Sepam series 80 - engineering site

Sepam series 80 - engineering site
Electrical network protection
Sepam series 80
Metering, protection,
control and monitoring
User’s manual
May
2007
Safety instructions
Safety symbols and messages
Read these instructions carefully and look at the equipment to become familiar with
the device before trying to install, operate, service or maintain it. The following
special messages may appear throughout this bulletin or on the equipment to warn
of potential hazards or to call attention to information that clarifies or simplifies a
procedure.
Risk of electric shock
The addition of either symbol to a “Danger” or “Warning” safety label on a device
indicates that an electrical hazard exists, which will result in death or personal injury
if the instructions are not followed.
ANSI symbol.
IEC symbol.
Safety alert
This is the safety alert symbol. It is used to alert you to potential personal injury
hazards and prompt you to consult the manual. Obey all safety instructions that
follow this symbol in the manual to avoid possible injury or death.
Safety messages
DANGER
DANGER indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
will result in death, serious injury or property damage.
WARNING
WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
could result in death, serious injury or property damage.
CAUTION
CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided,
could result in minor or moderate injury or property damage.
Important notes
Restricted liability
Electrical equipment should be serviced and maintained only by qualified personnel.
No responsibility is assumed by Schneider Electric for any consequences arising out
of the use of this manual. This document is not intended as an instruction manual for
untrained persons.
Device operation
The user is responsible for checking that the rated characteristics of the device are
suitable for its application. The user is responsible for reading and following the
device’s operating and installation instructions before attempting to commission or
maintain it. Failure to follow these instructions can affect device operation and
constitute a hazard for people and property.
Protective grounding
The user is responsible for compliance with all the existing international and national
electrical codes concerning protective grounding of any device.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
4
General contents
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Introduction
1
Metering functions
2
Protection functions
3
Control and monitoring functions
4
1
2
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Introduction
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Contents
Panorama of applications
4
Presentation
6
Modular architecture
7
Selection table
8
Technical characteristics
10
Environmental characteristics
11
3
1
Panorama of applications
Sepam range
DE51730
DE51731
PE50465
Characteristics
b 10 logic inputs
b 8 relay outputs
b 1 communication port
b 8 temperature sensor
inputs
For demanding applications
Characteristics
b 10 logic inputs
b 8 relay outputs
b Logic equation editor
b 1 communication port
b 16 temperature sensor
inputs
DE51732
Sepam series 40
PE50465
DE51734
M
DE51735
For custom applications
Characteristics
b 42 logic inputs
b 23 relay outputs
b Logic equation editor
b 2 communication ports
for multimaster or
redundant architecture
b 16 temperature sensor
inputs
b Removable memory
cartridge with parameters
and settings for quick return
to service after replacement
b Battery for storing logs
and recording data
b Mimic-based User
Machine Interface for local
control of the device in
complete safety
b Optional Logipam
programming software, for
programming dedicated
functions
DE51733
Sepam series 80
DE51736
All information relating to the Sepam range
can be found in the following documents:
b Sepam catalog,
reference SEPED303005EN
b Sepam series 20 user’s manual,
reference PCRED301005EN
b Sepam series 40 user’s manual,
reference PCRED301006EN
b Sepam series 80 functions user’s manual,
reference SEPED303001EN
b Sepam series 80 Modbus communication
user’s manual,
reference SEPED303002EN
b Sepam series 80 operation manual,
reference SEPED303003EN
b Sepam DNP3 communication user’s
manual,
reference SEPED305001EN
b Sepam IEC 60870-5-103 communication
user’s manual,
reference SEPED305002EN
b Sepam IEC 61850 communication user's
manual, reference SEPED306024EN
For usual applications
PE50463
It consists of three series of relays, with
increasing levels of performance:
b Sepam series 20, for simple applications
b Sepam series 40, for demanding
applications
b Sepam series 80, for custom applications
Sepam series 20
PE50464
1
The Sepam range of protection relays is
designed for all protection applications on
medium-voltage public and industrial
distribution networks.
4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Sepam range
Protection
Standard
Panorama of applications
Applications
Specific
Substation
S20
Current protection
Breaker failure
S23
Motor
T20
M20
Generator
Capacitor
1
T23
B22
Disconnection
(ROCOF)
S40
Current, voltage and
frequency protection
Directional
earth fault
S41
Directional
earth fault and
phase overcurrent
S42
S80
Current, voltage and
frequency protection
Directional
earth fault
Directional earth fault
and phase overcurrent
Disconnection (ROCOF)
T40
T42
B80
S81
T81
S82
T82
Voltage and
frequency protection
for 2 sets of busbars
Current, voltage and
frequency protection
Capacitor
bank
unbalance
M81
G82
S84
T87
Transformer or machinetransformer
unit differential
Current, voltage and
frequency protection
G40
M41
Machine
differential
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Transformer
B21
Voltage and
frequency protection
Current, voltage and
frequency protection
Busbar
M88
G88
M87
G87
B83
C86
5
Introduction
Presentation
The Sepam range of protection relays is
designed for the operation of machines and
electrical distribution networks of industrial
installations and utility substations at all
levels of voltage.
It includes 3 families
b Sepam series 20
b Sepam series 40
b Sepam series 80
to cover all needs, from the simplest to the
most complete.
Sepam series 80, intelligent solutions for
custom applications
PE50278
1
Sepam series 80 with integrated advanced UMI.
Specially designed for demanding customers on large industrial sites,
Sepam series 80 provides proven solutions for electrical distribution and machine
protection.
Main characteristics
b protection of closed ring networks or networks with parallel incomers by directional
protection and logic discrimination
b directional earth fault protection for impedance-earthed and isolated or
compensated neutral systems
b complete protection of transformers and machine-transformer units
v stable, sensitive differential protection with neural network restraint
v linked to all necessary backup protection functions
b complete protection of motors and generators
v against internal faults:
- stable, sensitive machine differential protection, with starting and sensor loss
restraint
- field loss, stator earth fault, etc.
v against network and process faults: pole slip, speed control, inadvertent
energization, etc.
b synchro-check between 2 networks before coupling
b measurement of harmonic distortion, current and voltage, to assess network
power quality
b 42 inputs / 23 outputs for comprehensive equipment control
b mimic-based UMI for local switchgear control
b SFT2841 parameter setting and operating software, a simple and complete tool
that is indispensable for all Sepam users:
v assisted preparation of parameter and protection settings
v complete information during commissioning
v remote equipment management and diagnostics during operation
b logic equation editor built into the SFT2841 software to adapt the predefined
control functions
b optional SFT2885 programming software (Logipam), to program specific control
and monitoring functions
b 2 communication ports to integrate Sepam in 2 different networks or redundant
architectures
b removable memory cartridge to get equipment in operation again quickly after the
replacement of a faulty base unit
b battery backup to save historical and disturbance recording data.
Selection guide
The Sepam series 80 family includes 16 types to offer the right solution for each
application.
Specific protection functions available
Applications
Substation Transformer Motor
Directional earth fault
Directional earth fault and phase overcurrent
Check on 3 phase voltages on 2 sets of busbars
Rate of change of frequency
Capacitor bank unbalance
Transformer or machine differential
Machine-transformer unit differential
6
S80
S81
S82
Generator
Busbar
Capacitor
B80
T81
T82
M81
G82
B83
S84
C86
T87
M87
M88
G87
G88
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Modular architecture
Introduction
Flexibility and upgrading capability
1 Base unit, with different types of User Machine
Interfaces (UMI):
b integrated mimic-based UMI
b integrated or remote advanced UMI
PE50286
To adapt to as many situations as possible, and allow for future installation
upgrading, optional modules may be added to Sepam at any time for new functions.
2 Parameter and protection settings saved on
removable memory cartridge.
3 42 logic inputs and 23 output relays
with 3 optional modules providing 14 inputs and
6 outputs.
4 2 independent communication ports
b direct connection to 2-wire RS 485, 4-wire
RS 485 and fiber optic networks.
b connection to Ethernet TCP/IP network via
PowerLogic Ethernet server
(Transparent ReadyTM).
5 Processing of data from 16 temperature
sensors,
Pt100, Ni100 or Ni120.
6 1 low level analog output,
0-10 mA, 4-20 mA or 0-20 mA.
7 Synchro-check module
8 Software tools:
b Sepam parameter and protection setting and
adaptation of the predefined control functions
b local or remote installation operation
b programming of specific functions (Logipam)
b retrieval and display of disturbance recording
data.
Easy installation
b light, compact base unit
b easy to integrate due to Sepam’s adaptation capabilities:
v universal supply voltage and logic inputs: 24 to 250 V DC
v phase currents may be measured by 1 A or 5 A current transformers, or LPCT
(Low Power Current Transducer) type sensors
v residual current calculated or measured by a choice of methods to fit requirements
b the same, easy-to-install remote modules for all Sepam units:
v mounted on DIN rail
v connected to the Sepam base unit by prefabricated cords.
Commissioning assistance
b predefined functions implemented by simple parameter setting
b user-friendly, powerful SFT2841 PC setting software tool used on all Sepam units
to provide users with all the possibilities offered by Sepam.
Intuitive use
b integrated or remote advanced User Machine Interface (UMI) installed in the most
convenient place for the facility manager
b integrated mimic-based User Machine Interface for local control of switchgear
b user-friendly User Machine Interface, with direct access to data
b clear graphic LCD display of all data required for local operation and installation
diagnosis
b working language may be customized to be understood by all users.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
7
1
Selection table
Introduction
Substation
1
Protection
Transformer
Motor
Generator
Busbar
Cap.
ANSI code S80 S81 S82 S84 T81 T82 T87 M81 M87 M88 G82 G87 G88 B80 B83 C86
Phase overcurrent (1)
50/51
Earth fault / Sensitive earth fault (1) 50N/51N
50G/51G
Breaker failure
50BF
Negative sequence / unbalance 46
Thermal overload for cables
49RMS
Thermal overload for machines (1) 49RMS
Thermal overload for capacitors 49RMS
Capacitor bank unbalance
51C
Restricted earth fault
Two-winding transformer
differential
Machine differential
64REF
87T
Directional phase overcurrent (1)
Directional earth fault (1)
67
67N/67NC
Directional active overpower
Directional reactive overpower
Directional active underpower
32P
32Q
37P
Phase undercurrent
Excessive starting time, locked
rotor
Starts per hour
Field loss (underimpedance)
Pole slip
Overspeed (2 set points) (2)
Underspeed (2 set points) (2)
Voltage-restrained overcurrent
Underimpedance
Inadvertent energization
Third harmonic undervoltage /
100 % stator earth fault
Overfluxing (V / Hz)
Positive sequence undervoltage
Remanent undervoltage
Undervoltage (L-L or L-N)
Overvoltage (L-L or L-N)
Neutral voltage displacement
Negative sequence overvoltage
24
27D
27R
27
59
59N
47
Overfrequency
Underfrequency
Rate of change of frequency
Recloser (4 cycles) (2)
Thermostat / Buchholz (2)
Temperature monitoring
(16 RTDs) (3)
Synchro-check (4)
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
8
2
2
2
1
2
87M
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
37
48/51LR
1
1
1
1
1
1
66
40
78PS
12
14
50V/51V
21B
50/27
27TN/64G2
64G
1
1
1
v
v
1
1
1
v
v
1
1
1
v
v
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
v
v
2
1
1
2
1
1
v
v
2
1
1
2
1
1
v
v
2
1
1
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
4
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
81H
81L
81R
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
79
26/63
38/49T
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
25
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Circuit breaker / contactor control 94/69
v
v
v
v
v
Automatic transfer (AT) (2)
v
v
v
v
v
Load shedding / automatic restart
De-excitation
Genset shutdown
Capacitor step control (2)
Logic discrimination (2)
68
v
v
v
v
v
Latching / acknowledgement
86
b
b
b
b
b
Annunciation
30
b
b
b
b
b
Switching of groups of settings
b
b
b
b
b
Adaptation using logic equations
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam programming (Ladder language)
v
v
v
v
v
The figures indicate the number of relays available for each protection function.
b standard, v options.
(1) Protection functions with 2 groups of settings.
(2) According to parameter setting and optional MES120 input/output modules.
(3) With optional MET148-2 temperature input modules.
(4) With optional MCS025 synchro-check module.
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
v
v
v
Control and monitoring
8
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
v
v
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
v
v
v
b
b
b
b
v
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Selection table
Introduction
Substation
Metering
Transformer
Motor
Generator
Busbar
Cap.
S80 S81 S82 S84 T81 T82 T87 M81 M87 M88 G82 G87 G88 B80 B83 C86
Phase current I1, I2, I3 RMS
Measured residual current I0, calculated I0Σ
Demand current I1, I2, I3
Peak demand current IM1, IM2, IM3
Measured residual current I'0
Voltage U21, U32, U13, V1, V2, V3
Residual voltage V0
Positive sequence voltage Vd / rotation direction
Negative sequence voltage Vi
Frequency
Active power P, P1, P2, P3
Reactive power Q, Q1, Q2, Q3
Apparent power S, S1, S2, S3
Peak demand power PM, QM
Power factor
Calculated active and reactive energy (±Wh, ±VARh)
Active and reactive energy by pulse counting (2)
(± Wh, ± VARh)
Phase current I'1, I'2, I'3 RMS
Calculated residual current I'0Σ
Voltage U’21, V’1 and frequency
Voltage U’21, U’32, U’13, V’1, V’2, V’3, V’d, V’i and
frequency
Residual voltage V’0
Temperature (16 RTDs) (3)
Rotation speed (2)
Neutral point voltage Vnt
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
v
v
v
v
v
b
v
v
b
v
v
b
v
v
b
v
v
b
v
v
b
v
Network and machine diagnosis
Tripping context
Tripping current TripI1, TripI2, TripI3
Phase fault and earth fault trip counters
Unbalance ratio / negative sequence current Ii
Harmonic distortion (THD), current and voltage Ithd,
Uthd
Phase displacement ϕ0, ϕ'0, ϕ0Σ
Phase displacement ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3
Disturbance recording
Thermal capacity used
Remaining operating time before overload tripping
Waiting time after overload tripping
Running hours counter / operating time
Starting current and time
Start inhibit time
Number of starts before inhibition
Unbalance ratio / negative sequence current I'i
Differential current Idiff1, Idiff2, Idiff3
Through current It1, It2, It3
Current phase displacement θ
Apparent positive sequence impedance Zd
Apparent phase-to-phase impedances Z21, Z32, Z13
Third harmonic voltage, neutral point or residual
Difference in amplitude, frequency and phase of
voltages compared for synchro-check (4)
Capacitor unbalance current and capacitance
Switchgear diagnosis
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
v
v
v
v
b
b
b
ANSI code
CT / VT supervision
60/60FL
74
Trip circuit supervision (2)
Auxiliary power supply monitoring
Cumulative breaking current
Number of operations, operating time, charging time,
number of racking out operations (2)
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
b
v
b
b
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Modbus, IEC 60870-5-103, DNP3 communication or IEC 61850
v
v
Measurement readout (5)
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Remote indication and time tagging of events (5)
(5)
v
v
v
v
v
v
Remote control orders
(5)
v
v
v
v
v
v
Remote protection setting
(5)
v
v
v
v
v
v
Transfer of disturbance recording data
b standard, v options.
(2) According to parameter setting and optional MES120 input/output modules.
(3) With optional MET148-2 temperature input modules.
(4) With optional MCS025 synchro-check module.
(5) With ACE949-2, ACE959, ACE937, ACE969TP or ACE969FO communication interface.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
v
v
v
v
v
9
1
Technical characteristics
Introduction
Weight
1
Minimum weight (base unit without MES120)
Maximum weight (base unit with 3 MES120)
Base unit with advanced UMI
Base unit with mimic-based UMI
2.4 kg (5.29 lb)
4.0 kg (8.82 lb)
3.0 kg (6.61 lb)
4.6 kg (10.1 lb)
Sensor inputs
Phase current inputs
1 A or 5 A CT
< 0.02 Ω
< 0.02 VA (1 A CT)
< 0.5 VA (5 A CT)
4 In
100 In
Input impedance
Consumption
Continuous thermal withstand
1 second overload
Voltage inputs
Input impedance
Consumption
Continuous thermal withstand
1-second overload
Isolation of inputs from other
isolated groups
Phase
Residual
> 100 kΩ
< 0.015 VA (100 V VT)
240 V
480 V
Enhanced
> 100 kΩ
< 0.015 VA (100 V VT)
240 V
480 V
Enhanced
Relay outputs
Control relay outputs O1 to O4 and Ox01 (1)
Voltage
Continuous current
Breaking capacity
DC
AC (47.5 to 63 Hz)
Resistive load
Load L/R < 20
Load L/R < 40 ms
Resistive load
Load p.f. > 0.3
Making capacity
Isolation of outputs from other
isolated groups
24/48 V DC
8A
8A/4A
6A/2A
4A/1A
< 15 A for 200 ms
Enhanced
127 V DC
8A
0.7 A
0.5 A
0.2 A
-
220 V DC
8A
0.3 A
0.2 A
0.1 A
-
250 V DC
8A
0.2 A
-
100 to 240 V AC
8A
8A
5A
24/48 V DC
2A
2A/1A
2A/1A
Enhanced
127 V DC
2A
0.6 A
0.5 A
-
220 V DC
2A
0.3 A
0.15 A
-
250 V DC
2A
0.2 A
-
100 to 240 V AC
2A
1A
Annunciation relay output O5 and Ox02 to Ox06
Voltage
Continuous current
Breaking capacity
Isolation of outputs from other
isolated groups
DC
AC (47.5 to 63 Hz)
Resistive load
Load L/R < 20 ms
Load p.f. > 0.3
Power supply
Voltage
Maximum consumption
Inrush current
Acceptable ripple content
Acceptable momentary outages
24 to 250 V DC
< 16 W
< 10 A 10 ms
12 %
100 ms
-20 % / +10 %
Battery
Format
Service life
1/2 AA lithium 3.6 V
10 years Sepam energized
8 years Sepam not energized
(1) Relay outputs complying with clause 6.7 of standard C37.90 (30 A, 200 ms, 2000 operations).
10
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Introduction
Environmental characteristics
Electromagnetic compatibility
Standard
Level / Class
Value
Emission tests
Disturbing field emission
Conducted disturbance emission
IEC 60255-25
EN 55022
IEC 60255-25
EN 55022
1
A
A
Immunity tests – Radiated disturbances
Immunity to radiated fields
Electrostatic discharge
Immunity to magnetic fields at network frequency(1)
IEC 60255-22-3
IEC 61000-4-3
ANSI C37.90.2 (1995)
IEC 60255-22-2
ANSI C37.90.3
IEC 61000-4-8
III
4
10 V/m; 80 MHz -1 GHz
10 V/m; 80 MHz - 2 GHz
35 V/m; 25 MHz - 1 GHz
8 kV air; 6 kV contact
8 kV air; 4 kV contact
30 A/m (continuous) - 300 A/m (1 - 3 s)
Immunity tests – Conducted disturbances
Immunity to conducted RF disturbances
Fast transient bursts
1 MHz damped oscillating wave
100 kHz damped oscillating wave
Surges
Voltage interruptions
Mechanical robustness
IEC 60255-22-6
IEC 60255-22-4
IEC 61000-4-4
ANSI C37.90.1
IEC 60255-22-1
ANSI C37.90.1
IEC 61000-4-12
IEC 61000-4-5
IEC 60255-11
III
A and B
IV
III
10 V
4 kV; 2.5 kHz / 2 kV; 5 kHz
4 kV; 2.5 kHz
4 kV; 2.5 kHz
2.5 kV CM; 1 kV DM
2.5 kV; 2.5 kHz
2,5 kV CM ; 1 kV DM
2 kV CM; 1 kV DM
100 % during 100 ms
Standard
Level / Class
Value
IEC 60255-21-1
IEC 60068-2-6
IEC 60255-21-2
IEC 60255-21-3
2
Fc
2
2
1 Gn; 10 Hz - 150 Hz
2 Hz - 13.2 Hz ; a = ±1 mm
10 Gn / 11 ms
2 Gn (horizontal axes)
1 Gn (vertical axes)
IEC 60255-21-1
IEC 60255-21-2
IEC 60255-21-2
2
2
2
2 Gn; 10 Hz - 150 Hz
27 Gn / 11 ms
20 Gn / 16 ms
Standard
Level / Class
Value
Exposure to cold
Exposure to dry heat
Continuous exposure to damp heat
Salt mist
Influence of corrosion/2-gas test
IEC 60068-2-1
IEC 60068-2-2
IEC 60068-2-78
IEC 60068-2-52
IEC 60068-2-60
Ad
Bd
Cab
Kb/2
Influence of corrosion/4-gas test
IEC 60068-2-60
-25°C (-13°F)
+70°C (+158°F)
10 days; 93 % RH; 40°C (104°F)
6 days
21 days; 75 % RH; 25°C (77°F);
0.5 ppm H2S; 1 ppm SO2
21 days; 75 % RH; 25°C (77°F);
0.01 ppm H2S; 0.2 ppm SO2;
0.2 ppm NO2; 0.01 ppm CI2
In operation
Vibrations
Shocks
Earthquakes
De-energized
Vibrations
Shocks
Jolts
Climatic withstand
In operation
In storage (2)
Temperature variation with specified variation rate
IEC 60068-2-14
Nb
Exposure to cold
Exposure to dry heat
Continuous exposure to damp heat
IEC 60068-2-1
IEC 60068-2-2
IEC 60068-2-78
IEC 60068-2-30
Ab
Bb
Cab
Db
-25°C to +70°C (-13°F to +158°F);
5°C/min
-25°C (-13°F)
+70°C (+158°F)
56 days; 93 % RH; 40°C (104°F)
6 days; 95 % RH; 55°C (131°F)
Standard
Level / Class
Value
IEC 60529
NEMA
IEC 60695-2-11
IP52
Type 12
Other panels IP20
Safety
Enclosure safety tests
Front panel tightness
Fire withstand
650°C (1200°F) with glow wire
Electrical safety tests
1.2/50 µs impulse wave
Power frequency dielectric withstand
IEC 60255-5
IEC 60255-5
ANSI C37.90
5 kV (3)
2 kV 1 min (4)
1 kV 1 min (indication output)
1.5 kV 1 min (control output)
Certification
e
European directives:
b 89/336/EEC Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive
v 92/31/EEC Amendment
v 93/68/EEC Amendment
b 73/23/EEC Low Voltage Directive
v 93/68/EEC Amendment
UL
UL508 - CSA C22.2 no. 14-95
File E212533
CSA
CSA C22.2 no. 14-95 / no. 94-M91 / no. 0.17-00
File 210625
(1) When protection function 50N/51N or 67N is used and I0 is calculated on the sum of phase currents, Is0 must be higher than 0.1In0.
(2) Sepam must be stored in its original packing.
(3) Except for communication: 3 kV in common mode and 1 kV in differential mode.
(4) Except for communication: 1 kVrms.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
EN 50263 harmonized
standard
11
Metering functions
2
12
Contents
Sensor inputs
14
General settings
15
Characteristics
16
Processing of measured signals
18
Phase current
Residual current
20
Demand current and peak demand currents
21
Phase-to-phase voltage
22
Phase-to-neutral voltage
23
Residual voltage
Neutral point voltage
24
Positive sequence voltage
25
Negative sequence voltage
26
Frequency
27
Active, reactive
and apparent power
28
Peak demand active and reactive power
Power factor (cos ϕ)
30
Active and reactive energy
31
Temperature
32
Rotation speed
33
Tripping context
Tripping current
35
Number of phase fault trips
Number of earth fault trips
36
Negative sequence / unbalance
37
Current total harmonic distortion
Voltage total harmonic distortion
38
Phase displacement ϕ0, ϕ'0, ϕ0Σ
Phase displacement ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3
39
Disturbance recording
40
Synchro-check: voltage comparison and
out-of-sync context
41
Thermal capacity used
Cooling time constant
42
Operating time before tripping
Waiting time after tripping
43
Running hours and operating time counter
Starting current and starting time
44
Number of starts before inhibition
Start inhibit time
45
Differential current
Through current
46
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Contents
Current phase displacement
47
Apparent positive sequence impedance
Apparent phase-to-phase impedances
48
Third harmonic neutral point voltage
Third harmonic residual voltage
49
Capacitance
50
Capacitor unbalance current
51
VT supervision
ANSI code 60FL
52
CT supervision
ANSI code 60
54
Trip and closing circuit supervision
ANSI code 74
55
Auxiliary power supply monitoring
56
Cumulative breaking current
Number of operations
57
Operating time
Charging time
58
Number of racking out operations
59
13
2
Sensor inputs
Metering functions
DE50583
Sepam series 80 has analog inputs that are connected to the measurement sensors
required for applications:
b main analog inputs, available on all types of Sepam series 80:
v 3 phase current inputs l1, l2, l3
v 1 residual current input l0
v 3 phase voltage inputs V1, V2, V3
v 1 residual voltage input V0
b additional analog inputs, dependent on the type of Sepam:
v 3 additional phase current inputs l'1, l'2, l'3
v 1 additional residual current input l'0
v 3 additional phase voltage inputs V'1, V'2, V'3
v 1 additional residual voltage input V'0.
2
The table below lists the analog inputs available according to the type of
Sepam series 80.
Sepam G88 sensor inputs.
Phase current inputs
Residual current inputs
Unbalance current
inputs for capacitor steps
Phase voltage inputs
Main channel
Additional channels
Main channel
Additional channels
S80, S81, T81, T82, T87, M87, B80
S82, S84 M81, G82 M88, G87,
G88
B83
C86
l1, l2, l3
l1, l2, l3
l1, l2, l3
l1, l2, l3
l1, l2, l3
l0
l’0
l0
l’0
l0
l’0
l0
l0
l1, l2, l3
l’1, l’2, l’3
l0
l’0
l’1, l’2, l’3, l’0
Main channel
V1, V2, V3
or U21, U32
V1, V2, V3
or U21, U32
V1, V2, V3
or U21, U32
Additional channels
Residual voltage inputs
Main channel
Additional channel
V0
V0
V0
V1, V2, V3
or U21, U32
V1, V2, V3
or U21, U32
V’1 or U’21
V’1, V’2, V’3
or U’21, U’32
V0
V’0
V0 (1)
T1 to T16
T1 to T16
Temperature inputs
(on MET148-2 module)
Note: by extension, an additional measurement (current or voltage) is a value measured via an additional analog channel.
(1) Available with phase voltage U21, U32.
14
V1, V2, V3
or U21, U32
V0
T1 to T16
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
General settings
The general settings define the characteristics of the measurement sensors
connected to Sepam and determine the performance of the metering and protection
functions used. They are accessed via the SFT2841 setting software "General
Characteristics", "CT-VT Sensors" and "Particular characteristics" tabs.
General settings
In, I'n
Rated phase current
(sensor primary current)
Selection
2 or 3 1 A / 5 A CTs
3 LPCTs
I’n
Unbalance current sensor rating (capacitor application) CT 1 A / 2 A / 5 A
Ib
Base current, according to rated power of equipment
I'b
Base current on additional channels
Applications with transformer
(not adjustable)
Other applications
In0, I'n0 Rated residual current
Sum of 3 phase currents
CSH120 or CSH200 core balance CT
1 A/5 A CT
Core balance CT + ACE990 (the core balance CT ratio
1/n must be such that 50 y n y 1500)
Unp,
Rated primary phase-to-phase voltage (Vnp: rated
U’np
primary phase-to-neutral voltage Vnp = Unp/3)
Uns,
Rated secondary phase-to-phase voltage
3 VTs: V1, V2, V3
U’ns
2 VTs: U21, U32
1 VT: U21
1 VT: V1
Uns0,
Secondary zero sequence voltage for primary zero
U’nso
sequence voltage Unp/3
Vntp
Neutral point voltage transformer primary voltage
(generator application)
Vnts
Neutral point voltage transformer secondary voltage
(generator application)
fn
Rated frequency
Phase rotation direction
Integration period (for demand current and peak
demand current and power)
Pulse-type accumulated energy meter
Increments active energy
Increments reactive energy
P
Rated transformer power
Un1
Rated winding 1 voltage
(main channels: I)
Un2
Rated winding 2 voltage
(additional channels: I')
In1
Rated winding 1 current (not adjustable)
In2
Rated winding 2 current (not adjustable)
Transformer vector shift
Ωn
Rated speed (motor, generator)
R
Number of pulses per rotation (for speed acquisition)
Zero speed set point
Number of capacitor steps
Connection of capacitor steps
Capacitor step ratio
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
(1) In values for LPCT, in Amps: 25, 50, 100, 125, 133, 200, 250, 320, 400, 500, 630, 666, 1000, 1600, 2000, 3150.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Value
1 A to 6250 A
25 A to 3150 A (1)
1 A to 30 A
0.2 to 1.3 In
I'b = Ib x Un1/Un2
I'b = Ib
See In(I'n) rated phase current
2 A or 20 A rating
1 A to 6250 A
According to current monitored
and use of ACE990
220 V to 250 kV
2
90 to 230 V
90 to 120 V
90 to 120 V
90 to 230 V
Uns/3 or Uns/3
220 V to 250 kV
57.7 V to 133 V
50 Hz or 60 Hz
1-2-3 oru 1-3-2
5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min
0.1 kWh to 5 MWh
0.1 kVARh to 5 MVARh
100 kVA to 999 MVA
220 V to 220 kV
220 V to 400 kV
In1 = P/(3 Un1)
In2 = P/(3 Un2)
0 to 11
100 to 3600 rpm
1 to 1800 (Ωn x R/60 y 1500)
5 to 20 % of Ωn
1 to 4
Star / Delta
1
1, 2
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
15
Metering functions
Characteristics
Functions
Measurement range
Accuracy (1)
MSA141 Saving
0.02 to 40 In
0.005 to 40 In
0.005 to 20 In0
0.02 to 40 In
0.02 to 40 In
0.05 to 1.2 Unp
0.05 to 1.2 Unp
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp
0.015 to 3 Vnp
0.015 to 3 Vntp
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp
25 to 65 Hz
45 to 55 Hz (fn = 50 Hz)
55 to 65 Hz (fn = 60 Hz)
0.008 Sn to 999 MW
0.008 Sn to 999 MVAR
0.008 Sn to 999 MVA
0.008 Sn to 999 MW
0.008 Sn to 999 MVAR
-1 to + 1 (CAP/IND)
0 to 2.1 x 108 MWh
0 to 2.1 x 108 MVARh
-30 °C to +200 °C
or -22 °F to +392 °F
0 to 7200 rpm
±0.5 %
±1 %
±1 %
±0.5 %
±0.5 %
±0.5 %
±1 %
±0.5 %
±1 %
±1 %
±1 %
±2 %
±2 %
±0.01 Hz
±0.05 Hz
b
b
b
±1 %
±1 %
±1 %
±1 %
±1 %
±0.01
±1 % ±1 digit
±1 % ±1 digit
±1 °C from +20
to +140 °C
±1 rpm
b
b
b
Metering
Phase current
Residual current
Demand current
Peak demand current
Phase-to-phase voltage
2
Phase-to-neutral voltage
Residual voltage
Neutral point voltage
Positive sequence voltage
Negative sequence voltage
Frequency
Calculated
Measured
Main channels (U)
Additional channels (U’)
Main channels (V)
Additional channels (V’)
Main channels (f)
Additional channels (f’)
Active power (total or per phase)
Reactive power (total or per phase)
Apparent power (total or per phase)
Peak demand active power
Peak demand reactive power
Power factor
Calculated active energy
Calculated reactive energy
Temperature
Rotation speed
v
b
b
b
v
v
b
v v
v v
b
Network diagnosis assistance
Tripping context
Tripping current
0.02 to 40 In
Number of trips
0 to 65535
Negative sequence / unbalance
1 to 500 % of Ib
Total harmonic distortion, current
0 to 100 %
Total harmonic distortion, voltage
0 to 100 %
Phase displacement ϕ0 (between V0 and I0)
0 to 359°
Phase displacement ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3 (between V and I)
0 to 359°
Disturbance recording
Amplitude difference
0 to 1.2 Usync1
Frequency difference
0 to 10 Hz
Phase difference
0 to 359°
Out-of-sync context
b available on MSA141 analog output module, according to setup
v v saved in the event of auxiliary supply outage, even without battery
v saved by battery in the event of auxiliary supply outage.
(1) Typical accuracy, see details on subsequent pages.
16
±5 %
±2 %
±1 %
±1 %
±2°
±2°
v
v
v v
v
±1 %
±0.5 Hz
±2°
v
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Characteristics
Functions
Measurement range
Accuracy (1)
MSA141 Saving
0 to 800 %
(100 % for phase I = Ib)
0 to 999 min
0 to 999 min
0 to 65535 hours
1.2 Ib to 40 In
0 to 300 s
0 to 60
0 to 360 min
0.015 to 40 In
0.015 to 40 In
0 to 359°
0 to 200 kΩ
0.2 to 30 % of Vnp
0.2 to 90 % of Vnp
0 to 30 F
0.02 to 40 I’n
±1 %
b
Machine operating assistance
Thermal capacity used
Remaining operating time before overload tripping
Waiting time after overload tripping
Running hours counter / operating time
Starting current
Starting time
Number of starts before inhibition
Start inhibit time
Differential current
Through current
Phase displacement θ1, θ2, θ3 (between I and I')
Apparent impedance Zd, Z21, Z32, Z13
Third harmonic neutral point voltage
Third harmonic residual voltage
Capacitance
Capacitor unbalance current
±1 min
±1 min
±1 % or ±0.5 h
±5 %
±300 ms
v v
v v
v
v
2
±1 min
±1 %
±1 %
±2°
±5 %
±1 %
±1 %
±5 %
±5 %
Switchgear diagnosis assistance
Cumulative breaking current
0 to 65535 kA²
Number of operations
0 to 4 x 109
Operating time
20 to 100 s
Charging time
1 to 20 s
Number of rackouts
0 to 65535
Auxiliary supply supervision
20 to 275V CC
b available on MSA141 analog output module, according to setup
v v saved in the event of auxiliary supply outage, even without battery
v saved by battery in the event of auxiliary supply outage.
(1) Typical accuracy, see details on subsequent pages.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
±10 %
±1 ms
±0.5 s
±10 % or ±4 V
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
17
Processing of measured signals
Metering functions
Measured physical values
DE50333
Sepam measures the following physical values:
b phase currents (3I)
b residual current (I0)
b phase voltages (3V)
b residual voltage (V0).
Each measured signal is processed by Sepam to produce all the values necessary
for the metering, diagnosis and protection functions.
2
The charts below indicate, for the various functions, the values produced from the
signals measured, with:
b RMS = RMS value up to the 13th harmonic
b H1 = fundamental 50 Hz or 60 Hz component
b ΣH1 = vector sum of the fundamental components of the three phases
b H3 = 3rd harmonic component
b ΣH3 = vector sum of the 3rd harmonic components of the three phases.
Values produced by Sepam from the signals measured.
Values used by the metering and diagnosis
functions
3I
Metering
RMS
RMS phase current I1, I2, I3
Calculated residual current I0Σ
Demand current I1, I2, I3
Peak demand current IM1, IM2, IM3
Measured residual current I0, I'0
Voltage U21, U32, U13, V1, V2, V3, U’21, U’32, U’13, V’1, V2’, V’3
Residual voltage V0
Positive sequence voltage Vd / rotation direction
Negative sequence voltage Vi
Frequency f
Active power P, P1, P2, P3
Reactive power Q, Q1, Q2, Q3
Apparent power S, S1, S2, S3
Peak demand power PM, QM
Power factor
Calculated active and reactive energy (± Wh, ± VARh)
Phase current I'1, I'2, I'3 RMS
Calculated residual current I'0Σ
Neutral point voltage Vnt
H1
ΣH1
I0
3V
H1
RMS
V0
H1
ΣH1
ΣH3
H1
H3
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Network and machine diagnosis
Tripping current TripI1, TripI2, TripI3
Unbalance ratio / negative sequence current Ii
Harmonic distortion (THD), current Ithd
Harmonic distortion (THD), voltage Uthd
Phase displacement ϕ0, ϕ'0, ϕ0Σ
Phase displacement ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3
Thermal capacity used
Unbalance ratio / negative sequence current I'i
Differential current Idiff1, Idiff2, Idiff3
Through current It1, It2, It3
Angle between currents I and I'
Starting current
Third harmonic voltage, neutral point or residual
Switchgear diagnosis
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
ANSI code
CT / VT supervision
60/60FL
Cumulative breaking current
b standard
v according to measurement sensors connected.
18
b
b
b
b
b
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Processing of measured signals
Metering functions
Values used by the protection functions
3I
Protections
Phase overcurrent
Earth fault
Sensitive earth fault
Breaker failure
Negative sequence / unbalance
Thermal overload for cables
Thermal overload for machines
Thermal overload for capacitors
Capacitor bank unbalance
Restricted earth fault
Two-winding transformer differential
Machine differential
Directional phase overcurrent
Directional earth fault
Directional active overpower
Directional reactive overpower
Directional active underpower
Phase undercurrent
Excessive starting time, locked rotor
Starts per hour
Field loss (underimpedance)
Pole slip
Voltage-restrained overcurrent
Underimpedance
Inadvertent energization
Third harmonic undervoltage /
100 % stator earth fault
Overfluxing (V / Hz)
Positive sequence undercurrent
Remanent undervoltage
Undervoltage (L-L or L-N)
Overvoltage (L-L or L-N)
Neutral voltage displacement
Negative sequence overvoltage
Overfrequency
Underfrequency
Rate of change of frequency
b standard
v according to measurement sensors connected.
ANSI code
50/51
50N/51N
50G/51G
50BF
46
49RMS
49RMS
49RMS
51C
64REF
87T
87M
67
67N/67NC
32P
32Q
37P
37
48/51LR
66
40
78 PS
50V/51V
21B
50/27
27TN/64G2
64G
24
27D
27R
27
59
59N
47
81H
81L
81R
RMS
H1
I0
3V
ΣH1
H1
RMS
v
v
V0
H1
ΣH1
ΣH3
H1
H3
b
b
b
2
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
b
b
b
b
b
b
v
v
b
b
b
b
Phase rotation direction
DE50333
The rotation direction of the 3 phases of the network may be 1-2-3, or 1-3-2, the
phase order in the trigonometric (counter-clockwise) direction.
The phase rotation direction needs to be set for correct calculation of the symmetrical
components (Vd, Vi, V0Σ, Id, Ii, I0Σ).
DE50109
Phase rotation direction 1-2-3.
Phase rotation direction 1-3-2.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
19
Metering functions
Phase current
Residual current
Phase current
Operation
This function gives the RMS value of the phase currents:
b I1: phase 1 current, main channels
b I2: phase 2 current, main channels
b I3: phase 3 current, main channels
b I’1: phase 1 current, additional channels
b I’2: phase 2 current, additional channels
b I’3: phase 3 current, additional channels.
It is based on RMS current measurement and takes into account harmonics up to the
13th.
Different types of sensors may be used to meter phase current:
b 1 A or 5 A current transformers
b LPCT (Low Power Current Transducer) type current sensors.
2
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
Characteristics
0.02 to 40 In (1)
A or kA
0.1 A
±0.5 % typical (2)
±1 % from 0.3 to 1.5 In
±2 % from 0.1 to 0.3 In
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) In rated current set in the general settings.
(2) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Residual current
Operation
This operation gives the RMS value of the residual current.
It is based on measurement of the fundamental component.
Four types of residual current values are available depending on the type of Sepam
and sensors connected to it:
b 2 residual currents I0Σ and I'0Σ, calculated by the vector sum of the 3 phase
currents
b 2 measured residual currents I0 and I'0.
Different types of sensors may be used to measure residual current:
b CSH120 or CSH200 specific core balance CT
b conventional 1 A or 5 A current transformer
b any core balance CT with an ACE990 interface.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
Characteristics
Measurement range
I0Σ or I’0Σ
I0 or I’0 measured by CSH core balance CT
I0 or I’0 measured by core balance CT with ACE990
I0 or I’0 measured by CT
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (2)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) In, In0: nominal rating set in the general settings.
(2) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6), excluding sensor accuracy.
20
Rating
In0 = 2 A
In0 = 20 A
0.005 to 40 In (1)
0.005 to 20 In0 (1)
0.005 to 20 In0 (1)
0.005 to 20 In0 (1)
0.005 to 20 In0 (1)
A or kA
0.1 A or 1 digit
±1 % typical at In0
±2 % from 0.3 to 1.5 In0
±5 % from 0.1 to 0.3 In0
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Demand current
and peak demand currents
Operation
Demand current and peak demand currents are calculated according to the 3 phase
currents I1, I2 and I3:
b demand current is calculated over an adjustable period of 5 to 60 minutes
b peak demand current is the greatest demand current and indicates the current
drawn by peak loads.
Peak demand currents may be cleared. They are saved in the event of a power
failure.
2
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Resetting to zero
b via the clear key on the Sepam display if a peak demand is displayed
b via the clear command in the SFT2841 software
b via the communication link (remote control order TC4).
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
Integration period
(1) In rated current set in the general settings.
(2) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
0.02 to 40 In (1)
A or kA
0.1 A
±0.5 % typical (2)
±1 % from 0.3 to 1.5 In
±2 % from 0.1 to 0.3 In
3 significant digits
5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BO12
-
MSTA1.RsMaxA.ctlVal
TC4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
21
Metering functions
Phase-to-phase voltage
Operation
DE50334
This function gives the RMS value of the fundamental 50 Hz or 60 Hz component of:
b the main phase-to-phase voltages:
v ( U21 = V1 – V2 ) , voltage between phases 2 and 1
v ( U32 = V2 – V3 ) , voltage between phases 3 and 2
v ( U13 = V3 – V1 ) , voltage between phases 1 and 3.
2
b the additional phase-to-phase voltages:
1-2-3 network: phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase voltages.
v ( U ′ 21 = V ′ 1 – V ′ 2 ) , voltage between phases 2 and 1
DE50333
v ( U ′ 32 = V ′ 2 – V ′ 3 ) , voltage between phases 3 and 2
v ( U ′ 13 = V ′ 3 – V ′ 1 ) , voltage between phases 1 and 3.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
1-3-2 network: phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase voltages.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) Un rated current set in the general settings.
(2) At Unp, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
22
0.05 to 1.2 Unp (1)
V or kV
1V
±0.5 % typical (2) main channels
±1 % typical (2) additional channels
±1 % from 0.5 to 1.2 Unp
±2 % from 0.06 to 0.5 Unp
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Phase-to-neutral voltage
Operation
This function gives the RMS value of the fundamental 50 Hz or 60 Hz component of:
b the main phase-to-neutral voltages V1, V2, V3 measured on phases 1, 2 and 3
b the additional phase-to-neutral voltages V'1, V'2 and V'3 measured on phases 1,
2 and 3.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
2
Characteristics
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp (1)
V or kV
1V
±0.5 % typical (2) main channels
±1 % typical (2) additional channels
±1 % from 0.5 to 1.2 Vnp
±2 % from 0.06 to 0.5 Vnp
Display format
3 significant digits
Refresh interval
1 second (typical)
(1) Vnp: primary rated phase-to-neutral voltage (Vnp = Unp/3).
(2) At Vnp, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
23
Metering functions
Residual voltage
Neutral point voltage
Residual voltage
Operation
This function gives the following values:
b main residual voltage V0 = V1 + V2 + V3
b additional residual voltage V ′ 0 = V ′ 1 + V ′ 2 + V ′ 3
2
The residual voltage value may be:
b calculated by an open star/delta VT
b or calculated by taking the internal sum of the 3 phase voltages.
It is based on the measurement of the fundamental 50 Hz or 60 Hz component
of the voltages.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
0.015 to 3 Vnp (1)
V or kV
1V
±1 % from 0.5 to 3 Vnp
±2 % from 0.05 to 0.5 Vnp
±5 % from 0.02 to 0.05 Vnp
Display format
3 significant digits
Refresh interval
1 second (typical)
(1) Vnp: primary rated phase-to-neutral voltage (Vnp = Unp/3).
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Neutral point voltage
Operation
This function gives the value of the zero sequence voltage Vnt, measured at the
neutral point of a generator or motor by a dedicated VT:
Vnt = ( V1 + V2 + V3 ) ⁄ 3
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
0.015 Vnp to 3 Vntp (1)
V or kV
1V
±1 % from 0.5 to 3 Vntp
±2 % from 0.05 to 0.5 Vntp
±5 % from 0.02 to 0.05 Vntp
Display format
3 significant digits
Refresh interval
1 second (typical)
(1) Vntp: neutral point voltage transformer primary voltage.
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
24
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Positive sequence voltage
Operation
This function calculates the value of the main positive sequence voltage Vd:
b from the 3 main phase-to-neutral voltages:
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-2-3: Vd = --- × ( V1 + aV2 + a V3 )
3
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-3-2: Vd = --- × ( V1 + a V2 + aV3 )
3
b or from the 2 main phase-to-phase voltages:
2
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-2-3: Vd = --- × ( U21 – a U32 )
3
1
v phase rotation direction 1-3-2: Vd = --- × ( U21 – aU32 )
3
2π
j ------3
with a = e
The additional positive sequence voltage V'd is calculated in the same way:
b from the 3 additional phase-to-neutral voltages V'1, V'2 and V'3
b or from the 2 additional phase-to-phase voltages U'21 and U'32.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp (1)
Units
V or kV
Resolution
1V
Accuracy
±2 % at Vnp
Display format
3 significant digits
Refresh interval
1 second (typical)
(1) Vnp: primary rated phase-to-neutral voltage (Vnp = Unp/3).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
25
Metering functions
Negative sequence voltage
Operation
This function calculates the value of the main negative sequence voltage Vi:
b from the 3 main phase-to-neutral voltages:
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-2-3: Vi = --- × ( V1 + a V2 + aV3 )
3
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-3-2: Vi = --- × ( V1 + aV2 + a V3 )
3
b or from the 2 main phase-to-phase voltages:
2
1
v phase rotation direction 1-2-3: Vi = --- × ( U21 – aU32 )
3
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-3-2: Vi = --- × ( U21 – a U32 )
3
2π
j ------3
with a = e
The additional negative sequence voltage V'i is calculated in the same way:
b from the 3 additional phase-to-neutral voltages V'1, V'2 and V'3
b or from the 2 additional phase-to-phase voltages U'21 and U'32.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
0.05 to 1.2 Vnp (1)
Units
V or kV
Resolution
1V
Accuracy
±2 % at Vnp
Display format
3 significant digits
Refresh interval
1 second (typical)
(1) Vnp: primary rated phase-to-neutral voltage (Vnp = Unp/3).
26
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Frequency
Operation
This function gives the frequency value.
Frequency is measured via the following:
b based on U21 or V1, if only one phase-to-phase voltage is connected to the Sepam
b based on positive sequence voltage in other cases.
Frequency is not measured if:
b the voltage U21 (or V1) or positive sequence voltage Vd is less than 40 % of Un
b the frequency f is outside the measurment range.
The measurement of the frequency f' is calculated according to the same principle,
from V'd or U'21 or V'1
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
Characteristics
Main channels
Rated frequency
Range
Resolution
Accuracy (2)
Display format
Refresh interval
50 Hz, 60 Hz
25 to 65 Hz
0.01 Hz (1)
±0.01 Hz
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
Additional channels
Rated frequency fn
Range
Resolution (1)
Accuracy (2)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) On SFT2841.
(2) At Unp, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
50 Hz, 60 Hz
45 to 55 Hz (fn = 50 Hz)
55 to 65 Hz (fn = 60 Hz)
0.01 Hz
±0.05 Hz
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
27
2
Active, reactive
and apparent power
Metering functions
Operation
Power values are calculated from the phase currents I1, I2 and I3:
b active power = 3.U.I cos ϕ
b reactive power = 3.U.I.sin ϕ
b apparent power = 3.U.I.
According to the sensors used, power calculations may be based on the 2 or 3
wattmeter method (see table below).
The 2 wattmeter method is only accurate when there is no residual current, but it is
not applicable if the neutral is distributed.
The 3 wattmeter method gives an accurate calculation of 3-phase and phase by
phase powers in all cases, regardless of whether or not the neutral is distributed.
2
Connection of voltage
channels
Connection of main current
channels
P, Q, S calculation method
Power per phase
P1, P2, P3
Q1, Q2, Q3
S1, S2, S3
U32, U21 without V0
U21
I1, I2, I3
I1, I3
I1, I2, I3
I1, I3
I1, I2, I3 or I1, I3
I1, I2, I3 or I1, I3
Available
Not available
Available
Not available
Not available
Not available
V1
I1, I2, I3 or I1, I3
3 wattmeters
2 wattmeters
3 wattmeters
2 wattmeters
2 wattmeters
2 wattmeters
The system voltage is considered to be balanced
No calculation
3V
U32, U21 + V0
P1, Q1, S1 only
Power calculation
b by 3 wattmeter method:
P = V1 I1 cos (V1,I1) + V2 I2 cos (V2,I2) + V3 I3 cos (V3,I3)
Q = V1 I1 sin (V1,I1) + V2 I2 sin (V2,I2) + V3 I3 sin (V3,I3)
b by 2 wattmeter method:
P = U21 I1 cos (U21,I1) – U32 I3 cos (U32,I3)
Q = U21 I1 sin (U21,I1) – U32 I3 sin (U32,I3)
b S =
2
2
P +Q .
DE50646
According to standard practice, it is considered that:
b for the outgoing circuit (1):
v power supplied by the busbars is positive
v power supplied to the busbars is negative
DE50647
b for the incoming circuit (1):
v power supplied to the busbars is positive
v power supplied by the busbars is negative.
(1) Choice to be set in the general settings.
28
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Active, reactive
and apparent power
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Active power
P, P1, P2, P3
Reactive power
Q, Q1, Q2, Q3
Apparent power
S, S1, S2, S3
±(0.8 % Sn at 999 MW) (1)
kW, MW
0.1 kW
±1 % from 0.3 to 1.5 Sn (2)
±3 % from 0.1 to 0.3 Sn (2)
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
±(0.8 % Sn at 999 Mvar) (1)
kvar, Mvar
0.1 kvar
±1 % from 0.3 to 1.5 Sn (3)
±3 % from 0.1 to 0.3 Sn (3)
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
0.8 % Sn at 999 MVA (1)
kVA, MVA
0.1 kVA
±1 % from 0.3 to 1.5 Sn
±3 % from 0.1 to 0.3 Sn
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) Sn = 3Unp.In.
(2) Cos ϕ > 0.8 under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(3) Cos ϕ < 0.6 under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
2
29
Metering functions
Peak demand active
and reactive power
Power factor (cos ϕ)
Peak demand active and reactive power
Operation
This function gives the greatest demand active or reactive power value since the last
reset.
The values are refreshed after each "integration interval", an interval that may be set
from 5 to 60 min (common interval with peak demand phase currents). The values
are saved in the event of a power failure.
2
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Resetting to zero
b via the clear key on the Sepam display if a peak demand is displayed
b via the clear command in the SFT2841 software
b via the communication link (remote control order TC5).
Characteristics
Demand active power
Demand reactive power
Measurement range
±(1.5 % Sn at 999 MW) (1)
±(1.5 % Sn at 999 Mvar) (1)
Units
kW, MW
kvar, Mvar
Resolution
0.1 kW
0.1 kvar
±1 % typical (3)
Accuracy
±1 %, typical (2)
Display format
3 significant digits
3 significant digits
Integration period
5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min
5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min
(1) Sn = 3Unp.In.
(2) At In, Unp, cos ϕ > 0.8 under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(3) At In, Unp, cos ϕ < 0.6 under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BO14
-
MSTA1.RsMaxPwr.ctlVal
TC5
Power factor (cos ϕ)
MT10257
Operation
The power factor is defined by: cos ϕ = P ⁄ P 2 + Q 2 .
MT10258
It expresses the phase displacement between the phase currents and phase-toneutral voltages.
The + and - signs and IND (inductive) and CAP (capacitive) indications give the
direction of power flow and the type of load.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
-1 at 1 IND/CAP
Resolution
0.01
0.01 typical
Accuracy (1)
Display format
3 significant digits
Refresh interval
1 second (typical)
(1) At In, Unp, cos ϕ > 0.8 under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
30
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Metering functions
Active and reactive energy
Accumulated active and reactive energy
Operation
This function gives the following for the active and reactive energy values, calculated
according to voltages and phase currents I1, I2 and I3:
b accumulated energy conveyed in one direction
b accumulated energy conveyed in the other direction.
It is based on measurement of the fundamental component.
The accumulated energy values are saved in the event of a power failure.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Active energy
Reactive energy
Metering capacity
0 to 2.1 108 MW.h
0 to 2.1 108 Mvar.h
Units
MW.h
Mvar.h
Resolution
0.1 MW.h
0.1 Mvar.h
Accuracy
±1 % typical (1)
±1 % typical (1)
Display format
10 significant digits
10 significant digits
(1) At In, Unp, cos ϕ > 0.8 under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Accumulated active and reactive energy
by pulse metering
Operation
This function is used for energy metering via logic inputs. Energy incrementing is
associated with each input (one of the general parameters to be set). Each input
pulse increments the meter. 4 inputs and 4 accumulated energy metering options are
available:
b positive and negative active energy
b positive and negative reactive energy.
The accumulated active and reactive energy values are saved in the event of a
power failure.
Readout
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Metering capacity
Units
Resolution
Display format
Increment
Pulse
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Active energy
Reactive energy
0 to 2.1 108 MW.h
MW.h
0.1 MW.h
10 significant digits
0.1 kW.h to 5 MW
15 ms min.
0 to 2.1 108 Mvar.h
Mvar.h
0.1 Mvar.h
10 significant digits
0.1 kvar.h to 5 Mvar.h
15 ms min.
31
2
Metering functions
Temperature
Operation
This function gives the temperature value measured by resistance temperature
detectors (RTDs):
b platinum Pt100 (100 Ω at 0 °C or 32 °F) in accordance with the IEC 60751 and
DIN 43760 standards
b nickel 100 Ω or 120 Ω (at 0 °C or 32 °F).
Each RTD channel gives one measurement:
tx = RTD x temperature.
The function also indicates RTD faults:
b RTD disconnected (t > 205 °C or t > 401 °F)
b RTD shorted (t < -35 °C or t < -31 °F).
In the event of a fault, display of the value is inhibited.
The associated monitoring function generates a maintenance alarm.
2
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key, in °C or °F
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
Characteristics
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
-30 °C to +200 °C
1 °C
±1 °C from +20 °C to +140 °C
±2 °C from -30 °C to +20 °C
±2 °C from +140 °C to +200 °C
5 seconds (typical)
-22 °F to +392 °F
1 °F
±1.8 °F from +68 °F to +284 °F
±3.6 °F from -22 °F to +68 °F
±3.6 °F from +284 °F to +392 °F
Accuracy derating according to wiring
b connection in 3-wire mode: the error Δt is proportional to the length of the connector
and inversely proportional to the connector cross-section:
I ( km )
Δt ( °C ) = 2 × ---------------------S ( mm2 )
v ±2.1 °C/km for a cross-section of 0.93 mm2 (AWG 18)
v ±1 °C/km for a cross-section of 1.92 mm2 (AWG 14).
32
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Rotation speed
Metering functions
Operation
DE10359
This function gives the rotation speed of a motor or generator rotor. It is calculated
by measurement of the time between two pulses transmitted by a proximity sensor
at each passage of a cam driven by the rotation of the motor or generator shaft. The
number of pulses per rotation is set in the "particular characteristics" screen of the
SFT2841 software. The proximity sensor is connected to logic input I104.
2
1
2
Rotor with 2 cams.
Proximity sensor.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
Pulses per rotation (R)
Proximity sensor
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0 to 7200 rpm
1 rpm
±1 rpm
1 second (typical)
1 to 1800 with Ωn R/60 y1500
(Ωn: rated speed in rpm)
> 2.Ωn R/60
24 to 250 V DC, 3 mA minimum
< 0.5 mA
Pass-band (in Hz)
Output
Leakage current
in open status
Voltage dip in closed status < 4 V (with 24 V DC power supply)
Pulse duration
0 status > 120 μs
1 status > 200 μs
33
Metering functions
Phasor diagram
Operation
This function displays a phasor diagram of the fundamental component of the current
and voltage measurements as acquired by Sepam without any correction. It provides
effective assistance in the checking of cables and the implementation of directional
and differential protection functions.
It is fully parameterizable and the following choices are proposed to adapt the phasor
diagram according to requirements:
b choice of measurements to be displayed in the phasor diagram
b choice of reference phasor
b choice of display mode.
2
Measurements to be displayed
b phase currents on main and additional channel
b residual currents measured or with sum on main and additional channels
b symmetrical components of current Id, Ii, I0Σ/3
b phase-to-neutral voltages on main and additional channels
b phase-to-phase voltages on main and additional channels
b residual voltages on main and additional channels
b symmetrical components of voltage Vd, Vi, V0/3.
PE50453
Reference phasor
The reference phasor according to which the phase shifts of the other phasors
displayed are calculated may be chosen from the phase or residual current or voltage
phasors. When the reference phasor is too small (< 2 % In for currents or 5 % Un for
voltages), display is impossible.
Phasor diagram on SFT2841
Display mode
b Display as true values: the measurements are displayed without any modification
in a scale chosen in relation to the respective rated values:
v 0 to 2 Max (In, I'n) for currents
v 0 to 2 Max (Unp, U'np) for voltages.
b Display as values normalized in relation to the maximum, i.e. the measurements
are normalized in relation to the greatest measurement of the same type. The
greatest measurement is displayed full scale with a modulus equal to 1, and the
others are displayed as relative values compared to the modulus 1 value. This
display provides maximum angular resolution, regardless of the measured values,
while maintaining the relative values between measurements.
b Display as values normalized to 1: all the measurements are normalized in relation
to themselves and displayed with a modulus of 1, equal to full scale. This mode
provides optimal display of the angles between phasors but does not allow moduli to
be compared.
b Display of phase-to-phase voltage values in a triangle arrangement: for a more
common display of phase-to-phase voltage phasors.
b Display / elimination of the scale: for more convenient reading of the displayed
phasors.
Readout
All of the possibilities described above may be accessed via the SFT2841 setting and
operating software.
Two predefined displays are available on the mimic-based UMI:
b display of the three phase currents and three phase-to-neutral voltages of the main
channels
b display of the three phase currents of the main channels and the three phase
currents of the additional channels
Characteristics
Diagram display options of an SFT2841 phasor diagram
Measurements to be displayed
Multiple selection from:
Reference phasor
Single choice from:
Display mode
Current display
Voltage display
Phase-to-phase voltage
Display of scale
34
I1, I2, I3, I0, I0Σ, Id, Ii, I0Σ/3, I'1, I'2, I'3, I'0, I'0Σ
V1, V2, V3, V0, U21, U32Σ, U13, Vd, Vi, V0/3
V'1, V'2, V'3, V'0, U'21, U'32, U'13
I1, I2, I3, I0, I0Σ, I'0, I'0Σ
V1, V2, V3, V0, U21, U32, U13,
V'1, V'2, V'3, V'0, U'21, U'32, U'13
true (true value)
/ max (value normalized in relation to maximum)
= 1 (normalized to 1)
true (true value)
/ max (value normalized in relation to maximum)
= 1 (normalized to 1)
star/delta
yes/no
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Tripping context
Tripping current
Network diagnosis
functions
Tripping context
Operation
This function gives the values at the time of tripping (activation of the tripping contact
on output O1) to enable analysis of the cause of the fault.
Values available on the Sepam display:
b tripping currents
b residual currents I0, I’0, I0Σ and I’0Σ
b differential and through currents
b phase-to-phase voltages
b residual voltage
b neutral point voltage
b third harmonic neutral point or residual voltage
b frequency
b active power
b reactive power
b apparent power.
In addition to the values available on the Sepam display, the following values are
available with the SFT2841 software:
b phase-to-neutral voltages
b negative sequence voltage
b positive sequence voltage.
The values for the last five trips are stored with the date and time of tripping.
They are saved in the event of a power failure.
Once 5 tripping contexts have been stored, the following new tripping value
overwrites the oldest tripping context in the memory.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Tripping current
TRIP 1
MT10180
I
Operation
tripping order
30 ms
T0
t
This function gives the RMS value of currents at the prospective time of the last trip:
b TRIPI1: phase 1 current (main channels)
b TRIPI2: phase 2 current (main channels)
b TRIPI3: phase 3 current (main channels)
b TRIPI’1: phase 1 current (additional channels)
b TRIPI’2: phase 2 current (additional channels)
b TRIPI’3: phase 3 current (additional channels).
It is based on measurement of the fundamental component.
This measurement is defined as the maximum RMS value measured during a 30 ms
interval after the activation of the tripping contact on output O1.
Tripping current (TRIPI1) acquisition.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
(1) In, rated current set in the general settings.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0.1 to 40 In (1)
A or kA
0.1 A
±5 % ±1 digit
3 significant digits
35
2
Network diagnosis
functions
Number of phase fault trips
Number of earth fault trips
Number of phase fault trips
Operation
This function counts the network phase faults that have caused circuit breaker
tripping.
It counts only trips triggered by protection functions 50/51, 50V/51V and 67.
If there is discrimination between several circuit breakers, the fault is only counted by
the Sepam that issues the trip order.
Transient faults cleared by the recloser are counted.
2
The number of phase fault trips is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
It may be reinitialized using the SFT2841 software.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Refresh interval
0 to 65535
None
1
1 second (typical)
Number of earth fault trips
Operation
This function counts earth faults on the network that have caused circuit breaker
tripping.
It counts only trips triggered by protection functions 50N/51N and 67N.
If there is discrimination between several circuit breakers, the fault is only counted by
the Sepam that issues the trip order.
Transient faults cleared by the recloser are counted.
The number of earth fault trips is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
It may be reinitialized using the SFT2841 software.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Refresh interval
36
0 to 65535
None
1
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Network diagnosis
functions
Negative sequence / unbalance
Operation
This function gives the negative sequence component: T = Ii/Ib or T’ = I’i/I’b.
The negative sequence current is determined based on the phase currents:
b 3 phases:
⎞
2
1 ⎛
v phase rotation direction 1-2-3: I i = --- × ⎝ I1 + a I2
x + aI3⎠
3
⎞
2
1 ⎛
v phase rotation direction 1-3-2: I i = --- × ⎝ I1 + aI2
x + a I3⎠
3
b 2 phases:
1
2
v phase rotation direction 1-2-3: I i = ------- × I1 – a I3
3
2
1
v phase rotation direction 1-3-2: I i = ------- × I1 – aI3
3
2π
j ------3
with a = e
When there are no earth faults, the formulas for 2 phase currents are equivalent to
those for 3 phase currents.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
Refresh interval
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
10 to 500 %
% Ib or % I’b
1%
±2 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
37
Network diagnosis
functions
Current total harmonic distortion
Voltage total harmonic distortion
Current total harmonic distortion
Operation
Current total harmonic distortion Ithd may be used to assess the quality of the
current. It is calculated based on phase I1, taking into account harmonics up to the
13th.
Ithd is calculated over 50 periods using the following formula:
2
2
RMS
Ithd = 100 % ⎛⎝ --------------⎞⎠ – 1
H1
with:
RMS = RMS value of current I1 up to the 13th harmonic
H1 = value of the fundamental of current I1
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
0 to 100 %
%
0.1 %
±1 % at In for Ithd > 2 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
Voltage total harmonic distortion
Operation
Voltage total harmonic distortion Uthd may be used to assess the quality of the
voltage. It is calculated based on the measurement of U21 or V1 according to the
configuration, taking into account harmonics up to the 13th.
Uthd is calculated over 50 periods using the following formula:
RMS 2
Uthd = 100 % ⎛⎝ --------------⎞⎠ – 1
H1
with:
RMS = RMS value of voltage U21 or V1 up to the 13th harmonic
H1 = value of the fundamental of voltage U21 or V1
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
38
0 to 100 %
%
0.1 %
±1 % at Un or Vn for Uthd > 2 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Network diagnosis
functions
Phase displacement ϕ0, ϕ'0, ϕ0Σ
Phase displacement ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3
Phase displacement ϕ0, ϕ'0, ϕ0Σ
DE50412
Operation
Phase displacement ϕo.
This function gives the phase displacement measured between the residual voltage
and residual current in the trigonometric (counter-clockwise) direction (see diagram).
The measurement is useful during commissioning to check that the directional earth
fault protection unit is connected correctly.
Three values are available:
b ϕ0, angle between V0 and measured I0
b ϕ'0, angle between V0 and measured I’0
b ϕ0Σ, angle between V0 and I0Σ calculated as the sum of the phase currents.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
0 to 359°
1°
±2°
2 seconds (typical)
Phase displacement ϕ1, ϕ2, ϕ3
I1
MT11029
Operation
1
V1
Phase displacement ϕ1.
This function gives the phase displacement between the V1, V2, V3 voltages
and I1, I2, I3 currents respectively, in the trigonometric (counter-clockwise) direction
(see diagram).
The measurements are used when Sepam is commissioned to check that the voltage
and current inputs are wired correctly. When the phase-to-phase voltages U21 and
U32 are connected to Sepam and there is no measurement of residual voltage V0,
the residual voltage is presumed to be zero. The function does not operate when only
the voltage U21 or V1 is connected to Sepam.
This function takes into account the convention regarding the direction of flow of
energy in the outgoing and incoming circuits (see "Power measurements").
Therefore, the angles ϕ1, ϕ2 and ϕ3 are adjusted by 180° with respect to the values
acquired by Sepam for the incoming circuits.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0 to 359°
1°
±2°
2 seconds (typical)
39
2
Disturbance recording
Network diagnosis
functions
Operation
This function is used to record analog signals and logical states.
The storage of recordings is activated by one or more events set using the SFT2841
software.
The stored event begins before the event and continues afterwards.
Recordings comprise the following information:
b values sampled from the different signals
b date
b characteristics of the recorded channels.
The names of the logic input and output data used in Logipam are also used in
disturbance recording for ease of reading.
The duration and number of recordings may be set using the SFT2841 software tool.
The files are recorded in FIFO (First In First Out) type shift storage: when the
maximum number of recordings is reached, the oldest recording is erased when a
new recording is triggered.
2
Transfer
Files may be transferred locally or remotely:
b locally: using a PC which is connected to the front panel and includes the SFT2841
software tool
b remotely: using a software tool specific to the remote monitoring and control
system.
Recovery
The signals are recovered from a recording by means of the SFT2826 software tool.
Block diagram
MT10181
stored record
time
triggering event
Characteristics
Recording content
Sampling frequency (1)
Analog signals recorded (2)
Logical states recorded (1) (3)
Number of recordings stored (1)
Total duration of a recording (1)
Maximum recording capacity
(dist. rec. memory usage = 100 %)
Set-up file:
date, channel characteristics, measuring chain
transformer ratio
Sample file:
recorded signals
12 or 36 samples per network period
I1, I2, I3, I0, I’1, I’2, I’3, I’0 current channels
V1, V2, V3 or U21, U32, V’1, V’2, V’3, U’21, U’32 phase
voltage channels
V0, Vnt or V’0 residual voltage channels
Maximum 32 of the following data:
b all logic inputs / outputs
b pick-up signal
b 1 data item configurable by the logic equation editor or
15 data items configurable by Logipam
(V_FLAGREC, V_FLAGREC2 to V_FLAGREC15)
1 to 19
1 s to 20 s
22 s at 50 Hz, 12 samples per period
18 s at 60 Hz, 12 samples per period
7 s at 50 Hz, 36 samples per period
6 s at 60 Hz, 36 samples per period
0 to 99 periods
Periods recorded before triggering
event (1)
File format
COMTRADE 97
(1) To be set using the SFT2841 software.
(2) According to type and connection of sensors.
(3) According to Sepam hardware configuration.
40
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Network diagnosis
functions
Synchro-check:
voltage comparison and
out-of-sync context
Operation
Voltage comparison
For the synchro-check function, the MCS025 module continuously measures the
amplitude, frequency and phase differences between the 2 voltages to be checked,
Usynch1 and Usynch2.
The measurement of the differences between the 2 voltages is useful to implement
the function and identify the value that is impeding synchronization. The differences
are calculated in the following order: amplitude, frequency and phase. As soon as a
difference is greater than the threshold set in the synchro-check function, the
following differences are not calculated.
Out-of-sync context
Out-of-sync context gives a precise indication of the cause of the failure of a
synchronization request.
It is only provided when the switchgear control function with the "closing with
synchro-check" option is activated.
When a synchronization request fails, the amplitude, frequency and phase
differences of the Usynch1 and Usynch2 voltages measured by the MCS025 module
are recorded, with the date and time, at the end of the switchgear control function
"closing request time" delay.
Readout
The amplitude, frequency and phase differences and out-of-sync context may be
accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Amplitude difference
Measurement range
Unit
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
0 to 120 % of Usynch1 (or Vsynch1)
% of Usynch1 (or Vsynch1)
0.1 %
±2 %
1 second (typical)
Frequency difference
Measurement range
Unit
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
0 to 10 Hz
Hz
0.01 Hz
0.05 Hz
1 second (typical)
Phase difference
Measurement range
Unit
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0 to 359°
°
1°
±2°
1 second (typical)
41
2
Machine operation
assistance functions
Thermal capacity used
Cooling time constant
Thermal capacity used
Operation
The thermal capacity used is calculated by the thermal overload protection function
for cables, capacitors or machines.
The thermal capacity used is related to the load. The thermal capacity used
measurement is given as a percentage of the rated thermal capacity.
Saving of thermal capacity used
2
The thermal capacity used is saved in the event of a Sepam power outage. The
saved value is used again after the outage.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link
b an analog converter with the MSA141 option.
Resetting to zero
The thermal capacity used may be reset to zero, after entry of a password, on:
b the Sepam display via the clear key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
0 to 800 %
%
3 significant digits
1%
1 second (typical)
Cooling time constant
Operation
The machine thermal overload protection function (49 RMS machine) uses a cooling
time constant (T2) that may be entered by the user, according to the data given by
the machine manufacturer or automatically learnt by Sepam.
T2 is estimated:
b after a heating/cooling sequence:
v heating period detected by ES > 70 %
v followed by a shutdown detected by I < 10 % of Ib
b when the machine temperature is measured by RTDs connected to MET148-2
module no. 1:
v RTD 1, 2 or 3 assigned to motor/generator stator temperature measurement
v RTD 1, 3 or 5 assigned to transformer temperature measurement.
After each new heating/cooling sequence is detected, a new T2 value is estimated
and displayed in the related SFT2841 screen. Measurement accuracy may be
improved by using RTD 8 to measure the ambient temperature.
The machine thermal overload function has 2 groups of thermal settings for cases
such as natural or forced ventilation or 2-speed motors. A time constant is estimated
for each group of thermal settings.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
42
5 to 600 min
min
1 min
±5 %
3 significant digits
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Machine operation
assistance functions
Operating time before tripping
Waiting time after tripping
Remaining operating time before overload
tripping
Operation
The thermal capacity used is calculated by the thermal overload protection function
for cables, capacitors or machines. The time depends on the thermal capacity used.
Readout
2
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
0 to 999 min
min
3 significant digits
1 min
1 second (typical)
Waiting time after overload tripping
Operation
The thermal capacity used is calculated by the thermal overload protection function
for cables, capacitors or machines. The time depends on the thermal capacity used.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0 to 999 min
min
3 significant digits
1 min
1 second (typical)
43
Machine operation
assistance functions
Running hours and
operating time counter
Starting current and starting time
Running hours and operating time counter
The counter gives the running total time during which the protected device (motor,
generator or transformer) has been operating, i.e. whenever a phase current is over
0.1 Ib.
For capacitor applications, up to 4 counters are available for the running time of steps
1 to 4. These counters total the time that a capacitor step has been connected to the
network (capacitor step switch closed).
The initial counter value may be modified using the SFT2841 software.
The counters are saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
2
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Range
Units
0 to 65535
hours
Starting current and starting time
Operation
DE80237
The starting time is defined as follows:
b If the locked rotor/excessive starting time protection (ANSI code 48/51LR) is
active, the starting time is the time separating the moment when one of the 3 phase
currents exceeds Is and the moment when the 3 currents drop back below Is, Is being
the value of the current set point for protection function 48/51LR.
b If the locked rotor/excessive starting time protection (ANSI code 48/51LR) is not
active, the starting time is the time separating the moment when one of the 3 phase
currents exceeds 1.2 Ib and the moment when the 3 currents drop back below 1.2 Ib.
The maximum phase current obtained during this time corresponds to the starting
current.
Both values are saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
or Is
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Starting time
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
0 to 300 s
s or ms
3 significant digits
10 ms or 1 digit
1 second (typical)
Starting current
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
(1) Or 65.5 kA.
44
48/51LR active
48/51LR inactive
Is to 24 In (1)
1.2 Ib to 24 In (1)
A or kA
3 significant digits
0.1 A or 1 digit
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Machine operation
assistance functions
Number of starts before inhibition
Start inhibit time
Number of starts before inhibition
Operation
The number of starts allowed before inhibition is calculated by the number of starts
protection function (ANSI code 66).
The number of starts depends on the thermal state of the motor.
Readout
The measurement may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
2
Resetting to zero
The number of starts counters may be reset to zero, after entry of a password, on:
b the Sepam display via the clear key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
0 to 60
None
3 significant digits
1
1 second (typical)
Start inhibit time
Operation
The start inhibit time only applies to motor applications (M81, M87 and M88). It
depends on both the starts per hour protection (ANSI code 66) and the machine
thermal overload protection (ANSI code 49RMS) if they have been activated. This
time expresses the waiting time until another start is allowed.
If at least one of these function picks up and the circuit breaker is open, a "START
INHIBIT" message informs the user that starting is not allowed.
Readout
The number of starts and waiting time may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Display format
Resolution
Refresh interval
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0 to 360 min
min
3 significant digits
1 min
1 second (typical)
45
Machine operation
assistance functions
Differential current
Through current
DE50311
Differential current
Operation
The differential current Id is calculated to facilitate the implementation of the
ANSI 87T and ANSI 87M differential protection functions:
b for a rotating machine (ANSI 87M), it is calculated for each phase by:
I d = I + I′
b when a transformer is used (ANSI 87T), the Id calculation takes into account the
vector shift and transformation ratio:
2
I d = Irec + I′rec
The Id value is expressed with respect to In1, the rated current of the main channels.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
0.015 to 40 In
A or kA
0.1 A
±5 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
Through current
Operation
The through current It is calculated to facilitate the implementation of the ANSI 87T
and ANSI 87M differential protection functions:
b for a rotating machine (ANSI 87M), it is calculated for each phase by:
I – I′
It = ------------2
b when a transformer is used (ANSI 87T), the It calculation takes into account the
vector shift and transformation ratio:
It = max ( Irec , I′rec )
The It value is expressed with respect to In1, the rated current of the main channels.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
46
0.015 to 40 In
A or kA
0.1 A
±5 %
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Machine operation
assistance functions
Current phase displacement
Operation
DE50287
Current phase displacement between the main phase currents (I) and additional
phase currents (I') (θ1, θ2, θ3) is calculated for each phase.
The measurements are corrected by taking account of the connection and the
direction of rotation of the phases to create an image of the vector shift, which must
be set in order to use the ANSI 87T differential protection: θi/30 = vector shift.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
2
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Display format
Refresh interval
(1) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0 to 359°
°
1°
±2°
3 significant digits
1 second (typical)
47
Machine operation
assistance functions
Apparent positive sequence
impedance
Apparent phase-to-phase
impedances
Apparent positive sequence impedance
Operation
Apparent positive sequence impedance is used to facilitate the implementation of the
underimpedance field loss protection function (ANSI 40).
Vd
Zd = ----------Id
2
Readout
The measurement may be accessed via:
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Refresh interval
(1) At In, Un, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
0 to 200 kΩ
Ω
0.001 Ω
±5 %
1 second (typical)
Apparent phase-to-phase impedances
Operation
Apparent phase-to-phase impedances are used to facilitate the implementation of
the backup underimpedance protection function (ANSI 21B). They are expressed as
the ratio of phase-to-phase voltage to phase-to-phase current.
U21
Z21 = -------------- with I21 = I1 – I2
I 21
U32 with I32 = I2 – I3
Z32 = -------------I 32
U13 with I13 = I3 – I1
Z13 = -------------I 13
Readout
The measurement may be accessed via:
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Refresh interval
(1) At In, Un, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
48
0 to 200 kΩ
Ω
0.001 Ω
±5 %
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Machine operation
assistance functions
Third harmonic neutral point
voltage
Third harmonic residual voltage
Third harmonic neutral point voltage
Operation
Measurement of the 3rd harmonic component of the zero sequence voltage
measured at the neutral point of a generator or motor (V3nt).
The value is used for the implementation of the third harmonic undervoltage
protection function (ANSI 27TN/64G2).
Readout
2
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Refresh interval
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
0.2 to 30 % of Vnt
% of Vnt
0.1 %
±1 %
1 second (typical)
Third harmonic residual voltage
Operation
Measurement of the 3rd harmonic component of the residual voltage, the residual
voltage being calculated by the vector sum of the phase-to-neutral voltages.
The value is used for the implementation of the third harmonic undervoltage
protection function (ANSI 27TN/64G2).
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Refresh interval
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0.2 to 90 % of Vnp
% fo Vnp
0.1 %
±1 %
1 second (typical)
49
Machine operation
assistance functions
Capacitance
Operation
This operation gives the total capacitance for each phase of the connected capacitor
bank steps to allow the condition of the capacitors to be monitored.
It covers star and delta connections (parameter set in the "Particular characteristics"
screen of the SFT2841 setting and operating software). For this measurement, the
installation is considered a perfect capacitance, without any consideration of the
resistances added by the connection of the capacitor bank steps.
b Capacitances measured for star-connected capacitor bank steps:
v C1: total capacitance phase 1
v C2: total capacitance phase 2
v C3: total capacitance phase 3
b Capacitances measured for delta-connected capacitor bank steps:
v C21: total capacitance between phases 1 and 2
v C32: total capacitance between phases 2 and 3
v C13: total capacitance between phases 3 and 1.
2
Readout
The capacitance measurements may be accessed via:
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Unit
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
0 to 30 F
µF, mF or F
0.1 µF
±5 %
1 second (typical)
Accuracy
The measurement accuracy is valid if the resistance and inductance per phase of the
capacitor bank connecting cable (cable between the Sepam CT and the capacitor
bank) respect the following conditions:
b for a star-connected bank:
where R is the resistance per phase in Ω
1
Lω < 0.05 × -------L is the inductance per phase in H
Cω
1
ω is the angular frequency in radians/s
R < 0.027 × -------Cω
C is the total capacitance per phase in F
b for a delta-connected bank:
1 where R is the resistance per phase in Ω
Lω < 0.017 × -------L is the inductance per phase in H
Cω
ω is the angular frequency in radians/s
1
R < 0.009 × -------C is the total capacitance between phases in F
Cω
50
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Machine operation
assistance functions
Capacitor unbalance current
DE10412
Operation
I'0
I'3
I'2
I'1
This function measures the unbalance current of double star-connected capacitor
bank steps. This type of current is characteristic of capacitor module damage.
The measurement is carried out via the additional phase and zero sequence current
channels:
b I'1: capacitor step 1 unbalance current measurement
b I'2: capacitor step 2 unbalance current measurement
b I'3: capacitor step 3 unbalance current measurement
b I'0: capacitor step 4 unbalance current measurement.
Readout
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the screen of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Unit
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
0.02 to 20 I’n
A
0.1 A
±5 %
1 second (typical)
Step 4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
51
2
Operation
Block diagram: phase voltage fault detection.
The VT (Voltage Transformer) supervision function is
used to supervise the complete phase and residual
voltage measurement chain:
b voltage transformers
b VT connection to Sepam
b Sepam voltage analog inputs.
There are two units for the function, one for supervision
of the main voltage channel VTs and the other for
supervision of the additional voltage channel VTs.
DE10413
VT supervision
ANSI code 60FL
The function processes the following failures:
b partial loss of phase voltages, detected by:
v presence of negative sequence voltage
v and absence of negative sequence current
b loss of all phase voltages, detected by:
v presence of current on one of the three phases
v and absence of all measured voltages
b tripping of the phase VT (and/or residual VT)
protection relay, detected by the acquisition on a logic
input of the fuse blown contact or auxiliary contact of
the circuit breaker protecting the VTs
b other types of failures may be processed using the
logic equation editor.
The "Phase voltage fault" and "Residual voltage fault"
information disappears automatically when the
situation returns to normal, i.e. as soon as:
b the cause of the fault has disappeared
b and all of the measured voltages are present.
Use of circuit breaker closed information
The "circuit breaker closed" information is used to
detect the loss of one, two or three voltages, if it is
connected to a logic input.
In certain applications, the position of the circuit
breaker is not sufficient to determine the presence of
voltages. In such cases, the equation editor can be
used to precisely define the conditions for voltage
presence.
Block diagram: residual voltage fault detection.
DE10414
2
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Consequences of a VT fault on protection functions
A "Phase voltage fault" affects the following protection functions:
b 21B, 27, 27D, 27TN, 32P, 32Q, 37P, 40, 47, 50/27, 51V, 78PS
b 59, only in cases where the protection function is set up for phase-to-neutral
overvoltage, when the voltages are measured by two phase VTs + V0VTs
b 67.
A "residual voltage fault" affects the following protection functions:
b 59N
b 67N/67NC.
The behavior of the protection functions in the event of a "Phase voltage fault" or
Residual voltage fault" is to be set up and the following choices are proposed:
b for protection functions 21B, 27, 27D, 27TN, 32P, 32Q, 37P, 40, 47, 50/27, 51V,
59N, 59, 78PS: inhibition or no inhibition
b for protection function 67: inhibition or non-directional operation (50/51)
b for protection function 67N/67NC: inhibition or non-directional operation
(50N/ 51N).
52
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
VT supervision
ANSI code 60FL
Setting advice
The partial loss of voltages is based on the detection of the presence of negative
sequence voltage and the absence of negative sequence current.
By default:
b the presence of negative sequence voltage is detected when: Vi > 10 % Vnp (Vsi)
b the absence of negative sequence current is detected when: Ii < 5 % In (Isi)
b time delay T1 is 1 s.
These default settings ensure the stability of the VT supervision function in the event
of short-circuits or transient phenomena on the network.
The Isi set point may be raised for highly unbalanced networks.
Time delay T1 is to be set shorter than the voltage and power protection function
tripping times.
Time delay T2 for the detection of the loss of all voltages must be longer than the time
it takes for a short-circuit to be cleared by the protection function 50/51 or 67, to avoid
the detection of a VT loss of voltage fault triggered by a 3-phase short-circuit.
The time delay for the 51V protection function must be longer than the T1 and T2 time
delays used for the detection of voltage losses.
Characteristics
Validation of the detection of partial loss of phase voltages
Setting
Yes / No
Vsi set point
Setting
10 % to 100 % of Vnp
Accuracy
±5 %
Resolution
1%
Pick-up / drop-out ratio
95 % ±2.5 %
Isi set point
Setting
5 % to 100 % of In
Accuracy
±5 %
Resolution
1%
Pick-up / drop-out ratio
105 % ±2.5 % or > (1 + 0.01 In/Isi) x 100 %
Time delay T1 (partial loss of phase voltages)
Setting
0.1 s to 300 s
Accuracy
±2 % or ±25 ms
Resolution
10 ms
Validation of the detection of the loss of all phase voltages
Setting
Yes / No
Detection of the loss of all voltages with verification of the presence of current
Setting
Yes / No
Voltage presence detected by
Setting
Breaker closed / Logic equation
Time delay T2 (loss of all voltages)
Setting
0.1 s to 300 s
Accuracy
±2 % or ±25 ms
Resolution
10 ms
Voltage and power protection behavior
Setting
No action / inhibition
Protection 67 behavior
Setting
Non-directional / inhibition
Protection 67N/67NC behavior
Setting
Non-directional / inhibition
Inputs
Designation
Phase VT fault
Inhibition of function
Voltage presence
Syntax
PVTS_x_103
PVTS_x_113
PVTS_x_117
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Function output
PVTS_x_3
b
Function inhibited
PVTS_x_16
b
Note: x = unit number: x = 1: main channels (V).
x = 2: additional channels (V’).
Logipam
b
b
Outputs
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Matrix
b
53
2
CT supervision
ANSI code 60
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Operation
The CT (Current Transformer) supervision function is used to supervise the complete
phase current measurement chain:
b phase current sensors (1 A/5 A CTs or LPCTs)
b phase current sensor connection to Sepam
b Sepam phase current analog inputs.
There are two units for the function, one for supervision of the main current channel
CTs (I) and the other for supervision of the additional current channel CTs (I’).
2
The function is inactive if only 2 phase current sensors are connected.
The "Main CT fault" or "Additional CT fault" information disappears automatically
when the situation returns to normal, i.e. as soon as the three phase currents are
measured and have values greater than 10 % of In.
In the event of the loss of a phase current, the following protection functions may be
inhibited to avoid nuisance tripping:
b 21B, 46, 40, 32P, 37P, 32Q, 78PS, 64REF
b 51N and 67N, if I0 is calculated by the sum of the phase currents.
DE10415
Block diagram
Characteristics
Time delay
Setting
Accuracy
Resolution
0.15 s to 300 s
±2 % or ± 25 ms
10 ms
Inhibition of protection functions 21B, 32P, 32Q, 37P, 40, 46, 51N, 64REF, 67N, 78PS
Setting
No action / inhibition
Inputs
Designation
Inhibition of function
Syntax
Equations
PCTS_x_113 b
Logipam
b
Syntax
PCTS_x_3
PCTS_x_7
PCTS_x_8
PCTS_x_9
PCTS_x_16
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Delayed output
Phase 1 fault
Phase 2 fault
Phase 3 fault
Function inhibited
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
Note: x = unit number: x = 1: main channels (l).
x = 2: additional channels (l’).
54
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Trip and closing circuit
supervision
ANSI code 74
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Trip circuit supervision and open / closed
matching
This supervision function is designed for trip circuits:
b with shunt trip units
The function detects:
v circuit continuity
v loss of supply
v mismatching of position indication contacts.
The function inhibits closing of the breaking device.
b with undervoltage trip units
The function detects:
v only mismatching of position indication contacts, trip unit supervision being
unnecessary in this case.
The information is accessible in the matrix ("trip circuit" message) and via remote
indication TS1.
DE50111
DE10364
Operation
Connection for shunt trip unit
supervision.
Connection for undervoltage
trip unit supervision.
DE10416
Block diagram
Outputs
Designation
Trip circuit supervision fault
Syntax
V_TCS
Equations
Logipam
b
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TS
Binary Input
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BI17
1, 160, 36
XCBR1.EEHealth.stVal
TS1
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
55
2
Trip and closing circuit
supervision
ANSI code 74
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
DE10365
Closing circuit supervision
Operation
This function monitors closing coil continuity. It calls for the wiring diagram opposite,
connected to a logic input configured with the "Closing coil supervision" function.
The information is accessible in the matrix ("closing circuit" message) and via remote
indication TS234.
Block diagram
DE10417
2
Connection for closing circuit
supervision.
Outputs
Designation
Closing circuit supervision fault
Syntax
V_CCS
Equations
Logipam
b
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TS
Binary Input
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BI121
2, 21, 23
XCBR1.EEHealth.stVal
TS234
Open and close order supervision
Operation
Following a circuit breaker open or close order, the system checks whether, after a
200 ms time delay, the circuit breaker has actually changed status.
If the circuit breaker status does not match the last order sent, a "Control fault"
message and remote indication TS2 are generated.
Outputs
Designation
Control fault
(circuit breaker monitoring)
Syntax
Equations
V_CTRLFAUT
Logipam
b
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TS
Binary Input
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BI16
1, 20, 5
Command Termination -
TS2
56
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Auxiliary power supply monitoring
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Operation
The auxiliary power supply is an important factor in cubicle operation. This function
monitors it by measuring the Sepam power supply voltage and comparing the
measured value to a low and high threshold. If the value is outside the thresholds, an
alarm is generated. The related information is available in the matrix and in Logipam.
DE10418
Block diagram
2
Sepam power
supply (Vaux)
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measured auxiliary voltage Vaux, Low threshold alarm, High threshold alarm
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Refresh interval
20 to 275 V DC
V
0.1 V (1 V on display)
±10 % or ±4 V
1 second (typical)
Rated auxiliary voltage
Setting
Resolution
24 to 250 V DC
1V
Low threshold
Setting
Resolution
Accuracy
60 to 95 % of rated V (minimum 20 V)
1V
±10 % or ±4 V
High threshold
Setting
Resolution
Accuracy
105 to 150 % of rated V (maximum 275 V)
1V
±10 % or ±4 V
Outputs
Designation
Auxiliary power supply
monitoring on
High threshold alarm
Low threshold alarm
Syntax
V_VAUX_ON
Equations
V_VAUX_HIGH
V_VAUX_LOW
Logipam
b
Matrix
b
b
b
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TS
Binary Input
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
TS217
BI13
2, 20, 10
LPHD1.PwrSupAlm.stVal
TS218
BI14
2, 20, 11
LPHD1.PwrSupAlm.stVal
57
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Cumulative breaking current
Number of operations
Cumulative breaking current monitoring
Operation
This function gives the cumulative breaking current in (kA)2 for five current ranges.
It is based on measurement of the fundamental component on main channels (I).
The current ranges displayed are:
b 0 < I < 2 In
b 2 In < I < 5 In
b 5 In < I < 10 In
b 10 In < I < 40 In
b I > 40 In.
This function gives the cumulative breaking current in (kA)² for five current
ranges.This value is monitored by an adjustable set point. When the set point is
overrun, an alarm is sent and is available in the matrix and via remote indication
TS235.
Each value is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
The initial values may be introduced using the SFT2841 software tool to take into
account the real state of a breaking device used.
Refer to switchgear documentation for use of this information.
2
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Cumulative breaking current measured
Range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
Alarm set point
Setting
Resolution
Accuracy (1)
0 to 65535 (kA)2
primary (kA)2
1(kA)2
±10 % ±1 digit
0 to 65535 (kA)2
1(kA)2
±10 % ±1 digit
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Cumulative breaking current V_MAXBRKCUR
threshold overrun
(1) At In, under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Logipam
b
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TS
Binary Input
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BI135
2, 21, 40
XCBR1.SumSwAAlm.stVal
TS235
Number of operations
Operation
The function also gives the total number of breaking device operations.
It is activated by tripping orders (O1 relay).
The number of operations is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
It may be reinitialized using the SFT2841 software.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Range
Units
Resolution
Refresh interval
58
0 to 4.109
None
1
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Operating time
Charging time
Operating time
Operation
This function gives the value of the opening operating time of a breaking device (1)
and change of status of the device open position contact connected to the I102 input (2)
The value is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
2
(1) Refer to switchgear documentation for use of this information.
(2) Optional MES module.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
20 to 100
ms
1 ms
±1 ms typical
3 significant digits
Charging time
Operation
This function gives the value of the breaking device (1) operating mechanism charging
time, determined according to the device closed position status change contact and
the end of charging contact connected to the Sepam logic inputs (2).
The value is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
Readout
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
(1) Refer to switchgear documentation for use of this information.
(2) Optional MES module.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Accuracy
Display format
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
1 to 20
s
1s
±0.5 s
3 significant digits
59
Switchgear diagnosis
functions
Number of racking out operations
Operation
This function keeps a count of circuit breaker or contactor rackouts.
The information may be used for breaking device maintenance.
The breaking device "racked out" or "disconnected" position must be wired to a logic
input and set up in the SFT2841 software in order for rackouts to be counted.
The number of rackouts is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure. It may be
reinitialized using the SFT2841 software.
Readout
2
The measurements may be accessed via:
b the Sepam display via the
key
b the display of a PC with the SFT2841 software
b the communication link.
Characteristics
Measurement range
Units
Resolution
Refresh interval
60
0 to 65535
None
1
1 second (typical)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
2
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
61
Protection functions
3
Contents
Setting ranges
64
Overspeed
ANSI code 12
70
Underspeed
ANSI code 14
71
Underimpedance
ANSI code 21B
72
Overfluxing (V/Hz)
ANSI code 24
73
Synchro-check
ANSI code 25
75
Undervoltage (L-L or L-N)
ANSI code 27
77
Positive sequence undervoltage and phase rotation
direction check
ANSI code 27D
62
78
Remanent undervoltage
ANSI code 27R
79
Third harmonic undervoltage
ANSI code 27TN/64G2
80
Directional active overpower
ANSI code 32P
84
Directional reactive overpower
ANSI code 32Q
85
Phase undercurrent
ANSI code 37
86
Directional active underpower
ANSI code 37P
88
Temperature monitoring
ANSI code 38/49T
89
Field loss
ANSI code 40
90
Negative sequence / unbalance
ANSI code 46
93
Negative sequence overvoltage
ANSI code 47
96
Excessive starting time, locked rotor
ANSI code 48/51LR
97
Thermal overload for cables
ANSI code 49RMS
99
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
104
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
112
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Contents
Breaker failure
ANSI code 50BF
123
Inadvertent energization
ANSI code 50/27
125
Phase overcurrent
ANSI code 50/51
127
Earth fault
ANSI code 50N/51N or 50G/51G
129
Voltage-restrained overcurrent
ANSI code 50V/51V
132
Capacitor bank unbalance
ANSI code 51C
134
Overvoltage (L-L or L-N)
ANSI code 59
135
Neutral voltage displacement
ANSI code 59N
136
100 % stator earth fault
ANSI code 64G
137
Restricted earth fault differential
ANSI code 64REF
138
Starts per hour
ANSI code 66
140
Directional phase overcurrent
ANSI code 67
141
Directional earth fault
ANSI code 67N/67NC
144
Pole slip
ANSI code 78PS
151
Recloser
ANSI code 79
155
Overfrequency
ANSI code 81H
159
Underfrequency
ANSI code 81L
160
Rate of change of frequency
ANSI code 81R
161
Machine differential
ANSI code 87M
164
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
167
General
Tripping curves
177
63
3
Protection functions
Functions
Setting ranges
Settings
Time delays
100 to 160 % of Ωn
1 to 300 s
10 to 100 % of Ωn
1 to 300 s
ANSI 12 - Overspeed
ANSI 14 - Underspeed
ANSI 21B - Underimpedance
Impedance Zs
0.05 to 2.00 Vn/Ib
ANSI 24 - Overfluxing (V/Hz)
Tripping curve
Gs set point
Definite time
IDMT type A, B or C
1.03 to 2 pu
Definite time
IDMT
0.1 to 20000 s
0.1 to 1250 s
ANSI 25 - Synchro-check
3
Measured voltages
Phase-to-phase
Rated primary phase-to-phase voltage
Unp sync1 (Vnp sync1 = Unp sync1/3) 220 V to 250 kV
Unp sync2 (Vnp sync2 = Unp sync2/3) 220 V to 250 kV
Rated secondary phase-to-phase voltage
Uns sync1
90 V to 120 V
Uns sync2
90 V to 120 V
Synchro-check setpoints
dUs set point
3 % to 30 % of Unp sync1
dfs set point
0.05 to 0.5 Hz
dPhi set point
5 to 80°
Us high set point
70 % to 110 % Unp sync1
Us low set point
10 % to 70 % Unp sync1
Other settings
Lead time
0 to 0.5 s
Operating modes: no-voltage conditions Dead1 AND Live2
for which coupling is allowed
Live1 AND Dead2
Dead1 XOR Dead2
Dead1 OR Dead2
Dead1 AND Dead2
64
Phase-to-neutral
220 V to 250 kV
220 V to 250 kV
90 V to 230 V
90 V to 230 V
3 % to 30 % of Vnp sync1
0.05 to 0.5 Hz
5 to 80°
70 % to 110 % Vnp sync1
10 % to 70 % Vnp sync1
0 to 0.5 s
Dead1 AND Live2
Live1 AND Dead2
Dead1 XOR Dead2
Dead1 OR Dead2
Dead1 AND Dead2
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Functions
Setting ranges
Settings
Time delays
ANSI 27 - Undervoltage (L-L) or (L-N)
Tripping curve
Set point
Measurement origin
Definite time
IDMT
5 to 100 % of Unp
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.05 to 300 s
ANSI 27D - Positive sequence undervoltage
Set point and time delay
Measurement origin
15 to 60 % of Unp
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.05 to 300 s
ANSI 27R - Remanent undervoltage
Set point and time delay
Measurement origin
5 to 100 % of Unp
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.05 to 300 s
ANSI 27TN/64G2 - Third harmonic undervoltage
Vs set point (fixed)
K set point (adaptive)
Positive sequence undervoltage
Minimum apparent power
0.2 to 20 % of Vntp
0.1 to 0.2
50 to 100 % of Unp
1 to 90 % of Sb (Sb = 3.Un.Ib)
0.5 to 300 s
0.5 to 300 s
3
ANSI 32P - Directional active overpower
1 to 120 % of Sn (2)
0.1 s to 300 s
ANSI 32Q - Directional reactive overpower
5 to 120 % of Sn (2)
0.1 s to 300 s
0.05 to 1 Ib
0.05 s to 300 s
ANSI 37 - Phase undercurrent
ANSI 37P - Directional active underpower
5 to 100 % of Sn (2)
0.1 s to 300 s
ANSI 38/49T - Temperature monitoring
Alarm set point TS1
Trip set point TS2
0 °C to 180 °C or 32 °F to 356 °F
0 °C to 180 °C or 32 °F to 356 °F
ANSI 40 - Field loss (underimpedance)
Common point: Xa
Circle 1: Xb
Circle 2: Xc
(1) Sn = √3.In.Unp.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
0.02 Vn/Ib to 0.2 Vn/Ib + 187.5 kΩ
0.2 Vn/Ib to 1.4 Vn/Ib + 187.5 kΩ
0.6 Vn/Ib to 3 Vn/Ib + 187.5 kΩ
0.05 to 300 s
0.1 to 300 s
65
Protection functions
Functions
Setting ranges
Settings
Time delays
ANSI 46 - Negative sequence / unbalance
Tripping curve
Is set point
Measurement origin
Definite time
Schneider Electric
IEC: SIT/A, LTI/B, VIT/B, EIT/C
IEEE: MI (D), VI (E), EI (F)
RI² (setting constant from 1 to 100)
0. to 5 Ib
Definite time
0.1 to 0.5 Ib (Schneider Electric)
IDMT
0.1 to 1 Ib (IEC, IEEE)
0.03 to 0.2 Ib (RI²)
Main channels (I) or additional channels (I’)
0.1 to 300 s
0.1 to 1s
ANSI 47 - Negative sequence overvoltage
Set point and time delay
Measurement origin
3
1 to 50 % of Unp
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.05 to 300 s
ANSI 48/51LR - Locked rotor / excessive starting time
Is set point
0.5 Ib to 5 Ib
ST starting time
LT and LTS time delays
0.5 s to 300 s
0.05 s to 300 s
ANSI 49RMS - Thermal overload for cables
Admissible current
Time constant T1
1 to 1.73 Ib
1 to 600 min
ANSI 49RMS - Thermal overload for capacitors
Alarm current
Trip current
Positioning of the hot tripping curve
Current setting
Time setting
1.05 Ib to 1.70 Ib
1.05 Ib to 1.70 Ib
1.02 x trip current to 2 Ib
1 to 2000 minutes (variable range depending on the trip current and current
setting)
ANSI 49RMS - Thermal overload for machines
Accounting for negative sequence component
Time constant
Heating
Cooling
Alarm and tripping set points (Es1 and Es2)
Initial thermal capacity used (Es0)
Switching of thermal settings condition
Maximum equipment temperature
Measurement origin
Mode 1
Mode 2
T1: 1 to 600 min
T2: 5 to 600 min
T1: 1 to 600 min
T2: 5 to 600 min
0 - 2.25 - 4.5 - 9
0 to 300 % of rated thermal capacity
0 to 100 %
by logic input
by Is set point adjustable from 0.25 to 8 Ib
60 to 200 °C (140 °F to 392 °F)
Main channels (I) or additional channels (I’)
ANSI 50BF - Breaker failure
Presence of current
Operating time
0.2 to 2 In
0.05 s to 3 s
ANSI 50/27 - Inadvertent energization
Is set point
Vs set point
0.05 to 4 In
10 to 100 % Unp
T1: 0 to 10 s
T2: 0 to 10 s
ANSI 50/51 - Phase overcurrent
Tripping curve
Is set point
Timer hold
Measurement origin
Confirmation
Tripping time delay
Timer hold
Definite time
DT
SIT, LTI, VIT, EIT, UIT (1)
DT
RI
DT
IEC: SIT/A, LTI/B, VIT/B, EIT/C
DT or IDMT
IEEE: MI (D), VI (E), EI (F)
DT or IDMT
IAC: I, VI, EI
DT or IDMT
Customized
DT
0.05 to 24 In
Definite time
0.05 to 2.4 In
IDMT
Definite time (DT; timer hold)
IDMT (IDMT; reset time)
Main channels (I) or additional channels (I’)
None
By negative sequence overvoltage
By phase-to-phase undervoltage
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.1 s to 12.5 s at 10 Is
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.5 s to 20 s
(1) Tripping as of 1.2 Is.
66
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Functions
Setting ranges
Settings
Time delays
ANSI 50N/51N or 50G/51G - Earth fault
Tripping curve
Is0 set point
Timer hold
Measurement origin
Tripping time delay
Timer hold
Definite time
DT
DT
SIT, LTI, VIT, EIT, UIT (1)
RI
DT
CEI: SIT/A,LTI/B, VIT/B, EIT/C
DT or IDMT
IEEE: MI (D), VI (E), EI (F)
DT or IDMT
IAC: I, VI, EI
DT or IDMT
EPATR-B, EPATR-C
DT
Customized
DT
0.01 to 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
Definite time
0.01 to 1 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
IDMT
0.6 to 5 A
EPATR-B
0.6 to 5 A
EPATR-C
Definite time (DT; timer hold)
IDMT (IDMT; reset time)
I0 input, I’0 input, sum of phase currents I0Σ or sum of phase currents I’0Σ
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.1 s to 12.5 s at 10 Is0
0.5 to 1 s
0.1 to 3 s
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.5 s to 20 s
3
ANSI 50V/51V - Voltage-restrained overcurrent
Tripping curve
Is set point
Timer hold
Measurement origin
Tripping time delay
Timer hold
Definite time
DT
DT
SIT, LTI, VIT, EIT, UIT (1)
RI
DT
IEC: SIT/A, LTI/B, VIT/B, EIT/C
DT or IDMT
IEEE: MI (D), VI (E), EI (F)
DT or IDMT
IAC: I, VI, EI
DT or IDMT
Customized
DT
0.5 to 24 In
Definite time
0.5 to 2.4 In
IDMT
Definite time (DT; timer hold)
IDMT (IDMT; reset time)
Main channels (I) or additional channels (I’)
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.1 s to 12.5 s at 10 Is
Inst; 0.05 s to 20 s
0.5 s to 300 s
ANSI 51C - Capacitor bank unbalance
Is set point
0.05 A to 2 I’n
Definite time
0.1 to 300 s
ANSI 59 - Overvoltage (L-L) or (L-N)
Set point and time delay
Measurement origin
50 to 150 % of Unp
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.05 to 300 s
ANSI 59N - Neutral voltage displacement
Tripping curve
Set point
Measurement origin
Definite time
IDMT
2 to 80 % of Unp
Definite time
2 to 10 % of Unp
IDMT
Main channels (U), additional channels (U’) or neutral-point voltage Vnt
0.05 to 300 s
0.1 to 100 s
ANSI 64REF - Restricted earth fault differential
Is0 set point
Measurement origin
0.05 to 0.8 In (In u 20 A)
0.1 to 0.8 In (In < 20 A)
Main channels (I, I0) or additional channels (I’, I’0)
ANSI 66 - Starts per hour
Total number of starts
Number of consecutive starts
(1) Tripping as of 1.2 Is.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
1 to 60
1 to 60
Period
T time delay stop/start
1 to 6 h
0 to 90 min
67
Protection functions
Setting ranges
Functions
Settings
Time delays
ANSI 67 - Directional phase overcurrent
Characteristic angle
Tripping curve
Is set point
Timer hold
3
30°, 45°, 60°
Tripping time delay
Definite time
SIT, LTI, VIT, EIT, UIT (1)
RI
IEC: SIT/A, LTI/B, VIT/B, EIT/C
IEEE: MI (D), VI (E), EI (F)
IAC: I, VI, EI
Customized
0.1 to 24 In
0.1 to 2.4 In
Definite time (DT; timer hold)
IDMT (IDMT; reset time)
Timer hold delay
DT
DT
DT
DT or IDMT
DT or IDMT
DT or IDMT
DT
Definite time
IDMT
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.1 s to 12.5 s at 10 Is
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.5 s to 20 s
ANSI 67N/67NC type 1 - Directional earth fault, according to I0 projection
Characteristic angle
Is0 set point
Vs0 set point
Memory time
Measurement origin
-45°, 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°
0.01 to 15 In0 (mini. 0,1 A)
2 to 80 % of Unp
T0mem time
V0mem validity set point
I0 input, I’0 input
Definite time
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0; 0.05 s to 300 s
0; 2 to 80 % of Unp
ANSI 67N/67NC type 2 - Directional earth fault, according to I0 vector magnitude directionalized on a tripping half-plane
Characteristic angle
Tripping curve
Is0 set point
Vs0 set point
Timer hold
Measurement origin
-45°, 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°
Tripping time delay
Timer hold delay
Definite time
DT
DT
SIT, LTI, VIT, EIT, UIT (1)
RI
DT
IEC: SIT/A,LTI/B, VIT/B, EIT/C
DT or IDMT
IEEE: MI (D), VI (E), EI (F)
DT or IDMT
IAC: I, VI, EI
DT or IDMT
Customized
DT
0.1 to 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
Definite time
0.01 to 1 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
IDMT
2 to 80 % of Unp
Definite time (DT; timer hold)
IDMT (IDMT; reset time)
I0 input, I’0 input or sum of phase currents I0Σ
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.1 s to 12.5 s at 10 Is0
Inst; 0.05 s to 300 s
0.5 s to 20 s
ANSI 67N/67NC type 3 - Directional earth fault, according to I0 vector magnitude directionalized on a tripping sector
Tripping sector start angle
Tripping sector end angle
Is0 set point
CSH core balance CT (2 A rating)
1 A CT
Core balance CT + ACE990 (range 1)
Vs0 set point
Measurement origin
(1) Tripping from 1.2 Is.
68
0° to 359°
0° to 359°
0.1 A to 30 A
0.005 to 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
0.01 to 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
Calculated V0 (sum of 3 voltages)
Measured V0 (external VT)
I0 input or I’0 input
Definite time
Inst; 0.05 to 300 s
2 to 80% of Unp
0.6 to 80% of Unp
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Functions
Setting ranges
Settings
Time delays
ANSI 78PS - Pole slip
Time delay of the equal-area criterion
Maximum number of power swings
Time between 2 power swings
0.1 to 300 s
1 to 30
1 to 300 s
ANSI 81H - Overfrequency
Set point and time delay
Measurement origin
50 to 55 Hz or 60 to 65 Hz
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.1 to 300 s
40 to 50 Hz or 50 to 60 Hz
Main channels (U) or additional channels (U’)
0.1 to 300 s
ANSI 81L - Underfrequency
Set point and time delay
Measurement origin
ANSI 81R - Rate of change of frequency
0.1 to 10 Hz/s
0.15 to 300 s
ANSI 87M - Machine differential
Ids set point
0.05 to 0.5 In (In u 20 A)
0.1 to 0.5 In (In < 20 A)
3
ANSI 87T - Transformer differential
High set point
Percentage-based curve
Ids set point
Slope Id/It
Slope Id/It2
Slope change point
Restraint on energization
Isinr set point
Delay
Restraint on CT loss
Activity
Harmonic restraints
Selection of restraint
High set point
Harmonic 2 percentage set point
Harmonic 2 restraint
Harmonic 5 percentage set point
Harmonic 5 restraint
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
3 to 18 In1
30 to 100 % In1
15 to 50 %
Without, 50 to 100 %
1 to 18 In1
1 to 10 %
0 to 300 s
On / Off
Conventional
Conventional
On
Off, 5 to 40 %
Phase-specific/Global
Off, 5 to 40 %
Phase-specific/Global
Self-adaptive
Self-adaptive
On / Off
69
Overspeed
ANSI code 12
Protection functions
Detection of excessive machine speeds to
protect generators and processes.
Description
Detection of machine overspeed to detect synchronous generator racing due to loss
of synchronism, or for process monitoring, for example.
The rotation speed is calculated by measuring the time between pulses transmitted
by a proximity sensor at each passage of one or more cams driven by the rotation of
the motor or generator shaft (see a more in-depth description in the "Metering
functions" chapter).
The speed acquisition parameters must be set on the "Particular characteristics"
screen of the SFT2841 software.
The "Rotor speed measurement" function must be assigned to logic input I104 for the
function to work.
The protection picks up if the speed measured exceeds the speed set point.
The protection includes a definite time delay T.
Block diagram
DE50764
3
Characteristics
Settings
Set point Ωs
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
100 to 160 % of Ωn
±2 %
1%
95 %
1 s to 300 s
±25 ms or ±(60000/(Ωs (2) x R (3))) ms
1s
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P12_x_101 b
b
P12_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P12_x_1
Delayed output
P12_x_3
Protection inhibited
P12_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Ωs in rpm.
(3) R: Number of pulses (cam) per rotation.
70
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam Matrix
b
b
b
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Underspeed
ANSI code 14
Protection functions
Monitoring of underspeeds and detection of
rotor locking.
Description
DE50818
Monitoring of machine speed:
b detection of machine underspeed after starting, for process monitoring, for
example
b zero-speed data for detection of locked rotor.
The rotation speed is calculated by measuring the time between pulses transmitted
by a proximity sensor at each passage of one or more cams driven by the rotation of
the motor or generator shaft (see a more in-depth description in the "Metering
functions" chapter).
The speed-acquisition and zero-speed detection parameters must be set on the
"Particular characteristics" screen of the SFT2841 software.
The "Rotor speed measurement" function must be assigned to logic input I104 for the
function to work.
The protection function picks up if the speed measured drops below the speed set
point after having first exceeded the set point by 5 %. Zero speed is detected by unit
1 and is used by protection function 48/51 LR to detect rotor locking.
The protection includes a definite (DT) time delay T.
DE51539
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Set point Ωs
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 to 100 % of Ωn
±2 %
1%
105 %
1 s to 300 s
±25 ms or ±(60000/(Ωs (2) x R (3))) ms
1 s with T>(60/(Ωs (2) x R (3)))
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P14_x_101 b
b
P14_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P14_x_1
Delayed output
P14_x_3
Protection inhibited
P14_x_16
Zero speed
P14_x_38
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Ωs in rpm.
(3) R: Number of pulses (cam) per rotation.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
71
3
Underimpedance
ANSI code 21B
Protection functions
Phase-to-phase short-circuit protection for
generators.
Description
DE50317
The protection function is made up of a circular tripping characteristic on the
impedance plane (R, X), with a definite time delay.
It picks up when one of the apparent, phase-to-phase impedances enters the circular
tripping characteristic.
Apparent impedances:
U 21
U 32
U 13
Z 21 = ---------------- , Z 32 = ---------------- , Z 13 = ---------------- .
I1 – I2
I2 – I3
I3 – I1
DE51540
Block diagram
3
Characteristics
Settings
Set point Ωs
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
0.05Vn/Ib y Zs y 2 Vn/Ib or 0.001 Ω
±2 %
0.001 Ω or 1 digit
105 %
200 ms y T y 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
pick-up < 35 ms from infinite to Zs/2 (typically 25 ms)
< 40 ms
< 50 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P21B_1_101 b
b
P21B_1_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P21B_1_1
Delayed output
P21B_1_3
Protection inhibited
P21B_1_16
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Example: synchronous generator
Synchronous generator data:
b S = 3.15 MVA
b Un1 = 6.3 kV
b Xd = 233 %
b X'd = 21 %
72
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
Protection setting
To set the protection function, it is necessary to calculate the rated generator
impedance:
b Ib = S/(3Un1) = 289 A
b Zn = Un1/ (3Ib) = 12.59 Ω.
The tripping parameter is typically set to 30 % of the rated generator impedance:
Zs = 0.30 x Zn = 3.77 Ω.
This protection function is used to back up other protection functions. Its setting must
therefore ensure discrimination with the other protection functions.
T = 0.9 s, for example, for a network where faults are cleared in 0.6 s.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Overfluxing (V/Hz)
ANSI code 24
Protection functions
Protection of magnetic circuits in
transformers and generators.
Description
Protection which detects overfluxing of transformer or generator magnetic circuits by
calculating the ratio between the greatest phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase
voltage divided by the frequency.
Overfluxing of magnetic circuits is caused by machine operation with excessive
voltage or insufficient frequency. It provokes saturation of the magnetic materials and
results in temperature rise. In severe cases, a major leakage flux may occur and
seriously damage the materials around the magnetic circuit.
The protection function picks up when the U/f or V/f ratio, depending on machine
coupling, exceeds the set point. The function is delayed (definite time (DT) or IDMT)
according to three curves (see tripping curve equation on page 178).
The typical tripping set point is 1.05 pu.
Block diagram
DE51541
3
where G = U/f or V/f depending on machine coupling
Gn = Un/fn or Vn/fn depending on the voltage
Gs = the set point
1
phase-to-neutral voltage, see the table below.
2
phase-to-phase voltage, see the table below.
Machine coupling
This setting adapts the function voltage measurement to the coupling of the magnetic
circuit, depending on the measurements made possible by Sepam wiring.
Voltage used by the protection function
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
VT wiring
Delta coupling
3V
2U + V 0 2U
1U + V 0 1U
1V + V 0
1V
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
Star coupling
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
73
Protection functions
Overfluxing (V / Hz)
ANSI code 24
DE50718
Characteristics
Settings
Machine coupling
Setting range
Tripping curve
Setting range
Voltage/frequency ratio IDMT tripping curves
3
Gs set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T (operation time at 2 pu)
Definite time
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
IDMT
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Delta / star
Definite time
IDMT: type A, type B, type C
1.03 to 2.0 pu (2)
±2 %
0.01 pu (2)
98 % ±1 %
0.1 to 20000 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
0.1 to 1250 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
pick-up < 40 ms from 0.9 Gs to 1,1 Gs at fn
< 40 ms from 0.9 Gs to 1.1 Gs at fn
< 50 ms from 1.1 Gs to 0.9 Gs at fn
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P24_x_101 b
b
P24_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P24_x_1
Delayed output
P24_x_3
Protection inhibited
P24_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) 1 pu represents 1 x Gn.
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
Example 1. synchronous generator
DE50635
A generator is often protected with two tripping set points:
b an IDMT set point, set to 1.05 Gn with a long delay
Example: type B curve, Gs1 = 1.05 and T1 = 8 s
b a definite time (DT) set point, set to approximately 1.2 Gn with a tripping time of
approximately ten seconds.
For example: DT, Gs2 = 1.2 and T2 = 5 s.
Example 2. transformer
DE50662
A transformer is generally protected by an IDMT set point, set to 1.05 Gn with a long
delay
For example: type C curve, Gs = 1.05 and T = 4 s.
74
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Protection function which checks the
synchronization of the electrical networks
upstream and downstream of a circuit
breaker and allows closing when the
differences in voltage, frequency and phase
are within authorized limits.
Synchro-check
ANSI code 25
Operation
The synchro-check function is designed to allow circuit breaker closing without any
risk of dangerous coupling between two voltages Usync1 and Usync2. The voltages
compared may be two phase-to-phase voltages or two phase-to-neutral voltages.
The function is activated when there is a phase, frequency or amplitude difference,
within set limits, between the voltages that are compared.
The function is available in the optional MCS025 module. The "Close enable" logic
data must be cabled to a logic input on the Sepam. All other data and measurements
are transmitted to the Sepam base unit via the CCA785 connection cord.
Block diagram
DE80238
3
dfs
U
Anticipation
It is possible to anticipate the function by a time Ta, taking into account the frequency
difference and the circuit breaker closing time, in order for the voltages to be
synchronized at the time of coupling.
Voltage checking
When one of the two voltages is absent, coupling may be authorized according to one
of five voltage checking modes.
b Usync1 absent and Usync2 present (Dead1 AND Live2)
b Usync1 present and Usync2 absent (Live1 AND Dead2)
b One voltage is present and the other is absent (Dead1 XOR Dead2)
b One or both of the two voltages are absent (Dead1 OR Dead2)
b Both voltages are absent (Dead1 AND Dead2).
The presence of each of the voltages is detected by comparing the voltage to the
high set point (Us high set point). The absence of either of the voltages is detected
by comparing the voltage to the low set point (Us low set point).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
75
Protection functions
Synchro-check
ANSI code 25
User information
The following measurements are available:
b voltage difference
b frequency difference
b phase difference.
Characteristics
Settings
dUs set point
Setting range
3 % Unsync1 to 30 % Unsync1
±2.5 % or 0,003 Unsync1
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop out/pick up ratio
106 %
dfs set point
Setting range
0.05 Hz to 0.5 Hz
Accuracy (1)
±10 mHz
Resolution
0.01 Hz
Drop out/pick up
< 15 mHz
dPhis set point
Setting range
5° to 50°
±2°
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1°
Drop out/pick up ratio
120 %
Us high set point
Setting range
70 % Unsync1 to 110 % Unsync1
±1 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop out/pick up ratio
93 %
Us low set point
Setting range
10 % Unsync1 to 70 % Unsync1
±1 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop out/pick up ratio
106 %
Anticipation of circuit breaker closing time
Setting range
0.1 to 500 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Voltage checking
Setting range
On / Off
Operating mode with no voltage
Setting range
Dead1 AND Live2
Live1 AND Dead2
Dead1 XOR Dead2
Dead1 OR Dead2
Dead1 AND Dead2
3
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
dU operation time
df operation time
dPhi operation time
Reset time
< 190 ms
< 120 ms
< 190 ms
< 190 ms
< 50 ms
Outputs (1)
Designation
Syntax
Close enable
Synchro-check
P25_1_46
No voltage
P25_1_47
Phase difference
P25_1_49
Frequency difference
P25_1_50
Voltage difference
P25_1_51
No Usync1
P25_1_52
No Usync2
P25_1_53
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
76
Equations
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Undervoltage (L-L or L-N)
ANSI code 27
Protection against phase-to-neutral or
phase-to-phase undervoltages.
Block diagram
DE51374
Protection functions
Description
Protection of motors against voltage sags or detection
of abnormally low network voltage to trigger automatic
load shedding or source transfer:
b the protection function is single-phase and operates
with phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase voltage
b it includes a definite (DT) or IDMT time delay T in
phase-to-neutral operation (see tripping curve equation
on page 178)
b it indicates the faulty phase in the alarm associated
with the fault.
Operation with phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase
voltage depends on the connection selected for the
voltage inputs.
3
Connection conditions
Type of connection
V1, V2, V3 (1) U21, U32 U21,
+ V0
U32
Phase-to-neutral operation YES
YES
NO
Phase-to-phase operation YES
YES
YES
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Type of connection
U21 (1)
Phase-to-neutral operation NO
V1 (1)
On V1 only
Phase-to-phase operation On U21 only NO
(1) With or without V0.
Setting range
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
Voltage mode
Setting range
Phase-to-phase voltage / Phase-to-neutral voltage
Tripping curve
Setting range
Definite / IDMT
Us (or Vs) set point
Setting range
5 % of Unp (or Vnp) to 100 % of Unp (or Vnp)
±2 % or ±0.005 Unp
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop out/pick up ratio
103 % ±2 %
Time delay T (tripping time for zero voltage)
Setting range
50 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 40 ms from 1.1 Us (Vs) to 0.9 Us (Vs)
(typically 25 ms)
< 40 ms from 1.1 Us (Vs) to 0.9 Us (Vs)
< 50 ms from 0.9 Us (Vs) to 1.1 Us (Vs)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P27_x_101 b
b
P27_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P27_x_1
b
Delayed output
P27_x_3
b
P27_x_7
b
Fault phase 1 (2)
P27_x_8
b
Fault phase 2 (2)
P27_x_9
b
Fault phase 3 (2)
Protection inhibited
P27_x_16 b
Instantaneous output V1 or U21
P27_x_23 b
Instantaneous output V2 or U32
P27_x_24 b
Instantaneous output V3 or U13
P27_x_25 b
Delayed output V1 or U21
P27_x_26 b
Delayed output V2 or U32
P27_x_27 b
Delayed output V3 or U13
P27_x_28 b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2)When the protection function is used for phase-to-neutral voltage.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
77
Positive sequence
undervoltage and phase rotation
direction check
ANSI code 27D
Protection functions
Motor protection against incorrect voltages.
Description
Protection of motors against faulty operation due to insufficient or unbalanced
network voltage. It is based on measurement of the positive sequence voltage Vd.
It includes a definite time delay T.
It does not operate when only a single phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase voltage is
connected.
This protection also detects the phase rotation direction. The protection function
considers that the phase rotation direction is reversed when the positive sequence
voltage is less than 10 % of Unp and when the phase-to-phase voltage is greater
than 80 % of Unp. When this is the case, the alarm message "ROTATION –" is
generated.
DE51544
Block diagram
3
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Vsd set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
15 % Unp to 60 % Unp
±2 % or ±0.005 Unp
1%
103 % ±2 %
50 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 40 ms from1.1 Vsd to 0.9 Vsd
< 40 ms from1.1 Vsd to 0.9 Vsd
< 50 ms from 0.9 Vsd to 1.1 Vsd
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P27D_x_101 b
b
P27D_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P27D_x_1
Delayed output
P27D_x_3
Protection inhibited
P27D_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
78
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Remanent undervoltage
ANSI code 27R
Protection functions
Detection of the remanent voltage sustained
by rotating machines.
Description
Protection used to check that remanent voltage sustained by rotating machines has
been cleared before allowing the busbars supplying the machines to be reenergized, to avoid electrical and mechanical transients.
This protection is single-phase. It picks up when the U21 or V1 voltage is less than
the Us set point. The protection includes a definite time delay.
DE50768
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Us set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
3
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
5 % Unp to 100 % Unp
±5 % or 0.005 Unp
1%
103 % ±2 %
50 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 45 ms from 1.1 Us to 0.9 Us
< 35 ms from 1.1 Us to 0.9 Us
< 35 ms from 0.9 Us to 1.1 Us
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P27R_x_101 b
b
P27R_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P27R_x_1
Delayed output
P27R_x_3
Protection inhibited
P27R_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
79
Protection functions
Third harmonic undervoltage
ANSI code 27TN/64G2
Generator protection against insulation
faults. This function should be combined
with 59N or 51N to ensure 100 % stator
earth fault protection (64G).
Due to their geometric characteristics, generators produce third-order harmonic
voltages (H3) in addition to the fundamental electromotive force. The amplitude of
the H3 voltage may vary from 0 to 10 % of Vn, as a function of:
b network and generator characteristics
b the load on the generator. It is generally higher under full-load conditions than
under no-load conditions.
In the absence of a fault, the H3 voltage must be at least 0.2 % of Vn for protection
function 27TN.
Description
H3 voltage with no fault
During normal operation, the H3 voltage is measured at each end of the windings.
DE51614
Protection of generators against phase-to-earth
insulation faults, by the detection of a reduction of the
third harmonic residual voltage.This function protects 10
to 20 % of the stator winding on the neutral point end.
Complete protection of the stator winding is ensured by
combining this function with function 59N or 51N, which
protects 85 to 95 % of the winding on the terminal end.
3
DE51615
H3 voltage with a fault on the neutral point end
When a single-phase fault occurs in the stator winding near the machine neutral
point, the neutral point impedance is short-circuited which leads to a drop in the H3
voltage on the neutral point end.
DE51616
H3 voltage with a fault on the terminal end
When a single-phase fault occurs in the stator winding near the machine terminals,
the H3 voltage increases on the neutral point end.
The third harmonic undervoltage protection function detects the drop in the H3
voltage caused by a single-phase fault on the neutral-point end.
Two types of tripping set points are available according to the sensors connected:
b fixed set point: tripping for H3 neutral point undervoltage. The setting requires
preliminary measurements.
b adaptive set point: tripping for H3 neutral point undervoltage depending on a set
point whose value depends on the H3 residual voltage. The setting does not require
preliminary measurements.
Availability of set points depending on the sensors used
80
Voltage measurements
Available types
VT neutral point
VT terminals
27TN fixed set point
-
All wiring
-
27TN adaptive set
point
-
b
V1 or U21
-
-
b
U21, U32
b
-
b
V1, V2, V3
b
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Third harmonic undervoltage
ANSI code 27TN/64G2
Fixed set point
Protection functions
Operation (fixed set point)
DE50326
The DT delayed trip order is issued if the neutral point H3 voltage set point V3nt is
less than the Vs set point.
The protection function operates only if the neutral point H3 voltage before the fault
is greater than 0.2 % of the network phase-to-neutral voltage.
The protection function is inhibited if the power produced by the generator is low or
if the positive sequence voltage is insufficient.
Adjustment
This function is adjusted according to a series of measurements on the neutral point
H3 voltage of the generator. These measurements are used to determine the lowest
H3 voltage value under normal operating conditions.
The measurements should be carried out:
b under no-load conditions, not connected to the network
b at a number of load levels because the H3 voltage level depends on the load.
The parameter is set below the lowest H3 voltage value measured. The Sepam unit
provides the neutral point H3 voltage measurement to facilitate adjustment of the
protection function.
DE51545
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Type of set point
Setting range
Fixed
Third harmonic voltage set point Vs
Setting range
0.2 to 20 % of Vntp
±5 % or ±0.05 V of neutral point Vnts
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
0.1 %
Drop out/pick up ratio
105 %
Time delay
Setting range
0.5 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Ssmin set point
Setting range
1 % to 90 % of 3.Unp.Ib
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop out/pick up ratio
105 %
Vdsmin positive sequence undervoltage set point
Setting range
50 % to 100 % of Unp
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop out/pick up ratio
105 %
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
typically 140 ms from 2 Vs to 0
< 65 ms
< 65 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P27TN/64G2_x_101 b
b
P27TN/64G2_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Tripping output
P27TN/64G2_x_3
Protection inhibited
P27TN/64G2_x_16
Instantaneous output
P27TN/64G2_x_23
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
81
3
Third harmonic undervoltage
ANSI code 27TN/64G2
Adaptive set point
Protection functions
Operation (adaptive set point)
DE50325
Vnt
The H3 voltage (terminal end) V3rΣ is compared to the H3 voltage V3nt measured
on the neutral point end. The protection function calculates the H3 residual voltage
using the three phase-to-neutral voltages. Use of the H3 residual voltage is the
means to adapt the tripping set point according to the normal H3 voltage level.
Time-delayed definite time (DT) tripping occurs when:
K
V 3 nt y ---------------------- × V 3r Σ .
3(1 – K)
G
The protection function operates only if the neutral point H3 voltage before the fault
is greater than 0.2 % of the network phase-to-neutral voltage and if the positive
sequence voltage is greater than 30 % of the phase-to-neutral voltage.
3V
Adjustment
This function does not require any particular measurements but, in certain cases, it
may be necessary to adjust the K setting.
The Sepam unit measures the neutral point H3 voltage V3nt and the H3 residual
voltage V3rΣ to facilitate adjustment of the protection function.
b V3nt is expressed in % of the primary voltage of the neutral point sensor Vntp
b V3rΣ is expressed in % of the primary voltage of the terminal-side sensors Vnp.
If the primary voltages of the sensors are different, V3nt must be adapted to the
terminal-side primary voltage Vnp using the equation:
3
Vntp
V3nt (%Vnp) = V3nt (%Vntp) x -------------Vnp
DE51546
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Type of set point
Setting range
Time delay
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Adaptive
0.5 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
K set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
0.1 to 0.2
±1 %
0.01
105 %
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
typically 140 ms (2)
< 65 ms
< 65 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P27TN/64G2_x_101 b
b
P27TN/64G2_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Tripping output
P27TN/64G2_x_3
b
Protection inhibited
P27TN/64G2_x_16 b
Instantaneous output
P27TN/64G2_x_23 b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Measured for a variation of 2V3nt to 0 with V3rΣ = 30 %.
82
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Third harmonic undervoltage
ANSI code 27TN/64G2
Adaptive set point
Protection functions
K
- × V3rΣ
Curves --------------------3(1 – K)
Table with maximum values of V3nt (%Vnp)
K 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20
V3rΣ
(%Vnp)
0.04
0.07
0.11
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.26
0.30
0.33
0.37
0.56
0.74
0.93
1.11
1.48
1.85
2.22
2.59
2.96
3.33
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.21
0.25
0.29
0.33
0.37
0.41
0.62
0.82
1.03
1.24
1.65
2.06
2.47
2.88
3.30
3.71
0.05
0.09
0.14
0.18
0.23
0.27
0.32
0.36
0.41
0.45
0.68
0.91
1.14
1.36
1.82
2.27
2.73
3.18
3.64
4.09
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.49
1.99
2.49
2.99
3.49
3.98
4.48
0.05
0.11
0.16
0.22
0.27
0.33
0.38
0.43
0.49
0.54
0.81
1.09
1.36
1.63
2.17
2.71
3.26
3.80
4.34
4.88
0.06
0.12
0.18
0.24
0.29
0.35
0.41
0.47
0.53
0.59
0.88
1.18
1.47
1.76
2.35
2.94
3.53
4.12
4.71
5.29
0.06
0.13
0.19
0.25
0.32
0.38
0.44
0.51
0.57
0.63
0.95
1.27
1.59
1.90
2.54
3.17
3.81
4.44
5.08
5.71
0.07
0.14
0.20
0.27
0.34
0.41
0.48
0.55
0.61
0.68
1.02
1.37
1.71
2.05
2.73
3.41
4.10
4.78
5.46
6.14
0.07
0.15
0.22
0.29
0.37
0.44
0.51
0.59
0.66
0.73
1.10
1.46
1.83
2.20
2.93
3.66
4.39
5.12
5.85
6.59
0.08
0.16
0.23
0.31
0.39
0.47
0.55
0.53
0.70
0.78
1.17
1.56
1.95
2.35
3.13
3.91
4.69
5.47
6.26
7.04
0.08
0.17
0.25
0.33
0.42
0.50
0.58
0.67
0.75
0.83
1.25
1.67
2.08
2.50
3.33
4.17
4.10
5.83
6.67
7.50
DE51618
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
83
3
Protection functions
Directional active overpower
ANSI code 32P
Protection against reverse power and
overloads.
The protection function picks up if the active power flowing in one direction or the
other (supplied or drawn) is greater than the Ps set point.
It includes a definite time delay T.
It is based on the two or three-wattmeter method, depending on the connection
conditions:
b V1, V2, V3 and I1, I2, I3: 3 wattmeters
b V1, V2, V3 and I1, I3: 2 wattmeters
b U21, U32 + V0 and I1, I2, I3: 3 wattmeters
b U21, U32 + V0 and I1, I3: 2 wattmeters
b U21, U32 without V0: 2 wattmeters
b other cases: protection function unavailable.
The function is enabled only if the following condition is met:
P u 3.1 % Q which provides a high level of sensitivity and high stability in the event
of short-circuits.
The power sign is determined according to the general feeder or incomer parameter,
according to the convention:
b for the feeder circuit:
v power supplied by the busbars is positive
v power supplied to the busbar is negative
Description
Two-way protection based on calculated active power,
for the following applications:
b active overpower protection to detect overloads and
allow load shedding
b reverse active power protection:
v against generators running like motors when the
generators draw active power
v against motors running like generators when the
motors supply active power.
DE50771
DE50769
3
DE50770
b for the incomer circuit:
v power supplied to the busbar is positive
v power supplied by the busbars is negative.
DE50772
Block diagram
Operating zone.
Characteristics
Settings
Tripping direction
Setting range
Ps set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Overpower/reverse power
1 % of Sn (2) to 120 % of Sn (2)
±0.3 % Sn for Ps between 1 % Sn and 5 % Sn
±5 % for Ps between 5 % Sn and 40 % Sn
±3 % for Ps between 40 % Sn and 120 % Sn
0.1 kW
93.5 % ±5 % or > (1 - 0.004 Sn/Ps) x 100 %
100 ms to 300 s
±2 % or -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
< 90 ms at 2 Ps
< 40 ms at 2 Ps
< 105 ms at 2 Ps
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P32P_x_101 b
b
P32P_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P32P_x_1
Delayed output
P32P_x_3
Protection inhibited
P32P_x_16
Positive active power
P32P_x_19
Negative active power
P32P_x_20
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Sn = 3 Un In.
84
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Directional reactive overpower
ANSI code 32Q
Protection against field loss on synchronous
machines.
The protection function picks up if the reactive power flowing in one direction or the
other (supplied or drawn) is greater than the Qs set point.
It includes a definite time delay T.
It is based on the two or three-wattmeter method, depending on the connection
conditions:
b V1, V2, V3 and I1, I2, I3: 3 wattmeters
b V1, V2, V3 and I1, I3: 2 wattmeters
b U21, U32 + V0 and I1, I2, I3: 3 wattmeters
b U21, U32 + V0 and I1, I3: 2 wattmeters
b U21, U32 without V0: 2 wattmeters
b other cases: protection function unavailable.
The function is enabled only if the following condition is met:
Q u 3.1 % P which provides a high level of sensitivity and high stability in the event
of short-circuits.
The power sign is determined according to the general feeder or incomer parameter,
according to the convention:
b for the feeder circuit:
v power supplied by the busbars is positive
v power supplied to the busbar is negative
Description
DE50773
DE50769
Two-way protection based on calculated reactive
power to detect field loss on synchronous machines:
b reactive overpower protection for motors which
consume more reactive power following field loss
b reverse reactive overpower protection for generators
which consume reactive power following field loss.
DE50770
b for the incomer circuit:
v power supplied to the busbar is positive
v power supplied by the busbars is negative.
DE50774
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Tripping direction
Setting range
Qs set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Operating zone.
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Overpower/reverse power
5 % of Sn (2) to 120 % of Sn (2)
±5 % for Qs between 5 % Sn and 40 % Sn
±3 % for Qs between 40 % Sn and 120 % Sn
0.1 kW
93.5 %
100 ms to 300 s
±2 % or -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
< 90 ms
< 95 ms
< 90 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P32Q_1_101 b
b
P32Q_1_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P32Q_1_1
Delayed output
P32Q_1_3
Protection inhibited
P32Q_1_16
Positive reactive power
P32Q_1_54
Negative reactive power
P32Q_1_55
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Sn = 3 Un In.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
85
3
Phase undercurrent
ANSI code 37
Protection for pumps.
This protection is single-phase.
b it picks up when phase 1 current (I1) drops below the Is set point.
Description
Protection of pumps against the consequences of a
loss of priming by detection of motor no-load operation.
DE50775
Protection functions
Current sag.
DE50776
b it is inactive when the current is less than 1.5 % of In.
b it is insensitive to current drops due to circuit breaker tripping.
3
Circuit breaker tripping.
DE50529
b the protection function includes a definite time delay.
This protection function may be inhibited by a logic
input.
It can be remotely reset by a remote control order
(TC32).
DE50777
Block diagram
86
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Phase undercurrent
ANSI code 37
Characteristics
Settings
Is set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
5 % Ib to 100 % Ib
±5 %
1%
106 %
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
50 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
pick-up < 50 ms
< 40 ms
< 40 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P37_1_101
P37_1_113
3
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P37_1_1
Delayed output
P37_1_3
Protection inhibited
P37_1_16
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
BO13
20, 105, 101
A37_PTUC.ProRs.ctlVal
TC32
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
87
Directional active underpower
ANSI code 37P
Protection functions
Check on active power flow.
Description
DE51382
Two-way protection based on active power. The function monitors the calculated
active power flows:
b to adapt the number of parallel sources to fit the network load power demand
b to create an isolated system in an installation with its own generating unit.
The protection function picks up if the active power flowing in one direction or the
other (supplied or drawn) is less than the Ps set point.
It includes a definite (DT) time delay T.
It is based on the two or three-wattmeter method, depending on the connection
conditions:
b V1, V2, V3 and I1, I2, I3: 3 wattmeters
b V1, V2, V3 and I1, I3: 2 wattmeters
b U21, U32 + V0 and I1, I2, I3: 3 wattmeters
b U21, U32 + V0 and I1, I3: 2 wattmeters
b U21, U32 without V0: 2 wattmeters
b other cases: protection function unavailable.
The power sign is determined according to the general feeder or incomer parameter,
according to the convention:
b for the feeder circuit:
v power supplied by the busbars is positive (normal direction)
v power supplied to the busbars is negative
DE50769
DE50770
b for the incomer circuit:
v power supplied to the busbar is positive (normal direction)
v power supplied by the busbars is negative.
Tripping zone (reverse direction).
Block diagram
DE50824
3
DE51383
Tripping zone (normal direction).
Characteristics
Settings
Tripping direction
Setting range
Ps set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Normal / reverse
5 % of Sn (2) to 100 % of Sn (2)
±5 % for Ps between 5 % Sn and 40 % Sn
±3 % for Ps between 40 % Sn and 120 % Sn
0.1 kW
106 %
100 ms to 300 s
±2 % or -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
< 120 ms
< 65 ms
< 60 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P37P_x_101 b
b
P37P_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P37P_x_1
Delayed output
P37P_x_3
Protection inhibited
P37P_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Sn = 3.Un In.
88
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Temperature monitoring
ANSI code 38/49T
Protection functions
Protection against heat rise in equipment by
measuring the temperature with a sensor.
Description
Protection that detects abnormal heat rise by measuring the temperature inside
equipment fitted with sensors:
b transformer: protection of primary and secondary windings
b motor and generator: protection of stator windings and bearings.
This protection function is associated with an RTD of the Pt100 platinum (100 Ω at
0 °C or 32 °F) or nickel (Ni100 or Ni120) type, in accordance with the IEC 60751 and
DIN 43760 standards.
b it picks up when the monitored temperature is greater than the Ts set point
b it has two independent set points:
v alarm set point
v tripping set point
b when the protection function is activated, it detects whether the RTD is shorted or
disconnected:
v RTD shorting is detected if the measured temperature is less than -35 °C or
-31 °F (measurement displayed "****")
v RTD disconnection is detected if the measured temperature is greater than
+205 °C or +401 °F (measurement displayed "-****").
If an RTD fault is detected, the protection function is inhibited and its output relays
are set to zero.
The "RTD fault" item is also made available in the control matrix and an alarm
message is generated specifying the number of the MET148-2 module for the faulty
RTD.
DE50778
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Alarm and trip set points TS1, TS2
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Pick up / drop out difference
0°C to 180°C
±1.5°C
1°C
3°C
32°F to 356°F
±2.7°F
1°F
5.4°F
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P38/49T_x_101
P38/49T_x_113
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Protection output
P38/49T_x_3
Alarm
P38/49T_x_10
RTD fault
P38/49T_x_12
Protection inhibited
P38/49T_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
b
89
3
Field loss
ANSI code 40
Protection functions
Protection against field loss on synchronous
machines or generators.
Description
The protection function is made up of two circular tripping characteristics on the
impedance plane (R, X). It picks up when the positive sequence impedance Zd enters
one of the circular tripping characteristics.
DE50306
Vd
Zd = -------Id
3
Circular tripping characteristics
b Case of a generator incomer or motor feeder
Circle 1
Circle 2
Centre
Radius
C2 = -(Xa + Xc)/2
R2 = (Xc - Xa)/2
C1 = -(Xa + Xb)/2
R1 = (Xb - Xa)/2
b Case of a generator feeder or motor incomer:
the tripping characteristics are symmetrical with respect to the R axis
Circle 1
Circle 2
Centre
Radius
C1 = (Xa + Xb)/2
R1 = (Xb - Xa)/2
C2 = (Xa + Xc)/2
R2 = (Xc - Xa)/2
DE50825
Block diagram
90
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Field loss
ANSI code 40
SFT2841 setting help
PE50148
The SFT2841 software includes a setting assistance function to calculate the values
of Xa, Xb and Xc according to the electrical characteristics of the machine (and
transformer, when applicable).
Data used:
b synchronous machine:
v synchronous reactance Xd in %
v transient synchronous reactance X'd in %
b transformer:
v winding 1 voltage Un1 in V/kV
v short-circuit voltage Usc in %
v rated power in kVA/MVA
v copper losses in kΩ/MΩ.
The proposed settings are circle 1 with a diameter Zn if Xd u 200 % or a diameter
Xd/2 in all other cases, and circle 2 with a diameter Xd.
The two circles are offset from zero by -X'd/2.
Zn = the rated machine impedance:
Un1
Zn = ------------- .
3Ib
Characteristics
Settings
Common point: Xa
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Circle 1: Xb
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Circle 2: Xc
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
T1 time: tripping time delay circle 1
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
T2 time: tripping time delay circle 2
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
0.02Vn/Ib y Xa y 0.20Vn/Ib + 187.5 kΩ or 0.001 Ω
±5 %
1%
0.20Vn/Ib y Xa y 1.40Vn/Ib + 187.5 kΩ
±5 %
0.001 Ω or 1 digit
105 % of circle 1 diameter
0.60Vn/Ib y Xa y 3Vn/Ib + 187.5 kΩ
±5 %
0.001 Ω or 1 digit
105 % of circle 2 diameter
50 ms y T y 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
100 ms y T y 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 35 ms from 0 to C1 (typically 25 ms)
Pick-up < 35 ms from 0 to C2 (typically 25 ms)
< 40 ms
< 50 ms (for T1 = 0)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P40_1_101
P40_1_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Equations
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P40_1_1
Delayed output
P40_1_3
Protection inhibited
P40_1_16
Instantaneous protection 1 (circle 1)
P40_1_23
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Matrix
b
91
3
Protection functions
Field loss
ANSI code 40
Example 1. Synchronous generator
Synchronous generator data
b S = 3.15 MVA
b Un1 = 6.3 kV
b Xd = 233 %
b X'd = 21 %
Protection setting
To set the protection function, it is necessary to calculate the rated generator
impedance Zn:
b Ib = S/(3.Un1) = 289 A
b Zn = Un1/ (3.Ib) = 12.586 Ω.
Generally speaking, circle 1 is set with a diameter Zn, offset by -X'd/2, and circle 2 is
set with a diameter Xd, offset by -X'd/2:
b Xa = (X'd(%)/200)Zn = 1.321 Ω
b Xb = (X'd(%)/200 + 1)Zn = 13.907 Ω
b Xc = (X'd(%)/200 + Xd/100)Zn = 30.646 Ω.
The faults detected in circle 1 are violent field-loss faults that must be cleared rapidly.
Circle 2 may concern faults other than field-loss faults and its tripping time is longer:
b T1 = 70 ms
b T2 = 500 ms.
3
Example 2. Generator-transformer unit applications
Synchronous generator data
b Sg = 19 MVA
b Un2 = 5.5 kV
b Xd = 257 %
b X'd = 30 %
Transformer data
b St = 30 MVA
b Un1 = 20 kV / Un2 = 5.5 kV
b Usc = 7 %
b Pcu = 191 kW
Protection setting
To set the protection function, it is necessary to calculate the rated generator
impedance at voltage Un1:
b Ib = Sg/(3Un1) = 548 A
b Zn = Un1/ (3.Ib) = 21.071 Ω.
The transformer impedance at voltage Un1 is:
Zt = Usc/100.(Un1)²/St = 0.933 Ω.
The transformer resistance at voltage Un1 is:
Rt = Pcu.(Un1/St)² = 0.085 Ω.
The transformer reactance at voltage Un1 is:
2
2
.
Xt = Zt – Rt = 0,929 Ω
Circle 1 is set with a diameter Zn, offset by -X'd/2 and the transformer reactance.
Circle 2 is set with a diameter Xd, offset by -X'd/2 and the transformer reactance.
b Xa = (X'd(%)/200)Zn + Xt = 4.09 Ω
b Xb = (X'd(%)/200 + 1)Zn + Xt = 25.161 Ω
b Xc = (X'd(%)/200 + Xd(%)/100)Zn + Xt = 58.243 Ω.
The faults detected in circle 1 are violent field-loss faults that must be cleared rapidly.
Circle 2 may concern faults other than field-loss faults and its tripping time is longer:
b T1 = 70 ms
b T2 = 500 ms.
92
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Negative sequence / unbalance
ANSI code 46
Protection functions
Phase unbalance protection for lines and
equipment.
Description
Protection against phase unbalance, detected by the measurement of negative
sequence current:
b sensitive protection to detect 2-phase faults at the ends of long lines
b protection of equipment against temperature rise, caused by an unbalanced power
supply, phase inversion or loss of phase, and against phase current unbalance.
This function picks up if the negative sequence component of phase currents is
greater than the operation set point.
It is time-delayed. The time delay may be definite time or IDMT according to a
standardized curve, a specially adapted Schneider curve or an RI2 curve for
generator protection.
Tripping curve
Schneider IDMT
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
RI2 curve
3
DE50839
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Tripping curve
Setting range
Is set point
Setting range
Main channels (I)
Additional channels (I’)
See list above
definite time
Schneider IDMT
IEC or IEEE IDMT
RI2 curve
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
definite time
IDMT
Accuracy (1)
definite time
IDMT
Resolution
K (RI2 curve only)
Setting range
Resolution
10 % to 500 % of Ib or I'b
10 % to 50 % of Ib or I'b
10 % to 100 % of Ib or I'b
3 % to 20 % of Ib or I'b
±5 % or ±0.004 In
1%
93.5 % ±5 % or > (1 - 0.005 In/Is) x 100 %
100 ms y T y 300 s
100 ms y T y 1 s or TMS (2)
±2 % or +25 ms
±5 % or +35 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
1 to 100
1
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 55 ms at 2 Is
< 50 ms at 2 Is
< 55 ms at 2 Is
Inputs
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Setting ranges in TMS (Time Multiplier Setting) mode:
Inverse (SIT) and IEC SIT/A: 0.034 to 0.336
Very inverse (VIT) and IEC VIT/B: 0.067 to 0.666
Very inverse (LTI) and IEC LTI/B: 0.008 to 0.075
Ext. inverse (EIT) and IEC EIT/C: 0.124 to 1.237
IEEE moderately inverse : 0.415 to 4.142
IEEE very inverse : 0.726 to 7.255
IEEE extremely inverse : 1.231 to 12.30.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P46_x_101
P46_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Syntax
P46_x_1
P46_x_3
P46_x_16
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
Delayed output
Protection inhibited
Matrix
b
93
Protection functions
Negative sequence / unbalance
ANSI code 46
Setting example for RI2 curves
DE50715
A generator can handle a certain level of negative sequence current on a continuous
basis. The Is continuous level, indicated by the manufacturer, is generally between
5 and 10 % of the base current Ib.
Typical values are:
Type of generator
Salient poles
Cylindrical rotors
RI2 curve.
Ii permissible (% Ib)
with amortisseur windings
10
without amortisseur windings
Indirectly cooled
Sn y 960 MVA
960 MVA < Sn y 1200 MVA
1200 MVA < Sn
5
10
8
6
5
Reference IEEE C37.102-1987.
When this current level is exceeded, the generator can handle a negative sequence
current Ii for a time td, corresponding to the following equation:
K
td = -----------------2
Ii ⎞
⎛ --------⎝ Ib ⎠
3
The K value is an adjustable constant that depends on the type of generator,
generally between 1 and 40. Typical values of K are:
Type of generator
Salient poles
Synchronous condenser
Cylindrical rotors
K
Indirectly cooled
Sn y 800 MVA
800 MVA < Sn y 1600 MVA
40
30
20
10
10 - 0.00625.(MVA - 800)
Reference IEEE C37.102-1987.
Schneider IDMT curve
DE50716
For Ii > Is, the time delay depends on the value of Ii/Ib (Ib: base current of the
protected equipment defined when the general parameters are set).
T corresponds to the time delay for Ii/Ib = 5.
The tripping curve is defined according to the following equations:
b for Is/Ib y Ii/Ib y 0.5
3.19
×T
t = ----------------------1.5
( Ii ⁄ Ib )
b for 0.5 y Ii/Ib y 5
Schneider curve.
4.64
t = ------------------------×T
0.96
( Ii ⁄ Ib )
b for Ii/Ib > 0.5
t = T.
.
94
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Negative sequence / unbalance
ANSI code 46
Protection functions
Determination of tripping time for
different negative sequence current
values for a given Schneider curve
Use the table to find the value of X that corresponds to
the required negative sequence current. The tripping
time is equal to XT.
Example
given a tripping curve with the setting T = 0.5 s.
What is the tripping time at 0.6 Ib?
Use the table to find the value of X that corresponds to
60 % of Ib.
The table indicates X = 7.55. The tripping time is equal
to: 0.5 x 7.55 = 3.755 s.
Schneider IDMT tripping curve
t(s)
10000
5000
2000
1000
500
200
100
50
3
20
max. curve (T=1s)
10
5
2
1
0.5
0.2
0,1
min. curve (T=0,1s)
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.005
0.002
I/Ib
0.001
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.5 0.7
1
2
3
5
7
10
20
li (% lb)
10
15
20
25
30
33.33
35
40
45
50
55
57.7
60
65
70
75
X
99.95
54.50
35.44
25.38
19.32
16.51
15.34
12.56
10.53
9.00
8.21
7.84
7.55
7.00
6.52
6.11
li (% lb) cont. 80
85
90
95
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
X cont.
5.42
5.13
4.87
4.64
4.24
3.90
3.61
3.37
3.15
2.96
2.80
2.65
2.52
2.40
2.29
5.74
li (% lb) cont. 220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
X cont.
2.14
2.10
2.01
1.94
1.86
1.80
1.74
1.68
1.627
1.577
1.53
1.485
1.444
1.404
1.367
1.332
li (% lb) cont. 380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
u 500
X cont.
1.267
1.236
1.18
1.167
1.154
1.13
1.105
1.082
1.06
1.04
1.02
1
1.298
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
95
Negative sequence overvoltage
ANSI code 47
Protection functions
Phase unbalance protection.
Description
Protection against phase unbalance resulting from phase inversion, unbalanced
supply or distant fault, detected by the measurement of negative sequence voltage
Vi.
It includes a definite time delay T.
It does not operate when only one voltage is connected to Sepam.
DE50779
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
3
Measurement origin
Setting range
Vsi set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
1 % Unp to 50 % Unp
±2 % or 0.005 Unp
1%
97 % ±1 % or > (1 - 0.006 Unp/Vsi) x 100 %
50 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 40 ms at 2 Vsi
< 50 ms at 2 Vsi
< 50 ms at 2 Vsi
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P47_x_101 b
b
P47_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P47_x_1
Delayed output
P47_x_3
Protection inhibited
P47_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
96
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Excessive starting time, locked
rotor
ANSI code 48/51LR
Protection functions
Detection of excessive starting time and
locked rotors for motor protection.
Description
DE50826
Protection against motor overheating caused by:
b excessive motor starting time due to overloads (e.g. conveyor) or insufficient
supply voltage
b locked rotor due to motor load (e.g. crusher):
v during normal operation, after a normal start
v directly at motor start, before detection of an excessive starting time.
This function is three-phase.
Starting is detected when the current drawn is greater than 5 % of current Ib.
This function comprises two parts:
b excessive starting time: during starting, the protection picks up when one of the 3
phase currents is greater than the set point Is for a longer period of time than the ST
time delay (normal starting time)
b locked rotor:
v during normal operation (after starting), the protection picks up when one of the 3
phase currents is greater than the set point Is for a longer period of time than the LT
time delay (DT).
v locked on start: large motors may have very long starting times, due to their inertia
or a reduction in the voltage. This starting time may be longer than the permissible
rotor locking time. To protect such a motor against rotor locking, an LTS time may be
set to initiate tripping if a start is detected (I > Is) and if the motor speed is zero. In
this case, motor rotation is detected by the underspeed protection function (ANSI 14)
or by the "rotor rotation detection" logic input (signal from a zero-speed switch).
DE50827
Case of normal starting.
Motor re-acceleration
During re-acceleration, the motor draws a level of current similar to the start-up
current (> Is), but in this case the current did not first drop to a level under 5 % of Ib.
The ST time delay, which corresponds to the normal starting time, can be reinitialised
by a logic input or information from a logic equation or the Logipam program ("motor
re-acceleration" input):
b reinitialize the excessive starting time protection
b set the locked rotor protection LT time delay to a low value.
DE50828
Case of excessive starting time.
DE50829
Block diagram
DE50851
Case of locked rotor.
Case of locked rotor at start.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
97
3
Protection functions
Excessive starting time, locked
rotor
ANSI code 48/51LR
Characteristics
Settings
Is set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
50 % to 500 % of Ib
±5 %
1%
93 %
Time delay T
Setting range
ST
LT
LTS
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
500 ms to 300 s
50 ms to 300 s
50 ms to 300 s
2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Motor re-acceleration
Protection inhibition
3
Syntax
P48/51LR_1_101
P48/51LR_1_102
P48/51LR_1_113
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Protection output
P48/51LR_1_3
Locked rotor
P48/51LR_1_13
Excessive starting time
P48/51LR_1_14
Locked rotor at start-up
P48/51LR_1_15
Protection inhibited
P48/51LR_1_16
Starting in progress
P48/51LR_1_22
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
98
Matrix
b
b
b
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for cables
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Protection of cables against thermal
damage caused by overloads.
Description
DE51548
This protection function is used to protect cables against overloads, based on
measurement of the current drawn.
The current measured by the thermal protection is an RMS 3-phase current which
takes into account harmonics up to number 13.
The highest current of the three phases I1, I2 and I3, subsequently called phase
current Iph, is used to calculate the heat rise:
Iph = max ( I1, I2, I3 ) .
The calculated heat rise, proportional to the square of the current drawn, depends on
the current drawn and the previous temperature status. Under steady-state
conditions, it is equal to:
Iph 2
E = ⎛ ---------⎞ × 100 in %
⎝ Ib ⎠
The protection function issues the trip order when the phase current is greater than the
permissible current for the cable. The value of the base current Ib must absolutely be
less than the permissible current Ia. By default, we use Ib ≈ Ia/1.4.
The protection tripping time is set by the time constant T.
2
⎞
⎛
⎛ ----I- ⎞
⎝
⎠
⎟
⎜
Ib
t
- where ln: natural logarithm.
Cold curve: --- = In ⎜ -----------------------------------2
2⎟
T
I
Ia
⎜ ⎛ ----- ⎞ – ⎛ ----- ⎞ ⎟
⎝ ⎝ Ib ⎠ ⎝ Ib ⎠ ⎠
Tripping curves.
I ⎞
⎞
⎛ ⎛ ----⎜ ⎝ Ib ⎠ – 1 ⎟
t
- ⎟ where ln: natural logarithm.
--- = In ⎜ -----------------------------------T
I ⎞2 ⎛ Ia ⎞ 2 ⎟
⎜ ⎛ ----– ----⎝ ⎝ Ib ⎠ ⎝ Ib ⎠ ⎠
2
Hot curve:
The present heat rise is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
DE80268
Block diagram
User information
The following information is available for the user:
b heat rise
b time before tripping (with constant current).
Characteristics
Settings
Permissible current Ia
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Time constant T
Setting range
Resolution
< 1 to 1.73 Ib
±2 %
1A
1 min. to 600 min.
1 min.
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time accuracy
±2 % or ±1 s
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P49RMS_1_101 b
b
P49RMS_1_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Delayed output
P49RMS_1_3
Alarm
P49RMS_1_10
Inhibit closing
P49RMS_1_11
Protection inhibited
P49RMS_1_16
Hot state
P49RMS_1_18
Inhibit thermal overload
P49RMS_1_32
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
b
b
99
3
Protection functions
Thermal overload for cables
ANSI code 49RMS
Example
DE50840
Consider a copper cable, 185 mm2, with a permissible current Ia = 485 A and a
1- second thermal withstand Ith_1 s = 22.4 kA.
The thermal time constant of a cable depends in its installation method. Typical timeconstant values are between 10 and 60 minutes. For buried cables, the time constant
is between 20 and 60 minutes, for non-buried cables, it is between 10 and 40
minutes.
For the cable in question, the selected values are T = 30 minutes and Ib = 350 A.
Check on compatibility between the 49RMS curve and the adiabatic thermal
withstand.
Conditions are correct at 10 Ib.
In the range of currents close to the permissible current, the 1-second thermal
withstand is used to estimate maximum thermal withstand for the cable, assuming
there are no heat exchanges. The maximum tripping time is calculated as:
I2 x tmax = constant = (Ith_1 s)2 x 1.
For the cable in question and at 10 Ib:
tmax = (Ith_1 s/ I0Ib)2 = (22400 / 3500)2 = 41 s.
3
For I = 10 Ib = 3500 A and Ia/Ib = 1.38, the value of k in the cold tripping curve table
is k ≈ 0.0184.
The tripping time at 10 Ib is therefore:
t = k x T x 60 = 0.0184 x 30 x 60 = 35.6s < tmax.
For a 10 Ib fault occuring after a rated operation phase, with 100 % heat rise, the
value of k is : k ≈ 0,0097.
The tripping time is:
t = k x T x 60 = 0.0097 x 30 x 60 = 17.5 s
Check on discrimination
Discrimination between 49RMS for the cable and the downstream protection curves,
including 49RMS protection functions, must be checked to avoid any risk of nuisance
tripping.
100
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for cables
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Curves for initial heat rise = 0 %
Iph/Ib 0.55
Ia/Ib
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.7513
Iph/Ib 1.35
Ia/Ib
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
0.1475
0.1815
0.2201
0.2637
0.3132
0.3691
0.4326
0.5049
0.5878
0.6836
0.7956
0.9287
1.0904
1.2934
1.5612
1.9473
2.6214
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.1856
1.8343
0.8958
1.2587
1.9110
0.7138
0.9606
1.3269
1.9823
0.5878
0.7717
1.0217
1.3907
2.0488
0.4953
0.6399
0.8267
1.0793
1.4508
2.1112
0.4247
0.5425
0.6897
0.8789
1.1338
1.5075
2.1699
0.3691
0.4675
0.5878
0.7373
0.9287
1.1856
1.5612
2.2254
0.3244
0.4082
0.5090
0.6314
0.7829
0.9762
1.2349
1.6122
2.2780
0.2877
0.3603
0.4463
0.5491
0.6733
0.8267
1.0217
1.2819
1.6607
2.3279
0.2572
0.3207
0.3953
0.4832
0.5878
0.7138
0.8687
1.0652
1.3269
1.7070
2.3755
0.2314
0.2877
0.3531
0.4295
0.5191
0.6253
0.7527
0.9091
1.1069
1.3699
1.7513
2.4209
0.2095
0.2597
0.3178
0.3849
0.4629
0.5540
0.6615
0.7904
0.9480
1.1470
1.4112
1.7937
2.4643
0.1907
0.2358
0.2877
0.3473
0.4159
0.4953
0.5878
0.6966
0.8267
0.9855
1.1856
1.4508
1.8343
2.5060
0.1744
0.2152
0.2619
0.3153
0.3763
0.4463
0.5270
0.6206
0.7306
0.8618
1.0217
1.2228
1.4890
1.8734
2.5459
0.1601
0.1972
0.2396
0.2877
0.3424
0.4047
0.4759
0.5578
0.6526
0.7636
0.8958
1.0566
1.2587
1.5258
1.9110
2.5844
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
0.1365
0.1676
0.2029
0.2428
0.2877
0.3383
0.3953
0.4599
0.5332
0.6170
0.7138
0.8267
0.9606
1.1231
1.3269
1.5955
1.9823
2.6571
0.1266
0.1553
0.1878
0.2243
0.2653
0.3113
0.3630
0.4210
0.4866
0.5608
0.6456
0.7431
0.8569
0.9916
1.1549
1.3593
1.6286
2.0161
2.6915
0.1178
0.1444
0.1744
0.2080
0.2456
0.2877
0.3347
0.3873
0.4463
0.5127
0.5878
0.6733
0.7717
0.8862
1.0217
1.1856
1.3907
1.6607
2.0488
2.7249
0.1099
0.1346
0.1623
0.1934
0.2281
0.2667
0.3098
0.3577
0.4112
0.4710
0.5383
0.6142
0.7005
0.7996
0.9147
1.0509
1.2155
1.4212
1.6918
2.0805
2.7571
0.1028
0.1258
0.1516
0.1804
0.2125
0.2481
0.2877
0.3316
0.3804
0.4347
0.4953
0.5633
0.6399
0.7269
0.8267
0.9425
1.0793
1.2445
1.4508
1.7220
2.1112
2.7883
0.0963
0.1178
0.1418
0.1686
0.1984
0.2314
0.2680
0.3084
0.3531
0.4027
0.4578
0.5191
0.5878
0.6651
0.7527
0.8531
0.9696
1.1069
1.2727
1.4796
1.7513
2.1410
2.8186
0.0905
0.1106
0.1330
0.1581
0.1858
0.2165
0.2503
0.2877
0.3289
0.3744
0.4247
0.4804
0.5425
0.6118
0.6897
0.7780
0.8789
0.9959
1.1338
1.3001
1.5075
1.7797
2.1699
2.8480
0.0852
0.1040
0.1251
0.1485
0.1744
0.2029
0.2344
0.2691
0.3072
0.3491
0.3953
0.4463
0.5027
0.5654
0.6353
0.7138
0.8026
0.9041
1.0217
1.1601
1.3269
1.5347
1.8074
2.1980
2.8766
0.0803
0.0980
0.1178
0.1397
0.1640
0.1907
0.2201
0.2523
0.2877
0.3265
0.3691
0.4159
0.4675
0.5246
0.5878
0.6583
0.7373
0.8267
0.9287
1.0467
1.1856
1.3529
1.5612
1.8343
2.2254
0.0759
0.0925
0.1111
0.1318
0.1545
0.1796
0.2070
0.2371
0.2701
0.3061
0.3456
0.3888
0.4363
0.4884
0.5460
0.6098
0.6808
0.7604
0.8502
0.9527
1.0712
1.2106
1.3783
1.5870
1.8605
0.0718
0.0875
0.1051
0.1245
0.1459
0.1694
0.1952
0.2233
0.2541
0.2877
0.3244
0.3644
0.4082
0.4563
0.5090
0.5671
0.6314
0.7029
0.7829
0.8733
0.9762
1.0952
1.2349
1.4031
1.6122
0.0680
0.0829
0.0995
0.1178
0.1380
0.1601
0.1843
0.2107
0.2396
0.2710
0.3052
0.3424
0.3830
0.4274
0.4759
0.5292
0.5878
0.6526
0.7245
0.8050
0.8958
0.9992
1.1185
1.2587
1.4272
0.0645
0.0786
0.0943
0.1116
0.1307
0.1516
0.1744
0.1992
0.2263
0.2557
0.2877
0.3225
0.3603
0.4014
0.4463
0.4953
0.5491
0.6081
0.6733
0.7458
0.8267
0.9179
1.0217
1.1414
1.2819
0.0530
0.0645
0.0773
0.0913
0.1067
0.1236
0.1418
0.1617
0.1832
0.2064
0.2314
0.2585
0.2877
0.3192
0.3531
0.3898
0.4295
0.4725
0.5191
0.5699
0.6253
0.6859
0.7527
0.8267
0.9091
0.0444
0.0539
0.0645
0.0762
0.0889
0.1028
0.1178
0.1340
0.1516
0.1704
0.1907
0.2125
0.2358
0.2609
0.2877
0.3165
0.3473
0.3804
0.4159
0.4542
0.4953
0.5397
0.5878
0.6399
0.6966
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
101
3
Thermal overload for cables
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Curves for initial heat rise = 0 %
Iph/Ib 2.60
Ia/Ib
3
0,50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
0.0377
0.0458
0.0547
0.0645
0.0752
0.0869
0.0995
0.1130
0.1276
0.1433
0.1601
0.1780
0.1972
0.2177
0.2396
0.2629
0.2877
0.3142
0.3424
0.3725
0.4047
0.4391
0.4759
0.5154
0.5578
Iph/Ib 7.00
Ia/Ib
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
102
0.0051
0.0062
0.0074
0.0087
0.0101
0.0115
0.0131
0.0149
0.0167
0.0186
0.0206
0.0228
0.0250
0.0274
0.0298
0.0324
0.0351
0.0379
0.0408
0.0439
0.0470
0.0503
0.0537
0.0572
0.0608
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60
4.80
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
0.0324
0.0393
0.0470
0.0554
0.0645
0.0745
0.0852
0.0967
0.1091
0.1223
0.1365
0.1516
0.1676
0.1848
0.2029
0.2223
0.2428
0.2646
0.2877
0.3122
0.3383
0.3659
0.3953
0.4266
0.4599
0.0282
0.0342
0.0408
0.0481
0.0560
0.0645
0.0738
0.0837
0.0943
0.1057
0.1178
0.1307
0.1444
0.1589
0.1744
0.1907
0.2080
0.2263
0.2456
0.2661
0.2877
0.3105
0.3347
0.3603
0.3873
0.0247
0.0300
0.0358
0.0421
0.0490
0.0565
0.0645
0.0732
0.0824
0.0923
0.1028
0.1139
0.1258
0.1383
0.1516
0.1656
0.1804
0.1960
0.2125
0.2298
0.2481
0.2674
0.2877
0.3091
0.3316
0.0219
0.0265
0.0316
0.0372
0.0433
0.0499
0.0570
0.0645
0.0726
0.0813
0.0905
0.1002
0.1106
0.1215
0.1330
0.1452
0.1581
0.1716
0.1858
0.2007
0.2165
0.2330
0.2503
0.2686
0.2877
0.0195
0.0236
0.0282
0.0331
0.0385
0.0444
0.0506
0.0574
0.0645
0.0722
0.0803
0.0889
0.0980
0.1076
0.1178
0.1285
0.1397
0.1516
0.1640
0.1770
0.1907
0.2050
0.2201
0.2358
0.2523
0.0175
0.0212
0.0252
0.0297
0.0345
0.0397
0.0453
0.0513
0.0577
0.0645
0.0718
0.0794
0.0875
0.0961
0.1051
0.1145
0.1245
0.1349
0.1459
0.1574
0.1694
0.1820
0.1952
0.2089
0.2233
0.0157
0.0191
0.0228
0.0268
0.0311
0.0358
0.0408
0.0462
0.0520
0.0581
0.0645
0.0714
0.0786
0.0863
0.0943
0.1028
0.1116
0.1209
0.1307
0.1409
0.1516
0.1627
0.1744
0.1865
0.1992
0.0143
0.0173
0.0206
0.0242
0.0282
0.0324
0.0370
0.0418
0.0470
0.0525
0.0584
0.0645
0.0711
0.0779
0.0852
0.0927
0.1007
0.1091
0.1178
0.1269
0.1365
0.1464
0.1568
0.1676
0.1789
0.0130
0.0157
0.0188
0.0221
0.0256
0.0295
0.0336
0.0380
0.0427
0.0477
0.0530
0.0586
0.0645
0.0708
0.0773
0.0842
0.0913
0.0989
0.1067
0.1150
0.1236
0.1325
0.1418
0.1516
0.1617
0.0119
0.0144
0.0172
0.0202
0.0234
0.0269
0.0307
0.0347
0.0390
0.0436
0.0484
0.0535
0.0589
0.0645
0.0705
0.0767
0.0832
0.0901
0.0972
0.1047
0.1124
0.1205
0.1290
0.1377
0.1469
0.0109
0.0132
0.0157
0.0185
0.0215
0.0247
0.0282
0.0319
0.0358
0.0400
0.0444
0.0490
0.0539
0.0591
0.0645
0.0702
0.0762
0.0824
0.0889
0.0957
0.1028
0.1101
0.1178
0.1258
0.1340
0.0101
0.0122
0.0145
0.0170
0.0198
0.0228
0.0259
0.0293
0.0329
0.0368
0.0408
0.0451
0.0496
0.0544
0.0593
0.0645
0.0700
0.0757
0.0816
0.0878
0.0943
0.1010
0.1080
0.1153
0.1229
0.0083
0.0101
0.0120
0.0141
0.0163
0.0188
0.0214
0.0242
0.0271
0.0303
0.0336
0.0371
0.0408
0.0447
0.0488
0.0530
0.0575
0.0621
0.0670
0.0720
0.0773
0.0828
0.0884
0.0943
0.1004
0.0070
0.0084
0.0101
0.0118
0.0137
0.0157
0.0179
0.0203
0.0228
0.0254
0.0282
0.0311
0.0342
0.0374
0.0408
0.0444
0.0481
0.0520
0.0560
0.0602
0.0645
0.0691
0.0738
0.0786
0.0837
0.0059
0.0072
0.0086
0.0101
0.0117
0.0134
0.0153
0.0172
0.0194
0.0216
0.0240
0.0264
0.0291
0.0318
0.0347
0.0377
0.0408
0.0441
0.0475
0.0510
0.0547
0.0585
0.0625
0.0666
0.0709
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
0.0045
0.0054
0.0064
0.0075
0.0087
0.0101
0.0114
0.0129
0.0145
0.0162
0.0179
0.0198
0.0217
0.0238
0.0259
0.0282
0.0305
0.0329
0.0355
0.0381
0.0408
0.0437
0.0466
0.0496
0.0527
0.0039
0.0047
0.0056
0.0066
0.0077
0.0088
0.0101
0.0114
0.0127
0.0142
0.0157
0.0174
0.0191
0.0209
0.0228
0.0247
0.0268
0.0289
0.0311
0.0334
0.0358
0.0383
0.0408
0.0435
0.0462
0.0035
0.0042
0.0050
0.0059
0.0068
0.0078
0.0089
0.0101
0.0113
0.0126
0.0139
0.0154
0.0169
0.0185
0.0201
0.0219
0.0237
0.0255
0.0275
0.0295
0.0316
0.0338
0.0361
0.0384
0.0408
0.0031
0.0037
0.0045
0.0052
0.0061
0.0070
0.0079
0.0090
0.0101
0.0112
0.0124
0.0137
0.0151
0.0165
0.0179
0.0195
0.0211
0.0228
0.0245
0.0263
0.0282
0.0301
0.0321
0.0342
0.0363
0.0028
0.0034
0.0040
0.0047
0.0054
0.0063
0.0071
0.0080
0.0090
0.0101
0.0111
0.0123
0.0135
0.0148
0.0161
0.0175
0.0189
0.0204
0.0220
0.0236
0.0252
0.0270
0.0288
0.0306
0.0325
0.0025
0.0030
0.0036
0.0042
0.0049
0.0056
0.0064
0.0073
0.0081
0.0091
0.0101
0.0111
0.0122
0.0133
0.0145
0.0157
0.0170
0.0184
0.0198
0.0212
0.0228
0.0243
0.0259
0.0276
0.0293
0.0016
0.0019
0.0023
0.0027
0.0031
0.0036
0.0041
0.0046
0.0052
0.0058
0.0064
0.0071
0.0078
0.0085
0.0093
0.0101
0.0109
0.0117
0.0126
0.0135
0.0145
0.0155
0.0165
0.0176
0.0187
0.0011
0.0013
0.0016
0.0019
0.0022
0.0025
0.0028
0.0032
0.0036
0.0040
0.0045
0.0049
0.0054
0.0059
0.0064
0.0070
0.0075
0.0081
0.0087
0.0094
0.0101
0.0107
0.0114
0.0122
0.0129
0.0008
0.0010
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
0.0021
0.0024
0.0026
0.0030
0.0033
0.0036
0.0040
0.0043
0.0047
0.0051
0.0055
0.0060
0.0064
0.0069
0.0074
0.0079
0.0084
0.0089
0.0095
0.0006
0.0008
0.0009
0.0011
0.0012
0.0014
0.0016
0.0018
0.0020
0.0023
0.0025
0.0028
0.0030
0.0033
0.0036
0.0039
0.0042
0.0046
0.0049
0.0053
0.0056
0.0060
0.0064
0.0068
0.0073
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for cables
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Curves for initial heat rise = 100 %
Iph/Ib 1.15
Ia/Ib
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.0531
Iph/Ib 1.95
Ia/Ib
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
0.0779
0.1223
0.1708
0.2240
0.2826
0.3474
0.4194
0.4999
0.5907
0.6940
0.8134
0.9536
1.1221
Iph/Ib 5.00
Ia/Ib
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
0.0088
0.0135
0.0185
0.0237
0.0292
0.0349
0.0408
0.0470
0.0535
0.0602
0.0672
0.0745
0.0820
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.85
1.90
0.6487
1.3203
0.4673
0.8518
1.5243
0.3629
0.6300
1.0152
1.6886
0.2948
0.4977
0.7656
1.1517
1.8258
0.2469
0.4094
0.6131
0.8817
1.2685
1.9433
0.2113
0.3460
0.5093
0.7138
0.9831
1.3705
2.0460
0.1839
0.2984
0.4339
0.5978
0.8030
1.0729
1.4610
2.1371
0.1622
0.2613
0.3765
0.5126
0.6772
0.8830
1.1536
1.5422
2.2188
0.1446
0.2316
0.3314
0.4472
0.5840
0.7492
0.9555
1.2267
1.6159
2.2930
0.1300
0.2073
0.2950
0.3954
0.5118
0.6491
0.8149
1.0218
1.2935
1.6832
2.3609
0.1178
0.1871
0.2650
0.3533
0.4543
0.5713
0.7092
0.8755
1.0829
1.3550
1.7452
2.4233
0.1074
0.1700
0.2400
0.3185
0.4073
0.5088
0.6263
0.7647
0.9316
1.1394
1.4121
1.8027
2.4813
0.0984
0.1555
0.2187
0.2892
0.3682
0.4576
0.5596
0.6776
0.8165
0.9838
1.1921
1.4652
1.8563
0.0907
0.1429
0.2004
0.2642
0.3352
0.4148
0.5047
0.6072
0.7257
0.8650
1.0327
1.2415
1.5150
0.0839
0.1319
0.1846
0.2427
0.3070
0.3785
0.4586
0.5489
0.6519
0.7708
0.9106
1.0787
1.2879
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60
4.80
0.0726
0.1137
0.1586
0.2076
0.2614
0.3204
0.3857
0.4581
0.5390
0.6302
0.7340
0.8537
0.9943
0.0562
0.0877
0.1217
0.1584
0.1981
0.2410
0.2877
0.3384
0.3938
0.4545
0.5213
0.5952
0.6776
0.0451
0.0702
0.0970
0.1258
0.1566
0.1897
0.2253
0.2635
0.3046
0.3491
0.3971
0.4492
0.5059
0.0371
0.0576
0.0795
0.1028
0.1276
0.1541
0.1823
0.2125
0.2446
0.2790
0.3159
0.3553
0.3977
0.0312
0.0483
0.0665
0.0858
0.1063
0.1281
0.1512
0.1758
0.2018
0.2295
0.2589
0.2901
0.3234
0.0266
0.0411
0.0566
0.0729
0.0902
0.1085
0.1278
0.1483
0.1699
0.1928
0.2169
0.2425
0.2695
0.0230
0.0355
0.0488
0.0628
0.0776
0.0932
0.1097
0.1271
0.1454
0.1646
0.1849
0.2063
0.2288
0.0201
0.0310
0.0426
0.0547
0.0676
0.0811
0.0953
0.1103
0.1260
0.1425
0.1599
0.1781
0.1972
0.0177
0.0273
0.0375
0.0482
0.0594
0.0713
0.0837
0.0967
0.1104
0.1247
0.1398
0.1555
0.1720
0.0157
0.0243
0.0333
0.0428
0.0527
0.0632
0.0741
0.0856
0.0976
0.1102
0.1234
0.1372
0.1516
0.0141
0.0217
0.0298
0.0382
0.0471
0.0564
0.0661
0.0763
0.0870
0.0982
0.1098
0.1220
0.1347
0.0127
0.0196
0.0268
0.0344
0.0424
0.0507
0.0594
0.0686
0.0781
0.0881
0.0984
0.1093
0.1206
0.0115
0.0177
0.0243
0.0311
0.0383
0.0458
0.0537
0.0619
0.0705
0.0795
0.0888
0.0985
0.1086
0.0105
0.0161
0.0221
0.0283
0.0348
0.0417
0.0488
0.0562
0.0640
0.0721
0.0805
0.0893
0.0984
0.0096
0.0147
0.0202
0.0259
0.0318
0.0380
0.0445
0.0513
0.0584
0.0657
0.0734
0.0814
0.0897
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
0.0072
0.0111
0.0152
0.0194
0.0239
0.0285
0.0334
0.0384
0.0437
0.0491
0.0548
0.0607
0.0668
0.0060
0.0093
0.0127
0.0162
0.0199
0.0238
0.0278
0.0320
0.0364
0.0409
0.0456
0.0505
0.0555
0.0051
0.0078
0.0107
0.0137
0.0169
0.0201
0.0235
0.0271
0.0308
0.0346
0.0386
0.0427
0.0469
0.0044
0.0067
0.0092
0.0118
0.0145
0.0173
0.0202
0.0232
0.0264
0.0297
0.0330
0.0365
0.0402
0.0038
0.0059
0.0080
0.0102
0.0126
0.0150
0.0175
0.0202
0.0229
0.0257
0.0286
0.0317
0.0348
0.0033
0.0051
0.0070
0.0090
0.0110
0.0131
0.0154
0.0177
0.0200
0.0225
0.0251
0.0277
0.0305
0.0030
0.0045
0.0062
0.0079
0.0097
0.0116
0.0136
0.0156
0.0177
0.0199
0.0221
0.0245
0.0269
0.0026
0.0040
0.0055
0.0071
0.0087
0.0103
0.0121
0.0139
0.0157
0.0177
0.0197
0.0218
0.0239
0.0024
0.0036
0.0049
0.0063
0.0078
0.0093
0.0108
0.0124
0.0141
0.0158
0.0176
0.0195
0.0214
0.0021
0.0033
0.0045
0.0057
0.0070
0.0083
0.0097
0.0112
0.0127
0.0143
0.0159
0.0176
0.0193
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0036
0.0045
0.0053
0.0062
0.0071
0.0081
0.0091
0.0101
0.0112
0.0122
0.0009
0.0014
0.0020
0.0025
0.0031
0.0037
0.0043
0.0049
0.0056
0.0063
0.0070
0.0077
0.0085
0.0007
0.0011
0.0014
0.0018
0.0023
0.0027
0.0031
0.0036
0.0041
0.0046
0.0051
0.0057
0.0062
0.0005
0.0008
0.0011
0.0014
0.0017
0.0021
0.0024
0.0028
0.0031
0.0035
0.0039
0.0043
0.0047
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
103
3
Protection functions
Protection of equipment against thermal
damage due to overloads.
DE51606
101
10-1
Iph = max ( I1 ,I2 ,I3 )
10-2
Tripping curves.
Description
This function is used to protect capacitor banks with or without anti-harmonic
inductors against overloads, based on the measurement of the current drawn.
The current measured by the thermal protection is an RMS 3-phase current which
takes into account harmonics up to number 13.
The highest current of the three phases I1, I2 and I3, subsequently called phase
current Iph, is used to calculate the heat rise:
100
10-3
0
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
5
10
Taking capacitor step ratio into account
When the number of steps (>1) and capacitor step ratio are set in the particular
characteristics, the thermal overload protection function takes into account the
participation of each step in the calculation of heat rise.
The rated current of step x (Ibgx) is equal to the fraction of current that the step
represents in relation to the rated current of the capacitor bank (Ib).
3
Kgx
Ibgx = --------------------------- Ib
n
Kgx
∑
x=1
where Ib is the rated current of the capacitor bank
x is the step number
n is the total number of steps, between 2 and 4
Kgx is the capacitor step ratio value of step x
The rated current of the sequence of steps (Ibseq) is calculated. It is the sum of the
rated currents (Ibgx) of the steps closed during the sequence.
n
Ibseq =
∑
p ( x )Ibgx
x=1
where x is the step number
n is the total number of steps, between 2 and 4
p(x) is the position of the step x:
b p(x) = 1 when the step switch x is closed
b p(x) = 0 when the step switch x is open.
The heat rise is proportional to the square of the drawn current in relation to the rated
current of the sequence. Under steady state conditions, it is equal to:
Iph 2
E = ⎛ -----------------⎞ × 100
⎝ Ibseq⎠
as a %
If the closed positions of the steps are not acquired or if the number of steps set in the
particular characteristics is 1, the rated current of the sequences is equal to the rated
current of the capacitor bank. In such cases, the heat rise is proportional to the drawn
current in relation to the rated current of the capacitor bank. Under steady state
conditions, it is equal to:
Iph 2
E = ⎛ ---------⎞ × 100
⎝ Ib ⎠
104
as a %
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
Operation curve
The protection function gives a tripping order when the current drawn is greater than
the overload current, with respect to the rated current of the sequence.
The tripping time is set by assigning a hot tripping time to a setting current. This
setting is used to calculate a time factor:
1
C = -----------------------------------------------Is
⎛ ⎛ -----⎞2 – 1 ⎞
⎟
⎜ ⎝ Ib⎠
In ⎜ ------------------------------------ ⎟
2
2
Is
Itrip
⎜ ⎛ -----⎞ – ⎛ -------------⎞ ⎟
⎝ ⎝ Ib⎠ ⎝ Ib ⎠ ⎠
where In: natural logarithm.
The tripping time with an initial heat rise of 0 % is then given by:
Iph ⎞2
⎛ ---------------⎞
⎛
⎝ Ibseq⎠
⎟
⎜
t = C × In ⎜ -------------------------------------------------------- ⎟ × Ts
Iph ⎞2 ⎛ Itrip ⎞2 ⎟
⎜ ⎛ ---------------⎝ ⎝ Ibseq-⎠ – ⎝ ---------------Ibseq⎠ ⎠
where In: natural logarithm.
3
= k x Ts
The tripping time with an intial heat rise of 100 % is then given by:
Iph ⎞2
⎛ ---------------⎞
⎛
- –1
⎝ Ibseq⎠
⎟
⎜
------------------------------------------------------t = C × In ⎜
⎟ × Ts
Iph ⎞2 ⎛ Itrip ⎞2 ⎟
⎜ ⎛ ---------------- ⎠
⎝ ⎝ Ibseq-⎠ – ⎝ ---------------⎠
Ibseq
= k x Ts
where In: natural logarithm.
The tripping curve tables give the values of k for an inital heat rise from 0 % to 100 %.
The current heat rise is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
DE80269
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
105
Protection functions
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
User information
The following information is available for the user:
b heat rise
b time before tripping (with constant current).
Characteristics
Settings
Alarm current Ialarm
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Tripping current Itrip
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Setting current Is
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Setting time Ts
Setting range
3
Resolution
1.05 to 1.70 Ib
±2 %
1A
1.05 to 1.70 Ib
±2 %
1A
1.02 Itrip to 2 Ib
±2 %
1A
1 to 2000 minutes (range varies depending on the tripping and
setting currents)
1 mn
Characteristic times
Operation time accuracy
±2 % or ±2 s
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P49RMS_1_101
P49RMS_1_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Designation
Syntax
Delayed output
P49RMS _1_3
Alarm
P49RMS _1_10
Inhibit closing
P49RMS _1_11
Protection inhibited
P49RMS _1_16
Hot state
P49RMS _1_18
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
106
Matrix
b
b
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
Example
PE50424
Given a 350 kvar capacitor bank with 3 steps, and no anti-harmonic inductors, for a
voltage of 2 kV. The capacitor step ratio is 1.2.2.
The rated current of the capacitor bank is:
Ib = Q /(3 Un )= 350000 (3 x 2000) = 101 A
According to the manufacturer data, this capacitor bank can operate continuously with
an overload current of 120 % Ib and for 20 minutes with an overload of 140 % Ib.
Parameter setting of capacitor bank step ratio.
The protection settings are:
Itrip = 120 % Ib = 121 A
Is = 140 % Ib = 141 A
Ts = 20 min.
Steps 1 and 2 closed
Steps 1 and 2 are closed in the sequence in progress. The sequence current is:
1+2+0
Ibseq = ----------------------- × Ib = 61 A
1+2+2
3
For a current of 125 % Ibseq = 76 A, and an initial heat rise of 100 %, the value of k
in the tripping curve tables is: k = 2.486.
The tripping time is:
t = k x Ts = 2.486 x 20 ≈ 50 mn
All the steps closed
When all the steps are closed, the sequence current is the rated current of the
capacitor bank:
1+2+2
Ibseq = ----------------------- × Ib = 101 A
1+2+2
For a current of 140 % Ibseq = 141 A, and an initial heat rise of 0 %, the value of k in
the tripping curve tables is: k = 2.164.
The tripping time is:
t = k x Ts = 2.164 x 20 ≈ 43 mn
The table below summarizes the rated sequence current, the tripping current and
examples of tripping times for overload currents of 125 % Ib and 140 % Ib, for initial
heat rises of 0 % and 100 %.
Closed step
numbers
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Ibseq (A)
Itrip
(A)
24
125 % Ibseq
Iph
Tripping
(A)
time (mn)
0%
100 %
25
83
50
140 % Ibseq
Iph
Tripping
(A)
time (mn)
0%
100 %
28
43
20
1+0+0
----------------------- × Ib = 20
1+2+2
1
b
2
-
3
-
b
b
-
1+2+0
----------------------- × Ib = 61
1+2+2
73
76
83
50
85
43
20
-
b
b
0+2+2
----------------------- × Ib = 81
1+2+2
97
101
83
50
113
43
20
b
b
b
121
1+2+2
----------------------- × Ib = 101
1+2+2
126
83
50
141
43
20
107
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Curves for initial heat rise = 0 %
Is = 1.2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
6.7632
3.7989
5.4705
2.8277
1.8980
4.6108
2.2954
1.4189
3.9841
1.9404
1.1556
3.5018
1.6809
0.9796
3.1171
1.4809
0.8507
2.8020
1.3209
0.7510
2.5389
1.1896
0.6712
2.3157
1.0798
0.6056
2.1239
0.9865
0.5506
1.9574
0.9061
0.5037
1.8115
0.8362
0.4634
1.6828
0.7749
0.4282
1.5683
0.7207
0.3973
Is = 1.2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.3741
0.6293
0.3456
1.2911
0.5905
0.3237
1.2158
0.5554
0.3040
0.9747
0.4435
0.2417
0.8011
0.3635
0.1976
0.6713
0.3040
0.1649
0.5714
0.2584
0.1399
0.4927
0.2226
0.1204
0.4295
0.1939
0.1047
0.3779
0.1704
0.0920
0.3352
0.1511
0.0815
0.2995
0.1349
0.0728
0.2692
0.1212
0.0653
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
7.6039
4.1030
2.9738
2.5077
6.5703
3.4684
2.4220
1.8824
1.5305
5.7750
3.0047
2.0530
1.5378
1.1532
5.1405
2.6470
1.7829
1.3070
0.9449
4.6210
2.3611
1.5740
1.1375
0.8050
4.1871
2.1265
1.4067
1.0063
0.7021
3.8189
1.9301
1.2692
0.9010
0.6223
3.5027
1.7633
1.1539
0.8143
0.5582
3.2281
1.6197
1.0557
0.7415
0.5052
2.9875
1.4948
0.9711
0.6794
0.4607
2.7752
1.3852
0.8974
0.6257
0.4227
2.5864
1.2883
0.8327
0.5790
0.3898
1.05
1.10
1.15
9.1282
1.4660
0.6725
0.3699
3
Is = 1.3 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
15.0540 11.1530 9.0217
6.7905 5.0545
3.9779
Is = 1.3 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
2.2661
1.1249
0.7242
0.5013
0.3358
2.1292
1.0555
0.6785
0.4688
0.3134
2.0051
0.9927
0.6372
0.4396
0.2933
1.6074
0.7927
0.5066
0.3478
0.2309
1.3211
0.6498
0.4141
0.2834
0.1874
1.1071
0.5435
0.3456
0.2360
0.1557
0.9424
0.4619
0.2933
0.1999
0.1316
0.8126
0.3979
0.2523
0.1717
0.1129
0.7084
0.3465
0.2195
0.1493
0.0981
0.6233
0.3047
0.1929
0.1310
0.0860
0.5529
0.2701
0.1709
0.1160
0.0761
0.4939
0.2412
0.1525
0.1035
0.0678
0.4440
0.2167
0.1370
0.0929
0.0609
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
9.3578
5.0988
3.7270
3.1170
2.9310
8.2251
4.4171
3.1593
2.5464
2.2085
2.0665
7.3214
3.8914
2.7435
2.1642
1.8095
1.5627
1.3673
6.5815
3.4710
2.4222
1.8836
1.5416
1.2839
1.0375
5.9634
3.1261
2.1647
1.6664
1.3446
1.0964
0.8546
5.4391
2.8375
1.9531
1.4920
1.1918
0.9582
0.7314
4.9887
2.5922
1.7757
1.3483
1.0689
0.8508
0.6404
4.5976
2.3811
1.6246
1.2278
0.9676
0.7643
0.5696
4.2550
2.1975
1.4944
1.1249
0.8823
0.6929
0.5125
3.9525
2.0364
1.3810
1.0361
0.8095
0.6327
0.4653
3.6837
1.8939
1.2813
0.9587
0.7466
0.5813
0.4254
2.4177
1.2021
0.7753
0.5378
0.3611
Is = 1.4 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
21.4400 15.8850 12.8490 10.8300
9.9827 7.4306 6.0317
6.1214 4.5762
4.1525
Is = 1.4 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
3.2275
1.6537
1.1145
0.8302
0.6432
0.4977
0.3617
3.0325
1.5516
1.0440
0.7763
0.6002
0.4634
0.3358
2.8557
1.4593
0.9805
0.7279
0.5618
0.4328
0.3129
2.2894
1.1654
0.7796
0.5760
0.4421
0.3386
0.2431
1.8816
0.9552
0.6372
0.4692
0.3589
0.2738
0.1957
1.5768
0.7989
0.5318
0.3907
0.2981
0.2268
0.1617
1.3422
0.6791
0.4513
0.3310
0.2521
0.1914
0.1361
1.1573
0.5849
0.3882
0.2844
0.2163
0.1640
0.1164
1.0089
0.5094
0.3378
0.2472
0.1878
0.1422
0.1009
0.8877
0.4479
0.2968
0.2170
0.1647
0.1246
0.0883
0.7874
0.3970
0.2629
0.1921
0.1457
0.1102
0.0780
0.7034
0.3545
0.2346
0.1714
0.1299
0.0981
0.0694
0.6323
0.3186
0.2107
0.1538
0.1165
0.0880
0.0622
108
3.4434
1.7672
1.1931
0.8906
0.6916
0.5367
0.3913
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Curves for initial heat rise = 0 %
Is = 2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.15
1.20
1.25
69.6380 51.5950 41.7340 35.1750
33.9580 25.2760 20.5180
22.0350 16.4730
16.0520
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
30.3940
17.3440
13.4160
12.0490
12.4460
26.7150
15.0260
11.3720
9.8435
9.3782
10.0300
23.7800
13.2370
9.8756
8.3659
7.6840
7.5843
8.2921
21.3760
11.8070
8.7189
7.2814
6.5465
6.2313
6.2917
6.9790
19.3690
10.6340
7.7922
6.4415
5.7100
5.3211
5.1827
5.3124
17.6660
9.6521
7.0303
5.7674
5.0610
4.6505
4.4353
4.3868
5.1152
16.2030
8.8176
6.3916
5.2122
4.5392
4.1294
3.8838
3.7619
3.9169
14.9330
8.0995
5.8479
4.7460
4.1087
3.7096
3.4544
3.3000
3.2491
3.8403
13.8200
7.4750
5.3792
4.3485
3.7467
3.3629
3.1081
2.9399
2.7969
2.9564
12.8380
6.9270
4.9710
4.0053
3.4375
3.0708
2.8215
2.6491
2.4617
2.4625
2.8932
11.9650
6.4425
4.6123
3.7060
3.1703
2.8210
2.5799
2.4081
2.1997
2.1271
2.2383
3
Is = 2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
10.4830
5.6254
4.0117
3.2091
2.7311
2.4157
2.1935
2.0301
1.8112
1.6825
1.6215
9.8495
5.2781
3.7581
3.0008
2.5486
2.2489
2.0365
1.8787
1.6620
1.5240
1.4355
9.2753
4.9642
3.5295
2.8138
2.3855
2.1007
1.8978
1.7459
1.5337
1.3920
1.2893
7.4358
3.9642
2.8064
2.2265
1.8775
1.6433
1.4745
1.3461
1.1600
1.0256
0.9143
6.1115
3.2494
2.2936
1.8138
1.5240
1.3288
1.1871
1.0785
0.9190
0.8008
0.7007
5.1214
2.7177
1.9142
1.5104
1.2659
1.1007
0.9804
0.8878
0.7509
0.6484
0.5610
4.3594
2.3099
1.6245
1.2795
1.0704
0.9289
0.8257
0.7459
0.6276
0.5386
0.4625
3.7590
1.9896
1.3975
1.0993
0.9184
0.7958
0.7061
0.6369
0.5337
0.4560
0.3895
3.2768
1.7328
1.2159
0.9555
0.7974
0.6901
0.6116
0.5509
0.4603
0.3920
0.3335
2.8832
1.5235
1.0683
0.8388
0.6994
0.6047
0.5354
0.4817
0.4016
0.3411
0.2894
2.5574
1.3506
0.9464
0.7426
0.6187
0.5346
0.4730
0.4252
0.3538
0.2998
0.2538
2.2846
1.2059
0.8446
0.6624
0.5515
0.4762
0.4210
0.3782
0.3143
0.2659
0.2246
2.0537
1.0836
0.7586
0.5946
0.4949
0.4271
0.3774
0.3388
0.2812
0.2376
0.2004
11.1840
6.0114
4.2947
3.4426
2.9368
2.6048
2.3729
2.2046
1.9875
1.8779
1.8713
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
109
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Curves for initial heat rise = 100 %
Is = 1.2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
1.4422
1.624
1.0000
1.000
1.000
0.7585
0.720
0.645
0.6064
0.559
0.477
0.5019
0.454
0.377
0.4258
0.381
0.310
0.3679
0.3257
0.2621
0.3226
0.2835
0.2260
0.2862
0.2501
0.1979
0.2563
0.2229
0.1754
0.2313
0.2004
0.1570
0.2102
0.1816
0.1417
0.1922
0.1655
0.1288
0.1766
0.1518
0.1177
Is = 1.2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
0.1511
0.1293
0.0999
0.1405
0.1201
0.0926
0.1311
0.1119
0.0861
0.1020
0.0867
0.0664
0.0821
0.0696
0.0531
0.0677
0.0573
0.0436
0.0569
0.0481
0.0366
0.0486
0.0410
0.0312
0.0421
0.0354
0.0269
0.0368
0.0310
0.0235
0.0325
0.0273
0.0207
0.0289
0.0243
0.0184
0.0259
0.0217
0.0165
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
2.3784
2.9020
1.6492
1.7875
2.0959
1.2509
1.2878
1.3521
1.5014
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.8276
0.8123
0.7901
0.7541
0.6820
0.7021
0.6802
0.6498
0.6039
0.5222
0.6068
0.5823
0.5493
0.5017
0.4227
0.5320
0.5068
0.4737
0.4274
0.3541
0.4719
0.4470
0.4148
0.3708
0.3036
0.4226
0.3984
0.3676
0.3264
0.2648
0.3815
0.3583
0.3291
0.2905
0.2341
0.3467
0.3246
0.2970
0.2610
0.2092
0.3170
0.2959
0.2699
0.2364
0.1886
0.2913
0.2713
0.2468
0.2154
0.1713
Is = 1.3 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
0.2491
0.2311
0.2094
0.1819
0.1438
0.2317
0.2146
0.1941
0.1682
0.1327
0.2162
0.2000
0.1805
0.1562
0.1230
0.1682
0.1550
0.1393
0.1199
0.0938
0.1354
0.1243
0.1114
0.0955
0.0745
0.1117
0.1023
0.0915
0.0783
0.0609
0.0939
0.0859
0.0767
0.0655
0.0508
0.0802
0.0733
0.0653
0.0557
0.0432
0.0694
0.0633
0.0564
0.0481
0.0372
0.0607
0.0554
0.0492
0.0419
0.0324
0.0535
0.0488
0.0434
0.0369
0.0285
0.0476
0.0434
0.0386
0.0328
0.0253
0.0426
0.0389
0.0345
0.0293
0.0226
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
3.3874
4.2662
2.3488
2.6278
3.2252
1.7816
1.8931
2.0806
2.4862
1.4243
1.4701
1.5388
1.6559
1.9151
1.1788
1.1942
1.2158
1.2488
1.3061
1.4393
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.8642
0.8560
0.8453
0.8307
0.8095
0.7750
0.7053
0.7577
0.7451
0.7289
0.7077
0.6780
0.6330
0.5521
0.6721
0.6571
0.6383
0.6141
0.5814
0.5339
0.4544
0.6019
0.5857
0.5657
0.5405
0.5072
0.4603
0.3855
0.5434
0.5267
0.5064
0.4811
0.4484
0.4035
0.3340
0.4938
0.4771
0.4570
0.4323
0.4007
0.3581
0.2940
0.4515
0.4350
0.4154
0.3914
0.3612
0.3211
0.2618
0.4148
0.3988
0.3797
0.3567
0.3280
0.2903
0.2355
Is = 1.4 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
0.3548
0.3398
0.3222
0.3011
0.2753
0.2420
0.1948
0.3300
0.3155
0.2986
0.2786
0.2541
0.2228
0.1788
0.3079
0.2940
0.2778
0.2587
0.2355
0.2060
0.1649
0.2396
0.2278
0.2143
0.1985
0.1796
0.1561
0.1240
0.1928
0.1828
0.1714
0.1582
0.1426
0.1235
0.0976
0.1590
0.1505
0.1408
0.1296
0.1165
0.1006
0.0793
0.1337
0.1263
0.1180
0.1085
0.0973
0.0838
0.0659
0.1142
0.1078
0.1005
0.0923
0.0827
0.0711
0.0558
0.0988
0.0931
0.0868
0.0796
0.0712
0.0612
0.0480
0.0864
0.0814
0.0758
0.0694
0.0621
0.0533
0.0417
0.0762
0.0718
0.0668
0.0611
0.0546
0.0468
0.0367
0.0678
0.0638
0.0593
0.0543
0.0485
0.0415
0.0325
0.0607
0.0571
0.0531
0.0486
0.0433
0.0371
0.0290
1.05
1.10
1.15
2.5249
0.1630
0.1398
0.1082
3
Is = 1.3 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
4.1639
0.2688
0.2499
0.2268
0.1974
0.1565
Is = 1.4 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
110
5.9304
0.3829
0.3673
0.3490
0.3269
0.2997
0.2643
0.2135
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for capacitors
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Curves for initial heat rise = 100 %
Is = 2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.10
Itrip/Ibseq
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.15
1.20
1.25
19.2620 11.0020 7.6288 5.7866
14.5120 8.9388 6.4398
11.6100 7.4893
9.6105
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
4.6259
5.0007
5.5392
6.4010
8.1323
3.8286
4.0622
4.3766
4.8272
5.5465
6.9855
3.2480
3.4016
3.5996
3.8656
4.2465
4.8534
6.0646
2.8069
2.9118
3.0427
3.2112
3.4375
3.7614
4.2771
5.3051
2.4611
2.5344
2.6238
2.7355
2.8792
3.0722
3.3484
3.7883
2.1831
2.2351
2.2975
2.3737
2.4688
2.5911
2.7556
2.9911
4.1166
1.9550
1.9923
2.0364
2.0892
2.1537
2.2342
2.3380
2.4776
2.9979
1.7648
1.7915
1.8228
1.8597
1.9041
1.9582
2.0258
2.1131
2.3998
3.2166
1.6039
1.6230
1.6451
1.6709
1.7014
1.7380
1.7828
1.8388
2.0090
2.3778
1.4663
1.4797
1.4951
1.5129
1.5337
1.5583
1.5879
1.6241
1.7283
1.9239
2.4956
1.3473
1.3565
1.3669
1.3788
1.3927
1.4088
1.4280
1.4511
1.5149
1.6242
1.8670
3
Is = 2 Ib
Iph/Ibseq 1.85
Itrip/Ibseq
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.1525
1.1559
1.1597
1.1640
1.1690
1.1747
1.1813
1.1891
1.2094
1.2406
1.2953
1.0718
1.0733
1.0750
1.0768
1.0790
1.0814
1.0842
1.0874
1.0958
1.1082
1.1286
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.7783
0.7750
0.7713
0.7673
0.7628
0.7578
0.7522
0.7459
0.7306
0.7102
0.6816
0.6262
0.6217
0.6169
0.6115
0.6057
0.5992
0.5920
0.5841
0.5652
0.5410
0.5089
0.5165
0.5118
0.5066
0.5010
0.4949
0.4882
0.4808
0.4728
0.4539
0.4303
0.4000
0.4343
0.4297
0.4247
0.4192
0.4133
0.4069
0.3998
0.3921
0.3744
0.3527
0.3253
0.3709
0.3666
0.3618
0.3567
0.3511
0.3451
0.3386
0.3315
0.3152
0.2955
0.2711
0.3209
0.3168
0.3124
0.3076
0.3025
0.2969
0.2910
0.2844
0.2697
0.2520
0.2302
0.2806
0.2768
0.2727
0.2683
0.2636
0.2585
0.2531
0.2471
0.2337
0.2178
0.1983
0.2476
0.2441
0.2404
0.2363
0.2320
0.2274
0.2224
0.2170
0.2048
0.1904
0.1730
0.2202
0.2170
0.2136
0.2099
0.2059
0.2017
0.1971
0.1922
0.1811
0.1681
0.1524
0.1972
0.1943
0.1911
0.1877
0.1841
0.1802
0.1760
0.1715
0.1614
0.1496
0.1355
1.2436
1.2495
1.2562
1.2638
1.2725
1.2826
1.2945
1.3085
1.3463
1.4070
1.5237
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
111
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Protection of equipment against thermal
damage caused by overloads.
Description
This function is used to protect equipment (motors, transformers, generators) against
overloads, based on measurement of the current drawn.
Operation curve
The protection issues a trip order when the heat rise E, calculated according to the
measurement of an equivalent current Ieq, is greater than the set point Es.
The greatest permissible continuous current is
I = Ib Es
The protection tripping time is set by the time constant T.
b the calculated heat rise depends on the current drawn and the previous heat rise
b the cold curve defines the protection tripping time based on zero heat rise
b the hot curve defines the protection tripping time based on 100 % rated heat rise.
DE50808
101
3
2
⎛ leq
---------⎞
⎝ lb ⎠
t
--- = ln -----------------------------2
T
⎛ leq
---------⎞ – Es
⎝ lb ⎠
0
10
10-1
10-2
10-3
0
2
⎛ leq
---------⎞ – 1
⎝ lb ⎠
t
--- = ln -----------------------------2
T
⎛ leq
---------⎞ – Es
⎝ lb ⎠
10
5
ln: natural logarithm.
Alarm set point, tripping set point
Two set points are available for heat rise:
b Es1: alarm
b Es2: tripping.
"Hot state" set point
When the function is used to protect a motor, this fixed set point is designed for
detection of the hot state used by the number of starts function. The value of the fixed
set point is 50 %.
Heat rise and cooling time constants
MT10420
MT10419
E
1
E
1
0,63
0,36
0
0
T1
t
Heat rise time constant.
T2
Cooling time constant.
t
For self-ventilated rotating machines, cooling is more effective when the machine is
running than when it is stopped. Running and stopping of the equipment are
calculated based on the value of the current:
b running if I > 0.1 Ib
b stopped if I < 0.1 Ib.
Two time constants may be set:
b T1: heat rise time constant: concerns equipment that is running
b T2: cooling time constant: concerns equipment that is stopped.
Taking into account harmonics
The current measured by the thermal protection is an RMS 3-phase current which
takes into account harmonics up to number 13.
112
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Taking into account ambient temperature
Most machines are designed to operate at a maximum ambient temperature of 40°C
(104°F). The thermal overload function takes into account the ambient temperature
(Sepam equipped with the temperature sensor option (1)) to increase the calculated
heat rise value when the temperature measured exceeds 40°C (104°F).
Tmax – 40°C
Increase factor: fa = ----------------------------------------------------Tmax – Tambiant
where T max is the equipment maximum temperature (according to insulation class)
T ambient is the measured temperature.
Table of insulation classes
Class
Y
A
E
Tmax
90 °C
105 °C 120 °C
Tmax
194 °F 221 °F 248 °F
Reference IEC 60085 (1984).
B
130 °C
266 °F
F
155 °C
311 °F
H
180 °C
356 °F
200
200 °C
392 °F
220
220 °C
428 °F
250
250 °C
482 °F
Adaptation of the protection to motor thermal withstand
Motor thermal protection is often set based on the hot and cold curves supplied by
the machine manufacturer.
To fully comply with these experimental curves, additional parameters must be set:
b initial heat rise, Es0, is used to reduce the cold tripping time.
2
⎛ leq
---------⎞ – Es0
⎝ lb ⎠
t
- where ln: natural logarithm
modified cold curve: --- = ln ---------------------------------2
T
⎛ leq
---------⎞ – Es
⎝ lb ⎠
b a second group of parameters (time constants and set points) is used to take into
account thermal withstand with locked rotors. This second set of parameters is taken
into account when the current is greater than an adjustable set point Is.
Taking into account the negative sequence component
In the case of motors with coiled rotors, the presence of a negative sequence
component increases the heat rise in the motor. The negative sequence component
of the current is taken into account in the protection function by the equation.
lph + K × li
2
2
where Iph is the largest phase current
Ii is the negative sequence component of the current
K is a adjustable coefficient
K may have the following values: 0 - 2.25 - 4.5 - 9
For an asynchronous motor, K is determined as follows:
Cd
1
K = 2 × -------- × -------------------------2- – 1 where Cn, Cd: rated torque and starting torque
Cn
ld
⎛
Ib, Id: base current and starting current
g × ----- ⎞
⎝ lb ⎠
g: rated slip
leq =
Learning of the cooling time constant T2
The time constant T2 may be learnt according to the temperatures measured in the
equipment by temperature sensors connected to the MET148-2 module number 1.
T2 is estimated:
b after a heating/cooling sequence:
v heating period detected by ES > 70 %
v followed by a shutdown detected by Ieq < 10 % of Ib
b when the machine temperature is measured by RTDs connected to MET148-2
module number 1:
v RTD 1, 2 or 3 assigned to motor/generator stator temperature measurement
v RTD 1, 3 or 5 assigned to transformer temperature measurement.
After each new heating/cooling sequence is detected, a new T2 value is estimated.
Following estimation, T2 can be used in two manners:
b automatically, in which case each new calculated value updates the T2 constant
used
b or manually by entering the value for the T2 parameter.
Measurement accuracy may be improved by using RTD 8 to measure the ambient
temperature.
Because the function has two operating modes, a time constant is estimated for each
mode.
For generator-transformer unit or motor-transformer unit applications, it is advised to
connect the rotating machine RTDs to MET148-2 module number 1 to take
advantage of T2 learning on the rotating machine rather than on the transformer.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
113
3
Protection functions
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Start inhibit
The thermal overload protection can inhibit the closing of the motor control device
until the heat rise drops back down below a value that allows restarting.
This value takes into account the heat rise produced by the motor when starting.
The inhibition function is grouped together with the starts per hour protection
function and the indication START INHIBIT informs the user.
Saving the heat rise information
The current heat rise is saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
Inhibition of tripping
Tripping of the thermal overload protection may be inhibited by the logic input "Inhibit
thermal overload" when required by the process.
Use of two operating modes
The thermal overload protection function may be used to protect equipment with two
operating modes, for example:
b transformers with two ventilation modes, with or without forced ventilation
(ONAN / ONAF)
b two-speed motors.
The protection function comprises two groups of settings, and each group is suitable
for equipment protection in one of the two operating modes.
Switching from one group of thermal settings to the other is done without losing the
heat rise information. It is controlled:
b either via a logic input, assigned to the "switching of thermal settings" function
b or when the phase current reaches an adjustable Is set point (to be used for
switching of thermal settings of a motor with locked rotor).
The base current of the equipment, used to calculate heat rise, also depends on the
operating mode:
b for logic input switching in mode 2, the base current Ib-mode 2, a specific thermal
overload protection setting, is used to calculate the heat rise in the equipment
b in all other cases, the base current Ib, defined as a general Sepam parameter, is
used to calculate the heat rise in the equipment.
3
User information
The following information is available for the user:
b heat rise
b learnt cooling time constant T2
b time before restart enabled (in case of inhibition of starting)
b time before tripping (with constant current).
See the section on measurement and machine operation assistance functions.
DE51636
Block diagram
114
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Image thermique machine
ANSI code 49 RMS
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
I1, I2, I3 / I'1, I'2, I'3
Taking into account the negative sequence component K
Setting range
0 - 2.25 - 4.59
Taking into account ambient temperature
Setting range
Yes / no
Using the learnt cooling time constant T2
Setting range
Yes / no
Maximum equipment temperature Tmax (according to
insulation class)
Setting range
60 °C to 200 °C or 140 °F to 392 °F
Resolution
1°C or 1°F
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P49RMS_1_101
P49RMS_1_113
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
Syntax
P49RMS_1_3
P49RMS_1_10
P49RMS_1_11
P49RMS_1_16
P49RMS_1_18
P49RMS_1_32
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Delayed output
Alarm
Inhibit closing
Protection inhibited
Hot state
Inhibit thermal overload
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
b
b
Thermal mode 1
Alarm set point Es1
Setting range
0 % to 300 %
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Tripping set point Es2
Setting range
0 % to 300 %
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Initial heat rise set point Es0
Setting range
0 % to 100 %
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Heat rise time constant T1
Setting range
1 min. to 600 min.
Resolution
1 min.
Cooling time constant T2
Setting range
5 min. to 600 min.
Resolution
1 min.
3
Thermal mode 2
Using thermal mode 2
Setting range
Yes / no
Alarm set point Es1
Setting range
0 % to 300 %
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Tripping set point Es2
Setting range
0 % to 300 %
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Initial heat rise set point Es0
Setting range
0 % to 100 %
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Heat rise time constant T1
Setting range
1 min. to 600 min.
Resolution
1 min.
Cooling time constant T2
Setting range
5 min. to 600 min.
Resolution
1 min.
Switching set point for thermal mode 2
Setting range
25 % to 800 % of Ib
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Base current Ib - mode 2
Setting range
0.2 to 2.6 In or I’n
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1A
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time accuracy ±2 % or ±1 s
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-8).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
115
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Setting examples
Example 1: motor
The following data are available:
b time constants for on operation T1 and off operation
T2:
v T1 = 25 min.
v T2 = 70 min.
b maximum steady state current:
Imax/Ib = 1.05.
Setting of tripping set point Es2
Es2 = (Imax/Ib)2 = 110 %
Note. If the motor draws a current of 1.05 Ib
continuously, the heat rise calculated by the thermal
overload protection will reach 110 %.
Setting of alarm set point Es1
Es1 = 90 % (I/Ib = 0.95).
Knegative: 4.5 (usual value)
The other thermal overload parameters do not need to
be set. They are not taken into account by default.
3
Example 2: motor
The following data are available:
b motor thermal withstand in the form of hot and cold
curves (see solid line curves in Figure 1)
b cooling time constant T2
b maximum steady state current:
Imax/Ib = 1.05.
Setting of tripping set point Es2
Es2 = (Imax/Ib)2 = 110 %
Setting of alarm set point Es1:
Es1 = 90 % (I/Ib = 0.95).
The manufacturer's hot/cold curves (1) may be used to
determine the heating time constant T1.
The method consists of placing the Sepam hot/cold
curves below those of the motor.
MT10860
Figure 1. Motor thermal withstand and thermal
overload tripping curves.
motor cold curve
For an overload of 2Ib, the value t/T1 = 0.0339 (2).
In order for Sepam to trip at point 1 (t = 70 s), T1 is equal to 2065 sec ≈ 34 min.
With a setting of T1 = 34 min., the tripping time is obtained based on a cold state
(point 2). In this case, it is equal to t/T1 = 0.3216 ⇒ t = 665 sec, i.e. ≈ 11 min., which
is compatible with the motor thermal withstand when it is cold.
The negative sequence factor K is calculated using the equation defined on
page 113.
The parameters of the 2nd thermal overload relay do not need to be set.
They are not taken into account by default.
Example 3: motor
The following data are available:
b motor thermal withstand in the form of hot and cold curves (see solid line curves
in Figure 2)
b cooling time constant T2
b maximum steady state current: Imax/Ib = 1.1.
The thermal overload parameters are determined in the same way as in the previous
example.
Setting of tripping set point Es2
Es2 = (Imax/Ib)2 = 120 %
Setting of alarm set point Es1
Es1 = 90 % (I/Ib = 0.95).
The time constant T1 is calculated so that the thermal overload protection trips after
100 seconds (point 1).
With t/T1 = 0.069 (I/Ib = 2 and Es2 = 120 %):
⇒ T1 = 100 sec / 0.069 = 1449 sec ≈ 24 min.
The tripping time starting from the cold state is equal to:
t/T1 = 0.3567 ⇒ t = 24 min. x 0.3567 = 513 sec (point 2’).
This tripping time is too long since the limit for this overload current is 400 sec
(point 2).
If the time constant T1 is lowered, the thermal overload protection will trip earlier,
below point 2.
The risk that motor starting when hot will not be possible also exists in this case (see
Figure 2 in which a lower Sepam hot curve would intersect the starting curve with U
= 0.9 Un).
The Es0 parameter is a setting that is used to solve these differences by lowering
the Sepam cold curve without moving the hot curve.
In this example, the thermal overload protection should trip after 400 sec starting
from the cold state.
The following equation is used to obtain the Es0 value:
time before tripping/s
Sepam cold curve
665
motor hot curve
2
1
1.05
2
t necessary
---------------------T
–e 1 ×
2
l processed
---------------------- – E s2
lb
where:
t necessary : tripping time necessary starting from a cold state.
I processed : equipment current.
Sepam hot curve
70
116
2
l processed
E s0 = ---------------------lb
I/Ib
(1) When the machine manufacturer provides both a time constant T1 and the machine hot/cold
curves, the use of the curves is recommended since they are more accurate.
(2) It is possible to use the charts containing the numerical values of the Sepam hot curve or the
equation of the curve which is given on page 112.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Setting examples
In numerical values, the following is obtained:
Es0 = 4 – e
400 s
----------------------24 × 60 s
Use of the additional setting group
When a motor rotor is locked or is turning very slowly, its thermal behavior is different
from that with the rated load.
In such conditions, the motor is damaged by overheating of the rotor or stator. For
high power motors, rotor overheating is most often a limiting factor.
The thermal overload parameters chosen for operation with a low overload are no
longer valid.
In order to protect the motor in this case, "excessive starting time" protection may be
used.
Nevertheless, motor manufacturers provide the thermal withstand curves when the
rotor is locked, for different voltages at the time of starting.
× 4 – ( 1.2 ) = 0.3035 ≈ ( 31 % )
By setting Es0 = 31 %, point 2’ is moved downward to
obtain a shorter tripping time that is compatible with the
motor thermal withstand when cold (see Figure 3).
Note. A setting Es0 = 100 % therefore means that the
hot and cold curves are the same.
Figure 2. Hot/cold curves not compatible with the
motor thermal withstand.
Figure 4. Locked rotor thermal withstand.
2’
2
100
motor cold curve
locked rotor
motor running
MT10863
513
400
3
motor hot curve
times / s
MT10861
time before tripping/s
Sepam cold curve
Sepam hot curve
1
1
3
starting at Un
2
starting at 0.9 Un
1.05
I/Ib
2
4
1.1
MT10862
Figure 3. Hot/cold curves compatible with the
motor thermal withstand via the setting of an initial
heat rise Es0.
time before tripping/s
adjusted Sepam
cold curve
motor cold curve
400
100
2
motor hot curve
1
Sepam hot curve
2
5
Is
1
: thermal withstand, motor running
2
: thermal withstand, motor stopped
3
: Sepam tripping curve
4
: starting at 65 % Un
5
: starting at 80 % Un
6
: starting at 100 % Un
6
I/Ib
In order to take these curves into account, the 2nd thermal overload relay may be
used.
The time constant in this case is, in theory, shorter, however, it should be determined
in the same way as that of the 1st relay.
The thermal overload protection switches between the first and second relay if the
equivalent current Ieq exceeds the Is value (set point current).
starting at Un
starting at 0.9 Un
1.1
2
Example 4. transformer with 2 ventilation modes
I/Ib
The following data are available:
The rated current of a transformer with 2 ventilation modes is:
b Ib = 200 A without forced ventilation (ONAN mode), the main operating mode of
the transformer
b Ib = 240 A with forced ventilation (ONAF mode), a temporary operating mode, to
have 20 % more power available
Setting of the base current for ventilation operating mode 1: Ib = 200 A
(to be set in the Sepam general parameters).
Setting of the base current for ventilation operating mode 2: Ib2 = 240 A
(to be set among the specific thermal overload protection settings).
Switching of thermal settings via logic input, to be assigned to the "switching of
thermal settings" function and to be connected to the transformer ventilation control
unit.
The settings related to each ventilation operating mode (Es set points, time
constants, etc.) are to be determined according to the transformer characteristics
provided by the manufacturer.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
117
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Cold curves for Es0 = 0 %
l/Ib
Es (%)
3
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
118
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
0.6931
0.7985
0.9163
1.0498
1.2040
1.3863
1.6094
1.8971
2.3026
0.6042
0.6909
0.7857
0.8905
1.0076
1.1403
1.2933
1.4739
1.6946
1.9782
2.3755
3.0445
0.5331
0.6061
0.6849
0.7704
0.8640
0.9671
1.0822
1.2123
1.3618
1.5377
1.7513
2.0232
2.3979
3.0040
0.4749
0.5376
0.6046
0.6763
0.7535
0.8373
0.9287
1.0292
1.1411
1.2670
1.4112
1.5796
1.7824
2.0369
2.3792
2.9037
0.4265
0.4812
0.5390
0.6004
0.6657
0.7357
0.8109
0.8923
0.9808
1.0780
1.1856
1.3063
1.4435
1.6025
1.7918
2.0254
2.3308
2.7726
0.3857
0.4339
0.4845
0.5379
0.5942
0.6539
0.7174
0.7853
0.8580
0.9365
1.0217
1.1147
1.2174
1.3318
1.4610
1.6094
1.7838
1.9951
2.2634
2.6311
3.2189
0.3508
0.3937
0.4386
0.4855
0.5348
0.5866
0.6413
0.6991
0.7605
0.8258
0.8958
0.9710
1.0524
1.1409
1.2381
1.3457
1.4663
1.6035
1.7626
1.9518
2.1855
2.4908
2.9327
0.3207
0.3592
0.3993
0.4411
0.4847
0.5302
0.5780
0.6281
0.6809
0.7366
0.7956
0.8583
0.9252
0.9970
1.0742
1.1580
1.2493
1.3499
1.4618
1.5877
1.7319
1.9003
2.1030
2.3576
2.6999
3.2244
0.2945
0.3294
0.3655
0.4029
0.4418
0.4823
0.5245
0.5686
0.6147
0.6630
0.7138
0.7673
0.8238
0.8837
0.9474
1.0154
1.0885
1.1672
1.2528
1.3463
1.4495
1.5645
1.6946
1.8441
2.0200
2.2336
2.5055
2.8802
3.4864
0.2716
0.3033
0.3360
0.3698
0.4049
0.4412
0.4788
0.5180
0.5587
0.6012
0.6455
0.6920
0.7406
0.7918
0.8457
0.9027
0.9632
1.0275
1.0962
1.1701
1.2498
1.3364
1.4313
1.5361
1.6532
1.7858
1.9388
2.1195
2.3401
2.6237
3.0210
0.2513
0.2803
0.3102
0.3409
0.3727
0.4055
0.4394
0.4745
0.5108
0.5486
0.5878
0.6286
0.6712
0.7156
0.7621
0.8109
0.8622
0.9163
0.9734
1.0341
1.0986
1.1676
1.2417
1.3218
1.4088
1.5041
1.6094
1.7272
1.8608
2.0149
2.1972
0.2333
0.2600
0.2873
0.3155
0.3444
0.3742
0.4049
0.4366
0.4694
0.5032
0.5383
0.5746
0.6122
0.6514
0.6921
0.7346
0.7789
0.8253
0.8740
0.9252
0.9791
1.0361
1.0965
1.1609
1.2296
1.3035
1.3832
1.4698
1.5647
1.6695
1.7866
0.2173
0.2419
0.2671
0.2929
0.3194
0.3467
0.3747
0.4035
0.4332
0.4638
0.4953
0.5279
0.5616
0.5964
0.6325
0.6700
0.7089
0.7494
0.7916
0.8356
0.8817
0.9301
0.9808
1.0343
1.0908
1.1507
1.2144
1.2825
1.3555
1.4343
1.5198
0.2029
0.2257
0.2490
0.2728
0.2972
0.3222
0.3479
0.3743
0.4013
0.4292
0.4578
0.4872
0.5176
0.5489
0.5812
0.6146
0.6491
0.6849
0.7220
0.7606
0.8007
0.8424
0.8860
0.9316
0.9793
1.0294
1.0822
1.1379
1.1970
1.2597
1.3266
0.1900
0.2111
0.2327
0.2548
0.2774
0.3005
0.3241
0.3483
0.3731
0.3986
0.4247
0.4515
0.4790
0.5074
0.5365
0.5666
0.5975
0.6295
0.6625
0.6966
0.7320
0.7686
0.8066
0.8461
0.8873
0.9302
0.9751
1.0220
1.0713
1.1231
1.1778
0.1782
0.1980
0.2181
0.2386
0.2595
0.2809
0.3028
0.3251
0.3480
0.3714
0.3953
0.4199
0.4450
0.4708
0.4973
0.5245
0.5525
0.5813
0.6109
0.6414
0.6729
0.7055
0.7391
0.7739
0.8099
0.8473
0.8861
0.9265
0.9687
1.0126
1.0586
0.1676
0.1860
0.2048
0.2239
0.2434
0.2633
0.2836
0.3043
0.3254
0.3470
0.3691
0.3917
0.4148
0.4384
0.4626
0.4874
0.5129
0.5390
0.5658
0.5934
0.6217
0.6508
0.6809
0.7118
0.7438
0.7768
0.8109
0.8463
0.8829
0.9209
0.9605
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Cold curves for Es0 = 0 %
I/Ib
Es (%)
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60
0.1579
0.1752
0.1927
0.2106
0.2288
0.2474
0.2662
0.2855
0.3051
0.3251
0.3456
0.3664
0.3877
0.4095
0.4317
0.4545
0.4778
0.5016
0.5260
0.5511
0.5767
0.6031
0.6302
0.6580
0.6866
0.7161
0.7464
0.7777
0.8100
0.8434
0.8780
0.1491
0.1653
0.1818
0.1985
0.2156
0.2329
0.2505
0.2685
0.2868
0.3054
0.3244
0.3437
0.3634
0.3835
0.4041
0.4250
0.4465
0.4683
0.4907
0.5136
0.5370
0.5610
0.5856
0.6108
0.6366
0.6631
0.6904
0.7184
0.7472
0.7769
0.8075
0.1410
0.1562
0.1717
0.1875
0.2035
0.2197
0.2362
0.2530
0.2701
0.2875
0.3051
0.3231
0.3415
0.3602
0.3792
0.3986
0.4184
0.4386
0.4591
0.4802
0.5017
0.5236
0.5461
0.5690
0.5925
0.6166
0.6413
0.6665
0.6925
0.7191
0.7465
0.1335
0.1479
0.1625
0.1773
0.1924
0.2076
0.2231
0.2389
0.2549
0.2712
0.2877
0.3045
0.3216
0.3390
0.3567
0.3747
0.3930
0.4117
0.4308
0.4502
0.4700
0.4902
0.5108
0.5319
0.5534
0.5754
0.5978
0.6208
0.6444
0.6685
0.6931
0.1090
0.1206
0.1324
0.1442
0.1562
0.1684
0.1807
0.1931
0.2057
0.2185
0.2314
0.2445
0.2578
0.2713
0.2849
0.2988
0.3128
0.3270
0.3414
0.3561
0.3709
0.3860
0.4013
0.4169
0.4327
0.4487
0.4651
0.4816
0.4985
0.5157
0.5331
0.0908
0.1004
0.1100
0.1197
0.1296
0.1395
0.1495
0.1597
0.1699
0.1802
0.1907
0.2012
0.2119
0.2227
0.2336
0.2446
0.2558
0.2671
0.2785
0.2900
0.3017
0.3135
0.3254
0.3375
0.3498
0.3621
0.3747
0.3874
0.4003
0.4133
0.4265
0.0768
0.0849
0.0929
0.1011
0.1093
0.1176
0.1260
0.1344
0.1429
0.1514
0.1601
0.1688
0.1776
0.1865
0.1954
0.2045
0.2136
0.2228
0.2321
0.2414
0.2509
0.2604
0.2701
0.2798
0.2897
0.2996
0.3096
0.3197
0.3300
0.3403
0.3508
0.0659
0.0727
0.0796
0.0865
0.0935
0.1006
0.1076
0.1148
0.1219
0.1292
0.1365
0.1438
0.1512
0.1586
0.1661
0.1737
0.1813
0.1890
0.1967
0.2045
0.2124
0.2203
0.2283
0.2363
0.2444
0.2526
0.2608
0.2691
0.2775
0.2860
0.2945
0.0572
0.0631
0.069
0.075
0.081
0.087
0.0931
0.0992
0.1054
0.1116
0.1178
0.1241
0.1304
0.1367
0.1431
0.1495
0.156
0.1625
0.1691
0.1757
0.1823
0.189
0.1957
0.2025
0.2094
0.2162
0.2231
0.2301
0.2371
0.2442
0.2513
0.0501
0.0552
0.0604
0.0656
0.0708
0.0761
0.0813
0.0867
0.092
0.0974
0.1028
0.1082
0.1136
0.1191
0.1246
0.1302
0.1358
0.1414
0.147
0.1527
0.1584
0.1641
0.1699
0.1757
0.1815
0.1874
0.1933
0.1993
0.2052
0.2113
0.2173
0.0442
0.0487
0.0533
0.0579
0.0625
0.0671
0.0717
0.0764
0.0811
0.0858
0.0905
0.0952
0.1000
0.1048
0.1096
0.1144
0.1193
0.1242
0.1291
0.1340
0.1390
0.1440
0.1490
0.1540
0.1591
0.1641
0.1693
0.1744
0.1796
0.1847
0.1900
0.0393
0.0434
0.0474
0.0515
0.0555
0.0596
0.0637
0.0678
0.0720
0.0761
0.0803
0.0845
0.0887
0.0929
0.0972
0.1014
0.1057
0.1100
0.1143
0.1187
0.1230
0.1274
0.1318
0.1362
0.1406
0.1451
0.1495
0.1540
0.1585
0.1631
0.1676
0.0352
0.0388
0.0424
0.0461
0.0497
0.0533
0.0570
0.0607
0.0644
0.0681
0.0718
0.0755
0.0792
0.0830
0.0868
0.0905
0.0943
0.0982
0.1020
0.1058
0.1097
0.1136
0.1174
0.1213
0.1253
0.1292
0.1331
0.1371
0.1411
0.1451
0.1491
0.0317
0.0350
0.0382
0.0415
0.0447
0.0480
0.0513
0.0546
0.0579
0.0612
0.0645
0.0679
0.0712
0.0746
0.0780
0.0813
0.0847
0.0881
0.0916
0.0950
0.0984
0.1019
0.1054
0.1088
0.1123
0.1158
0.1193
0.1229
0.1264
0.1300
0.1335
0.0288
0.0317
0.0346
0.0375
0.0405
0.0434
0.0464
0.0494
0.0524
0.0554
0.0584
0.0614
0.0644
0.0674
0.0705
0.0735
0.0766
0.0796
0.0827
0.0858
0.0889
0.0920
0.0951
0.0982
0.1013
0.1045
0.1076
0.1108
0.1140
0.1171
0.1203
0.0262
0.0288
0.0315
0.0342
0.0368
0.0395
0.0422
0.0449
0.0476
0.0503
0.0530
0.0558
0.0585
0.0612
0.0640
0.0667
0.0695
0.0723
0.0751
0.0778
0.0806
0.0834
0.0863
0.0891
0.0919
0.0947
0.0976
0.1004
0.1033
0.1062
0.1090
0.0239
0.0263
0.0288
0.0312
0.0336
0.0361
0.0385
0.0410
0.0435
0.0459
0.0484
0.0509
0.0534
0.0559
0.0584
0.0609
0.0634
0.0659
0.0685
0.0710
0.0735
0.0761
0.0786
0.0812
0.0838
0.0863
0.0889
0.0915
0.0941
0.0967
0.0993
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
119
3
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Cold curves for Es0 = 0 %
3
I/Ib
Es (%)
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
120
4.80
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
0.0219
0.0242
0.0264
0.0286
0.0309
0.0331
0.0353
0.0376
0.0398
0.0421
0.0444
0.0466
0.0489
0.0512
0.0535
0.0558
0.0581
0.0604
0.0627
0.0650
0.0673
0.0696
0.0720
0.0743
0.0766
0.0790
0.0813
0.0837
0.0861
0.0884
0.0908
0.0202
0.0222
0.0243
0.0263
0.0284
0.0305
0.0325
0.0346
0.0367
0.0387
0.0408
0.0429
0.0450
0.0471
0.0492
0.0513
0.0534
0.0555
0.0576
0.0598
0.0619
0.0640
0.0661
0.0683
0.0704
0.0726
0.0747
0.0769
0.0790
0.0812
0.0834
0.0167
0.0183
0.0200
0.0217
0.0234
0.0251
0.0268
0.0285
0.0302
0.0319
0.0336
0.0353
0.0370
0.0388
0.0405
0.0422
0.0439
0.0457
0.0474
0.0491
0.0509
0.0526
0.0543
0.0561
0.0578
0.0596
0.0613
0.0631
0.0649
0.0666
0.0684
0.0140
0.0154
0.0168
0.0182
0.0196
0.0211
0.0225
0.0239
0.0253
0.0267
0.0282
0.0296
0.0310
0.0325
0.0339
0.0353
0.0368
0.0382
0.0397
0.0411
0.0426
0.0440
0.0455
0.0469
0.0484
0.0498
0.0513
0.0528
0.0542
0.0557
0.0572
0.0119
0.0131
0.0143
0.0155
0.0167
0.0179
0.0191
0.0203
0.0215
0.0227
0.0240
0.0252
0.0264
0.0276
0.0288
0.0300
0.0313
0.0325
0.0337
0.0349
0.0361
0.0374
0.0386
0.0398
0.0411
0.0423
0.0435
0.0448
0.0460
0.0473
0.0485
0.0103
0.0113
0.0123
0.0134
0.0144
0.0154
0.0165
0.0175
0.0185
0.0196
0.0206
0.0217
0.0227
0.0237
0.0248
0.0258
0.0269
0.0279
0.0290
0.0300
0.0311
0.0321
0.0332
0.0343
0.0353
0.0364
0.0374
0.0385
0.0395
0.0406
0.0417
0.0089
0.0098
0.0107
0.0116
0.0125
0.0134
0.0143
0.0152
0.0161
0.0170
0.0179
0.0188
0.0197
0.0207
0.0216
0.0225
0.0234
0.0243
0.0252
0.0261
0.0270
0.0279
0.0289
0.0298
0.0307
0.0316
0.0325
0.0334
0.0344
0.0353
0.0362
0.0078
0.0086
0.0094
0.0102
0.0110
0.0118
0.0126
0.0134
0.0142
0.0150
0.0157
0.0165
0.0173
0.0181
0.0189
0.0197
0.0205
0.0213
0.0221
0.0229
0.0237
0.0245
0.0253
0.0261
0.0269
0.0277
0.0285
0.0293
0.0301
0.0309
0.0317
0.0069
0.0076
0.0083
0.0090
0.0097
0.0104
0.0111
0.0118
0.0125
0.0132
0.0139
0.0146
0.0153
0.0160
0.0167
0.0175
0.0182
0.0189
0.0196
0.0203
0.0210
0.0217
0.0224
0.0231
0.0238
0.0245
0.0252
0.0259
0.0266
0.0274
0.0281
0.0062
0.0068
0.0074
0.0081
0.0087
0.0093
0.0099
0.0105
0.0112
0.0118
0.0124
0.0130
0.0137
0.0143
0.0149
0.0156
0.0162
0.0168
0.0174
0.0181
0.0187
0.0193
0.0200
0.0206
0.0212
0.0218
0.0225
0.0231
0.0237
0.0244
0.0250
0.0056
0.0061
0.0067
0.0072
0.0078
0.0083
0.0089
0.0095
0.0100
0.0106
0.0111
0.0117
0.0123
0.0128
0.0134
0.0139
0.0145
0.0151
0.0156
0.0162
0.0168
0.0173
0.0179
0.0185
0.0190
0.0196
0.0201
0.0207
0.0213
0.0218
0.0224
0.0050
0.0055
0.0060
0.0065
0.0070
0.0075
0.0080
0.0085
0.0090
0.0095
0.0101
0.0106
0.0111
0.0116
0.0121
0.0126
0.0131
0.0136
0.0141
0.0146
0.0151
0.0156
0.0161
0.0166
0.0171
0.0177
0.0182
0.0187
0.0192
0.0197
0.0202
0.0032
0.0035
0.0038
0.0042
0.0045
0.0048
0.0051
0.0055
0.0058
0.0061
0.0064
0.0067
0.0071
0.0074
0.0077
0.0080
0.0084
0.0087
0.0090
0.0093
0.0096
0.0100
0.0103
0.0106
0.0109
0.0113
0.0116
0.0119
0.0122
0.0126
0.0129
0.0022
0.0024
0.0027
0.0029
0.0031
0.0033
0.0036
0.0038
0.0040
0.0042
0.0045
0.0047
0.0049
0.0051
0.0053
0.0056
0.0058
0.0060
0.0062
0.0065
0.0067
0.0069
0.0071
0.0074
0.0076
0.0078
0.0080
0.0083
0.0085
0.0087
0.0089
0.0016
0.0018
0.0020
0.0021
0.0023
0.0025
0.0026
0.0028
0.0029
0.0031
0.0033
0.0034
0.0036
0.0038
0.0039
0.0041
0.0043
0.0044
0.0046
0.0047
0.0049
0.0051
0.0052
0.0054
0.0056
0.0057
0.0059
0.0061
0.0062
0.0064
0.0066
0.0013
0.0014
0.0015
0.0016
0.0018
0.0019
0.0020
0.0021
0.0023
0.0024
0.0025
0.0026
0.0028
0.0029
0.0030
0.0031
0.0033
0.0034
0.0035
0.0036
0.0038
0.0039
0.0040
0.0041
0.0043
0.0044
0.0045
0.0046
0.0048
0.0049
0.0050
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Hot curves
I/Ib
Es (%)
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
I/Ib
Es (%)
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20
0.0209
0.0422
0.0639
0.0862
0.1089
0.1322
0.1560
0.1805
0.2055
0.2312
0.2575
0.2846
0.3124
0.3410
0.3705
0.4008
0.4321
0.4644
0.4978
0.5324
0.0193
0.0391
0.0592
0.0797
0.1007
0.1221
0.1440
0.1664
0.1892
0.2127
0.2366
0.2612
0.2864
0.3122
0.3388
0.3660
0.3940
0.4229
0.4525
0.4831
0.0180
0.0363
0.0550
0.0740
0.0934
0.1132
0.1334
0.1540
0.1750
0.1965
0.2185
0.2409
0.2639
0.2874
0.3115
0.3361
0.3614
0.3873
0.4140
0.4413
0.0168
0.0339
0.0513
0.0690
0.0870
0.1054
0.1241
0.1431
0.1625
0.1823
0.2025
0.2231
0.2442
0.2657
0.2877
0.3102
0.3331
0.3567
0.3808
0.4055
0.0131
0.0264
0.0398
0.0535
0.0673
0.0813
0.0956
0.1100
0.1246
0.1395
0.1546
0.1699
0.1855
0.2012
0.2173
0.2336
0.2502
0.2671
0.2842
0.3017
0.6690 0.2719 0.1685
3.7136 0.6466 0.3712
1.2528 0.6257
3.0445 0.9680
1.4925
2.6626
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1.65
1.70
1.75
1.80
0.1206
0.2578
0.4169
0.6061
0.8398
1.1451
1.5870
2.3979
0.0931
0.1957
0.3102
0.4394
0.5878
0.7621
0.9734
1.2417
1.6094
2.1972
3.8067
0.0752
0.1566
0.2451
0.3423
0.4499
0.5705
0.7077
0.8668
1.0561
1.2897
1.5950
2.0369
2.8478
0.0627
0.1296
0.2013
0.2786
0.3623
0.4537
0.5543
0.6662
0.7921
0.9362
1.1047
1.3074
1.5620
1.9042
2.4288
3.5988
0.0535
0.1100
0.1699
0.2336
0.3017
0.3747
0.4535
0.5390
0.6325
0.7357
0.8508
0.9808
1.1304
1.3063
1.5198
1.7918
2.1665
2.7726
4.5643
0.0464
0.0951
0.1462
0.2002
0.2572
0.3176
0.3819
0.4507
0.5245
0.6042
0.6909
0.7857
0.8905
1.0076
1.1403
1.2933
1.4739
1.6946
1.9782
2.3755
0.0408
0.0834
0.1278
0.1744
0.2231
0.2744
0.3285
0.3857
0.4463
0.5108
0.5798
0.6539
0.7340
0.8210
0.9163
1.0217
1.1394
1.2730
1.4271
1.6094
0.0363
0.0740
0.1131
0.1539
0.1963
0.2407
0.2871
0.3358
0.3869
0.4408
0.4978
0.5583
0.6226
0.6914
0.7652
0.8449
0.9316
1.0264
1.1312
1.2483
0.0326
0.0662
0.1011
0.1372
0.1747
0.2136
0.2541
0.2963
0.3403
0.3864
0.4347
0.4855
0.5390
0.5955
0.6554
0.7191
0.7872
0.8602
0.9390
1.0245
0.0295
0.0598
0.0911
0.1234
0.1568
0.1914
0.2271
0.2643
0.3028
0.3429
0.3846
0.4282
0.4738
0.5215
0.5717
0.6244
0.6802
0.7392
0.8019
0.8688
0.0268
0.0544
0.0827
0.1118
0.1419
0.1728
0.2048
0.2378
0.2719
0.3073
0.3439
0.3819
0.4215
0.4626
0.5055
0.5504
0.5974
0.6466
0.6985
0.7531
0.0245
0.0497
0.0755
0.1020
0.1292
0.1572
0.1860
0.2156
0.2461
0.2776
0.3102
0.3438
0.3786
0.4146
0.4520
0.4908
0.5312
0.5733
0.6173
0.6633
0.0226
0.0457
0.0693
0.0935
0.1183
0.1438
0.1699
0.1967
0.2243
0.2526
0.2817
0.3118
0.3427
0.3747
0.4077
0.4418
0.4772
0.5138
0.5518
0.5914
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.60
3.80
4.00
4.20
4.40
4.60
0.0106
0.0212
0.0320
0.0429
0.0540
0.0651
0.0764
0.0878
0.0993
0.1110
0.1228
0.1347
0.1468
0.1591
0.1715
0.1840
0.1967
0.2096
0.2226
0.2358
0.0087
0.0175
0.0264
0.0353
0.0444
0.0535
0.0627
0.0720
0.0813
0.0908
0.1004
0.1100
0.1197
0.1296
0.1395
0.1495
0.1597
0.1699
0.1802
0.1907
0.0073
0.0147
0.0222
0.0297
0.0372
0.0449
0.0525
0.0603
0.0681
0.0759
0.0838
0.0918
0.0999
0.1080
0.1161
0.1244
0.1327
0.1411
0.1495
0.1581
0.0063
0.0126
0.0189
0.0253
0.0317
0.0382
0.0447
0.0513
0.0579
0.0645
0.0712
0.0780
0.0847
0.0916
0.0984
0.1054
0.1123
0.1193
0.1264
0.1335
0.0054
0.0109
0.0164
0.0219
0.0274
0.0330
0.0386
0.0443
0.0499
0.0556
0.0614
0.0671
0.0729
0.0788
0.0847
0.0906
0.0965
0.1025
0.1085
0.1145
0.0047
0.0095
0.0143
0.0191
0.0240
0.0288
0.0337
0.0386
0.0435
0.0485
0.0535
0.0585
0.0635
0.0686
0.0737
0.0788
0.0839
0.0891
0.0943
0.0995
0.0042
0.0084
0.0126
0.0169
0.0211
0.0254
0.0297
0.0340
0.0384
0.0427
0.0471
0.0515
0.0559
0.0603
0.0648
0.0692
0.0737
0.0782
0.0828
0.0873
0.0037
0.0075
0.0112
0.0150
0.0188
0.0226
0.0264
0.0302
0.0341
0.0379
0.0418
0.0457
0.0496
0.0535
0.0574
0.0614
0.0653
0.0693
0.0733
0.0773
0.0033
0.0067
0.0101
0.0134
0.0168
0.0202
0.0236
0.0270
0.0305
0.0339
0.0374
0.0408
0.0443
0.0478
0.0513
0.0548
0.0583
0.0619
0.0654
0.0690
0.0030
0.0060
0.0091
0.0121
0.0151
0.0182
0.0213
0.0243
0.0274
0.0305
0.0336
0.0367
0.0398
0.0430
0.0461
0.0493
0.0524
0.0556
0.0588
0.0620
0.0027
0.0055
0.0082
0.0110
0.0137
0.0165
0.0192
0.0220
0.0248
0.0276
0.0304
0.0332
0.0360
0.0389
0.0417
0.0446
0.0474
0.0503
0.0531
0.0560
0.0025
0.0050
0.0075
0.0100
0.0125
0.0150
0.0175
0.0200
0.0226
0.0251
0.0277
0.0302
0.0328
0.0353
0.0379
0.0405
0.0431
0.0457
0.0483
0.0509
121
3
Thermal overload for machines
ANSI code 49RMS
Protection functions
Tripping curves
Hot curves
3
I/Ib
Es (%)
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
122
4.80
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
0.0023
0.0045
0.0068
0.0091
0.0114
0.0137
0.0160
0.0183
0.0206
0.0229
0.0253
0.0276
0.0299
0.0323
0.0346
0.0370
0.0393
0.0417
0.0441
0.0464
0.0021
0.0042
0.0063
0.0084
0.0105
0.0126
0.0147
0.0168
0.0189
0.0211
0.0232
0.0253
0.0275
0.0296
0.0317
0.0339
0.0361
0.0382
0.0404
0.0426
0.0017
0.0034
0.0051
0.0069
0.0086
0.0103
0.0120
0.0138
0.0155
0.0172
0.0190
0.0207
0.0225
0.0242
0.0260
0.0277
0.0295
0.0313
0.0330
0.0348
0.0014
0.0029
0.0043
0.0057
0.0072
0.0086
0.0101
0.0115
0.0129
0.0144
0.0158
0.0173
0.0187
0.0202
0.0217
0.0231
0.0246
0.0261
0.0275
0.0290
0.0012
0.0024
0.0036
0.0049
0.0061
0.0073
0.0085
0.0097
0.0110
0.0122
0.0134
0.0147
0.0159
0.0171
0.0183
0.0196
0.0208
0.0221
0.0233
0.0245
0.0010
0.0021
0.0031
0.0042
0.0052
0.0063
0.0073
0.0084
0.0094
0.0105
0.0115
0.0126
0.0136
0.0147
0.0157
0.0168
0.0179
0.0189
0.0200
0.0211
0.0009
0.0018
0.0027
0.0036
0.0045
0.0054
0.0064
0.0073
0.0082
0.0091
0.0100
0.0109
0.0118
0.0128
0.0137
0.0146
0.0155
0.0164
0.0173
0.0183
0.0008
0.0016
0.0024
0.0032
0.0040
0.0048
0.0056
0.0064
0.0072
0.0080
0.0088
0.0096
0.0104
0.0112
0.0120
0.0128
0.0136
0.0144
0.0152
0.0160
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0.0049
0.0056
0.0063
0.0070
0.0077
0.0085
0.0092
0.0099
0.0106
0.0113
0.0120
0.0127
0.0134
0.0141
0.0006
0.0013
0.0019
0.0025
0.0031
0.0038
0.0044
0.0050
0.0056
0.0063
0.0069
0.0075
0.0082
0.0088
0.0094
0.0101
0.0107
0.0113
0.0119
0.0126
0.0006
0.0011
0.0017
0.0022
0.0028
0.0034
0.0039
0.0045
0.0051
0.0056
0.0062
0.0067
0.0073
0.0079
0.0084
0.0090
0.0096
0.0101
0.0107
0.0113
0.0005
0.0010
0.0015
0.0020
0.0025
0.0030
0.0035
0.0040
0.0046
0.0051
0.0056
0.0061
0.0066
0.0071
0.0076
0.0081
0.0086
0.0091
0.0096
0.0102
0.0003
0.0006
0.0010
0.0013
0.0016
0.0019
0.0023
0.0026
0.0029
0.0032
0.0035
0.0039
0.0042
0.0045
0.0048
0.0052
0.0055
0.0058
0.0061
0.0065
0.0002
0.0004
0.0007
0.0009
0.0011
0.0013
0.0016
0.0018
0.0020
0.0022
0.0025
0.0027
0.0029
0.0031
0.0034
0.0036
0.0038
0.0040
0.0043
0.0045
0.0002
0.0003
0.0005
0.0007
0.0008
0.0010
0.0011
0.0013
0.0015
0.0016
0.0018
0.0020
0.0021
0.0023
0.0025
0.0026
0.0028
0.0030
0.0031
0.0033
0.0001
0.0003
0.0004
0.0005
0.0006
0.0008
0.0009
0.0010
0.0011
0.0013
0.0014
0.0015
0.0016
0.0018
0.0019
0.0020
0.0021
0.0023
0.0024
0.0025
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Breaker failure
ANSI code 50BF
Protection functions
Backup protection if the circuit breaker does
not trip.
Description
If a breaker fails to open following a tripping order (detected by the non-extinction of
the fault current), this backup protection sends a tripping order to the upstream or
adjacent breakers.
The "breaker failure" protection function is activated by an O1 output tripping order
received from the overcurrent protection functions which trip the circuit breaker
(50/51, 50N/51N, 46, 67N, 67, 64REF, 87M, 87T). It checks for the disappearance of
current during the time interval specified by the time delay T. It may also take into
account the position of the circuit breaker, read on the logic inputs to determine the
actual opening of the breaker. Wiring a volt-free closed circuit breaker position
contact on the "breaker closed" equation editor input or Logipam can ensure that the
protection is effective in the following situations:
b When 50BF is activated by protection function 50N/51N (set point Is0 < 0.2 In),
detection of the 50BF current set point can possibly not be operational.
b When trip circuit supervision (TCS) is used, the closed circuit breaker contact is
short-circuited. Logic input I101 is therefore no longer operational.
Automatic activation of this protection function requires the use of the circuit breaker
control function in the control logic. A specific input may also be used to activate the
protection by logic equation or by Logipam. That option is useful for adding special
cases of activation (e.g. tripping by an external protection unit).
The time-delayed output of the protection function should be assigned to a logic
output via the control matrix.
Starting and stopping of the time delay T counter are conditioned by the presence of
a current above the set point (I > Is).
DE80257
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
123
3
Breaker failure
ANSI code 50BF
Protection functions
Characteristics
Settings
Is set point
Setting range
0.2 In to 2 In
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
0.1 A
Drop out/pick up ratio
87.5 % ±2 %
Time delay T
Setting range
50 ms to 3 s
±2 % or -10 ms to +15 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Taking into account circuit breaker position
Setting range
With / without
Characteristic times
Overshoot time
< 35 ms at 2 Is
Inputs
3
Designation
Protection reset
Start 50BF
Protection inhibition
Breaker closed
Syntax
P50BF_1_101
P50BF_1_107
P50BF_1_113
P50BF_1_119
Equations
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P50BF_1_1
Delayed output
P50BF_1_3
Protection inhibited
P50BF_1_16
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Matrix
b
Example of setting
DE52249
Below is a case that may be used to determine the time-delay setting of the breaker
failure function:
b overcurrent protection setting: T = inst
b circuit breaker operating time: 60 ms
b auxiliary relay operating time to open the upstream breaker(s): 10 ms.
The breaker failure function time delay is the sum of the following times:
b Sepam O1 output relay pick-up time = 10 ms
b circuit breaker opening time = 60 ms
b Breaker failure function overshoot time = 35 ms.
To avoid unwanted tripping of the upstream breakers, add a margin of approximately
20 ms.
The time delay is 125 ms minimum, set at 130 ms.
124
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Inadvertent energization
ANSI code 50/27
Protection functions
Protection against inadvertent energization
of generators that are shut down.
Description
DE50831
The protection function checks the generator starting sequence to detect inadvertent
energization of generators that are shut down.
A generator which is energized when shut down operates like a motor. A starting
current occurs and produces significant heat rise that can damage machine
windings.
The check on the generator starting sequence is carried out by an instantaneous
phase overcurrent protection function, confirmed by an undervoltage protection
function. The undervoltage protection function is set up with:
b an on time delay T1 to make the function insensitive to voltage sags
b a timer hold T2 during which the function detects a generator starting current
caused by inadvertent energization.
By taking into account the circuit-breaker position, it is possible to check the quality
of synchronization. If when the machine couples, the voltage and frequency
differences are too high, when the circuit breaker closes, a current immediately
appears that the function detects.
When the VT monitoring detects a measurement problem on the voltage channels,
the part concerning the voltages is inhibited.
DE50835
Block diagram
DE50834
Example: Generator shutdown and normal starting.
Characteristics
Settings
Current set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Voltage set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
0.5 to 4 In
±5 % or 0.02 In
1A
95.5 % or 0.015 In
10 % to 100 % of Un
±2 % or 0.005 Unp
1%
103 %
Advanced settings
Example: Generator shutdown and inadvertent starting.
Use of breaker position
Setting range
T1 time
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
T2 time
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Used / not used
0 to 10 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
0 to 10 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
< 40 ms at 2 Is (typically 30 ms)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P50/27_1_101 b
b
P50/27_1_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Tripping output
P50/27_1_3
Protection inhibited
P50/27_1_16
Protection ready
P50/27_1_35
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam Matrix
b
b
b
b
125
3
Protection functions
Inadvertent energization
ANSI code 50/27
Example of setting
Synchronous generator data
b S = 3.15 MVA
b Un1 = 6.3 kV
b Xd = 233 %
b X'd = 21 %
b X''d = 15 %
b the generator is connected to a network with a Psc = 10 MVA
b the maximum admissible duration of a voltage sag is 2.5 seconds.
To set the protection function, it is necessary to calculate the rated generator
impedance:
b Ib = S/(3.Un1) = 289 A
b Zn = Un1/ (3.Ib) = 12.59 Ω.
The network impedance is:
Zpsc = (Un1)2/Psc = 3.97 Ω.
3
The Istart starting current is approximately:
Un1
Istart = ------------------------------------------------------------ = 621 A
X″d
⎛
3 Zpsc + ----------- × Zn⎞
⎝
⎠
100
.
The current set point is set between 20 % and 50 % of the starting current.
Is = 0, 5 × Istart ≈ 311 A
The voltage set point is often set between 80 % and 85 % of Un. In this example, the
selected set point is Us = 85 %.
The T1 time is set longer than the maximum admissible duration of a voltage sag,
e.g. T1 = 4 sec.
T2 is set to detect the appearance of a current during starting.
For example, T2 = 250 ms.
126
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Phase overcurrent
ANSI code 50/51
Protection functions
Protection against overcurrents and
overloads.
Description
Protection against overcurrents and overloads:
b the protection function is three-phase and has a definite or IDMT time delay
b each of the eight units has two groups of settings. Switching to setting group A or
B can be carried out by a logic input or a remote control order, depending on the
settings
b for better detection of distant faults, the protection function can be confirmed by:
v undervoltage protection unit 1 or
v negative sequence overvoltage protection unit 1
b the customized curve, defined point by point, may be used with this protection
function
b an adjustable timer hold, definite time or IDMT, can be used for coordination with
electromagnetic relays and to detect restriking faults.
Tripping curve
Definite time (DT)
Standard inverse time (SIT)
Very inverse time (VIT or LTI)
Extremely inverse time (EIT)
Ultra inverse time (UIT)
RI curve
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
IAC inverse
IAC very inverse
IAC extremely inverse
Customized
Timer hold
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time
3
DE50782
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
127
Protection functions
Phase overcurrent
ANSI code 50/51
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Tripping curve
Setting range
Is set point
Setting range
Main channels (I) / Additional channels (I’)
See previous page
Definite time
IDMT
0.05 In y Is y 24 In expressed in
amperes
0.05 In y Is y 2.4 In expressed in
amperes
Accuracy (1)
±5 % or ±0.01 In
Resolution
1 A or 1 digit
Drop out/pick up ratio
93.5 % ±5 % or > (1 - 0.015 In/Is) x 100 %
Time delay T (operation time at 10 Is)
Setting range
Definite time
Inst, 50 ms y T y 300 s
IDMT
100 ms y T y 12.5 s or TMS (2)
Accuracy (1)
Definite time
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
IDMT
Class 5 or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
3
Advanced settings
Confirmation
Setting range
Timer hold T1
Setting range
Resolution
By undervoltage (unit 1)
By negative sequence overvoltage (unit 1)
None, no confirmation
Definite time
IDMT (3)
10 ms or 1 digit
0; 0.05 to 300 s
0.5 to 20 s
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
pick-up < 35 ms at 2 Is (typically 25 ms)
Inst. < 50 ms at 2 Is (confirmed instantaneous) (typically 35 ms)
< 50 ms at 2 Is
< 50 ms at 2 Is (for T1 = 0)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P50/51_x_101
P50/51_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
Instantaneous output (pick-up) P50/51_x_1
b
b
Delayed output
P50/51_x_3
b
b
Drop out
P50/51_x_4
b
b
Phase 1 fault
P50/51_x_7
b
b
Phase 2 fault
P50/51_x_8
b
b
Phase 3 fault
P50/51_x_9
b
b
Protection inhibited
P50/51_x_16
b
b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Setting ranges in TMS (Time Multiplier Setting) mode
b Inverse (SIT) and IEC SIT/A: 0.04 to 4.20
b Very inverse (VIT) and IEC VIT/B: 0.07 to 8.33
b Very inverse (LTI) and IEC LTI/B: 0.01 to 0.93
b Ext. inverse (EIT) and IEC EIT/C: 0.13 to 15.47
b IEEE moderately inverse: 0.42 to 51.86
b IEEE very inverse: 0.73 to 90.57
b IEEE extremely inverse: 1.24 to 154.32
b IAC inverse: 0.34 to 42.08
b IAC very inverse: 0.61 to 75.75
b IAC extremely inverse: 1.08 to 134.4.
(3) Only for standardized tripping curves of the IEC, IEEE and IAC types.
128
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Earth fault
ANSI code 50N/51N or 50G/51G
Protection functions
Protection against earth faults.
Description
Earth fault protection based on measured neutral, zero sequence or earth fault (tank
earth leakage protection) current:
b the protection function has a definite or IDMT time delay
b each of the eight units has two groups of settings. Switching to setting group A or
B can be carried out by a logic input or a remote control order, depending on the
settings
b The protection function includes settable harmonic 2 restraint which provides
greater stability when transformers are energized.
b the customized curve, defined point by point, may be used with this protection
function
b an adjustable timer hold, definite or IDMT, can be used for coordination with
electromagnetic relays and to detect restriking faults
b each unit can be independently set to one of the two measurement channels I0 or
I'0 or to the sum of the phase currents on the main or additional channels. By mixing
the possibilities on the different units, it is possible to have:
v different dynamic set points
v different applications, e.g. zero sequence and tank earth leakage protection.
Tripping curve
Timer hold curve
Definite time (DT)
Standard inverse time (SIT)
Very inverse time (VIT or LTI)
Extremely inverse time (EIT)
Ultra inverse time (UIT)
RI curve
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
IAC inverse
IAC very inverse
IAC extremely inverse
EPATR-B
EPATR-C
Customized
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Block diagram
DE80138
! !" ! ! SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
129
3
Earth fault
ANSI code 50N/51N or 50G/51G
Protection functions
EPATR-B curves
DE80213
EPATR-B tripping curves are defined from the following equations:
b for Is0 y I0 y 6.4 A
85,386
T
- × ------t = --------------I0 0, ( 708 ) 0,8
b for 6.4 A y I0 y 200 A
140,213
T
- × -------t = -------------------I0 0,975
0,8
b for I0 > 200 A
t = T
3
EPATR-B standard curve (log scales)
Curve
Curve
Curve
1
2
3
: Is0 = 5 A and T = 1 s
: Is0 = 0.6 A and T = 0.5 s
: Is0 and T
EPATR-C curves
EPATR-C tripping curves are defined from the following equations:
DE80071
t
b for Is0 y I0 y 200 A
72
T
t = ----------× ----------I0 2 / 3 2,10
b for I0 > 200 A
t = T
1
3
T
3
2
0,1
0,1
0,6
Is0
5
200
I0
EPATR-C standard curve (log scales)
Curve
Curve
1
2
: Is0 = 5 A and T = 3 s
: Is0 = 0.6 A and T = 0.1 s
Curve
3
: Is0 and T
130
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Earth fault
ANSI code 50N/51N or 50G/51G
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Tripping curve
Setting range
Is0 setting
Definite time
setting range
I0
I'0
I0Σ (sum of the main phase channels)
I'0Σ (sum of the additional phase channels)
See previous page
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A) expressed in amperes
Sum of CTs
0.01 In y Is0 y 15 In (min. 0.1 A)
With CSH sensor
0.1 to 30 A
2 A rating
20 A rating
0.2 to 300 A
CT
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
Core balance CT
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
+ ACE990
IDMT
0.01 In0 y Is0 y In0 (min. 0.1 A) expressed in amperes
setting range
Sum of CTs
0.01 In y Is0 y In (min. 0.1 A)
With CSH sensor
2 A rating
0.1 to 2 A
20 A rating
0.2 to 20 A
CT
0.01 In0 y Is0 y In0 (min. 0.1 A)
Core balance CT
0.01 In0 y Is0 y In0 (min. 0.1 A)
+ ACE990
EPATR
CSH sensor
0.6 to 5 A
Setting range
20 A rating
Core balance CT
0.6 to 5 A
with ACE990
and 15 A y In0 y 50 A
±5 % or ±0.004 In0
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1 A or 1 digit
Drop out/pick up ratio
93.5 % ±5 % or > (1 - 0.005 In0/Is0) x 100 %
Time delay T (operation time at 10 Is0)
Setting range
Definite time
Inst, 50 ms y T y 300 s
IDMT
100 ms y T y 12.5 s or TMS (2)
EPATR-B
0.5 to 1 s
EPATR-C
0.1 to 3 s
Accuracy (1)
Definite time
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
IDMT
Class 5 or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Harmonic 2 restraint
Fixed threshold
Timer hold T1
Setting range
Resolution
17 % ±3 %
Definite time
IDMT (3)
10 ms or 1 digit
0; 0.05 to 300 s
0.5 to 20 s
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Setting ranges in TMS (Time Multiplier Setting) mode
b Inverse (SIT) and IEC SIT/A: 0.04 to 4.20
b Very inverse (VIT) and IEC VIT/B: 0.07 to 8.33
b Very inverse (LTI) and IEC LTI/B: 0.01 to 0.93
b Ext. inverse (EIT) and IEC EIT/C: 0.13 to 15.47
b IEEE moderately inverse: 0.42 to 51.86
b IEEE very inverse: 0.73 to 90.57
b IEEE extremely inverse: 1.24 to 154.32
b IAC inverse: 0.34 to 42.08
b IAC very inverse: 0.61 to 75.75
b IAC extremely inverse: 1.08 to 134.4.
Pick-up < 40 ms at 2 Is0 (typically 25 ms)
Confirmed instantaneous:
b inst < 55 ms at 2 Is0 for Is u 0.3 In0 (typically 35 ms)
b inst < 70 ms at 2 Is0 for Is < 0.3 In0 (typically 50 ms)
< 40 ms at 2 Is0
< 50 ms at 2 Is0 (for T1 = 0)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P50N/51N_x_101
P50N/51N_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up) P50N/51N_x_1
Delayed output
P50N/51N_x_3
Drop out
P50N/51N_x_4
Protection inhibited
P50N/51N_x_16
15 A set point output
P50N/51N_x_56
Matrix
b
(3) Only for standardized tripping curves of the IEC, IEEE and
IAC types.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
131
3
Voltage-restrained overcurrent
ANSI code 50V/51V
Protection functions
Generator protection against close
short-circuits.
Description
DE50746
The voltage-restrained overcurrent protection function is used to protect generators.
The operation set point is adjusted according to the voltage to take into account
cases of faults close to the generator which cause voltage dips and short-circuit
current:
b the protection function is three-phase and has a definite or IDMT time delay
b the customized curve, defined point by point, may be used with this protection
function
b an adjustable timer hold, definite time or IDMT, can be used for coordination with
electromagnetic relays and to detect restriking faults
b the set point is adjusted according to the lowest of the phase-to-phase voltages
measured. The adjusted set point I*s is defined by the following equation:
U
I*s = Is
----- × ⎛ 4 ------- – 0.2⎞
⎝
⎠
3
3
Un
Tripping curve
Definite time (DT)
Standard inverse time (SIT)
Very inverse time (VIT or LTI)
Extremely inverse time (EIT)
Ultra inverse time (UIT)
RI curve
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
IAC inverse
IAC very inverse
IAC extremely inverse
Customized
Set point adjustment.
Timer hold
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time
DE50841
Block diagram
132
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Voltage-restrained overcurrent
ANSI code 50V/51V
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Tripping curve
Setting range
Is set point
Setting range
Main channels (I) / Additional channels (I’)
See previous page
Definite time
0.5 In y Is y 24 In expressed in amperes
IDMT
0.5 In y Is y 2.4 In expressed in amperes
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1 A or 1 digit
Drop out/pick up ratio
93.5 % (with min. reset variance of 0.015 In)
Time delay T (operation time at 10 Is)
Setting range
Definite time
Inst, 50 ms y T y 300 s
IDMT
100 ms y T y 12.5 s or TMS (2)
Accuracy (1)
Definite time
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
IDMT
Class 5 or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Timer hold T1
Setting range
Resolution
Definite time
IDMT time (3)
10 ms or 1 digit
0; 0.05 to 300 s
0.5 to 20 s
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
pick-up < 35 ms at 2 Is (typically 25 ms)
Inst. < 50 ms at 2 Is (confirmed instantaneous) (typically 35 ms)
< 50 ms
< 50 ms (for T1 = 0)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P50V/51V_x_101
P50V/51V_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
Instantaneous output (pick-up) P50V/51V_x_1
b
b
Delayed output
P50V/51V_x_3
b
b
Drop out
P50V/51V_x_4
b
b
Phase 1 fault
P50V/51V_x_7
b
b
Phase 2 fault
P50V/51V_x_8
b
b
Phase 3 fault
P50V/51V_x_9
b
b
Protection inhibited
P50V/51V_x_16
b
b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Setting ranges in TMS (Time Multiplier Setting) mode
b Inverse (SIT) and IEC SIT/A: 0.04 to 4.20
b Very inverse (VIT) and IEC VIT/B: 0.07 to 8.33
b Very inverse (LTI) and IEC LTI/B: 0.01 to 0.93
b Ext. inverse (EIT) and IEC EIT/C: 0.13 to 15.47
b IEEE moderately inverse: 0.42 to 51.86
b IEEE very inverse: 0.73 to 90.57
b IEEE extremely inverse: 1.24 to 154.32
b IAC inverse: 0.34 to 42.08
b IAC very inverse: 0.61 to 75.75
b IAC extremely inverse: 1.08 to 134.4.
(3) Only for standardized tripping curves of the IEC, IEEE and IAC types.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Matrix
b
133
3
Capacitor bank unbalance
ANSI code 51C
Protection functions
Description
Detection of capacitor bank internal faults by
measurement of the unbalance current
flowing between the 2 neutral points of a
double-star connected capacitor bank.
The capacitor bank unbalance function detects unbalance current flowing between the
two neutral points of double-star connected capacitor banks.
The protection function is activated when the unbalance current is higher than the Is
current set point during tripping time T.
DE51551
Block diagram
Characteristics
3
Settings
Set point Is
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
0.02 I’n to 2 I’n with a minimum value of 0.05 A
±5 %
0.01 A
93.5 %
0.1 to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 35 ms
< 35 ms
< 50 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations
P51C_x_101 b
P51C_x_113 b
Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output
P51C_x_1
Tripping output
P51C_x_3
Protection inhibed
P51C_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
134
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Overvoltage (L-L or L-N)
ANSI code 59
Protection functions
Protection against phase-to-neutral or
phase-to-phase overvoltages.
Connection conditions
Type of
V1, V2, V3 (1)
connection
Phase-to-neutral
YES
operation
Phase-to-phase
YES
operation
(1) With or without V0.
Description
U21, U32
U21 (1)
V1 (1)
NO
NO
On V1 only
YES
YES
On U21 only NO
Block diagram
DE51626
Protection against overvoltages or checking for
sufficient voltage to enable source transfer.
b the protection function is single-phase and operates
with phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase voltage
b it includes a definite time delay T
b in phase-to-neutral operation, it indicates the faulty
phase in the alarm associated with the fault.
Operation with phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase
voltage depends on the connection selected for the
voltage inputs.
U21, U32
+ V0
YES
3
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Voltage mode
Setting range
Us (or Vs) set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
Phase-to-phase voltage / Phase-to-neutral voltage
50 % of Unp (or Vnp) to 150 % of Unp (or Vnp)
±2 %
1%
97 % ±1 %
50 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 40 ms from 0.9 Us (Vs) to 1.1 Us (Vs)
(typically 25 ms)
< 40 ms from 0.9 Us (Vs) to 1.1 Us (Vs)
< 50 ms from 1.1 Us (Vs) to 0.9 Us (Vs)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P59_x_101
P59_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P59_x_1
b
Delayed output
P59_x_3
b
P59_x_7
b
Fault phase 1 (2)
P59_x_8
b
Fault phase 2 (2)
P59_x_9
b
Fault phase 3 (2)
Protection inhibited
P59_x_16
b
Instantaneous output V1 or U21
P59_x_23
b
Instantaneous output V2 or U32
P59_x_24
b
Instantaneous output V3 or U13
P59_x_25
b
Delayed output V1 or U21
P59_x_26
b
Delayed output V2 or U32
P59_x_27
b
Delayed output V3 or U13
P59_x_28
b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2)When the protection function is used for phase-to-neutral voltage.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
135
Neutral voltage displacement
ANSI code 59N
Protection functions
Protection against insulation faults
Description
Protection against insulation faults by measuring the residual voltage V0 or the
neutral point voltage Vnt for generators and motors.
The residual voltage is obtained by the vector sum of the phase voltages or by
measurements using delta connected VTs.
The neutral point voltage is measured by a VT inserted in the neutral point of the
generator or the motor.
The protection function includes a time delay T, either definite or IDMT (dependent
on the residual voltage V0) (see tripping curve equation on page 178).
It operates only when a residual or neutral point voltage is available, by connecting
V1V2V3, V0 or Vnt.
DE50785
Block diagram
3
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Tripping curve
Setting range
Vs0 set point
Definite time setting range
IDMT setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T (tripping time at 2 Vs0)
Definite time setting range
IDMT setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Main channels (V0)
Additional channels (V’0)
Neutral-point voltage (Vnt)
Definite time
IDMT (dependent on the residual voltage V0)
2 % Unp to 80 % Unp (for residual voltage V0)
2 % Vntp to 80 % Vntp (for neutral point voltage Vnt)
2 % Unp to 10 % Unp (for residual voltage V0)
2 % Vntp to 10 % Vntp (for neutral point voltage Vnt)
±2 % or 0.005 Unp
1%
97 % ±2 % or > (1 - 0.006 Unp/Vs0) x 100 %
50 ms to 300 s
100 ms to 10 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
pick-up < 45 ms (typically 25 ms) at 2 Vs0
< 40 ms at 2 Vs0
< 40 ms at 2 Vs0
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations
P59N_x_101 b
P59N_x_113 b
Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P59N_x_1
Delayed output
P59N_x_3
Protection inhibited
P59N_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
136
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
DE50099
Protection against internal faults in
generators.
100 % stator earth fault
ANSI code 64G
Description
The 64G protection function is made of the two independent functions.
b protection function 64G1 which commonly corresponds to a neutral voltage
displacement function at the fundamental frequency (ANSI code 59N). It may be
implemented by an earth fault protection function (ANSI code 51N) when the earth
fault current is sufficient.
b protection function 64G2 which corresponds to a third harmonic undervoltage
function (ANSI code 27TN) whose operating principle depends on the type of
connection of the generator terminal VTs.
When a single-phase fault occurs, the flow of the zero sequence current increases
the potential of the neutral point, detected by protection function 59N. However,
given the natural unbalance of the three network phases, the sensitivity set point for
59N cannot be set under 10 % to 15 % of the phase-to-neutral voltage.
If the single-phase fault occurs on a stator winding near the neutral point, the
increase in the potential at the neutral point may be insufficient to trip protection
function 59N.
The combination of functions 59N and 27TN is the means to protect 100 % of the
stator winding. Depending on the settings:
b protection function 59N protects 85 to 95 % of the stator winding on the terminal
side and
b protection function 27TN protects 10 to 20 % of the stator winding on the neutral
point side.
To create a 100 % stator earth fault protection function, it is necessary to implement
the 64G1 (59N or 51N) and the 64G2 (27TN) protection functions (see each of these
functions for more information).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
137
3
Restricted earth fault differential
ANSI code 64REF
Protection of three-phase windings against
phase-to-earth faults.
DE50842
Protection functions
Description
The restricted earth fault protection function detects
phase-to-earth faults on three-phase windings with
earthed neutral. This function protects generators and
transformers.
The protected zone, depending on the measurement
origin and the set parameters, is between:
b the I1, I2, I3 CTs and the neutral point current
measurement I0
b the I'1, I'2, I'3 CTs and the neutral point current
measurement I'0.
I1 I2 I3
DE80166
I0
The function is based on the comparison of the residual current calculated using the
sum of the three phase currents and the neutral point current. These two currents
define the differential residual current and the restrained current:
b differential residual current: Id0 = I0Σ – I0
b restrained current or through residual current: the value of the restrained current
depends on detection of a fault outside the protected zone:
v without detection of an external fault
Ir0 = I0Σ
v with detection of an external fault: the protection function is insensitive to
saturation of the CTs, but its operation is not inhibited.
I0
Ir0 = 2 × I0Σ + ----3
The function is activated if the following 3 conditions are met:
b Id0 > Is0
b Id0 > 1 ,05 × Is0
b I0 > max ( Is0 ⁄ 4, Is0 min )
Block diagram
DE80250
3
Input I0
(or I’0)
Input I0Σ
(or I’0Σ)
External
fault
detection
Id0
&
Ir0
tripping output
I0>Is0/4
138
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Restricted earth fault differential
ANSI code 64REF
Dimensioning current sensors
The primary currents of the current transformers used must comply with the following
rule:
0.1 In y In0 y 2 In
with In = primary current of phase CTs
and In0 = primary current of the neutral point CT.
b Only the following phase current transformers can be selected:
I1P
I3P
v type 5P, with an accuracy-limit factor u max.⎛ 20 ;1.6 ------- ;2.4 --------⎞ and an accuracy
⎝
In
In ⎠
burden VACT u Rw.in²
I1P
I3P
v or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk u (RCT + Rw).max.⎛ 20 ;1.6 ------- ;2.4 --------⎞.in.
⎝
In
In ⎠
b Only the following neutral point current transformers can be selected:
I 1 P⎞
v type 5P, with an accuracy-limit factor u max. ⎛ 20 ;2 ------⎝
In ⎠
and an accuracy burden VACT u Rw.in²
1 P⎞
v or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk u (RCT + Rw) max ⎛ 20 ;2 I------- in.
⎝
In ⎠
3
in is the CT rated secondary current.
RCT is the CT internal resistance.
Rw is the resistance of the CT load and wiring.
I3P is the maximum current value for a three-phase short-circuit.
I1P is the maximum current value for a phase-to-earth short-circuit.
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Is0
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Main channels (I, I0)
Additional channels (I’, I’0)
0.05 In to 0.8 In for In u 20 A
0.1 In to 0.8 In for In < 20 A
5%
1 A or 1 digit
93 % ±2 %
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
< 55 ms at Id0 = 2.1 Ir0
< 35 ms at Id0 = 2.1 Ir0
< 45 ms at Id0 = 2.1 Ir0
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P64REF_x_101
P64REF_x_113
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Protection output
P64REF_x_3
Protection inhibited
P64REF_x_16
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
139
Protection functions
Starts per hour
ANSI code 66
Motor protection against heat rise caused
overly frequent starts.
The number of consecutive starts is the number starts counted during the last P/Nt
minutes.
The motor hot state corresponds to the overshooting of the fixed set point (50 % heat
rise) of the thermal overload function.
During re-acceleration, the motor is subjected to a stress similar to
that of starting without the current first passing through a value less than 5 % of Ib.
In this case, the number of starts is not incremented. It is however possible to
increment the number of starts for a re-acceleration using a logic input or information
from a logic equation or Logipam program ("motor re-acceleration" input).
The "stop/start" time delay T may be used to inhibit starting after a stop until the delay
has elapsed and thus impose a minimum stop time before each restart.
Description
Use of circuit breaker closed data
In synchronous motor applications, it is advisable to connect the "circuit breaker
closed" data to a logic input in order to enable more precise detection of starts.
User information
The following information is available for the user:
b the time before a start is allowed
b the number of starts still allowed.
See the section on machine diagnosis.
Block diagram
DE50844
3
Protection against motor overheating caused by:
b overly frequent starts: motor energizing is inhibited
when the maximum permissible number of starts is
reached
b starts occur too close to one another: motor reenergizing after a shutdown is allowed only after an
adjustable time delay.
Starting is detected when the current drawn rises above
5 % of current Ib.
The number of starts is limited by:
b the number of starts (Nt) allowed per period of time
(P)
b the permissible number of consecutive hot starts
(Nh)
b the permissible number of consecutive cold starts
(Nc).
Characteristics
Settings
Period of time (P)
Setting range
1 to 6 hours
Resolution
1h
Total number of starts (Nt) allowed per period of time (P)
Setting range
1 to 60
Resolution
1
Number of consecutive hot starts (Nh)
Setting range
1 to Nf
Resolution
1
Number of consecutive cold starts (Nc)
Setting range
1 to Nt
Resolution
1
Stop/start time delay
Setting range
0 to 90 min. (0 = no delay)
Resolution
1 min.
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Motor re-acceleration
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P66_1_101
P66_1_102
P66_1_113
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Syntax
P66_1_3
P66_1_16
P66_1_29
P66_1_30
P66_1_31
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Protection output
Protection inhibited
Stop/start inhibit
Total number starts reached
Total consecutive starts reached
140
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Directional phase overcurrent
ANSI code 67
Phase-to-phase short-circuit protection,
with selective tripping according to fault
current direction.
MT11128
Protection functions
Fault tripping in line zone with θ = 30°.
DE51557
Tripping direction
The direction of the current is determined according to
the measurement of the phase in relation to a
polarization value. It is qualified as busbar direction or
line direction according to the following convention:
3
DE50668
This function comprises a phase overcurrent function
associated with direction detection and picks up if the
phase overcurrent function in the chosen direction (line
or busbar) is activated for at least one of the 3 phases
(or two of the three phases, depending on the settings).
b the protection function is three-phase and has a
definite or IDMT time delay.
b each of the two units has two groups of settings.
Switching to setting group A or B can be carried out by
a logic input or a remote control order, depending on
the settings.
b the customized curve, defined point by point, may be
used with this protection function.
b an adjustable timer hold, definite time or IDMT, can
be used for coordination with electromagnetic relays
and to detect restriking faults.
b the alarm linked to the protection function indicates
the faulty phase or phases.
DE50667
Description
Polarization value
The polarization value is the phase-to-phase value in
quadrature with the current for cosθ = 1 (90° connection
angle). A phase current vector plane is divided into two
half-planes that correspond to the line zone and busbar
zone. The characteristic angle θ is the angle of the
perpendicular to the boundary line between the 2 zones
and the polarization value.
Voltage memory
Should all the voltages disappear during a 3-phase
fault near the busbars, the voltage level may be
insufficient for the fault direction to be detected (< 1.5 %
Unp). The protection function therefore uses a voltage
memory to reliably determine the direction. The fault
direction is saved as long as the voltage level is too low
and the current is above the Is set point.
Closing on a pre-existing fault
If the circuit breaker is closed when there is a preexisting 3-phase fault on the busbars, the voltage
memory is blank. As a result, the direction cannot be
determined and the protection does not trip.
In such cases, a backup 50/51 protection function
should be used.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Fault tripping in line zone with θ = 45°.
DE50669
The tripping zone is set for tripping in busbar zone or
tripping in line zone.
The reverse zone is the zone for which the protection
function does not trip. The detection of current in the
reverse zone is used for indication.
Fault tripping in line zone with θ = 60°.
Tripping logic
In certain cases, it is wise to select the "two out of three phases" tripping logic. Such
cases may occur when two parallel transformers (Dy) must be protected. For a 2phase fault on a transformer primary winding, there is a 2-1-1 current distribution at
the secondary end. The highest current is in the expected zone (operation zone for
the faulty incomer, no operation zone for the fault-free incomer).
One of the lowest currents is at the edge of the zone. According to the line
parameters, it may even be in the wrong zone.
There is therefore a risk of tripping both incomers.
141
Protection functions
Directional phase overcurrent
ANSI code 67
DE52315
Block diagram
DE80139
phase 1
instantaneous
phase 2
instantaneous
phase 3
instantaneous
DE52316
DE51628
DE50849
3
Tripping logic parameter setting:
Grouping of output data.
142
1
one out of three
2
two out of three
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Directional phase overcurrent
ANSI code 67
Tripping curve
Timer hold
Definite time (DT)
Standard inverse time (SIT)
Very inverse time (VIT or LTI)
Extremely inverse time (EIT)
Ultra inverse time (UIT)
RI curve
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
IAC inverse
IAC very inverse
IAC extremely inverse
Customized
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time
3
Characteristics
Settings
Characteristic angle θ
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Tripping curve
Setting range
Is set point
Setting range
definite time
IDMT
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T (operation time at 10 Is)
Setting range
definite time
IDMT
Accuracy (1)
definite time (4)
IDMT
Resolution
30°, 45°, 60°
±2 %
See list above
0.1 In y Is y 24 In in amperes
0.1 In y Is y 2.4 In in amperes
±5 % or ±0.01 In
1 A or 1 digit
93.5 % ±5 % or > (1 - 0.015 In/Is) x 100 %
Inst, 50 ms y T y 300 s
100 ms y T y 12.5 s or TMS (2)
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Class 5 or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Tripping direction
Setting range
Tripping logic
Setting range
Timer hold T1
Setting range
definite time
IDMT (3)
Resolution
Busbar / line
One out of three / two out of three
0; 0.05 to 300 s
0.5 to 20 s
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
pick-up < 75 ms at 2 Is (typically 65 ms)
Inst. < 90 ms at 2 Is (confirmed
instantaneous) (typically 75 ms)
< 45 ms at 2 Is
< 55 ms at 2 Is (for T1 = 0)
Overshoot time
Reset time
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P67_x_101
P67_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Syntax
P67_x_1
P67_x_3
P67_x_4
P67_x_6
Equations
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
P67_x_7
P67_x_8
P67_x_9
P67_x_16
P67_x_21
P67_x_36
P67_x_37
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Setting ranges in TMS (Time Multiplier Setting) mode
Inverse (SIT) and IEC SIT/A: 0.04 to 4.20
Very inverse (VIT) and IEC VIT/B: 0.07 to 8.33
Very inverse (LTI) and IEC LTI/B: 0.01 to 0.93
Ext. inverse (EIT) and IEC EIT/C: 0.13 to 15.47
IEEE moderately inverse: 0.42 to 51.86
IEEE very inverse: 0.73 to 90.57
IEEE extremely inverse: 1.24 to 154.32
IAC inverse: 0.34 to 42.08
IAC very inverse: 0.61 to 75.75
IAC extremely inverse: 1.08 to 134.4.
(3) Only for standardized tripping curves of the IEC, IEEE and
IAC types.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Designation
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
Delayed output
Drop out
Instantaneous output (reverse
zone)
Phase 1 fault
Phase 2 fault
Phase 3 fault
Protection inhibited
Instantaneous output at 0.8 Is
1 out of 3 delayed output
2 out of 3 delayed output
Matrix
b
143
Directional earth fault
ANSI code 67N/67NC
Protection functions
Earth fault protection, with selective tripping
according to fault current direction.
Description
To adapt to all types of applications and all earthing systems, the protection function
operates according to two different types of characteristics, i.e. a choice of:
b type 1: the protection function uses I0 vector projection.
This projection method is suitable for radial feeders in resistive, isolated or
compensated neutral systems.
b type 2: the protection function uses the I0 vector magnitude and operates like an
earth fault protection function with an added direction criterion.
This projection method is suitable for closed ring distribution networks with directly
earthed neutral.
b type 3: the protection function uses the I0 vector magnitude and complies with
Italian specification ENEL DK5600. It operates like an earth fault protection function
with an added angular direction criterion {Lim.1, Lim.2}.
This protection method is suitable for distribution networks in which the neutral
earthing system varies according to the operational mode.
Tripping direction
The direction of the residual current is qualified as busbar direction or line direction
according to the following convention:
DE51557
3
The tripping zone is set for tripping in busbar zone or tripping in line zone.
The reverse zone is the zone for which the protection function does not trip.
The detection of current in the reverse zone is used for indication.
144
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Directional earth fault - Type 1
ANSI code 67N/67NC
Protection functions
DE50853
Earth fault protection for impedant or
compensated neutral systems.
Tripping characteristic of ANSI 67N/67NC type 1 protection
(characteristic angle θ0 ≠ 0°).
DE50455
characteristic angle:
θ0 = 0˚
sector
V0
Description
The function determines the projection of the residual current I0 on the characteristic
line, the position of which is determined by the setting of characteristic angle θ0 in
relation to the residual voltage. The projection value is compared to the Is0 set point.
This protection function is suitable for radial feeders in resistive, isolated or
compensated neutral systems.
With compensated neutral systems, it is characterized by its capacity to detect very
brief, repetitive faults (recurrent faults). In the case of Petersen coils with no
additional resistance, fault detection under steady state conditions is not possible
due to the absence of active zero sequence current. The protection function uses the
transient current at the beginning of the fault to ensure tripping.
The θ0 = 0° setting is suitable for compensated or impedant neutral systems. When
this setting is selected, the parameter setting of the sector is used to reduce the
protection tripping zone to ensure its stability on fault-free feeders.
The protection function operates with the residual current measured at one of the
relay I0 inputs (operation with sum of three currents impossible). The protection
function is inhibited for residual voltages below the Vs0 set point.
It implements a definite time (DT) delay.
The tripping direction may be set at the busbar end or line end.
Each of the two units has two groups of settings. Switching to setting group A or B
can be carried out by a logic input or a remote control order, depending on the
settings.
Memory
The detection of recurrent faults is controlled by the time delay T0mem which
extends the transient pick-up information, thereby enabling the operation of the
definite time delay even with faults that are rapidly extinguished (≈ 2 ms) and restrike
periodically. Even when a Petersen coil with no additional resistance is used, tripping
is ensured due to fault detection during the transient fault appearance. Detection is
extended throughout the duration of the fault based on the criterion V0 u V0mem,
within the limit of T0mem. With this type of application, T0mem must be greater than
T (definite time delay).
Is0 set point
tripping zone
Tripping characteristic of ANSI 67N/67NC type 1 protection
(characteristic angle θ0 = 0°).
DE80140
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
145
3
Protection functions
Directional earth fault - Type 1
ANSI code 67N/67NC
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Characteristic angle θ
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Is0 setting
Setting range
I0 / I’0
-45°, 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°
±2°
Sum of CTs
With CSH sensor
2 A rating
20 A rating
CT
Core balance CT with ACE990
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T (definite time (DT) tripping curve)
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
3
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
in amperes
0.01 In y Is0 y 15 In (min. 0.1 A)
0.1 to 30 A
0.2 to 300 A
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
±5 % (at ϕ0 = 180°)
1 A or 1 digit
93.5 % ±5 %
Inst, 50 ms y T y 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Tripping direction
Setting range
Vs0 set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Busbar / line
2 % Unp to 80 % Unp
±5 % or ±0.005 Unp
1%
93.5 % ±5 %
or > (1 - 0.006 Unp/Vs0) x 100 %
Sector
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Memory time T0mem
Setting range
Resolution
Memory voltage V0mem
Setting range
Resolution
86°, 83°, 76°
±2°
0; 0.05 to 300 s
10 ms or 1 digit
0; 2 to 80 % of Unp
1%
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 55 ms at 2 Is0
< 45 ms at 2 Is0
< 50 ms (at T0mem = 0)
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P67N_x_101 b
b
P67N_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P67N_x_1
Delayed output
P67N_x_3
Drop-out
P67N_x_4
Instantaneous output (reverse zone)
P67N_x_6
Protection inhibited
P67N_x_16
Instantaneous output at 0.8 Is0
P67N_x_21
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
Standard setting
The settings below are given for usual applications in the different earthing systems.
The shaded boxes represent default settings.
Is0 setting
Characteristic angle θ0
Time delay T
Direction
Vs0 set point
Sector
Memory time T0mem
Memory voltage
V0mem
146
Isolated neutral
Impedant neutral
Set according to
discrimination study
90°
Set according to
discrimination study
Line
2 % of Uns
N/A
0
0
Set according to
discrimination study
0°
Set according to
discrimination study
Line
2 % of Uns
86°
0
0
Compensated
neutral
Set according to
discrimination study
0°
Set according to
discrimination study
Line
2 % of Uns
86°
200 ms
0
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
DE50096
Earth fault protection for impedant or solidly
earthed systems.
Directional earth fault - Type 2
ANSI code 67N/67NC
Description
The protection function operates like an earth fault protection function with an added
direction criterion.
It is suitable for closed ring distribution networks with directly earthed neutral. It has
all the characteristics of an earth fault protection function (50N/51N) and can
therefore be easily coordinated with that function.
The residual current is the current measured at one of the Sepam I0 inputs or
calculated using the sum of the main phase currents (I), according to the parameter
setting.
The tripping direction may be set at the busbar end or line end.
The protection function has a definite or IDMT time delay.
Each of the two units has two groups of settings. Switching to setting group A or B
can be carried out by a logic input or a remote control order, depending on the
settings.
The customized curve, defined point by point, may be used with this protection
function.
An adjustable timer hold, definite time or IDMT, can be used for coordination with
electromagnetic relays and to detect restriking faults.
Tripping curve
Tripping characteristic of ANSI 67N/67NC - type 2 protection
function.
Definite time (DT)
Standard inverse time (SIT)
Very inverse time (VIT or LTI)
Extremely inverse time (EIT)
Ultra inverse time (UIT)
RI curve
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
IAC inverse
IAC very inverse
IAC extremely inverse
Customized
Timer hold
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time or IDMT
Definite time
DE80141
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
147
3
Protection functions
Directional earth fault - Type 2
ANSI code 67N/67NC
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Characteristic angle θ
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Tripping curve
Setting range
Is0 setting
Definite time
setting range
Sum of CTs
With CSH sensor
3
I0
I’0
I0Σ (sum of the main phase channels)
-45°, 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°
±2°
See previous page
2 A rating
20 A rating
CT
Core balance CT with ACE990
IDMT
setting range
Sum of CTs
With CSH sensor
2 A rating
20 A rating
CT
Core balance CT with ACE990
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Time delay T (operation time at 10 Is0)
Setting range
definite time
IDMT
Accuracy (1)
definite time
IDMT
Resolution
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
in amperes
0.01 In y Is0 y 15 In (min. 0.1 A)
0.1 to 30 A
0.2 to 300 A
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
0.01 In0 y Is0 y In0 (mini 0.1 A)
in amperes
0.01 In y Is0 y In (min. 0.1 A)
0.1 to 2 A
0.2 to 20 A
0.01 In0 y Is0 y In0 (min. 0.1 A)
0.01 In0 y Is0 y In0 (min. 0.1 A)
±5 % or ±0.004 In0
0.1 A or 1 digit
93.5 % ±5 %
or > (1 - 0.005 In0/Is0) x 100 %
Inst, 50 ms y T y 300 s
100 ms y T y 12.5 s or TMS (2)
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Class 5 or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Tripping direction
Setting range
Vs0 set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Timer hold T1
Setting range
Busbar / line
2 % Unp to 80 % Unp
±5 % or ±0.005 Unp
1%
93 % ±5 %
or > (1 - 0.006 Unp/Vs0) x 100 %
definite time
IDMT (3)
0; 0.05 to 300 s
0.5 to 20 s
10 ms or 1 digit
Resolution
Characteristic times
Operation time
Pick-up < 40 ms at 2 Is0
(typically 25 ms)
Inst. < 55 ms at 2 Is0 (confirmed
instantaneous) (typically 35 ms)
< 35 ms at 2 Is0
< 50 ms at 2 Is0 (for T1 = 0)
Overshoot time
Reset time
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
(2) Setting ranges in TMS (Time Multiplier Setting) mode
Inverse (SIT) and IEC SIT/A: 0.04 to 4.20
Very inverse (VIT) and IEC VIT/B: 0.07 to 8.33
Very inverse (LTI) and IEC LTI/B: 0.01 to 0.93
Ext. inverse (EIT) and IEC EIT/C: 0.13 to 15.47
IEEE moderately inverse: 0.42 to 51.86
IEEE very inverse: 0.73 to 90.57
IEEE extremely inverse: 1.24 to 154.32
IAC inverse: 0.34 to 42.08
IAC very inverse: 0.61 to 75.75
IAC extremely inverse: 1.08 to 134.4.
(3) Only for standardized tripping curves of the IEC, IEEE and
IAC types.
148
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P67N_x_101 b
b
P67N_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
Delayed output
Drop out
Instantaneous output (reverse zone)
Protection inhibited
Instantaneous output at 0.8 Is0
Syntax
P67N_x_1
P67N_x_3
P67N_x_4
P67N_x_6
P67N_x_16
P67N_x_21
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Directional earth fault - Type 3
ANSI Code 67N/67NC
Protection functions
Type 3 operation
DE51173
This protection operates like an earth fault protection function (ANSI 50N/51N) with
an added angular direction criterion {Lim.1, Lim.2}.
It is suitable for distribution networks in which the neutral earthing system varies
according to the operational mode.
The tripping direction may be set at the busbar end or line end.
The residual current is the current measured at the Sepam I0 input.
It has a definite time delay (DT constant).
By choosing an Is0 set point of 0, the protection function behaves like a neutral
voltage displacement protection function (ANSI 59N).
Is0 set point
Tripping zone
DE80142
Simplified schematic
3
Definite time operation
Is0 corresponds to the operating set point expressed in amps, and T corresponds to
the protection operating delay.
DE50398
t
T
Is0
I0
Definite time protection principle.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
149
Protection functions
Directional earth fault - Type 3
ANSI Code 67N/67NC
Type 3 characteristics
Measurement origin
Setting range
I0
I’0
I0Σ (sum of the main phase channels)
Tripping zone start angle Lim.1
Setting
0° to 359°
Resolution
1°
Accuracy
±3°
Tripping zone end angle Lim.2
Setting
0° to 359° (1)
Resolution
1°
Accuracy
±3°
Tripping direction
Setting
Line/busbar
Is0 set point
Setting (2)
With CSH core balance CT 0.1 A to 30 A
(2 A rating)
With 1 A CT
0.005 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A)
With core balance CT +
0.01 In0 y Is0 y 15 In0 (min. 0.1 A) (3)
ACE990 (range 1)
Resolution
0.1 A or 1 digit
Accuracy
±5%
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
u 95%
Vs0 set point
Setting
On sum of 3 Vs
2% Unp y Vs0 y 80% Unp
On external VT
0.6 % Unp y Vs0 y 80% Unp
Resolution
0.1% for Vs0 < 10%
1% for Vs0 u 10%
Accuracy
±5%
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
u 95%
Time delay T
3
instantaneous, 50 ms y T y 300 s
Setting
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Accuracy
y 3% or ±20 ms at 2 Is0
Characteristic times
Operation time
pick-up < 40 ms at 2 Is0
instantaneous < 55 ms at 2 Is0
Overshoot time
< 40 ms
Reset time
< 50 ms
Inputs
Designation
Reset protection
Inhibit protection
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P67N_x_101 b
b
P67N_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
Matrix
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P67N_x_1
b
b
Delayed output
P67N_x_3
b
b
b
Drop-out
P67N_x_4
b
b
Instantaneous output (reverse zone)
P67N_x_6
b
b
Protection inhibited
P67N_x_16 b
b
Instantaneous output at 0.8 Is0
P67N_x_21 b
b
(1) Tripping zone Lim.2-Lim.1 should be 10° or more.
(2) For Is0 = 0, the protection function behaves like a neutral voltage displacement protection
function (59N).
(3) In0 = k . n where n = the core balance CT ratio and k = coefficient to be determined according
to the wiring of the ACE990 (0.00578 y k y 0.04).
Standard tripping zone setting (line end)
The settings below are given for the usual applications in different types of neutral
earthing system.
The shaded boxes represent default settings.
Lim.1 angle
Lim.2 angle
150
Isolated
neutral
190°
350°
Impedant
neutral
100°
280°
Directly earthed
neutral
100°
280°
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Pole slip
ANSI code 78PS
Protection functions
Protection of synchronous generators and
motors against loss of synchronization.
Description
Protection against loss of synchronization on synchronous machines, based on
calculated active power.
The function is composed of two independent protection modules, based on:
b the equal-area criterion
b the power-swing criterion.
The tripping order may be issued by one or both criteria, depending on the parameter
settings.
Equal-area criterion
This function calculates the acceleration area when a fault appears and the braking
area when the fault disappears. The tripping order is issued if the braking area is
smaller than the acceleration area.
The function calculates under steady state conditions an average power over four
seconds, called the power before fault Pbf, which corresponds to the electrical power
supplied by a generator or drawn by a motor. The function picks up when the
instantaneous power is different than Pbf.
A time delay is available to delay tripping. If, during the time delay, a return to stability
is detected, the function is reinitialized without tripping.
DE50857
Equal-area criterion block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
151
3
Pole slip
ANSI code 78PS
Protection functions
Power-swing criterion
The function detects a change in the active power sign.
Two power swings are counted for each 360° of phase displacement between the
electromotive force of the machine and the network.
Power swings are detected by comparing the sign of the instantaneous power with
that of the power 14 ms before, Pp. If the signs are different, a swing is counted.
The trip order is issued if the number of 360° displacements measured is equal to the
set number.
A time delay may be used to set a maximum time between two swings. This makes
the function insensitive to low-frequency power oscillations.
DE50858
Power-swing criterion block
diagram
3
Current sensors
Current transformers must be either:
b type 5P20, with an accuracy burden VACT > RfIn²
where VACT: CT accuracy burden
In: CT rated secondary current
Rf: wiring resistance
b or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk u (RCT + Rf) 20 In
where RCT: CT internal resistance.
Characteristics
Settings
Selection of tripping type
Setting range
Equal-area criterion
Power-swing criterion
Equal-area criterion and power-swing criterion
Equal-area criterion time delay
Setting range
100 ms y T y 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Number of 360° displacements
Setting range
1 y number of 360° displacements y 30
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1 360° displacement
Maximum time between two 360° displacements
Setting range
1 s y T y 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1 s or 1 digit
Characteristic times
Operation time
38 ms to 2 Ps
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P78PS_1_101 b
b
P78PS_1_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P78PS_1_1
Delayed output
P78PS_1_3
Protection inhibited
P78PS_1_16
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
152
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Pole slip
ANSI code 78PS
Example of setting
The electrical power supplied by the machine to the network is: Pe = 3VI cos ϕ .
Consider a 3.15 MVA generator in an industrial
installation, connected to a network with a high shortcircuit power.
Protection against loss of synchronization is set up to
trip according to the equal-area criterion and the powerswing criterion.
b tripping according to the equal-area criterion: 300 ms
b number of 360° displacements allowed: 2
b the maximum time between two swings is 10
seconds.
P
On the vector diagram: E sin δ = X d ( I cos ϕ ) = X d ⎛ -------e ⎞ .
⎝ 3V ⎠
As a function of the electromotive force, the internal angle and the synchronous
3VE sin δ
reactance, the active power is: Pe = ------------------------- .
Xd
This equation can be used to determine the electrical power supplied by the
generator to the network, as a function of the internal angle and assuming that V, E
and Xd are constant.
If losses are neglected (efficiency is close to 0.99), the relation between the
mechanical power Pm and the electrical power supplied Pe is:
dΩ
Pm = Pe + JΩ -------dt
where J is the moment of inertia of the machine
Ω is the angular velocity of the rotating masses
Pm is the mechanical power supplied by the driving machine
Principle of transient stability
There are three types of stability in an electrical network:
b stability under steady state conditions: this concerns
small variations in the load and consequently in the
power. It is ensured by the power regulation functions
b dynamic stability: this concerns larger variations. It is
ensured by the network regulation functions
b transient stability: this concerns major variations in
power, for example during faults. It is ensured by
important action on the network, such as load
shedding, source disconnection or independent
operation of certain zones in the network.
Protection against loss of synchronization can be used
to detect cases of transient instability.
The velocity of the electric field is related to the mechanical velocity by the equation:
ω
Ω = ---p
where ω is the angular velocity of the electrical field
p is the number of pole pairs in the machine
In the remainder of this example, we will consider a machine with a single pair of
poles, i.e. p = 1.
The relation between electrical and mechanical power becomes:
dω
Pm = Pe + Jω -------- .
dt
When a generator is connected to a network with
infinite power, the voltage across its terminals is
imposed by the network. For a turbo-generator under
steady state conditions, the internal impedance is equal
to its longitudinal synchronous reactance Xd (the
resistance and possible saturation of the magnetic
circuit are neglected).
Variations in speed are directly related to unbalances between the mechanical power
and the electrical power supplied to the network.
Pm – Pe
dω
-------- = ------------------.
Jω
dt
DE50641
DE50639
Under steady state conditions, i.e. with no increase in speed, the electrical power
supplied to the network is equal to the mechanical power.
V = E – jXdI
where E is the electromotive force of the machine
Xd: the synchronous reactance
V: the network voltage
I: the current supplied by the generator
DE50640
If it is assumed that the generator supplies a current,
the network voltage and the electromotive force of the
machine are not in phase because of the synchronous
reactance. This displacement is commonly called the
internal angle of the machine or the load angle. When
the electromotive force leads the network voltage, the
internal angle is positive. When the electromotive force
lags the network voltage, the internal angle is negative.
The vector diagram is:
The electrical power curve intersects the constant mechanical power line at two
points (A and B).
b point A (stable operation):
v if δ increases slightly with respect to its value at point A (the electromotive force
leads the network voltage), the electrical power supplied to the network increases
slightly. At a constant level of mechanical power:
Pm – Pe
dω
<0.
-------- = ------------------Jω
dt
The machine slows as long as the electrical power supplied is not equal to the
mechanical power, because the derivative of the velocity is negative. Electrically
speaking, the electromotive force reduces its lead and consequently the angle δ.
v if δ decreases slightly with respect to its value at point A (the electromotive force
reduces its lead on the network voltage), the electrical power supplied to the network
decreases slightly. At a constant level of mechanical power:
Pm – Pe
dω
-------- = ------------------>0.
dt
Jω
The machine accelerates as long as the electrical power supplied is not equal to the
mechanical power, because the derivative of the velocity is positive. Electrically
speaking, the electromotive force increases its lead and consequently the angle δ.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
153
3
Pole slip
ANSI code 78PS
b point B (unstable operation)
v if δ increases slightly with respect to its value at point
B (the electromotive force leads the network voltage),
the electrical power supplied to the network decreases
slightly. At a constant level of mechanical power:
Pm – Pe
dω
-------- = ------------------>0.
dt
Jω
b fault clearing with return to stability
the machine returns to its operating mode prior to the fault if the two integrals are
equal:
∫
t1
∫
(Pm – Pe ( t )) dt = Pm dt .
t1
t0
t2
The integral
∫ (P
m
– Pe ( t )) dt is called the braking area.
t1
DE50859
The machine accelerates because the derivative of the
velocity is positive. Electrically speaking, the
electromotive force increases its lead and
consequently the angle δ.
v if δ decreases slightly with respect to its value at point
B (the electromotive force reduces its lead on the
network voltage), the electrical power supplied to the
network increases slightly. At a constant level of
mechanical power:
Pm – Pe
dω
<0.
-------- = ------------------Jω
dt
t2
The machine slows because the derivative of the
velocity is negative. Electrically speaking, the
electromotive force reduces its lead and consequently
the angle δ until it returns to point A.
When the machine passes point B, racing occurs.
b fault clearing and loss of synchronization
during slowing, the machine passes point B and begins to accelerate again because
beyond this point, Pm - Pe(t) > 0.
When a fault occurs, assuming it is a three-phase dead
short across the generator terminals, the voltage
across the machine terminals is equal to zero.
Consequently, the electrical power supplied to the
network is zero:
3VE sin δ
3 × 0 × E sin δ
Pe = ------------------------- = ------------------------------------ = 0 .
Xd
Xd
t2
The braking area
m
– Pe ( t )) dt is not sufficient.
The machine starts to race and stability is lost. The machine starts to alternate
between phases during which it supplies electrical power and others where it draws
power.
The regulation systems do not have time to act and the
mechanical power across the machine terminals
remains constant.
The fault results in an unbalance between the electrical
power supplied to the network and the mechanical
power:
Pm – Pe
dω
-------- = ------------------>0.
dt
Jω
∫ (P
t1
DE50860
3
Protection functions
Given that the derivative of the velocity is positive, the
machine accelerates and the electromotive force
begins to lead with respect to the voltage of the
network. As long as the fault continues, the machine
accelerates.
The variation in velocity is:
ω1
∫
ω0
t1
∫
1
ω dω = --- Pm dt
J
t0
where
the steady state conditions before the fault: t0, ω0, δ0
the fault clearing conditions: t1, ω1, δ1.
t1
∫ P dt is proportional to the acceleration
The integral
m
t0
of the machine.
It is commonly called the acceleration area.
When the fault is cleared, the voltage across the
machine terminals is no longer zero. It is assumed that
the network voltage, the load and the electromotive
force are the same. In that the internal angle increased,
the electrical power is Pe(t).
Depending on the sign of Pm - Pe(t), the machine slows
or continues to accelerate.
ω2
∫
ω1
The situation presented here is also true for machines other than turbo-generators.
In this case, the shape of Pe as a function of the internal angle is different. The same
is true when the voltage across the machine terminals does not drop to zero, or when
there is a change in the load due to load shedding when the fault is cleared.
The situation for synchronous motors is identical to that of synchronous generators,
except that instead of supplying power, they draw power. The network voltage leads
the electromotive force. In this case, the above relationships must be inverted.
t2
∫
1
ω dω = --- ( Pm – P e ( t ) ) dt
J
t1
Generally, Pm - Pe(t) < 0. This condition is not sufficient
to recover stability.
154
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Recloser with 1 to 4 cycles to clear
transients or semi-permanent faults on
overhead lines.
Definition
Reclaim time
The reclaim time is activated by a circuit breaker
closing order given by the recloser.
If no faults are detected before the end of the reclaim
time, the initial fault is
considered to have been cleared.
Otherwise a new reclosing cycle is initiated.
The delay must be longer than the longest reclosing
cycle activation condition.
Safety time until ready
The safety time is activated by a manual circuit breaker
closing order. The recloser is inhibited for the duration
of the time.
If a fault occurs during this time, no reclosing cycles are
initiated and the circuit breaker remains permanently
open.
Dead time
Cycle n dead time is launched by
breaking device tripping order
given by the recloser during cycle n.
The breaking device remains open throughout the time.
At the end of the cycle n dead time, the n+1 cycle
begins, and the recloser orders the closing of the circuit
breaker.
Recloser
ANSI code 79
Description
Automation device used to limit down time after tripping due to transient or semipermanent faults on overhead lines. The recloser orders automatic reclosing of the
breaking device after the time delay required to restore the insulation. Recloser
operation is easy to adapt for different operating modes by parameter setting.
Initialization of the recloser
The recloser is ready to operate if all of the following conditions are met:
b "switchgear control" function activated and recloser in service (not inhibited by the
recloser inhibition logic input)
b circuit breaker closed
b the safety time is not running
b none of the recloser inhibition conditions is true (e.g. trip circuit fault, control fault,
SF6 pressure drop).
Recloser cycles
b case of a fault that is not cleared: following instantaneous or time-delayed tripping
by the protection unit, activation of the dead time associated with the first active cycle.
At the end of the dead time, a closing order is given, which activates the reclaim time.
If the protection unit detects the fault before the end of the time delay, a tripping order
is given and the following reclosing cycle is activated. after all the active cycles have
been run, if the fault still persists, a final trip order is given, a message appears on
the display.
b case of a cleared fault: Following a reclosing order, if the fault does not appear after
the reclaim time has run out, the recloser reinitializes and a message appears on the
display (see example 1).
b closing on a fault.
If the circuit breaker closes on a fault, or if the fault appears before the end of the
safety time delay, the recloser is inhibited. A final trip message is issued.
Recloser inhibition conditions
The recloser is inhibited according to the following conditions:
b voluntary open or close order
b recloser put out of service
b receipt of a inhibition order on the logic input
b activation of the breaker failure, such as trip circuit fault, control fault, SF6 pressure
drop
b opening of the circuit breaker by a protection unit that does not run reclosing cycles
(e.g. frequency protection), by external tripping or by a function set up not to activate
reclosing cycles.
In such cases, a final trip message appears.
Extension of the dead time
If, during a reclosing cycle, reclosing of the circuit breaker is impossible because
breaker recharging is not finished (following a drop in auxiliary voltage, recharging
time is longer), the dead time may be extended up to the time at which the circuit
breaker is ready to carry out an "Open-Close-Open" cycle. The maximum time added
to the dead time is adjustable (Twait_max). If, at the end of the maximum waiting
time, the circuit breaker is still not ready, the recloser is inhibited (see example 5).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
155
3
Protection functions
Recloser
ANSI code 79
Characteristics
Settings
Number of cycles
Setting range
Activation of cycle 1
Protection 50/51 units 1 to 4
Protection 50N/51N units 1 to 4
Protection 67 units 1 to 2
Protection 67N/67NC units 1 to 2
Logic equations or Logipam outputs
V_TRIPCB
Activation of cycles 2, 3 and 4
Protection 50/51 units 1 to 4
Protection 50N/51N units 1 to 4
Protection 67 units 1 to 2
Protection 67N/67NC units 1 to 2
Logic equations or Logipam outputs
V_TRIPCB
Time delays
Reclaim time
Dead time
Cycle 1
Cycle 2
Cycle 3
Cycle 4
Safety time until ready
Maximum additional dead time
Accuracy (2)
Resolution
3
1 to 4
inst. / delayed / no activation
inst. / delayed / no activation
inst. / delayed / no activation
inst. / delayed / no activation
active/inactive
inst. / delayed / no activation
inst. / delayed / no activation
inst. / delayed / no activation
inst. / delayed / no activation
active/inactive
0.1 to 300 s
0.1 to 300 s
0.1 to 300 s
0.1 to 300 s
0.1 to 300 s
0 to 60 s
0.1 to 60 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P79_1_113
Equations Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Recloser in service
P79 _1_201
Recloser ready
P79 _1_202
Cleared fault
P79 _1_203
Final trip
P79 _1_204
Closing by recloser
P79 _1_205
Reclosing cycle 1
P79 _1_211
Reclosing cycle 2
P79 _1_212
Reclosing cycle 3
P79 _1_213
Reclosing cycle 4
P79 _1_214
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
156
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Recloser
ANSI code 79
DE50786
Example 1. Fault cleared after the second cycle
3
DE50787
Example 2. Fault not cleared
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
157
Protection functions
Recloser
ANSI code 79
DE50788
Example 3. Closing on a fault
3
DE50789
Example 4. No extension of dead time
DE50790
Example 5. Extension of dead time
158
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Overfrequency
ANSI code 81H
Protection functions
Detection of abnormally high frequencies.
Description
Detection of abnormally high frequency compared to the rated frequency, to monitor
power supply quality or protect a generator against overspeeds.
The frequency is calculated using voltage V1 or U21 when only one voltage is
connected, otherwise the positive sequence voltage is used to procure greater
stability. It is compared to the Fs set point.
The protection function is inhibited if the voltage used for calculations is under the
adjustable set point Vs.
The protection includes a definite time delay T.
DE50791
Block diagram
3
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Fs set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Pick up / drop out difference
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
50 to 55 Hz or 60 to 65 Hz
±0.01 Hz
0.1
0.25 Hz
100 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Vs set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
20 % Un to 50 % Un
2%
1%
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 90 ms from Fs -0.5 Hz to Fs +0.5 Hz
< 50 ms from Fs -0.5 Hz to Fs +0.5 Hz
< 55 ms from Fs +0.5 Hz to Fs -0.5 Hz
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P81H_x_101 b
b
P81H_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P81H_x_1
b
Delayed output
P81H_x_3
b
Protection inhibited
P81H_x_16 b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6) and df/dt < 3 Hz/s.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
159
Underfrequency
ANSI code 81L
Protection functions
Detection of abnormally low frequency for
load shedding using a metric frequency
criterion.
Description
Detection of abnormally low frequency compared to the rated frequency, to monitor
power supply quality. The protection may be used for overall tripping or load
shedding.
The frequency is calculated using voltage V1 or U21 when only one voltage is
connected, otherwise the positive sequence voltage is used to procure greater
stability. It is compared to the Fs set point.
The protection function is inhibited if the voltage used for calculations is under the
adjustable set point Vs.
Protection stability is ensured in the event of the loss of the main source and
presence of remanent voltage by a restraint in the event of a continuous decrease of
the frequency.
The protection includes a definite (DT) time delay T.
Block diagram
DE50861
3
Characteristics
Settings
Measurement origin
Setting range
Fs set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Pick up / drop out difference
Time delay T
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Main channels (U) / Additional channels (U’)
40 to 50 Hz or 50 to 60 Hz
±0.01 Hz
0.1
0.25 Hz
100 ms to 300 s
±2 % or ±25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Advanced settings
Vs set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Restraint on frequency variation
Setting
dFs/dt set point
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
20 % Un to 50 % Un
2%
1%
With / without
1 Hz/s to 15 Hz/s
±1 Hz/s
±1 Hz/s
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 90 ms from Fs +0.5 Hz to Fs -0.5 Hz
< 50 ms from Fs +0.5 Hz to Fs -0.5 Hz
< 55 ms from Fs -0.5 Hz to Fs +0.5 Hz
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P81L_x_101 b
b
P81L_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P81L_x_1
b
Delayed output
P81L_x_3
b
Protection inhibited
P81L_x_16 b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6) and df/dt < 3 Hz/s.
160
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Rate of change of frequency
ANSI code 81R
Protection functions
Operation
Protection function based on the calculation
of the frequency variation, used to rapidly
disconnect a source supplying a network or
to control load shedding.
The rate of change of frequency protection function is complementary to the under and
overfrequency protection functions in detecting network configurations that require
load shedding or disconnection.
The function is activated when the "rate of change of frequency" df/dt of the positive
sequence voltage is higher than a set point. It includes a definite (DT) time delay.
The protection function operates if:
b the positive sequence voltage is greater than 50 % of the rated phase-to-neutral
voltage
b the network frequency is between 42.2 Hz and 56.2 Hz for 50 Hz networks and
between 51.3 Hz and 65 Hz for 60 Hz networks.
Block diagram
de51554
3
Characteristics
Settings
dfs/dt set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
Temporisation
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
0.1 to 10 Hz/s
±5 % or ±0,1 Hz
0.01 Hz
93 %
0.15 to 300 s
±2 % or -10 à +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Characteristic times (1)
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Pick-up < 150 ms (typically 130 ms)
< 100 ms
< 100 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
Equations Logipam
P81R_x_101 b
b
P81R_x_113 b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Instantaneous output (pick-up)
P81R_x_1
b
Tripping output
P81R_x_3
b
Protection inhibited
P81R_x_16 b
Invalid voltage
P81R_x_42 b
Invalid frequency
P81R_x_43 b
Positive df/dt
P81R_x_44 b
Negative df/dt
P81R_x_45 b
x: unit number.
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6) and df/dt < 3 Hz/s.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
161
Protection functions
Rate of change of frequency
ANSI code 81R
Disconnection application
This function is used on incomers of installations that include generators that can
operate in parallel with the distribution network.
The role of the function is to detect utility failures, i.e. operation of the generator as
an autonomous isolated system. If the power flow from the utility prior to autonomous
generator operation was not zero, the generator frequency changes.
The rate of change of frequency protection function detects autonomous generator
operation more rapidly than conventional frequency protection functions.
Other disturbances such as short-circuits, load fluctuations and switching may cause
changes of frequency. The low set point may be reached temporarily due to these
disturbances and a time delay is necessary. In order to maintain the advantage of the
speed of the rate of change of frequency protection in comparison to conventional
frequency protection functions, a second, higher set point with a short time delay may
be added.
The rate of change of frequency is actually not constant. Often, the rate of change of
frequency is at its highest at the beginning of the disturbance after which it
decreases. This extends the tripping time of frequency protection functions but does
not affect the tripping time of the rate of change of frequency protection function.
3
Low set point
b Follow the utility's instructions, if there are any.
b If there are no utility instructions, proceed as follows:
v if the maximum rate of change of frequency on the network under normal
conditions is known, dfs/dt should be set above it.
v if no information on the network is available, the low set point may be set according
to generator data.
A good approximation of the rate of change of frequency after a utility failure resulting
in a load variation ΔP is:
where Sn: rated power
df
ΔP × fn
------ = ---------------------------fn: rated frequency
dt
2 × Sn × H
H: inertia constant
Typical value of the inertia constant (in MWs/MVA):
0.5 y H y 1.5 for diesel and low-power generators (y 2 MVA)
2 y H y 5 for gas turbines and medium-power generators (y 40 MVA)
where J: moment of inertia
J × Ω2
H = ----------------Ω: machine speed
2 × Sn
Examples
Rated power
Inertia constant
Power variation
df/dt
2 MVA
0.5 MWs/MVA
0.1 MVA
-2.5 Hz/s
20 MVA
2 MWs/MVA
1 MVA
-0.6 Hz/s
Low set point delay setting
For good protection stability during short-circuits or transient disturbances, the
recommended time delay is 300 ms or more. If an automatic recloser is in service
upstream of the installation, the detection of autonomous generator operation and
the opening of the coupling circuit breaker must take place during the recloser
isolation time.
High set point
The second set point may be chosen so that the rate of change of frequency tripping
curve remains below the under and overfrequency protection curves.
If the frequency protection units are set to fn±0.5Hz and the low set point of the rate of
change of frequency is T, the high set point may be set to 0.5/T.
High set point delay setting
No particular recommendantions.
Setting recommendations when no other information is available
Generator power
2 to 10 MVA
> 10 MVA
Settings
Low set point
High set point
162
dfs/dt
T
dfs/dt
T
0.5 Hz/s
500 ms
2.5 Hz/s
150 ms
0.2 Hz/s
500 ms
1 Hz/s
150 ms
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Rate of change of frequency
ANSI code 81R
Operating precautions:
When the generator connects to the network, power oscillations may occur until the
generator becomes fully synchronized. The rate of change of frequency protection
function is sensitive to this phenomenon, so it is advisable to inhibit the protection
unit for a few seconds after circuit breaker closing.
Load shedding application
The rate of change of frequency protection function may also be used for load
shedding in combination with underfrequency protection. In such cases, it is used on
the installation busbars. Only negative frequency derivatives are to be used.
Two principles are available:
b acceleration of load shedding:
The rate of change of frequency protection functions controls load shedding. It acts
faster than underfrequency protection functions and the value measured (df/dt) is
directly proportional to the load to be shed
b load shedding inhibition:
This principle is included in underfrequency protection functions. It consists of
activating the frequency variation restraint and does not call for implementation of the
rate of change of frequency protection function.
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3
Protection functions
Machine differential
ANSI code 87M
Phase-to-phase short-circuit protection for
generators and motors.
Percentage-based differential
The percentage-based tripping characteristic compares the through current to the
differential current.
According to the current measurement convention, shown in the diagram and respecting
the recommended wiring system, the differential and through currents are calculated by:
b differential current:
Description
Phase-to-phase short-circuit protection, based on
phase by phase comparison of the currents on motor
and generator windings.
This function picks up if the difference in current is
greater than the set point defined by:
b a percentage-based curve
b a differential curve (high set point).
Idx = I x + I′ x where x = 1, 2, 3
b through current
I x – I′ x
Itx = ------------------- where x = 1, 2, 3
2
The percentage-based characteristic is made up to two half curves defined according
to the following formulas:
b 1st half curve depending on the Is set point
Tripping restraint ensures stability due to:
b detection of an external fault or machine starting
b detection of CT saturation
b fast detection of CT loss
b detection of transformer energizing.
3
2
2
2
Itx
Idx – ----------- > Is where 0 y Itx y 2In and x = 1, 2, 3
32
b 2nd half curve
2
2
DE52189
DE50311
2
Idx
Itx
------------- – ----------- > ( 0.005 In ) where 2In < Itx and x = 1, 2, 3.
8
32
Differential high set point.
To avoid any delay for major asymmetrical faults, a differential high set point, without
restraint, is used.
The characteristic of this set point is:
Idx > 5.5 In
164
Idx
and --------- > 1 where x = 1, 2, 3
Itx
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Machine differential
ANSI code 87M
Tripping restraints
b Restraint for external faults or machine starting
During starting or an external fault, the through current is much higher than 1.5 In. As
long as the CTs do not saturate, the differential current is low. This transient state is
detected by the following characteristic:
2
2
2
Idx
Itx
------------- – ----------- < – ( 0.25 In )
2
32
where x = 1, 2, 3
An external fault can be followed by a short, but high differential current, that is why
a 200 ms restraint is used to ensure protection stability for this type of fault.
b Restraint on CT saturation
CT saturation can result in a false differential current and nuisance tripping. The
restraint analyses the asymmetry of the signals and restrains the tripping order if a
CT is saturated.
b Restraint on CT loss
CT loss can result in a false differential current and nuisance tripping. This restraint
is the means to detect a measurement that abnormally drops to zero (sample
analysis).
b Restraint on transformer energizing
v this restraint ensures that the H2 level of the differential current is greater than
15 %:
Idxh2
----------------- > 0.15 where x = 1, 2, 3.
Idx
DE52288
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
165
3
Protection functions
Machine differential
ANSI code 87M
Dimensioning phase-current sensors
Current transformers must be either:
b type 5P20, with an accuracy burden VACT u Rw.in2
b or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk u (RCT + Rw).20.in.
The equations apply to the phase current transformers placed on either side of the
machine.
in is the CT rated secondary current.
RCT is the CT internal resistance.
Rw is the resistance of the CT load and wiring.
The setting range of the Is set point depends on the rated values of the current
sensors on the main channels I1, I2, I3 and the additional channels I'1, I'2, I'3. The
setting range is the intersection of [0.05 In 0.5 In] with [0.05 I’n 0.5 I’n]. When the
rated values are identical, the setting range is optimum. If there is no intersection, the
function cannot be used.
Characteristics
Settings
3
Is set point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop out/pick up ratio
max(0.05 In1; 0.05 In2) y Is y min(0.5 In1; 0.5 In2)
5 % Is or 0.4 % In
1 A or 1 digit
93.5 %
Advanced settings
Pick-up of restraint on CT loss
Setting range
On / off
Characteristic times
Operation time
Overshoot time
Reset time
Operation time of differential current function
< 40 ms
< 35 ms
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Syntax
P81L_x_101
P81L_x_113
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Designation
Syntax
Protection output
P87M_1_3
Phase 1 fault
P87M_1_7
Phase 2 fault
P87M _1_8
Phase 3 fault
P87M _1_9
Protection inhibited
P87M_1_16
High set point
P87M_1_33
Percentage-based set point
P87M_1_34
CT loss
P87M_1_39
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
166
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Phase-to-phase short-circuit
protection for transformers
and transformer-machine units (2 windings)
According to the current measurement convention shown in the diagram and
respecting the recommended wiring system, the differential currents Id and through
currents It are calculated using the matched currents Im and I’m.
Operation
b Through current: Itx = max ( I xm , I′xm ) where x = 1, 2 or 3
The function picks up if the differential current of at least one phase is greater than
the operating threshold defined by:
b a high adjustable differential current set point, without tripping restraint
b an adjustable percentage-based characteristic with two slopes
b a low adjustable differential current set point.
Stability is ensured by the following tripping restraints:
b a self-adaptive or conventional harmonic restraint
b a transfomer-energization restraint
b a CT-loss restraint.
The high tripping set point is not restrained.
3
DE52097
This protection function protects the zone between the
sensors for the main currents I1, I2, I3 on the one hand
and the sensors for the additional currents I'1, I'2, I'3 on
the other.
It adjusts both the amplitude and phase of the currents
in each winding according to the vector shift and the
transformer rated power, as well as the set voltage and
current values.
It then compares the matched currents phase by
phase.
b Differential current: Idx = I xm + I′xm where x = 1, 2 or 3
DE52173
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
167
3
Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Definitions
Matching
The terms winding 1 and winding 2 are used in the
following manner:
b winding 1: corresponds to the circuit to which the
main currents I1, I2, I3 and the voltage measurements
V1, V2, V3 or U21, U32 are connected
b winding 2: corresponds to the circuit to which the
additional currents I'1, I'2, I'3 are connected.
Principle
The currents in windings 1 and 2 cannot be compared directly due to the
transformation ratio and the phase displacement introduced by the power
transformer.
Sepam does not use matching CTs. Sepam uses the rated power and winding
voltage data to calculate the transformation ratio and, therefore, to match current
amplitude. The vector shift is used to match the phase currents.
The transformer electrical parameters must be set on
the "Particular characteristics" screen in the SFT2841
software:
b winding 1 voltage: Un1
b winding 2 voltage: Un2
b vector shift
b transformer rated power S.
Winding 1 current matching
Winding 1 is always matched in the same way, whatever the vector shift of the
transformer. The matching is made by clearing the zero-sequence current in order to
make the protection function immune to external earth faults.
To assist during the setup procedure, the screen
shows:
b the transformer rated current value for windings 1
and 2: In1, In2
b the value set on the "CT-VT Sensors" screen for the
base current Ib of winding 1
b the value calculated using the transformation ratio for
the base current I'b of winding 2.
I1
I1 + I 2 + I 3
I1m = --------- – --------------------------------In1
3In1
I2
I1 + I 2 + I 3
I 2m = --------- – -------------------------------In1
3In1
I3
I1 + I 2 + I 3
I 3m = --------- – --------------------------------In1
3In1
Winding 2 current matching and vector shift
The matching of winding 2 affects the amplitude and phase and takes account of the
vector shift of the transformer.
Standard IEC 60076-1 assumes that the vector shift is given for a transformer
connected to a power source with a phase-rotation sequence of 123. Sepam uses
this vector shift value for both 123 and 132 type networks.
It is, therefore, not necessary to complement this value by 12 for a 132 type network.
When the current sensor connections are correct, the vector shift matching to be made
is the result of the phase-displacement measurement taken by Sepam between the
currents in winding 1 and winding 2, divided by 30°.
The table on the next page contains vectorial diagrams and matching formulae
based on the vector shift of the transformer for networks with type 123 phase-rotation
sequences.
Notation
DE52176
S: HV/LV transformer rated power
Un1: Winding 1 rated voltage
Un2: Winding 2 rated voltage
In1: Winding 1 rated current
In2: Winding 2 rated current
In: Winding 1 CT rated primary current
I'n: Winding 2 CT rated primary current
in: Winding 1 CT rated secondary current
i'n: Winding 2 CT rated secondary current
VACT: Current transformer accuracy burden
Rw: Resistance of the current transformer load (including wiring)
RCT: Current transformer secondary resistance
FLP: Current transformer accuracy-limit factor
Vk: Current transformer knee-point voltage
168
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Protection functions
Calculation of matched currents for winding 2
DE52036
DE52028
I′2 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′1m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
DE52037
I′2 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′1m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
DE52028
I′1 – I′3
I′3m = -------------------3In2
I′3 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′2m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
8
I′1 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′3m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
I′3 – I′2
I′1m = -------------------3In2
I′2 – I′3
I′1m = -------------------3In2
DE52038
I′1 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′3m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
DE52028
I′3 – I′1
I′2m = -------------------3In2
9
I′1 – I′2
I′3m = -------------------3In2
I′3 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′1m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
I′3 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′1m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
DE52039
I′2 – I′1
I′3m = -------------------3In2
I′1 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′2m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
10
I′2 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′3m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
I′2 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′3m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
I′3 – I′1
I′1m = -------------------3In2
I′1 – I′3
I′1m = -------------------3In2
I′1 – I′2
I′2m = -------------------3In2
11
I′2 – I′3
I′3m = -------------------3In2
DE52040
DE52032
DE52033
DE52034
3
I′3 – I′1
I′3m = -------------------3In2
DE52028
DE52031
DE52028
DE52028
DE52028
DE52028
5
I′3 – I′2
I′2m = -------------------3In2
7
DE52028
DE52030
DE52028
I′2 – I′1
I′1m = -------------------3In2
I′1 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′2m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
4
I′2 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′2m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
6
I′1 – I′2
I′1m = -------------------3In2
I′1 – I′3
I′2m = -------------------3In2
3
I′1 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′1m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
I′3 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′3m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
I′3 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′2m = – --------- + ----------------------------------3In2
In2
2
Matching
I′3 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′3m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
I′2 – I′3
I′2m = -------------------3In2
1
Winding 2
DE52028
I′1 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′1m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
I′2 I′1 + I′2 + I′3
I′2m = --------- – ----------------------------------In2
3In2
0
Vector Winding 1
shift
DE52035
Matching
DE52029
Winding 2
DE52028
Vector Winding 1
shift
I′2 – I′1
I′2m = -------------------3In2
I′3 – I′2
I′3m = -------------------3In2
Test mode
Two operating modes are available to facilitate maintenance and
startup operations:
b normal mode: the protection function controls the tripping and
indication outputs based on the settings.
This is the standard operating mode
b test mode: the protection function controls the tripping and
indication outputs based on the test mode settings.
This mode can only be accessed via the SFT2841 software, once it
has been connected and the Protection setting password entered.
The system returns to normal mode when the software is
disconnected.
Transfer from normal mode to test mode can result in nuisance
tripping if the protected transformer is energized.
Test mode settings:
S
b Un1 = --------------------In x 3
S
b Un2 = ---------------------I′n x 3
b vector shift = 0.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
169
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
High set point
Percentage-based curve
A non-restrained differential current set point will
ensure fast tripping in the event of significant fault
currents. This threshold must be set to a value higher
than that of the inrush current.
The percentage-based curve comprises a number of segments, which are defined
as follows:
b a low set point (Ids)
b 2 straight lines crossing zero and with adjustable slopes (Id/It and Id/It2)
b the slope change point.
The curve must be set so that it can protect itself against current-sensor
measurement errors and transformation errors, which can be attributed to the tap
changer. Furthermore, the protection function must be made immune to power
shunts on auxiliary windings.
DE52174
Protection functions
3
Self-adaptive restraint
Self-adaptive restraint is particularly suitable for transformers where the peak inrush
current in Amps is less than 8In1 or 8In2, depending on the winding by which the
transformer is energized.
This neutral network restraint ensures stability in the event of an external fault by
analyzing the second- and fifth-harmonic factors, the differential currents and the
through currents.
It ensures stability:
b in the event of the transformer closing
b in the event of an asymmetrical fault outside the zone, which saturates the current
sensors
b in the event of the transformer being operated on a voltage supply, which is too
high (overfluxing).
Detecting the presence of harmonics and taking into account the through and
differential currents, the restraint automatically increases the low set point and the
percentage-based slopes.
It is also more sensitive than the high set point. There is therefore no point in using
the high set point when this restraint is active. Furthermore, as the restraint
integrates the stabilization slope for high through currents, which can saturate the
current sensors, slope Id/It2 does not have to be activated.
Conventional restraint
The conventional restraint comprises a second-harmonic set point for each phase
and a fifth-harmonic set point for each phase.
The second-harmonic set point ensures that the protection function will not pick up
in the event of the transformer closing or the current sensors becoming saturated.
The restraint can be global (cross-blocking: all three phases are restrained as soon
as the harmonic in one phase exceeds the set point) or phase-specific (no
cross-blocking: only the phase with a harmonic exceeding the set point is restrained).
Cross-blocking is recommended for transformers used in three-phase mode.
The fifth-harmonic set point ensures that the protection function will not pick up in the
event of the transformer being connected to a voltage supply, which is too high.
The restraint can be global (i.e., all three phases are restrained) or phase-specific
(only the phase with a harmonic exceeding the set point is restrained). Restraint
without cross-blocking is recommended for normal operation.
170
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Protection functions
Restraint on closing
DE52175
In some cases, the harmonic content of the transformer inrush current is not
sufficient to activate harmonic restraints. An additional restraint can be activated:
b when the through current exceeds an adjustable set point Isinr
b by an internal variable, P87T_1_118, controlled by logic equations or Logipam.
This restraint is applied to the percentage-based differential elements for an
adjustable time period T. It is not applied to the high set point.
Restraint on CT loss
CT loss can distort the differential current and cause nuisance tripping. This restraint
detects a measurement dropping to zero abnormally by analyzing sampled
differential and through currents.
Dimensioning phase-current sensors
The CTs are dimensioned on the basis of
the transformer inrush current, which differs
according to the winding by which the
transformer is energized.
Calculating inrush currents
b Energization by winding 1:
v Inrush current depends on the transformer rated current:
inrush current in Amps
ˆi inr = peak
-------------------------------------------------------------------------In1 . 2
DE52176
v Inrush current depends on the CT rated current:
inrush current in Amps
ˆi inr ⁄ TC = peak
-------------------------------------------------------------------------In . 2
b Energization by winding 2:
v Inrush current depends on the transformer rated current:
inrush current in Amps
ˆi inr = peak
-------------------------------------------------------------------------In2 . 2
v Inrush current depends on the CT rated current:
inrush current in Amps
ˆi inr ⁄ TC = peak
---------------------------------------------------------------------------I′n. 2
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
171
3
Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
CT rated primary currents
The rated primary current of the current transformers is governed by the following
rule:
S
S
b Winding 1 end: 0.1 × -------------------------- ≤ In ≤ 2.5 × -------------------------Un1 × 3
Un1 × 3
S
S
b Winding 2 end: 0.1 × ------------------------- ≤ I ′ n ≤ 2.5 × -------------------------Un2 × 3
Un2 × 3
Other characteristics of the CTs at the transformer energized end
ˆi inr ⁄ TC < 6.7
b Scenario 1:
Only the following current transformers can be selected:
v Either type 5P20 with an accuracy burden of VA
CT ≥ Rw ⋅ in
v Or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk ≥ ( R CT + Rw ). ( 20in )
b Scenario 2:
3
2
ˆi inr ⁄ TC ≥ 6.7
Only the following current transformers can be selected:
2
v Either type 5P with an accuracy burden of VA
CT ≥ Rw ⋅ in
ˆ
And an accuracy-limit factor FLP ≥ 3 ⋅ i inr ⁄ TC
ˆ
v Or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk ≥ ( R
CT + Rw ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ i inr ⁄ TC ⋅ in
Other characteristics of the CTs at the transformer non-energized end
Only the following current transformers can be selected:
b Either type 5P20 with an accuracy burden of VA
CT ≥ Rw . in
b Or defined by a knee-point voltage Vk ≥ ( R CT + Rw ). 20in
2
Setting the Ids low set point
b: tap changer peak deviation [as a % of Un]
α : Composite error at the current sensor accuracy-limit current at the HV end [as a
% of In]
β : Composite error at the current sensor accuracy-limit current at the LV end [as a
% of I'n]
Referring to standard IEC 60044-1, the composite error at the accuracy-limit current
is 5% for type 5P CTs. For the CTs specified according to class Px, the maximum
error is deemed to equal 5%.
The minimum set point for Ids is found by adding together the errors below:
( 100 + β -) – (---------------------100 – α )
b Measurement: 100 × ---------------------100
( 100 + b )
b Relay: 2 %
Example: Transformer equipped with a tap changer of -10%/+15%.
Using type 5P CTs, the error on the current is:
100 × ( 105 ⁄ 100 – 95 ⁄ 115 ) + 2 = 24.4 %
The Ids low set point should therefore be set to the minimum value of 30%.
172
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Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Setting the first Id/It slope
b: tap changer peak deviation [as a % of Un]
α : Composite error at the current sensor accuracy-limit current at the HV end [as a
% of In]
β : Composite error at the current sensor accuracy-limit current at the LV end [as a
% of I'n]
Referring to standard IEC 60044-1, the composite error at the accuracy-limit current
is 5% for type 5P CTs. For the CTs specified according to class Px, the maximum
error is deemed to equal 5%.
The minimum slope for Id/It is found by adding together the errors below:
( 100 – α ). 100 b Measurement: 100 × 1 – ----------------------------------------------( 100 + b ). ( 100 + β )
b Relay: 2%
3
b Safety margin: 5%
Example: Transformer equipped with a tap changer of -10%/+15%.
Using type 5P CTs, the error on the slope is:
100 × ( 1 – 100 × 95 ⁄ 115 ⁄ 105 ) + 2 + 5 = 28.3 %
The first Id/It slope should therefore be set to 28%.
Setting the second-harmonic restraint set point
To ensure sufficient stability of the differential protection when the transformer closes,
we recommend that the second-harmonic restraint set point is set to 20%, with
global restraint.
Setting the fifth-harmonic restraint set point
To ensure stability of the protection function in the event of an abnormal increase in
the voltage or a drop in the network frequency, we recommend that the fifthharmonic restraint set point is set to 35%, with phase-specific restraint.
Setting the Idmax high set point
The Idmax set point is applied to the non-restrained differential current. It ensures
that 87T protection function trips quickly.
ˆ
The Idmax set point is set as follows: Idmax ≥ i inr
Setting the second Id/It2 slope and the slope change point
The second slope on the percentage-based characteristic ensures sufficient stability
of the protection in the event of an external fault resulting in the current sensors
becoming saturated.
b The slope change point is set as a function of the value of the first Id/It slope and
the transformer inrush current.
4 ⁄ 3 ( Id ⁄ It )
3
Point de changement de pente ≤ 2 + -- ( ˆi inr )
. ----------------100
4
b The value of the second slope is:
Id/It2 ≥ 100 – 3.75 ⋅ ˆi inr as a %, with a minimum at 75%.
Setting the restraint on closing
This is inactive by default. It should only be used in exceptional cases, where the
second harmonic is low on closing.
The decision to activate this restraint delays tripping of the 87T protection function by
the value of the selected time delay, when there is a pre-existing closure on an
internal fault.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
173
Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Characteristics
Settings
Low set point Ids
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
Percentage-based characteristic Id/It
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
Percentage-based characteristic Id/It2
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
Slope change point
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
Test mode
Setting range
3
30 % to 100 % of In1
±2 %
1%
93.5 % ±5 %
15 % to 50 %
±2 %
1%
93.5 % ±5 %
None, 50 % to 100 %
±2 %
1%
93.5 % ±5 %
None, In1 to 18 In1
±5 %
0.1 In1
93.5 % ±5 %
Active/Not active
Advanced settings
Selection of restraint
Conventional/Self-adaptive
Restraint on CT loss
Setting range
Active/Not active
Restraint on closing
Setting range
Active/Not active
Magnetization
Setting range
1 % to 10 %
current set point
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Isinr
Resolution
1%
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
90 % ±5 % or 0.5 % In1
Time delay
Setting range
0 to 300 s
±2 % or -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms
High set point Idmax
Setting range
Conventional restraint
3 to 18 In1
Self-adaptive restraint
None, 3 to 18 In1
±2 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
93.5 % ±5 %
Second-harmonic set point for conventional restraint
Setting range
None, 5 to 40 %
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
90 % ±5 %
Second-harmonic restraint for conventional restraint
Setting range
Phase-specific/Global
Fifth-harmonic set point for conventional restraint
Setting range
None, 5 to 40 %
±5 %
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
1%
Drop-out/pick-up ratio
90 % ±5 %
Fifth-harmonic restraint for conventional restraint
Setting range
Phase-specific/Global
Characteristic times
Operating time high set point
Operating time percentage-based curve
Reset time
< 45 ms at 2 Id
< 45 ms at 2 Id
< 45 ms at 2 Id
Inputs
Designation
Protection reset
Protection inhibition
Restraint on closing
Syntax
P87T_1_101
P87T_1_113
P87T_1_118
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Syntax
P87T_1_3
P87T_1_16
P87T_1_33
P87T_1_34
P87T_1_39
P87T_1_41
Equations
b
b
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
174
Designation
Protection output
Protection inhibited
High set point
Percentage-based threshold
CT loss
Test mode
Matrix
b
-
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Example 1
DE52099
b The transformer is energized at the winding 1 end.
b The inrush current is 820 A.
b This transformer does not feature a tap changer or an auxiliary winding.
Sensor selection
The rated currents of the windings are:
4MVA
In1 = ------------------------ = 115.5 A and
3 ⋅ 20kV
4MVA
In2 = --------------------- = 2310A
3 ⋅ 1kV
The sensor rated current is selected at the next highest standardized values:
In = 150 A and I'n = 3000 A.
Inrush current:
820
ˆi inr = ------------------- = 5 : depending on the transformer rated current
115.5 2
3
820
ˆi inr ⁄ TC = --------------- = 3.9 : depending on the CT rated current
150 2
b Winding 1 end, ˆi inr ⁄ TC < 6.7 : type 5P20 current transformers are suitable.
b Winding 2 end, transformer not energized: type 5P20 current transformers are also
suitable.
To sum up, the following sensors are selected:
b Winding 1 end: 150A/1A, 5P20
b Winding 2 end: 3000A/1A, 5P20
Setting the Ids low set point
Tap changer peak deviation: b = 0 (no tap changer)
CT error, winding 1: α = 5%
CT error, winding 2: β = 5%
( 100 + β ) ( 100 – α )
Measurement error: 100 × ----------------------- – ----------------------- = 10 %
100
( 100 + b )
Relay error: 2%
Total error = 12%
Ids should be set to its minimum value of 30%.
Setting the first Id/It slope
( 100 – α ) .100
Measurement error: 100 × 1 – -----------------------------------------------( 100 + b ). ( 100 + β )
= 9.5 %
Relay error: 2%
Safety margin: 5%
Total error: 16.5%
Id/It should be set to the value of 17%.
Selection of restraint ˆi inr < 8 , the self-adaptive restraint is selected.
Thus the second slope on the percentage-based curve and the high set point are not
necessary.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
175
Protection functions
Transformer differential
ANSI code 87T
Example 2
DE52100
b The transformer is energized at the winding 1 end.
b The inrush current is 942 A.
Sensor selection
The rated currents of the windings are:
2.5 MVA
2.5 MVA
In1 = ----------------------------- = 69.4 A and In2 = ----------------------------- = 3440 A
3 ⋅ 20.8 kV
3 ⋅ 0.42 kV
The sensor rated current is selected at the next highest standardized values:
In = 100 A and I'n = 3500 A.
Inrush current:
942
ˆi inr = ------------------ = 9.6 : depending on the transformer rated current
69.4. 2
3
942
ˆi inr ⁄ TC = ----------------= 6.66 : depending on the CT rated current
100. 2
b Winding 1 end, ˆi inr ⁄ TC < 6.7 : type 5P20 current transformers are suitable.
b Winding 2 end, transformer not energized: type 5P20 current transformers are also
suitable.
Setting the Ids low set point
Tap changer peak deviation: b = 15%
CT error, winding 1: α = 5%
CT error, winding 2: β = 5%
( 100 + β ) ( 100 – α )
Measurement error: 100 × ----------------------- – ----------------------100
( 100 + b )
= 22.4 %
Relay error: 2%
Total error = 24.4%
Ids should be set to its minimum value of 30%.
Setting the first Id/It slope
( 100 – α ) .100
Measurement error: 100 × 1 – -----------------------------------------------( 100 + b ). ( 100 + β )
= 21.3 %
Relay error: 2%
Safety margin: 5%
Total error: 28.3%
Id/It should be set to the value of 29%.
ˆi inr > 8 , the conventional restraint is selected.
Setting the slope change point
4 ⁄ 3 ( Id ⁄ It )
3
Point de changement de pente = 2 + -- ( ˆi inr )
. ----------------100
4
= 6.4 In1
Setting the second slope
100 – ( 3.75 ⋅ ˆi inr ) = 64 %
Choose the minimum advised value: Id/It2 = 75%
Setting the Idmax high set point
Idmax = ˆi inr = 9.6 In1
Setting the harmonic restraints
b Set point H2 = 20%, with global restraint
b Set point H5 = 35%, with phase-specific restraint
176
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General
Tripping curves
Protection functions
Definite time protection
The tripping time is constant. The time delay is started when the set point is overrun.
t
MT10911
Presentation of tripping curve operation and
settings for protection functions using:
b definite time
b IDMT
b timer hold.
T
Is
I
Definite time protection principle.
IDMT protection
The operation time depends on the protected value (phase current, earth fault
current, etc.) in accordance with standards IEC 60255-3, BS 142 and IEEE C-37112.
Operation is represented by a characteristic curve, e.g.:
b t = f(I) curve for the phase overcurrent function
b t = f(I0) curve for the earth fault function.
The rest of the document is based on t = f(I); the reasoning may be extended to other
variables I0, etc.
The curve is defined by:
b its type (standard inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse, etc.)
b current setting Is which corresponds to the vertical asymptote of the curve
b time delay T which corresponds to the operation time for I = 10 Is.
These 3 settings are made chronologically in the following order: type, Is current,
time delay T.
Changing the time delay T setting by x % changes all of the operation times in the
curve by x %.
DE50666
type 1
t
type 1,2
T
1
1,2
10
20
I/Is
IDMT protection principle.
The tripping time for I/Is values less than 1.2 depends on
the type of curve selected.
Name of curve
Standard inverse time (SIT)
Very inverse time (VIT or LTI)
Extremely inverse time (EIT)
Ultra inverse time (UIT)
RI curve
IEC inverse time SIT / A
IEC very inverse time VIT or LTI / B
IEC extremely inverse time EIT / C
IEEE moderately inverse (IEC / D)
IEEE very inverse (IEC / E)
IEEE extremely inverse (IEC / F)
IAC inverse
IAC very inverse
IAC extremely inverse
Type
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
b when the monitored value is more than 20 times the set point, the tripping time is
limited to the value corresponding to 20 times the set point.
b if the monitored value exceeds the measurement capacity of Sepam (40 In for the
phase current channels, 20 In0 for the residual current channels), the tripping time is
limited to the value corresponding to the largest measurable value (40 In or 20 In0).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
177
3
Protection functions
General
Tripping curves
Current IDMT tripping curves
Multiple IDMT tripping curves are offered, to cover most applications:
b IEC curves (SIT, VIT/LTI, EIT)
b IEEE curves (MI, VI, EI)
b commonly used curves (UIT, RI, IAC).
IEC curves
Equation
Curve type
k
T
t d ( I ) = -------------------- × --α
⎛ ---I-⎞ – 1 β
⎝ I s⎠
Standard inverse / A
Very inverse / B
Long time inverse / B
Extremely inverse / C
Ultra inverse
RI curve
Equation:
3
Coefficient values
k
α
0.14
0.02
13.5
1
120
1
80
2
315.2
2.5
β
2.97
1.50
13.33
0.808
1
1
T
t d ( I ) = ----------------------------------------------------- × -----------------I ⎞ – 1 3.1706
⎛
0.339 – 0.236 ---⎝ I s⎠
IEEE curves
Equation
Curve type
⎛
⎞
⎜
⎟ T
A
t d ( I ) = ⎜ ---------------------- + B⎟ × --⎜⎛ I ⎞ p
⎟ β
⎝ ⎝ I----⎠ – 1
⎠
Coefficient values
A
B
0.010
0.023
3.922
0.098
5.64
0.0243
Moderately inverse
Very inverse
Extremely inverse
β
0.241
0.138
0.081
p
0.02
2
2
s
IAC curves
Equation
Curve type
⎛
⎞
⎜
⎟ T
B
E
D
t d ( I ) = ⎜A + ------------------- + ---------------------- + ----------------------⎟ x ----2
3
I
I
I
⎛---- – C⎞ ⎛---- – C⎞
⎜
⎛---- – C⎞ ⎟ β
⎝I
⎠ ⎝I
⎝
⎠
⎝I
⎠ ⎠
s
s
s
Inverse
Very inverse
Extremely inverse
Coefficient values
A
B
0.208
0.863
0.090
0.795
0.004
0.638
C
0.800
0.100
0.620
D
-0.418
-1.288
1.787
E
0.195
7.958
0.246
β
0.297
0.165
0.092
Voltage IDMT tripping curves
Equation for ANSI 27 - Undervoltage
T
t d ( V ) = --------------------V
1 – ⎛ ------⎞
⎝ V s⎠
Equation for ANSI 59N - Neutral voltage displacement
T
t d ( V ) = ---------------------V⎞
⎛ ------ –1
⎝V ⎠
s
Voltage/frequency ratio IDMT tripping curves
Equation for ANSI 24 - Overfluxing (V/Hz)
Where G = V/f or U/f
1
t d ( G ) = ------------------------- x T
p
G
⎛ ------ – 1⎞
⎝G
⎠
Curve type
A
B
C
p
0.5
1
2
s
178
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
General
Tripping curves
Protection functions
Setting of IDMT tripping curves, time delay T or TMS factor
DE51629
The time delays of current IDMT tripping curves (except for customized and RI
curves) may be set as follows:
b time T, operating time at 10 x Is
b TMS factor, factor shown as T/β in the equations on the left.
13.5
T
Example: t ( I ) = --------------- × TMS where TMS = -------- .
I
1.5
----- – 1
Is
The IEC curve of the VIT type is positioned so as to be the same with
TMS = 1 or T = 1.5 s.
Example.
Timer hold
3
DE51630
The adjustable timer hold T1 is used for:
b detection of restriking faults (DT curve)
b coordination with electromechanical relays (IDMT curve).
b Timer hold may be inhibited if necessary.
Equation for IDMT timer hold curve
T
T1
T
Equation: t ( I ) = ---------------------× --- where --- = TMS .
2
r
β
β
I
1 – ⎛ -----⎞
⎝ Is⎠
T1 = timer hold setting (timer hold for I reset = 0 and TMS = 1)
T = tripping time delay setting (at 10 Is)
k
b = basic tripping curve value at -----------------.
α
10 – 1
DE50754
DE50755
Detection of restriking faults with adjustable timer hold.
Timer hold dependent on current I.
Constant timer hold.
Customized tripping curve
PE50157
Defined point by point using the SFT2841 setting and operating software tool
(application menu), this curve may be used to solve all special cases involving
protection coordination or installation renovation.
It offers between 2 and 30 points whose coordinates must be:
b increasing on the I/Is axis
b decreasing on the t axis.
The two end points define the curve asymptotes.
There must be at least one point on the horizontal coordinate 10 I/Is. It serves as a
reference point to set the function time delay by curve shifting.
Customized tripping curve set using SFT2841 software.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
179
3
Protection functions
General
Tripping curves
Implementing IDMT curves: examples of
problems to be solved.
Problem 2.
Given the type of IDMT, the Is current setting and a point k (Ik, tk) on the operation
curve, determine the time delay setting T.
On the standard curve of the same type, read the operation time tsk that corresponds
to the relative current Ik/Is and the operation time Ts10 that corresponds to the
relative current I/Is = 10.
The time delay setting to be used so that the operation curve passes through the
point k (Ik, tk) is:
ts
tk
T = Ts10 × --------tsk
MT10215
Problem 1.
Given the type of IDMT, determine the Is current and
time delay T settings.
Theoretically, the Is current setting corresponds to the
maximum continuous current: it is generally the rated
current of the protected equipment (cable, transformer).
The time delay T corresponds to operation at 10 Is on
the curve. This setting is determined taking into
account the constraints involved in discrimination with
the upstream and downstream protection devices.
The discrimination constraint leads to the definition of
point A on the operation curve (IA, tA), e.g. the point
that corresponds to the maximum fault current for the
downstream protection device.
tk
k
tsk
Ts10
1
Ik/Is
10
I/Is
Another practical method:
the table below gives the values of K = ts/ts10 as a function of I/Is.
In the column that corresponds to the type of time delay, read the value K = tsk/Ts10
on the line for Ik/Is.
The time delay setting to be used so that the operation curve
passes through point k (Ik, tk) is: T = tk/k.
Example
Data:
b type of time delay: standard inverse time (SIT)
b set point: Is
b a point k on the operation curve: k (3.5 Is; 4 s)
Question: What is the time delay T setting (operation time at 10 Is)?
Reading the table: SIT column, line I/Is = 3.5 therefore K = 1.858
Answer: The time delay setting is T = 4/1.858 = 2.15 s
180
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection functions
General
Tripping curves
Problem 3.
Given the Is current and time delay T settings for a type
of time delay (standard inverse, very inverse, extremely
inverse), find the operation time for a current value IA.
On the standard curve of the same type, read the
operation time tsA that corresponds to the relative
current IA/Is and the operation time Ts10 that
corresponds to the relative current I/Is = 10.
The operation time tA for the current IA with the Is and
T settings is tA = tsA x T/Ts10.
Another practical method:
the table below gives the values of K = ts/Ts10 as a function of I/Is.
In the column that corresponds to the type of time delay, read the value K = tsA/Ts10
on the line for IA/Is, the operation time tA for the current IA with the Is and T settings
is tA = K . T.
ts
Example
Data:
b type of time delay: very inverse time (VIT)
b set point: Is
b time delay T = 0.8 s.
Question: What is the operation time for the current IA = 6 Is?
Reading the table: VIT column, line I/Is = 6, therefore k = 1.8
Answer: The operation time for the current IA is t = 1.80 x 0.8 = 1.44 s.
tA
T
3
tsA
Ts10
1
IA/Is
10
I/Is
Table of K values
I/Is
SIT
VIT, LTI
EIT
and IEC/A and IEC/B and IEC/C
1.0
—
—
—
1.1
24.700 (1)
90.000 (1)
471.429 (1)
1.2
12.901
45.000
225.000
1.5
5.788
18.000
79.200
2.0
3.376
9.000
33.000
2.5
2.548
6.000
18.857
3.0
2.121
4.500
12.375
3.5
1.858
3.600
8.800
4.0
1.676
3.000
6.600
4.5
1.543
2.571
5.143
5.0
1.441
2.250
4.125
5.5
1.359
2.000
3.385
6.0
1.292
1.800
2.829
6.5
1.236
1.636
2.400
7.0
1.188
1.500
2.063
7.5
1.146
1.385
1.792
8.0
1.110
1.286
1.571
8.5
1.078
1.200
1.390
9.0
1.049
1.125
1.238
9.5
1.023
1.059
1.109
10.0
1.000
1.000
1.000
10.5
0.979
0.947
0.906
11.0
0.959
0.900
0.825
11.5
0.941
0.857
0.754
12.0
0.925
0.818
0.692
12.5
0.910
0.783
0.638
13.0
0.895
0.750
0.589
13.5
0.882
0.720
0.546
14.0
0.870
0.692
0.508
14.5
0.858
0.667
0.473
15.0
0.847
0.643
0.442
15.5
0.836
0.621
0.414
16.0
0.827
0.600
0.388
16.5
0.817
0.581
0.365
17.0
0.808
0.563
0.344
17.5
0.800
0.545
0.324
18.0
0.792
0.529
0.307
18.5
0.784
0.514
0.290
19.0
0.777
0.500
0.275
19.5
0.770
0.486
0.261
20.0
0.763
0.474
0.248
(1) Values suitable only for IEC A, B and C curves.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
UIT
RI
—
—
545.905
179.548
67.691
35.490
21.608
14.382
10.169
7.513
5.742
4.507
3.616
2.954
2.450
2.060
1.751
1.504
1.303
1.137
1.000
0.885
0.787
0.704
0.633
0.572
0.518
0.471
0.430
0.394
0.362
0.334
0.308
0.285
0.265
0.246
0.229
0.214
0.200
0.188
0.176
3.062
2.534
2.216
1.736
1.427
1.290
1.212
1.161
1.126
1.101
1.081
1.065
1.053
1.042
1.033
1.026
1.019
1.013
1.008
1.004
1.000
0.996
0.993
0.990
0.988
0.985
0.983
0.981
0.979
0.977
0.976
0.974
0.973
0.971
0.970
0.969
0.968
0.967
0.966
0.965
0.964
IEEE MI
(IEC/D)
—
22.461
11.777
5.336
3.152
2.402
2.016
1.777
1.613
1.492
1.399
1.325
1.264
1.213
1.170
1.132
1.099
1.070
1.044
1.021
1.000
0.981
0.963
0.947
0.932
0.918
0.905
0.893
0.882
0.871
0.861
0.852
0.843
0.834
0.826
0.819
0.812
0.805
0.798
0.792
0.786
IEEE VI
(IEC/E)
—
136.228
65.390
23.479
10.199
6.133
4.270
3.242
2.610
2.191
1.898
1.686
1.526
1.402
1.305
1.228
1.164
1.112
1.068
1.031
1.000
0.973
0.950
0.929
0.912
0.896
0.882
0.870
0.858
0.849
0.840
0.831
0.824
0.817
0.811
0.806
0.801
0.796
0.792
0.788
0.784
IEEE EI
(IEC/F)
—
330.606
157.946
55.791
23.421
13.512
8.970
6.465
4.924
3.903
3.190
2.671
2.281
1.981
1.744
1.555
1.400
1.273
1.166
1.077
1.000
0.934
0.877
0.828
0.784
0.746
0.712
0.682
0.655
0.631
0.609
0.589
0.571
0.555
0.540
0.527
0.514
0.503
0.492
0.482
0.473
IAC I
IAC VI
IAC EI
62.005
19.033
9.413
3.891
2.524
2.056
1.792
1.617
1.491
1.396
1.321
1.261
1.211
1.170
1.135
1.105
1.078
1.055
1.035
1.016
1.000
0.985
0.972
0.960
0.949
0.938
0.929
0.920
0.912
0.905
0.898
0.891
0.885
0.879
0.874
0.869
0.864
0.860
0.855
0.851
0.848
62.272
45.678
34.628
17.539
7.932
4.676
3.249
2.509
2.076
1.800
1.610
1.473
1.370
1.289
1.224
1.171
1.126
1.087
1.054
1.026
1.000
0.977
0.957
0.939
0.922
0.907
0.893
0.880
0.868
0.857
0.846
0.837
0.828
0.819
0.811
0.804
0.797
0.790
0.784
0.778
0.772
200.226
122.172
82.899
36.687
16.178
9.566
6.541
4.872
3.839
3.146
2.653
2.288
2.007
1.786
1.607
1.460
1.337
1.233
1.144
1.067
1.000
0.941
0.888
0.841
0.799
0.761
0.727
0.695
0.667
0.641
0.616
0.594
0.573
0.554
0.536
0.519
0.504
0.489
0.475
0.463
0.450
181
Protection functions
General
Tripping curves
Standard inverse time SIT curve
Extremely inverse time EIT curve
Very inverse time VIT or LTI curve
Ultra inverse time UIT curve
DE50870
DE50869
RI curve
3
IAC curves
t (s)
1 000,00
t (s)
10000,00
MT10207
MT10206
IEEE curves
1000,00
100,00
I
VI
100,00
EI
MI
VI
10,00
EI
10,00
1,00
1,00
I/Is
0,10
I/Is
1
182
10
100
0,10
1
10
100
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Contents
Description
184
Definition of symbols
185
Logic input / output assignment
186
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
190
190
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
196
196
Latching / acknowledgement
204
TC / switchgear position discrepancy
Tripping
205
Disturbance-recording trigger
206
Switching of groups of settings
208
Logic discrimination
Principle
S80, S81, T81, B80 and B83 applications
M81, M87, M88 and C86 applications
S82, S84, T82, T87, G82, G87 and G88 applications
Example of setting: radial network
Example of setting: parallel incomers
Example of setting: closed ring network
209
209
211
212
213
215
217
218
Load shedding
220
Restart
221
Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown
De-excitation
Example
223
224
225
226
Automatic transfer
227
Automatic "one out of two" transfer
Operation
Implementation
Characteristics
229
229
233
236
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Operation
Implementation
Characteristics
237
237
242
246
Local indication
ANSI code 30
247
247
Local control
250
Control matrix
253
Logic equations
255
Customized functions using Logipam
259
Self-tests and fail-safe position
260
183
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Description
Sepam performs all the control and monitoring functions required for electrical
network operation:
b the main control and monitoring functions are predefined and fit the most frequent
cases of use. They are ready to use and are implemented by simple parameter
setting after the necessary logic inputs / outputs are assigned.
b the predefined control and monitoring functions can be adapted for particular
needs using the SFT2841 software, which offers the following customization options:
v logic equation editor, to adapt and complete the predefined control and monitoring
functions
v creation of personalized messages for local annunciation
v creation of personalized mimic diagrams corresponding to the controlled devices
v customization of the control matrix by changing the assignment of output relays,
LEDs and annunciation messages
b with the Logipam option, Sepam can provide the most varied control and
monitoring functions, programmed using the SFT2885 programming software that
implements the Logipam ladder language.
Operating principle
The processing of each control and monitoring function may be broken down into 3
phases:
b acquisition of input data:
v results of protection function processing
v external logic data, connected to the logic inputs of an optional MES120 input /
output module
v local control orders transmitted by the mimic-based UMI
v remote control orders (TC) received via the communication link
b actual processing of the control and monitoring function
b utilization of the processing results:
v activation of output relays to control a device
v information sent to the facility manager:
- by message and/or LED on the Sepam display and SFT2841 software
- by remote indication (TS) via the communication link
- by real-time indications on device status on the animated mimic diagram.
4
Logic inputs and outputs
PE50249
The number of Sepam inputs / outputs must be adapted to fit the control and
monitoring functions used.
The 5 outputs included in the Sepam series 80 base unit may be extended by adding
1, 2 or 3 MES120 modules with 14 logic inputs and 6 output relays.
After the number of MES120 modules required for the needs of an application is set,
the logic inputs are assigned to functions. The functions are chosen from a list which
covers the whole range of possible uses. The functions are adapted to meet needs
within the limits of the logic inputs available. The inputs may also be inverted for
undervoltage type operation.
A default input / output assignment is proposed for the most frequent uses.
Maximum Sepam series 80 configuration with 3 MES120
modules: 42 inputs and 23 outputs.
184
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Definition of symbols
Control and monitoring
functions
Pulse mode operation
b "on" pulse: used to create a short-duration pulse (1 cycle) each time a signal
appears
DE50681
This page gives the meaning of the symbols
used in the block diagrams illustrating the
different control and monitoring functions in
this chapter.
Logic functions
DE50675
b "OR"
Equation: S = X + Y + Z.
b "off" pulse: used to create a short-duration pulse (1 cycle)
each time a signal disappears.
DE50682
DE50676
b "AND"
Equation: S = X x Y x Z.
b exclusive "XOR"
DE50677
4
Nota : the disappearance of a signal may be caused by an auxiliary power failure.
S = 1 if one and only one input is set to 1
(S = 1 if X + Y + Z = 1).
Bistable functions
DE50678
DE50683
Bistable functions may be used to store values.
b Complement
These functions may use the complement of one or
more input values.
Equation: S = X (S = 1 if X = 0).
Delay timers
Two types of delay timers:
b "on" delay timer: used to delay the appearance of a
signal by a time T
DE50679
Equation: B = S + R x B.
DE50680
b "off" delay timer: used to delay the disappearance of
a signal by a time T.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
185
Logic input / output assignment
Control and monitoring
functions
Inputs and outputs may be assigned to predefined control and monitoring functions
using the SFT2841 software, according to the uses listed in the table below.
The control logic of each input may be inverted for undervoltage type operation.
All the logic inputs, whether or not assigned to predefined functions, may be used for
the customization functions according to specific application needs:
b in the control matrix (SFT2841 software), to connect an input to a logic output, a
LED on the front of Sepam or a message for local indication on the display
b in the logic equation editor (SFT2841 software), as logic equation variables
b in Logipam (SFT2885 software) as input variables for the program in ladder
language.
Functions
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Genset shutdown
b
b
Free
De-excitation
b
b
Free
Tripping / contactor control
Inhibit closing
Closing
Watchdog
Logic discrimination, blocking send 1
Logic discrimination, blocking send 2
4
Logic output assignment table
S80 S81 S82 S84 T81 T82 M87 M81 G87 G82 B80 B83 C86 Assignment
T87
M88
G88
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Load shedding
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
O1
O2 by default
O3 by default
O5
O102 by default
O103 by default
Free
AT, closing of NO circuit breaker
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Free
AT, closing of coupling
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Free
AT, opening of coupling
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Free
Tripping of capacitor step (1 to 4)
b
Free
Tripping of capacitor step (1 to 4)
b
Free
Note: The logic outputs assigned by default may be freely reassigned.
Functions
Closed circuit breaker
Open circuit breaker
Synchronization of Sepam internal clock
via external pulse
Switching of groups of settings A/B
External reset
Earthing switch closed
Earthing switch open
External trip 1
External trip 2
External trip 3
End of charging position
Inhibit remote control (Local)
SF6 pressure default
Inhibit closing
Open order
Close order
Phase VT fuse blown
V0 VT fuse blown
External positive active energy meter
External negative active energy meter
External positive reactive energy meter
External negative reactive energy meter
Racked out circuit breaker
Switch A closed
Switch A open
Switch B closed
Switch B open
Closing-coil monitoring
186
Assignment table for logic inputs common to all applications
S80 S81 S82 S84 T81 T82 M87 M81 G87 G82 B80 B83 C86 Assignment
T87
M88
G88
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
I101
I102
I103
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logic input / output assignment
Control and monitoring
functions
Functions
Inhibit recloser
Inhibit thermal overload
Switching of thermal settings
Blocking reception 1
Blocking reception 2
Buchholz trip
Thermostat trip
Pressure trip
Thermistor trip
Buchholz alarm
Thermostat alarm
Pressure alarm
Thermistor alarm
Rotor speed measurement
Rotor rotation detection
Motor re-acceleration
Load shedding request
Inhibit undercurrent
Priority genset shutdown
De-excitation
Close enable (ANSI 25)
Inhibit opposite-side remote control (local)
Inhibit remote-control coupling (local)
Coupling open
Coupling closed
Opposite side open
Opposite side closed
Selector set to Manual (ANSI 43)
Selector set to Auto (ANSI 43)
Selector set to Circuit breaker (ANSI 10)
Selector set to Coupling (ANSI 10)
Opposite-side circuit breaker disconnected
Coupling circuit breaker disconnected
Coupling close order
Opposite-side voltage OK
Inhibit closing of coupling
Automatic closing order
External closing order 1
External closing order 2
Additional phase voltage transformer fuse
blown
Additional V0 voltage transformer fuse blown
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Assignment table of logic inputs by application
S80 S81 S82 S84 T81 T82 M87 M81 G87 G82 B80 B83 C86 Assignment
T87
M88
G88
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
I104
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
b
Free
b
4
187
Control and monitoring
functions
Functions
4
Capacitor step 1 open
Capacitor step 1 closed
Capacitor step 2 open
Capacitor step 2 closed
Capacitor step 3 open
Capacitor step 3 closed
Capacitor step 4 open
Capacitor step 4 closed
Step 1 opening order
Step 2 opening order
Step 3 opening order
Step 4 opening order
Step 1 closing order
Step 2 closing order
Step 3 closing order
Step 4 closing order
Step 1 external trip
Step 2 external trip
Step 3 external trip
Step 4 external trip
Capacitor step 1 VAR control
Capacitor step 2 VAR control
Capacitor step 3 VAR control
Capacitor step 4 VAR control
External capacitor step control inhibit
Manual capacitor step control
Automatic capacitor step control
188
Logic input / output assignment
Assignment table of logic inputs by application
S80 S81 S82 S84 T81 T82 M87 M81 G87 G82 B80 B83 C86 Assignment
T87
M88
G88
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic input / output assignment
The table below lists the logic input assignment obtained with the SFT2841
configuration software by clicking on the "standard assignment" button.
Functions
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Standard assignment Application
Closed circuit breaker
Open circuit breaker
Blocking reception 1
Blocking reception 2
I101
I102
I103
I104
Close enable (ANSI 25)
SF6 pressure default
Open order
Close order
Inhibit recloser
Buchholz trip
Thermostat trip
Pressure trip
Thermistor trip
Buchholz alarm
Thermostat alarm
Pressure alarm
Selector set to Circuit Breaker
(ANSI 10)
Selector set to Coupling (ANSI 10)
Selector set to Auto (ANSI 43)
Selector set to Manual (ANSI 43)
Opposite side closed
Opposite side open
Opposite-side voltage OK
Inhibit opposite side remote control
(local)
Automatic closing order
Coupling open
Coupling closed
Inhibit closing of coupling
Coupling close order
Inhibit remote-control coupling (local)
I104
I105
I106
I107
I108
I108
I109
I110
I111
I112
I113
I114
I201
All
All
All except M8x
All except
S80, S81, T81, M8x,
B8x, C86
S80, S81, T81, B8x
All
All
All
S80, S81
T8x, M88, G88
T8x, M88, G88
T8x, M88, G88
T8x, M88, G88
T8x, M88, G88
T8x, M88, G88
T8x, M88, G88
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
I202
I203
I204
I205
I206
I207
I208
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
I209
I210
I211
I212
I213
I214
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
S8x, T8x, G8x, B8x
189
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Predefined circuit breaker or contactor
control function.
Anti-pumping function
To prevent simultaneous breaking device open and close orders and to give priority
to open orders, breaker device close orders are of the pulse type.
Operation
Switchgear control with lockout function (ANSI 86)
The ANSI 86 function traditionally performed by lockout relays may be ensured by
Sepam using the Switchgear control function, with latching of all the tripping
conditions (protection function outputs and logic inputs).
Sepam performs:
b grouping of all the tripping conditions and breaking device control
b latching of the tripping order, with inhibition of closing, until the cause of tripping
disappears and is acknowledged by the user (see Latching / acknowledgement
function)
b indication of the cause of tripping:
v locally by LEDs (Trip and others) and by messages on the display
v remotely by remote indications (see Indications function).
The Switchgear control function can control the
following types of breaking device:
b circuit breakers with shunt trip or undervoltage coils
b latching contactors with shunt trip coils
b contactors with latched orders.
This function comprises two parts:
b processing of internal switchgear control orders:
v open 1 , 2 , 3
v close with or without synchro-check 6 , 7 , 8
v inhibit closing 4 , 5
b execution of internal orders by control logic outputs
according to the type of device to be controlled.
4
Processing of internal switchgear control orders
The Switchgear control function processes all breaking
device closing and tripping conditions, based on:
b protection functions (configured to trip the breaking
device)
b breaking device status data
b remote control via the communication link
b local control orders by logic input or mimic-based
UMI
b internal control orders created by logic equation or
Logipam
b specific predefined control functions for each
application:
v recloser
v genset shutdown, de-excitation
v load shedding
v synchro-check
v automatic transfer
v capacitor step control.
The function also inhibits breaking device closing,
according to the operating conditions.
190
Closing with synchro-check 9
The Synchro-check function checks the voltages upstream and downstream of a
circuit breaker to ensure safe closing.
It is put into service by parameter setting.
For it to operate, one of the “Close enable” logic outputs of an MCS025 remote
module must be connected to a Sepam logic input assigned to the Close enable
function.
If it is necessary to close the circuit breaker without taking into account the
synchronization conditions, this may be done by a logic equation or by Logipam via
the V_CLOSE_NOCTRL input.
Control of logic outputs
Logic orders from the Switchgear control function are used to control the Sepam logic
outputs that control breaking device opening and closing.
Logic output control is set up to match the device to be controlled, i.e. a circuit
breaker or contactor.
Control of capacitor banks
The Sepam C86 Switchgear control function can control the breaking device and 1
to 4 capacitor step switches.
This particular function is described separately.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Control and monitoring
functions
DE52272
Block diagram
4
Control of logic outputs
DE51580
Control of a circuit breaker or contactor with mechanical latching
The block diagram below represents the following parameter setting:
b type of switchgear = Circuit Breaker
b output O1 = trip
b output O2 = close inhibit
b output O3 = close.
DE51581
Control of a contactor without mechanical latching
The block diagram below represents the following parameter setting:
b type of switchgear = Contactor
b output O1 = open / close.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
191
Control and monitoring
functions
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Processing of internal switchgear control orders
DE80165
Block diagram
4
Tripping due
to protection
TS233
Breaker
closed
192
(I101)
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Control and monitoring
functions
Close enable by the Synchro-check function
Operation
The close request, made locally or remotely, is maintained by Sepam during the
close request delay and triggers the appearance of a "SYNC.IN PROCESS"
message. It is deactivated when a tripping order or circuit breaker inhibition order is
received and triggers the "STOP SYNC." message.
The closing order is given if the close enable is received before the close request
delay runs out. When this is the case, the message "SYNC. OK" is displayed.
If the close enable is not received, the message "SYNC. FAILURE" is displayed.
When possible and if the MCS025 remote module is connected by the CCA785 cord
to the Sepam to which the close request has been made, an additional message
indicates the type of synchronization failure:
b "SYNC. FAILED dU" for too high a voltage difference
b "SYNC. FAILED DF" for too high a frequency difference
b "SYNC. FAILED dPhi" for too high a phase difference.
An additional delay is used to confirm the close enable to guarantee that the closing
conditions last long enough.
Block diagram
DE52273
4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
193
Control and monitoring
functions
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Parameter setting
The Switchgear control function is set up and adapted to match the type of breaking
device to be controlled using the SFT2841 software.
PE50454
"Control logic" tab
b activation of the Switchgear control function
b choice of the type of breaking device to be controlled: circuit breaker (by default)
or contactor
b activation of the Synchro-check function, if necessary.
"Logic I/Os" tab
b assignment of the logic inputs required
b definition of logic output behavior.
By default, the following outputs are used:
Logic output
O1
O2
SFT2841: parameter setting of Switchgear control.
O3
Shunt trip coil
Close
(V_CLOSED)
Shunt trip coil
Undervoltage coil
b the Trip order is always associated with output O1.
If output O1 is set up for pulse type operation, the pulse order duration may be set up
b the optional Close inhibit and Close orders may be assigned to any logic output.
PE50455
4
Associated internal order Circuit breaker coil
Trip
(V_TRIPPED)
Close inhibit
(V_CLOSE_INHIBITED)
"Matrix" screen, "Logic" button
Modification of the default internal order assignment to outputs O2 and O3, if
necessary.
SFT2841: default parameter setting of the logic outputs
assigned to Switchgear control.
194
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Characteristics
Settings
Switchgear control
Setting range
Type of device
Setting range
Tripping pulse duration (output O1)
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Closing with synchro-check
Setting range
Close request time delay Tdf
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Synchro confirmation time delay Tcs
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
On / Off
Circuit breaker / Contactor
200 ms to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
On / Off
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Inputs
Designation
Tripping, opening
Inhibit closing
Closing
Closing without synchro-check
Syntax
V_TRIPCB
V_INHIBECLOSE
V_CLOSECB
V_CLOSE_NOCTRL
Equations
b
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
4
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Switchgear control on
V_SWCTRL_ON
Tripping, opening
V_TRIPPED
Inhibit closing
V_CLOSE_INHIBITED
Closing
V_CLOSED
Contactor control
V_CONTACTOR
Synchro-check on
V_SYNC_ON
Sychrochecked close request in
V_SYNC_INPROC
process
Synchrochecked close request stop V_SYNC_STOP
Synchrochecked close request
V_SYNC_OK
successful
Synchrochecked close request
V_NOSYNC
failure
Synchrochecked close request
V_NOSYNC_DU
failure - Voltage difference too high
V_NOSYNC_DF
Synchrochecked close request
failure - Frequency difference too
high
Synchrochecked close request
V_NOSYNC_DPHI
failure - Phase difference too high
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
TC
TC1
TC2
TS
TS233
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
Binary Output
BO0
BO1
Binary Input
BI334
ASDU, FUN, INF
20, 21, 1 (OFF)
20, 21, 1 (ON)
ASDU, FUN, INF
2, 160, 68
LN.DO.DA
CSWI1.Pos.ctlVal
CSWI1.Pos.ctlVal
LN.DO.DA
195
Control and monitoring
functions
DE51558
Predefined function for the control of circuit
breakers protecting capacitor banks and the
switches of each capacitor bank step.
This function only concerns Sepam C86
units.
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Operation
The Sepam C86 Switchgear control function performs:
b control of the circuit breaker protecting the capacitor bank (circuit breaker with
shunt trip or undervoltage coil)
b control of the capacitor bank step switches (maximum of 4 steps), with processing
of:
v voluntary manual control orders
v automatic control orders, received from reactive-energy regulators
Control of logic outputs
The logic orders from the Switchgear control function are used to control the Sepam
logic outputs which control:
b opening and closing of the circuit breaker.
b opening and closing of each capacitor step switch.
Logic output control is set up to match the type of device to be controlled, i.e. a circuit
breaker or capacitor step switch.
4
Example of a Sepam C86 application: circuit breaker protection
of a 4-step capacitor bank.
196
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
DE52274
Block diagram
4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
197
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Control of the circuit breaker
This function comprises two parts:
b processing of internal circuit breaker control orders:
v open circuit breaker 1 , 2 , 3
v close circuit breaker 6 , 7 , 8
v inhibit circuit breaker closing 4 , 5
b execution of internal orders by control logic outputs according to the type of device
to be controlled.
Processing of internal circuit breaker control orders
The Switchgear control function processes all the circuit breaker close and trip
conditions, based on
b protection functions (configured to trip the circuit breaker)
b circuit breaker and capacitor step switch status data
b remote control orders via the communication link
b local control orders by logic input or mimic-based UMI
b internal control orders created by logic equation or Logipam.
The function also inhibits circuit breaker closing according to the operating
conditions.
Circuit breaker opening
b Voluntary open:
A circuit breaker open order triggers the staggered opening of capacitor step
switches. This order is maintained for a time T1, the time required for the staggered
opening of the capacitor step switches and the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker
opens after all the capacitor step switches to avoid breaking the capacitive current.
b Trip:
The protection functions (units configured to trip the circuit breaker and external
protection units) send a tripping order to the circuit breaker. After the circuit breaker
opens, an open order is sent to all the capacitor step switches at the same time.
4
Circuit breaker closing
The circuit breaker only closes if all the capacitor step switches are open.
Anti-pumping function
To prevent simultaneous breaking device open and close orders and to give priority
to open orders, breaker device close orders are of the pulse type
Switchgear control with lockout function (ANSI 86)
The ANSI 86 function traditionally performed by lockout relays may be provided by
Sepam using the Switchgear control function, with latching of all the tripping
conditions (protection function outputs and logic inputs).
Sepam performs:
b grouping of all the tripping conditions and circuit breaker control
b latching of the tripping order, with inhibition of closing, until the cause of tripping
disappears and is acknowledged by the user (see Latching / acknowledgement
function)
b indication of the cause of tripping:
v locally by LEDs (Trip and others) and by messages on the display
v remotely by remote indications (see Indications function).
198
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
DE80239
Block diagram
4
Tripping due
to protection
TS233
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
199
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Capacitor step control
Automatic control
When the "Automatic capacitor step control" logic input is on, each step may be
controlled automatically by the reactive energy regulator (VAR). In this case, one
input per step is used to open and close one capacitor step switch:
b input in state 1: closing of capacitor step x switch
b input in state 0: opening of capacitor step x switch.
Manual control
When the "Manual capacitor step control" logic input is on, each step may be opened
and closed manually:
b locally by specific logic inputs (one open input and one close input per step)
b remotely by remote control.
Inhibition of voluntary capacitor step control
Voluntary capacitor step switch control may be inhibited by a logic input. However,
this input does not inhibit fault tripping or opening after circuit breaker opening.
Capacitor step opening
Any opening of a capacitor step, whether voluntary or by tripping, activates a
discharge time delay which inhibits closing to ensure that the step capacitors
discharge correctly.
b voluntary open: manual or automatic capacitor step switch control order
b trip, triggered by:
v ANSI 51C unbalance protection units associated with the capacitor step and
configured to trip the step 13
v "Tripping of step x" logic input (one input per capacitor step) 12
v logic equation or Logipam 13 .
Latched trip orders inhibit capacitor step closing until the orders are reset 14 .
Open orders must be at least as long as the duration of open and close control
pulses.
4
Capacitor step closing 15
Close orders are always voluntary, for manual and automatic control. They are as
long as the duration of open and close control pulses.
Capacitor step switches only close after the capacitor step discharge time delay has
run out and after the circuit breaker has closed, if there is no protection fault or
inhibition.
Capacitor step switch matching fault 16
This function checks that the capacitor step switch positions match, when the
positions are set up on logic inputs (Ix).
In the event of a capacitor step switch matching fault, the switch close order is
inhibited.
200
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
DE52277
Block diagram
4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
201
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Parameter setting of circuit breaker control
The function is set up and adapted to match the type of circuit breaker to be
controlled using the SFT2841 software.
PE50456
"Control logic" tab
b activation of the Switchgear control function
b type of device to be controlled: Circuit breaker.
"Logic I/Os" tab
b assignment of the logic inputs required
b definition of logic output behavior.
By default, the following outputs are used:
Logic output
O1
O2
O3
SFT2841: parameter setting of Switchgear control.
Shunt trip coil
Undervoltage coil
Shunt trip coil
PE50455
b the Trip order is always associated with output O1.
If output O1 is set up for pulse type operation, the pulse order duration may be set up.
b the optional Close inhibit and Close orders may be assigned to any logic output.
"Matrix" screen, "Logic" button
Modification of the default internal order assignment to outputs O2 and O3, if
necessary.
Parameter setting of capacitor step control
The function is set up and adapted using the SFT2841 software.
SFT2841: default parameter setting of the logic outputs
assigned to Switchgear control.
"Particular characteristics" tab
Setup of the capacitor bank, with setting of the number of steps.
"Control logic" tab
Setup of capacitor step control:
b activation of the Capacitor step control function
b setting of capacitor step staggered opening times, capacitor step discharge times
and capacitor step switch control pulse duration.
PE50457
4
Associated internal order Circuit breaker coil
Trip
(V_TRIPPED)
Close inhibit
(V_CLOSE_INHIBITED)
Close
(V_CLOSED)
"Logic I/Os" tab
b assignment of the logic inputs required
b definition of the behavior of logic outputs assigned to capacitor step control.
SFT2841: parameter setting of the Capacitor step control
function.
202
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Capacitor bank switchgear control
ANSI code 94/69
Characteristics
Settings
Switchgear control
Setting range
On / Off
Type of device
Setting range
Circuit breaker / Contactor
Tripping pulse duration (output O1)
Setting range
200 ms to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Control of capacitor banks
Setting range
On / Off
Staggered capacitor step opening time delay Techx (1 delay per step)
Setting range
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Capacitor step discharge time delay Tdx (1 delay per step)
Setting range
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Capacitor step open and close control pulse duration Timp
Setting range
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
4
Inputs
Designation
Tripping, opening
Inhibit closing
Closing
Capacitor step 1 tripping
Capacitor step 2 tripping
Capacitor step 3 tripping
Capacitor step 4 tripping
Capacitor step 1 closing
Capacitor step 2 closing
Capacitor step 3 closing
Capacitor step 4 closing
Syntax
V_TRIPCB
V_INHIBECLOSE
V_CLOSECB
V_TRIP_STP1
V_TRIP_STP2
V_TRIP_STP3
V_TRIP_STP4
V_CLOSE_STP1
V_CLOSE_STP2
V_CLOSE_STP3
V_CLOSE_STP4
Equations
b
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Switchgear control on
V_SWCTRL_ON
Tripping, opening
V_TRIPPED
Inhibit closing
V_CLOSE_INHIBITED
Closing
V_CLOSED
Contactor control
V_CONTACTOR
Capacitor bank control on
V_BANK_ON
Tripping of capacitor step 1
V_STP1_TRIPPING
Tripping of capacitor step 2
V_STP2_TRIPPING
Tripping of capacitor step 3
V_STP3_TRIPPING
Tripping of capacitor step 4
V_STP4_TRIPPING
Closing of capacitor step 1
V_STP1_CLOSING
Closing of capacitor step 2
V_STP2_CLOSING
Closing of capacitor step 3
V_STP3_CLOSING
Closing of capacitor step 4
V_STP4_CLOSING
Capacitor step 1 matching fault
V_STP1_CTRLFLT
Capacitor step 2 matching fault
V_STP2_CTRLFLT
Capacitor step 3 matching fault
V_STP3_CTRLFLT
Capacitor step 4 matching fault
V_STP4_CTRLFLT
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Equations Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
TC
TC1
TC2
TS
TS233
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
Binary Output
BO0
BO1
Binary Input
BI334
ASDU, FUN, INF
20, 21, 1 (OFF)
20, 21, 1 (ON)
ASDU, FUN, INF
2, 160, 68
LN.DO.DA
CSWI1.Pos.ctlVal
CSWI1.Pos.ctlVal
LN.DO.DA
-
203
Latching / acknowledgement
Control and monitoring
functions
Operation
The tripping outputs of all the protection functions and all the logic inputs may be
latched individually.
Logic outputs may not be latched. Logic outputs set up as pulse-type outputs
maintain pulse-type operation even when they are linked to latched data.
Latched data are saved in the event of an auxiliary power failure.
All latched data are acknowledged together, at the same time. Acknowledgement is
done:
b locally on the UMI using the
key
b or remotely via a logic input, the SFT2841 software or via the communication link
b or by logic equation or Logipam.
The remote indication TS5 remains present after latching operations until
acknowledgement has taken place.
The Latching/acknowledgement function associated with the Switchgear control
function may be used to perform the ANSI 86 Lockout relay function.
DE52251
Block diagram
4
Characteristics
Inputs
Designation
Inhibition of UMI Reset key
Acknowledgement by logic
equation or Logipam
Syntax
Equations Logipam
V_INHIB_RESET_LOCAL b
b
V_RESET
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Reset requested
Acknowledgement by UMI
Reset key
Syntax
V_RESET_ORD
V_KEY_RESET
Equations Logipam
b
b
Matrix
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
TS
TS5
TC
TC3
204
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
Binary Input
BI0
Binary Output
BO2
ASDU, FUN, INF
1, 160, 19
ASDU, FUN, INF
20, 160, 19
LN.DO.DA
LLN0.LEDRs.stVal
LN.DO.DA
LLN0.LEDRs.ctlVal
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
TC / switchgear position
discrepancy
Tripping
Control and monitoring
functions
TC / switchgear position discrepancy
Operation
This function detects a discrepancy between the last remote control order received
and the actual position of the circuit breaker or contactor.
The information is accessible in the matrix and via the remote indication TS3.
DE80243
Block diagram
Characteristics
Outputs
Designation
TC/ switchgear position
discrepancy
Syntax
V_TC/CBDISCREP
Equations Logipam
b
Matrix
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
TC
TC1
TC2
TS
TS3
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
Binary Output
BO0
BO1
Binary Input
BI18
ASDU, FUN, INF
20, 21, 1 (OFF)
20, 21, 1 (ON)
ASDU, FUN, INF
-
LN.DO.DA
CSWI1.Pos.ctlVal
CSWI1.Pos.ctlVal
LN.DO.DA
-
Tripping
Description
The information can be accessed via remote indication TS233.
It indicates whether a Sepam internal or external protection has tripped.
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
Modbus
TS
TS233
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
Binary Input
BI334
ASDU, FUN, INF
2, 160, 68
LN.DO.DA
-
205
4
Disturbance-recording trigger
Control and monitoring
functions
Operation
The recording of analog and logic signals may be triggered by different events,
according to control matrix parameter setting or by manual action:
b triggering by the grouping of all pick-up signals of the protection functions in
service
b triggering by the delayed outputs of selected protection functions
b triggering by selected logic inputs
b triggering by selected outputs Vx (logic equations)
b manual triggering by a remote control order (TC20)
b manual triggering via the SFT2841 software tool
b manual triggering by Logipam.
Disturbance recording may be:
b inhibited via the SFT2841 software or by remote control order (TC18) or by
Logipam
b validated via the SFT2841 software or by remote control order (TC19) or by
Logipam.
DE80240
Block diagram
4
206
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Disturbance-recording trigger
Characteristics
Inputs
Designation
Inhibits disturbance recording
function
Validates disturbance recording
function
Manual trigger of disturbance
recording function
Syntax
V_OPG_INHIBIT
Equations Logipam
b
V_OPG_VALID
b
V_OPG_MANUAL
b
Outputs
Designation
Disturbance recording function
triggered
Disturbance recording function
inhibited
Disturbance recording on
Syntax
V_OPG_TRIGGED
Equations Logipam
b
V_OPG_INHIBITED
b
V_OPG_ON
b
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
TC18
BO3
-
RDRE1.RcdInh.ctlVal
TC19
BO4
-
RDRE1.RcdInh.ctlVal
TC20
BO5
-
RDRE1.RcdTrg.ctlVal
4
207
Switching of groups of settings
Control and monitoring
functions
Operation
There are two groups of settings, group A / group B, for the phase overcurrent, earth
fault, directional phase overcurrent and directional earth fault protection functions.
Switching from one group of settings to another makes it possible to adapt the
protection characteristics to suit the electrical environment of the application (change
of earthing system, changeover to local power generation, ...). The switching of
settings is global and therefore applies to all the units of the protection functions
mentioned above.
The groups of settings switching mode is determined by parameter setting:
b switching according to the position of a logic input (0 = group A, 1 = group B)
b switching by remote control order (TC33, TC34)
b forced group A or group B.
DE50807
Block diagram
4
Characteristics
Outputs
Designation
Group of settings A active
Group of settings B active
Syntax
V_GROUPA
V_GROUPB
Equations Logipam
b
b
Matrix
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
208
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
TC33
BO8
20, 160, 23
LLN0.SGCB
TC34
BO9
20, 160, 24
LLN0.SGCB
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logic discrimination
Principle
Control and monitoring
functions
Operation
DE50623
This function considerably reduces the tripping time of the circuit breakers closest to
the source and may be used for logic discrimination in closed ring networks.
It applies to the phase overcurrent 50/51, directional phase overcurrent 67, earth
fault 50N/51N and directional earth fault 67N protection functions, definite time and
IDMT.
Sepam series 80 discrimination logic comprises 2 discrimination groups.
Each group includes:
b logic thresholds: protection units that send blocking signals (BSIG) and that may
be prevented from tripping by the reception of blocking signals.
b time-based thresholds: protection units that may not be prevented from tripping by
blocking signals and that do not send blocking signals. They are used as backup for
the logic thresholds.
When a fault occurs:
b the logic thresholds detecting the fault send blocking signals
b the logic thresholds detecting the fault send a tripping order if they are not inhibited
by blocking signals
b the time-based (backup) thresholds detecting the fault send a tripping order
The logic and time-based threshold assignments of the protection units depend on
the type of application and the parameter setting of the logic inputs/outputs.
The 1st logic group is active if one of the following two conditions is met:
b blocking reception 1 is assigned to a logic input Ixxx, except for motors which do
not have this input.
b blocking send 1 is assigned to an output Oxxx. (O102 by default).
The 2nd logic group, when it is present in the application, is active if one of the
following two conditions is met:
b blocking reception 2 is assigned to a logic input Ixxx
b blocking send 2 is assigned to an output Oxxx (O103 by default).
The SFT 2841 software indicates the type of threshold, logic or time-based,
according to the input/output parameter setting.
DE50810
DE50809
Example: radial distribution with use of time-based
discrimination (T: protection setting time. As an approximation
for definite time curves, this is assumed to be equal to the
protection tripping time).
The upstream protection units are typically delayed by 0.3 s to
give the downstream protection units time to trip. When there
are many levels of discrimination, the fault clearing time at the
source is long.
In this example, if the fault clearing time for the protection unit
furthest downstream is Xs = 0.2 s, the fault clearing time at the
source is T = Xs + 0.9 s = 1.1 s.
Example: radial distribution with use of logic discrimination
(T: protection setting time. As an approximation for definite
time curves, this is assumed to be equal to the protection
tripping time).
When a fault appears, the protection units that detect it inhibit
the upstream protection units. The protection unit furthest
downstream trips since it is not blocked by another protection
unit. The delays are to be set in accordance with the device to
be protected.
In this example, if the fault clearing time for the protection
device furthest downstream is Xs = 0.2 s, the fault clearing time
at the source is T = Xs - 0.1 s = 0.1 s.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
The assignment of protection devices to the two discrimination groups is fixed and
may not be modified. When logic discrimination is used, it is important to check that
the measurement origin and discrimination group to which the unit is assigned are in
accordance.
By default, the same discrimination group has the same measurement origin. When
several origins are possible, the main channels I1, I2, I3 and I0 are assigned by
default to the first group and the additional channels I'1, I'2, I'3, I'0 to the second.
209
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic discrimination
Principle
The sending of blocking signals lasts the time it takes to clear the fault. If Sepam
gives a tripping order, the blocking signals are interrupted after a time delay that
takes into account the breaking device operating time and the protection unit reset
time. This system guarantees safety in downgraded operating situations (faulty
wiring or switchgear).
Pilot wire test
The pilot wires may be tested using the output relay test function in the SFT2841
software.
4
210
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic discrimination
S80, S81, T81, B80 and B83
applications
Threshold assignment
Type of
protection
Unit number
Time-based
50/51
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
50N/51N
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
67N
2
(1) According to application.
Send logic
Group 1
1, 2
1, 2
1
Group 2
-
Reception logic
Group 1
Group 2
1, 2
1, 2
1
-
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
On / Off
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
Logic discrimination trip
V_LOGDSC_TRIP b
b
Blocking send 1
V_LOGDSC_BL1 b
b
Logic discrimination on
V_LOGDSC_ON
b
(1) Only if switchgear control is not in service.
Matrix
b (1)
b
Block diagram
DE51619
4
(1) By default.
(2) According to application.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
211
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic discrimination
M81, M87, M88 and C86 applications
Threshold assignment
Type of
protection
50/51
50N/51N
67N
Unit number
Time-based
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
2
Send logic
Group 1
1, 2
1, 2
1
Group 2
-
Reception logic
Group 1
Group 2
-
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
On / Off
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Logic discrimination trip
V_LOGDSC_TRIP
Blocking send 1
V_LOGDSC_BL1
Logic discrimination on
V_LOGDSC_ON
(1) Only if switchgear control is not in service.
Logipam
b
b
b
Matrix
b (1)
b
4
DE51620
Block diagram
212
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic discrimination
S82, S84, T82, T87, G82, G87 and
G88 applications
DE52318
Block diagram
4
(1) By default.
(2) According to application.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
213
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic discrimination
S82, S84, T82, T87, G82, G87 and
G88 applications
Threshold assignment
Type of
protection
Unit number
Time-based
50/51
3, 4, 7, 8
50N/51N
3, 4, 7, 8
67 (1)
67N (1)
(1) According to application.
Send logic
Group 1
1, 2
1, 2
1
1
Group 2
5, 6
5, 6
2
2
Reception logic
Group 1
Group 2
1, 2
5, 6
1, 2
5, 6
1
2
1
2
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
On / Off
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Logic discrimination trip
V_LOGDSC_TRIP
Blocking send 1
V_LOGDSC_BL1
Blocking send 2
V_LOGDSC_BL2
Logic discrimination on
V_LOGDSC_ON
(1) Only if switchgear control is not in service.
Logipam
b
b
b
b
Matrix
b (1)
b
b
4
214
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logic discrimination
Example of setting: radial network
Control and monitoring
functions
When a fault occurs in a radial network, the fault current flows through the circuit
between the source and the location of the fault:
b the protection units upstream from the fault are triggered
b the protection units downstream from the fault are not triggered
b only the first protection unit upstream from the fault should trip.
DE50814
Example of setting
A 20 kV installation, supplied by a transformer, comprises the main busbars which in
turn supply a feeder to a motor substation and a long feeder to a distant MV/LV
transformer. The installation is earthed via a resistor at the incoming transformer
neutral point, which limits to the current to about 10 Amps.
4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
215
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic discrimination
Example of setting: radial network
Based on a network coordination study, the installation relay settings are as follows:
b incomer: Sepam T81 (relay A)
v busbar fault thresholds
50/51, 50N/51N: T =0.1 s (DT)
Logic discrimination group 1:
- blocked by relays B and D
- blocking send 1 to high voltage relays
v backup thresholds
50/51, 50N/51N: T = 0.7 s (DT)
Time-based thresholds
b feeder to motor substation: Sepam S80 (relay B)
v busbar fault thresholds
50/51, 50N/51N: T = 0.1 s (DT)
Logic discrimination group 1:
- blocked by relays C1 and C2
- blocking send 1 to relay A
v backup thresholds
50/51, 50N/51N: T = 0.4 s (DT)
Time-based thresholds
b motor feeders:
b motor 1: Sepam M81 (relay C1)
v motor fault thresholds
50/51, 50N/51N: T = 0.1 s (DT)
Logic discrimination group 1:
- blocking send 1 to relay B
b motor 2: Sepam M87 (relay C2)
v motor fault thresholds
- 50/51, 50N/51N: T = 0.1 s (DT)
Logic discrimination group 1: blocking send 1 to relay B
Measurement origin: I1, I2, I3
- 50/51 self-balancing differential scheme: T =0s (DT)
Time-based threshold
Measurement origin: I'1, I'2, I'3
b transformer feeder
v cable fault thresholds
50/51, 67N: T = 0.4 s (DT)
Logic discrimination group 1:
- these thresholds are set time-wise in relation to relay E
- blocking send 1 to relay A.
4
The logic input and output settings for all the relays concerned are:
b blocking reception 1 on I103
b blocking send 1 on O102.
216
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logic discrimination
Example of setting: parallel incomers
Control and monitoring
functions
DE50815
Substations supplied by 2 (or more) parallel incomers may be protected using
Sepam S82, T82 or G82, by a combination of directional phase (67) and earth fault
(67N) protection functions, with the logic discrimination function.
To avoid both incomers tripping when a fault occurs upstream from one incomer, the
incomer protection devices must operate as follows:
b protection function 67 of the faulty incomer detects the fault current in the "line"
direction, the protection tripping direction:
v sends a blocking signal to inhibit the phase overcurrent protection functions (50/
51) of both incomers
v and initiates tripping of the incomer circuit breaker
b protection function 67 of the fault-free incomer is insensitive to fault current in the
"busbar" direction.
Example of setting
b logic input / output assignment:
v I104: blocking reception 2 - Do not assign any inputs to blocking reception 1
v O102: blocking send 1
b protection function 67 unit 1: tripping direction = line
v instantaneous output: blocking send 1
v delayed output: not blocked (no input assigned to blocking signal 1), circuit breaker
tripping on faults upstream from incomer
b protection function 50/51, unit 5:
v delayed output:
- blocked by protection 67, unit 1 if there is a fault upstream from the incomer
- not blocked for busbar faults
- blocked for feeder faults
b protection function 50/51, unit 3 as backup.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
217
4
Logic discrimination
Example of setting:
closed ring network
Control and monitoring
functions
DE50816
Closed ring network protection may be provided by Sepam S82 or T82, which include
the following functions:
b 2 units of directional phase (67) and earth fault (67N) protection functions:
v one unit to detect faults in the "line" direction
v one unit to detect faults in the "busbar" direction
b use of 2 discrimination groups:
v sending of 2 blocking signals, according to the detected fault direction
v reception of 2 blocking signals, to block the directional protection relays according
to the detection direction.
4
With the combination of directional protection functions and the logic discrimination
function, the faulty section may be isolated with a minimal delay by tripping of the
circuit breakers on either side of the fault.
Blocking signals are initiated by both protection functions 67 and 67N.
Priority is given to protection function 67: when protection functions 67 and 67N
detect faults in opposite directions at the same time, the blocking signal sent is
determined by the direction of the fault detected by protection function 67.
The instantaneous output of protection functions 67 and 67N, activated at 80% of the
Is threshold, is used to send blocking signals. This avoids uncertainty when the fault
current is close to the Is threshold.
218
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Logic discrimination
Example of setting:
closed ring network
Control and monitoring
functions
Example of setting:
DE50817
Case of a closed ring with two substations, each of which comprises two Sepam S82
relays, marked R11, R12 and R21, R22.
Starting at one end of the ring, the detection direction of units 1 and 2 of the
directional protection functions should be alternated between line and busbars.
4
Example of setting of the different Sepam relays linked to logic discrimination:
Substation 1
Sepam S82 No. R11
Sepam S82 No. R12
b Logic input/output assignment:
I103: blocking reception 1
O102: blocking send 1
O103: blocking send 2
b 67, 67N, unit 1:
tripping direction = busbars
b 67, 67N, unit 2:
tripping direction = line
b Logic input/output assignment:
I103: blocking reception 1
I104: blocking reception 2
O102: blocking send 1
O103: blocking send 2
b 67, 67N, unit 1:
tripping direction = line
b 67, 67N, unit 2:
tripping direction = busbars
Substation 2
Sepam S82 No. R22
Sepam S82 No. R21
b Logic input/output assignment:
I103: blocking reception 1
I104: blocking reception 2
O102: blocking send 1
O103: blocking send 2
b 67, 67N, unit 1:
tripping direction = busbars
b 67, 67N, unit 2:
tripping direction = line
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
b Logic input/output assignment:
I103: blocking reception 1
O102: blocking send 1
O103: blocking send 2
b 67, 67N, unit 1:
tripping direction = line
b 67, 67N, unit 2:
tripping direction = busbars
219
Control and monitoring
functions
Load shedding
Operation
Motor load shedding is done to reduce the load on the electrical network so as to
keep the voltage within an acceptable range.
Load shedding may be triggered:
b by an order from outside Sepam in the presence of a logic input assigned for the
reception of load shedding orders. Orders may be delayed
b by a voltage dip detected by the delayed output of Sepam 27D protection unit 1
(typical setting 40% Un).
Load shedding triggers:
b tripping by the switchgear control function
b inhibition of closing as long as the load shedding order is maintained.
The load shedding order is maintained as long as one of the following three
conditions is present:
b external order via logic input
b positive sequence voltage less than load shedding voltage detected by 27D unit 1
threshold
b insufficient positive sequence voltage for a restart order to be given and detected
by the delayed 27D unit 2 threshold. The time delay for the detection of correct
voltage recovery must be shorter than the load shedding delay (27D unit 1) in order
for the load shedding order to be maintained correctly. This unit is also used by the
restart function.
The function may be validated by the switchgear closed and not racked out
conditions.
4
DE51607
Block diagram
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
Delay before load shedding
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
On / Off
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Load shedding order
V_LOADSH_ORD
Load shedding on
V_LOADSH_ON
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
220
Equations Logipam
b
b
Matrix
b
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Restart
Operation
With this function, motors can be automatically restarted after a shutdown triggered
by a voltage dip (load shedding).
The restart function is to be associated with the load shedding function It allows
staggered restarting of process motors, as long as the voltage dip that caused load
shedding was brief.
When tripping occurs due to a dip in the network supply voltage detected by 27D
protection unit 1, two situations are possible:
b the voltage dip lasts for a period longer than the maximum voltage dip duration:
tripping is final. External action is required for restart.
b the voltage dip lasts for a period shorter than the maximum dip duration: a restart
order is given. Delayed restart allows motor restart orders to be staggered to avoid
network overload.
The enabling of restart is detected after the delayed output of protection 27D unit 2
drops out. This threshold allows the return of voltage to be detected independently
with respect to the load shedding threshold. The typical setting is 50 % Un.
The restart order is given by the switchgear control function.
DE51608
Block diagram
4
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
Maximum voltage dip duration
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Restart delay
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
On / Off
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Restart order
V_RESTARTING
Restart on
V_RESTART_ON
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Equations Logipam
b
b
Matrix
221
Control and monitoring
functions
Restart
DE80241
Example 1: Voltage dip with restart order
4
DE80242
Example 2: Voltage dip without restart order
222
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Generator shutdown and tripping
Operation
Generator separation
This function controls shutdown of the driving machine,
tripping of the breaking device and interruption of the
generator excitation supply in case of:
b detection of an internal generator fault
b receipt of a genset shutdown order on a logic input or
via the communication link.
This type of control function gives the following order:
b a trip order to the generator coupling circuit breaker.
The machine remains excited and the prime mover is not shut down.
This mode is used to the isolate the machine from a network which no longer meets
the coupling conditions (voltage, frequency, loss of power network).
The generator may continue to supply loads locally.
DE50636
Sequential tripping
This type of control function gives the following orders on after the other:
b a trip order to the generator coupling circuit breaker
b a delayed trip order to the excitation circuit breaker
b a delayed shutdown order to the prime mover.
This mode is reserved for certain machines.
Sepam enables these operating modes by combining:
b switchgear control for tripping of the generator coupling circuit breaker
b de-excitation function for tripping of the excitation circuit breaker
b genset shutdown function to order the shutdown of the prime mover.
Function output delays are used for sequential tripping.
Typical parameter setting for industrial network generators
Generator shutdown and tripping involve:
1 tripping of the circuit breaker connecting the
machine to the network
2 tripping of the excitation circuit breaker
3 shutdown of the prime mover.
The combination of these three orders determines four
types of shutdown and tripping orders:
b total shutdown (simultaneous tripping)
b generator tripping
b generator separation
b sequential tripping.
Total shutdown
This type of control function gives the following orders
at the same time:
b a trip order to the generator coupling circuit breaker
b a trip order to the excitation circuit breaker
b a shutdown order to the prime mover.
This mode is reserved for internal faults in generators
and transformers of generator-transformer units.
Generator tripping
This type of control function gives the following orders:
b a trip order to the generator coupling circuit breaker
b a trip order to the excitation circuit breaker.
The prime mover is not shut down.
This mode is reserved for power network faults and
allows the generator to be quickly reconnected after the
fault is cleared.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Protection
functions
Circuit breaker
tripping
Genset shutdown De-excitation
12
b
21B
b
24
b
b
b
27
b
32Q
b
b
b
37P
b
40
b
b
b
46
b
47
b
49RMS
b
50/27
b
50/51
b
50N/51N
b
b
b
50G/51G
50V/51V
b
59
b
59N
b
b
b
64G2/27TN (1)
64REF
b
b
b
67
b
b
b
67N/NC
b
b
b
78PS
b
81H
b
81L
b
81R
b
87M
b
b
b
87T
b
b
b
(1) Generally initiates an alarm, but may otherwise initiate circuit breaker tripping, genset
shutdown and de-excitation.
4
223
Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown
Operation
Block diagram
This function, available in generator applications, is
used to shut down the genset:
b mechanical shutdown by shutting down the prime
mover
b electrical shutdown by tripping the generator.
Genset shutdown may be initiated in the following
ways:
b by a external shutdown order
v remote control order if enabled
v logic input if set up
b by logic equation or by Logipam to take into account
all specific generator installation characteristics
b by delayed protection functions.
4
The protection functions concerned are those that
detect internal faults in generators or transformers of
generator-transformer units. They are divided into 2
groups: protection functions that contribute to
shutdown regardless of the circuit breaker position and
those whose contribution is dependent on the circuit
breaker position:
b protection functions unrelated to circuit breaker
position 12, 21B, 24, 27TN, 32Q, 40, 51V, 64REF, 67,
67N, 81L, 87M, 87T
b protection functions dependent on circuit breaker
position 50/51, 50N/51N, 59N. The delayed, unlatched
outputs of these protection units activate shutdown,
only if the circuit breaker is open.
Participation in the function is to be set individually in
the protection setting tabs of the SFT2841 software for
each protection unit that can take part in genset
shutdown.
At the same time, the function gives a tripping order via
switchgear control to disconnect the generator from the
power network. It must be associated with a logic
output in the matrix to initiate genset shutdown.
DE51609
Control and monitoring
functions
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
On / Off
Selection of protection functions activating genset shutdown
Setting range per protection unit
Enabled / disabled
Genset shutdown time delay
Setting range
0 to 300 s
Accuracy (1)
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Inputs
Designation
Genset shutdown
Syntax
V_SHUTDOWN
Equations Logipam
b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
Genset shutdown
V_SHUTDN_ORD
b
Genset shutdown on
V_SHUTDN_ON
b
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
224
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
TC35
BO15
20, 21, 102 (ON)
-
TC36
BO16
20, 21, 102 (OFF)
-
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation
Operation
Block diagram
This function, available in generator applications, is
used to quickly cut off the power supply to an internal
fault when the generator is disconnected from the
network:
b de-excitation of the generator
b electrical shutdown by tripping.
De-excitation may be initiated in the following ways:
b by an order
v remote control order if enabled
v logic input if set up
b by logic equation or by Logipam to take into account
all specific generator installation characteristics
b by delayed protection functions.
The protection functions concerned are those that
detect internal faults in generators or transformers of
generator-transformer units. They are divided into 2
groups: protection functions that contribute to deexcitation regardless of the circuit breaker position and
those whose contribution is dependent on the circuit
breaker position:
b protection functions unrelated to circuit breaker
position 12, 21B, 24, 27TN, 32Q, 40, 51V, 59, 64REF,
67, 67N.81L, 87M, 87T
b protection functions dependent on circuit breaker
position 50/51, 50N/51N, 59N. The delayed, unlatched
outputs of these protection units trigger de-excitation
only if the circuit breaker is open.
Participation in the function is to be set individually in
the protection function setting tabs of the SFT2841
software for each protection unit that can take part in
de-excitation.
At the same time, the function gives a tripping order via
switchgear control to disconnect the generator from the
power network. It must be associated with a logic
output in the control matrix to initiate the de-excitation
order.
DE51610
Control and monitoring
functions
4
Characteristics
Settings
Activity
Setting range
On / Off
Selection of protection functions activating de-excitation
Setting range per protection unit
Enabled / disabled
De-excitation time delay
Setting range
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
10 ms or 1 digit
Inputs
Designation
De-excitation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
V_DE-EXCITATION b
b
Outputs
Designation
Syntax
Equations Logipam
De-excitation
V_DE-EXCIT_ORD
b
De-excitation on
V_DE-EXCIT_ON
b
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Matrix
b
TS/TC equivalence for each protocol
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Modbus
DNP3
IEC 60870-5-103
IEC 61850
TC
Binary Output
ASDU, FUN, INF
LN.DO.DA
TC35
BO15
20, 21, 102 (ON)
-
TC36
BO16
20, 21, 102 (OFF)
-
225
Control and monitoring
functions
Generator shutdown and tripping
Example
Installation description
DE51602
The electrical installation consists of busbars to which the following are connected:
b an incomer supplied by a 10 MVA transformer
b a 3.15 MVA power generator
4
In normal operation, the generator and transformer are coupled to the busbars. The
generator provides backup power to the installation in the absence of the transformer
power supply. The installation is earthed by a neutral point coil connected to the
busbars. When the generator is not coupled to the network, its neutral is isolated.
When faults occur, the generator is over-excited for 3 seconds. Its fault current is
equal to 3 times its rated current. After the 3 seconds have elapsed, the fault current
drops to 0.5 times the rated current.
The generator is protected:
b against network electrical short-circuits by a phase overcurrent protection function
50/51 and a backup protection function 50V/51V
b against internal faults in generators by a generator differential protection function
87M.
b against earth faults by an earth fault protection function 50N/51N when the
generator is coupled to the busbars and by a neutral voltage displacement protection
function when it is not coupled
b against overloads by a thermal overload protection function 49RMS
b against unbalance by a negative sequence / unbalance protection function 46
b against frequency variations by underfrequency and overfrequency protection
functions 81L and 81H
b against voltage variations by undervoltage and overvoltage protection functions 27
and 59
b against field loss by a protection function 40
b against faults due to the prime mover by a reverse active power protection function
32P
b against loss of synchronization of the main network by a protection function 78PS.
Setting of genset shutdown and de-excitation
The participation of these protection functions in circuit breaker tripping, genset
shutdown and de-excitation depends on the type of faults detected:
b circuit breaker tripping against network faults:
v 50/51, 50V/51V, 50N/51N, 49RMS, 46, 81L, 81H, 27, 59, 78PS
b genset shutdown for prime mover faults and internal faults:
v 50/51, 87M, 59N, 40
b de-excitation for internal faults:
v 50/51, 87M, 59N, 40.
Shutdown is total and not sequential. The genset shutdown and de-excitation time
delays are zero.
226
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic transfer
Description
DE51498
The automatic transfer function is used to transfer busbar supply from one source to
another.
The function reduces busbar supply interruptions, thereby increasing the service
continuity of the network supplied by the busbars.
Automatic "one out of two" transfer.
Automatic transfer performs:
b automatic transfer with interruption if there is a loss of voltage or a fault upstream
b manual transfer and return to normal operation without interruption, with or without
synchro-check
b control of the coupling circuit breaker (optional)
b selection of the normal operating mode
b the necessary logic to ensure that at the end of the sequence, only 1 circuit breaker
out of 2 or 2 out of 3 are closed.
Automatic "one out of two" or "two out of three" transfer
DE51622
The operation and implementation of the automatic transfer function depend on the
type of substation:
b automatic "one out of two" transfer is suitable for dual-incomer substations without
coupling
b automatic "two out of three" transfer is suitable for dual-incomer substations with
coupling.
These two applications are described separately to make them easier to understand.
Automatic "two out of three" transfer with synchro-check
managed by Sepam series 80.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
The automatic transfer function is symmetrical:
b hardware symmetry: dual-incomer substations, with 2 incoming circuit breakers,
and each incomer is protected by a Sepam series 80 unit
b functional symmetry: automatic transfer is distributed between the two
Sepam series 80 units protecting the two incomers.
Each of the functions is therefore described from the viewpoint of one of the two
incomers, the other incomer being referred to as the "opposite side" incomer.
227
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic transfer
DE51499
Equipment used
Sepam protection relay
Each incomer is protected by a Sepam series 80 unit.
At least two MES120 modules need to be added to each Sepam.
The synchro-check function (ANSI 25) is performed by an optional MCS025 module
connected to one of the two Sepam units.
Automatic "two out of three" transfer with synchro-check
managed by Sepam B80.
For busbars with motors, it is necessary to check the remanent voltage on the
busbars during automatic transfer.
2 solutions are proposed:
b protection of the two incomers with Sepam B80:
v to measure the 3 phase voltages upstream of the circuit breaker and detect the
loss of phase voltage
v to measure 1 additional phase voltage on the busbars and detect the presence of
remanent voltage
b protection of the two incomers with another type of Sepam series 80, and checking
of remanent voltage on the busbars with Sepam B21.
Local control of automatic transfer
Local control of automatic transfer requires the following components:
b 1 "NO circuit breaker" selector (ANSI 10), 2 or 3-position selector which
designates the circuit breaker that remains open at the end of voluntary transfer
without interruption
b 1 optional "Manual / Auto" selector (ANSI 43)
v in Auto mode, automatic transfer is enabled
v in Manual mode, automatic transfer is disabled
v when this optional selector is not included, all the automatic transfer functions are
enabled.
b 1, 2 or 3 optional "Local / Remote" selectors (one selector for the function or one
selector per circuit breaker)
v in Remote mode, automatic transfer on voltage loss is enabled and the other
functions are disabled
v in Local mode, automatic transfer on voltage loss is disabled and the other
functions are enabled
v when these optional selectors are not included, all the automatic transfer functions
are enabled.
b 2 or 3 optional pushbuttons with LEDs (one pushbutton per circuit breaker):
v "Breaker closing" pushbutton
v "Closing ready" LED.
4
228
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Operation
Definition
Automatic "one out of two" transfer is suitable for substations with busbars supplied
by two incomers with no coupling.
Automatic transfer comprises two functions:
b automatic transfer with busbar supply interruption
b voluntary return to normal without busbar supply interruption.
The 2 functions are described separately below.
DE51017
Automatic transfer with supply interruption
Description
The function is used to transfer busbar supply from one source to the other, after the
detection of voltage loss or a fault upstream of the source.
Automatic source transfer takes place in two steps:
b tripping of the circuit breaker triggered by the detection of the loss of voltage or an
external trip order (trip order from upstream protection units): loss of busbar supply
b closing of the opposite side circuit breaker to resupply the busbars (when motors
are connected to the busbars, it is necessary to check for remanent voltage on the
busbars using the ANSI 27R Remanent undervoltage function).
Compulsory transfer conditions
These conditions are always required to enable transfer:
b the incoming circuit breaker is closed
b no phase-to-phase fault detected by the incomer on the busbars or downstream
b no phase-to-earth fault detected by the incomer on the busbars or downstream
b voltage OK on the opposite incomer.
Optional transfer conditions
These conditions are required when the associated optional functions are enabled:
b the "Auto / Manual" selector is in the Auto position
b the 2 "Local / Remote" selectors are in the Remote position
b the 2 incoming circuit breakers are racked in
b no VT fault detected by the VT Supervision function (ANSI 60FL), to avoid transfer
on the loss of voltage transformers
b no inhibition of transfer by V_TRANS_STOP by logic equations or by Logipam.
Initialization of transfer
Three events may trigger automatic transfer:
b loss of voltage detected on the incomer by the Phase undervoltage function
(ANSI 27)
b or detection of a fault by the protection units upstream of the incomer, with
intertripping order on the "External tripping 1" logic input
b or V_TRANS_ON_FLT, initialization of transfer by logic equations or by Logipam.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
229
4
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Operation
Control and monitoring
functions
DE51584
Block diagram
4
Closing of opposite side circuit breaker
The following conditions are required to order the closing of the opposite side circuit
breaker:
b the circuit breaker is open
b no opposite side circuit breaker inhibit close conditions
b no remanent voltage on the busbars (checking necessary when motors are
connected to the busbars).
The opposite side circuit breaker closing order is transmitted by a Sepam logic output
to a logic input of the opposite side Sepam.
It is taken into account by the Switchgear control function of the opposite side
Sepam.
DE52254
Block diagram (Opposite side Sepam)
230
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Operation
Control and monitoring
functions
DE51017
Voluntary return to normal without interruption
Description
The voluntary return to normal without interruption involves two separate control
functions:
b closing of the open incoming circuit breaker, with or without synchro-check:
the two incoming circuit breakers are closed
b then opening of the normally open circuit breaker, designated by the "NO circuit
breaker" selector.
These two functions may also be used to transfer the busbar supply source without
any interruption.
Compulsory transfer conditions
These conditions are always required to enable transfer:
b the incoming circuit breaker is open
b the voltage is OK upstream of the incoming circuit breaker.
Optional transfer conditions
These conditions are required when the associated optional functions are enabled:
b the "Auto / Manual" selector is in the Manual position
b the 2 "Local / Remote" selectors are in the Local position
b the 2 incomer circuit breakers are racked in
b no VT fault detected by the VT Supervision function (ANSI 60FL), to avoid transfer
on the loss of voltage transformers
b no inhibition of transfer by V_TRANS_STOP by logic equations or by Logipam.
Initialization of the return to normal
b voluntary incoming circuit breaker close order.
DE51509
Closing of the open circuit breaker
Description
Circuit breaker closing is ensured by the Switchgear control function, with or without
synchro-check.
The AT function checks that all the required conditions are met and indicates to the
user that the return to normal is possible.
DE52253
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
231
4
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Operation
Control and monitoring
functions
DE51510
Opening of the normally open circuit breaker
Description
This function controls the opening of the circuit breaker designated as being normally
open by the position of the "NO circuit breaker" selector, when the two incomer
circuit breakers are closed.
It guarantees, for all the automatic control sequences that put the two sources in
parallel, that at the end of the transfer, only one circuit breaker out of the two is
closed.
The open order is taken into account by the Switchgear control function.
DE51586
Block diagram
4
232
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Implementation
DE51600
Connection
4
: optional wiring.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
233
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Implementation
Parameter setting of predefined control functions
PE50458
The Automatic transfer function is set up at the same time as the Switchgear control
function in the "Control logic" tab of the SFT2841 software.
Switchgear control function
b activation of the Switchgear control function
b activation of the Synchro-check function if necessary.
Automatic transfer function
b activation of the Automatic transfer function and adjustment of associated
parameters:
v voltage return time Tr (typically 3 s)
v normal coupling position: no coupling.
SFT2841: parameter setting of predefined control logic.
VT supervision function
The VT supervision (ANSI 60FL) is to be activated if necessary.
Protection function setting
Protection functions
Use
Phase undervoltage (ANSI 27) Initialization of automatic
Unit 1
transfer on detection of voltage
loss.
Phase overcurrent
Detection of downstream
(ANSI 50/51)
phase fault, to inhibit
Unit 1, instantaneous output
automatic transfer.
Earth fault (ANSI 50N/51N)
Detection of downstream earth
Unit 1, instantaneous output
fault, to inhibit automatic
transfer.
Phase overvoltage (ANSI 59)
Detection of phase voltage
Unit 1
upstream of the circuit
breaker.
To be assigned to a Sepam
logic output in the control
matrix.
Optional
Use
protection functions
Remanent undervoltage
Detection of no remanent
(ANSI 27R)
voltage on the busbars to
Unit 1
which the motors are
connected.
4
234
Setting information
Voltage set point: 60% Unp
Delay: 300 ms
To be set according to
discrimination study (the most
sensitive set point).
To be set according to
discrimination study (the most
sensitive set point).
Voltage set point: 90% Unp
Delay: 3 s
Setting information
Voltage set point: 30% Unp
Delay: 100 ms
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Implementation
Logic input assignment
PE50459
The logic inputs required for the AT function are to be assigned in the SFT2841
"Logic I/Os" screen.
The "Standard assignments" button proposes an assignment of the main inputs
required for the AT function. The other inputs are to be assigned manually.
Logic output assignment in the control matrix
The assignment of the logic outputs required for the AT function takes place in 2
steps:
b declaration of the required logic outputs "Used", indicating the control mode of
each output, in the SFT2841 "Logic I/Os" screen
b assignment of each predefined output associated with the AT function to a Sepam
logic output in the SFT2841 "Control matrix" screen.
SFT2841: standard assignment of the inputs required for the
AT function.
The predefined outputs associated with the AT function are as follows:
"Protection" button
59 - 1
Description
Delayed output of the Phase
overvoltage function (ANSI 59)
Unit 1
"Logic" button
NO circuit breaker closing
Description
Predefined output
V_CLOSE_NO_ORD
of the AT function
Predefined output
V_CLOSE_EN
of the AT function
Breaker closing ready
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Use
Indication for the opposite side
Sepam: the voltage is OK
upstream of the incoming
circuit breaker.
Use
Automatic closing order of
opposite side circuit breaker.
LED indication:
the return to normal conditions
are met (neglecting the
synchro-check)
235
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "one out of two"
transfer
Characteristics
Setting
Activity
Setting range
Voltage return time
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Normal coupling position
Setting range
On / Off
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
No coupling / Normally open / Normally closed
Inputs
Designation
Transfer order on fault
Transfer off order
Syntax
V_TRANS_ON_FLT
V_TRANS_STOP
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Automatic transfer on
V_TRANSF_ON
Tripping by 2/3 or 1/2 logic
V_2/3_TRIPPING
Tripping by automatic
V_AT_TRIPPING
transfer
NO circuit breaker closing
V_CLOSE_NO_ORD
Breaker closing ready
V_CLOSE_EN
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
Matrix
4
236
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Operation
Definition
Automatic "two out of three" transfer is suitable for substations with busbars supplied
by two incomers and with coupling.
Automatic transfer comprises two functions:
b automatic transfer with busbar supply interruption
b voluntary return to normal without busbar supply interruption.
The 2 functions are described separately below.
DE51511
Automatic transfer with supply interruption
Description
The function is used to transfer busbar supply from one source to the other, after the
detection of voltage loss or a fault upstream of the source.
DE51514
Automatic transfer with normally open coupling.
Automatic source transfer takes place in two steps:
b tripping of the circuit breaker triggered by the detection of the loss of voltage or an
external trip order (trip order from upstream protection units): loss of busbar supply
b closing of the normally open circuit breaker to resupply the busbars. According to
the parameter setting, the normally open circuit breaker may be one of the following:
v the coupling circuit breaker, when coupling is normally open
v the opposite side circuit breaker, when coupling is normally closed.
When motors are connected to the busbars, it is necessary to check for remanent
voltage on the busbars using the Remanent undervoltage function (ANSI 27R).
Automatic transfer with normally closed coupling.
Compulsory transfer conditions
These conditions are always required to enable transfer:
b the incoming circuit breaker is closed
b according to the coupling setup:
v the opposite side circuit breaker is closed and the coupling circuit breaker is open,
when coupling is normally open (NO coupling)
v or the opposite side circuit breaker is open and the coupling circuit breaker is
closed, when coupling is normally closed (NC coupling)
b no phase-to-phase fault detected by the incomer on the busbars or downstream
b no phase-to-earth fault detected by the incomer on the busbars or downstream
b voltage OK on the opposite incomer.
Optional transfer conditions
These conditions are required when the associated optional functions are enabled:
b the "Auto / Manual" selector is in the Auto position
b the 3 "Local / Remote" selectors are in the Remote position
b the 3 circuit breakers are racked in
b no VT fault detected by the VT Supervision function (ANSI 60FL), to avoid transfer
on the loss of voltage transformers
b no inhibition of transfer by V_TRANS_STOP by logic equations or by Logipam.
Initialization of transfer
Three events may trigger automatic transfer:
b loss of voltage detected on the incomer by the Phase undervoltage function
(ANSI 27)
b or the detection of a fault by the protection units upstream of the incomer, with
intertripping order on the "External tripping 1" logic input
b or V_TRANS_ON_FLT, initialization of transfer by logic equations or by Logipam.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
237
4
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Operation
Control and monitoring
functions
DE52289
Block diagram
4
Closing of the normally open circuit breaker
The following conditions are required to order the closing of the normally open circuit
breaker:
b the incoming circuit breaker is open
b no normally open circuit breaker inhibit close conditions
b no remanent voltage on the busbars (checking necessary when motors are
connected to the busbars.)
If the normally open circuit breaker is the opposite side circuit breaker:
the NO circuit breaker closing order is transmitted by a Sepam logic output to a logic
input of the opposite side Sepam where it is taken into account by the Switchgear
control function (see block diagram below).
If the normally open circuit breaker is the coupling circuit breaker:
the NO circuit breaker closing order is transmitted by a Sepam logic output to close
the circuit breaker directly, without any intermediary.
DE52255
Block diagram (Opposite side Sepam)
238
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Operation
Control and monitoring
functions
DE51512
Voluntary return to normal without interruption
Description
The voluntary return to normal without interruption involves two separate control
functions:
b closing of the open circuit breaker, with or without synchro-check: the 3 circuit
breakers are closed
b then opening of the normally open circuit breaker, designated by the "NO circuit
breaker" selector.
These two functions may also be used to transfer the busbar supply source without
any interruption.
Voluntary return to normal with normally closed coupling.
DE51631
Compulsory transfer conditions
These conditions are always required to enable transfer:
b the incoming circuit breaker is open
b the opposite side circuit breaker and the coupling circuit breaker are closed
b The voltage is OK upstream of the incoming circuit breaker. This voltage is
detected either by function ANSI 59, or by a processing operation in Logipam using
V_TRANS_V_EN.
Voluntary return to normal with normally open coupling.
Optional transfer conditions
These conditions are required when the associated optional functions are enabled:
b the "Auto / Manual" selector is in the Manual position
b the 3 "Local / Remote" selectors are in the Local position
b the 3 circuit breakers are racked in
b no VT fault detected by the VT Supervision function (ANSI 60FL), to avoid transfer
on the loss of voltage transformers
b no inhibition of transfer by V_TRANS_STOP by logic equations or by Logipam.
Initialization of the return to normal
b voluntary incoming circuit breaker close order.
DE51513
Closing of the open circuit breaker
Description
Circuit breaker closing is ensured by the Switchgear control function, with or without
synchro-check.
The AT function checks that all the required conditions are met and indicates to the
user that the return to normal is possible.
DE80146
Block diagram
U
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
,delayed
V_TRANS_V_EN
u1
239
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Operation
DE51529
Opening of the normally open circuit breaker
Normally closed coupling.
Block diagram
DE51589
Normally open coupling.
Description
This function controls the opening of the circuit breaker designated as being normally
open by the position of the "NO circuit breaker" selector, when the three circuit
breakers are closed.
It guarantees, for all the automatic control sequences that put the two sources in
parallel, that at the end of the transfer, only two circuit breakers out of the three are
closed.
The open order is taken into account by the Switchgear control function.
4
240
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Operation
Coupling closing
Description
The voluntary closing of the coupling circuit breaker without interruption involves two
separate control functions:
b closing of the coupling circuit breaker, with or without synchro-check: the 3 circuit
breakers are closed
b then opening of the normally open circuit breaker, designated by the "NO circuit
breaker" selector.
Compulsory transfer conditions
These conditions are always required to enable transfer:
b the opposite side voltage is OK
b the 3 following conditions are not fulfilled simultaneously:
v the incoming circuit breaker is closed
v the opposite side circuit breaker is closed
v the coupling circuit breaker is the normally open circuit breaker (NO coupling).
Optional transfer conditions
These conditions are required when the associated optional functions are enabled:
b the "Auto / Manual" selector is in the Manual position
b the 3 "Local / Remote" selectors are in the Local position
b the 3 circuit breakers are racked in
b no VT fault detected by the VT Supervision function (ANSI 60FL), to avoid transfer
on the loss of voltage transformers
b no inhibition of transfer by V_TRANS_STOP by logic equations or by Logipam.
Initialization of coupling closing
Voluntary coupling circuit breaker close order.
DE52257
Block diagram
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
241
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Implementation
DE51599
Connection for normally open coupling
4
: optional wiring.
242
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Implementation
DE51598
Connection for normally closed coupling
4
: optional wiring.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
243
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Implementation
Parameter setting of predefined control functions
PE50458
The Automatic transfer function is set up at the same time as the Switchgear control
function in the "Control logic" tab of the SFT2841 software.
Switchgear control function
b activation of the Switchgear control function
b activation of the Synchro-check function if necessary.
Automatic transfer function
b activation of the Automatic transfer function and adjustment of associated
parameters:
v voltage return time Tr (typically 3 s)
v normal coupling position: normally open or normally closed, according to the
network operating mode.
SFT2841: parameter setting of predefined control logic.
VT supervision function
The VT supervision (ANSI 60FL) is to be activated if necessary.
Protection function setting
Protection functions
Use
Phase undervoltage (ANSI 27) Initialization of automatic
Unit 1
transfer on detection of voltage
loss.
Phase overcurrent
Detection of downstream
(ANSI 50/51)
phase fault, to inhibit
Unit 1, instantaneous output
automatic transfer.
Earth fault (ANSI 50N/51N)
Detection of downstream earth
Unit 1, instantaneous output
fault, to inhibit automatic
transfer.
Phase overvoltage (ANSI 59)
Detection of phase voltage
Unit 1
upstream of the circuit
breaker.
To be assigned to a Sepam
logic output in the control
matrix.
Optional
Use
protection functions
Remanent undervoltage
Detection of no remanent
(ANSI 27R)
voltage on the busbars to
Unit 1
which the motors are
connected.
4
244
Setting information
Voltage set point: 60% Unp
Delay: 300 ms
To be set according to
discrimination study (the most
sensitive set point).
To be set according to
discrimination study (the most
sensitive set point).
Voltage set point: 90% Unp
Delay: 3 s
Setting information
Voltage set point: 30% Unp
Delay: 100 ms
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Implementation
Logic input assignment
PE50459
The logic inputs required for the AT function are to be assigned in the SFT2841
"Logic I/Os" screen.
The "Standard assignments" button proposes an assignment of the main inputs
required for the AT function. The other inputs are to be assigned manually.
Logic output assignment in the control matrix
The assignment of the logic outputs required for the AT function takes place in 2
steps:
b declaration of the required logic outputs "Used", indicating the control mode of
each output, in the SFT2841 "Logic I/Os" screen
b assignment of each predefined output associated with the AT function to a Sepam
logic output in the SFT2841 "Control matrix" screen.
SFT2841: standard assignment of the inputs required for the
AT function.
The predefined outputs associated with the AT function are as follows:
"Protection" button
59 - 1
"Logic" button
NO circuit breaker closing
Coupling closing
Coupling tripping
Breaker closing ready
Coupling closing ready
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Description
Delayed output of the Phase
overvoltage function (ANSI 59)
Unit 1
Description
Predefined output
V_CLOSE_NO_ORD
of the AT function
Predefined output
V_TIE_CLOSING
of the AT function
Predefined output
V_TIE_OPENING
of the AT function
Predefined output
V_CLOSE_EN
of the AT function
Predefined output
V_TIE_CLOSE_EN
of the AT function
Use
Indication for the opposite side
Sepam: voltage OK upstream
of the incoming circuit breaker.
Use
Automatic closing order of
normally open circuit breaker.
Coupling circuit breaker close
order.
Coupling circuit breaker open
order.
LED indication: the return to
normal conditions are met.
(neglecting the synchrocheck)
LED indication: the coupling
close conditions are met.
(neglecting the synchrocheck)
245
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Automatic "two out of three"
transfer
Characteristics
Setting
Activity
Setting range
Voltage return time
Setting range
Accuracy (1)
Resolution
Normal coupling position
Setting range
On / Off
0 to 300 s
±2 % or from -10 ms to +25 ms
10 ms or 1 digit
No coupling / Normally open / Normally closed
Inputs
Designation
Transfer order on fault
Transfer off order
Voltage OK upstream of the
incoming circuit breaker
Syntax
V_TRANS_ON_FLT
V_TRANS_STOP
V_TRANS _ V_EN
Equations
b
b
Logipam
b
b
b
Designation
Syntax
Equations
Automatic transfer on
V_TRANSF_ON
Tripping by 2/3 or 1/2 logic
V_2/3_TRIPPING
Tripping by automatic
V_AT_TRIPPING
transfer
NO circuit breaker closing
V_CLOSE_NO_ORD
Breaker closing ready
V_CLOSE_EN
Coupling tripping
V_TIE_OPENING
Coupling closing ready
V_TIE_CLOSE_EN
Coupling closing
V_TIE_CLOSING
Coupling closing with
V_TIESYNCFAIL
synchro-check failed
(1) Under reference conditions (IEC 60255-6).
Logipam
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
Outputs
4
246
Matrix
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Local indication
ANSI code 30
Operation
Events may be indicated locally on the front panel of Sepam by:
b appearance of a message on the display
b switching on of one of the 9 yellow LEDs.
Message type indication
Predefined messages
All the messages connected to the standard Sepam functions are predefined and
available in two language versions:
b in English, factory-set messages, not modifiable
b in the local language, according to the version delivered.
The language version is chosen at the time of Sepam parameter setting.
The messages are visible on the Sepam display and on the SFT2841 Alarms screen.
The number and type of predefined messages depend on the type of Sepam. The
table below gives the complete list of all predefined messages.
Functions
Control and monitoring
External trip (1 to 3)
Buchholz trip
Buchholz alarm
Thermostat trip
Thermostat alarm
Pressure trip
Pressure alarm
Thermistor trip
Thermistor alarm
Control fault
Load shedding
Genset shutdown
De-excitation
Tripping order by automatic transfer
Diagnosis
SF6 fault
MET148-2 No 1 RTD fault
MET148-2 No 2 RTD fault
VT supervision
ANSI code
CT supervision
60
Local language
(e.g. French)
EXT. TRIP (1 to 3)
BUCHH/GAS TRIP
BUCHHOLZ ALARM
THERMOST. TRIP
THERMOST. ALARM
PRESSURE TRIP
PRESSURE ALARM
THERMISTOR TRIP
THERMISTOR AL.
CONTROL FAULT
LOAD SHEDDING
GENSET SHUTDOWN
DE-EXCITATION
AUTO TRANSFER
DECLT.EXT. (1 à 3)
BUCHH/GAZ DECLT
BUCHH ALARME
THERMOST.DECLT.
THERMOT.ALARME
PRESSION DECLT
PRESSION ALARME
THERMISTOR DECL.
THERMISTOR AL.
DEFAUT COMMANDE
DÉLESTAGE
ARRÊT GROUPE
DÉSEXCITATION
AUTO TRANSFER
SF6 LOW
RTD’S FAULT MET1 (1)
RTD’S FAULT MET2 (1)
VT FAULT
VT FAULT Vo
CT FAULT
CT’ FAULT
TRIP CIRCUIT
BAISSE SF6
DEF SONDE MET1 (1)
DEF. SONDE MET2 (1)
DEFAUT TP
DEFAUT TP Vo
DEFAUT TC
DEFAUT TC'
CIRCUIT DECLT
ANSI code
60FL
Trip circuit supervision (TCS) fault or
74
mismatching of open/closed position contacts
Closing circuit fault
Capacitor step matching fault
Cumulative breaking current monitoring
Battery monitoring
Auxiliary power supply monitoring
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
English
Phase VT supervision
Residual VT supervision
Main CT supervision
Additional CT supervision
CLOSE CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT ENCLT
COMP. FLT. STP (1 to 4) DEF. COMP. GR (1 à 4)
ΣI²BREAKING >>
ΣI² COUPES
BATTERY LOW (1)
PILE FAIBLE (1)
Low threshold
LOW POWER SUP.
ALIM. SEUIL BAS
High threshold
HIGH POWER SUP.
ALIM. SEUIL HAUT
(1) RTD FAULT, BATTERY LOW messages: refer to the maintenance chapter.
(2) With indication of the faulty phase.
(3) With indication of the faulty phase, when used with phase-to-neutral voltage.
247
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Local indication
ANSI code 30
Functions
Protection
Overspeed
Underspeed
Underimpedance
Overfluxing (V/Hz)
Synchro-check
4
ANSI code
12
14
21B
24
25
Undervoltage
Positive sequence undervoltage
27
27D
Third harmonic undervoltage
Active overpower
Reactive overpower
Phase undercurrent
Phase underpower
Temperature monitoring
27TN/64G2
32P
32Q
37
37P
38/49T
Field loss
Negative sequence / unbalance
Negative sequence overvoltage
Excessive starting time, locked rotor
40
46
47
48/51LR
Thermal overload
49RMS
Breaker failure
Inadvertent energization
Phase overcurrent
Earth fault
Voltage-restrained overcurrent
Capacitor bank unbalance
Overvoltage
Neutral voltage displacement
Restricted earth fault
50BF
50/27
50/51
50N/51N
50V/51V
51C
59
59N
64REF
Starts per hour
Directional phase overcurrent
Directional earth fault
Pole slip
Recloser
66
67
67N/67NC
78PS
79
Overfrequency
Underfrequency
Rate of change of frequency
Machine differential
Transformer differential
81H
81L
81R
87M
87T
248
Synchrochecked close request in
process
Synchrochecked close request
successful
Closing failed,
out-of-sync
Closing failed,
out-of-sync, cause dU
Closing failed,
out-of-sync, cause dPHI
Closing failed,
out-of-sync, cause dF
Stop closing with
synchro-check
Coupling closing
with synchro-check failed
English
Local language
(e.g. French)
OVERSPEED
UNDERSPEED
UNDERIMPEDANCE
OVERFLUXING
SYNC.IN PROCESS
VITESSE >>
VITESSE <<
IMPEDANCE <<
SURFLUXAGE
SYNC. EN COURS
SYNC. OK
SYNC. REUSSIE
SYNC. FAILURE
ECHEC SYNC.
SYNC. FAILED dU
ECHEC SYNC. dU
SYNC. FAILED dPhi
ECHEC SYNC. dPhi
SYNC. FAILED dF
ECHEC SYNC. dF
STOP SYNC.
STOP SYNC.
TIE SYNC. FAILED
ECHEC COUPLAGE
UNDERVOLTAGE (1)
TENSION << (1)
UNDERVOLTAGE.PS
TENSION Vd <<
ROTATION ROTATION 100% STATOR
100% STATOR
OVER P
P >>
OVER Q
Q >>
UNDER CURRENT
COURANT <<
UNDER POWER
P <<
Alarm
OVER TEMP. ALM
T° ALARME
Tripping
OVER TEMP. TRIP
T° DECLT
FIELD LOSS
PERTE EXCITATION
UNBALANCE I
DESEQUILIBRE I
UNBALANCE U
DESEQUILIBRE U
Excessive starting time
LONG START
DEMARRAGE LONG
Locked rotor in normal operation
ROTOR BLOCKING
BLOCAGE ROTOR
BLOC ROTOR DEM
Locked rotor on start
STRT LOCKED ROTR
Alarm
THERMAL ALARM
ECHAUFT.ALARME
Tripping
THERMAL TRIP
ECHAUFT.DECLT.
Inhibit closing
START INHIBIT
DEMARRAGE INHIBE
BREAKER FAILURE
DEF. DISJONCT.
INADV. ENERGIZ.
SS TENSION ACC.
DEFAUT PHASE (2)
PHASE FAULT (2)
EARTH FAULT
DEFAUT TERRE
O/C V REST (2)
DEF. PHASE RET. U (2)
UNBAL. STP (1 to 4)
DES. GRADIN (1 à 4)
TENSION >> (1)
OVERVOLTAGE (1)
Vo FAULT
DEFAUT Vo
RESTRIC. EARTH
TERRE RESTREINTE
FAULT
START INHIBIT
DEMARRAGE INHIBE
DEFAUT PHASE DIR. (2)
DIR. PHASE FAULT (2)
DIR. EARTH FAULT
DEFAUT TERRE DIR.
POLE SLIP
PERTE SYNCHRO.
CYCLE (1 à 4) (3)
Cycle x
CYCLE (1 to 4) (3)
Reclosing successful
CLEARED FAULT
DEFAUT ELIMINE
Permanent trip
FINAL TRIP
DECLT DEFINITIF
OVER FREQ.
FREQUENCE >>
UNDER FREQ.
FREQUENCE <<
ROCOF
DERIV. FREQ
DIFFERENTIAL
DIFFERENTIELLE
DIFFERENTIAL
DIFFERENTIELLE
(1) With indication of the faulty phase, when used with phase-to-neutral voltage.
(2) With indication of the faulty phase.
(3) With indication of the protection unit that has initiated the cycle (phase fault, earth fault, ...).
Positive sequence undervoltage
Reverse rotation
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Local indication
ANSI code 30
Personalized user messages
100 additional messages may be created using the SFT2841 software to link a
message to a logic input or the result of a logic equation, for example, or to replace
a predefined message by a user message.
User message editor in SFT2841
The user message editor is included in the SFT2841 software and may be accessed
in connected or disconnected mode from the control matrix screen:
b display the "Event" tab on the screen: the user messages appear
b double-click on one of the messages displayed to activate the user message
editor.
User message editor functions
b creation and modification of user messages:
v in English and the local language
v by text input or importing of an existing bitmap file (*.bmp) or by point to point
drawing
b deletion of user messages
b assignment of predefined or user messages to an event defined in the control
matrix:
v from the control matrix screen, "Events" tab, double-click on the event to be linked
to a new message
v select the new predefined or user message from the messages presented
v "assign" it to the event.
The same message may be assigned to several events, with no limitations.
Message display in SFT2841
b The predefined messages are stored in Sepam’s memory and are displayed in
connected mode. In disconnected mode, the last messages stored in Sepam
connected mode are displayed.
b The user messages are saved with the other Sepam parameters and protection
settings and are displayed in connected and disconnected modes.
Message processing on the Sepam display
When an event occurs, the related message appears on the Sepam display.
The user presses the
key to clear the message and enable normal consultation
of all the display.
The user must press the
key to acknowledge latched events (e.g. protection
outputs).
The list of messages remains accessible in the alarm history (
key), in which the
last 16 messages are stored. The last 250 messages may be consulted with the
SFT2841 software.
To delete the messages stored in the alarm history:
b display the alarm history on the display
b press the
key.
LED indication
The 9 yellow LEDs on the front of Sepam are assigned by default to the following
events:
LED
Event
Name on label
on front panel
LED 1
LED 2
LED 3
LED 4
LED 5
LED 6
LED 7
LED 8
LED 9
Tripping of protection 50/51 unit 1
Tripping of protection 50/51 unit 2
Tripping of protection 50N/51N unit 1
Tripping of protection 50N/51N unit 2
I>51
I>>51
Io > 51N
Io >> 51N
Ext
Circuit breaker open (I102)
Circuit breaker closed (I101)
Tripping by circuit breaker control
0 Off
I On
Trip
The default parameter setting may be personalized using the SFT2841 software:
b LEDs are assigned to events in the "LEDs" tab of the control matrix screen
b editing and printing of personalized labels are proposed in the general
characteristics screen.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
249
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Local control
Description
PE50486
Switchgear may be controlled locally using Sepam series 80 units equipped with the
mimic-based UMI.
The control functions available are:
b selection of the Sepam control mode
b viewing of device status on the animated mimic diagram
b local control of the opening and closing of all the devices controlled by Sepam
Selection of the Sepam control mode
A key-switch on the front of the mimic-based UMI is used to select the
Sepam control mode. Three modes are available: Remote, Local or Test.
Local control using the mimic-based UMI
In Remote mode:
b remote control orders are taken into account
b local control orders are disabled, with the exception of the circuit breaker open
order.
Remote mode is indicated by the variable V_MIMIC_REMOTE = 1.
In Local mode:
b remote control orders are disabled, with the exception of the circuit breaker open
order.
b local control orders are enabled.
Local mode is indicated by the variable V_MIMIC_LOCAL = 1.
4
Test mode should be selected for tests on equipment, e.g. during preventive
maintenance operations:
b all functions enabled in Local mode are available in Test mode
b no time-tagged events are sent by the communication link.
Test mode is indicated by the variable V_MIMIC_TEST = 1.
The Logipam programming software can be used to customize control-mode
processing.
Mimic diagram and symbols
A mimic diagram or single-line diagram is a simplified diagram of an electrical
installation. It is made up of a fixed background on which symbols and
measurements are placed.
The mimic diagram editor integrated in the SFT2841 software may be used to
personalize and setup mimic diagrams.
The symbols making up the mimic-diagram constitute the interface between the
mimic-based UMI and the other Sepam control functions.
There are three types of symbols:
b fixed symbol: represents the electrotechnical devices that are neither animated or
controlled, e.g. a transformer
b animated symbol with one or two inputs: represents the electrotechnical devices
that change on the mimic diagram, depending on the symbol inputs, but cannot be
controlled via the Sepam mimic-based UMI.
This type of symbol is used for switch-disconnectors without remote control, for
example.
b controlled symbol with one or two inputs/outputs: represents the electrotechnical
devices that change on the mimic diagram, depending on the symbol inputs, and can
be controlled via the Sepam mimic-based UMI.
This type of symbol is used for circuit breakers, for example.
The symbol outputs are used to control the electrotechnical device:
v directly via the Sepam logic outputs
v by the switchgear control function
v by logic equations or the Logipam program.
250
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Local control
Symbol animation
Depending on the value of their inputs, symbols change. A graphic representation
corresponds to each state. Animation is carried out automatically by changing the
symbol each time the state changes.
The symbol inputs must be assigned directly to the Sepam inputs indicating the
position of the symbolized switchgear.
Animated symbols with one input
"Animated -1 input" and "Controlled -1 input/output" symbols are animated symbols
with one input. The value of the input determines the state of the symbol:
b input set to 0 = inactive
b input set to 1 = active
This type of symbol is used for simple presentation of information, for example the
racked out position of a circuit breaker.
Symbol inputs
Symbol state
Input = 0
Inactive
Input = 1
Active
Graphic representation
(example)
Animated symbols with two inputs
"Animated - 2 inputs" and "Controlled - 2 inputs/outputs" symbols are animated
symbols with two inputs, one open and the other closed.
This is the most common situation in representing switchgear positions.
The symbol has three states, i.e. three graphic representations: open, closed and
unknown.
The latter is obtained when the inputs are not matched, in which case it is impossible
to determine the position of the switchgear.
Symbol inputs
Symbol state
Input 1 (open) = 1
Input 2 (closed) = 0
Open
Input 1 (open) = 0
Input 2 (closed) = 1
Closed
Input 1 (open) = 0
Input 2 (closed) = 0
Input 1 (open) = 1
Input 2 (closed) = 1
Unknown
Graphic representation
(example)
Unknown
Local control using a symbol
"Controlled - 1 input/output" and "Controlled - 2 inputs/outputs" symbols are used to
control the switchgear corresponding to the symbol via the Sepam mimic-based UMI.
Control symbols with two outputs
"Controlled - 2 inputs/outputs" symbols have two control outputs for opening and
closing of the symbolized device.
An order on the mimic-based UMI sends a 300 ms pulse on the controlled output.
Control symbols with one output
"Controlled - 1 input/output" symbols have one control output. The output remains in
the last state to which it was ordered.
A new order results in a change in the output state.
Inhibition of orders
"Controlled - 1 input/output" and "Controlled - 2 inputs/outputs" symbols have two
inhibition inputs that, when set to 1, block opening and closing orders. This makes it
possible to create interlocking systems or other order-disabling systems that are
taken into account by the UMI.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
251
4
Local control
Control and monitoring
functions
Symbol inputs/outputs
Depending on the desired operation of the mimic-based UMI, Sepam variables must
be assigned to the inputs of animated symbols and the inputs/outputs of controlled
symbols.
Sepam variables assigned to symbol inputs
Name
Use
Sepam variables
Logic inputs
Outputs of predefined
functions
Ixxx
V_CLOSE_INHIBITED
V_MIMIC_LOCAL,
V_MIMIC_REMOTE,
V_MIMIC_TEST
V_MIMIC_IN_1 to
V_MIMIC_IN_16
Switchgear control
Position of key on the front
panel of Sepam
Logic equations or Logipam
program
Symbol animation directly based on device positions
Circuit-breaker operation disabled
b Representation of key position
b Operation disabled depending on the control mode
b Representation of Sepam internal status conditions
b Cases where operation is disabled
Sepam variables to be assigned to symbol outputs
Name
Use
Sepam variables
Logic outputs
Inputs of predefined functions Switchgear control
Oxxx
V_MIMIC_CLOSE_CB
V_MIMIC_OPEN_CB
V_MIMIC_OUT1 to
V_MIMIC_OUT16
Logic equations or Logipam
program
Direct control of devices
Circuit-breaker control using the switchgear-control
function via the mimic-based UMI
Order processing by logic functions: interlocking, order
sequence, etc.
Block diagram
4
The block diagrams below present the functions ensured by the controlled symbols,
based on two examples.
Voluntary user control orders (selection of the device to be controlled in the mimic
diagram and action on a control key) are represented in the block diagrams by the
following icons:
: open order
: close order
DE51591
PE50416
Local control using symbols with two outputs
SFT2841: example of the logic input / output assignment of a
symbol with two outputs.
PE50415
DE51592
Local control using a symbol with one output
SFT2841: example of the logic input / output assignment of a
symbol with one output.
252
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Control and monitoring
functions
Control matrix
Description
The control matrix is used for simple assignment of the logic outputs and LEDs
to data produced by the protection functions, control logic and logic inputs.
Each column creates a logic OR between all the lines selected.
The matrix may also be used to display the alarms associated with the data.
It guarantees the consistency of the parameter setting with the predefined functions.
The following data are managed in the control matrix and may be set using the
SFT2841 software tool.
Control matrix inputs
"Protection" button
All application protection functions
Meaning
Comments
Protection tripping output and additional outputs when applicable
"Inputs" button
Logic inputs I101 to I114
Logic inputs I201 to I214
Logic inputs I301 to I314
"Equations" button
V1 to V20
"Logipam" button
MAT001 to MAT128
"Logic" button
According to configuration
According to configuration
According to configuration
If first MES120 module is configured
If second MES120 module is configured
If third MES120 module is configured
Meaning
Comments
Logic equation editor outputs
Meaning
Comments
Logipam output variables to the control matrix
Only the variables actually used in the Logipam
program are displayed
Meaning
Comments
Switchgear control
Closing
Closing by switchgear control function
Tripping
Tripping by switchgear control function
Inhibit closing
Inhibition by switchgear control function
Contactor control
Contactor control
By default on O3. Only available if switchgear
control is in circuit breaker mode
Forced on O1, if switchgear control is in circuit
breaker mode
By default on O2. Only available if switchgear
control is in circuit breaker mode
Forced on O1, if switchgear control is in circuit
breaker mode
Pick-up
Logic OR of the instantaneous output of all protection units with
the exception of protection units 38/49T, 48/51LR, 49 RMS,
64G2/27TN, 66.
A protection unit time delay counter has not yet gone back to 0.
Drop-out
Logic discrimination
Logic discrimination trip
Blocking send 1
Blocking send 2
Motor/generator control
Load shedding
Genset shutdown
De-excitation
Recloser
Recloser in service
Reclosing successful
Permanent trip
Recloser ready
Recloser cycle 1
Recloser cycle 2
Recloser cycle 3
Recloser cycle 4
Closing by recloser
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Tripping order sent by logic discrimination function
Sending of blocking signal to next Sepam in logic discrimination
chain 1
Sending of blocking signal to next Sepam in logic discrimination
chain 2
Sending of a load shedding order
Sending of a prime mover shutdown order
Sending of a de-excitation order
Only when logic discrimination function is used
without switchgear control function
By default on O102.
By default on O103
Motor application
Generator application
Generator application
The recloser is in service
The recloser has successfuly reclosed
Pulse type output
The circuit breaker is permanently open after the reclosing cycles Pulse type output
The recloser is ready to operate
Cycle 1 in progress
Cycle 2 in progress
Cycle 3 in progress
Cycle 4 in progress
A closing order is given by the recloser
253
4
Control and monitoring
functions
"Logic" button
Diagnosis
TCS fault
CCS fault
TC / breaker position discrepancy
Breaker monitoring
Reverse phase rotation
Additional-phase reverse rotation
Disturbance recording inhibited
Cumulative breaking current monitoring
4
Low auxiliary voltage threshold
High auxiliary voltage threshold
Low battery fault
MET148-2 No 1 fault
MET148-2 No 2 fault
Watchdog
CT supervision
Main CT fault
Additional CT fault
VT supervision
Main VT fault, phase channel
Main VT fault, residual channel
Additional VT fault, phase channel
Additional VT fault, residual channel
Synchro-check
Closing with synchro-check
Closing with synchro-check completed
Closing failed, out-of-sync
Closing failed, out-of-sync, cause dU
Closing failed, out-of-sync, cause dPHI
Closing failed, out-of-sync, cause dF
Stop closing with synchro-check
Automatic transfer
Coupling closing with synchro-check failed
Tripping by automatic transfer
Tripping by 2/3 or 1/2 logic
NO circuit breaker closing
Breaker closing ready
Coupling closing
Coupling closing ready
Coupling tripping
Control of capacitor banks
Tripping of capacitor step x
Closing of capacitor step x
Capacitor step x position fault
Automatic capacitor step control
Manual capacitor step control
254
Control matrix
Meaning
Trip circuit fault
Closing circuit fault
Discrepancy between the last state ordered by the
remote monitoring and control system and the position
of the circuit breaker
A circuit breaker or contactor open or close order
has not been executed
Reverse voltage rotation due to a wiring error
Reverse rotation of additional phase voltages due to a
wiring error
Disturbance recording inhibited
Overshooting of the cumulative breaking current set
point
The auxiliary voltage is below the low threshold
The auxiliary voltage is above the high threshold
Battery low or absent
Hardware problem on an MET 148-2 module
(module 1 or 2) or on an RTD
Monitoring of Sepam operation
Always on O5 if used
I current input CT fault
I' current input CT fault
V voltage input phase VT fault
V0 voltage input residual VT fault
V' voltage input phase VT fault
V'0 voltage input residual VT fault
Circuit breaker close request with synchro-check by the
ANSI 25 function has been initiated
Breaker closing with synchro-check by the ANSI 25
function successful
Synchronism conditions too short to enable breaker
closing
Breaker closing inhibited because sources are out-ofsync due to an excessive voltage difference
Breaker closing inhibited because sources are out-ofsync due to an excessive phase difference
Breaker closing inhibited because sources are out-ofsync due to an excessive frequency difference
A synchrochecked circuit breaker close request has
been interrupted
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
Switchgear control with synchro-check
function
The coupling close request initiated by automatic
transfer has failed because the sources are out-of-sync
Breaker tripping initiated by automatic transfer (tripping
is performed by the switchgear control function)
Breaker tripping initiated by 2/3 or 1/2 logic (tripping is
performed by the switchgear control function)
Normally open circuit breaker close order for automatic
transfer function
Indication that breaker closing is possible to return to
normal operation
Coupling closing order for automatic transfer function
Indication that coupling closing is possible to return to
normal operation
Coupling tripping order for automatic transfer function
Capacitor step x tripping output
Capacitor step x closing output
Capacitor step x positions mismatched
Capacitor steps in automatic control mode
Capacitor steps in manual control mode
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Use
This function may be used to configure simple logic functions by combining data
received from the protection functions, logic inputs, remote control orders or the
mimic-based UMI.
By using logic operators (AND, OR, XOR, NOT) and timers, new processing
operations and indications may be added to the existing ones.
The logic functions produce outputs that may be used:
b in the matrix to control output relays, switch on a LED or display new messages
b in the protection functions to create, for example, new inhibit or reset conditions
b in the main predefined control and monitoring functions to complete processing
operations or add new cases of tripping or genset shutdown, for example
b for mimic diagram animation.
DE51593
Adaptation of the predefined control and
monitoring functions by the addition of
simple logic functions.
Logic equations
4
Logic function configuration
PE50460
Logic functions are entered in text format in the SFT2841 equation editor. Each line
includes a logic operation, the result of which is assigned to a variable.
Example:
V1 = P5051_2_3 OR I102.
The variable V1 is assigned the result of the logic OR operation involving the value
from protection function 50/51 and logic input I102.
The variables may be used for other operations or as outputs to produce actions in
the control matrix, protection functions or predefined control and monitoring
functions.
A program is a series of lines executed sequentially every 14 ms.
A data input assistance tool provides quick access to each of the equation editor
operators and variables.
Description of operations
Operators
SFT2841: logic equation editor.
b =: assignment of a result
V2 = VL3 //V2 is assigned the value of VL3
PE50461
b NOT: logic inversion
VL1 = NOT VL2 // VL1 is assigned the opposite logic state of VL2
b OR: logic OR
V1 = VL3 OR I103 // V1 is assigned state 1 if VL3 or I03 are in state 1
b AND: logic AND
VV3 = VL2 AND VV1 // VV3 is assigned state 1 if VL2 and VV3 are in state 1
b XOR: exclusive OR
V3 = VL1 XOR VL2 // V3 is assigned state 1 if only one of the variables VL1 or VL2
is in state 1.
This is equivalent to V3 = (V1 AND (NOT V2)) OR (V2 AND (NOT V1))
b //: commentary
The characters on the right are not processed
SFT2841: data input assistance tool.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
b (,): the operations may be grouped between brackets to indicate the order in which
they are carried out
V1 = (VL3 OR VL2) AND I213.
255
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic equations
Functions
b x = SR(y, z): bistable with priority to Set
x is set to 1 when y is equal to 1
x is set to 0 when z is equal to 1 (and y is equal to 0)
otherwise x is not changed.
V1 = SR(I104, I105) // I104 sets V1 to 1, I105 sets V1 to 0
DE50621
b LATCH(x, y, …): latching of variables x, y, ...
The variables are maintained constantly at 1 after being initially set. They are reset
to 0 when Sepam is reset (reset button, external input or remote control order).
The LATCH function accepts as many parameters as the number of variables that
the user wishes to latch.
It applies to the entire program, whatever the position of LATCH in the program. For
easier reading, it is advisable to put it at the start of the program.
LATCH(V1, VL2, VV3) // V1, VL2 and VV3 are latched, ie. once they are set to 1,
only a Sepam reset can set them back to 0
b x = TON(y, t): "on" delay timer
The variable x goes to 1 t ms after variable y goes to 1.
V1 = TON(I102.2000) // used to filter input I102 which must be present for
// 2 s to be taken into account in V1
x = TON(y, t).
DE50622
x = TOF(y, t).
b x = PULSE(s, i, n): time-tagger
Used to generate n periodic pulses, separated by an interval i as of the starting time s
s is expressed in hours:minutes:seconds
i is expressed in hours:minutes:seconds
n is a whole number (n = -1: repeated until the end of the day).
V1 = PULSE (8:30:00, 1:0:0.4) will generate 4 pulses at 1-hour intervals
at 8 h 30, 9 h 30, 10 h 30 and 11 h 30. This will be repeated every 24 hours.
The pulses last for a 14 ms cycle. V1 is assigned the value of 1 during the cycle.
If necessary, V1 may be extended using the TOF, SR or LATCH functions.
Timer values
A timer editor is used to give a name and value to each timer. The name may then
be used in the TON and TOF functions. The timer value may therefore be adjusted
without changing the program content.
V1 = TON (VL1, start) // start set to 200 ms in the timer editor.
PE50160
4
b x = TOF(y, t) : "off" delay timer.
The variable x goes to 0 t ms after variable y goes to 0).
VL2 = TOF(VL1, 100) // VL2 stays at 1 for 100 ms after VL1
// goes back to 0
Maximum number of functions
The number of time delays (TON, TOF) and time-taggers (PULSE) is globalized and
may not be more than 16.
There is no limitation for the SR and LATCH functions.
SFT2841: timer editor.
Description of variables
b input variables: they come from the protection functions, logic inputs or predefined
control functions. They may only appear on the right of the = sign
b output variables: they are produced by the equation editor to generate actions in
the matrix, protection functions or predefined control functions
b local variables: they are intended for intermediary calculations and are not
available outside the logic equation editor.
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Control and monitoring
functions
Logic equations
Input variables
Type
Logic inputs
Syntax
Ixxx
Protection function outputs
Pnnnn_x_y
nnnn: ANSI code
x: unit
y: data
TC1 to TC64
Remote control orders
Predefined control function outputs
Mimic-based UMI outputs
V_TRIPPED
V_CLOSE_INHIBITED
V_CLOSED
V_MIMIC_OUT_1 to
V_MIMIC_OUT_16
V_MIMIC_LOCAL
V_MIMIC_TEST,
V_MIMIC_REMOTE
Example, meaning
I101: input 1 of MES120 No 1 module
I312 : input 12 of MES120 No 3 module
P50/51_2_1 : Protection 50/51, unit 2, delayed output.
The protection function output data numbers are given in the
characteristics of each function and may be accessed using the
data input assistance tool.
Pulse type value (duration of one 14 ms cycle) of remote control
orders received
Tripping order present at switchgear control function output
Inhibit closing order present at switchgear control function output
Closing order present at switchgear control function output
Variables that may be assigned to the mimic diagram symbol
outputs and that change values when control orders are
transmitted from the mimic-based UMI
Position of the key on the mimic-based UMI
Output variables
Type
Outputs to matrix
Protection function inputs
Predefined control function inputs
Syntax
V1 to V20
Pnnnn_x_y
nnn: ANSI code
x: unit
y: data
V_TRIPCB
Example, meaning
They may initiate LEDs, logic outputs or messages in the matrix.
P50N/51N_6_113: Protection 50N/51N, unit 6, inhibit order.
The protection function output data numbers are given in the
characteristics of each function and may be accessed using the
data input assistance tool.
Tripping of circuit breaker (contactor) by the switchgear control
function. Used to adapt tripping and recloser activation conditions.
V_INHIBCLOSE
Inhibition of circuit breaker (contactor) closing by the switchgear
control function. Used to add circuit breaker (contactor) inhibit
closing conditions.
V_CLOSECB
Closing of circuit breaker (contactor) by the switchgear control
function. Used to generate a circuit breaker (contactor) close order
based on a particular condition.
V_SHUTDOWN
Shutdown of genset prime mover. Used to adapt cases of genset
shutdown
V_DE_EXCITATION
Generator de-excitation
Used to adapt cases requiring generator de-excitation
V_FLAGREC
Data saved in disturbance recording.
Used to save a specific logic state in addition to those already
present in disturbance recording.
V_RESET
Sepam reset
V_CLEAR
Clearing of alarms present
V_INHIBIT_RESET_LOCAL Inhibition of Sepam reset by UMI Reset key.
V_CLOSE_NOCTRL
Breaking device closing enabled without synchro-check.
Used to adapt the Switchgear control function
V_TRIP_STP1 to
Tripping of capacitor steps 1 to 4.
V_TRIP_STP4
Used to adapt the Capacitor step control function
V_CLOSE_STP1 to
Closing of capacitor steps 1 to 4.
V_CLOSE_STP4
Used to adapt the Capacitor step control function
V_TRANS_ON_FLT
Automatic transfer order on fault.
Used to adapt automatic transfer
V_TRANS_STOP
Stopping automatic transfer
Used to adapt automatic transfer
Local variables, constants
Type
Local variables stored
Syntax
VL1 to VL31
Local variables not stored
VV1 to VV31
Constants
K_1, K_0
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Example, meaning
The values of these variables are saved in the event of an auxiliary
power outage and are restored when Sepam starts again.
The values of these variables are not saved in the event of an
auxiliary power outage. They are assigned the value of 0 when
Sepam starts.
Value not modifiable
K_1: always 1
K_0 : always 0
257
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Logic equations
Processing in the event of auxiliary power outage
All the variables, with the exception of the variables VVx, are saved in the event of a
Sepam auxiliary power outage. The states of the variables are restored when the
power is recovered, allowing the states produced by LATCH, SR or PULSE type
memory operators to be saved.
Special cases
b brackets must be used in expressions that comprise different OR, AND, XOR or
NOT operators:
v V1 = VL1 AND I12 OR P27/27S_1_1. // expression incorrect
v V1 = (VL1 AND I12) OR P27/27S_1_1. // expression correct
v V1 = VL1 OR I12 OR P27/27S_1_1. // expression correct
b protection input/output variables (Pnnn_x_y) may not be used in the LATCH
function
b function parameters may not be expressions:
v VL3 = TON ((V1 AND V3), 300) // expression incorrect
v VL4 = V1 AND V3
v VL3 = TON (VL4, 300) // correct.
Use limit
The number of operators and functions (OR, AND, XOR, NOT, =, TON, TOF, SR,
PULSE is limited to 200.
Examples of applications
b latching of recloser permanent trip signal
By default, this signal is of the pulse type at the recloser output. If required by
operating conditions, it may be latched as follows:
LATCH (V1) // V1 may be latched
V1 = P79_1_204 // recloser "permanent trip" output.
V1 may then control a LED or output relay in the matrix.
4
b latching of a LED without latching the protection function
Certain operating conditions call for the latching of indications on the front panel of
Sepam, without latching of the tripping output O1.
LATCH (V1, V2) // V1 and V2 may be latched
V1 = P50/51_1_1 OR P50/51_3_1 // tripping, units 1 and 3 of protection 50/51
V2 = P50/51_2_1 OR P50/51_4_1 // tripping, units 2 and 4 of protection 50/51
V1 and V2 must be configured in the matrix to control 2 front panel LEDs.
b circuit breaker tripping if input I113 is present for more than 300 ms
V_TRIPCB = TON (I113, 300).
b live line work (example 1)
If work is underway with power on (indicated by input I205), the relay behavior is to
be changed as follows:
1 – circuit breaker tripping by the instantaneous output of protection 50/51 unit 1 or
50N/51N unit 1 AND if input I205 is present:
V_TRIPCB = (P50/51_1_1 OR P50N/51N_1_1) AND I205
2 – Inhibit recloser:
P79_1_113 = I205
b live line work (example 2)
The user wishes to inhibit protection functions 50N/51N and 46 by an input I204:
P50N/51N_1_113 = I204
P46_1_113 = I204
b validation of a 50N/51N protection function by logic input I210
A 50N/51N protection function with a very low threshold must only initiate tripping of
the circuit breaker if it is validated by an input. The input comes from a relay which
gives a very accurate measurement of the neutral point current:
V_TRIPCB = P50N/51N_1_3 AND I210
b inhibition of circuit breaker closing if thermal alarm thresholds are overrun
The temperature protection function 38/49T supplies 16 alarm bits. If one of the first
three bits is activated (1 state), the user wishes to inhibit circuit breaker closing
V_INHIBCLOSE = P38/49T_1_10 OR P38/49T_2_10 OR P38/49T_3_10
b remote control order to inhibit protection 50/51 unit 1
VL1=SR(TC63,TC64) // TC63 set inhibition, TC64 reset inhibition
P50/51_1_113 = VL1 // VL1 is stored in the event of an auxiliary power outage.
258
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Customized functions using
Logipam
The SFT2885 programming software (Logipam) can be used to enhance Sepam by
programming specific control and monitoring functions.
Only the Sepam series 80 with a cartridge containing the Logipam SFT080
option can run the control and monitoring functions programmed by Logipam.
DE51891
Operating principle
4
Logipam programming software
PE50257
The Logipam SFT2885 programming software can be used to:
b adapt predefined control and monitoring functions
b program specific control and monitoring functions, either to replace the predefined
versions or to create completely new functions, to provide all the functions required
by the application.
It is made up of:
b a ladder-language program editor used to address all Sepam data and to program
complex control functions
b a simulator for complete program debugging
b a code generator to run the program on Sepam.
The ladder-language program and the data used can be documented and a complete
file can be printed.
SFT2885: Logipam programming software.
Offering more possibilities than the logic-equation editor, Logipam can be used to
create the following functions :
b specific automatic transfer functions
b motor starting sequences.
It is not possible to combine the functions programmed by Logipam with functions
adapted by the logic-equation editor in a given Sepam.
The Logipam program uses the input data from:
b protection functions
b logic inputs
b remote control orders
b local control orders transmitted by the mimic-based UMI.
The result of Logipam processing may then be:
b assigned to a logic output, directly or via the control matrix
b assigned to a LED or message via the control matrix
b transmitted by the communication link, as a new remote indication
b used by the predefined control and monitoring functions
b used to inhibit or reset a protection function.
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
259
Control and monitoring
functions
Self-tests and fail-safe position
Presentation
The reliability of a device is the property that allows its users to have well-placed
confidence in the service it delivers.
For a Sepam protection relay, operational reliability consists of ensuring the safety
and availability of the installation. This means avoiding the following 2 situations:
b Nuisance tripping of the protection
Continuity of the electrical power supply is as vital for a manufacturer as it is for an
electricity distribution company. Nuisance tripping caused by the protection can
result in considerable financial losses. This situation affects the availability of the
installation.
b Failure of the protection to trip
The consequences of a fault that is not eliminated can be catastrophic. For safety of
operation, the protection relay must detect faults in the power supply as quickly as
possible, using discrimination. This situation affects the safety of the installation.
Self-tests and monitoring functions
On initialization and cyclically during operation, Sepam runs a series of self-tests.
These self-tests are designed to detect any failure in its internal and external circuits
so as to ensure Sepam's reliability. These failures are classified into 2 categories,
major failures and minor failures:
b A major failure reaches the hardware resources used by the protection functions
(program memory and analog input for example).
This type of failure risks resulting in failure to trip on a fault or nuisance tripping. In
this case, Sepam must go into the fail-safe position as quickly as possible.
b A minor failure affects Sepam's peripheral functions (display, communication).
This type of failure does not prevent Sepam from protecting the installation and
providing continuity of service. Sepam then operates in downgraded mode.
The classification of failures into 2 categories improves both safety and availability of
the installation.
4
The possibility of a Sepam major failure must be taken into account when selecting
the trip command type to maximize availability or safety of the installation (see
"Selecting the trip command" page 263).
In addition to the self-tests, the user can activate monitoring functions to improve the
installation monitoring:
b VT supervision (ANSI code 60FL)
b CT supervision (ANSI code 60)
b Trip circuit and closing circuit supervision (ANSI code 74)
b Auxiliary power supply supervision
These functions send an alarm message to the Sepam display unit and a data item
is automatically available to the communication to alert the user.
260
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Self-tests and fail-safe position
Self-tests
The self-tests are run when Sepam is initialized and/or during its operation.
List of self-tests which place Sepam in the fail-safe position
Failures which have caused this are deemed to be major ones.
Function
Test type
Execution period
Power supply
Power supply presence
During operation
Embedded software
Processor
RAM memories
During operation
On initialization and during operation
On initialization and during operation
Checksum
On initialization and during operation
Checksum
On initialization
Acquisition consistency
Infinite gain
During operation
During operation
Relay driver
On initialization and during operation
Math & logic
Program memory
Parameter memory
Analog inputs
Logic outputs
Connection
CCA630, CCA634,
On initialization and during operation
CCA671, CCT640
MES120
On initialization and during operation
E Connector (phase voltage On initialization and during operation
inputs, residual voltage and
current inputs)
List of self-tests which do not place Sepam in the fail-safe
position
Failures which have caused this are deemed to be minor ones.
Function
Test type
Execution period
UMI
Module presence
Memory
Software
On initialization and during operation
On initialization
During operation
Module presence
On initialization and during operation
Module presence
On initialization and during operation
Minimum value
check
During operation
Analog output
Temperature inputs
Battery voltage
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
261
4
Control and monitoring
functions
Self-tests and fail-safe position
Fail-safe position
When Sepam is in working order, it runs self-tests continuously. Detection of a major
failure places Sepam in the fail-safe position.
State of Sepam in the fail-safe position
b All the output relays are forced to the idle state
b All protection functions are inhibited
b The watchdog output indicates failure (output in the idle state)
b A red LED on the Sepam front panel is on and a diagnostic message appears on
the Sepam display unit (see "Local indication" page 249).
DE80251
How Sepam deals with failures
b Minor failure: Sepam switches to downgraded operation.
The failure is indicated on the Sepam display unit and also by the communication.
Sepam continues to protect the installation.
b Major failure: Sepam switches to the fail-safe position and attempts a restart during
which it again runs its self-tests. There are 2 possible scenarios:
v The internal failure is still present. It is a permanent failure. Intervention on Sepam
is required. Only removing the cause of the failure, followed by de-energizing and
then energizing Sepam, will allow the unit to exit the fail-safe position.
v The internal failure is no longer present. It is a transient failure. Sepam restarts so
that it can continue to protect the installation. Sepam has been in the fail-safe position
for 5 to 7 s.
Relay output
Watchdog
Permanent internal failure.
DE80252
4
Relay output
Watchdog
5 to 7 seconds
Transient internal failure.
DE80253
Limiting the number of transient failure detections
Each time a transient internal failure appears, Sepam increments an internal counter.
The fifth time the failure occurs, Sepam is placed in the fail-safe position. Deenergizing Sepam reinitializes the failure counter. This mechanism can be used to
avoid keeping a Sepam running that is subject to repeated transient failures.
Relay output
Watchdog
Counter
0
1
2
0
1
2
3
4 5
Sepam
de-energized
Repeated transient internal failures.
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Self-tests and fail-safe position
Control and monitoring
functions
Selecting the trip command and examples of
use
An analysis of the operational reliability of the whole installation should determine
whether availability or safety of this installation should be prioritized if Sepam is in the
fail-safe position. This information is used to determine the choice of trip command
as outlined in the table below.
Selecting the trip command
CAUTION
RISK OF UNPROTECTED INSTALLATION
Always connect the watchdog output to a
monitoring device when the selected trip
command does not result in the installation
tripping when Sepam fails.
Diagram Control
1
2
Failure to follow these instructions can cause
equipment damage.
3
Event
Trip
Shunt trip breaker Sepam failure or No
or mechanical
loss of the
latching contactor auxiliary power
supply
Breaker with
Sepam failure or Yes
undervoltage trip loss of the
coil (fail-safe)
auxiliary power
supply
Breaker with
Sepam failure
undervoltage trip
coil (not fail-safe)
Advantage Disadvantage
Availability of Installation not
the installation protected until
remedial
intervention (1)
Safety of the Installation not
installation
available until
remedial
intervention
No
Availability of Installation not
the installation protected until
remedial
intervention (1)
Loss of auxiliary Yes
Safety of the Installation not
power supply
installation
available until
remedial
intervention
4
Contactor without Sepam failure or Yes
Safety of the Installation not
coil latching
loss of the
installation
available until
(permanent order) auxiliary power
remedial
supply
intervention
(1) It is essential to use the watchdog, see the warning notice opposite.
DE80254
Example of use with shunt trip coil (diagram 1)
Trip
8
Inhibit closing
O2
7
O3
10
O1
Breaker closed
1 H
2
5
4
I101
Breaker open
4 H
5
I102
11
Closing
N/O
closing
coil
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Shunt
trip
coil
Setting the Sepam
output parameters:
O1 : N/O
O2 : N/C
O3 : N/O
263
4
Self-tests and fail-safe position
Control and monitoring
functions
DE80255
Example of use with undervoltage trip coil with fail-safe
condition (diagram 2)
Trip
Breaker closed
Inhibit closing
8
7
O2
1 H
2
5
4
O1
I101
Breaker open
4 H
5
I102
11
Closing
O3
10
Undervoltage
trip
coil
N/O
closing
coil
4
=0
Setting the Sepam output parameters:
O1 : N/C
O2 : N/C
O3 : N/O
DE80256
Example of use with undervoltage trip coil without fail-safe
condition (diagram 3)
Trip
Breaker closed
Inhibit closing
8
7
O2
O1
1 H
2
5
4
I101
Breaker open
4 H
5
I102
11
Closing
O3
10
=0
N/O
closing
coil
264
Undervoltage
trip
coil
Setting the Sepam output paramete
O1 : N/O
O2 : N/C
O3 : N/O
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
Control and monitoring
functions
Self-tests and fail-safe position
DE80258
Example of use with contactor under permanent order
command (diagram 4)
Breaker closed
5
4
O1
1 H
2
I101
Breaker open
4 H
5
I102
Closing
Trip
Contactor
18 H
13
17 H
I107
Shunt
trip coil
(1)
13
I106
(1)
4
Setting the Sepam output parameters
O1: N/O
(1) Standard assignments, can be modified.
Using the watchdog
The watchdog is extremely important in the monitoring system, as it indicates to the
user that the Sepam protection functions are working correctly. When Sepam detects
an internal failure, an LED flashes automatically on the Sepam front panel regardless
of whether the watchdog output is connected correctly. If the watchdog output is not
correctly connected to the system, this LED is the only way of knowing that Sepam
has failed. We therefore strongly recommend connecting the watchdog output at the
highest level of the installation so that an effective alarm is generated when
necessary. For example, an audible alarm or flashing alarm lamp can be used to
warn the operator.
Watchdog output
status
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
No failure detected Failure detected
Watchdog output
connected correctly
to the control
system
The protection
functions are
in working order
Watchdog output
not connected
The protection
functions are
in working order
b The protection functions are not working.
b Sepam is in the fail-safe position.
b The Sepam alarm LED flashes.
b The watchdog output activates a system
alarm.
b The operator is warned that he needs to
intervene.
b The protection functions are not working.
b Sepam is in the fail-safe position.
b The Sepam alarm LED flashes.
b The operator is not warned that he needs
to intervene unless he keeps an eye on the
Sepam front panel.
265
4
266
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
4
SEPED303001EN - 05/2007
267
ART.52383 © 2007 Schneider Electric - All rights reserved
Schneider Electric Industries SAS
89, boulevard Franklin Roosevelt
F - 92500 Rueil-Malmaison (France)
Tel : +33 (0)1 41 29 85 00
http://www.schneider-electric.com
http://www.merlin-gerin.com
As standards, specifications and designs change from time to time, please ask for confirmation
of the information given in this publication.
Printed on recycled paper.
Design: Kudos France
Publication: Schneider Electric
Printed:
SEPED303001EN/4
05/2007
ART.52383 © 2007 Schneider Electric - All rights reserved
Schneider Electric Industries SAS
89, boulevard Franklin Roosevelt
F - 92500 Rueil-Malmaison (France)
Tel : +33 (0)1 41 29 85 00
http://www.schneider-electric.com
http://www.merlin-gerin.com
As standards, specifications and designs change from time to time, please ask for confirmation
of the information given in this publication.
Printed on recycled paper.
Design: Kudos France
Publication: Schneider Electric
Printed:
SEPED303001EN/4
05/2007
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