMS
Software
(<IHRDBMS>)
Note that the <OHGRID> and <IHRDBMS> directories are created by OUI
during software installation. Please refer to SAP note 1524205.
Symbolic Links
A symbolic link is created automatically if you use the 'RUNINSTALLER' script
attached to SAP note 1524205 (patch level 15 or later). If you do not use the script
you have to create the link manually. The path '/oracle/<DBNAME>/112' is used
as the runtime Oracle Home (<OHRDBMS>) for the RDBMS Software.
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112' →
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/11202'
Example:
$ cd /oracle/C11
$ ln -s 11202 112
The table below shows an example of the paths and the 'term' we use for it:
/oracle/C11/11202
<IHRDBMS>
/oracle/GRID/11202
<OHGRID>
/oracle/C11/112
<OHRDBMS>
Environment of the 'oracle' user
Because the 'oracle' user owns all Oracle software, and because all Oracle programs
are run by this user, it is required to be able to switch the environment of this user in
order to run programs (e.g. sqlplus, imp, exp, srvctl, crsctl) under their specific
Oracle Home.
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Therefore we recommend creating shell scripts you can source to change the user´s
environment setting as needed (see SAP note 1554661).
Environment variable
PATH
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_HOME
LD_LIBRARY_PATH or
SHLIB_PATH
Path
Has to include
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112/bin'
'/oracle' or /oracle/<DBNAME>
(see SAP note 1521371)
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112'
'/oracle/<DBNAME>/112/lib'
Example for running programs from <OHGRID>
ORACLE_BASE=/oracle/BASE
ORACLE_SID=+ASM (Single Instance)
ORACLE_SID=+ASM1 (on first RAC node)
ORACLE_SID=+ASM2 (on 2nd RAC node)
PATH=.:/usr/kerberos/bin:/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:
/oracle/GRID/11202/bin
ORACLE_HOME=/oracle/GRID/11202
Example for running programs from a <OHRDBMS>
ORACLE_BASE=/oracle
ORACLE_SID=C11
PATH=.:/usr/kerberos/bin:/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:
/oracle/C11/112/bin
ORACLE_HOME=/oracle/C11/112
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Configuration
Guidelines
Removing old Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
If you want to install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software stack from scratch and
you still have the same or an older version of the software installed, it should be
removed first.
-
use the 'deinstall' script under <OHGRID>/deinstall
remove directory '/oracle/GRID'
rm -rf /oracle/GRID
remove '/etc/oracle/ocr.loc'
Please refer to the according Oracle documentation on how to completely
remove the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software stack.
If you want to start a new Oracle Inventory remove
'/oracle/oraInventory'.
If you have upgraded your Oracle Grid Infrastructure software stack (e.g. from
11.2.0.2 to 11.2.0.3) the steps to remove the old Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
stack are:
export ORACLE_HOME=$<OHGRID>
## To detach old 11.2.0.2 GRID_HOME:
$NEW_GRID_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome -silent
ORACLE_HOME=<OHGRID>
## To confirm the $OLD_GRID_HOME is removed from central inventory:
$NEW_GRID_HOME/OPatch/opatch lsinventory -all
## To remove files in old 11.2.0.2 GRID_HOME on all nodes manually:
rm -rf <old-11.2.0.2-GRID_HOME>
unset ORACLE_HOME
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Oracle ASM disks
As described in the chapter "Planning Oracle ASM Disk Group Configuration" you
should have prepared at least 5 disks (high redundancy) that can be used for the
Oracle ASM disk group '+OCR'.
On the Linux platform the disks should be stamped.
Example:
oracleasm createdisk OCR0000 /dev/hdc1
oracleasm createdisk OCR0001 /dev/hdd1
.
.
oracleasm createdisk OCR0004 /dev/hdg1
In addition you may want to prepare other disks for other Oracle ASM disk groups
(e.g. '+DATA', '+RECO', '+ARCH').
Installing and configuring the GRID Software Stack









Log on as user 'oracle' and switch to your <OHGRID> environment.
Unpack the GRID software bundle to a staging directory (e.g.
'/oracle/stage/grid').
Unpack the RDBMS software bundle to a staging directory (e.g.
'/oracle/stage/database').
AIX only: You may need to run rootpre.sh before you install the software.
Set your DISPLAY variable and start OUI to install the GRID Software
Stack. Remember that you may have to issue 'xhost +' under the original
user.
Example: /oracle/stage/grid/runInstaller
When you are asked for Oracle Base and <OHGRID> enter '/oracle'
and '/oracle/GRID/11202'.
When you are asked for OS groups enter 'asmdba', 'asmoper' and
'asmadmin' and complete the software installation.
Run '/oracle/GRID/11202/root.sh' and '/oracle/GRID/11202/orainstroot.sh'
Use the 'asmca' utility to create and manage Oracle ASM disk groups.
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Installing the Oracle RDBMS Software
Log on as user 'oracle' and switch to your <OHRDBMS> environment and use the
script 'RUNINSTALLER' provided on the appropriate SAP installation DVD to
install the Oracle RDBMS Software and create the symbolic link (<OHRDBMS> ->
<IHRDBMS>) after the software has been properly installed. For more information
refer to SAP note 1524205.
Oracle Executable OS Group ID´s
After installation of the RDBMS Software, the ownership of the Oracle binary under
<OHRDBMS>/bin is oracle:oinstall and the Oracle binary contains some OS group
id´s that are linked-in when the Oracle binary is linked during software installation.
Unless a new database is created using the 'dbca' tool (which is very uncommon in
the SAP environment) it is important to adjust the ownership and linked-in group
id´s of the binary manually by executing a script located under <OHGRID>/bin.
The script must be executed after every software installation, patch
installation and re-link of the Oracle binary.
[[email protected] dbs]$ ls -la /oracle/C11/112/bin/oracle
-rwsr-s--x 1 oracle oinstall 228886468 Nov 29 15:29
/oracle/C11/112/bin/oracle
/oracle/GRID/11202/bin/setasmgidwrap
o=/oracle/C11/112/bin/oracle
[[email protected] dbs]$ ls -la /oracle/C11/112/bin/oracle
-rwsr-s--x 1 oracle asmadmin 228886468 Nov 29 15:29
/oracle/C11/112/bin/oracle
Post Database Creation
After the database has been created by 'sapinst' or manually it is necessary to run
some post db creation tasks:
Task
Register the new database and <OHRDBMS> with the GRID
stack.
Example:
srvctl add database -d RM1 -o
/oracle/C11/112 -p
Comment
mandatory
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
/oracle/C11/112/dbs/spfileRM1.ora -a
"ACFS,DATA,RECO,ARCH"
Turn off Oracle default maintenance tasks (SAP note 974781)
Lock all the DB user accounts you don´t need
Configure the 'asmsnmp' user.
mandatory
recommended
recommended
Oracle SQL*Net Configuration
Oracle Listener
In a GRID environment there is usually one Oracle listener for all database instances
configured. The listener is run from the <OHGRID>/bin directory and controlled
by the GRID infrastructure. Therefore the listener should be started and stopped by
using the 'srvctl' utility instead of 'lsnrctl' like in non-Oracle ASM environments.
The listener should always use the Oracle default port 1521. This allows all Oracle
database instances to register their services with the listener without the need to set
'local_listener' parameters in the pfile or spfile.
Example configuration:
sqlnet.ora:
# sqlnet.ora Network Configuration File:
/oracle/GRID/112/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, EZCONNECT)
ADR_BASE = /oracle
listener.ora:
# listener.ora Network Configuration File:
/oracle/GRID/112/network/admin/listener.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.
LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = uxi337)(PORT =
1521))
)
)
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /oracle
ENABLE_GLOBAL_DYNAMIC_ENDPOINT_LISTENER=ON #line added by
Agent
SQL*Net Configuration in <OHRDBMS>
sqlnet.ora:
# sqlnet.ora Network Configuration File:
/oracle/C11/112/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.
NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, EZCONNECT)
ADR_BASE = /oracle
tnsnames.ora:
# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File:
/oracle/C11/112/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.
C11 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = uxi337)(PORT =
1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = C11)
)
)
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Major Differences between Installations with and without
ASM
OS User 'ora<dbname>'
With Oracle ASM the OS user 'ora<dbname>' should not be defined any longer.
Almost every file or directory is now owned by user 'oracle' with its primary group
'oinstall'. SAP BR*Tools are started from the environment of the OS user
'<sapsid>adm' (see below).
Exceptions:
Directory or File
/oracle/<DBNAME>/112/bin/ora
cle
/oracle/<DBNAME>/saparch
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapbackup
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapcheck
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapprof
/oracle/<DBNAME>/sapreorg
/oracle/<DBNAME>/saptrace
Owner
oracle:asmadmin
Access Bits
-rwsr-s—x
oracle:oinstall
drwxrwxr-x
Comments
Oracle
executable
SAP
BR*Tools
specific subdirectories
(see SAP
note
1598594)
Note: 'sapprof' is a new directory where the SAP BR*Tools profile
'init<DBNAME>.sap' is located. Beside the profile file BR*Tools create a
spfile copy (as 'pfile') and some temporary files in this directory.
Server Parameter File
For customers who run their database and Oracle ASM on a single host or a RAC
cluster with a shared <OHRDBMS> it is recommended to place the spfile for the
database instance under <OHRDBMS>/dbs. Placing the spfile outside Oracle ASM
allows much easier handling.
Example:
SQL> create spfile='spfileRM1.ora' from pfile='initRM1.ora';
File created.
SQL>
Customers who do not run a RAC cluster with a shared file system for
<OHRDBMS> or customers who want to place the spfile on Oracle ASM for any
other reason can use the following command to create the spfile on Oracle ASM.
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Example:
create spfile='+DATA/RM1/spfileRM1.ora' from pfile='initRM1.ora';
Please note that 'spfileRM1.ora' is just an alias on Oracle ASM:
Example:
Oracle ASMCMD> ls -l
Type
Redund
Striped
Sys Name
N
spfileRM1.ora =>
+DATA/RM1/PARAMETERFILE/spfile.267.737217857
Although it is recommended that you use 'srvctl' to startup and shutdown your
database, it may be necessary to startup and shutdown the database with 'sqlplus'. In
this case you need an additional pfile under <OHRDBMS>/dbs which points to the
spfile on Oracle ASM.
Example:
initRM1.ora:
SPFILE=’+DATA/RM1/spfileRM1.ora’
SAP BR*Tools
All SAP BR*Tools run under user 'oracle' as their effective user id.
SAP BR*Tools should be executed as <sapsid>adm user to ensure that the
environment for the administration of a given database instance (ORACLE_SID,
ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE, etc.) is already set correctly. When you decide
to perform database administration as user 'oracle', you have to set the environment
for the target database first as described in SAP note 1554661.
Make sure the BR*Tools (BRARCHIVE, BRBACKUP, BRCONNECT,
BRRECOVER,BRRESTORE,BRSPACE, BRTOOLS) are owned by user
'oracle' with 'oinstall' as their primary group as described in SAP note
1598594.
Example:
OS> su - root
OS> cd /usr/sap/<SAPSID>/SYS/exe/run
OS> chown oracle:oinstall \
brarchive brbackup brconnect brrecover brrestore \
brspace brtools
OS> chmod 6774 \
brarchive brbackup brconnect brrecover brrestore \
brspace brtools
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
OS> ls -l br*
-rwsrwsr--rwsrwsr--rwsrwsr--rwsrwsr--rwsrwsr--rwsrwsr--rwsrwsr--
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
brarchive*
brbackup*
brconnect*
brrecover*
brrestore*
brspace*
brtools*
Initialization Parameters
Oracle ASM introduces new Oracle initialization parameters that allow you to omit
names of directories and filenames in some SQL statements. New directories and
files are created automatically according to the "Oracle Managed Files (OMF)"
naming rules.
Example:
alter tablespace PSAPSTABD add datafile size 1000m;
Parameter
db_create_file_dest
db_create_online_log_dest_1
db_create_online_log_dest_2
Value / Comments
+DATA
Default Oracle ASM disk group for new datafiles.
+DATA
Default Oracle ASM disk group for the first online
redo log group member (= origlog).
+RECO
Default Oracle ASM disk group for the second
online redo log group member (= mirrlog)
Besides of these Oracle ASM specific parameters the following parameters should
also be set accordingly:
Parameter
compatible
control_files
Value / Comments
11.2.0.2 (see SAP note 1431798)
'+DATA/<DBNAME>/cntrl<DBNAME>.dbf',
'+ARCH/<DBNAME>/cntrl<DBNAME>.dbf',
'+RECO/<DBNAME>/cntrl<DBNAME>.dbf'
audit_file_dest
/oracle/<DBNAME>/saptrace/audit
db_recovery_file_dest
+RECO
db_recovery_file_dest_si Depends on the size of the Oracle ASM disk group.
ze
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
diagnostic_dest
log_archive_dest_1
/oracle/<DBNAME>/saptrace
Oracle archive logs are written to an Oracle ASM disk
group.
Specify the location for the archive logs as follows (see
SAP note 1431798):
For Single instance: ‘LOCATION=+ARCH’
For RAC:
‘LOCATION=+<DGNAME>/<DBNAME>/ORAA
RCH’
Use asmcmd to create this location. Example:
$ asmcmd
ASMCMD> mkdir ARCH/C11/ORAARCH
Please refer to SAP note 1431798 about general parameter recommendations for
Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
Miscellaneous
Transparent Data Encryption (TDE)
If you are using TDE it is important to know that your TDE encryption wallet
cannot be copied directly to an Oracle ASM disk group with Oracle release 11.2. On
Linux it is recommended to create a shared ACFS volume on which you can place
the encryption wallet. On other platforms you could use a shared NFS mount or
place the encryption wallet on a local file system. Refer to SAP note 947876.
Incremental RMAN Backups
For incremental RMAN backups where customers use a block change tracking file it
is recommended to place the file on Oracle ASM and to use an alias as the filename.
Example:
SQL> alter database enable block change tracking using file
'+DATA/<DBNAME>/bctf<DBNAME>.ora';
Please refer to SAP note 964619 for more information.
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Summary of important SAP notes
Oracle ASM specific notes
1550133
1431800
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM)
Oracle 11.2.0: Database Software
Installation
Oracle 11.2.0: Central Technical Note
1431798
Oracle 11.2.0: Database Parameter Settings
1554661
Configuration of Environment for 'oracle'
user
BR*Tools Configuration for Oracle inst.
under 'oracle' user
Setting of ORACLE_BASE in SAP Environments
1524205
1598594
1521371
Oracle feature notes
974876
Transparent Data Encryption (TDE)
974781
Oracle internal maintenance jobs
966073
Oracle Flash Recovery Area/Fast Recovery
Area
RMAN: Incremental backups with Block Change
Tracking
964619
Planning Oracle ASM Disk Group Configuration
For SAP on Oracle with Oracle ASM we recommend to choose one out of three
variants on how to name and configure your Oracle ASM disk groups. Which variant
you should choose depends on your backup concept which in turn usually depends
on the size of your database and required availability.
21
SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Oracle ASM Redundancy
With Oracle ASM the database instance implements several levels of redundancy:
external, normal and high.
External redundancy: The database instance never writes the same data to more than
one failure group. If the underlying disks are not mirrored somehow a failure of a
single disk means data loss. This mode is recommended for non-clustered
environments where redundancy is achieved by the storage subsystem.
Normal redundancy: The database writes the same data to two different failure
groups.
High redundancy: The database writes the same data to three different failure
groups.
Please note that with Oracle ASM redundancy is achieved by the database instance
by multiplexing an IO going to one disk (within a failure group) to one or two
additional disks (within one or two other failure groups). This is different to
traditional storage solutions where data redundancy is achieved by raid
implementations where a piece of data needs to be written only once by the host and
the IO bandwidth required for mirroring is provided by the storage system.
Therefore it may be necessary to increase the IO bandwidth between server and
storage or disks by using multipath software or by adding additional physical IO
channels.
Example:
If you configure 2 redo log members per redo log group and place them on a Oracle
ASM disk group with normal redundancy the database instance has to do 4 IO´s one for each redo log member and one for each disk.
Nevertheless it is not recommended to run your database with just one online redo
log member per group!!!
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
Oracle ASM Disk Group Naming Conventions
Independent from how you configure your Oracle ASM disk groups for running
your Oracle Database(s) it is recommended to configure one Oracle ASM disk group
with “high redundancy” exclusively for Oracle Clusterware. This Oracle ASM disk
group stores the Oracle Cluster Repository and the Oracle ASM parameter file.
The recommended name for this Oracle ASM disk group is “+OCR”.
The minimal size of each Oracle ASM disk in the OCR disk group is 4GB. Note that
each Oracle ASM disk defines a separate failure group within the disk group.
For RAC it is required to have a dedicated Oracle ASM disk group for the Oracle
ASM Cluster File System ACFS. The disk group and the ACFS file system on it
should be configured large enough to store the required number of Oracle RDBMS
Homes. Keep in mind that much more disk space may be required than just for one
Oracle Home when it comes to patching or out of place upgrades which are basically
full installations since 11gR2 and need to be installed next to the old Oracle Home.
The recommended name for this Oracle ASM disk group is “+ACFS“.
Variant 1 – small to medium data volumes, restore time not
critical
Customer has small or medium sized databases where backup and/or
restore + recovery of all databases can be accomplished by RMAN in a
timely fashion.
Example:
If a complete Oracle ASM disk group with data files from one or more
databases is broken and all data files from all databases need to be restored
to a newly created Oracle ASM disk group using RMAN.
Oracle ASM disk group recommendation:
Oracle ASM Disk Group Name
+DATA
Stores
-
All data files
All temp files
Control file (first copy)
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
-
Online redo logs (first copy)
+ARCH
-
Control file (second copy)
Archived redo logs
+RECO
-
Control file (third copy)
Online redo logs (second copy)
RMAN backups (optional)
Fast recovery area (optional)
Variant 2 – medium to large data volumes, restore time
important
Customer has medium to large sized databases where backup and/or restore +
recovery of all databases cannot be accomplished in a timely fashion.
Usually customers will use RMAN and Split-Mirror techniques in combination.
Major differences to Variant 1 are:
 Separate Oracle ASM disk group for each database
 <DBNAME>+“_” is used as a prefix for the name of the DATA disk
group.
 The number of the DATA disk group is appended if the database spans
over more than one DATA disk group.
 No online redo logs are located in the “data” disk groups. Instead an
additional disk group is used for the first member of each online redo
log group.
Important: Please consider that only a maximum of 63 Oracle ASM disk groups can
be configured.
Oracle ASM disk group recommendation:
Oracle ASM Disk Group Name
+<DBNAME>_DATA[#]
e.g.
ERP_DATA,
ERP_DATA1,
Stores
-
All data files
All temp files
Control file (first copy)
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
CRM_DATA1
+OLOG
-
Online redo logs (first copy)
+ARCH
-
Control file (second copy)
Archived redo logs
+RECO
-
Control file (third copy)
Online redo logs (second copy)
RMAN backups
Fast recovery area
Variant 3 – very large data and data change volumes, restore
time crucial
Customer has very large databases where backup and/or restore + recovery of a
single databases cannot be accomplished in a timely fashion.
Usually customers will use RMAN and Split-Mirror techniques in combination.
In this variant each relevant database file type is separated to different Oracle ASM
disk groups.
Important: Please consider that only a maximum of 63 Oracle ASM disk groups can
be configured.
Oracle ASM disk group recommendation:
Oracle ASM Disk Group Name
+<DBNAME>_DATA[#]
e.g.
ERP_DATA,
ERP_DATA1,
CRM_DATA
+<DBNAME>_ARCH
Stores
-
All data files
All temp files
Control file (first copy)
You can append a number to the name of
the Oracle ASM disk group if you need
additional disk groups for 'DATA'.
-
Control file (second copy)
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SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2
Configuration Guidelines for UNIX and Linux Platforms
e.g.
ERP_ARCH,
CRM_ARCH
+<DBNAME>_RECO
e.g.
ERP_RECO,
CRM_RECO
+<DBNAME>_OLOG
e.g.
Archived redo logs
-
Control file (third copy)
RMAN backups
Fast recovery area
-
Online redo logs (first copy)
-
Online redo logs (second copy)
ERP_OLOG,
CRM_OLOG
+<DBNAME>_MLOG
e.g.
-
ERP_MLOG,
CRM_MLOG
Important: Always place all files from one database into the according Oracle
ASM disk groups of that database. Never place a file from database “ERP”
into a disk group that belongs to database “CRM”.
Oracle ASM Compatibility Attributes
The disk group attributes that determine compatibility are 'compatible.asm',
'compatible.rdbms' and 'compatible.advm'. The 'compatible.asm' and
'compatible.rdbms' attribute settings determine the minimum Oracle Database
software version numbers that a system can use for Oracle ASM and the database
instance types respectively. For example, if the Oracle ASM compatibility setting is
11.2, and RDBMS compatibility is set to 11.1, then the Oracle ASM software version
must be at least 11.2, and the Oracle Database client software version must be at
least 11.1. The 'compatible.advm' attribute determines where the Oracle ASM
Dynamic Volume Manager feature can be used to create Oracle ASM volumes in
disk groups.
Make sure that 'compatible.asm' and 'compatible.rdbms' are set to '11.2.0.2.0' for all
Oracle ASM disk groups.
For more information please refer to “Moving your SAP database to Oracle
Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2 – A Best Practices Guide”
26
SAP Databases on Oracle Automatic Storage
Management 11g Release 2
October 2012
Author: Markus Breunig, Andreas Becker
Contributing Authors: Jan Klokkers, Kurt Broeg
Oracle Corporation
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