(ZKM), Karlsruhe - Wissenschaftsrat
Stellungnahme zum
Zentrum für Kunst und
Medientechnologie
(ZKM), Karlsruhe
Drs. 5738/03
Kiel, 11. Juli 2003
Stellungnahme zum
Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie
(ZKM), Karlsruhe
Inhalt
Seite
Vorbemerkung
3
A. Kenngrößen des ZKM
5
B. Auftrag
6
C. Kultur- und wissenschaftspolitische Leistungsfähigkeit
7
D. Organisation, Struktur und Ausstattung
11
E. Zusammenfassung und Empfehlung
12
Anlage:
14
Report on the Center for Art and Media (ZKM), Karlsruhe
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Vorbemerkung
Der Wissenschaftsrat ist vom Land Baden-Württemberg im Juni 2002 gebeten worden, das Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM), Karlsruhe, zu evaluieren.
Eckpunkte für die Evaluation des ZKM sind nach Wunsch des Landes:
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Positionierung des ZKM im nationalen und internationalen Vergleich;
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Qualität der medienorientierten Forschung und künstlerischen Entwicklung des
ZKM an der Schnittstelle zwischen Kunst, Medien und Forschung;
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Potenzial des ZKM zur Übertragung der Ergebnisse in die wirtschaftliche Praxis
und zur Auslösung weiterer Entwicklungen in anderen kulturellen Einrichtungen;
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Kooperationsfähigkeit des ZKM mit Hochschulen, Forschungs- und Kunsteinrichtungen sowie mit der Wirtschaft;
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künstlerische Arbeit und Präsentation des ZKM im Hinblick auf seinen Satzungsauftrag unter Berücksichtigung der Einbindung des Museums für Neue Kunst
(MNK);
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Struktur, Organisation und Ausstattung des ZKM;
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fachliche und strukturelle Weiterentwicklung des ZKM.
Der Wissenschaftsrat hat diese Aufgabe dem Evaluationsausschuss übertragen. Auf
seiner Sitzung am 25. November 2002 hat der Evaluationsausschuss beschlossen,
die Begutachtung des ZKM im Jahr 2003 durchzuführen und eine Bewertungsgruppe
einzusetzen. Die international besetzte Bewertungsgruppe hat das ZKM am 24./25.
Februar 2003 in Karlsruhe besucht und anschließend den vorliegenden englischsprachigen Bewertungsbericht verfasst. Nach Verabschiedung durch die Bewertungsgruppe ist der Bericht im weiteren Verfahren nicht mehr veränderbar.
In der Bewertungsgruppe haben auch Sachverständige mitgewirkt, die nicht Mitglieder des Wissenschaftsrates sind. Ihnen ist der Wissenschaftsrat zu besonderem
Dank verpflichtet.
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Auf Grundlage des Bewertungsberichts hat der Evaluationsausschuss am 3. Juni
2003 die wissenschaftspolitische Stellungnahme erarbeitet. Die Stellungnahme wurde vom Wissenschaftsrat am 11. Juli 2003 verabschiedet.
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A. Kenngrößen des ZKM
Das Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM) ist eine Stiftung des öffentlichen Rechts mit Sitz in Karlsruhe. Als Einrichtung des Landes Baden-Württemberg
und der Stadt Karlsruhe wird die Grundfinanzierung jeweils zu gleichen Teilen vom
Land und der Stadt Karlsruhe bereitgestellt. Die Stiftungsorgane sind: der Stiftungsrat, der Vorstand und das Kuratorium. Vorstand der Stiftung ist der Direktor des ZKM;
die Dauer der Bestellung des Vorstands/Direktors ist ebenso wie die Möglichkeit einer Wiederbestellung in der Satzung nicht festgelegt. Bisher wurde der Vorstand/Direktor vom Stiftungsrat für die Dauer von fünf Jahren berufen.
Das Museum für Neue Kunst (MNK) ist laut Zusatzvereinbarung vom 30.10.20001)
eine Abteilung des ZKM und wird von einem Direktor in eigener Verantwortung für
Teilhaushalt und Personal des MNK geleitet. Die Gesamtverantwortung für das ZKM
liegt beim Vorstand/Direktor des ZKM.
Im Haushaltsjahr 2001 standen dem ZKM institutionelle Mittel in Höhe von 13,4 Mio.
Euro (zusätzlich MNK: 3,2 Mio. Euro) bei Gesamteinnahmen von 1,5 Mio. Euro (zusätzlich MNK: 202. 700 Euro) zur Verfügung. Davon entfielen 3,4 Mio. Euro auf Personalkosten (zusätzlich MNK: 664.700 Euro), 5,4 Mio. Euro auf allgemeine Verwaltungsausgaben (zusätzlich MNK: 1,8 Mio Euro), 884.500 Euro für Zuwendungen
(inkl. Zuwendungen für MNK), 388.200 Euro für allgemeine Investitionen über 5.000
Euro (zusätzlich MNK: 47.500 Euro), 3,3 Mio. Euro für die Organisation von Ausstellungen und Veranstaltungen (zusätzlich MNK: 660.100 Euro) sowie 113.300 Euro für
den Ankauf von Kunstwerken und Sammlungsgegenständen (zusätzlich MNK:
61.400 Euro). Das ZKM verfügt über insgesamt 64 Planstellen (zusätzlich MNK:
16,5), davon 19 (zusätzlich MNK: fünf) für wissenschaftlich-künstlerisches Personal
und 45 für nichtwissenschaftliches bzw. nichtkünstlerisches Personal (zusätzlich
MNK: 11,5). Von den insgesamt 24 grundfinanzierten Stellen für wissenschaftlichkünstlerisches Personal sind am ZKM elf und am MNK vier befristet besetzt. Hinzu
kommen für den wissenschaftlich-künstlerischen Bereich am ZKM neun aus Drittmitteln finanzierte befristete Beschäftigungsverhältnisse.
1)
Aufgabenverteilung für das Museum für Neue Kunst des ZKM Karlsruhe, Stand: 30.10.2000.
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Die Summe der vom ZKM eingeworbenen Drittmittel betrug im Jahre 2000 1,93 Mio.
Euro, in 2001 1,97 Mio. Euro und in 2002 3,3 Mio. Euro. Von den 7,2 Mio. Euro
Drittmitteln insgesamt entfiel 37,2 % auf Mittel des Sitzlandes und anderer Bundesländer, 2,9 % auf den Bund, 3,2 % auf die Europäische Union und 24,8 % auf Stiftungen. Der Drittmittelanteil aus der Wirtschaft lag bei 22 %. Das MNK hat im Zeitraum 2000-2002 keine Drittmittel eingeworben.
Doktorandenstellen stehen am ZKM nicht zur Verfügung. Für externe Doktoranden
bietet das ZKM verschiedene Möglichkeiten der Betreuung durch ZKM-Mitarbeiter
bzw. der Arbeit in den Labors. In den Jahren 2000-2002 wurden insgesamt 15 Diplom- bzw. Magisterarbeiten und fünf Promotionsarbeiten von Mitarbeitern des ZKM
betreut.
B. Auftrag
Die Stiftung hat laut § 2 der Stiftungssatzung „die Aufgabe, als Einrichtung der Forschung, der Kulturvermittlung und der Weiterbildung eine umfassende Auseinandersetzung mit Kunst und Medientechnologie, insbesondere in den Bereichen Bild, Musik, Wort und Verbindungen unter ihnen zu ermöglichen.“
Im einzelnen hat die Stiftung folgende Aufgaben:
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„In den Experimentier- und Forschungswerkstätten und Labors sollen Künstler
und Wissenschaftler projektbezogen und - soweit möglich - interdisziplinär künstlerische Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der neuen Medien in Theorie und Praxis erforschen und entwickeln.
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Eine Aufführungsstätte soll die Möglichkeit bieten, sowohl Gastaufführungen zu
veranstalten als auch die in den Labors erarbeiteten Ergebnisse einem größeren
Publikum vorzustellen; insbesondere sollen Veranstaltungen, die dem Ziel dienen,
unterschiedliche Kunst- und Mediengattungen zu verbinden, gefördert werden.
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In einem Museumsforum, das sich in ein Medienmuseum und ein Museum für
Neue Kunst gliedert, sollen die Geschichte der Medien und deren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten wie auch die Kunst der Gegenwart in ihren vielfältigen traditionellen
und medialen Aspekten zur Anschauung gebracht werden. Sammlung und Ausstellungspraxis des Museums für Neue Kunst sollen einen Querschnitt geben
durch die Kunstpraxis der unmittelbaren Gegenwart und den Vergleich der traditionellen Kunst mit der Medienkunst ermöglichen.
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Im Dienstleistungsbereich einer Bibliothek, Videothek, Audiothek und Diathek
werden Werke aus dem Spannungsfeld zwischen Kunst und Technik gesammelt
und dokumentiert und in einem Verbund mit anderen nationalen und internationalen Datenbanken für Künstler, Wissenschaftler und Bürger zugänglich gemacht.
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In allen Bereichen soll dem Bürger die Begegnung und der gestalterische Umgang mit den neuen Medien und die Fort- und Weiterbildung ermöglicht werden.“2)
C. Kultur- und wissenschaftspolitische Leistungsfähigkeit
Im Kontext künstlerischer Produktionsprozesse werden am ZKM sehr erfolgreich
neueste Kommunikations- und Medientechnologien weiterentwickelt und für kunstbezogene Anwendungen nutzbar gemacht. Auf diesem Gebiet hat sich das ZKM national wie international einen hervorragenden Ruf erarbeitet. Die hierfür notwendige
Forschung wird teilweise eigenständig durch das ZKM erbracht, zumeist aber in beispielhafter Kooperation mit renommierten Forschungseinrichtungen wie z. B. dem
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe und einzelnen Fachbereichen der Universität Karlsruhe. Die enge Zusammenarbeit von Künstlern und Wissenschaftlern hat sich für beide
Seiten als äußerst fruchtbar erwiesen und lässt auch weiterhin innovative Anstöße
erwarten, die in der Kunst ebenso wie im Bereich angewandter Technologien zu
neuen Entwicklungen führen können.
2)
Satzung der Stiftung ZKM vom 25.10.2001, § 2.
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Als „Einrichtung der Forschung, der Kulturvermittlung und der Weiterbildung“3) setzt
das ZKM die Kernaufgaben Kunst- bzw. Musikproduktion, Ausstellungswesen und
Sammlungstätigkeit in überzeugender Weise um. Insbesondere die beiden Hauptabteilungen (Institut für Bildmedien, Institut für Musik und Akustik) haben exzellente
Arbeit geleistet, die auch international sichtbar ist. In enger Zusammenarbeit der beiden Institute sind in den vergangenen Jahren wichtige multimediale Kunstproduktionen entstanden, die entscheidend zur Profilbildung des ZKM im internationalen Maßstab beigetragen haben. Der Bereich Ausstellungen entwickelt und realisiert exzellente Ausstellungskonzepte, die komplexe Themen zu zeitgenössischen Medien- und
Technologieentwicklungen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft behandeln.
Im Kontext dieser Ausstellungen entstehen umfangreiche Katalogwerke, die den aktuellen Wissensstand zum jeweiligen Thema hervorragend dokumentieren und erweitern. Der Bereich Sammlungen (Medienmuseum, Mediathek, ZKM-Sammlung
Zeitgenössischer Kunst) erbringt ebenfalls sehr gute Leistungen. Insgesamt verfügen
die ZKM-Sammlungen über eine in Deutschland einzigartige Vielfalt an Beständen
der Videokunst, interaktiven Kunst, elektronisch-akustischen Musik, Installationen,
aber auch der Malerei und Plastik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Hervorzuheben ist auch das
von der Mediathek in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Medienmuseum und den Instituten
für Bildmedien und Musik und Akustik in Angriff genommene Projekt zur digitalen
Restaurierung und Archivierung von Sammlungsbeständen, da in diesem Bereich
erhöhter Handlungsbedarf besteht. Insgesamt ist die interdisziplinäre Arbeit der genannten ZKM-Abteilungen sehr gut aufeinander abgestimmt.
Im Gegensatz dazu arbeitet die Abteilung Museum für Neue Kunst (MNK) weitestgehend isoliert ohne erkennbaren Bezug zur sonstigen Arbeit des ZKM. Der Grund
hierfür ist in erster Linie darin zu sehen, dass das MNK bereits frühzeitig in ein
Sammlermuseum umgewandelt wurde und so die ursprünglich intendierte Verzahnung von Medienkunst und traditionellen Künsten (Malerei, Plastik etc.) nicht umgesetzt werden konnte. Derzeit sieht sich das MNK vor allem den privaten Leihgebern
verpflichtet, deren Sammlungen wissenschaftlich aufgearbeitet und ausgestellt werden. Die vorhandenen Ressourcen können deshalb nicht dafür eingesetzt werden,
die ZKM-eigene Sammlung Zeitgenössischer Kunst in angemessener Weise zu be
3)
Ebd.
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arbeiten und auszustellen. Um künftig dem Satzungsauftrag besser gerecht werden
zu können und die internationale Bedeutung des ZKM weiter auszubauen, wird
empfohlen, das MNK inhaltlich und administrativ in den Gesamtkontext des ZKM zurückzuführen (vgl. dazu auch die Ausführungen im beiliegenden Bewertungsbericht,
S. 49f.). Sollte diese Reintegration nicht umgesetzt werden können, wird dringend
empfohlen, das MNK auszulagern, um die Räumlichkeiten für die ZKM-eigene
Sammlung bereitzustellen.
Auch die neu gegründeten Abteilungen Institut für Grundlagenforschung und Institut
für Medien und Wirtschaft sind zu wenig in die Arbeit des ZKM integriert und lassen
ein im Rahmen des ZKM umsetzbares Konzept vermissen. Die grundsätzlichen inhaltlichen Ausrichtungen der beiden Abteilungen sind zwar positiv zu bewerten, aber
deren derzeitige institutionelle Umsetzung ist nicht überzeugend. Aufgrund der geringen Zahl von Mitarbeitern sollten diese Abteilungen nicht als Institute sondern vielmehr als inhaltlich wie personell flexible Arbeitsgruppen etabliert werden, die projektbezogen mit den Künstlern zusammenarbeiten. Das ebenfalls neu gegründete Institut für Netzentwicklung nimmt in erster Linie Serviceaufgaben im Kommunikationsbereich wahr und unterstützt damit die Arbeit der anderen ZKM-Abteilungen. Allerdings
ist der Fokus dieser Abteilung zu stark auf Standardtechnologien ausgerichtet, und
das vorhandene innovative Potenzial ist - gemessen an der Bedeutung, den dieser
Arbeitsbereich für die weitere Profilierung des ZKM haben könnte - zu gering. Um die
vorhandenen Ressourcen besser zu nutzen und auszubauen, sollte die inhaltliche
Orientierung der drei neu gegründeten Abteilungen stärker den Kernaufgaben und kompetenzen des ZKM angepasst werden. Von einem Ausbau naturwissenschaftlich
orientierter Grundlagenforschung am ZKM ist prinzipiell abzuraten, da das erforderliche wissenschaftliche Niveau im Rahmen einer künstlerisch ausgerichteten Institution nicht gewährleistet werden kann. Vielmehr wird nachdrücklich empfohlen, die bereits hervorragend bewährten Kooperationen mit renommierten Forschungseinrichtungen auszubauen.
Insgesamt sind die Kooperationsbeziehungen des ZKM zu Forschungsinstituten,
Universitäten, Kunsthochschulen, Museen und anderen kulturellen Institutionen im
In- und Ausland sehr gut. Europäische und internationale Kooperationen im Bereich
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Restaurierung und Archivierung von Medienkunst sollten allerdings ebenso ausgebaut werden, wie die Zusammenarbeit mit Wirtschaftsunternehmen. Auch die Kooperationsbeziehungen zu den Hochschulen in Karlsruhe sollten noch weiter intensiviert
werden, z. B. durch gemeinsame Berufungen von Professoren und kooperative Studienprogramme.
Neben hausinterner Forschungsarbeit im Kontext künstlerischer Produktionen werden am ZKM neue technologische wie künstlerische Fragestellungen maßgeblich
durch externe Künstler, Musiker bzw. Wissenschaftler eingebracht und bearbeitet,
die im Rahmen des Artist-in-Residence-Programms projektbezogen in den verschiedenen ZKM-Abteilungen arbeiten. Dieses Programm adressiert ausschließlich etablierte Künstler aus dem In- und Ausland, deren Arbeit dem Profil und der am ZKM
vorhandenen technischen Ausstattung entspricht. Den Gastkünstlern wird am ZKM
ein attraktives technisches und vor allem intellektuelles Umfeld geboten, welches den
sehr guten internationalen Ruf des ZKM mit begründet. Um dies auch weiterhin zu
gewährleisten, ist künftig eine gezieltere Personalplanung sowohl für die Leitungsebene, die Ebene der künstlerisch-wissenschaftlichen Mitarbeiter als auch für den
technischen Bereich notwendig.
Das ZKM hat sich mit einem abwechslungsreichen Programm von Kunst- und Musikveranstaltungen als Aufführungsort für aktuelle Produktionen der Medienkünste sehr
gut etabliert. Es veranstaltet weiterhin sehr erfolgreich Konferenzen, Podiumsdiskussionen und Vorlesungsreihen mit national wie international renommierten Künstlern
und Wissenschaftlern. Durch die sehr gute Arbeit der Abteilung Museumskommunikation werden die vielfältigen Aktivitäten des ZKM einer breiten Öffentlichkeit auf
überzeugende Weise nahe gebracht.
Künstlerisch-wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter des ZKM (außer Mitarbeiter des MNK)
werden überdurchschnittlich häufig zu Tagungen anderer Einrichtungen im In- und
Ausland eingeladen. Die Publikationsleistungen der ZKM-Mitarbeiter sind gut, allerdings könnte die Zahl der Veröffentlichungen in externen referierten Organen erhöht
werden.
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Die am ZKM in Zusammenarbeit mit Forschungseinrichtungen entwickelten Technologien sind auch für die wirtschaftliche Praxis von großem Interesse. Hier sollten von
Seiten des ZKM gezielt Anstrengungen unternommen werden, um den Technologietransfer in die Wirtschaft zu fördern.
Während das MNK keinerlei Drittmittel akquiriert hat, ist zu begrüßen, dass das ZKM
die Drittmitteleinwerbung in den letzten Jahren deutlich steigern konnte. Allerdings
wäre künftig im Hinblick auf das Institut für Medien und Wirtschaft darauf zu achten,
dass nur Drittmittelprojekte akquiriert werden, die dem Satzungsauftrag des ZKM
entsprechen. Prinzipiell sollte die Drittmitteleinwerbung verstärkt und strategischer
angegangen werden.
D. Organisation, Struktur und Ausstattung
Laut Satzung des ZKM nimmt der Stiftungsrat die Funktion eines Aufsichtsrats wahr,
während das Kuratorium im Sinne eines Wissenschaftlichen Beirats tätig werden soll.
Diese unterschiedlichen Tätigkeitsbereiche der beiden Stiftungsorgane sind derzeit
zu wenig getrennt. Um seine beratende Funktion in fachlichen Fragen wahrnehmen
zu können und damit eine externe Qualitätskontrolle zu etablieren, muss das Kuratorium insgesamt gestärkt werden. Grundsätzliche inhaltliche Angelegenheiten, wie
z. B. die Einführung neuer Arbeitsschwerpunkte, sollten nur im Benehmen mit dem
Kuratorium umgesetzt werden. Im Gegenzug sollte sich der Stiftungsrat auf seine
Funktion als Aufsichtsgremium konzentrieren. Dies kann nur erreicht werden, wenn
die in der Satzung festgelegte Zusammensetzung des Stiftungsrates verändert wird.
Vertreter der Universität Karlsruhe und der Karlsruher Kunsthochschulen sollten nicht
dem Stiftungsrat, sondern dem Kuratorium angehören und dort vor allem die fachliche, nicht die administrative Ebene der jeweiligen Hochschule repräsentieren.
Grundsätzlich ist der Stiftungsrat im Hinblick auf seine Funktionsfähigkeit zu groß
und sollte möglichst auf die stimmberechtigten Mitglieder und - falls notwendig - wenige Mitglieder mit beratender Stimme reduziert werden.
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Zur Stärkung der internen Qualitätskontrolle sollte auch das Projektmanagement
verbessert werden. Deshalb wird empfohlen, einen Projektkoordinator einzustellen,
der für das Management aller ZKM-Projekte zuständig ist.
Um eine größere inhaltliche Flexibilität angesichts sich stetig verändernder künstlerischer Fragestellungen zu erlangen, sollten die drei neu gegründeten Abteilungen im
Sinne von Arbeitsgruppen in die Hauptabteilungen des ZKM eingegliedert werden.
Die am ZKM gängige Praxis der Vergabe von befristeten Verträgen ist grundsätzlich
zu befürworten, da auf diese Weise eine personelle Flexibilität gewährleistet werden
kann, die angesichts der dynamischen Entwicklung der Medientechnologien für die
Arbeit des ZKM von erheblicher Bedeutung ist. Dennoch muss stärker darauf geachtet werden, dass diese Flexibilität nicht mit einer zu hohen Personalfluktuation
einhergeht. Um die Kontinuität der Arbeit des ZKM zu garantieren, sollte grundsätzlich die Möglichkeit bestehen, Arbeitsverträge zu verlängern bzw. längerfristige Arbeitsverträge abzuschließen, die den Projektlaufzeiten angepasst sind. Insbesondere
im Hinblick auf das wissenschaftlich-künstlerische Leitungspersonal sollte die Möglichkeit der Vertragsverlängerung um weitere fünf Jahre in die Stiftungssatzung aufgenommen werden (d. h. Vertragslaufzeit insgesamt bis zu zehn Jahre). Zudem wird
empfohlen, die Option einer Wiederbestellung des Vorstands/Direktors in der Satzung zu verankern.
Die technische Ausstattung, vor allem des Instituts für Musik und Akustik, ist hervorragend. Das derzeit verfügbare Budget und die Personalausstattung sind jedoch für
eine effektive Ausnutzung der technischen Ressourcen nicht ausreichend. Außerdem
sollten vorhandene Finanzmittel noch effizienter genutzt werden. Die geplante Einführung der Kosten und Leistungsrechnung wird ausdrücklich begrüßt.
E. Zusammenfassung und Empfehlung
Seit seiner Gründung hat sich das ZKM zu einem national wie international anerkannten Standort für Kunst und Medientechnologie entwickelt. Im Kontext künstleri
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scher Produktionsprozesse entstehen am ZKM innovative Technologieentwicklungen
und hervorragende künstlerische Arbeiten, die international wahrgenommen werden.
Das ZKM hat sich auch als Serviceeinrichtung für Künstler und Wissenschaftler aus
aller Welt etabliert, die im Rahmen des Artist-in-Residence-Programms projektbezogen am ZKM tätig sind. Mit einer umfangreichen Sammlungs- und Ausstellungstätigkeit werden museumsspezifische Aufgaben sehr gut wahrgenommen. Das ZKM führt
darüber hinaus sehr erfolgreich Tagungen, Podiumsdiskussionen bzw. Vorlesungsreihen durch und fungiert als Veranstaltungsort für künstlerische Produktionen aus
dem In- und Ausland. Die Zusammenführung von technologiebasierter Kunstproduktion, Museumsarbeit und vielfältiger Veranstaltungstätigkeit ist deutschlandweit singulär und kann als besonderes Verdienst des ZKM herausgestellt werden.
Der Wissenschaftsrat begrüßt die Absicht des Landes Baden-Württemberg und der
Stadt Karlsruhe, die derzeitige Höhe der Zuwendungen an das ZKM in den nächsten
Jahren beizubehalten und bittet darum, auch die langfristige Finanzierung sicherzustellen. Er empfiehlt, das MNK in das ZKM einzugliedern, um dem Satzungsauftrag
gerecht werden zu können. Die Stiftungssatzung sollte im Hinblick auf die Zusammensetzung von Stiftungsrat und Kuratorium überarbeitet werden sowie um die Möglichkeit der Vertragsverlängerung für das künstlerisch-wissenschaftliche Leitungspersonal und der Wiederbestellung des Vorstands/Direktors ergänzt werden. Eine Verbesserung der internen und externen Qualitätskontrolle wird als notwendig erachtet.
Der Wissenschaftsrat bittet das Land, ihm nach drei Jahren über die Umsetzung der
Empfehlungen zu berichten.
Drs. 5701/03
Köln, 19. Mai 2003
ANLAGE
Report on the
Center for Art and Media (ZKM), Karlsruhe
Contents
Page
Preliminary remarks
15
A.
16
Introduction and background
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
Institutional development and functions
Departments and working priorities
Organisation and resources
Publications and conferences
Co-operations, teaching at institutions of higher education,
and promotion of young scientists/artists
VI. Future development of ZKM
B.
Assessment
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
National and international relevance
Departments and working priorities
Organisation and resources
Exhibitions, conferences, and publications
Co-operations, teaching at institutions of higher education,
and promotion of young scientists/artists
VI. Summarised assessment
Appendix 1-5
16
19
30
37
39
43
45
45
46
55
57
58
60
62
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Preliminary remarks
The report about the Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in hand consists of two parts.
The descriptive part has been finally adjusted in coordination with the institute concerning the correct rendering of facts. The assessment part describes the judgement
on scientific performance, structures and organisational features.
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A. Introduction and background
A.I.
Institutional development and functions
The idea of founding a Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Karlsruhe dates back to the
middle of the 1980s. Facing the upcoming development of information technology,
the new institution was conceived to demonstrate the possibilities of new media and
their influence on people’s life. Initiated by representatives of the city of Karlsruhe,
several expert committees were established to help characterise the exact form and
function of the center. In 1988, the “Konzept 88“ defined an institution with research
laboratories, studios and open workshops, a media theatre, and a media museum
that should realise the working priorities “Image”, “Music” and “Media for the public”.4)
The “Konzept 88“ was jointly approved by the Municipal Council of Karlsruhe and by
the State Government of Baden-Württemberg. The city and the state both agreed
upon an equal share of the financial liability for this new institution and thus the ZKM
was officially founded in 1989.
The first definition of ZKM was further developed by the founding director. He set a
new focus on art and added the idea of a Museum of Contemporary Art for all genres
and media which should be primarily directed towards the encounter of media art and
the traditional arts (painting, graphic, sculpture). In his vision, the ZKM was to promote the evolution of interdisciplinary artistic applications of media technologies and
to position these applications in the context of contemporary art as a whole maintaining all contemporary practices of art – from grand pianos to synthesisers, from
paintings to computer installations.
Another idea conceived by the founding director was realised by the State BadenWürttemberg in 1991: the foundation of the State Academy for Art and Design (Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung – HfG) being associated to ZKM. Through a close
co-operation of ZKM and HfG, artists and scientists should be given the possibility to
pass their knowledge, gained while working at ZKM’s laboratories, to the
4)
See Konzept 88: Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe, 24 March 1988, p. 15.
- 17 -
younger generation. For this reason, in 1993 the Wissenschaftsrat recommended to
place ZKM and HfG in close proximity.5) With the relocation of ZKM and HfG to Hall
A, a former ammunition factory in Karlsruhe, this recommendation was implemented
in 1997.
Also in 1997, the Museum for Modern Art was founded (initially named Museum for
Contemporary Art). At first, it was an integral component of ZKM as a regular department. In 1999, by taking up a former idea of the State Government, the Museum
for Modern Art was opened as a collectors’ museum that houses and presents selections of Baden-Württemberg’s most important private collections. Consequently, the
Museum for Modern Art (Museum für Neue Kunst – MNK) moved to a separate part
of Hall A. Also, in terms of budgetary, conceptual as well as administrative issues,
the MNK became practically an autonomous institution.
In 1999, the new Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of ZKM was appointed. Under his
management, the interdisciplinary approach of ZKM has been intensified. Also, the
area of research and development was expanded by founding, for example, three
new Institutes: the Institute for Basic Research, the Institute for Net Development,
and the Institute for Media and Economics.
The purpose of ZKM is to facilitate a comprehensive exploration of the arts and media technology, in particular, in the fields of image, music, word and their interrelationships. ZKM embodies a synergy of research and art production, presentation as
well as art collection and archive, which are inseparable and have explicitly equal
working priority. For this reason, ZKM is a unique institutional model being structured
along the following lines of activity:
5)
See Wissenschaftsrat: Empfehlung zur Aufnahme der Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe in das
Hochschulverzeichnis des Hochschulbauförderungsgesetzes, in: Empfehlungen und Stellungnahmen 1993, Cologne 1993, p. 136.
- 18 -
(1) Research and art production
ZKM is dedicated to research and development of artistic applications of new
media technologies in the area of visualisation as well as acoustics with concentration on the transdisciplinary conjunctions of the various art forms as afforded by new media technologies. High level technological and intellectual resources are provided to guest artists and scientists to either produce new works
of art and research on the theory and practice of artistic applications of the new
media using a transdisciplinary approach. ZKM aims to research and develop
new theoretical structures, hardware and software tools as well as interfaces
that allow cultural development of new media technologies.
Since art and media academies are usually not able to offer their technical infrastructure to postgraduate media artists over extended periods of time, there
is a veritable need for institutions where professional artists can realise projects
that demand extensive amounts of time, equipment, personnel, and financial
means. ZKM sets up a stimulating environment and further education for professional artists working with new media by giving them access to high level
technical and intellectual resources and offering the opportunity to work over
extended periods of time (artist-in-residence-programme).6)
(2) Presentations
ZKM defines itself as a site for information and communication. It is one of its
main tasks to provide the public with the means of discovery of and creative
contact with new media as well as to offer further and on-going education. Consequently, ZKM sees itself as a center of significant cultural value for the citizens of Karlsruhe and the neighbouring regions as well as for national, European and international visitors.
6)
The programme provides free use of high-level equipment over extended periods of time at ZKM's
Institutes, office space at ZKM, access to the expertise of the Institute’s staff as well as grants to
cover living expenses.
- 19 -
ZKM places strong emphasis on variety in its public presentations. Exhibitions,
symposia, podium discussions, lectures, workshops, concerts, film evenings,
and performances mediate directly to a broad audience and give continuous insight into the media art production of ZKM as well as the international production of media art and its accompanying theories. Particularly through thematically concentrated exhibitions with a comprehensive approach, the public is introduced to the current, socially relevant issues in international cultural production thereby creating a permanent platform for discourse. Also, the exhibitions
provide a cross-section of present-day art and facilitate a comparison between
traditional and media art.
(3) Art collections and documentation
ZKM collects all kinds of media art as well as contemporary art using more traditional artistic techniques. In addition to works of art, all forms of documents
and other testimonials, apparatuses from the early history of media art, from
holography to early television sets are collected.
Although there are other institutes and museums world-wide that cover individual
functions mentioned above, there is no other institution active in the field of art and
media technology that provides a comparable combination of research, art production and traditional museum work.
A.II. Departments and working priorities
According to the organisational chart of ZKM from November 2002, ZKM is organised
in nine departments and three functional areas. Five of the nine departments focus
on research and art production. Another two departments and one functional area
organise exhibitions and events; the latter two are also in charge of art collections. In
addition, the Media Library is responsible for special collections and documentation.
One functional area comprises Press and Public Relations, Publications, Museums
Communications and the museum shop. Finally there is a department for administra-
- 20 -
tion comprising facility management and another functional area providing IT support.
Proposals and ideas for research, productions and events can come from each department and working group of ZKM. The department heads develop the topics in
dialogue with their scientific colleagues and visiting artists. Exhibition topics are defined by the chairman and CEO of ZKM, who also accompanies the progress of the
work topics in each department. Projects covered by the departments’ budgets can
be decided by the departments themselves. Joint projects are developed by the department heads (Programme Group), who currently meet once a month. As a rule, all
projects are discussed by the Programme Group in the planning stage and during
realisation. Larger projects are discussed and decided on by the Steering Committee
comprising the CEO, the heads of the Institutes for Visual Media and Music and
Acoustics as well as representatives of ZKM’s administration. The final decision is left
to the CEO.
MNK holds a staff meeting once a week to discuss scientific questions, the exhibition
programme, and to elaborate plans for realising future projects. They define the exhibition and research programme, which is subsequently presented to the Collectors’
Board of Trustees of MNK, which finally decides on the general programme of MNK.
According to an agreement between ZKM and MNK issued in October 2000, their
exhibition planning should be co-ordinated. For this reason, the CEO of ZKM attends
the meetings of the Collectors’ Board of Trustees of MNK, whereas the Head of MNK
can attend the meetings of the Steering Committee, the Board of Trustees and the
Advisory Board of ZKM.
Institute for Visual Media
Being founded in 1992, there was no change of management until 2002. The new
head of department will be appointed in spring 2003. The Institute for Visual Media
has five posts for scientific/artistic staff financed under its regular budget, of which
one post is generally fixed-term, whereas one is presently fixed-term. In addition, one
fixed-term post is financed by third parties.
ZKM’s Institute for Visual Media provides a research and production environment for
professional artists and scientists, where they can work with rapidly evolving image
media technologies. It aims to enable the practical research and development of ap
- 21 -
propriate multimedia techniques, and to promote the application of these techniques
in an artistic and social context.
Activities of the Institute for Visual Media include in-house research and development
of new hardware and software tools in response to evolving artistic needs. In recent
years, research and development efforts – often in co-operative, transdisciplinary
projects by artists, companies, and other cultural institutions around the world – have
been invested in the following areas:
-
-
-
digital video – development of a virtual studio that allows the combination of virtually created images with captured live action;
interactivity – special focus is given to developing innovative interactive interfaces
between the audience and the work of art;
virtual reality – development of custom virtual reality techniques for real-time
graphics applications in interactive situations;
simulation – for example, synchronising actual body movement and visual movements in virtual environments, using a hydraulic simulation platform developed at
ZKM;
telecommunication – experimenting with different forms of tele-presence using
broadband, fiber optic networks available at ZKM, as well as distributed connectivity between remote locations;
multimedia productions related to the extensive publication of original CD-ROM
and DVD-ROM titles;
new techniques for interactive cinema and consequently interactive narrative,
based on innovative panoramic and full dome projection systems and real time
3D processing of digital video data.
Institute for Music and Acoustics
Being founded in 1989, there was no change of management until summer 2002. In
April 2003, the new head of department will take over the position. The Institute for
Music and Acoustics has five posts for scientific/artistic staff financed under its regular budget, of which one post is generally fixed-term, whereas two are presently
fixed-term. Three posts are currently not occupied in order to leave the decision on
staffing to the new head of the Institute.
ZKM Institute for Music and Acoustics combines artistic production with live event
activities as well as research and developmental work. The spectrum ranges from
live electronic pieces for the concert stage to musical theatre using interactive technologies, from digital sound synthesis and algorithmic composition to sound studio
productions to film music, radio plays, and CD-ROMs.7) In co-operation with ZKM
Institute for Visual Media, inter-media productions have been realised in which music
was often the initial starting point.
In recent years, the international artist-in-residence-programme has moved to the
center of activity. The Institute offers composers (and also artists, instrumentalists,
developers) variable workspaces that can be described as open computer music
7)
Approximately 200 productions have been completed so far.
- 22 -
systems. This working environment is further developed by the Institute’s staff, because industrial guidelines do not always correspond with individual artistic wishes.
Some of the projects are planned and carried out in co-operation with specialists
from the Institute right from the start. Artists’ requests can also be the starting point
for special developments in the technical area (most recently, for Heptameron: development of sensor technology, wireless transfer of sensor data, further development of the Radio Baton by Max Mathews).
In the past years, many guest artists have worked at ZKM on specific software solutions, developed their own tools, and programmed algorithms. It is here that the process of software development, or programming, and that of composing come together. Often program technical solutions do not remain limited to a specific composition, but rather, can be applied in many ways. For example: filter algorithms for
MAX/MSP, algorithmic composition software “slippery chicken” based on Common
Lisp as well as automatic notation software “rmsps” in C++ or algorithmic integration
of live score generation, live electronic, light control, image control, and sensorics in
real time for stage performances.
The soon-to-be-released DVD publications are an example of the use of commercial
standards for artistic purposes. In recent years, exploration has been done in the
potential of DVD technologies, specifically for multichannel electronic music applications; especially the multitude of currently used codes/compressions and their influence on the tonal output result. From the start, the Institute has specialised in multichannel music, and since its opening has had at its disposal one of the first professional “Surround Sound” director/mixing/mastering rooms. The DVDs produced as
multiformat DVDs with a DVD-audio, DVD-video, and DVD-ROM section are unique
in that they publish the same piece in various audio formats up to an 8- channel 24bit version – a novelty that enables the auditory comparison of various formats. Here,
the Institute is dealing with a new paradigm of distribution and archiving of compositions that employ more than two channels, as made available on audio CDs.
Since the beginning of 1999, there has also been a steady increase of integration of
musical forms generally classified as belonging to an experimental DJ culture, which
on the one hand derives from youth culture, but is conceptually located in the tradition of electroacoustic avant-garde music.
In light of recent technological transformations resulting in new forms of music production and reception, ZKM has also increasingly enabled and supported productions
of net based works and concerts in co-operation with the ZKM Institute for Net Development. The Institute for Music and Acoustics has also participated in the development of installation works for the exhibition context and developed an exhibition
area with ZKM productions for the Sony Music laboratory at Berlin Potsdamer Platz.
Institute for Basic Research
The Institute was founded in 1999 and managed by the same person since that time.
It has one fixed-term post for scientific staff financed under its regular budget, and
two fixed-term posts financed by third parties.
- 23 -
The Institute dedicates itself to research in the field of complex systems as well as to
the discussion of epistemological topics. In general, the Institute is involved with human beings’ relationship to their environment. As the brain is the central switchboard
for perception, neurophysics is of central importance in this. Since relativity theory
and quantum mechanics, the influence of the observer on that which is observed,
has also been a recognised line of questioning in physics. Thus, a parallel arises
between studies of the observer-dependency in physics and the observer-dependency in media art. Starting from the assumption that a contemporary science of the
image cannot survive without the images of science, the Institute strives for investigations on the functions of the image and the observer in the natural sciences, particularly in physical systems. These investigations should also contribute to better
understanding and innovative developments in artistic production.
A systems theory approach - derived from the study of complex systems consisting
of many parts interacting in a non-linear fashion - has been chosen for the study of
complex interactive image systems as made possible by the computer and corresponding interface technologies. The Institute is concerned with the computer’s possibilities as an instrument for simulation. The knowledge thus gained, which stems
from the research areas of quantum mechanics, statistical physics, and thermodynamics, as well as systems theory and cybernetics, enables the further development
of media technologies in the most sophisticated areas. Here it is possible to point out,
for example, the development of interface-technologies in which observers advance
from the macroworld into the microworld and can even become an intrinsic observer
of the system that they are watching. The observer, who is a part of the system being
observed, is a prerequisite of central importance for interactive media art, as well as
for quantum physics, cybernetics, and cognition sciences. The repertoire of scientific
research includes not just the evaluation of brain activities but also (to name only the
most significant): microphysical and system theoretical simulations; the development
of human-computer-interfaces for relativistic computer experiments; applications of
visual-haptic interfaces for fundamental experiments in the area of “object-subjectrelationship”. The methods comprise different feedback and interaction mechanisms
between simulated subsystems of dynamical systems as well as between real operators and virtual realities.
Systems that contain observers are of particular interest and at the same time difficult
to model and analyse. According to the results from modelling, observers react to a
system, which becomes self-referential and can no longer be rationally analysed,
which is why such systems are frequently called “bounded rational systems”. An
adequate analysis of complex systems containing observers includes psychophysical
methods of cognition and other psychological processes. The methods used for research of such systems are neural networks and dynamic adaptive cognitive systems
developed primarily at the Institute.
For example, the Institute models and investigates complex systems with the goal of
finding prediction and intervention strategies such as multi-compartment systems
whose parts often interact in a nonlinear fashion, sometimes leading to chaotic behavior. A more concrete example is heart dynamics, which is intensively investigated
at the Institute.
- 24 -
Other projects of the Institute cover:
-
entropy in multi-component systems and observer-dependency;
immuno-epidemiologic dynamics;
pattern formation in networks of coupled oscillators;
audification of dynamic systems;
analysis of physiological dynamics;
stability of dissipative systems;
Lyapunov exponents and their meaning;
augmented reality to support sports education and dynamical cognitive systems;
neural networks and cognition.
The application of computer-based simulations at the Institute for Basic Research
covers a wide spectrum from biochemistry and mathematical modelling to the visualisation of very large datasets. In an interdisciplinary approach physicists, mathematicians, programmers, and artists develop complex audio-visual simulations, which are
realisations of abstract models of physical processes. These installations are meant
to be epistemic tools for scientists and, at the same time, mediate scientific insights
to the public.
Institute for Net Development
The Institute was founded in 1999. In December 2002, the new head of department
took over the position. The Institute has one fixed-term post for scientific/artistic staff
financed under its regular budget, and one fixed-term post financed by third parties.
The Institute deals with the conditions and possibilities of practice and mediation of
art and culture in the new activity fields of digital space. Its work is organised on the
website according to the areas of research and development of new net-based applications as well as the mediation of the work of ZKM.
The Institute for Net Development established a dynamic net presence with an editorial system based on an object-oriented databank. A constantly growing base of information on all departments with artists, scientists, works, exhibitions, events, and
publications can be called up online from anywhere in the world. The entire documentation has been converted into exchangeable formats and integrated into a fully
searchable online archive. ZKM Net Development runs its own XML-based content
management and archiving system that operates on all major platforms: UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh. In its final developmental stages the content management
system is planned to be capable of handling MIDI, audio, and video data from international net artists and GPS information and metadata delivered from other web
servers. Further central working priorities are streaming media (online video and
audio), panorama photography suitable for the net (spherical projections), XMLbased integration of various server and databank environments, and mobile computing (Palm).
- 25 -
A further central field of work is the conception of artistic projects, or the realisation of
projects in co-operation with guest artists. The projects are both purely net-based
and integrated in performative projects.
The Institute for Net Development also works on net appearances for major exhibitions at ZKM and offers developments for new forms of exhibition and documentation
online such as “The virtual museum” (in collaboration with the Badische Landesmuseum Karlsruhe), or the project “Learning from History. National Socialism and the
Holocaust in German Education” (in collaboration with the Goethe Institute Munich
and other institutions). In the near future, the Institute will increasingly turn its attention to areas such as internet streaming, distributed archive systems and mobile applications/communications.
Institute for Media and Economics
The Institute was founded in May 2001 and managed by the same person since that
time. It has two fixed-term posts for scientific staff financed by third parties.
The Institute for Media and Economics links economic and social research within the
field of new media to an equally theoretic and empirical approach. The department
primarily carries out the obligations of “Konzept 88”: media for the public. It explores
and demonstrates the social effects of society’s media-induced transformation. The
integration of economic and social research at ZKM is expected to permit the early
detection of new media trends. This information is planned to be put to good use in a
variety of disciplines in both industry and politics. Scientific policy consulting should
provide decision-makers with prompt and detailed information about changes in new
media.
The Institute’s research programme comprises the following subjects:
- new media at home and on the job;
- new media as innovative training tools;
- media-supported information systems in industry.
At the moment, the focus is on projects related to educational research which can be
divided into three areas:
-
-
The educational activity that has been transformed by new media is investigated
(in terms of cost) with regard to consequences for the relationship of businesses,
private households and the state.
Following the scientific discussion about “development of expertise”, theoretical
learning processes in business and private spheres are examined.
In order to develop environments that are conducive to working and learning,
theoretical knowledge is applied and innovative ways of using media for education are developed. The Institute aims, for instance, to create “education parameters”. These involve using popular television to get across both the value inherent in education and the biographies of selected role models. Together with
- 26 -
partners from public-service television and large television production companies,
a concept for a project is at present being formulated.
Media Museum
The Media Museum opened in 1997. It has two fixed-term posts for scientific staff
financed under its regular budget and one fixed-term post for scientific staff financed
by third parties. The managerial post is vacant. Instead, the current CEO manages
the post by himself in order to ensure a close connection between the Media Museum's programme and the changing exhibitions that are carried out by the Exhibition
Department.
According to ZKM, the Media Museum is the first museum for interactive art on an
international scale. The thematic spectrum extends from interactive film to cyberspace simulation technology to current internet software applications. The Media Museum focuses on history and critique of the new media that have changed human life
over the past fifty years. In nearly all of the works displayed and created specially for
the Media Museum, visitors are challenged to interact. The goal is to make the technical conditions of the new visual world more understandable for the recipient in this
way.
The Media Museum defines itself as ZKM’s “show case.” Here, the aim is to make all
projects and developments of ZKM available to the audiences. Also, in a specific exhibition series, thoughts of significant twentieth-century personalities about the relationship between art and philosophy are reflected, e.g. Guy Debord and the arts
(2001), Foucault and the arts (2002), Deleuze and the arts (2003).
The permanent collection of the Media Museum is internationally unique due to its
breadth and its early media art works. Of central importance is the question of preservation and restoration, as, for example, the uncompressed conservation of data
from media installations, or the preservation and restoration of media installations.
This includes a consideration of the correspondence of original artistic intention and
technological developments as well as the handling of sculptural elements and modifications of the used technology.
Media Library
The Media Library has one post for scientific staff which is currently not occupied,
and one fixed-term post for scientific staff financed by third parties. It includes a library, a video collection and an audio collection (see chapter “Resources”). In order
to establish a close connection between the collections of the Media Library and the
Media Museum, the scientific responsibility for the video collection lies with the curator of the Media Museum.
Works of media art and documents must be continually transferred to the most recent
recording media technology. For this reason, the Media Library deals with the techni
- 27 -
cal part of archiving, conservation and restoration of analogous as well as digital
video and audio material.
The Media Library digitises analogous material of the video and audio collections for
direct access on CD-ROM via a jukebox system. It is planned to enlarge the storage
of the jukebox by a hard disk server system and to completely transfer the data to the
server which would enable in-house streaming. Another possibility could be a new
development for archiving uncompressed data (a prototype was developed for the
exhibition “Future Cinema”).
Also, in collaboration with ZKM‘s Institute for Visual Media and the Institute of Music
and Acoustics a conservation programme is being launched for the archival materials
of the Media Library. For instance, a special research project is planned for digital
restoration of early video materials. The first initiative of digital audio preservation
was the uncompressed digitising of the International Digital Electro-Acoustic Music
Archive (IDEAMA) target collection in 1996 on 140 CD-Roms, which is now completely stored on hard disk. At present, the audio-studio of the Media Library is being
upgraded with the most recent audio-formats and restoration-software.
In addition, the Media Library produces video and audio DVDs for exhibitions, presentations, and archiving.
MNK - Museum für Neue Kunst (Museum for Modern Art)
The MNK has one permanent and four fixed-term posts for scientific staff financed
under its regular budget.
MNK houses and exhibits four private contemporary art collections (Siegfried Weishaupt collection, Froehlich collection, FER collection, Grässlin collection) that provide
an overview of contemporary art since 1960. The museum’s task is to put these collections on display in permanent exhibitions in a comprehensive order, to preserve
the works of art housed in the museum and to conduct research on the art and artists
in the collections. Taking the permanent collections as a starting point, the MNK also
designs temporary exhibitions four to five times a year that focus on individual artists,
specific topics or special groups of works connected with the collections. Also, MNK
invites artists to realise new works or installations, and produces catalogues designed in collaboration with the artists. Finally, the museum provides information as
well as scientific and educational programmes to the public.
Exhibition and Events
The functional area Exhibition and Events is headed by the current CEO of ZKM. It
has one fixed-term post for scientific staff financed under its regular budget and one
fixed-term post for scientific staff financed by third parties.
A changing programme of temporary exhibitions aims to present a dialogue between
media art and traditional art. Two large changing exhibitions and several small exhibitions are presented annually. Large exhibitions address current topics in the new
media and their social relevance, whereas smaller exhibitions present artistic devel
- 28 -
opments at ZKM’s Institute and the archive collections. The exhibitions are curated
by employees of ZKM in co-operation with the various in-house Institutes as well as
by international guest curators that are invited to develop exhibition concepts for specific topics.
As most important exhibitions of the years 2000 to 2002, ZKM points out the following
selection:
-
“net_condition/netz_bedingung“, 23.09.1999 – 27.02.2000;
„The Anagrammatic Body. The Body and Its Medial Construction”, 08.04.2000 –
27.08.2000;
“Olafur Eliasson. Surroundings Surrounded”, 01.05.2001 – 26.08.2001;
“Guy Debord – Agent of Criticism Against Its Own Recognition”, 29.09.2001 –
03.02.2002;
“CTRL[space]: rhetorics of surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother”, 13.10.2001
– 24.02.2002;
“Iconoclash. Beyond the Image-Wars in Science, Religion and Art”, 04.05.2002 –
30.09.2002;
“Future Cinema. The Cinematic Imaginary After Film”, 16.11.2002 – 30.03.2003.
Along with the exhibition programme, the department also contributes to the development of the film programme ZKM_Cinema on Wednesdays that is co-ordinated
with the exhibition programme. Furthermore, the department organises and presents
symposia on large exhibitions as well as intensive accompanying programmes with
lectures, performances, concerts, and artist presentations.8)
Museum Communications
The department Museum Communications has one post for scientific staff under its
regular budget. It offers the following services to visitors and different target groups:
-
-
8)
Guided tours are offered in eleven languages. School groups, for which specific
curriculum-based programs are offered, make up approximately 40 percent of the
total number of guided group tours. Also, university classes are supported by the
department through special thematic tours and instruction.
Regular workshops introduce children as well as adults to the creative use of the
computer.
The department initiates, organises, and publishes conferences on current topics
of media education, museology, artistic training and the impact of new information
and communication technologies on society. For example, an international con
Special event series and symposia have been: the series Profile with Jean Baudrillard, Benoit
Mandelbrot, Max Mathews, and Oswald Wiener; the lecture series on basic research Komplexität:
Theorie, Experiment, Simulation; the series on the future of theater, ghost dances//landscapes of
time; the accompanying lectures for the exhibitions net_condition, Der Anagrammatische Körper,
ctrl_space, and Iconoclash; and the symposia, cITy:: Data on the city under the conditions of information technology with Saskia Sassen and Richard Sennett, The Sciences of the Interface, Digital
Video – the democratization of the cinema, The regime of the image. Between mimic display and
corporate branding, and Image wars and image floods.
- 29 -
-
ference scheduled for October 2003 will deal with topics in the field of art education within the context of the PISA study.
The department runs a teachers’ educational program on multimedia design.
Target-oriented consulting is provided to external partners, cultural institutions,
municipal bodies, and companies on all topics related to the development of institutions and museology in the area of new media.
- 30 -
A.III. Organisation and resources
The ZKM is a foundation under public law having its registered office in Karlsruhe.
First-level supervisor and highest authority to all employees and civil servants of the
ZKM is the mayor of the city of Karlsruhe. The statutory organs of the foundation are
the Board of Trustees (Stiftungsrat), the Chief Executive Officer (Vorstand), and the
Advisory Board (Kuratorium). In 2001, the foundation‘s statutes have been updated.
According to the statutes, the Board of Trustees comprises eighteen seats that are
allocated as follows:
(a) one representative from the Ministry of State;
(b) one representative from the Ministry of Science and Art;
(c) one representative from the Ministry of Finance;
(d) the Mayor of the city of Karlsruhe;
(e) two representatives of the city of Karlsruhe;
(f) the vice-chancellor (Rektor) of Karlsruhe University;
(g) the vice-chancellor of the State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe;
(h) the vice-chancellor of the State Music College Karlsruhe;
(i) the vice-chancellor of the State Academy for Art and Design Karlsruhe (HfG);
(j) up to four more representatives from the federal state;
(k) up to four more representatives from the city of Karlsruhe.
The chairman and deputy chairman are alternatively nominated for three years terms
by the city and federal state; one party nominates the chairman and the other one the
deputy chairman. The meetings of the Board of Trustees are called as required, normally twice or thrice per calendar year. According to ZKM, the Board of Trustees has
grown in the last few years to almost thirty members, whereas only six of these have
voting rights.9)
9)
Members indicated under items (a) to (e) have voting rights whereas those indicated under (f) to (k)
act only in advisory capacity.
- 31 -
Being the policy-making body of the foundation, the Board of Trustees is responsible
for the basic direction of ZKM’s planning in terms of research, development and expansion, in particular the long-term planning for collaborations with other institutions
and the conclusion of co-operation agreements. The board is also accountable for
intermediate and long-term financial planning as well as the establishment of a
budget and staff plan. In addition, it approves projects that are or may acquire major
cultural, scientific, or economic importance. The Board of Trustees appoints and revokes the Director, his deputy, and the heads of the Institutes for Visual Media and
Music and Acoustics.
The Director and CEO of ZKM is in charge of representing the foundation in and out
of court, and managing the foundation. In particular, the CEO is responsible for the
elaboration of research, growth, and financial plans as well as for investment and
personnel planning. He/she prepares the resolutions of the Board of Trustees and
their implementation and co-ordinates current and proposed research and development projects within ZKM and with other co-operating institutions. Also, the CEO decides on the appointment and dismissal of the foundation’s employees, whereas for
nomination and appointment of senior staff (see above) he/she needs the prior consent of the Board of Trustees.
The Advisory Board of ZKM comprises sixteen representatives from the fields of art,
science, and the public life. They are appointed for a term of four years by the Prime
Minister of the federal state of Baden-Württemberg in agreement with the Mayor of
the city of Karlsruhe, upon recommendation by the CEO of the foundation. The
chairman and its deputy is elected for a term of four years each. The meetings of the
board take place no less than once per calendar year, mostly twice a year. Its task is
to advice the Board of Trustees and the CEO in all important cultural and scientific
matters whenever it is desired. The chairman of the Advisory Board is invited to attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees.
The statutes of ZKM include the MNK as a division of the foundation. However, a
formal agreement, issued in October 2000, regulates the allocation of main responsibilities between ZKM and MNK. According to this agreement, the Head of MNK man
- 32 -
ages the MNK in his/her own responsibility with regard to the artistic and scientific
conception and represents the MNK in all external relations. The Head of MNK is responsible for the partial budget of MNK, whereas the Board of Trustees of ZKM allocates the funds contributed by ZKM to this budget. The personnel of MNK lies within
the responsibility of the Head of MNK. Recommendations regarding personnel decisions for the purposes of MNK made by the Head of MNK are submitted to the Board
of Trustees by the CEO of ZKM. Only unlimited contracts need the approval of the
CEO.
In general, if the CEO of ZKM and the Head of MNK are unable to agree, the chairman of the Board of Trustees of ZKM has the right of final decision.
The Collectors’ Board of Trustees of MNK is held three to four times a year. It consists of the Head of MNK and his deputy, the collectors present in the museum, the
CEO of ZKM, two representatives of the Ministry of Science and Art, and guests from
other cultural institutions, who are consulted on special matters. The Collectors’
Board of Trustees of MNK decides on the general programme of MNK and its budget
policy that is proposed by the Head of MNK.
The ZKM changed over from cameralistics to commercial accounting in 2002 being
still in a transitional phase from one system to the other. In 2001, the application of
fund statement displays a total expenditure of ca. 13.4 million Euro of which 3.4 million Euro concern personnel, 5.4 million Euro administrative expenditures for material10, 884.5 k Euro for donations and contributions (including the contribution to the
partial budget of MNK), 388.2 k Euro for general investments over 5 k Euro, 3.3 million Euro for the organisation of exhibitions and events (including expenditures from
third party funds), and 113.3 k Euro for the purchase of works of art and collection
items. In 2002, the estimate for personnel related expenditures was increased in correspondence with the prospective filling of currently vacant posts. Also, with regard to
the procurement of replacements and the maintenance of the technical infrastructure,
much larger investments were budgeted for 2002. In addition, due to the costly exhi
10)
That is general maintenance of the building, electricity etc., and other investments under 5 k Euro.
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bition projects and urgently needed repairs of the Media Museum, the amount for
exhibitions, events and project was increased in 2002. For this reason the budget for
purchases of art works had to be reduced. ZKM roughly estimates that the proportion
in its base financing amounts to 45 % for exhibitions and presentations, 35 % (without third-party funding) for research and development, and 20 % for service provision.
The allocation of the budgets between the different ZKM institutes varies from year to
year. In 2002, the individual departments and functional areas received the following
basic budgets out of ZKM’s total budget:11)
ZKM Department/Functional Area
Institute for Visual Media
Institute for Music and Acoustics
Institute for Basic Research
Institute for Net Development
Institute for Media and Industry
Media Library
Media Museum
Museums Communications
Exhibitions and Publications
Budget
250,000 Euro
180,000 Euro
20,000 Euro
100,000 Euro
0 Euro 12)
90,000 Euro
200,000 Euro
26,000 Euro
approx. 2 million Euro 13)
ZKM's administrative income in 2001 amounted to 1.5 million Euro including revenues from admission fees, sales of publications, revenues from third party commissions, sales form the museum store etc. The institutional donations of the federal
state of Baden-Württemberg and the City of Karlsruhe are equal; both donated 4.5
million Euro in 2001. In 2002, the donations of the two founders were increased to
approximately 10 million Euro.14) With this, the entire infrastructure as well as the
base financing of the departments can be ensured being a subsidy for soliciting thirdparty funding. However, with regard to the further development of the art collections
11)
12)
13)
14)
These budgets do not include expenditures for personnel and general infrastructure (covered by
the total budget of ZKM).
This institute is exclusively financed through third-party funding.
Including accompanying publications and events, marketing, transport, insurance, and museum
guards/security personnel.
Within this basic budget, the fixed costs amount to approx. 7.2 million Euro. Approx. 2.8 million
Euro are left for exhibitions/events, and for research and development at ZKM’s institutes (without
third party funds).
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and the Media Library, this base financing is not seen to be sufficient. From the point
of view of ZKM, 12 million Euro base financing would be, however, appropriate.
In 2000, the ZKM acquired 1.93 million Euro third-party funding, in 2001 1.97 million
Euro, and in 2002 3.3 million Euro. For this period 2000–2002, 37.2 % of third-party
funding came from State Governments, 24.8 % from foundations, 22.0 % from companies, 3.2 % from the European Union, and 2.9 % from the Federal Government.
In 2001, the application of fund statement of MNK displays a total expenditure of
3.2 million Euro, of which 664,7 k Euro concern personnel, 1.8 million Euro administrative expenditures for material, 47.5 k Euro for investments, 660.1 k Euro for the
organisation of exhibitions and events, and 61.4 k Euro for the purchase of works of
art and collection items. In the years 1999-2001, the costs for the maintenance of the
building, for security, and especially for the art insurance have been steadily rising.
For this reason, the 2002 budget for administrative expenditures for material and investments had to be increased. MNK's administrative income in 2001 amounted to
202.7 k Euro. The institutional donation of the state Baden-Württemberg was in 2001
2.2 million Euro, whereas the contribution from the ZKM-budget totalled 768.5 k
Euro. MNK roughly estimates that 20 to 25 % of the general budget are devoted to
research, art production, exhibitions and service provision.
The staff plan of ZKM lists 64 regular posts (presently occupied by 59 persons), of
which 19 posts are for scientific/artistic staff. In addition, 15 posts are financed from
third-parties, of which nine posts are for scientific/artistic staff. Technical staff, trainees as well as staff working at the Documentation and Promotion's department and
the archives also participate in the artist's and researcher's work. According to ZKM,
especially the newly founded Institutes for research and production are understaffed.
The new financial regulations in the new bookkeeping system allow for greater flexibility within the staff budget. ZKM plans to transfer scientific posts that become vacant into a pool of posts and to fill them according to need and project. At present,
four scientific/artistic posts are occupied by permanent employees. The remaining 15
posts for scientific/artistic staff are of limited duration in order to guarantee the highest possible degree of flexibility needed for innovative work. However, due to the two-
- 35 -
year time limitation for contracts as stipulated by BAT (Federal Employee Tariff) no
continuity can be built on. In order to achieve a more continuous staff base, ZKM aspires an adjustment to the limitation possibilities of contracts as they are usual at Institutes of higher education (2 to 6 years).
The staff plan of MNK lists 16.5 regular posts, of which five posts are for scientific
staff. In addition, two trainees financed from annexe funds support the staff in scientific work.
The following statistic numbers relate to 33 members of scientific/artistic staff both at
ZKM and MNK (incl. staff financed by third parties, excl. trainees and PhD students):
One scientist is older than 60 years, three scientists are between 50 and 60 years
old, five between 40 and 50, 16 between 30 and 40, and four under 30 years old.
Accordingly, the average age of staff members at ZKM and MNK is 38,5. The share
of female staff members at ZKM and MNK amounts to 27,6 %. One person has been
working at ZKM 10 up to 15 years, one person 5 up to 10 years, whereas the length
of employment under 5 years applies to 27 staff members of both ZKM and MNK.
ZKM recruits its scientific/artistic staff from very different areas, such as informatics,
engineering sciences and electronics, the fine arts, music and design, art and media
sciences as well as sociology. In general, there are no difficulties to find new staff
due to ZKM's good reputation. Managerial positions arouse much international interest. However, to international applicants it is sometimes problematic that employment
contracts for managerial staff are generally limited to five years and that an appointment is not linked with a professorship. Altogether 22 staff members have left ZKM in
the last three years, seven of them had received an appointment at an Institute of
higher education.
MNK recruits its scientific staff from universities and museums. There are no difficulties to hire new staff. Two scientific staff members have left MNK to take up new appointments.
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Currently, ZKM has reached the limits of space available for offices, studios, and
storage. In several departments, more working and storage space is required. At
MNK, office and exhibition space is sufficient, and technical facilities meet with international standards. However, the infrastructure for public events and academic conferences should be improved. Also, costs for storage space rented outside the museum need to be reduced.
ZKM Media Library offers one of the most extensive collections of contemporary music, media art, and literature on twentieth century art and media theory. Also, it is the
academic library of the HfG. It comprises around 30,000 books (with an increase of
2,000 copies per year), CD-ROMs, DVDs, and around 120 periodicals, all available
for public use in the reading room. The audio collection being specialised in contemporary, particularly electroacoustic, music has 12,000 music titles in stock plus musical scores, specialised books, historical photographs, and posters. The International
Digital Electro-Acoustic Music Archive (IDEAMA) contains over 500 historical electronic music pieces since 1970. Besides main modern works and the archive of DeGeM (German Society for Electroacoustic Music), the collection also hosts blues,
jazz, rock, pop, and movie soundtracks, as well as one of the world’s largest soundscape collections. The video collection currently comprises approx. 3,600 titles of the
most important positions in the history of video art. Altogether, 650 titles contained in
the juke box can be viewed at the work stations that are set up for public use. In addition, 2,300 titles are available for scientific work.
At ZKM, high-level facilities are available, such as graphics supercomputers, digital
video, a virtual studio with motion control camera, and a multimedia laboratory. In the
computer ateliers and studios, artists and scientists find a flexible working environment that can be specially configured for each project’s needs. The Blue Cube offers
an excellently equipped sound studio complex which also serves as a venue for pure
musical and inter-media presentations and performances. However, six years after
the opening of ZKM at Hall A, extensive new and re-investments for the technical
equipment are necessary.
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A.IV. Publications and conferences
The ZKM publication programme attends to the creation of catalogues accompanying
major exhibitions. These catalogues comprise comprehensive text collections that
provide theoretical treatises on the exhibition topics. Since 1999, there is an ongoing
collaboration with MIT Press. Exhibition catalogues, e.g. for “net_condition”,
“ctrl[space]”, “Iconoclash” and “Future Cinema”, were published with this internationally renowned publishing house.
Also, Hatje Cantz publishes productions from the Institute for Visual Media in the series “zkm digital arts edition”, including the series “artintact” with artist projects for
CD-ROM as well as individual productions such as the DVD-ROM “Dis(Locations)”,
or “William Forsythe :: Improvisation Technologies”. CDs and DVDs from the Institute
for Music and Acoustics have been issued by WERGO, for example, “Surround Music” and “->THRILL<-“ in the series “EDITION ZKM”. In 2001 and 2002, three audio
CDs were published by ZKM.
The Institute for Media and Economics is currently preparing a scientific book series.
A ZKM magazine, to be issued three to four times a year, is in the planning stages
with Hatje Cantz. Also in preparation are two publications with the publishing company Suhrkamp: a conference volume for the symposium “Foucault and the Arts”,
and an anthology on image theory.
In 2002, the scientific/artistic members of ZKM staff published 31 monographs (2001:
14; 2000: 16), 41 articles for collective publications (2001: 23; 2000: 40), six essays
in journals with referee system (2001: 5; 2000: 3), eleven essays in other journals
(2001: 9; 2000: 7), and 70 contributions to in-house publications (2001: 45; 2000:
14). Staff members presented their working results in 75 lectures (2001: 51; 2000:
62) to the scientific public as well as to the public at large.
The scientific staff members of MNK published in 2002 ten monographs (2001: 4;
2000: 9), six articles for collective publications (2001: 4; 2000: 6), two articles in journals without referee system (2001: 0; 2000: 0), and 51 contributions to in-house pub
- 38 -
lications (2001: 7; 2000: 11). In addition, ten lectures were given in 2002 (2001: 7;
2000: 4).
The international reputation of ZKM is assured by participation in festivals, international presentations, collaborations, publications etc., as well as by travelling exhibitions. For example, the exhibition “Future Cinema” produced by ZKM will also be
seen at Kiasma, Helsinki; ICC, Tokyo; and in Sydney.
ZKM’s website not only presents the work of the ZKM Institutes, but also offers additional information and comments about international exhibitions, events and projects
dealing with current issues in the various fields of new media (ZKM.OnlineMagazine). The website is visited by 50,000 to 60,000 persons monthly.
Every year, approximately 150,000 to 200,000 visitors come to exhibitions and
events, to the Media Museum, and the Media Library of ZKM. Furthermore, every
year 1,500 to 1,800 articles on the ZKM and its activities appear in the national press.
The yearly number of visitors at MNK is 50,000 on average.
In order to ensure a consistent appearance of ZKM in the public, the CEO of ZKM
and the head of MNK agreed in 2000 to co-ordinate the public relations and marketing work of ZKM and MNK. However, in the point of view of MNK, there were difficulties regarding the public presentation of the museum, as the MNK could not stress its
museum profile within the global ZKM policy.
The ZKM regularly organises national and international conferences, panel discussions and lecture series that often accompany the exhibitions. As most important
conferences of the years 2000 to 2002, ZKM points out the following selection:
-
“The New Image of the Human. On the Constitution of the Human” with Alain
Finkielkraut, Michel Houellebecq, Peter Sloterdijk and Peter Weibel, 03.05.2000;
-
“cITy – Data on the City under the Conditions of Information Technology”, with
Richard Sennet and Saskia Sassen, 11.11.2000;
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-
“Education in demand” with Petra Bahr (FEST), Eckhart Marggraf; further participants: Christian Albrecht (Evangelical-Theological Faculty, University of Tübingen), Frieder Meyer-Krahmer (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems Technology and
Innovation Research), Donata Elschenbroich (German Youth Institute), Christoph
Mehl, Wolfgang Schäuble (Member of Parliament, CDU), Wilfried Härle (Theological Faculty, Heidelberg), 13.12.2001;
-
“Image Wars and Image Floods”, with W.J.T. Mitchel, David Freedberg, Brian
O’Doherty, Bruno Latour, Peter Galison, Jan Assmann, Othmar Keel, Henk van
Os, Dario Gamboni, Martin Schulz, Peter Weibel, Peter Sloterdijk, Sigfried Gohr,
Friedhelm Mennekes SJ, Lydia Haustein, Hubertus von Amexunxen, Anne-Marie
Bonnet, Claudia Honegger, Joseph Leo Koerner, Gerhard Wolf (11.-12.07.2002);
-
“Michel Foucault and the Arts. Problems of a Genealogy”, with Peter Gente, Ulrich Raulff, Daniel Defert, Thomas Lemke, Alessandro Fontana, René de Cecatty,
Wolfgang Ernst, Thierry de Duve, Ulrich J. Schneider, Walter Seitter, Friedrich
Kittler, Wilhelm Schmid, Michael Glasmeier, Dominique Séglard, Arne Klawitter,
Tom Lamberty, Andreas Hiepko, Judith Revel, Pravu Mazumdar, Bernd Stiegler,
19.09.2002;
-
“Kurt Gödel: The Boundaries of Mathematics and Rotating Universes”, with Michael Stöltzner, Werner DePauli-Schimanovich, Gregory Caitin, Thomas Beth,
Georg Süßmann, Peter Weibel, Wolfgang Ullrich, 06.10.2002.
Between 2000 and 2002, scientific/artistic staff members from the ZKM have received 222 invitations to congresses, and workshops, whereas scientific staff from
MNK has been invited two times to contribute to external conferences. In all cases,
their participation was financed by the organisers.
A.V.
Co-operations, teaching at institutions of higher education, and promotion of young scientists/artists
When ZKM was founded, co-operation agreements were made with Institutes of
higher education in Karlsruhe such as the State Academy for Art and Design (HfG),
the University of Karlsruhe and the State Music Academy.
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State Academy for Art and Design Karlsruhe (HfG)
The closest and most important co-operation relationship exists with the HfG which
was founded in conjunction with the ZKM. According to the statutes, ZKM is to make
its staff, resources, and facilities available for the purposes of the HfG. This guideline
was recommended by the Wissenschaftsrat in 1993.15) Furthermore, the statutes of
ZKM call for a co-ordination of ZKM’s and HfG’s organisational structures.
The ZKM realises these guidelines in the following way:
-
Managerial staff of ZKM occasionally teaches at HfG.
-
In the past two years, HfG and ZKM have co-operated in the context of the
graduate program "Image - Body - Medium. An Anthropological Perspective", funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
-
Professors of HfG and employees of ZKM co-operate in art productions, research
projects, events, symposia, and publications.
-
Students of HfG temporarily use workspace at the Institute for Visual Media as
well as at the Institute for Music and Acoustics being technically supported by
staff members of ZKM. The “Forum HfG at ZKM” offers the opportunity to advanced students of HfG to present selected works and projects in a two-months
rotation. HfG students usually present temporary exhibitions at ZKM, and also
take part in the event programme of ZKM, e.g. they showed films within the ZKM
programme “Digital Cinema”. Furthermore, students are involved in various productions and projects of ZKM such as print and exhibition design.
-
ZKM and HfG carry out joint film projects, and accomplish joint events (e.g. conferences, film presentations, lecture series), especially in the area of image theory
and film.
-
15)
Occasionally, ZKM and HfG jointly finance research positions for special projects.
Wissenschaftsrat: Empfehlung zur Aufnahme der Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe in das
Hochschulverzeichnis des Hochschulbauförderungsgesetzes. In: Wissenschaftsrat: Empfehlungen
und Stellungnahmen 1993. Cologne 1993, p. 133: „Der Wissenschaftsrat unterstützt (...) die Absicht des Landes, im Sinne einer standortbezogenen Ressourcenoptimierung die personellen, apparativen
und räumlichen Möglichkeiten des ZKM für eine intensive Zusammenarbeit mit der HfG mit einzusetzen.“
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-
ZKM and HfG have jointly applied for the equipment of a Streaming Studio in the
framework of the project “Supporting teaching with net-based video technology”
initiated by the Ministry for Science and Art in Baden-Württemberg.
University of Karlsruhe
-
Several symposiums have been realised jointly by ZKM and the Institute for Applied Cultural Studies (IAK) as well as the Faculty of Architecture. Together with
the Institute for Algorithmics and Cognitive Systems the ZKM developed the “laser
film” for the Media Museum.
-
ZKM supervises graduate students from the Faculty of Informatics who are working on their dissertations. Also, ZKM and the Faculty of Informatics jointly developed the software “xfrog”. ZKM’s Institute for Basic Research collaborates with
the Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods. For instance,
the head of the Institute for Basic Research gave a lecture series on “Complexity”
which was incorporated into the general studies programme (“Studium Generale”).
State Music Academy Karlsruhe
Students and professors of the Academy of Music present concerts and multimedia
performances on a regular basis at ZKM. The ZKM also supports and realises electronic projects which need a special electronic support. Currently, a festival for young
composers is being planned (for May 2003) that is based on a close collaboration of
the State Music Academy Karlsruhe, the HfG and ZKM.
In addition, there are numerous co-operation projects between the various Institutes
of ZKM and national as well as international universities, art academies, and colleges. Between 2000 and 2002 several staff members of ZKM offered lectures and
seminars at national and international institutions such as the Academy of Art, St.
Petersburg; the Bern University; or the Zürich College for Design.
ZKM also co-operates with non-university research institutions, museums, theatres,
opera houses, and festivals:
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-
Since 1990, ZKM has been collaborating with the Research Center Karlsruhe.
Together with the Institute for Applied Informatics/Fluidic Robotics the realisation
of a larger installation outside the ZKM is in the planning stage. Further joint projects are being realised with INA-GRM Paris; ACROE, Grenoble; Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing, Bonn; Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering, Stuttgart; and The British Film Institute, London.
-
In the area of art production the ZKM has collaborated with other major media
centres throughout the world such as ICC, Tokyo; ACMI, Melbourne; V_2, Rotterdam; and Ars Electronica Linz. Also, there are co-operations with theatres, opera
houses, and festivals such as schauspielfrankfurt; Hebbel Theater Berlin; Munich
Biennale; Salzburg Festival; Ruhr Triennale 2003; Festival EXIT-Maison des Art
de Cretail; Festival VIA - Le Manege Scene Nationale de Maubeuge.
-
ZKM Institute for Music and Acoustics co-operates with comparable institutions
throughout the world, such as the IRCAM in Paris; the research Institute ACROE
in Grenoble; the experimental studio of the Heinrich-Strobel-Stiftung in Freiburg;
and the CCRMA at Stanford University. The collaborations are especially relevant
for the exchange, spread, and further development of the individual Institutes’
software and hardware.
-
The ZKM has collaborated on various exhibition and online projects with national
and international museums such as the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe; the
Sprengel Museum Hannover; the Neue Galerie im Johanneum, Graz; the Guggenheim Foundation; and the Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco.
-
The ZKM has been partner in European Union research projects such as “eRENA”, and “eSCAPE”, both projects carried out in co-operation with various European institutions such as the University of Lancaster; the University of Manchester; EPFL École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; Geneva University’s MIRALab; the Royal Swedish University of Technology; and the University of Nottingham. The European project “Scalex” is currently being worked on.
Every year, approximately 15 artists-in-residence work in the different departments of
ZKM for a period of ½ to one year. They also give lectures, and present performances or exhibitions at ZKM.
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The ZKM offers training for employment in museums and research institutions
through trainee positions (“Volontariat”). Also, ZKM supervises and supports master’s
and doctoral candidates in their work. Special emphasis is put on providing support in
the post-graduate phase. Either they are promoted by the artist-in-residence programme or are part of a post-graduate co-operation programme, such as exists with
MECAD (Media Centre for Art & Design), Barcelona; V_2, Amsterdam; and with the
University of North South Wales, Sydney. By offering grants, ZKM enables young
scientists and artists to develop their own projects. With subsidies, advice, and institutional settings the ZKM supports young scientists in preparing applications for research grants in order to put them in the position to manage their own projects as
early as possible. In addition, internships for students are offered. At the moment, 11
staff members of ZKM are working on a PhD.
MNK offers two trainee positions to scientific assistants, who are typically art history
graduates preparing to enter a museum job. These posts offer the graduates the
chance to work closely with museum staff, take part in all museum projects and acquire a set of practical skills for museum work. At present, both assistants are studying for PhDs, and will graduate during their time at the MNK. Also, MNK offers the
opportunity to German as well as foreign students to work for one to three months at
the museum, using the files and having direct access to the collections to conclude
their scientific research.
A.VI. Future development of ZKM
According to ZKM, the goals of the foundation and of “Konzept ‘88” are to be further
developed regarding the future developments of art and technology thereby taking
into account the requirements of society. Examples are: the increased use of new
media in dance and theatre, the return of film into the new media, the use of artificial
intelligence in everyday life, the change from physical to virtual mobility, or even the
change from fixed-location technology to ubiquitous mobile devices. The work of art
will expand within the area of multi-user virtual environments that has been usurped
by the game industry; at the same time it will attempt to implement previous ‘image-
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only’ practices into three-dimensional reality (robotics). The results of neuronal aesthetics, cognitive research and artificial intelligence are expected to play a major role
in this development. Within this context, the ZKM should further strengthen its position as a centre for discourse, theory production, and knowledge transfer. To achieve
this, the ZKM plans to invite critics-in-residence and scientists-in-residence for research and publication projects.
ZKM plans to further develop the artist-in-residence-programme by opening it up to
the Third World and Eastern Europe. This endeavour already resulted in a project on
the “Post-Communist Condition” (beginning in March 2003), and a symposium in
collaboration with the Sarai Media Collective, New Delhi, being planned for autumn
2004.
Co-operations with industrial partners should be intensified in the context of new
technical developments and the artistic research projects resulting from them. In scientific research, ZKM is striving to co-operate more closely with institutions that work
on similar fields, e. g. with the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. The existing co-operations
with the University of Karlsruhe, the Research Center Karlsruhe, and the State Music
Academy Karlsruhe should be expanded.
The archive’s activities and associated issues concerning media equipment are to be
intensified. Technical problems such as transcoding from one media to another will
be tackled. One of the foremost future tasks of the Media Library is the restoration of
the early videos in the collection, and the expansion and continuation of the collection
of interactive net art.
MNK plans to accentuate its exhibition policy, to broaden its co-operation with international museums, and to participate more intensively in research programmes by
presenting its work at universities as well as organising lecture series or colloquiums.
There are plans to increase documentation of research and current museum projects
on the internet, and in a periodical book series on contemporary art.
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B. Assessment
B.I.
National and international relevance
Taking into account that media and technology play an increasingly important role in
society, artistic analysis and converting of these developments continue to be a
challenging task. ZKM, being dedicated to the broad field of art and media technology, is the only institution in Germany that combines art production and technology
development with extensive exhibition and communication activities as well as art
collecting. Apart from other international institutions working on similar fields like the
Ars Electronica Center, Linz, the InterCommunication Center, Tokyo, the V2, Rotterdam, or the IRCAM, Paris, ZKM has found its place at the forefront of supporting international developments in media art.
One of the main tasks of ZKM is responding to, supporting and anticipating emerging
artistic practices. Experimental workshops and laboratories provide an interdisciplinary environment for artists and scientists to research and develop the theory and
practice of artistic applications of new media. In the past decade of its existence,
ZKM has become a major centre for research and technology based art and music/acoustic production. Pioneering synergies between art and technology have been
achieved. On the one hand, these achievements have resulted from a targeted inhouse research and developmental work. The other main force for promoting artistic
research has been the artist-in-residence-programme that offers ZKM’s variable
workspace and expertise to selected international artists for a certain amount of time.
For instance, at ZKM’s Institute for Visual Media there have been over 60 artists
coming from 15 countries so far. The advantage of ZKM is not only the excellent
technical equipment of the studios, but rather its focus on artistic and technological
expertise supporting artist’s work. Since many artists can meanwhile do their work at
home computers, it is less a question of hardware and idiosyncratic machines but
more of qualified and highly inspired personnel that has become most important. For
this reason, special attention has to be paid to future staff recruitment and personnel
planning for longer periods.
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In addition to the focus on research and technology based art and music production,
an important collection of contemporary music, media art, paintings and installation
works has been put together that is unique in Germany and can compete on an international scale. Comprehensive exhibitions and conferences on issues related to
art, technology, and society also ensure the high international reputation of ZKM.
What ZKM mainly distinguishes from other international institutions dealing with art
and media is its statutory mission to provide a cross-section of contemporary art production as a whole and to facilitate a comparison of traditional art (painting, sculpture
etc.) and media art. In order to accentuate ZKM’s internationally unique position, this
aspect should be stronger kept in view.
In recent years, ZKM has gradually enhanced its field of activities. Sociological and
natural-scientific investigations have been introduced to further strengthen ZKM’s
position as a centre of discourse, theory production, and knowledge transfer. However, in order to more effectively use existing resources and to strengthen its profile,
a clear focussing of ZKM’s work is necessary.
B.II. Departments and working priorities
Most of ZKM’s departments are called “Institute” in order to attract third party funding.
However, due to the fact that the majority of “Institutes” only have a few employees,
the term “working group” is judged to be more appropriate for these units. This term
also implies more flexibility regarding changing artistic needs.
Institute for Visual Media
Being one of the two founding departments of ZKM, the Institute for Visual Media has
become one of the world’s leading places where innovative artistic applications of
multimedia techniques are developed. The developmental work done from 19922002 under the management of an internationally reputed head of department resulted in a broad range of generic hardware and software tools designed specifically
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for artistic needs. Benchmark achievements of the Institute have been exhibited all
over the world and received several international awards.
Being specialised on motion platforms and 360-degree image production, e.g., the
Institute developed a pioneering technology for compression and interactively controlled playing of film footage encompassing a spherical panorama. The Panoramatic
Navigator developed by the Institute was patented. Also, a unique software for 3-D
modeling and animation of organic structures akin to those produced in natural environments called Xfrog was developed within six years work of research in cooperation with the University of Karlsruhe, Faculty for Informatics. Currently, new
technologies in the field of interactive digital cinematography are being developed
which is judged to be a highly innovative field of technology development. In general,
the excellent quality of the Institute’s work is, among other things, based on a close
collaboration with some of ZKM’s Institutes and with external renowned research institutions.
In the past, there have also been examples of transfer of ZKM’s developments into
applications that extent artistic usage. For instance, staff members adopted the
Panoramatic Navigator to the needs of the Karlsruhe Business Promotion Agency
which was used for presentation purposes at the ExpoReal fair in Munich 2000 and
2001. Also, the software Xfrog being commercialised by outside partners attracted
customers like Digital Domain, Disney, and Sony. Because at ZKM there is much
more potential of technology transfer into society and industry, this practice should be
intensified.
For the future perspective of the Institute, there is, however, a concern regarding the
efficient filling of the currently vacant post of the head of department. In order to continue the highly successful work of the Institute, a strong and inspired personality is
urgently needed that both has an artistic as well as technological background.
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Institute for Music and Acoustics
Being founded in 1989, the Institute for Music and Acoustics started its work at the
very beginning of ZKM. It was the first German studio using digital technology for
music and acoustic productions. From the start, the Institute has successfully specialised in multichannel music, and since its opening has run one of the first professional direction, mixing, and mastering studios for surround sound. Also, what the
Institute distinguishes from other international institutions producing contemporary
music is its excellent productions in particular in the performing arts that synthesise
visual and acoustic media. These projects were mostly realised in close collaboration
with ZKM’s Institute for Visual Media.
Within the period 1990-2002, the internationally reputed head of department consequently developed a convincing profile that comprised music productions, performance series, workshops, as well as research and software/hardware developments.
Regularly, the Institute presented its productions on an international platform and
contributed to external festivals all over the world. It has become a leading institution
in the development of artistic applications of newly available technologies. Software
developments concentrating on acoustic research were very successfully carried out
like, e. g., research on sound sources for the measurement of room impulse responses, and on artificial reverberations for spherical rooms. Also, a highly innovative
sensor technology as well as a technology for wireless transmission of sensor data
was developed by the Institute’s staff for the stage production of Gerhard E. Winkler’s
Heptameron shown at the Munich Biennale in 2002. This production was a prominent
example for the Institute’s successful efforts to merge different media and art forms.
In general, the Institute pursued close collaborations with some of ZKM’s Institutes as
well as with external renowned research institutions. It is very much appreciated that
the new head of the Institute plans to concentrate on multimedia projects (e.g. integration of dance and video) continuing the excellent work of the Institute which can
compete on a world-wide scale. The conception and realisation of multimedia projects also benefits from the other ZKM Institutes/working groups and thereby contributes to an optimal integration of ZKM’s technical and artistic resources.
- 49 -
The Institute also started co-operating with industry by, e. g., developing an exhibition
area for the Sony Music Laboratory at Berlin. In the future, collaborations with industrial and academic partners should be further strengthened similar to what has already done by ZKM’s Institute for Visual Media, i.e. through an intensified adaptation
of new and existing technologies as well as research for artistic projects.
Exhibition Department
One of the main activities of ZKM is realising large exhibitions on different topics that
concern the broad field of art, media, and society. These exhibitions are mostly developed by a close co-operation of the different ZKM Institutes/working groups, and
also frequently involve external curators.
The exhibitions produced at ZKM contribute to a great extent to the international
reputation of ZKM. The conceptual development of such comprehensive thematic
exhibitions is judged to be highly demanding research work. Some exhibitions directly emerge from the artistic work done at ZKM. For instance, “Future Cinema” presents artist’s contributions to possible future developments of new cinematographic
techniques and modes of expression. This exhibition is a good example of how technology based art productions carried out at ZKM and curatorial work can result in an
excellent exhibition project.
Media Museum
The primary task of the Media Museum is collecting, restoration and presentation of
media art in a permanent exhibition. The museum also organises a series of changing exhibitions titled “Philosophy and Art” and provides a platform for works that are
produced at ZKM’s Institutes.
The Media Museum’s collection comprises almost exclusively interactive media art.
Together with the ZKM collection on Contemporary Art (being at MNK) and the Media
Library’s video and audio collections, the quality of these collections can compete on
an international scale. It is highly appreciated that the exhibition and collecting activities of the Media Museum are closely connected to the artistic work done at ZKM.
- 50 -
Museum for Modern Art (MNK)
Originally, MNK was founded as a regular department of ZKM that was conceived to
be in charge of ZKM’s collection of Contemporary Art. Due to a couple of circumstances regarding political and personnel matters, the State Government’s idea of
founding a collectors’ museum in Baden-Württemberg was taken up. In 1999, the
initially named Museum for Contemporary Art was transformed into the Museum for
Modern Art (MNK).
Presently, the MNK is in charge of four important collections owned by private collectors who live in or originally come from Baden-Württemberg. Altogether, these
collections provide a selective insight into European and American art since 1960. As
a collectors’ museum, the MNK sees its main task in preserving, exhibiting, and doing research on the artists included in these collections. In the past, the MNK has
primarily designed meritorious exhibitions on individual artists that supplement the
work of a number of Museums on Modern and Contemporary Art in Germany.
In addition, MNK is in charge of the Contemporary Art collection owned by ZKM.
However, due to the fact that the two courtyards of MNK are being occupied by the
private collections, this important collection is presently not on display. Only single
pieces are being presented by ZKM’s Media Museum and sometimes in temporary
exhibitions at ZKM and MNK.
From an organisational point of view, the MNK is still one of ZKM’s departments
though, right from the start, it has been operating autonomously to the greatest possible extent. However, in the past years of work it has turned out that MNK, being
mainly committed to private collectors, could be barely integrated into the overall
conception of ZKM. Recently, this was confirmed by a vote of the collectors who aim
at a clear separation of ZKM and MNK. An autonomous MNK would be, however,
just one more museum of Modern Art in Germany, whereas in close connection to
ZKM, it would be unique on an international scale. Hence, in order to further on demonstrate and strengthen the national and international reputation of ZKM, the function
of MNK within the ZKM context needs to be rethought. This will be facilitated due to
- 51 -
the upcoming retirement of the current head of department. Furthermore, since it is
possible that current loan contracts with private collectors might expire soon, the
chance should be taken to reconsider the original concept of ZKM. This concept,
prepared by the founding director of ZKM, envisioned a productive encounter and
integrated presentation of traditional arts (painting, sculpture etc.) and media arts.
Through this combination, the ZKM would have the worthwhile opportunity to overcome the still very common separation of traditional art forms and media art. This
reorientation would finally correspond to ZKM’s statutory mission.16)
In case that the private collectors withdrew their collections, ZKM would also get the
opportunity to exhibit its own collection which mostly comprises installation works.
These art works are considered to better fit into the particular spatial situation of the
two courtyards of Hall A than the private collections that mainly consist of paintings
and smaller objects. In case that MNK would still be transformed into an autonomous
institution, it should definitely get a new location since the two courtyards of Halls A
are urgently needed for presenting ZKM’s own collection.
On the other hand, it should also be tried to attract the private collectors to this reorientation with the aim of keeping parts of the private collections at MNK that certainly
would complete ZKM’s own collections. The collectors should be persuaded that the
national as well as international visibility and reputation of MNK would be strengthened by a closer connection to ZKM which would also attract more visitors to the private collections.
Media Library
As an academic library for ZKM as well as for the State Academy for Art and Design
(HfG), the ZKM Media Library is specialised on literature on contemporary art and
16)
ZKM Statutes of the Foundation, Karlsruhe, 25.10.2001, § 2: „The museum forum, comprising a
Media Museum and a Museum of Modern Art, is intended to illustrate the history of the media and
their traditional applications as well as to display contemporary art with its manifold traditional and
media-related aspects. The collection and exhibitions of the Museum of Modern Art are intended to
provide a cross-section of present-day art and to facilitate a comparison between traditional and
media art.“
- 52 -
design, media theory, and philosophy. In addition, it offers impressive collections of
contemporary, particularly electroacoustic, music and video art.
In recent years, collaborating with ZKM’s Institutes for Visual Media and Music and
Acoustics the library has started a conservation programme for archival material. A
pilot project on digital audio preservation was successfully completed for the International Digital Electro-Acoustic Music Archive (IDEAMA) being part of ZKM’s audio
collection. A research project on digital restoration of early video and film material is
well underway. In fact, there is an urgent need for preserving, i.e. digitising, early
video art which meanwhile is a common problem to all media art collections worldwide. In order to benefit from experiences already gained at other institutions, ZKM
should look for more European partners. Also, it would be advantageous to initiate a
co-ordinated and nationally funded programme for archiving videos in Germany like,
e. g., is the case in the Netherlands. ZKM has the potential to take over the leadership in such a concerted action.
Institute for Net Development
Since this group started working in 1999, it has established an internet presence for
ZKM that is based on a dynamic content management system. In order to make this
system capable of handling MIDI, audio, video data, GPS information, and metadata
from other web servers, the group is constantly working on the improvement of configurations. The group also realises the transcoding of the CD-jukebox-system to a
harddisc array which is needed for the rearrangement of the archival system at the
Media Library. In addition, the group designs online presentations of exhibitions with
interactive elements such as video streams and panorama images.
All these activities are necessary, overdue in order to keep up with international
practices and, eventually, support ZKM’s overall work in terms of communication.
However, the present orientation of the group is too much focussed on standard
technology and functionality; more innovative potential is needed. For this reason,
the mission of the group needs to be rethought, and a clear decision has to be taken
whether they should merely carry on providing service or, e.g., better get into the
- 53 -
emerging net art. Taking into account that personnel and financial resources are
short, it is recommended to integrate the group into the Media Library, whereas if the
group would start dealing with net art, it should be integrated into ZKM’s Institute for
Visual Media.
Institute for Basic Research
ZKM’s artistic work is based on scientific and technological developments and needs
to be supported by science. For this reason, apart from technological research serving artistic production, the idea of integrating scientific research into ZKM came up
resulting in the creation of the Institute for Basic Research in 1999. The current head
of department strives for a comprehensive research programme that in a very special
way tries to combine different approaches for investigations on the functions of the
image and the observer in natural processes, particularly in non-linear physical and
cognitive systems. As a result, the group develops audio-visual computer simulations
that sensualise abstract models of complex physical processes.
The addressed research topics are sensible and very ambitious. However, much
more personnel and financial resources would be necessary for realising this broad
programme in a scientifically convincing way. On the other hand, intensifying basic
research at ZKM is not judged to be promising because ZKM, being focused on art
and art production, can not and should not compete with basic research activities
done at universities and extra-university research institutes. In order to better use the
existing in-house resources and specific competence, the general mission of the
group as well as its contributions to the work of other ZKM Institutes/working groups
have to be defined more clearly towards a stronger integration into ZKM’s working
priorities. The modified orientation of the group should be supervised by the Advisory
Board.
Institute for Media and Economics
The group started working as recently as 2001 and aims at investigating the effects
and applications of new media in society and industry. The focus of the group is on
policy consulting. Currently, the group is, among other things, dealing with new me
- 54 -
dia applications in public administrations and issues of knowledge mediation via entertainment television. The group is completely financed by third party funds.
The general orientation of the group is important and implies promising research
topics. It is also appreciated that this group for the first time tackles realising an idea
that was suggested in the very first conception of ZKM („Konzept ‘88“)17. However,
the current projects of the group do not seem to be focussed enough, and regarding
content a comprehensible connection to the work of the other ZKM Institutes/working
groups is lacking. Thus, it is strongly recommended to exclusively acquire third party
projects that fit into the overall mission of ZKM as laid down in the foundation statutes. The general mission of the group as well as its contributions to the work of
other ZKM Institutes/working groups have to be defined more clearly towards a
stronger integration into ZKM’s working priorities. The Advisory Board should supervise the modified orientation of the group. If it turned out that not enough third party
projects could be acquired that would fit into the overall strategy of ZKM, it is recommended to outsource the group as a spin-off company of ZKM.
Museum Communications
This functional area provides various visitor oriented activities that are adapted to
different target groups. The programme comprises guided tours, workshops, conferences, and special offers for teacher’s further education.
The educational and communication activities are judged to be very impressive. They
vitally contribute to a transfer of knowledge into public life. In addition, these activities
are very important and necessary for the local acceptance of ZKM at the Karlsruhe
region. For further developing the educational programme, e-learning would be a
promising field. It is also recommended to investigate the impact of ZKM’s work on
the public by targeted evaluations of selected activities.
17)
The “Konzept ‘88” suggested to establish a line of action „Media for the public“. See Konzept ‘88:
Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe, 24 March 1988, pp. 24-27.
- 55 -
B.III. Organisation and resources
The statutory organs of the foundation are the Board of Trustees, the Chief Executive
Officer (CEO) and the Advisory Board. According to the statutes, the Board of Trustees is the governing body of the foundation being responsible, among other things,
for the basic direction of ZKM’s planning in terms of research, development and expansion of the foundation, whereas the Advisory Board should give advice in all important cultural and scientific matters. Currently, these different functions are not
enough separated. In fact, the Advisory Board is only marginally involved in defining
new topics and future perspectives of ZKM and thus needs to be strengthened. The
board should be enabled to provide a wider frame of scientific and artistic advice as
well as to give orientation for the present and future work of ZKM. In addition, the Advisory Board should undertake the currently vacant task of external quality control of
ZKM’s work. In contrast, the Board of Trustees should concentrate on its function as
a governing body that controls the operative work of ZKM.
In order to achieve this, different compositions of the two boards are recommended.
The four rectors of Karlsruhe’s academical institutions, who, according to the statutes, are members of the Board of Trustees, would be more effective as members of
the Advisory Board. Also, the Board of Trustees has been growing over the years
resulting in too many members that only have a few votes. In order to keep the board
capable of acting, a numerical reduction of members is recommended. On the other
hand, the Advisory Board should comprise representatives from industry besides scientists and artists. The aim is to closer connect ZKM to technology developments;
and new contacts to industry should be established.
In order to improve internal quality control at ZKM, a more stringent project management is necessary. There should be clear guidelines for resources, time schedules
and result checking. Hence, it is recommended to set up a post for overall internal
management of projects.
Taking into account that media is a very fast moving field, flexibility in personnel decisions is needed. This demand is met by ZKM’s general policy to mostly place tem
- 56 -
porary contracts. Normally, contracts for scientific/artistic staff are limited to two
years, whereas contracts for managerial staff last five years. In order to establish
more continuity in project work and secure medium term planning, it should, however, be possible to prolong contracts in justified cases, or alternatively place longer
contracts (between three to maximal five years). Five years for managerial staff
should be the rule, though extensions up to ten years should be possible if the person had done excellent work. This procedure is expected to facilitate the search for
new departments heads on an international level. Also, the CEO should have the
possibility to manage ZKM up to ten years. In order to keep and attract the best people at ZKM, a limited number of tenure positions that can result in permanent positions is furthermore highly recommended. These positions could be realised as joint
professorships with the two art academies of Karlsruhe, the HfG and the State Music
Academy.
Qualified personnel is the most important resource. For this reason, staff contracts at
ZKM should be handled more flexible, and personnel planning needs more continuity
and carefulness. The planned implementation of a global budget for personnel that
permits more flexibility is appreciated. It should be, however, taken into account that
in particular the technical facilities of the Institute for Music and Acoustics have been
underexploited in recent years due to insufficient staff allocation and a lack of staff
continuity. Hence, it should be assured that there is enough personnel for running the
high-level facilities at ZKM’s studios. In future should be also taken care that the work
load of ZKM staff is more balanced.
Concerning the organisational structure of ZKM, it is recommended to stronger integrate the newly established working groups into the work of ZKM’s main Institutes
and working priorities. Provided that loan contracts with the private collectors would
expire, the same applies to MNK. At any rate, the communication and administration
units of ZKM and MNK should be combined and a joint marketing strategy conceived.
In order to enable a passage between the courtyards occupied by ZKM and MNK,
the opening hours of the HfG need to be adapted, resulting in the necessity to also
employ additional security personnel.
- 57 -
The currently available budget is judged to be not sufficient. However, existing financial resources could be used more effectively. The fix costs should not rise because
more financial means are needed for flexible use. The reorganisation from cameralistic to commercial bookkeeping is well under way. The planned implementation of a
cost-benefit calculation is highly appreciated.
Although the fundraising activities have been significantly increased since the new
CEO took over the position in 1999, more fundraising is necessary to overcome financial shortage. It would be appropriate to establish fixed procedures for fundraising
activities that should be top priorities for ZKM’s management.
The founders of ZKM, the State Baden-Württemberg and Karlsruhe, have stated their
intention to continue financing the ZKM for the next years at the same level. This
commitment is highly appreciated, and both founders are asked to assure the longterm financial perspective of ZKM.
Technical equipment at ZKM, especially at the Institute for Music and Acoustics, is
excellent. However, the current budget is not enough for effectively running these
facilities; investments for upgrading are also necessary. Regarding future investments it should be carefully considered whether a certain expensive technology is
strongly needed at ZKM or could alternatively be used at a co-operating research
institute. In contrast, ZKM’s internet infrastructure needs definitely to be improved to
catch up international head starts.
B.IV. Exhibitions, conferences, and publications
The exhibitions produced and shown at ZKM are well recognised on a national and
international scale. The international relevance is confirmed by the fact that institutions from all over the world take over ZKM’s exhibitions like, e.g., the exhibition
“Future Cinema” that will be seen at the KIASMA Museum for Contemporary Art,
Helsinki, at the InterCommunication Center, Tokyo, and at the Australian Centre for
the Moving Image, Melbourne.
- 58 -
In recent years, ZKM has also very successfully arranged important conferences,
panel discussions and lecture series that assemble prominent national as well as international scientists and artists. These conferences frequently accompany major
exhibitions at ZKM so that a comprehensive examination of the respective topics can
be assured from interdisciplinary points of view. The invitations of ZKM staff members to national and international meetings are above-average, whereas staff members of MNK are rarely invited to external conferences.
ZKM’s in-house publications being frequently produced along with main exhibitions
and conferences at ZKM are highly appreciated. With regard to an international audience, the recently started collaboration with the renowned publisher MIT Press is of
special benefit. To a great extent, these publications contribute to the international
reputation of ZKM. In addition, staff members of ZKM publish in external collective
publications and art journals that usually do not have a referee system. It is appreciated that the head of the working group on basic research also publishes in refereed
scientific journals. The conception of an in-house journal series is reasonable and
well underway. Finally, an impressive number of high-quality DVDs and CDs has
been produced so far.
B.V. Co-operations, teaching at institutions of higher education, and promotion
of young scientists/artists
In general, ZKM’s various co-operations with national as well as international research institutes, universities, academies, museums and other cultural institutions
are judged to be highly effective.
In the first place, there are productive co-operations with institutions located in
Karlsruhe. The collaboration with the Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK) is described
by both partners to be very fruitful. FZK makes use of artistic conceptions and developments at ZKM resulting in new ways of showing science to the public (e.g. virtual
realisations). On the other hand, many ideas for co-operation projects come from the
artists working at ZKM who very much benefit from the scientific expertise at FZK.
- 59 -
Currently, ZKM and FZK are together realising a huge movable sculpture of a human
hand that will be installed in front of ZKM. Being jointly developed by artists and scientists, the installation is based on technological innovations that are expected to
also be utilised for future developments of hand prostheses. This is a good example
of social benefit effects that can be achieved by co-operations of artists and scientists.
The various co-operations between ZKM and FZK are very much appreciated as an
aimed strategy of looking for scientific advice to realise artistic ideas. This kind of cooperation with research institutes, bringing artists into close working relationships
with scientists, should be intensified. In general, ZKM should better look for external
partners to get sound scientific advice than institutionalise fixed scientific research
units at ZKM.
The statutes of ZKM lay down a close co-operation with HfG regarding personnel,
resources, and facilities. Indeed, the students of HfG very much benefit from the
close vicinity to ZKM. For instance, up to 90 % of the users of ZKM’s Media Library,
being exclusively financed from ZKM’s budget, are HfG-students. ZKM also provides
its technical equipment and expertise to students of HfG, whereas students help to
build up exhibitions, and work as tour guides at ZKM and MNK. However, the teaching activities of ZKM’s managerial staff could be intensified. There are also regular
co-operations with the State Music Academy Karlsruhe resulting in well recognised
concerts and workshops. ZKM provides facilities to students of the Academy and
helps realising works that would not be possible at the Academy because of lacking
human and technical resources. These activities should be intensified. Also, in order
to further improve ZKM’s co-operations with the art academies of Karlsruhe, it is recommended to establish joint professorships particularly with the HfG and the State
Music Academy. First of all, this requires a limited number of tenure positions at
ZKM.
The co-operations with selected Institutes of the University of Karlsruhe are varied,
reaching from joint projects (e.g. software developments) to lecture series and jointly
organised conferences. Up to now, these collaborations mostly result from individual
- 60 -
contacts and could be put on a more reliable base through co-operation contracts.
Also, since university students are very much interested in gaining practical experiences besides their studies, there should be more opportunities to complete internships in ZKM’s laboratories. The well equipped ZKM studios also provide a stimulating atmosphere for media oriented academic projects. In the past, some Master’s
theses were completed within the context of ZKM’s projects. This link to academia
should be intensified through, e.g., initiating co-operative MA and PhD programmes.
In general, young people get an excellent practice oriented further education at ZKM
and have very good prospects for their future career.
The international co-operations of selected ZKM departments are impressive. In the
past, especially the Institute for Music and Acoustics, the Institute for Visual Media,
and the exhibition department were very successful in acquiring international partners. These activities should be further extended into, e.g., an intensified acquisition
of EU projects and co-operation agreements with international institutions and business companies.
The co-operation activities of MNK have to be improved. Even between ZKM and
MNK, there are hardly any collaborations. However, a stronger integration of MNK
into the ZKM context is expected to result in corresponding synergy effects.
B.VI. Summarised assessment
Within the short time of its existence, ZKM has developed into a major center for research and technology based art and music production. The two main departments
of ZKM, the Institute for Visual Media and the Institute for Music and Acoustics, have
done excellent work and can compete on a world-wide scale. In order to ensure the
high quality of these departments and the ZKM as a whole, special attention has to
be paid to future staff recruitment and personnel planning for longer periods.
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The ZKM collections of contemporary music, media art, paintings and installation
works are not only unique in Germany but also of international relevance. Comprehensive exhibitions, conferences, and publications on issues related to art, technology, and society also ensure the high international reputation of ZKM.
In order to further on demonstrate and strengthen the national and international relevance of ZKM, the function of MNK within the ZKM context needs definitely to be rethought with regard to the original concept of bringing together media art and traditional arts.
ZKM’s profile should be strengthened by a clear focussing of its work. Generally, it is
recommended to concentrate on issues related to the broad field of art and art production. Research and developmental work should always be related to artist’s work.
Hence, the missions of the three newly founded Institutes need to be defined more
clearly towards a stronger integration into ZKM’s working priorities.
At ZKM, internal and external quality control need to be improved. In order to achieve
the first, ZKM’s Advisory Board has to be strengthened by means of a different composition of the Board. For achieving the latter, a more stringent project management
is necessary.
The joint commitment of the State Baden-Württemberg and the town of Karlsruhe to
assure the financial viability of ZKM for the next years is highly appreciated. However, the currently available budget is not sufficient, though existing financial resources could be used more effectively. Also, fund-raising activities should definitely
be intensified to overcome financial shortage. At any rate, the founders of ZKM are
asked to guarantee the long-term financial perspective of ZKM.
The quality of ZKM’s exhibitions and in-house publications is highly appreciated. Staff
members of ZKM also publish in external collective publications, art journals, and
sometimes in refereed scientific journals. ZKM has very successfully arranged important national and international conferences, panel discussions and lecture series.
The invitations of ZKM staff members to national and international meetings are
- 62 -
above-average, whereas staff members of MNK are rarely invited to external conferences.
ZKM’s various co-operations with national as well as international research institutes,
universities, academies, museums and other cultural institutions are highly effective.
It should better look for external partners to get sound scientific advice than institutionalise fixed scientific research units at ZKM. In general, co-operation activities
should be further expanded with regard to European and international institutions as
well as business companies. Also, a targeted transfer of special technologies developed at ZKM into society and industry should be initiated.
In order to further improve ZKM’s co-operation with the art academies of Karlsruhe,
joint professorships particularly with the HfG and the State Music Academy should be
established. This requires a limited number of tenure positions at ZKM. The establishment of tenure positions would also facilitate the search for new managerial staff
on an international level.
- 63 -
Appendix 1a
Organisational Chart
of the Center for Art and Media
Date: November 2002
Chairman/C.E.O.
Executive Assistant
Department 1
Institute for
Visual Media
Department 2
Institute for
Music and
Acoustics
Department 3
Institute for
Basic
Research
Department 4
Institute for
Net Development
Department 5
Institute for
Media and
Economics
Department 8
Administration
Functional
Area
IT
research and production
Department 6
Media
Museum
Functional
Areas
Exhibition
and Events
Functional Areas
Documentation
and Promotion
Functional
Area
Exhibition
Functional Area
Press and Public
Relations
Functional
Area
Events
Functional Area
Publication
Program
Department 7
Media Library
Functional Area
Facility
Management
Functional Area
Museum Communications
Functional Area
Shop
exhibition and events
documentation and promotion
administration and IT
--- interconnections --- between --- departments --- and --- functional --- areas ---
Source: ZKM
Department 9
Museum of Modern Art/Collectors' Museum
- 64 -
Appendix 1b
Organisational Chart
Museum of Modern Art
Date: June 2002
Director
Curator
Scientific /
Artistic
Service
Source: MNK
Museum
Education
ZKMCollection
Technical
Service
Administration
- 65 -
Appendix 2a
Staff appointment scheme
of the Center for Art and Media
(without posts financed by third parties)
Date: November 2002
Job title
Posts for scientific staff
Salary grade
AT
3
A 15
1
Ia
4
II/Ib
11
Subtotal
Posts for non-scientific staff
number of posts
(nominal)
19,0
A 16
1
A 15
1
A 13
1
A 11
2
Ia
4
Ib
1
II / Ib
2
II
1
III / II
1
IV a / III
3
IV a
2
IV b
2
V b / IV b
3
V b Zul.
4
Vc/Vb
4
Vc
2
VII / VI b
7
4/4a
1
5/6
2
6/7
1
Subtotal
45
Total
64
Source: ZKM
- 66 -
Appendix 2b
Staff appointment scheme
of the Museum of Modern Art
(without posts financed by third parties)
Date: November 2002
Job title
Salary grade
AT
Posts for scientific staff
Subtotal
1
Ia BAT
1
II BAT
3
1)
Posts for non-scientific staff
number of posts
(nominal)
5
III BAT
2
IVa/III BAT
1
IVa BAT
2
Vb/IVb BAT
2
Vc BAT
1
VI/Vc BAT
0,5
VII/VIb BAT
0,5
VIII BAT
1,5
LG 4/4a BMT-G
1
Subtotal
11,5
Total
16,5
1) plus two trainees (financed from annexe funds)
Source: MNK
1)
2)
24,0
5,0
15,0
4,0
4,0
-
9,0
-
9,0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Source: ZKM, MNK
1) plus nine trainees (eight financed from annexe funds, one from third-party funds). - 2) plus two trainees (financed from annexe funds).
Total
Museum for Modern Art
Subtotal
-
-
-
-
33,0
5,0
28,0
24,0
4,0
20,0
4,0
-
4,0
2,0
-
-
1,0
Media Library Department
9,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
1,0
-
1,0
Museums Communications Department
9,0
1,0
1,0
-
-
-
-
1,0
1,0
Publications
4,0
2,0
2,0
-
1,0
1,0
-
1,0
1,0
Exhibitions Department
11,0
3,0
3,0
-
1,0
1,0
-
19,0
2,0
2,0
-
-
2,0
2,0
-
Institute for Media and Economics
-
2,0
2,0
-
-
1,0
1,0
-
1,0
1,0
Institute for Net Development
2,0
-
3,0
3,0
-
-
2,0
2,0
-
1,0
1,0
Institute for Basic Research
-
-
2,0
5,0
-
-
-
-
-
2,0
5,0
Institute for Music and Acoustics
2,0
3,0
3,0
6,0
-
-
-
1,0
1,0
3,0
2,0
5,0
Institute for Visual Media
Media Museum
1,0
1,0
-
-
of which of which
fixed-term not occupied
contracts
-
total
-
of which of which
fixed-term not occucontracts
pied
-
total
-
of which of which
fixed-term not occucontracts
pied
-
total
Posts for scientific staff (total)
1,0
of which of which
fixed-term not occucontracts
pied
Posts for PhD students
1,0
total
Posts financed by third
parties
Date: November 2002
Head Office
Institute/Department
Regular posts
Allocation of posts for scientific staff
to the institutes/departments
of the Center for Art and Media
and the Museum of Modern Art
Appendix 3
- 67 -
- 68 -
Appendix 4
By the Center for Art and Media
acquired third-party funds
in the years 2000-2002
Institute/Department
Institute for Visual Media
Source
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
Companies
Foundations
Other
Subtotal
Institute for Music
and Acoustics
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
Companies
Foundations
Other
Subtotal
Institute for
Basic Research
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
Companies
Foundations
Other
Subtotal
Institute for Net
Development
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
Companies
Foundations
Other
Subtotal
Institute for Media
and Economics
(founded in May 2001)
Subtotal
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
Companies
Foundations
Other
Date: November 2002
Third-party funds in
Total
Thousand Euros (rounded)
2000
2001
2002
51
1.070
1.121
152
44
15
211
139
15
10
165
24
1.027
716
1.767
243
261
504
558
1.398
1.811
3.767
10
10
7
7
9
2
6
17
20
15
15
50
46
17
21
84
97
97
97
97
596
596
0
155
83
237
13
44
31
88
168
127
627
921
25
75
100
204
281
485
2
2
229
358
587
- 69 -
Institute/Department
Media Museum
Subtotal
Exhibitions
Subtotal
Media Library
Subtotal
Museums
Communications
Subtotal
ZKM other
Subtotal
ZKM total
Total
Source: ZKM
continuation appendix 4
Third-party funds in
Source
Thousand Euros (rounded)
2000
2001
2002
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
369
EU
Companies
685
122
Foundations
Other
10
1.064
122
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
20
Companies
Foundations
Other
15
35
DFG
Federal Government
26
63
State Governments
EU
Companies
25
25
25
Foundations
Other
48
2
2
73
53
90
DFG
Federal Government
20
State Governments
EU
Companies
Foundations
Other
20
DFG
Federal Government
State Governments
EU
Companies
150
142
Foundations
Other
150
142
DFG
Federal Government
20
51
138
State Governments
379
255
2.044
EU
152
44
35
Companies
1.011
273
302
Foundations
33
1.029
722
Other
333
322
63
1.928
1.973
3.304
Total
369
807
10
1.186
20
35
89
75
52
216
20
20
292
292
209
2.678
231
1.585
1.784
718
7.205
- 70 -
Appendix 5a
Directory of documents handed in by the
Center for Art and Media (ZKM)
-
Answers to the questionnaire
-
Organisational chart
-
Statutes of the Foundation ZKM
-
Description of current scientific/artistic activities of the ZKM institutes/organisational units
-
Budget 2002
-
Staff appointment scheme; distribution of posts for scientific staff; lists of staff
members by function/by name
-
List of third-party funds 2000-2002
-
Publication list incl. quantitative overview 2000-2002
-
List of theses completed at ZKM
-
Lists of visiting scientists and stays abroad
-
Lists of seminars, major events, exhibitions, awards, jury participation
-
List of members of Board of Trustees members
-
Minutes of the meetings of the Board of Trustees on 3 December 2001, 15 January 2001, 4 December 2000
-
List of co-operation projects or agreements
-
Allocation of responsibilities between the ZKM and MNK
-
Historical development of the ZKM
-
Bruno Latour/Peter Weibel (eds.): Iconoclash. Beyond the Image Wars in Science, Religion, and Art. Karlsruhe, Cambridge (Mass.), London, 2002
-
Olafur Eliasson: Surroundings surrounded/Peter Weibel (ed.): Essays on Space
and Science. Karlsruhe, Cambridge (Mass.), London, 2001
-
ZKM mediagramm (programme January/February 2003)
- 71 -
Appendix 5b
Directory of documents handed in by the
Museum of Modern Art (MNK)
-
Answers to the questionnaire
-
Organisational chart
-
Partial budget for the MNK 2002
-
Staff appointment scheme; distribution of posts for scientific staff; list of employees by position; list of researchers and freelancers in the museum education by
name
-
Publication list incl. quantitative overview
-
List of exhibitions; press releases
-
List of lectures, discussions, events
-
Lists of theses supervision and seminars
-
Museum teaching program 2002
-
Workshops and courses 2000-2002
-
Minutes of MNK collectors’ meeting on 22 July 2002
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