Carbon Steels 12

Carbon Steels 12
Welding Consumables
1
12
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
12 | Carbon Steels
Section 12 - Welding Consumables
1
Carbon Steels
1
Welding of Carbon Steels
2
MMA Electrodes
24
MIG/MAG Wires
44
MIG & TIG Wires for CMn & Low Alloy Steels
50
Flux & Metal Cored Wires
53
Cored Wires for CMn & Low Alloy Steels
62
Subarc Wires & Fluxes
65
Submerged Arc Fluxes
70
Submerged Arc Wire & Flux Combinations
73
Oxy-Fuel & Gas Welding Rods
76
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding of Carbon Steels
Weldability of Steel
Weldability is a term used to describe the relative ease or
difficulty with which a metal or alloy can be welded. The better
the weldability, the easier it is to weld. However, weldability
is a complicated property, as it encompasses the metallurgical
compatibility of the metal or alloy with a specific welding
process, its ability to be welded with mechanical soundness,
and the capacity of the resulting weld to perform satisfactorily
under the intended service conditions.
Before attempting to weld any material, it is essential to know
how easy it is to weld and to be aware of any problems that
might arise. One of the main problems likely to be encountered
when welding carbon and alloy steels is hydrogen cracking.
For hydrogen cracking to occur, it is necessary to have a supply
of hydrogen to the weld and a heat affected zone (HAZ), a
susceptible hardened microstructure, and tensile stress. If any
one of these three components is eliminated, then hydrogen
cracking will not happen. Solidification cracking and lamellar
tearing are other potential problems associated with welding
steel.
The main problem when welding steel is hardenability. As long
as the steel contains sufficient carbon when it is cooled rapidly
from high temperature, a phase transformation takes place.
The phase transformation from austenite to martensite causes
the material to harden and become brittle. It is then liable to
crack on cooling, due to restraint, or later under the action of
hydrogen. 
Temperature distribution across half the weld
Hardenability and Hardness
To become harder, steel must undergo a phase change. The
starting point is austenite, so the steel must first be heated into
the austenitic temperature range (see diagram on left).
Austenite, quenched rapidly, will be transformed into martensite, a hard but brittle phase.
A slower cooling rate will promote formation of bainite
and/or other softer phases.
Cooled even more slowly, a soft structure of ferrite plus
cementite, called perlite, results.
Iron carbon equilibrium diagram
Liquid
d
c
b
This effect can be overcome by preheat combined with the
use of a low hydrogen process or low hydrogen welding
consumables. Calculation of preheat is usually based on
carbon equivalent (derived from steel composition), combined
thickness of the components, and heat input from the welding
process. It also takes account of the amount of hydrogen likely
to be introduced into the weld metal by the welding process.
If welding under high restraint, extra preheat may need to be
applied. Some high carbon steels and low alloy steels may also
need a post weld stress relief or tempering.
Austenite
a
Ferrite +
Cementile
0,2% Carbon
Variation in temperature from the centre
of the weld to the base material
The weldability of steel depends primarily on its hardenability
and this, in turn, depends largely on its composition (most
importantly its carbon content). Steels with carbon content
under 0,3% are reasonably easy to weld, while steels with over
0,5% are difficult. Other alloying elements that have an effect
on the hardenability of steel, but to a much lesser extent than
carbon, are manganese, molybdenum, chromium, vanadium,
nickel and silicon. These, together with carbon, are all generally
expressed as a single value (the carbon equivalent). The higher
the carbon equivalent, the higher the hardenability, the more
difficult the steel is to weld, and the more susceptible the
microstructure is likely to be to hydrogen cracking.
2
Welding Consumables
Back to contents
Martensite, tempered martensite and heavily tempered martensite
Hardenability
Hardenability is the potential for any particular steel to harden
on cooling and, as the carbon content of the steel increases
towards 0,8%, so the potential of the steel to harden increases.
Increasing the alloy content of the steel also increases the
hardenability.
While hardness and strength may be desirable in a welded
steel structure, martensite can be brittle and susceptible to
cracking, and it should be noted that the potential brittleness of
the material also increases as hardenability increases.
Hardenability describes the potential of steel to form hard
microstructures. What hardness is actually achieved in steel with
known hardenability depends on the maximum temperature to
which it is heated and the cooling rate from that temperature.
During welding, the parent material close to the weld will be
heated to temperatures near melting point, while further away
it will remain at ambient temperature. The cooling rate depends
on the mass of material, its temperature, and the welding heat
input. Therefore, when welding any given hardenable steel, the
hardness in the HAZ depends on the cooling rate – the faster the
cooling rate, the harder the microstructure produced and the
more susceptible it is to cracking.
12
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
used to ensure accuracy of calculation of CE, but nominal or
maximum specified compositional data may be used when this
is unavailable. The use of nominal composition obviously carries
some risk that CE will be underestimated and too low preheat
will be used, with potential cracking problems.
Welding Consumables
3
Weldability
Weldability describes the relative ease or difficulty with which
a metal or alloy can be welded.
The relative weldability of carbon and low alloy steels are
summarised here.
After welding, the hardness in the HAZ may range from less
than 300 HV to more than 550 HV, depending on the parent
steel composition and the other factors described above. As
the hardness of the HAZ increases, so does its susceptibility
to hydrogen cracking. However, as a rule of thumb, if the
maximum hardness in the HAZ is maintained below 350 HV,
then hydrogen cracking will be avoided.
Carbon Equivalent
Carbon has the greatest effect on the hardenability of steel,
but other alloying elements may be added to increase its
hardenability. The addition effectively reduces the critical
cooling rate and the temperature at which the austenite to
martensite transformation takes place, making it easier for
martensite to form at slower cooling rates.
12
Alloying elements that have the greatest influence on the
hardenability of steel are manganese, molybdenum, chromium,
vanadium, nickel, copper and silicon, but they have a much
smaller effect than carbon.
The effect of these elements on the tendency to form HAZ
martensite, and hence the likelihood of hydrogen cracking,
is expressed conveniently as a carbon equivalent (CE).
This basically describes the influence of each element on
hardenability in terms of the effect that carbon has. There
have been many different formulae derived to express carbon
equivalent, but the one quoted here is the International
Institute of Welding (IIW) equation that is applicable to carbon
steel and is widely used:
Carbon equivalent (CE) =
%C +
%Mn
6
+
(%Ni + %Cu)
15
+
(%Cr + %Mo + %V)
5
As has already been stated, weldability varies with the
chemistry of the steel, particularly with reference to its carbon
content.
The majority of carbon steels are weldable, but some grades
have better weldability and, therefore, are more easily welded
than others. As the carbon content increases, weldability
tends to decrease as the hardenability increases and the steel
becomes more prone to cracking.
Low carbon steels containing <0,15% carbon and <0,6%
manganese generally have good weldability, as the
composition is too lean to give any significant hardening effect
during welding. However, steels with <0,12% carbon and low
levels of manganese can be prone to porosity, although they
are not susceptible to hydrogen cracking.
Steels with carbon contents between 0,15 and 0,3% carbon
and up to 0,9% manganese, have good weldability, particularly
those with carbon content below 0,22%. These are mild steels
and rarely present problems, as long as impurity levels are
kept low. They are all weldable without preheat, using any
of the common welding processes. Those at the top end of
the composition range, above about 0,25% carbon, may be
prone to cracking under certain circumstances. They may be
welded using any of the common welding processes, but are
best welded with a low hydrogen process such as MIG or low
hydrogen consumables. Thick sections may require preheating
to reduce the cooling rate.
Medium carbon steels containing between 0,25 and 0,5%
carbon, with generally <1% manganese, are hardenable by
heat treatment and so are prone to cracking when welded.
They can be welded, but require suitable welding procedures,
specifying preheat and interpass temperature control to
account for the carbon content or carbon equivalent and the
combined thickness of the joint being produced. These steels
should always be welded using a low hydrogen welding
process or controlled hydrogen consumables.
The carbon equivalent is used mainly for estimating preheat.
Preheat is necessary to slow down the cooling rate sufficiently
to reduce hardening in the HAZ of welds in susceptible carbon
and low alloy steels. This, in turn, helps to prevent subsequent
HAZ hydrogen cracking. The overall effect is to improve the
weldability of the steel being welded, or at least to overcome
the weldability problems presented by it.
Steels with even higher carbon levels, between 0,5 and
1,0%, with <1% manganese, are used where their higher
hardness and strength can be exploited. However, their high
hardenability means that they have poor weldability and are
difficult to weld without cracking. They are generally welded
in the hardened condition and so require preheating, interpass
temperature control and post weld stress relief to give any
chance or avoiding cracking. Low hydrogen processes, such
as MIG and TIG welding or low hydrogen consumables, such
as low hydrogen MMA electrodes will always be required when
welding these steels.
CE is calculated from the composition of the steel in question
and is used – together with welding heat input, potential
hydrogen from the consumable, and combined thickness, or
by reference to published data – to determine the preheat.
It is recommended that the actual composition of the steel is
Carbon-manganese steels have carbon typically between
0,15 and 0,5%, and manganese levels between 1,0 and 1,7%.
For structural purposes, carbon is normally held below 0,3%,
manganese not above 1,2% and sulphur and phosphorous are
required to be below 0,05%. Generally, they are weldable,
The equation is only valid for certain maximum percentages
of each element and these percentages can be found in the
technical literature.
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
although some will require controls on preheat and heat input.
Those at the higher end of the carbon range also benefit from
the use of low hydrogen welding processes or controlled
hydrogen consumables.
Structural steels often have limits imposed on maximum carbon
equivalent to ensure good weldability and ease of welding for
the fabricator.
Weldable high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels have weldability
similar to the low carbon steels, and so do not usually present
problems.
Most quenched and tempered steels can be welded, but they
rely on relatively high cooling rates for the strong martensitic
structures to form. Careful control of preheat, heat input
and interpass temperature is required to achieve the correct
structure without cracking. Welding must be carried out using
a low hydrogen process, or hydrogen-controlled consumables,
and welding procedures need to be tested and approved.
Weld and HAZ Cracking
With steel, poor weldability often manifests in a reduction of
the resistance of the steel to cracking after welding.
4
Heat affected zone (cold cracking)
There are published guidelines and standards that contain
welding procedures to avoid hydrogen cracking. For hydrogen
cracking to occur, it is necessary to have a supply of hydrogen
to the weld and HAZ, a susceptible hardened microstructure,
and tensile stress. If any one of these three components is
eliminated, then hydrogen cracking will not happen.
To avoid cold cracking, the following points should be noted:
The lower the carbon equivalent, the lower the
potential for cracking.
Limit the hydrogen content of weld metal and HAZ by
using a low hydrogen process or low hydrogen
consumables.
Keep joint restraint to a minimum by careful joint
design.
Base metal
Heat affected zone
Weldmetal
The main causes of cracking in steel are:
High levels of carbon and other alloy elements, resulting
in brittle zones around the weld.
High cooling rates after welding increasing the hardness,
which increases the susceptibility to cold cracking.
Joint restraint preventing contraction after welding,
leading to cracking.
Hydrogen in the weld bead or HAZ, leading to hydrogeninduced cold cracking.
Contaminants like sulphur and phosphorous, resulting in
solidification cracking.
Lamellar tearing due to inclusions layering during rolling,
resulting in deterioration of the through-thickness
properties.
The most common cause of cracking in steel is the presence of
hydrogen. Hydrogen (or cold) cracking is usually considered the
most serious potential problem with modern steels. Hydrogen
cracking is most frequently a HAZ phenomenon, but it can also
occur in weld metal, particularly in high alloy steels. Hydrogen,
like carbon, is more soluble in austenite than ferrite and can
easily be picked up by the weld metal. When ferrite is formed
as the material cools, hydrogen solubility decreases and
hydrogen diffuses to the HAZ, where it becomes trapped and
can cause crack propagation.
Reduce the cooling rate of the weld area by preheat and
suitable welding heat input.
Eliminating hydrogen after the weld is completed by
keeping the weld hot (hydrogen release treatment).
Ensure impurities are kept at a low level.
The above guide is of a very general nature. If in doubt, seek
expert technical advice.
Factors Influencing Weldability
In terms of avoiding weldability problems, particularly hydrogen
cracking, when welding carbon or low alloy steels, there are
several factors that demand consideration. These include
the amount of hydrogen generated by the welding process
or consumable, the heat input into the weld, the combined
thickness (heat sink) of the joint, and the level of preheat
applied to the components prior to welding. Joint configuration
and restraint are also important factors when considering
weldability.
Process Hydrogen
One of the three key components necessary for hydrogen
cracking is a source of hydrogen. During welding, the most
likely sources of hydrogen are the welding consumables
or contaminants on the parent material. Here we consider
hydrogen from the welding process and consumables only.
The amount of hydrogen put into the weld will vary from one
welding process to another and may also vary within a process
from one consumable type to another. The risk of hydrogen
cracking increases as the amount of hydrogen from the process
or consumable gets larger.
Solid wire processes, such as MIG and TIG, are capable of giving
hydrogen levels below 5 ml/100 g of weld metal. These are
generally thought to be low hydrogen processes, provided
the MIG wire is clean.
12
Welding Consumables
5
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
The manual metal arc process can give a wide range of
hydrogen levels, from well over 15 ml/100 g of weld metal
(with cellulosic and rutile coated electrodes) to less than 5
ml /100 g of weld metal (with basic coated electrodes) given
the appropriate baking or re-drying treatment.
The potential hydrogen levels can vary with product type for
cored wire welding processes too. Basic type flux cored wires
may be capable of getting below 5 ml/100 g of weld metal,
but rutile cored and metal cored wire types may give 10 or
15 ml/100 g of weld metal. Some recent developments have
enabled metal cored and rutile cored wire to achieve hydrogen
levels below 10 ml/100 g, with some even below 5 ml/100 g.
Submerged arc wires, like MIG wires, should be able to give
low levels of hydrogen but, when used in combination with
different fluxes, the hydrogen level may vary between <5 to 15
ml/100 g of weld metal.
Welding Heat Input
The heat input from the welding process plays a major role in
the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld and
parent plate during welding. For a given plate thickness, a high
heat input is likely to result in a slower cooling rate than a low
heat input, and will therefore produce a softer microstructure in
the HAZ that is less prone to hydrogen cracking. However, that
does not mean that welding should always be carried out with
a high heat input, because this brings with it other problems,
such as loss of mechanical properties and an increased risk of
solidification cracking. So it is necessary to select a heat input
to give a sound weld with the desired mechanical properties
and to use preheat to exert control of the cooling rate.
Combined Thickness
The cooling rate of plate in the region of a weld depends on
the thickness of the plates in the joint, the number of plates
meeting at the joint, the amount of heat put into the weld
area, and the initial temperature of these plates. Cooling occurs
by conduction and so the greater the heat sink, the faster the
cooling rate. Therefore, other factors being constant, the thicker
the plate, the greater the potential for rapid cooling, and so the
greater the likelihood of hardening in the HAZ of susceptible
steels.
Estimates of preheat will normally take into account the
thickness of each of the components in the joint to allow for
the cooling effect. The thickness of each component is added
together to give what is normally referred to as ‘combined
thickness’ (CT).
How the combined thickness is derived depends on the joint
configuration and is illustrated below:
CT
=
T1
+
T2
+
T3
…
Example of combined thickness calculation for butt joint
T1
T2
Example of combined thickness calculation for
fillet joint
Heat input ‘Q’ may be calculated as:
12
Q
=
k x V x I x 60
S x 1 000
kJ/mm
where ‘V’ is arc voltage (V), ‘I’ is welding current, and ‘S’ is
welding speed in mm/min.
The value derived from this formula may be multiplied by a
factor ‘k’, the thermal efficiency factor for the welding process,
to give an energy input that takes the efficiency of the welding
process into account. Typical thermal efficiency factors are:
‘k’ = 1,0 for submerged arc welding
‘k’ = 0,8 for MIG / MAG, MMA, flux cored and metal cored
arc welding
‘k’ = 0,6 for TIG and plasma welding
For example, when MIG welding, the welding heat input
formula becomes:
Q
=
0,8 x V x I x 60
S x 1 000
kJ/mm
Welding heat input will vary with process and consumable
type and size. With small diameter electrodes, low current and
fast welding speeds, heat inputs below 1,0 kJ/mm are readily
attained. With large diameter electrodes, high currents and
slower welding speeds, heat inputs in excess of 6,0 kJ/mm can
be reached.
Note that a weld made using a stringer bead technique will
have a lower heat input than a weld made with the same
size electrode at the same current but using a weave bead
technique.
T1
T2
T3
For butt welds, the CT equals the sum of the thicknesses of
the two plates being welded; for fillet welds, the CT equals
twice the thickness of the base plate plus the thickness of the
up-stand. Therefore, for a given plate thickness, a fillet joint has
a faster cooling rate than a butt joint.
Recommendations for the Storage,
Handling and Treatment of Afrox
Hydrogen Controlled Basic Carbon
Steel Electrodes
Handling
Afrox electrodes are packed in cardboard cartons with a
moisture resistant polythene wrapping. Further protection is
provided by shrinking these rigid cartons into packs of three.
The packs are stacked to a maximum of eight high on wooden
pallets.
This is the recommended maximum height to avoid crushing and
hence possible damage during storage.
Storage
Basic low hydrogen electrodes should be stored in dry
conditions, off the floor on pallets or racks in their unopened
containers. The rate of moisture re-absorption which takes
place is determined by the resistance of the electrode to the
atmospheric conditions of relative humidity and temperature
prevailing during storage.
Storage is not really the most important issue in determining
subsequent weld metal hydrogen content of low hydrogen
electrodes, but rather, the rate at which moisture is lost during
re-baking of electrodes prior to use.
Storage under the correct conditions will provide indefinite
product shelf-life.
Re-baking
It is essential that hydrogen-controlled electrodes be
re-baked prior to use. The re-baking temperature
recommendations depend on the maximum permissible
hydrogen content tolerable in the deposited weld metal and the
hardenability of the parent material.
Standard Re-baking Temperatures
Product
5-10 ml H2/
100 g
<5 ml H2/100 g
7018-1
350 - 370°C
–
78MR
250 - 270°C
370 - 400°C
Ferron 1
350 - 370°C
–
Baking time one-two hours
Diffusible hydrogen content determined using Yanaco
gas chromatograph
Optimum conditions for re-baking are achieved when electrodes
are placed on the oven shelves not more than five deep. This
is normally only required when diffusible hydrogen contents
of less than 5 ml H /100 g of weld metal are specified and
hardenable materials in thick sections have to be welded.
2
For general shop conditions, the electrode pile in the oven can
be increased provided consumables in the centre of the pile
achieve the minimum re-baking temperature for a minimum
period of one hour.
Note: When electrodes are placed in a baking oven, the
temperature in the electrode pile rises far more slowly
than it takes for the oven’s own temperature to rise to the
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
set temperature. It is therefore incorrect to take the oven
temperature as an accurate indication of the actual baking
temperature reached by the electrodes and hence a guide to
the time at temperature.
Unless the temperature during baking is timed on the basis of
the electrode temperature, the electrodes cannot be considered
properly re-baked prior to use.
If possible, it is recommended that fabricators carry out checks
on their re-drying ovens to establish the correct conditions for
actual electrode re-baking temperatures and times as compared
to oven temperatures and times.
6
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
It is important to note that if the electrodes are maintained at
the re-bake temperature for long periods of time, the coating
may become brittle. Coating brittleness may also result if the
electrode is re-baked above the maximum recommended
temperature.
Number of Re-bakes
Repeated re-baking has an adverse effect on electrode coating
strength and adhesion to the core wire. From tests carried out
by Afrox, it is recommended that:
Re-baking at 370-400°C be limited to two times and
re-baking at 250-270°C be limited to three times.
(This does not include the factory bake).
Holding Conditions
Immediately after baking, the electrodes should be
transferred to a holding oven alongside the baking oven.
The recommended holding temperature is 150°C ± 20°C.
The holding time is virtually indefinite with a working limit
suggested as 120 hours. Any electrodes that are inadvertently
exposed to excessive moisture, rain, etc. or are damaged,
should be removed from the work site and destroyed.
Quivers
Electrodes drawn from holding ovens should be held in heated
quivers at a minimum temperature of 75°C. The suggested
period for the electrodes to remain in the quivers is eight hours.
After this time, any remaining electrodes should be returned for
re-baking.
General
In some instances, it may be possible to modify the above
requirements, depending on the type of work which is being
undertaken and technical requirements being imposed. Please
refer any technical queries to the Marketing Department, Afrox
Welding Consumables on (011) 490 0400.
12
Welding Consumables
7
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Preheating of Materials
What is Preheat?
A heating procedure applied to parent metal components
immediately before welding commences, and considered as an
essential part of the welding operation, is called ‘preheat’.
Preheating of components prior to welding in these situations
is designed primarily to slow down the rate of cooling of the
weldment. In reducing the cooling rate, preheat is protecting
the parent metal by helping to prevent hardening of the weld
by the formation of brittle phases. A softer, more ductile
structure is more resistant to cracking. The slower cooling rate
also gives more time for any hydrogen introduced into the weld
to diffuse away from the welded joint.
Reduce shrinkage stress and weld distortion
If welds are made in highly restrained joints, or in materials
with very low ductility (e.g. cast irons), the welding cycle of
heating, followed by rapid cooling, can result in cracking in the
weld or the surrounding area. This is due to the weld metal or
adjacent parent metal not being able to withstand the effects
of shrinkage stresses created by contraction.
Metals and Alloys that Should Not be Preheated
Preheat and high interpass temperatures can have a negative
effect on the mechanical properties or corrosion resistance of
some alloys. For example:
Austenitic manganese (13% Mn) steel
Austenitic stainless steels
Preheating can be applied locally to the areas to be welded,
or to the whole component. It is usually done to raise the
temperature of the weld area so that the weld does not cool
too quickly after welding. This protects the material being
welded from the various adverse effects that can be caused
by the normally rapid cooling cycle created by the welding
process.
12
Note that, while preheat is applied before welding begins, it is
essential that the minimum preheat temperature is maintained
throughout the welding operation.
What Does Preheat Do?
Basically, preheat puts the parent metal components in a
suitable condition for the subsequent welding operation.
Preheating may be carried out for any of the following reasons:
Slow down the cooling rate
Reduce shrinkage stress and weld distortion
Promote fusion
Remove moisture.
Slow down the cooling rate
Some alloys (notably high carbon and low alloy steels), if
welded and allowed to cool quickly, can develop hard or brittle
phases in the heat affected zone (HAZ). These phases can
render such alloys susceptible to cracking under the action of
tensile shrinkage stresses as the weld area cools down, or they
can result in low toughness of the HAZ.
Many steels are susceptible to hydrogen cracking, and
fast cooling rates not only promote the formation of hard,
susceptible microstructures but also lock the hydrogen into
the solidifying weld metal. Because of this trapped hydrogen
gas, pressure builds up in the weld and the heat affected
zone, which can result in cracking of the already brittle
microstructure. Such cracks are normally detected by post
weld inspection techniques, but should they escape detection,
they may lead to premature failure in service, with potentially
disastrous consequences.
Duplex stainless steels
Titanium alloys.
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Here preheating is used to balance the thermal cycle and so
reduce the shrinkage stresses in the weld and in the adjacent
parent material.
When welding wrought materials in highly restrained joints,
preheat is normally applied locally in the weld area.
When welding castings, the preheat applied may be ‘local’
(heating in the area of the weld only), ‘total’ (the whole casting
is heated), or ‘indirect’ (heating a part of the casting away
from the weld area to balance the effects of expansion and
contraction).
8
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Promote Fusion
Residual stresses present in a welded joint
Some alloy systems (e.g. copper and aluminium) have very high
thermal conductivity, and if a weld is attempted on thick, cold
plate, the parent material could chill the deposited weld metal
so quickly that it does not fuse with the parent metal. This may
be referred to as a ‘cold start’. The heat conduction away from
the joint area can be such that a weld may be impossible using a
conventional arc welding process.
Preheat is used in this case to raise the initial temperature of the
material sufficiently to ensure full weld fusion from the start. This
is particularly important when using a welding process / plate
thickness combination that is likely to produce a cold start.
Remove Moisture
Any metallic components left overnight in a cold workshop or
brought in from outside are likely to be damp or even wet. If they
are welded in that condition, problems can arise in the resultant
welds. For example, if the components are made of steel, then
the moisture will act as a source of hydrogen and the result could
be hydrogen cracking. Aluminium has a porous oxide layer, which
will absorb moisture from the atmosphere, and, if not removed
before welding, this can result in weld metal porosity and
subsequent rejection of the weld.
While not normally the main objective of preheating, its use for
removal of surface moisture prior to welding is not only advisable,
but very often essential.
Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel
These two groups of materials have, quite rightly, been given
more attention in estimation of preheat temperature than any
other alloy system, as the penalty for getting it wrong can be
severe.
The following list is intended only to give some indication of
the level of preheat required for certain types of steel. In these
examples, it is assumed that the weld is a butt weld, and the
thicknesses given are the normally used ‘combined thickness’,
where this is the total thickness of all the parts to be joined.
When calculating the ‘combined thickness’ of parts with varying
thicknesses (such as forgings), the thickness of each part is
usually averaged over a distance of 75 mm from the weld line.
However, for some processes and materials, account must be
taken of any difference of thickness beyond the 75 mm point,
and it is important to refer to the specific welding procedures or
relevant standards in each case.
Distortion due to the presence of residual stress
12
Welding Consumables
9
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Steel Type
Combined
Thickness
(mm)
Low C and mild steels <50
Typical Preheat
(°C)
50
>50
100 – 150
Medium C, CMn
steels
<40
100 – 200
>40
150 – 250
High C, CMn steels
All
200 – 300
QT steels, HSLA steels All
None to 150
(max.)
0,5% Mo, 1% Cr0,5% Mo steels*
All
100 – 250
2% Cr-1% Mo, 5% Cr0,5% Mo steels*
All
200 – 300
Direct hardening
steels
All
150 – 300
Case hardening
steels
All
150
13% manganese
steel
All
None
*Preheat is usually specified by procedure and tightly
monitored and controlled with these materials
It is recommended that more comprehensive documentation
be consulted when selecting a temperature for a specific
application.
12
Information to assist with calculation of preheat for CMn steels
can be found in international standards (e.g. BS 5135 and AWS
D1.1). These standards set out minimum preheat temperatures
based on factors such as the type of steel specification or
carbon equivalent, thickness, the welding process or heat
input, and the hydrogen class of the welding consumable. The
guidelines do not take restraint into consideration, so highly
restrained joints may need higher levels of preheat than
indicated.
The information in these standards is often used as a rough
guide to determine preheat for low alloy steels. This should be
done with extreme caution, as low alloy steels will frequently
need much higher preheat than estimated by this means
because of their alloy content.
When joining or surfacing hardenable steels (steels with high
CE), it is sometimes possible to weld with an austenitic type
consumable and to use a lower preheat than would be needed
if ferritic consumables were to be used.
The decision-making process, when deciding whether to use
preheat with carbon steel and alloy steel, can become quite
complicated. Carbon and carbon-manganese steels and low
alloy steels may require preheating, but this depends on their
carbon equivalent, combined thickness and proposed welding
heat input.
Preheat with these ferritic materials is primarily aimed at
reducing the severity of the ‘quench’ after welding, and
helping to prevent the formation of hard brittle microstructures
in the weld and HAZ. It also allows hydrogen to diffuse
away from the weld area, thus reducing the risk of hydrogen
cracking. The objective is to keep the maximum HAZ hardness
to below about 350 HV although this will not always be
possible, particularly with some low alloy steels with high
hardenability. These low alloy types may, additionally, need a
post weld heat treatment to restore properties.
How Much Preheat to Apply
The actual preheat temperature required for a specific welding
operation depends not only on the material or materials being
welded, but also the combined thickness of the joint, the heat
input from the welding process being used, and the amount of
restraint imposed upon the components. There are no hard and
fast rules regarding how much preheat to apply, but there are
many publications available that give helpful guidance.
Fundamentals of Manual Metal Arc
(MMA) Welding
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Name
AWS
Classification
Application
Afrox 7018-1
E7018-1
A premium quality,
all positional
hydrogen-controlled
electrode for carbon
steels in pressure
vessel applications
and where high
integrity welding
is required; and for
free-machining steels
containing sulphur
Welding Technique
Successful MMA welding depends on the following factors:
Selection of the correct electrode
Selection of the correct size of the electrode for the job
Correct welding current
Correct arc length
10
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Correct angle of electrode to work
Correct travel speed
Electrode Size
Correct preparation of work to be welded.
The size of the electrode generally depends on the thickness of
the section being welded, and the thicker the section the larger
the electrode required. In the case of light sheet, the electrode
size used is generally slightly larger than the work being
welded. This means that, if 2,0 mm sheet is being welded,
2,5 mm diameter electrode is the recommended size.
Electrode Selection
As a general rule, the selection of an electrode is straightforward, in that it is only a matter of selecting an electrode of
similar composition to the parent metal. However, for some
metals there is a choice of several electrodes, each of which
has particular properties to suit specific classes of work. Often,
one electrode in the group will be more suitable for general
applications due to its all round qualities.
The table below shows just a few of the range of electrodes
available from Afrox, with their typical areas of application.
For example, the average welder will carry out most fabrication
using mild steel and for this material has a choice of various
standard Afrox electrodes, each of which will have qualities
suited to particular tasks. For general mild steel work, however,
Afrox Vitemax® electrodes will handle virtually all applications.
Afrox Vitemax® is suitable for welding mild steel in all positions
using AC or DC power sources. Its easy striking characteristics
and the tolerance it has for work where fit-up and plate
surfaces are not considered good, make it the most attractive
electrode of its class.
Electrodes and Typical Applications
Name
AWS
Classification
Application
Afrox Vitemax
E6013
A premium quality
electrode for general
structural and sheet
metal work in all
positions, including
vertical-down using
low carbon steels
Afrox Afrolux
E7024
An iron powder
electrode for high
speed welding of
H-V fillets and flat
butt joints. Medium
to heavy structural
applications in low
carbon steels
®
The following table gives the maximum size of electrodes that
may be used for various thicknesses of section.
Recommended Electrode Sizes
Average Thickness of
Plate or Section (mm)
Maximum Recommended
Electrode Diameter (mm)
1,5 – 2,0
2,5
2,0 – 5,0
3,2
5,0 – 8,0
4,0
8,0
5,0
Welding Current
Correct current selection for a particular job is an important
factor in arc welding. With the current set too low, difficulty
is experienced in striking and maintaining a stable arc. The
electrode tends to stick to the work, penetration is poor and
beads with a distinct rounded profile will be deposited.
Excessive current is accompanied by overheating of the
electrode. It will cause undercut and burning through of the
material, and will give excessive spatter. Normal current for
a particular job may be considered as the maximum, which
can be used without burning through the work, over-heating
the electrode or producing a rough spattered surface (i.e. the
current in the middle of the range specified on the electrode
package is considered to be the optimum).
In the case of welding machines with separate terminals
for different size electrodes, ensure that the welding lead is
connected to the correct terminal for the size electrode being
used. When using machines with adjustable current, set on
the current range specified. The limits of this range should not
normally be exceeded. The following table shows the current
ranges generally recommended for Vitemax®.
12
Welding Consumables
11
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Generally Recommended Current Range for Afrox
Vitemax®
In all cases, edges should be prepared for the joints that suit
the application. The following section describes the various
joint types and areas of application.
Electrode Size (mm)
Current Range (A)
2,5
60 – 95
Types of Joints
3,2
110 – 130
Butt welds
4,0
140 – 165
5,0
170 – 260
A butt weld is a weld made between two plates so as to give
continuity of section.
Arc Length
To strike the arc, the electrode should be gently scraped on
the work until the arc is established. There is a simple rule for
the proper arc length; it should be the shortest arc that gives a
good surface to the weld. An arc too long reduces penetration,
produces spatter and gives a rough surface finish to the weld.
An excessively short arc will cause sticking of the electrode and
rough deposits that are associated with slag inclusions.
For downhand welding, an arc length not greater than the
diameter of the core wire will be most satisfactory. Overhead
welding requires a very short arc, so that a minimum of metal
will be lost. Certain Afrox electrodes have been specially
designed for ‘touch’ welding. These electrodes may be dragged
along the work and a perfectly sound weld is produced.
Close attention must be paid to detail in a butt weld to ensure
that the maximum strength of the weld is developed. Failure to
properly prepare the edges may lead to the production of faulty
welds, as correct manipulation of the electrode is impeded.
Butt Welding
Reinforcement
Root face
Root gap
Two terms relating to the preparation of butt welds require
explanation at this stage. They are:
Electrode Angle
12
Weld face
The angle that the electrode makes with the work is important
to ensure a smooth, even transfer of metal.
Root face: the proportion of the prepared edge that has not been bevelled (land).
The recommended angles for use in the various welding
positions are covered later.
Root gap: the separation between root faces of the parts
to be joined.
Correct Travel Speed
The electrode should be moved along in the direction of the
joint being welded at a speed that will give the size of run
required. At the same time, the electrode is fed downwards to
keep the correct arc length at all times. As a guide for general
applications, the table below gives recommended run lengths
for the downhand position.
Correct travel speed for normal welding applications varies
between approximately 100 and 300 mm per minute,
depending on electrode size, size of run required and the
amperage used.
Excessive travel speeds lead to poor fusion, lack of penetration,
etc. while too slow a rate of travel will frequently lead to arc
instability, slag inclusions and poor mechanical properties.
Run Length per Electrode – Afrox
Electrode Size Electrode
(mm)
Length (mm)
Run Length (mm)
Min
Max
4,0
350
175
300
3,2
350
125
225
2,5
350
100
225
Correct Work Preparation
The method of preparation of components to be welded will
depend on equipment available and relative costs. Methods
may include sawing, punching, shearing, machining, flame
cutting and others.
Various types of butt welds are in common use and their
suitability for different thickness of steel are described as
follows:
Square Butt Weld
The edges are not prepared, but are
separated slightly to allow fusion
through the full thickness of the
steel. Suitable for plate up to 6 mm in
thickness
Single ‘V’ Butt Weld
This is commonly used for plate up
to 16 mm in thickness and on metal
of greater thickness where access is
available from only one side
Double ‘V’ Butt Weld
Used on plate of 12 mm and over
in thickness when welding can be
applied from both sides. It allows
faster welding and greater economy
of electrodes than a single ‘V’
preparation on the same thickness of
steel and also has less tendency to
distortion as weld contraction can be
equalised
Butt Weld with Backing Material
When square butt welds or single ‘V’
welds cannot be welded from both
sides, it is desirable to use a backing
bar to ensure complete fusion
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Single ‘U’ Butt Weld
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Bead Sequence for 1st and 2nd Layers
Used on thick plates as an alternative
to a single ‘V’ preparation. It has
advantages in speed of welding.
It takes less weld metal than a
single ‘V’, there is less contraction
and there is, therefore, a lessened
tendency to distortion. Preparation
is more expensive than in the case
of a ‘V’, as machining is required.
This type of joint is most suitable for
material over 40 mm in thickness
Weld beads
Weld beads
Layers
Layers
Bead Sequence for Subsequent Layers
El
Weld beads
Weld beads
Double ‘U’ Butt Weld
Weld
Slag
Weld p
Weld metal
Slag
Weld metal
For use on thick plate that is
accessible for welding from both
sides. For a given thickness it is
faster, needs less weld metal and
causes less distortion than a single
‘U’ preparation
Layers
D
Layers
Welding Progression Angle
Horizontal Butt Weld
The lower member in this case is
bevelled to approximately 15° and
the upper member 45°, making
an included angle of 60°. This
preparation provides a ledge on the
lower member, which tends to retain
the molten metal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Weld metal
Workpiece
Electrode
Slag
Welding direction
70–85° angle
Arc
Weld pool
3
6
7
General notes on butt welds
1
Weld beads
4
8
2
The first run in a prepared butt weld should be deposited with
an electrode not larger than 4,0 mm. The angle of the electrode
for the various runs in a butt weld is shown opposite.
5
It is necessary to maintain the root gap by tacking at intervals or
by other means, as it will tend to close during welding.
yers
Electrode
Weld beads
All single ‘V’, single ‘U’ and square butt welds should have a
backing run deposited on the undersideWeld
of the
joint, otherwise
pool
Weld beads
50% may be deducted from the permissible
working stress of
Slag
the joint.
Weld metal
Before proceeding with a run on the underside of a weld, it is
necessary to back-gouge or grind that side of the joint.
welding
Butt welds should be overfilled to a certain Direction
extentofby
building
up the weld until it is above the surface of the plate. Excessive
reinforcement, however,
should be avoided.
Electrode
yers
Weld beads
In multi-run butt welds, it is necessary to
all slag and
70˚remove
- 85˚
surplus weld metal
before a start is made on additional runs.
Weld pool
Slag
This is particularly
important with the first run, which tends to
Arc
form
sharp
corners
that cannot be penetrated
with subsequent
Weld metal
runs. Electrodes larger than 4,0 mm are not generally used for
vertical or overhead butt welds.
The diagrams opposite
Directionindicate
of welding the correct procedure for
welding thick plate when using multiple runs. Electrode
70˚ - 85˚
Weld pool
Slag
Arc
al
Direction of welding
12
Fillet welds
70˚ - 85˚
Arc
A fillet weld is approximately triangular in section, joining two
surfaces not in the same plane and forming a lap joint, ‘T’ joint
or corner joint. Joints made with fillet welds do not require
extensive edge preparation, as is the case with butt welded
joints, since the weld does not necessarily penetrate the full
thickness of either member. It is, however, important that the
parts to be joined be clean, close fitting, and that all the edges
on which welding is to be carried out are square. On sheared
plate, it is advisable to entirely remove any ‘false cut’ on the
edges prior to welding.
12
Welding Consumables
13
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Fillet welds are used in the following types of joints:
‘T’ Joints
A fillet weld may be placed
either on one or both sides,
depending on the requirements
of the work. The weld metal
should fuse into or penetrate the
corner formed between the two
members. Where possible, the
joint should be placed in such a
position as to form a ‘natural V’
fillet since this is the easiest and
fastest method of fillet welding
Lap Joints
In this case, a fillet weld
may be placed either on one
or both sides of the joint,
depending on accessibility and
the requirements of the joint.
However, lap joints, where only
one weld is accessible, should
be avoided where possible and
must never constitute the joints
of tanks or other fabrications
where corrosion is likely to occur
behind the lapped plates. In
applying fillet welds to lapped
joints, it is important that the
amount of overlap of the plates
be not less than five times the
thickness of the thinner part.
Where it is required to preserve
the outside face or contour of
a structure, one plate may be
joggled
12
Corner Joints
The members are fitted as
shown, leaving a ‘V’-shaped
groove in which a fillet weld
is deposited. Fusion should be
complete for the full thickness
of the metal. In practice, it is
generally necessary to have a
gap or a slight overlap on the
corner. The use of a 1,0–2,5 mm
gap has the advantage of
assisting penetration at the root,
although setting up is a problem.
The provision of an overlap
largely overcomes the problem
of setting up, but prevents
complete penetration at the root
and should therefore be kept to
a minimum (i.e. 1,0–2,5 mm)
The following terms and definitions are important in specifying
and describing fillet welds.
Throat thickness
A measurement taken through the centre of a weld from the
root to the face, along the line that bisects the angle formed by
the members to be joined. Many countries use throat thickness
rather than leg length.
Effective throat thickness is a measurement on which the
strength of a weld is calculated. The effective throat thickness
is based on a mitre fillet (concave fillet weld), which has a
throat thickness equal to 70% of the leg length. For example, in
the case of a 20 mm fillet, the effective throat thickness will be
14 mm.
Convex fillet weld
A fillet weld in which the contour of the weld metal lies outside
a straight line joining the toes of the weld. A convex fillet weld
of specified leg length has a throat thickness in excess of the
effective measurement.
Convex Fillet Weld
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
Actual throat
Effective throat
Convexity
Leg
Size
Theoretical throat
4 5
6
Concave fillet weld
A fillet in which the contour of the weld is below a straight line
joining the toes of the weld. It should be noted that a concave
fillet weld of a specified leg length has a throat thickness
less than the effective throat thickness for that size fillet. This
means that, when a concave fillet weld is used, the throat
thickness must not be less than the effective measurement.
This entails an increase in leg length beyond the specified
measurement
Concave Fillet Weld
1 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
3
5
4
4
Actual throat
Effective throat
Concavity
Leg
Size
Theoretical throat
5
Leg length
A fusion face of a fillet weld, as shown on the right.
6
The size of a fillet weld is affected by the electrode size,
welding speed or run length, welding current and electrode
angle. Welding speed and run length have an important effect
on the size and shape of the fillet, and on the tendency to
undercut.
Insufficient speed causes the molten metal to pile up behind
the arc and eventually to collapse. Conversely, excessive speed
will produce a narrow irregular run having poor penetration,
and where larger electrodes and high currents are used,
undercut is likely to occur.
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Vertical fillet welds can be carried out using the upwards or
downwards technique. The characteristics of each are: Upwards
– current used is low, penetration is good, surface is slightly
convex and irregular. For multiple run fillets, large singlepass weaving runs can be used. Downwards – current used is
medium, penetration is poor, each run is small, concave and
smooth.
Nominal
Fillet Size
(mm)
Min. Throat
Thickness
(mm)
Plate
Thickness
(mm)
Electrode
Size
(mm)
5,0
3,5
5,0 – 6,3
3,2
The downwards method should be used for making welds
on thin material only. Electrodes larger than 4,0 mm are not
recommended for vertical-down welding. All strength joints
in vertical plates 10,0 mm thick or more should be welded
using the upward technique. This method is used because of
its good penetration and weld metal quality. The first run of a
vertical-up fillet weld should be a straight sealing run made
with 3,2 mm or 4,0 mm diameter electrode. Subsequent runs
for large fillets may be either numerous straight runs or several
wide weaving runs.
6,3
4,5
6,3 – 12,0
4,0
Correct selection of electrodes is important for vertical welding.
8,0
5,5
8,0 – 12,0 and 5,0
over
10,0
7,0
10,0 and over
In overhead fillet welds, careful attention to technique is
necessary to obtain a sound weld of good profile. Medium
current is required for best results. High current will cause
undercutting and bad shape of the weld, while low current
will cause slag inclusions. To produce a weld having good
penetration and of good profile, a short arc length is necessary.
Angles of electrode for overhead fillets is illustrated below.
Fillet weld data
4,0
Selection of welding current is important. If it is too high, the
weld surface will be flattened and undercut accompanied by
excessive spatter is likely to occur. Alternatively, a current
which is too low will produce a rounded narrow bead with
poor penetration at the root. The first run in the corner of a
joint requires a suitably high current to achieve maximum
penetration at the root. A short arc length is recommended
for fillet welding. The maximum size fillet which should be
attempted with one pass of a large electrode is 8,0 mm. Efforts
to obtain larger leg lengths usually result in collapse of the
metal at the vertical plate and serious undercutting. For large
leg lengths, multiple run fillets are necessary. These are built up
as shown below. The angle of the electrode for various runs in
a downhand fillet weld is also shown.
Recommended Electrode Angles for Overhead
Fillet Welds
12
Recommended electrode angles for fillet welds
1st Run
3rd Run
2nd Run
Multi-run Fillet
Multi-run (multi-pass) horizontal fillets have each run made
using the same run lengths (Run Length per Electrode table).
Each run is made in the same direction, and care should be
taken with the shape of each, so that it has equal leg lengths
and the contour of the completed fillet weld is slightly convex
with no hollows in the face.
14
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
15˚
45˚
30˚
Welding Consumables
15
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Welding Defects and Problems
Manual metal arc welding, like other welding processes, has
welding procedure problems that may develop and which
can cause defects in the weld. Some defects are caused by
problems with the materials. Other welding problems may not
be foreseeable and may require immediate corrective action.
A poor welding technique and improper choice of welding
parameters can cause weld defects.
Defects that can occur when using the shielded metal arc
welding process are slag inclusions, wagon tracks, porosity,
wormhole porosity, undercutting, lack of fusion, overlapping,
burn through, arc strikes, craters and excessive weld spatter.
Many of these welding technique problems weaken the weld
and can cause cracking. Other problems that can occur and
which can reduce the quality of the weld are arc blow, finger
nailing and improper electrode coating moisture contents.
Top view through transparent bead
Wagon tracks are linear slag inclusions that run the longitudinal
axis of the weld. They result from allowing the slag to run
ahead of the weld puddle and by slag left on the previous weld
pass. These occur at the toe lines of the previous weld bead.
Porosity
Defects Caused by Welding Technique
Slag inclusions
Slag inclusions occur when slag particles are trapped inside
the weld metal, which produces a weaker weld. These can be
caused by:
12
Porosity may be caused by:
Erratic travel speed
Excessive welding current
Too wide a weaving motion
Rust, grease, oil or dirt on the surface of the base metal
Slag left on the previous weld pass
Excessive moisture in the electrode coatings
Too large an electrode being used
Impurities in the base metal
Too short an arc length, except when using low hydrogen
or stainless steel electrodes
A uniform travel speed
Travel speed too high, which causes freezing of
the weld puddle before gases can escape.
A tighter weaving motion
This problem can be prevented by:
Letting slag run ahead of the arc.
This defect can be prevented by:
Porosity is gas pockets in the weld metal that may be scattered
in small clusters or along the entire length of the weld. Porosity
weakens the weld in approximately the same way that slag
inclusions do.
Complete slag removal before welding
Lowering the welding current
Using a smaller electrode
Cleaning the surface of the base metal
Keeping the slag behind the arc, which is done by
shortening the arc, increasing the travel speed or
changing the electrode angle.
Re-drying electrodes
Changing to a different base metal with a different
composition
Wagon tracks
Using a slightly longer arc length
Lowering the travel speed to let the gases escape
Preheating the base metal, using a different type of
electrode, or both.
Wormhole porosity (Piping porosity)
Wormhole porosity is the name given to elongated gas pockets.
The best method of preventing this is to lower the travel speed
to permit gases to escape before the weld metal freezes.
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Undercutting
Overlapping
Undercutting is a groove melted in the base metal
next to the toe or root of a weld that is not filled by
the weld metal. Undercutting causes a weaker joint
and it can cause cracking. This defect is caused by:
Overlapping is the protrusion of the weld metal over the edge
or toe of the weld bead. This defect can cause an area of lack
of fusion and create a notch, which can lead to crack initiation.
Overlapping is often produced by:
Excessive welding current
Too long an arc length
Excessive weaving speed
Excessive travel speed.
On vertical and horizontal welds, it can also be caused by too
large an electrode size and incorrect electrode angles. This
defect can be prevented by:
Choosing the proper welding current for the type
and size of electrode and the welding position
Holding the arc as short as possible
16
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Too slow a travel speed, which permits the weld puddle
to get ahead of the electrode
An incorrect electrode angle.
Legend to Welding Position Abbreviations
Symbol
Abbreviation
Description
F
Flat
H-V FILLET
Horizontal-Vertical Fillet
H
Horizontal
V
Vertical
V-DOWN
Vertical-Down
OH
Overhead
Pausing at each side of the weld bead when a weaving technique is used
Using a travel speed slow enough so that the weld metal
can completely fill all of the melted out areas of the base
metal.
Lack of fusion
Lack of fusion is when the weld metal is not fused to the base
metal. This can occur between the weld metal and the base
metal or between passes in a multiple-pass weld. Causes of
this defect can be:
Excessive travel speed
Coating Types
Electrode size too large
It is the composition of the coating that differentiates one
type of electrode from another and, to a degree, what type
of application it can be used for. MMA electrodes, with a solid
wire core, are generally categorised by the type of flux coating
they employ. There are three main groups of electrode coating:
rutile, basic and cellulosic, plus a less widely used acid type.
The name of each group is a description of the main constituent
of the coating. Although not strictly a coating type, iron
powder electrodes are often considered as a separate group.
Welding current too low
Poor joint preparation
Letting the weld metal get ahead of the arc.
Lack of fusion can usually be prevented by:
Reducing the travel speed
Using a smaller diameter electrode
Increasing the welding current
Better joint preparation
Using a proper electrode angle.
Electrodes for cutting, grooving and gouging, plus those for
hard surfacing, including tubular MMA electrodes, are not
classified by coating type.
Rutile Electrodes
Rutile electrodes have a coating that contains about 50%
rutile sand (a pure form of titanium dioxide), plus additions
of ferro-manganese, mineral carbonates and silicates, held
together with approximately 15% sodium silicate, also known
as waterglass. The rutile’s characteristics include easy striking,
stable arc, low spatter, good bead profile and, generally, easy
slag removal from the electrode.
12
Welding Consumables
17
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
The electrode can operate on both AC and DC currents and
can operate in all positions if the formulation of the coating is
so designed.
One negative aspect of these electrodes is that they produce a
high level of hydrogen, typically greater than 15 ml/100 g of
deposited weld metal. This cannot be avoided, because they
rely on a certain amount of moisture being present in the coating
to operate properly. If the electrodes are dried too much, they
will fail to function properly.
Rutile coated electrodes are manufactured for welding mild
and low carbon steels. In this context, they are often referred
to as general purpose or GP electrodes. Some low alloy
grades also use rutile coatings. Rutile type coatings, which are
modifications of those used for ferritic steels, are also used on
many austenitic stainless steel electrodes.
Basic Electrodes
Basic, or low hydrogen electrodes contain calcium carbonate
and calcium fluoride in place of the rutile sand and mineral
silicates. This makes them less easy to strike and more difficult
to re-strike, due to the very deep cup formed at the tip during
operation. They also have a poorer, more convex bead profile
than rutile electrodes. The slag is more difficult to remove than
the rutile types, but they do give better weld metal properties
than rutile types, with a higher metallurgical quality.
Basic electrodes are capable of being used on AC or DC
currents and can be used in multi-pass welds on materials of all
thicknesses.
12
Basic electrodes do not rely on moisture to function properly,
and for the more critical applications should be used completely
dry. It is important to note that basic electrodes are only low
hydrogen electrodes if they have been correctly dried before
use. This conventionally involves re-drying in ovens on site in
accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations. Drying can
reduce weld metal hydrogen to less than 5 ml/100 g, as can
vacuum‑packing the electrodes.
Cellulosic Electrodes
Cellulosic electrodes contain a high proportion of organic
material, replacing all or some of the rutile sand. This produces
a fierce, deep penetrating arc and a faster burn-off rate.
Cellulosic electrodes are more prone to spatter than rutile
types. Only carbon and some low alloy steels are made with a
cellulosic coating and most run only on DC+ polarity, but some
are made that will also operate on AC and DC-. They are truly
all-positional electrodes in all sizes and even larger diameters
up to 6 mm will operate vertical‑down. Cellulosic electrodes are
used for root passes and pipeline welding.
It should be noted that cellulosic electrodes generate high
amounts of hydrogen. This presents a risk of hydrogen-induced
cracking if correct welding procedures are not followed.
Acid Electrodes
Acid electrodes for mild steels have been largely replaced
by rutile types, but some are still produced by a few
manufacturers. These electrodes contain high amounts of iron
oxide, are relatively easy to use and give a voluminous glassy
slag that detaches easily. They are lower-strength products, so
they are confined to use on non-structural components.
Acid-rutile electrodes for stainless steel are now replacing
conventional rutile types. They are higher in silicon, which
gives improved operating and wetting characteristics, and
they are much more welder-friendly. They strike and re-strike
readily and will operate on AC and DC current. They produce
low spatter levels and an easily removed slag. However, they
are prone to ‘start porosity’ and need re-drying before use to
avoid this.
Iron Powder Electrodes
Iron powder electrodes are often considered an independent
group of consumables. As their name suggests, these
electrodes contain high levels of iron powder held within the
coating – as the coating melts, the iron powder creates more
weld metal. This effectively improves the productivity from the
electrode, allowing either larger or longer welds to be created
from a single rod. The amount of iron powder added depends
on the consumable being produced, but it is not uncommon for
75% of the core weight to be added.
The addition of the iron powder to the coating has the effect of
increasing the overall diameter of the electrode and reducing
the amount of fluxing agent present in the coating. With less
fluxing agent available, the slag coating tends to be thinner, so
many of the MMA electrode’s positional welding characteristics
are lost. This means that many of the electrodes can only be
used in the flat or horizontal-vertical (H-V) positions.
Coatings for iron powder electrodes may be based on either the
rutile or basic systems.
Fundamentals of Metal Inert
Gas (MIG) Welding
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Selection of the Correct Power Source
Power sources for MIG/MAG welding are selected on a number
of different criteria, including:
Welding Technique
Maximum output of the machine
Successful welding depends on the following factors:
Duty cycle
Selection of correct consumables
Output control (voltage selection, wire feed speed control)
Selection of the correct power source
Portability.
Selection of the correct shielding gas
The following table and diagram gives an indication of the
operating amperage for different size wires.
Selection of the correct application techniques:
-Correct angle of electrode to work
-Correct electrical stick out
-Correct travel speed
18
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Selection of the welding preparation.
Selection of Correct Consumables
Chemical composition
As a general rule, the selection of a wire is straightforward,
in that it is only a matter of selecting an electrode of similar
composition to the parent material. However, there are certain
applications for which electrodes will be selected on the basis
of mechanical properties or the level of residual hydrogen in the
weld metal. Solid MIG wires are all considered to be of the ‘low
hydrogen type’ consumables.
Wire Size (mm)
Amperage Range (A)
0,8
60 – 180
0,9
70 – 250
1,0
90 – 280
1,2
120 – 340
Selection of the Correct Shielding Gas
The selection of the shielding gas has a direct influence on the
appearance and quality of the weldbead.
The type and thickness of the material to be welded will
determine the type of shielding gas that is selected. As a
general rule, the thicker the material (CMn and alloy steels), the
higher the percentage of CO2 in the shielding gas mixture.
Physical condition
Surface condition
The welding wire must be free from any surface contamination,
including mechanical damage such as scratch marks.
A simple test for checking the surface condition is to run the wire
through a cloth that has been dampened with acetone for 20
seconds. If a black residue is found on the cloth, the surface of
the wire is not properly cleaned.
Cast and helix
The cast and helix of the wire has a major influence on the
feedability of MIG wire.
Cast
Helix
Cast – Diameter of the circle
Helix – Vertical height
If the cast is too small, the wire will dip down from the tip. The
result of this is excessive tip wear and increased wear in the
liners.
If the helix is too large, the wire will leave the tip with a
corkscrew effect and cause feeding problems.
12
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Wire Operating Limits
Welding Consumables
19
35
Undercutting and burnback
30
Spray transfer
optimum parameters
1,0 mm 1,2 mm
25
Voltage (V)
Dip transfer
optimum parameters
Burnback and arc instability
20
0,9 mm
1,0 mm
0,8 mm
Defect-free zone
Electrode (wire) stubbing and spatter
Defect zone
15
No working condition
0
10
5
1
2
3
4
Dip transfer [steel thickness (mm)]
0
1
5
2
3
4
5
Spray transfer [steel thickness (mm)]
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Current (A)
Correct Application Techniques
0–15°
Direction of welding
MIG welding with solid wires takes place normally with a push
technique. The welding gun is tilted at an angle of 10° towards
the direction of welding (push technique).
90°
90°
90°
12
Torch position for butt welds
When welding butt welds, the torch should be positioned
within the centre of the groove and tilted at an angle of ±15°
from the vertical plane. Welding is still performed in the push
technique.
The influence of changing the torch angle and the welding
direction on the weld bead profile can be seen below.
0–15°
45°
45°
Torch position for fillet welds
Torch perpendicular to workpiece. Narrow bead width with
increased reinforcement.
10°
Torch positioned at a drag angle of 10°. Narrow bead width
with excessive reinforcement.
When welding fillet welds, the torch should be positioned at
an angle of 45° from the bottom plate, with the wire pointing
into the fillet corner. Welding is still performed in the push
technique.
Electrical stick out
1
6
2
7
3
5
9
1 Gas nozzle
2 Contact tube setback
Consumable
3
electrode
4 Workpiece
5 Standoff distance
6 Contact tube
7 Visible stick out
8 Arc length
9 Electrical stick out
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
20
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
8
4
The electrical stick out is the distance between the end of
the contact tip and the end of the wire. An increase in the
electrical stick out results in an increase in the electrical
resistance. The resultant increase in temperature has a positive
influence in the melt-off rate of the wire that will have an
influence on the weldbead profile.
Short
Normal
Long
Influence of the change in electrical stick out length on the
weldbead profile.
Travel speed
Slow
Normal
Fast
The travel speed will influence the weldbead profile and the
reinforcement height.
If the travel speed is too slow, a wide weldbead with excessive
rollover will result. Conversely, if the travel speed is too high, a
narrow weldbead with excessive reinforcement will result.
12
Welding Consumables
21
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Fundamentals of Flux and Metal
Cored Arc Welding
Welding Technique
Successful flux and metal cored arc welding depends on the
following factors:
Wire Size
(mm)
Direction
Amperage Range
(A)
Horizontal
200 – 300
FCAW
1,2
Selection of correct consumables
1,2
Vertical-up
150 – 250
Selection of the correct power source
1,6
Horizontal
300 – 400
Selection of the correct shielding gas
1,6
Vertical-up
180 – 250
Selection of the correct application techniques:
MCAW
1,2
Horizontal
150 – 350
1,6
Horizontal
300 – 500
-Correct angle of electrode to work
-Correct electrical stick out
-Correct travel speed
Selection of the welding preparation.
Selection of Correct Consumables
Chemical composition
As a general rule, the selection of a wire is straightforward,
in that it is only a matter of selecting an electrode of similar
composition to the parent material. However, there are certain
applications for which electrodes will be selected on the basis
of mechanical properties or the level of residual hydrogen in the
weld metal. The classification system for flux cored wires will
provide an indication of the residual hydrogen level that can be
expected in the weldmetal.
Physical condition
12
The following table gives an indication of the operating
amperage for different size wires.
Surface condition
The wire must be free from any surface contamination, including
surface rust. Most flux and metal cored wires have a thin film of
graphite on the surface of the wire to assist with feedability.
Cast and helix
The AWS standard for flux cored wires does not specify a cast or
helix, other than to stipulate that it should be of such a nature
that the wire can be fed uninterrupted.
Selection of the Correct Power Source
Power sources for flux and metal cored welding are selected on a
number of different criteria, including:
Maximum output of the machine
Duty cycle
Output control (voltage selection, wire feed speed control)
Portability.
Selection of the Correct Shielding Gas
The selection of the shielding gas has a direct influence on the
appearance and quality of the weldbead.
Flux cored wires are manufactured to be welded with either
100% CO2 or an argon-CO2 gas mixture.
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Current/Voltage Envelope for Argoshield 52
40
Undercutting and burnback
35
Flat and horizontal
optimum parameters
Positional welding
optimum parameters
Burnback and arc instability
30
Voltage (V)
1,6 mm
1,2 mm
22
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Defect-free zone
25
Electrode stubbing and spatter
Defect zone
20
No working
condition
15
10
0
10
20
Plate thickness (mm) positional welding
0
5
10
15
20
Plate thickness (mm) flat and horizontal
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
Current (A)
Correct Application Techniques
Direction of travel
Flux cored welding is normally performed using a ‘drag’
technique. The welding gun is tilted to a 50–60° backhand
angle. If, however, a flatter bead profile is required, the
backhand angle can be reduced.
When welding butt welds with flux or metal cored wires, the
torch should be positioned within the centre of the groove and
tilted at an angle of ±20°. Flux cored welding is still performed
with the ‘drag’ technique and metal cored welding with the
‘push’ technique.
Torch position for butt welds
Metal cored wire, because of its similarity to solid wires (no
slag formers added to the core mainly metallic powders), are
normally welded with the ‘push’ technique.
Travel direction (Flux cored)
0–15°
12
90°
90°
5mm
Torch angle for fillet welds
2–3mm
50–60°
Travel direction (Metal cored)
10°
When welding horizontal-vertical fillet welds, the wire tip
must be aimed exactly in the corner of the joint. For the first
bead, the welding gun is tilted at an angle of 30–40° from the
horizontal plane. Flux cored welding is still performed with
the ‘drag’ technique and metal cored welding with the ‘push’
technique.
Welding Consumables
23
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Vertical-up
Travel speed too slow
Vertical-up welding can be undertaken in a similar way, as MMA
with a slight weave motion. Vertical-up welding with metal cored
wire can successfully be undertaken with pulsed MIG welding
equipment.
Excessive penetration
Excessive weld metal
deposited
Roll over of weld metal on
horizontal plate
Electrical stick out
1
6
2
9
7
3
5
1 Gas nozzle
Contact tube
2
setback
Consumable
3
electrode
4 Workpiece
5 Standoff distance
6 Contact tube
7 Visible stick out
8 Arc length
9 Electrical stick out
Correct travel speed
Recommended penetration
depth
Proper sidewall fusion without
roll over or undercut
8
4
The electrical stick out is the distance between the end of the
contact tip and the end of the wire. An increase in the electrical
stick out results in an increase in the electrical resistance. The
resultant increase in temperature has a positive influence in
the melt-off rate of the wire that will have an influence on the
weldbead profile.
Travel speed too fast
Weld bead too small
Inadequate sidewall fusion
Lack of root penetration
Travel speed
The construction of flux and metal cored wires ensures the highest
current density for a given current setting compared to all other
welding processes.
12
High current densities produce high deposition rates.
Current Density
Amperage
=
or J
=
Cross-sectional area of
wire
I
A
Electrode /
Wire
Diameter
(mm)
Cross Section
Area (mm2)
Current
(A)
Current Density
(A/mm2)
Deposition
Rate (kg/h)
MMA
electrode
(E7024)
4,0 12,57
235
18,7
3,0
FCAW wire
(E71T-1)
1,2 0,625
235
376,0
3,8
MIG wire
(ER70S-6)
1,2 1,130
235
287,5
3,3
MCAW wire
(E70C-6M)
1,2 0,625
300
480,0
5,2
Consequently, travel speed must be increased proportionately to
maintain control of the weld pool and bead shape, and to balance
the deposited weld metal versus fusion obtained.
Back to contents
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
MMA Electrodes
Vitemax®
Vitemax® is a premium quality rutile electrode for use in all
positions including vertical downwards. The electrode has a
smooth, quiet arc action, low spatter loss with good striking and
restrike characteristics and excellent slag detachability. In most
cases the slag is self-lifting. The electrode welds relatively cold
which makes it ideally suited for bridging large gaps, i.e. where
poor fit-up occurs and for tacking. This versatile electrode,
which has a rapid burn-off rate, produces smooth welds in all
positions. The weld metal deposited complies with radiographic
quality to AWS A5.1 grade 1.
Applications
24
Technique
Either the touch or free arc technique can be used. For verticaldown welding, the touch weld technique must be used with a
high rate of travel.
Re-drying Procedure
Rutile coated electrodes do not normally require re-drying prior
to use, however if suspected of being damp, as shown by an
erratic arc behaviour, the electrodes should be re-dried at 100120˚C for 1–2 hours.
Vitemax® is recommended for welding a wide variety of carbonmanganese steels having a carbon equivalent below 0,28%. It
can also be used successfully in applications with higher carbon
equivalents, provided the correct degree of preheat is used.
Classifications
AWS
A5.1
E6013
SABS
455
E4313/0315
EN
2560
E 38 O RC 11
Approvals
12
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVuO,BF,2m,NR
American Bureau of Shipping Grade 2
Germanischer Lloyd Grade 2
South African Bureau of Standards
Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05 - 0,1
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Manganese
0,35 - 0,6
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,2 - 0,5
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Yield Strength
400 MPa min
Tensile Strength
460 - 530 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
24 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
70 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
50 J min
Welding Consumables
25
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Typical Current Values
(AC 50 OCV min or DC+/-)
Diameter (mm)
Current (A)
2,0
40 - 80
2,5
60 - 95
3,15
110 - 130
4,0
140 - 165
5,0
170 - 260
6,3
270 - 340
Deposition Data
Note:
1) The deposition data given was established at the
optimum current rating which would be approximately
in the middle of the specified range.
2) The mass of weld metal deposited per arc hour is
a theoretical value which does not take into account
welder efficiency.
12
Diameter
(mm)
Mass of an
Electrode
(g)
Burn-off
Time
(sec)
Mass of Metal
Deposited per
Electrode (g)
Mass of Weld
Metal Deposited
per Arc Hour (g)
No. Electrodes
per kg of Weld
Metal
kg Weld Metal per
kg of Electrodes
2,0
11,2
54,2
5,6
371
180
0,49
2,5
19,9
68,0
11,1
552
91
0,55
3,15
29,7
72,2
17,6
931
57
0,59
4,0
48,7
86,7
28,2
1 172
36
0,58
5,0
87,9
120,2
56,9
1 703
18
0,64
6,3
138,1
138,5
88,7
2 306
12
0,64
Data for Welding Horizontal Fillet Welds
Diameter
(mm)
Throat Thickness
(mm)
Current
(A)
Arc Time
(sec)
Bead Length per
Electrode (mm)
Welding
Speed (m/hr)
2,0
1,5
65
39,5
139
12,7
2,5
2,8
85
55,1
198
13,6
3,15
3,5
125
61,1
202
11,9
4,0
4,0
165
69,0
207
10,8
5,0
5,0
230
105,7
313
10,7
6,3
5,3
320
139,7
374
9,6
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Item Number
(1 kg pack)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Approx. No.
Electrodes/kg
2,0
300
W072001
W075001
3 x 4,0
89
2,5
350
W072002
W075002
3 x 5,0
50
3,15
350
W072003
W075003
3 x 5,0
34
4,0
350
W072004
W075004
3 x 5,0
21
5,0
450
–
W075005
3 x 6,0
11
6,3
450
–
W075007
3 x 6,0
7
Packing Data
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Superweld Speedcraft
Speedcraft is a standard grade general-purpose rutile type
electrode, suitable for welding mild steel in all positions using
AC or DC power sources. It has a coating composition that
promotes a smooth arc action, low spatter loss and easily
removable slag. Good strike and restrike characteristics at 50
OCV make it suitable for use on home welders and industrial
equipment. It has a rapid burn-off rate and deposits a smooth
convex weld bead with fine ripples.
Applications
Technique
Either the touch or free arc technique can be used when
welding with Speedcraft.
26
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Re-drying Procedure
Rutile coated electrodes do not normally require re-drying prior
to use, however, if suspected of being damp as shown by an
erratic arc behaviour, the electrodes should be re-dried at 100120˚C for 1-2 hours.
Speedcraft is recommended for welding a wide variety of
carbon-manganese steels and commercial mild steels having a
tensile strength up to approximately 530 MPa.
Classifications
AWS
A5.1
E6013
SABS
455
E4313/0315
EN ISO
2560
E 38 O RC 11
Approvals
South African Bureau of Standards
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVuO,BF,1m,No
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05 - 0,1
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Manganese
0,35 - 0,6
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,2 - 0,5
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Yield Strength
400 MPa min
Tensile Strength
460 - 530 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
22 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
70 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
50 J min
Typical Current Values
(AC 50 OCV min or DC+/-)
Diameter (mm)
Current (A)
2,5
60 - 85
3,15
110 - 130
4,0
140 - 165
12
Welding Consumables
27
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Deposition Data
Note:
1)
The deposition data given was established at the
optimum current rating which would be approximately
in the middle of the specified range.
2) The mass of weld metal deposited per arc hour is
a theoretical value which does not take into account welder efficiency.
Diameter
(mm)
Mass of an
Electrode
(g)
Burn-off
Time
(sec)
Mass of Metal
Deposited per
Electrode (g)
Mass of Weld
Metal Deposited
per Arc Hour (g)
No. Electrodes per
kg of Weld Metal
kg Weld Metal
per kg of
Electrodes
2,5
20,0
58,8
10,1
600
98
0,51
3,15
29,3
63,8
16,7
900
59
0,57
4,0
45,9
76,4
26,1
1 600
38
0,57
Data for Welding Horizontal Fillet Welds
Diameter
(mm)
Throat Thickness
(mm)
Current
(A)
Arc Time
(sec)
Bead Length per
Electrode (mm)
Welding
Speed (m/h)
2,5
2,2
80
52,5
180
12,3
3,15
2,8
120
57,7
197
12,3
4,0
3,5
160
74,6
208
10,0
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Item Number
(1 kg pack)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Approx. No.
Electrodes/kg
2,5
350
W072122
W075122
3 x 5,0
50
3,15
350
W072123
W075123
3 x 5,0
34
4,0
350
W072124
W075124
3 x 5,0
22
Packing Data
12
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Transarc® 6013
Transarc® 6013 is a newly developed electrode from Afrox,
produced locally at the world class manufacturing facility in Brits.
The Brits consumables factory adopts the best manufacturing
practices and standards and undergoes regular audits from
approval bodies such as TÜV and SABS, ensuring that quality is
not compromised and the highest standards are maintained on
all the products.
Applications
Suitable electrode for mild steel welding, fillet, tack and butt
welding, and for bridging large joint gaps and welding that
requires a smooth and clean bead appearance.
28
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Transarc® 6013 is a rutile electrode of a very good quality for
welding mild steels. Transarc® 6013 has been developed and
produced with a brand new formulation after extensive research.
Classifications
AWS
A5.1
E6013
SANS
2560
E 350 RC 11
EN ISO
2560
E 350 RC 11
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,04 - 0,055
% Molybdenum
0,002
% Manganese
0,5 - 0,6
% Nickel
0,001
% Silicon
0,2 - 0,35
% Vanadium
0,018
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Yield Strength
507 MPa min
Tensile Strength
546 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
23 min
12
Typical Current Values
(AC 50 OCV min or DC+/-)
Diameter (mm)
Current (A)
2,5
60 - 95
3,15
110 - 130
4,0
140 - 165
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Item Number
(1 kg pack)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
Pack Mass
(kg)
2,5
350
W072132
W075132
5,0
3,15
350
W072133
W075133
5,0
4,0
350
W072134
W075134
5,0
Welding Consumables
29
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox Afrolux
Afrolux is a heavily coated rutile iron powder electrode for high
speed welding of H-V fillets and flat butt joints. Using the touch
or free arc techniques, the electrode deposits a very neat, finely
rippled weld from which the slag is easily removed. The arc is
smooth and stable with very little spatter. Striking and restriking
qualities are excellent. Afrolux has a weld metal recovery of
approximately 160%.
Technique
The best results are obtained using the touch welding technique
with the electrode held at a sufficient angle to prevent the
molten slag from crowding the arc. AC is recommended as it
reduces arc blow, particularly at the high currents required with
large diameter electrodes.
Re-drying Procedure
Applications
Afrolux is eminently suitable for welding fillet and butt welds in
mild steel for general fabrication work.
Normally re-drying of Afrolux is not necessary, however the
molten slag of damp electrodes will tend to crowd the arc even
when the correct technique is used. Damp electrodes should be
re-dried at 100-120˚C for 1-2 hours.
Classifications
AWS
A5.1
E7024-1
SABS
455
E5124/-2345
EN ISO
2560
E 42 0 RR 13
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade D,BF,2m,2Ym,No
American Bureau of Shipping Grade 2
Germanischer Lloyd Grade 2
South African Bureau of Standards
12
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,04 - 0,12
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Manganese
0,6 - 1,2
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,2 - 0,6
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Yield Strength
420 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 560 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
22 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
80 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
60 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -18˚C
40 J min
Typical Current Values
(AC 50 OCV min or DC+/-)
Diameter (mm)
Current (A)
2,5
70 - 115
3,15
120 - 155
4,0
160 - 225
5,0
220 - 335
6,3
280 - 390
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Deposition Data
Note:
1)
30
The deposition data given was established at the
optimum current rating which would be approximately
in the middle of the specified range.
2) The mass of weld metal deposited per arc hour is
a theoretical value which does not take into account
welder efficiency.
Diameter
(mm)
Mass of an
Electrode
(g)
Burn-off
Time
(sec)
Mass of Metal
Deposited per
Electrode (g)
Mass of Weld
Metal Deposited
per Arc Hour (g)
No. Electrodes
per kg of Weld
Metal
kg Weld Metal
per kg of
Electrodes
2,5
30,3
63,2
32,7
1 139
48
0,61
3,15
66,9
77,0
54,1
1 944
25
0,61
4,0
102,4
84,9
108,4
2 755
16
0,62
5,0
157,7
91,0
164,3
3 694
8
0,63
6,3
248,0
125,5
250,9
4 735
7
0,66
Data for Welding Horizontal Fillet Welds
Diameter
(mm)
Throat Thickness
(mm)
Current
(A)
Arc Time
(sec)
Bead Length per
Electrode (mm)
Welding
Speed (m/h)
2,5
2,9
90
64,8
240
13,3
3,15
3,1
135
88,2
360
14,7
4,0
3,8
200
93,6
432
16,6
5,0
4,1
275
102,0
528
18,6
6,3
5,0
350
132,0
590
16,1
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Approx. No.
Electrodes/kg
Pack Mass
(kg)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
2,5
350
30,0
3 x 4,0
W075202
3,15
450
16,0
3 x 5,0
W075203
4,0
450
11,0
3 x 5,0
W075204
5,0
450
7,0
3 x 5,0
W075205
6,3
450
4,0
3 x 5,0
W075207
Packing Data
12
Welding Consumables
31
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox 7018-1
Afrox 7018-1 is an AC/DC all-position basic coated hydrogencontrolled electrode of premium quality. It was designed for
applications where fracture toughness and the most severe
X-ray requirements in all positions are required. This electrode
combines outstanding all-positional welding characteristics,
excellent bead profile and appearance in both root and capping
passes with a smooth stable arc and quick freezing weld metal.
Its ability to operate at lower than normal currents and give a
fully penetrating weld bead is of particular significance for root
runs which are inaccessible for back gouging. These properties
give the electrode outstanding welder appeal.
Applications
Afrox 7018-1 is used for the welding of a variety of carbonmanganese and low alloy steels used in the fabrication of
pressure vessels, pipe work and in general structural fabrication
work. It is recommended for applications where severe X-ray
requirements and mechanical properties have to be met.
size joints, several stringer beads should be used where
possible in preference to one large weaved bead to ensure
optimum mechanical properties. DC- should be used for root
passes where poor fit-up is a factor to be taken into account.
Re-drying Procedure
Hydrogen-controlled electrodes must be re-baked prior to
use, the baking temperature required being governed by the
maximum hydrogen content tolerable in the deposited weld
metal. For a maximum of 5-10 ml H2/100 g, re-bake at a
temperature of 350-370˚C for 1-2 hours. (Please consult the
section regarding the storage, handling and treatment of low
hydrogen electrodes).
Afrox 7018-1 is manufactured and tested in accordance with
the requirements of AWS A5.01. Different class and schedules
can be provided upon request.
Technique
As with all basic hydrogen-controlled electrodes, as short an
arc as possible should be kept at all times. When starting with
a new electrode, the arc should be initiated a short distance
ahead of the start or crater and worked back over this distance
before continuing the weld in the required direction. On larger
Classifications
12
AWS
A5.1
E7018-1 H8
SABS
455
E5118/-4427H
EN
2560
E 42 4 B 32 H5
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVuO,BF,3m,3Ym,H15
American Bureau of Shipping Grade 3Y,3H
Germanischer Lloyd Grade 3YH10
TÜV
South African Bureau of Standards
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05 - 0,09
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Manganese
1,3 - 1,5
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,25 - 0,45
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal)
As Welded
Stress Relieved (630˚C for 8 hours)
0,2% Proof Stress
420 MPa min
0,2% Proof Stress
350 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 570 MPa
Tensile Strength
485 MPa min
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
% Elongation on 50 mm
22 min
Charpy V-Notch at -29˚C
130 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -29˚C
80 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -46˚C
80 J min
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Diameter (mm)
Downhand
Vertical-up
Overhead
2,5
70 - 100
75 - 85
80 - 90
3,15
90 - 135
95 - 110
100 - 110
4,0
135 - 200
140 - 155
145 - 155
5,0
180 - 260
–
–
6,3
245 - 380
–
–
Welding Consumables
Typical Current Values
(DC+/- for root welds or AC 70 OCV min)
32
Deposition Data
Note:
1)
The deposition data given was established at the
optimum current rating which would be approximately
in the middle of the specified range.
2) The mass of weld metal deposited per arc hour is
a theoretical value which does not take into account
welder efficiency.
Diameter
(mm)
Mass of an
Electrode
(g)
Burn-off
Time
(sec)
Mass of Metal
Deposited per
Electrode (g)
Mass of Weld
Metal Deposited
per Arc Hour (g)
No. Electrodes
per kg of Weld
Metal
kg Weld Metal
per kg of
Electrodes
2,5
21,6
64,2
13,6
761
74
0,62
3,15
33,4
70,0
21,3
1 094
47
0,63
4,0
52,0
71,9
34,0
1 700
30
0,65
5,0
100,3
100,3
67,7
2 428
15
0,67
6,3
150,6
110,5
104,2
3 394
10
0,69
Data for Welding Horizontal Fillet Welds
Diameter
(mm)
Throat Thickness
(mm)
Current
(A)
Arc Time
(sec)
Bead Length per
Electrode (mm)
Welding
Speed (m/h)
2,5
3,0
85
62,0
165
9,6
3,15
4,2
125
73,0
215
10,6
4,0
5,0
175
80,0
225
10,1
5,0
6,0
225
106,2
287
9,7
6,3
6,9
320
103,2
349
12,2
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Approx. No.
Electrodes/kg
Pack mass
(kg)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
2,5
350
46
3 x 4,0
W075282
3,15
350
30
3 x 4,0
W075283
4,0
350
19
3 x 4,0
W075284
5,0
450
10
3 x 6,0
W075285
6,3
450
7
3 x 6,0
W075287
Packing Data
7018-1 DriPac (2 kg)
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Downhand
Vertical-up
Overhead
Item Number
2,5
350
70 - 100
75 - 85
80 - 90
W075482
3,15
350
90 - 135
95 - 110
100 - 110
W075483
4,0
350
135 - 200
140 - 155
145 - 155
W075484
5,0
450
180 - 260
-
-
W075485
6,3
450
245 - 380
-
-
W075487
12
Welding Consumables
33
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox 78MR
Specially formulated with a unique moisture resistant coating,
78MR is designed to reduce hydrogen at its primary source –
moisture in the electrode coating. This means 78MR starts with a
low initial moisture content and moisture regain, after extended
exposure to the atmosphere, and is extremely low when
compared with conventional hydrogen-controlled electrodes.
Afrox 78MR is an AC/DC all-position basic coated hydrogencontrolled electrode which features excellent mechanical
properties and low moisture regain rates after baking. The
low moisture content of the coating and the high resistance
to moisture re-absorption is a major benefit long recognised
by manufacturers of critical components where avoidance
of hydrogen induced cracking is of crucial importance. Afrox
78MR exhibits outstanding all positional welding characteristics
with excellent bead profile and appearance. The arc is smooth
and stable, giving a fully penetrating weld bead. The slag
release in all positions is excellent and the electrode operates
with minimal spatter on both AC and DC. Afrox 78MR is
recommended for all structural applications where stringent
mechanical properties and X-ray quality joints in all positions
are required.
Applications
Technique
As with all hydrogen-controlled electrodes, as short an arc as
possible should be kept at all times. When starting with a new
electrode, the arc should be initiated a short distance ahead
of the start of the weld or crater and worked back over this
distance before continuing the weld in the required direction.
On heavier sections, several stringer beads should be used
in preference to one large weave bead to ensure optimum
mechanical properties.
Re-drying Procedure
Hydrogen-controlled electrodes must be re-baked prior to
use, the baking temperature required being governed by the
maximum hydrogen content tolerable in the deposited weld
metal. For 5-10 ml H2/100 g, re-bake at a temperature of 250270˚C for 1-2 hours, and for <5 ml H2/100 g, a temperature
of 370-400˚C for 1-2 hours. (Please consult the section
regarding the storage, handling and treatment of low hydrogen
electrodes).
Afrox 78MR is manufactured and tested in accordance with the
requirements of AWS A5.1.
Afrox 78MR is recommended for welding a wide range of
carbon-manganese and low alloy steels used in structural
applications and for the construction of pressure vessels.
Classifications
12
AWS
A5.1
E7018-1 H4 R
SABS
455
E5118/-4427H
SANS
2560
E 424 B 12 H10
EN ISO
2560
AE 424 B 12 H10
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVuO,BF,3m,3Ym,H15
American Bureau of Shipping Grade 3Y,3H
Germanischer Lloyd Grade 3YH10
South African Bureau of Standards
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05 - 0,09
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Manganese
1,25 - 1,5
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,25 - 0,45
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal)
Yield Strength
420 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 650 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
Charpy V-Notch at -20˚C
120 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -29˚C
100 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -40˚C
80 J min
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Diameter (mm)
Current (A)
2,5
70 - 100
3,15
100 - 150
4,0
140 - 200
5,0
160 - 285
6,3
250 - 390
Welding Consumables
Typical Current Values
(DC+/- or AC 70 OCV min)
34
Deposition Data
Note:
1)
The deposition data given was established at the
optimum current rating which would be approximately
in the middle of the specified range.
2) The mass of weld metal deposited per arc hour is
a theoretical value which does not take into account
welder efficiency.
Diameter
(mm)
Mass of an
Electrode
(g)
Burn-off
Time
(sec)
Mass of Metal
Deposited per
Electrode (g)
Mass of Weld
Metal Deposited
per Arc Hour (g)
No. Electrodes
per kg of Weld
Metal
kg Weld Metal
per kg of
Electrodes
2,5
22,2
66,5
13,7
742
73
0,61
3,15
34,3
71,3
21,5
1 084
47
0,62
4,0
54,6
78,5
34,5
1 582
29
0,63
5,0
108,5
114,3
72,0
2 270
14
0,66
6,3
155,5
116,0
106,9
3 312
10
0,68
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Item Number
(1 kg pack)
Approx. No.
Electrodes/kg
Pack mass
(kg)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
2,5
350
W072272
45
3 x 4,0
W075272
3,15
350
W072273
29
3 x 4,0
W075273
4,0
350
-
18
3 x 4,0
W075274
5,0
450
-
9
3 x 6,0
W075275
6,3
450
-
6
3 x 6,0
W075277
12
Welding Consumables
35
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox Ferron 1
A basic coated AC/DC hydrogen-controlled electrode for use
in all positions. Afrox Ferron 1 has a smooth, stable arc with
good striking qualities, a slag which is easily removed and an
excellent weld bead profile and appearance. The weld metal
deposited is of high metallurgical and radiographic quality and
complies with the requirements of the radiographic standard of
AWS A5.1 grade 1.
Applications
Ferron 1 deposits weld metal capable of resisting cracking
under conditions of high restraint and is suitable for welding
CMn steels and low alloy steels in structural fabrications. The
electrode is suitable for welding sulphur bearing steels and
components to be vitreously enamelled.
ahead of the start or crater and worked back over this distance
before continuing the weld in the required direction. On larger
size joints, several stringer beads should be used where
possible in preference to one large weaved bead to ensure
optimum mechanical properties.
Re-drying Procedure
Hydrogen-controlled electrodes must be re-baked prior to
use, the baking temperature required being governed by the
maximum hydrogen content tolerable in the deposited weld
metal. For a maximum of 5-10 ml H2/100 g, re-bake at a
temperature of 350-370˚C for 1-2 hours. (Please consult the
section regarding the storage, handling and treatment of low
hydrogen electrodes).
Ferron 1 is manufactured and tested in accordance with the
requirements of AWS A5.1.
Technique
As with all basic hydrogen-controlled electrodes, as short an
arc as possible should be kept at all times. When starting with
a new electrode, the arc should be initiated a short distance
Classifications
AWS
A5.1
E7018 H8
SABS
455
E5118/-3427H
EN
2560
E 42 3 B 32 H5
Approvals
12
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVudO,BF,3m,3Ym,H15
American Bureau of Shipping Grade 3Y, 3H
South African Bureau of Standards
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05 - 0,09
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Manganese
1,0 - 1,45
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,3 - 0,75
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Yield Strength
420 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 610 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
Charpy V-Notch at -20˚C
100 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -29˚C
90 J min
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Diameter (mm)
Current (A)
2,5
70 - 100
3,15
100 - 140
4,0
145 - 180
5,0
190 - 280
6,3
260 - 370
Welding Consumables
Typical Current Values
(DC+/- or AC 70 OCV min)
36
Deposition Data
Note:
1)
The deposition data given was established at the
optimum current rating which would be approximately
in the middle of the specified range.
2) The mass of weld metal deposited per arc hour is
a theoretical value which does not take into account
welder efficiency.
Diameter
(mm)
Mass of an
Electrode
(g)
Burn-off
Time
(sec)
Mass of Metal
Deposited per
Electrode (g)
Mass of Weld
Metal Deposited
per Arc Hour (g)
No. Electrodes
per kg of Weld
Metal
kg Weld Metal
per kg of
Electrodes
2,5
22,4
70,3
14,0
716
72
0,62
3,15
35,6
79,9
22,3
1 002
45
0,62
4,0
50,6
71,1
33,3
1 686
31
0,65
5,0
99,8
101,5
69,0
2 447
15
0,69
6,3
157,6
116,9
108,8
3 351
10
0,69
Data for Welding Horizontal Fillet Welds
Diameter
(mm)
Throat Thickness
(mm)
Current
(A)
Arc Time
(sec)
Bead Length per
Electrode (mm)
Welding
Speed (m/h)
2,5
2,5
85
64,2
146
8,2
3,15
3,1
125
75,0
186
8,9
4,0
5,0
175
69,6
204
10,6
5,0
5,9
225
96,6
258
9,6
6,3
6,0
320
99,0
368
13,4
Diameter
(mm)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Approx. No.
Electrodes/kg
Pack mass
(kg)
Item Number
(multi-kg pack)
2,5
350
45
3 x 4,0
W075312
3,15
350
28
3 x 4,0
W075313
4,0
350
20
3 x 4,0
W075314
5,0
450
10
3 x 6,0
W075315
6,3
450
6
3 x 6,0
W075317
Packing Data
12
Welding Consumables
37
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Oerlikon Ferromatic
Heavy coated rutile high-efficiency electrodes with 160% metal
recovery. Suitable for container and storage vessel construction,
filler and capping runs of multi-layer weldments. Good notch
toughness, automatic striking and re-striking, bead can be
drawn out. Excellent deslagging characteristics.
Re-drying Procedure
Provided that electrodes are stored in dry conditions, re-drying
is not necessary.
Classifications
Standards
AWS/ASME SF
A 5.1
E7024
EN
2560
E 38 O RR 73
Electrode Marking
OER
7024
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade D,BF,1m,NR
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
12
% Carbon
0,06
% Sulphur
0,03 max
% Manganese
0,7
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,35
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Current
(A)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Pieces per Carton
(approx.)
Item Number
2,5
90 - 120
350
5,0
155
W111042
3,15
130 - 160
450
5,0
73
W111043
4,0
180 - 220
450
5,0
46
W111044
5,0
270 - 320
450
5,0
30
W111045
6,3
300 - 360
450
5,0
20
W111046
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Oerlikon Tenacito
38
Tenacito 7018-1 is a low hydrogen, basic covered electrode for
welding medium tensile strength structural and fine grained steels.
It has excellent positional weldability and stable arc characteristics.
Re-drying Procedure
Use dry electrodes only. Re-drying should be carried out at 300350ºC for 2 hours.
Classifications
Standards
AWS
A 5.1
7018-1
EN
2560
E 42 6B 42 H5
Electrode Marking
Tenacito
7018-1
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVuO,BF,3m,3Ym,H15
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,07
% Sulphur
<0,02
% Manganese
1,2
% Phosphorous
<0,02
% Silicon
0,4
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Yield Strength
>440 MPa
Tensile Strength
520 - 620 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
>25
Impact Strength at +20ºC
>160 J
Impact Strength at 0ºC
>150 J
Impact Strength at -20ºC
>130 J
Impact Strength at -40ºC
>100 J
Impact Strength at -60ºC
>50 J
12
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Current
(A)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Item Number
(Tenacito C5)
Item Number
(Tenacito)
2,5
65 - 95
350
5,0
W111472
W075372
3,15
90 - 140
350
5,0
W111473
W075373
4,0
140 - 185
450
5,0
W111474
W075374
5,0
185 - 240
450
5,0
W111475
W075375
6,3
240 - 340
450
5,0
-
W111066
Welding Consumables
39
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Oerlikon Fincord M
Medium coated, rutile type electrode especially suitable for light
gauge sheet welding. When fillet welding, the Fincord M electrode
can be kept in contact with the workpiece with no resultant excess
convexity. Very little spatter loss. Smooth bead appearance.
Re-drying Procedure
Provided that electrodes are stored in dry conditions, re-drying is
not necessary.
Classifications
Standards
AWS/ASME SF
A 5.1
E6013
EN
2560
E35 A R 11
Electrode Marking
OER
6013
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05
% Sulphur
0,02 max
% Manganese
0,5
% Phosphorous
0,02 max
% Silicon
0,45
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
12
0,2% Proof Stress
>360 MPa
Tensile Strength
450 - 560 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
>22
Impact Strength at +20ºC
>60 J
Impact Strength at 0ºC
>40 J
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Current
(A)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Pieces per Carton
(approx.)
Item Number
2,5
60 - 90
350
5,0
250
W111002
3,15
90 - 140
350
5,0
170
W111003
4,0
120 - 190
350
5,0
106
W111004
5,0
160 - 240
450
5,0
69
W111005
6,3
200 - 290
450
5,0
32
W111006
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Oerlikon Fincord Plain
40
Heavy-coated rutile type electrode with outstanding welding
characteristics. Suitable for the welding of light gauge steel sheets.
Automatic re-striking, self-detaching slag, smooth bead appearance.
Re-drying Procedure
Provided that electrodes are stored in dry conditions, re-drying is
not necessary.
Classifications
Standards
AWS/ASME SF
A 5.1
E6013
EN
2560
E35 A R 11
Electrode Marking
OER
P 6013
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,08
% Sulphur
0,03 max
% Manganese
0,5
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,45
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
0,2% Proof Stress
>380 MPa
Tensile Strength
510 - 610 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
>22
Impact Strength at +20ºC
>60 J
Impact Strength at 0ºC
>50 J
Impact Strength at -20ºC
>25 J
12
Packing Data
(42 V OCV min)
Diameter
(mm)
Current
(A)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Pieces per Carton
(approx.)
Item Number
2,0
50 - 70
300
5,0
446
W111012
3,15
100 - 140
350
5,0
140
W111013
4,0
140 - 180
450
5,0
72
W111014
5,0
190 - 240
450
5,0
46
W111015
Welding Consumables
41
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Oerlikon Supercord
Rutile-cellulosic type electrode for general assembly work,
also for lighter gauge sheet. Highly suitable for sheet metal
containers, storage vessels and oil tanks. Excellent all-position
weldability including vertical-up and down. Ideal for fillet
welding in the vertical-down position. It has a deposition
efficiency of 60%.
Re-drying Procedure
Provided that electrodes are stored in dry conditions, re-drying is
not necessary.
Classifications
Standards
AWS/ASME SF
A 5.1
E6013
EN
2560
E35 A R 11
SABS
455
E4313 / 0415
Electrode Marking
Supercord
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
12
% Carbon
0,08
% Sulphur
0,03 max
% Manganese
0,5
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,3
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
0,2% Proof Stress
>360 MPa
Tensile Strength
450 - 550 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
>22
Impact Strength at +20ºC
>60 J
Impact Strength at 0ºC
>50 J
Impact Strength at -20ºC
>25 J
Packing Data
(42 V OCV min)
Diameter
(mm)
Current
(A)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Pieces per Carton
(approx.)
Item Number
2,5
60 - 90
350
5,0
277
W111022
3,15
90 - 140
350
5,0
179
W111023
4,0
140 - 180
350
5,0
110
W111024
5,0
180 - 240
350
5,0
71
W111025
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Oerlikon Overcord
42
Rutile-cellulosic type electrode for the welding of a large variety
of components. It is particularly suitable for the welding of root
runs in pipe, for tight joint preparations and for the welding of
storage vessels and oil tanks. Overcord has excellent all-position
weldability including vertical-up and down and is ideal for
fillet welding in the vertical-down position. It has a deposition
efficiency of 60%.
Re-drying Procedure
Provided that electrodes are stored in dry conditions, re-drying is
not necessary.
Classifications
Standards
AWS/ASME SF
A 5.1
E6012
EN
2560
E35 A RC 11
Electrode Marking
Overcord
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,08
% Sulphur
0,03 max
% Manganese
0,5
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,3
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
0,2% Proof Stress
>360 MPa
Tensile Strength
450 - 560 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
>22
Impact Strength at +20ºC
>60 J
Impact Strength at 0ºC
>50 J
Impact Strength at -20ºC
>25 J
12
Packing Data
(42 V OCV min)
Diameter
(mm)
Current
(A)
Electrode
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Pieces per Carton
(approx.)
Item Number
2,5
60 - 90
350
5,0
277
W111312
3,15
90 - 140
350
5,0
179
W111313
4,0
140 - 180
350
5,0
110
W111314
5,0
180 - 240
350
5,0
71
W111315
Welding Consumables
43
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
AWS A5.1 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc
Welding
Digits 1 and 2
The welding electrodes covered by this specification are
classified in terms of the following:
Type of current
The minimum tensile strength of the weld metal in the as
welded condition (x1 000), e.g. as follows:
Type of covering
E60XX
Welding position
60 000 psi minimum (460 MPa min)
Mechanical properties of the weld metal in the as
welded condition.
E70XX
70 000 psi mininum (500 MPa min)*
The method of classifying the electrodes is based on the use of
a four-digit code preceded by a letter.
*Disparity exists between these two values. Please refer to specification.
The digits signify the following:
Digits 3 and 4
This indicates the position of welding, the type of flux covering
and the kind of welding current. For complete identification of
the electrode, it is necessary to read these two digits together
as detailed in the table below:
First letter
‘E’ designates an arc welding electrode.
12
Classification
Position
Current
Coating Type
EXX10
All positions
DC+
Cellulose sodium
EXX11
All positions
AC or DC+
Cellulose potassium
EXX12
All positions
AC or DC-
Rutile sodium
EXX13
All positions
AC or DC+/-
Rutile potassium
EXX14
All positions
AC or DC+/-
Rutile iron powder
EXX15
All positions
DC+
Low hydrogen sodium
EXX16
All positions
AC or DC+
Low hydrogen potassium
EXX18
All positions
AC or DC+
Low hydrogen potassium iron powder
EXX18M
All positions
DC+
Low hydrogen iron powder
EXX19
All positions
AC or DC+/-
Rutile iron oxide
EXX20
Flat and horizontal
AC or DC-
High iron oxide
EXX22
Flat and horizontal
AC or DC-
High iron oxide
EXX24
Flat and horizontal
AC or DC+/-
Rutile iron powder
EXX27
Flat and horizontal
AC or DC-
High iron oxide iron powder
EXX28
Flat and horizontal
AC or DC+
Low hydrogen iron powder
Certain of the low hydrogen electrodes may also have optional
designators as detailed below:
A letter ‘M’ is used to specify electrodes with greater
toughness, low moisture content both in the as
received and exposed condition and specific diffusible
hydrogen contents.
A letter ‘R’ is used to identify electrodes that meet
the requirements of the specified absorbed moisture test.
An optional supplemental designator ‘HZ’ indicates an
average diffusible hydrogen content of not more that 4, 8,
or 16 ml H2/100 g of deposited metal when tested.
Electrodes with the following optional supplemental
designation shall meet the lower temperature Charpy
V-Notch impact requirements specified.
AWS Classification
Electrode Designation
Average Minimum Charpy
Impact Values
E7018
E7018-1
27 J at -46˚C
E7024
E7024-1
27 J at -18˚C
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
MIG/MAG Wires
Afrox MIG 9000 GoldFlo
Afrox MIG 9000 GoldFlo is a premium quality bronze coated
MIG wire produced from high quality double deoxidised rod.
The higher manganese and silicon levels ensure improved weld
metal deoxidation, making Afrox MIG 9000 GoldFlo an excellent
choice for welding on metal with a medium to high presence
of mill scale or rust. The higher silicon levels promote a smooth
bead surface and a flat fillet bead profile with equal leg length
and uniform wetting is easily achieved.
The wire is designed for both single- and multi-pass welding in
all positions. The bronze coating enhances the shelf life and also
ensures good electrical conductivity with reduced friction during
high speed welding.
Afrox MIG 9000 GoldFlo has excellent, smooth wire feedability
and is suitable for welding with dip (short circuit), spray arc and
pulsed arc transfer using Ar/C02 or CO2 shielding gases.
44
Welding Consumables
Back to contents
Application
Afrox MIG 9000 GoldFlo is recommended for welding of mild and
medium tensile strength steels and is an excellent choice for
general steel construction, sheet metal applications, pressure
vessel fabrication, structural welding and pipe welding.
Recommended Shielding Gas
Argoshield® Universal. Flow rates of 18-22 ℓ/min should be used.
Classifications
AWS/ASME-SFA
A5.18
ER 70S-6
EN ISO
14341 (2011)-A-
G 42 4 M21 3Si1
Approvals
TÜV, DB, BV, ABS, LR
Chemical Composition (Typical)
% Carbon
0,07
% Sulphur
0,004
% Chromium
0,038
% Manganese
1,45
% Phosphorous
0,013
% Molybdenum
0,06
% Silicon
0,85
% Nickel
0,023
% Copper
0,031
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
MIG 9000 GoldFlo
Using Argoshield®
Using CO2
Yield Strength
452 MPa
420 MPa
Tensile Strength
560 MPa
525 MPa
% Elongation
27
31
Impact Energy, CVN
84 J min av @-30°C
72 J min av @-30°C
Welding Parameters
Diameter
(mm)
Current
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
1,0
90 - 253
16 - 31
1,2
120 - 355
18 - 32,5
Packing Data
Afrox MIG 9000 GoldFlo
Diameter
(mm)
Weight
(kg)
Winding
Item
Number
1,0 (spool - S300) 18
Precision PLW
W033972
1,2 (spool - S300) 18
Precision PLW
W033973
1,0 (drum)
250
-
W033992
1,2 (drum)
250
-
W033993
12
Welding Consumables
45
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox MIG 6000/6000 Cert
Afrox TIG 70S-6
Afrox MIG 6000 and Afrox TIG 70S-6 are produced from high
quality deoxidised rod. The products are copper coated for
increased shelf life, which in the case of MIG/MAG wires, also
facilitates good electrical conductivity and pick-up with reduced
friction during high speed welding. MIG 6000 is a premium
quality wire which is precision layer wound to provide positive
uninterrupted feeding in semi-automatic and automated
systems.
Argoshield® Light, Argoshield® Heavy and Argoshield® Universal
as well as CO2. Gas flow rates of 15 l/min at low currents rising
to 20 l/min at high currents should be used. TIG 70S-6 rods
should be used with a 2% thoriated non-consumable electrode
with pure argon as a shielding gas at flow rates of 10-15 l/min.
Welding Procedure
MIG 6000 Cert in 1,0 and 1,2 mm & TIG 70S-6 are manufactured
and tested in accordance with the requirements of AWS A5.01.
Identification
TIG 70S-6 – Red colour tip and hard stamped 70S-6.
MIG 6000 is suitable for dip (short arc), spray arc and pulsed arc
transfer welding using shielding gases such as Argoshield® 5,
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
ER 70S-6
SABS
145
Grade A
EN ISO
14341
G42 2 C G4Si1
EN ISO
636-A
W 42 3 W4Si1
EN ISO
636-B
W 49 A 4 W4Si1
Approvals
MIG 6000
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade DXVud,BF,2S,2YS,H15
American Bureau of Shipping Grade 2SA
12
South African Bureau of Standards
TÜV
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,07 - 0,15
% Sulphur
0,035 max
% Manganese
1,4 - 1,85
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,8 - 1,15
% Copper
0,4 max (typical
0,18)
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
MIG 6000 with CO2 as Shielding Gas
As Welded
Stress Relieved
650˚C/15 hr
Normalised
920˚C/0,5 hr
0,2% Proof Stress
430 MPa min
360 MPa min
315 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 570 MPa
490 - 570 MPa
470 - 550 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
26 min
26 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
110 J min
110 J min
80 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
80 J min
-
-
Charpy V-Notch at -20˚C
47 J min
47 J min
47 J min
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
TIG 70S-6 with Argon as Shielding
Gas
As Welded
0,2% Proof Stress
420 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 570 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
110 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -29˚C
50 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -46˚C
27 J min
46
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Packing Data
MIG 6000
Diameter
(mm)
Approx. Length
of Wire/kg (m)
Item Number
0,8
245
W033900
0,9
186
W033901
1,0
160
W033902
1,2
110
W033903
1,6
63
W033905
1,0
160
W033912
1,2
110
W033913
MIG 6000 Cert
The wire is layer wound onto wire basket spools having a nominal mass of 18 kg
Packing Data
TIG 70S-6
Diameter
(mm)
Consumable
Length (mm)
Item Number
1,6
950
W030501
2,0
950
W030502
2,4
950
W030503
TIG rods are supplied in 5 kg tubes
12
Welding Consumables
47
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox Megapac
Afrox Megapac is a bulk MIG/MAG wire system designed
specifically to enhance the performance of automated welding
systems. The wire is introduced into the drum by using a unique
reverse twist coiling method, which ensures that the wire
emerges from the container virtually straight. This facilitates
the precise positioning of the robot, which in turn enhances
weldability and accuracy, while reducing wear on liners and
contact tips. In addition, the negative effects of the cast and/
or helix which can be experienced with conventionally spooled
reels is eliminated. Each Megapac contains approximately 230
kg of wire, which is equivalent to approximately 13 standard
spools. With an estimated changeover time of 15 minutes a
spool, this amounts to an added three hours production time for
every Megapac used. Afrox Megapac not only offers reduced
equipment downtime, but also vastly improves production
efficiency. Megapac containers, which are 820 mm high with
a diameter of 510 mm, occupy only a small area on the shop
floor. The hood, through which the wire is fed from the drum,
not only keeps the wire free from dust and dirt but also obviates
the need for pay-off devices which are essential when other
bulk packages are used. Megapac contains copper coated wire
identical to MIG 6000.
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
ER 70S-6
SABS
145
Grade A
EN
14341
G42 2 C G4Si1
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping DxVud,BF,2S,2YS,H15
American Bureau of Shipping 2SA
South African Bureau of Standards
TÜV
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
12
% Carbon
0,07 - 0,15
% Sulphur
0,035 max
% Manganese
1,4 - 1,85
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,8 - 1,15
% Copper
0,4 max (typical
0,18%)
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
0,2% Proof Stress
430 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 570 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
Charpy V Notch at +20˚C
110 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
80 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -20˚C
47 J min
Packing Data
Diameter (mm)
Item Number
0,9
W033951
1,0
W033952
1,2
W033953
Packing Data
Description
Item Number
Megapac Liner (per metre)
W033982
Megapac Liner Connection Kit
W033983
Megapac Hood 510
W033985
Afrox MIG 3000 PLUS
Afrox MIG 3000 PLUS is a mild steel welding wire produced from
high quality double deoxidised rod. The wire is copper coated for
increased shelf life.
Welding Procedure
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
48
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
MIG 3000 PLUS exhibits a low spatter volume and is suitable for
dip, spray arc and pulsed arc transfer welding using shielding
gases such as Argoshield® 5, Argoshield® Light, Argoshield®
Heavy and Argoshield® Universal or CO2. Shielding gas flow rates
of 15-20 l/min should be used.
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
ER 70S-6
SABS
145
Grade A
BS EN
14341
G42 2 C G4Si1
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,07 - 0,15
% Sulphur
0,035 max
% Manganese
1,4 - 1,85
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,8 - 1,15
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Shielding Gas
CO2
Testing Condition
As welded
0,2% Proof Stress
430 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 570 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
110 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
80 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -20˚C
47 J min
Packing Data
Diameter (mm)
Item Number
0,9 (plastic spool)
W033931
1,0 (plastic spool)
W033942
1,2 (plastic spool)
W033943
12
Welding Consumables
49
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox 250 kg ER70S-6 Drum
Afrox 250 kg ER70S-6 is a mild steel welding wire produced from
high quality double deoxidised rod. The wire is copper coated
for increased shelf life. Available in a 250 kg drum for increased
production.
Argoshield® Heavy and Argoshield® Universal, or CO2. Shielding
gas flow rates of 15-20 l/min should be used.
Welding Procedure
Afrox 250 kg ER70S-6 exhibits a low spatter volume and is
suitable for dip, spray arc and pulsed arc transfer welding
using shielding gases such as Argoshield® 5, Argoshield® Light,
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
ER 70S-6
SABS
145
Grade A
BS EN
14341
G42 2 C G4Si1
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,07 - 0,15
% Sulphur
0,035 max
% Manganese
1,4 - 1,85
% Phosphorous
0,03 max
% Silicon
0,8 - 1,15
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
12
Shielding Gas
CO2
Testing Condition
As welded
0,2% Proof Stress
430 MPa min
Tensile Strength
510 - 570 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26 min
Charpy V-Notch at +20˚C
110 J min
Charpy V-Notch at 0˚C
80 J min
Charpy V-Notch at -20˚C
47 J min
Packing Data
Diameter (mm)
Item Number
1,0 (250 kg drum)
W033962
1,2 (250 kg drum)
W033963
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
MIG & TIG Wires for CMn & Low Alloy Steels
Oerlikon Carbofil 1
50
Welding Consumables
Back to contents
Carbofil 1 is a copper coated solid wire suitable for welding with
CO2 or 80% Ar-20% CO2 shielding gases. Excellent mechanical
properties. Carbofil 1 is used for a wide range of structural steel
applications. Good X-ray quality.
Storage
Keep dry and avoid condensation.
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
ER 70S-6
EN
14341
G 42 4 M G4Si1
EN
14341
G 42 3 C G4Si1
Approvals
DB
Germanischer Lloyd
Lloyds Register of Shipping
RINA
TÜV
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,08
% Sulphur
≤0,025
% Manganese
1,5
% Phosphorous
≤0,025
% Silicon
0,9
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Heat Treatment
Yield Strength N/mm
As welded
420
2
Tensile Strength N/mm
2
500 - 640
% Elongation on A5
24
Impact Energy at -30ºC
47 J
Gas Test
CO2 or Afrox Fluxshield®
Shielding Gas
CO2 or Afrox Fluxshield®
Materials
S(P)235 to S(P)355, GP240, GP280
12
Welding Consumables
51
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Pack Mass
Drums (kg)
Item Number
1,0
150,0
W122103
1,2
150,0
W122104
1,0
300,0
W122113
1,2
300,0
W122114
1,0
500,0
W122123
1,2
500,0
W122124
Diameter
(mm)
Pack Mass
Spools (kg)
Item Number
0,8
15,0
W122001
0,9
15,0
W122002
1,0
15,0
W122003
1,2
15,0
W122004
1,6
15,0
W122005
Packing Data
K300
12
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
AWS A5.18 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas
Shielded Arc Welding
The solid electrodes (and rods) covered by this specification are
classified according the following attributes:
Chemical composition of the electrode
Mechanical properties of the weld metal.
52
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Classification Designators
ER 70S-YX
ER
Indicates a solid wire
70 or 48
The minimum tensile strength of the deposited weld metal. In all specified products in this
standard, the minimum tensile strength is 70 000 psi or 480 MPa
S
Solid electrode/wire, a ‘C’ would indicate a metal cored wire
Y
This can be 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or ‘G’ as detailed in the table below
X
This final ‘X’ shown in the classification represents a ‘C’ or ‘M’ which corresponds to the shielding
gas with which the metal cored wire is classified. The use of ‘C’ designates 100% CO2 shielding, ‘M’
designates 75-80% Ar/CO2. Solid wires are classified using CO2
Chemical Composition Requirements for Solid Electrodes and Rods
Electrode Classification
%C
%Mn
%Si
%S
%P
%Cu
Other
ER48S-2
0,07
0,9 - 1,4
0,4 - 0,7
0,035
0,025
0,5
Ti 0,05 - 0,15,
Zr 0,02 - 0,12,
Al 0,05 - 0,15
ER70S-3
ER48S-3
0,06 0,15
0,9 - 1,4
0,45 0,75
0,035
0,025
0,5
ER70S-4
ER48S-4
0,07 0,15
1,0 - 1,5
0,65 0,85
0,035
0,025
0,50
ER70S-5
ER48S-5
0,07 0,19
0,9 - 1,4
0,3 - 0,6
0,035
0,025
0,5
ER70S-6
ER48S-6
0,06 0,15
1,4 - 1,85
0,8 - 1,15
0,035
0,025
0,5
ER70S-7
ER48S-7
0,07 0,15
1,5 - 2,0
0,5 - 0,8
0,035
0,025
0,5
ER70S-G
ER48S-G
Not specified
US
Metric
ER70S-2
Single values are maximums. Please consult specification for
definitive values
Please Note: AWS now makes provision for metric values. The
specification containing equivalent metric values is indicated by
AWS A5.18M
Al 0,5 - 0,9
12
Welding Consumables
53
Back to contents
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Flux & Metal Cored Wires
Afrox TM-791
TM-791 is a gas shielded flux cored wire for welding carbonmanganese steels having a tensile strength up to 620 MPa
and where impact properties at sub-zero temperatures may be
required. It also has low spatter levels and the slag is easy to
remove. The wire is recommended for single- and multi-pass
welding in all positions using a 75% Ar/25% CO2 argon-based
mixed gas (Afrox Fluxshield®) or CO2. TM-791 has excellent
welder appeal with superior mechanical properties. It has a
quiet soft arc with very low spatter and fume levels. Deposited
weld metal has similar mechanical properties to that of a 7018
type MMA electrode. These features, along with the high
deposition rates inherent in out-of-position welding, make
TM-791 an excellent choice for shipbuilding, pressure vessel
fabrication and structural welding.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E7IT-1, E71T-1M
AWS
A5.20
E71T-9, E71T-9M
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping Grade 3YSH 10
American Bureau of Shipping 3SA, 3YSA HH,(75Ar/25CO2),3YSA HH (CO2)
Det Norske Veritas 111Y40MS (H10)
Bureau Veritas SA 3YM HH
Germanischer Lloyd 3YH10S
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
12
Shielding Gas
Fluxshield®
CO2
Shielding Gas
Fluxshield®
CO2
% Carbon
0,022
0,021
% Sulphur
0,01
0,011
% Manganese
1,6
1,3
% Phosphorous
0,014
0,015
% Silicon
0,82
0,69
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Shielding Gas
Fluxshield®
CO2
Yield Strength
592 MPa
546 MPa
Tensile Strength
662 MPa
605 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
26
28
Charpy V-Notch at -18˚C
80 J
95 J
Charpy V-Notch at -29˚C
68 J
69 J
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Data
(DC+) Shielding Gas: Fluxshield®
Diameter
(mm)
Position
Current
Volts (V)
Deposition Rates
(kg/h)
Electrode
Stick Out (mm)
Amps (A)
1,2
Flat/horizontal
250
26
4,1
12,0
1,2
Vertical-up/
overhead
170 - 220
22 - 24
2,0 - 3,5
12,0
1,6
Flat
360
27
5,5 - 3,6
25,0
1,6
Horizontal
280
24
3,6
25,0
1,6
Vertical-up/
overhead
215 - 245
22 - 23
2,6 - 3,0
25,0
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Deposition Rates
(kg/h)
Electrode
Stick Out (mm)
54
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Welding Data
(DC+) Shielding Gas: CO2
Diameter
(mm)
Position
Current
1,2
Flat/horizontal
260
27
4,1
12,0
1,2
Vertical-up/
overhead
170 - 220
23 - 25
2,0 - 3,4
12,0
1,6
Flat
360
29 - 26
5,5 - 3,6
25,0
1,6
Horizontal
280
26
3,6
25,0
1,6
Vertical-up/
overhead
215 - 245
24 - 25
2,6 - 3,0
25,0
Diameter
(mm)
Pack Mass
Drums (kg)
Item Number
1,2
15,0
W081051
1,6
15,0
W081052
Packing Data
12
Welding Consumables
55
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox Coremax 71
Coremax 71 is a rutile type CO2 shielded flux cored wire for the
welding of carbon-manganese steels. It is recommended for the
all-positional welding of mild and low alloy steels with a tensile
strength of up to 620 MPa for general-purpose fabrication.
Coremax 71 also provides increased toughness at sub-zero
temperatures.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E71T-1
Approvals
Det Norske Veritas
Bureau Veritas
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,04
% Sulphur
0,01
% Manganese
1,32
% Phosphorous
0,02
% Silicon
0,42
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
12
Yield Strength
540 MPa
Tensile Strength
580 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
28
Charpy V-Notch at -18˚C
65 J
Welding Data
(DC+) Shielding Gas: CO2
Diameter
(mm)
Position
1,2
Current
Deposition Rates
(kg/h)
Electrode
Stick Out (mm)
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Flat/horizontal
260
27
4,1
12,0
1,2
Vertical-up/
overhead
170 - 220
23 - 25
2,0 - 3,4
12,0
1,6
Flat
360
29
5,5
25,0
1,6
Horizontal
280
26
3,6
25,0
1,6
Vertical-up/
overhead
215 - 245
24 - 25
2,6 - 3,0
25,0
Diameter
(mm)
Spool Mass
(kg)
Item Number
1,2
15,0
W081130
1,6
15,0
W081131
Typical Values
Packing Data
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Afrox Coremax 71 Plus
56
Coremax 71 Plus is a gas shielded flux cored wire for welding
carbon-manganese steels, having a tensile strength of up to 620
MPa and where impact properties of sub-zero may be required.
It has low spatter levels and the slag is easy to remove. The
wire is recommended for single- and multi-pass welding in
all positions using a 75% Ar, 25% CO2 argon based mixed gas
(Afrox Fluxshield®) or CO2.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E71T-1M
Approvals
Det Norske Veritas
Bureau Veritas
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,04
% Sulphur
0,01
% Manganese
1,32
% Phosphorous
0,02
% Silicon
0,42
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Yield Strength
540 MPa
Tensile Strength
580 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
28
Charpy V-Notch at -18˚C
65 J
12
Welding Data
(DC+) Shielding Gas: 75% Ar/25% CO2 or CO2
Diameter
(mm)
Position
1,2
Current
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Deposition Rates
(kg/h)
Flat/horizontal
260
27
4,1
12
1,2
Vertical-up/
overhead
170 - 220
23 - 25
2,0 - 3,4
12
1,6
Flat
360
29
5,5
25
1,6
Horizontal
280
26
3,6
25
1,6
Vertical-up/
overhead
215 - 245
24 - 25
2,6 - 3,0
25
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Spool Mass
(kg)
Item Number
1,2
15,0
W081230
1,6
15,0
W081231
Electrode
Stick Out (mm)
Welding Consumables
57
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox S71T-11
S71T-11 is an open-arc (no shielding gas required) tubular wire
which is exceptionally easy to use. It is recommended for use
with smaller MIG machines or in areas where the provision of
gas cylinders is not practical. S71T-11 has little tendency to burn
through and is well suited for butt, fillet and lap joints on steel
thicknesses of 1,6 mm to 10 mm. It is not recommended for
welding steel thicknesses greater than 12 mm.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E71T-11
EN
17632-A
T 42 Z W N 1 H10
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,18
% Sulphur
0,012
% Manganese
1,0
% Phosphorous
0,012
% Silicon
0,25
% Aluminium
0,8
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Yield Strength
430 MPa
Tensile Strength
520 MPa
% Elongation on 5d
23
Welding Data
(DC+) Shielding Gas: CO2
12
Diameter
(mm)
Amps (A)
Current
Volts (V)
0,8
50 - 200
12 - 24
0,9
70 - 220
13 - 27
1,2
90 - 310
16 - 35
Diameter (mm)
Spool Mass (kg)
Item Number
0,8
4,5
W081004
0,9
4,5
W081009
1,2
4,5
W081016
Typical Values
Packing Data
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Afrox TM-44
produces a globular type transfer with an arc that is not
affected by drafts or moderate wind. It is specifically designed
to desulphurise the weld metal and resist cracking. The product
is recommended for applications such as machine fabrication,
certain ship equipment, industrial and heavy equipment repair.
TM-44 is an outstanding high deposition self-shielded tubular
wire that is used to weld mild and medium carbon steels. It
is ideal for either single- or multi-pass welding, and provides
outstanding performance with deposition rates of up to 20 kg/h
and deposition efficiencies of 84% or better. This electrode
58
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E70T-4
EN
17632-A
T 46 Z W N 4 H10
Approvals
American Bureau of Shipping E70T-4 (AWS A5.20)
Canadian Welding Bureau E4802T-4-CH
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,27
% Phosphorous
0,008
% Manganese
0,45
% Aluminium
1,36
% Silicon
0,3
% Nickel
0,01
% Sulphur
0,004
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Yield Strength
476 MPa
Tensile Strength
635 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
22
12
Welding Data
(DC+)
Diameter
(mm)
Position
2,0
2,4
Current
Optimum Settings
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Deposition
Rates
(kg/h)
Flat/horizontal
290 - 370
31
330
30
5,0 - 7,3
50,0
Flat/horizontal
250 - 500
28 - 34
400
31
4,0 - 12,7
65,0
Diameter
(mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Package
Item Number
2,0
22,0
Coil
W081033
2,4
22,0
Coil
W081011
2,4
270,0
Drum
W081012
Packing Data
Electrode
Stick Out
(mm)
Welding Consumables
59
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox TM-121
TM-121 is a versatile tubular wire with excellent operator appeal
because of its smooth arc, low spatter and overall ease of
handling. With no shielding gas needed, it is a good choice for
welding in hard-to-reach locations or where the provision of gas
cylinders is not practical. It is a good wire for applications where
windy or other adverse conditions prevail and where mechanical
properties are of less concern. TM-121 has little tendency to
burn through and is well suited for butt, fillet and lap joints
on steel thicknesses from 1,6-10 mm. It is not recommended
for welding steel thicknesses greater than 12,7 mm. When
welding on steels in the 10-19 mm thickness range, a preheat
temperature of 160˚C is advisable. The wire is recommended for
single-pass and limited multiple-pass welding in all positions,
using no shielding gas.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E71T-11
EN
17632-A
T 42 Z W N 1 H10
Approvals
American Bureau of Shipping E71T-11 (AWS A5.20)
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,3
% Sulphur
0,003
% Manganese
0,49
% Phosphorous
0,009
% Silicon
0,15
% Aluminium
1,18
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
12
Yield Strength
442 MPa
Tensile Strength
628 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
21
Welding Data
(DC+)
Diameter
(mm)
Position
1,6
Current
Optimum Settings
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Deposition
Rates
(kg/h)
Flat/horizontal
125 - 300
19 - 20
230
17
0,5 - 3,3
12,0 - 19,0
1,6
Vertical/
overhead
125 - 250
15 - 19
175
16
0,7 - 2,1
12,0 - 19,0
2,0
Flat/horizontal
175 - 350
16 - 22
275
19
1,1 - 3,0
12,0 - 19,0
Packing Data
Diameter
(mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Package
Item Number
1,6
15,0
Spool
W081013
2,0
15,0
Spool
W081015
2,0
22,0
Coil
W081014
Electrode
Stick Out
(mm)
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Afrox Metalloy 76
Metalloy 76 is a gas shielded metal cored wire designed for
semi-automatic, automatic and robotic welding of low and
medium carbon steels. The wire is recommended for single and
limited multi-pass welding in the flat and horizontal positions.
The recommended shielding gas is Afrox Fluxshield® (75%
Ar, 25% CO2) at a gas flow rate of 17-24 l/min. Metalloy 76
produces high quality welds with virtually no residual slag.
The product features lower spatter and higher strength levels.
The higher manganese content gives increased deoxidisation
and greater tolerance to mill scale and paint primers on the
workpiece. Penetration is superior to that of solid wires, thereby
minimising the cold lap problem on heavier sections of steels.
Low spatter and low slag volume combine to greatly reduce
clean-up costs.
60
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
E70C-6M H4
EN
17632-A
T 50 Z M M 2 H5
Approvals
Lloyds Register of Shipping 3S,3440SH15
American Bureau of Shipping 3SA, 3YSM
Det Norske Veritas 111 Y40MS
Bureau Veritas SA 3YM
Germanischer Lloyd 3Y40H5S
Canadian Welding Bureau E4801C-6-CH
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,06
% Sulphur
0,019
% Manganese
1,64
% Phosphorous
0,012
% Silicon
0,75
12
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal using CO2 gas)
Yield Strength
559 MPa
Tensile Strength
628 MPa
% Elongation on 50 mm
27
Charpy V-Notch at -18˚C
72 J
Welding Data
(DC+)
Diameter
(mm)
Position
1,2
1,6
Current
Optimum Settings
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Deposition
Rates
(kg/h)
Flat/horizontal
200 - 350
27 - 35
300
32
2,7 - 7,0
12,0 - 19,0
Flat/horizontal
300 - 450
29 - 34
400
32
5,0 - 9,5
25,0 - 30,0
Packing Data
Diameter (mm)
Spool Mass (kg)
Item Number
1,2
15,0
W081029
1,6
15,0
W081028
Electrode
Stick Out
(mm)
Welding Consumables
61
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Coremax 70
Coremax 70 is a metallic flux cored wire designed to be used with
Ar/CO2 (Afrox Fluxshield®) for mild steel and 490 N/mm2 high
tensile steel. Its deposition rate is 10-30% higher than a solid
wire.
Multi-layer welding can be performed without removing slag. It is
suitable for the multi-layer welding of thick plate welding in such
applications as: steel structures, bridges, shipbuilding, vehicles
and storage tanks, etc.
Classifications
AWS
A5.18
E70C-6M
EN
499
E 42 3 B 3 2 H10
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,04
% Phosphorous
0,02
% Manganese
1,5
% Sulphur
0,01
% Silicon
0,63
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal)
Tensile Strength
598 MPa
Yield Strength
559 MPa
% Elongation
26
Impact Energy at -20°C
57 J
Impact Energy at -30°C
45 J
Welding Data
(DC+)
12
Volts (V)
Flow Rate
(l/min)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Item
Number
200 - 300
28 - 38
15 - 25
15,0
W082230
250 - 400
28 - 38
20 - 25
15,0
W082231
Diameter
(mm)
Current
Amps (A)
1,2
1,6
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Cored Wires for CMn & Low Alloy Steels
Oerlikon Fluxofil 14 HD
Fluxofil 14 HD is a seamless copper coated rutile flux cored
wire with a higher filling degree resulting in a higher current
carrying capacity and high deposition rate. The welding speed
is increased which leads to a saving of time and reduction of
costs. It can be used in all positions with only one welding
parameter setting (24 V, wire feed = 9 m/min, wire dia. 1,2
mm). Fluxofil 14 HD is used for manual welding, as well as in
fully mechanised. It is recommended that a mixed shielding
62
Welding Consumables
Back to contents
gas be used and is characterised by low spatter loss, good slag
removal and finely rippled, pore-free welds without undercut.
Storage
Keep dry and avoid condensation.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E71T-1 H4 / E71T-1M H4
EN
17632-A
T 46 2 P M 1 H5
Approvals
American Bureau of Shipping
Lloyds Register of Shipping
Bureau Veritas
PRS
DB
RS
Det Norske Veritas
TÜV
Germanischer Lloyd
UDT
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05
% Manganese
1,2
% Silicon
0,55
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal)
As welded
Heat Treatment
Yield Strength N/mm
460
2
Tensile Strength N/mm
2
550 - 650
% Elongation on A5
22
Impact Energy at -20ºC
80 J
Gas Test
Afrox Fluxshield®
Shielding Gas
Afrox Fluxshield®
Materials
S(P)235-S(P)460, GP240-GP280
Shipbuilding steels A,B,D,E,AH32 to EH36
Packing Data
Diameter (mm)
Item Number
1,2
W125133
1,6
W125134
12
Welding Consumables
63
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Oerlikon Fluxofil 19 HD
Fluxofil 19 HD is a seamless copper coated rutile flux cored wire
with an enhanced degree of fill. Due to its easily controllable
weld pool, the welding characteristics are outstanding. It can be
welded in all positions with only one parameter setting (24 V,
wire feed 9 m/min, wire diameter 1,2 mm). The enhanced
degree of filling results in increased current carrying capacity
and deposition rate, thus increasing welding speed and leading
to a saving of time and costs. Low spatter loss, easy slag
removal, smooth and finely rippled welds are produced without
undercut into the base metal.
Storage
Keep dry and avoid condensation.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
E71T-1 H4
EN
17632-A
T 46 2 P C 1 H5
Approvals
American Bureau of Shipping
Lloyds Register of Shipping
Bureau Veritas
PRS
DB
RINA
Det Norske Veritas
RS
Germanischer Lloyd
TÜV
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05
% Manganese
1,20
% Silicon
0,5
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal)
12
As welded
Heat Treatment
Yield Strength N/mm
460
2
Tensile Strength N/mm
2
550 - 650
% Elongation on A5
22
Impact Energy at -20ºC
80 J
Gas Test
CO2
Shielding Gas
CO2
Materials
S(P)235-S(P)460, GP240-GP280
Shipbuilding steels A,B,D,E,AH32 to EH36
Packing Data
Diameter (mm)
Item Number
1,2
W125150
1,6
W125152
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
AWS A5.20 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc
Welding
In this specification, electrodes are classified on the basis of:
Welding position
Whether CO2 is used as a shielding gas
Mechanical properties of the deposited weld metal.
Suitability for single or multiple-pass application
The system for identifying the electrode classification in AWS
A5.20 follows, for the most part, the standard pattern used in
other AWS filler metal specification.
Type of current
64
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Classification Designators
EXX-TWMJ HZ
E
Designates an electrode
First X
This designator is either 6 or 7. It indicates the minimum tensile strength (in psi x 10 000) of the weld metal
when the sample is prepared in the manner prescribed by AWS A5.20
Second X
Indicates the primary welding position for which the electrode is designed:
0 - flat and horizontal positions
1 - all positions
T
This designator indicates that the electrode is a flux cored electrode
W
This designator is a number from 1 through 14 or the letter ‘G’ with or without an ‘S’ following. The
number refers to the usability of the electrode. The ‘G’ indicates that the external shielding, polarity and
impact properties are not specified. The ‘S’ indicates that the electrode is suitable for single-pass welding
only. Please see table below for details
M
An ‘M’ designator in this position indicates that the electrode is classified using 75-80% Ar-CO2 shielding gas.
When this designator does not appear, it signifies that the shielding gas used for classification is CO2 or that
the product is a self-shielded type
J
Optional supplementary designator. Designates that the electrode meets the requirements for improved
toughness by meeting a Charpy impact value of 27 J at -40˚C. Absence of the ‘J’ indicates normal impact
requirements
HZ
Optional supplementary designator. Designates that the electrode meets the requirements of the diffusible
hydrogen test, (i.e 4, 8 or 16 ml of H2 per 100 g of deposited weld metal)
Wire Characteristics (Designator W)
AWS Classification a
External Shielding Medium
Current and Polarity
EXXT-1 (multiple-pass)
CO2 b
DC, electrode positive
EXXT-2 (single-pass)
CO2 b
DC, electrode positive
EXXT-3 (single-pass)
None
DC, electrode positive
EXXT-4 (multiple-pass)
None
DC, electrode positive
EXXT-5 (multiple-pass)
CO2 b
DC, electrode positive
EXXT-6 (multiple-pass)
None
DC, electrode positive
EXXT-7 (multiple-pass)
None
DC, electrode negative
EXXT-10 (single-pass)
None
DC, electrode negative
EXXT-11 (multiple-pass)
None
DC, electrode negative
EXXT-G (multiple-pass)
c
c
EXXT-GS (single-pass)
c
c
a, b and c refer to specification
12
Welding Consumables
65
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Subarc Wires & Fluxes
Afrox Sub 70-1
Afrox Sub 70-1 is a copper coated CMn submerged arc welding
wire for joining carbon-manganese steels. It is widely used in
structural steel work, i.e. shipbuilding, construction work, etc.
The wire is suitable for both single-pass and multi-pass welding,
and for welding butt and fillet joints where maximum ductility is
required.
Classifications
AWS
A5.20
EL12
EN
756
Sl
Typical Chemical Analysis (Wire)
% Carbon
0,05 - 0,12
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Manganese
0,4 - 0,6
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,07 max
% Copper
0,3 max
Packing Data
12
Diameter (mm)
Item Number (25 kg coil)
2,0
W080011
2,4
W080012
3,15
W080013
4,0
W080014
Back to contents
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Welding Consumables
Afrox Sub 70-2
66
Afrox Sub 70-2 is a copper coated low carbon, medium
manganese wire that produces a higher tensile strength weld
than Sub 70-1 depending on flux and procedure used. It is
recommended for single- and multiple-pass welding.
Classifications
AWS
A5.17
EM12K
EN
756
S2
Typical Chemical Analysis (Wire)
% Carbon
0,08 - 0,15
% Phosphorous
0,025 max
% Manganese
0,8 - 1,2
% Sulphur
0,025 max
% Silicon
0,1 - 0,2
% Copper
0,3 max
Diameter
(mm)
Item Number
(25 kg coil)
Item Number
(68 kg coils)
Item Number
(450 kg pay-off
spools)
Item Number
(300 kg pay-off
drums)
2,0
W080051
-
W080056
W080061
2,5
W080052
-
W080057
W080062
3,15
W080053
W080067
W080058
W080063
4,0
W080054
W080068
W080059
W080064
5,0
W080055
-
W080060
-
Packing Data
12
Welding Consumables
67
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox Subarc S3Si
Subarc S3Si is a copper coated submerged arc welding
wire containing 1,5% manganese and 0,3% silicon. It is
recommended for use with basic fluxes such as HPF-N90 where
exceptional sub-zero impact properties are required.
Classifications
EN
756
S3Si
AWS
A5.17
EH12K
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,08 - 0,15
% Phosphorous
< 0,3
% Manganese
1,4 - 1,8
% Sulphur
< 0,01
% Silicon
0,2 - 0,35
% Copper
< 0,01
Packing Data
12
Diameter (mm)
Item Number (27 kg coil)
2,4
W078116
3,2
W078118
4,0
W078120
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Subarc Detron M1B
Afrox Subarc Detron M1B is a copper coated CMn submerged arc
welding wire for joining carbon-manganese steels. It is widely
used in structural steelwork, shipbuilding, pressure vessel
manufacture and construction. The wire is suitable for both
single-pass and multi-pass welding and for welding butt and
fillet joints where higher mechanical properties are required. The
higher silicon content improves weld pool fluidity. The wire can
be used with basic, neutral and active fluxes. When used with
active Mn and Si alloyed fluxes, it is limited to thicknesses below
25 mm.
68
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Classifications
AWS
A5.17-89
EM 12K
EN
756
S2Si
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,08
% Phosphorous
0,014
% Manganese
1,12
% Sulphur
0,005
% Silicon
0,17
% Copper
0,15
Item Number
Packing Data
SAW Wire
Current
Diameter (mm)
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Pack Mass
(kg)
3,2
500
28
27,0
W078385
4,0
550
28
27,0
W078386
12
Welding Consumables
69
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
AWS A5.17 Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Flux for
Submerged Arc Welding
The welding electrodes and fluxes covered by the specification
are classified according to the following attributes:
The mechanical properties of the weld metal obtained
with a combination of a particular flux and a particular
classification of electrode
The condition of heat treatment in which those
properties are obtained
The chemical composition of the electrode produced with
a particular flux.
Classification Designators
FS XYZ-ECXXX
12
F
Indicates a submerged arc welding flux
S
Indicates the flux contains crushed slag
X
Indicates the minimum tensile strength of weld metal made in accordance with the welding conditions
given in the specification
Y
Designates the condition of heat treatment in which the tests were conducted. ‘A’ for as welded and
‘P’ for post weld heat treated
Z
Indicates the lowest temperature at which the impact strength of the weld metal meets or exceeds 27 J
i.e. Z No impact requirements
0
0˚C
2
-20˚C
3-30˚C
4
-40˚C
5
-50˚C
6
-60˚C
E
Indicates a solid electrode; EC indicates a composite electrode
XXX
Classification of the electrode used in producing the weld and given in the table below
Chemical Composition Requirements for Solid Electrodes
Electrode
Classification
%C
%Mn
%Si
%S
%P
%Cu
EL8
0,1
0,25 - 0,6
0,07
0,03
0,03
0,35
EL8K
0,1
0,25 - 0,6
0,1 - 0,25
0,03
0,03
0,35
EL12
0,04 - 0,14
0,25 - 0,6
0,1
0,03
0,03
0,35
EM12
0,06 - 0,15
0,8 - 1,25
0,1
0,03
0,03
0,35
EM11K
0,07 - 0,15
1,0 - 1,5
0,65 - 0,85
0,03
0,025
0,35
EM12K
0,05 - 0,15
0,8 - 1,25
0,10 - 0,35
0,03
0,03
0,35
EM13K
0,06 - 0,16
0,9 - 1,4
0,35 - 0,75
0,03
0,03
0,35
EM14K
0,06 - 0,19
0,9 - 1,4
0,35 - 0,75
0,025
0,025
0,35
EM15K
0,10 - 0,20
0,8 - 1,25
0,1 - 0,35
0,03
0,03
0,35
EH10K
0,07 - 0,15
1,3 - 1,7
0,05 - 0,25
0,025
0,025
0,35
EH11K
0,06 - 0,15
1,4 - 1,85
0,8 - 1,15
0,03
0,03
0,35
EH12K
0,06 - 0,15
1,5 - 2,0
0,2 - 0,65
0,025
0,025
0,35
EH14
0,10 - 0,2
1,7 - 2,2
0,1
0,03
0,03
0,35
Example of AWS Classification:
F43 A2-EM12K is a complete designation for a flux-electrode
combination. It refers to a flux that will produce weld metal
which, in the as welded condition, will have a tensile strength
of 430 to 560 MPa and Charpy V-Notch impact strength of at
least 27 J at -20˚C when produced with an EM12K electrode
under the conditions called for in this specification. The absence
of an ‘S’ in the second position indicates that the flux being
classified is a virgin flux.
Please note: AWS now makes provision for metric values. The
specification containing equivalent metric values is indicated by
AWS A5.17M
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Submerged Arc Fluxes
Tri-Mark HPF-A72 Submerged Arc Flux
Tri-Mark HPF-A72 is an agglomerated flux with Mn and Si
additions. HPF-A72 is a versatile flux with excellent weldability
and easy slag removal; it is highly resistant to cracks and
porosity and has a very good bead appearance. HPF-A72 is
ideal for one-sided welding, double-sided welding, square
edge joints, fillet welds and lap welds in structural and general
engineering applications. It is recommended for welding inside
grooves but is limited to material thicknesses below 25 mm.
Due to the high oxidisation potential, it does not require any
special base metal preparation and cleaning prior to welding.
Storage and Re-baking
70
Welding Consumables
Back to contents
The higher the basicity index of agglomerated fluxes, the more
hygroscopic such a flux would be. All agglomerated fluxes
should therefore be stored in conditions of less than 70%
relative humidity. Welding with damp flux can cause porosity.
Re-drying of flux suspected of being moist should be done
for approximately two hours at about 300°C at a flux depth
of about 25 mm. For many applications, it is not necessary to
re-dry the flux.
Applications
Tri-Mark HPF-A72 is used to weld gas bottles, truck wheels,
structural shapes, pipes, joining plates, light boilermaking and
parts with small diameters.
Classifications
AWS
A5.17/ASME SFA 5.17
F7A2-EM12K
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,05
% Phosphorous
0,018
% Manganese
1,5
% Sulphur
0,025
% Silicon
0,8
12
Typical Mechanical Properties
Yield Strength
426 MPa
Tensile Strength
519 MPa
% Elongation
29
Charpy V-Notch at -29ºC
23 J
Flux Characteristics
Maximum Welding Current
1 000 A
Polarity
DC or AC
Welding Speed
1 300 mm/min
Packing Data
Pack Mass (bags/kg)
Item Number
25,0
W071403
Welding Consumables
71
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Tri-Mark HPF-N90 and N90F Submerged Arc Flux
Tri-Mark HPF-N90 and N90F are semi-basic agglomerated fluxes
producing weld deposits with good mechanical properties at low
temperatures. HPF-N90 and N90F have excellent weldability,
easy slag removal in deep grooves, good resistance to cracking
and porosity and excellent bead appearance. HPF-N90 and
N90F flux can be used on multi-pass applications on unlimited
thickness, with very little change in the chemical composititon
of the weld metal.
Applications
Tri-Mark HPF-N90 and N90F can be used on structural steel,
CrMo steel, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels and quenched
and tempered steels. The N90F grade has a finer particle size to
the N90 and can be used to rebuild small diameter shafts and
journals such as those found on crankshafts.
Storage and Re-baking
The higher the basicity index of agglomerated fluxes, the more
hygroscopic such a flux would be. All agglomerated fluxes
should therefore be stored in conditions of less than 70%
relative humidity. Welding with damp flux can cause porosity.
Re-drying of flux suspected of being moist should be done for
approximately two hours at about 300°C at a flux depth of about
25 mm. For many applications, it is not necessary to re-dry the
flux.
Classifications
AWS A5.17/ASME SFA 5.17
F6A2-EL12
F7A2-EM13K
F7A8-EC1 METALLOY EM12KS
F7A2-EM12K
F8A2-EA 2-A2
F7A8-EC1 METALLOY EM13KS
F6A2-EM12K
F9A2-EA 3-A3
F7P2-EM13K
F9P2-EA 3-A3
Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
12
EM12
EM12K
EM13K
EA2
EA3
EB2
EM12KS
EM13KS
% Carbon
0,7
0,05
0,08
0,03
0,05
0,08
0,03
0,067
% Manganese
0,91
1,3
1,51
1,17
1,7
1,38
1,02
1,08
% Silicon
0,13
0,36
0,57
0,23
0,33
0,35
0,22
0,321
% Sulphur
0,03
0,022
0,019
0,03
0,021
0,013
0,009
0,011
% Phosphorous
0,024
0,02
0,015
0,03
0,029
0,019
0,012
0,015
% Molybdenum
-
-
-
0,52
0,58
0,4
-
-
% Chromium
-
-
-
-
-
1,0
-
-
% Copper
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,027
0,083
EM12
EM12K
EM13K
EA2
EA3
EB2
EM12KS
EM13KS
Yield Strength
393 MPa
426 MPa
410 MPa
499 MPa
565 MPa
655 MPa
408 MPa
430 MPa
Tensile Strength
476 MPa
519 MPa
525 MPa
577 MPa
655 MPa
720 MPa
490 MPa
530 MPa
% Elongation
30
29
30
2
26
23
27,8
26,5
Charpy V-Notch at -29ºC
61 J
66 J
98 J
57 J
56 J
-
-
-
Charpy V-Notch at -18ºC
-
-
-
-
-
51 J
-
-
Charpy V-Notch at -51ºC
-
-
-
-
-
-
96 J
110 J
Charpy V-Notch at -62ºC
-
-
-
-
-
-
56 J
84 J
Typical Mechanical Properties
Flux Characteristics
Packing Data
Maximum Welding Current
800 A
Pack Mass (bags/kg)
Item Number
Polarity
DC or AC
25,0
W071401 (HPF-N90)
Basicity
1,4
25,0
W071402 (HPF-N90F)
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
McKay MK-N Submerged Arc Flux
McKay MK-N is totally neutral agglomerated flux, designed for
welding with solid and tubular wires of the 400 series stainless
steels. It can also be used with low alloy steel wires. It features
clean slag removal with wires containing Nb and V, excellent
recovery of the alloying elements from the tubular wires, such
as Cr, Ni, Mo, Nb and V and accepts welding with twin-arc and
oscillating technique, with currents up to 1 000 A. McKay MK-N
flux should be used with wires containing at least 0,20% Si, in
order to avoid porosity.
Storage and Re-baking
The higher the basicity index of agglomerated fluxes, the more
hygroscopic such a flux would be. All agglomerated fluxes
should therefore be stored in conditions of less than 70%
relative humidity. Welding with damp flux can cause porosity.
Re-drying of flux suspected of being moist should be done
for approximately two hours at about 300°C at a flux depth of
about 25 mm.
72
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Applications
The main application of McKay MK-N flux is the rebuilding of
steel mill roll with tubular and solid wires of the 400 series
stainless steels. It can also be used to rebuild shafts, wheels
and journals.
Typical Weld Metal Data
Product
Composition of Weld Metal Deposited
Hardness
%
C
%
Mn
%
Si
%
S
%
P
%
Mo
%
Cr
%
Ni
%
Nb
%
W
%
V
HRc
McKay TA887-S
0,12
1,0
0,6
0,01
0,015
1,5
12,5
2,5
0,15
-
0,2
40
McKay TA8620-S
0,12
0,8
0,4
0,01
0,015
0,2
0,5
0,4
-
-
-
21
McKay TA861-S
0,15
0,9
0,5
0,01
0,015
0,6
1,7
-
-
-
-
32
McKay TA 242-S
0,14
2,0
0,8
0,01
0,015
0,7
3,0
-
-
-
-
40
McKay TA258-S
0,34
1,2
0,5
0,01
0,015
1,5
6,0
-
-
1,4
-
54
McKay TA410-S
0,08
1,0
0,6
0,01
0,015
-
12,8
-
-
-
-
36
McKay TA A250-S
0,19
1,0
0,5
0,01
0,015
-
12,3
-
-
-
-
50
McKay TA 865-SMod
0,18
1,1
0,4
0,01
0,015
1,0
13,5
2,3
0,15
-
0,15
48
WASA 414MM-S
0,15
0,9
0,5
0,013
0,022
1,2
12,5
2,0
0,17
0,18
42 - 45
Lincore ER423L
0,15
1,2
0,4
0,01
0,02
1,0
11,5
2,0
-
0,15
42 - 45
Stoody Thermaclad 423L 0,15
1,2
0,5
0,012
0,022
1,0
11,7
2,0
-
0,15
43 - 45
EB3
0,1
0,96
0,16
0,01
0,019
1,08
2,15
-
-
-
-
EM-12K
0,1
0,88
0,19
0,019
0,02
-
-
-
-
-
-
Packing Data
Pack Mass (bags/kg)
Item Number
25,0
W071406
12
Welding Consumables
73
Back to contents
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Submerged Arc Wire & Flux Combinations
Subarc Sub 70-1
Subarc Sub 70-1/MK-N Subarc Sub 70-1/HPF-N90
Subarc Sub 70-1/HPF-A72
Afrox Sub 70-1 is a copper coated CMn submerged arc welding
wire for joining carbon-manganese steels. It is widely used in
structural steel work, i.e. shipbuilding, construction work, etc.
The wire is suitable for both single-pass and multi-pass welding,
and for welding butt and fillet joints where maximum ductility is
required.
Classifications
AWS
A5.17-89
EL 12
EN
756
S1
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,078
% Phosphorous
0,009
% Manganese
0,46
% Sulphur
0,02
% Silicon
0,093
% Copper
0,2
Typical Chemical Analysis Weld Metal (SA 516 GR 70 Plate)
12
Flux
HPF-N90
HPF-A72
MK-N
% Carbon
0,042
0,066
0,06
% Manganese
1,144
1,259
0,81
% Silicon
0,346
0,628
0,37
% Phosphorous
0,034
0,031
0,024
% Sulphur
0,025
0,026
0,019
% Copper
0,242
0,259
0,28
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Flux
HPF-N90
HPF-A72
MK-N
Flux/Wire Combination
F7A5-EL12
F7A0-EL12
F7A2-EL12
Tensile Strength
516 MPa
615 MPa
526 MPa
Yield Strength
425 MPa
519 MPa
441 MPa
% Elongation on 4d
31
27
32
Charpy Impact Value
43 J at -49ºC
40 J at -18ºC
51 J at -29ºC
Packing Data
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Item Number
Diameter (mm)
SAW Wire
Current (DC+/AC)
2,0
400
28
25,0
W080011
2,4
450
28
25,0
W080012
3,2
500
28
25,0
W080013
4,0
550
28
25,0
W080014
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Subarc Sub 70-2
Subarc Sub 70-2/HPF-N90
Subarc Sub 70-2/MK-N
Subarc Sub 70-2/HPF-A72
Subarc Sub 70-2/HPF-N11X
multi-pass welding and for welding butt and fillet joints where
higher mechanical properties are required. The wire can be used
with basic, neutral and active fluxes. When used with active Mn
and Si alloyed fluxes, it is limited to thicknesses below 25 mm.
Afrox Sub 70-2 is a copper coated CMn submerged arc welding
wire for joining carbon-manganese steels. It is widely used in
structural steelwork, shipbuilding, pressure vessel manufacture
and construction. The wire is suitable for both single-pass and
74
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
Classifications
AWS
A5.17-89
EH 12 K
EN
756
S2
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,11
% Phosphorous
0,009
% Manganese
0,99
% Sulphur
0,023
% Silicon
0,137
% Copper
0,14
Typical Chemical Analysis Weld Metal (SA 516 GR 70 Plate)
Flux
HPF-N90
HPF-A72
MK-N
HPF-N11X
% Carbon
0,069
0,064
0,072
0,082
% Manganese
1,224
1,573
1,2
1,036
% Silicon
0,292
0,748
0,408
0,332
% Phosphorous
0,022
0,031
0,029
0,016
% Sulphur
0,022
0,024
0,022
0,014
% Copper
0,168
0,182
0,53
0,172
12
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Flux
HPF-N90
HPF-A72
MK-N
HPF-N11X
Flux/Wire Combination
F7A2-EM12K
F7A2-EM12K
F7A2-EM12K
F7A4-EM12K
Tensile Strength
541 MPa
633 MPa
550 MPa
575 MPa
Yield Strength
424 MPa
524 MPa
452 MPa
467 MPa
% Elongation on 4d
30
26
30
32
Charpy Impact Value
68 J at -29ºC
40 J at -29ºC
85 J at -29ºC
74 J at -40ºC
Item Number
(25 kg spools)
Item Number
(68 kg coils)
Item Number
(450 kg bobbins)
Item Number
(300 kg drums)
W080051
-
-
-
Packing Data
SAW Wire
Current (DC+/AC)
Diameter
(mm)
Amps
(A)
Volts
(A)
2,0
400
28
2,4
450
28
W080052
-
-
W080062
3,2
500
28
W080053
W080067
-
W080063
4,0
550
28
W080054
W080068
W080059
W080064
5,0
600
28
W080055
-
W080060
-
Welding Consumables
75
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Subarc S3Si Subarc Sub S3Si/HPF-A72
Subarc S3Si/HPF-N11X
Subarc S3Si/HPF-N90
Subarc S3Si/MK-N
Subarc S3Si is a copper coated solid wire for submerged arc
welding with 1,5% Mn and 0,2% Si content to be used with
Mn-active fluxes for the welding of beams, tanks, pressure
vessels and shipyards.
Classifications
AWS
A5.17-89
EM12K
EN
756
S3Si
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,11
% Phosphorous
0,001
% Manganese
1,7
% Sulphur
0,005
% Silicon
0,32
% Copper
0,1
Typical Chemical Analysis Weld Metal (SA 516 GR 70 Plate)
12
Flux
HPF-N90
HPF-A72
MK-N
HPF-N11X
% Carbon
0,068
0,076
0,089
0,072
% Manganese
1,875
1,89
1,621
1,75
% Silicon
0,5
0,76
0,546
0,67
% Phosphorous
0,031
0,033
0,027
0,029
% Sulphur
0,012
0,01
0,011
0,01
% Copper
0,09
0,077
0,067
0,075
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal in the as welded condition)
Flux
HPF-N90
As Welded
HPF-A72
As Welded
MK-N
As Welded
HPF-N11X
As Welded
HPF-N11X
PWHT 1 hr
@ 690ºC
Flux/Wire Combination
F7A2-EH12K
F7A2-EH12K
F7A2-EH12K
F7A8-EH12K
F7P8-EH12K
Tensile Strength
566 MPa
642 MPa
592 MPa
567 MPa
638 MPa
Yield Strength
445 MPa
540 MPa
493 MPa
464 MPa
531 MPa
% Elongation on 4d
31
30
31
31
29
Charpy Impact Value
91 J at -29ºC
62 J at -29ºC
145 J at -29ºC
29 J at -62ºC
7 J at -62ºC
Item Number
Packing Data
SAW Wire
Current (DC+/AC)
Diameter (mm)
Amps (A)
Volts (V)
Pack Mass
(kg)
2,4
350
28
27,0
W078116
3,2
450
28
27,0
W078118
4,0
600
30
27,0
W078120
Afrox Product Reference Manual
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Oxy-Fuel & Gas Welding Rods
Afrox Copper Coated Rod (CCR)
A general purpose low carbon steel gas welding rod which is
copper coated to reduce corrosion. It is recommended for oxyacetylene welding of mild steel and is widely used in sheet metal
work, the heating and ventilation industries, car body repairs,
welder training schools and for low pressure piping and plumbing.
76
Welding Consumables
Back to contents
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,04 - 0,15
% Sulphur
0,035 max
% Manganese
0,35 - 0,60
% Phosphorous
0,04 max
% Silicon
0,03 max
% Copper
0,35 max
Typical Physical Properties
Melting Range
1 490ºC
Approximate Tensile Strength of Deposited Metal
386 MPa
Approximate Brinell Hardness
120 HB
Brazing/Welding Parameters
Process
Oxy-acetylene
Flame Setting
Neutral
Flux
Not required
12
Packing Data
TIG (DC-)
Diameter
(mm)
Consumable
Length (mm)
Pack Mass
(kg)
Item Number
1,6
750
5,0
W000040
2,5
750
5,0
W000045
3,2
750
5,0
W000041
5,0
750
5,0
W000042
Welding Consumables
77
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Afrox R60
Afrox R60 is a solid wire electrode for oxy-fuel welding of mild
steels. For best results, use a neutral flame setting.
Classifications
AWS
A5.4
R60
Typical Chemical Analysis (All weld metal)
% Carbon
0,12
% Manganese
1,00
% Silicon
0,12
Typical Mechanical Properties (All weld metal)
Tensile Strength
>410 MPa
% Elongation
>20
Packing Data
TIG (DC-)
12
Diameter (mm)
Pack Mass (kg)
Item Number
2,0
5,0
W078368
| Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels
Mechanically Certified Consumables
Mechanically certified electrodes and wires are required by
fabricators building and repairing components destined primarily
for the petrochemical industry. Certification takes place in
terms of the American ANSI/AWS A5.01 specification. A short
description of the requirements is detailed below.
Flux and metal cored wires
Fluxes for submerged arc welding and brazing.
Lot Classification (Class)
The lot classification basically specifies a number of aspects
which take place during the manufacturing operation to
closely monitor the quality and to be able to clearly identify a
production batch of consumables. The classification system is
given in the table below:
The certification of the consumable is based on two aspects:
The lot classification
The level of testing.
78
Welding Consumables
Afrox Product Reference Manual
The consumables are broken into four primary groups:
Coated manual metal arc electrodes
Solid wires and rods
Classes
MMA Electrodes
C1
C2
C3
C4
Solid Wires
S1
S2
S3
S4
Cored Wires
T1
T2
T3
T4
Fluxes
F1
F2
Generally, MMA electrodes produced by Afrox are manufactured
to class C3, and MIG and TIG wires to class S1 and S3
respectively.
The definition for class C3 is:
A class C3 lot of electrodes is the quantity, not exceeding
45 000 kg, of any one size and classification (i.e. 7018-1)
produced in 24 hours of consecutively scheduled production
(consecutive normal working shifts). Class C3 electrodes shall
be produced from covering (i.e. flux) identified by wet mix or
controlled chemical composition and core wire identified by
heat or cast number or chemically controlled composition.
C5
Level of Testing (Schedule)
The level of testing is selected by the purchaser and there
are six levels or schedules, i.e. F, G, H, I, J and K. The most
commonly used for both electrodes and wires is Schedule I.
Schedule I requires the following tests to be carried out and
certified for MMA electrodes:
Chemical analysis
Tensile properties (i.e. 0,2% proof stress, tensile strength and % elongation)
Charpy V-Notch impact properties
The definition for class S1 is:
X-ray soundness
A class S1 lot of bare solid wires and rods is the manufacturer’s
standard lot, as defined in the manufacturer’s QA programme
(this in the case of Afrox is the heat or cast number which refers
in terms of MIG 6000 and TIG 70S-6 to 100 000 kg of material).
Moisture content (of the flux coating).
The definition for class S3 is:
A class S3 lot of bare solid electrodes and rods, brazing and
braze welding filler metal, and consumable inserts is the
quantity of one size produced in one production cycle from one
heat.
The purchaser would therefore specify consumables to be
supplied in terms of for example class C3 schedule I or class C4
schedule J, etc.
A list detailing the Afrox products currently mechanically
certified in terms of ANSI/AWS A5,01 is given in the table
below:
Packing Data
(7018-1)
Diameter (mm)
Class
Schedule
Package Type
Item Number
2,5
C3
I
Box
W075282
3,15
C3
I
Box
W075283
4,0
C3
I
Box
W075284
5,0
C3
I
Box
W075285
12
Welding Consumables
79
Welding Consumables | Carbon Steels | Afrox Product Reference Manual
Packing Data
(7018-1)
Diameter (mm)
Class
Schedule
Package Type
Item Number
2,5
C5
K
Box
W087382
3,15
C5
K
Box
W087383
4,0
C5
K
Box
W087384
5,0
C5
K
Box
W087385
Diameter (mm)
Class
Schedule
Package Type
Item Number
1,0
S1
I
Box
W033912
1,2
S1
I
Box
W033913
Diameter (mm)
Class
Schedule
Package Type
Item Number
1,6
S3
K
Cardboard tube
W087501
2,0
S3
K
Cardboard tube
W087502
2,4
S3
K
Cardboard tube
W087503
Packing Data
(MIG 6000 Cert)
Packing Data
(TIG 70S-6)
12
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement