masonry - International Code Council

masonry - International Code Council
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
CHAPTER 21
MASONRY
2101.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design,
construction and quality of masonry.
SECTION BC 2102
DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS
2102.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code,
have the meanings shown herein.
2101.2 Design methods. Masonry shall comply with the provisions of one of the following design methods in this chapter
as well as the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2104.
Masonry designed by the working stress design provisions of
Section 2101.2.1, the strength design provisions of Section
2101.2.2 or the prestressed masonry provisions of Section
2101.2.3 shall comply with Section 2105 for quality assurance.
ANCHOR. Metal rod, wire or strap that secures masonry to its
structural support.
2101.2.1 Working stress design. Masonry designed by the
working stress design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2107.
Bedded. The area of the surface of a masonry unit that is in
contact with mortar in the plane of the joint.
2101.2.2 Strength design. Masonry designed by the
strength design method shall comply with the provisions of
Sections 2106 and 2108.
2101.2.3 Prestressed masonry. Prestressed masonry shall
be designed in accordance with Chapters 1 and 4 of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and Section 2106. Special inspection during construction shall be provided as set forth in
Section 1704.5.
2101.2.4 Empirical design. Masonry designed by the
empirical design method shall comply with the provisions
of Sections 2106 and 2109 or Chapter 5 of ACI 530/ASCE
5/TMS 402.
2101.2.5 Glass masonry. Glass masonry shall comply with
the provisions of Section 2110 or with the requirements of
Chapter 7 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
2101.2.6 Masonry veneer. Masonry veneer shall comply
with the provisions of Chapter 14.
2101.3 Construction documents. The construction documents shall show all of the items required by this code including the following:
1. Specified size, grade, type and location of reinforcement, anchors and wall ties.
2. Reinforcing bars to be welded and welding procedure.
3. Size and location of structural elements.
4. Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage, temperature and moisture.
2101.3.1 Fireplace drawings. The construction documents
shall describe in sufficient detail the location, size and construction of masonry fireplaces. The thickness and characteristics of materials and the clearances from walls,
partitions and ceilings shall be clearly indicated. The
masonry fireplace shall comply with the provisions of Section 2111‡.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
1
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:12 AM
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. Plain or ornamental
hard-burned modified clay units, larger in size than brick, with
glazed or unglazed ceramic finish.
AREA.
Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the
out-to-out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane
under consideration.
Net cross-sectional. The area of masonry units, grout and
mortar crossed by the plane under consideration based on
out-to-out specified dimensions.
BED JOINT. The horizontal layer of mortar on which a
masonry unit is laid.
BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry
in which reinforcement is embedded.
BOND REINFORCING. The adhesion between steel reinforcement and mortar or grout.
BRICK.
Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A masonry unit made
of sand and lime.
Clay or shale. A masonry unit made of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism while in the plastic state
and burned or fired in a kiln.
Concrete. A masonry unit having the approximate shape of
a rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded in a hardened cementitious matrix.
BUTTRESS. A projecting part of a masonry wall built integrally therewith to provide lateral stability.
CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from portland
cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or facing on
or in buildings or structures.
CELL. A void space having a gross cross-sectional area
greater than 11/2 square inches (967 mm2).
CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or
more flues used to remove hot gases from burning fuel, refuse,
or from industrial processes to the outside atmosphere.
CHIMNEY TYPES.
High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning,
427
➡
SECTION BC 2101
GENERAL
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess
of 2,000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet
(see Section 2113.11.3).
Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning,
low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in
excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of
1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the
appliance flue outlet.
EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. For braced members, the effective
height is the clear height between lateral supports and is used
for calculating the slenderness ratio. The effective height for
unbraced members is calculated in accordance with engineering mechanics.
FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared
place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.
FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the
firebox and the smoke chamber.
Masonry type. A field-constructed chimney of solid
masonry units or stones.
FLUE. A passageway within a chimney or vent through which
gaseous combustion products pass.
Medium-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning,
medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases
between 1000ºF (538ºC) and 2,000°F (1093°C) measured
at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.2).
FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passage(s) within an appliance
through which combustion products pass from the combustion
chamber of the appliance to the draft hood inlet opening on an
appliance equipped with a draft hood or to the outlet of the
appliance on an appliance not equipped with a draft hood.
CLEANOUT. An opening to the bottom of a grout space of
sufficient size and spacing to allow the removal of debris.
FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in
appliance flues or heat exchangers.
COLLAR JOINT. Vertical longitudinal joint between wythes
of masonry or between masonry and backup construction that
is permitted to be filled with mortar or grout.
FLUE LINER (LINING). A system or material used to form
the inside surface of a flue in a chimney or vent, for the purpose
of protecting the surrounding structure from the effects of combustion products and for conveying combustion products without leakage into the atmosphere.
COLUMN, MASONRY. An isolated vertical member whose
horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness
does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is at
least four times its thickness.
COMPOSITE ACTION. Transfer of stress between components of a member designed so that in resisting loads, the combined components act together as a single member.
COMPOSITE MASONRY. Multiwythe masonry members
acting with composite action.
GROUT. Flowable cementitious material comprising cement
mixed with fine or coarse aggregates and having a compressive
strength not less than 2,000 pounds per square inch (13 790
kPa) at 28 days, and a slump of 8 inches to 11 inches (203 mm
to 279 mm).
GROUTED MASONRY.
Grouted hollow-unit masonry. That form of grouted
masonry construction in which certain designated cells of
hollow units are continuously filled with grout.
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. Maximum
compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectional area
of masonry, determined by the testing of masonry prisms or a
function of individual masonry units, mortar and grout.
Grouted multi-wythe masonry. That form of grouted
masonry construction in which the space between the
wythes is solidly or periodically filled with grout.
CONNECTOR. A mechanical device for securing two or
more pieces, parts or members together, including anchors,
wall ties and fasteners.
HEAD JOINT. Vertical mortar joint placed between masonry
units within the wythe at the time the masonry units are laid.
COVER. Distance between surface of reinforcing bar and
edge of member.
HEADER (Bonder). A masonry unit that connects two or
more adjacent wythes of masonry.
DIAPHRAGM. A roof or floor system designed to transmit
lateral forces to shear walls or other lateral-load-resisting elements.
HEIGHT, WALLS. The vertical distance from the foundation
wall or other immediate support of such wall to the top of the
wall.
DIMENSIONS.
MASONRY. A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum,
stone or other approved units bonded together with or without
mortar or grout or other accepted method of joining.
Actual. The measured dimension of a masonry unit or element.
Nominal. A dimension equal to a specified dimension plus
an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be
laid. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then
length.
Specified. The dimensions specified for the manufacture or
construction of masonry, masonry units, joints or any other
component of a structure.
428
2
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:12 AM
Ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of various sized rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces, properly bonded and laid in mortar.
Coursed ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone of
equal height for each course, although different courses
shall be permitted to be of varying height.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
Glass unit masonry. Nonload-bearing masonry composed
of glass units bonded by mortar.
Coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped
stones fitting approximately on level beds and well bonded.
Plain masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of
the masonry is taken into consideration and the effects of
stresses in reinforcement are neglected.
Random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped
stones laid without regularity of coursing but well–bonded
and fitted together to form well-divided joints.
Random ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone set
without continuous joints and laid up without drawn patterns. When composed of material cut into modular heights,
discontinuous but aligned horizontal joints are discernible.
Rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of
unsquared field stones laid without regularity of coursing
but well-bonded.
Reinforced masonry. Masonry construction in which reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is used to
resist forces.
Solid masonry. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units
laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled
with mortar.
MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete
block conforming to the requirements specified in Section
2103.
Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed
of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof.
RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that
head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least
one-quarter the unit length.
SHEAR WALL.
Detailed plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall
designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section
2106.1.1.
Intermediate pre-stressed masonry shear wall. A
pre-stressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral
forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed
in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.2.
Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12
inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102
mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry
shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering
stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with
Section 2106.1.1.
Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in
any plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is less than 75
percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the
same plane.
Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear
wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in
reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section
2106.1.1.
Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in
every plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is 75 percent
or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the
same plane.
Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. A
prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral
forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed
in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.1.
MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE. The average daily temperature of temperature extremes predicted by a local weather
bureau for the next 24 hours.
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry
shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering
stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with
Section 2106.1.1.
MORTAR. A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggregates and water used to bond masonry or other
structural units.
MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. A mixture to bond concrete masonry units that contains hydraulic cement, glass fiber
reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers or organic modifiers and water.
PLASTIC HINGE. The zone in a structural member in which
the yield moment is anticipated to be exceeded under loading
combinations that include earthquakes.
PRESTRESSED MASONRY. Masonry in which internal
stresses have been introduced to counteract potential tensile
stresses in masonry resulting from applied loads.
PRISM. An assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or
without grout used as a test specimen for determining properties of the masonry.
RUBBLE MASONRY. Masonry composed of roughly
shaped stones.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
3
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:13 AM
Special prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed
masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance
with Section 2106.1.1.3 except that only grouted, laterally
restrained tendons are used.
Special reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear
wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in
reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section
2106.1.1.
SHELL. The outer portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed
in masonry.
SPECIFIED. Required by construction documents.
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
MASONRY, f c. Minimum compressive strength, expressed
as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the
masonry used in construction by the construction documents,
and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the
quantity f c is under the radical sign, the square root of numeri429
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
cal value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per
square inch (psi) (Mpa).
Parapet wall. The part of any wall entirely above the roof
line.
STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond
pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for
stack bond shall apply to masonry laid in other than running
bond.
WEB. An interior solid portion of a hollow masonry unit as
placed in masonry.
STONE MASONRY. Masonry composed of field, quarried or
cast stone units bonded by mortar.
NOTATIONS.
WYTHE. Each continuous, vertical section of a wall, one
masonry unit in thickness.
Ashlar stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces
and bonded by mortar.
An
= Net cross-sectional area of masonry, square inches
(mm2).
b
Rubble stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of irregular-shaped units bonded by mortar.
= Effective width of rectangular member or width of
flange for T and I sections, inches (mm).
db
= Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).
fr
= Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa).
Design strength. Nominal strength multiplied by a strength
reduction factor.
fy
= Specified yield stress of the reinforcement or the
anchor bolt, psi (MPa).
Nominal strength. Strength of a member or cross section
calculated in accordance with these provisions before application of any strength-reduction factors.
f’m
K
= Specified compressive strength of masonry at age
of 28 days, psi (MPa).
= The lesser of the masonry cover, clear spacing
between adjacent reinforcement, or five times db,
inches (mm).
TIE, LATERAL. Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing
longitudinal reinforcement.
Ls
= Distance between supports, inches (mm).
Lw
= Length of wall, inches (mm).
TIE, WALL. A connector that connects wythes of masonry
walls together.
ld
= Required development length of reinforcement,
inches (mm).
TILE. A ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation
to facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay or other
ceramic materials, called the body of the tile, having either a
“glazed” or “unglazed” face and fired above red heat in the
course of manufacture to a temperature sufficiently high
enough to produce specific physical properties and characteristics.
lde
= Embedment length of reinforcement, inches
(mm).
Pw
= Weight of wall tributary to section under consideration, pounds (N).
= Specified wall thickness dimension or the least lateral dimension of a column, inches (mm).
TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixture thereof, and
having parallel cells.
Vn
= Nominal shear strength, pounds (N).
Vu
WALL. A vertical element with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio greater than three, used to enclose space.
W
γ
ρn
= Required shear strength due to factored loads,
pounds (N).
= Wind load, or related internal moments in forces.
= Reinforcement size factor.
STRENGTH.
Required strength. Strength of a member or cross section
required to resist factored loads.
T
Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, or
a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts
of the wall are tied together with metal ties.
ρmax
Φ
Composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two or
more masonry units bonded together, one forming the
backup and the other forming the facing elements.
Masonry-bonded hollow wall. A wall built of masonry
units so arranged as to provide an airspace within the wall,
and in which the facing and backing of the wall are bonded
together with masonry units.
= Maximum reinforcement ratio.
= Strength reduction factor.
SECTION BC 2103
MASONRY CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
2103.1 Concrete masonry units. Concrete masonry units
shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 55 for concrete brick; ASTM C 90 for load-bearing concrete masonry
units; ASTM C 129 for nonload-bearing concrete masonry
units or ASTM C 744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units.
430
4
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:13 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
➡
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded walls. A wall built of concrete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, without
mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides of the
wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar.
= Ratio of distributed shear reinforcement on plane
perpendicular to plane of Amv.
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2103.2 Clay or shale masonry units. Clay or shale masonry
units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 34 for
structural clay load-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 56 for structural
clay nonload-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 62 for building brick
(solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 1088
for solid units of thin veneer brick; ASTM C 126 for
ceramic-glazed structural clay facing tile, facing brick and
solid masonry units; ASTM C 212 for structural clay facing
tile; ASTM C 216 for facing brick (solid masonry units made
from clay or shale); ASTM C 652 for hollow brick (hollow
masonry units made from clay or shale) and ASTM C 73 for
calcium silicate face brick.
Exception: Structural clay tile for nonstructural use in fireproofing of structural members and in wall furring shall not
be required to meet the compressive strength specifications.
The fire-resistance rating shall be determined in accordance
with ASTM E 119 and shall comply with the requirements
of Table 602.
provided when required. The surfaces of units intended to be in
contact with mortar shall be treated with a polyvinyl butyral
coating or latex-based paint. Reclaimed units shall not be used.
2103.6 Second-hand units. Second-hand masonry units shall
not be reused unless they conform to the requirements of new
units. The units shall be of whole, sound materials and free
from cracks and other defects that will interfere with proper
laying or use. Old mortar shall be cleaned from the unit before
reuse.
Exception: Second-hand masonry units need not conform
to the requirements for new units when their reuse is to comply with historic restoration standards or requirements of
the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission or
the New York State Historic Preservation Office.
2103.4 Ceramic tile. Ceramic tile shall be as defined in, and
shall conform to the requirements of, ANSI A137.1.
2103.7 Mortar. Mortar for use in masonry construction shall
conform to ASTM C 270 and shall conform to the proportion
specifications of Table 2103.7(1) or the property specifications
of Table 2103.7(2). Type S or N mortar shall be used for glass
unit masonry. The amount of water used in mortar for glass unit
masonry shall be adjusted to account for the lack of absorption.
Re-tempering of mortar for glass unit masonry shall not be permitted after initial set. Unused mortar shall be discarded within
21/2 hours after initial mixing except that unused mortar for
glass unit masonry shall be discarded within 1 ½ hours after
initial mixing.
2103.5 Glass unit masonry. Hollow glass units shall be partially evacuated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3/16 inch (4.8 mm). Solid glass-block units shall be
2103.8 Surface-bonding mortar. Surface-bonding mortar
shall comply with ASTM C 887. Surface bonding of concrete
masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 946.
2103.3 Stone masonry units. Stone masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 503 for marble
building stone (exterior): ASTM C 568 for limestone building
stone; ASTM C 615 for granite building stone; ASTM C 616
for sandstone building stone or ASTM C 629 for slate building
stone.
TABLE 2103.7(1)
MORTAR PROPORTIONS
PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials)
MORTAR
TYPE
Portland cementa
or blended
cementb
Cement-lime
M
S
N
O
1
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1/
4
over 1/4 to 1/2
over 1/2 to 11/4
over 11/4 to 21/2
Mortar
cement
M
M
S
S
N
O
1
⎯
1/
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
1
—
1
—
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
Masonry
cement
M
M
S
S
N
O
1
—
1/
2
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
1
—
1
—
1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Masonry cementc
Mortar cementd
e
M
S
N
M
S
N
HYDRATED LIME
OR LIME PUTTY
AGGREGATE
MEASURED IN A
DAMP, LOOSE
CONDITION
Not less than 21/4
and not more than 3
times the sum of the
separate volumes of
cementitious
materials
Portland cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 150.
Blended cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 595.
Masonry cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 91.
Mortar cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 1329.
Hydrated lime conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 207.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
5
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:13 AM
431
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
TABLE 2103.7(2)
MORTAR PROPERTIESa
TYPE
AVERAGE COMPRESSIVEb
STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS
minimum (psi)
WATER RETENTION
minimum (%)
AIR CONTENT
maximum (%)
Cement-lime
M
S
N
O
2,500
1,800
750
350
75
75
75
75
12
12
14c
14c
Mortar cement
M
S
N
O
2,500
1,800
750
350
75
75
75
75
12
12
14c
14c
Masonry cement
M
S
N
O
2,500
1,800
750
350
75
75
75
75
18
18
20d
20d
MORTAR
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. This aggregate ratio (measured in damp, loose condition) shall not be less than 21/4 and not more than 3 times the sum of the separate volumes of cementitious materials.
b. Average of three 2-inch cubes of laboratory-prepared mortar, in accordance with ASTM C 270.
c. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in cement-lime or mortar cement mortars, the maximum air content shall not exceed 12 percent.
d. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in masonry cement mortar, the maximum air content shall not exceed 18 percent.
2103.9 Mortars for ceramic wall and floor tile. Portland
cement mortars for installing ceramic wall and floor tile shall
comply with ANSI A108.1A and ANSI A108.1B and be of the
compositions indicated in Table 2103.9.
TABLE 2103.9
CERAMIC TILE MORTAR COMPOSITIONS
LOCATION
MORTAR
COMPOSITION
Scratchcoat
1 cement; 1/5 hydrated lime;
4 dry or 5 damp sand
Setting bed and
leveling coat
1 cement; 1/2 hydrated lime;
5 damp sand to 1 cement
1 hydrated lime, 7 damp sand
Floors
Setting bed
1 cement; 1/10 hydrated lime;
5 dry or 6 damp sand; or 1
cement; 5 dry or 6 damp sand
Ceilings
Scratchcoat and
sand bed
1 cement; 1/2 hydrated lime;
21/2 dry sand or 3 damp sand
Walls
2103.9.1 Dry-set portland cement mortars. Premixed
prepared portland cement mortars, which require only the
addition of water and are used in the installation of ceramic
tile, shall comply with ANSI A118.1. The shear bond
strength for tile set in such mortar shall be as required in
accordance with ANSI A118.1. Tile set in dry-set portland
cement mortar shall be installed in accordance with ANSI
A108.5.
2103.9.2 Electrically conductive dry-set mortars. Premixed prepared portland cement mortars, which require
only the addition of water and comply with ANSI A118.2,
shall be used in the installation of electrically conductive
ceramic tile. Tile set in electrically conductive dry-set mortar shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.7.
432
6
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:13 AM
2103.9.3 Latex-modified portland cement mortar.
Latex-modified portland cement thin-set mortars in which
latex is added to dry-set mortar as a replacement for all or
part of the gauging water that are used for the installation of
ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.4. Tile set in
latex- modified portland cement shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.5.
2103.9.4 Epoxy mortar. Ceramic tile set and grouted with
chemical-resistant epoxy shall comply with ANSI A118.3.
Tile set and grouted with epoxy shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.6.
2103.9.5 Furan mortar and grout. Chemical-resistant
furan mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile
shall comply with ANSI A118.5. Tile set and grouted with
furan shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.8.
2103.9.6 Modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout.
Modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout that are used to
install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.8. Tile set
and grouted with modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and
grout shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.9.
2103.9.7 Organic adhesives. Water-resistant organic adhesives used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply
with ANSI A136.1. The shear bond strength after water
immersion shall not be less than 40 psi (275 kPa) for Type I
adhesive, and not less than 20 psi (138 kPa) for Type II adhesive, when tested in accordance with ANSI A136.1. Tile set
in organic adhesives shall be installed in accordance with
ANSI A108.4.
2103.9.8 Portland cement grouts. Portland cement grouts
used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with
ANSI A118.6. Portland cement grouts for tile work shall be
installed in accordance with ANSI A108.10.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2103.10 Grout. Grout shall conform to Table 2103.10 or to
ASTM C 476. When grout conforms to ASTM C 476, the grout
shall be specified by proportion requirements or property
requirements.
TABLE 2103.10
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR
MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
PARTS BY
VOLUME OF PARTS BY
PORTLAND VOLUME OF
CEMENT OR HYDRATED
BLENDED
LIME OR
CEMENT
LIME PUTTY
TYPE
Fine
grout
Coarse
grout
AGGREGATE, MEASURED IN A
DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION
Fine
1
0-1/10
21/4-3 times the
sum of the volumes
of the cementitious
materials
1
0-1/
21/4-3 times the
sum of the volumes
of the cementitious
materials
10
Coarse
—
1-2 times the sum
of the volumes of
the cementitious
materials
2103.11 Metal reinforcement and accessories. Metal reinforcement and accessories shall conform to Sections 2103.11.1
through 2103.11.7.
2103.11.1 Deformed reinforcing bars. Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform to one of the following standards: ASTM A 615 for deformed and plain billet-steel bars
for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A 706 for low-alloy
steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A
767 for zinc-coated reinforcing steel bars; ASTM A 775 for
epoxy-coated reinforcing steel bars and ASTM A 996 for
rail steel and axle steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement.
2103.11.2 Joint reinforcement. Joint reinforcement shall
comply with ASTM A 951. The maximum spacing of
crosswires in ladder-type joint reinforcement and of point of
connection of cross wires to longitudinal wires of truss-type
reinforcement shall be 16 inches (406 mm).
2103.11.3 Deformed reinforcing wire. Deformed reinforcing wire shall conform to ASTM A 496.
2103.11.4 Wire fabric. Wire fabric shall conform to ASTM
A 185 for plain steel-welded wire fabric for concrete reinforcement or ASTM A 496 for welded deformed steel wire
fabric for concrete reinforcement.
2103.11.5 Anchors, ties and accessories. Anchors, ties
and accessories shall conform to the following standards:
ASTM A 36 for structural steel; ASTM A 82 for plain steel
wire for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A 185 for plain
steel-welded wire fabric for concrete reinforcement; ASTM
A 167, Type 304, for stainless and heat-resisting chromiumnickel steel plate, sheet and strip and ASTM A 366 for
cold-rolled carbon steel sheet, commercial quality.
2103.11.6 Prestressing tendons. Prestressing tendons
shall conform to one of the following standards:
a. Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTM A 421
b. Low-relaxation wire. . . . . ASTM A 421
c. Strand . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTM A 416
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
7
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:14 AM
d. Low-relaxation strand . . . . ASTM A 416
e. Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASTM A 722
Exceptions:
1. Wire, strands and bars not specifically listed in
ASTM A 421, ASTM A 416 or ASTM A 722 are
permitted, provided they conform to the minimum
requirements in ASTM A 421, ASTM A 416, or
ASTM A 722 and are approved by the architect/engineer.
2. Bars and wires of less than 150 kips per square
inch (ksi) (1034 MPa) tensile strength and conforming to ASTM A 82, ASTM A 510, ASTM A
615, ASTM A 616, ASTM A 996 or ASTM A
706/A 706 M are permitted to be used as
pre-stressed tendons provided that:
2.1. The stress relaxation properties have been
assessed by tests according to ASTM E
328 for the maximum permissible stress in
the tendon.
2.2. Other nonstress-related requirements of
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Chapter 4,
addressing pre-stressing tendons are met.
2103.11.7 Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for
pre-stressing tendons, pre-stressing anchorages, couplers
and end block shall comply with the requirements of ACI
530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article 2.4G. Corrosion protection for carbon steel accessories used in exterior wall construction or interior walls exposed to a mean relative
humidity exceeding 75 percent shall comply with either
Section 2103.11.7.1 or 2103.11.7.2. Corrosion protection
for carbon steel accessories used in interior walls exposed to
a mean relative humidity equal to or less than 75 percent
shall comply with either Section 2103.11.7.1, 2103.11.7.2
or 2103.11.7.3.
2103.11.7.1 Hot-dipped galvanized. Apply a
hot-dipped galvanized coating after fabrication as follows:
1. For joint reinforcement, wall ties, anchors and
inserts, apply a minimum coating of 1.5 ounces per
square foot (psf) (458 g/m2) complying with the
requirements of ASTM A 153, Class B.
2. For sheet metal ties and sheet metal anchors, comply with the requirements of ASTM A 153, Class
B.
3. For steel plates and bars, comply with the requirements of either ASTM A 123 or ASTM A 153,
Class B.
2103.11.7.2 Epoxy coatings. Carbon steel accessories
shall be epoxy-coated as follows:
1. For joint reinforcement, comply with the requirements of ASTM A 884 Class B, Type 2 – 18 mils
(457 m).
433
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2. For wire ties and anchors, comply with the requirements of ASTM A 899 Class C—20mils (508 m).
a minimum distance from each face equal to the face
shell thickness of the unit.
3. For sheet metal ties and anchors, provide a minimum thickness of 20 mils (508 m) or in accordance with the manufacturer’s specification.
2104.1.2.3 Solid units. Unless otherwise required or
indicated on the construction documents, solid units
shall be placed in fully mortared bed and head joints. The
ends of the units shall be completely buttered. Head
joints shall not be filled by slushing with mortar. Head
joints shall be constructed by shoving mortar tight
against the adjoining unit. Bed joints shall not be furrowed deep enough to produce voids.
2103.11.7.3 Mill galvanized. Apply a mill galvanized
coating as follows:
1. For joint reinforcement, wall ties, anchors and
inserts, apply a minimum coating of 0.1 ounce psf
(31g/m2) complying with the requirements of
ASTM A 641.
2104.1.2.4 Glass unit masonry. Glass units shall be
placed so head and bed joints are filled solidly. Mortar
shall not be furrowed. Unless otherwise required, head
and bed joints of glass unit masonry shall be 1/4 inch (6.4
mm) thick, except that vertical joint thickness of radial
panels shall not be less than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm). The bed
joint thickness tolerance shall be minus 1/16 inch (1.6
mm) and plus 1/8 inch (3.2 mm). The head joint thickness
tolerance shall be plus or minus 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
2. For sheet metal ties and sheet metal anchors, apply
a minimum coating complying with Coating Designation G-60 according to the requirements of
ASTM A 653.
3. For anchor bolts, steel plates or bars not exposed to
the earth, weather or a mean relative humidity
exceeding 75 percent, a coating is not required.
2104.1.2.5 All units. Units shall be placed while the
mortar is soft and plastic. Any unit disturbed to the extent
that the initial bond is broken after initial positioning
shall be removed and relaid in fresh mortar.
2103.11.8 Tests. Where unidentified reinforcement is
approved for use, not less than three tension and three
bending tests shall be made on representative specimens
of the reinforcement from each shipment and grade of
reinforcing steel proposed for use in the work.
2104.1.3 Installation of wall ties. The ends of wall ties
shall be embedded in mortar joints. Wall tie ends shall
engage outer face shells of hollow units by at least 1/2 inch
(12.7 mm). Wire wall ties shall be embedded at least 11/2
inches (38 mm) into the mortar bed of solid masonry units or
solid-grouted hollow units. Wall ties shall not be bent after
being embedded in grout or mortar.
SECTION BC 2104
CONSTRUCTION
2104.1 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall
comply with the requirements of Sections 2104.1.1 through
2104.5 and with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
2104.1.4 Chases and recesses. Chases and recesses shall be
constructed as masonry units are laid. Masonry directly
above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm)
shall be supported on lintels.
2104.1.1 Tolerances. Masonry, except masonry veneer,
shall be constructed within the tolerances specified in ACI
530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
2104.1.5 Lintels. The design of masonry lintels shall be in
accordance with the masonry design provisions of either
Section 2107 or 2108. Minimum length of end support shall
be 4 inches (102 mm).
2104.1.2 Placing mortar and units. Placement of mortar
and units shall comply with Sections 2104.1.2.1 through
2104.1.2.5.
2104.1.2.1 Bed and head joints. Unless otherwise
required or indicated on the construction documents,
head and bed joints shall be 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick,
except that the thickness of the bed joint of the starting
course placed over foundations shall not be less than 1/4
inch (6.4 mm) and not more than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm).
2104.1.2.1.1 Open-end units. Open-end units with
beveled ends shall be fully grouted. Head joints of
open-end units with beveled ends need not be mortared. The beveled ends shall form a grout key that
permits grouts within 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) of the face of
the unit. The units shall be tightly butted to prevent
leakage of the grout.
2104.1.2.2 Hollow units. Hollow units shall be placed
such that face shells of bed joints are fully mortared.
Webs shall be fully mortared in all courses of piers, columns, pilasters, in the starting course on foundations
where adjacent cells or cavities are to be grouted, and
where otherwise required. Head joints shall be mortared
2104.1.6 Support on wood. Masonry shall not be supported on wood girders or other forms of wood construction
except as permitted in Section 2304.12.
2104.1.7 Masonry protection. The top of unfinished
masonry work shall be covered to protect the masonry from
the weather.
2104.1.8 Weep holes. Weep holes shall be provided in the
exterior wythe of masonry walls and shall be at a maximum
spacing of 33 inches (838 mm) on center (o.c.). Weep holes
shall not be less than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) in diameter.
2104.2 Corbeled masonry. The maximum corbeled projection beyond the face of the wall shall not be more than one-half
of the wall thickness nor one-half the wythe thickness for hollow walls. The maximum projection of one unit shall neither
exceed one-half the height of the unit nor one-third the thickness at right angles to the wall.
434
8
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:14 AM
2104.2.1 Molded cornices. Unless structural support and
anchorage are provided to resist the overturning moment,
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
the center of gravity of projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle one-third of the supporting
wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided with a
structural frame of approved noncombustible material
anchored in a manner approved by the commissioner.
2104.3 Cold weather construction. The cold weather construction provisions of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article
1.8 C, or the following procedures shall be implemented when
either the ambient temperature falls below 40°F (4°C) or the
temperature of masonry units is below 40°F (4°C).
2104.3.1 Preparation.
1. Temperatures of masonry units shall not be less than
20°F (-7°C) when laid in the masonry. Masonry units
containing frozen moisture, visible ice or snow on
their surface shall not be laid.
2. Visible ice and snow shall be removed from the top
surface of existing foundations and masonry to
receive new construction. These surfaces shall be
heated to above freezing, using methods that do not
result in damage.
requirements of Sections 2104.3.2.1 and 2104.3.2.2 and
the following construction requirements shall be met
when the ambient temperature is between 25°F (-4°C)
and 20°F (-7°C):
1. Masonry surfaces under construction shall be
heated to 40°F (4°C).
2. Wind breaks or enclosures shall be provided when
the wind velocity exceeds 15 miles per hour (mph)
(24 km/h).
3. Prior to grouting, masonry shall be heated to a
minimum of 40°F (4°C).
2104.3.2.4. Construction requirements for temperatures below 20°F (-7°C). The requirements of Sections
2104.3.2.1, 2104.3.2.2 and 2104.3.2.3 and the following
construction requirement shall be met when the ambient
temperature is below 20°F (-7°C): Enclosures and auxiliary heat shall be provided to maintain air temperature
within the enclosure to above 32°F (0°C).
3. No salt or other chemicals for the purpose of lowering
the freezing temperature of water shall be permitted in
the mortar mix.
2104.3.3 Protection. The requirements of this section and
Sections 2104.3.3.1 through 2104.3.3.4 apply after the
masonry is placed and shall be based on anticipated minimum daily temperature for grouted masonry and anticipated mean daily temperature for ungrouted masonry.
2104.3.2 Construction. The following requirements shall
apply to work in progress and shall be based on ambient
temperature.
2104.3.3.1 Glass unit masonry. The temperature of
glass unit masonry shall be maintained above 40°F (4°C)
for 48 hours after construction.
2104.3.2.1 Construction requirements for temperatures between 40°F (4°C) and 32°F (0°C). The following construction requirements shall be met when the
ambient temperature is between 40°F (4°C) and 32°F
(0°C):
2104.3.3.2 Protection requirements for temperatures
between 40°F (4°C) and 25°F (-4°C). When the temperature is between 40°F (4°C) and 25°F (-4°C), newly
constructed masonry shall be covered with a
weather-resistive membrane for 24 hours after being
completed.
1. Glass unit masonry shall not be laid.
2. Water and aggregates used in mortar and grout
shall not be heated above 140°F (60°C).
3. Mortar sand or mixing water shall be heated to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F (4°C) and
120°F (49°C) at the time of mixing. When water
and aggregates for grout are below 32°F (0°C),
they shall be heated.
2104.3.2.2 Construction requirements for temperatures between 32°F (0°C) and 25°F (-4°C). The
requirements of Section 2104.3.2.1 and the following
construction requirements shall be met when the ambient
temperature is between 32°F (0°C) and 25°F (-4°C):
1. The mortar temperature shall be maintained above
freezing until used in masonry.
2. Aggregates and mixing water for grout shall be
heated to produce grout temperatures between
70°F (21°C) and 120°F (49°C) at the time of mixing. Grout temperature shall be maintained above
70°F (21°C) at the time of grout placement.
2104.3.2.3 Construction requirements for temperatures between 25°F (-4°C) and 20°F (-7°C). The
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
9
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:14 AM
2104.3.3.3 Protection requirements for temperatures
between 25°F (-4°C) and 20°F (-7°C). When the temperature is between 25°F (-4°C) and 20°F (-7°C), newly
constructed masonry shall be completely covered with
weather-resistive insulating blankets, or equal protection, for 24 hours after being completed. The time period
shall be extended to 48 hours for grouted masonry, unless
the only cement in the grout is Type III portland cement.
2104.3.3.4 Protection requirements for temperatures
below 20°F (-7°C). When the temperature is below 20°F
(-7°C), newly constructed masonry shall be maintained
at a temperature above 32°F (0°C) for at least 24 hours
after being completed by using heated enclosures, electric heating blankets, infrared lamps or other acceptable
methods. The time period shall be extended to 48 hours
for grouted masonry, unless the only cement in the grout
is Type III portland cement.
2104.4 Hot weather construction. The hot weather construction provisions of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article 1.8 D,
or the following procedures shall be implemented when the
temperature or the temperature and wind-velocity limits of this
section are exceeded.
435
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2104.4.1 Preparation. The following requirements shall be
met prior to conducting masonry work.
2104.4.1.1 Temperature. When the ambient temperature exceeds 100°F (38°C), or exceeds 90°F (32°C) with
a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (13 km/h):
construction documents. The quality assurance program shall
comply with the inspection and testing requirements of Chapter 17.
2105.2 Acceptance relative to strength requirements.
2105.2.1 Compliance with f’ m. Compressive strength of
masonry shall be considered satisfactory if the compressive
strength of each masonry wythe and grouted collar joint
equals or exceeds the value of f’ m.
1. Necessary conditions and equipment shall be provided to produce mortar having a temperature
below 120°F (49°C).
2. Sand piles shall be maintained in a damp, loose
condition.
2105.2.2 Determination of compressive strength. The
compressive strength for each wythe shall be determined by
the unit strength method or by the prism test method as specified herein.
2104.4.1.2 Special conditions. When the ambient temperature exceeds 115°F (46°C), or 105°F (40°C) with a
wind velocity greater than 8 mph (13 km/h), the requirements of Section 2104.4.1.1 shall be implemented, and
materials and mixing equipment shall be shaded from
direct sunlight.
2105.2.2.1 Unit strength method.
2105.2.2.1.1 Clay masonry. The compressive
strength of masonry shall be determined based on the
strength of the units and the type of mortar specified
using Table 2105.2.2.1.1, provided:
2104.4.2 Construction. The following requirements shall
be met while masonry work is in progress.
1. Units conform to ASTM C 62, ASTM C 216 or
ASTM C 652 and are sampled and tested in
accordance with ASTM C 67.
2104.4.2.1 Temperature. When the ambient temperature exceeds 100°F (38°C), or exceeds 90°F (32°C) with
a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (13 km/h):
2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 inch
(15.9 mm).
1. The temperature of mortar and grout shall be maintained below 120°F (49°C).
3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the
following requirements:
2. Mixers, mortar transport containers and mortar
boards shall be flushed with cool water before they
come into contact with mortar ingredients or mortar.
3.1. Grout conforms to ASTM C 476.
3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength
equals f’ m but not less than 2,000 psi
(13.79 MPa). The compressive strength
of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.
3. Mortar consistency shall be maintained by retempering with cool water.
4. Mortar shall be used within 2 hours of initial mixing.
TABLE 2105.2.2.1.1
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CLAY MASONRY
2104.4.2.2 Special conditions. When the ambient temperature exceeds 115°F (46°C), or exceeds 105°F (40°C)
with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (13 km/h), the
requirements of Section 2104.4.2.1 shall be implemented and cool mixing water shall be used for mortar
and grout. The use of ice shall be permitted in the mixing
water prior to use. Ice shall not be permitted in the mixing
water when added to the other mortar or grout materials.
NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
CLAY MASONRY UNITS (psi)
2104.4.3 Protection. When the mean daily temperature
exceeds 100°F (38°C), or exceeds 90°F (32°C) with a wind
velocity greater than 8 mph (13 km/h), newly constructed
masonry shall be fog sprayed until damp at least three times
a day until the masonry is three days old.
2104.5 Wetting of brick. Brick (clay or shale) at the time of
laying shall require wetting if the unit’s initial rate of water
absorption exceeds 21.42 grams per 30 square inches (19 355
mm2) per minute or 0.025 ounce psi (1 g/645 mm2), as determined by ASTM C 67.
Type M or S mortar
Type N mortar
NET AREA
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF
MASONRY (psi)
1,700
2,100
1,000
3,350
4,150
1,500
4,950
6,200
2,000
6,600
8,250
2,500
8,250
10,300
3,000
9,900
—
3,500
13,200
—
4,000
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 mPa.
SECTION BC 2105
QUALITY ASSURANCE
2105.1 General. A quality assurance program shall be used to
ensure that the constructed masonry is in compliance with the
436
10
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:15 AM
2105.2.2.1.2 Concrete masonry. The compressive
strength of masonry shall be determined based on the
strength of the unit and type of mortar specified using
Table 2105.2.2.1.2, provided:
1. Units conform to ASTM C 55 or ASTM C 90
and are sampled and tested in accordance with
ASTM C 140.
2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 inch
(15.9 mm).
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the
following requirements:
3.1. Grout conforms to ASTM C 476.
3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength
equals f’ m but not less than 2,000 psi
(13.79 MPa). The compressive strength
of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.
TABLE 2105.2.2.1.2
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MASONRY
NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS (psi)
Type M or S mortar
Type N mortar
NET AREA
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF
MASONRY (psi)a
1,250
1,300
1,000
1,900
2,150
1,500
2,800
3,050
2,000
3,750
4,050
2,500
4,800
5,250
3,000
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 mPa.
a. For units less than 4 inches in height, 85 percent of the values listed.
2105.2.2.2 Prism test method.
2105.2.2.2.1 General. The compressive strength of
masonry shall be determined by the prism test
method:
1. Where specified in the construction documents.
2. Where masonry does not meet the requirements
for application of the unit strength method in
Section 2105.2.2.1.
2105.2.2.2.2 Number of prisms per test. A prism
test shall consist of three prisms constructed and
tested in accordance with ASTM C 1314.
2105.3 Testing prisms from constructed masonry. When
approved by the commissioner acceptance of masonry that
does not meet the requirements of Section 2105.2.2.1 or
2105.2.2.2 shall be permitted to be based on tests of prisms cut
from the masonry construction in accordance with Sections
2105.3.1, 2105.3.2 and 2105.3.3.
2105.3.1 Prism sampling and removal. A set of three
masonry prisms that are at least 28 days old shall be saw
cut from the masonry for each 5,000 square feet (465 m2)
of the wall area that is in question but not less than one set
of three masonry prisms for the project. The length,
width and height dimensions of the prisms shall comply
with the requirements of ASTM C 1314. Transporting,
preparation and testing of prisms shall be in accordance
with ASTM C 1314.
2105.3.2 Compressive strength calculations. The
compressive strength of prisms shall be the value calculated in accordance ASTM C 1314, except that the net
cross-sectional area of the prism shall be based on the net
mortar bedded area.
2105.3.3 Compliance. Compliance with the requirement for the specified compressive strength of masonry,
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
11
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:15 AM
f’ m, shall be considered satisfied provided the modified
compressive strength equals or exceeds the specified f’
m. Additional testing of specimens cut from locations in
question shall be permitted.
SECTION BC 2106
SEISMIC DESIGN
2106.1 Seismic design requirements for masonry. Masonry
structures and components shall comply with the requirements
in Section 1.13.2.2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and Section
1.13.3, 1.13.4, 1.13.5, 1.13.6 or 1.13.7 of ACI 530/ASCE
5/TMS 402 depending on the structure’s seismic design category as determined in Section 1616.3. All masonry walls,
unless isolated on three edges from in-plane motion of the basic
structural systems, shall be considered to be part of the seismic-force-resisting system. In addition, the following requirements shall be met.
2106.1.1 Basic seismic-force-resisting system. Buildings
relying on masonry shear walls as part of the basic seismic-force-resisting system shall comply with Section
1.13.2.2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or with Section
2106.1.1.1, 2106.1.1.2 or 2106.1.1.3.
2106.1.1.1 Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear
walls. Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear walls
shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 4 of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
2106.1.1.2 Intermediate prestressed masonry shear
walls. Intermediate prestressed masonry shear walls
shall comply with the requirements of Section 1.13.2.2.4
of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and shall be designed by
Chapter 4, Section 4.5.3.3, of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS
402 for flexural strength and by Section 3.2.4.1.2 of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for shear strength. Sections
1.13.2.2.5(a), 3.2.3.5 and 3.2.4.3.2(c) of ACI 530/ASCE
5/TMS 402 shall be applicable for reinforcement. Flexural elements subjected to load reversals shall be symmetrically reinforced. The nominal moment strength at
any section along a member shall not be less than
one-fourth the maximum moment strength. The
cross-sectional area of bonded tendons shall be considered to contribute to the minimum reinforcement in Section 1.13.2.2.4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Tendons
shall be located in cells that are grouted the full height of
the wall.
2106.1.1.3 Special prestressed masonry shear walls.
Special prestressed masonry shear walls shall comply
with the requirements of Section 1.13.2.2.5 of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and shall be designed by Chapter
4, Section 4.5.3.3, of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for
flexural strength and by Section 3.2.4.1.2 of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for shear strength. Sections
1.13.2.2.5(a), 3.2.3.5 and 3.2.4.3.2(c) of ACI 530/ASCE
5/TMS 402 shall be applicable for reinforcement. Flexural elements subjected to load reversals shall be symmetrically reinforced. The nominal moment strength at
any section along a member shall not be less than
one-fourth the maximum moment strength. The
437
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
cross-sectional area of bonded tendons shall be considered to contribute to the minimum reinforcement in Section 1.13.2.2.5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Special
prestressed masonry shear walls shall also comply with
the requirements of Section 3.2.3.5 of ACI 530/ASCE
5/TMS 402.
2106.5.1 Loads for shear walls designed by the working
stress design method. When calculating in-plane shear or
diagonal tension stresses by the working stress design
method, shear walls that resist seismic forces shall be
designed to resist 1.5 times the seismic forces required by
Chapter 16. The 1.5 multiplier need not be applied to the
overturning moment.
2106.1.1.3.1 Prestressing tendons. Prestressing tendons shall consist of bars conforming to ASTM A
722.
2106.5.2 Shear wall shear strength. For a shear wall
whose nominal shear strength exceeds the shear corresponding to development of its nominal flexural strength,
two shear regions exist.
2106.1.1.3.2 Grouting. All cells of the masonry wall
shall be grouted.
For all cross sections within a region defined by the base
of the shear wall and a plane at a distance Lw above the base
of the shear wall, the nominal shear strength shall be determined by Equation 21-1.
2106.2 Anchorage of masonry walls. Masonry walls shall be
anchored to the roof and floors that provide lateral support for
the wall in accordance with Section 1604.8.2.
2106.3.1 Masonry walls not part of the lateral-force-resisting system. Masonry partition walls,
masonry screen walls and other masonry elements that are
not designed to resist vertical or lateral loads, other than
those induced by their own mass, shall be isolated from the
structure so that the vertical and lateral forces are not
imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and connectors
between these elements and the structure shall be designed
to accommodate the design story drift.
➡ 2106.4 Seismic Design Category C. Structures assigned to
Seismic Design Category C shall conform to the requirements
of Section 1.13.5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and the additional requirements of this section.
2106.4.1 Design of discontinuous members that are part
of the lateral-force-resisting system. Columns and pilasters that are part of the lateral-force-resisting system and
that support reactions from discontinuous stiff members
such as walls shall be provided with transverse reinforcement spaced at no more than one-fourth of the least nominal
dimension of the column or pilaster. The minimum transverse reinforcement ratio shall be 0.0015. Beams supporting reactions from discontinuous walls or frames shall be
provided with transverse reinforcement spaced at no more
than one-half of the nominal depth of the beam. The minimum transverse reinforcement ratio shall be 0.0015.
Vn = An
(Equation 21-1)
The required shear strength for this region shall be calculated at a distance Lw/2 above the base of the shear wall, but
not to exceed one-half story height.
For the other region, the nominal shear strength of the
shear wall shall be determined from Section 2108.
2106.6 Reserved.
SECTION BC 2107
WORKING STRESS DESIGN
2107.1 General. The design of masonry structures using working stress design shall comply with Section 2106 and the
requirements of Chapters 1 and 2, except Section 2.1.2.1 and
2.1.3.3 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. The text of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 shall be modified as follows.
2107.2 Modifications to ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
2106.4.2 Masonry walls not part of the lateralforce-resisting system. Masonry partition walls, masonry
screen walls and other masonry elements that are not
designed to resist vertical or lateral loads, other than those
loads induced by their own mass, shall be isolated from the
structure so that the vertical and lateral forces are not
imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and connectors
between these elements and the structure shall be designed
to accommodate the design story drift.
➡
f
n y
➡
➡
2106.3 Seismic Design Category B. Structures assigned to
Seismic Design Category B shall conform to the requirements
of Section 1.13.4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
2106.5 Seismic Design Category D. Structures assigned to
Seismic Design Category D shall conform to the requirements
of Section 2106.4, Section 1.13.6 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS
402 and the additional requirements of this section.
438
12
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:15 AM
2107.2.1 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Chapter 2. Special
inspection during construction shall be provided as set forth
in Section 1704.5.
2107.2.2 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Section 2.1.6.
Masonry columns used only to support light-frame roofs of
carports, porches, sheds or similar structures with a maximum area of 450 square feet (41.8 m2) assigned to Seismic
Design Category B or C are permitted to be designed and
constructed as follows:
1. Concrete masonry materials shall be in accordance
with Section 2103.1. Clay or shale masonry units
shall be in accordance with Section 2103.2.
2. The nominal cross-sectional dimension of columns
shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm).
3. Columns shall be reinforced with not less than one
No. 4 bar centered in each cell of the column.
4. Columns shall be grouted solid.
5. Columns shall not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) in
height.
6. Roofs shall be anchored to the columns. Such anchorage shall be capable of resisting the design loads specified in Chapter 16.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
7. Where such columns are required to resist uplift
loads, the columns shall be anchored to their footings
with two No. 4 bars extending a minimum of 24
inches (610 mm) into the columns and bent horizontally a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) in opposite
directions into the footings. One of these bars is permitted to be the reinforcing bar specified in Item 3
above. The total weight of a column and its footing
shall not be less than 1.5 times the design uplift load.
2107.2.3 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Section
2.1.10.6.1.1, lap splices. The minimum length of lap splices
for reinforcing bars in tension or compression, lld, shall be
calculated by Equation 21-2, but shall not be less than 15
inches (381 mm).
l ld =
016
. d b2 f y γ
(Equation 21-2)
K f 'm
For SI: l ld =
1.95d b2 f y γ
K f 'm
where:
db = Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).
fy = Specified yield stress of the reinforcement or the
anchor bolt, psi (mPa).
f
m
= Specified compressive strength of masonry at age of
28 days, psi (mPa).
lld = Minimum lap splice length, inches (mm).
K = The lesser of the masonry cover, clear spacing
between adjacent reinforcement or five times db,
inches (mm).
= 1.0 for No. 3 through No. 5 reinforcing bars. 1.4 for
No. 6 and No. 7 reinforcing bars. 1.5 for No. 8 through
No. 9 reinforcing bars.
2107.2.4 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, maximum bar size.
The bar diameter shall not exceed one-eighth of the nominal
wall thickness and shall not exceed one-quarter of the least
dimension of the cell, course or collar joint in which it is
placed.
2107.2.5 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, splices for large
bars. Reinforcing bars larger than No. 9 in size shall be
spliced using mechanical connectors in accordance with
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Section 2.1.10.6.3.
2107.2.6 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Maximum reinforcement percentage. Special reinforced masonry shear
walls having a shear span ratio, M/Vd, equal to or greater
than 1.0 and having an axial load, P greater than 0.05 f’mAn
which are subjected to in-plane forces, shall have a maximum reinforcement ratio, ρmax, not greater than that computed as follows:
ρmax =
nf m′
fy ⎞
⎛
2 fy ⎜ n +
⎟
f
′⎠
⎝
m
(Equation 21-3)
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
13
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:16 AM
SECTION BC 2108
STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY
2108.1 General. The design of masonry structures using
strength design shall comply with Section 2106 and the
requirements of Chapters 1 and 3 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS
402. The minimum nominal thickness for hollow clay masonry
in accordance with Section 3.2.5.5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS
402 shall be 4 inches (102 mm). The text of ACI 530/ASCE
5/TMS 402 shall be modified as follows:
2108.2 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Section 3.2.2(g). Modify
Section 3.2.2(g) as follows:
3.2.2(g). The relationship between masonry compressive
stress and masonry strain shall be assumed to be defined by
the following:
Masonry stress of 0.80 f’ m shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by
edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel
to the neutral axis at a distance, a = 0.80 c, from the fiber of
maximum compressive strain. The distance, c, from the
fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured perpendicular to that axis. For out-of-plane bending,
the width of the equivalent stress block shall not be taken
greater than six times the nominal thickness of the masonry
wall or the spacing between reinforcement, whichever is
less. For in-plane bending of flanged walls, the effective
flange width shall not exceed six times the thickness of the
flange.
2108.3 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Section 3.2.3.4. Modify
Section 3.2.3.4 (b) and (c) as follows:
3.2.3.4 (b). A welded splice shall have the bars butted and
welded to develop at least 125 percent of the yield strength,
ƒy, of the bar in tension or compression, as required. Welded
splices shall be of ASTM A 706 steel reinforcement.
Welded splices shall not be permitted in plastic hinge zones
of intermediate or special reinforced walls or special
moment frames of masonry.
3.2.3.4 (c). Mechanical splices shall be classified as Type 1
or 2 according to Section 21.2.6.1 of ACI 318. Type 1
mechanical splices shall not be used within a plastic hinge
zone or within a beam-column joint of intermediate or special reinforced masonry shear walls or special moment
frames. Type 2 mechanical splices are permitted in any location within a member.
2108.4 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Section 3.2.3.5.1. Add
the following text to Section 3.2.3.5.1:
For special prestressed masonry shear walls, strain in all
prestressing steel shall be computed to be compatible with a
strain in the extreme tension reinforcement equal to five times
the strain associated with the reinforcement yield stress, fy. The
calculation of the maximum reinforcement shall consider
forces in the prestressing steel that correspond to these calculated strains.
439
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
SECTION BC 2109
EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY
2109.1 General. Empirically designed masonry shall conform
to this chapter or Chapter 5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
➡
➡
➡
➡
2109.2.2 Roofs. The roof construction shall be designed so
as not to impart out-of-plane lateral thrust to the walls under
roof gravity load.
2109.2.3 Surface-bonded walls. Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall comply with the
requirements of this code for masonry wall construction,
except where otherwise noted in this section.
2109.1.1 Limitations. Empirical masonry design shall not
be utilized for any of the following conditions:
1. The design or construction of masonry in buildings
assigned to Seismic Design Category D as specified
in Section 1616, and the design of the seismic-force-resisting system for buildings assigned to
Seismic Design Category B or C.
2109.2.3.1 Strength. Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall be of adequate strength and
proportions to support all superimposed loads without
exceeding the allowable stresses listed in Table
2109.2.3.1. Allowable stresses not specified in Table
2109.2.3.1 shall comply with the requirements of ACI
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
2. Buildings more than 35 feet (10 668 mm) in height
which have masonry wall lateral-force-resisting systems.
In buildings that exceed one or more of the above limitations, masonry shall be designed in accordance with the
engineered design provisions of Section 2107 or 2108.
TABLE 2109.2.3.1
ALLOWABLE STRESS GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL
AREA FOR DRY-STACKED, SURFACE-BONDED
CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS
2109.2 Lateral stability.
2109.2.1 Shear walls. Where the structure depends upon
masonry walls for lateral stability, shear walls shall be provided parallel to the direction of the lateral forces resisted.
2109.2.1.1 Shear wall thickness. Minimum nominal
thickness of masonry shear walls shall be 8 inches (203
mm).
Exception: Shear walls of one-story buildings are
permitted to be a minimum nominal thickness of 6
inches (152 mm).
2109.2.1.2 Cumulative length of shear walls. In each
direction in which shear walls are required for lateral stability, shear walls shall be positioned in two separate
planes. The minimum cumulative length of shear walls
provided shall be 0.4 times the long dimension of the
building. Cumulative length of shear walls shall not
include openings or any element whose length is less
than one-half its height.
Compression standard block
45
Shear
10
Flexural tension
Vertical span
Horizontal span
18
30
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 mPa.
2109.2.3.2 Construction. Construction of dry-stacked,
surface-bonded masonry walls, including stacking and
leveling of units, mixing and application of mortar and
curing and protection shall comply with ASTM C 946.
2109.3 Compressive stress requirements.
2109.2.1.3 Maximum diaphragm ratio. Masonry shear
walls shall be spaced so that the length-to-width ratio of
each diaphragm transferring lateral forces to the shear
walls does not exceed the values given in Table
2109.2.1.3.
TABLE 2109.2.1.3
DIAPHRAGM LENGTH-TO-WIDTH RATIOS
FLOOR OR ROOF DIAPHRAGM
CONSTRUCTION
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS
(psi)
DESCRIPTION
MAXIMUM LENGTH-TO-WIDTH
RATIO OF DIAPHRAGM PANEL
Cast-in-place concrete
5:1
Precast concrete
4:1
Metal deck with concrete fill
3:1
Metal deck with no fill
2:1
Wood
2:1
440
14
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:16 AM
2109.3.1 Calculations. Compressive stresses in masonry
due to vertical dead plus live loads, excluding wind or seismic loads, shall be determined in accordance with Section
2109.3.2.1. Dead and live loads shall be in accordance with
Chapter 16, with live load reductions as permitted in Section
1607.9.
2109.3.2 Allowable compressive stresses. The compressive stresses in masonry shall not exceed the values given in
Table 2109.3.2. Stress shall be calculated based on specified
rather than nominal dimensions.
2109.3.2.1 Calculated compressive stresses. Calculated compressive stresses for single wythe walls and for
multi-wythe composite masonry walls shall be determined by dividing the design load by the gross cross-sectional area of the member. The area of openings, chases
or recesses in walls shall not be included in the gross
cross-sectional area of the wall.
2109.3.2.2 Multi-wythe walls. The allowable stress
shall be as given in Table 2109.3.2 for the weakest combination of the units used in each wythe.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
TABLE 2109.3.2
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE
STRESSESa GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (psi)
CONSTRUCTION; COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF UNIT
GROSS AREA (psi)
Type M or S mortar
Type N mortar
Solid masonry of brick and other solid units of clay or
shale; sand-lime or concrete brick:
8,000 or greater
4,500
2,500
1,500
350
225
160
115
300
200
140
100
Grouted masonry, of clay or shale; sand-lime or concrete:
4,500 or greater
2,500
1,500
225
160
115
200
140
100
Solid masonry of solid concrete masonry units:
3,000 or greater
2,000
1,200
225
160
115
200
140
100
Masonry of hollow load-bearing units:
2,000 or greater
1,500
1,000
700
140
115
75
60
120
100
70
55
Hollow walls (noncomposite masonry bonded)b
Solid units:
2,500 or greater
1,500
Hollow units
160
115
75
140
100
70
Stone ashlar masonry:
Granite
Limestone or marble
Sandstone or cast stone
720
450
360
640
400
320
Rubble stone masonry
Coursed, rough or random
120
100
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 MPa.
a. Linear interpolation for determining allowable stresses for masonry units having compressive strengths which are intermediate between those given in the table is
permitted.
b. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as noncomposite walls unless collar
joints are filled with mortar or grout.
2109.4 Lateral support.
2109.4.1 Intervals. Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals not exceeding those given in Table 2109.4.1.
TABLE 2109.4.1
WALL LATERAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
CONSTRUCTION
MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO
THICKNESS OR WALL HEIGHT
TO THICKNESS
Bearing walls
Solid units or fully grouted
All others
20
18
Nonbearing walls
Exterior
Interior
18
36
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
15
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:16 AM
2109.4.2 Thickness. Except for cavity walls and cantilever
walls, the thickness of a wall shall be its nominal thickness
measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. For cavity
walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the
nominal thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever
walls, except for parapets, the ratio of height-to-nominal
thickness shall not exceed six for solid masonry or four for
hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section 2109.5.5.
2109.4.3 Support elements. Lateral support shall be provided by cross-walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural
frame members when the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by floors, roofs acting as diaphragms or structural
frame members when the limiting distance is taken vertically.
441
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2109.5 Thickness of masonry. Minimum thickness requirements shall be based on nominal dimensions of masonry.
2109.5.6.1 Minimum thickness. Minimum thickness
for foundation walls shall comply with the requirements
of Table 2109.5.6.1. The provisions of Table 2109.5.6.1
are only applicable where the following conditions are
met:
2109.5.1 Thickness of walls. The thickness of masonry
walls shall conform to the requirements of Section 2109.5.
2109.5.2 Minimum thickness. The minimum thickness of
masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8
inches (203 mm) where the height floor to floor does not
exceed 12 feet (3658 mm), the floor live load does not
exceed 60 pounds per square feet (psf) (0.156 kg/m2), and
the roof is designed so that the dead load imparts no lateral
thrust to the wall. Bearing walls of one-story buildings shall
not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick. However, the overall thickness of cavity or masonry-bonded hollow walls
shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), including cavity.
1. The foundation wall does not exceed 8 feet (2438
mm) in height between lateral supports,
2. The terrain surrounding foundation walls is graded
to drain surface water away from foundation walls,
3. Backfill is drained to remove ground water away
from foundation walls,
4. Lateral support is provided at the top of foundation
walls prior to back-filling,
5. The length of foundation walls between perpendicular masonry walls or pilasters is a maximum of
three times the basement wall height,
2109.5.2.1 Walls above roof level. Masonry walls above
roof level, 12 feet (3658 mm) or less in height, enclosing
stairways, machinery rooms, shafts, or penthouses, may
be up to 8 inches (203 mm) thick and shall be considered
as neither increasing the height, nor requiring any
increase in the thickness of the wall below.
6. The backfill is granular and soil conditions in the
area are non-expansive, and
7. Masonry is laid in running bond using Type M or S
mortar.
2109.5.3 Rubble stone walls. The minimum thickness of
rough or random or coursed rubble stone walls shall be 16
inches (406 mm).
2109.5.4 Change in thickness. Where walls of masonry of
hollow units or masonry bonded hollow walls are decreased
in thickness, a course or courses of solid masonry shall be
interposed between the wall below and the thinner wall
above, or special units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads from face shells or wythes above to those
below.
2109.5.5 Parapet walls.
2109.5.5.1 Minimum thickness. Unreinforced parapet
walls shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and their
height shall not exceed three times their thickness.
2109.5.5.2 Parapet wall construction. All cells in the
hollow masonry units and all joints in solid, cavity, or
masonry-bonded hollow wall construction shall be filled
solid with mortar. All corners of masonry parapet walls
shall be reinforced with joint reinforcement or its equivalent at vertical intervals not greater than 12 inches (305
mm). Such reinforcement shall extend around the corner
for at least 4 feet (1219 mm) in both directions and
splices shall be lapped at least 6 inches (152 mm).
TABLE 2109.5.6.1
FOUNDATION WALL CONSTRUCTION
NOMINAL WALL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM DEPTH OF
UNBALANCED BACKFILL
(feet)
Hollow unit masonry
8
10
12
5
6
7
Solid unit masonry
8
10
12
5
7
7
Fully grouted masonry
8
10
12
7
8
8
WALL
CONSTRUCTION
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
2109.5.6.2 Design requirements. Where the requirements of Section 2109.5.6.1 are not met, foundation
walls shall be designed in accordance with Section
1805.5.
2109.5.7 Partitions. The minimum thickness for partitions
shall be as follows:
TABLE 2109.5.7
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF MASONRY PARTITIONS
2109.5.5.3 Parapet anchorage. Parapets of buildings
taller than 35 feet (10 668 mm) shall be reinforced vertically and shall be anchored to the roof and floors that provide lateral support for the wall in accordance with
Section 1604.8.2.
HEIGHT OF WALLS
2109.5.5.4 Additional provisions. Additional provisions for parapet walls are contained in Sections 1503.2
and 1503.3.
2109.5.6 Foundation walls. Foundation walls shall comply
with the requirements of Sections 2109.5.6.1 and
2109.5.6.2.
THICKNESS
8 ft. and under
2 in.
Over 8 ft. to 12 ft
3 in.
Over 12 ft. to 16 ft
4 in.
Over 16 ft. to 20 ft
6 in.
Over 20 ft. to 24 ft.
8 in.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
442
16
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:16 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2109.6 Bond.
2109.6.1 General. The facing and backing of multi-wythe
masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section
2109.6.2, 2109.6.3 or 2109.6.4.
2109.6.2 Bonding with masonry headers.
2109.6.2.1 Solid units. Where the facing and backing
(adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are
bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than 4 percent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of
headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the
backing. The distance between adjacent full-length
headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either vertically or horizontally. In walls in which a single header
does not extend through the wall, headers from the opposite sides shall overlap at least 3 inches (76 mm), or headers from opposite sides shall be covered with another
header course overlapping the header below at least 3
inches (76 mm).
2109.6.2.2 Hollow units. Where two or more hollow
units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the
stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals not
exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping at least 3
inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at vertical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) with
units that are at least 50 percent greater in thickness than
the units below.
2109.6.2.3 Masonry bonded hollow walls. In masonry
bonded hollow walls, the facing and backing shall be
bonded so that not less than 4 percent of the wall surface
of each face is composed of masonry bonded units
extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the backing. The distance between adjacent bonders shall not
exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either vertically or horizontally.
2109.6.3 Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement.
2109.6.3.1 Bonding with wall ties. Except as required
by Section 2109.6.3.1.1, where the facing and backing
(adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are bonded with wire
size W2.8 (MW 18) wall ties or metal wire of equivalent
stiffness embedded in the horizontal mortar joints, there
shall be at least one metal tie for each 41/2 square feet
(0.42 m2) of wall area. The maximum vertical distance
between ties shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), and
the maximum horizontal distance shall not exceed 36
inches (914 mm). Rods or ties bent to rectangular shape
shall be used with hollow masonry units laid with the
cells vertical. In other walls, the ends of ties shall be bent
to 90-degree (1.57 rad) angles to provide hooks no less
than 2 inches (51 mm) long. Wall ties shall be without
drips. Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all
openings, spaced not more than 36 inches (914 mm)
apart around the perimeter and within 12 inches (305
mm) of the opening.
2109.6.3.1.1 Bonding with adjustable wall ties.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of
masonry are bonded with adjustable wall ties, there
shall be at least one tie for each 1.77 square feet (0.16
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
17
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:17 AM
m2) of wall area. Neither the vertical nor horizontal
spacing of the adjustable wall ties shall exceed 16
inches (406 mm). The maximum vertical offset of bed
joints from one wythe to the other shall be 11/4 inches
(32 mm). The maximum clearance between connecting parts of the ties shall be 1/16 inch (1.6 mm). When
pintle legs are used, ties shall have at least two wire
size W2.8 (MW 18) legs.
2109.6.3.2 Bonding with prefabricated joint reinforcement. Where the facing and backing (adjacent
wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint
reinforcement, there shall be at least one cross wire serving as a tie for each 22/3 square feet (0.25 m2) of wall area.
The vertical spacing of the joint reinforcing shall not
exceed 24 inches (610 mm). Cross wires on prefabricated joint reinforcement shall not be less than W1.7
(MW 11) and shall be without drips. The longitudinal
wires shall be embedded in the mortar.
2109.6.4 Bonding with natural or cast stone.
2109.6.4.1 Ashlar masonry. In ashlar masonry, bonder
units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided to the
extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area. Such
bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm)
into the backing wall.
2109.6.4.2 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone
masonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall
have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 36 inches
(914 mm) vertically and 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally, and if the masonry is of greater thickness than 24
inches (610 mm), shall have one bonder unit for each 6
square feet (0.56 m2) of wall surface on both sides.
2109.6.5 Masonry bonding pattern.
2109.6.5.1 Masonry laid in running bond. Each wythe
of masonry shall be laid in running bond, head joints in
successive courses shall be offset by not less than
one-fourth the unit length or the masonry walls shall be
reinforced longitudinally as required in Section
2109.6.5.2.
2109.6.5.2 Masonry laid in stack bond. Where unit
masonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section
2109.6.5.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced
not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) apart, shall be
0.0003 times the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall.
2109.7 Anchorage.
2109.7.1 General. Masonry elements shall be anchored in
accordance with Sections 2109.7.2 through 2109.7.4.
2109.7.2 Intersecting walls. Masonry walls depending
upon one another for lateral support shall be anchored or
bonded at locations where they meet or intersect by one of
the methods indicated in Sections 2109.7.2.1 through
2109.7.2.5.
2109.7.2.1 Bonding pattern. Fifty percent of the units at
the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry
bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing of
not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit below.
443
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2109.7.2.2 Steel connectors. Walls shall be anchored by
steel connectors having a minimum section of 1/4 inch
(6.4 mm) by 11/2 inches (38 mm), with ends bent up at
least 2 inches (51 mm) or with cross pins to form anchorage. Such anchors shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm)
long and the maximum spacing shall be 48 inches (1219
mm).
2109.7.2.3 Joint reinforcement. Walls shall be
anchored by joint reinforcement spaced at a maximum
distance of 8 inches (203 mm). Longitudinal wires of
such reinforcement shall be at least wire size W1.7 (MW
11) and shall extend at least 30 inches (762 mm) in each
direction at the intersection.
2109.7.2.4 Interior nonload-bearing walls. Interior
nonload-bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersection, at vertical intervals of not more than 16 inches
(406 mm) with joint reinforcement or 1/4-inch (6.4 mm)
mesh galvanized hardware cloth.
2109.7.2.5 Ties, joint reinforcement or anchors. Other
metal ties, joint reinforcement or anchors, if used, shall
be spaced to provide equivalent area of anchorage to that
required by this section and be approved by the commissioner.
2109.7.3 Floor and roof anchorage. Floor and roof diaphragms providing lateral support to masonry shall comply
with the live loads in Section 1607.3 and shall be connected
to the masonry in accordance with Sections 2109.7.3.1
through 2109.7.3.3.
2109.7.3.1 Wood floor joists. Wood floor joists bearing
on masonry walls shall be anchored to the wall at intervals not to exceed 72 inches (1829 mm) by metal strap
anchors. Joists parallel to the wall shall be anchored with
metal straps spaced not more than 72 inches (1829 mm)
o.c. extending over or under and secured to at least three
joists. Blocking shall be provided between joists at each
strap anchor.
2109.7.3.1.1 Bearing details. Concentrated loads
shall be supported upon construction of solid
masonry, concrete, or masonry of hollow units with
cells filled with mortar, grout, or concrete and of sufficient height to distribute safely the loads to the wall or
column, or other adequate provisions shall be made to
distribute the loads.
2109.7.3.1.2 Joists. Solid construction for support
under joists shall be at least 21/4 inches (57 mm) in
height, and joists supported on such construction
shall extend into the masonry at least 3 inches (76
mm).
2109.7.3.1.3 Beams. Solid construction for support
under beams, girders, or other concentrated loads
shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) in height, and the
bearing of beams shall extend into the masonry at
least 4 inches (102 mm).
2109.7.3.1.4 Isolated piers. Isolated masonry piers
shall be bonded as required for solid walls of the same
444
18
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:18 AM
thickness and shall be provided with adequate means
for distributing the load at the top of the pier.
2109.7.3.2 Steel floor joists. Steel floor joists bearing on
masonry walls shall be anchored to the wall with 3/8-inch
(9.5 mm) round bars, or their equivalent, spaced not
more than 72 inches (1829 mm) o.c. Where joists are parallel to the wall, anchors shall be located at joist bridging.
2109.7.3.3 Roof diaphragms. Roof diaphragms shall be
anchored to masonry walls with 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7
mm) bolts, 72 inches (1829 mm) o.c. or their equivalent.
Bolts shall extend and be embedded at least 15 inches
(381 mm) into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to
not less than 0.20 square inch (0.02 m2) of bond beam
reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm)
from the top of the wall.
2109.7.4 Walls adjoining structural framing. Where
walls are dependent upon the structural frame for lateral
support, they shall be anchored to the structural members
with metal anchors or otherwise keyed to the structural
members. Metal anchors shall consist of 1/2-inch (12.7 mm)
bolts spaced at 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c. embedded 4 inches
(102 mm) into the masonry, or their equivalent area.
2109.7.4.1 Use of existing walls. An existing masonry
wall may be used in the alteration or extension of a building provided that it meets the requirements of this standard.
2109.7.4.2 Walls of insufficient thickness. Existing
walls of masonry units that are structurally sound, but
that are of insufficient thickness when increased in
height, may be strengthened by an addition of similar
masonry units laid in Type M or S mortar. The foundations and lateral support shall be equivalent to those
required for newly constructed walls under similar conditions. All such linings shall be thoroughly bonded into
existing masonry by toothings to assure combined action
of wall and lining. Toothings shall be distributed uniformly throughout the wall, and shall aggregate in vertical cross-sectional area at least 15 percent of the total
surface area of the lining. Stresses in the masonry under
the new conditions shall not exceed the allowable
stresses.
2109.7.4.3 Precautions during erection. Temporary
bracing shall be used wherever necessary to resist loads
to which the walls may be subjected during erection.
Such bracing shall remain in place as long as may be
required for safety.
2109.7.4.4 Horizontal joints. All concrete framed
buildings to be constructed over 35 feet (10 668 mm) in
height (as measured from adjoining grade to the main
roof level), whose exterior wythe are of cavity wall construction with steel lintels, shall have horizontal joints in
the exterior wythe to prevent masonry distress induced
by vertical shortening of the structural frame.
2109.7.4.4.1 Joint minimum thickness. Unless substantiated as indicated by Section 2109.7.4.4.2, horizontal joints shall be 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) minimum
thickness, with neoprene, polyethylene, or urethane
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
gasket or equivalent joint filler filling the entire joint,
except for a recess from the toe of the lintel angle to
the exterior of the facing brick, to provide space for
caulking. These joints shall be placed at each floor.
2109.7.4.4.2 Joint thickness by analysis. The applicant of record shall submit an engineering analysis
establishing that proposed building horizontal joints
spaced further apart than in Section 2109.7.4.4.1 are
sufficient to provide for the effects of vertical shortening of the structural frame.
➡
SECTION BC 2110
GLASS UNIT MASONRY
2110.1 Scope. This section covers the empirical requirements
for non-load-bearing glass unit masonry elements in exterior or
interior walls.
2110.1.1 Limitations. Solid or hollow approved glass
block shall not be used in firewalls, party walls, fire barriers
or fire partitions, or for load-bearing construction. Such
blocks shall be erected with mortar and reinforcement in
metal channel-type frames, structural frames, masonry or
concrete recesses, embedded panel anchors as provided for
both exterior and interior walls or other approved joint
materials. Wood strip framing shall not be used in walls
required to have a fire-resistance rating by other provisions
of this code.
Exception: Glass-block assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour shall be permitted as
opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 in
fire barriers and fire partitions that have a required
fire-resistance rating of 1 hour and do not enclose exit
stairways or exit passageways.
➡
➡ 2110.2 Units. Hollow or solid glass-block units shall be stan-
2110.2.2 Thin units. The specified thickness of thin units
shall be 31/8 inches (79 mm) for hollow units or 3 inches (76
mm) for solid units.
2110.3 Panel size.
2110.3.1 Exterior standard-unit panels. The maximum
area of each individual exterior standard-unit panel shall be
144 square feet (13.4 m2) when the design wind pressure is
20 psf (958 N/m2). The maximum panel dimension between
structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20
feet (6096 mm) in height. The panel areas are permitted to
be adjusted in accordance with Figure 2110.3.1 for other
wind pressures.
2110.3.2 Exterior thin-unit panels. The maximum area of
each individual exterior thin-unit panel shall be 85 square
feet (7.9 m2). The maximum dimension between structural
supports shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) in width or 10 feet
(3048 mm) in height. Thin units shall not be used in applications where the design wind pressure exceeds 20 psf (958
N/m2).
2110.3.3 Interior panels. The maximum area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet (23.2
m2). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall be 150
square feet (13.9 m2). The maximum dimension between
structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20
feet (6096 mm) in height.
2110.3.4 Solid units. The maximum area of solid
glass-block wall panels in both exterior and interior walls
shall not be more than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
2110.3.5 Curved panels. The width of curved panels shall
conform to the requirements of Sections 2110.3.1, 2110.3.2
and 2110.3.3, except additional structural supports shall be
provided at locations where a curved section joins a straight
section, and at inflection points in multi-curved walls.
2110.4 Support.
dard or thin units.
2110.2.1 Standard units. The specified thickness of standard units shall be 37/8 inches (98 mm).
2110.4.1 Isolation. Glass unit masonry panels shall be isolated so that in-plane loads are not imparted to the panel.
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m2.
FIGURE 2110.3.1
GLASS MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
19
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:22 AM
445
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2110.4.3 Lateral. Glass unit masonry panels more than one
unit wide or one unit high shall be laterally supported along
their tops and sides. Lateral support shall be provided by
panel anchors along the top and sides spaced not more than
16 inches (406 mm) o.c. or by channel-type restraints. Glass
unit masonry panels shall be recessed at least 1 inch (25
mm) within channels and chases. Channel-type restraints
shall be oversized to accommodate expansion material in
the opening and packing and sealant between the framing
restraints and the glass unit masonry perimeter units. Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be designed
to resist applied loads, or a minimum of 200 pounds per lineal feet (plf) (2919 N/m) of panel, whichever is greater.
constructed in accordance with this section, Table 2111.1 and
Figure 2111.1.
2111.2 Footings and foundations. Footings for masonry fireplaces and their chimneys shall be constructed of reinforced
concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and
shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the face of the
fireplace or foundation wall on all sides. Footings shall be
founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below
frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be
at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade. Foundations
and footings shall be designed to support the fireplace loading
and shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.
2111.2.1 Ash dump clean-out. Clean-out openings,
located within foundation walls below fireboxes, when provided, shall be equipped with ferrous metal or masonry
doors and frames constructed to remain tightly closed,
except when in use. Clean outs shall be accessible and
located so that ash removal will not create a hazard to combustible materials.
Exceptions:
1. Lateral support at the top of glass unit masonry
panels that are no more than one unit wide shall not
be required.
2. Lateral support at the sides of glass unit masonry
panels that are no more than one unit high shall not
be required.
2110.4.3.1 Single unit panels. Single unit glass unit
masonry panels shall conform to the requirements of
Section 2110.4.3, except lateral support shall not be provided by panel anchors.
2111.3 Seismic reinforcing. Masonry or concrete fireplaces
shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as
required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category D,
masonry and concrete fireplaces shall be reinforced and
anchored as detailed in Sections 2111.3.1, 2111.3.2, 2111.4
and 2111.4.1 for chimneys serving fireplaces. In Seismic
Design Category B or C, reinforcement and seismic anchorage
is not required.
2110.5 Expansion joints. Glass unit masonry panels shall be
provided with expansion joints along the top and sides at all
structural supports. Expansion joints shall have sufficient
thickness to accommodate displacements of the supporting
structure, but shall not be less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) in thickness. Expansion joints shall be entirely free of mortar or other
debris and shall be filled with resilient material. The sills of
glass-block panels shall be coated with approved water-based
asphaltic emulsion, or other elastic waterproofing material,
prior to laying the first mortar course.
2111.3.1 Vertical reinforcing. For fireplaces with chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous
vertical bars, anchored in the foundation, shall be placed in
the concrete, between wythes of solid masonry or within the
cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with
Section 2103.10. For fireplaces with chimneys greater than
40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical
bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016
mm) in width or fraction thereof.
2111.3.2 Horizontal reinforcing. Vertical reinforcement
shall be placed enclosed within 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) ties or
other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area,
spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) on center in concrete; or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two
such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.
2110.6 Mortar. Mortar for glass unit masonry shall comply
with Section 2103.7.
2110.7 Reinforcement. Glass unit masonry panels shall have
horizontal joint reinforcement spaced not more than 16 inches
(406 mm) on center, located in the mortar bed joint, and extending the entire length of the panel but not across expansion
joints. Longitudinal wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6
inches (152 mm) at splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed
in the bed joint immediately below and above openings in the
panel. The reinforcement shall have not less than two parallel
longitudinal wires of size W1.7 (MW 11), and have welded
cross wires of size W1.7 (MW 11).
2111.4 Seismic anchorage. Masonry and concrete chimneys
in Seismic Design Category D shall be anchored at each floor,
ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade,
except where constructed completely within the exterior walls.
Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.
SECTION BC 2111
MASONRY FIREPLACES
2111.1 Definition. A masonry fireplace is a fireplace constructed of concrete or masonry. Masonry fireplaces shall be
2111.4.1 Anchorage. Two 3/16-inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by
25 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches
(305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around
the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the
bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four
floor joists with two 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) bolts.
446
20
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:22 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
➡
➡
2110.4.2 Vertical. Maximum total deflection of structural
members supporting glass unit masonry shall not exceed
l/600.
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
TABLE 2111.1
SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYSa
ITEM
Hearth and hearth extension thickness
LETTER
REQUIREMENTS
SECTION
A
4-inch minimum thickness for hearth, 2-inch minimum thickness for
hearth extension.
2111.9
B
8 inches for fireplace opening less than 6 square feet. 12 inches for
fireplace opening greater than or equal to 6 square feet.
2111.10
C
16 inches for fireplace opening less than 6 square feet. 20 inches for
fireplace opening greater than or equal to 6 square feet.
2111.10
—
20-inch minimum firebox depth. 12-inch minimum firebox depth for
Rumford fireplaces.
2111.6
Hearth and hearth extension reinforcing
D
Reinforced to carry its own weight and all imposed loads.
2111.9
Thickness of wall of firebox
E
10 inches solid masonry or 8 inches where firebrick lining is used.
2111.5
Hearth extension (each side of opening)
Hearth extension (front of opening)
Firebox dimensions
Distance from top of opening to throat
Smoke chamber wall thickness
dimensions
F
Fireplace lintel
Chimney walls with flue lining
2111.7
2111.7.1
G
6 inches lined; 8 inches unlined. Not taller than opening width; walls not
inclined more than 45 degrees from vertical for prefabricated smoke
chamber linings or 30 degrees from vertical for corbeled masonry.
2111.8
H
Four No. 4 full-length bars for chimney up to 40 inches wide. Add two
No. 4 bars for each additional 40 inches or fraction of width, or for each
additional flue.
2111.3.1,
2113.3.1
Chimney vertical reinforcing
Chimney horizontal reinforcing
8 inches minimum.
J
1/
4-inch
ties at each 18 inches, and two ties at each bend in vertical steel.
2111.3.2,
2113.3.2
L
Noncombustible material with 4-inch bearing length of each side of
opening.
2111.7
M
4-inch-thick solid masonry with 5/8-inch fireclay liner or equivalent.
1/ -inch grout or airspace between fireclay liner and wall.
2
2113.11.1
Effective flue area (based on area of
fireplace opening and chimney)
P
Clearances
From chimney
From fireplace
From combustible trim or materials
Above roof
R
Anchorage strap
Number required
Embedment into chimney
Fasten to
Number of bolts
S
Footing
Thickness
Width
T
See Section 2113.16.
2 inches interior, 1 inch exterior or 12 inches from lining.
2 inches back or sides or 12 inches from lining.
6 inches from opening
3 feet above roof penetration, 2 feet above part of structure within 10 feet.
3/ inch by 1 inch
16
Two
12 inches hooked around outer bar with 6-inch extension.
4 joists
Two 1/2-inch diameter.
12-inch minimum.
6 inches each side of fireplace wall.
2113.16
2113.19
2111.11
2111.12
2113.9
2111.4
2113.4.1
2111.2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 degree = 0.017 rad.
a. This table provides a summary of major requirements for the construction of masonry chimneys and fireplaces. Letter references are to Figure 2111.1, which
shows examples of typical construction. This table does not cover all requirements, nor does it cover all aspects of the indicated requirements. For the actual mandatory requirements of the code, see the indicated section of text.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
21
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:23 AM
447
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2111.1
FIREPLACE AND CHIMNEY DETAILS
448
22
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:25 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2111.5 Firebox walls. Masonry fireboxes shall be constructed
of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid,
stone or concrete. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches
(51 mm) in thickness or other approved lining is provided, the
minimum thickness of back and side-walls shall each be 8
inches (203 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. The
approved lining shall be able to withstand a temperature of
2000ºF (1093ºC) without cracking. The width of joints
between firebricks shall not be greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm).
When no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of
back and side-walls shall be 12 inches (305 mm) of solid
masonry. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or ASTM C
1261 and shall be laid with medium-duty refractory mortar
conforming to ASTM C 199.
2111.8 Smoke chamber walls. Smoke chamber walls shall be
constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units
grouted solid, stone or concrete. Corbeling of masonry units
shall not leave unit cores exposed to the inside of the smoke
chamber. The inside surface of corbeled masonry shall be
parged smooth. Where no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back and side walls shall be 8 inches
(203 mm) of solid masonry. When a lining of firebrick at least 2
inches (51 mm) thick, or a lining of vitrified clay at least 5/8 inch
(15.9 mm) thick, is provided, the total minimum thickness of
front, back and side walls shall be 6 inches (152 mm) of solid
masonry, including the lining. Firebrick shall conform to
ASTM C 27 or ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with refractory
mortar conforming to ASTM C 199.
2111.5.1 Steel fireplace units. Steel fireplace units are permitted to be installed with solid masonry to form a masonry
fireplace provided they are installed according to either the
requirements of their listing or the requirements of this section. Steel fireplace units incorporating a steel firebox lining
shall be constructed with steel not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm)
in thickness, and an air-circulating chamber which is ducted
to the interior of the building. The firebox lining shall be
encased with solid masonry to provide a total thickness at
the back and sides of not less than 8 inches (203 mm), of
which not less than 4 inches (102 mm) shall be of solid
masonry or concrete. Circulating air ducts employed with
steel fireplace units shall be constructed of metal or
masonry.
2111.8.1 Smoke chamber dimensions. The inside height
of the smoke chamber from the fireplace throat to the beginning of the flue shall not be greater than the inside width of
the fireplace opening. The inside surface of the smoke
chamber shall not be inclined more than 45 degrees (0.76
rad) from vertical when prefabricated smoke chamber linings are used or when the smoke chamber walls are rolled or
sloped rather than corbeled. When the inside surface of the
smoke chamber is formed by corbeled masonry, the walls
shall not be corbeled more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from
vertical.
2111.6 Firebox dimensions. The firebox of a concrete or
masonry fireplace shall have a minimum depth of 20 inches
(508 mm). The throat shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm)
above the fireplace opening. The throat opening shall not be
less than 4 inches (102 mm) in depth. The cross-sectional area
of the passageway above the firebox, including the throat,
damper and smoke chamber, shall not be less than the
cross-sectional area of the flue.
Exception: Rumford fireplaces shall be permitted provided
that the depth of the fireplace is at least 12 inches (305 mm)
and at least one-third of the width of the fireplace opening,
and the throat is at least 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel,
and at least 1/20 the cross-sectional area of the fireplace opening.
2111.7 Lintel and throat. Masonry over a fireplace opening
shall be supported by a lintel of noncombustible material. The
minimum required bearing length on each end of the fireplace
opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm). The fireplace throat or
damper shall be located a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm)
above the top of the fireplace opening.
2111.7.1 Damper. Masonry fireplaces shall be equipped
with a ferrous metal damper located at least 8 inches (203
mm) above the top of the fireplace opening. Dampers shall
be installed in the fireplace or at the top of the flue venting
the fireplace, and shall be operable from the room containing the fireplace. Damper controls shall be permitted to be
located in the fireplace. The damper shall be able to withstand distortion from binding, cracking or corrosion when
exposed to the fireplace operating temperature.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
23
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:25 AM
2111.9 Hearth and hearth extension. Masonry fireplace
hearths and hearth extensions shall be constructed of concrete,
ceramic tile, masonry or equivalent, supported by
noncombustible materials, and reinforced to carry their own
weight and all imposed loads. No combustible material shall
remain against the underside of hearths or hearth extensions
after construction.
2111.9.1 Hearth thickness. The minimum thickness of
fireplace hearths shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
2111.9.2 Hearth extension thickness. The minimum
thickness of hearth extensions shall be 2 inches (51 mm).
Exception: When the bottom of the firebox opening is
raised at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the
hearth extension, a hearth extension of not less than
3/ -inch-thick (9.5 mm) brick, concrete, stone, tile or
8
other approved noncombustible material is permitted.
2111.10 Hearth extension dimensions. Hearth extensions
shall extend at least 16 inches (406 mm) in front of, and at least
8 inches (203 mm) beyond, each side of the fireplace opening.
Where the fireplace opening is 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or larger,
the hearth extension shall extend at least 20 inches (508 mm) in
front of, and at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond, each side of
the fireplace opening.
2111.10.1 Elevated or overhanging fireplace. Where a
fireplace is elevated or overhangs a floor, the hearth extension shall also extend over the area under the fireplace.
2111.11 Fireplace clearance. Any portion of a masonry fireplace located in the interior of a building or within the exterior
wall of a building shall have a clearance to combustibles of not
less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the front faces and sides of
masonry fireplaces and not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from
the back faces of masonry fireplaces. The airspace shall not be
449
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2111.13.
Exceptions:
1. Masonry fireplaces listed and labeled for use in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 127,
and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
installation instructions, are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.
mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath
laid across the spaces between combustible material and the
chimney.
2111.14 Exterior air. Factory-built or masonry fireplaces covered in this section shall be equipped with an exterior air supply
to ensure proper fuel combustion unless the room is mechanically ventilated and controlled so that the indoor pressure is
neutral or positive.
2111.14.1 Factory-built fireplaces. Exterior combustion
air ducts for factory-built fireplaces shall be listed components of the fireplace, and installed according to the fireplace manufacturer’s instructions.
2. When masonry fireplaces are constructed as part of
masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials
shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete
walls less than 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside
surface of the nearest firebox lining.
3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing
materials, such as wood siding, flooring and drywall,
are permitted to abut the masonry fireplace sidewalls
and hearth extension, in accordance with Figure
2111.11, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (306 mm) from the
inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.
4. Exposed combustible mantels or trim is permitted to
be placed directly on the masonry fireplace front surrounding the fireplace opening provided such combustible materials shall not be placed within 6 inches
(153 mm) of a fireplace opening. Combustible material within 12 inches (306 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for
each 1-inch (25 mm) distance from such opening.
2111.14.2 Masonry fireplaces. Listed combustion air
ducts for masonry fireplaces shall be installed according to
the terms of their listing and manufacturer’s instructions.
2111.14.3 Exterior air intake. The exterior air intake shall
be capable of providing all combustion air from the exterior
of the dwelling. The exterior air intake shall not be located
within the garage, attic, basement or crawl space of the
dwelling nor shall the air intake be located at an elevation
higher than the firebox. The exterior air intake shall be covered with a corrosion-resistant screen of 1/4-inch (6.4 mm)
mesh.
2111.14.4 Clearance. Unlisted combustion air ducts shall
be installed with a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) clearance to
combustibles for all parts of the duct within 5 feet (1524
mm) of the duct outlet.
2111.14.5 Passageway. The combustion air passageway
shall be a minimum of 6 square inches (3870 mm2) and not
more than 55 square inches (0.035 m2), except that combustion air systems for listed fireplaces or for fireplaces tested
for emissions shall be constructed according to the fireplace
manufacturer’s instructions.
2111.14.6 Outlet. The exterior air outlet is permitted to be
located in the back or sides of the firebox chamber or within
24 inches (610 mm) of the firebox opening on or near the
floor. The outlet shall be closable and designed to prevent
burning material from dropping into concealed combustible
spaces.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
FIGURE 2111.11
ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION TO
FIREPLACE CLEARANCE PROVISION
2111.12 Mantel and trim. Woodwork or other combustible
materials shall not be placed within 6 inches (152 mm) of a fireplace opening. Combustible material within 12 inches (305
mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8
inch (3.2 mm) for each 1-inch (25mm) distance from such
opening.
2111.13 Fireplace fireblocking. All spaces between fireplaces and floors and ceilings through which fireplaces pass
shall be fireblocked with approved noncombustible material
securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between
wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25
SECTION BC 2112
MASONRY HEATERS
2112.1 Definition. A masonry heater is a heating appliance
constructed of concrete or solid masonry, hereinafter referred
to as “masonry,” having a mass of at least 1,760 pounds (800
kg), excluding the chimney and foundation, which is designed
to absorb and store heat from a solid fuel fire built in the firebox
by routing the exhaust gases through internal heat exchange
channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox
includes at least one 180-degree (3.14 rad) change in flow
direction before entering the chimney, and that delivers heat by
radiation from the masonry surface of the heater that shall not
exceed 230°F (110°C) except within 8 inches (203 mm) surrounding the fuel loading door(s).
2112.2 Installation. Masonry heaters may be installed only
when their use is permitted by the New York City Air Pollution
450
24
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:26 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
Control Code. When such use is permitted, masonry heaters
shall be installed in accordance with ASTM E 1602. If permitted, such appliances shall be operated in compliance with the
New York City Air Pollution Control Code.
chimneys except where such shrouds are listed and
labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney
system and are installed in accordance with the manufacturers’ installation instructions.
2112.3 Seismic reinforcing. Seismic reinforcing shall not be
required within the body of a masonry heater whose height is
equal to or less than 2.5 times its body width and where the
masonry chimney serving the heater is not supported by the
body of the heater. Where the masonry chimney shares a common wall with the facing of the masonry heater, the chimney
portion of the structure shall be reinforced in accordance with
Sections 2113.3 and 2113.4.
2113.1.3 Chimney linings. The lining in chimneys shall not
be considered as taking either compression or tension
stresses.
2112.4 Masonry heater clearance. Wood or other combustible framing shall not be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the
outside surface of a masonry heater, provided the wall thickness of the firebox is not less than 8 inches (203 mm) and the
wall thickness of the heat exchange channels is not less than 5
inches (127 mm). A clearance of at least 8 inches (203 mm)
shall be provided between the gas-tight capping slab of the
heater and a combustible ceiling. The required space between
the heater and combustible material shall be fully vented to permit the free flow of air around all heater surfaces.
SECTION BC 2113
MASONRY CHIMNEYS
2113.1 General. A masonry chimney is a chimney constructed
of concrete or masonry, hereinafter referred to as “masonry.”
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported
and reinforced as required in this chapter.
Chimneys shall be designed and constructed so as to provide
the necessary draft and capacity for each appliance connected
to them to completely exhaust the products of combustion to
the outside air. The temperature on adjacent combustible surfaces shall not be raised above 160°F (71°C). Condensation
shall not be allowed to develop to an extent that can cause deterioration of the chimney or vent.
In any case, the outlet shall be arranged so that the flue gases
are not directed so that they jeopardize people, overheat combustible structures, or enter building openings in the vicinity of
the outlet. Gas-fired appliances shall be vented in accordance
with this code and NFPA 54.
Chimneys shall not be supported by the equipment they
serve unless such equipment has been specifically designed for
such loads.
2113.1.1 Chimney adequacy for temperature and gas
action. Chimneys shall be of adequate structural strength
and resistant to the temperatures to which they may be subjected and to the corrosive action of gases.
2113.1.2 Chimney caps. Termination caps shall not be permitted and a 3-inch (76 mm) minimum drain shall be
installed to receive collected water. A positive means shall
be provided to prevent water from entering the appliance.
Exception: Termination caps shall be permitted on listed
factory-built chimneys.
2113.1.2.1 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds
shall not be installed at the termination of factory-built
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
25
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:26 AM
2113.1.4 Chimney expansion and contraction. Expansion and contraction in chimney walls due to temperature
variations shall be accommodated solely by the use of steel
reinforcing rings.
2113.1.5 Reinforcing rings. Reinforcing rings shall be provided at all changes in wall thickness, at the top of the chimney, and above and below all flue openings.
2113.1.6 Adjoining chimneys and vents. Adjoining chimneys and vents shall be in accordance with Sections
2113.1.6.1 through‡ 2113.1.6.8.
2113.1.6.1 Responsibility of owner of taller building.
Whenever a building is erected, enlarged, or increased in
height so that any portion of such building, except chimneys or vents, extends higher than the top of any previously constructed chimneys or vents within 100 feet (30
480 mm), the owner of such new or altered building shall
have the responsibility of altering such chimneys or
vents to make them conform with the requirements of
this chapter. A chimney or vent that is no longer connected with a fireplace or combustion or other equipment
for which a chimney or vent was required, shall be
exempt from this requirement. Such alterations shall be
accomplished by one of the following means or a combination thereof:
1. Carry up the previously constructed chimneys or
vents to the height required in this chapter.
2. Offset such chimneys or vents to a distance beyond
that required in this chapter from the new or altered
building provided that the new location of the outlet of the offset chimney or vent shall otherwise
comply with the requirements of this chapter.
3. Such requirements shall not dispense with or modify any additional requirements that may be applicable pursuant to rules of the New York City
Department of Environmental Protection.
2113.1.6.2 Protection of draft. After the alteration of a
chimney or vent as required by this section, it shall be the
responsibility of the owner of the new or altered building
to provide any mechanical equipment or devices necessary to maintain the proper draft in the equipment.
2113.1.6.3 Written notification. The owner of the new
or altered building shall notify the owner of the building
affected in writing at least 45 days before starting the
work required and request written consent to do such
work. Such notice shall be accompanied by plans indicating the manner in which the proposed alterations are
to be made.
451
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2113.1.6.5 Refusal of consent. If consent is not granted
by the owner of the previously constructed building to do
the alteration work required by this section, such owner
shall signify his or her refusal in writing to the owner of
the new or altered building and to the commissioner; and
the owner of the new or altered building having submitted plans that conform to the requirements of this section,
shall thereupon be released from any responsibility for
the proper operation of the equipment due to loss of draft
and for any health hazard or nuisance that may occur as a
result of the new or altered building. Such responsibilities shall then be assumed by the owner of the previously
constructed building. Similarly, should such owner fail
to grant consent within 45 days from the date of written
request or fail to signify his or her refusal, he or she shall
then assume all responsibilities as prescribed above.
all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed
earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected
to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below
finished grade.
2113.3 Seismic reinforcing. Masonry or concrete chimneys
shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as
required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category D,
masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced and
anchored as detailed in Sections 2113.3.1, 2113.3.2, and
2113.4. In Seismic Design Category B or C, reinforcement and
seismic anchorage is not required.
2113.3.1 Vertical reinforcing. For chimneys up to 40
inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars
anchored in the foundation shall be placed in the concrete,
between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section
2103.10. Grout shall be prevented from bonding with the
flue liner so that the flue liner is free to move with thermal
expansion. For chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm)
wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for
each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction
thereof.
2113.1.6.6 Procedure. It shall be the obligation of the
owner of the new or altered building to:
1. Schedule this work so as to create a minimum of
disturbance to the occupants of the affected building; and
2113.3.2 Horizontal reinforcing. Vertical reinforcement
shall be placed enclosed within 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) ties, or
other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area,
spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. in concrete, or
placed in the bed joints of unit masonry, at a minimum of
every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties
shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.
2. Provide such essential services as are normally
supplied by the equipment while it is out of service; and
3. Where necessary, support such extended chimneys, vents and equipment from this building or to
carry up such chimneys or vents within his or her
building; and
4. Provide for the maintenance, repair, and/or
replacement of such extensions and added equipment; and
5. Make such alterations of the same material as the
original chimney or vent so as to maintain the same
quality and appearance, except where the affected
owner of the chimney or vent shall give his or her
consent to do otherwise. All work shall be done in
such fashion as to maintain the architectural aesthetics of the existing building. Where there is
practical difficulty in complying strictly with the
provisions of this item, the commissioner may permit an equally safe alternative.
2113.4 Seismic anchorage. Masonry and concrete chimneys
and foundations in Seismic Design Category D shall be
anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet
(1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely
within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.
2113.4.1 Anchorage. Two 3/16-inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by
25 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches
(305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around
the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the
bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four
floor joists with two 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) bolts.
2113.1.6.8 Variance. The commissioner may grant a
variance in accordance with the provisions of this code.
2113.5 Corbeling. Masonry chimneys shall not be corbeled
more than half of the chimney’s wall thickness from a wall or
foundation, nor shall a chimney be corbeled from a wall or
foundation that is less than 12 inches (305 mm) in thickness
unless it projects equally on each side of the wall, except that on
the second story of a two-story dwelling, corbeling of chimneys on the exterior of the enclosing walls is permitted to equal
the wall thickness. The projection of a single course shall not
exceed one-half the unit height or one-third of the unit bed
depth, whichever is less. No masonry shall be corbeled from
hollow or cavity wall masonry units.
2113.2 Footings and foundations. Foundations for masonry
chimneys shall be constructed of concrete or solid masonry at
least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches
(152 mm) beyond the face of the foundation or support wall on
2113.6 Changes in dimension. The chimney wall or chimney
flue lining shall not change in size or shape within 6 inches
(152 mm) above or below where the chimney passes through
floor components, ceiling components or roof components.
2113.1.6.7 Existing violations. Any existing violations
on the previously constructed equipment shall be corrected by the owner of the equipment before any equipment is added or alterations made at the expense of the
owner of the new or altered building.
452
26
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:27 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
➡
➡
2113.1.6.4 Approval. The plans and method of alteration shall be subject to the approval of the commissioner.
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2113.9.1 Spark arrestors. Where a spark arrestor is
installed on a masonry chimney, the spark arrestor shall
meet all of the following requirements:
2113.7 Offsets. Where a masonry chimney is constructed with
a fireclay flue liner surrounded by one wythe of masonry, the
maximum offset shall be such that the centerline of the flue
above the offset does not extend beyond the center of the chimney wall below the offset. Where the chimney offset is supported by masonry below the offset in an approved manner, the
maximum offset limitations shall not apply. Each individual
corbeled masonry course of the offset shall not exceed the projection limitations specified in Section 2113.5.
1. The net free area of the arrestor shall not be less than
four times the net free area of the outlet of the chimney flue it serves.
2. The arrestor screen shall have heat and corrosion
resistance equivalent to 19-gage galvanized steel or
24-gage stainless steel.
2113.8 Additional load. Chimneys shall not support loads
other than their own weight unless they are designed and constructed to support the additional load. Masonry chimneys are
permitted to be constructed as part of the masonry walls or concrete walls of the building.
3. Openings shall not permit the passage of spheres having a diameter greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) nor
block the passage of spheres having a diameter less
than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
4. The spark arrestor shall be accessible for cleaning and
the screen or chimney cap shall be removable to allow
for cleaning of the chimney flue.
2113.9 Termination. Chimneys serving appliances that operate at less than 600°F (316°C) shall extend at least 3 feet (914
mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, parapet wall, or penthouse, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as
the chimney or on another building. However, such constructions do not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural
framing. Any chimney located beyond 10 feet (3048 mm) from
such construction, but not more than the distance determined
from Equation 21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high
as the construction.
2113.10 Wall thickness. Masonry chimney walls shall be constructed of concrete, solid masonry units or hollow masonry
units grouted solid with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal thickness, or 8 inches (203 mm) nominal thickness for
chimney walls extending more than 3 feet (914 mm) above the
highest lateral support point.
2113.11 Flue lining (material). Masonry chimneys shall be
lined. The lining material shall be appropriate for the type of
appliance connected, according to the terms of the appliance
listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.
Chimneys serving appliances that operate at between 600°F
(316°C) and 1000°F (538°C) shall extend at least 10 feet (3048
mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, or
parapet wall or penthouse within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the
chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or on another building. However, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents or open
structural framing. Any chimney located beyond 20 feet (6096
mm) from such construction, but not more than the distance
determined from Equation 21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at
least as high as the construction.
D= F× A
2113.11.1 Residential-type appliances (general). Flue
lining systems shall comply with one of the following:
1. Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of
ASTM C 315, or equivalent.
2. Listed chimney lining systems complying with UL
1777.
3. Factory-built chimneys or chimney units listed for
installation within masonry chimneys.
(Equation 21-5)
4. Other approved materials that will resist corrosion,
erosion, softening or cracking from flue gases and
condensate at temperatures up to 1,800ºF (982ºC).
= Distance, in feet, measured from the center of the chimney outlet to the nearest edge of the construction.
= Value determined from Table 2113.9.
= Free area, in square inches, of chimney flue space.
2113.11.1.1 Flue linings for specific appliances. Flue
linings other than those covered in Section 2113.11.1
intended for use with specific appliances shall comply
with Sections 2113.11.1.2 through 2113.11.1.4 and Sections 2113.11.2 and 2113.11.3.
where:
D
F
A
TABLE 2113.9
“F” FACTOR FOR DETERMINING CHIMNEY DISTANCES
“F” FACTOR FOR DETERMINING CHIMNEY DISTANCES
Type of Fuel
“F” Factor
600°F (316°C) and less
600°F (316°C) to 1000°F (538°C)
Greater than 1000°F (538°C)
Gas
2
2
3
No. 2 fuel oil
2.5
2.5
3
No. 4, No. 6 fuel oils, solid
fuels and incinerators
3
3
3
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
27
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:27 AM
453
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2113.11.2.5 Termination height. Chimneys serving
appliances that operate at greater than 1,000°F (538°C)
shall extend at least 20 feet (6096 mm) above the highest
construction, such as roof ridge, parapet wall, penthouse,
or other obstruction within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the
chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same
building as the chimney or in another building. However,
such construction does not include other chimneys,
vents, or open structural framing. Any chimney located
beyond 50 feet (15 240 mm) from such construction but
not more than the distance determined from Equation
21-5 and Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high as the construction.
2113.11.1.2 Gas appliances. Flue lining systems for gas
appliances shall be in accordance with the New York City
Fuel Gas Code.
2113.11.1.3 Pellet fuel-burning appliances. Pellet
fuel-burning appliances may be installed only when their
use is permitted by the New York City Air Pollution Control Code. Any such appliances shall be listed and
labeled and shall be installed in accordance with the
terms of the listing. If permitted, such appliances shall be
operated in compliance with the New York City Air Pollution Control Code. Flue lining and vent systems for use
in masonry chimneys with pellet fuel-burning appliances
shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with
Section 2113.11.1 and pellet vents listed for installation
within masonry chimneys (see Section 2113.11.1.5 for
marking).
2113.11.2.6 Clearance. A minimum clearance of 4
inches (102 mm) shall be provided between the exterior
surfaces of a concrete or masonry chimney for
medium-heat appliances and combustible material.
2113.11.1.4 Oil-fired appliances approved for use
with L-vent. Flue lining and vent systems for use in
masonry chimneys with oil-fired appliances approved
for use with Type L vent shall be limited to flue lining
systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and listed
chimney liners complying with UL 641 (see Section
2113.11.1.5 for marking).
2113.11.3 Concrete and masonry chimneys for
high-heat appliances.
2113.11.3.1 General. Concrete and masonry chimneys
for high-heat appliances shall comply with Sections
2113.1 through 2113.5.
2113.11.3.2 Construction. Chimneys for high-heat
appliances shall be constructed with double walls of
solid masonry units or of concrete, each wall to be a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick with a minimum airspace of 2 inches (51 mm) between the walls. Alternate
chimney designs for high-heat appliances constructed
with radial brick shall be permitted subject to the
approval of the commissioner.
2113.11.1.5 Notice of usage. When a flue is relined with
a material not complying with Section 2113.11.1, the
chimney shall be plainly and permanently identified by a
label attached to a wall, ceiling or other conspicuous
location adjacent to where the connector enters the chimney. The label shall include the following message or
equivalent language: “This chimney is for use only with
(type or category of appliance) that burns (type of fuel).
Do not connect other types of appliances.”
2113.11.3.3 Lining. The inside of the interior wall shall
be lined with an approved high-duty refractory brick, a
minimum of 41/2 inches (114 mm) thick laid on the
41/2-inch bed (114 mm) in an approved high-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start at the base of the chimney and extend continuously to the top.
2113.11.2 Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium
heat appliances.
2113.11.2.1 General. Concrete and masonry chimneys
for medium-heat appliances shall comply with Sections
2113.1 through 2113.5.
2113.11.3.4 Termination height. Concrete and
masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall extend
at least 20 feet (6069 mm) above the highest construction, such as roof ridge, parapet wall, penthouse, or other
obstruction within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the chimney
outlet, whether the construction is on the same building
as the chimney or on another building. However, such
constructions do not include other chimneys, vents, or
open structural framing. Any chimney located beyond 50
feet (15 240 mm) from such construction but not more
than the distance determined from Equation 21-5 and
Table 2113.9, shall be at least as high as the construction.
2113.11.2.2 Construction. Chimneys for medium-heat
appliances shall be constructed of solid masonry units or
of concrete with walls a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm)
thick, or with stone masonry a minimum of 12 inches
(305 mm). Chimneys for medium-heat appliances constructed with radial brick may be permitted to have different requirements. Design of all such chimneys shall be
submitted to the commissioner for approval.
2113.11.2.3 Lining. Concrete and masonry chimneys
shall be lined with an approved medium-duty refractory
brick a minimum of 41/2 inches (114 mm) thick laid on
the 41/2-inch bed (114 mm) in an approved medium-duty
refractory mortar. The lining shall start 2 feet (610 mm)
or more below the lowest chimney connector entrance.
Chimneys terminating 25 feet (7620 mm) or less above a
chimney connector entrance shall be lined to the top.
2113.11.2.4 Multiple passageway. Concrete and
masonry chimneys containing more than one passageway shall have the liners separated by a minimum
4-inch-thick (102 mm) concrete or solid masonry wall.
2113.11.3.5 Clearance. Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall have approved clearance from buildings and structures to prevent
overheating combustible materials, permit inspection
and maintenance operations on the chimney and prevent
danger of burns to persons.
2113.12 Flue lining (installation). Flue liners shall be
installed in accordance with ASTM C 1283 and extend from a
point not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the lowest inlet or,
454
28
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:27 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
in the case of fireplaces, from the top of the smoke chamber, to
a point above the enclosing walls. The lining shall be carried up
vertically, with a maximum slope no greater than 30 degrees
(0.52 rad) from the vertical. Fireclay flue liners shall be laid in
medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199,
with tight mortar joints left smooth on the inside and installed
to maintain an airspace or insulation not to exceed the thickness
of the flue liner separating the flue liners from the interior face
of the chimney masonry walls. Flue lining shall be supported
on all sides. Only enough mortar shall be placed to make the
joint and hold the liners in position.
2113.13 Additional requirements.
2113.13.1 Listed materials. Listed materials used as flue
linings shall be installed in accordance with the terms of
their listings and the manufacturer’s instructions.
2113.13.2 Space around lining. The space surrounding a
chimney lining system or vent installed within a masonry
chimney shall not be used to vent any other appliance.
the adjacent flue linings shall be staggered at least 4 inches
(102 mm).
2113.15 Flue area (appliance). Chimney flues shall not be
smaller in area than the area of the connector from the appliance. Chimney flues connected to more than one appliance
shall not be less than the area of the largest connector plus 50
percent of the areas of additional chimney connectors.
Exceptions:
1. Chimney flues serving oil-fired appliances sized in
accordance with NFPA 31.
2. Chimney flues serving gas-fired appliances sized in
accordance with the New York City Fuel Gas Code.
2113.16 Flue area (masonry fireplace). Flue sizing for chimneys serving fireplaces shall be in accordance with Section
2113.16.1 or 2113.16.2.
2113.14 Multiple flues. When two or more flues are located in
the same chimney, masonry wythes shall be built between adjacent flue linings. The masonry wythes shall be at least 4 inches
(102 mm) thick and bonded into the walls of the chimney.
2113.16.1 Minimum area. Round chimney flues shall have
a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/12 of the fireplace opening. Square chimney flues shall have a minimum
net cross-sectional area of at least 1/10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio less than
2 to 1 shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at
least 1/10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney
flues with an aspect ratio of 2 to 1 or more shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/8 of the fireplace
opening.
Exception: When venting only one appliance, two flues are
permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with
only the flue lining separation between them. The joints of
2113.16.2 Determination of minimum area. The minimum net cross-sectional area of the flue shall be determined
in accordance with Figure 2113.16. A flue size providing at
Exception: This shall not prevent the installation of a
separate flue lining in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 mm2.
FIGURE 2113.16
FLUE SIZES FOR MASONRY CHIMNEYS
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
29
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:39 AM
455
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
least the equivalent net cross-sectional area shall be used.
Cross-sectional areas of clay flue linings are as provided in
Tables 2113.16(1) and 2113.16(2) or as provided by the
manufacturer or as measured in the field. The height of the
chimney shall be measured from the firebox floor to the top
of the chimney flue.
TABLE 2113.16(1)
NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF ROUND FLUE SIZESa
FLUE SIZE, INSIDE DIAMETER
(inches)
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA
(square inches)
6
28
7
38
8
50
10
78
10 3/4
90
12
113
15
176
18
below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The height of the
opening shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm). The cleanout shall
be provided with a noncombustible cover.
Exception: Chimney flues serving masonry fireplaces,
where cleaning is possible through the fireplace opening.
2113.19 Chimney clearances. Any portion of a masonry
chimney located in the interior of the building or within the
exterior wall of the building shall have a minimum airspace
clearance to combustibles of 2 inches (51 mm). Chimneys
located entirely outside the exterior walls of the building,
including chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall
have a minimum airspace clearance of 1 inch (25 mm). The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in
accordance with Section 2113.20.
Exceptions:
1. Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining
system listed and labeled for use in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777,
and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions, are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.
2. Where masonry chimneys are constructed as part of
masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials
shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete
wall less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining.
3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing
materials, such as wood siding, are permitted to abut
the masonry chimney sidewalls, in accordance with
Figure 2113.19, provided such combustible trim or
sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) from
the inside surface of the nearest flue lining. Combustible material and trim shall not overlap the corners of
the chimney by more than 1 inch (25 mm).
254
2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm .
a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315.
TABLE 2113.16(2)
NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF SQUARE AND
RECTANGULAR FLUE SIZESa
FLUE SIZE, INSIDE DIMENSION
(inches)
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA
(square inches)
41/2 × 13
34
71/
71/
2×
2
37
81/2 × 81/2
47
111/
58
71/
2
81/
×
2
2
× 13
74
71/2 × 151/2
82
111/
91
111/
81/
2
2
×
×
171/
2
2
13 × 13
111/
2
×
13 ×
122
151/
171/
101
2
124
165
2
151/2 × 151/2
168
×
191/
2
214
×
171/
2
226
191/2 × 191/2
269
151/
171/
2
2
20 × 20
286
2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm .
a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
2113.17 Inlet. Inlets to masonry chimneys shall enter from the
side. Inlets shall have a thimble of fireclay, rigid refractory
material or metal that will prevent the connector from pulling
out of the inlet or from extending beyond the wall of the liner.
2113.18 Masonry chimney cleanout openings. Cleanout
openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the
base of each flue within every masonry chimney. The upper
edge of the cleanout shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm)
456
30
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:40 AM
FIGURE 2113.19
ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION TO
CHIMNEY CLEARANCE PROVISION
2113.19.1 Additional requirements for clearance.
1. Trimmers shall be not less than 5 inches (127 mm)
from the inside face of the concrete or masonry chimney wall. Finished flooring shall have at least 1/2 inch
(13 mm) clearance from chimney walls.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
2. A clearance of at least 2 inches (51 mm) shall be provided between the exterior surfaces of interior
masonry or concrete chimneys for all wood-burning
appliances.
3. No combustible lathing, furring, or plaster grounds
shall be placed against a chimney at any point more
than 11/2 inches (38 mm) from the corner of the chimney; but this shall not prevent plastering directly on
masonry or on metal lath and metal furring nor shall it
prevent placing chimneys for low-temperature equipment entirely on the exterior of a building against the
sheathing.
2113.20 Chimney fireblocking. All spaces between chimneys
and floors and ceilings through which chimneys pass shall be
fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened in
place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams
or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only
be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces
between combustible material and the chimney.
2113.21 Test run. All new chimneys shall be test run by the
registered design professional responsible for the testing under
standard conditions to demonstrate fire safety and the complete
exhausting of smoke and the products of combustion to the
outer air. The results of such test run shall be certified as correct
by the design professional engineer responsible for the test and
shall be submitted in writing to the department.
2113.22 Requirement of a smoke test. A smoke test shall be
made as outlined below. Any faults or leaks found shall be corrected. Such smoke test shall be witnessed by a representative
of the commissioner. In lieu thereof, the commissioner may
accept the test report of the design professional engineer
responsible for the test, which shall be submitted in writing to
the department.
2113.22.1 Smoke test. To determine the tightness of chimney construction, a smoke test shall be made in accordance
with the following conditions and requirements:
1. The equipment, materials, power and labor necessary
for such test shall be furnished by, and at the expense
of, the owner or holder of the work permit.
2. If the test shows any evidence of leakage or other
defects, such defects shall be corrected in accordance
with the requirement of this chapter and the test shall
be repeated until the results are satisfactory.
3. Method of test. The chimney shall be filled with a
thick penetrating smoke produced by one or more
smoke machines, or smoke bombs, or other equivalent method. As the smoke appears at the stack opening on the roof, such opening shall be tightly closed,
and a pressure equivalent to 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) column of water measured at the base of the stack shall
be applied. The test shall be conducted for a length of
time sufficient to permit the inspection of the chimney.
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
31
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:40 AM
SECTION BC 2114
STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY REQUIREMENTS
2114.1 General. Load-bearing masonry structures shall be
reinforced to meet all of the requirements of this section. However, reinforcement provided for gravity, seismic or wind
forces or for other purposes may be regarded as satisfying part
of, or the whole of, these requirements. Reinforcement provided for one requirement may be counted towards the other
requirements.
2114.2 Continuity and ties. Load-bearing masonry structures
shall be reinforced to obtain a continuous system of vertical
and horizontal ties. Continuity of all ties shall be ensured by
providing lap, welded or mechanical tension splices. The following requirements shall be met for walls, columns and piers:
2114.2.1 Horizontal. At each floor and roof level, continuous horizontal ties shall be provided in all load-bearing
masonry walls, and around the perimeter of the building.
Minimum horizontal tie reinforcement shall be not less than
the equivalent of two No. 4 bars.
2114.2.1.1 Location of horizontal ties. Ties shall be
located within the thickness of walls or beams, where
they occur, or within 1 foot (305 mm) of the edge of slab,
where walls or beams do not occur.
2114.2.1.2 End connections of horizontal ties. All horizontal ties shall be terminated in a perpendicular horizontal tie. Where no perpendicular horizontal tie exists
within 4 feet (1219 mm) of the end of a wall, the horizontal tie shall be anchored at the end of the wall. The vertical reinforcement at the end of such walls shall not be
less than two No. 4 bars placed within 16 inches (406
mm) of the end of the wall. This vertical reinforcement
shall be continuous from the lowest to highest level of the
wall, and anchored at each end in a horizontal tie or the
foundation element.
2114.2.2 End connections. Where slab or beam elements
are supported on a masonry wall, column or pier, the connection shall be designed to sustain an axial tension capacity
equal to the greater of the vertical shear capacity of the connected element at either end or 2 percent of the maximum
factored vertical dead and live load in the compression
masonry element. The design of the end connections shall
ensure the transfer of such loads to horizontal or vertical
ties.
Where more than one element frames in one direction,
none of the elements or connections shall have an axial tension capacity of less than 1 percent of the vertical load.
For the design of the connections, the transverse shear
force and the axial tensile force need not be considered to act
simultaneously.
The reinforcement of the end connections shall be equivalent to at least one No. 4 bar, at a maximum spacing of 24
inches (610 mm) on center. Where end connections occur at
a masonry pier or column, reinforcement equivalent to a
minimum of four fully developed No. 4 bars shall be provided. The reinforcement shall be distributed around the
perimeter of the column or pier. The minimum anchorage
457
Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile
Composite Default screen
MASONRY
into both the slab and the masonry compression element
shall be equivalent to the capacity of the fully developed No.
4 bar.
Where the floor extends on both sides of a bearing wall,
the portion of the tie within the slab shall alternate between
both sides.
2114.2.3 Vertical ties. Each column, pier and wall shall be
vertically tied continuously from its lowest to highest level.
The vertical reinforcement shall be terminated in a horizontal tie or foundation or their equivalent. Where openings in
bearing walls greater than 24 inches (610 mm) in height
occur, ties shall be provided at each side of the opening that
extend and are anchored in the masonry above and below
the opening. Vertical ties shall be placed on both sides of
control joints in bearing walls.
2114.2.3.1 Vertical ties reinforcing. Vertical tie reinforcing shall not be less than the equivalent of one No. 4
bar, at a maximum spacing of 48 inches (1219 mm) on
center. A minimum of four continuous No. 4 bars shall be
provided per masonry column or pier.
458
32
21_NYC_2008_IBC.ps
M:\data\CODES\STATE CODES\New York City\2008\Building\Final VP\21_NYC_2008_IBC.vp
Thursday, August 14, 2008 9:29:40 AM
2008 NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement