Flannery-Research and Design Paper
Loudspeaker Design/Research Alex Flannery February 22nd, 2015 Picture o btained via Creative Commons with credit to Daniel R. Blume o n flickr.com Alex Flannery 1 Table of Contents TITLE PAGE 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 2-­‐3 1.0 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 4-­‐6 1.1 USE 1.2 LISTENING ENVIRONMENT 1.3 PURPOSE 2.0 SPL 6-­‐12 2.1 PREFERRED SPL EXPERIMENT 2.2 CREST FACTOR/ADDITION OF HEADROOM 2.3 DETERMINING SENSITIVITY, INCLUDING AMP 2.4 INVERSE SQUARE LAW 2.5 MIXING STANDARDS 3.0 FREQUENCY RESPONCE 13-­‐17 3.1 PREFERRED LOW FREQUENCY LIMITS EXPERIMENT 3.2 THE LOWEST FREQUENCIES OF ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS 3.3 HIGH FREQUENCIES 3.4 RESPONSE SHAPE 3.5 LOUDSPEAKER DESIGN TRADEOFFS AND PRIORITIZATION 3.6 OVERALL BANDWITH GOAL 3.7 DESIGN COMPROMISES Alex Flannery 2 4.0 CONSTRUCTION AND VISUAL AESTHETIC 17-­‐32 4.1 CABINET SIZE 4.2 CABINET CONSTRUCTION 4.3 BRACING AND HARMONIC RELATIONSHIPS/INTERNAL REFLECTIONS 4.4 MECHANICAL GROUNDING 4.5 THE TWEETER 4.6 THE WOOFER 4.7 LOUDSPEAKER/DRIVER MODELING 4.8 DRIVER PLACEMENT 4.9 DIFFRACTION PREDITIONS 5.0 MODELING AND TESTING 33-­‐40 5.1 WOOFER MODELING WITH WINSPEAKERZ 5.2 SPEAKER TESTING PLOTS BIBLIOGRAPHY 41 APPENDIX A 42 ATTACHED ARE PDF’S OF ALL DRIVER CHOICES FROM 4.5 AND 4.6 Alex Flannery 3 1.0-­‐ Functional Description 1.1-­‐ Use and Purpose The goal for my loudspeakers is to for use mainly for listening to classical music. As a composer, it is important to have a good tool for the playback of recorded classical music for study and also the MIDI-­‐generated playback from my software. Thus, my loudspeakers must account for a wide frequency range to accommodate the instruments that touch the lower and upper limits of our hearing. Specifically, because I am more interested in lower instruments, I need to pay specific attention to the low frequency capability of my speakers. In an article by John Atkinson for Stereophile, many orchestral instruments delve into the contrabass region of our hearing1. Using this, I’m able to gain a sense of what instruments I need to account for in classical music that might use the lowest frequencies. However, it should be noted that one of the drawbacks to MIDI is that you can never quite replicate an acoustic instrument. Granted, advancements have been made! I am composing electronically and must pay the price to use that luxury. To help achieve more of the concert hall feel, however, my speakers will need to be transparent to allow the MIDI instruments to be as true to themselves as possible. 1 “Bass Instruments & Frequencies: John Atkinson,” Stereophile Reference. Accessed January 16, 2015. http://www.stereophile.com/content/question-­‐bass-­‐bass-­‐instruments-­‐frequencies-­‐page-­‐3 Alex Flannery 4 1.2-­‐ Listening Environment My speakers would ideally be mounted on pedestals in front of my desk workstation to create a speaker-­‐to-­‐ear distance of 1 meter. Because of the desire to reach very low frequency, I must imagine that these speakers will take up considerably more space than appropriate for desktop speakers. Therefore, a pedestal arrangement seems optimal. This will widen the image between the speakers for a more stereo feel. I also desire the speakers to be somewhat portable in the sense that they may sometimes be moved from residence to residence but ultimately should stay where they are once installed. The room they would be used in would be classified as generally non-­‐reflective. It is an office type room, approximately a 12’x12’ space, with carpet but also many bookshelves and pieces of furniture. These things would tend to absorb most of the sound. Wide-­‐dispersion loudspeakers would suit this space well 1.3-­‐ LEV and ASW2 LEV (Listener Envelopment) is the impression of being in a certain acoustical space. It can be thought of as a characteristic or element that give a space it's 'sound'. This quality can 'make or break' a concert hall. In recordings and movies, envelopment was greatly advanced by multi-­‐channel 2 Toole, Floyd (2009-­‐10-­‐28). Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms (Kindle Location 1108). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. Alex Flannery 5 audio. For example, you can hear this from old Jazz recordings that used just a hall microphone and more modern recordings involving a heavily mic'ed ensemble and room. ASW (Apparent source width) refers a direct sound source's image being perceived as broadening in a space. In live performance, it is the illusion that makes the sound source seem huge compared to the source. The perception also comes from recording, where we are used to just hearing things in left, right, or center. To compare, ASW has more to do with the sound source and the impression you get of the sound image from the direct source. LEV has more to do with the reflections and it's characteristics helps define an acoustical space you are in. 2.0-­‐ SPL Sound pressure level , or SPL, is a measure of the perceived loudness of sound3. SPL Output important to me because I believe that high SPL output is sometimes related to the dramatic and emotional context of classical music. Due to the nature of classical music literature possessing a wide dynamic range, it will be important for my speakers to have ample headroom above my preferred SLP volumes. 3 Murphy, John L. (2014-­‐03-­‐04). Introduction to Loudspeaker Design: Second Edition (p. 14). True Audio. Kindle Edition. Alex Flannery 6 2.1-­‐ Preferred SPL Experiment 4 In the case of this experiment, “210” refers to a specific studio space located on the campus of Michigan Technological University. The results of the experiment conclude that: 1) I prefer movies at higher SPL than television. 2) I prefer classical music at higher SPL than popular music, both in the case of car listening and 210. My findings for this experiment didn’t necessarily surprise me. I seem to watch movies at a higher level than TV shows. This makes sense to me because with movies I am usually tuned in to the program and am really concentrating. I usually don’t watch too many TV shows so, if I have one on, I am usually working on light homework or doing some other task. The television is usually background noise to me. I also played classical and pop music in 210 and found they were 4 Alex Flannery. Preferred SPL Output Experiment. Michigan Technological University, conducted January 18th, 2015. Alex Flannery 7 generally at the same peak level of about 96 dB. Because the 210 MTU speakers work so well with the space, I don’t think there is too much desire for more/less dB because I can already hear all elements comfortably. While mixing, however, I prefer it a little softer because I’m unable to concentrate on details with too much SPL. I tested out two different types of music through my car speakers to see if there was a difference. I first played some of Tchaikovsky’s 5th symphony. Classical music waivers a lot in SPL but it got to an average of 98 SPL. This makes sense because it is also factoring in the engine noise as well. I then tested a different kind of music, specifically some tunes by Coldplay. My listening average went down about 10 dB SPL. Overall, I didn’t find any correlation between my SPL and mood. I tried to listen at different times, such as when incurring stress, but didn’t find my SPL preferences changed noticeably enough to report them here. 2.2-­‐ Crest Factor/Addition of Headroom According to my listening preferences, my loudspeakers should reach a max of 95 dB SLP. According to an article about the K-­‐system by Digital Domain, classical music should be monitored at a K-­‐20 level and should therefore account for 20 dB SLP above the maximum preferred SPL to account for the crest factor and headroom for the signal5. Determining Max SPL Original Max SPL Add K-­‐20 Crest Factor New Max SPL 95 20 115 5 Level Practices (Part 2) (Includes the K-­‐System). Digital Domain, www.digido.com. Published 2000. Alex Flannery 8 2.3-­‐ Determining Sensitivity, Including Amp We can use ‘dbW’, or the decibel watt, to determine the signal strength in accordance with one watt6. This calculated signal strength is used because it is an easy calculation and it finds the max output of the speaker system with the addition of amplifiers. First, we need to determine the power consumption for our amplifiers. As of now, I am looking at the “CAMBRIDGE AUDIO TOPAZ AM10” stereo amplifier. It has a power consumption of 260 watts. Now that we know this value, we can use the equation of dbW to determine the loudspeaker sensitivity @ 1W @ 1M. We use the following equation: 10 log (Total Wattage/1 Watt) After calculation, the power provided by 1 Watt is 24.15 dbW, or for simplicity rounded to 24 dbW. I can determine that after the addition of this particular amplifier to my speakers, which I wish to reach a max SPL of 115 with headroom, the sensitivity of the speakers can be determined as 91 SPL @ 1M @1W. 6 Plummer,
Christopher. “SPL”. Classroom Lecture, Transducer Theory. Michigan
Technological University, Conducted January 23, 2015.
Alex Flannery 9 2.4-­‐ Inverse Square Law It is important to note the Inverse Square Law, which states that with each doubling of distance from the original sensitivity, we can expect an SPL difference from our hearing. Each doubling of distance (getting farther away), of halving of distance (getting closer) will subtract or add accordingly 3 dB SPL. Given the projected sensitivity of my speakers at 91 SPL @ 1M @ 1W, I shouldn’t have to worry about this because my speakers will be stationary at a fixed distance away from me, the listener, at 1 meter. However, if I have to put the speakers closer to me, perhaps on a desk, the distance may become ½ meter and the SPL will be perceived as 3 dB SPL louder, so now the max SPL, including headroom, is now at 118 dB SPL, which really is plenty. Or, conversely, if I have a listener in the room standing some distance behind me, for example 1 meter behind me, the distance of original sensitivity has been doubled, so I can expect their perceived loudness to be 3 dB SPL less, or, including headroom, 111 dB SPL. 2.5-­‐ Mixing Standards Phillip Newell suggests monitoring and mixing at a level of 100 dB SPL7. Our perception and emotional connection to music requires the music to be loud. The reason for this is to cause excitement and accounts for a chemical process in our brain. The loud music must allow us to submerse ourselves into the 7 Newell, Philip; Holland, Keith (2006-­‐10-­‐05). Loudspeakers: For music recording and reproduction (Kindle Locations 4363-­‐4364). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. Alex Flannery 10 music. It is the stimulus that excites us in music and sometimes makes us want to dance or bang our head around in time. In order for musicians to be able to collaborate on the mixes, they needed to feel the same SLP sensation from the studio into the control room. If going from the studio to control room is 25 SLP difference, it is likely that the artist will not be as able to tune into the work without some sort of "deflationary sensation", as Newell says. The musicians need to hear it back at the same level it was recorded and the same level they are imagining it (which is, after all, what we hope would come through in the recording session). However, as my loudspeakers won’t be used for studio mixing, 100 dB SPL, as a figure of ‘normal mixing’ isn’t necessary. Therefore, my sensitivity of 91 SPL @ 1M @1W is appropriate for the size of my room and use purposes. 2.6-­‐ Frequency Response and Power Response Frequency response refers to the on-­‐axis response of the frequency spectrum. As noted in section 1.2, wide dispersion speakers are desirable but due to the overall use for the loudspeakers (being for one listener in a fixed environment), a flat, on-­‐axis response is the main goal for the loudspeakers. On the same subject, power response refers to the power output of the speakers in a 360-­‐degree area around the loudspeaker. This information will be important to calculate to have some insight into what reflections will occur and the overall behavior of the room, but the most important will be the equidistant 60-­‐degree angle in which the two speakers will be placed in front of my station. Alex Flannery 11 According to Toole8, it is asserted that a 60° angle creates the strongest impression of ASW (apparent source width) and image broadening. This is because the position of the ears on the left and right of our heads create a 'spacial-­‐effect balloon'. Although there are other angles that can be beneficial, the 60° from a source stays in this bubble the whole time and gives our ears the best impression of the spatial qualities of the sound. If coming from 0°, we can think that the sound will be delayed because of having to travel straight to our faces and wrap around to our ears. This creates a time-­‐delay that can be detrimental to the listener's perception of the sound spatiality. Sounds arriving from the 60° will also be perceived as louder than those arriving from the front or back, especially higher frequency sounds. Just based on the asymmetrical anatomy of our ears, it makes sense for two loudspeakers to be placed at the two asymmetrical 60° angles in front of us. The back parts of our ears and front ridges prevent sound from the front and back from arriving at the appropriate time and also hinder some frequencies. This also had to do with the auditory process in which we combine the sounds of both ears. This all related to the term HRTF, or head-­‐related transfer functions, which is how sounds from different angles arrive at the eardrum. 8 Toole, Floyd (2009-­‐10-­‐28). Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms (Kindle Location 1108). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. Alex Flannery 12 3.0-­‐ Frequency Response 3.1-­‐ Preferred Low Frequency Limits Experiment9 I used one classical track and one popular music track for
my analysis to try and record more consistent results. My results
were consistent with what I thought I would find. In classical
music, I generally listen for low frequencies and, therefore, notice
more when they’re attenuated. For example, in the sealed
9 Alex Flannery. Preferred Low Frequency Limits Experiment. Michigan Technological University, conducted January 18th, 2015 Alex Flannery 13 6dB/octave, I noted the unacceptable cutoff for classical music at
100 Hz while pop music was 110 Hz. Because with pop music I
tend to be more focused of lyrics and other elements, the very
low frequencies become less important. To generalize, I prefer a
low frequency limit of approximately 40 Hz.
3.2-­‐ The Lowest Frequencies of Orchestral Instruments In an article by John Atkinson for Stereophile, many orchestral instruments delve into the contrabass region of our hearing10. By using the following chart, I’m able to gain a sense of what instruments I need to account for in classical music that might use the lowest frequencies. Orchestral Instrument Lowest Frequencies (in Hz) Bass Trombone 23 Organ 25.32 Grand Piano 27.5 Contrabassoon 29 Bass Drum 30-­‐80 Double Bass 32.7 (@ low ‘C’) Fender Bass 41.2 Bassoon 58 Cello 65.4 Timpani 75-­‐200 By using my previous experiment for low frequency limits, which states that I prefer a low frequency limit of 40 Hz, I can begin to predict what instruments I may be attenuating by using the chart. It seems I may be missing the lower end of 10 “Bass Instruments & Frequencies: John Atkinson,” Stereophile Reference. Accessed January 16, 2015. http://www.stereophile.com/content/question-­‐bass-­‐bass-­‐instruments-­‐frequencies-­‐page-­‐3 Alex Flannery 14 the keyboard instruments and the lower woodwinds and brass. This is a tradeoff I must consider. 3.3-­‐ High Frequency Most musical content, specifically in my case of orchestral instruments, remains below about 15,000 Hz11. Anything above 15 KHz tends to be perceived as ‘hiss’ and isn’t generally applicable for acoustic orchestral instruments. 3.4-­‐ Response Shape12 Typical response that is desired for a loudspeaker is flat response. This means that a constant SPL will be produced for all frequencies able to be produced by the loudspeaker system. Flat-­‐Constitutes an even response for all frequencies. “Smiley Face”-­‐ Constitutes a usually equal boost of high and lower frequencies, leaving the mid-­‐ranges untouched. Warm-­‐ Constitutes a 2-­‐3 dB attenuation of higher frequencies to boost and ‘warm up’ the lower frequencies. BBC-­‐ Constitutes a 1 to 3 dB drop in the 2K to 3.5K region to promote mixers and mastering engineers to purposefully 11 Plummer,
Christopher. “Frequency Responce”. Classroom Lecture, Transducer
Theory. Michigan Technological University, Conducted January 21, 2015. 12 Plummer, Christopher. “Frequency Responce”. Classroom Lecture, Transducer
Theory. Michigan Technological University, Conducted January 21, 2015. Alex Flannery 15 mix the vocal range (2K to 3.5K) a bit higher in the mix. Most often used for radio and talk-­‐show purposes. 3.5 Loudspeaker Design Tradeoffs and Prioritization I will be using Murphy’s Loudspeaker Design Tradeoffs to construct a pie chart denoting the SPL vs. Size vs. LF13. Through this reading, I am looking at creating more of a hi-­‐fi speaker that goes as low as possible but still produces an appropriate size and SPL output. I will need more help on this but at this time, here is an estimate: Design Tradeoffs Size SPL Low Frequency Size-­‐ 26% SPL-­‐ 26% Low Frequency-­‐48% This design is modeled from the following example of a typical hi-fi
speaker concentrated on low end by John Murphy14.
13 Murphy, John L. Introduction to Loudspeaker Design: Second Edition (p. 62). True Audio. Kindle Edition. Location 749 of 2297. 14 Murphy, John L. (2014-03-04). Introduction to Loudspeaker Design: Second Edition (p. 62).
True Audio. Kindle Edition.
Alex Flannery 16 3.6 Overall Bandwidth Goal The overall desired bandwidth of my loudspeakers should consist of a
frequency range from 40 Hz to 15 KHz.
3.7 Design Compromises Due to my desire for such a wide frequency range, the need for multiple
drivers is a must. No single driver is capable of producing these
frequencies accurately or efficiently. Having two or more drivers
necessitates a crossover, which is a network that divides the input signal
into respective frequency bands to send to the appropriate drivers for
output.
Crossovers impact frequency response and time. For example, a dip in
response is common at the crossover frequency because the signal is
getting closer and closer to being shared by both drivers (a tweeter and a
woofer).
Although a 3-way speaker (three drivers) would increase size, SPL, off
axis response, and bass response, the simple factor of money will have
me stick at a 2-way speaker which will be very sufficient and create a
good end product. For different applications, such as movie mixing or for
use in clubs, I would perhaps need to rethink this.
4.0-­‐ Construction and Visual Aesthetic 4.1 Cabinet Size The desired size, to best suit the end-goal room, would be a speaker size
of (LxWXH) 151⁄2”x14”x17”
. This would be appropriate for the speaker
Alex Flannery 17 stands I have available and also still able to fit on a particular shelf if
needed.
This size also promotes good portability. The cabinet may be considered
somewhat large, however you should be able to carry one speaker at a
time with ease. It is optimal for car transportation and the rectangular
design allows it to be packed along with other boxes if need be.
The overall shape is vertically rectangular.
4.2 Cabinet Construction According to North Creek Music Systems15, front and rear panels
constitute special consideration for strength because of the need to drill
holes for machinery. Thus, their Cabinet Handbook suggests the following
for the front and rear panel construction:
¾” Particle Board or MDF ¾” Baltic Birch Plywood For side, top, and bottom panels, the same ¾” particle board or MDF is
suggested. MDF is ideal for this because of internal damping,
machinability, and glue-ability, as well as the fact that MDF in particular is
easy to finish and paint. Due to bracing, in the next section, it isn’t
necessary to connect this ¾” layer of particle board or MDF to another
layer as was shown optimal in the front/back panels.
15 Cabinet Handbook. North Creek Music Systems. September 1992
Alex Flannery 18 4.3 Bracing and Harmonic Relationships/Internal Reflections According to North Creek Music Systems16, braces increase rigidity of
the cabinet walls without needing to add to their exterior mass. It also
controls the panel resonance by both increasing its fundamental
resonance frequency and creating additional paths to the loudspeaker
stand. The bracing allows the cabinet to behave as a single solid unit and
allows it to behave harmonically by these changes to the frequencies.
The material must have different qualities from that of my speaker
enclosures. Once achieved, the materials will have different
characteristics, such as damping ability and density. This creates a
desired discontinuity that eliminates the chance of allowing standing
waves to form. Thus, the energy is quickly transferred to the cabinet and
mechanical ground, to be further defined in the next section.
Using the recommendation of North Creek Music System,
multidirectional plywood should be used for the bracing. While I don’t yet
know how many braces I will use, I can use the following information
about shape and position for further consideration.
16 Cabinet Handbook. North Creek Music Systems. September 1992 Alex Flannery 19 4.4 Mechanical Grounding These cabinet and bracing considerations, as it contributes to
the rigidity of the structure, is contributing to the mechanical ground.
The mechanical ground refers to the surface on which a loudspeaker
rests upon17. The means of a good mechanical ground is some kind of
stable platform (speaker stand, hardwood floor) that provides a means
for the cabinet vibrations to be transferred to other places, such as the
ground or walls. This prevents the energy and vibration accrued from
being transferred back the cabinet and affecting loudspeaker
Performance.
4.5 Rough Draft of Speaker Aesthetics for Construction These measurements are for the ‘inside box’ layer of MDF. Note that in actual construction, oak wood became available and Cherry wood was not used as stated in the drafting. The final product is 1/2 “ oak and 1/2” MDF. 17 Cabinet Handbook. North Creek Music Systems. September 1992 Alex Flannery 20 Alex Flannery 21 4.5 The Tweeter Alex Flannery 22 Tweeters
Price Seas-Vintage
SeasScanSpeak
Vifa
Tymphany
H1462-06
Prestige Discovery D27TG35- XT19NC3027TDFNC/GW H1189- D2608/9130 06 04 1” 06
27TDFC $50 $76 $37 $19 Fs Can’t find in
America? 750 Hz 550 Hz 700 Hz 720 Hz 972 Hz Sensitivity 90.5 90 91.3 87.4 85.9 Long
Term
Power
Handling +/- for
2K to 20K 90 W 90 W 80 W 100 W 100 W 2 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 Possible Tweeter 1: Seas-Prestige H1462-06 27TDFNC/GW
Spec Sheet: http://www.seas.no/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9
4:h1462-06-27tdfncgw&catid=25&Itemid=366 (will be properly cited in
appendix upon choosing of actual driver)
Recommended Frequency Range: 2500-30000 Hz
Sensitivity: 90.5 dB @ 1m @ 2.83V
Evaluation: The general consensus for this driver choice is that these
drivers are a little more expensive than what they are worth. I found
this information from multiple forums that I wasn’t sure would be
appropriate to cite academically. However, this is helpful to me
because I am building budget speakers and the next choice, in
particular, looks much more appealing and has excellent reviews with a
fair price. However, it should be noted that I do like the aesthetics of
this driver more than others.
Possible Tweeter 2: Seas-Prestige H1189-06 27TDFC
Why: Aesthetically pleasing. Fabric dome. Cost $40-50
Alex Flannery 23 Spec Sheet:
http://www.seas.no/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6
2:h1189-06-27tdfc&catid=45:seas-prestige-tweeters&Itemid=462 (will
be properly cited in appendix upon choosing of actual driver)
Recommended Frequency Range: 1500-25000 Hz
Sensitivity: 90 dB @ 1m @ 2.83V
Reviews:
Seas 27TDFC ($40) - Exactly the same as the TBFCG, but with a fabric
dome. Slightly rising top end response but overall very smooth. No ugly
hexagrid. Similar to the old 27TFFC, but with a polymer surround and slightly
cleaner performance. Tested April 200518
The 27TDFC (H1189) is a tweeter from the Seas Prestige series. It
offers a sturdy build quality with a glass-fibre reinforced plastic faceplate. It
has a wide, soft polymer surround and the coated fabric dome diaphragm
provides a frequency response to 35kHz (on-axis), with a nice off-axis
dispersion and low distortion.
The Sonotex precoated fabric diaphragm has high consistency and
excellent stability against variations in air humidity.
Voice coil windings immersed in magnetic fluid increase short term
power handling capacity and reduce the compression at high power levels.
Stiff and stable rear chamber with optimal acoustic damping allows the
tweeter to be used with moderately low crossover frequencies.
This is a very affordable tweeter that measures very well and is
capable of a 2kHz cross-over point or even lower if a steep filter is used.19
These seem like very positive reviews and help validate that this seems
like a very fair price for the driver. Since I need two of each driver and
I’m on a budget, price really does count. The reviews also touch on
being able to have a relatively low crossover capability of around 2kHz
or lower. I’m not sure if this will be necessary, but it is good
information to have.
Possible Tweeter 3: ScanSpeak Discovery D2608/9130 1" Textile
Dome HDS Tweeter
18 Krutke, John “Zaph”. Zaph Audio: Tweeter Mishmash. http://zaphaudio.com/tweetermishmash/. Accessed February 7, 2015. 19 AudioExcite Loudspeaker Design. SEAS H1189 27TDFC. http://www.audioexcite.com/?page_id=2075. Accessed February 7, 2015. Alex Flannery 24 Cost: $76
Recommended Frequency Range: Not Listed
Sensitivity: 91.3 dB @ 1m @ 2.83W
Spec Sheet: https://www.madisoundspeakerstore.com/scanspeaksoft-dome-tweeters/scanspeak-discovery-d2608/9130-1-textile-domehds-tweeter/
Evaluation: I am pretty set on the Seas Prestige line but am exploring
other drivers. One thing I don’t like is how they don’t include the
recommended frequency range. This is valuable information, although
not crucial. Scan Speak makes great drivers and I’m sure they would
do the trick. This driver seems similar to the two previous choices
aesthetically and as far as specifications go. However, the price is
boosted quite a bit. For that reason, these probably won’t make the
cut. Because my miniDSP will be taking up a large majority of the
budget, it is less that I have for good drivers.
Possible Tweeter 4: Vifa D27TG35-06 1" Silk Dome Tweeter
Cost: $37 but on sale for $28
Recommended Frequency Range: 700-20,000 Hz
Sensitivity: 87.4 dB @ 1m @ 1V
Spec Sheet: http://www.parts-express.com/vifa-d27tg35-06-1-silkdome-tweeter--264-1022
Evaluation: I chose to research this driver because it is very similar
looking to the other drivers I have chosen so far but is very low in cost
comparatively. Parts-express website has lots of positive reviews for
these drivers. Many people are using them as replacements for their
broken drivers and are saying that they match very well sonically and
are overall great drivers for the price.
Possible Tweeter 5: Tymphany XT19NC30-04 1”
Cost: $19
Alex Flannery 25 Recommended Frequency Range: Not listed
Sensitivity: 85.9 dB @ 1m @ 1W
Spec Sheet:
Evaluation: I chose to evaluate this because I hadn’t heard of the brand
but it kept on popping up. It turns out that the same company that
owns Tymphany also owns Scan Speak and Vifa. This model is only a
¾” tweeter but I chose it because it looks really cool, as do most of the
Tymphany drivers. However, the price is a little suspiciously low.
Perhaps this is the more budget friendly sub-company of the
manufacturer. I can budget slightly more for tweeters, so I will probably
go with a higher dollar tweeter from Seas which is more established to
me and I can seem to trust, especially from recommendations of
others.
4.6 The Woofer Alex Flannery 26 Woofers Scan Speak
22W/8534G00 Price $80 $100 Sensitivty 88 Max
Mechanical
Excursion 24mm Seas
Dayton
H1471-08
Audio
CA22RNY RS2258 SBAcoustics
SB17NRXC35 SBAcoustics
SB23NACS45 $75 $100 $130 91 88.8 88.5 87.5 20mm 7mm 26mm 26mm Possible Woofer 1: Scan Speak 22W/8534G00
Cost: ~$80
Recommended Frequency Range: Not listed
Resonance Frequency: 30 Hz
Sensitivity: 88 dB @ 1m @ 2.83V
Spec Sheet https://www.madisoundspeakerstore.com/approx-8woofers/scanspeak-22w/8534g-discovery-8-woofer/
(will be properly cited in appendix upon choosing of actual driver)
Evaluation:
Possible Woofer 2: Seas H1471-08 CA22RNY
Cost: $100
Alex Flannery 27 Recommended Frequency Range: 35-2500 Hz
Resonance Frequency: 34 Hz
Sensitivity: 91 dB @ 1m @ 2.83V
Spec Sheet:
http://www.seas.no/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9
5:h1471-08-ca22rny&catid=44:utv-prestige-woofers&Itemid=461 (will
be properly cited in appendix upon choosing of actual driver)
Evaluation: This uses a paper cone, which I desire more over a metal
cone. The paper cone helps reduce unwanted resonance and helps the
roll-off.
Possible Woofer 3: Dayton Audio RS225-8 8″
Cost: $75, but currently on sale on Parts Express for about 23% off
Recommended Frequency Range: 28 to 2400 Hz
Resonance Frequency: 28 Hz
Sensitivity: 88.8 dB @ 1m @ 2.83V
Spec Sheet: http://www.parts-express.com/dayton-audio-rs225-8-8reference-woofer--295-356
Evaluation: Mason Pew and Steve Green used these. Mason got a
particularly good bass response from it. I like the look of the drivers
and was pleased with its overall performance when evaluating the
loudspeakers from these two students.
Possible Woofer 4: SBAcoustics SB17NRXC35-6.5”woofer
Cost: About $100
Alex Flannery 28 Recommended Frequency Range: Not listed
Resonance Frequency: 27 Hz
Sensitivity: 88.5 dB @ 1w @ 2.83V
Spec Sheet:
http://www.sbacoustics.com/index.php/products/woofers/8sb23nrxs45-81/
Evaluation: Colin used these and got an f3 of 50 Hz. However, I think
these are a little out of my budget. Interestingly enough, I kind of got
mislead while looking through various retailers. I had thought this was
an 8-inch driver but is actually a 6.5”. So, I can certainly rule this out
but still included it as a choice based on the speaker performance of
Colin. However, for my purpose and box size, I would rather go with an
8-inch driver.
Possible Woofer 5: SBAcoustics SB23NACS45-8”
Cost: About $130
Recommended Frequency Range: Not listed
Resonance Frequency: 25 Hz
Sensitivity: 87.5 dB @ 1w @ 2.83V
Spec Sheet:
http://www.sbacoustics.com/index.php/products/woofers/8sb23nacs45-8/
Evaluation: These are certainly more out of my budget but I chose to
include in order to compare to possible woofer 4 (both similar
SBAcoustics models). This one is more expensive and resonates
slightly lower. It is also larger at 8-inches versus 6.5-inches. Both use
aluminum cones. Due to our conversations about break-up, I am more
interested in a fabric or paper cone and less interested in the metal
cones. However, I would still consider this a possibility.
Considerations and compromises come from different size
woofers20.
20 Plummer, Christopher. “Woofers and Compromises”. Classroom Lecture, Transducer Theory. Michigan Technological University. Conducted January 30th, 2015. Alex Flannery 29 Common Woofer Sizes and Compromises
5 ¼”
Flat off Axis Best
6.5”
7”
à
à
8”
Worst
Low
Frequency
Highest
à
à
Lowest
SPL
Less
à
à
More
Cabinet
Smallest
à
à
Largest
4.7 Loudspeaker/Driver Modeling I will be using the software Winspeakerz to model the acoustic
effects of my woofers. I haven’t yet chosen my driver so I cannot
Alex Flannery 30 provide this information yet. Here is a chart with the information I need
from the spec sheet for the woofer. All information to be put in the
appendix at a later time.
Definitions of Desired Spec Sheet Information for “Winspeakerz” Term Definition/Meaning Notes Fs Driver free air resonance Qts The total Q at resonance Qes Electrical Q factor Qms Mechanical Q factor VAS Equivalent volume Must be converted feet^2 Max linear excursion 10% distortion Max mechanical excursion Maximum reach of drivers, Must be converted meters^2 will break after this point Sensitivity dB at a specific voltage/distance 4.8 Driver Placement Baffle (Front) and Beginning Predictions about Aesthetics Dimensions of Box: (LxWxH) 14”x12”x16” Alex Flannery 31 1” 8” Shown here, the tweeters are slightly off placed center above the woofer to minimize vertical lobbing. Exact measurements to de determined. 4.9 Diffraction Predictions Because my speakers are vertically rectangular, I need to account for a predicted diffraction. Sharp edges cause diffraction21 as shown in the following diagram. 21 Newell, Philip; Holland, Keith (2006-­‐10-­‐05). Loudspeakers: For music recording and reproduction (Kindle Location 1930). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. Alex Flannery 32 To help combat this diffraction, I will use rounded edges to further
break up the diffraction. I would also guess that for my use of the
speakers, at a 1 meter listening distance, that diffraction will not cause a
problem and in fact may be suitable to enhance the precedence effect in
the small space. The diffraction will cause more early reflections that will
add to the sense of original signal strength.
Alex Flannery 33 5.0-­‐ Modeling and Testing 5.1 Woofer Modeling in WinSpeakerz Using the tool WinSpeakerz, I can insert the parameters of the Woofer I have chosen, along with the volume of my box and specs of my amplifiers, so predict the behavior of the woofer in my cabinet. 450°
360°
10
30
15
75
8
28
14
70
6
26
13
65
4
24
12
60
TA
2
22
11
55
0 dB
20
10
50
-2
18
9
45
-4
16
8
40
-6
14
7
35
-8
12
6
30
-10
10
5
25
-12
8
4
20
90° -14
6
3
15
-16
4
2
10
2
1
5
270°
180°
Linear Exc Limit
-18
0° -20
Pha Mag 20
50
100Hz
200
Driver Parameters
Driver:
D=
P=
SPL =
f(s) =
Q(ts) =
Q(es) =
Q(ms) =
V(as) =
Z=
R(e) =
P(t) =
X(max) =
X(lim) =
D(vc) =
0
0
88.1
28
0.38
0.51
1.46
2.01
0
0
0
7
0
0
in
Watts
dB SPL
Hz
cu ft
Ohms
Ohms
Watts
mm
mm
mm
Driver Notes:
NOTE: Reference Efficiency was calculated based on the
1W/1m sensitivity.
System Notes:
1k
Box Parameters
Dayton Audio RS225-8 8" Woofer
Nominal Diameter
Nominal Power
Sensitivity (1W/1m)
Free Air Resonance
Total Q
Electrical Q
Mechanical Q
Equivalent Volume
Nominal Impedance
DC Resistance
Max Thermal Power
Max Linear Excursion
Max Excursion
Voice Coil Diam.
500
0 mm 0 ms 0 Ohm
2k Exc Dly Imp
System Type:
4th Order Vented Box
Box Volume
Closed Box Q
Box Frequency
Min Rec Vent Area
Vent Surface Area
Vent Length
Compliance Ratio
Box Loss Q
V(B) =
Q(tc) =
F(B) =
S(vMin) =
S(v) =
L(v) =
alpha =
Q(B) =
1.556
0.5753
30
5.57
0
0
1.292
7
cu ft
Hz
sq in
sq in
in
System Parameters
No. of Drivers
Isobaric Factor
Input Power
SPL Distance
N=
I=
P(in) =
D=
1
1
140
1
(1=normal, 2=iso)
Watts
m
My Address, line 1
My Address, line 2
My Country
My Phone
System Name:
4th Order Vented Box
Designer:
Title:
Rev Date:
Alex Flannery
My Title
Rev:
Shown here is a flat response with nice rolloff and an F3 of 30 Hz. This is optimal and means my box tuning frequency must be tuned to 30 Hz to achieve this. Alex Flannery 34 Graph of flat response Alex Flannery 35 Graph of flat response in dB SPL mode Alex Flannery 36 Here is a graph if I chose to want a bass boost in the lower available frequencies. However, to achieve this my box volume must be decreased and the tuning frequency must be raised. So, although I have achieved a bass boost, I am sacrificing SPL and also lower frequencies. The F3 of this modeling is about 38 Hz, versus the 30 with a flat response. Alex Flannery 37 Here I constructed a extended shelf response with a bass boost. This extends F3 down to about 24 Hz, however requires a box volume of 6.5 cubic feet, almost 3x my original box size. This simply will not work for my design needs. Alex Flannery 38 5.1 Speaker Testing Plots Frequency Response (left) Harmonic Distortion (left) Impulse Response (left) Alex Flannery 39 Frequency Response (right) Minimum Phase Response (left) Alex Flannery 40 Waterfall plot (left) Alex Flannery 41 Bibliography Murphy, John L. Introduction to Loudspeaker Design: Second Edition, True Audio. Kindle Edition, 2014. Moulton, David. Total Recording : the complete guide to audio production. Sherman
Oaks, Calif: KIQ Productions, 2000.
Atkinson, John.“Bass Instruments & Frequencies” Stereophile Reference. Accessed January 16, 2015. http://www.stereophile.com/content/question-­‐bass-­‐bass-­‐
instruments-­‐frequencies-­‐page-­‐3 Digital Domain. Level Practices: (Includes the K-­‐System), www.digido.com. Published 2000. Cabinet Handbook. North Creek Music Systems, September 1992. Newell, Philip; Holland, Keith (2006-­‐10-­‐05). Loudspeakers: For music recording and reproduction (Kindle Location 1930). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. Toole, Floyd (2009-­‐10-­‐28). Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms (Kindle Location 1108). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition. Alex Flannery 42 Appendix A-­‐ Driver Specification Sheets PDF’s of Driver Specifications to follow this page. Alex Flannery 43 27TDFNC/GW
H1462
T27TDFNC/GW is a High Definition precoated fabric dome tweeter with a wide, soft
polymer surround and a powerful neodymium magnet system with a rear chamber.
Sonotex precoated fabric diaphragm with high consistency and excellent stability
against variations in air humidity. The diaphragm is protected by a highly perforated
hexagrid.
Sonomax surround for low resonance and excellent mechanical linearity.
Voice coil windings immersed in magnetic fluid increase short term power handling
capacity and reduce the compression at high power levels.
Flexible lead out wires allow this driver to be used with low crossover frequencies.
Powerful magnet system based on a high grade neodymium ring magnet for
exceptional sensitivity and control.
Stiff and stable rear chamber made from extruded aluminum is equipped with cooling
fins and black anodized for excellent heat transfer and high power handling.
The chassis is precision moulded from glass fibre reinforced plastic, and its front
design offers optimum radiation conditions.
100
50
95
90
40
SPL [dB]
30
80
75
20
70
65
Impedance [ohm]
85
10
60
55
0
50
100
1 000
Frequency [Hz]
10 000
The frequency responses above show measured free field sound pressure in 0, 30, and 60
degrees, mounted in a 0.6m by 0.8m baffle. Input 2.83 Vrms, microphone distance 0.5m,
normalized to SPL 1m. The impedance is measured without baffle using a 2V sine signal.
Nominal Impedance
6 Ohms
Voice Coil Resistance
4.9 Ohms
Recommended Frequency Range
2500 - 30000 Hz
Voice Coil Inductance
0.05 mH
Short Term Power Handling *
220 W
Force Factor
3.9 N/A
Long Term Power Handling *
90 W
Free Air Resonance
750 Hz
Characteristic Sensitivity (2.83V, 1m)
90.5 dB
Moving Mass
0.31 g
Voice Coil Diameter
26 mm
Effective Piston Area
7 cm2
Voice Coil Height
1.5 mm
Magnetic Gap Flux Density
1.95 T
Air Gap Height
2 mm
Magnet Weight
53 g
Linear Coil Travel (p-p)
0.5 mm
Total Weight
0.29 kg
Jul 2007-1
RoHS compliant product
*IEC 268-5, via High Pass Butterworth Filter 2500Hz 12 dB/oct.
SEAS reserves the right to change technical data
T27-551
www.seas.no
27TDFC
H1189
27TDFC is a High Definition precoated fabric dome tweeter with a wide, soft
polymer surround and a rear chamber.
Sonotex precoated fabric diaphragm with high consistency and excellent stability
against variations in air humidity
Sonomax surround for low resonance and excellent mechanical linearity.
Voice coil windings immersed in magnetic fluid increase short term power handling
capacity and reduce the compression at high power levels.
Stiff and stable rear chamber with optimal acoustic damping allows the tweeter to be
used with moderately low crossover frequencies.
The chassis is precision moulded from glass fibre reinforced plastic, and its front
design offers optimum radiation conditions.
100
50
95
90
40
85
SPL [dB]
75
70
20
65
60
Impedance [ohm]
30
80
10
55
50
100
0
1 000
10 000
Frequency [Hz]
The frequency responses above show measured free field sound pressure in 0, 30, and 60
degrees, mounted in a 0.6m by 0.8m baffle. Input 2.83 Vrms, microphone distance 0.5m,
normalized to SPL 1m. The impedance is measured without baffle using a 2V sine signal.
Nominal Impedance
6 Ohms
Voice Coil Resistance
4.8 Ohms
Recommended Frequency Range
1500 - 25000 Hz
Voice Coil Inductance
0.05 mH
Short Term Power Handling *
220 W
Force Factor
3.5 N/A
Long Term Power Handling *
90 W
Free Air Resonance
550 Hz
Characteristic Sensitivity (2.83V, 1m) 90 dB
Moving Mass
0.37 g
Voice Coil Diameter
26 mm
Effective Piston Area
7.5 cm2
Voice Coil Height
1.5 mm
Magnetic Gap Flux Density
1.8 T
Air Gap Height
2.0 mm
Magnet Weight
0.25 kg
Linear Coil Travel (p-p)
0.5 mm
Total Weight
0.50 kg
Jul 2007-1
RoHS compliant product
*IEC 268-5, via High Pass Butterworth Filter 2500Hz 12 dB/oct.
SEAS reserves the right to change technical data
T27-531
www.seas.no
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Home >> Loudspeaker Raw Drivers >> Tweeters >> Soft Dome Tweeters >> Soft Dome Tweeters (ScanSpeak)
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ScanSpeak Discovery D2608/9130 1" Textile Dome HDS
Tweeter
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ScanSpeak Discovery D2608/913000 1" textile dome tweeterVery light, low mass soft dome diaphragm with high internal
damping
Very low mass textile soft dome diaphragm
Optimized Magnet System with Double magnets
Fully Vented Motor System for Low compression
Magnetic fluid
Low resonance Frequency
High efficiency (91.3dB)
Black Die-Cast Aluminium Face Plate
8 ohm
Replaceable voice coil assembly
Made in Denmark
The Discovery tweeter uses a very light, low mass “soft dome" with high internal damping, and a highly-optimized, lowcompression magnet system, which was designed especially for the low mass dome. The result is a driver that has both good
sensitivity and an impressive range into the lower frequencies. The low mass dome, coupled with a fully vented motor system
provides non-compressed sound reproduction over the entire frequency response. This combination allows the Discovery tweeter
to be used in systems with lower cross-over points than is recommended for most normal tweeters, making this product a
powerful tool for any acoustic designer in the process of tuning a system.
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Formerly known as the Peerless HDS 810921 tweeter.
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© 2015 Madisound Speaker Components, Inc.
Transducer Specification Sheet
Model Number: D27TG-35-06
Product Line: Peerless Silver
Revision: Rev 1_0
Date: 4-Sep-09
Product Description:
This D family tweeter features an 8 ohm 25 mm voice coil, a treated silk
dome, large rear chamber for low resonant frequency, and a ferrofluidcooled ferrite magnet motor. The large motor and rear chamber allow
for robust power handling capacity. The tweeter comes with a faceplate
with recessed mounting holes, for easy installation into the desired
application.
application
Mechanical 2D Drawing:
Specifications:
Revc
Zmin
Le
fs
Qms
Qes
Qts
DC Resistance
Minimum Impedance
Voice Coil Inductance
Resonant Frequency
Mechanical Q Factor
Electrical Q Factor
Total Q Factor
Ratio fs / Qts
Half Space Sensitivity @ 2.83V
Sensitivity @ 1W/1m
F
Ω
Ω
mH
Hz
fs / Qts
4.9
5.4
0.02
720
0.9
0.75
0.40
1787
[email protected]/1m
1W/1m
dB
dB
92.5
87.4
P
W
100
Rated Noise Power (IEC 2685 18.1)
Test Spectrum Bandwidth
700Hz - 20kHz
5.0%
7.5%
15.0%
1
+/-1.0
+/-1.0 1
12 dB/Oct
1 - Piston Band Sensitivity Tolerance
Energy Bandwidth Product
Moving Mass
Suspension Compliance
Effective Cone Diameter
Effective Piston Area
Equivalent Volume
Motor Force Factor
Motor Efficiency Factor
EBP
Mms
Cms
Voice Coil Former Material
Voice Coil Inner Diameter
Gap Height
Maximum Linear Excursion
Ferrofluid Type
Transducer Size
Transducer Mass
VCfm
VCd
D
SD
Vas
BL
β
(1/Qes)·fs
g
um/N
cm
cm2
L
T·m
2
(T·m )/Ω
Gh
Xmax
mm
mm
mm
FF
-
inch
kg
964
0.36
136.3
2.8
6.2
0.01
3.26
2.17
Aluminium
25.8
2.5
0.45
APGL11
1
0.52
Frequency and Impedance Response:
30 Deg
60 Deg
Imp
25
90
20
80
15
70
10
60
5
50
10
100
1000
10000
Impedance [Ohms]
ms] @ 1.415Vrms
SPL[dB] @ 2.83Vrms/1m
On Axis
100
0
100000
Frequency [Hz]
F088-0713A
Tymphany HK Ltd
Address : Room 1307-8 Dominion Centre, 43-59 Queen's Rd East, Wanchai, Hong Kong
E-mail: [email protected]
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NeoX1.0 black
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PS220-8
WOOFER
22W/8534G00
The Discovery series offer traditional design, superior sound, a solid construction, and
a wide range of variants. Combining these elements - plus a wealth of technical
features and finesses - it gives our customers the possibility of acquiring a tailor-made
Scan-Speak solution with very good performance at a reasonable low price point!
KEY FEATURES:
— High Output 89dB @ 2,83V
— Coated NRSC Fibre Glass Cone
— Low Damping SBR Rubber Surround
— Low Resonance Freq. 30Hz
— Magnet System w. Alu Ring
— Die cast Alu Chassis vented below spider
T-S Parameters
Resonance frequency [fs]
Electrical Data
30 Hz
Nominal impedance [Zn]
Mechanical Q factor [Qms]
4.14
Minimum impedance [Zmin]
Electrical Q factor [Qes]
0.43
Maximum impedance [Zo]
0.39
DC resistance [Re]
Total Q factor [Qts]
Force factor [Bl]
Mechanical resistance [Rms]
Moving mass [Mms]
Suspension compliance [Cms]
7.8 Tm
23.1 g
1.22 mm/N
173 mm
Effective piston area [Sd]
235 cm²
Sensitivity (2.83V/1m)
Ratio Bl/√Re
Ratio fs/Qts
62.7 Ω
5.9 Ω
0.56 mH
1.05 kg/s
Effective diaph. diameter [D]
Equivalent volume [Vas]
Voice coil inductance [Le]
8Ω
6.8 Ω
94.2 l
Power Handling
100h RMS noise test (IEC 17.1)
Long-term max power (IEC 17.3)
Voice coil diameter
Voice coil height
3.21 N/√W
Voice coil layers
Height of gap
Linear excursion
Notes:
IEC specs. refer to IEC 60268-5 third edition.
All Scan-Speak products are RoHS compliant.
Data are subject to change without notice.
Datasheet updated: February 22, 2011.
120 W
Voice Coil and Magnet Data
88.8 dB
77 Hz
70 W
Max mech. excursion
Unit weight
N.C. Madsensvej 1 — 6920 Videbæk — Denmark — Phone: +45 6040 5200 — www.scan-speak.dk
38 mm
17.5 mm
2
6 mm
± 5.8 mm
± 12 mm
2.1 kg
WOOFER
22W/8534G00
Advanced Parameters (Preliminary)
Electrical data:
Resistance [Re']
Mechanical Data
-Ω
Force Factor [Bl]
Free inductance [Leb]
- mH
Moving mass [Mms]
Bound inductance [Le]
- mH
Compliance [Cms]
Semi-inductance [Ke]
- SH
Mechanical resistance [Rms]
Shunt resistance [Rss]
-Ω
Admittance [Ams]
N.C. Madsensvej 1 — 6920 Videbæk — Denmark — Phone: +45 6040 5200 — www.scan-speak.dk
- Tm
-g
- mm/N
- kg/s
- mm/N
CA22RNY
H1471
Classical handcoated paper cone and matching natural rubber surround produce a
well behaved roll off characteristic and reduce potential resonance problems.
Long, high temperature voice coil wound on an aluminium voice coil former gives
low distortion and high power handling capacity.
Extra large magnet system provides high efficiency and good transient response,
and parameters that make this driver perfect for high efficiency 2-way systems.
Bumped backplate in the magnet system allows maximum utilization of the
long voice coil without mechanical limitation.
Extremely stiff and stable injection moulded metal basket keeps the critical components in perfect alignment. Large windows in the basket both above and below the
spider reduce sound reflexion, air flow noise and cavity resonances to a minimum.
100
50
95
40
90
85
SPL [dB]
30
75
70
20
65
60
Impedance [ohm]
80
10
55
50
10
0
100
1 000
10 000
Frequency [Hz]
The frequency responses above show measured free field sound pressure in 0, 30, and 60 degrees angle using a 21L closed box. Input
2.83 VRMS, microphone distance 0.5m, normalized to SPL 1m.The dotted line is a calculated response in infinite baffle
based on the parameters given for this specific driver. The impedance is measured in free air without baffle using a 2V
sine signal.
Nominal Impedance
8 Ohms
Voice Coil Resistance
6.2 Ohms
Recommended Frequency Range
35 - 2500 Hz
Voice Coil Inductance
1.55 mH
Short Term Power Handling *
250 W
Force Factor
8.5 N/A
Long Term Power Handling *
90 W
Free Air Resonance
34 Hz
Characteristic Sensitivity (2,83V, 1m)
91 dB
Moving Mass
19.8 g
Voice Coil Diameter
39 mm
Suspension Compliance
1.1 mm/N
Voice Coil Height
18 mm
Suspension Mechanical Resistance
2.51 Ns/m
Air Gap Height
6 mm
Effective Piston Area
230 cm2
Linear Coil Travel (p-p)
12 mm
VAS
82 Litres
Maximum Coil Travel (p-p)
20 mm
QMS
1.69
Magnetic Gap Flux Density
1.3 T
QES
0.36
Magnet Weight
1.30 kg
QTS
0.30
Total Weight
3.60 kg
Jul 2007-1
RoHS compliant product
*IEC 268-5
SEAS reserves the right to change technical data
W22-510
www.seas.no
8" Reference Woofer
RS225-8
•
•
•
•
•
8
6.53
0.86
28
1.46
0.51
0.38
35.8
0.88
213.8
149.7
9.05
56.8
7
38
88.8
80
28-2,400
Impedance (Ω)
Re (Ω)
Le (mH) @ 1 kHz
Fs (Hz)
Qms
Qes
Qts
Mms (g)
Cms (mm/N)
Sd (cm2)
Vd (cm3)
BL (Tm)
Vas (liters)
Xmax (mm)
VC Diameter (mm)
SPL (dB 2.83V/1m)
RMS Power Handling (W)
Usable Frequency Range (Hz)
Lightweight black anodized aluminum cone
Attractive 6-hole cast frame
Advanced low distortion motor design
Solid aluminum phase plug
Rubber surround
Ohms
105
100
1.0.1
50
180°
45
90°
40
0 deg
35
-90°
30
-180°
95
90
[dBSPL]
85
80
25
75
20
70
65
15
60
10
55
20
OmniMic
50
100
200
500
Frequency Respons e -- frequency [Hz]
1k
2k
Note: Nearfield response included in graph below 450 Hz.
5k
10k
Black = 0°
Red = 15°
Green = 30°
Blue = 45°
20k
5
0
1
2
5
10
20
50
100
200
500
1kHz
2k
5k
10k
20k
Last Revised: 8/17/2014
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SB Acoustics SB17NRXC35-4, 6.5" Woofer
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Price: $62.40
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Product ID : sb17nrxc35-4
Manufacturer: SB Acoustics
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Weight: 5.20 lbs
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SB Acoustics SB17NRXC35-4 6.5" Woofer
Spec sheet: SB17NRXC35-4 PDF
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Non-resonant coated Papyrus fiber cone
Low damping SBR surround
Open structure cast frame for reduced reflections
Copper cap on pole piece
Raised spider
35mm Voice Coil diameter
Frequency range 38Hz to 3.5kHz
Gasket
Advanced Features:
Vented cast aluminium chassis for optimum strength and low compression
Proprietary cone material with natural fibers made in-house
Soft low damping rubber surround for improved transient response
Non-conducting fiberglass voice coil former for minimum damping
Extended copper sleeve on pole piece for low inductance and low distortion
CCAW voice coil for reduced moving mass
Long life silver lead wires
Vented pole piece for reduced compression
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Dimensions:
Suggested Alignments:
Sealed box of 0.25 cubic feet for and F3 of 85Hz
Vented box of 0.5 cubic feet with a 2" diameter vent by6" long for an F3 of 55Hz.
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Home >> Loudspeaker Raw Drivers >> Woofers >> Approx 8" Woofers
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SB Acoustics SB23NACS45-8, 8" Aluminum Cone Woofer
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Product ID : SB23NACS45-8
Manufacturer: SB Acoustics
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Weight: 9.00 lbs
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8" Aluminum Cone Woofer
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products you want to ord
is best to contact us.
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SB Acoustics SB23NACS45-8,
Crossover Design Service
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Driver Spec Sheets (PDF)
Speaker Repair Companies
Advanced Search Tools
Products by Brand: filter
results by brand, then
category.
Products from A to Z: an
alphabetical product index.
Products by Category:
simple top-level category list.
Compare All Capacitors:
tables of cap specs.
Compare All Inductors:
tables of coil specs.
Compare All Resistors:
tables of resistor specs.
Sitemap: ordered lists for
every page on our site.
Before Ordering
8" Aluminum Cone Woofer
Description
Product Reviews
Products You May Like
SB Acoustics SB23NACS45-8, 8" Aluminum Cone Woofer
Spec sheet: SB23NACS45-8 PDF
8 ohm
Geometrically reinforced aluminum cone
rigid cast frame design for minimal reflections
rubber surround
shorting ring to reduce distortion
shallow 3-1/8" depth
good choice for either sealed or vented boxes
Box recommendations:
Sealed box of 0.5 cubic feet with 20% filling for 3dB down at 60Hz
Sealed box of 0.75 cubic feet with 20% filling for 3dB down at 56Hz
The bigger sealed box should perform better.
Vented box of 2.0 cubic feet with 10% filling with 2" diameter vent by 4.75" long for 3dB down at 31Hz
Vented box of 1.3 cubic feet with 10% filling with 2" diameter vent by 6" long for a 3dB down at 36Hz
The smaller box would handle more power.
Bandpass box
0.65 cubic foot sealed chamber
0.75 cubic foot vented chamber with 3" vent diameter by 4.25" long
The box is the crossover and it would roll off at 35Hz on the low end and 100Hz on the top end.
Sensitivity is boosted by 3dB to 90dB in this box, plus no crossover is needed.
Advanced Features:
Soft low damping rubber surround for improved transient response
Geometrically reinforced aluminum cone for improved break-up control
Shorting ring in motor system for reduced distortion
Vented pole piece for reduced compression
Vented cast aluminum chassis for optimum strength and low compression
Our staff is knowledgeab
and we can help you ma
right choice. It has been
experience that almost e
sale involves some form
consultation, and we are
to help you.
Safety & Security
PCI-DSS Compliance
256-Bit Encrypted SSL
A+ BBB rating
Madisound Security
Privacy Policy
Social
Facebook
Google+
Yelp
DIY Loudspeaker Forum
Madisound's Blog
Shallow design
Non-conducting fibre glass voice coil former for minimum damping
CCAW voice coil for reduced moving mass
Long life silver lead wires
Contact Madisound
ph (608) 831-3433
Hours: Mon-Fri,
9:00 - 5:00 CST
[email protected]
Customer Service
FAQ
Specials
Sitemap
Returns
Shipping
Contact Info
Your Account
Login/Register
My Account
Order Status
Wish Lists
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About Us
Facebook
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Forum
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© 2015 Madisound Speaker Components, Inc.
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