Cakewalk SONAR Reference Guide

Cakewalk SONAR Reference Guide
©
Cakewalk SONAR
Reference Guide
™
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. The software described in
this document is furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement.
The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement.
It is against the law to copy this software on any medium except as specifically allowed
in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
for any purpose without the express written permission of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc.
Copyright © 2006 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright © 2006 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
ACID is a trademark of Sonic Foundry, Inc.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. SONAR and the
Cakewalk logo are trademarks of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Visit Cakewalk on the World Wide Web at www.cakewalk.com.
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Registering SONAR Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Conventions Used in this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Music Composition and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Remixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Game Sound Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Sound Production and Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Web Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Film and Video Scoring and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Flexibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Computers, Sound, and Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Audio Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
MIDI Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Starting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
SONAR Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
SONAR File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Working on a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Windows Taskbar Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Screen Colors and Wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Starting to Use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2 Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Tutorial 1—The Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Opening a Project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Preparing for Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Playing the Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Restarting the Project Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Changing the Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Muting and Soloing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Changing a Track's Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Playing Music on a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Recording a MIDI Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Punch-In Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Setting the Sampling Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Setting the Audio Driver Bit Depth and Recording Bit Depth. . . . . . 91
Open a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Setting Up an Audio Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Checking the Input Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Listening to the Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Recording Another Take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Input Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Loop and Punch-In Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
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Recording Multiple Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Transposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Slip-editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Drawing MIDI Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Tutorial 5—Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Opening the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Importing a Wave File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Moving and Looping the Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Slip-editing a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Automatic Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Adding Groove Clips to a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Looping Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Changing the Pitch of Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Changing the Tempo of Your Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Creating Your Own Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Tutorial 7—Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Adding Real-time Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Automating an Individual Effect’s Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Grouping Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Automating Your Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Exporting an MP3 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Playing MIDI Tracks through a Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Create a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Creating a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Create a Drum Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Map Drum Notes to Different Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
3 Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
The Now Time and How to Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
The Now Time Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Displaying the Now Time in Large Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
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Other Ways to Set the Now Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
The Time Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Handling Stuck Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Using the Large Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Track-by-Track Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
The Playback State Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Silencing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Soloing Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Inverting the Phase of a Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Changing Tracks’ Mono/Stereo Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Changing Track Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Setting Up Output Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Assigning Tracks to Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Choosing the Instrument Sound (Bank and Patch) . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Adding Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Adjusting Volume and Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Configurable Panning Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Adjusting Volume Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Adjusting the Key/Transposing a Track (Key+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Adjusting the Note Velocity (Vel+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Adjusting the Time Alignment of a MIDI Track (Time+). . . . . . . . . 172
Other MIDI Playback Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Playing Files in Batch Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
The Play List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Video Playback, Import, and Export. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Inserting and Playing Back Videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Exporting Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Optimizing Video Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Using the Video Thumbnails Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Exporting a Project to a FireWire DV Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Synchronizing External Video Playback to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Locating Missing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
The Find Missing Audio File Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Restoring Missing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Managing Shared and External Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
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4 Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Using Per-Project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Creating a New Project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Setting the Meter and Key Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Setting the Metronome and Tempo Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Setting the Audio Sampling Rate and Bit Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Preparing to Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Recording Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Choosing an Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Arming Tracks for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
Auto Arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Tuning an Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
The Audio Engine Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
Loop Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
Punch Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Step Pattern Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Input Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Importing Music and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Importing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
Importing OMF Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Importing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
Using File Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
Labeling Your Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
File Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
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9
5 Arranging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Arranging Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Changing the Order of Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Inserting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Copying Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Erasing Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Track Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Track Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Configuring Track View Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Displaying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Using the Navigator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Opening Views by Double-clicking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Selecting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Moving and Copying Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Locking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Nudge Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Markers and the snap grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Showing Gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Defining and Using the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Snap Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Creating and Using Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Take Management and Comping Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Clip Muting with the Default Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Audition (Selection Playback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Isolating (Clip Soloing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Changing Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Using the Tempo Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Using the Tempo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Using the Tempo View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
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Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Using Slip-editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Slip-editing Multiple Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
Fades and Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
6 Using Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
Loop Construction Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
The Loop Explorer View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
Folders Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
Contents List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
Working with Loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Working with Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
Using Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
Creating and Editing Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332
Editing Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files . . . . . .336
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
MIDI Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Importing Project5 Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
7 AudioSnap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Enabling AudioSnap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
The AudioSnap Palette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
Transient Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Displaying Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Disabling and Enabling Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Marker Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
Editing Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
The Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
Keyboard Shortcuts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Aligning Clips to New Tempo Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Aligning Project Tempo to a Clip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
Extract Timing Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
Quantizing Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364
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11
Aligning MIDI with Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Copying Audio Rhythms as MIDI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Slip-stretching Audio Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Adding Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
8 Editing MIDI Events and Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Event Inspector Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
The Piano Roll View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Drum Grid Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Notes Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Controller Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Track List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Opening the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View. . . . . . . . . . . 376
Note Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only) . . . . . . . . . . 378
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool . . . . . . . . . 382
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Adding Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Selecting Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Editing Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
The Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
The MIDI Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View. . . 395
Selecting and Editing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Copying and Pasting MIDI Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Transposing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Shifting Events in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Stretching and Shrinking Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Reversing Notes in a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Changing the Timing of a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Snap to Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
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Searching for Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
Event Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
The Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
Event List Buttons and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
Selecting Events in the Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Event List Display Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Editing Events and Event Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Additional Event Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
MIDI Effects Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
Adding Echo/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
Filtering Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
Adding Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
Analyzing Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect. . . . . . . .447
9 Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
Creating and Editing a Drum Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
The Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
Working in the Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
The Map Properties Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
Saving a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
Opening a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
Velocity Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
Editing Note Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
Previewing a Mapped Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
The Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
Changing Mapped-note Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Grid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
Creating Custom Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463
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13
10 Editing Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Digital Audio Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Basic Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Example—A Guitar String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Recording a Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
The Decibel Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Managing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Editing Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Audio Scaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Splitting Audio Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Bouncing to Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Scrubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Basic Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Using the Normalize and Gain Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Reversing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Removing Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Removing DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Applying Audio Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Directly Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Shifting Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Stretching Time and Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
11 Software Synthesizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Inserting Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Opening a Soft Synth’s Property Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
Synth Rack Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Playing a Soft Synth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Muting and Soloing Soft Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Multi-port Soft Synths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
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Table of Contents
Using the Assignable Controls Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507
Automating Controls from the Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
Displaying Synth Rack Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
Remote Control of the Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
Drawing Soft Synth Automation in the Clips Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
Soft Synth MIDI Output Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
Recording a Soft Synth’s MIDI Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511
ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511
Inserting a ReWire Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512
Routing MIDI Data to ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .514
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
Automating ReWire Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515
Stand-alone Synths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
Playing a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
Recording a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
12 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Preparing to Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
Configuring the Console and Track Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
Mixing a MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
Signal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
Stereo Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
Surround Buses (Producer Edition Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
Main Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
What the Meters Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
Hiding and Showing Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
Changing the Meters’ Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537
Segmented and Non-segmented Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
Changing the Meters’ Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540
Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
Using Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547
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How to Use Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
Presets and Property Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
Effects on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Organizing Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
VST Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Using V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Playing Back V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Pitch Editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Editing Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
Editing Formants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
Editing Dynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Context Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Using the Per-track EQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Applying MIDI Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Quick Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Using Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Using the Learn Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Preparing to Create an Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Exporting OMF Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Dithering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
13 Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Surround Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Using Surround Format Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Choosing a Surround Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
Surround Buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
Routing in Surround. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Downmixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
Controlling Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
Automating Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Joystick Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
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Table of Contents
Surround Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
Bass Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613
The SurroundBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613
Effect Property Pages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .614
Effect Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .614
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .614
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617
Exporting Surround Mixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
14 Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620
The Automation Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621
Automation Read and Automation Write Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . .622
Recording Individual Fader or Knob Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
Creating and Editing Audio Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624
Creating and Editing MIDI Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626
Dotted Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
Using the Envelope Draw Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629
Drawing Envelopes on Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
Showing or Hiding Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631
Deleting Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
Copying and Pasting Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or Neutral Values . . .633
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634
Converting MIDI Envelopes to Shapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636
Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
Adding Nodes at a Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
Automating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
Automating Individual Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
Recording Automation Data from an External Controller . . . . . . . .640
Reassigning Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642
Automated Muting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643
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15 Layouts, Templates
and Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646
Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650
Template Example: Three MIDI Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
Importing Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
Exporting Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656
16 Notation and Lyrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
The Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Opening the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
Staff Pane Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
The Staff Pane Right-Click Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660
The Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
Fretboard Popup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Basic Musical Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
Inserting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
Inserting Notes with the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Moving Notes from within the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
Auditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
Changing Note Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669
Deglitch Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
Working with Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Beaming of Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
Using Enharmonic Spellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Chords and Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Adding Chord Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Adding Expression Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
Adding Hairpin Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
Adding Pedal Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
Tablature Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
Changing Fretboard Texture and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686
Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687
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Table of Contents
Regenerate TAB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .688
Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689
Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . .689
Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .690
Working with Percussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .691
Setting Up a Percussion Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692
Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692
Ghost Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .694
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .694
The Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .695
What Is Meter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .695
What Is Key? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .696
Opening the Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .697
Adding and Editing Meter/Key Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .698
Music Notation for Non-concert-key
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .699
Working with Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .700
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .701
Opening the Lyrics View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .702
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .703
17 Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
Assigning Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .706
Importing Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .708
Creating Instrument Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .709
Creating and Editing Patch Name and Other Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . .712
Copying Name Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .713
Assigning the Bank Select Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .714
Assigning Patch Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .715
Assigning Note Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .716
Assigning Controller, RPN, and NRPN Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .718
Instrument Definition Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .720
Why Use Instrument Definitions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .720
What Can They Do and Not Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .720
Where Do Instrument Definitions Come From? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .720
Start of Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .721
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18 System Exclusive Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
What Is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
Sysx Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
Using the System Exclusive View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
Sending Sysx Banks at Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727
Importing, Creating, and Dumping Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728
More about Dump Request Macros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730
Editing Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
Sysx View Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Send All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Clear Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
Edit Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
Load Bank and Save Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
Transmitting Banks During Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734
Real-time Recording of System Exclusive Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734
Sysx Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
Sysx .INI File Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736
19 Synchronizing Your Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
Synchronization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740
Choosing Clock Sources When SONAR is the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
MIDI Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742
SONAR as the Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743
SONAR as the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744
Using MIDI Sync with Drum Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745
Troubleshooting MIDI Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746
Playing Digital Audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750
SMPTE/MTC Sync and Full Chase Lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751
Troubleshooting SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753
20
Table of Contents
20 Audio File Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755
The Project Files Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .756
Project Files and Bundle Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .757
Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .759
Global Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .759
Per-project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .759
Imported Audio Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .762
Backing Up Projects with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .762
Deleting Unused Audio Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .764
21 Improving Audio Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .768
The Wave Profiler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .768
Enabling and Disabling Audio Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .769
Sampling Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .770
Bit Depths, and Float Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .771
Bit Depths for Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .772
Bit Depths for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .773
Bit Depths for Importing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .773
Bit Depths for Exporting Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .774
Bit Depths for Rendering Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .774
Preparing Higher-quality Audio for CD Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .775
SONAR Project File Compatibility Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .776
Improving Performance with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .776
Getting the Most Out of Your PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .777
Mixing Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .780
ASIO Drivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .780
Queue Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781
Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781
22 External Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
Edirol PCR Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .784
Connecting and Disconnecting Controllers/Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .786
The WAI Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .788
Changing or Creating Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .790
ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .790
ACT MIDI Controller Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .792
Assigning Faders and Knobs to Control SONAR Parameters . . . .794
Controlling Different Tracks or Groups of Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . .797
Table of Contents
21
The ACT MIDI Controller Property Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
Saving and Creating Presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804
Sample Controller/Surface Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
Final Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
Appendix A: Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809
Audio dropouts or crash when playing back large files
at maximum latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809
When I Play a File, I Don’t Hear Anything . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810
I Can’t Record from My MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811
When I Play a File Containing Audio, the Audio Portion Doesn’t Play. 813
I Can’t Record Any Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814
My Track or Bus Fader is Maximized, But There’s No Sound or Level 815
The Music Is Playing Back with the Wrong Instrument Sounds. . . . . . 815
How Do I Use SONAR to Access
All the Sounds on My MIDI Instrument? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816
My Keyboard Doubles Every Note I Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816
I Don’t See the Clips Pane in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817
Why Can’t SONAR Find My Audio Files? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817
I Get an a Error Message When I Change a Project to 24-bit Audio . . 818
Bouncing Tracks Takes a Long Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
Why Do I Get Errors from the Wave Profiler? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
I Hear an Echo When I Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
Dropouts Happen in High Bit-depth or High Sample Rate Audio. . . . . 820
Audio Distorts at Greater than 16 Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820
No Sound from My Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820
My Pro Audio 9 Files Sound Louder/Softer
When I Open Them in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821
I Can’t Open My Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822
SONAR Can’t Find the Wavetable Synth or MPU401 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822
Appendix B: Hardware Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823
Connect Your MIDI Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823
Set Up to Record Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 826
Appendix C: View Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831
22
Table of Contents
Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .831
SONAR Empty View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .840
Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .840
Piano Roll View Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .841
Note Map Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .843
Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .843
Notes Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .843
Controller pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .843
Track List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .843
Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .844
Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .844
The Staff View Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .845
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .847
Console View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .850
Video View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .855
Tempo View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .857
Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .858
Markers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .859
SYSX View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .859
Loop Construction view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .859
Navigator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .864
Play List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .864
Surround Panner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .865
Appendix D: New Features in SONAR 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
AudioSnap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .867
MIDI Controller and Control Surface Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .867
New Synth Automation and Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .868
Soft Synth MIDI Output Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .868
Enhanced ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .868
VST 64-bit Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .868
Preset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .869
Organizing Plug-ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .869
Enhanced Plug-in Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .869
Customizable Menus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .869
Customizable Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .870
New Console View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .870
Table of Contents
23
Streamlined and Configurable Track View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
Redesigned Large Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
Clip Handles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Clip Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Absolute-Time-Based Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Enhanced Time Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Automation Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Enhanced Mouse Wheel Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
Enhanced Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
File Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
Import 64-bit Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
Friendly Driver Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
Lasso Selects Touched Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
Default Settings Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
New Export/Bounce Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
V-Vocal Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
New Snap to Grid Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875
LICENSE AGREEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
24
Table of Contents
Preface
The SONAR Reference Guide is designed to help you
learn and use SONAR. This Guide explains how SONAR
works and how to use it to create, edit, produce, and
perform. The SONAR Reference Guide is both taskoriented, and reference-oriented, providing information
for basic procedures, and descriptions of the various
parts of the interface. The Reference Guide also includes
a comprehensive index that you can use to find information
on any specific topic.
Registering SONAR Today
New Cakewalk products will require product registration. When you register
your product, you provide some information including your name and email
address, as well as the serial number for your product.
Product registration can be done quickly on the internet or by phone.
To register anytime log onto http://www.cakewalk.com/register, or call 888CAKEWALK (U.S.) or +(617)-423-9004 (outside the U.S.) between 9 AM and 8
PM Eastern Standard Time. If you live outside of North America, please visit
our distributor’s page at www.cakewalk.com/Dealers/International.asp to get the
telephone number of your local distributor.
You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid email address. In return
for this information, we’ll email you a registration code that will allow you to keep using the
software forever. We recommend you write this registration code on the serial number
sticker for safekeeping.
Conventions Used in this Book
The following table describes the text conventions in this book:
Convention...
Meaning...
Bold Italics
Text that appears in bold italics is a command in
SONAR.
hyphen (FileOpen)
A hyphen represents a level in the menu hierarchy. For
example, File-Open means to click on the File menu
and select the Open command.
SMALL CAPS
Small caps are used for file extensions (.MID) and file
names (AUD.INI).
Getting Help
In addition to this Reference Guide, SONAR includes online help that can
provide you with quick reference information whenever you need it. Simply
press F1 or click the Help button in any dialog box to find the information
you need. If you are new to recording and editing music on your PC, see
the online help topic “Beginner’s Guide to Cakewalk Software” for an
introduction.
If you need more information than you can find in the SONAR Reference
Guide or the online help, here are two great places to look:
•
Check the Support page of our Web site (www.cakewalk.com) for
updated technical information and answers to frequently asked
questions.
•
Post messages to the SONAR user community using one of the
Cakewalk forums. For more information about the newsgroups, visit
www.cakewalk.com.
You can also get technical support directly from Cakewalk. In order to
obtain technical support, you must register your product. You can obtain
technical support for this product in the following ways:
26
•
Visit http://www.cakewalk.com/Support/SONAR/SR6.asp.
•
Call Cakewalk Technical Support at +1 (617) 423-9021 on weekdays,
10:00 AM to 6:00 PM, Eastern time. Be sure to have your serial number
ready when you call.
Preface
Conventions Used in this Book
Technical support hours, policies, and procedures are subject to change at
any time. Check our Web site for the latest support information.
Preface
Getting Help
27
28
Preface
Getting Help
Introduction
SONAR is a professional tool for authoring sound and
music on your personal computer. It’s designed for
musicians, composers, arrangers, audio and production
engineers, multimedia and game developers, and
recording engineers. SONAR supports Wave, MP3,
ACIDized waves, WMA, AIFF and other popular formats,
providing all the tools you need to do professional-quality
work rapidly and efficiently.
SONAR is more than an integrated MIDI and digital audio
authoring software package—it’s an expandable platform that
can function as the central nervous system of your recording studio.
With drivers for common high-end audio hardware, full support for audio
plug-ins, software synthesizers, MFX MIDI plug-ins, and MIDI Machine
Control (MMC) of external MIDI gear, SONAR can handle your most
demanding projects.
In This Chapter
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Computers, Sound, and Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Starting SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
SONAR Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Windows Taskbar Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Screen Colors and Wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
About SONAR
SONAR is the flagship product of the Cakewalk line of integrated MIDI and
digital audio sequencers for the Windows platform. SONAR has a
comprehensive feature set that makes it the single most productive tool for
sound and music authoring. Here are some of the ways you can use
SONAR.
Music Composition and Exploration
SONAR is a powerful music-composition application, providing tools to
record your own musical performances; enhance or improve the quality of
those performances; and edit, arrange, and experiment with the music.
With a few simple clicks of the mouse, you can arrange, orchestrate, and
audition your composition. Fully integrated sequencing allows you to
combine the convenience and flexibility of MIDI composition with the highquality sound and subtlety of digital audio sound recording and
reproduction. Change the feel of a piece by locking it to a musical groove,
or add delicate delays, anticipations, or echoes that add richness to the
music.
SONAR displays and lets you edit your music using standard musical
notation and guitar tablature, so you can adjust individual notes, add
performance markings, and print individual parts or full scores. You can
graphically draw tempo and volume changes, or add lyrics to display onscreen or to include with printed scores.
Remixing
SONAR’s Groove clips allow you to import, create, export and edit loops,
making it possible to quickly change tempos and keys for an entire project.
The Loop Explorer view lets you preview loops in the project’s tempo and
key before dragging and dropping them onto a track.
Game Sound Development
There’s no better tool than SONAR for composing music for electronic
games. Clip-based sequencing lets you create and reuse musical themes
freely, so you can associate musical sections with game characters,
locations, objects, and actions. Your creations can be saved and replayed
using the compact MIDI file format, which adapts its sound automatically to
the target hardware for the best possible sound reproduction.
30
Introduction
About SONAR
Sound Production and Engineering
If you want to produce music CDs or master tapes, SONAR has virtually
everything you need from recording to mixing and mastering. Multichannel
recording lets you capture studio or live performances track by track.
Reconfigurable buses provide full control over your mix. Real-time stereo
effects like chorus, flange, reverb, and delay/echo can be applied as track
inserts, in effects loops, or to the master mix. SONAR supports 44.1 KHz
sampling for CD-quality sound, 24-bit/96 kHz sound for DVD-quality sound,
and lets you choose from lower or higher sample rates as well. All audio
effects are 32-bit floating point for faster processing and high-quality sound
reproduction. Many effects now support 64-bit processing for pristine
quality.
Web Authoring
SONAR is the ideal tool for developing and producing music and sound for
the World Wide Web, because it lets you save your work in the formats that
are most commonly used on web sites: MIDI, MP3, and Windows Media
Advanced Streaming Format. Any SONAR project—musical composition,
audio clip, commercial spot, jingle with voice-over—can be stored in a webcompatible format with a few simple mouse clicks.
Film and Video Scoring and Production
SONAR has many of the tools you need to execute audio post-production
projects quickly and efficiently. SONAR provides chase lock sync to time
code for frame-by-frame accuracy when synchronizing audio or MIDI to film
or video. Or, you can turn chase lock off to conserve CPU power. SONAR
provides high-quality time stretching and sample-accurate editing with zerocrossing detection so you can make the fine adjustments you need in
record time. In addition, SONAR’s support for video files gives you
convenient synchronized access to digitized video, making film and video
scoring easier than ever.
Flexibility
SONAR works the way you want to work—you can customize screen
layouts, toolbars, and audio and MIDI system configurations to make your
work more efficient. SONAR integrates with other sound editing tools so you
can access them in an instant without leaving SONAR.
Introduction
About SONAR
31
Computers, Sound, and Music
This section provides some background on the different ways that
computers store and play sound and music. Computers work with sound
and music in two different forms: MIDI and digital audio.
MIDI
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the way computers
communicate with most sound cards, keyboards, and other electronic
instruments. MIDI refers to both the type of cables and plugs used to
connect the computers and instruments, and to the language those
computers and instruments use to talk to each other. The MIDI standard is
accepted and used worldwide. Almost any electronic instrument you buy
today will have MIDI connectors and can be used with other MIDI
instruments and with your computer’s MIDI interface. To record MIDI in
SONAR, you have to have a MIDI cable connecting the MIDI OUT port on
your MIDI instrument to a MIDI IN port on either your sound card or your
MIDI interface. You must also have installed the software MIDI driver that
came with your sound card or MIDI interface.
The MIDI language conveys information and instructions, both from the
computer to the instrument and from the instrument to the computer. For
example, if your computer wants your keyboard to play a note, it sends a
MIDI “Note On” message and tells the keyboard which note to play. When
your computer wants the keyboard to stop playing that note, it sends
another message that stops the note from playing.
The MIDI language has many other instructions, such as messages to
change the sound that is used to play the notes (the bank and patch),
messages used to work the sustain pedal and the pitch-bend wheel, and
others. By sending the right messages at the right times, your computer can
control your electronic instrument and make it play music.
MIDI information can be sent on 16 different channels. You can set up your
MIDI equipment to listen for messages on all channels or on only a few.
MIDI files contain all the MIDI messages and timing information that are
needed to play a song. MIDI files can be read and played by many different
programs, including SONAR, and can even be played by programs on other
types of computers. MIDI files have the extension .MID.
There are several important advantages of the MIDI format:
32
•
Large amounts of music can be stored in a very compact form
•
Different parts of a piece can easily be assigned to any instrument you
Introduction
Computers, Sound, and Music
can imagine
•
The music contains information on notes, tempos, and key signatures
that makes it possible to display and edit the piece using standard
musical notation
The primary disadvantage of MIDI is that the quality of the sound a listener
hears will vary depending on the MIDI equipment the listener is using. For
example, MIDI usually sounds much better on an expensive synthesizer
than it does on an inexpensive sound card.
Digital Audio
Digital audio (frequently referred to here as just “audio”) is a simple way to
record and play sounds of any type. It works like a tape recorder—you
record something, then later play it back. Digital audio stores the sound as a
long series of numbers. To record audio in SONAR, you have to have an
audio cable connecting the audio output of your electronic instrument to the
audio input on your sound card or audio hardware. If you’re recording
vocals or an acoustic instrument, you need to connect a microphone to the
audio input on your sound card or audio hardware.
Sound Waves
Sound waves are vibrations in the air. Sound waves are generated by
anything that vibrates; a vibrating object causes the air next to it to vibrate,
and the vibration is passed through the air in all directions. When the
vibrating air enters your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a
sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the
microphone to vibrate and send electrical signals to whatever it's connected
to.
These vibrations are very fast. The slowest vibration frequency you can
hear is about 20 vibrations per second, and the fastest is around 16,000 to
20,000 vibrations per second.
Recording Digital Audio
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal
generated by a microphone, an electric guitar, or another source. At equal
intervals of time (for CD-quality sound, this means 44,100 times a second),
the computer measures and saves the strength of the electrical signal from
the microphone, on a scale from 0 to 65,535.
That's it. Digital audio data is just a long series of numbers. The computer
sends these numbers, in the form of electrical signals, to a speaker. The
speaker then vibrates and generates the same sound that was recorded.
Introduction
Computers, Sound, and Music
33
The primary advantage of digital audio is the quality of the sound. Unlike
MIDI, a digital audio recording is very rich, capturing all the nuances,
overtones, and other characteristics of the sound exactly as performed. The
main drawback of digital audio is that it takes up a lot of disk space. To
record a 1-minute segment of stereo, CD-quality digital audio, you need
about 10 megabytes of disk space.
On the PC, digital audio is usually stored in Wave files (extension .wav).
There are many programs available that let you create, play, and edit these
files. SONAR reads, writes, and lets you edit Wave files.
Setup
You can install SONAR on any computer that runs Windows XP or x64 and
has a sound card or built-in sound module. If you want to hook up other
devices, like a MIDI keyboard, an electric guitar, or a microphone, you need
the right cables, and you need to find the right connectors on your
computer.
Before you install SONAR, take a minute to register the software so we can
let you know when updates become available and provide you with
technical support. To register anytime log onto http://www.cakewalk.com/
register, or call 888-CAKEWALK (U.S.) or +(617)-423-9004 (outside the
U.S.) between 9 AM and 8 PM Eastern Standard Time. If you live outside of
North America, please visit our distributor’s page at www.cakewalk.com/
Dealers/International.asp to get the telephone number of your local
distributor. You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid
email address.
To connect a MIDI keyboard to your computer, you need standard MIDI
cables or a MIDI adapter cable (joystick connector), such as the one
available in Cakewalk’s PC Music Pack. One end of the adapter cable
should have two 5-pin DIN connectors that connect to your keyboard or
other MIDI device. At the other end, you need a 15-pin connector to
connect to a sound card through its MIDI/joystick port.
If you have a dedicated MIDI interface, lots of electronic music gear, or work
with many different music software packages, see see the online help topic
“Hardware Setup.”
Before you attach or detach any cables from your computer, you should
shut down your computer and turn off the power to all your equipment. This
greatly reduces the chance of electrical damage to your equipment while
plugging and unplugging cables.
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Introduction
Setup
Audio Connections
There are several types of audio interfaces (soundcards). CardBus (PCI),
USB/USB2 and FireWire are the most common. Laptops can use an audio
PCMCIA card. Many audio interfaces also have MIDI inputs and some have
built in MIDI synthesizers as well. This section covers the various audio
connection options.
Analog and Digital Inputs
There are two basic types of audio inputs, analog and digital. Analog inputs
allow you to connect a guitar, mic or other instrument to your computer
directly. The audio interface converts the analog input to digital. Digital
inputs allow other digital devices to connect directly to your computer.
Common digital inputs include external analog to digital converters, popular
guitar processors like the Line6 Pod, and other digital recording systems
like the ADAT decks. Analog inputs are very common, and are standard in
virtually all consumer sound cards (the ones that come with your PC).
Digital inputs are becoming more popular and are very common on
professional and mid-level, “prosumer” interfaces. Analog inputs allow you
to record a mono or stereo signal (assuming you have a stereo input) while
digital inputs allow you to record 1 to 8 signals depending on the type of
digital connection.
The following table describes the various analog inputs and outputs:
Type of analog input/
output...
Description…
Balanced (XLR, phono or RCA)
a mono input/output
Unbalanced (TRS)
a stereo or mono input/output
The following table describes the various digital inputs and outputs:
Introduction
Setup
35
Type of digital input/
output...
Description…
S/PDIF
Sony/Philips Digital Interface—capable
of carrying a stereo signal, S/PDIF is
transmitted via RCA, Toslink or more
rarely BNC jacks (single-pin cable-TV
connections)
ADAT Lightpipe
Up to 8 channels of simultaneous
transfer. If you want to import your old
ADAT material without any signal
degradation, this is the connection you
should use.
TDIF
Tascam Digital Interface—up to 8
channels of simultaneous transfer.
AES/EBU
Often referred to as simply AES, this
type of digital connection uses a
modified XLR cable to transfer a stereo
signal.
Read your hardware documentation carefully to determine what kind of
digital connections, if any, you have on your audio interface.
To Connect an Electric Guitar or Keyboard to Your
Computer
•
If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that
come with your PC usually do), plug your 1/4” mono guitar or audio
cable into a 1/8” stereo adapter, and then plug the 1/8” adapter into the
microphone input or line input jack on your computer sound card. If you
are connecting a keyboard, the audio cable must go from the
keyboard’s audio out or line out jack to the sound card input jack. 1/8”
stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic supply stores.
Or
•
36
If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a
1/4 inch input jack on your sound card or audio hardware interface that
you can plug your guitar cable or audio cable into.
Introduction
Setup
To Connect a Microphone to Your Computer
•
If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that
come with your PC usually do), and your microphone cable has a 1/4”
plug on the end, plug the mic cable into a 1/8” stereo adapter, and then
plug the 1/8” adapter into the microphone input jack on your computer
sound card. 1/8” stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic
supply stores.
•
If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a
1/4 inch input jack on your sound card or audio hardware interface that
you can plug your mic cable into.
•
If your mic has a cable with an XLR plug on the end, and your sound
card or audio hardware interface has a 1/4 inch input jack, plug the mic
cable into an XLR-to-quarter inch adapter, and then plug your mic cable
into your audio hardware. If your audio hardware has an XLR input, of
course it’s better to use that.
•
You can also plug your mic into a mixer or pre-amp, and connect the
mixer or pre-amp to an input jack on your audio hardware. This is
usually the best method.
That's it! Now that your instruments are all set to go, you can restart your
computer and turn on your keyboard, guitar, and microphone.
For a complete description of audio input options, see the online help topic
MIDI Connections
There are three types of MIDI cables in common use. Here’s how to
connect each of the three types:
•
USB cable—this is extremely common. Many electronic keyboards and
stand-alone MIDI interfaces use this type of connection. To use this
type of connection, simply plug one end of the USB cable into the USB
jack on your MDI keyboard or stand-alone MIDI interface, and plug the
other end into your computer. If you are using a stand-alone USB MIDI
interface, you then need to connect standard MIDI cables between your
MIDI keyboard and your stand-alone MIDI interface (see the next
procedure, below). If you haven’t already installed the software MIDI
driver that came with your keyboard or interface, make sure you do so.
•
Standard MIDI cable—this is extremely common, also. MIDI keyboards
usually have jacks for these cables even if they have a USB connection.
You need two of these cables. To use this type of cable, use one cable
to connect the MIDI OUT jack on your MIDI instrument to the MIDI IN
jack on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card, and one to
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Setup
37
connect the MIDI IN jack on your MIDI instrument to the MIDI OUT jack
on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card. Many stand-alone
MIDI interfaces and audio interfaces use this type of connector.
Standard MIDI cable—use this if your MIDI
interface has standard 5-pin input and output ports
•
Joystick connector—this is becoming less common. This is the type of
connection seen on older SoundBlaster type sound cards. To use this
type of connection, find the end of one of the MIDI cables that is labeled
OUT. Plug this connector into the MIDI IN jack on your electronic
keyboard. The other 5-pin connector on the MIDI cable is labeled IN.
Plug this connector into the MIDI OUT jack on your electronic
keyboard. Plug the 15-pin connector on the MIDI cable into the MIDI/
joystick port on your sound card. If you have a joystick, unplug it, plug in
the MIDI cable, and plug the joystick into the pass-through connector
on the MIDI cable.
Joystick connector—use this if your MIDI interface
is the joystick port on your sound card.
Insert this MIIDI IN plug into
the MIDI OUT port on your
MIDI instrument
Insert this plug into the joystick port
on your sound card
Insert this MIIDI OUT plug
into the MIDI IN port on your
MIDI instrument
38
Introduction
Setup
Starting SONAR
There are many different ways to start SONAR. Here are a few:
•
Double-click the SONAR icon on your desktop.
•
Click the Start button, and choose Programs-Cakewalk-SONAR 6
(Studio Edition or Producer Edition)-SONAR 6 (Studio Edition or
Producer Edition).
•
Click the Start button, point to Documents, and choose a SONAR
project from the menu.
•
Double-click the SONAR program or any SONAR document from the
Windows Explorer or the Find menu.
When you start SONAR, you see the Quick Start dialog box.
The Quick Start dialog box has several options:
Option...
How to use it…
Open a Project
Choose a project from the Open File
dialog box to open it
Open a Recent Project
Select a project from the list, and click
this button to open it
Introduction
Starting SONAR
39
Create a New Project
Click here to create a new project.
Getting Started
Click here to view the Getting Started
topic in the help file. This topic has
links to a glossary of terms, as well as
some basic procedures.
If you don’t want to see the Quick Start dialog box in the future, uncheck the
box at the bottom of the dialog box, and click Close. You can see the Quick
Start dialog box later by choosing Help-Quick Start.
Migrating Preferences
If you have a previous version of Cakewalk installed, SONAR will detect it
and give you the option of migrating certain preferences from a single
earlier version.
When you choose to migrate preferences, SONAR migrates the following
settings from an earlier Cakewalk version:
Setting...
Description…
Global Options
Settings in the Global Options dialog.
Open by selecting Options-Global.
Key Bindings
Your customized key bindings for
controlling SONAR using your MIDI
keyboard or computer keyboard.
Instrument Definitions
Files used to control specific MIDI
instruments.
Audio data directory (WaveData
folder) and Picture Cache
directory locations
SONAR uses the Data directory and
Picture Cache directories from the
previous Cakewalk version for storing
project wave files and their waveform
image files.
Running Wave Profiler
The first time you start SONAR, it automatically runs the Wave Profiler
utility. Wave Profiler determines the proper MIDI and Audio timings for your
sound card and writes them to a file that SONAR refers to when using the
40
Introduction
Starting SONAR
card. Wave Profiler does not change the sound card’s DMA, IRQ, or port
address settings.
Wave Profiler detects the make and model of your sound card, which
determine the card’s audio characteristics. If Wave Profiler finds a card that
has a WDM driver, it only profiles that card. If you want to use more than
one sound card at a time, and they don’t both have WDM drivers, you must
force the one with the WDM driver to use that driver as an older, MME
driver. It is not necessary to run the Wave Profiler for a sound card using an
ASIO driver. For more information about Wave Profiler, WDM, and MME,
see the online help topic “The Wave Profiler.” When Wave Profiler
determines the kind of card you have, always accept the default settings.
Note:
You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if
you install a new sound card or driver) by choosing the OptionsAudio General tab command and clicking Wave Profiler.
Setting Up the MIDI In and MIDI Out Devices
When you start SONAR for the first time, it checks your computer to find all
the MIDI input and output devices you have installed (such as sound cards
and MIDI interfaces). However, sometimes you need to tell SONAR exactly
which devices you want it to use. If you’re not getting sound from your
sound card or MIDI keyboard, or if you just want to change the MIDI outputs
and devices that you are using, follow the steps in this section.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open a dialog box in which you select the
MIDI In and MIDI Out devices that SONAR will use. Each item in the list is a
MIDI Input or MIDI Output from drivers installed using the Windows Control
Panel.
Introduction
Starting SONAR
41
1. Select Options-MIDI Devices. You will see the MIDI Devices dialog
box, which lets you choose instruments on MIDI inputs and outputs.
Devices selected for MIDI input
Devices selected for MIDI output
Device not
selected for MIDI
output
Click here to
change order of
MIDI devices
2. Look at the left window. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Inputs;
make sure that all devices in this window are highlighted. If a device
isn’t highlighted, click on it once to select it for MIDI Input.
3. Look at the window on the right. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI
Outputs. SONAR numbers its MIDI Outputs by the order of the devices
in this window. The device on top is on Output 1, the one below it is on
Output 2, and so on.
4. Highlight one device at a time in the Outputs window and click Move
Selected Devices to Top to change its order. Then highlight all the
devices that appear in the window to select them for output.
Tip!
Be sure to enable (highlight) MIDI output devices in the MIDI
Devices dialog (use the Options-MIDI Devices command). If you
don’t do this, you won’t hear any of your MIDI instruments when
you play songs in SONAR.
Using MIDI Devices After Making Driver Changes
If you later add or remove drivers using the Drivers icon of the Windows
Control Panel, SONAR reacts in the following way:
•
42
If you remove a Control Panel driver, SONAR will not use the device it
belongs to the next time you run the program. Any other devices you
had selected using the Options-MIDI Devices command will remain
Introduction
Starting SONAR
selected.
•
If you add a driver through the Control Panel, SONAR does not
automatically use it. You must use the Options-MIDI Devices
command to enable the new driver in SONAR’s list.
Note:
After you add or remove a driver with the Drivers icon in the
Windows Control Panel, you must restart Windows for the
change to take effect.
Defining Your MIDI Instrument or Sound Card
Once you have selected your MIDI Input and Output devices, SONAR, by
default, plays back MIDI sequences using a General MIDI instrument
definition. If you are using a synthesizer or sound card that does not adhere
to the General MIDI standard, you may want to define that instrument. See
the online help topic: Instrument Definitions for more information.
SONAR Basics
SONAR’s menus and toolbars give you quick access to all the features of
SONAR. Some menu choices and tools display dialog boxes that let you
choose among various options, or type in the values you want. If you click in
most views, in time rulers, or on certain other items with the right mouse
button, you see a popup menu that provides quick access to many common
operations.
The project is the center of your work in SONAR. If you’re a musician, a
project might contain a song, a jingle, or a movement of a symphony. If
you’re a post-production engineer, a project might contain a 30-second
radio commercial or a lengthy soundtrack for a film or videotape production.
By default, every project is stored in a file (known as a project file). The
normal file extension for a SONAR work file is .CWP.
SONAR organizes the sound and music in your project into tracks, clips,
and events.
Tracks are used to store the sound or music made by each instrument or
voice in a project. For example, a song that is arranged for four instruments
and one vocalist may have 5 tracks—one for each instrument and one for
the vocals. Each project can have an unlimited number of tracks. Some of
Introduction
SONAR Basics
43
these tracks may be used in your finished project, while others can hold
alternate takes, backup tracks, and variations that you might want to keep
for future use. Each track can be made up of one or many clips.
Clips are the pieces of sound and music that make up your tracks. A clip
might contain a horn solo, a drum break, a bass or guitar riff, a voice-over, a
sound effect like the hoot of an owl, or an entire keyboard performance. A
track can contain a single clip or dozens of different clips, and you can
easily move clips from one track to another.
Groove clips are audio clips which have tempo and pitch information
embedded within them, allowing them to follow changes to the project
tempo or project pitch. You can click on either edge of a Groove clip and
drag out repetitions in the track.
Events are MIDI data (in MIDI tracks) or automation data.
SONAR File Types
Projects in SONAR can be saved as a project file with the extension .CWP or
as a Bundle file with the extension .CWB.
For a complete description of the differences between project files and
bundle files, see the online help topic Project Files and Bundle Files.
Other Types of Files
SONAR lets you create and work with several other types of files, in
addition to project (.CWP) and bundle (.CWB) files that store your projects:
44
File type…
Description…
MIDI files (extension .MID)
Standard MIDI files.
Template files (extension .TPL)
Templates for new files you create
StudioWare (extension
.CAKEWALKSTUDIOWARE)
To control external MIDI devices from
SONAR
OMF (extension .OMF)
Open Media Framework format files.
Introduction
SONAR Basics
Opening a File
Use the following procedure to open a file.
To Open a File in SONAR
1. If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2. Choose File-Open.
3. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory where the project you
want to open is located and select it.
4. Click the Open button.
5. If you are opening an OMF file, the Unpack OMF dialog appears. Set
the initial tempo and specify the directory where you want to save the
file and its audio. For more information about opening OMF files, see
Unpack OMF dialog in the online help.
SONAR loads the project.
Views
SONAR displays your project in windows on the screen that are known as
views. You can have many views open at once, all showing the same
project. When you edit a project in one view, the other related views are
updated automatically.
The Track View
The Track view is the main window that you use to create, display, and
work with a project. When you open a project file, SONAR displays the
Track view for the project. When you close the Track view for a project,
SONAR closes the file.
The Track view is divided into several sections: toolbars (at the top), the
Navigator pane, the Video Thumbnails pane (Producer Edition only), the
Track pane, the Track/Bus Inspector, the Clips pane, and the Bus pane.
You can change the size of the panes by dragging the vertical or horizontal
splitter bars that separate them.
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SONAR Basics
45
The Track pane
The Clips pane
Clips
Expanded
track
Minimized
tracks
Track/Bus Inspector
Show/hide bus pane
Splitter bars
All of the current track’s controls, plus a few that are only available in the
Console view, are contained in the Track/Bus Inspector which is an
expanded version of the current track’s controls located on the far left side
of the Track view. You can hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector by
pressing i on your keyboard (see “Track/Bus Inspector” on page 48, for
more information).
The Track pane lets you see and change the initial settings for each track.
By default, the current track is displayed in gold. To change the current
track, move the highlight using the mouse or the keyboard as follows:
46
Key…
What it does…
Left/Right Arrow
Moves the highlight to the next or
previous control.
Introduction
SONAR Basics
Up/Down Arrow
Moves to the same control in the
adjacent track, or the next track of the
same type if the control only applies to
a specific track type (for example, the
Patch control only applies to MIDI
tracks).
Page Down
Displays the next page of tracks.
Page Up
Displays the previous page of tracks.
Home
Moves the focus to the first track.
End
Moves the focus to the last track.
The current track’s controls are contained in the Track/Bus Inspector.
The Clips pane shows the clips in your project on a horizontal timeline
called the Time Ruler that helps you visualize how your project is organized.
Clips contain markings that indicate their contents. The Clips pane lets you
select, move, cut and copy clips from place to place to change the
arrangement of music and sound in your project.
The Bus pane shows the buses in the project, and also shows any editing
views that are in tabbed (docked) format. The Show/Hide Bus pane button
allows you to show or hide the Bus pane at the bottom of the Track view.
The Navigator pane displays a large part of your project so you can see an
overview of your song. The Navigator pane displays all of your project’s
tracks.
The Track view makes it easy to select tracks, clips, and ranges of time in a
project. These are the most common selection methods:
To…
Do this…
Select tracks
Click on the track number, or drag over
several track numbers
Select clips
Click on the clip, or drag a rectangle
around several clips
Select time ranges
Drag in the Time Ruler, or click
between two markers
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SONAR Basics
47
Select partial clips
Hold down the Alt key while dragging
over a clip
As with most other Windows programs, you can also use the Shift-click and
Ctrl-click combinations when selecting tracks and clips. Holding the Shift
key while you click adds tracks or clips to the current selection. Holding the
Ctrl key while you click lets you toggle the selection status of tracks or clips.
Track/Bus Inspector
The Track/Bus Inspector makes it easy to adjust the current track’s (or
bus’s) controls, because it’s a greatly expanded version of the current
track’s controls that is located on the left side of the Track pane.
In addition to the controls that a track or bus displays in the Track view, the
Track/Bus Inspector also contains a built-in 4-band EQ. See the online help
topic “Using the Per-track EQ” for more information.
To do this…
Do this…
Hide or show the Track/Bus
Inspector
Press i on your keyboard.
Display a certain track’s or bus’s
controls in the Track/Bus Inspector
Click the track or bus to make it current, or
choose the track or bus in the track/bus
dropdown menu that’s at the bottom of the
Track/Bus Inspector.
Assign a control to a group, arm it for
automation, take an automation
snapshot, or set up remote control
Right-click the control and choose options
from the popup menu.
Bypass the FX bin
Right-click the FX bin and choose Bypass
Bin from the popup menu.
The Console View
The Console view is where you can mix the sounds on all the different
tracks to create the final mix of your project. While the Track view provides
most of the same controls, you may want to use the more familiar interface
of the Console view for mixing.
You use the Console view to adjust the levels of sound for the different
tracks in your project, to change the stereo panning, and to apply real-time
effects to an individual track, combinations of tracks, or the final mix.
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Introduction
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The Console view contains several groups of controls. There is one module
for each track in your project, and one module for each bus. You can use
bus sends to direct certain tracks to special modules that are known as
buses.
Audio module
MIDI module
MIDI velocity
Bus out
Main out
Show/hide
for tracks,
buses,
mains
Widen all strips
Show/hide strip controls buttons
As in the Track view, you can change track settings or record new music or
sound in the Console view. You may choose to use one view or the other, or
the choice you make may depend on which project you are working on.
Other Views
SONAR has a number of other views you can use to display and work on
your project. To display these views, select one or more tracks, by Ctrlclicking their track numbers and:
•
Click the icon for the view in the Views toolbar
Or
•
Choose the view you want from the View menu
The Piano Roll view
: shows the notes from a MIDI track or tracks as
they would appear on a player-piano roll. You can move the notes around,
make them longer or shorter, and change their pitches by just dragging
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49
them with the mouse. You can also use the Piano Roll view to display and
edit MIDI velocity, controllers, and other types of information. The Piano
Roll view also contains the Drum Editor, which allows you to “paint” drum
patterns using the Pattern Brush tool and play different drum modules from
a single track.
The Staff view
: displays the notes from one or more MIDI tracks using
standard music notation, similar to the way the notation would appear on a
printed page. You can add, edit, or delete notes; create percussion parts;
add guitar chords and other notation markings; display guitar tablature;
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Introduction
SONAR Basics
display the Fretboard pane; and print whole scores or individual parts to
share with other musicians.
Dynamics and markings
Time and
pitch locator
Editing tools
Zoom Snap grid
Show/hide
track pane
Fretboard display
Track list
pane
Fretboard pane
The Loop Construction view
: allows you to create and edit Groove
clips (SONAR loops that “know” the tempo and key in which they were
recorded), and export these clips as ACIDized files.
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SONAR Basics
51
The Loop Explorer view
: allows you to preview ACIDized files and
other Wave files; and drag and drop them into your project.
The Event List view : displays the events in a project individually, so that
you can make changes at a very detailed level.
SONAR has several other views that are used for very specific purposes:
52
View…
How you use it…
Meter/Key
To change the meter (time signature)
or key signature, or to insert changes
in the meter or key signature at
specific times in a project.
Big Time
To display the Now time in a large,
resizable font that you can read more
easily.
Introduction
SONAR Basics
Markers
To add, move, rename, or delete labels
for parts of your project that make it
easier to move from one point to
another.
Lyrics
To add and display lyrics for a track.
Video
To display a loaded video file.
Synth Rack
Manage your soft synths
Navigator
Manage the Now Time in a project
Surround Panner
version only)
(Producer
Pan a surround track
Sysx
To create, display, store, and edit
System Exclusive MIDI messages
used to control instruments and other
gear that are MIDI capable.
Tempo
To view and edit the project's tempo
changes.
Zoom Controls
Many of the views contain Zoom tools that let you change the horizontal and
vertical scale of the view:
Zoom Clips pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane
Zoom Clips pane in vertically
Zoom Bus pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane
Zoom in horizontally
Zoom out horizontally
Horizontal zoom fader
The Track view toolbar contains the Zoom tool:
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53
The zoom tools are used as described in the following table:
Tool…
How you use it…
Zoom out (Clips pane or Bus
pane)
Click to zoom out incrementally, or
press Shift and click to zoom all the
way out
Zoom in (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom in incrementally, or press
Shift and click to zoom all the way in
Zoom fader
Click and drag to zoom continuously
Zoom tool
Click to arm, then click and drag in the
view to select the zoom area. Click the
dropdown arrow to display a menu of
zoom and view options.
You can also zoom with the keyboard:
54
Key…
What it does…
Ctrl+up arrow
Zoom out vertically
Ctrl+down arrow
Zoom in vertically
Ctrl+right arrow
Zoom in horizontally
Ctrl+left arrow
Zoom out horizontally
G
Go to (center) the Now time, without
zooming
Hold down Z
Arm the Zoom tool
U
Undo the current zoom
F
Fit tracks to window
A
Show all tracks
Shift+F
Fit project to window
Shift+Double Click a clip
Maximize track height
Introduction
SONAR Basics
Docking Views
You can dock any view other than the Console view in the lower-right corner
of the Track view by enabling a view’s Enable Tabbed option. You can have
as many views open in tabbed format as you want. You can toggle through
the different views by clicking the tab of the view you want to see (or use the
Ctrl+Shift+Left/Right Arrow shortcut). You can also maximize the pane to do
detailed work in a view, or drag the splitter bar at the top of the view to
enlarge the tabbed view area. For step-by-step instructions, see the
procedures below.
Scroll left or right to view tabs
Active view
Tabs
Maximize pane
To do this…
Do this…
Display a view in tabbed
format
Click the upper left corner of a view,
and choose Enable Tabbed from the
popup menu
Disable tabbed format
for a view
Right-click the view’s tab, and choose
Disable Tabbed from the popup
menu.
Enable or disable
tabbed format for all
open views
Use the View-Enable Tabbing for
Open Views command.
Maximize a tabbed view
Click the Maximize/Restore button
that’s just to the left of the tabs.
Restore tabbed view
Click the Restore button
that’s in
the lower left corner of the view that
you’re restoring.
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Close a View that is in
Tabbed Format
Right-click the view’s tab, and choose
Close from the popup menu
Locking Views
By default SONAR allows only one instance of each view, but you can lock
the contents of most views, preserving the current view by forcing a new
instance of the view to appear if necessary. Locking views is the only way
you can have multiple instances of the same view open. Only the Track and
Console views cannot be locked.
To lock a view, just click the lock button at the top right of the view. An
unlocked view looks like this , and a locked view looks like this . A view
can be locked automatically by pressing the Ctrl key when opening the
view.
Floating Views
When a view is float enabled, you can move it outside of the confines of
SONAR. This is particularly useful if you take advantage of SONAR’s dual
monitor support. Using dual monitor support, you can keep the Track or
Console view on one monitor and “float” other views to the other monitor by
dragging them to the second screen.
For more information, see the online help topic “Floating Views and Dual
Monitor Support.”
Customizable Menus
All main menus and context menus are customizable. You can fine-tune
your workflow by hiding menu items that are rarely used and reordering
commands that you use frequently. You can even design and save menu
layouts specific to different tasks.
Caution: you can move commands completely out of their default menus.
For example, you can move commands out of the Edit menu into the
Process menu. Keep in mind that this manual describes commands by their
original menu locations, so if you’re looking for help about the ProcessNudge command, and you’ve moved the Nudge command to the Edit
menu, the documentation for this command will still refer to the command
as Process-Nudge. You can always load the default menu layout to restore
the original command structure.
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•
To open the Menu Editor dialog, choose Options-Menu Editor.
•
In the Menu Editor dialog, to choose a menu to edit, select one from the
Menu dropdown list.
Introduction
SONAR Basics
To do this…
Do this…
Hide items in a menu
Click a Menu Item (Ctrl-click to select
multiple items) and press the Hide
button.
The hidden command(s) will only be
visible in the submenu that is
automatically created at the bottom of
the menu. You can display the
submenu by clicking one of the
arrows at the bottom of the menu.
Show items in a menu
Click a Menu Item (Ctrl-click to select
multiple items) and press the Show
button.
The command(s) will reappear in its
original location.
Reorder items in a
menu
Click and drag Menu Items up or
down to change their position in the
menu order.
Note that you can click and drag
Menu Items in and out of submenus
as well.
Create a new submenu
Right-click an item in the Menu Items
list and select Create Submenu.
That item will now appear in its own
new submenu.
Or
Select one or more items from the list
and press the Create New button in
the Submenus section of the dialog.
Rename a Menu Item or
submenu
Right-click a Menu Item or submenu
and select Rename, then enter a new
name.
Or
Select a Menu Item and press F2,
then enter a new name.
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57
Create a new separator
bar
Right-click a Menu Item and select
Insert Separator.
The separator bar will appear above
the Menu Item you right-clicked.
Remove a submenu or
separator bar
Right-click the a submenu or
separator and select Remove
Submenu or Remove Separator.
Save a new menu
layout
Enter an new name into the Menu
Layout field and press the Save
button.
Delete an existing menu
layout
Select the menu layout you wish to
delete and press the Delete button
Edit a menu layout
Launch the Menu Editor and choose
the menu layout you wish to edit from
the dropdown menu, then make your
changes.
Load a different menu
layout
Launch the Menu Editor and choose
a different Menu Layout from the
dropdown menu, then close the
dialog.
OR
Use the Options-Menu Layouts
command, and select a layout from
the available options.
Note 1: Keep in mind that the factory default menu layout cannot be
overwritten. If you want to change this layout, save your changes under a
new layout name.
Note 2: If you change your menu layout so much that you can’t find some
commands, you can always load the factory default menu layout.
Altering your menus may affect your menus’ hotkeys, which allow you to
navigate through the application’s menus without using a mouse. You can
view the hotkeys in your menus by pressing Alt and observing the
underlined letters. Pressing the underlined letter on your keyboard will
launch that menu command. In order to ensure you have no duplicates
hotkeys in your customized menu, do the following.
1. Launch the Menu Editor and select the menu or submenu you wish to
check for duplicate hotkeys. Right-click the Menu Item and select
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Check Hotkeys. The Menu Editor will then report back if duplicate
hotkeys are found, or if a command has no hotkey at all. Note: the
Check Hotkeys command examines only commands on the menu that
you right-clicked, at the menu level that you right-clicked. It does not
examine submenus of that menu.
2. If missing or duplicate hotkeys are found, right-click again and select
Generate Hotkeys. New non-duplicate hotkeys will be assigned for
each item in that menu or submenu (but only on the menu level where
you right-clicked, not on any submenus of the menu or submenu that
you right-clicked).
Note: Hotkeys are indicated within the Menu Editor by ampersands
(“&”) in each menu item’s name. The ampersand is placed directly
before the letter that represents the menu item’s hotkey. If you wish to
assign hotkeys manually, you can do so by when you rename a hotkey
by placing the ampersand before your preferred hotkey letter for that
command or submenu.
3. If necessary, re-save your layout to preserve these changes.
Customizable Toolbars
You can customize each toolbar in SONAR. You can hide or reorder each
component of a toolbar, or add buttons to a toolbar from other toolbars. You
can create up to three new toolbars from components of other toolbars. You
can also hide or show all toolbars with a single command, and dock
toolbars vertically if you want.
•
To choose what toolbars you want to see, use the View-Toolbars
command, and check the toolbars that you want to see in the dialog
box.
•
To hide or show all toolbars, use the View-Show Toolbars command.
This command is available in the Key Bindings dialog (Options-Key
Bindings command).
To customize a toolbar:
1. Right-click the toolbar that you want to customize, and choose
Customize from the popup menu to open the Customize Toolbar
dialog.
2. In the Available Toolbar Buttons field, select a component that you want
to see in the toolbar, and click the Add button to move the component to
the Current Toolbar Buttons field.
3. Repeat step 2 for any additional components you would like to display.
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59
4. In the Current Toolbar Buttons field, select a component that you do not
want to see in the toolbar, and click the Remove button to move the
component to the Available Toolbar Buttons field.
5. Repeat step 4 for any additional components you would like to remove.
6. If you would like to move a toolbar component to a different location in
the toolbar, select the component in the Current Toolbar Buttons field,
and click the Move Up button or the Move Down button to change the
button’s location in the toolbar.
7. Repeat step 7 for any additional components.
8. If you want to restore the toolbar to its default appearance, click the
Reset button.
9. Click Close when you want to close the dialog.
To create a toolbar:
1. Use the View-Toolbars command, and check one of the User “n”
options.
A toolbar appears, with a default set of controls.
2. Right-click the toolbar, and choose Customize from the popup menu to
open the Customize Toolbar dialog.
3. Customize the toolbar the in the same way as the previous procedure.
To rename a toolbar:
1. Right-click the toolbar, and choose Rename from the popup menu to
open the Rename Toolbar dialog
2. Fill in the New Name field, and click OK.
Now when you open the Toolbars dialog, the name you chose is listed in
the dialog.
To dock or undock a toolbar:
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•
To dock a toolbar horizontally, drag it to the top or bottom of the
interface.
•
To dock a toolbar vertically, drag it to the left or right side of the
interface.
•
To undock a toolbar, drag it to the part of the interface where you want
it, or entirely away from the interface.
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SONAR Basics
Layouts
You may spend a lot of time making sure that all the views are laid out on
the screen just the way you want. When you save your work, you can save
the screen layout along with it. You can also save the layout by itself and
then use the layout with other projects. For more information, see the online
help topic “Layouts.”Key Bindings 652
Working on a Project
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project
as it develops. The Transport toolbar, shown below, contains the most
important tools and other pieces of information you’ll need to record and
play back your project.
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time. As you record or
play back a project, the Now time shows your current location in the project.
When you create a project, the Now time is set to the beginning of the
project. The current Now time is saved with your project.
You control recording and playback using tools on the Large Transport
toolbar (press F4 to show or hide), which work a lot like the ones on your
tape deck or CD player:
Play
Record
Click to move ahead one measure
Click to jump to the beginning
Click to back up one
measure
Auto-punch toggle
Drag Now Time to any desired position
Click to jump to the end
As you work with a project, you can use SONAR’s mute and solo features to
choose which tracks are played, or you can create loops to play a particular
section over and over again. You can also create markers, which are
named time points you add to your project to make it easy to jump to a
particular location.
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61
Windows Taskbar Indicators
When SONAR is running, you’ll normally see two indicators in your
Windows Taskbar, right next to the clock.
The MIDI activity monitor
contains two lights that indicate MIDI input and
output. When you play your MIDI keyboard, the first light flashes when each
note is pressed, and it flashes again when each note is released. When you
play back a project that contains MIDI, the second indicator lights up.
The volume control
is used to control the playback and record volumes
on your sound card. Double-click on this indicator to open a dialog box that
lets you control the levels for audio, MIDI, CD playback, and record.
The volume control is available only if your sound card is using a native
Windows driver. If your sound card does not use a native Windows driver,
no volume control will be displayed in the taskbar. In this case, your sound
card probably came with a separate program to control input and output
levels. See your sound card documentation for more information.
Screen Colors and Wallpaper
SONAR lets you customize the colors that are used for virtually all parts of
the program using the Options-Colors command. This command also lets
you change the background bitmap that is displayed in the SONAR window.
For any SONAR screen element, you can assign a color in two ways:
•
Choose one of the colors that is part of your Windows color scheme.
•
Assign a custom color.
To Assign Custom Colors
1. Choose Options-Colors to display the Configure Colors dialog box.
2. Choose the screen element whose color you want to change from the
Screen Element list.
3. Assign a color to the screen element in one of two ways:
•
To use a color from the Windows color scheme, choose one of the
options in the Follow System Color list
•
To use a custom color, check Use Specific Color, click the Choose
Color button, and select the color you want
4. To save these changes from session to session, check the Save
Changes for Next Session box.
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Windows Taskbar Indicators
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR uses the colors you have chosen.
To Restore the Default Colors
1. Choose Options-Colors to display the Configure Colors dialog box.
2. In the Screen Elements window, select the elements that you want to
restore; you can Ctrl-click or Shift-click to select multiple elements.
3. Click the Defaults button.
4. Click OK.
SONAR uses the default colors for all selected screen elements.
To Change the Wallpaper
1. Choose Options-Colors to display the Configure Colors dialog box.
2. Choose the desired wallpaper according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Use the default
wallpaper
Check Default in the Wallpaper list
Not use any wallpaper
Check None in the Wallpaper list
Use a custom bitmap
Check Custom, choose a bitmap, and
click Open
3. Click OK when you are done.
Starting to Use SONAR
This chapter has provided you with an overview of SONAR and basic
information on how to install the software and configure your system. To get
started with SONAR, try the Tutorials in Chapter 2.
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Starting to Use SONAR
63
Installing SONAR
SONAR is easy to install. All you need to do is choose the folder where the
program and sample project files should be stored.Before you start, make
sure you have your serial number handy. Your serial number is located on
the back of your CD case.
Installation note: If you choose to not install the Sample files, you will not
have the necessary content to use the tutorials in Chapter 2.
To Install SONAR
1. Start your computer.
2. Close any open programs you have running.
3. Place the SONAR installation disc in your disc drive.
If you have autorun enabled, the SONAR AutoRun menu opens
automatically, showing you a dialog box with several buttons. If autorun
is not enabled, you can open the SONAR AutoRun menu by selecting
Start-Run and entering d:\AutoRun.exe (where d:\ is your disc drive).
4. Click the Install SONAR button.
Note:
If you exit Setup without completing the installation, choose StartRun, type D:\AutoRun.exe (where D:\ is your CD-ROM drive), and
click OK. This will reopen the AutoRun window, and you can click
Install to start installation again.
5. Follow the installation instructions on the screen.
You can also install SONAR by choosing Start-Run and running the
application named SETUP.EXE from the CD.
Uninstalling SONAR
When you installed SONAR, the setup program placed an Uninstall icon in
the Start menu. To uninstall SONAR, click the Start button and choose
Programs-Cakewalk-SONAR 6 (Studio Edition or Producer Edition)Uninstall SONAR 6.
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Installing SONAR
Tutorials
Now that you’ve learned some of the basics, it’s time to
put that knowledge to work. These tutorials will give you
some hands-on practice in playing, recording, and
mixing your projects.
Note:
If, during installation, you chose in the Select
Components dialog not to install the Tutorials folder (part
of the Sample files), you will not have access to the sample
tutorial files needed to follow the tutorials in this chapter. If
you didn’t install these files, insert your product CD and copy the
files to your hard drive.
In This Chapter
Tutorial 1—The Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Tutorial 5—Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Tutorial 7—Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Tutorial 1—The Basics
The first tutorial teaches you the basics of SONAR. You'll learn how to:
•
Open and play a project file
•
Make the project repeat automatically
•
Use markers
•
Speed or slow the tempo
•
Mute a track and play a track solo
•
Change a track's instrument
•
Play a track on a MIDI instrument
If you have not already done so, please read at the very least “MIDI” on
page 32, “Digital Audio” on page 33“Digital Audio” on page 33, and “Setup”
on page 34 in the Introduction chapter. If you have little or no experience
with music software, read the Beginner’s Guide to Cakewalk Software in
the online help. If you have time, also read the Introduction chapter for
basic background information about projects, tracks, clips, the Track view,
and the Console view.
Opening a Project File
As you learned in Chapter 1, SONAR stores MIDI and digital audio data in
project files. The first thing you need to do is load a project file.
To Open a Project File
1. If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2. Choose File-Open.
3. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory in which you installed
SONAR, double-click the Tutorial folder to open it and select the file
TUTORIAL1.CWP.
4. Click the Open button.
SONAR loads the project and opens the Track view. Feel free to move and
resize the Track view to better fit your screen.
Preparing for Playback
Before you can play a project, you must choose the outputs for both MIDI
sounds and audio sounds. By choosing the outputs, you are telling SONAR
from which outputs you want to hear the sounds.
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Tutorial 1—The Basics
You may have a sound card with a built-in synthesizer, or a MIDI keyboard
that produces sounds. We will discuss using these with a project later on in
the tutorial. First we will explore using a software synthesizer to hear a
project’s MIDI tracks. A software synthesizer is a software program that
produces various sounds through your audio interface or sound card when
the soft synth program receives MIDI data from a MIDI controller or
sequencer program. When you insert a software synth, you need to assign
the output of the MIDI track to that software synth.
The software synthesizer itself must be routed to one of your audio outputs
in order for you to hear it. Your project might also contain audio data,
perhaps vocals, that you have recorded. To hear the audio data playing
back, you need to choose an output for the audio track that contains the
audio data. The output you choose for both the software synthesizer and
the audio data will be the one on your sound card that you have connected
to an amplifier and speakers, or to headphones.
Let’s insert a software synthesizer, Cakewalk TTS-1, to the tutorial project
file.
To Insert Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
1. Use the Insert-Soft Synths command and click Cakewalk TTS-1 on
the popup menu.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
2. In the Create These Tracks fields, deselect MIDI Source, because we
want to patch the pre-existing MIDI tracks into Cakewalk TTS-1.
3. Verify that the First Synth Audio Output option is checked. We’ll need
this track to route Cakewalk TTS-1 to our chosen audio output. The new
synth track will have Cakewalk TTS-1 already patched as an audio
input.
4. In the Open These Windows fields, select only the Synth Property
Page. This option opens Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page (interface).
5. Click OK.
SONAR opens the TTS-1 interface, and inserts a synth track that has the
Cakewalk TTS-1’s output 1 as an input. Feel free to look over the Cakewalk
TTS-1’s interface, but we will not be making any adjustments here in this
tutorial. Close the TTS-1 property page (interface) by clicking X in the
upper-right corner of the window.
Now that you have a software synthesizer available for use, you can
continue preparing the project for playback. We now need to direct our MIDI
tracks to the Cakewalk TTS-1.
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Tutorial 1—The Basics
67
To Choose MIDI Outputs for Your Project’s Tracks
1. In the Track view, click the dropdown arrow in the Output dropdown
menu in a MIDI track to display the track’s Output menu. MIDI tracks
display a MIDI icon just to the right of the track number:
MIDI icon
Restore Strip Size button
You may need to enlarge the track to show the Output control: In Track
1, click the Restore Strip Size button to expand the track. Also, you may
have to click the All tab control that’s at the bottom of the Track pane to
display all the controls in the track.
After you click the dropdown arrow in a track’s Output menu, a
dropdown menu appears, containing a list of enabled MIDI outputs.
Output menu
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Tutorials
Tutorial 1—The Basics
Dropdown arrow to
display menu
All tab control—click this to display all the track controls. Click the other tabs
to display smaller groups of controls.
2. Select the output you want to use for that track—select “Cakewalk TTS1 1 Output 1.”
3. For all the other MIDI tracks, you’ll also want to choose the “Cakewalk
TTS-1 1 Output 1” option: press the down arrow on your computer
keyboard to move the “focus rectangle” to the Output field for the next
track, press Enter to display the track’s Output menu, and choose the
Cakewalk TTS-1 again.
4. Repeat step 3 for each track.
Each MIDI track is now routed to the Cakewalk TTS-1. Next we need to
enable the audio output we’ll use to hear the sounds the software
synthesizer produces.
To Enable Audio Outputs
1. Select Options-Audio from the menu.
The Audio Options dialog box appears.
2. Click the Drivers tab in the Audio Options dialog box.
3. In the Output Drivers field, check the drivers you want enabled. All
enabled drivers appear with a checkbox filled in. Be sure to enable the
driver of the audio device connected to your speakers or headphones.
4. Click OK.
Your desired audio output will now be available for selection in your synth
track’s Output menu.
To Choose an Audio Output for your Synth Track
1. In the Track view, click the Output dropdown arrow in the Cakewalk
TTS-1 synth track. Synth tracks are distinguished by the synth icon to
the right of the track number.
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Tutorial 1—The Basics
69
Synth icon
Output dropdown arrow
2. From the Output dropdown menu, select the audio output that is
connected to your speakers or headphones.
Let's play the project!
Playing the Project
Buttons in the Large Transport toolbar, shown in the following picture, can
control most of SONAR’s basic playback functions.
If you don’t see the Large Transport toolbar, then choose Views-Toolbars
and check Transport (Large), or press F4.
Play
Record
Click to move ahead one measure
Click to jump to the beginning
Auto-punch toggle
Click to back up one
measure
Drag Now Time to any desired position
Click to jump to the end
To Start Playback
•
To play the project, click the Play button
, or press the Spacebar.
Do you hear music? If you don't hear anything, see the online help topic
called Troubleshooting for some troubleshooting tips.
The next several topics describe some playback options to give you a lot
more control over how you want to play back your project. If you want to
see a slightly more advanced tutorial about using software synthesizers,
see “Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths” on page 124. This tutorial also shows
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how to convert soft synth tracks to audio tracks, and then export your
project as a wave file. Exporting each project as a stereo wave file is how
you create audio CDs. After your projects are exported as stereo wave files,
you can use your favorite CD-burning software to make an audio CD from
the collection of wave files.
The Now Time
The Now time is the current time in the project—the time where playback is
occurring, or where playback will start up again if playback is stopped. The
Now time is indicated in the Clips pane by a vertical black line, which moves
as your project plays to indicate what part of your project is playing. When
playback is stopped, at the top of the black line you will see a green triangle.
This triangle, known as the Now time marker, represents the point at which
the Now time will snap back to after you stop playback or recording (you
can change this behavior in the Global Options dialog—select OptionsGlobal, click the General tab in the Global Options dialog, and uncheck the
On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option).
Now time marker
Now time
The Now time is also shown in the Transport toolbar, both in MBT
(measure/beat/tick) format and in time code format (hour/minute/second/
frame). During playback, the Now time increases in accordance with the
progress of the project.
You can set the Now time of the project by clicking in the Time Ruler in the
Clips pane, or (when playback is stopped) by dragging the Now time slider
in the Large Transport toolbar.
While you are playing the project, you may want to keep an eye on the Now
time. The Big Time view displays the Now time in a large font so you can
more easily see it from a distance. To open this view, choose Views-Big
Time. You can change the time format displayed in the Big Time window by
clicking on it. You can change its font by right-clicking on it.
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To Restart the Project
When SONAR gets to the end of the project, it stops. By default SONAR will
rewind to the Now Time marker after you stop playback or recording. To
play the project again, do the following:
1. If the Now time marker is at a measure other than the first, click the
Rewind button
, or press w to go back to the first measure.
2. Click the Play button, or press the Spacebar.
To Pause Playback
•
To temporarily pause playback, hit Ctrl-Spacebar. By default, hitting just
the Spacebar or Stop
or Play
will rewind the project to the Now
time marker rather than pausing at the current Now time. However, you
can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to
the current Now time when playback or recording is stopped (use the
Options-Global command; on the General tab uncheck On Stop,
Rewind to Now Marker).
Certain SONAR functions can only be used when the project is paused. If a
function or command does not seem to work, try pausing the project
For more information on the Now time and Now Time marker, see the
online help topic “The Now Time and How to Use It”.
Starting from a Marker
Markers make it easier to find certain points within the project. You may
want to set markers at the beginning of each section of your project or at
times with which some event must be synchronized. The Markers toolbar
lets you move the Now time to a marker, add a new marker at the Now time,
and edit the marker list. If you don’t see the Markers toolbar, then choose
Views-Toolbars and check Markers.
Open Markers view
Markers list
Previous
marker
Next
marker
Insert
marker
Default Groove clip pitch
The current project contains several markers. Let’s try starting playback
from the marker labeled C:
1. If the project is playing, pause playback by clicking the Stop button
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.
2. In the Current Marker dropdown menu in the Markers toolbar (the larger
dropdown menu, on the left), select the marker labeled C. The Now
time moves to the start of measure 17.
3. Click the Play button
.
You can jump to the next or previous marker by pressing Ctrl+Shift+ Page
Down or Ctrl+Shift+Page Up.
For more information on markers, see the online help topic “Creating and
Using Markers.”
Restarting the Project Automatically
Wouldn’t it be easier to practice your solo if you didn't have to restart the
project each time it ended? Rather than manually rewinding and restarting
the project, you can make SONAR automatically jump back to the
beginning and keep playing.
Looping Over the Entire Project
To control looping, use the tools in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar. If you
don’t see this toolbar, choose Views-Toolbars and check Loop.
Loop properties
Loop On/Off
Loop end time
Loop start time
Set loop to selection time
To loop over the entire project, do the following:
1. In the Loop toolbar, click the Loop Start time. The time display changes
to an edit box with spin controls.
2. To loop over the entire project, the loop must start at 1:01:000. If the
Loop Start time is not already set to 1:01:000, use the keyboard or spin
controls to enter this value. To set it to 1:01:000, click the Loop Start
time, enter 1 and press Enter.
3. In the Loop toolbar, click the Loop End time.
4. Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
5. Select the marker named <End> and click OK. The Loop End time is
set to the end of the project.
6. Click the Loop On/Off button
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to enable looping.
73
7. Click Play.
When looping is enabled, the Time Ruler displays special flag markers that
indicate the loop start and end times. You can drag these markers to
change the loop start and end times.
Loop Start
Loop End
To turn looping off, click the Loop button again.
Looping Over a Section of the Project
Maybe you would like to practice one section of the project over and over.
Or, maybe you'd like one section played repeatedly so you can practice an
extended solo. In either case, you need to set the start and end times of the
loop section. Let's have SONAR loop over the section between markers C
and D:
1. In the Loop toolbar, click on the Loop Start time.
2. Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
3. In the Markers dialog box, select marker C and click OK. The loop start
time is set to the marker time.
4. In the Loop toolbar, click on the Loop End time.
5. Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
6. In the Markers dialog box, select marker D and click OK.
7. Click the Loop On/Off button
to enable looping.
8. Click Rewind. The project rewinds to the Loop Start time.
9. Click Play.
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A quicker way of selecting the loop times in the preceding example would
be to simply click in the area between the markers at the top of the Clips
pane, then click
to copy the selection start and end times to the Loop/
Auto Shuttle toolbar.
Click here to select the portion of the project between markers C and D
Changing the Tempo
If the project is having trouble keeping up with you (or if you're having
trouble keeping up with the project!), you can easily speed up or slow down
the project since it contains only MIDI data. There are two ways to do this:
you can change the tempo, or you can change the tempo ratio, which
determines the tempo by multiplying it by a user-defined amount. The
controls for either method are found on the Tempo toolbar. If you don’t see
this toolbar, choose Views-Toolbars and check Tempo.
Drag here to move toolbar to new location
Tempo ratio 3
Insert tempo
Tempo
Tempo ratio 2
Tempo ratio 1
Setting the Tempo
Let’s pick up the pace a little. Do the following:
1. With the project playing, click on the tempo value in the Tempo toolbar.
The tempo will be highlighted and spin controls will appear.
2. Use the spin controls to increase the tempo to 100 beats per minute.
3. Press Enter. The project will play a little faster.
Changing the Tempo with the Tempo Ratio Buttons
By default, the Tempo Ratio buttons let you play the project at half or double
tempo. Try this:
1. Click Button 1
. The project slows to half its normal tempo. Note that
the displayed project tempo has not changed.
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2. Click Button 3
. The project speeds to twice its normal tempo.
3. Click Button 2
. The project returns to its normal tempo.
Note: The Tempo Ratio buttons do not function in projects containing audio
clips. Also, the clock source setting on the Clock tab of the Project Options
dialog (Options-Project command) must be set to Internal.
Setting the Tempo Ratios
Tempo ratios can be changed by Shift-clicking on them in the Tempo toolbar
and entering a new number in the dialog box. By default, tempo ratios are
set to 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00, respectively.
Advanced Tempo Control
This project is a special case in that it has only one tempo for the entire
project. If you need to vary the project’s tempo, SONAR lets you insert
tempo changes. Tempo changes can be inserted individually so that
different sections can be played at different tempos, or they can be inserted
graphically in the Tempo view. For more information, see the online help
topic 'Changing Tempos.”
Tempo ratios affect the entire project, even if there are tempo changes.
SONAR always multiplies the current tempo in the project by the tempo
ratio to determine the playback tempo.
Muting and Soloing Tracks
Muting a track causes it not to sound when you play your project. Soloing a
track mutes all the tracks except the ones that are soloed.
You can change a track’s mute or solo status while your project is playing.
Muting a Track
Frequently you will want to temporarily turn off one or more instruments in
your ensemble. SONAR makes it easy to mute the parts you don’t want to
hear.
For example, suppose that you are practicing the piano part for this project
and want to hear only the other instruments. Let’s mute the piano part. With
the project playing, do the following:
1. In the Track pane, click the Mute button
in the Piano track (track 1).
The button turns yellow, and the piano part drops out of the project.
2. To turn the piano back on, click the Mute button again.
Note that the yellow MUTE indicator lights up in the Status bar whenever a
track is muted (the Status bar is located at the bottom of the SONAR
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window). This can be very helpful if there are muted tracks that aren’t
visible.
Let's try using a different method to mute two tracks simultaneously:
1. In the Track pane, click the track number (the left-most column) of the
Piano track. The track is selected.
2. While pressing Ctrl, click the track number in the Sax track. The Piano
and Sax tracks are selected.
3. Use the Tracks-Mute command. Both tracks are muted.
You can also mute or unmute tracks by using the popup menu:
1. In the Track pane, click the track number of the Piano track.
2. While pressing Ctrl, click the track number of the Sax track. The piano
and sax tracks are selected.
3. Right-click on either track to bring up the popup menu.
4. Choose MSR-Mute (which should have a check mark beside it).
SONAR unmutes the tracks. You can also unmute all tracks by clicking the
Mute indicator on the Status bar.
Playing a Track Solo
If you want to hear one track by itself, you could mute all other tracks. But
there’s a quicker way to do it—the Solo button. For example, to play the
drum part by itself, do the following:
1. Click the Solo button
solo!
in the Drum track (track 5). Voila, a percussion
2. To let the other instruments back into the project, click the Drum track's
Solo button again.
Solo is not exclusive—you solo as many instruments as you like. Notice that
the green SOLO indicator lights up in the Status bar (located at the bottom
of the screen) whenever a track is soloed.
Let’s use a different method to solo all three percussion tracks:
1. In the Track pane, click the track number in the Drums track. The track
becomes selected.
2. While pressing Shift, click the track numbers in the Shaker and Triangle
tracks. All three percussion tracks become selected.
3. Choose Tracks-Solo.
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When you want to let the entire ensemble back into the project, click the
Solo indicator on the Status bar to unsolo all the tracks, or select all soloed
tracks and choose Tracks-Solo. As a third option, right-click, bring up the
popup menu, and turn off the solo from MSR submenu.
Note that Mute takes priority over Solo. If both buttons are enabled in a
track, the track does not play.
Mute and Solo in the Console View
The Console view contains Mute and Solo buttons identical to those in the
Track view. The two sets of buttons are synchronized. To see this, do the
following:
1. In the Console view, mute the Bass, Sax, and Drums tracks.
2. Solo the Piano track.
3. In the Track view, check that the first track is soloed and that tracks 2,
3, and 5 are muted. Click the enabled Solo and Mute buttons to return
the tracks to normal.
Changing a Track's Instrument
If the sound card synthesizer or software synthesizer you are using is like
most, it is capable of producing at least 128 different instrument sounds,
plus several dozen percussion sounds. Now you'll find out how to get some
of those other instruments into the act. Let’s try changing the instrument
playing the piano line.
Changing the Patch in the Track View
With the project playing, do the following:
1. Solo the Piano track so you can hear the piano part more clearly. To do
this, click the Solo button
in the Piano track (track 1).
2. Loop the project, or a part of the project and click Play.
3. In the Piano track in the Track pane, find the Patch control (it’s the field
just after the Bank control). Click the down arrow that is at the end of
the patch name (the patch name should be something like Acoustic
Grand Piano).
4. To change the patch, select a new patch from the menu that appears.
SONAR closes the menu and immediately starts playing the piano part
with that new instrument.
5. Have fun trying all the different patches!
6. Click the Solo button in track 1 again to unsolo the Piano track.
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You can change the patch at other times in the project besides the
beginning by using the Insert-Bank/Patch Change command:
1. Stop playback.
2. Select the track in which you want to insert a patch change by clicking
on its track number.
3. Move the Now time to the place where you want to insert the patch
change.
4. Use the Insert-Bank/Patch Change command.
The Bank/Patch Change dialog box appears.
5. Choose a patch from the Patch field and click OK.
SONAR inserts the patch change that you selected at the Now time.
6. Move the Now time to a place before the patch change and play the
project so that the Now time moves through the place where you put the
patch change. You may want to solo the track to hear it clearly.
7. Listen to the sound change when the Now time reaches the patch
change.
You may want to experiment with changing all the instruments used by the
project. One thing you should know: Changing the instrument on a
percussion track (such as the Drum, Shaker, and Triangle tracks in this
project) may have no effect. For many synths, percussion instruments are
played on MIDI channel 10, which in General MIDI is dedicated to
percussion. The note determines the instrument, and the patch is irrelevant.
Changing the Patch in the Track/Bus Inspector
You can also change a track’s patch in the Track/Bus Inspector, which is a
vertically expanded version of the current track’s controls at the far left side
of the Track view. Click a track to make it the current track. For example, to
change the Piano track’s patch, click the Patch button in the Piano track’s
Track/Bus Inspector and choose a new patch from the menu. The Patch
button is just below the Bank button. You can hide or show the Track/Bus
Inspector by pressing i on your computer keyboard.
Playing Music on a Keyboard
If you've connected a MIDI keyboard (or another instrument) to your
external MIDI interface or the MIDI interface of your sound card, you can
play one or more parts of the project on the keyboard instead of the sound
card’s internal synthesizer. For instructions on connecting a keyboard to
your computer, see “To Connect an Electric Guitar or Keyboard to Your
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79
Computer” on page 36. For this section, we assume that you want to
connect the keyboard to the MIDI In and MIDI Out of your sound card.
Checking Your MIDI Device Settings
First, let’s make sure that SONAR is set up to send MIDI output to your
keyboard.
1. Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2. In the Outputs field, two devices should be selected. The first should be
your sound card synthesizer device; the second should be the MIDI
output your MIDI device is connected to (it should say something like
“SB Live MIDI Out”). The uppermost selected device will correspond to
Output 1, the second device to Output 2, and so on. For help with these
settings, see the online help topic “Setting Up Output Devices.”
3. Click OK.
Routing MIDI Data to the Keyboard
Let’s play back the Piano track through your MIDI keyboard. First, turn your
keyboard on and make sure it is set up to receive MIDI input on channel
one. Then, do the following:
1. In the Track view, in the Piano track (track 1), click the Output field to
open the menu of outputs.
2. Select the output that your keyboard is attached to.
3. Click the Play button or press the Spacebar to play your project.
SONAR plays the piano part through your keyboard.
Or, if you prefer, the procedure is similar in the Console view:
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1. In the Console view (to display, use the Views-Console command),
click the Output button in the Piano module to open the menu of
outputs. The Output button is just below the volume fader.
2. Select the output that your keyboard is attached to.
3. Play your project.
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI
This tutorial teaches you how to record MIDI data with SONAR. You’ll learn
how to:
•
Set up the metronome
•
Record MIDI tracks
•
Use loop recording
•
Use punch recording
Creating a New Project
If you haven’t already done so, the first thing you need to do is create a
project file:
1. Start SONAR.
2. Choose File-New.
3. In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial2 in the Name field.
4. Select the MIDI tracks template from the template list.
5. Click OK.
SONAR opens a new project named Tutorial2, containing only MIDI tracks.
Recording a MIDI Track
Let’s record a new MIDI track in the project.
Setting Up the Metronome
Musicians often use a metronome to keep track of the beat. SONAR’s
metronome is more versatile than most real metronomes. You can configure
it to sound on playback or recording; it can count off any number of lead-in
measures or beats; and it can use audio clips or MIDI notes to produce
sounds. It also quickly and accurately follows any tempo changes that
happen in the project.
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You can set up the metronome with the Metronome toolbar. If you don’t see
the Metronome toolbar, choose Views-Toolbars and select Metronome.
Use Audio Metronome
Metronome settings
Measures
Record count-in
Metronome during
record
Use MIDI metronome
Beats
Metronome during playback
Let’s set up the metronome to play audio for two count-in measures when
recording. Here's what to do:
1. In the Metronome toolbar, click in the Count-in box.
2. Use the + or - buttons to set the count-in value to 2.
3. Click the Count-in Measures option
to select it.
4. Deselect the Metronome During Record option
5. Select the Use Audio Metronome option
.
.
By disabling the Metronome During Record option, you cause the
metronome to turn off after the count-in measures. If you would prefer to
hear the metronome during the entire project while recording, enable this
option instead.
In this example, the metronome counts in for recording, not for playback.
Setting MIDI Inputs
Let's make sure that SONAR is set up to receive MIDI data from your
instrument.
1. Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
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2. In the Inputs column, select your sound card's MIDI In device or the
MIDI In for your external MIDI interface. For help with these settings,
see the online help topic “Setting Up Output Devices.”
3. Click OK.
Setting Up Playback
During recording, SONAR will play the rest of a project as usual. Depending
on what instrumental part of the project you are going to record, you may
want to mute one or more tracks, or solo certain tracks. For example, if you
are going to record a new piano part, you might want to mute the old piano
part so that you're not competing with it while recording. To mute any track,
click the track's Mute button
.
Since this is a new project, there is no need to mute or solo any track.
You can also set other playback options, such as the tempo ratio, to make
your recording session easier.
Recording MIDI
Now you'll record a track in the project. Do the following:
1. Make sure your instrument is turned on and set up to transmit MIDI
data.
2. If you don’t have an unused MIDI track in the project, create a new MIDI
track by right-clicking in the Track pane and selecting Insert MIDI Track
from the menu that appears.
3. In a MIDI track, click the Arm button
(arming a track automatically
sets the Input field to MIDI Omni, meaning that this track will record
incoming MIDI data from any channel).
4. On the Transport toolbar, click Record
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, or press r.
83
The metronome counts off two measures, then SONAR starts
recording.
5. Play your MIDI instrument.
6. When you finish recording, click the Stop button
Spacebar.
, or press the
If you've played any notes, a new clip appears in the Clips pane in the track
you recorded on. If no new clip appears, see “I Can’t Record from My MIDI
Instrument” in the Troubleshooting section of the online help for some
troubleshooting hints.
Listening to the Recording
Let’s play back your performance on your sound card. For an added
dimension, we’ll open a few other views in the process. Do the following:
1. Display the controls of the track you recorded by clicking its Restore
Strip Size button , or by dragging the Vertical Zoom control that’s
located at the lower right corner of the Clips pane. You may need to
click the All tab at the bottom of the Track pane to display all the
controls.
2. Click the Output dropdown arrow to display the menu of available
outputs.
3. Select your sound card’s MIDI synthesizer (if you don’t see the outputs
you expect to see, use the Options-MIDI Devices command and
enable the correct outputs—see “Preparing for Playback” on page 66).
4. In the Ch field, click the dropdown arrow to select a MIDI channel, and
select an unused channel.
5. In the Patch field, select any patch.
6. Choose Views-Piano Roll to open the Piano Roll view.
7. Choose Views-Staff to open the Staff view.
8. Choose Views-Event List to open the Event List view.
9. Choose Window-Tile in Rows to tile the views.
10. To return to the start of the project, click the Rewind button, or press w.
11. Click Play
or press the Spacebar.
It’s almost as easy to listen to your performance on your MIDI instrument.
For instructions on how to play a track on a MIDI keyboard, refer to Tutorial
1.
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The Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views all show the same basic
information—the notes that you recorded. The Piano Roll view displays the
track as a player-piano roll. The Staff view shows notes in traditional music
notation. The Event List view lists all MIDI events for the track. When you
need to edit a track, you can work in any of these views. On different
occasions you may have reason to use different views. More information
about the Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views can be found in later
chapters of this manual or in the online help.
When you're ready to continue, close the Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List
views.
Recording Another Take
Maybe your first attempt at recording resulted in a perfect performance, but
maybe not. If you'd like to remove your first take and try again, do the
following:
1. Choose Edit-Undo Recording or press Ctrl+Z to undo your recording.
2. Click Rewind
, or press w. The track is still armed for recording, so
you don't need to re-arm it.
3. Click Record
, or press r.
4. When you finish recording, click the Stop button in the Transport toolbar
or press the Spacebar.
Alternatively, you could record your next attempt on a new track. That way
you can keep all the takes and select the best one later (or combine the
best parts of each!). If you record on a new track, be sure to arm the new
track for recording and to disarm the previous track. See “Loop Recording”
on page 86 for a convenient way to record multiple takes.
Saving Your Work
When you have something you’d like to keep, you can save the project by
doing the following:
1. Choose File-Save As.
2. In the File Name box, type a new file name, such as my project.
3. Click OK.
SONAR saves the project under the new name. From now on, you can click
the Save button
to save this project.
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Loop Recording
If you'd like to record several takes successively, you can set up SONAR to
loop over the entire project, or just some section of it. SONAR will record a
new take during each loop, storing that take in a new clip. You can set
SONAR to place each clip in a new track or to pile all clips in one track.
Let's try recording a few takes of the first four measures of a project, placing
each take in a new track.
Setting Up Looping
First, let's set up SONAR to loop over the first four measures:
1. Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
to open the
Snap to Grid dialog box. If the Snap to Grid button is not visible in the
Track view toolbar, use your mouse to drag the vertical splitter between
the Track pane and the Clips pane to the right.
2. In the Snap to Grid dialog box, click the Musical Time button and select
Measure from the list of durations. In the Mode field, select Move To,
and close the dialog box.
Now you can only select exact one-measure blocks of time in the Time
Ruler, which is located at the top of the Clips pane.
3. In the Time Ruler, drag through the first four measures to select them.
4. In the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, click the Set Loop to Selection button
to set the Loop Start and Loop End times.
Clicking
enables looping automatically.
Setting Up the Tracks
Now let's set up the first of the tracks where the takes will be stored:
1. Arm a MIDI track by making sure its Arm button
is red.
2. Click the track’s Output field to set its output to your sound card's MIDI
synthesizer.
3. Use the track’s channel field to set its channel to an unused channel.
4. Use the track’s Patch field to select any patch.
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Output menu
Dropdown arrow to
display menu
Channel menu
Bank menu
Patch menu
As usual, you could set the tracks to play back on your MIDI keyboard
instead by specifying the appropriate output and channel.
Loop Recording
Finally, let's record our takes:
1. Choose Transport-Record Options to display the Record Options
dialog box.
2. Choose the Store Takes in Separate Tracks option to store each new
take in a separate track. Each time a new take starts, the settings from
the first track will be copied to the new track.
3. Click OK.
4. Click Rewind
5. Click Record
.
.
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SONAR loops over the designated section and records your takes to
successive tracks. If you want to erase the most recent take during loop
recording, choose Transport-Reject Loop Take.
6. To stop recording, click Stop
, or press the Spacebar.
Now you can listen to each take individually by muting the other ones.
Alternatively, you could set your loop recording options to Store Takes in a
Single Track and display them all within one track. After you finish recording
several takes, press the Track Layers button
on the track strip. The track
will then expand to show all clips on separate layers that can be muted and
soloed individually.
For more information on Track Layers, see the online help topic “ Take
Management and Comping Takes.”
Punch-In Recording
Imagine that one of your takes was close to ideal, except for one or two
notes in one measure. Rather than recording another full take, you'd prefer
to keep the take but replace that measure.
Punch-in recording lets you replace a section of a track. This is how it
works: first, you set the start and end times of the punch to the section you
want to replace, and turn on punch recording. Then, you arm the track and
start recording. You can play along with the original take to get the rhythm
and feeling. However, nothing will be recorded until the Now time reaches
the punch start time. During the punch, the material already in the track will
be replaced with what you record. When the punch ends, the project will
continue to play, but recording will stop.
Let's try it. Suppose you want to replace several measures in the recording
you made earlier in this tutorial.
1. Display the Record toolbar by choosing Views-Toolbars-Record.
Auto-punch on/off
Record mode Step record
Click to open the Record
Options dialog box
Punch In
Time
Punch Out
Time
Click here to set punch
times to the selection start
and end times
2. In the Record toolbar, click the Punch In Time.
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3. Type the number of the measure at which you want to begin punch
recording and press Enter.
4. Click the Punch Out Time.
5. Type the number of the measure at which you want to end punch
recording and press Enter.
6. Click the Auto-Punch On/Off button to enable punch recording.
7. Select Overwrite from the Record Mode dropdown menu.
8. Arm the track in which you want to punch record.
9. If looping is still on, click the Loop button
10. Click Rewind
11. Click Record
to turn it off.
.
.
Play along until you are past the punch end time, then click Stop
your take to hear the difference. If it's still not right, try again!
. Replay
An alternative method is to select measures by dragging in the Time Ruler.
Then right-click the Time Ruler and choose Set Punch Points. This
automatically enables punch recording.
You can combine loop recording with punch recording; see the online help
topic “Punch Recording” for details.
When Auto Punch is enabled, the Time Ruler displays special markers that
indicate the punch in and punch out times. You can drag these markers to
change the punch in and punch out times.
Punch In
Punch Out
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Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio
To record digital audio, you need some sort of device hooked up to your
sound card's line or mic input—an electric guitar, a preamp, or a mixer, for
example. If nothing else, try playing or singing into a microphone!
If you have never connected an instrument to your sound card, see “To
Connect an Electric Guitar or Keyboard to Your Computer” on page 36.
This tutorial covers these procedures:
•
Setting the sampling rate
•
Setting the audio driver bit depth and recording bit depth
•
Opening a new project
•
Setting up an audio track
•
Checking the input levels
•
Recording digital audio
•
Listening to the recording
•
Recording another take
•
Input monitoring
•
Loop and punch-in recording
•
Recording multiple channels
Setting the Sampling Rate
Each SONAR project has a parameter that specifies the sampling
resolution for all digital audio data in the project. You should set this rate
before recording any digital audio.
To set the sampling rate:
1. Choose Options-Audio to open the Audio Options dialog box.
2. Click the General tab.
3. Under Default Settings for New Projects, select a Sampling Rate. For
CD-quality sound, use 44100 Hz.
4. Click OK.
Lower sampling rates will save disk space but will result in lower-quality
audio. Before embarking on any major project, consider what media your
project will eventually be stored on, and what sampling rate is best for that
media.
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Setting the Audio Driver Bit Depth and
Recording Bit Depth
The drivers for most sound cards use anywhere from 16 to 24 bits to play
back recorded data. CD’s use 16 bits. You can possibly get better sound
quality by recording at a higher bit depth and converting to 16 bits when it’s
time to master your project, but keep in mind that 24 bit audio takes 50%
more memory than 16 bit audio, possibly straining your computer’s storage
capability and speed of operation. Your sound card’s documentation could
have some advice on choosing an audio driver bit depth.
You can record audio data at 16 or 24 bits. It usually makes sense to record
and play back at the same bit depth.
To set the audio driver bit depth:
1. Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog
box.
2. On the General tab, find the Audio Driver Bit Depth field and select one
of the options.
3. Click OK.
For more information about audio driver bit depth, see the online help topic
“Bit Depths for Playback.”
To set the record bit depth:
1. Use the Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog
box.
2. On the Audio Data tab, find the Record Bit Depth field and select one of
the options.
3. Click OK.
Open a New Project
Let’s open a new project for this tutorial.
1. Select File-New from the menu.
2. In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial3 in the Name field.
3. Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
Note: In the New Project File dialog you can also confirm where your
project and project audio will be stored when you save a new project. Do so
by adjusting the paths in the Location and Audio Path fields. For the
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purpose of these tutorials, however, the default locations should be
acceptable.
Setting Up an Audio Track
Let’s set up a track for digital audio:
1. Insert a new track by doing the following: in the Track pane, right-click
below the last track, or wherever you want to insert a track, and choose
Insert Audio Track from the popup menu.
SONAR inserts a new audio track.
2. In the track’s Output field, click the dropdown arrow and select an audio
output from the menu.
3. In the track’s Input field, choose an audio input. Usually you select the
left channel of one of your sound card’s inputs to record a mono track,
or the stereo input to record a stereo track.
The Normal template has several audio tracks in it already, which you could
use to record with. You don’t have to insert a new audio track to record with
if your project already has one or more empty audio tracks.
Checking the Input Levels
Before trying to record, you need to check and adjust the audio input levels.
If your audio input is too low, it will be lost in the background noise. If it is
too high, it will overload the input channel and be distorted/clipped. Before
you check input levels, make sure that the record meters are set to be
displayed in the Track view. Click the right arrow next to the Show/Hide
Meters button
and in the menu that appears, select the Track Record
Meters command if it is not already checked.
You may need to drag the splitter bar that separates the Track pane from
the Clips pane to the right to see all the buttons in the Track view toolbar.
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the
Transport toolbar, which you click to stop any feedback you may experience
if there is a loop somewhere in your mixer setup. Whenever you play a
project, SONAR automatically enables the audio engine, which you can tell
by watching the Status bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the
Audio Running indicator in the Status bar lights up. The Status bar is
located at the bottom of the SONAR window.
To check the audio input levels:
1. Click the Arm button
in your new audio track. The track’s meter
becomes a record meter.
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2. Perform as you would during recording. Watch the meter respond to the
sounds you produce. If the meter does not respond, you may need to
raise the volume of your plugged-in instrument. Also, make sure that
the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar is enabled.
If you still don't see any movement of the audio meters, you may have
an audio input problem.
3. If the input level meter never comes even close to the maximum,
increase the input level by using the Windows mixer or your sound
card’s software mixer (or if you are recording your instrument through
an amplifier or mic preamp, turn up the amp or preamp).
4. If the meters overload or clip (indicated by red), decrease the input
level.
The idea is to try to get the input level to rise as high as possible, but
without ever reaching the maximum. That way, you get the strongest
possible signal without distortion.
SONAR’s meters are extremely adjustable for the kind and range of data
they display. For more information, see the online help topic “Metering.”
Recording Digital Audio
It's time to record!
1. If you haven’t already set up the metronome, follow the directions in
“Setting Up the Metronome” on page 81 to set the metronome for a twomeasure count-in.
2. The track is already armed for recording.
3. In the Transport toolbar, click Record
keyboard.
, or press r on your computer
You’ll hear two measures counted in by the metronome, then playback
and recording begin.
4. Go ahead and perform!
5. When you finish recording, click the Stop button
Spacebar.
, or press the
A new clip appears in the Clips pane. Also, right-click in the Clips pane and
choose Views-Options to open the Track View Options dialog box—make
sure Display Clip Names and Display Clip Contents are checked.
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Listening to the Recording
Let's play back your performance. Do the following:
1. In the track’s Output field, click the dropdown arrow to display the menu
of available outputs, and select a pair of your sound card’s stereo
outputs (if your sound card only has two outputs, just select the name of
your sound card).
2. To return to the start of the project, click the Rewind button.
3. Disarm your audio track by clicking its Arm button again—this changes
the track’s meter to a playback meter. The track is disarmed when its
Arm button is not red.
4. Click Play
.
5. Watch the track’s meter. If the level is not what you want, record your
track again.
Recording Another Take
If you'd like to delete your performance and try again, do the following:
1. Choose Edit-Undo Recording to undo your recording, or press Ctrl+Z
(Undo).
2. If necessary, click Rewind
or press w.
3. Make sure the track is still armed for recording.
4. Click Record
.
5. When you finish recording, click the Stop button
Spacebar.
, or press the
Alternatively, you could record your next attempt on a new track, or in the
same track. If you enable a track’s Track Layers button , you can display
alternate takes in different “lanes” in a single track. To avoid erasing each
take, enable Sound on Sound (Blend) mode in the Record Options dialog
(Transport-Record Options command), and make sure that Create New
Layers On Overlap is enabled in the same dialog.
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Input Monitoring
SONAR has a feature called input monitoring, which allows you to hear
any instrument that is plugged into your sound card whether you are
currently recording the instrument or not. You can hear your instrument,
including any plug-in effects, whenever input monitoring is enabled and the
Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar is depressed. You can
enable or disable input monitoring on an individual track by clicking the
track’s Input Echo button
, and you can enable or disable input
monitoring on all tracks at once by clicking the Input Echo button that’s on
the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the Views-Toolbars-Playback
State command).
Caution: If you have any kind of a loop in your mixer setup that causes the
output of your sound card to be fed back into the input, you can get
feedback. Input monitoring can make it very intense because both the direct
signal and the processed signal are coming out of your sound card. Turn
your speakers off whenever you enable input monitoring, and then try
turning them up very gradually to try it out. If you hear feedback, click the
Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar to turn input
monitoring off.
For more information on Input Monitoring, see the online help topic “Input
Monitoring.”
Loop and Punch-In Recording
Loop and Punch-in work the same for digital audio recording as they did for
MIDI recording. For more information, see the online help topics “Loop
Recording” or “Punch Recording.”
Recording Multiple Channels
If you can gather the entire band around your computer, and if you have the
proper equipment, you can record a full multiple-instrument performance all
at once. If you have several MIDI instruments, you can route their input into
your sound card through a MIDI merger—data that arrives on different MIDI
channels can be routed to different tracks. Likewise, a typical sound card
can record audio on both right and left channels—each can be recorded on
a different track by choosing the right channel as an input for one track, and
the left channel as an input for another. Multiple sound cards and multi-I/O
sound cards can expand the number of possible inputs. For more
information, see the online help topic “System Configuration.”
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That completes the audio recording tutorial. Now you’ve learned the basics
of playing and recording material for your projects. In the following tutorials
you'll learn about basic editing techniques for both MIDI and audio.
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI
SONAR has too many powerful MIDI features to look at in one tutorial, so
let’s look at some of the most basic features and also cover some exciting
new ones, such as slip-editing and MIDI envelopes.
In this tutorial, start by opening the file TUTORIAL4.CWP in the Tutorial folder
where SONAR is installed. We will be doing the following tasks:
•
Transposing
•
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop
•
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
•
Slip-editing
•
Drawing MIDI Envelopes
•
Converting MIDI to Audio
Transposing
Here are two ways to transpose MIDI data in SONAR:
•
You can apply the Transpose command to selected data (see the
procedure below).
•
You can use the Key+ control for a specific track—the Key+ control is
located with the other track parameter controls in the Track pane. This
method causes a track to play higher or lower by the number of half
steps you enter in the Key+ control. This is a non-destructive form of
editing that leaves the pitch of the original data unchanged, but adds an
“offset” when the track plays back.
To Transpose our Tutorial File
1. Select all the notes in the bass track by clicking the bass track’s track
number. The track number should appear highlighted when it is
selected.
2. Select all the notes in the organ track by Ctrl-clicking (holding down the
Ctrl key while you click) the organ track’s track number. Ctrl-clicking
allows you to make multiple selections.
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3. Use the Process-Transpose command to open the Transpose dialog
box.
4. Enter -2 (negative 2) in the Amount field and click OK.
5. Ctrl-click both track numbers again to deselect them.
SONAR transposes the selected data down a whole step (2 half steps).
Choose MIDI outputs for your tracks and play the project. You can undo the
transposition by pressing Ctrl+Z, and redo the transposition by pressing
Ctrl+Shift+Z.
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop
The first clip in the bass track is two measures long; we can easily dragcopy it to make it eight measures long. When we drag-copy some of the
clips, we can make them into linked clips. When you edit a linked clip,
SONAR performs the exact same edits on all other clips that the clip is
linked to.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1. In the Track view toolbar, click the Snap to Grid button’s down arrow to
open the Snap to Grid dialog box.
2. Make sure that the Musical Time radio button is selected, and in the list
to the right of it, select Measure.
3. In the Mode field, select Move By and click OK. Now we can only move
clips in the Clips pane by distances of an exact measure or measures.
4. While holding down the Ctrl key, drag the first clip in the bass track to
the right and release the mouse when the start of the clip is at measure
three. The Drag and Drop Options dialog box appears. Click OK—
SONAR places a copy of the clip in measures three through four. Ctrldragging a clip copies and moves it, while dragging without holding
down any extra keys moves a clip without making a copy of it.
5. Now let’s make a linked clip copy of the new clip in measure three: Ctrldrag the clip from measure three to measure five. When the Drag and
Drop Options dialog box appears, click the Copy Entire Clips as Linked
Clips checkbox and click OK. SONAR places a linked clip copy into
measures five and six. The two linked clips have dotted outlines to
show they are linked.
6. Make another linked copy of one of the linked clips and place it in
measures seven and eight. Because this copy overlaps the clip that’s in
measure 9, make sure that the Blend Old and New option is checked in
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the Drag and Drop dialog box. Because none of the notes in the two
clips overlap, blending the two clips does not change any of their data.
Now you have linked clip copies in measures three through eight: when you
edit any of these three clips, SONAR performs the exact same edits on the
other two.
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
SONAR’s Piano Roll view gives you complete control of individual note
properties. Let’s edit a couple of notes.
To Edit Notes in the Piano Roll View
1. Open the Piano Roll view of the first bass clip by double-clicking the
clip. In the Piano Roll view, you may have to use the Up Arrow and
Down Arrow keys on your computer keyboard to display the note data
(the Right and Left Arrow keys scroll the display in the horizontal
direction).
2. Drag the Piano Roll’s Horizontal Zoom control in the lower right corner
of the Notes pane to make the note data large enough for easy editing
(see following picture).
3. In the Piano Roll toolbar, click the dropdown arrow on the Snap to Grid
button
to open the Snap to Grid dialog box (Snap to Grid settings
in each view are independent of each other).
4. Make sure the Musical Time check box is selected, and in the window
to the right of it, select Eighth.
5. In the Mode field, make sure that the Move By radio button is selected
and click OK. Now we can only move data in the Piano Roll view by
exact distances of one or more eighth notes.
6. In the Piano Roll toolbar, click the Draw tool
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to activate it.
7. Find the note that starts at the beginning of measure three and move
the cursor over the beginning of the note so that the cursor becomes a
cross. Drag the beginning of the note to the left by a half beat, and
release the mouse.
Beat 1 of Measure 3
Drag note from here
Drag Horizontal Zoom control
SONAR moves the note to the left by a half beat and lengthens the note
by a half beat, and also performs the same edits on the identical notes
that are at the beginnings of the other two linked clips.
8. Close the Piano Roll view when you finish editing.
If you want to unlink clips when you’re through editing them, select the
clips you want to unlink (in the Track view), right-click one of them, and
choose Unlink from the Clips pane popup menu. Select Independent, Not
Linked At All in the Unlink Clips dialog box and click OK.
When you move the Draw tool over a note, it changes into one of 3 different
editing tools, depending on what part of the note you move it over:
•
If you move the Draw tool over the beginning or end of a note, the Draw
tool changes into a cross. When you drag one end of a note with the
cross icon, the other end of the note stays put, thereby changing the
duration of the note as you move the opposite end.
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•
If you move the Draw tool just inside the beginning of a note, the Draw
tool changes into a horizontal, double-ended arrow. When you drag the
beginning of a note with this icon, the other end of the note moves with
the beginning of the note, thereby keeping the duration of the note
constant.
•
If you move the Draw tool over the middle of a note, the Draw tool
changes into a vertical, double-ended arrow. Use this tool to drag the
note up or down in pitch.
Slip-editing
Now let’s take advantage of one of the most convenient features of
SONAR: slip-editing. Slip-editing lets you drag the beginning or ending
borders of a clip to hide the notes or other MIDI data that are in the area
that you drag through (slip-editing also works on audio clips). SONAR does
not delete these notes or data, but does not play them either. As soon as
you drag the clip borders to display the data again, SONAR plays them
again. slip-editing is a very fast and convenient way to try out different
sounds without destroying any data. You can also leave the clip borders
unchanged and only drag the data that’s within the clip. This changes the
rhythmic placement of data without changing the clip’s borders.
To Slip-edit TUTORIAL4.CWP
1. Drag the horizontal zoom controls in the Clips pane so that a space of
about 2 measures fills up the Clips pane.
2. Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button to open the
Snap to Grid dialog box, change the Musical Time resolution to Eighth,
make sure Move By is selected in the Mode field, and close the dialog.
Now we can only drag the borders of clips by units of eighth notes.
3. In the organ track in the Clips pane, move the cursor over the right end
of the first clip until the blue vertical line (clip handle) appears. Drag the
right border to the left until the MIDI data at the end of the clip is hidden.
Hide this region
Now you can’t hear those notes.
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Like this
4. Drag the end of the second clip to the left until just the “tail” or glissando
of the data is hidden.
Hide this region
Like this
5. In the third clip, hold down both the Alt and Shift keys and drag only the
data inside the clip to the left by about one eighth note.
You can experiment as much as you want with slip-editing, all without
destroying any data!
Drawing MIDI Envelopes
MIDI envelopes are lines and curves you can draw on MIDI data in the Clips
pane. Each envelope produces continuous control over one of the following
track parameters: volume, pan, chorus, reverb, automated mute, or a MIDI
controller. You can show or hide any envelope you create, but the envelope
still functions when it is hidden. For our tutorial, let’s create a MIDI volume
envelope.
To Draw and Edit a MIDI Volume Envelope
1. In the Clips pane in the organ track, make sure that the PRV mode
button
is off.
2. Right-click in the organ track and choose Envelopes-Create Track
Envelope-Volume (default Ch. 1) from the Clips pane popup menu.
SONAR creates a line through the organ track, with a small round dot (a
node) at the beginning of the line. The line shows the initial volume of
the track, if it has an initial volume. Otherwise, it shows a default value.
3. Scroll the Now Time to the next marker by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Page
Down; the marker is called Verse, and is located just before measure
nine. Drag the Horizontal zoom control so that the beat markers are
visible in the Time Ruler.
4. At the fourth beat of measure eight, add a node to the envelope by
moving the cursor over it until a double-ended, vertical arrow appears
under it, right-clicking to open the Envelope Editing menu, and choosing
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Add Node from the menu. A shortcut to add a node is to double-click
the line.
5. At the start of measure nine, add another node.
6. Move the cursor over the newest node until a cross appears under it,
and drag the node downwards until it’s just below the MIDI data that’s
at the start of the clip.
Drag second node to here
7. At the fourth beat of measure twelve, add another node and drag it up
to the top of the track. Now you have a gradual volume increase in the
organ track for almost four measures.
8. At the start of measure thirteen, add another node and drag it
downward just below the MIDI data at the start of the measure.
9. Right-click the line that’s between the last two nodes, and choose Slow
Curve from the Envelope Editing menu. SONAR changes the line to a
curve. Now the drop in volume is a little more gradual.
Now you have some interesting dynamics in your track. You can add a lot
more to your envelope, and add more envelopes if you wish. You can also
copy and paste envelopes. For more information, see the online help topic
“Automation Methods.”
Converting MIDI to Audio
When you finally get your MIDI project into the shape you want, you can
convert the MIDI tracks to audio for export as Wave, MP3, or other file
formats. If you are using external MIDI modules, just record the outputs of
your modules into your sound card. If you are using soft synths, use the
File-Export-Audio command, or the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
If you are using the built-in synthesizer in your sound card to produce MIDI
sounds, you can use your sound card’s “What You Hear” or wave capture
function to convert the MIDI tracks, if your sound card can function this way.
See the following procedure:
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To Convert MIDI to Audio
1. Pick a destination audio track (or create a new one) and set the Input
field to Stereo (name of your sound card).
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one
that has the built-in synth that your MIDI tracks use.
2. Arm the destination track. Make sure its Input Echo button is off, so you
won’t hear an echo when you’re recording.
3. Mute any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination track.
4. Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by doubleclicking the speaker icon on your Windows taskbar, or by choosing
Start-Programs-Accessories-Entertainment-Volume ControlOptions-Properties.
Note: Some sound cards have their own proprietary mixer. If yours has
one, please use it instead.
5. If you’re using the Windows mixer, use its Options-Properties
command to open the Properties dialog box, click Recording (in the
Adjust Volume For field), and make sure all boxes in the Show the
Following Volume Controls field are checked.
6. Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or
What You Hear. Check the Select box at the bottom, then close the
window.
7. In SONAR, rewind to the beginning of your project, click the Record
button, and click the Stop button when you’re done recording.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to your sound card
synth as a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so
you don’t hear them and the new audio track at the same time.
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Tutorial 5—Editing Audio
In this tutorial we will be editing a Cakewalk bundle file (file extension .CWB)
with drums, bass, guitar and organ. We will add some additional
percussion, and edit some of the existing tracks. This tutorial covers the
following:
•
Importing wave files
•
Dragging and looping clips
•
Slip-editing
•
Using automatic crossfades
•
Bouncing tracks
Opening the Project
1. In SONAR select File-Open from the menu.
2. In the Open dialog, select TUTORIAL5.CWB and click OK.
3. The Unpack Bundle dialog now appears. This dialog lets you specify
where the project and project audio will be stored if you save the file.
For the purpose of this tutorial, the defaults should be acceptable: click
OK.
The audio data is loaded into SONAR and TUTORIAL5.CWB opens.
Importing a Wave File
Now that you have the file open, click the Play button to hear the project.
The project contains drums, bass, and two guitar tracks. Let’s import an
organ track:
To Import a Wave File
1. Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button located in the
Track view toolbar.
The Snap to Grid dialog appears.
2. In the Snap to Grid dialog, click the Musical Time check box, select
Measure from the list of durations and close the dialog.
3. Make sure the Snap to Grid button is enabled.
4. Right-click the track number and select Insert Audio Track from the
pop-up menu.
5. Click the track number of the new track to select it.
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6. We want to insert the new part at measure 18, so click in the Time Ruler
at measure 18. The Time Ruler is at the top of the Clips pane above the
drum track.
7. Select File-Import-Audio from the File menu.
The Open dialog appears.
8. Open the Tutorials folder located in the directory where SONAR is
installed.
9. Select ORGAN.WAV and click Open.
A new clip appears in the selected track at the specified Now Time—
measure 18.
10. Double-click the track name, and type in a new name: “Organ,” and
press Enter.
11. Move the Now time to the beginning, insert another audio track, import
the file MARACAS.WAV, and name the track.
After you import MARACAS.WAV, notice that the clip has beveled or
rounded corners instead of sharp ones. That means it’s a Groove clip,
and contains tempo and pitch information. We’ll learn more about
Groove clips in the next tutorial.
12. Insert another audio track, import the file CONGAS.WAV (which is also a
Groove clip) and name the track.
Moving and Looping the Clips
When you drag and drop clips in the Clips pane, the Snap to Grid setting
determines the resolution to which the clips “snap to.” If your Snap to Grid
setting is Measures and you drop a clip between two measures, the clip
appears aligned to the closest measure.
We have just dropped two percussion clips into our project, and we could
have dropped them where we wanted, but then we wouldn’t get a lesson on
how to move clips in SONAR.
Let’s move both clips to the 18th measure of the project.
1. Click and drag the maracas clip to measure 18 (the Snap Grid is still set
to Measure).
2. The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears. The Drag and Drop
Options dialog box has options for how the clip you are dragging affects
existing clips. Since the clip we are dragging is not being moved onto
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105
an existing clip, we can just accept the default setting. Click OK to
accept the default settings.
The clip now appears at the 18th measure.
3. Now move the congas clip to the 18th measure by using the same
method.
Now let’s loop the two percussion clips to make copies of them by using
their Groove clip characteristics:
1. Move the cursor over the end of the maracas clip until a blue line (clip
handle) appears at the edge of the clip and the cursor looks like this .
2. When the cursor changes, click the end of the clip and drag it to the
right until you have created repetitions of the clip through the end of
measure 28.
3. Copy the congas clip the same way until it reaches the end of measure
28.
Slip-editing a Clip
Solo the two guitar tracks and listen to the project. We are going to combine
these two tracks and create an automatic crossfade between them. Before
we do, we have to hide the beginning of the second guitar part so it doesn’t
affect the crossfade. We’ll do this using slip-editing.
1. Click the Snap to Grid button to turn off Snap to Grid. The Snap to Grid
settings control slip-editing as well as drag and drop.
2. Move the cursor over the beginning of the second guitar clip.
3. When the cursor turns into a rectangle and a blue line appears at the
edge of the clip, click and drag the beginning of the clip until you have
reached the beginning of the waveform.
Drag to here
The beginning of the clip is now hidden. The data is not lost, as you will
see if you drag the beginning to where it was originally. Slip-edited data
is still in the project, but it is not seen or heard.
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Automatic Crossfades
Let’s combine these two tracks and create a crossfade.
1. Enable automatic crossfades by clicking (depressing) the Enable/
Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button
located next to the
Snap to Grid button on the Track view toolbar.
2. Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades
combo button, select Default Crossfade Curves and select a
crossfade curve.
3. Make sure no clips are currently selected by clicking in the Clips pane
outside of any clips.
4. Hold down the Shift key and drag the second guitar clip on top of the
first guitar track and drop it there; make sure that Blend Old and New is
selected in the Drag and Drop dialog box before you click OK. Shiftdragging ensures that a clip can only move vertically and not
horizontally, so you don’t need to enable the Snap to Grid button to
keep the same exact rhythmic placement of a dragged clip.
The two clips appear on the same track with a crossfade marker on the
overlapping data. The first guitar track fades out as the second guitar fades
in. For more information about crossfades, see the online help topic “Fades
and Crossfades.”
Bouncing Tracks
When you finish editing a certain number of audio tracks, you can conserve
memory and simplify your mix by bouncing (combining) some tracks down
to one or two tracks. You can choose to include any effects and automation
in the new track that are on the tracks that you want to combine, greatly
reducing the load on your CPU.
Let’s bounce, or combine our two percussion tracks together:
1. Make sure no time range is selected by clicking in the Clips pane
outside of any clips.
2. Select the tracks that you want to combine: in this case, Maracas and
Congas. To select multiple tracks, hold down the Ctrl key while you click
each track’s track number. You can also solo tracks instead of selecting
them.
3. Click the Snap to Grid button to turn it on (the Snap to Grid setting is still
set to Measure).
4. In the Time Ruler, select measures 18 through 28.
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5. Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command to open the Bounce to
Track(s) dialog box.
6. In the Destination field, choose <8> New Track.
7. In the Source Category field, choose Entire Mix.
8. In the Channel Format field, since our two original percussion tracks
are in stereo, choose Stereo. This way we preserve their stereo quality.
9. In the Source Bus(es) field, make sure the name of the sound card that
the relevant tracks use to play back on is highlighted.
10. In the Mix Enables field, make sure everything is checked. By checking
the Track Mute/Solo option, you make sure that SONAR only mixes
down the unmuted tracks. If any tracks are soloed, this option causes
SONAR to mix down only the soloed tracks.
11. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new, stereo track that combines both percussion tracks.
Now you can archive the old percussion tracks so that they don’t consume
memory. Do this by right-clicking each track number and choosing MSRArchive from the popup menu.
Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are audio clips that “know” their tempo and root note pitch.
SONAR uses this information to stretch the clips to match changes in
tempo and to transpose the root note pitch to match the project’s pitch and
pitch changes. SONAR also has MIDI Groove clips that work much the
same as audio Groove clips.
You can create repetitions, or loops of Groove clips simply by dragging their
ends in the Track view, creating as many repetitions as you want.
You can change the pitch of your Groove clips by inserting pitch markers in
the Time Ruler. The default project pitch for Groove clips in a new project is
C. The root note of your Groove clips is transposed to the default for any
part of the Groove clips that come before the first pitch marker, or if you do
not have pitch markers in your project. You can change the default pitch of
the current project in the Markers toolbar.
You can create and edit Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
This tutorial covers the following:
•
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Adding Groove clips to a project
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Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips
•
Looping Groove clips
•
Changing the pitch of Groove clips
•
Making Groove clips follow the project tempo
Adding Groove Clips to a Project
There are two ways to add a Groove clip to your project. Let’s use both.
To Import a Groove Clip
1. Select File-New to create a new project.
2. In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial6 in the Name field.
3. Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
4. Set the default pitch to E by clicking the dropdown arrow in the Markers
toolbar and choosing E (if you don’t see the Markers toolbar, use the
Views-Toolbars command and check Markers).
Click here
5. Click the Rewind button in the Transport toolbar to move the Now Time
to the beginning of the project.
6. Select track 1 by clicking its track number.
7. Select File-Import-Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
8. Navigate to the Tutorial folder in the directory where you installed
SONAR.
9. Select 100FX.WAV and click Open.
The clip appears on the track at the beginning of your project—the clip’s
corners are beveled instead of sharp, indicating that it is a Groove clip.
Before we import another loop, let’s give this track a name. In the track
titlebar, double-click on the track name and enter the name Sound Effect
and press Enter.
Let’s add some more Groove clips:
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To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip into a Project
1. Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button located in the
Track view toolbar.
The Snap to Grid dialog appears.
2. In the Snap to Grid dialog, on the Clips tab, select the Musical Time
check box, and the duration Measure.
3. In the mode section, select the Move To radio button.
4. Close the Snap to Grid dialog.
5. Make sure Snap to Grid is on. When Snap to Grid is on, the button
appears blue.
6. Open the Loop Explorer view by clicking the Loop Explorer icon in the
View toolbar
.
7. Navigate to the Tutorial folder in the directory where you installed
SONAR.
8. Select 100ONETWO.WAV and drag it into the Clips pane below the Sound
Effect track at measure 3.
Repeat step 8 by dragging 100BEAT2.WAV below Track 2 at measure 7 and
100ORGAN.WAV below Track 3 at measure 1, and close the Loop Explorer
view. SONAR automatically creates any necessary audio tracks when you
import audio data.
You now have a four track project. If you haven’t done so yet, click the play
button to take a listen to your project before we begin to arrange the clips.
Your project should look something like this:
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Looping Groove Clips
Here’s where Groove clips get fun. You need only drag the beginning or end
of a Groove clip to create repetitions or loops.
First, though, lets copy the Groove clip in Track 2.
To Copy a Groove Clip
1. Press the Ctrl key and click and drag the clip until the beginning is at
measure 8 and release.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
2. Make sure the Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips option is not checked
and click OK.
A copy of the Groove clip now appears on the same track at measure 8.
To Loop a Groove Clip
1. Move the cursor over the end of the first Groove clip in Track 2 until a
blue vertical line appears at the edge of the clip and the cursor looks
like this
.
2. When the cursor changes and the line appears, click the end of the clip
and drag it to the right until you have created one repetition of the clip
(through the end of measure 6).
You can also create a partial loop of a Groove clip if the Snap to Grid setting
is set to less than one measure. You can create a partial loop as small as
the Snap to Grid setting allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is
set to quarter notes, you can create partial repetitions as small as a quarter
of a measure.
Now lets edit the clip we copied on Track 2.
To Crop a Groove Clip
1. Click the dropdown arrow on the Snap to Grid button to open its dialog
box, set the Musical Time duration to Quarter, and close the dialog box.
2. Move your cursor over the beginning of the second clip in Track 2 until a
blue line (clip handle) appears and the cursor looks like this
.
3. “Crop” the beginning of the clip one and a quarter measure (you may
want to expand the Clips pane a little by dragging the Horizontal Zoom
slider that’s in the lower right corner).
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Like this:
4. Crop the end of the clip by one quarter measure.
Like this:
5. Click on the clip and drag it one measure to the left.
Like this:
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
6. In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, click Blend Old and New and click
OK.
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You have added Groove clips and edited them. Your project should look like
this:
Let’s listen to what we have. Click the Play button in the Transport toolbar.
Changing the Pitch of Groove Clips
Now that you have heard what your project sounds like, let’s change some
pitch settings.
To Set a Groove Clip to Not Follow the Project Pitch
1. Double-click on the Groove clip in Track 4.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2. Deselect the Follow Project Pitch button
.
3. Close the Loop Construction view and listen to your project again.
It sounds different because the Groove clip on Track 4 is no longer
following the default project pitch of E, instead it follows its own root
note of C.
Next, let’s add some pitch markers.
To Add Pitch Markers
1. Click the Solo button
in Track 4 to solo the track.
2. Right-click in the Time Ruler at the beginning of measure 1 and select
Insert Marker from the menu.
The Marker dialog appears.
3. In the Groove Clip Pitch dropdown, select C and click OK.
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113
4. Create another pitch marker at the beginning of measure 2, this time
selecting F from the Groove Clip Pitch Change dropdown.
5. Double-click on the clip in track 4 to open the Loop Construction view.
6. In the Loop Construction view, click the Follow Project Pitch button to
enable it.
Listen to the project. Because the default pitch of the project is now C at
measure 1, the clip in track 4 sounds at its original pitch, because its
original root note is C. When the Now time reaches measure 2, the
project pitch changes to F, which forces the clip to transpose all of its
data up a perfect 4th, from a root note of C to a root note of F.
Now let’s change the tempo of the project.
Changing the Tempo of Your Project
Groove clips follow the project’s tempo, so we can change the tempo, either
for the entire project or just one part, and still have all our clips playing in
time with each other.
To Change the Project Tempo
1. Select Insert-Tempo Change from the menu.
2. In the Tempo field, enter 110 and click OK.
The project’s tempo is now 110.
Play your project. Do you hear the difference? Try other tempos.
Now that we have created a project that uses existing Groove clips, let’s
take the next step and learn how to create our own Groove clips.
Creating Your Own Groove Clips
Any audio clip (of a reasonable size) can be a Groove clip.
We are going to take a clip, slip-edit it so that it contains just the parts we
want, and open it in the Loop Construction view to add tempo and pitch
information to it.
To Create a Groove Clip (example 1)
In this example we will import a short clip of a bass guitar, slip-edit it and
convert it to a Groove clip.
1. Select File-New to create a new project.
2. In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial6B in the Name field.
3. Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
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4. Right-click the Snap to Grid button to open its dialog box, set the
Musical Time duration to Measure, and close the dialog box.
5. Click
in the View toolbar to open the Loop Explorer view.
6. In the Explorer view, navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory
where you installed SONAR.
7. Drag and drop the BASS.WAV file into the new project at measure 1.
8. Double-click the clip.
The Loop Construction view appears. You see that there is silence at
both the beginning and end of the clip. We are going to slip-edit the clip
so that the clip begins with the attack of the first note and ends as the
last note tails off.
9. Move you cursor to the beginning of the clip.
10. When the blue line appears and the cursor changes to look like this ,
drag the beginning of the clip until you reach the edge of the first rise in
the waveform and release the mouse.
11. Slip-edit the end of the clip until you reach the end of the last note’s
decay. You may need to scroll the scrollbar at the bottom of the Loop
Construction view a little to the right to see the end of the loop.
Note: You can not slip-edit a clip that has its Groove clip characteristics
enabled. You can turn a clip’s Groove clip characteristics on or off either
in the Loop Construction view, or in the Clips pane. In the Clips pane,
right-click the clip and choose Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu.
Your clip should look something like this:
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115
12. Click the Enable Looping button
on the Loop Construction view
toolbar to enable the clip’s Groove clip characteristics.
SONAR automatically slices the clip and assigns in a number of beats.
Notice that SONAR has sliced this clip at eighth note intervals. This is a
clip with a waveform that does not have dramatic transients (sharp rises
in volume). For clips like this, markers at beat intervals work best.
The clip is now a Groove clip, and it looks like this:
The bass track is now a Groove clip, so you can move it where you want
and create repetitions by dragging it out.
Let’s create another Groove clip.
To Create a Groove Clip (example 2)
For this example we are going to use a clip that does not need to be slipedited.
1. In the Explorer view, navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory
where you installed SONAR.
2. Drag and drop the DRUMS.WAV file into the new project below your bass
track at measure 1.
3. Double-click the clip.
4. Click the Enable Looping button
.
SONAR automatically slices the clip and assigns in a number of beats.
Notice that SONAR has sliced this clip at eighth notes and at the
beginning of some transients. This has dramatic transients. For clips
like this, transient markers work best.
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The clip is now a Groove clip, and it looks like the following picture. You
can click the zoom buttons in the lower right corner to get a better view.
The markers in the Loop Construction view are used to tell SONAR where
to preserve timing. The idea is to preserve the clip while being able to
change the tempo. When a clip has a lot of transients, as this one does, it is
a good idea to make sure that the slicing markers fall at the beginning of the
transients, thus preserving their timing. This clip has several markers which
can be fine tuned to give better results. Let’s move some markers to better
preserve the timing of this clip.
To Fine Tune the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
1. Identify the markers which are close to the beginning of a transient.
An example of transients that should be moved:
Slicing marker
Slicing marker which
should be moved
Transients
2. Click the Select tool
.
3. Click and drag the slicing markers that need to be fine tuned so that
they are at the very beginning of the transient.
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117
Like this:
Slicing markers which
have been edited. Edited
slicing markers appear in
blue.
Slicing markers now appear right next
to the beginning of the transients
Use the two projects you have created to experiment with Groove clips
further. Try new loops, change tempos, add pitch markers, record clips and
use them to create your own loops. For more information about Groove
clips, see the online help topic “Using Loops.”
Tutorial 7—Mixing
SONAR has an almost unlimited number of tools to help you mix down. You
can automate almost any knob, fader, or button by using any of several
methods. You can even automate the internal settings of some effects—not
just the bus controls, but the controls of some individual effects. When your
project sounds the way you want, you can save it and export it in Wave,
MP3, or Windows Media Advanced Streaming format.
Let’s do some more work on TUTORIAL5.CWB, and explore the following
tasks:
118
•
Adding real-time audio effects
•
Automating an individual effect’s settings
•
Grouping controls
•
Automating your mix
•
Exporting an MP3 file
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Tutorial 7—Mixing
Adding Real-time Audio Effects
Let's add some flanging to the first guitar track in TUTORIAL5.CWB:
1. Add the flange effect to a guitar track by right-clicking its FX field, and
choosing Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxFlange from the popup menu.
You may have to expand the track vertically to see the FX field.
The effect’s dialog box appears.
2. Choose a preset flange setting from the Presets field.
3. Play the project to hear what it sounds like. You can continue to adjust
the effect while the project plays; there is a slight delay before your
adjustments are audible.
Close the dialog box. You can add effects to buses with the same method
(right-click the FX field in a bus, and choose an effect from the popup
menu).
You can delete an effect from an FX field by right-clicking the effect’s name
and choosing Delete from the popup menu. Instead of moving the controls
manually, let’s automate them by drawing an envelope in the Clips pane.
Automating an Individual Effect’s Settings
Let’s draw an envelope to automate one of the flanger’s controls
1. In the Clips pane, right-click in the first guitar track (the track you added
the FxFlange effect to) and choose Envelopes-Create Track
Envelope-FxFlange 1 from the popup menu.
The FxFlange1 dialog box appears.
2. Let’s create only one envelope, even though we could create many: in
the Envelope Exists field, check the Voice 1 Feedback option to create
an envelope that controls the level of feedback on voice 1 of the
FxFlange effect.
3. Click OK (you could choose a color for the envelope before you click
OK by clicking the Choose Color button).
A solid line with 2 nodes (round dots) appears on top of the guitar clip,
one node at the beginning and one at the end of the last clip in the
project. The dotted line after the project ends means there is no
automation data in that area of a track—only nodes and solid lines
represent actual values.
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119
4. Let’s add a node at measure 17 of the guitar track: move the cursor
over the line at measure 17 until a vertical, double-ended arrow
appears under it, and right-click the line.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
5. Choose Add Node from the menu.
A new node appears on the envelope at measure 17.
6. Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag
the node up to the top of the track. Now you have a gradual increase in
the level of Voice 1 Feedback. Notice that the line between the two
nodes is solid, indicating that there is automation data everywhere
between the two nodes.
7. Change the straight line between the two nodes, which is called a
Linear shape, into a Slow Curve shape, by moving the cursor over the
straight line until the vertical, double-ended arrow appears, then rightclicking the line and choosing Slow Curve from the Envelope Editing
menu.
Node
Node
Slow curve
Now you have a gradual, but not linear increase in the Voice 1 Feedback
level of your flange effect. You can drag linear and curve shapes vertically,
but not horizontally. To change their horizontal positions, drag the node at
either end of a shape. You can drag a node in any direction.
Grouping Controls
To assist in manipulating the controls, you can tie faders to one another. For
example, if you want to increase the volume level on several tracks at the
same time, you can assign them to a group. Then, when you move one
volume fader, you move them all. You can even have the controls move in
opposite directions. For example, you can fade one track in and another
out.
To group faders:
1. In the Track view (you can use the Console view if you want), right-click
the volume fader for track 2 (bass).
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2. In the popup menu, choose Group and select A from the dropdown list.
This assigns the fader to group A. A red marker appears next to the
volume fader, indicating that it belongs to group A, whose color is red.
You could also create your own customized group name and color by
choosing New.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for tracks 3 and 4.
Now you’ve grouped the volume faders of three tracks. When you move
one fader, all of the others follow. If you want to move a single fader
independently of the others, hold the Ctrl key while moving the fader. To
ungroup a fader, right-click it and choose Remove From Group from the
popup menu.
Automating Your Mix
You can record the fader movements of the mix, which is called automating
them. Let’s automate the volume fader of track 4. To do so:
1. Rewind to the beginning of the project.
2. Make sure the Write Automation button
is enabled on track 4.
3. Display the Automation toolbar by using the Views-ToolbarsAutomation command.
4. Make sure that the Enable Automation Playback button
in the
Automation toolbar is in the depressed position and lit blue.
5. Start playback, and while your mix is playing back, move the volume
fader on track 4.
6. Stop playback by clicking the Stop button or by pressing the Spacebar.
You’ve now automated the volume fader of track 4 of your project—SONAR
draws a graph (an envelope) of the automation in the Clips pane of track 4.
You can hide or show envelopes by using the dropdown arrow located on
the side of the Envelope tool button
in the Track view toolbar, or by
using the Clips pane popup menu, or the Envelope Editing menu. Now let’s
listen to the project again and watch the fader move automatically:
1. Rewind to the beginning.
2. Press the Spacebar to start playing the project.
You’ll see the fader move just the way it moved when you recorded its
movements. You can compare this mix to a mix with no automation by
clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
and playing your project
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121
again. Clicking the Enable Automation Playback button toggles the
automation off and on.
You can disable all automation write-enabled controls by clicking the Clear
All Automation Write Enables button
in the Automation toolbar.
Exporting an MP3 File
When your project finally sounds the way you want, you can export it in any
or all of several file formats, including:
•
Wave (CD format)
•
MP3
•
Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format
When you export a file from SONAR, you can choose to include any or all of
the effects, automation, and mute and solo settings that your project
contains.
Let’s export our project as an MP3:
1. Make sure all the tracks you want to export are unmuted and
unarchived. If you only want to export one or two tracks, it’s easier to
solo these tracks instead of muting all the others.
2. Make a time selection, if necessary. If any tracks use real-time effects
such as reverb or delay, select your whole project plus an extra
measure or two at the end so you won’t cut off the reverb “tail.”
3. Choose File-Export-Audio to display the Export Audio dialog box.
4. Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
5. Enter a file name.
6. Choose MP3 from the Files of type dropdown list.
7. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Mono—All exported tracks are mixed down to a single mono file.
•
Stereo—All exported tracks are mixed down to a single stereo file.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks are mixed down to two mono files,
left and right.
8. In the Bit Depth field, select the bit depth that you want your exported
file to use. For MP3s use 16.
9. In the Source Bus(es) field, select a sound card or sound cards from
the list. If you select more than one, you can select the Each Source to
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Separate Submix checkbox to create separate files for each device
selected in the Source Bus(es) field.
10. If the Outputs of the tracks you are combining are the same (if they
have the same thing listed in their Output fields—they should in this
tutorial example), you can ignore this step. Otherwise, in the Separation
field, choose from these options:
•
Each Bus to Separate Submix—if the tracks you are combining use
different buses in their Output fields, choose this option if you want
to create separate files for each different output that the tracks use.
•
Each Main Out to Separate Submix—if the Outputs of the tracks
you are combining go to different Main Outs, choose this option to
create separate files for each different Main Out that the tracks use.
•
All Main Outs to Single Mix—if the Outputs of the tracks you are
combining go to different Main Outs, choose this option to create a
single new file that combines the output data from all the Main Outs.
11. In the Mix Enables field, select the effects you want to include in your
new file—usually, you select all the listed options.
Note: Selecting the Track Mute/Solo option causes muted tracks to be
left out of the exported mix, and soloed tracks to be the only tracks
exported.
12. Click Export.
The Cakewalk MP3 Export Options (Trial Version) dialog box appears.
13. Choose the options you want for your new MP3 file—for help choosing
options click the Help button in the dialog box.
14. When you finish choosing options, click the OK button.
SONAR compresses and mixes your project to a file with the extension
.MP3 that is located in the folder you chose in the Look In field of the Export
Audio dialog box.
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Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths
A software synthesizer is a software program that produces various sounds
through your audio interface (also called a sound card) when the soft synth
program receives MIDI data from a MIDI controller or sequencer program.
SONAR supports all major varieties of software synthesizers, including DXi,
ReWire, and VST Instruments. SONAR has a Synth Rack view to make
inserting a soft synth a one-step process.
Cakewalk TTS-1 is a great example of a soft synth, so let’s use it for our
tutorial. Because this soft synth supports the multi-output format, it has
multiple outputs (4). You probably installed Cakewalk TTS-1 when you
installed SONAR. To make sure, open a project that has at least one audio
track, right-click the FX field of an audio track to open the plug-in popup
menu, and look under Soft Synths. You should see Cakewalk TTS-1 listed.
If you don’t, insert your SONAR CD into your CD drive, install the software
synthesizers including Cakewalk TTS-1 to your hard drive, and restart
SONAR.
This tutorial covers the following:
•
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a project
•
Playing MIDI tracks through a soft synth
•
Converting soft synth tracks to audio
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
Inserting a soft synth into a project means that the name of the soft synth
appears in the dropdown menus of MIDI track Output fields and audio track
Input fields.
To Insert Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
1. Open a MIDI project—for this tutorial use TUTORIAL8.CWP.
2. Use the Insert-Soft Synths command and click Cakewalk TTS-1 on
the popup menu.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
3. In the Create These Tracks fields, deselect MIDI Source, because we
want to play some pre-existing tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1.
4. Select All Synth Audio Outputs because we’re going to use a different
synth track for each of Cakewalk TTS-1’s 4 outputs. The new synth
tracks have Cakewalk TTS-1 already patched to them as audio inputs.
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5. In the Open These Windows fields, select both Synth Property Page
and Synth Rack view. These two options open Cakewalk TTS-1’s
property page (interface), and the Synth Rack view, respectively.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts 4 synth tracks that each have one of Cakewalk TTS-1’s
outputs as an input (notice that these tracks have the soft synth icon next to
their track numbers), inserts a synth audio track to produce the sound from
the 4 synth tracks, opens the Synth Rack view with Cakewalk TTS-1
displayed in the first row, and opens Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page. Click
a track in the Track view to put the focus on the Track view, and then press
F on your keyboard to fit all the new tracks into view.
Notice that the Output field of each synth track is labeled Cakewalk TTS-1
1. The “1” means that this is the first instance of Cakewalk TTS-1 that you
have inserted into this project. If you use the Insert-Soft Synths command
to insert another instance or copy of Cakewalk TTS-1 into this project, its
label will be Cakewalk TTS-1 2, and it will function as a totally separate
synth. MIDI data in tracks that use Cakewalk TTS-1 1 as an output will have
no effect on MIDI tracks that have Cakewalk TTS-1 2 as an output.
Playing MIDI Tracks through a Soft Synth
Now that you have verified that Cakewalk TTS-1 is installed, let’s try some
of its sounds on some pre-recorded MIDI data.
To Play MIDI Tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1
1. Drag the Cakewalk TTS-1 property page out of the way for now, and in
the first MIDI track (Guitar 1), click the dropdown arrow in the track’s
Output field, and choose Cakewalk TTS-1 as an output.
2. Set the Output fields in all the other MIDI tracks to Cakewalk TTS-1.
Note: When the cursor is in the Output field of one track, pressing the
Up or Down arrow key moves the cursor to the same field in the next
track. You can then press Enter to open the menu, and click the menu
item that you want to select.
3. Let’s insert a patch change in track 1: click the track number of the
Guitar 1 track to select it, and move the Now time to the Verse 1 marker
by clicking the Next Marker button
once (the Next Marker button is
in the Markers toolbar; if you don’t see it, use the Views-Toolbars
command and check Markers).
4. Use the Insert-Patch/Bank Change command to open the Bank/Patch
Change dialog box.
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5. In the Bank field, select 15488-Preset Normal 0, and in the Patch field,
select Overdrive Gt, and click OK.
Now you’ve routed your MIDI tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1, and inserted
a patch change. Rewind the project and play it to hear the project through
Cakewalk TTS-1.
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio
Once your project sounds the way you want it, it’s extremely easy to
convert your soft synth MIDI tracks to either new audio tracks, or wave,
MP3, or other exportable files.
You can also do a temporary conversion, called freezing. See “Freeze
Tracks and Synths” on page 543 for more information.
To Convert Your Soft Synth Tracks to New Audio
Tracks
1. Mute all tracks that you don’t want to convert; make sure you don’t
mute the synth track(s) that the soft synth is patched into, or the MIDI
track(s) that you are using as a source.
2. Let’s set our MIDI tracks to use different outputs on the TTS-1: in the
TTS-1 interface, click the System button to open the System Settings
panel, and click the Option button in System Settings to open the
Options dialog.
3. On the Output Assign tab look in the Tone Name column, and click one
of the four Output buttons next to each name in the Tone Name column.
This assigns your individual MIDI instruments to different audio outputs
from the TTS-1. Click the Close button.
4. Use the Edit-Select None command to make sure nothing is selected.
5. Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog box appears.
6. In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
7. In the Channel Format field, choose mono if you want mono tracks, and
stereo if you want stereo tracks.
8. In the Source/Buses field, make sure all 4 outputs are selected. This
will create a separate audio track for each selected output. If you
wanted to combine your MIDI tracks into just one audio track, send all
the MIDI tracks through just one output (Step 3), and select only that
output in the Source/Buses field.
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9. In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
10. Click OK.
SONAR creates new audio tracks from the outputs you selected. When
you’re through converting, don’t forget to mute your MIDI tracks so you
won’t hear them and the new audio track(s) at the same time.
To Export Your Soft Synth Tracks as Wave, MP3, or
Other Type Files
1. Mute all tracks that you don’t want to export; make sure you don’t mute
the synth track(s) that the soft synth is patched into, or the MIDI track(s)
that you are using as a source. If you converted your soft synth tracks to
new audio tracks in the previous procedure, mute the new audio tracks
so that you won’t be exporting two copies of each track.
2. Use the File-Export-Audio command.
The Export Audio dialog box appears.
3. In the Look in field, choose the location where you want the exported
file to be.
4. Type a file name in the File name field.
5. In the Files of Type field, choose the kind or file you want to create. If
you want to create a CD from this project, choose RIFF Wave.
6. In the Source Category field, choose Tracks if you want to create
separate files for each MIDI track, or choose Entire Mix if you want to
create one file. If you want to create a CD from this project, choose
Entire Mix.
7. Choose a channel format. Don’t choose Split Mono in the Channel
Format field if you want to export a single file. If you want to create a CD
from this project, choose Stereo.
8. In the Source/Buses field, select all outputs if you chose Tracks in Step
6, or accept the default if you chose Entire Mix.
9. In the Sample Rate field, choose if you want to create a CD, choose
44100.
10. In the Bit Depth field, if you want to create a CD, choose 16.
11. In the Dithering field, choose None for this tutorial. Dithering is an
advanced topic that you can read about in other sections of the manual.
12. In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected, including
64-bit Engine.
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13. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new audio file or files of the type you specified. Find the
file(s) in the folder you specified, and double-click each file to listen to it.
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps
In SONAR drum maps allow you to assign a single MIDI track to multiple
outputs. MIDI drum tracks appear in the Piano Roll view’s Drum Grid pane.
In the Note Map pane you can map pitches to notes in any number of
software or hardware outputs.
In this tutorial we are going to create a drum map, create a MIDI drum track
using the Pattern Brush, and use the drum map to map drum notes to
several different outputs.
Create a New Project
First, we need to create a new project.
1. Select File-New from the menu.
2. In the New Project File dialog box, enter Tutorial9 in the Name field.
3. Select the Normal template from the template list and click OK.
Creating a Drum Map
Drum maps allow you to map note pitches from the same track to different
output devices, either hardware or software.
Note: Before you begin, make sure you have some MIDI devices selected.
To check, select Options-MIDI Devices.
To Create a New Drum Map
1. In a MIDI track, click the Output dropdown menu and choose Drum
Map Manager from the menu that appears.
The Drum Map Manager dialog appears.
2. Click the Create New Drum Map button
.
A new drum map appears in the Drum Maps Used in Current Project
field.
3. Click the Presets dropdown arrow and select GM Drums (Complete
Kit).
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4. In the Out Port column, click one of the down arrows, hold down the Ctrl
and Shift keys, and click the name of the port or instrument that you
want to hear drums on.
All the Out Port entries change to the port or instrument you selected.
Later, we’ll start sending individual notes to different outputs.
5. In the Chn column, make sure all entries are set to 10, or whatever MIDI
channel your drum sounds are on.
6. Close the Drum Map Manager.
Create a Drum Track
You can use any blank MIDI track for your drums. If you don’t have a MIDI
track, create using the Insert-MIDI Track command.
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1. Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2. In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output
dropdown and select DM1GM Drums (Complete Kit) from the options
in the menu that appears.
To Create a Drum Track Using the Pattern Brush
1. Select the track you have assigned to a drum map and select ViewsPiano Roll.
The blank drum track appears in the Drum Grid pane of the Piano Roll
view.
2. In the Piano Roll view, click on the down arrow to the right of the Pattern
Brush tool
and select Kick+Snare Patterns (R-T)-Stacy 7.
3. Click the down arrow again and select Use Pattern Polyphony. This
option tells SONAR to use the original pitch values when “painting”
notes in the Drum Grid pane.
4. Click on the Pattern Brush to select it.
5. Starting at the beginning of your track, click and drag the Pattern Brush
tool for a few measures in the Drum Grid pane.
A series of notes, at different pitch values appears in the Drum Grid
pane. If you don’t see any notes, scroll down in the Drum Grid to see
the notes.
6. Click the Pattern Brush down arrow again and select Cymbal Patterns
(C-F)-Fill 4.
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7. Repeat step 5.
8. Listen to your drum track. Make a mental note of the drum sounds your
hear, because they are about to change.
Now it is time to mix things up a bit. Lets send some of your drum sounds to
a different output.
Map Drum Notes to Different Outputs
First, we need to create an output to use, so let’s open Cakewalk TTS-1
and use that soft synth for this part of the tutorial.
To Open Cakewalk TTS-1
1. Select Views-Synth Rack from the menu.
2. Click the Insert Synth button
in the Synth Rack toolbar and select
Soft Synths-Cakewalk TTS-1 from the menu that appears.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
3. Make sure that the MIDI Source option in the Create These Tracks
section is unchecked.
4. In the Create These Tracks section, check the First Synth Audio Output
option. This option creates a single synth output track.
5. In the Open These Windows section, check the Synth Property Page
option. This option opens Cakewalk TTS-1 when we close the Insert
Soft Synth Options dialog.
6. Click OK.
7. An synth output track for the Cakewalk TTS-1 appears in the Track
view and the Cakewalk TTS-1 appears. If you don’t see the track, scroll
down in the Track pane to find it.
Now, we can map notes to different outputs.
To Map a Note to a New Output
1. Select your drum track and open the Piano Roll view by selecting
Views-Piano Roll from the menu.
2. Right-click in the Note Map pane (the list of drum names on the far left
of the Piano Roll view) and select Drum Map Manager from the rightclick menu.
The Drum Map Manager appears.
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3. In the Drum Map Manager, change the Out Port for the In Note 46 (Bb3)
to Cakewalk TTS-1.
The new Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 10 appears in the Port
and Channels field at the bottom of the Drum Map Manager.
4. In the Bank column for the Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 1
select 15360-Preset Rhythm.
5. In the Patch column for the Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 1
select Standard Set.
6. In the Drum Map Manager, change the Out Port setting for In Note 38
(D3) to Cakewalk TTS-1.
7. Close the Drum Map Manager and play your project to listen to the
different drum sounds.
To Change Other Drum Map Settings
You can open the Drum Map Manager from either a MIDI track’s Output
menu, or with the Options-Drum Map Manager command.
Change map settings in the Drum Map Manager as described in the
following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a row (a mapped pitch)
Click the Add New Drum Map Entry
button
.
Change In Note value
Double-click in the appropriate cell and
enter a new value, or click on the right
side of the cell, and when the cursor
changes to an up and down arrow, drag it
up to increase the value or down to lower
the value.
Change the Name setting
Double click on the appropriate cell and
enter a new name.
Change the Channel setting
Click the appropriate channel cell’s down
arrow and select a channel from the
menu that appears.
Change the Out Port setting
Click the appropriate Out Port cell’s
down arrow and select an output port
from the menu that appears.
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Change the Vel+ setting
Double-click in the appropriate cell and
enter a new value, or click on the right
side of the cell, and when the cursor
changes to an up and down arrow, drag it
up to increase the value or down to lower
the value.
Change the V Scale setting
Double-click in the appropriate cell and
enter a new value, or click on the right
side of the cell, and when the cursor
changes to an up and down arrow, drag it
up to increase the value or down to lower
the value.
When you are happy with the drum sounds you have mapped, you can mix
down to an audio file.
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Controlling Playback
When you play your SONAR project, you have full
control over the tempo or speed of playback, which
tracks are played, which sound cards or other devices
are used to produce the sound, and what the tracks
sound like. You can access most of the playback
functions from the Large Transport toolbar.
SONAR’s multi-MIDI enhancements give you the ability to
play multiple synths or tracks from a single keyboard or
controller, or let multiple performers play the same or different
tracks. You have total control over MIDI echo (MIDI echo refers
to where MIDI input signals are sent once SONAR receives them).
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the
Transport toolbar which you click to stop any feedback you may experience if
there is a loop somewhere in your mixer setup. Whenever you play a project,
SONAR automatically enables the audio engine, which you can tell by
watching the Status bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the Audio
Running indicator in the Status bar lights up.
In This Chapter
The Now Time and How to Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Track-by-Track Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Changing Track Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Video Playback, Import, and Export. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Locating Missing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
The Now Time and How to Use It
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time, which keeps
track of where you are in a project. The Now time appears as a vertical line
in the Track view and is displayed in both the Large Transport toolbar and
the Position toolbar, in two formats:
The measure, beat, and tick number (MBT) identifies the Now time in
musical time units. Ticks are subdivisions of quarter notes and indicate the
timebase of the project. For more information about the timebase, see
“Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution” on page 203. The other time format is
the SMPTE format, expressed in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
The current time in hours,
The current measure, beat, and tick minutes, seconds, and frames
Meter, Key Signature
display
Here are some examples of times expressed in measure, beat, and tick
(MBT) format:
Time...
What it means...
1:01:000
First beat of the first measure
9:04:000
Fourth beat of the ninth measure
4:02:060
The 60th tick of the second beat of the
fourth measure
The hours-minutes-seconds-frames format is commonly referred to as the
SMPTE time. SMPTE is the acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and
Television Engineers. In this format, time is measured in hours, minutes,
seconds, and frames. It’s not necessary for a project to begin at time zero in
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The Now Time and How to Use It
this format—any time can be used to represent the start of a project. If you
are synchronizing SONAR with an external device whose start time is not 0,
you must offset SONAR to match the external device’s start time. For more
information, see Chapter , Synchronizing Your Gear.
Here are some examples of times expressed in this format (assuming that
zero is the start time):
Time...
What it means...
00:00:00:00
The beginning of the project
00:05:10:00
Five minutes and ten seconds from the
beginning of the project
01:30:00:00
One hour and thirty minutes into the
project
00:00:00:05
Five frames into the project
SONAR provides many ways to set the Now time. Here are just a few:
To Change the Now Time
•
Click the desired time on the Time Ruler in the Track view, Piano Roll
view, or Staff view
•
In the Navigator pane, click anywhere in the view while holding down
the Ctrl key to change the Now Time to that location
•
Click on the Now time in the Large Transport toolbar, enter the desired
time, and press Enter
•
Choose Go-Time or press F5, enter the desired time, and click OK
•
Click on an event in the Event List view
You can also set the Now time by right-clicking in the Clips pane if you
enable the Right Click Sets Now option in the Track View Properties dialog.
Right-click a an empty area of the Clips pane, and select View Options
from the menu that appears to open the Clip View Properties dialog.
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The Now Time and How to Use It
135
When entering a time in MBT format, the beat and tick values are optional.
You can use a colon, space, decimal point, or vertical bar to separate the
parts of the Now time:
You enter…
The Now time is set to…
2
2:01:000
420
4:02:000
9
9:01:000
5|1:30
5:01:030
When entering a time in SMPTE format, you can enter a single number
(hour), two numbers (hour and minutes), three numbers (hour, minutes, and
seconds), or all four numbers.
If you click in the Time Ruler while the snap grid is enabled, the Now time
will be snapped to the nearest point in the grid. By setting the grid size to a
whole note or quarter note, you can easily set the Now time to a measure or
beat boundary.
You can also use the buttons and the scroll bar in either the Transport
toolbar or Large Transport toolbar (shown below) to adjust the time.
When playback or recording is stopped, the Now Time either remains at the
point where the project stopped or snaps back to the Now Time Marker.
This behavior is controlled in the General tab of the Global Options dialog.
The Now Time Marker
In the Track view, the Now time appears as a black vertical line. When you
set the Now time in the Track view a green triangle called the Now time
marker appears in the Time Ruler. This marker represents the point at
which the Now time will snap back to after you stop playback or recording.
You can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to
the current Now time when playback or recording is stopped (use the
Options-Global command; on the General tab uncheck On Stop, Rewind
to Now Marker).
To Change the Now Time Marker Behavior
1. Select Options-Global from the SONAR menu.
The Global Options dialog appears.
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The Now Time and How to Use It
2. Click the General tab.
3. Uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now
time marker move to follow the current Now time when you stop
playback.
Or
Check the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time
snap back to the Now time marker when you stop playback.
4. Click OK.
Displaying the Now Time in Large Print
SONAR can display the Now time in large print so that it’s easier to see
when you are far from your monitor (for example, when you’re at your
keyboard or another instrument) or when several people need to read the
Now time from a distance. Here’s how:
To Display the Big Time View
1. Choose Views-Big Time to display the Big Time view.
2. Change the settings according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Switch time format
Click on the view to toggle between
MBT and SMPTE time
Change font or color
Right-click on the view, choose the
font and color you want, and click OK
Change the size of the view
Drag any corner of the view to change
its size
Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and
underline.
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The Now Time and How to Use It
137
Other Ways to Set the Now Time
There are a variety of commands and keyboard shortcuts you can use to
set the Now time:
Command...
Shortcut...
What it does...
Go-Time
F5
Lets you enter the Now time in
the Position toolbar or in a
dialog box
Go-From
F7
Sets the Now time to the From
time (the start time of the
current time selection)
Go-Thru
F8
Sets the Now time to the Thru
time (the end time of the current
time selection)
Go-Beginning
Ctrl+Home
Sets the Now time to the
beginning of the project
Go-End
Ctrl+End
Sets the Now time to the end of
the project
Go-Previous
Measure
Ctrl+PgUp
Sets the Now time to the start of
the current measure if the Now
time is not on a barline, or to the
start of the previous measure if
the Now time is on a barline.
Go-Next Measure
Ctrl+PgDn
Sets the Now time to the start of
the next measure
If your project has markers, you can use the Marker toolbar to set the Now
time:
138
To do this…
Do this…
Skip to the next marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or
press Ctrl+Shift+PgDn).
Skip to the previous marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or
press Ctrl+Shift+PgUp).
Controlling Playback
The Now Time and How to Use It
Jump to any marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar to
open the Markers view. Click on the
marker you want to jump to in the
Markers view.
For more information about markers, see “Creating and Using Markers” on
page 280.
The Time Ruler
The Time ruler appears in the Track view, Tempo view, Staff view and Piano
Roll view. It has several functions, including:
•
Making a time selection—the Time Ruler follows the Snap to Grid
settings, if enabled.
•
Changing the Now time
•
Adding loop, punch, and pitch markers—you can right-click in the Time
Ruler to add markers.
In the Track view, the Time Ruler has the following time display options or
formats:
•
Measures, Beats and Ticks (M:B:T)
•
Hours, Minutes, Seconds and Frames (H:M:S:F—also called SMPTE)
•
Samples
•
Milliseconds
M:B:T
H:M:S:F
Samples
Add Musical Snap to transient
snap pool (see AudioSnap)
Minus and Plus buttons
Milleseconds
The M:B:T setting follows your settings in the Meter/Key view. If you project
is set to 4/4 time, you have four beats in the Time Ruler for each measure. If
your project is set to 6/8 time, you have six beats in the Time Ruler for each
measure.
If there is only one format displayed in the Time Ruler, you can switch the
format by right-clicking in the Time Ruler and selecting the format you
prefer.
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The Now Time and How to Use It
139
To Switch the Time Ruler Format to M:B:T
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-M:B:T.
To Switch the Time Ruler Format to H:M:S:F (SMPTE)
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-H:M:S:F.
To Switch the Time Ruler Format to Samples
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-Samples.
To Switch the Time Ruler Format to Milliseconds
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-Milliseconds.
Additionally, you can add or remove Time Ruler formats using the plus/
minus buttons located just outside the right edge of the Time Ruler.
Note: If only one Time Ruler format is being used, only the plus button is
displayed.
To Add or Remove Time Ruler Formats Using the Plus/
Minus Buttons
•
Click the Plus button and select a Time Ruler format you would like to
add from the pop-up menu.
•
Click the Minus button and select from the pop-up menu to remove an
active Time Ruler format.
•
Right-click in the Time Ruler and move the cursor to Time Ruler Format
in the pop-up menu. A list of all Time Ruler formats appears. Active
formats are checked, inactive formats are unchecked.
•
Click a checked format to move it down one row.
•
Click an unchecked format to replace the topmost displayed format.
Controlling Playback
To control playback, you have your choice of tools, menu commands, and
shortcut keys for most common operations.
When you start playback, the Now time updates continuously to show the
current time. When you stop playback, the Now time rewinds to the Now
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Controlling Playback
Controlling Playback
Time Marker. When you start playback again, it continues from the same
point.
If the Now time is advancing but you don’t hear any sound, see Appendix A:
Troubleshooting. If you are using MIDI sync or syncing to MIDI time code,
SONAR waits to receive external timing data before it begins playing. If the
various views are not updating during playback, make sure the Scroll Lock
key on your computer keyboard is not enabled. For more information, see
Chapter , Synchronizing Your Gear..
Note: If your Windows setup uses any system sounds that are associated
with any typical activity, such as minimizing a window, etc., you should
disable these sounds. They can sound extremely loud through your
monitors, and also interrupt playback and recording, if you open any dialog
boxes or do anything that has a system sound attached to it while a project
plays. The quickest way to disable all system sounds is to open the Control
Panel (Start-Settings-Control Panel), double-click the Sounds icon to
open the Sounds Properties dialog box, and in the Schemes field select No
Sounds. Click Apply, and then click OK.
To Start and Stop Playback
To do this…
Do this…
Start playback
Press the Spacebar, click
, or
choose Transport-Play, or doubleclick in the Time Ruler
Stop playback
Press the Spacebar, click
choose Transport-Stop
Rewind to the start of the
project
Click
, press the w key, or choose
Transport-Rewind
Skip to the end of the project
Click
, or
Note:
The default behavior for the Now time when you click the Stop button is for it
to return to the Now time marker where playback began. If you want the
Now time to remain where it is when you stop playback, you can use the
keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Spacebar. If you want to change the default
behavior, select Options-Global and click the General tab. In the General
tab, uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option.
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Controlling Playback
141
Handling Stuck Notes
Under MIDI, the events that turn notes on are separate from the events that
stop notes from playing. Normally, when you stop playback, SONAR
attempts to turn off all notes that are still playing. Depending on how your
equipment is configured, it’s possible for notes to get stuck in the “on”
position. The Transport-Reset command is used to stop all notes from
playing. The Transport-Reset command also stops feedback from input
monitoring.
Note:
You can control the MIDI messages that are sent by the
Transport-Reset command by changing the Panic Strength
variable in the CAKEWALK.INI file.
To Clear Stuck Notes
•
Choose Transport-Reset, or click
on the Large Transport toolbar.
Looping
Sometimes you want to listen to one portion of a project over and over,
either so you can play along and rehearse or because you want to edit that
section of the project while it is playing and hear the results as you make
changes. SONAR has a playback looping feature that makes this simple.
Looping is defined in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, as shown here:
Click to turn looping on or off
Click to copy the
selection (From and Thru)
Click to open the Loop/Auto
Shuttle dialog box
Loop Start time
Loop End time
To set up a loop, you do three things:
•
Set the start time of the loop
•
Set the end time of the loop
•
Enable looping
From then on, SONAR will automatically jump back to the start of the loop
when it reaches the end.
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Controlling Playback
When looping is enabled, the loop times are indicated by special markers in
the Time Ruler.
Loop From
Loop Thru
The cursor becomes a horizontal double-headed arrow.
3. Drag the loop to the desired location in the Time Ruler.
The Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box, which appears when you use the
Transport-Loop and Auto Shuttle command or click the Loop and Auto
Shuttle button
in the Loop toolbar, contains two additional settings that
affect the details of how looping operates:
Option...
How it works...
Stop at the end time
Playback does not proceed beyond the
end of the loop
Loop continuously
When playback reaches the end of the
loop and rewinds to the start, playback
continues automatically (this option is
on by default)
With the default option settings, SONAR will play the loop over and over
again, continuously.
If you start playback before the loop start time, SONAR will play until the
loop end time is reached, then jump back to the loop start time.
Note: If you stop playback while looping is enabled, the Now time jumps to
the Now time marker. If you disable the On Stop Rewind to Now Marker
option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog, the Now time stays
wherever you stopped playback.
The Rewind command operates slightly differently when looping is in effect.
The first time you rewind, the Now time is set to the start of the loop. If the
Now time is already at the start of the loop, Rewind takes you to the
beginning of the project. From then on, Rewind switches back and forth
between the loop start time and the start of measure 1.
To Set Up a Playback Loop
1. Set the loop start and end times in one of the following ways:
Controlling Playback
Controlling Playback
143
•
Drag the mouse between two points in the Time Ruler of the Track
view, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times, then click
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy the selection time to
the loop time.
•
Click between two markers in the Track, Staff, or Piano Roll view to
select a range of times, then click
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle
toolbar to copy the selection time to the loop time.
•
Type the loop start and end times directly into the toolbar.
•
Select a range of times, then right-click in the Time Ruler and
choose Set Loop Points (this method makes the second option
unnecessary).
Looping is automatically turned on when you use the Set Loop to Selection
command.
To Change the Loop Settings
1. Click
, or choose Transport-Loop and Auto Shuttle to display the
Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box.
2. Check the options you want to use.
3. Click OK.
To Cancel a Playback Loop
•
Click
on the toolbar to disable looping.
Using the Large Transport
The Large Transport consists of six sections, each of which can be shown
or hidden according to the needs of your project. Right click anywhere in
the Large Transport, and deselect any module from the pop-up menu that
you wish to hide. The six modules are Markers, Record, Transport, Loop,
Tempo and System.
144
Controlling Playback
Controlling Playback
Markers module
Record module
Transport module
Loop module
Tempo module
System
Click to move ahead one m
Auto-punch toggle
Click to jump to the beginning
Drag Now Time to any desired position
Click to back up one
measure
Click to jump to the end
The Large Transport toolbar differs from the Transport toolbar in that it
displays a Markers module (numeric keypad), the Now time (which you can
set by entering numbers into the display fields in either MBT or SMPTE
time), a CPU and Disk Cache Performance meter, and the Time/Key
Signature display. The Time/Key Signature display shows the current meter,
key signature, and tempo. You can edit the meter and key signature by
clicking the display to open the Time/Key Signature dialog box. You can
display the Large Transport toolbar by selecting the Views-Toolbars
command to open the Toolbars dialog box, and checking Transport (Large).
You can also display and hide the Large Transport toolbar by pressing F4.
Using the Markers Module
You can store up to 12 markers in the Markers module, making it easy to
navigate through your project. Assign markers to milestones in your project
using the Insert-Marker command or by pressing F11 when the now time is
in the desired location for your marker. When your cursor hovers over a
button in the Markers module, the name you assigned to the marker is
displayed as a tooltip.
Record options
Marker buttons
Set punch in time
Set punch out time
Set punch points to selection
Controlling Playback
Controlling Playback
145
To Use the Record Module
1. Click the Record Options button
.
The Record Options dialog box appears.
2. Select between Blending existing data with new data, or Overwriting
existing data with new data.
3. Select between storing looped takes in a single track or storing looped
takes in individual tracks.
For more information see “Loop Recording” on page 219. You can also set
Auto-punch from the Record Options dialog.
To Use Auto-punch Within the Record Module
1. Activate Auto-punch by clicking the Set punch points button
.
2. Click the Punch In M:B:T meter and enter the Punch In time using the
spinners or keying in the desired M:B:T.
3. Click the Punch Out M:B:T meter and enter the Punch Out time using
the spinners or keying in the desired M:B:T.
4. Set the Now Time far enough ahead of the Punch In point for you to be
ready for it.
5. Click the Record button on the Large Transport or press R on your
keyboard.
SONAR plays the project, and begins recording on the selected track at the
Punch In time you entered, then stops recording at the Punch Out time.
To Use the Transport Module
146
•
Rewind
•
Stop project
•
Play project
•
Fast-forward to end of project
•
Record
•
Toggle Auto-punch
•
Reset MIDI
•
Now Time measured inM:B:T, H:M:S:F
•
Now Time slider
.
Controlling Playback
Controlling Playback
To Use the Loop Module
1. Clip the Loop On/Off button
.
2. Set the Loop Start time in the M:B:T meter either manually or by using
the spinner. Set the Loop End time in the M:B:T meter either manually
or by using the spinner.
You can also set a loop from the Large Transport toolbar by highlighting a
section of your project in the Time Ruler and then clicking the Set Loop
Points to Selection button
.
Reading the Key Signature, Time Signature, Tempo and
System Display
The Large Transport displays a variety of information about the project you
are working on, including tempo, key, meter, metronome settings, and CPU
and disk cache performance...
CPU performance
Tempo
Metronome on/off
during playback
Metronome on/off
during record
Key signature
Time signature
Disk cache
performance
meter
Track-by-Track Playback
SONAR lets you play back any combination of tracks at one time by
changing each track’s status. You can control the status of each track with
the individual controls that are on every track, or with the global controls on
the Playback State toolbar or the Status bar that’s at the bottom of the
SONAR window. For more information on the Status bar, see “Status Bar/
CPU Meter/Disk Meter” on page 781. For more information on the Playback
State toolbar, see “The Playback State Toolbar” on page 148.
There are several different status settings for each track:
Status...
What it means...
Normal
The track plays unless one or more of
your other tracks is soloed.
Controlling Playback
Track-by-Track Playback
147
Muted
The track is not played, but you can
turn it on while playback is in progress.
Archived
The track is not played, and you must
stop playback to re-enable it. Archived
tracks do not tax your CPU during
playback so they can be used to store
alternate takes.
Soloed
Only those tracks that are designated
as solo tracks are played; all others are
muted.
Armed
The track is armed for recording.
Mono/Stereo
The track plays back in either mono or
stereo, depending on what the
individual track setting is, and whether
the Play in Mono button in the
Playback State toolbar is depressed.
Phase normal or inverted
If a track was accidentally recorded out
of phase with another track, the Phase
button lets you reverse the phase of a
track.
While playback is in progress, you can mute and unmute tracks in any
combination, which means you can hear only the tracks that you want. You
can change the status of a track in the Track view, the Console view, the
Track menu, or the Playback State toolbar.
If a track is both muted and soloed, it does not play. Mute has precedence.
The track status is saved with the SONAR project file. If you save a SONAR
project as a Standard MIDI File, however, all tracks are saved without mute,
solo, or archive indicators.
The Playback State Toolbar
To display the Playback State toolbar, use the Views-Toolbars command to
open the Toolbars dialog box, and make sure Playback State is checked.
The Playback State toolbar is a global control that allows you to mute or
148
Controlling Playback
Track-by-Track Playback
unmute, solo or unsolo, arm or disarm, and toggle the input echo status of
all tracks.
Drag to reposition
Input echo or MIDI echo
Mute
Solo
Arm
Silencing Tracks
When a track is muted, SONAR processes the track while playback is in
progress so that you can unmute the track without stopping playback. If you
have lots of muted tracks, this can place a heavy load on your computer.
Archived tracks, on the other hand, don’t place any load on your computer.
Therefore, if there are tracks you want to keep but don’t need to play, you
should archive them instead. Archived tracks are indicated by the letter A in
the Mute button that is displayed in the Track and Console views.
When you mute or unmute a track while playback is in progress, there may
be a slight delay before you hear the effect of the change. This is to be
expected and does not indicate a hardware or software problem.
To Mute or Unmute Individual Tracks
•
To mute or unmute a track, click its M button in the Track or Console
view.
•
To mute or unmute several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose
Tracks-Mute, or select the tracks, right-click, and choose Mute from
the popup menu.
To Unmute All Tracks
•
Click the M button in the Playback State toolbar or the Mute label in the
Status bar.
To Mute All Tracks
•
If no tracks are currently muted, click the M button in the Playback State
toolbar.
Or
•
Select all tracks, and then use the Tracks-Mute command.
To Archive or Unarchive Tracks
1. Select one or more tracks in the Track view.
Controlling Playback
Track-by-Track Playback
149
2. Choose Tracks-Archive, or right-click and choose Archive from the
menu to toggle the archive status of the selected tracks.
Soloing Tracks
Sometimes you want to hear a single track, or a few tracks at once, without
having to mute all the other tracks. You can do this by soloing the tracks
you want to hear.
As soon as any track is marked as a solo track, SONAR ignores all mute
settings (unless a soloed track is also muted—mute takes precedence over
solo) and plays only the track or tracks that are set to solo. Any number of
tracks at one time can be marked as solo. All these tracks will play together.
As soon as the solo status of the final solo track is turned off, SONAR once
again plays back tracks based on their mute settings.
To Solo or Unsolo Individual Tracks
•
To solo or unsolo a track, click the Solo button in the Track or Console
view
•
To solo or unsolo several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose
Tracks-Solo, or right-click, and choose Solo from the popup menu.
To Unsolo All Tracks
•
Click the S button in the Playback State toolbar or the Solo label in the
Status bar.
To Solo All Tracks
•
If no tracks are currently soloed, click the S button in the Playback State
toolbar.
Or
•
Select all tracks, and then use the Tracks-Solo command.
Inverting the Phase of a Track
A waveform’s exact opposite is called an inversion. It is a shift of 180
degrees. A waveform and its inversion cancel each other out completely, so
it is usually not desirable to have two track recordings of the same source if
one is phase inverted. It can lead to reduced volume, lowered or distorted
response in certain frequencies, or even silence in the case of two tracks
which are exactly identical (i.e. cloned tracks).
Occasionally, for example when recording a source using two microphones,
one of the microphones may be recording an inversion of the other, the
resulting tracks may, to some degree, be cancelling each other out. SONAR
allows you to invert the phase of a track to match another.
150
Controlling Playback
Track-by-Track Playback
To Invert the Phase of a Track
1. Open the Track view or Console view.
2. In the track you want to invert the phase, click the phase inversion
button
.
Changing Tracks’ Mono/Stereo Status
SONAR has a mono/stereo button in each track module in the Track and
Console views. The buttons in the track modules force each track to play in
either stereo or mono, but preserve the tracks’ pan positions in the stereo
mix.
The Mono/Stereo button in each track forces the track’s audio signal to
enter any patched plug-ins as either mono or stereo, whether or not the
tracks are mono or stereo. This allows you to use either mono effects on a
stereo track or stereo effects on a mono track.
Note: You may lose important stereo data by using mono effects with stereo
tracks because your stereo tracks are summed to mono in order to pass
through the effect. If you never want your stereo data to be summed to
mono, select stereo.
To Use a Track’s Stereo/Mono Button
1. Display the Track view or Console view.
2. In the track you want to force to either mono or stereo for processing
effects, click the Stereo/Mono button
to the desired position:
•
Speaker icon pointing left—This choice means that you manually
selected mono for this track.
•
Speaker icon pointing left and right (as pictured above)—This
choice means that you manually selected stereo for this track.
Changing Track Settings
Each track in a project contains MIDI or audio information and has a variety
of settings (also called parameters) that determine how the track sounds.
By changing these parameters, you can change the sound of your project.
For audio tracks, you control parameters such as volume, stereo panning,
and the output device that is used to produce the sound. For MIDI tracks,
you control many additional parameters, including the type of instrument
sound that is used to play the notes stored in the track. Both kinds of tracks
contain an Automation Read button and an Automation Write button, which
enable or disable automation playback and recording, respectively.
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
151
Note 1: You can control all sliders and knobs in the Console and Track
Views by hovering over them with the mouse and manipulating the mouse
wheel.
Note 2:You can hide, reorder, and visually group the controls in tracks and
buses. You can also control how the display tabs at the bottom of the Track
pane function. See “Configuring Track View Controls” on page 259 for more
information.
Audio Track Parameters
The following pictures illustrate the parameters that audio tracks have. The
pictures are of an audio track that is located in the Track view, however
most of these parameters can also be adjusted in the Console view:
An audio track
Audio track header controls
Strip selector Header icon Track name
Show layers button
Maximize track
Track
number
152
Peak value
Minimize track
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
Audio track interior
controls
Input echo
Volume slider
Pan slider
Input
Automation Read
and Write buttons
Output
Input trim
Send destination
Send enable
Mono/stereo switch
Phase button
Send level
Send pan
Audio track FX bin, meter,
and track scale
Currently patched
effect
Track scale
FX interleave
indicator
FX bin
Here is a summary table of the different audio track parameters and how
they are used.
Parameter...
What it means...
Strip selector
Click this to add a track to a Quick Group,
which means that certain controls in tracks
that are in the Quick Group are grouped.
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
153
154
Number
A sequential track number used for
reference
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy
reference. Note that if you do not assign a
name to a track, the default name is the
track number. This track number will
change if you change the order of your
tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio
recording.
Input Echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
Automation Read and
Write buttons
Enable/disable automation playback and
recording, respectively
Peak value
Displays the Peak value, which is the
amplitude of the latest audio peak in the
track.
Show Layers button
Hides or shows track layers.
Minimize/restore track
button
Collapses track to minimum possible height,
or restores it to the size it was before it was
minimized.
Maximize/restore track
button
Expands track to maximum possible height,
or restores it to the size it was before it was
maximized.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track,
ranging from -INF (silent) to +6 dB
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging
from 100% left (hard left) to 100% right (hard
right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is
centered left-to-right. On stereo tracks, pan
acts as balance.
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
Trim (volume trim)
Volume Trim is a pre-fader control which
allows the fine tuning of a single track’s
volume.
For example, let’s say you have four tracks,
three tracks have their volume fader set to 0
dB while the fourth track’s fader is set to +10
dB. You want to group the faders and do a
slow fade out, but the slightly higher level of
the fourth track causes its volume to be
higher in relation to the other tracks towards
the end of the fade out. To balance the fader
levels, reduce the fader level for the fourth
track to 0 dB and raise the Volume Trim
value for that track to +10 dB. The resulting
volume levels for the project are the same,
but now you can group the faders and
perform a fade out with no track standing out
disproportionately at the end of the fade out.
Input
The input source for the track, used in
recording
Output
The output bus through which the track is
played
Send Enable
Activates a send module, which sends a
copy of the track signal to a bus.
Send Level
Controls volume of audio data sent by this
send module.
Send Pan
Adjusts the send pan setting.
Send Pre/Post switch
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal
goes to the bus prior to the track’s volume
fader; post means the Send signal goes to
the bus after the volume fader.
Send destination
Displays name of bus that the Send is
sending data to.
Mono/Stereo
A switch that determines whether a track’s
signal enters an effect or chain of effects as
mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of
the track.
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
155
Phase In/Out
A switch that inverts the phase of the track.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft
synths.
Meters
The recording and playback levels are
displayed in the Playback and Record
meters.
MIDI Track Parameters
The following pictures illustrate MIDI track parameters:
A MIDI track
Output menu
Dropdown arrow to
display menu
Channel menu
Bank menu
Patch menu
MIDI track header controls
Strip selector
Track name
Show layers button
Maximize track
Header icon
Minimize track
PRV Mode button
Track number
156
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
MIDI track interior
controls
Input Echo button
Automation Read and Write buttons
Pan slider
Volume slider
Trim
Input
Output
Channel
Bank
Patch
Key +
Time +
MIDI chorus
MIDI reverb
Snap to Scale
On/Off
Snap to Scale
root note
Snap to Scale scale
type
MIDI track FX bin and track
scale
Track scale
MIDI FX bin
Here is a summary table of the different MIDI track parameters and how
they are used:
Parameter...
What it means...
Strip selector
Click this to add a track to a Quick Group, which
means that certain controls in tracks that are in the
Quick Group are grouped.
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
157
158
Track number
A sequential track number used for reference
Track name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference.
Note that if you do not assign a name to a track,
the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your
tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or not.
Automation Read
and Write buttons
Enable/disable automation playback and recording,
respectively
PRV Mode button
When enabled, displays a track in Inline Piano Roll
view mode.
Show Layers
button
Hides or shows track layers.
Minimize/restore
track button
Collapses track to minimum possible height, or
restores it to the size it was before it was minimized.
Maximize/restore
track button
Expands track to maximum possible height, or
restores it to the size it was before it was maximized.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from 0
(silent) to 127 (maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from
100% left (hard left) to 100% right (hard right); a value
of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-to-right.
Velocity trim
The change in velocity (volume) that will be applied to
notes in this track on playback; ranges from –127 to
+127
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output device through which the track is played
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
Ch (channel)
The MIDI channel through which the notes will be
played
Bank
The set of patch names available for the track
Patch
The instrument sound that will be used for playback.
Time+
An offset applied to the start time of the events in the
track
Key+
The number of steps by which the notes in the track
are transposed on playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up
one octave)
Chorus
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track
Reverb
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track
Snap to Scale
scale type
Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature
Snap to Scale
root note
Displays root note of current Snap to Scale scale
Snap to Scale on/
off
Turns Snap to Scale feature on or off
To Change a Track Name
1. Double-click on the current track name.
2. Enter the new track name.
3. Click Enter.
The default track names (Track 1, Track 2, etc.) are not actually names, but
placeholders until you name a track. If you reorder the tracks these
placeholders change.
You can rearrange and resize the panes in the Track view as shown in the
following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Change the width of the Track
pane and Bus pane
Drag the divider that separates the
Track pane from the Clips panes to the
left or right
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
159
Change the height of the Mains/
Buses pane
Drag the divider that separates the
Track and Clip panes from the Bus
pane up or down
You can customize which tracks are displayed or not displayed, and
enlarge or maximize individual tracks while other tracks remain minimized.
You can also manually set the exact size of a track’s display. The following
table shows how to customize the appearance of tracks in the Track pane:
To do this...
Do this...
Hide or show a track
Open the Track Manager dialog (press
M), and check or uncheck a track’s
checkbox in the dialog.
Maximize a track
Click the Maximize button in the track
Restore a track to its original size
(before it was minimized or
maximized)
Click the Restore button in the track
Minimize a track
Click the Minimize button in the track
Change the height of a track
using splitter bars
Move the cursor over the gap below a
track until the cursor looks like this
.
Click and drag until the track is the size
you want.
Lock or unlock the height of a
track
Right-click an empty area in the track’s
controls and choose Lock Height from
the menu.
You can display subsets of the Track pane’s interior controls (the titlebar
controls are always displayed) by selecting one of the tabs located at the
bottom of the Track view. To choose which controls are displayed on each
tab, see “To Configure Track and Bus Tabs” on page 260.
160
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
Changing Audio Track Settings in the Track Pane
You can change the values in the Track pane in a number of ways:
Control
How to change the setting
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim, Send
Output Level, and Send Pan
Click on the control and move your
cursor left or right to adjust values, or
press Enter and type a value.
Input and Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of
the control and select a driver from the
menu that appears, or double-click on
the control and select a driver from the
menu.
Buttons
Click to enable or disable
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
161
Changing MIDI Track Settings in the Track Pane
Control
How to change the value
Channel
Click on the black arrow on the right of the
control and select a channel from the menu
that appears, or double-click on the control and
enter a value.
Bank
Click on the black arrow on the right of the
control and select a bank from the menu that
appears, or double-click on the control and
enter a value.
Patch
Click on the black arrow on the right of the
control and select a patch from the menu that
appears, or double-click on the control and
enter a value.
Volume, Pan, Volume
Trim, Chorus and Reverb
Click on control and move your cursor left or
right to adjust values, or double-click on the
control and enter a value.
Key+ and Time+
Double-click the control or click on the black
arrow on the right of the control and enter a
new value, or double-click on the control and
enter a value.
Input
Click on the black arrow on the right of the
control and select a MIDI channel from the
menu that appears, or double-click on the
control and select a driver from the menu.
Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the
control and select a driver from the menu that
appears, or double-click on the control and
select a driver from the menu.
Buttons
Click to enable or disable
You can change numeric values in MIDI tracks as shown in the following
162
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
table:
To do this...
Do this...
Change the value by 1
Press the - or + key on your numeric
keypad, or click on the spinner control
Change the value by 10 (for
Key+, by 12)
Press the [ or ] key, or right-click on the
spinner control
Enter a new value
Press Enter and type the new value
using the keyboard, and press Enter
For numeric fields, you can press and hold both mouse buttons to change
the value by increments of 10 (12, a full octave, for Key+).
You can also edit Track properties in the Track Properties dialog box. To
open this dialog box, right-click on the Track bar and select Track
Properties.
You can change the value of a track parameter for several tracks at once
using commands on the Tracks-Property menu. For example, to assign a
group of tracks to the same output, select the tracks you want to assign,
then choose Tracks-Property-Output. These menu commands can also
be used to change the settings for individual tracks.
All track parameters are saved with a SONAR project. However, if you
export a project to a Standard MIDI File, several of the parameters (Key+,
Vel+, Time+, and Chan) are applied to the MIDI data as the file is being
exported. Other parameters, including Input, Output, Mute, Solo, and
Archive, are lost when you export the project to a MIDI file.
Controlling Playback
Changing Track Settings
163
The following sections contain more information about many of the
parameters in the Track view. For more information on the track inputs and
the track Arm button, see “Preparing to Record” on page 204.
Setting Up Output Devices
The output setting for a track determines which piece of hardware or
software synthesizer will be used to produce the sound stored in your
project. In a very simple equipment setup, you might have only a computer
equipped with a basic sound card. In this case, you want to play all MIDI
and audio output through the sound card on your computer.
If your equipment setup also includes a MIDI keyboard attached to the MIDI
port on your sound card, you can choose to route MIDI data directly to the
sound card or through the sound card MIDI port to the keyboard. If you
choose the former, the music will play from your computer speakers. If you
choose the latter, the sound will play from the speaker attached to your
keyboard. You can even choose to send some MIDI information to each of
these devices so that they both play at once.
You can purchase MIDI interfaces that plug into your parallel, serial, or USB
port to add MIDI ports to your computer. For more information on complex
system configurations, see the online help topic: Appendix B: Hardware
Setup.
If your computer has several MIDI outs, choose the ones you want to use
and put them in a particular order using the Options-MIDI Devices
command. The order in which your MIDI devices appear in the Output
menus in the Track and Console views is based solely on the order in which
the selected outs appear in the MIDI Devices dialog box. As a result, the
order in which your devices appear in a track’s output control may not
match the port numbers that appear on your external multiport MIDI device.
These
devices are
not selected
When you first run SONAR it asks you to select MIDI devices. You may
want to change these selections in the future. You can do so by selecting
different devices in the MIDI Devices dialog box.
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Your computer is usually equipped with at least one audio device—your
computer sound card. Your setup may have several different audio output
devices, or you may have a multichannel sound card that presents itself to
your computer as though it were several different devices, one for each
stereo pair. In SONAR, audio tracks are assigned to main outs or buses.
Each main out represents a hardware device. You use the Output control to
assign a track in a project to the main or bus you want to use.
While you need to choose the MIDI output devices you want to use before
you assign them to tracks, all of your audio devices can be assigned to
tracks freely. You do not need to configure them the way you do MIDI
devices. If you have a voice modem or speakerphone in your computer,
however, you might want to set up SONAR so that it won’t use those
devices. Also, note that some dedicated audio equipment has specific setup
requirements. For more information, see Chapter , Improving Audio
Performance.
To Choose MIDI Devices
1. Choose Options-MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2. Click on any MIDI device in the Outputs list.
3. To move any device to the top of the list, deselect all other devices and
click Move to Top to move the selected device to the top of the list.
4. When all devices are selected in the order you want, click OK.
Assigning Tracks to Outputs
You assign each track to a MIDI or an audio output using the Output
dropdown in the Track view. From then on, material on that track will be sent
to the appropriate output device.
Note:
If you rearrange your MIDI output devices after making output
assignments, you may find MIDI information being sent to
different instruments than you expect. Also, SONAR allows you to
define instruments that are associated with certain outputs and
channels. If you use this feature, the name of the output will
change to reflect the instrument you have chosen.
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165
To Assign a Track to an Output
1. Click the Output dropdown of the track you want to assign.
2. Select the output you want to use.
To change the output setting for more than one track at a time, select the
tracks you want to change and choose Tracks-Property-Output.
Choosing the Instrument Sound (Bank and Patch)
Electronic keyboards and synthesizers often contain hundreds or
thousands of different sounds. Each sound is known as a patch. The name
comes from the early days of synthesizers, for which you physically rewired
(using patch cords) the oscillators and modulators to produce different
sounds. Patches are normally organized into groups of 128, called banks.
Most instruments have between 1 and 8 banks, but MIDI supports up to
16,384 banks of 128 patches each (that’s over 2 million patches).
The bank and patch settings in the Track view control the initial bank and
patch of a track during playback. Every time SONAR starts playback at the
beginning of a project, the bank and patch settings for the track are set to
these initial values.
Many instruments have descriptive names for their banks and patches.
SONAR stores these names in an instrument definition. If you are using an
instrument that supports General MIDI, your patch list will contain the 128
sounds that are defined by the General MIDI specification.
Note to Experts:
Different MIDI instruments use different types of commands to
change banks. SONAR supports four common methods for
changing banks. For information about the bank selection method
you should use with your MIDI gear, see your MIDI equipment’s
documentation.
Tip:
If your bank name is too long to fit in the bank field, hold your
cursor over the bank name. A tooltip appears with the complete
bank name.
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Note that a single MIDI channel can only play one patch at a time on each
instrument assigned to that channel. Therefore, if two or more MIDI tracks
are set to the same output and channel but have different bank and patch
settings, the patch of the highest-numbered track will be used for all the
tracks.
In some projects you want the sound played by a track to change while
playback is in progress. You can accomplish this using the Insert-Bank/
Patch Change command. When you start playback in the middle of a
project, SONAR searches back through the track to find the correct patch to
use—either the initial bank and patch or the most recent bank/patch
change. Note that the Track view only shows the initial bank and patch,
even while a different bank and patch are being played back. The only way
to see and edit a bank/patch change is in the Event List view. For more
information, see “The Event List View” on page 431.
To Assign an Initial Bank and Patch to a Track
1. Right-click on the Track titlebar (the top of the track which contains the
track name) and select Track Properties.
The Track Properties dialog box appears.
2. In the Track Properties dialog box, choose the desired bank and patch
from the dropdown lists.
3. To search for a patch containing specific text, click the Patch Browser
button to the right of the dropdown lists. You can also open the Patch
Browser by right-clicking a bank or patch control in the Track or Console
views.
4. Click OK.
Another Way to Assign a Patch to a Track
1. Select the patch you want from the Patch dropdown.
To change the bank and patch settings for more than one track at a time,
select the tracks you want to change and choose Tracks-Property-Bank or
Tracks-Property-Patch.
To Insert a Bank/Patch Change
1. Highlight the track whose bank and patch you want to change by
clicking on the track number.
2. Set the Now time to the time at which you want the change to occur.
3. Choose Insert-Bank/Patch Change to display the Bank/Patch Change
dialog box.
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167
4. Choose a bank and patch from the lists.
5. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a change in bank and patch. When you play back the
project, the initial bank and patch shown in the Track view will be used to
the point at which the bank/patch change takes place. You can remove a
bank/patch change in the Event List view.
To Choose Patches with the Patch Browser
1. In the Track view or Console view, right-click the patch name in the
track module you want to change patches in.
The Patch browser dialog box appears, displaying a list of all the
Instrument patch names that have been installed.
2. Search for a patch name, if desired, by filling in text in the search field
at the top of the dialog box.
3. When you find the right patch, click its name and click OK.
SONAR changes the patch of the track you selected.
Adding Effects
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view.
SONAR adds these effects in real-time, preserving your track’s original
data.
To Add an Audio Effect in the Track Pane
•
In an audio track, right-click in the FX field, choose Audio EffectsCakewalk, and select an effect from the menu that appears.
Adjusting Volume and Pan
The Volume and Pan settings control the initial volume and pan of a track
during playback. Every time SONAR starts playback, the Volume and Pan
settings for the track are set to these initial levels. SONAR allows you to
choose different panning laws if you want (see“Configurable Panning Laws”
on page 169).
In some projects you want the volume or panning of a track to change while
playback is in progress. You can accomplish this by drawing a volume or
pan envelope in the Track view, or by recording automation. For more
information, see the online help topics “Automation”, and “Editing MIDI
Events and Controllers.”
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To Set the Initial Volume Setting
1. Move your cursor to the Volume control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to lower the volume or the right to raise the
volume.
You can also change the volume settings in a variety of other ways, as
described on page 161. To change the volume settings for more than one
track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and choose TracksProperty-Volume.
To Set the Initial Pan Setting
1. Move your cursor to the Pan control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to adjust the pan to the left or to the right to
adjust the pan to the right.
Hard left is 100% left. Hard right is 100% right. Pan is centered at C.
You can also change the pan and volume settings in a variety of other ways,
as described on page 161. To change the pan settings for more than one
track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and choose TracksProperty-Pan.
Configurable Panning Laws
You can choose from six different panning laws, if you want. A panning law
is the mathematical formula that a sequencer or mixer uses to control
panning.
To Change Panning Laws
1. Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog.
2. On the General tab, in the Stereo Panning Law field, choose one of
these options:
•
(Default) 0 dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power—this choice
causes a 3 dB boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and
no dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center
panned.
•
-3dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power——this choice causes
no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in
output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
•
0dB center, square-root taper, constant power—this choice causes
a 3 dB boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip
in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
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169
•
-3dB center, square root taper, constant power——this choice
causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB
dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center
panned.
•
-6dB center, linear taper——this choice causes no boost in a signal
that’s panned hard left or right, and 6dB dip in output level in either
channel when the signal is center panned.
•
0 dB center, balance control——this choice causes no boost in a
signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in
either channel when the signal is center panned.
3. Click OK.
Adjusting Volume Trim
Volume Trim acts like the trim control on a mixer, raising or lower the level
prior to the volume fader. Volume Trim is useful for calibrating your faders to
match a dB reference level or for aligning your faders for grouping. The
Volume Trim control has a range of -18dB to +18dB. Raising or lowering the
Volume Trim raises or lowers the apparent volume of the track by that
amount without affecting the actual fader level.
To Set the Volume Trim Level
1. Move your cursor to the Volume Trim control of the track you want to
change.
2. Click and drag to the left to lower Volume Trim level or to the right to
raise Volume Trim level.
Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn)
MIDI transmits information on 16 channels, numbered 1 through 16. Every
MIDI event is assigned to a particular channel. Some MIDI equipment can
accept MIDI information on only a single channel. This channel may be
preassigned, or you may be able to change it. Other MIDI equipment,
including many electronic keyboards and synthesizers, can accept
information on several different MIDI channels at once. Usually, these
devices use a different instrument sound for each channel.
On playback, the channel number is used to direct the MIDI information to a
particular piece of equipment.
The Chn parameter in the Track view redirects all events in the track to the
specified channel, ignoring the channel number stored with each event. If
this parameter is left blank, all events in the track are sent to their original
channels.
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This parameter does not affect the channel information that is stored with
each MIDI event. When the track is displayed in other views, like the Piano
Roll or Event List view, you will see the original channel that is stored in the
file. You can edit the channel values in those views or use the ProcessInterpolate command.
To Set the Channel for a Track
1. In the track you want to change, click on the black arrow to the right of
the Chn field and select the channel you want to use.
To change the channel assignment for more than one track at a time, select
the tracks you want to change and choose Tracks-Property-Channel.
Adjusting the Key/Transposing a Track (Key+)
Each MIDI note event has a key number, or pitch. On playback, the key
offset (Key+) parameter transposes all notes in the track by the designated
number of half-steps. The value can range from -127 to +127. A value of 12
indicates that notes will be played back one octave higher than they are
written.
This parameter does not affect the note number that is stored for each note
event. When the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or
Event List view, you will see the original notes as they are stored in the file.
To permanently change the pitches, you can edit them individually or use
the Process-Transpose command.
If the key offset value transposes the key number (MIDI note) outside the
allowable MIDI range (0–127), the key number will be transposed to the
lowest or highest octave within that range.
You can use the Key+ parameter to assist in preparing scores for
instruments whose music is written in something other than “concert” key
(such as Bb trumpet). For more information, see “Music Notation for Nonconcert-key Instruments” on page 699.
When you edit the Key+ parameter, pressing [ or ] changes the value by 12
instead of by 10. This makes it easy to transpose by octaves.
To Set the Key Offset for a Track
1. In the track you want to change, click on the Key+ control.
2. Enter a value (1 = a semitone), or press the + or – key to change the
key by a single semitone. Use the [ or ] key to change the key by 12
semitones (one octave).
To change the key offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks
you want to change and choose Tracks-Property-Key+.
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171
Adjusting the Note Velocity (Vel+)
Each MIDI note event has a velocity, which represents how fast the key was
struck when the track was recorded. On playback, the velocity offset
parameter adjusts the velocity data for all notes in the track by the
designated amount. The value can range from -127 to +127. The effect of
changing velocities depends on the synthesizer. Some synthesizers do not
respond to velocity information. For others, the effect varies depending on
the sound or patch you have chosen. Normally, higher velocities result in
louder and/or brighter-sounding notes.
This parameter does not affect the velocity that is stored for each note
event. When the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll view,
Staff view, or Event List view, you will see the original velocities as they are
stored in the file. You can edit the velocity values in those views, or use the
Process-Scale Velocity or Process-Interpolate command.
Velocity is different from volume in that it is an attribute of each event, rather
than a controller that affects an entire MIDI channel. Here’s an example of
where this distinction might be important. Suppose you have several tracks
containing different drum parts. All of these parts would probably be
assigned to MIDI channel 10 (that’s the default channel for percussion in
General MIDI). If you change the volume setting for any track that uses
channel 10, all the different drum parts—regardless of what track they’re
in—would be affected. If you change the note velocity for one drum track, it
will be the only one whose volume is affected.
To Set the Velocity Offset for a Track
•
In the track you want to change, click and drag the Vel+ control to the
desired setting.
To change the velocity offset for more than one track at a time, select the
tracks you want to change and choose Tracks-Property-Vel+.
Adjusting the Time Alignment of a MIDI Track (Time+)
Each event takes place at a known point in the project. On playback, the
time offset (Time+) parameter adjusts the times for MIDI events in the
track by the designated amount. The value can be as small as a single
clock tick or as large as you want.
This parameter can be used to make a part play behind the beat or in front
of it or to compensate for tracks that sound rushed or late. The time shift
can be used to create a chorus or slap-back echo effect by making a copy
of a track and then applying a small offset to the copy. You can use larger
time offsets to shift a track earlier or later by several beats or measures.
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Note that you cannot shift any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if
the first event in the track starts at 2:01:000, you cannot shift its start time
earlier by more than one measure.
This parameter does not affect the time that is stored for each note event.
When the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event
List view, you will see the original times as they are stored in the file.
To Set the Time Offset for a Track
1. In the track you want to change, click on the Time+ control.
2. Enter a value, or press the + or – key until you reach the value you
want.
To change the time offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks
you want to change and choose Tracks-Property-Time+.
Other MIDI Playback Settings
Two other MIDI settings can affect what happens when you play back your
project, as described in the following table:
Option…
How it works…
Zero Controllers When
Play Stops
If this option is enabled, SONAR zeroes (resets) the pitch
wheel, the pedal Controller, and the modulation wheel
Controller on all 16 MIDI channels whenever playback is
stopped. It also sends a “Zero All Continuous
Controllers” MIDI message, which turns off other
continuous Controllers on newer synthesizers. If you
experience frequent stuck notes when playback stops,
try checking this option.
Patch/Controller
Searchback Before Play
Starts
If this option is enabled, SONAR searches for and sends
the most recent patch change, wheel, and pedal events
on each output and MIDI channel before starting
playback. This ensures that all these settings are correct,
even if you start playback at an arbitrary point in your
project.
To set these options, choose Options-Project and click the MIDI Out tab. If
you have set up a playback loop, enabling either of these options can cause
an audible delay when the loop is restarted.
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Changing Track Settings
173
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI
Echo
When you play your MIDI keyboard or controller, the sound that SONAR
produces is determined by what hardware or software synth SONAR sends
the incoming MIDI data to after SONAR receives the data. This is called
MIDI echo. By default, SONAR sends the data to the MIDI output or
software synth listed in the Output field of the current track. The current
track is the one whose titlebar has the lighter color—press the up and down
arrows on your computer keyboard and watch each track turn lighter in
succession as you change different tracks into the current track (you can
also click any of a track’s controls to make it current).
However, you can echo MIDI data to much more than just the current track,
or turn echoing off on the current track if you want. With a single keyboard
or controller, you can echo MIDI data to as many MIDI tracks as you want,
meaning that you can simultaneously play as many hardware and software
synths as you can hook up to your MIDI interface or run on your computer.
You can also have multiple performers on different controllers sending MIDI
data to either the same synth or multiple synths. Each SONAR track allows
you to select what MIDI input ports and channels the track will respond to.
The Output field of the track determines what instrument will sound when
the track receives the data. Each track’s Input Echo button determines
whether the track echoes MIDI data.
The Input Echo Button
Each MIDI track has an Input Echo button, which controls whether the track
will echo MIDI data or not. The button has three states: on
, dimmed
,
and off
. When the button is on, the track echoes MIDI data. When the
button is dimmed, the track echoes MIDI data because the track is the
current track. When the button is off, the track does not echo any data, even
if it is the current track. The off position on a current MIDI track is only
available if you disable the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option in the
General tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command). The
dimmed position becomes unavailable with this setting.
There are several ways to turn Input Echoing on:
174
•
Click a track’s Input Echo button so that it is on.
•
Click a track to make the track the current track (if the Always Echo
Current MIDI Track option on the General tab of the Global Options
dialog is enabled). In this situation (which is the default), if the track’s
Input Echo button is not on, it appears dimmed, to show that this track
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Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo
echoes data because it is the current track.
•
If the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option on the General tab of the
Global Options dialog is disabled, make a track the current track, and
use the Tracks-Input Monitor/Echo command (or click the track’s
Input Echo button).
Storing Favorite Configurations
If you want a track to respond to more than one port or channel, you must
create a preset input configuration. If you create some favorite
configurations of MIDI input options, not only will they be stored with the
project you created them in, but you can save each one as a preset to load
in any MIDI track in any project you want. Clicking the dropdown arrow in a
track’s Input field displays the Inputs dropdown menu, which has the
Manage Presets choice that allows you to create and store your favorite
combinations of MIDI input choices.
To Play One Synth at a Time from One or More MIDI
Keyboards
•
Since this is SONAR’s default behavior, simply use the Up or Down
arrow keys on your computer keyboard to choose the current track (the
current track has a gold titlebar), and choose the synth you want to play
by using the track’s Output, Bank, Patch, and Channel fields. With the
default behavior, all MIDI input from all ports and channels is merged
and sent through the current track. Notice that the track’s Input field
says Omni.
•
If you’ve disabled the default behavior (see next procedure), you must
make sure that the current track’s Input Echo button is lit up (on) before
you can play the synth that the track is patched to.
To Disable the Default MIDI Echo Setting
•
If you want to turn off the automatic MIDI echoing of the current track,
disable the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option in the General tab
of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command). If you then
turn off the current track’s Input Echo button and play your keyboard,
SONAR will not produce sound.
To Play Multiple Synths from a MIDI Keyboard
1. Choose a synth for each track that you want to play by using each
track’s Output, Channel, Bank, and Patch fields.
2. In the Input field of each track that you want to play, click the dropdown
arrow and choose the MIDI input port and channel that you want the
track to respond to from the following options:
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Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo
175
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this
setting the track will respond to any MIDI input coming in on any
port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-MIDI Omni—choosing this option
causes the track to respond to any MIDI channel coming from the
named MIDI interface input driver.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-MIDI ch 1-16—choosing this option
causes the track to respond ONLY to whatever MIDI channel you
choose coming from the named MIDI interface input driver.
•
Preset—if you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select one here.
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset
collections of input ports and channels, you can select this option
(see following procedure).
3. Make sure that the Input Echo button on each track that you want to
play is turned on.
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the
dropdown arrow and choose Manage Presets from the dropdown
menu.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this
track (if you only use a single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one
choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this
track to respond to on this MIDI port.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use
channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window
at the top of the dialog, and click the disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset
you saved by clicking the Presets option in the track’s Input dropdown
menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top window of the MIDI
Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
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Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo
To Use Multiple Performers on Multiple Tracks
1. For performer number 1, click the Input dropdown menu(s) of the
track(s) you want that performer to play, and choose the port and MIDI
channel that performer 1’s keyboard is sending data to SONAR on.
2. Repeat step 1 for all other performers.
3. If there is any track that you want more than one performer to play,
create a preset of the input ports and channels that you want that track
to respond to (see previous procedure).
4. Make sure the Input Echo button is on for each track you want to play.
To Turn MIDI Echo (and Input Monitoring) On or Off for
All Tracks
•
In the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the Views-ToolbarsPlayback State command), click the Input Monitor button (last one on
the right).
Local Control
You should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master
keyboard to prevent notes from being doubled when you play your
keyboard. If you disable Local Control, your keyboard sends notes that you
play to SONAR, which echoes them to the synthesizer, which plays them
only once.
When SONAR starts, you can have it send a special MIDI message that
attempts to disable Local Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers
respond to this message. If yours does not, you will need to disable Local
Control every time you turn it on for use with SONAR.
If your synthesizer does not let you disable Local Control (this is rare), you
can use the Local On Port setting in the Input tab of the Project Options
dialog box to indicate the number of the output port connected to your
synthesizer. SONAR will then refrain from sending MIDI echo data to that
port. In this configuration, you may need to turn your synthesizer’s volume
control up and down from time to time to avoid hearing it play along with
your other modules. If this situation doesn’t apply to you, the Local On Port
should be set to 0.
To Automatically Disable All Local Control Whenever
You Launch SONAR
1. In the directory where SONAR is installed, double-click on the TTSEQ.INI
file to open it.
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Local Control
177
2. In the Options section, add the line:
SendLocalOff=1
3. Save the file and close it.
4. When you launch SONAR, it automatically sends a Local Off message
to your keyboard.
Note: Not all keyboards respond to this message.
Playing Files in Batch Mode
SONAR allows you to play several files in sequence automatically using the
Play List view. You can use this feature in live performance applications or
just for fun.
SONAR’s Play List view lets you create and work with a series of project,
MIDI, and bundle files. As each file plays, SONAR loads it and displays it in
the Track view and other views like any other project file.
The Play List View
The Play List view lets you create, edit, and save a play list (or set) of up to
999SONAR projects. Once you’ve created the list, you can play back the
entire sequence automatically. You can even program the list to pause
between songs for a fixed amount of time or to wait for a keystroke before
proceeding.
The Play List view looks like this:
Switch to the next song
Repeat the list
Add a song
Set a delay
Drop a song
Enable the play list
Display full
path
List of songs
Play lists can be saved for future use. Play list files have the extension
.SET.
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Playing Files in Batch Mode
To Create and Edit a Play List
To create and edit a play list in the Play List view, follow the instructions in
the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Open an existing play list
Choose File-Open, choose Play
List from the Files of Type list,
choose the file you want and click
Open
Create a new play list
Choose File-New, choose Play List
Set from the list, and click OK
Add songs to the play list
Click
or press Insert, choose a
file from the Add Song to Play List
dialog box, and click Open
Set the delay after a song
Click on the song in the play list,
click
, enter the delay you want,
and click OK
Change the order of songs
Drag the file to a new location in
the play list
Copy a song to another
location in the play list
Ctrl-drag the file to a new location
in the play list
Remove a song from the
play list
Select the song and click
press the Delete key
Save the play list
Choose File-Save; or choose FileSave As, enter a file name, and
click Save
or
To Play Files from the Play List View
To play back files from the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table.
To do this…
Do this…
Controlling Playback
Playing Files in Batch Mode
179
180
Activate the play list
Click
in the Play List view toolbar so
that the button is pressed. If this button is
not pressed, only a single file will play
when you start playback.
Choose the starting song
Double-click the file you want to start with.
The project is opened and displayed as
usual.
Start playback
Click
, choose Transport-Play, or
press the Spacebar.
Stop playback
Choose Transport-Stop, or press the
Spacebar.
Skip to the next file
Click
Loop continuously over
the play list
Click the
toolbar.
Show or hide file name
extensions and folder
names (path)
Click the
button to enable or disable
the display of folders.
in the Play List view toolbar.
Controlling Playback
Playing Files in Batch Mode
button in the Play List view
Video Playback, Import, and Export
Video files play in the Video view in real time as your project plays. You can
also view your video on an external DV device connected to an IEEE 1394
port (“FireWire”).
The File-Import-Video command lets you include the following video file
types in your project:
•
AVI (also called Video for Windows)
•
MPEG
•
Windows Media Video
•
QuickTime (.MOV files only)
Note: some .MOV and .AVI files contain no video. You can’t import these files
with the File-Import-Video command. You must use the File-Import-Audio
command instead, and set the Files of Type field to All Files.
The File-Export-Video command lets you export your audio tracks and
your imported video as the following file types:
•
AVI (also called Video for Windows)
•
Windows Media Video
•
QuickTime
SONAR also has a Video Thumbnails pane at the top of the Track view,
which shows individual frames of your video at different places in your
project (See below for more information).
You open the Video view by using the Views-Video command. The Video
view displays the Now time (as in the Big Time view) and the video itself.
The display in the Video view is synchronized with the Now time, giving you
convenient random access to the video stream. This makes it easy to align
music and digitized sound to the video.
Commands in the Video view’s right-click popup menu let you set the time
display format, the size and stretch options for the video display, the video
start and trim times, and other options.
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181
Inserting and Playing Back Videos
Here are step-by-step procedures for inserting and playing back videos:
To Load a Video File Into a Project
1. Choose File-Import-Video, or choose Insert from the Video view’s
popup menu.
The Import Video dialog appears.
2. In the Files of Type field, select the kind of video file you’re looking for.
3. Select a file.
4. Check the Show File Info option to display information about the file in
the File Info section of the dialog.
5. Check the Import Audio Stream option if you want to load the file’s
audio data.
6. Check the Import As Mono Tracks option if you want to import the file’s
audio data as one or more mono tracks.
7. Click Open.
SONAR loads the video file and displays it in the Video view. If you choose
to import audio data, SONAR inserts a new track above the currently
selected track, and puts the audio data in a clip or clips on the new track.
Note 1: when you save a project that contains video, SONAR saves the
project’s video file by reference only; the actual video data remains in the
original file. Video data is not saved in bundle files, so it must be backed up
on its own.
Note 2: after you load a video file into a project, you can play it back either
in the Video view, or on an external DV device through a FireWire port. See
“Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device” on page 189 for more
information.
To Play a Video File in the Video View
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views-Video.
2. Press the Spacebar to play or stop video playback.
3. To change the display size of the video, right-click in the Video view and
choose Stretch Options-[desired size] from the popup menu.
Note: When you play a video file that has high temporal compression, such
as movies optimized for web delivery, playback may not be smooth unless
you disable video thumbnails, (see “Using the Video Thumbnails Pane” on
page 187 for more information).
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Video Playback, Import, and Export
To Delete the Video From the Project
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views-Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Delete.
SONAR removes the video from the project. Note that imported audio data
is not deleted.
To Enable or Disable Video Playback
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views-Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Animate.
If your computer is not fast enough to play back video efficiently, you can
get better performance by temporarily disabling video animation during
playback.
To Set the Time Display Format
•
Click the time display to cycle between MBT, SMPTE, Frames and
None
Or
•
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Time
Display Format menu:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a time format
Choose MBT, SMPTE, Frames or
None
Change font or font color
Choose Font and select new font
characteristics
Turn off the time display
Choose None
To Adjust the SMPTE Time
1. Move the Now time to the place where you want SMPTE time to be
either 00:00:00:00, or a number you can enter.
2. Use the Transport-Set Timecode At Now command to open the Set
Timecode At Now TIme dialog.
3. If you want to set SMPTE time to 00:00:00:00 (the dialog’s default
value) at the current Now time, click OK to close the dialog. If you want
to set SMPTE time to some other value at the current Now time, type
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Video Playback, Import, and Export
183
that value into the SMPTE/MTC Time field, and click OK to close the
dialog.
To Choose a Frame Rate
1. Use the Options-Project command to open the Project Options dialog.
2. On the Clock tab, under Timecode Format, choose the frame rate you
want from the six choices, and then click OK (for more information, see
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization“SMPTE/MIDI Time Code
Synchronization” on page 746).
To Set the Video Display Format
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Stretch
Options menu:
To do this…
Do this…
Display the video in its original
size
Choose Original Size
Stretch the video to fill the
Video view
Choose Stretch to Window
Stretch the video as much as
possible while preserving the
original aspect ratio
Choose Preserve Aspect Ratio
Make the video display as
large as possible, but only
enlarge by integral multiples
Choose Integral Stretch
Display the video in full screen
mode
Choose Full Screen
SONAR adjusts the video display according to the selected option. The
stretch option is used to recalculate the video display size whenever you
resize the Video view.
To Set the Background Color
•
184
Right-click in the Video view and choose a color option from the
Background Color menu.
Controlling Playback
Video Playback, Import, and Export
To Set the Start and Trim Times
1. Right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties.
2. Set options as described in the table:
Option…
What it means…
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want
the video file to start playing
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video
playback to start
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video
playback to stop
SONAR synchronizes the video to the project according to the specified
Start and Trim times.
Exporting Video
After you’ve mixed your audio tracks the way you want them, you can
export the inserted video file together with your audio tracks to create a new
video file.
When you export a video, any changes you’ve made to the Start, Trim-In, or
Trim-Out times determine how long your new exported video is compared to
the original video that you inserted into your SONAR project.
Note: if you’re exporting an AVI file, the No Compression option in the
Video Codec field of the AVI Encoder Options dialog is a good choice. This
choice does not change or compress your source video material. If you
want your exported AVI file to be compressed, the Cinepak option will
create an AVI file that plays back smoothly with decent quality. The MJPEG
option will create an AVI file that does not play back as smoothly, but is a
high quality format to archive a file in.
To Export a Video
1. Make sure your audio tracks are completely mixed, and your video Start
time, Trim-In time, and Trim-Out time are set the way you want them.
2. Use the File-Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
3. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
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185
4. In the Files of Type field, choose the kind of video file you want the
exported file to be.
5. Click the Encoding Options button to open a dialog of encoding options
for the kind of file you’re creating. Some codecs do not work: click the
Help button in the dialog for help choosing options.
Note: if you’re exporting an AVI file to either a 24-bit audio format or to
a multi-channel (surround sound) format, set the Audio Codec in the
AVI Encoding Options dialog to No Compression.
6. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio
mixdown options. Click the Help button in the dialog for help choosing
options.
7. Click Save to export your video.
Optimizing Video Performance
Here are a few tips to optimize video performance:
186
•
Viewing your video in on an external DV device will significantly
decrease the processor load on your computer if the video stream is a
DV AVI file. See “Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device” on page
189 for more information.
•
If you intend to do a lot of seeking around or looping and editing while a
video file is loaded, make sure that your video file has sufficient
keyframes. Since each frame has to be computed from the last
keyframe encountered, if you have very few keyframes in the video,
performance may be slow. To change the number of keyframes, you
may recompress the file using the File-Export Video command and
specify more frequent keyframes. Choose a suitable video compressor
such as Cinepak and change the KeyFrame Rate parameter to a
number between 1-5. A value of 1 makes every frame a keyframe, and
higher numbers insert a keyframe after that many frames.
•
Changing the video properties of an AVI file, such as Trim and Start
time, can make realtime performance slightly slower. You can make
these changes permanent (and thereby reduce the load on your CPU)
by using the File-Export Video command, and then re-importing the
file.
•
Playing videos at a resolution (video size) of 320x240 is usually a high
enough resolution to monitor the video while you’re composing a
soundtrack. You can still choose to stretch the video to full screen at
this resolution. You set the video size on the Render Quality tab of the
Video Properties dialog. Using a higher resolution can bog down your
Controlling Playback
Video Playback, Import, and Export
computer if you’re processing audio tracks at the same time.
Using the Video Thumbnails Pane
At the top of the Track view in SONAR is the Video Thumbnails pane, which
displays individual frames of your video at certain time intervals of your
project. The time interval between displayed frames is determined by the
zoom level you choose. If you zoom in far enough, you can view each
individual frame of your video.
Note 1: if you’re playing back a highly compressed movie (not many
keyframes in the file), it can take about a minute to redraw video thumbnails
when you’re playing the movie or resizing a window.
Note 2: some Windows Media videos do not report their frame rate to
SONAR. SONAR can play these files, but cannot create thumbnails from
them, so no thumbnails appear in the thumbnail pane.
Video Thumbnails pane
Show/hide thumbnails button
Show/hide frame numbers
button
Show/hide
video pane
button
Video track strip
Frame number
Splitter bar
Here are the various commands and functions of the Video Thumbnails
pane:
•
You can show or hide the pane.
•
You can show or hide the video thumbnails.
•
You can display absolute frame numbers.
•
You can resize the thumbnails while preserving the aspect ratio by
dragging the splitter bar.
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187
•
The video track strip at the top of the Track pane has display fields for
Video File Name, Start Time, Trim-In Time, Trim-Out Time, Duration,
and Current Frame, as well as a toggle buttons to show/hide the
thumbnails (without hiding the Video Thumbnails pane), and to show/
hide frame numbers on individual frames. You can edit the Start Time,
Trim-in Time, and Trim-Out time fields.
•
SONAR saves the size and state of the Video Thumbnails pane on a
per/project basis.
•
The Video Thumbnails pane zooms horizontally when you use the
standard Track view commands for horizontal zooming. You control the
height of the Video Thumbnails pane by dragging the splitter bar up or
down that’s at the bottom of the Video Thumbnails pane.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Hide or Show the Video Thumbnails Pane
•
Drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnails pane from
the Clips pane.
Or
•
Use the Views-Video Thumbnails menu command.
Or
•
Click the Show/Hide Video button
in the Track view toolbar.
To Turn Video Thumbnails On or Off
1. Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track
strip.
2. Choose Show/Hide Thumbnails from the popup menu that appears.
Or
•
Click the Show/Hide Thumbnails button
in the Track view toolbar.
To Hide or Show Frame Numbers on Frames
•
In the video track strip, click the Show/Hide Frame Numbers button
To Open the Video Properties Dialog
•
Double-click the video track strip.
To Open the Video View
•
Double-click the Video Thumbnails pane.
To Move the Now Time to a Thumbnail
•
188
Click the thumbnail.
Controlling Playback
Video Playback, Import, and Export
.
To Change the Start Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Start field, type a new number in
Measure/Beat/Tick format, and press Enter. The start time is the time in
your SONAR project at which your video starts to play.
To Change the Trim-In Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Trim-In field, type a new number in
SMPTE format, and press Enter (you can press the Spacebar instead of
typing colons, if you want, and you can type single zeros instead of
double zeros). The trim-in time is the time in your video file at which you
want to start video playback.
To Change the Trim-Out Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Trim-Out field, type a new number in
SMPTE format, and press Enter (you can press the Spacebar instead of
typing colons, if you want, and you can type single zeros instead of
double zeros). The trim-out time is the time in your video file at which
you want to stop video playback.
To Use the Video Thumbnails Context Menu
1. Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track
strip.
2. Choose any of these options from the popup menu that appears:
•
Show/Hide Thumbnails
•
Display Absolute Frames
•
Open Video View
•
Insert Video
•
Delete Video
•
Export Video
•
Video Properties
Video Playback on a FireWire DV Device
You can view your video projects on an external FireWire DV device.
Note: this feature will decrease the processor load to your computer if the
video stream is a DV AVI file. If the stream is not DV AVI, the CPU load will
significantly increase, compared to playing back onscreen with SONAR’s
Video view.
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Video Playback, Import, and Export
189
To Convert a Video Project to DV AVI Format
1. Use the File-Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
2. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
3. In the Save as Type field, choose Video for Windows.
4. Click the Encoding Options button to open the AVI Encoder options
dialog, and choose DV Video Encoder in the Video Codec field. Click
OK.
5. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio
mixdown options. Choose the audio options you want, but remember
that if you plan to save the project to DV tape, choose the following
audio format:
•
Channel Format—choose Stereo.
•
Sample Rate—choose 48000.
•
Bit Depth—choose 16.
6. Click Save to export your video.
Once you save the video file, it can be re-inserted into a project (see
“Inserting and Playing Back Videos” on page 182). If the project will
ultimately be exported to tape, that project will need to have an audio
sample rate of 48 KHz playing back at 16 bits.
To Play Video on an External DV Device
1. Connect your external FireWire device. Make sure Windows
recognizes the device, and displays the device’s icon on the Windows
taskbar.
2. Launch SONAR and open your video project.
3. In SONAR’s video view (Views-Video command), right-click the Video
view and choose External DV Output-[name of external DV device]
from the popup menu.
4. Play your SONAR project.
The video disappears from the Video view and appears on your
external monitor or camcorder. Leave the Video view open so that you
can move the Now Time frame-by-frame with the Video view keyboard
shortcuts.
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Video Playback, Import, and Export
If the Video view is the active window, you can use keyboard shortcuts to
advance by a frame or a frame increment. The +/-, and left/right arrow keys
move forward/backwards by a single frame. If you hold down the Ctrl key,
then the frame increment value is used (default = 5 frames). You can also
use the [ and ] keys to seek by the frame increment.
Exporting a Project to a FireWire DV Device
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, you can export the video
and audio together to an external FireWire DV device. This is called
“printing to tape,” if your external device uses tape.
To Export a Project to an External DV Device
1. Use the File-Export-Video command to open the Export Video dialog.
2. In the Save as Type field, choose AVC Compliant Device. You might
see a different name in the dropdown menu, depending on what type of
external device you are using.
3. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open the Audio Mixdown
Options dialog.
4. In the Audio Mixdown Options dialog, choose the following options, and
then click OK:
•
Channel Format—choose Stereo.
•
Sample Rate—choose 48000.
•
Bit Depth—choose 16.
5. In the Export Video dialog, click the Encoding Options button to open
the property page of your external device.
6. In the property page, use the transport controls to position the tape in
your external device to a blank area for recording.
7. Close the property page, and click the Save button in the Export Video
dialog to start exporting. If you’re printing to a device that uses tape, the
tape stops rolling when the export process is finished.
Synchronizing External Video Playback to Audio
Because there is more latency in FireWire video playback than in PC digital
audio playback, video playback on an external device will probably be
playing back later than the audio tracks in SONAR.
To Sync External Video to Audio
1. Right-click the Video view and choose Video Properties from the
popup menu to open the Video Properties dialog.
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Video Playback, Import, and Export
191
2. On the Render Quality tab of the dialog, under External DV Output,
enter an offset number in the Video Sync Offset field. The number you
enter here causes the Video to start playing sooner than the audio. It’s
helpful if your video has some pre-roll footage that contains a visual
sync point.
Note: The offset is accurate to 3 decimal places, e.g. 1 ms (a
thousandth of a second). One frame of video is approximately 33 ms
long for NTSC and 40 ms for PAL; the offset will typically be less than 1
second.
3. Click OK to close the dialog. Play your video, and readjust the Video
Sync Offset number as needed.
Locating Missing Audio
If you try to open a project and SONAR is unable to locate all the audio files
that the project references, the Find Missing Audio dialog appears. The
Find Missing Audio dialog helps you find any missing audio in your project.
The Find Missing Audio File Dialog
Use the Locate Missing Audio File dialog to find missing audio in your
project. The following is a brief description of the options you have in this
dialog:
192
•
Open—Click this button once you have searched for and found the
missing audio file.
•
Skip—Click this button to move to the next missing file. When you skip
and audio file your project opens without that piece of missing audio.
•
Skip All—Click this button to skip all missing audio files. When you skip
all missing audio files, you project opens without those pieces of
missing audio
•
Search—Click this button to begin a search of all available hard drives
for your missing audio file.
•
After locating the file Options—You can choose to either move an
audio file to the project’s audio data folder, copy an audio file to the
project’s audio data folder, or leave an audio file in its current folder.
Controlling Playback
Locating Missing Audio
Restoring Missing Audio Files
When you open a project file that references audio files which SONAR can
not find, the Locate Missing Audio dialog appears. Use the following
procedure to restore the missing audio files to your project.
To Restore Missing Audio Files
1. In the Locate Missing Audio dialog, click the Search button.
The Search for Missing Audio dialog appears and SONAR begins
searching all available hard drives for the missing file or files.
2. When SONAR is finished searching, the files that it has found appear in
the dialog.
3. Select the file or files that SONAR has found and click OK.
The Locate Missing Audio dialog appears.
4. Select one of the following options:
•
Move file to Project Audio Folder—Use this option if you are sure
that no other projects are referencing this file in its present location.
•
Copy file to Project Audio Folder—Use this option if the missing
file is shared with another project and you want to keep all of your
project’s audio files together.
•
Reference file from present location—Use this option if you want
to leave the missing file in its current location now that SONAR
knows where it is.
5. Click Open.
SONAR moves, copies or references the missing file or files as you
instructed.
Managing Shared and External Files
You may want to share files between projects. The files you want to share
may be frequently used sound effects or drum loops. SONAR allows you to
choose whether to copy imported audio files to your project’s audio data
directory or to link to them in their current (external) location.
Note: External files are defined as any file not in the project’s audio data
folder (or a subfolder within the project’s audio data folder).
To Configure SONAR to Always Copy Files to the
Project Audio Data Folder
Use this procedure if you want to keep all of your project’s audio in one
folder (your project’s audio data directory).
Controlling Playback
Locating Missing Audio
193
1. Select Options-Global and click on the Audio Data tab.
2. In the All Projects section, click the Always Copy Imported Audio Files
option.
To Configure SONAR to Share External Files
SONAR allows you to share external files (files not in the project’s audio
data directory). There are some exceptions, however. Files that have a
different sampling rate or bit depth are always copied to the project’s audio
data directory. Also, if the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the
Audio Data tab of the Global Options dialog is checked, imported audio is
always copied to your project’s audio data directory.
Do the following to ensure that you are sharing files:
1. Uncheck the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the Global
Options dialog.
2. In the Open dialog, when importing audio, make sure the Copy Audio to
Project Folder option is unchecked.
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Controlling Playback
Locating Missing Audio
Recording
You can add sound or music to a SONAR™ project in
many different ways. You can record your own material
using a MIDI-equipped instrument, use a microphone or
another audio input to record digital audio information, or
import sound or music data from an existing digital data
file. With the input monitoring feature, you can hear
your audio instruments exactly they sound in SONAR,
including any plug-in effects (effects are not recorded,
however). When you record audio or MIDI tracks, SONAR
displays a wave preview of your recorded data as you record it.
You can also input new material using your computer keyboard or
mouse using the Piano Roll view, the Staff view, or the Event List view. For
more information on entering music using these views, see the online help
topics: The Staff View, The Piano Roll View, and The Event List View.
In This Chapter
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Preparing to Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Input Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
The Audio Engine Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Punch Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Importing Music and Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Creating a New Project
You can add music and sound to an existing project or to a new project.
Just as in any Windows program, you open an existing project file using the
File-Open command, and create a new project file using the File-New
command.
When you create a new SONAR project, there are some additional
parameters you can set to make it easier to work on your project. These
include:
•
Meter and key signature
•
Metronome and tempo settings
•
Audio sampling rate
•
MIDI timing resolution
Using Per-Project Audio Folders
For ease of backing up your audio files in a project, SONAR allows you to
use a separate audio folder for each project. This feature is off by default.
To Enable Per-Project Audio
1. Select Options-Global.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2. Click the Audio Data tab.
3. In the Audio Data tab, click the Use Per-Project Audio Folders option.
4. Click OK.
Note: If you use the default project that is created when you open SONAR,
you are not using per-project audio. You must use the Copy All Audio with
Project option in the Save As dialog to create a per-project audio folder. For
more information, see “To Save an Existing Project Using Per-project
Audio” on page 761.
Creating a New Project File
When you create a new project you are asked to choose a template to use
for your new file. If you have per-project audio folders enabled (for more
information, see the online help topic Using Per-Project Audio Folders), you
are also asked to specify a file name, the folder where you want to store the
file, and the folder where you want to store the file’s audio. You can override
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Recording
Creating a New Project
per-project audio by unchecking the Store Project Audio in its Own Folder
option.
SONAR includes a set of templates you can use to create a new project.
These templates include common types of ensembles, such as rock
quartets, jazz trios, and classical full orchestras. When you create a new
project using one of these templates, SONAR creates a project that has
MIDI settings predefined so that one track is set up for each of the
instruments in the ensemble. SONAR also includes a template with two
MIDI and two audio tracks (called the Normal template). If you are creating
a new project that will contain only audio material, use the Audio Only
template. If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI
material, use the MIDI Only template.
You can create your own template files and use them as the basis for other
new projects. For more information, see “Templates” on page 650.
To Create a New Project File
1. Choose File-New to display the New Project File dialog box.
2. If you have the per-project audio folders option enabled, enter a file
name, set the folder where you want to store the new file, and set the
folder where you want to store the new file’s audio.
3. Choose a template from the list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project file and displays it with the Track view
open.
Recording
Creating a New Project
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Setting the Meter and Key Signatures
By default, a new SONAR project is in 4/4 time and the key of C major. You
can change these settings to any desired meter or key. These settings
apply to all the tracks in a project. You cannot set different meter or key
signatures for different tracks.
The meter or key signature of a project can change at any measure
boundary. To insert changes in the meter or key signature, use the ViewsMeter/Key command to display the Meter/Key view, or use the InsertMeter/Key Change command.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only audio material (no
MIDI material), you do not need to set the meter and key signature.
Note:
Groove clips do not follow your project’s key. Groove clips follow
the project pitch in the Markers toolbar and pitch markers in the
Time Ruler. For more information, see “Working with Groove
Clips” on page 330.
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes in the Staff view, the
Event List view, and elsewhere. The meter tells SONAR the number of
beats per measure and the note value of each beat. Common meters
include:
•
2/4 (two beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
4/4 (four beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
3/4 (three beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
6/8 (six beats per measure, each eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter, the number of beats per measure, can be from
1 through 99. The bottom number of a meter is the value of each beat. You
can pick from a list of values ranging from a whole note to a thirty-second
note.
The meter determines the following:
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•
Where the metronome accents are placed
•
How the Now time is displayed
•
How the Staff view is drawn
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•
How grid lines are displayed in the Piano Roll view
To Set the Meter and Key Signature
1. Display the Views toolbar by choosing Views-Toolbars-Views, or by
using the Insert-Meter/Key Change command.
2. Click
on the View toolbar to open the Meter/Key view.
3. Select the first (and only) meter/key change in the list.
4. Click
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
5. Enter the top and bottom meter values in the Beats per Measure and
Beat Value fields.
6. Choose the key signature from the Key Signature list.
7. Click OK.
You can also set the meter and key signature in the Large Transport toolbar
display.
Setting the Metronome and Tempo Settings
The metronome counts off each beat in a measure, so you can hear the
tempo of your project. You can choose to have the metronome sound during
recording, during playback, or both. When you start recording, SONAR can
play any number of beats or measures of metronome clicks before
recording begins. This can help you “get in the groove” before you start
performing. These beats or measures are called the count-in.
When you create a new project, you should set the metronome to play
during the count-in and while recording. If you are adding material to an
existing project, you might only need the metronome for the count-in.
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You can customize the metronome sound to use audio or any note on a
MIDI instrument. By default, SONAR uses a hi-hat cymbal sound from a
General MIDI drum kit for the MIDI metronome, but you can change this
setting to anything you like by changing the MIDI output, MIDI channel, and
duration. You can also choose the note and velocity (volume) to use for the
first beat of each measure and for all other beats. The metronome settings
are stored separately with each project, so you can use different settings for
each one.
Most metronome options can be set in the Metronome toolbar:
Accent first beat
Use Audio Metronome
Metronome settings
Measures
Metronome during
record
Count-in
Beats
Use MIDI note
Metronome during
playback
If you don’t see the Metronome toolbar, use the Views-Toolbars command
to open the Toolbars dialog box, and check the Metronome checkbox. The
metronome MIDI note parameters must be set in the Metronome Settings
dialog box.
If you are synchronized to an external clock source, you cannot
use the count-in feature. For more information, see
“Synchronizing Your Gear” on page 739.
To Set the Tempo and Metronome for a New Project
1. In the Metronome toolbar, select the Metronome during Recording
and Metronome during Playback
options.
2. If you want to hear a count-in before recording begins, set the count-in
to 1 or more. Select Count-in Measures
3. Select Use Audio Metronome
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or Count-in Beats
and/or Use MIDI Metronome
.
.
4. Arm at least one track.
5. Press r or click
to start recording. The count-in will play, and the
Now time will start to advance.
6. If necessary, stop playback and adjust the tempo using the tempo
controls in the toolbar and restart playback. Repeat until the metronome
plays the tempo you want.
7. Press the Spacebar or click
8. Press w, or click
to stop recording.
to rewind to the beginning of the piece.
Your tempo and metronome settings are now ready. When you save the
project file, the metronome and tempo settings will be saved as well.
To Change Your Metronome Settings
1. Open the Metronome Settings dialog box in one of the following ways:
•
Click Metronome Settings
in the Metronome toolbar.
•
Choose Options-Project and click the Metronome tab.
2. Change the metronome settings as indicated in the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Enable the metronome during
playback
Check Playback
Enable the metronome during
recording
Check Recording
Enable the count-in
Enter the number of clicks for the
count-in in the Count-in box, and
select Measures or Beats
Use the audio
Check Use Audio Metronome
Use a MIDI note as the sound
Check Use MIDI Note and choose
the output, channel, and other
settings
3. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
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To Set the MIDI Metronome Sounds from your MIDI
Instrument
1. Select a track in the Track view that is assigned to the MIDI device you
want to use for the metronome sound.
2. Click Metronome Settings
Project Options dialog box.
in the Metronome toolbar to open the
3. Make sure that the settings in the Output and Channel fields match
those for the track in the Track view.
4. Click on the Key box in the First Beat or the Other Beats section.
5. Play a note on your MIDI instrument. The note number is entered
automatically. The velocity is not updated.
6. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
Setting the Audio Sampling Rate and Bit Depth
EachSONAR project has an audio sampling rate and an audio driver bit
depth that indicate the level of accuracy with which audio data are sampled
and processed. The same parameters are used for all the digital audio in a
project. When you create a new project, if you do not want to use the
default setting, you must choose a sampling rate before you start recording
audio.
SONAR lets you choose from several different sampling rates: 11025 Hz,
22050 Hz, 44100 Hz, 48000 Hz, 88200 Hz, 96000 Hz, 176400Hz, and
192000 Hz. The default used by SONAR is 44100 Hz, the same rate as
audio CDs. However, you may choose a higher rate and later mixdown to
44100. You can also enter any hardware-supported value in the Sampling
Rate field. Consult your hardware documentation for supported sampling
rates.
Note: For most sound cards, all digital audio in the same song must be at
the same sampling rate. Some dedicated audio systems let you mix
different sampling rates in the same song; SONAR only lets you do this if
the audio system supports it. This feature is meant primarily for sound cards
that use different Windows drivers for input and output; SONAR treats such
cards as two different programs.
A higher sampling rate produces better quality sound. However, a higher
sampling rate also means that each audio clip takes up more memory and
disk space and requires more intensive processing by your computer. If you
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have an older computer, or a slow hard drive, you might be better off with a
lower sampling rate. For more information, see “Improving Performance
with Digital Audio” on page 776.
By default, the audio driver bit depth of audio data is 16 bits. If your sound
card supports 18, 20, 22, or 24 bit audio, you can choose to take advantage
of these higher resolutions.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material (no
audio), you do not need to set the audio sampling rate or bit depth. If you
import audio from a Wave file or another digital audio file, the sampling rate
and audio driver bit depth of the wave file are converted to your default
setting, if necessary.
Note:
If you are planning to move your project to a Digital Audio Tape
(DAT) or to some other media via a digital transfer, set your
sampling rate and bit depth to match the target unit. For example,
use 44100Hz/16 bit for a project that will be mastered to a CD, so
that no sample rate conversion is required.
To Set the Sampling Rate and Audio Driver Bit Depth for
New Projects
1. Choose Options-Audio to display the Audio Options dialog box.
2. On the General tab of the dialog, select a value in the Sampling Rate
dropdown menu, and a value from the Audio Driver Bit Depth dropdown
menu.
3. Click OK.
The sampling rate and audio driver bit depth are saved with the project file.
Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution
Each SONAR project has a setting for the timing resolution, or timebase,
that indicates the resolution of MIDI data. This resolution is measured in
ticks or pulses per quarter note and is often abbreviated as PPQ. The
default resolution is 960PPQ, which is accurate enough for most
applications. In this timebase, each quarter note is represented by 960
ticks, each eighth note by 480 ticks, each eighth-note triplet by 320 ticks,
and so on.
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In some projects you may need a different timebase. For example, if you
wanted to use eighth-note septuplets (7 eighth notes per quarter note) and
represent them accurately, you would need to have a timebase that is
divisible by 7, such as 168PPQ. SONAR uses the timebase you choose for
a project to determine the range of tick values in the Now time.
To Set the Timebase for a Project
1. Choose Options-Project and click the Clock tab.
2. Choose the timebase you want from the Ticks per Quarter Note list.
3. Click OK.
The timebase will be saved with the project file.
Preparing to Record
To prepare for recording, you need to do the following:
•
Set the recording mode.
•
Choose your input(s).
•
Arm one or more tracks for recording.
•
Check your recording levels (audio only).
•
Tune your instrument if necessary (audio only).
•
Set the Now time to the point where recording should start.
•
Start recording.
After you record, you can use the Edit-Undo command to erase the most
recently recorded material. You can use the Edit-Redo command to restore
the recording and toggle between Undo and Redo as many times as you
like.
If you are using MIDI Sync or time code sync for the clock source, SONAR
waits to receive external timing data before it begins recording. For more
information see Chapter , Synchronizing Your Gear.
Recording Modes
Any material you record is stored in a new clip. If you record into several
tracks at once, one clip is created in each track. If you record into a track
that already contains clips, you can choose one of three recording modes
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to determine what happens to those clips. When you save your project, you
also save whatever recording mode you choose together with that project:
Recording mode…
How it works…
Sound on Sound
The new material is merged with any existing material.
This means that any existing clips on the track are left
unchanged and all newly recorded material is stored in
new clips. While recording, you will be able to hear
material from existing clips.
Overwrite
The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing
material. This means that portions of existing clips may
be “wiped clean” to make room for newly recorded
material. While recording, you will not be able to hear
material from existing clips.
Auto Punch
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and
punch-out times. You can use Auto Punch in either
Sound on Sound or Overwrite mode.
To Choose a Recording Mode
•
Select a mode from the dropdown list in the Record toolbar.
Or
•
Choose Transport-Record Options or click
to display the Record
Options dialog box, then select the desired mode.
SONAR saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a
different recording mode with each of your projects.
Choosing an Input
To record into a track, you must choose an input for the music or sound to
be recorded. Usually, you choose All Inputs - Omni to record material from a
MIDI instrument, or the left or right channel of a digital audio device (such
as a sound card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record
stereo audio in a single track. The input for each track is displayed in the
track’s Input field and at the top of each module in the Console view.
When you choose All Inputs - Omni as the input for a track, SONAR merges
material from all MIDI inputs and instruments. This means you don’t have to
worry about input, channel, or other MIDI settings. Sometimes, you may
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205
want to record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn how to
do this, see “Recording Specific Ports and Channels” on page 232.
While each track can have a different input, it is also possible for several
tracks to have the same input.
To Choose a MIDI Input in the Track View
1. Click the dropdown arrow of an Input field of a MIDI track (an Input field
has this icon to the left of it:
).
A dropdown menu of MIDI inputs appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this
setting the track will record any MIDI input coming in on any
enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track
will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel, unless you choose a
particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will
only record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—
choosing this option causes the track to record any MIDI channel
coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the
track will only record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose,
from the named input driver.
•
Preset—if you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/
or channels, you need to select a preset collection of those ports
and channels. You can select one here (to create presets, see next
line).
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset
collections of input ports and channels, you can select this option
(see “To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on page 234).
To Choose an Audio Input in the Track View
1. Click the dropdown arrow of the Input field of an audio track (an Input
field has this icon to the left of it:
).
A dropdown menu of audio drivers appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from
these options:
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•
None—This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in
question.
•
Left (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record
a mono signal on the left channel of your sound card.
•
Right (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record
a mono signal on the right channel of your sound card.
•
Stereo (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to
record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers
appears after the name of each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs
the driver is attached to.
To Choose an Audio Input in the Console View
1. At the top of an audio track module, click the Input button.
A popup menu of audio drivers appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from
these options:
•
None—This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in
question. It also turns off input monitoring for this track.
•
Left (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record
a mono signal on the left channel of your sound card.
•
Right (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record
a mono signal on the right channel of your sound card.
•
Stereo (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to
record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers
appears after the name of each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs
the driver is attached to.
To Choose a MIDI Input in the Console View
1. At the top of a MIDI track module, click the Input button.
A popup menu of MIDI channels appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this
setting the track will record any MIDI input coming in on any
enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
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207
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track
will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel, unless you choose a
particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will
only record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—
choosing this option causes the track to record any MIDI channel
coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the
track will only record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose,
from the named input driver.
•
Preset—if you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/
or channels, you need to select a preset collection of those ports
and channels. You can select one here (to create presets, see next
line).
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset
collections of input ports and channels, you can select this option
(see “To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on page 234).
Arming Tracks for Recording
SONAR lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the
tracks you want to record by arming the tracks. You can arm a single track
or several tracks at one time. Each track records material received though
its selected input. Whenever a track is armed, not only does the track’s R
button turn red, but the Clips pane that’s to the right of that track’s controls
turns a reddish hue.
To Arm One or More Tracks for Recording
•
To arm a track in the Track view, click
.
Or
•
To arm a track in the Console view, click
(to see the Arm button in
the Console view, the MSR button on the left side of the Console view
must be depressed).
Or
•
To arm several tracks at the same time, select one or more tracks in the
Track view, then right-click and choose Arm from the popup menu.
A track’s Arm button turns red to indicate that the track is armed for
recording.
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To Disarm All Tracks at Once
•
Click the red Arm label that’s located in the Status bar at the bottom of
the SONAR window.
Or
•
Click the red Arm button in the Playback State toolbar, which you can
display by using the Views-Toolbars command and checking Playback
State in the Toolbars dialog box.
Auto Arming
You must arm tracks in order to record. To safeguard your data, there is no
automatic arming of any tracks.
If you want to record MIDI tracks without arming a track, choose OptionsGlobal, and select the General tab. Click the Allow MIDI Recording without
an Armed Track checkbox.
This feature lets you start recording a new track simply by making it the
current track and pressing R or clicking the Record button in the toolbar.
Auto-arming makes it possible to inadvertently record over existing material
in the current track, however.
Recording Music from a MIDI
Instrument
Once you have set your tempo and metronome, and armed one or more
tracks, you are ready to start recording.
To Record MIDI
1. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start
recording.
2. Click
, press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome
count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in.
3. Play or perform the material you want to record. As you record, SONAR
displays a clip containing the new material in the Clips pane (unless
you’ve turned off this option on the General tab of the Global Options
dialog—Options-Global command).
4. Click
, press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop
recording.
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209
To listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and
press the Spacebar or click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use
Edit-Undo or press Ctrl+Z to erase the new material.
When you stop recording, if you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you
may have a problem with MIDI input. See the online help topic “Appendix A:
Troubleshooting” for more information.
Recording Audio
Before you record audio, you should check your input levels. If the levels
are too low, you may end up with too much hiss and background noise in
your recording. If the levels are too high, your recording will be inaccurate
or distorted. To check your audio levels, use the audio meters in the either
the Track view or Console view. To adjust the input levels, you must use
your sound card’s software mixer program (or the Windows XP mixer) or an
external hardware mixer for certain sound cards.
The audio meters indicate the volume at which the audio will be recorded,
in units called decibels (dB). The meter values range from -INF (silent) to
0dB (maximum volume). You can change many options in the way
SONAR’s meters display data: see “Metering” on page 535. To maximize
the dynamic range of your recording, you want to set the levels as high as
possible without clipping.
When the audio level exceeds 0dB, some of the audio information is lost.
This is known as overload. Many sound cards use clipping to deal with an
overloaded signal, but clipping can distort the audio signal. As a result, you
should avoid letting the meter level exceed 0dB.
Note to Experts:
Because SONAR is a digital recorder, a level of 0dB indicates
digital zero. Digital distortion will occur at 0dB. You will not get
analog compression or warmth from pushing the input levels. If
you are transferring data from a DAT or another device, you may
want to calibrate the input levels of your sound card with the
output levels of other devices in your studio. This will ensure that
0dB on one unit will appear as 0dB in SONAR.
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To Check the Input Levels
1. In the Track view, choose the inputs for the tracks you want to record,
and arm the tracks for recording. Make sure that the Show/Hide All
Meters button at the top of the Track view is enabled.
2. The default meter range is from 0 dB to -60 dB. To change the range,
right-click on the meter and choose a new range from the menu.
3. Perform at the loudest level at which you plan to record.
Watch the meters respond. Increase the input volume as high as
possible without ever letting the meters move all the way to 0dB, even
for an instant, or letting the Clipping indicator turn red. If either of these
things happen, reduce the input volume just enough to avoid them
during the entire performance. Note that some kinds of audio, such as
percussive or plucked musical instruments, can produce very short,
high-level “transients” when struck or plucked aggressively, which can
lead to clipping if the input volume is set too high. Consider the
possibility of these transients when examining the meters and setting
your record level.
Note: If the Clipping indicator is illuminated, click on it to reset.
Once you have set your sampling rate and input levels, you are ready to
start recording. If the meters do not move, check your sound card software’s
mixer program and make sure that you have the proper input enabled for
recording.
When you record audio, SONAR stores each audio clip in a separate file.
These files have the same format as a Wave (.WAV) file, but they have
special names and are stored in a separate directory on your hard disk.
SONAR automatically manages these audio files for you, making it easier
for you to manage your projects. If you want to work with these files directly,
or to learn more about how SONAR stores audio data, see “System
Configuration” on page 768.
Tuning an Instrument
SONAR Chromatic Tuner analyzes any input signal from the sound card
and displays the intonation (in cents) on the meter. The tuner automatically
determines which string/pitch you are trying to tune, so that you can keep
both hands on the instrument while tuning. The VU Meter shows how loud
your input signal is–a strong signal is essential for accurate tuning.
The Tuner works just like an effect and each track can have its own
instance.
With a microphone, you can also tune acoustic instruments.
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211
To Tune an Instrument
1. In the track you want to record your instrument on, right-click in the
Effects bin.
2. From the menu that appears, select Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Tuner.
3. Click the track’s Input Monitor button. If you don’t click the Input
Monitor button on the track the Tuner is patched into, you will not be
able to use the tuner.
4. With your instrument plugged into your sound card and turned up, play
a note.
The Tuner displays the intonation reading on the cents meter and the
name of the note you played between the three arrows. One of the
three arrows lights up, indicating one of the following:
•
Up arrow indicates the note is in tune.
•
Right arrow indicates the note is sharp.
•
Left arrow indicates the note is flat.
5. Adjust the pitch if necessary and repeat for the rest of the pitches you
need to tune.
To Record Audio
1. Choose the audio inputs for the track(s) you want to record.
2. Arm the tracks for recording. The Clips pane next to each armed track
turns a reddish hue when the track is armed.
3. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start
recording.
4. Click , press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome
count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measures or beats.
5. Play or perform the material you want to record.
As you record, SONAR displays a waveform preview of the new
material in the Clips pane, unless you’ve turned off the Display
Waveform Preview option on the General tab of the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command). If you’ve turned off the option,
SONAR displays a red swath along the area of the Clips pane where
you’re recording.
6. Click
, press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop
recording.
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SONAR displays a clip containing the new material in the Track window. To
listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press
the Spacebar or click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use EditUndo to erase the new material.
If you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with
audio input. See the online help topic “Appendix A: Troubleshooting” for
more information.
Important: Make sure you have enough space on your hard disk when
recording digital audio. Running out of hard disk space when recording can
lead to unpredictable results.
Confidence Recording and Waveform
Preview
When you’re recording audio or MIDI data, SONAR gives you many visual
cues that tracks are armed and that SONAR is recording data.
When one or more tracks are armed:
•
The R button in each armed track turns red.
•
The Clips pane next to each armed track gets a reddish hue.
•
The R button in the Playback State toolbar is depressed (to display the
toolbar, use the Views-Toolbars-Playback State command).
•
The Status bar displays the red Arm message.
While you’re recording, SONAR displays these cues:
•
Audio tracks display a waveform preview in the area in the Clips pane
where you’re recording. This is actually a visual record of the record
meter’s progress. When you stop recording, SONAR displays the actual
waveform, which is slightly different from the preview. The preview is a
snapshot taken at certain time intervals, while the actual waveform
represents all the data that is recorded.
•
MIDI tracks display the actual data that they record, both in the Clips
pane and the Piano Roll view (not the Staff view).
•
Automation envelopes and nodes are drawn in real time as the
automation data is being recorded.
If you want to turn off the real-time display of audio clips, see the following
procedure.
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213
To Turn Off Waveform Preview for Audio Recording
1. Use the Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog.
2. On the General tab, uncheck the Display Waveform Preview While
Recording option, and click OK.
Now when you record audio tracks, a red swath appears in the Clips pane
in the area you’re recording.
Input Monitoring
Being able to hear plug-in audio effects applied to a live signal is an exciting
feature of SONAR. However, there are two issues that users commonly
stumble upon when using the input monitoring feature. The first is that the
monitored signal seems to have an echo associated with it. The second is
that live input monitoring can lead to nasty feedback problems, particularly
if you have an outboard audio mixer, or you record from a different sound
card from the one you are playing back with.
SONAR has several buttons to control input monitoring:
•
Per-track Input Echo button
—each audio track has an Input Echo
button that turn’s that track’s input monitoring on or off.
•
Global Input Monitor button—the Playback State toolbar (to display, use
the Views-Toolbars-Playback State command) has the Input Monitor
button on the right end, which turns input monitoring on or off on all
audio tracks with one click.
•
Audio Engine button
—clicking this button so that it’s in its up
position turns all audio activity in SONAR off, which includes input
monitoring.
Note: When you use input monitoring, make sure that the track you’re
playing through uses the same audio interface (sound card) for both input
and output. Using different audio interfaces for a track’s input and output
can produce distortion during input monitoring.
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Input Monitoring
To understand the echo and feedback problems, let’s look at how audio
signals travel through your sound card, the drivers, and SONAR. The
following diagram depicts a simplified version of this signal flow.
The bottom block of the picture represents the sound card. The shaded
area above it represents the audio drivers. The unshaded area at the top
represents the main environment of the operating system.
As the diagram shows, analog audio flows into the card's line input (on the
left), and is immediately split in two. One branch goes up through the
analog-to-digital converter (ADC), where the audio is digitized, buffered and
fed to the driver (labeled Wave In in the diagram).
The digital audio data buffers are read by SONAR from the Wave In driver,
processed, and then sent out to the Wave Out driver. The driver passes the
digital audio buffers through a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), where the
audio data is converted back to an analog signal.
Finally, this analog output signal is mixed with the original branch of the
input analog signal, and the summed result is presented to the sound card's
line output.
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With this information in hand, let's follow a simple audio signal through the
system to understand how echoes get introduced into the input monitor
path.
say “1”
Suppose you are counting "1, 2, 3" into your sound card very quickly. When
you say the first "1," this sound immediately appears in all the places
indicated in the illustration above. In other words, the analog audio signal is
pure electrical signal traveling at the speed of light, so it is immediately
present across all analog audio paths inside the sound card.
say “2”
Next, you say "2." In the time it takes you do that, the ADC has converted
the "1" to digital form and the Wave In driver has fed it to SONAR for
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Input Monitoring
processing. SONAR processes the buffer right away and passes the
processed data right back to the Wave Out driver.
say “3”
Finally, you say "3." By this time the original "1" has been converted back to
analog audio by the DAC, and that analog signal is mixed in with the "3" you
have just said. The ultimate result is that you hear a "1" and "3" mixed
together at the line output of card—seemingly sounding like an echo, but
actually just an artifact of the signal flow through the system.
You can eliminate the echo by muting the line-in from playing back (see “To
Eliminate the Echo from Input Monitoring” on page 218); you’ll send only the
processed signal to the sound card outputs. This technique introduces a
little extra latency to what you hear coming out of your sound card, but if
you use WDM or ASIO drivers with your sound cards, the latency is
negligible.
The feedback problem results whenever you have a loop in your mixer path:
the output of your mixer is patched into the input of your sound card.
Feedback can happen with or without input monitoring, but since input
monitoring can add several levels of gain to the signal flow, it’s of greater
concern when you have input monitoring enabled. Input monitoring is
disabled by default when you install SONAR, and you enable it with the
following procedure.
To Enable Input Monitoring
•
Turn your speakers down, and on an audio track that you want to
monitor, click the Input Echo button so that it’s lit up (on)
. To disable
monitoring for this track, click the button off.
Or
•
Turn your speakers down, and on the Playback State toolbar (to display,
use the Views-Toolbars-Playback State command), click the Input
Monitor button so that it’s lit up—this enables input monitoring on all
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217
tracks. To disable monitoring for all tracks, click the button off.
Now you can hear your instrument in real time with any plug-in effects that
you want to patch into the current track. You might also hear an echo,
because the dry signal is coming out of your sound card slightly ahead of
the processed signal. To eliminate the dry signal, see the next procedure.
To Eliminate the Echo from Input Monitoring
1. Open the software mixer that controls your sound card. If your sound
card uses the Windows mixer, open the mixer by using the StartPrograms-Accessories-Entertainment-Volume Control command,
or double-clicking the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar.
2. In the Play Control window of the mixer, check the Mute checkbox in
the Line-In column, or in the column of whatever jack your instrument is
plugged into, and close the mixer window.
Now you can hear only the processed sound when you use input
monitoring. Using WDM or ASIO drivers for your sound card keeps latency
to a negligible amount.
Note: This procedure does not eliminate feedback from you system, only
the echo. If you experience feedback, you have a feedback loop
somewhere in your mixer setup.
The Audio Engine Button
SONAR has a button in the Transport toolbar called the Audio Engine
button
. This button lets you turn SONAR’s audio engine off if you’re
getting distortion or feedback and want to cut the sound off. When playback
or recording are in progress, SONAR enables the button automatically—
however, the button appears greyed-out during playback or recording
because you can’t control the button at that time. Whenever the button is
enabled, the Audio Running message lights up on the Status bar that’s at
the bottom of the SONAR window.
If you experience feedback during input monitoring, you can click the Audio
Engine button to turn off the audio engine. However, if playback or
recording are in progress, the button is unavailable, and you should click
the Reset button
that’s just to the right of it instead, or else stop
recording or playback first and then click the Audio Engine button.
You may experience slightly better playback and recording performance by
turning the Audio Engine button off before you press the Play or Record
buttons. This happens if your computer’s resources are already stretched to
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The Audio Engine Button
the limit. When you start recording or playback with the audio engine
already functioning, there is still some processing that SONAR has to do
that’s left over when you start the transport. This places an extra load on
your system that can cause dropouts if your system is already stretched
thin. A more effective solution than disabling the audio engine before
starting the transport is to reduce the load on your system by hiding some
meters, increasing latency slightly, reducing the number of plug-ins and/or
tracks, etc.
Loop Recording
When recording a vocal or an instrumental section, you might want to
record several different takes so that you can choose the one you like best.
You might even want to record several takes to double a part or merge the
best parts of each.
Normally, to record each take you would have to arm a track, start
recording, perform the take, and then stop recording. You can record
multiple takes more easily using a feature called loop recording. Loop
recording lets you start recording and record as many takes as you like, all
in a single step.
SONAR loops between the loop start and loop end time, allowing you to
record one take on each pass. SONAR creates a clip for each take. You
have three choices for where these clips are stored:
•
All clips can be recorded in Sound on Sound mode and stored in a
single track, where they are stacked on top of one another.
•
All clips can be recorded in Overwrite mode in a single track, where
each take is successively muted except the last one.
•
Each clip can be recorded to a different track. SONAR automatically
places each take into a new, empty track. No existing tracks are
changed in any way.
When you finish recording, you can use the Edit-Undo command or Ctrl+Z
to erase all your takes in a single step.
To Use Loop Recording
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the
track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times in either the Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog
box or in the Loop toolbar.
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Loop Recording
219
3. Choose Transport-Record Options, or click
to display the Record Options dialog box.
on the Record toolbar,
4. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate
tracks.
5. If you choose to stack all takes in a single track, choose either Sound
on Sound or Overwrite mode.
If you use single track and Sound on Sound with Track Layers enabled,
checking the Create New Layer on Overlap checkbox will create
another track layer if your new clip overlaps an existing clip.
6. If you stack all takes in a single track, you can audition them later by
using the Track Layers button
in the right of the Track pane (each
take will have its own Mute and Solo buttons).
7. Click OK to close the Record Options dialog, and set the Now time to
the point in the project where you want to start recording.
8. Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome
count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measure.
9. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop,
SONAR will return to the start of the loop and you can record the next
take.
10. If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is
underway, choose Transport-Reject Loop Take.
11. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop when you
want to stop recording.
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Loop Recording
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Punch Recording
Suppose you are happy with most of a track but want to replace some
sound or add new material in one small section—perhaps as small as a
couple of notes. This is where punch recording comes in handy, because it
lets you record new material only within a specified range of times.
For example, suppose you recorded a 32-bar keyboard solo but made
some mistakes in the 24th and 25th bars. With punch recording, you can
play the entire solo again, so you make sure you can get the feel you want.
However, only the bars you want to correct are actually recorded. That way,
you don’t have to worry about introducing new mistakes elsewhere in the
recording.
To use punch recording, follow these steps:
•
Enable punch recording.
•
Set the start and end times of the punch.
•
Choose Sound on Sound mode or Overwrite mode.
•
Start recording by pressing r or clicking the
toolbar.
button on the Transport
The Record toolbar shows the punch settings, as shown here:
Record mode
Step record
Enable punch recording
Click to open the Record
Options dialog box
Punch In
Time
Punch
Out Time
Click here to set punch
times to the selection start
and end times
When punch recording is enabled, the punch times are indicated by special
markers in the Time Ruler, which is at the top of the Clips pane:
Punch In
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Punch Recording
Punch Out
221
After you punch record, choosing Edit-Undo both discards any new
material you recorded and restores the original material that had been
deleted.
You can also combine loop and punch recording to record several takes of
a punch. Say you are working on that perfect take of a guitar solo and you
need to hear a couple of bars of the project as “pre-roll” before you punch
in. By combining looping with punch, you can have each take begin before
you start to play and still have the solo cut in at the appropriate instant.
In the example mentioned previously, you could loop from bar 17 to bar 26
but record only bars 24 and 25. Here’s what this looks like:
The loop starts and ends here
The punch starts and ends here
To Punch Record
1. Choose the input(s) for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the
track(s) for recording.
2. Enable the Auto Punch button in the Record toolbar (the button is red
when enabled).
3. Set the start and end times in one of the following ways:
•
Enter the times directly on the toolbar
•
Select a range of time and click
•
Select a range of time, then right-click in the Time Ruler and
choose Set Punch Points
on the Record toolbar
4. Choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite from the Record toolbar
(or in the Record Options dialog—use the Transport-Record Options
command to open the dialog).
5. Set the Now time to a point where you want to start playback.
6. Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome
count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measures or beats.
7. Play or perform the material you want to record.
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Punch Recording
8. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop
recording.
The material you play during the punch time is recorded in the chosen track,
either replacing any existing material (Overwrite mode) or blending with it
(Sound on Sound mode).
To Use Punch While Looping
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the
track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times.
3. Set the punch start and end times, as described previously.
4. Choose Transport-Record Options, or click
to display the Record Options dialog box.
on the Record toolbar,
5. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate
tracks.
6. Set the Now time to the beginning of the loop.
7. Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome
count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measures.
8. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop,
SONAR will return to the start of the loop and you can record the next
take.
9. If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is
underway, choose Transport-Reject Loop Take.
10. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop when you
want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Step Recording
Step recording is a method of recording MIDI notes one note or chord at a
time. It’s a very easy and precise way to record, but can sound mechanical
if used in the wrong situation. You use step recording in its typical form by
choosing a step size, such as a quarter note, and then playing a note on
your MIDI keyboard. When you play the note, SONAR records the note, and
moves the insertion point forward by the distance of the step size (moving
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Step Recording
223
the insertion point every time you press a note is the default behavior). You
can then record more notes of the same duration by playing notes on your
keyboard, or you can change the step size while you’re recording and
record different size notes. You can also choose how long the notes you
play will sound, as a percentage of the step size. For example, even though
you record some notes that have a step size of a quarter note, if you set the
Duration field to 50%, the notes will be recorded and displayed as a series
of eighth notes, each followed by an eighth rest. The insertion point for each
recorded note in this example moves by a quarter note (the step size) each
time you record a note. If the duration is longer than the step size, the notes
will overlap with the notes recorded at the next step.
SONAR displays your step-recorded notes in the Staff view, Piano Roll
view, Event List, and Clips pane in real time as you step record them.
SONAR also lets you:
•
Use other commands while step recording
Note: SONAR doesn't respond to sync signals while the Step Record
dialog is open and enabled.
224
•
Change tracks while recording
•
Add two step sizes together by pressing the + key between each step
size selection
•
Delete as many step-recorded notes as you want, while moving the
insertion point back through the steps you delete
•
Configure step recording key bindings (see Step Record Keyboard
Shortcuts)
•
Make any kind of tuplet
•
Create a custom step size lasting any number of ticks (ticks are
divisions of a beat—SONAR uses 960 by default); SONAR will
remember the custom step size until you change it
•
Move the insertion point by beats, measures, or step size
•
Link the position of the Now Time to the insertion point
•
Offset the insertion point by the number of ticks that you specify
•
Randomize duration
•
Record notes with constant pitch, and/or velocity, and/or channel
•
Hold notes across steps
Recording
Step Recording
Tip: with the new keyboard shortcuts, you can leave your left hand on your
MIDI keyboard to enter notes with, and control most step recording
functions with your right hand on the NumPad.
MIDI data is recorded using step record even if the track is not armed. Loop
markers are ignored. And step recording always uses the Sound on
Sound (blend) record mode, regardless of the current record mode.
With Auto Advance disabled, you must click Advance each time you want to
advance to the next step. While this requires more effort, it also provides
you with more flexibility. For example, with Auto Advance disabled, you do
not even need to play the notes at a single step at the same time! You can
play any number of notes one at a time, and they will all be recorded at the
same step until you click the Advance button. You can even record notes of
different durations at the same step—simply record the notes of one
duration, change the duration, and play more notes, without clicking
Advance.
The Step Record dialog has two modes: Basic (smaller with fewer options),
and Advanced (larger, more options). To use Basic mode, click the Bas./
Adv. button so that the Adv. button is displayed. To use Advanced mode,
click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Bas. button is displayed.
Here’s a picture of Basic mode:
Custom tick size field
Total step size display
Click to move insertion point by step
size.
Step Record Toggle button to enable/
disable step recording
Insertion point location
Position slider
Basic/Advanced button
Here’s a picture of Advanced mode:
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Step Recording
225
Randomize
durations field
Click to move
insertion point by
single measure
Step pattern
recording field
Click to move insertion point
by single beat
To Use Basic Step Recording
1. Open the Step Record dialog by using the Transport-Step Record
command, or by clicking
in the Record toolbar to display the Step
Record dialog box, or press Shift+F4.
2. Make sure that the Basic mode of the Step Record dialog is displayed
(the Adv. button will be showing if the Basic mode is displayed; if the
Bas. button is showing, click it).
3. Set the insertion point by doing one or more of the following:
•
Click the Step Advance button
to move the insertion point
forward by the current step size, or click the Step Backwards button
to move the insertion point backward by the current step size.
SONAR displays the insertion point location in the insertion point
location field (see Basic mode picture above).
•
Drag the position slider left or right to move the insertion point one
measure at a time.
•
Type a location in MBT (Measure-Beat-Tick) format in the insertion
point location field.
4. Choose a step size by doing one of the following:
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Recording
Step Recording
•
For common step sizes, click one of the notehead icons to choose
a step size as large as a whole note
or as small as a 64th note
. You can increase the step size you choose by 50% or 75% by
clicking the dot icon
, or double-dot icon
, respectively. You
can add different step sizes together by holding down the Ctrl key
while you click extra icons, or by pressing the + key on the
NumPad.
•
For a tuplet step size, click a notehead icon to choose the “tuplet
unit” (for example, for eighth-note triplets, choose an eighth note).
Then enable the Tuplet checkbox and fill in the “n” in time of “n”
fields. For example, if you want quarter-note triplets, click the
quarter-note icon
, enable the Tuplet checkbox, and fill in 3 in the
time of 2, which means 3 quarter notes in the time of 2 quarter
notes. If you want eighth-note triplets, click the eighth-note icon
,
enable the Tuplet checkbox, and fill in 3 in the time of 2. If you
wanted 5 notes in one beat, click the quarter-note icon, enable the
Tuplet checkbox, and fill in 5 in the time of 1.
•
If you want to create a custom step size, click the N button
fill in the number of ticks in the ticks field.
, and
5. Choose a duration by doing one of the following:
•
If you want duration and step size to be the same, enable the
Follow Step Size checkbox.
•
If you want duration and step size to be different, disable the Follow
Step Size checkbox and fill in a percentage value in the % of Note
Value field.
6. Choose a destination track for your recording in the Destination Track
field.
7. If you want the insertion point to advance automatically when you play
your MIDI controller, enable the Auto Advance checkbox.
8. Play a note or chord on your MIDI controller. When you release the
note(s), the insertion point moves by the step size, if the Auto Advance
checkbox is enabled. If Auto Advance is not enabled, you can release
the notes and record more notes, or you can use the Navigation
controls to advance the insertion point. If you are still holding down a
note or notes when you advance the insertion point, the step size of the
held notes is extended by the current step size.
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Step Recording
227
9. Continue recording notes of the same step size and duration to the
same track, or change any of those parameters and continue recording.
To create a rest, advance the insertion point without playing any notes.
To delete notes on previous steps, you can press Ctrl+Z for each
recorded step. If you want to delete previous steps and move the
insertion point back at the same time, check the Delete on Back Step
Checkbox, and click the Step Backward button.
10. When you’re finished recording, close the dialog by clicking the X icon
in the upper right corner, or by pressing Shift+F4.
You can press Ctrl+Z during or after recording to undo your recording one
step at a time.
Note: options that you choose in Advanced mode, such as Link to Now
Time, are still in force when you use Basic mode.
To Use Advanced Step Recording
The procedure for Advanced step recording is the same as for Basic, but
with these extra options, which become available when you click the Bas./
Adv. button in the Step Record dialog so that it displays Bas.:
228
To do this…
Do this…
Randomize the note duration
Disable the Follow Step Size
checkbox, enter a number into the %
of Note Value field (leave it at 100 if
you want to follow step size), and
enter the maximum duration that the
step size should be randomized in
the Randomize By field.
Choose a constant pitch and/
or velocity and/or MIDI
channel for the recorded
note(s)
To choose a constant value for pitch,
velocity, or channel, disable the Use
Input checkbox next to the desired
field, and fill in the value you want to
use for that particular parameter.
Add two step sizes together
See “To Add Two Step Sizes
Together” on page 229
Link the insertion point to the
Now Time
Enable the Link to Now Time
checkbox.
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Step Recording
Enter notes at an offset
distance from the displayed
insertion point.
Move the insertion point back
or forward by one beat.
Enter a positive or negative number
of ticks in the Offset field.
Click the Beat Backward button
or the Beat Advance
Move the insertion point back
or forward by one measure.
Use step pattern recording.
button.
Click the Measure Backward button
or the Measure Advance
button.
See “Step Pattern Recording” on
page 231.
To Add Two Step Sizes Together
1. Choose your first step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet
and dotted values.
2. Press the + key on the Num Pad.
A plus sign appears after the value in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
3. Choose your second step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet
and dotted values.
The total step size appears in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
4. Press the note on your MIDI keyboard that you want to enter.
The new note appears in your track, and the Now Time moves the distance
of the two combined steps that you entered. To toggle the plus sign on or off
in the Step Size “n” Ticks field, press the + key on the Num Pad. To clear a
large value from the Step Size “n” Ticks field, click a smaller value, or use a
keyboard shortcut for a smaller value.
To Use Other Commands While Step Recording
•
Use the mouse to click the command you want to use.
or
•
Click the Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog
so that the button is not red. This disables step recording, allowing you
to use both the mouse, and any keyboard shortcuts that the Step
Record dialog uses, for other commands.
By default, opening the Step Record window will automatically enable step
recording. Shift+R is the default shortcut to open the Step Record dialog.
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229
Once the Step Record window is open, you can enable/disable step
recording at will without closing the Step Record window: just click the
Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog, or press
Shift+R.
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts
The default keyboard shortcuts for step recording are on the NumPad, so
that you can keep one hand on your MIDI keyboard to play notes with, and
use the other hand on the NumPad to use shortcuts.
To configure your own shortcut, use the Options-Key Bindings command
to open the Key Bindings dialog, choose Step Record in the Bind Context
field, select a key and a function you want to bind, and click the Bind button
to bind them together. Bind additional keys and commands as needed.
230
Default setting or
option…
Default shortcut…
Whole note
NumPad 1
Half note
NumPad 2
Quarter note
NumPad 4
Eighth note
NumPad 8
16th note
NumPad 6
32nd note
NumPad 3
64th note
NumPad 7
Custom step size
NumPad 9
Tuplet
NumPad /
Dot
NumPad *
Double dot
Shift+NumPad *
Add next step size to
previous step size
NumPad plus key “+”
Toggle the Delete on Back
Step option
NumPad minus key “-”
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Step Recording
Follow step size
Ctrl+Num Lock (does not change
Num Lock state)
Step backward
NumPad 0
Step advance
NumPad Enter
Beat backward
Shift+NumPad 0
Beat advance
Shift+NumPad Enter
Measure backward
Ctrl+NumPad 0
Measure advance
Ctrl+NumPad Enter
Auto Advance
NumPad
Toggle step recording
Shift+ R
Step Pattern Recording
The Pattern option lets you define a repeating rhythmic pattern of notes and
rests so that you can use step recording more efficiently. For example,
suppose your project is in 4/4 time, and one track has a pattern that is two
measures long: quarter notes in the first measure and on the first two beats
of the second measure, followed by a half-note rest on the last two beats.
This pattern has six quarter notes followed by two quarter-note rests.
When you use step recording with Auto Advance, you can play the six
quarter notes and SONAR will automatically advance to the next step.
However, to skip over the rests, you need to click the Advance button two
times.
With pattern recording, you define a pattern that indicates where the rests
appear in the pattern. SONAR will then skip over the rests automatically, so
you don’t need to click the Advance button at all.
SONAR displays patterns as a combination of digits (which represent beats
that contain notes) and dots (which represent beats that contain rests). The
pattern described previously looks like this:
123456..
Here is another example:
12.4
This pattern automatically skips over every third beat; SONAR interprets
this pattern as “one, two, rest, four.”
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Step Recording
231
Here is one final example based on 4/4 time, with a step size of eighth-note
triplets (twelve steps per measure):
1234.67.90.2
No matter how you enter a pattern, SONAR displays the digits in sequence,
with periods replacing digits at each step where a rest would occur. You can
create patterns with up to 64 steps.
To Use Pattern-Based Step Recording
1. Choose Transport-Step Record to display the Step Record dialog box.
2. Set the insertion point where you want to start recording.
3. Click in the Pattern field.
4. Press any number key to indicate a beat at which notes will be played.
5. Press the Spacebar, period, or the letter r to indicate a beat on which
there is a rest.
6. When the pattern is complete, click elsewhere in the dialog box.
7. Step record as before.
From now on, after you record each step, SONAR automatically advances
past all rests to the next step on which notes will be played. If you change
step sizes while recording, the size of each rest changes also. To stop
pattern-based step recording, simply delete the pattern from the Pattern
box. SONAR stores up to 10 patterns in the Pattern field.
Recording Specific Ports and Channels
Most MIDI instruments are capable of sending information on several
different channels at once. By default, SONAR merges all incoming MIDI
data and records it on whatever MIDI tracks are armed. However, SONAR
also allows you to control which MIDI input ports and channels each track
will record. Here are some examples of when this feature might be useful:
232
•
There are several performers, each playing a different MIDI instrument.
By setting each instrument to transmit MIDI on a different channel and/
or port, you can record each player’s performance into a separate
track, even though they are all playing at the same time.
•
You are using a MIDI guitar controller and want to record the notes
played on each string on a separate track.
•
Your electronic keyboard has a built-in auto accompaniment feature
that plays a drum part and an accompaniment while you play lead. You
Recording
Recording Specific Ports and Channels
want to record each of these three parts into a different track in a
SONAR project.
•
You have a MIDI sequence stored on your synthesizer’s built-in
sequencer, and you want to record each channel onto a different track.
Note: You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate the
process of loading multichannel sequences from other MIDI devices.
For more information, see Synchronizing Your Gear.
You can choose MIDI inputs for a track by using either the Inputs field on
each individual track, or by using the Tracks-Property-Inputs command to
display the Track Inputs dialog box.
SONAR allows you to filter MIDI input so that you can record only certain
kinds of MIDI data (see “Input Filtering” on page 235), and also allows you
to automatically turn off the Local On setting of your master keyboard.
To Assign Input Ports and Channels to MIDI Tracks
1. Click the dropdown arrow on an individual track’s Input field to display
the Input dropdown menu (jump to step 4, below).
Or
1. Use the Tracks-Property-Inputs command to display the Track Inputs
dialog box.
2. In the Track column, select a MIDI track or tracks that you want to
choose inputs for.
3. Click the MIDI Inputs button that’s at the bottom of the dialog to open
the MIDI inputs dropdown menu.
4. Choose track inputs from these choices:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this
setting the track will record any MIDI input coming in on any
enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track
will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel, unless you choose a
particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will
only record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—
choosing this option causes the track to record any MIDI channel
coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the
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track will only record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose,
from the named input driver.
•
Preset—if you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select one here.
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset
collections of input ports and channels, you can select this option
(see following procedure).
5. Click OK.
SONAR shows new track inputs in the Input fields in the Track pane.
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the
dropdown arrow and choose Manage Presets from the dropdown
menu (this menu is also available from the MIDI Inputs button in the
Track Inputs dialog).
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this
track (if you only use a single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one
choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this
track to respond to on this MIDI port. Clicking the OMNI button in this
row of MIDI channels clears or fills all the checkboxes in this row.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use
channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window
at the top of the dialog, and click the disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset
you saved by clicking the Presets option in the track’s Input dropdown
menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top window of the MIDI
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Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
Input Filtering
SONAR lets you filter out specific types of MIDI messages or filter the MIDI
input stream channel by channel. Any MIDI information that is filtered out is
neither recorded nor echoed to any other MIDI devices.
You can use the message type filter to screen out resource-intensive MIDI
messages like key and channel aftertouch. By default, SONAR records all
types of events except these two.
You can use message-type filtering to record short System Exclusive (Sysx)
messages in real-time. These will end up in the track as Sysx data events,
which can hold System Exclusive messages up to 255 bytes. Leave the
Buffers setting at 128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For
more information about Sysx, see Chapter , System Exclusive Data.
To Filter Event Types
1. Choose Options-Global and click the MIDI tab.
2. Check the message types you want recorded.
3. Click OK.
From now on, SONAR records only the types of events you have chosen.
Importing Music and Sound
While recording is perhaps the most common way of adding material to a
SONAR project, there are several other methods you can also use. SONAR
lets you import music into a project from several different types of digital
data files, including MIDI files; audio files in Wave, MP3, AIFF, and other
formats; and other SONAR project files.
Importing Audio Files
SONAR lets you insert digital audio information into any track of a project. If
the audio file you are importing is in stereo, then it can be imported into a
single stereo track, a pair of mono tracks or a single mono track.
The File-Import-Audio command supports the following digital audio file
types:
•
Wave (extension .wav)
•
MPEG (extensions .MPEG, .MPG, .MP2, and .MP3)
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•
Apple AIFF (extensions .AIF and .AIFF)
•
Active Streaming (extension .ASF)
•
Next/Sun (extensions .AU and .SND)
The sampling rate and bit depth for a project is set based on your default
settings in the Audio Options dialog. If the sampling rate from the Wave file
does not match the sampling rate in your project, then it will be converted to
the current project’s sampling rate and bit depth.
To Import an Audio File
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should
be placed.
2. Choose File-Import-Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information
about the file at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to
insert the file into two separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio file and places it in the
selected track at the Now time.
Broadcast Wave Files
Broadcast Wave files are wave files with some additional information stored
in them. Broadcast Wave files have the following information:
•
Description—A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave.
Limited to 256 characters.
•
Originator—The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is
taken from the Author field in the File Info dialog.
•
Originator Reference—A unique reference identifier created by
SONAR.
•
Origination Date—The date the file was created.
•
Origination Time—The time the file was created.
•
Time Reference—The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of
broadcast wave.
To import a Broadcast Wave file:
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1. If you want SONAR to import Broadcast Wave files always at their
timestamped location, select Options-Global, click the Audio Data tab
and check the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp
option. Otherwise, set the Now Time and current track to indicate where
the audio should be placed.
2. Choose File-Import-Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information
about the file at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to
insert the file into two separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
If the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option is
selected in the Global Options dialog, the imported Broadcast Wave file
appears at its timestamp on the selected track. Otherwise, the file appears
at the Now Time on the selected track.
Importing Material from Another SONAR
Project
You use the Edit-Copy and Edit-Paste commands to import material from
one project to another using the Windows clipboard. The project that
contains the material you want to import is the source project. The project
into which the material is imported is the target project.
Normally, if you copy material from several different tracks to the Windows
clipboard, the information will be pasted back into separate tracks. You can
choose to paste all the material from the clipboard into a single destination
track in the target project.
You can also copy material from one project to another by displaying the
Track view for both projects side by side, then using drag-and-drop editing.
To Import Material from Another Project
1. Open the source project, or click in the Track view for that project.
2. In the Track view, select the material you want to import.
3. Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import
tempo changes, meter/key changes, or markers, uncheck those
options. Click OK.
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5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material
should be placed.
7. Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the
current track (not recommended if you’re importing both MIDI and audio
data).
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing OMF Projects
With OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange) support & Broadcast
WAVE support SONAR lets you collaborate and exchange project files with
users of other programs and platforms. Support for OMFI and Broadcast
Wave files provides cross-platform compatibility with OMFI host
applications such as Pro Tools, Avid and Logic systems. SONAR also
exports projects as OMF files that you can open in Pro Tools and other
audio software.
SONAR now allows you to select sample rate and bit depth during OMF
import.
A few general guidelines for preparing OMF files for import into SONAR:
•
OMF version 2 is preferred.
•
AIFC can take slightly longer to open, as the data must be converted to
WAVE on read, so WAVE is the best choice.
•
If exporting from Avid Xpress DV, select "embed" (not "link") when
exporting the OMF file, and don't include any video.
OMF Explained
The OMF format, or OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange, means
the same as OMF), is a file format that can be read by many professionallevel audio programs. OMF files contain two basic types of information:
•
Audio and/or video files, referred to as media
•
Information needed to put the media data in sequence—known as the
Composition
The OMF file supplies the following data and information:
•
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•
Clip positions—an OMF file's EDL edit resolution can be either frame
accurate or sample accurate. SONAR can read either, but always writes
sample accurate. The clip position is specified in absolute samples.
•
Slip edits
•
Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)—SONAR renders any
fades when it writes OMFs, creating separate clips for any fade-ins or
fade-outs. SONAR slip-edits the original clip to make room for the fadein and fade-out clips. If you export to an audio program that supports
slip editing, the user can delete the fade clips and roll out the original
clip to return to the original raw audio (without fades) if desired.
•
Sample rate and audio bit depth, but only if the media are embedded in
the OMF
The OMF file does NOT supply the following data and information:
•
Volume and pan envelopes—OMF does actually support limited
automation. However, as with Nuendo and most other OMF host
programs, gains and pans are ignored (on both read and write) in
SONAR as they are only supported on MONO tracks (OMF limitation).
•
Plug-in effects.
•
MIDI data
•
Tempo
Whoever supplies the OMF file that you want to open in SONAR should
also send along a text file containing all pertinent information about the
project, especially tempo.
To Open OMF Files in SONAR
1. Use the File-Open command, which opens the Open dialog.
2. In the Files Of Type field, select OMF File.
3. Navigate to the folder that contains your OMF files, select the OMF file
you want to open, and then click the Open button, which opens the
Unpack OMF dialog.
4. If you know the exact tempo of the file, enter it into the Initial Tempo
field. It is always preferable to know and enter the project tempo at this
point. If you don't know the project tempo you can open the file at the
default tempo and then change the file's tempo later, but this will cause
the clips to move.
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5. The Sample Rate field displays the sample rate of the imported audio (if
the audio is embedded in the OMF). Use this field to change the
sample rate, if you need to.
6. The Bit Depth field displays the bit depth of the imported audio if the
audio is embedded. If the audio is external, the Bit Depth field defaults
to the Original menu option, which will import the audio at the bit depth
the audio is currently using. If you want to import the audio at a different
bit depth, you can choose the bit depth in this field.
7. If you have previously enabled SONAR's Use Per-Project Audio
Folders option, which is located in SONAR's Global Options dialog,
then the Store Project Audio In Its Own Folder checkbox is already
enabled, and the fields under it are available. If you want to use this
option, fill out the fields below the checkbox; otherwise, disable the
checkbox.
6. Click OK.
7. SONAR opens the OMF file.
You can also export SONAR projects as OMF files (File-Export-OMF
command).
See “Exporting OMF Files” on page 591.
Importing MIDI Files
You can create a new SONAR project from a MIDI file simply by opening
the file. SONAR takes material from the file and places it into one or more
tracks in the Track view.
To Import Data from a MIDI File into a Project
1. Open the MIDI file as a new, separate project.
2. Choose Edit-Select-All.
3. Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import
tempo changes, meter/key changes, or markers, uncheck those
options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material
should be placed.
7. Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
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8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the
current track.
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Saving Your Work
Like most Windows programs, SONAR has a File-Save command and a
File-Save As command to save your work. Normally, you save your
projects in the standard project file format, with a file extension of .CWP. This
file contains all your MIDI data and all your project settings. Any digital
audio that is part of your project is stored in a separate file, as described in
“System Configuration” on page 768.
SONAR also lets you save files in several other formats, as described in the
table:
File type...
Format...
Explanation...
Standard MIDI
.mid
Used to transfer MIDI-only projects to
other software products that support
Standard MIDI files.
Bundle
.cwb
A single file that includes all the material
in your project: MIDI data, project
settings, and audio data. This format is
used for projects that contain digital
audio, when you want to back up your
work or transfer a project to a different
computer. See “Backing Up Projects with
Digital Audio” on page 762 for more
information. Note: Bundle files do not
save video data.
Template
.cwt
A file that is used as a pattern to create
another. Templates make it easy to
create and configure new projects. See
Chapter , Layouts, Templates and Key
Bindings for more information.
If you have made changes to a project and then attempt to close the project,
either by closing the Track view or by choosing File-Close, SONAR asks if
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you want to save the changes you have made. This prevents you from
accidentally losing your work. You can tell whether changes have been
made to a project by looking for an asterisk (*) after the project name in the
SONAR title bar.
SONAR has an Auto Save feature that periodically saves your work into a
special backup file. You can request automatic backups at fixed time
intervals or every time a certain number of changes have been made to the
file. When the limit is reached, the file is saved automatically. If your original
project is called MYPROJECT.CWP, the Auto Save version is called AUTO SAVE
VERSION OF MYPROJECT.CWP.
If there is a power failure or if you make a significant mistake, you can
recover the last-saved version of your project by opening this file. You
should then save your project under a different name by using the FileSave As command.
To Save a Project
1. Choose File-Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
2. Choose the type of file you want to save from the Save as Type list.
3. Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file. You can also use File Versioning instead of
using Save As. For more information, see “To Use File Versioning” on
page 243.
To Change the Auto Save Settings
1. Choose Options-Global and click the Autosave and Versioning tab.
2. To enable Auto Save, set the number of minutes and/or the number of
changes between saves.
3. To disable Auto Save, set both values to zero.
4. Click OK.
From now on, your projects are saved automatically according to the
settings you entered.
Using File Versioning
When file versioning is enabled, SONAR retains a list of previously saved
project files in your project folder. The most recent version retains the
original name of the project. Previously saved versions are saved with a
time stamp following the original project name in order of most recently
saved.
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To Use File Versioning
1. Choose Options-Global and click the Autosave and Versioning tab.
2. Check the Enable Versioning Of Project Files check box.
3. Use the spinner to select the number of versions of your project you
would like SONAR to keep.
Note: If you exceed the maximum number of saved file versions selected in
Step 3, the oldest version is discarded.
To Revert to a Previously Saved File
1. Choose File-Revert.
A dialog box appears containing a list of dates and file sizes for all
previously saved versions of the current project.
2. Select the file version you want to work on.
3. Click OK.
Note: If the current project is unsaved at the time you choose File-Revert,
you will be prompted with a warning that reverting the project will cause all
unsaved changes to be lost. When the reverted project is loaded, the
timestamp is stripped off, and the reverted project assumes the project’s
original name.
Labeling Your Projects
SONAR lets you attach subtitles, composer credits, copyright, and other
information to your projects, as shown in the following table:
Title
The title for your project; prints automatically at
the top of a Staff view printout.
Subtitle
For a subtitle or dedication; prints directly below
the title in a Staff view printout.
Instructions
Use for performance instructions; prints flush left
in a Staff view printout.
Author
Put your name here if you are the composer.
Prints flush right in a Staff view printout.
Copyright
Copyright information prints flush right, under the
author name, in a Staff view printout.
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Keywords
Put keywords describing the project here for
future reference.
Comments
Free text comments. Type as much as you like.
You can enter approximately the same amount of
text as you can in Windows Notepad.
This information is shown in the File Info dialog box, which is displayed
using the File-Info command. If the File Info window is open when you save
a file, then this window is displayed automatically the next time the file is
opened. This is useful if you:
•
Share files with others and want them to see special instructions when
they open the file
•
Want your copyright information to be displayed automatically
If the File Info window is closed when you save the file, it will not be
automatically displayed the next time the file is opened.
Although you cannot use Edit menu commands while working in the File
Info window, standard Windows hot keys like Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can
be used to cut, copy, and paste text.
To Display and Edit Project Information
1. Choose File-Info to display the File Info window.
2. Edit the information as desired.
3. If you want the File Info window to display automatically, save the file.
4. Click Stats to see statistics about the contents of the file.
5. Choose File-Print Preview if you want to print the project information
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6. Close the File Info window.
File Statistics
To open the File Statistics dialog, select File-Info and click the Stats button
in the File Info dialog. The File Statistics dialog box displays the following
information about the contents of the project file:
Statistic...
What it means...
Created
The date the project was first saved.
Editing time
The total time you’ve had the project
open, from the time it was created to
the last time it was saved. This does
not include time spent editing the
project since you last saved it. If you
want to update this value, save the
project.
Revision
Each time you save a file that has been
changed, this number is incremented.
If you open a project, make no
changes, then save it, the revision
number is not changed.
Events
The total number of events in the
project.
Sample rate
The sample rate for digital audio.
Bit depth
The audio driver bit depth of digital
audio.
File version
The SONAR version number.
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Arranging
The Track view makes it easy to arrange and mix your
projects from a single view. From one location, you can
select, copy, move, mix, and rearrange the parts of your
project, using menu commands or drag-and-drop tools.
You can add real-time audio and MIDI effects from the
Effects bin and buses. Markers provide easy-to-use
reference points and labels for the different parts of your
project, and the snap grid makes it easy to align your clips
to the desired time points. slip-editing allows you to nondestructively change the start and/or end time of a clip, just by
dragging its borders. With slip-editing, you can easily create
repetitions of your clips using your mouse. Both the Track view and
Console view have a full set of record and playback meters, which you can
configure in several ways. SONAR™ also has a variety of tools and
commands for changing the tempo of your project. Composite tracks allow
you to keep all your takes in one track if you want, and selectively mute and
solo the various clips in the track. Track folders let you edit multiple tracks at
once and conserve screen space.
In This Chapter
Arranging Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Markers and the snap grid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Take Management and Comping Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Track Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Arranging Tracks
SONAR provides a variety of commands that let you work with the tracks in
your project. Here are some of the things you can do:
248
You can…
Here’s why…
Rearrange the tracks in the
Track view so that they appear
in a different order
This makes it easier to see and work with a
subset of tracks, like the rhythm section, or the
vocals and vocal backing tracks, or all muted
tracks.
Hide individual tracks
This makes it easier to work in a large project.
You can display only the tracks you want to see
at a given time.
Move tracks into a track folder
Lets you group tracks by function, edit several
tracks at once, hide groups of tracks easily, and
mute, solo, archive, arm, or input monitor a
group or tracks with one click. See “Track
Folders” on page 297 for more information.
Make copies of a track
Copying a track and then adding a time offset or
changing the patch is an easy way to double a
part. You can also copy and then transpose a
track to add harmony.
Erase or delete a track
Tracks and clips that you are no longer using in
your project are distracting and take up space in
your project file.
Arranging
Arranging Tracks
All the commands you use to arrange tracks work on selected tracks. The
current track (the one with the lighter titlebar) is always selected. You can
select additional tracks as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a track
Click the track number (click the right side of
the track number; the upper left corner of the
track number is for grouping tracks) in the
Track view. The track is selected, and all other
tracks—except the current track—are
deselected.
When a track is selected, both the track
number and all the data in the track appear
highlighted.
Select several adjacent tracks
Click the track number for the first track in the
group, drag the mouse to the last track
number in the group, and release the mouse
button.
Select/deselect all tracks
Double-click a track number.
Add or remove a single track from
the selection
Hold the Shift key and click the track number
to add it to the selection; hold the Ctrl key and
click the track number to toggle its selection
status.
Changing the Order of Tracks
There are several ways you can change the order of tracks in the Track
view:
•
Drag a track to a new position in the Track view.
•
Use the Tracks-Sort command to rearrange the tracks in order based
on the track name, status, or other setting.
To Drag a Track to a New Position
1. Position the mouse just to the right of the track number, over the track
icon of the track you want to move.
The cursor changes to an up/down arrow.
2. Drag the track to its new location, and release the mouse button.
SONAR rearranges and renumbers the tracks.
Arranging
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249
You can sort the tracks in a project based on several parameters, in either
ascending or descending order:
Sort by…
What happens…
Name
Ascending puts track in alphabetic
order, descending puts them in reverse
order
Size, output, or channel
Ascending puts them in increasing
numeric order, descending puts them
in decreasing numeric order
Muted, archived, selected
Ascending puts qualifying tracks at the
end, descending puts them at the
beginning
No matter how you sort, blank tracks always go to the end of the list.
Note that track numbers are used for reference only. When you re-arrange
the order of tracks, they are automatically assigned sequential numbers
based on the order in which they are displayed in the Track view.
To Sort the Tracks
1. Choose Tracks-Sort to display the Sort Tracks dialog box.
2. Choose the attribute by which to sort from the Sort By list:
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Attribute…
How it works…
Name
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the
tracks into alphabetical order, either ascending or
descending, depending on what you choose in
the Order list.
Muted
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the
muted tracks at either the top or bottom of the
Tracks window, depending on whether you
choose descending (top) or ascending (bottom) in
the Order list.
Arranging
Arranging Tracks
Archived
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the
archived tracks at either the top or bottom of the
Tracks window, depending on whether you
choose descending (top) or ascending (bottom) in
the Order list.
Selected
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the
selected tracks at either the top or bottom of the
Tracks window, depending on whether you
choose descending (top) or ascending (bottom) in
the Order list.
Size
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the
tracks in order by size, either in descending or
ascending order.
Output
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the
tracks by output number, either in descending or
ascending order. SONAR considers nonnumbered outputs to have lower numbers than
numbered outputs.
Channel
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the
tracks by channel number, either in descending
or ascending order:
•
If you choose ascending order, SONAR puts all
MIDI tracks at the bottom of the Tracks window,
with the lower channel numbers first.
•
If you choose descending order, SONAR puts all
MIDI tracks at the top of the Tracks window, with
the higher channel numbers first.
3. Choose the order in which to sort from the Order list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR sorts the tracks according to the settings you chose.
Inserting Tracks
You can insert new tracks by a variety of methods. When you insert multiple
tracks, you can set track output properties at the same time. If you want
new audio tracks to always use the same output bus, you can set that bus
as the default bus.
For step-by-step instructions, follow these procedures:
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To Insert a Single Track
•
Click the Insert New Tracks or Buses button
that’s in the Track View
toolbar, and choose options from the popup menu.
Or
•
Right-click in the Track pane at the place where you want to insert a
track, and select Insert Audio Track to add an audio track or Insert
MIDI Track to add a MIDI track.
Or
•
Press Insert to add a track of the same type (audio or MIDI) as the
current track.
SONAR shifts the current track and all tracks below it down by one, and
inserts a blank, new track at the location of the highlight.
To Insert Multiple Tracks
1. Use the Insert-Multiple Tracks command to open the Insert Tracks
dialog.
2. If you want to insert audio tracks, do the following:
•
Fill in the number of audio tracks you want to insert in the Audio
section’s Track Count field.
•
Pick a main audio output for the tracks in the Main Destination field.
•
If you want the main output that you chose to be the default output
for new audio tracks, enable the Set as Default Bus checkbox. You
can also choose the default bus by right-clicking a bus, and
choosing Set as Default Bus from the popup menu.
•
If you want your new audio tracks to contain a Send module that
outputs to a specific bus, choose the bus in the Send field. If you
choose None, the new audio tracks will not contain a Send module.
3. If you want to insert MIDI tracks, do the following:
•
Fill in the number of MIDI tracks you want to insert in the MIDI
section’s Track Count field.
•
Pick a MIDI output for the tracks in the Port field.
•
Pick a MIDI output channel for the tracks in the Channel field.
4. Click OK to insert your tracks, or click Cancel to cancel the operation.
Your new tracks appear below any pre-existing tracks, with new audio
tracks appearing above new MIDI tracks.
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Note: you can also choose the default output bus for new audio tracks by
right-clicking a bus, and choosing Set as Default Bus from the popup
menu.
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track
View
There are several commands in the Zoom tool dropdown menu that allow
you to configure the appearance of your tracks in the Track view. You can
use these commands to zoom in or out, show or hide any combination of
tracks, and revert back to previous display settings. The following table lists
each of these commands and provides an explanation of each:
Command…
Description…
Shortcut
…
Show and Fit
Selection
This command hides all tracks which are not
selected. The remaining tracks are adjusted
in size vertically and horizontally to fit in the
Track view, without scrolling if possible. All
track selections are lost after this command
is executed.
Shift+S
Fit Tracks to
Window
All currently displayed tracks are adjusted in
size vertically to fit in the Track view, without
scrolling if possible.
F
Fit Project to
Window
This command resizes all tracks both
vertically and horizontally to fit in the Tracks
view.
Shift+F
Lock Height
This command maintains the track’s height
when you use a zoom or fit command. See
“To Lock or Unlock the Height of a Track” on
page 254.
Show Only
Selected Tracks
This command hides all tracks which are not
selected. The remaining tracks are adjusted
in size vertically.
H
Hide Selected
Tracks
Hides all selected tracks.
Shift+H
Show All Tracks
Shows all tracks in your project, including
these hidden using the Track Manager.
A
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Track Manager
Opens the Track manager dialog. For more
information about the Track Manager dialog,
see Track Manager dialog.
M
Undo View Change
This command restores the view to its
previous state. There are up to 16 levels of
undo.
U
Redo View Change
This command restores the view to the state
prior to the Undo View Change command.
Shift+U
Vertical FX Bins
Changes track FX bins from vertical position
into horizontal FX fields located with other
track property fields.
To Lock or Unlock the Height of a Track
1. Right-click an empty area in one of the desired track’s controls to
display the Track Pane context menu.
2. Choose Lock Height from the menu.
When a track is locked, the Maximize Strip button in the track appears filledin:
Maximize Strip button
When you lock the height of a track, its height does not change when you
use a Zoom or Fit command. When a track’s height is locked, you can still
drag the track strip’s lower border to adjust the track’s height. After you drag
the border, the altered track height becomes the track’s locked height.
Copying Tracks
When you copy one or more tracks using the Tracks-Clone command, you
can choose any of the following options:
•
What to copy: events, properties, effects, sends
•
Repetitions: how many copies of each selected track
•
Starting track: where you want the first new track to appear
To Copy Tracks
1. Select the tracks that you want to copy.
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2. Choose Tracks-Clone to display the Clone Track(s) dialog.
3. Check the Clone Events, Clone Properties, Clone Effects, and/or Clone
Sends boxes to indicate which items you want to copy.
4. If you want copied events to become linked clips, check the Link to
Original Clips checkbox.
5. Select the number of repetitions of each selected track that you want to
create.
6. Select the track number where you want the first new track to appear.
The other new tracks appear right after it.
7. Click OK.
SONAR copies the tracks and pastes the selected tracks, with the first new
track appearing at the track number you selected. All tracks appear
consecutively.
Erasing Tracks
You can easily delete an entire track, including all of the track properties
and all of its clips and events. Sometimes, you only want to erase, or wipe,
the contents of a track, leaving the track properties as they are. If you delete
or wipe a track by mistake, you can use Edit-Undo to restore the deleted
material.
When you delete or wipe a track, the track information is not placed on the
SONAR clipboard. To remove material from a track and place it on the
clipboard, use the Edit-Cut command instead.
To Delete Tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to delete.
2. Choose Tracks-Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tracks. You can also right-click individual
tracks and choose Delete Track from the popup menu.
To Wipe Tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to wipe.
2. Choose Tracks-Wipe.
SONAR deletes all clips and events from the selected tracks, but leaves the
track properties intact.
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Track Templates
You can create an unlimited number of track templates for quickly recalling
your most often used track settings including the following:
•
Track type (MIDI or Audio)
•
Mute, Solo and Record state
•
Hardware input
•
Output destination
•
Bus send settings
•
Track parameters
•
Track icons
•
Effects and their settings
•
Instrument and Bank/Patch
•
Track name
To Create a Track Template
1. Select the track or tracks you want to save as a preset.
2. Select File-Export-Track Template from the main menu.
The Save As dialog appears.
3. Enter a name for the template and click Save.
Track templates use the file extension .CWX.
To Insert a Track or Tracks from a Template
•
Select Insert-Insert From Track Template-[track template name] or
select More Track Templates if you don’t see the one you want on the
menu.
Or
•
Right-click in the Tracks pane and select Insert From Track Template[track template name] or select More Track Templates.
This inserts tracks that are exactly like the template. If you don’t want to use
all of the track characteristics that are in the template, you can filter the
characteristics that you don’t want by selecting Import Filter from the
popup menu. This opens the Track Template Import Options dialog, which
allows you to specify what track characteristics you want to import.
Note: if the template you insert contains buses, using the Edit-Undo
command after you insert the template will remove the new tracks, but not
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the new buses. If you don’t want to insert buses, deselect buses in the
Track Template Import Options dialog before you insert a template. You can
delete a bus by right-clicking just left of the bus name, and selecting Delete
Bus from the popup menu.
Track Icons
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a track’s contents by instrument.
You can assign a new track icon, create your own track icons, and save an
icon as part of a track template.
To Show or Hide Track Icons
•
To show or hide Track Icons in all views, use the Options-Icons-Show
Icons command.
•
To show or hide Track Icons in a specific view, use the Options-Icons[name of desired view]-Show Icons- command.
Or
•
To hide a track icon, right-click a track icon in the desired view, and
choose Show Icons from the popup menu. This option is not available
in Track view headers.
To Configure Track View Icons
•
To show standard track icons in the header of each track in the Track
view, use the Options-Icons-Track View-Show in Header command.
•
To show custom track icons in the header of each track in the Track
view, use the Options-Icons-Track View-Show Custom In Header
command.
•
To show track icons on the left side of the track controls of each track in
the Track view, use the Options-Icons-Track View-Show In Strip
command.
To Change the Size of Track Icons
•
Right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Small Icons or
Large Icons from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select Options-Icons-[name of desired view]-Small Icons or Large
Icons from the main menu
4. Select Small Icons or Large Icons from the menu that appears.
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To Change a Track Icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to change.
2. Select Load Track Icon from the menu that appears.
The Open dialog appears.
3. Select an icon and click Open.
Or
1. Put the focus on the track you want to change.
2. Use the Tracks-Property-Icon-Load Icon command.
The Open dialog appears.
3. Select an icon and click Open.
Note: the right-click option is not available when you right-click a track icon
in a track header in the Track view. However, you can load a new track icon
into a track header by Alt-clicking the track icon to display the Open dialog,
and then choosing a new icon. You can Alt-click a track icon in any view to
display the Open dialog.
To Reset a Track Icon to its Original Icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to reset.
2. Select Reset Track Icon from the menu that appears.
Or
1. Put the focus on the track you want to change.
2. Use the Tracks-Property-Icon-Reset Icon command.
To Create a Track Icon
1. Create or edit a graphics file in .bmp format, preferably 128 by 128
pixels.
You can use any image as a track icon. You can use any size image,
but for best results scale the image to 128 pixels square. Images must
be in the .bmp format.
2. Save the image as a .bmp file in the Track Icons directory in your
SONAR program folder.
Track Icon Size(s) and Transparency
You can configure the size of small and large icons in CAKEWALK.INI. By
default, small icons are 32x32 pixels and large icons are 48x48 pixels. Use
the following INI variables to change the default size:
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[WinCake]
SmallIconHeight=32
LargeIconHeight=48
If you wish to create custom track icons, we recommend that you author
them as 96x96 pixel 24-bit bitmaps (.BMP).
The top left pixel in the BMP determines the transparent color. If you prefer
to not have transparent icons, add the following variable to CAKEWALK.INI:
[WinCake]
IconTopLeftPixelTransparent=0
When transparency is enabled, the global color entry (Options-Colors)
called "Track View Icons Background" determines the background color
("Console Strips Icons background" does the same for the Console view
and Track Inspector).
Configuring Track View Controls
The Track view strips no longer have a special header section:
•
The Number, Name, Peak Meter Indicator and Size buttons still have
fixed placements in the top row of the strip.
•
All other parameter controls now flow over the full available space in the
entire strip.
As a result:
•
The MSR buttons (and the Automation Read/Write) buttons follow the
same layout rules as any other parameter widget.
•
The Vertical VU meter spans the full height of the strip. So even when a
strip is minimized, you can still see a 22 pixel high meter.
•
The min track height has been slightly increased from 18 to 22 pixels.
•
Shift-clicking on the minimize or maximize buttons in a Track view strip
resizes that strip to its default height.
You can hide, reorder, and visually group the controls in tracks and buses.
You can also control how the display tabs at the bottom of the Track pane
function.
Changes you make to tracks affect tracks of the same kind in all projects. In
other words, the way you configure a MIDI track controls the display of all
MIDI tracks in all projects. The way you configure an audio track controls
the way all audio tracks appear in all projects. The way you configure a bus
controls the way buses appear in all projects. Synth audio tracks follow
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audio track configuration, and synth MIDI tracks follow MIDI track
configuration.
You can reorder each individual control with the exception of AUX controls:
these all move as a group. For tracks with more than one send, all send
controls move as one.
To Reorder a Track or Bus Control
1. Hold down the Alt key, and drag the control that you want to move. A
rectangle appears around the control you are dragging.
A small vertical insertion line appears just to the left of the area where
the control will be placed.
2. Release the mouse button at the location where you want the control to
appear.
The control moves to the location where you dropped it.
To Restore the Default Order
•
Right-click the kind of track that you want to restore to the default order,
and choose Restore Default Widget Order from the popup menu. If
you want to restore buses to the default order, right-click a bus.
Surround buses are separate from stereo buses.
To Configure Track and Bus Tabs
1. Right-click a tab, and choose Widget Tab Manager from the popup
menu.
The Widget Tab Manager dialog appears.
2. In the Tab Name field, choose the tab that you want to configure, or
choose <new>, and type a name to create a new tab.
3. In each of the four Strip columns (Audio Strip, MIDI Strip, etc.), check all
the controls you want to see on this type of tab in each track or bus type
(Audio track, MIDI track, Bus, Surround Bus).
4. To select all available controls, click Select All Widgets; to select the
default controls, select Restore Tab Defaults (this will delete any new
tabs you’ve created).
5. To configure a different tab, select it in the Tab Name field.
6. Click OK to implement your changes, or Cancel to delete them.
The order that a control (also called a widget) appears in is the same for all
tabs in the same strip type. For example, if the pan control appears first on
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the Mix tab of audio tracks, it also appears first on any other tabs for audio
tracks that display the pan control.
To Change the VU Meter to Horizontal or Vertical
Display
•
Click the dropdown arrow next to the Show/Hide Meters button
,
and choose either Horizontal Meters or Vertical Meters from the
menu.
Arranging Clips
The Track view provides many ways for you to rearrange, copy, and paste
clips to arrange your music the way you want. The easiest is to select the
clips or portions of clips you want to arrange and then drag and drop them
wherever you want. You can drag and drop clips in the Track view even
while playback is in progress. You can also arrange clips via the clipboard
using the Edit-Cut, Edit-Copy, and Edit-Paste commands, which work like
those in almost all Windows programs.
The snap grid enables you to move clips to or by an exact amount of time,
such as a quarter note or whole measure. See “To Change the Snap
Options” on page 279.
Displaying Clips
Clips are displayed as rectangles in the Clips pane. Their position and
length show you at a glance their starting times and lengths. You can
control four aspects of their appearance:
•
Color—By default, each track’s clips are drawn in a different color. The
clip colors restart at the tenth track. You can customize the default
colors of clips in the Configure Colors dialog or change the color of any
individual clip in the Clip Properties dialog.
Note: In audio clips, the waveform changes color, unless no clip
contents are displayed. In MIDI clips, the clip background changes
color.
•
Name—You can also assign each clip a descriptive name, which is
displayed in the upper-left corner of the clip.
•
Contents—At your option, clips can be displayed with a graphical
representation of the events in the clip. The effect is slightly different for
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MIDI and audio information as shown below:
A MIDI clip shows each event; by looking at the
clips, you can “see” the notes that are being
played
An audio clip shows
the actual waveform
Controller or automation
data are also displayed
To inspect the clip contents more closely, use the zoom tools to increase
the size in which clips are displayed. Note that displaying the contents of
each clip makes your computer work a little harder. As a result, if your
computer has an older, slower CPU you may want to turn off the display of
clip contents.:
Zoom Clips pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane
Zoom Clips pane in vertically
Zoom Bus pane out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane
Zoom out horizontally
Zoom in horizontally
Horizontal zoom fader
The Track view toolbar contains the Zoom tool:
To Zoom Horizontally
•
Click the horizontal zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed
percentage each time you click.
Or
•
Drag the horizontal zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you
drag.
Or
•
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Hold down the Ctrl key and press the right arrow key (to zoom in) or the
left arrow key (to zoom out).
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To Zoom Vertically
•
Click the vertical zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage
each time you click.
Or
•
Drag the vertical zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
•
Hold down the Ctrl key and press the up arrow key (to zoom out) or the
down arrow key (to zoom in).
To Zoom into a Selected Area
•
Use the Zoom tool to drag-select an area of a clip or clips that you want
to zoom to. When you release the mouse, the area you selected
expands to fill the Clips pane window.
Zoom command keyboard shortcuts:
To do this…
Use this shortcut…
Zoom in vertically
Ctrl+down arrow
Zoom in horizontally
Ctrl+right arrow
Zoom out vertically
Ctrl+up arrow
Zoom out horizontally
Ctrl+left arrow
Undo Zoom
U
Redo Zoom
Shift+U
Turn On Zoom tool (use the
Zoom tool to select the area to
zoom to)
Hold down Z
Display Now Time in Center of
Clips Pane
G
Fit project to window
Shift+F
Fit tracks and buses to window
F
To Zoom Using the Mouse Wheel (Fast Zoom)
•
Hold down the Alt key and roll the mouse wheel forward to zoom in,
backward to zoom out.
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•
Hold down Alt+Shift to intensify mouse wheel zoom effect.
•
Hold down Alt+Ctrl to adjust track scale (Track View Clips Pane only)
To Select Fast Zoom Options
1. Select Fast Zoom Options from the Zoom tool dropdown menu.
The Fast Zoom dialog box opens.
2. Select the intensity of the Zoom effect in Zoom Factor by using the
spinners or manually entering a value.
3. Select the vertical and horizontal Zoom focus.
4. Check or uncheck Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom.
5. Click OK.
To Display Clip Names and Contents
1. Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View Options from the menu.
2. Check the Display Clip Names option to show clip names, or leave it
unchecked to hide them.
3. Check the Display Clip Contents option to show clip contents, or leave
it unchecked to hide them.
4. Click OK.
SONAR modifies the clips pane to show the information you want.
To Change Clip Names
1. Select the clips you want to rename.
2. Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties.
SONAR opens the Clip Properties dialog box.
3. Enter a name for the selected clips, and click OK.
SONAR renames the selected clips.
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To Change Clip Colors
1. Select the clips whose color you want to change.
2. Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties.
SONAR opens the Clip Properties dialog box.
3. Choose a color as follows:
To do this…
Do this…
Use the default color
Check the Default Color box
Use a custom color
Click the Choose Color button and
pick a color from the Color dialog
box
4. Click OK.
SONAR changes the color of the selected clips.
Using the Navigator View
The Navigator view displays a large part of your project so you can see an
overview of your song. The Navigator view is a floating version of the
Navigator pane found at the top of the Track view.
Track Rectangle
The Track Rectangle appears as a green rectangle within the Navigator
view. The Track Rectangle indicates the section of your project which
appears in the Clips pane of the Track view. You can move the Track
Rectangle or change its size.
To Move the Track Rectangle
1. Position your cursor inside the Track Rectangle until the icon changes
to look like this:
.
2. Click and drag the rectangle where you want and release.
To Change the Size of the Track Rectangle
1. Click one of the nodes on the rectangle border.
2. Drag to change the rectangle size.
To Change the Now Time in the Navigator view
1. Hold down the Ctrl key.
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2. Click where you want the Now Time to be.
Opening Views by Double-clicking Clips
By default, double-clicking a MIDI clip in the Clips pane opens a Piano Roll
view for that track, and double-clicking an Audio clip opens the Loop
Construction view for that track. You can set the type of view opened when
a clip is double-clicked. For example, you may want to open MIDI tracks in
a Staff view rather than in a Piano Roll view.
To Set the View Opened by Double-clicking
1. Right-click in the Clips pane and choose View Options.
2. Select the types of view opened by double-clicking MIDI and audio
clips.
3. Click OK.
Selecting Clips
Before you move, copy, edit, or delete clips you need to select them. There
are several ways to select whole clips, as shown in the table:
266
To do this…
Do this…
Select a single clip
Click on the clip in the Clips pane.
Select several clips at once
Drag in a rectangular pattern that touches
each clip.
Select all the clips in a track
Click on the track number in the Track
view.
Select a portion of one or more
clips
Press and hold the Alt key and drag
across the clips. The Snap to Grid setting
determines the size portion you can
select.
Add clips to the selection
Hold the Shift key and either click on the
clips or drag a rectangle around the clips.
Add or remove clips from the
selection
Hold the Ctrl key and either click on the
clips or drag a rectangle around the clips.
Add or remove all clips in a track
from the selection
Hold the Ctrl key and click on the track
number.
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Moving and Copying Clips
You can copy or move clips using drag-and-drop editing or the Cut, Copy,
and Paste commands. If you copy or move clips into tracks that contain
existing material, you need to let SONAR know how to combine the two.
You have these options:
Option…
How it works…
Blend Old and New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into
a new clip that overlaps with the existing clip. This
is the same effect as sound-on-sound recording.
Replace Old with New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into
a new clip, and any overlapping events in the
existing clip are erased. This is the same effect as
overwrite recording.
Slide Over to Make Room
The existing clips are shifted in time to make room
for the new clips, so they will not overlap. If you
check the Align to Measures option, shifted clips
are always aligned to measure boundaries;
otherwise, the clips are placed end to end.
When you use the Edit-Paste command to add information to a track that
contains existing material, there is one final option you can choose.
Option…
What it means…
Paste as New Clips
New clips are created containing the
events on the clipboard, exactly as
described in the preceding table.
Paste into Existing Clips (MIDI
clips only)
The events on the clipboard are
merged into any existing clips that
occupy the same region of time. This
means you will never end up with clips
that overlap.
Note that if you copy or move clips to new, empty tracks, you don’t have to
worry about these settings. In this case, the track properties that go with the
clips are automatically applied to the new track.
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When you use drag-and-drop editing:
•
You can set the above options every time you perform an edit, or you
can set them once and have the same settings carry over automatically.
Check or uncheck the Ask This Every Time box in the Drag and Drop
Options dialog to indicate your preference. Open the Drag and Drop
Options dialog by right-clicking in the Clips pane and choosing Drag
and Drop Options from the popup menu.
•
If you drag to the edge of the Clips pane, it will scroll automatically in
the direction you drag.
•
If you change your mind while dragging clips, press the Escape key to
cancel the operation.
SONAR also lets you move and copy clips between projects.
To Move Clips Using Drag and Drop
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. If you want to move the clips by an exact amount of time, enable the
snap grid (see “To Change the Snap Options” on page 279).
3. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed
around the selected clips.
5. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
6. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop
Options dialog box (use Options-Global and open the Editing tab, or
right-click in the Clips Pane and select Drag & Drop Options from the
menu that appears), and click OK.
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SONAR moves the clips to their new location.
Note:
Moving an audio clip (other than a Groove clip) to a part of your
project that has a different tempo changes the size of the clip.
To Move Clips Using Cut and Paste
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. Choose Edit-Cut to display the Cut dialog box.
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR cuts the clips from
the project and places them on the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips
should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
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7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR places the clips in their new location.
To Choose a Specific Start Time and/or Length for a
Clip
1. Select the clip you want to edit.
2. Right-click on the selected clip and choose Clip Properties. SONAR
opens the Clip Properties dialog box.
3. Choose the units you want to use for the new start time and/or length
by clicking one of the radio buttons:
•
M:B:T—click this if you want the clip to begin and end on a specific
measure, beat, or tick.
•
Samples—click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a
specific sample.
•
H:M:S:F—click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a
specific hour, minute, second, or frame. This is also known as
SMPTE time, and lets you start the clip at an absolute-time-based
(as opposed to musical-time-based) point in your project.
•
Seconds—click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a
specific second.
4. Enter a new start time and/or length, or use the spinners or keyboard to
change values.
5. Choose a value in the Time Base field—choose one of the two options
in this section to control what happens to the clip’s start time when you
change the tempo:
•
Musical (M:B:T)—if the clip is set to the Musical time base, the
clip’s M:B:T position stays constant, and its Absolute (SMPTE)
position shifts.
•
Absolute (SMPTE)—if the clip is set to the Absolute (SMPTE) time
base, its Absolute position stays constant, and its M:B:T position
shifts.
Note: the length of a clip may also change when you change the
tempo—audio clips maintain their absolute (SMPTE) length, while a
MIDI clip will follow the value in the Time Base field. If a MIDI clip is set
to use musical time, the clip maintains its M:B:T length. If a MIDI clip is
set to use absolute time, the clip maintains its absolute length.
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6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR adjusts the clip to the values you chose.
Note: the Snap Offset field is for audio clips only. The value of this field is
the snap offset of the selected clip, in samples. When you set a snap offset
value for a clip, and then drag the clip, the left edge of the clip does not snap
to the current snap resolution--the clip snaps to a point on the clip that is the
distance from the left edge of the clip to the snap offset value. For example,
if you set the snap resolution to move to a measure, and the snap offset of a
clip to 1500 samples, when you drag the clip, instead of the left edge of the
clip moving to a measure line, the spot on the clip that's 1500 samples right
of the beginning of the clip moves to the measure line.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Enable the snap grid, if desired.
3. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4. Press and hold the Ctrl key and click and hold the left mouse button. A
rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
5. Drag the clips to the new location, and release the mouse button.
6. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop
Options dialog box, and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To Copy Clips Using Copy and Paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to
the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips
should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
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271
To Delete Clips
1. Select the clips you want to delete.
2. Do one of the following:
•
Choose Edit-Delete, which brings up a dialog box—choose
options and click OK.
•
Press the Delete key.
SONAR deletes the selected clips.
Locking Clips
You can lock a clip so that it can’t be accidentally modified or deleted. You
can lock the clip’s position and/or its data.
To Lock or Unlock a Clip’s Position and/or Data
1. Right-click the clip, and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu
to open the Clip Properties dialog.
2. In the Clip Properties dialog, click the Lock checkbox.
3. If you’re locking the clip, use the dropdown menu next to the Lock
checkbox to choose what clip attributes you want to lock:
•
Position and Data—this choice locks position and data, and
causes a lock icon to appear on the clip .
•
Position Only—this choice locks position only, and causes a
yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip
•
.
Data Only—this choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock
icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip .
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select a clip.
2. Use one of the following commands:
•
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Edit-Clip Lock-Lock Position—in lock mode, this choice locks
position only, and causes a yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked
to appear on the clip, If data is already locked, then both position
and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the
clip. In unlock mode, if both position and data are locked, and you
unlock position, then the blue “unlocked” lock icon appears on the
clip, meaning that only data is locked.
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Arranging Clips
•
Edit-Clip Lock-Lock Data—in lock mode, this choice locks data
only, and causes a blue lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear
on the clip. If position is already locked, then both position and data
become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In
unlock mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock
data, then the yellow “unlocked” lock icon appears on the clip,
meaning that only position is locked.
Or
1. Right-click a clip.
2. From the popup menu, choose one of the following commands:
•
Clip Lock-Lock Position—in lock mode, this choice locks position
only, and causes a yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked to
appear on the clip. If data is already locked, then both position and
data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip.
In unlock mode, if both position and data are locked, and you
unlock position, then the blue “unlocked” lock icon appears on the
clip, meaning that only data is locked.
•
Clip Lock-Lock Data—in lock mode, this choice locks data only,
and causes a blue lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on
the clip. If position is already locked, then both position and data
become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In
unlock mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock
data, then the yellow “unlocked” lock icon appears on the clip,
meaning that only position is locked.
Note: if a clip’s position is locked, and you change tempo, what happens to
the clip’s position depends on what option the Clip Properties Time Base
field is set to: Musical (M:B:T), or Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to the
Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays constant, and its Absolute
position shifts. If the clip is set to the Absolute time base, its Absolute
position does not move, but its M:B:T position shifts.
Nudge
Nudging is moving a clip or a MIDI note by a small amount to the left or right
or up and down. There are three customizable settings for the Nudge
feature. You can also nudge clips (in the Track view) or notes (in the Piano
Roll view) up or down, and you can use keyboard shortcuts (see “To Nudge
a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 275).
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Nudge
273
Nudge Settings
The Nudge tab in the Global Options dialog allows you to set the three
Nudge settings.
To Nudge a Clip Left or Right
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip.
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. Select Process-Nudge Left(1-3) from the menu to move the clip left or
Process-Nudge Right(1-3) to move the clip right.
The amount the clip or note moves is determined by the settings in the
Nudge tab of the Global Options dialog.
To Nudge a Clip Up and Down
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip (in the Track view) or MIDI note
(in the Piano Roll view) up or down.
1. Select the clip or note you want to nudge.
2. Select Process-Nudge-Up to move the clip or note up or ProcessNudge-Down to move a clip or note down.
Clips move up or down one track at a time. Notes move up or down one
pitch at a time.
To Change Nudge Settings
1. Select Process-Nudge-Settings to open the Nudge tab in the Global
Options dialog box.
2. In one of the three Nudge groups, select one of the following:
274
•
Musical Time—Select a note length setting.
•
Absolute Time—Select one of the following absolute time options
and a number in the first field
Absolute time
setting…
Description…
Seconds
Whole seconds.
Milliseconds
Thousands of a second.
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Nudge
•
Frames
Number of frames. The default frame
count is 30 frames per second. The
number of frames varies depending on the
setting in the Project Options dialog’s
clock tab.
Samples
A very small amount of time. For CDquality audio there are 44,100 samples
per second, so a value of 1 here would not
move a clip by a perceptible amount.
Ticks
The number of ticks per quarter note
varies depending on the setting in the
Project Options dialog’s clock tab. The
default setting is 960.
Follow Snap Settings—Moves the clip or note by the current snap
setting.
To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. If necessary, turn on Num Lock (press the Num Lock key on your
keyboard).
3. Press the appropriate Num Key.
•
Left 1—NumPad 1
•
Right 1—NumPad 3
•
Left 2—NumPad 4
•
Right 2—NumPad 6
•
Left 3—NumPad 7
•
Right 3—NumPad 9
•
Up—NumPad 8
•
Down—NumPad 2
Working with Partial Clips
SONAR lets you select, copy, move, and delete portions of a project even if
they do not match clip boundaries. There are two ways to do this:
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275
•
Directly select portions of one or more clips.
•
Select a range of times and one or more tracks. SONAR automatically
selects the portions of clips that are in both the selected time range and
the selected tracks.
You can then copy, move, or delete the material the same way you do with
whole clips.
When you select portions of a clip, SONAR may round off the start and end
times of your selection based on the snap grid. For more information, see
“Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 278.
To Select a Portion of a Clip
1. Press and hold the Alt key.
2. Drag the mouse across part of a clip.
SONAR highlights the selected portion of the clip. You can edit this portion
of the clip using all the normal editing commands.
To Select a Portion of Several Clips
1. Press and hold the Alt key.
2. Drag the mouse across part of several clips in adjacent tracks.
SONAR highlights the selected portions of all the clips. You can edit these
portions of clips using all the normal editing commands.
To Select Partial Clips Using Time Ranges and Tracks
1. Select a range of time in one of the following ways:
•
Drag the mouse in the Time Ruler.
•
Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
•
Use the F9 and F10 keys to set the beginning and end selection
times.
•
Select a clip (SONAR selects the range of time covered by the clip).
•
Choose Edit-Select-By Time, enter the start and end time, and
click OK.
2. Select one or more tracks by clicking, Shift-clicking, or Ctrl-clicking on
the track numbers in the Track view.
3. To adjust the start and end time of the selection, hold the Shift key while
clicking on the Time Ruler.
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The relevant portions of clips in the selected tracks are highlighted. You can
edit these portions of clips using all the normal editing commands.
To Clear the Partial Clip Selection
You can clear the time-restricted selection in any of the following ways:
•
Click in an empty area of the Clips pane to completely clear the
selection.
•
Choose Edit-Select-None or press Ctrl+Shift+A to completely clear the
selection.
•
Click on a single clip in the Clips pane to clear the time selection and
select the clip.
Markers and the snap grid
SONAR has a collection of features you can use to simplify and speed the
work you do arranging your projects. Here are a few of the most important
things you can do:
•
Show gridlines on measure boundaries in the Track view.
•
Define and use the snap grid to make drag-and-drop editing more
accurate.
•
Create markers to identify and work with key time points in your project.
Showing Gridlines
Displaying gridlines, or vertical rules, in the Clips pane of the Track view
makes it easy to see at a glance how clips align with each other, how they
align with measure boundaries, and when they start and end.
To Show or Hide Gridlines
1. Right-click in the Clips pane and choose View-Options from the popup
menu.
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2. To show gridlines, check the Display Vertical Rules box. To hide
gridlines, make sure the Display Vertical Rules box is not checked.
3. Click OK.
SONAR displays the Track view as you requested.
Defining and Using the Snap Grid
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips,
select time ranges, and control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap
grid, enable the Snap to Grid button and set the grid resolution to an
interval of musical time, such as a whole note, half note, or quarter note; a
unit of absolute time: a number of frames, seconds or samples; an event;
the start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can use
multiple resolutions at the same time, such as a whole note, and audio
transients. When the Snap to Grid button is enabled, if you move or paste
clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the snap
grid.
You can also use the snap grid to move clips by a certain interval, rather
than snap them to the interval. Moving by an interval can be useful during
drag-and-drop operations, if your data are not exactly aligned with measure
or note boundaries.
The snap grid in each view is independent. For example, you can enable
the snap grid in the Track view without enabling it in the Piano Roll or Staff
views. You can also enable the snap grid in several different views, with
different grid intervals in each one.
In the Clips pane, the snap grid in the Inline Piano Roll view is independent
from the snap grid in Clips view. When you open the Snap to Grid dialog in
the Clips pane, the dialog has separate tabs for Clips view and Inline Piano
Roll view (called PRV mode in the dialog).
Magnetic snap—Cakewalk’s snap grid has an option (on by default) called
magnetic snap. This means that when you’re dragging the boundary of an
object, you can move the boundary freely until the boundary gets within a
certain number of ticks from the snap target. The closer the object gets to
the snap target, the more strongly the object is pulled to the target. You can
set the strength of magnetic snap to low, medium, high, or off. Note that if
you are zoomed out a certain amount, the time boundary around the snap
target will appear to be quite small, and you might think that the snap grid is
not functioning. If this is the case, zoom in closer to enhance your editing
experience. If you’re dragging a whole clip, magnetic snap is not in effect.
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To Enable or Disable the Snap Grid
•
To toggle the Snap to Grid button
button.
on or off, Press N, or click the
To Change the Snap Options
1. Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
or right-click
on the Time Ruler and select Snap Properties from the popup menu to
display the Snap to Grid dialog box.
2. If you open the Snap to Grid dialog in the Track view, the dialog
contains two tabs: one for the Inline Piano Roll view (the PRV Mode
tab), and one for the Clips pane (the Clips tab). Click the tab of the area
that you will be editing in.
3. Select one or more of the following resolution options:
•
Musical Time—note intervals (whole, half, etc.)
•
Absolute Time—a number of samples, frames, or seconds set by
you (choose the units in the dropdown menu on the right)
•
Events—any data in a clip
•
Clips—the start or end of any clip
•
Markers—any marker in a project
•
Audio transients—these are represented by vertical grid lines,
which you can display by using the AudioSnap Palette.
•
Snap to Audio Zero Crossings—this option automatically snaps
edited audio clips to the nearest zero crossing of the waveform, the
point at which there is no volume, to minimize the glitches that can
happen when waveforms are spliced together.
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279
4. Select Move To to align data to the grid, or Move By to move data by
the grid resolution.
5. If you want to change the magnetic snap strength, or turn off magnetic
snap, select one of the buttons in the Magnetic Strength section.
6. If you’re using the Snap to Grid dialog in the Track view, you can leave
it open or close it while you edit. If you’re using it in another view, click
OK to close the dialog.
All time selections and drag-and-drop editing operations use the new snap
grid resolution(s).
Snap Offsets
Snap offsets allow you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as
the “snap” point used by the Snap to Grid. A snap offset is the number of
samples from the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets affect all edits that
obey the Snap to Grid setting. Once the snap offset is added, you can set
the Timer Ruler to SMPTE or MBT time.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
Creating a Snap Offset
Use the following to add a snap offset to a clip:
1. Locate the place in the clip where you want to put the snap offset, and
set the Now Time to that location. Use the Scrub tool if necessary.
2. Right-click on the clip and select Set Snap Offset to Now Time from
the menu that appears.
Edits to that clip, when the Snap to Grid button is depressed, now snap to
the snap offset rather than the beginning of the clip.
Deleting a Snap Offset
1. Right-click on the clip and select Clip Properties from the menu that
appears.
2. In the Snap Offset field enter 0 (zero) and click OK.
Creating and Using Markers
Markers are a way of associating a name with a time point in your project.
You use markers to name sections of a project, to mark hit points in a film
score, or simply to provide a shortcut for working with any time point in a
project. Markers make it easy to:
•
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Jump to a specific time point in a project
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Markers and the snap grid
•
Select a portion of a project
•
Enter a time in any dialog box, by pressing F5 and choosing the marker
you want
You can see and work with markers in four ways:
•
They are displayed in the Time Ruler at the top of the Track, Staff, and
Piano Roll view.
•
The Markers toolbar lets you add markers and jump to specific marker
locations.
•
The Markers view displays all markers and lets you add, edit, and
delete markers.
•
You can press F11 while playback is in progress to add a marker on the
fly.
The time associated with a marker can be expressed in musical time or as a
locked SMPTE time. If a marker has a musical time (measures, beats, and
ticks), the marker stays at that musical time regardless of changes in
tempo. If a marker has a locked SMPTE time (hours, minutes, seconds, and
frames), the marker stays at the same time even when the tempo is
changed. Locked markers are useful for projects that require you to sync
the music or sound with film scores or multimedia presentations. See “To
Add a Marker” on page 282.
SONAR takes the current snap grid settings into account when you move or
copy markers. For example, if the snap grid is set to even measure
boundaries, any time you move or copy a marker, the marker will be
snapped to the beginning of the nearest measure. You are allowed to have
any number of markers at a single time point.
To display the Markers view, choose View-Markers or click
on the Views
toolbar. From the Markers view, you can use the File-Print and File-Print
Preview commands to print a listing of markers.
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You can add markers while playback is stopped or while playback is in
progress (on the fly). When you add a marker while playback is stopped,
you can enter a name for the marker and either use the Now time or enter a
different time. When you add a marker on the fly, the marker is named
automatically and assigned the Now time. Using the Markers view, you can
edit the names and times whenever you want.
To Add a Marker
1. Open the Markers dialog in one of the following ways:
•
Click
in the Markers toolbar.
•
Press F11.
•
Choose Insert-Marker.
•
Click
•
Ctrl-click in the marker section of the Time Ruler.
•
Right-click in the Time Ruler and select Insert Marker.
in the Markers view.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2. Enter a name for the marker in the Name box.
3. The time is set to the Now time. If you want, use the spinners to change
the time or type in a new marker time.
4. Check the Locked to SMPTE box if you want to lock the marker to the
SMPTE time.
5. Click OK.
SONAR adds the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers
view, and the Markers toolbar.
To Add a Marker on the Fly
•
Click
in the Markers toolbar, or Press F11.
SONAR adds a marker at the Now time and displays it in the Time Ruler,
the Markers view, and the Markers toolbar.
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To Edit a Marker
1. Either right-click on the marker in the Time Ruler, or choose a marker in
the Markers view and click
. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2. Change the marker name, time, or other settings as desired.
3. Click OK.
SONAR updates the marker in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
To Copy a Marker
1. Press and hold the Ctrl key.
2. Drag a marker in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff view, Tempo
view, or Piano Roll view. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
3. Enter the desired marker settings and click OK.
SONAR copies the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler and the
Markers view. You can also cut and paste markers directly from the Markers
view.
To Lock or Unlock Several Markers
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the Ctrl and Shift
keys if necessary to modify the selection.
2. Select or deselect
.
SONAR updates the markers.
To Move a Marker
•
Drag the marker in the Time Ruler.
SONAR updates the marker time and shows it at the new location.
To Delete a Marker
1. Press and hold the left mouse button while pointing to a marker in the
Time Ruler.
2. Press Delete, and release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes the marker. You can use Edit-Undo if you make a mistake.
To Delete Markers from the Markers View
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the Ctrl and Shift
keys if necessary to modify the selection.
2. Click
or press Delete.
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SONAR deletes the selected markers. You can use Undo if you make a
mistake.
To Jump to a Marker
There are many different ways to jump to a specific marker:
•
Choose a marker from the dropdown list in the Markers toolbar to jump
to that marker.
•
Click the Now time in the Position toolbar, press F5 to display a list of
markers, choose the marker you want, and click OK.
•
Press F5 twice to display a list of markers, choose the marker you
want, and click OK.
•
Click on a marker in the Markers view to set the Now time to that
marker.
•
Click
or
marker.
•
Choose Go-Next Marker or Go-Previous Marker to jump to the next
or previous marker.
in the Markers toolbar to jump to the next or previous
To Select a Time Range Using Markers
You can select a range of times by clicking in the marker section of the Time
Ruler:
284
•
Click to the left of the first marker to select the time between the start of
the project and the first marker.
•
Click to the right of the last marker to select the time between the
marker and the end of the project.
•
Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
•
If looping is enabled, click to the right of the Loop Start marker to select
the loop region
•
If punch recording is enabled, click to the right of the Punch In marker
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Markers and the snap grid
to select the punch region
Tip:
If you press Tab or right-click while holding down the left mouse
button over the markers, you can toggle through which of the
overlaid markers you'd like to move.
For example, if the Now Time marker, a regular Marker, a Loop
point, and a Punch point are all at measure 5, pressing Tab (while
holding down the left mouse button) toggles through T (Now
Time), M (regular), L (Loop), and P (Punch). If you want to
change the regular marker, simply drag the mouse when M is
displayed; if you want to adjust the position of the Loop point, tab
through to L, and so on.
Working with Linked Clips
SONAR makes it easy to repeat a pattern over and over using a feature
called linked clips. Linked clips always have the same contents, name, and
display color. Any change you make to the internal contents of one of the
clips, such as adding or editing notes or effects, automatically applies to all
of them. Any number of clips may be linked with each other.
To create linked clips, copy the clips and when pasting, check the linked
clips option in the Paste dialog box or the Drag and Drop Options dialog
box. Linked clips are displayed with a dotted border, so they are easy to
spot. You can also identify linked clips using the Clip Properties dialog box
or the Select All Siblings (available in the Clips pane popup menu)
command.You can easily unlink linked clips, and then edit them individually.
You have two options when unlinking linked clips:
Option…
How it works…
New linked group
The clips you selected will still be
linked to each other, but won’t be
linked to any clips that are not selected
Independent
Every selected clip will be completely
independent
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Once you have unlinked linked clips, you cannot re-link them except by
using Edit-Undo.
If you attempt to copy only a portion of a linked clip, the copy will not be
linked to the original. Copies of a clip can be linked to the original only when
you select and copy the entire clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Drag and Drop
1. Right-click in the Clips pane and choose Drag & Drop Options to
display the Drag and Drop Options dialog box.
2. Check the option labeled Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips.
3. Click OK.
4. Select the clips you want to copy.
5. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
6. Press and hold down the Ctrl key.
7. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed
around the selected clips.
8. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
9. If necessary, confirm the options in the Drag and Drop Options dialog
box, and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked to the originals.
Any change you make to one of the clips is applied to all linked clips,
including the original clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Copy and Paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose options as desired and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the
Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips
should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7. In the Paste dialog, choose one of two options:
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•
Linked Repetitions—If you choose this option, only the new copies
of the original clip are linked together. Edits you make to the new
copies do not affect the original, and vice versa.
•
Link to Original Clip(s)—If you choose this option, the new copies
and the original clip are linked together. Edits you make to any of
the linked clips, including the original, affect all other linked clips in
the group.
8. Choose the other options you want and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked in the way you
chose.
To Unlink Linked Clips
1. In the Clips pane, select the clips you want to unlink.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Unlink from the popup
menu. SONAR displays the Unlink Clips dialog box.
3. Choose the unlink option you want, and click OK.
SONAR unlinks the clips and updates the Clips pane accordingly. From now
on, any changes you make to one of the clips are applied only to remaining
linked clips, if any.
To Select the Clips That Are Linked to Another Clip
1. Select one or more clips in the Track view.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Select All Siblings from
the popup menu.
SONAR selects any clip that is linked to one of the currently selected clips.
Splitting and Combining Clips
SONAR provides several commands that are used to split and combine
clips. Specifically, you can:
•
Split a clip into several smaller clips
•
Create a new clip from a selected portion of an existing clip
•
Combine adjacent or overlapping clips into a single, longer clip
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287
The following table summarizes the commands you can use:
To do this…
Use this
command…
Notes…
Split clips into parts
Edit-Split
Works on all selected
clips. You can also press
the s key to split all
selected clips at the Now
Time.
Combine several
clips into one
Edit-Bounce to
Clip(s)
If the selected clips are in
separate tracks, one clip is
created for each track. All
clip automation is applied
destructively to the new
clip.
Note:
Combining a stereo and mono clip always produces a stereo clip.
The Split command lets you split clips four different ways:
288
Option…
How it works…
Split at Time
Splits selected clips at a specific point
in time. By default, the split occurs at
the Now time, but you can choose any
time you want.
Split Repeatedly
Splits selected clips at regular
intervals, beginning at a specified time,
with a specified duration. For example,
you could split a long clip into 4-bar
clips starting at measure 5.
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Splitting and Combining Clips
Split at Markers
Splits selected clips at any marker
location. This option is available only if
your project has markers.
Split when Silent
Removes “silent” stretches of one
measure or more from selected clips.
The presence in a measure of any
event—including those that make no
sound, such as a patch change or lyric
event—will cause that measure to be
retained.
While the Split command works for both MIDI and audio clips, for audio
clips, the Split command provides sample accurate editing and snap-tozero capability.
Note that the Edit-Undo and Edit-Redo commands work with all three of
these editing commands.
To Split Clips into Smaller Clips
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Right-click on any selected clip, and choose Split from the popup
menu. SONAR shows the Split dialog box or press the s key to split the
clip(s) at the Now Time.
3. Choose the Split option you want to use, and enter the settings you
want to use.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Set the Now Time to the time you want to split the clips.
3. Press the s key.
SONAR splits the selected clips according to your instructions.
To Combine Clips
1. Select the clips you want to combine (the clips must be on the same
track).
2. Right-click on of the clips and select Bounce to Clip(s) from the popup
menu.
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SONAR combines the selected clips into a single, new clip.
Take Management and Comping Takes
By default, SONAR stacks any overlapping clips on top of each other, but
you can choose to display them in separate layers (lanes) in the same
track. When you store clips in separate layers, it’s easy to mute and solo
them individually and eventually come up with a composite take, with only
the best clips playing back. You can also mute and solo whole layers.
When you use loop recording, you can store all your takes in the same
track, and then use the Mute tool or Audition (Selection Playback) to hear
only the ones you want.
If you enable a track’s Show Layers option, SONAR stores the track’s clips
in separate layers whenever any of the following happens:
•
You use loop recording in Sound on Sound mode, and choose to store
takes in a single track.
•
You record over some pre-existing data while in Sound on Sound
mode.
•
You enable the Tracks-Show Layers menu option for a track that
contains at least one overlapping clip.
Note 1: you can create as many layers as you want.
Note 2: a multi-layer layer track has only one set of track automation
envelopes.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Enable or Disable the Multi-layer Option
•
For single tracks, you can right-click the Track Scale, and choose
Show Layers from the popup menu, or use the Layers-Show Layers
command on the Track pane right-click menu, or click the Track Layers
On/Off button.
Track Layers On/Off button
Track Scale before showing
layers
•
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For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to configure by Ctrl-
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clicking the track number of each track, and use the Tracks-LayersShow Layers menu option.
When the option is first enabled, SONAR moves all overlapping clips in the
affected tracks to separate layers, and displays mute and solo buttons on
the Track Scale for each layer.
Mute and solo buttons
for layers
After the option is enabled, you can move clips on top of each other without
creating new layers. To move overlapping clips back into separate layers,
use the Rebuild command (see below).
Note 1: if you want to move a clip to the exact same time placement in an
adjacent layer, hold the Shift key down while you drag.
Note 2: if the Automatic Crossfades button is enabled, SONAR adds a
crossfade between any newly overlapped clips that are on the same layer.
To Mute or Unmute One or More Layers
•
On the Track Scale, click the M button that’s at the same vertical level
as the layer you want to mute or unmute. You can drag across multiple
mute buttons to mute or unmute multiple layers.
Note: if you mute a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the
Track Scale displays a small blue indicator to show that a hidden layer is
muted:
Hidden layer mute
indicator
To Solo or Unsolo a Layer
•
On the Track Scale, click the S button that’s at the same vertical level
as the layer you want to solo. You can solo one layer at a time.
Note: if you solo a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the
Track Scale displays a small yellow indicator to show that a hidden layer is
soloed:
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Hidden layer solo
indicator
To Rebuild Layers
•
To rebuild layers (move overlapping clips to separate layers) in a singletrack, right-click the Track Scale and choose Rebuild Layers from the
popup menu.
•
For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to rebuild, and use the
Tracks-Layers-Rebuild Layers command.
To Remove Empty Layers
•
To remove empty layers in a single-track, right-click the Track Scale
and choose Remove Empty Layers from the popup menu.
•
For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to compact, and use the
Tracks-Layers-Remove Empty Layers command.
To Add an Empty Layer to a Track
•
Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want the new
layer, and choose Insert Layer from the popup menu.
To Delete a Layer from a Track
•
Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want to delete a
layer, and choose Delete Layer from the popup menu.
To Select a Layer
•
Right-click the Track Scale at the same vertical position where the
desired layer is, and choose Select Layer from the popup menu. You
can de-select the layer by clicking an empty area of the Clips pane.
To Loop Record Multiple Takes into Separate Track
Layers
1. Use the Transport-Record Options command to open the Record
Options dialog.
2. Under the Recording Mode options, choose Sound on Sound (Blend).
3. Under Loop Recording, choose Store Takes in a Single Track, and click
OK.
4. Make sure that the armed track has its Show Layers option enabled.
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5. Set your loop boundaries and start recording multiple passes through
the looped area.
6. Stop recording.
When you finish recording, SONAR displays all your takes in separate
layers in the recording track.
To Crop Overlapping Clips to Eliminate Overlap
1. In a multi-layer track, move either the Select tool or the Mute tool
between two overlapping clips until the cursor turns into the overlap
cropping tool.
Overlap
cropping
tool
2. In the space between the clips, click the spot where you want the first
clip to end and the second one to begin. SONAR crops both clips so
that they no longer overlap.
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Together with multi-layer tracks, clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
make it easy to build a composite take from multiple takes.
With the new Mute tool
two styles of clip muting:
, that’s in the Track view toolbar, SONAR offers
•
Default style—after you activate the Mute tool, you can drag through
time ranges to mute all or part of a clip: dragging through the bottom
half of a clip mutes the time range you drag through; dragging through
the top half of a clip unmutes the range you drag through. The default
setting in the Mute tool dropdown menu produces this behavior (you’ll
see a checkmark next to Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag
Behavior). If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style (see
below), hold down the Alt key while you click.
•
Alternate style—use the Mute tool to mute or unmute entire clips by
clicking clips instead of dragging through time regions. A clip that is
completely muted displays the Mute icon
in its upper left corner. You
can choose this behavior by choosing Mute Entire Clips under
Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool dropdown menu. If you decide
you want to temporarily switch to the Default style, hold down the Alt
key while you drag.
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In addition, you can also play back only selected data if you want by
pressing the Shift key and the Spacebar at the same time.
Clip Muting with the Default Style
When you choose Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all
or parts of clips. This is the default behavior.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
•
Click the tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue
when it is enabled.
To Mute a Time Range Using Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2. If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid
button and set its menu to an appropriate value.
3. Using the Mute tool, drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted
waveform or MIDI data as a dotted line.
Muted area of clip
To Unmute a Time Range Using Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted
area.
To Mute or Unumute an Entire Clip Using Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, Alt-click anywhere in the clip (hold down the Alt
key while you click).
When a clip is currently muted, SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper
left corner of the clip.
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Mute icon
Note: if the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one
or more muted time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you Altclick the clip, so you don’t lose any precise mute edits you’ve performed. To
completely unmute the clip in the picture below, first Alt-click the clip to
remove the Mute icon, and then drag through the upper half of the clip in the
muted area(s).
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style
When you choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all
or parts of clips. This is the alternate style.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
•
Click the Mute tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns
blue when it is enabled.
To Mute or Unumute an Entire Clip Using Alternate
Style
1. Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, click anywhere in the clip.
SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of a muted clip.
Note: if the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one
or more muted time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you Altclick the clip, so you don’t lose any precise mute edits you’ve performed.
To Mute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1. Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
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295
2. If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid
button and set its menu to an appropriate value.
3. Using the Mute tool, Alt-drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted
waveform or MIDI data as a dotted line.
To Unmute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1. Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, Alt-click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted
area.
You can mute or unmute a clip without using the Mute tool if you want.
Pressing Q on your keyboard toggles the mute status of all selected clips.
Any muted time ranges remain muted.
Audition (Selection Playback)
The Transport-Audition command plays back only selected clips and/or
time ranges.
To use the command, hold down the Shift key and then press the Spacebar.
Only the selected data plays back.
Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Isolating works by muting all the clips in a track in the same time region
except the ones that you want to hear. Just like clip muting, isolating has
two styles:
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•
Default style—after you activate the Mute tool, you can Ctrl-drag
through time ranges to isolate all or part of a clip. The default setting in
the Mute tool dropdown menu produces this behavior (you’ll see a
checkmark next to Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior). If
you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style (see below), hold
down the Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and click whole clips instead of
dragging through regions.
•
Alternate style—use the Mute tool to isolate entire clips by Ctrl-clicking
clips instead of dragging through time regions. You can choose this
behavior by choosing Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior
in the Mute tool dropdown menu. If you decide you want to temporarily
switch to the Default style, hold down the Alt key along with the Ctrl key,
and drag through the regions you want isolated.
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Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
To Isolate a Region with the Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, hold down the Ctrl key and drag through the region
of a clip or clips that you want isolated (soloed).
Any overlapping regions become muted. To de-isolate the isolated region,
release the Ctrl key, and drag through the upper half of any muted regions.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style of isolating (see
procedure below), hold down the Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and click
whole clips instead of dragging through regions.
To Isolate Clips with the Alternate Style
1. Choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute
tool dropdown menu.
2. Using the Mute tool, hold down the Ctrl key and click the clips that you
want isolated.
Any overlapping clips become muted. To de-isolate the isolated clips,
release the Ctrl key, and click any muted clips.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Default style of isolating, hold down
the Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and drag through the regions you want
isolated.
Track Folders
A track folder contains tracks in the Track pane of the Track view. Track
folders make larger projects much easier to manage—you can group
different types of tracks in their own folder: vocals, soft synths, ReWire
instruments, drums, etc.
The main characteristics of a track folder are:
•
You can edit all the tracks in the folder as if you were editing a single
track—especially valuable for drum tracks. The track folder displays a
composite clip in the Clips pane of all the clips in the folder. Selecting a
time range in the composite clip selects data in all the enclosed tracks
in the same time range; now you can edit all the tracks in the folder by
editing the selected area of the composite clip.
•
You can hide tracks in a folder, freeing up space on your screen.
•
A folder can contain any type of track—you can put MIDI, audio, and
synth tracks in the same folder.
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297
•
You can archive, mute, solo, arm, or input monitor all the tracks in a
folder with one click—just click the A, M, S, R, or Input Echo button on
the track folder.
Track folder—click here to select all A, M, S, R, and Input Echo buttons
data in track folder
Open/Close
folder
Track folder info
Selected area of
composite clip
Description box
Composite
clip
The tracks in a
track folder are
indented
To Create a Track Folder
•
Right-click in the Track pane of the Track view, and choose Insert
Track Folder from the popup menu.
Or
•
Use the Insert-Track Folder menu command.
Or
•
Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to
Folder-New Track Folder from the popup menu.
A new track folder appears in the Track pane.
To Add a Track to a Track Folder
•
In the Track view, move the mouse cursor just to the right of the track
number of a pre-existing track until the cursor turns into a black,
double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s titlebar onto the
track folder. Release the mouse.
Or
•
Insert a track when a track within a track folder has focus.
Or
•
Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to
Folder-Track Folder “n” from the popup menu.
Or
•
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Select the tracks you want to add to the folder, right-click on the folder
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and select Add Track(s) to Folder from the menu that appears.
The added track appears in the track folder, and is indented a little to show
that it’s inside the track folder.
To Remove a Track from a Track Folder
•
In the Track view, move the cursor just to the right of the track number
of a track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and
then click and drag the track’s titlebar out of the Track Folder. Release
the mouse.
Or
•
Right-click the track and select Remove From Folder from the popup
menu.
To Add Multiple Tracks to a Track Folder
1. Select the tracks you want to add.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Move to Folder-Track Folder
“n” from the popup menu.
To Remove Multiple Tracks from a Track Folder
1. Select the tracks you want to remove.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Remove From Folder from the
popup menu.
To Delete a Track Folder
1. In the Track view, right-click and select Delete Track Folder from the
menu that appears.
2. SONAR asks you if you want to delete all the tracks in the folder along
with the track folder—click Yes or No.
SONAR deletes the track folder. If you didn’t choose to delete the tracks in
the track folders, SONAR moves these tracks to the top level.
To Open or Close a Track Folder
•
Click the folder icon that’s just left of the track folder’s name.
To Select or Deselect all the Tracks in a Track Folder
•
Click just to the left of the folder icon.
To Rename a Track Folder
•
Double-click the track folder’s name, type a new name, and press
Enter.
Or
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•
Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the popup
menu, type a name in the Name field of the Folder Properties dialog,
and click OK.
To Add a Description to a Track Folder
•
Double-click the Description box, type a description, and press Enter.
Or
•
Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the popup
menu, type a description in the Description field of the Folder
Properties dialog, and click OK.
To Select all Clips in a Time Range
•
Hold down the Alt key while dragging a selection on the composite clip.
Now you can edit, move, cut and paste all the selected clips by editing the
selected part of the composite clip.
Adding Effects in the Track View
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view.
SONAR adds these effects in real-time, preserving your track’s original
data.
To Add Effects in the Track View
1. Right-click in the FX bin of the track you want to add effects to. You may
have to click the FX tab or the All tab that’s at the bottom of the Track
pane to display the FX bin, and also expand the track pane a little.
Right-click here to add an effect.
An effects popup menu appears. SONAR displays MIDI effects if you
are editing a MIDI track, and audio effects for an audio track.
2. Select an effect from the menu.
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The name of the effect appears in the Effects bin and the effect’s
property page appears. To delete the effect, right-click the effect name
and choose Delete from the popup menu.
3. Set the effects parameters or choose a preset.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Changing Tempos
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step
changes from one tempo to another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or
decreases (ritardandos), and almost any other type of change you can
imagine. The tempo changes you add to your project become part of the
project and are saved with the project file.
You can add tempo changes to your project in the following ways:
•
Using the Tempo toolbar
•
Using the Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos
commands
•
By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view
•
Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo view’s Tempo List pane
The Process-Fit to Time and Process-Fit Improvisation commands can
also be used to introduce tempo changes into your work file. For more
information, see “Stretching and Shrinking Events” on page 402 and “Fit
Improvisation” on page 417.
When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, SONAR
allows you to stretch or shrink audio clips when you have converted them to
Groove clips and have enabled the Follow Project Pitch option in the Loop
Construction view. Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will speed up or slow down
while the audio tracks will play at the same speed. For more information
about Groove clips, see “Working with Groove Clips” on page 330. Audio
clips that are not Groove clips change in size when moved to a part of your
project that has a different tempo.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are
some examples:
•
If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might
want to change the tempo of the background music without altering the
voice-over.
•
If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a
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301
sampled drum groove, you want to leave the audio unchanged.
When you change the tempo of your project, clips having stretching
enabled change tempo along with the project, while those that do not have
stretching enabled do not. For more information on stretch-enabling clips,
see “Enable Stretching” on page 323.
Tempos set when the clock source is set to MIDI Sync do not have any
effect, because SONAR follows the external tempo. For more information,
see Chapter , Synchronizing Your Gear.
Using the Tempo Toolbar
The Tempo toolbar displays the current tempo and lets you change the
tempo as shown below:
Click to insert a tempo change
Click to enter a new
tempo
Tempo ratio
buttons
When you enter a new tempo directly in the toolbar, you change the most
recent tempo setting in the project.
The tempo ratio buttons temporarily change the speed of playback, without
affecting the actual tempo that is stored with your project (see Note, below).
During playback, the tempo is multiplied by the current tempo ratio. By
default, the three tempo ratios are 0.50 (half speed), 1.00 (normal speed),
and 2.00 (double speed). You can change the tempo ratios that are
associated with each button.
Note: Tempo ratios can only be used in projects that contain no audio
tracks and cannot be used when using any form of synchronization. For
more information, see Chapter , Synchronizing Your Gear.
To Change the Current Tempo in the Tempo Toolbar
1. Enable Groove clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, rightclicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the
popup menu. Each clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled has
beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables
Groove clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove clip Looping
enabled.
2. Click the current tempo in the Tempo toolbar.
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3. Type a new value and press Enter, or use the spinners to change the
tempo value.
SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.
To Set the Tempo Ratio
You can set the tempo ratio in several ways (remember, this function is not
available if you have audio clips in your project):
•
Click one of the tempo ratio buttons.
•
Choose Transport-Tempo Ratio 1, 2, or 3.
•
Press Ctrl+1, Ctrl+2, or Ctrl+3.
SONAR changes the speed of playback.
To Change the Tempo Ratio
1. Shift-click one of the tempo ratio buttons to display the Tempo Ratio
dialog box.
2. Enter a new value for the tempo ratio.
3. Click OK.
From now on, that tempo ratio button uses the ratio you entered.
Using the Tempo Commands
The Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos commands can
be used to change the existing tempo of a project or to introduce one or
more tempo changes at various points in a project. You can enter tempo
values directly, introduce smooth increase or decreases in tempo, or even
use your mouse to tap out the tempo you want for some portion of a project.
To Insert a Tempo Change
1. Enable Groove clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled has beveled
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303
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled.
2. Click
in the toolbar or choose Insert-Tempo Change to display the
Tempo dialog box.
3. Check the Insert a New Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
•
Type a value in the Tempo field.
•
Click the arrows to change the value.
•
Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Enter a starting time for the new tempo.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a tempo change at the designated time.
To Insert a Series of Tempos
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, rightclicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the
popup menu. Each clip that has Groove clip looping enabled has
beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables
Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
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2. Choose Insert-Series of Tempos to display the Insert Series of
Tempos dialog box.
3. Enter a starting tempo, ending tempo, and step size.
4. Enter a starting and ending time for the series of tempo changes.
5. Click OK.
SONAR erases any existing tempo changes between the starting and
ending time, and inserts a series of tempo changes that change smoothly
between the starting and ending time. This command never inserts more
than one tempo change on the same clock tick. Audio clips which you want
to follow tempo changes can also be converted to Groove clips in the Loop
Construction view.
To Modify the Most Recent Tempo Change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Choose Insert-Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
3. Check the Change the Most Recent Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
•
Type a value in the Tempo field.
•
Click the arrows to change the value.
•
Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Click OK.
SONAR changes the most recent tempo to the new value.
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305
Using the Tempo View
The Tempo view provides a graphic display of the tempo. In the Tempo view
you can use your mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the graph.
Choose View-Tempo or click
on the toolbar to display the Tempo view
The Tempo view provides both a graphic display of the tempo and a list of
all tempo changes in your project. In the graphical display you can use your
mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the graph. In the tempo list,
you can insert, edit, and delete individual tempo changes. Choose ViewTempo or click
on the toolbar to display the Tempo view. Click the
Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
If an entire project has a single tempo, the graph shows a straight horizontal
line, and a single tempo in the list.
The graph has several tools you can use to add or modify tempo changes:
Tool…
306
Name…
What it’s for…
Select
Drat the Select tool in either the Tempo list or
graphic display to select tempos to edit
Draw
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in
tempo
Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase
or decrease in tempo
Erase
Eliminate tempo changes already in place for
some portion of a project
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snap grid
Controls how often you can insert tempo
changes—for example, every measure, every
eighth note, every 3 samples, etc.
If you make a mistake using any of these tools, you can use Edit-Undo to
correct the error. When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you
drag the mouse determines the density of tempo events. To insert a larger
number of relatively small tempo changes, move the mouse slowly. To
insert a smaller number of relatively large tempo changes, drag the mouse
quickly.
The Tempo List Pane has its own tools for editing tempo changes:
Tool…
Name…
What it’s for…
Insert Tempo
Insert a new tempo change
Delete Tempo
Delete a tempo change
Tempo
Properties
Edit a tempo change
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Select the
or the
tool.
3. Click in the Tempo view at any desired time point and tempo level.
SONAR introduces a tempo change at the indicated point.
To Steadily Increase or Decrease the Tempo in the
Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
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307
Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Select the
tool.
3. Drag a line in the graph from the starting time and tempo to the ending
time and tempo.
SONAR introduces a linear series of tempo changes.
To Draw a Series of Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, rightclicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the
popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has
beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables
Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Select the
tool.
3. Drag the cursor across the graph, adjusting the tempo level as you
move left to right.
SONAR introduces a series of tempo changes.
To Erase Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, rightclicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the
popup menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has
beveled edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables
Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Select the
tool.
3. Drag the mouse over the graph to highlight the region you want to
erase.
4. Release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes all tempo changes in the area you marked. The last tempo
setting prior to the erased region is now in effect in that region.
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo List in the
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Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. Select any tempo change in the list.
4. Click Insert Tempo
to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Set the tempo, time, and other properties.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts the new tempo into the list.
To Edit a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be edited.
4. Click Tempo Properties
the Tempo dialog box.
or double-click the tempo change to open
5. Edit the tempo properties as desired.
6. Click OK.
To Delete a Tempo Change from the Tempo List in the
Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow
the tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking
a selected clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup
menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove
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Clip Looping on any selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping
enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be deleted.
4. Click Delete Tempo
, or press Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tempo change. You cannot delete the first
tempo in the list.
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History
SONAR provides very powerful Undo and Redo commands that let you
move forward or backward through any portion of an editing session. Every
project has its own independent undo history. This means you can return to
any open project and use the Undo and Redo commands, even if you’ve
spent the last hour working on a different project. The undo history of a
project is lost when you close the project.
Remembering everything that is necessary to undo the changes you have
made can use a lot of memory. If a change you are about to make requires
too much memory and cannot be undone, you will be advised that the
operation is too big to undo later and asked if you want to go ahead
anyway. If you do choose to perform the operation, you will not be able to
undo it. Therefore, you may want to save your project first.
The Edit-History command displays a complete history of the commands
and actions you can undo for the current project. The Undo History dialog
box looks like this:
Most recent change
Click to clear the undo
history
Adjust the number of
steps you can undo
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Undo, Redo, and the Undo History
The History command is grayed out until you make a change to the current
project that can be undone.
The History list is updated every time you make a change to a project. For
example, if you insert a new note into a project using the Piano Roll view,
that action is added to the History list. This entry remains on the list—even if
you undo the change—so that you can redo the change later on. If you
delete the note, this change is added to the History list.
You can click the Clear button in the Undo History dialog box to erase the
undo history for the current project and free up some memory. If SONAR is
low on memory, it may offer to erase the History list.
To revert to an earlier version of a project, highlight the entry in the History
list that represents the point to which you’d like to return, and click OK.
SONAR performs the necessary undo or redo actions to take you to that
point. Once you edit the project (for example, by inserting a note), the
History list is truncated at that point. Then, as you do further work, the
History list grows again. Any events occurring before the event you
highlighted remain on the list.
By default, SONAR keeps a history of up to 128 editing actions for each
open project. Once that limit is reached, each new action pushes out the
oldest item from the History list. You can raise or lower that number in the
Undo History dialog box.
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311
Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing)
Slip-editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a
clip, the end of a clip, or both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard
during playback. All hidden material remains intact and can be restored. All
slip-editing movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For
more information about the snap to grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap
Grid” on page 278.
Clip handle
Slip-edit cursor
Important:
Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips
using the Bounce to Clip(s) command and slip-edited clips in a
track can be mixed down to another track. When a slip-edited clip
is combined with another clip or an effect is applied to a clip using
the Edit-Apply Audio Effects command, any slip-edited data
(audio clips or MIDI events that are cropped from view) is
overwritten.
Using Slip-editing
SONAR makes it easy to edit audio and MIDI clips by way of prominent clip
handles that appear as your cursor comes close to the edges of clips. The
clip handles are easy to see and are equipped with broad functionality for
fade-ins, fade-outs, and crossfades, as well as non-destructive editing of
the beginning and end of clips.
To Slip-edit a Clip
1. Set the Snap to Grid
to an appropriate interval.
2. If you’re slip editing an audio clip, right-click the clip to open the Clip
Properties dialog. Select the Audio Stretching tab, make sure the
Enable Looping checkbox is unchecked, and click OK.
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Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing)
3. Move the cursor over the beginning of the clip until the clip handle
appears.
Clip handle
4. Click and drag the clip handle until the unwanted information has been
removed.
The hidden information in the slip-edited clips remains intact but is not
heard during playback.
To Move Data Without Moving its Clip
1. Hold down Alt+Shift while moving the cursor over the middle of the clip
you wish to edit.
The cursor changes to look like this
.
2. Click and drag the clip to the left or right as desired.
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313
As in the case of slip-editing, the hidden information in the clip remains
intact but is not heard during playback.
To Move Data and the Clip Edge
1. Hold down Alt+Shift and move the cursor to the edge of the clip you
wish to edit.
A clip handle appears at the edge of the clip you are editing.
2. Click and drag the edge of the clip to the desired location.
The hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard during
playback.
To Permanently Delete Slip-edited Data
1. Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2. Select the Edit-Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you
selected.
Slip-editing Multiple Clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To Slip-edit Multiple Clips at Once
1. Make sure all clips are not loop-enabled.
2. Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
3. Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips
until the blue clip handle appears.
4. Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
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Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing)
Fades and Crossfades
Fades are a gradual increase or decrease in volume at the beginning (fadein) or end (fade-out) of a clip. A crossfade is when one clip fades out while
another fades in. There are two ways to create fades and crossfades in
SONAR: offline (destructive) and real-time (non-destructive). To create
fades and crossfades offline, see “Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline”
on page 488.
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time
You can create real-time fades and crossfades in the Track view’s Clips
pane. Real-time fades and crossfades do not change the data in the clip.
SONAR reads the fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade in the clip and adjusts the
gain accordingly. You can edit the crossfade’s start time and end times. You
can set the type of fade-in or fade-out you want to use as a default:
•
Linear—A straight line, raising or lowering the volume at a steady rate.
•
Slow Curve—A curved fade which starts to change the volume slowly at
first and then rapidly increasing (fade-in) or decreasing (fade-out) the
volume.
•
Fast Curve—A curved fade which starts to change the volume quickly
at first and then rapidly decreasing (fade-out) or increasing (fade-in) the
volume.
To Choose the Fade Type
1. Click the dropdown arrow located at the right of the fade tool
2. Choose fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade from the drop-down menu by
hovering your cursor over the type of fade you want to make.
A second menu of available fade-in, fade-out, and crossfade envelopes
appears.
3. Click the envelope you want as your default.
To Create a Real-time Fade-in in a Clip
1. In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of
the beginning of a clip until the cursor looks like this:
appears at the edge of the clip.
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Fades and Crossfades
, and a red line
315
A filled red triangle appears at the top of the red line indicating the fade
marker is ready to be dragged.
Filled red triangle
2. When your cursor changes and the filled red triangle appears, click and
drag to the right until you reach your desired fade-in length.
As you drag your mouse, a fade-in appears on your clip, and the red
line moves with the mouse to mark the end of the fade-in.
To Edit a Fade-in in a Clip
•
To move the entire fade-in to a later point in the clip, drag above the
blue horizontal line located a quarter of the way up the blue vertical line
.
Cursor
above
horizontal
blue linel
Horizontal
blue line
•
316
To move only the starting point of the fade-in, drag below the horizontal
blue line.
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Fades and Crossfades
•
To delete a fade-in from an audio clip, simply drag the triangular fade
handle
to the front edge of the clip.
The filled blue triangle at the top of the clip handle indicates that
dragging the top edge of the clip handle will move the fade along with
the crop. The filled blue rectangle at the bottom of the clip handle
indicates that dragging the bottom of the clip handle will slip edit the
edge, but leave the end of the fade-in where it is.
To Create an Automatic Crossfade (Real-time)
1. In the Track view, click the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades
combo button located next to the Snap to Grid button or press the x key.
2. Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades
combo button, select Default Crossfade Curves and select a
crossfade curve.
3. Select and drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. You
should overlap the clips by the length you want the crossfade.
4. When you have the clip positioned where you want it, release the
mouse button to drop the clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
5. In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, check the Blend Old With New
checkbox and click OK.
6. The two clips now overlap with a crossfade, looking something like this:
Fade-out
First clip
Fade-in
Second clip
Crossfade
You can edit fade-ins and fade-outs. You can change the start, end and
position of a fade. The following procedures all demonstrate edits to a fadein, but fade-outs work exactly the same.
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317
To Change an Existing Fade
1. Move your cursor over the beginning of a fade-out or the end of a fadein, until your cursor looks like this:
.
2. Right-click to and select the desired fade type from the menu that
appears.
To Change an Existing Crossfade
1. Move your cursor over the region where the crossfade is.
2. Right-click and select the desired crossfade from the menu that
appears.
To Edit or Create Fades from the Process Menu
1. Select the clip or clips in which you want to create or edit fade-ins and/
or fade-outs.
2. Select Process-Fade Selected Clips.
The Fade Selected Clips dialog appears.
3. Adjust parameters according to the following table:
318
Parameter...
Description...
Fade In (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fadein to last.
Fade Out (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fadeout to last.
Fade In Curve
Choose a fade-in type. Options are linear, slow or fast
curve.
Fade Out Curve
Choose a fade-out type. Options are linear, slow or
fast curve.
Alter Existing
Times
Select this option if you wish to change the existing
fade lengths. You don’t need to check this option if
you’re creating new fades.
Alter Existing
Curves
Select this option if you wish to change the existing
fade types. You don’t need to check this option if
you’re creating new fades.
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Fades and Crossfades
Only Show if
Pressing Shift
Select if you want to apply previous dialog settings
without opening the dialog. Hold shift when selecting
command to override this option.
4. Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR creates or edits the fade(s) according to the options you chose in
the dialog.
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319
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Using Loops
Loops are short digital audio clips which are often
designed to be repeated over and over or “looped,”
although some loops, called one-shots, are intended to
play just once. Groove clips, often used as loops, are
digital audio clips that “know” their tempo and pitch
information. Groove clips automatically respond to
changes in a project’s tempo and can have their root note
pitch adjusted using pitch markers. In SONAR, you can
import ACID™ loops, or digital audio clips and convert them
to Groove clips. You can also record your own audio and
create Groove clips. To download more Groove clips and loops,
visit www.cakewalk.com.
Note:
Groove clips and ACIDized loops are loaded into RAM, and can
take up a lot of memory. Once they’re loaded though, copying
them does not increase the amount of memory they take up.
In This Chapter
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
The Loop Explorer View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Working with Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Working with Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Importing Project5 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
The Loop Construction View
The Loop Construction view is where you create and edit Groove clips.
The Loop Construction view toolbar has tools for editing slicing markers
and controls for previewing loops.
Loop Construction Controls
The following is a list of the tools and controls in the Loop Construction
view, followed by a description:
Save Loop as WAV
This button opens the Save As dialog. The clip in the Loop Construction
view is saved as a Groove Clip/Wave file that has tempo and pitch
information stored in it, and can be opened in SONAR or ACID™. For more
information, see “Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files”
on page 336.
Enable Looping
The Enable Looping button allows a clip to be looped by dragging in the
Track view. Loop-enabled clips follow changes in the project tempo. Click
the Enable Looping button to loop clips in the Track view by dragging the
left or right side of a clip with your mouse. When you loop-enable a clip it
automatically snaps to the nearest beat boundary (at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc.
beats). SONAR calculates the appropriate beat number. Change the
number in the Beats in Clip field if you want to change the total number of
beats in the clip.
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Using Loops
The Loop Construction View
Enable Stretching
The Enable Stretching button allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it
changes. It instructs SONAR to stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s
tempo. SONAR uses the Original BPM parameters to make the change.
Beats in Clip
The number of beats in the clip.
Original BPM
The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
Follow Project Pitch
The Follow Project Pitch option transposes the loop, if necessary, to the
project pitch which you can set in the Markers toolbar. A loop recorded in
the key of C, used in a project with a default project pitch of A, would be
transposed down three semitones if the Follow Project Pitch checkbox was
checked. You can also insert markers in the Time Ruler which change the
project pitch. These markers, called pitch markers affect only Groove clips
with Follow Project Pitch enabled.
Root Note
The Root Note represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded.
The Follow Project Pitch feature uses this information, when checked, to
transpose the loop to match the project’s default project pitch and pitch
markers.
Pitch (coarse)
You can set the transposition of a clip, independent from the project pitch,
using the Pitch (Coarse) field. A positive number transposes the clip up by
that number of semitones. A negative number transposes the clip down by
that number of semitones. Remember that, if the Follow Project Pitch option
is checked, the clip follows the project’s pitch. Any transposition changes to
the pitch with this option checked are changes to the project pitch, not the
clip pitch.
An example: The project key is C. The clip key is D. If the Follow Project
Pitch is enabled, the clip is transposed down by two semitones. A value
entered into the Pitch (coarse) field adjusts the pitch from C. If you enter “-1”
the pitch would be transposed down by one additional semi tone to B.
Another example: The clip pitch is E. The desired clip pitch is D. If the
Follow Project Pitch option is not enabled, and a value of “-2” is entered in
the Pitch (coarse) field, the clip is transposed down two semitones to D from
the original pitch of E.
Using Loops
The Loop Construction View
323
Pitch (fine)
The Pitch (fine) field allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose
the pitch of a clip up to 50 cents. There are 100 cents in one semi tone. A
Pitch (fine) setting of “1” adjusts the pitch up one hundredth of a semi tone.
The Pitch (fine) option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so that it is in
pitch with the remaining clips in a project.
Slices Menu
The Slices menu sets the resolution for the creation of markers, or the
“slicing” of the looped clip. This menu uses note lengths, so the settings
are:
•
Whole notes
•
Half notes
•
Quarter notes
•
Eighth notes
•
Sixteenth notes
•
Thirty-second notes
The automatic markers appear at the note resolutions according to the
slider setting. At the eighth note setting, there are eight markers per
measure.
This control works well for slicing audio that has more subtle changes in
volume with few dramatic transients.
The markers in a loop clip preserve the timing of the audio at that moment.
Too few or too many markers can cause unwanted “artifacts” when a loop
clip is stretched.
Trans Detect (%)
The Trans Detect control senses transients in your audio clip and assigns a
marker at the beginning and end of each one it finds. As the you increase
the sensitivity (by using larger numbers) smaller transients are detected
and the number of markers increases.
Stop Preview
Stops loop preview playback.
Preview Loops
Plays the current loop repeatedly. Use the Stop Preview control to stop
playback.
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Using Loops
The Loop Construction View
Enable Slice Auto-Preview
Plays a slice when you click on it.
Click Auto-Preview Loop
Repeatedly plays a selected slice.
Preview Bus
Select the output through which you want to listen to the clip.
Properties
The Properties button opens the Clip Properties dialog.
Select
Use the Select tool to move markers in the Markers bar.
Erase
Use the Erase tool to delete markers in the Markers bar.
Default All Markers
The Default All Markers tool restores all automatically generated markers to
the original position and enables all those that were disabled. Manually
created markers remain as is.
Previous Slice
Moves slice selection to the previous slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Next Slice
Moves slice selection to the next slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Show/Hide Gain Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s gain envelope. Each slice of
the clip has its own segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by
dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pan Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pan envelope. Each slice of the
clip has its own segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging
the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pitch Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pitch envelope. Each slice of
the clip has its own segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by
dragging the segment up or down.
Slice Gain
Changes the selected slice’s gain.
Using Loops
The Loop Construction View
325
Slice Pan
Adjusts the selected slice’s pan. Negative is left and positive is right.
Slice Pitch
Adjusts the selected slice’s pitch. The first field is in half steps, the second
field is in cents.
Slicing Markers
There are two types of slicing markers in the Loop Construction view:
automatic and manual. Automatic markers appear in red and are
automatically generated by SONAR when you loop enable a clip. The one
exception to this is if you import an ACIDized wave file into SONAR.
ACIDized files always appear with manual slicing markers. Manual markers
appear in purple. If you add a marker or move an automatic marker, it turns
purple to show you that it has been edited. For information on editing slicing
markers, see “To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip” on page 335.
Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the
waveform in clip. Audio scaling allows you to make detailed edits by
zooming in on the parts of the waveform closest to the zero crossing
(silence) while preserving the track size. By showing just the quietest parts
of a clip, you can make very precise edits.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located on the far left of the Loop Construction
view.
Audio Scale Ruler
Clip
There are three right-click display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
•
326
Percentage—shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the
highest percentage in the Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the
Using Loops
The Loop Construction View
parts of the waveform which are within 2% of the zero crossing appear
in the clip.
•
dB—shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the
Audio Scaling Ruler reads -36, then only the parts of the waveform
which are 36 dB below 0 dB appear in the clip.
•
Zoom Factor—shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the
Zoom Factor reads 10, then the waveform is zoomed in by a factor of
10.
The Loop Explorer View
SONAR’s Loop Explorer view allows you to preview your Wave files before
you drag and drop them into the Track view. If you preview a Groove clip, it
plays back at tempo and in the key of your current project.
You can open the Loop Explorer view in any of the following methods:
•
Select Views-Loop Explorer from the menu.
•
Click the Loop Explorer icon
•
Press Alt+1
on the Views toolbar.
The Loop Explorer view toolbar has the following controls:
Tool...
Name...
What It Does...
Move Up
Opens the folder one level above the
active folder.
Refresh
Refreshes the active folder.
Windows Explorer
Opens Windows Explorer at the same
directory being viewed in the Loop
Explorer view.
Play
Plays the selected media file.
Stop
Stops the playback of the selected file.
Auto Preview
Automatically preview files when you
click on them in the Loop Explorer view.
If the selected file is a Groove clip, it
plays back in the project tempo and key.
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The Loop Explorer View
327
Views
Preview Bus
Allows you to change the way the files
are viewed in the list view:
•
Large icons
•
Small icons
•
List
•
Details—displays the file size, date
and when the file was created and
last modified
Select the output through which you
want to listen to the loop.
Folders Pane
The Folders pane shows all of the available files and folders in the selected
drive.
Contents List Pane
The Contents List pane displays the folders and files contained in the active
folder.
To Preview a Groove Clip
1. Click the Auto-preview button in the Loop Explorer toolbar.
2. Click on a Wave file in the Content List pane.
Each successive Wave file you select is previewed. You can also select
multiple files and play them simultaneously.
Or
1. Select a Wave file in the Content List pane.
2. Click the Play button in the Loop Explorer toolbar.
3. Click the Stop button to stop playing the selected Wave file.
When you preview a Groove clip in the Loop Explorer view, the clip plays in
the project key and at the project tempo.
To Drag a Loop into a Project
1. Click and drag the Wave file from the Loop Explorer view to the Track
view.
2. Drop the Wave file in the track and at the time in which you want it in
your project. If you drop the file after the last track in your project, a new
track is created for the file.
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Using Loops
The Loop Explorer View
To Drag Multiple Loops into a Project
1. Select a Wave file and select additional by holding down the Ctrl key
and selecting them.
2. Drag the Wave files from the Loop Explorer view to the Track view.
3. Drop the Wave files into the Track view at the time in which you want
them in your project.
The Wave files appear on consecutive tracks in the Track view at the time
selected.
Working with Loops
You can make any audio clip into a loop by checking the Enable Looping
checkbox in the Clip Properties dialog. Once looping is enabled, you can
drag out loops to create multiple repetitions. There are several other ways
to enable looping:
To Enable or Disable a Clip for Looping
1. Double-click on the clip you want to loop.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2. In the Loop Construction view, click the Enable Looping button
.
Or
In the Track view, select a clip and press Ctrl+L or select Edit-Groove
Clip Looping.
To Create Repetitions of a Loop
1. Set the Snap value if you want the loop to repeat at precise time
boundaries.
2. Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor
looks like this
.
3. When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and
drag it to the right (if you are dragging out from the end) or left (if you
are dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Create Partial Repetitions of a Loop
1. Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor
looks like this
.
Using Loops
Working with Loops
329
2. When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and
drag it to the right (if you are dragging out from the end) or left (if you
are dragging from the beginning).
If the Snap to Grid button is on, you can create a partial loop as small as the
Snap to Grid setting allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is set
to quarter notes, you can create partial repetitions as small as a quarter of a
measure.
Working with Groove Clips
Groove clips are .WAV files that behave similarly to Sonic Foundry’s
ACIDized loops (SONAR also has MIDI Groove clips—see “MIDI Groove
Clips” on page 338). Groove clips contain information about the audio
content, including the original tempo, original reference pitch, number of
beats in the loop, and audio transient information.
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR
Groove clips have information saved within them which allow them to adjust
to changes in tempo and pitch. Groove clips can read a project’s tempo and
tempo changes, and can adjust their root note pitch when they read pitch
markers. You can add pitch markers in the Track view’s Time Ruler to
transpose the Groove clip. As your project passes over a pitch marker,
SONAR transposes your Groove clips based on the clip’s root note
reference pitch. If you insert no pitch markers in your project, there are no
pitch changes in your Groove clips. The default project pitch is C.
Note:
When working with Groove clips, it is important to know the
difference between key and pitch. Your project’s key signature
has no effect on Groove clips. The pitch of your Follow Project
Pitch-enabled Groove clips is dictated by pitch markers in the
Time Ruler. If there are no pitch markers in your project, these
Groove clips play at the pitch set in the Markers toolbar (the
default is C).
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Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
Note:
Groove clips must be at least one beat in length. If you try to loopenable a clip of a shorter duration you may experience distortion
or artifacts.
Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are easy to use because they automatically adjust to your
project’s pitch markers and tempo. You can import existing loops or create
your own, using the Loop Construction view.
To Import a Groove Clip into Your Project
1. Select a Track in the Track view.
2. Set the Now Time to the place you want the clip to begin.
3. Select File-Import-Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
4. Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips and select one.
5. Click Open.
Or
1. Open the Loop Explorer view.
2. Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips.
3. Drag and drop a clip into the Track view, or double-click it to insert it at
the Now Time.
4. The clip appears on the track and at the time in your project where you
drop it, so if you want the clip on a new track, drop it after the last track
in your project.
By default, Groove clips are loop-enabled and transposed to match the
project’s pitch.
Setting the Default Project Pitch
1. If necessary display the Markers toolbar by selecting Views-Toolbars
to open the Toolbars dialog. In the toolbar dialog click Markers and OK.
2. In the Markers toolbar, click the Default Groove Clip Pitch dropdown
menu and select a pitch.
Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
331
Your project now uses the root note of your clips to transpose to the project
pitch. Use Pitch markers at different points in your project to change the
pitch. For more information on Pitch markers, see “Using Pitch Markers in
the Track View” on page 337.
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
Any audio clip can be converted to a Groove clip. Groove clips contain
tempo, beat, and pitch information which SONAR uses to stretch and
transpose the clips to match the project. Most Groove clips are loopenabled, meaning that you can use the mouse to drag clip repetitions in the
Track view. Groove clips can be either loop-enabled or not, although they
usually are. When a Groove clip is loop-enabled, its edges appear beveled.
It is sometimes desirable to create clips that follow the project’s tempo and
key, but are not intended to loop. The following is a list of the attributes
contained in a Groove clip:
•
Beats in clip—The number of quarter notes in a clip. A four measure
clip in 4/4 time should have 16 beats. When you enable looping for a
clip, SONAR calculates the number of beats in the clip using an
algorithm. This calculation is very often accurate, but in some cases, for
instance when the clip has a very slow or very fast tempo or if the clip
has an unusual number of beats, then the number of beats in a clip may
have to be edited manually in the Beats in clip field.
•
Original tempo—The original tempo of the recording. SONAR uses the
original tempo to adjust to your project’s tempo. The original tempo
must be specified for stretching clips.
Note: When you loop-enable a clip, SONAR calculates the original
tempo of the clip, and unless the clip’s length is in exact beat or
measure increments, the original tempo that SONAR calculates may
vary from the recorded tempo. These fluctuations are usually quite
small and do not affect the quality of the Groove clip you create.
•
Reference note—The original key of the recorded clip. SONAR uses
the Reference note when it transposes Groove clips to match your
project’s pitch.
These attributes can be edited in the Loop Construction view.
To Set the Number of Beats in a Groove Clip
When you open a clip in the Loop Construction view, SONAR determines
the number of beats in the clip. In some cases the beat value may not be
correct. The beats in clip value can only be changed if the clip is loop
enabled.
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Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
Do the following to change value in the Beats in Clip field.
•
Click the plus or minus button to the right of the Beats in clip field until
the correct value is displayed.
To Change the Loop Construction View Time Ruler
Display
You can display the Loop Construction view Time Ruler in measures or in
samples. To toggle between the two modes, double click the Time Ruler.
To Set the Tempo of a Groove Clip
When creating a new Groove clip, SONAR sets the clip’s tempo to the
current project tempo. To ensure proper stretching behavior you must set
the value in the Original BPM field to the tempo at which you recorded the
clip. The tempo value of a clip can only be changed if the clip is stretchenabled.
Do the following to change the value in the Original BPM field.
•
Click the plus or minus button to the right of the Original BPM field until
the correct value is displayed. For more precise tempos you can
double-click in the Original BPM field and enter a tempo.
To Slice a Groove Clip
1. Double-click on a clip in the Clips pane.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. Slice the clip using one or all of the following methods:
To do this…
Do this…
Slice the clip on note divisions
Move the Basic Slicing slider to the
note resolution you want. The Basic
Slicing slider’s settings range from
whole notes to 64th notes. Selecting
quarter notes, for example, would
create four markers per measure.
Slice the clip at transient peaks
Enter a value into the Transient
Detection (Trans Detect %) text field
or use the increment/decrement
buttons. The larger transients in the
clip will be flanked by markers.
Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
333
Slice the clip manually
Move your mouse to the space above
the Time Ruler and double-click to
add a marker. Click and drag the
marker, if necessary, so it aligns with
the beginning or end of a transient.
3. Play your project and adjust the slicing of your clip as necessary.
Note: You can use any or all of these methods to slice a clip. If you adjust
both the Slices and Trans Detect menus, two markers may be placed right
next to each other. If these markers are too close, the markers will
automatically merge. Manual markers will not automatically merge.
To Transpose a Groove Clip to Match Your Project’s
Pitch
Follow this procedure to force the Groove clip to follow the project’s default
pitch.
1. Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. Click the Follow Project Pitch button.
To Transpose a Groove Clip by Semitones
Follow this procedure to transpose a Groove clip by any number of
semitones.
1. Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. If the Follow Project Pitch button is enabled, click it to disable it.
3. In the Pitch (semitones) field, enter the number of semitones you want
to transpose the clip by. A negative number in the Pitch (semitones)
field transposes a clip down. A positive number in the Pitch (semitones)
field transposes the clip up.
To “Fine Tune” a Groove Clip
Follow this procedure to make slight pitch changes to a clip.
1. Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. In the Fine Pitch (cents) field, enter the number of cents you want to
adjust the pitch. You can enter a number from -50 (transpose the pitch
334
Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
down by a quarter tone) to 50 (transpose the pitch up by a quarter
tone).
To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
The table below describes how to create and edit the slicing markers in the
Loop Construction view.
To do this…
Do this…
Add a slicing marker
Move the mouse cursor to the Markers
bar, at the beginning of a transient and
double-click.
Delete a slicing marker
Select the Eraser tool
a marker.
Move a slicing marker
Click and drag a marker
Reset slicing markers to original
positions
Click the Default All Markers button
.
and click on
For more information on slicing markers, see “Slicing Markers” on page
326.
Editing Slices
Each slice (space between the slicing markers) can be adjusted in the Loop
Construction view. You can adjust the following slice attributes:
•
Gain
•
Pan
•
Pitch
To Preview a Groove Clip Slice
1. Double-click on a clip to open the Loop Construction view.
2. Click the Enable Slice Auto-preview button.
3. Click a slice to hear it.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Gain
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to
adjust the gain.
Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
335
2. In the Slice Gain field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the
gain value.
Or
Click between the plus and minus keys until the cursor becomes a
double arrow and drag up to increase the value or down to decrease
the value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pan
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to
adjust the pan.
2. In the Slice Pan field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the pan
value. Negative is Left pan and positive is right pan.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Half Steps)
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to
adjust the pitch.
2. In the first Slice Pitch field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the
pitch value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Cents)
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to
adjust the pitch.
2. In the second Slice Pitch field, click the plus or minus buttons to change
the pitch value.
To Adjust Slice Gain, Pan and Pitch Using Slice
Envelopes
You can change an envelope’s gain, pan and/or pitch settings by dragging
the envelope up or down in that slice.
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files
Once you have created a Groove clip in SONAR, you can save the clip as a
Groove Clip/Wave file, compatible with ACIDized wave files.
To Save a Groove Clip as a Riff Wave File/ACIDized
Wave File
1. If you have not already done so, create a Groove clip. In the Loop
Construction view, click the Save icon.
The Save As dialog appears.
2. Use the toolbar in the Save As dialog to navigate to the location where
you want to save the file.
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Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
3. In the File name field, enter a name for the file.
4. Click the Save button.
To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip Into Another
Application
You can drag and drop clips from SONAR to another application or to a
directory in Windows. When you drag a file from SONAR, the source file is
copied and the copy is placed in the new directory or application.
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View
Pitch markers change the pitch at which Groove clips sound. All Groove
clips in SONAR that have the Follow Project Pitch option enabled adjust
their pitch as they encounter pitch markers in SONAR. If there are no pitch
markers, all Groove clips play at the default project pitch, unless the Follow
Project Pitch parameter is disabled.
Pitch marker: Groove
clips with Follow
Project Pitch enabled
play with the Root
Note transposed to C
Time Ruler
Pitch marker: Groove
clips with Follow
Project Pitch enabled
play with the Root
Note transposed to D
To Enable a Clip’s Follow Project Pitch Option
1. Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
2. On the Groove Clips tab, check the Follow Project Pitch checkbox.
3. Make sure that the Reference Note field is correct. When your project
reaches a pitch marker, SONAR transposes each groove clip that has
the Follow Project Pitch option enabled by the difference between the
clip’s Reference Note and the current Project Pitch.
4. Click OK to close the dialog.
To Change Your Project’s Default Pitch
1. Display the Markers toolbar, if it’s not already displayed, by using the
Views-Toolbars-Markers command.
2. In the Default Groove-Clip Pitch dropdown menu at the right end of the
toolbar, choose your project’s default pitch.
SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow Project Pitch
option enabled by the difference between the clip’s Reference Note and the
current Project Pitch. Your project’s pitch changes wherever you insert a
Using Loops
Working with Groove Clips
337
pitch marker. If you don’t insert any pitch markers, your project stays at its
default pitch.
To Create a Pitch Marker
1. In the Track view, right-click in the Time Ruler.
2. Select Create a Marker from the menu that appears.
3. The Marker dialog appears.
4. In the Groove Clip Pitch dropdown, select a pitch.
5. Click OK.
To Move a Pitch Marker
•
Click and drag a pitch marker to a new location on the Time Ruler.
MIDI Groove Clips
MIDI Groove clips are MIDI clips that you can roll out like audio Groove
clips, and you can also choose to have SONAR transpose MIDI Groove
clips when your project reaches a pitch marker.
You can change any MIDI clip into a MIDI Groove clip (or back into a
regular MIDI clip) by selecting the clip and using the Edit-Groove Clip
Looping command. A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature activated
appears with beveled edges in the Clips pane.
Here are some other features of MIDI Groove clips:
338
•
You can roll out copies in either direction (just like audio Groove clips).
The Snap-to-Grid setting determines what beat boundaries (if any) you
can roll to.
•
You can edit individual repetitions without altering any other copies
(unlike audio Groove clips). Note: If you then roll the edge of your MIDI
Groove clip back over the area you edited, you will lose your edits.
•
All new repetitions are based on the first clip (just like audio Groove
clips). However, if you split a repetition from its original source clip, the
repetition becomes independent: if you copy this clip, SONAR treats it
as an original clip.
•
You can import MIDI Groove clips from the Import MIDI dialog, the Loop
Explorer view, and by dragging and dropping from the Windows
Explorer.
•
You can preview MIDI Groove clips in the Import MIDI dialog.
•
You can edit MIDI Groove clips wherever you can edit regular MIDI
Using Loops
MIDI Groove Clips
clips.
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures, and also
“Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips” on page 340.
To Enable or Disable a MIDI Clip’s Groove Clip Function
•
Select the clip and press Ctrl+L.
Or
•
Select the clip and use the Edit-Groove Clip Looping command.
Or
•
Right-click the clip and choose Groove Clip Looping from the popup
menu.
A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature activated appears with beveled
edges in the Clips pane.
To Create Repetitions of a MIDI Groove Clip
1. Set the Snap value if you want the clip to repeat at precise time
boundaries.
2. Move the cursor over the end or beginning of the clip until the cursor
looks like this
.When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning
of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are dragging out from the end)
or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip
1. Select the MIDI Groove clip.
2. Hold down the Alt key, and press the + or - key on your computer
keyboard to raise or lower the clip’s pitches a half-step at a time. You
don’t have to stop playback.
Or
1. Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
2. On the Groove Clips tab, in the Pitch (semitones) field, choose the
number of half-steps you want to transpose the clip by: choose negative
numbers to transpose down, or positive numbers to transpose up.
Either method transposes the original clip and all repetitions. The original
clip displays a positive or negative number in parentheses showing any
transposition value you’ve added to the clip.
Using Loops
MIDI Groove Clips
339
If you use pitch markers to transpose a clip, any transposition value you
add to the clip by the above two methods changes the final pitch by
whatever transposition value you’ve added.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip with Pitch Markers
Use the same method you use for audio Groove clips: see “Using Pitch
Markers in the Track View” on page 337.
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips
You can not export MIDI Groove clips by saving your project as a Standard
MIDI File—Standard MIDI Files do not contain MIDI Groove clip data, such
as transposition value, etc. When you import MIDI Groove clips, you can
preview them in the Import MIDI dialog.
There are two methods for exporting MIDI Groove clips:
•
Using the File-Export-MIDI Groove Clip command
•
Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from SONAR to the Windows Explorer
There are three methods for importing MIDI Groove clips:
•
Using the File-Import-MIDI command
•
Using the Loop Explorer view
•
Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from the Windows Explorer to a MIDI track
in SONAR
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures:
To Export MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1. Highlight the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export.
2. Use the File-Export-MIDI Groove Clip command.
The Export MIDI dialog appears.
3. Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4. Type a name for the clip in the File Name field.
5. Click the Save button.
SONAR exports the MIDI Groove clip, which contains the information
displayed in the Clip Properties dialog, on the Groove-Clips tab, except for
the Pitch (semitones) field, which does not get exported.
To Export a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
•
340
Drag the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export to the folder in the
Windows Explorer where you want to keep it.
Using Loops
MIDI Groove Clips
To Import MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1. Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the clip.
2. Highlight the track you want to import the clip into.
3. Use the File-Import-MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4. Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips. Make sure that
the Files of Type field is set to MIDI File.
5. Highlight the file you want to import—the File Info field displays the file’s
MIDI Groove clip data, if any.
6. If you want to preview (listen to) the highlighted file, click the Play button
in the Import MIDI dialog. When you decide to import the highlighted
file, click the Open button.
To Import MIDI Groove Clips from the Loop Explorer
View
1. Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you
want to do.
2. If the Loop Explorer view is not open, use the Views-Loop Explorer
command to display it.
3. Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4. Do either of the following:
•
Drag the file you want to the track and time where you want it.
•
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the file, highlight the
track you want to import the file into, and double-click the file.
To Import a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
1. Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you
want to do.
2. In the Windows Explorer, navigate to a folder where you store MIDI
Groove clips.
3. Drag the MIDI Groove clip to the track and time where you want it to go.
Using Loops
MIDI Groove Clips
341
Importing Project5 Patterns
Project5 is Cakewalk’s pattern-based soft synth work station that has its
own library (pattern bin) full of MIDI and audio patterns, stored on disk. If
you have Project5 MIDI patterns on your hard disk, you can import them
directly into SONAR.
To Import a Project5 Pattern
1. Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the pattern.
2. Highlight the track you want to import the pattern into.
3. Use the File-Import-MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4. Change the Files of Type field to P5 Pattern.
5. Navigate to a folder where you store Project5 MIDI patterns.
6. Highlight the file you want to import.
7. To import the highlighted file, click the Open button.
SONAR imports the pattern to the selected track at the Now Time.
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AudioSnap
The new AudioSnap engine and tempo analysis features
give you unprecedented rhythmic and tempo control over
your audio. Employing sophisticated transient detection
technology, the AudioSnap engine automatically
analyzes all recorded and imported audio files for
rhythmic content to determine where the beats are in the
music. AudioSnap can be enabled/disabled on a per-clip
basis.
AudioSnap is completely non-destructive, similar to Groove
clips and V-Vocal clips. AudioSnap, V-Vocal, and Groove clips
are mutually exclusive. Groove clip markers are typically placed at
a zero-crossing point before a transient; AudioSnap markers are placed
where musical changes occur, but may not be exactly at a zero crossing.
In This Chapter
Enabling AudioSnap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Transient Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
The Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Aligning Clips to New Tempo Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Aligning Project Tempo to a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Extract Timing Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Quantizing Audio Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
AudioSnap is not a single feature, but rather a collection of different tools
that can be used for different tasks. The AudioSnap palette ties it all
together in a task-oriented layout.
When AudioSnap is enabled, audio can easily conform to the tempo of the
project, and you can then begin applying a wide array of beat- and temporelated features, such as:
•
Grabbing a beat and moving it manually
•
Aligning any audio clip(s) to the project’s tempo
•
Quantizing beats within a clip—entire audio clips can be quantized, with
no need to split them up into individual beats beforehand
•
Extracting tempo from any audio clip(s) and applying to project tempo
•
Applying grooves to audio, and extracting grooves from audio
•
Having audio clips follow tempo changes
•
Automatically splitting audio clips into individual beats, if desired
•
Non-destructively slip-stretching audio clips
•
Snapping both audio and MIDI edits to audio beats
The AudioSnap engine makes sessions with live musicians more flexible:
you have more control over the final result—both creative and corrective.
You are free to concentrate on feel and performance, and let AudioSnap
handle minor (or major!) rhythmic issues and last-minute changes.
You use AudioSnap directly in the Track view Clips pane. Audio stretching
uses iZotope’s high-quality “Radius” algorithm.
Enabling AudioSnap
AudioSnap commands only work with AudioSnap-enabled clips. Enabling
AudioSnap on a clip doesn’t change the clip or the project in any way—it
only allows AudioSnap editing to be done on the clip.
You can enable or disable AudioSnap on single or multiple clips.
To Enable or Disable AudioSnap
1. If you’re enabling or disabling multiple clips, first select them.
2. Right-click a clip and choose AudioSnap-AudioSnap Enable from the
popup menu.
The clip or clips display the AudioSnap clip icon when AudioSnap is
enabled. The icon has the following states:
344
AudioSnap
Enabling AudioSnap
Icon style...
Description…
Orange
Normal/default: AudioSnap is enabled,
but no transients have been stretched
Green border
AudioSnap is enabled, and some
audio has been stretched
Orange on purple
AudioSnap is enabled, and clip is
included in the pool
Arrow
Auto Stretch/Follow Tempo is enabled
Combinations of above
A clip can have combinations of the
above characteristics
AudioSnap
Enabling AudioSnap
345
The AudioSnap Palette
The AudioSnap palette appears when you right-click a clip and choose
AudioSnap-AudioSnap Palette from the popup menu, or use the
Process-AudioSnap Palette command (can be also be assigned to a key
binding).
You can also use the AudioSnap toolbar (Views-Toolbars-AudioSnap
command) to access the main AudioSnap buttons in a smaller space.
Except for the AudioSnap enable/disable command, the AudioSnap
palette’s controls apply to the currently selected AudioSnap-enabled audio
clip or clips.
Snap to Transients
Insert Marker
Reset
Show Transients
Enable/
Disable
AudioSnap
Add Transients to
Pool
Auto Stretch
Split Beats
into Clips
Go to
Previous or
Next Marker
Audition
Beat
Show Time
(transient
location)
Show
Pool
Options
The AudioSnap palette has the following controls:
346
•
Enable/Disable AudioSnap—this button enables or disables AudioSnap
on selected audio clips. When AudioSnap is enabled on a clip, the clip
displays the AudioSnap Clip icon.
•
Show transients—this button shows or hides the transient markers on a
selected audio clip or clips.
•
Add transients to the Pool—this button adds or deletes the clip’s
transient markers from the Pool. The markers do not have to be visible
to be added to the Pool. See “The Pool” on page 354 for more
information.
•
Auto Stretch—this button enables or disables Auto Stretch: a clip
property that causes the audio clip to automatically follow any new
AudioSnap
Enabling AudioSnap
project tempo changes; the clip will not automatically follow existing
tempo as Groove Clips do.
•
Sensitivity—this slider is available when a clip’s transient markers are
showing. The slider disables markers based on their time location. This
clears out unwanted markers to make editing easier. Dragging the slider
to the right creates a bigger time window, based on musical time values,
which preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time
value, and disables others. Works on selected clips.
•
Threshold—this slider is available when a clip’s transient markers are
showing. The slider disables markers based on their volume. This
clears out unwanted markers to make editing easier. Dragging the slider
to the right creates a bigger volume threshold, which disables markers
that are fall below that threshold. Works on selected clips.
•
Go to Previous/Next—these 2 buttons move the Now Time to the
previous or next transient marker in selected clips.
•
Audition Beat—this button plays the current transient/beat.
•
Reset—this button resets all selected markers to their original location.
•
Insert Marker—this button inserts a new marker at the Now Time in all
selected AudioSnap-enabled clips.
•
Split Beats into Clips—this button splits a clip at each transient marker
into multiple clips.
•
Snap to Transients—this button enables/disables beat snapping. When
you move a marker, magnetic snapping is active regardless of whether
the Track view Snap to Grid is enabled (unless you try to move a
marker onto another marker in the same clip, which isn’t allowed).
•
Show Pool—this button hides or shows the Pool lines.
•
Show Time—this button hides or shows the display of the project time
at each transient marker on all AudioSnap-enabled clips. You can
change the format that the displayed project time is in (independent of
the rest of the application) by using the dropdown menu that’s on the
side of this button.
•
Options—this button opens the AudioSnap Options button. This dialog
has its own help topic, which appears when you click its Help button.
•
Align Time Ruler—enabling this button displays the Set Measure/Beat
at Now button, the Extract Timing button, the Expected Pulse menu,
and the Find a Steady Rhythm check box. These tools change the
tempo of your project to fit the selected audio.
AudioSnap
Enabling AudioSnap
347
•
•
348
•
Set Measure/Beat at Now—this button opens the Measure Beat/
Meter dialog, which allows you to change the tempo map so that a
certain measure or beat in a measure begins at the current Now
Time. The tempo will ramp up/down from the previous tempo
change in order to arrive at the required tempo.
•
Extract Timing—this button changes the tempo map so that the
transients in the selected audio will fall on the beats or parts of
beats that you choose in the Expected Pulse Duration menu.
•
Expected Pulse Duration—set a value in this menu to specify what
note duration the enabled transient markers are supposed to
represent.
•
Find a Steady Rhythm—if the clip has a steady rhythm whose
transients don’t all conform to a certain note duration, select the
note duration that describes the basic pattern, but also enable the
Find a Steady Rhythm check box. For example, if your clip is a
bass drum playing on every beat, but containing a short pickup
note before certain beats, this option can distinguish between the
sounds that are on the beat, and those that are pickups.
Quantize—this button displays the Quantize button and the Groove
Quantize button.
•
Quantize—this button opens the Quantize dialog, which has
options to quantize AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times.
•
Groove Quantize—this button opens the Groove Quantize dialog,
which has an option to quantize AudioSnap Beats.
Quantize to Pool—this button displays the Quantize to Pool button, the
Quantize Strength slider, and the Quantize Window slider.
•
Quantize to Pool—clicking this button quantizes the selected clips
to the Pool, using the settings from the Max Distance From Pool
menu, the Quantize Strength slider, and the Quantize Window
slider.
•
Max Distance From Pool dropdown menu—this value in this menu
determines which notes are affected by the Quantize to Pool
command. For example, if you choose Quarter in the menu, notes
that are farther than a quarter note from a Pool line are not
quantized.
•
Quantize Strength—this slider controls quantize strength, which
determines how closely the selected notes move to the Pool
markers.
AudioSnap
Enabling AudioSnap
•
•
Quantize Window—this slider fine tunes the value in the Max
Distance From Pool menu. A window of 100 percent includes all
markers that lie within the Max Distance From Pool value.
Extract Groove—this button displays the Save As Groove button and
the Copy As MIDI Notes button.
•
Save As Groove—this button opens the Define Groove dialog,
which lets you save the groove to a file. The groove can then be
applied to other AudioSnap-enabled clips or MIDI clips.
•
Copy As MIDI Notes—this button saves the selected audio as a
MIDI clip, which you can paste from the Clipboard into a MIDI track.
You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip will be
converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog, which opens when
you click the Options button.
Transient Markers
Transient markers show where the transients of a clip are (areas where the
level increases suddenly), and are used to edit the timing of AudioSnapenabled clips.
Displaying Markers
Transient markers appear on audio clips that are AudioSnap-enabled, and
that have the Show Transients button enabled on the AudioSnap palette.
To display transient markers on a clip:
1. Select the clip; display the AudioSnap palette: right-clip the clip, and
choose AudioSnap-AudioSnap Palette from the popup menu.
2. In the AudioSnap palette, make sure that the Show Transients button is
enabled.
Zooming Out
When you zoom out in the Track view, markers gradually disappear. This
dynamic thinning ensures that the Clips pane never gets overwhelmed with
transient markers. An ellipsis (three dots) is displayed next to any marker
that is adjacent to any hidden markers. The ellipsis basically tells you that
there are more markers than you can currently see—zoom in to see them.
Disabling and Enabling Markers
It’s sometimes necessary to disable some of the markers so you can extract
a clearer groove, or snap or quantize data to only the more important
AudioSnap
Transient Markers
349
markers. Disabling markers is a way to thin the data so that it creates a
clearer time grid to work with. It also avoids stretching any transients that
you don’t want to stretch as a result of quantizing audio. Disabled markers
are not deleted, but are ignored by all AudioSnap functions. Only the head
of a disabled marker remains visible.
There are three ways to disable/enable the markers in a selected
AudioSnap-enabled clip:
•
The Sensitivity slider in the AudioSnap palette—this slider works by
disabling markers based on their time placement. Dragging the slider
to the right creates a larger time boundary, so that markers that fall
between the current time boundary that the slider defines are disabled.
•
The Threshold slider in the AudioSnap palette—this slider works by
disabling markers based on their volume. Dragging the slider to the
right creates a larger volume threshold, so that transients that fall below
the current volume threshold that the slider defines are disabled.
•
The Marker Menu—you can right-click a marker, and choose either the
Enable or Disable commands from the Marker menu.
If you want to protect a marker from being disabled by the Sensitivity slider
or the Threshold slider, you can right-click the marker and enable the
Promote option from the Marker menu. You can also promote a disabled
marker to ensure that it never becomes enabled by the Sensitivity slider.
Marker Appearance
Each transient marker changes its appearance when it is selected, moved,
new, disabled, or has certain other characteristics.
Note: marker colors are configurable. The default colors may be different
from those listed below.
The following table lists the variations in appearance that a marker can
display:
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Marker appearance...
Description…
Hollow diamond shape;
default color is orange; you
can change the default
colors in the Colors dialog:
Options-Colors command
Standard active marker
AudioSnap
Transient Markers
Blue
Selected
Grey; only the head of the
marker is visible
Disabled
Max stretch color
Any given transient can only be
stretched or shrunk to 25-400% of
original length. The marker head will
dynamically change color to indicate
how close it is to the max stretch
position (red = cannot be stretched any
further).
Note: An important difference between
quantizing MIDI and audio is that two
or more audio transients can never
collapse on top of each other like MIDI
notes can.
Filled diamond shape with
arrow
Moved marker and stretched audio (a
small arrow within the marker head
indicates in which direction the audio
has been stretched)
Filled diamond shape without
arrow
Moved marker without stretched audio
Square shape
Promoted marker; a promoted marker
is never disabled by the Sensitivity
slider or the Threshold slider in the
AudioSnap palette.
Pointed square
User marker: a manually added
marker
Combinations of above
AudioSnap
Transient Markers
Markers can have multiple
characteristics, for example, promoted
and stretched.
351
Editing Markers
Most AudioSnap commands edit your markers automatically as a result of
an editing operation, but sometimes you’ll get the best results by editing the
markers manually.
You can drag a marker from either the head or the stem of the marker, with
the following results:
To Drag a Marker Without Stretching Audio
•
Set a Snap to Grid value, then drag the head of a marker. Note: you
cannot move the head of a marker that has been stretched.
Head
Stem
To Drag a Marker and Stretch Audio
•
Set a Snap to Grid value, then drag the stem of a marker.
When you drag and drop the stem of a marker, the marker moves to the
place where you drop it, and the audio that is located between the
preceding marker and the following marker stretches. Note: there is a limit
to how far audio can be stretched.
You can find additional marker editing commands on the marker menu.
To Select Markers
352
•
To select a single marker, click it.
•
When you double-click a marker, not only does the marker become
selected, but all markers to the right of the marker become selected if
they are located inside the Pool Transient Window. You can set a value
for the Pool Transient Window in the AudioSnap Options dialog.
•
To select multiple markers, Ctrl-click them.
•
To select all markers in a clip, right-click the clip and choose
AudioSnap-Select-All from the popup menu.
•
To deselect all selected markers in a clip, click within the clip
boundaries away from any markers, or right-click the clip and choose
AudioSnap-Select-None from the popup menu.
•
To select all markers of a certain type in a clip, right-click the clip and
choose from the following options from the popup menu:
•
AudioSnap-Select-Moved
•
AudioSnap-Select-Stretched
AudioSnap
Transient Markers
•
AudioSnap-Select-Disabled
•
AudioSnap-Select-Enabled
•
AudioSnap-Select-Promoted
Selecting all markers of a certain type makes it easy to perform operations
such as resetting only the stretched markers, or promoting only the disabled
markers, etc.
Marker Menu
The marker menu appears when you right-click a marker. The command
you choose from this menu acts on the marker that you right-click, and
most commands also act on any markers that are selected. This menu
has the following commands:
Command...
Description…
Reset
Moves a marker back to its original
position
Disable
The marker is ignored
Promote
By “promoting’ a marker, you can set
emphasis on certain beats and prevent
the marker from becoming disabled
when you adjust the Sensitivity or
Threshold sliders
Delete marker
Deletes a marker that you have added;
the command is greyed-out if you rightclick an automatically generated
marker
Snap (stretch) to nearest transient
Moves marker to nearest Pool marker
Snap (stretch) backward
Moves marker backward to nearest
Pool marker
Snap (stretch) forward
Moves marker forward to nearest Pool
marker
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353
Stretch to
Moves the marker to the project time
that you enter in the To Time field, and
stretches the audio that is between the
previous and next markers
Move to
Moves the marker to the project time
that you enter in the To Time field
Audition Beat
Auditions the clip up to the next marker
Split Beat
Splits the beat at the marker
AudioSnap Palette
Opens the AudioSnap Palette
The Pool
The Pool is a collection of transient markers that can be extracted as a
groove, and also function as snap locations. In order to extract a groove, at
least one AudioSnap-enabled clip must belong to the Pool. You add clips to
the Pool by selecting them, and then enabling the Add Transients to the
Pool button in the AudioSnap palette. You can also Ctrl-click a clip’s
AudioSnap icon to either add the clip to the Pool, or remove it.
A transient marker that belongs to the pool is displayed in the Clips pane as
a solid line within the parent track, and as a dotted line outside the parent
track. Hovering the mouse over a dotted line will display a tooltip containing
the parent track and position. You can show or hide the dotted pool lines by
clicking the Show Pool button in the palette.
Pool lines
Solid line
Dotted line
Tooltip
The Track view Time Ruler can be added to the Pool. To the right of the
Time Ruler is a small button that looks like an AudioSnap clip icon.
Enabling this button adds the current Musical Time snap resolution to the
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AudioSnap
The Pool
pool, and also displays dotted pool lines in the Clips pane. This can be
useful as either a basic visual guide, or for adding the Musical Time to an
extracted groove.
To Add a Clip’s Transients to the Pool
•
Select the an AudioSnap-enabled clip, and enable the Add Transients
to the Pool button
in the palette. You can remove a clip’s transients
from the Pool by disabling the button.
You can also add the AudioSnap clip to the pool from the Clip Properties
dialog, from the Clips pane right-click menu, or by assigning a key binding.
To Hide or Show the Pool
•
In the palette, click the Show Pool button
. Transient markers on
individual clips do not have to be visible to see the Pool.
To Add the Time Ruler to the Pool
1. In the Snap to Grid dialog, set the Musical Time value to the resolution
you would like to add to the Pool.
2. Enable the Add Musical Snap to Transient Snap Pool button
at the right end of the Track view Time Ruler.
that’s
Keyboard Shortcuts
All the AudioSnap features become much more efficient if you use keyboard
shortcuts. You can find the default AudioSnap keyboard shortcuts in the
online help under Help-Keyboard Shortcuts. Look for the AudioSnap
section.
Aligning Clips to New Tempo Changes
The Clip Properties dialog has an option to automatically synchronize
AudioSnap-enabled audio clips to any new tempo changes you add to your
project. The clips must already be synchronized with the current project
tempo(s) for this to work. If you find that the process of synchronizing clips
to the project tempo has introduced an excessive number of tempo
changes, after your clips are synchronized to the project tempo you can
enable the clips’ Auto Stretch option, and then smooth out the project’s
tempo map.
If you need to synchronize a clip to project tempo, you have a variety of
options depending on the kind of clip and the amount you need to stretch
the clip. Quantizing works well for small changes. For material with well-
AudioSnap
Keyboard Shortcuts
355
defined transients, you can convert the clip to a Groove clip and bounce the
clip to a new track. You can choose the quality of the bounce algorithm in
the Offline Rendering field of the AudioSnap Options dialog (click the
Options button in the palette to open). Percussion is the best algorithm for
percussive sounds. Slip-stretching also works well for smaller tempo
changes.
Note: simply enabling the Auto Stretch option on a clip will not “align” the
clip to project tempo(s). When you change the tempo of your project, clips
that are Auto Stretch-enabled simply change their tempo by the same
amount as any new tempo changes that affect their location in the project. If
an audio clip is not already synchronized to your current project tempo(s),
the Auto Stretch option does no good.
To Align Clips to New Tempo Changes
1. Select all the audio clips in your project (they must already be
synchronized with the project tempo). You can select all audio clips by
using the Edit-Select All command if there are only audio clips in your
project, or you can select them individually by Ctrl-clicking each one.
2. Enable AudioSnap on one of the selected clips (right-click a selected
clip and choose AudioSnap-AudioSnap Enable from the popup
menu). This enables AudioSnap on all selected audio clips.
3. In the AudioSnap palette, enable the Auto Stretch button
.
The clips will now automatically follow any future tempo changes you add to
your project, provided that the change in tempo does not force a transient
beyond its stretch limits.
The preceding procedure works on single or multiple audio clips. If you only
have one audio clip that you want to follow tempo changes, you can also
use the Clip Properties dialog:
1. Right-click an audio clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup
menu to open the Clip Properties dialog.
2. On the Audio Stretching tab, in the AudioSnap section, make sure that
the Enable AudioSnap check box is enabled, and then enable the Auto
Stretch (Follow Tempo) check box.
3. Click OK.
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AudioSnap
Aligning Clips to New Tempo Changes
Aligning Project Tempo to a Clip
Sometimes you may want to align the tempo to a clip or clips, instead of the
other way around. There are two AudioSnap commands that will help
accomplish this: the Extract Timing command, and the Set Measure/Beat At
Now command.
To Set Tempo with the Extract Timing Command
1. Select the AudioSnap-enabled clip that you want to use to establish
your project tempo, and open the AudioSnap palette.
2. Select the Align Time Ruler button; this displays the Set Measure/Beat
at Now button, and the Extract Timing button.
3. Next to the Extract Timing button is the Expected Pulse Duration menu.
If your selected clip has a constant rhythm that conforms to a certain
note duration, select that duration in the menu. If the clip has a steady
rhythm whose transients don’t all conform to a certain note duration,
select the note duration that describes the basic pattern, but also
enable the Find a Steady Rhythm check box. For example, if your clip is
a bass drum playing on every beat, but containing a short pickup note
before certain beats, this option can distinguish between the sounds
that are on the beat, and those that are pickups.
4. Click the Extract Timing button.
Your project tempo changes to align with the selected clip. If the downbeats
aren’t aligned properly for the meter your project uses, you can use the
following procedure to set your meter (time signature) and downbeats
correctly. Or you can use the following procedure by itself, to extract timing
and set the downbeats and meter.
To Set Downbeats and Meter with the Set Measure/
Beat At Now Command
1. If the project already contains many tempo changes (as a result of first
trying Extract Timing), first clear the tempo map before using Set
Measure/Beat at Now. Otherwise you may experience “Invalid Measure
and Beat” error messages.
2. Place the Now time marker at some point just before the first beat of the
song.
3. Click the Go To Next (Transient) button
in the palette to move the
Now Time to the next beat that you know is the start of a measure.
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357
4. With the cursor placed on that beat, click the Set Measure/Beat at Now
button in the palette to open the Measure/Beat Meter dialog.
5. Type in the bar/beat number (and optionally Meter/Key), and click OK.
This establishes the position for that measure in the Time Ruler.
6. Repeat steps 2-4, and identify as many downbeats (beat 1's) as
necessary throughout the song. Programmed music may not require
many points since the tempo won't drift, but live recordings of music will
require that many beats be identified. Once you've identified all of the
downbeats, the tempo SONAR follows will be determined by the actual
performance. You may also choose to identify beats within each
measure as well, depending on your needs.
Extract Timing Tutorial
Let’s try out the Extract Timing command with one of our tutorial files:
1. Open a new project.
Note: if you’re not working with a new project, it’s very important that
there are not already many tempo changes near the same locations
you plan to add new tempo changes. Either start a new project, or at
least clear the tempo map.
2. Use the File-Import Audio command, and navigate to the Tutorials
folder in the folder where you installed SONAR.
3. Select the AudioSnap1.wav file, and click Open.
The AudioSnap1.wav file appears as and audio clip in Track 1 or your
project at beat 1.
4. Enable AudioSnap on the audio clip: right-click the clip and choose
AudioSnap-AudioSnap Enable from the popup menu.
The AudioSnap icon and transient markers appear on the clip, and the
AudioSnap palette appears.
5. Let’s zoom out a little so we can see all the markers on the clip.
Markers gradually disappear as you zoom in on a clip--markers that
aren’t showing are represented by an ellipsis next to a marker that is
showing.
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AudioSnap
Extract Timing Tutorial
6. The clip has transient markers for every cymbal hit, but if we want to
synchronize the project tempo to this clip, we should disable all the
markers except the ones on the downbeats. Do that by dragging the
Threshold slider in the AudioSnap palette until the markers at softer
transients are disabled.
Drag the slider so that the clip looks like the above picture. Notice that
only the markers at the loudest transients retain their original
appearance. The disabled markers display only the head of each
marker, and in a different color.
7. Now that only the four markers at the four downbeats in the clip remain,
you can extract the timing, and automatically change your project
tempo to the tempo of the clip: in the AudioSnap palette, select the
Align to Time Ruler radio button, then click the Extract Timing button.
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Extract Timing Tutorial
359
Now the markers line up with the beats in the Time Ruler, and project tempo
should now be approximately 110. When you align project tempo to an
audio clip, the clip is not changed in any way.
Let’s accomplish the same thing using the Set Beat At Now button:
1. Open a new project (steps 1-5 are the same as above.).
2. Use the File-Import Audio command, and navigate to the Tutorials
folder in the folder where you installed SONAR.
3. Select the AudioSnap1.wav file, and click Open.
The AudioSnap1.wav file appears as and audio clip in Track 1 or your
project at beat 1.
4. Enable AudioSnap on the audio clip: right-click the clip and choose
AudioSnap-AudioSnap Enable from the popup menu.
The AudioSnap icon and transient markers appear on the clip, and the
AudioSnap palette appears.
5. Let’s zoom out a little so we can see all the markers on the clip.
6. The first marker is already aligned with beat 1 of measure 1. Let’s align
beat 2: click the Go to Next button
in the AudioSnap palette three
times to move the Now Time to the fourth transient in the clip:
Fourth transient
marker
7. In the AudioSnap palette, make sure that the Align Time Ruler radio
button is selected, then click the Set Measure/Beat At Now button.
The Measure Beat/Meter dialog appears.
8. Since this is measure 1, we don’t have to change the Measure field, so
in the Beat field, click the + button to change the value to 2, and click
OK.
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AudioSnap
Extract Timing Tutorial
The fourth transient marker lines up with the beat 2 of the measure. Since
this clip has a well-defined tempo, the rest of the beats line up correctly
also. If they didn’t, you could click the Go to Next button 3 more times to
move the Now Time to the next large transient, click the Set Measure/Beat
At Now button, and fill in 3 in the Beat field, and so on, until your beats line
up correctly. If you check the project tempo, it should be approximately 110.
Quantizing Audio Clips
The Process-Quantize and Process-Groove Quantize commands both
work on AudioSnap-enabled audio clips. The AudioSnap palette has
buttons to issue both commands.
The Quantize dialog has a couple of AudioSnap options that are mutually
exclusive: the AudioSnap Beats option, and the Audio Clip Start Times
option. If the beats in the audio clip you’re quantizing are located a relatively
large distance from the grid that you are quantizing them to, you may find
that the beats have to be stretched so far from their original location that the
sound quality suffers. Instead of quantizing a whole clip, you can split the
clip into smaller pieces by using the Edit-Split command, or into beatlength pieces by using the Split Beats Into Clips button in the AudioSnap
palette. Once you have smaller pieces to work with, you can quantize the
clip by using the Audio Clip Start Times quantize option to get the start of
the clip or start of each beat aligned with the grid without actually stretching
any audio. If the succeeding beats in your clip don’t line up with your grid,
you can then quantize the clip by using the AudioSnap Beats option, which
will line up the beats in the clip with the grid. This technique works well with
percussive sounds. For some kinds of material, you may want to use crossfades on clips that overlap.
When quantizing instruments that were recorded with multiple microphones
(for instance, individual drums on different tracks), phasing problems can
occur when stretching/quantizing beats by various amounts—especially if
there is a lot of microphone bleed. Moving a hi-hat beat can cause problems
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361
if the hi-hat was also picked up by the snare microphone, etc. To avoid this
problem, the Quantize/Groove Quantize command will basically move the
earliest transient within the window to the grid, and all other transients will
be moved to the grid PLUS their offset from the earliest transient. In other
words, all transients that fall within the window size will retain the original
distance between the transients.
To Quantize Audio
1. Select the AudioSnap-enabled clips that you want to quantize.
2. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Quantize radio button, which
displays the Quantize button.
3. Click the Quantize button to open the Quantize dialog.
4. In the Resolution section, choose the duration that you want to quantize
to.
5. In the Change section, choose either AudioSnap Beats (if you’re
quantizing the beats within a clip), or Audio Clip Start Times (if you’re
just lining up the beginnings of clips).
6. Set any of the fields in the Options section that you want. The Options
section is described in the online help for the dialog, and also in the
Quantizing section of the Editing MIDI Events and Controllers chapter
in the online help.
7. Click OK.
The beats or clip boundaries that you quantized move to the resolution
boundaries that you chose.
Quantizing Tutorial
Let’s import a couple of audio clips, and fix some minor timing problems
with a kick drum clip:
1. Open a new project, and set the tempo to 130.
2. Use the File-Import Audio command, and navigate to the Tutorials
folder in the folder where you installed SONAR.
3. Select (Ctrl-click) both Hi Hat 16THS 130.WAV, and KICK 8THS 130.WAV,
and click Open.
The two clips appear on separate tracks: Track 1 and Track 2 at beat 1.
4. Play the project, and listen to the timing. The kick drum is a little rushed
on the upbeats.
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AudioSnap
Quantizing Audio Clips
5. Enable AudioSnap on both clips by selecting them, and then rightclicking one of the clips and choosing AudioSnap-AudioSnap Enable
from the popup menu.
The AudioSnap icon and transient markers appear on the clips, and the
AudioSnap palette appears.
6. Let’s zoom out a little so we can see all the markers on the clips.
7. Since the kick drum needs to align with the upbeats in the cymbal part,
let’s thin out our markers so that we only see the 8th notes: the kick
drum is OK the way it is, so, with only the cymbal clip selected, drag the
Sensitivity slider to the right until it reads 8th.
Now Ctrl-click the kick drum clip to select it. Your clips should look like
this:
8. Notice how the second and fourth kick drum markers don’t line up with
the cymbal clip’s markers. Let’s quantize the kick part to a resolution of
8th notes, and see what we get: select only the kick drum clip, and in
the AudioSnap palette, make sure the Quantize radio button is
selected, and click the Quantize button.
The Quantize dialog appears.
9. In the Duration field choose Eighth, make sure the AudioSnap Beats
check box is enabled, and click OK.
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363
The kick drum markers move to eighth-note boundaries, and line up much
better with the cymbal:
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool
You can use two kinds of groove quantizing on audio clips: the groove
quantize command aligns transients with a groove that’s on the Clipboard,
and the quantize to pool command aligns transients with the Pool.
When you use the groove quantize command, you can align a clip with a
pre-existing groove, or you can extract a groove from another clip.
To Extract a Groove
1. Select the clip that you want to extract a groove from.
2. Disable any transient markers that you want to exclude from the groove
(use the two sliders in the palette, or right-click the ones you want to
disable).
3. Add the clip’s markers to the Pool by enabling the Add Transients to
Pool button
while the clip is selected.
4. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Extract Groove radio button, which
displays the Save As Groove button.
5. Click the Save As Groove button. The Define Groove dialog appears.
6. In the File field, choose a file to save the pattern in, or type a name to
create a new file.
7. In the Pattern field, type a name for the pattern, and click OK.
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AudioSnap
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool
To Groove Quantize an Audio Clip
1. Select the AudioSnap-enabled clip that you want to groove quantize.
2. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Quantize radio button, which
displays the Groove Quantize button.
3. Click the Groove Quantize button. The Groove Quantize dialog
appears.
4. In the Groove File field, select the file that the groove pattern you want
to use is saved in.
5. In the Groove Pattern field, select the groove pattern that you want to
use.
6. Select the Resolution value that you want to quantize to.
7. Make sure that the AudioSnap Beats check box is enabled.
8. Click OK.
To Quantize to the Pool
1. Select the AudioSnap-enabled clip or clips that you want to include in
the pool.
2. Disable any transient markers that you want to exclude from the Pool
(use the two sliders in the palette, or right-click the ones you want to
disable).
3. Make sure that the Add Transients to the Pool
Transients buttons
, and Show
are enabled in the palette.
4. Select the clip(s) that you want to quantize to the Pool.
5. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Quantize to Pool radio button, which
displays the Quantize to Pool button.
6. Choose a value in the Max Distance From Pool dropdown: this value
determines which notes are affected by the Quantize to Pool command.
For example, if you choose Quarter in the menu, notes that are farther
than a quarter note from a Pool line are not quantized.
7. Adjust the Quantize Strength and Quantize Window sliders, if
necessary. The Strength setting determines how closely selected notes
move to the resolution value, or “grid.” The Window value fine tunes the
value in the Max Distance From Pool menu. A value of 100 percent
quantizes every note that is within the Max Distance From Pool value.
8. Click the Quantize to Pool button.
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Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool
365
The transients in the selected clips are quantized to the Pool.
Quantizing to Pool and Offline Rendering Tutorial
Let’s import two audio clips, and fix some minor timing problems with a
bass clip, and then bounce the bass clip to a new track:
1. Open a new project, and set the tempo to 120.
2. Use the File-Import Audio command, and navigate to the Tutorials
folder in the folder where you installed SONAR.
3. Select (Ctrl-click) both BASS SWING 16THS.WAV, and SWING FEEL 2
BAR.WAV, and click Open.
The two clips appear on separate tracks: Track 1 and Track 2 at beat 1.
4. Play the project, and listen to the timing. The bass part on beat 4
doesn’t quite sync up with the drums.
5. Enable AudioSnap on both clips by selecting them, and then rightclicking one of the clips and choosing AudioSnap-AudioSnap Enable
from the popup menu.
The AudioSnap icon and transient markers appear on the clips, and the
AudioSnap palette appears.
6. Select the drum clip, and enable the Add Transients to the Pool button
in the palette.
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The Pool markers appear on the drum clip as solid lines, and on the
bass clip as dotted lines. Look at beat 4 in measure 1 to see the minor
timing differences between the bass markers and the drum markers:
This transient is a little late
This transient is a little early
7. We could manually drag the mis-aligned bass markers to align them
with the drum markers, but since there are two of them (and actually,
another one in beat 1), it’s faster to use the Quantize to Pool command.
Select the bass clip, and then select the Quantize to Pool radio button
in the palette.
8. In the Settings section, leave the Max Distance From Pool menu set to
Quarter, then click the Quantize to Pool button.
The bass clip’s markers sync up with the drum clip.
9. Play the two clips. The timing is much better now, but the sound of the
bass clip has changed noticeably because of the stretching. Let’s
bounce the bass clip to a new track, but use a different stretching
algorithm to do it.
10. Click the Options button in the palette to open the AudioSnap Options
dialog.
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367
11. In the Default Stretching Algorithm section, in the Offline Rendering
field, choose iZotope Radius Solo, and click OK.
12. Click the track number of the bass track to select the track, and use the
Edit-Bounce to Tracks command to open the Bounce to Tracks
dialog.
13. Fill out the fields the way you want (make sure 64-bit Engine check box
is enabled), and click OK.
A new bass clip appears on the track that you chose in the dialog. Listen to
it, and compare it to the original, stretched bass clip.
Aligning MIDI with Audio
One way to align MIDI with audio is to use the grooves that you extract from
audio clips to quantize MIDI. Another way is available with the new option in
the Snap to Grid dialog. The Snap to Grid dialog now has an Audio
Transients check box, which makes it simple to align MIDI data with
AudioSnap-enabled audio. When you display the Pool, and set the Snap to
Grid dialog to Snap to Landmarks, you can easily drag MIDI events in the
Inline Piano Roll view to align with audio transients.
To Align MIDI with Audio in the Inline Piano Roll View
1. Display the Pool markers that you want to use to align the MIDI events:
select the audio clip(s) whose transient markers you want to use; make
sure that the Add Transients to the Pool
, and Show Pool buttons
are enabled in the palette. You can disable any unwanted markers,
or just ignore them when you’re dragging your MIDI data.
2. Display the MIDI data in the Inline Piano Roll view that you want to
align.
3. Open the Snap to Grid dialog (Shift + N is the default shortcut), and on
the PRV Mode tab, enable the Audio Transients check box.
4. Make sure Move To is enabled in the Mode field.
5. Adjust Magnetic Strength if you want. You can turn it off to if you want to
drag your data only to locations on the snap grid.
6. Drag your data to the desired audio transient lines.
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Copying Audio Rhythms as MIDI
If you want to double an audio rhythm with a MIDI instrument, or align lyrics
with an audio rhythm, you can copy the audio rhythm as MIDI.
To Copy an Audio Rhythm as MIDI
1. Select the audio clip whose rhythm you want to copy, and make sure
AudioSnap is enabled.
2. Do any necessary quantizing, and disable any markers that you don’t
want to produce notes in the MIDI clip.
3. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Options button, which opens the
AudioSnap Options dialog.
4. In the MIDI Extraction section, choose the MIDI note that you want the
extracted rhythm to use.
5. Choose a Note Velocities option: either accept the extrapolated
velocities in the audio clip (the Vary With Pulse Level option), or set a
constant velocity for the notes in the Set All To Same Value field, and
click OK.
6. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Extract Groove button, which
displays the Copy As MIDI Notes button.
7. Click the Copy As MIDI Notes button. This copies the audio rhythm to
the Clipboard as a MIDI clip, with the same pitch assigned to each note.
Now you can paste the Clipboard contents into the Clips pane, Piano Roll
view, or Staff view.
Slip-stretching Audio Clips
Slip-stretching is a quick, easy way to stretch a single audio clip.
To Slip-stretch an Audio Clip
1. Set the Snap to Grid to an appropriate setting (turn it off if you don’t
need it, or set a snap value if you do).
2. Hold down the Ctrl key, and drag the right or left end of the clip to the
length that you want.
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369
The clip stretches, and displays a percentage value in the lower right corner
to show how much stretching has occurred.
Percentage display
Adding Automation
If you have an automation envelope on a track, you can add nodes to the
envelope at Pool lines. This makes it easy to add special processing at
transient locations.
To Add Nodes at Transients
1. Make sure the clip’s markers belong to the Pool.
2. Right-click an automation envelope on the clip, and choose Add Nodes
at Transient Markers from the popup menu.
Now you can easily edit your envelope at transient locations.
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Editing MIDI Events
and Controllers
SONAR lets you edit the events in your projects in
dozens of different ways. The Piano Roll view lets you
add and edit notes, controllers, and automation data
interactively, using a graphic display. SONAR’s many
editing commands can improve the quality of recorded
performances, filter out certain types of events, and
modify the tempos and dynamics of your projects. The
Event List view lets you see and modify every detail of your
project. Finally, you can apply a variety of effects and filters
to enhance your MIDI data.
SONAR has many additional commands and features for working
with audio. For more information, see “Editing Audio” on page 465.
In This Chapter
Event Inspector Toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
The Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Selecting and Editing Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Changing the Timing of a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Searching for Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
The Event List View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Event Inspector Toolbar
The Event Inspector toolbar is available from the View menu by selecting
Views-Toolbars and checking Event Inspector in the Toolbars dialog. The
Event Inspector has the following:
•
Time
•
Pitch
•
Velocity
•
Duration
•
Channel
To Display a Note’s Properties in the Event Inspector
Toolbar
•
Select a note.
If you select multiple notes, the Event Inspector toolbar displays the
note value if all selected note values are the same. If the note values
are different, the Event Inspector does not display anything.
To Change a Note’s Properties Using the Event
Inspector Toolbar
1. Select a note.
2. In the appropriate Event Inspector toolbar field, change the value. See
the table below for a description of valid value entries for each field in
the Event Inspector toolbar.
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Event
Inspector
Field…
Valid Values…
Time
Any valid M:B:T time value. Separate values with a colon
or a space. For example, measure 2, Beat 3, Tick 720
would be written as 2:3:720.
Pitch
Note names (C0 through G10) and note numbers (0
through 127) are valid in this field. Also, you can use a
modifier to raise or lower the value by a number of halfsteps. To raise the pitch by 2 half-steps, type +2 and
press enter. To lower the pitch by 2 half-steps, type -2 and
press enter.
Editing MIDI Events and
Event Inspector Toolbar
Velocity
A velocity value or modifier value are valid in this field.
Valid velocity values are 0 through 127. Valid modifier
values are +/- 0 through 127.
Duration
A PPQ value.
Channel
1 through 16.
The Piano Roll View
The Piano Roll view displays all notes and other events from one or more
MIDI tracks in a grid format that looks much like a player piano roll. Notes
are displayed as horizontal bars, and drum notes as diamonds. Pitch runs
from bottom to top, with the left vertical margin indicating the pitches as
piano keys or note names. Time is displayed running left to right with
vertical measure and beat boundaries. The Piano Roll view makes it easy to
add, edit, and delete notes from a track.
A single-track version of the Piano Roll view is available in each track in the
Track view. This view is called the Inline Piano Roll view, and replaces the
Clips pane in any track that you choose to display in Inline Piano Roll mode.
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373
The Piano Roll view consists of the Note Map pane, the Drum Grid pane,
the Notes pane, the Controller pane, the Piano Roll view toolbar, and the
Track List pane.
Toolbar
Show/Hide MIDI
Events menu
Edit MIDI Event Type
menu
Note Map pane
Drum Grid pane
Notes pane
Controller pane
Tooltip shows cursor position
and editing data while you edit
an event
Track List pane
Selected track
Note Map Pane
This pane displays your drum map settings. You can mute or solo individual
pitches, and preview individual pitch sounds. For more information about
the Note Map Pane, see “The Note Map Pane” on page 458.
Drum Grid Pane
In the Drum Grid pane you can add, delete, and edit notes and note
properties in any MIDI track(s) assigned to a drum map. You can also edit
controllers in this pane if you choose to hide the Controller pane.
For more information, see “The Drum Grid Pane” on page 460“Adding and
Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View” on page 387.
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Notes Pane
In this pane you can add, edit, and delete notes in any MIDI track(s) not
assigned to a drum map. You can also edit controllers in this pane if you
choose to hide the Controller pane.
Controller Pane
This pane displays controller events, which you can edit. You can show or
hide this pane by clicking the Use Controller Pane button
that is in the
Piano Roll view toolbar, or by pressing C. When the Controller pane is
hidden, all controller events appear in the Notes pane.
Track List Pane
The Track List pane is home to a list of all tracks currently displayed in the
Piano Roll view. In this pane you can enable and disable editing of a track’s
data; mute, solo and arm a track; and show or hide the track’s data in the
Notes pane or Drum Grid pane. Track numbers, names and output ports
appear in the Track List pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by
clicking the Show/Hide Track Pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
If you see an error message saying that you have masked the active track,
it means that the active track is not visible at the moment. To unmask the
track click the track’s Show/Hide Track button
in the Track List pane so
that the button appears in color.
Opening the View
There are several ways to open the Piano Roll view:
•
In the Track view, select the track you want to see, then choose ViewsPiano Roll or press Alt+5
•
In the Track view, right-click on a track and choose Views-Piano Roll
from the popup menu
•
Double-click on a MIDI clip in the Clips pane
Each selected track is displayed. You can always switch to a different track
or tracks—simply click the
button (or press T) and choose the track you
want.
The Piano Roll view lets you edit notes and controllers during playback or
recording, in real time. This means you can loop over a portion of your
project and hear any change you make on the next loop. The Piano Roll
view also shows notes on-screen as you record them.
Like the Track view, the Piano Roll view includes zoom tools that let you
change the vertical and horizontal scale of the view. The Piano Roll view
Editing MIDI Events and
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375
also has a Snap to Grid
button. For more information on this feature,
see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 278.
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
You can view as many tracks as you want in the Piano Roll view. When you
display several tracks at the same time in the Piano Roll view, you control
which track(s) you can see and/or edit by using the buttons in the Track List
pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/Hide
Track Pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
If you want to edit the data in a track, you must make the track you want to
edit the current track. The name of the current track appears highlighted in
the Track List pane. To display the Track List pane in the Piano Roll view,
click the Show/Hide Track List pane button
. The following shows three
tracks in the Track List pane:
Track disabled for track editing
Track’s data shown in
Notes pane
Output
Track’s data hidden in Notes pane
Current track
Mute
Arm
Solo
Track enabled for track editing
To make a track the current track in the Track List pane, click on the track.
When a thin dotted line surrounds the track, it is the current track.
Tip: Clicking a note will make the note’s parent track the current track.
The following is a list of ways to optimize the multiple track functionality in
the Piano Roll view.
Selecting Tracks to View
Use the Pick Tracks combo button
to assign tracks to the Track List
pane. Click on the left side of the Pick Tracks combo button to open the
Pick Tracks dialog box. Click on a track name to select it. Hold down the
Ctrl key and click more track names to select additional tracks. Click on the
right side of the Pick Tracks combo button to show the Show Previous/Next
Tracks popup menu. Selecting Show Previous Track(s) moves the track or
range of tracks down by one track number. Selecting Show Next Track(s)
moves the track or range of tracks up by one track number. For example, if
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you have tracks 2, 3 and 7 displayed in the Track List pane and you select
Show Previous Track(s), the Track List pane displays tracks 1, 2, and 6.
Display
If the notes of two tracks overlap, the notes of the topmost track in the Track
List pane appear over the notes of the other track. You can move a track up
or down by in the Track List pane by clicking and holding on the track and
moving the track to the desired position.
All tracks ending in the same digit (2, 12, 22, etc.) share the same color.
The default colors can be changed using Options-Colors.
The Enable/Disable Track Editing Button
The Enable/Disable Track Editing button
sets whether or not you can
edit the notes of a track in the Piano Roll view. When the button appears
white, editing is enabled and the track appears in color. When the button
appears gray, editing is disabled and the track appears in gray.
Note: The Enable/Disable Track Editing button only disables the Piano Roll
view tools; other editing commands are still operational.
The Show/Hide Track Button
The Show/Hide Track button
controls whether or not a track appears in
the Notes pane. The button appears in color when toggled on, white when
off.
The Invert Tracks Button
If you use the Show/Hide Track button to hide any tracks in the Track List
pane, you can show all these tracks and hide the ones that are currently
displayed by clicking the Invert Tracks button.
Note Names
You can change the instrument definition for the active track in the Piano
Roll view. Right-click the piano keys in the Notes pane to open the Note
Names dialog where you can use note names that are defined as part of
any instrument definition. For more information about instrument definitions,
see the online help topic: Instrument Definitions.
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377
To Change the Active Track’s Instrument Definition
1. Right-click the left side of the Notes pane (where the piano keys or note
names are displayed) to display the Note Names dialog box.
2. To use the note names from the assigned instrument (the default), click
Use the Assigned Instrument Settings. Click Configure to change the
instrument definitions.
3. To override the default setting, click Use These Settings Instead, and
choose the note names and mode you want to work with.
4. Click OK when you are done
The Piano Roll view is updated with the settings you request.
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll
View Only)
The Show/Hide MIDI Events button
in the Piano Roll view lets you
quickly hide or show any combination of the data in a MIDI track or in
multiple MIDI tracks. This button is independent of the Show/Hide MIDI
Events button in a track’s Inline Piano Roll view (see also “Displaying Notes
and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View” on page 395)).
The Show/Hide MIDI Events button is located in the upper left corner of the
Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show Data in the Piano Roll View
1. If you want to display the data from multiple MIDI tracks, first choose
and configure the tracks from which you want to display data (see
“Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View” on page 376).
2. Click the dropdown arrow on the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
to display the menu of MIDI data in the current track (the track
that is highlighted in the Track List pane, or in the Track view).
3. Choose from the following menu options:
•
378
To hide or show notes for all displayed tracks, click Show Notes.
Editing MIDI Events and
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)
•
To hide or show the outline(s) of the clip(s) you’re looking at,
choose Show Clip Outlines.
•
To hide or show a controller type for all displayed tracks, click the
name of the controller.
•
To hide or show the edit handles on controllers, click Show
Controller Handles.
•
To hide or show the velocity columns on all tracks except the active
track, click Show Velocity on Active Track Only.
•
To show all controllers in all displayed tracks, click Display All
Continuous Events, or just click the left side of the Show/Hide
MIDI Events button
. The button turns white when all
controllers are hidden, and blue when all controllers are showing.
4. After you choose an option, the menu closes. You can repeat steps 2
and 3 to choose more options.
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
View
You add notes in the Piano Roll view or Inline Piano Roll view by first
choosing a note duration in the Piano Roll toolbar (or in the current track’s
Note Duration menu if you’re using the Inline Piano Roll view), and then
clicking in the view with the Draw tool at the pitch location and time location
where you want the note to go. The pitch locations are marked by grey rows
for the sharps or flats, and white rows for naturals. Octaves are labeled on
the keyboard display on the left side of the Piano Roll view, and by the MIDI
Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. You can display different octaves by
dragging the vertical scroll bar that’s on the right side of the Piano Roll view,
or by dragging the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. The time
locations are marked by the measure numbers in the horizontal time ruler
that’s at the top of the view, and by the vertical grid lines that mark the beats
in the measure. The Snap to Grid menu determines how precisely you can
place your notes in time.
You can edit notes by a variety of methods:
•
Select notes, and then use editing commands from the Edit menu, the
Process menu, or the Event Inspector toolbar
•
Move single or groups of selected notes with the Select tool
•
Edit the pitch, location, duration, start time, and velocity of individual or
Editing MIDI Events and
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
379
groups of selected notes with the Draw tool
•
Delete notes with the Erase tool, or by holding the Alt key down while
you use the Draw tool
For step-by-step procedures, see the following topics:
Selecting Notes
There are several ways to select notes in the Piano Roll view and Inline
Piano Roll view:
•
Click and drag in the Piano Roll view’s Time Ruler to select notes (and
other MIDI events) that start playing within the time range that you
select.
•
In the Inline Piano Roll view, click and drag in the Track view’s Time
Ruler to select notes (and other MIDI events) that start playing within
the time range that you select. This selects data in the current track, or
all selected tracks.
•
Click notes or drag around them with the Select tool
•
In the Piano Roll view only (not the Inline Piano Roll view): click or drag
the piano keys to the left of the Notes pane or the drum map rows in
Note Map pane to select all notes of the desired pitch(es).
•
In the Inline Piano Roll view: Shift-click or Shift-drag the piano keys on
the MIDI Scale to select all notes of the desired pitch(es).
.
To Select Notes with the Select Tool
1. Activate the Select tool by clicking it in either the Piano Roll view
toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar (depending on which view you’re
working in).
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Editing MIDI Events and
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
2. Select notes as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a single note
Click on the note
Select several notes at once
Drag a rectangle around the notes
you want to select
Add to the selection
Hold the Shift key while selecting
notes
Toggle the selection
Hold the Ctrl key while selecting
notes
Select notes in a certain
time range.
Set the desired Snap to Grid value
in either the Piano Roll view or the
Inline Piano Roll view (depending
on which view you’re working in),
and drag in the Time Ruler of the
appropriate view.
Selected notes are highlighted (50% gray mask).
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches (Piano Roll View
Only)
Click the piano keys on the left side of the Notes pane or the drum map
rows in the Note Map pane as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select all notes of a single pitch
Click on the piano key or drum map
row
Select all notes of several
pitches
Drag across the keys or drum map
rows
Add to the selection
Hold the Shift key while clicking on a
piano key or drum map row
Toggle the selection
Hold the Ctrl key while clicking on a
piano key or drum map row
Editing MIDI Events and
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
381
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches (Inline Piano Roll
View Only)
1. Zoom the MIDI Scale in far enough to see the keys clearly (left-click
and drag on the MIDI Scale).
2. Shift-click a piano key to select all the notes of that pitch, or Shift-drag
through multiple notes to select them.
Ctrl-clicking to select multiple non-adjacent notes is not possible in the MIDI
Scale.
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
You can edit notes in the Piano Roll view and the Inline Piano Roll view with
the same methods. The Draw tool and the Select tool are useful for quick
note editing. You can do the same edits with commands in the Process
menu (Length, Slide, Transpose). If you want to edit multiple notes at the
same time, first select them with the Select tool.
MIDI notes display their velocity value as a wide or narrow column. You can
drag the column up or down to edit the note’s velocity. Holding the Draw
tool over the middle of the note in the upper third of the note displays a
small velocity column on the Draw tool to show that the tool is in the target
zone.
Draw tool in velocity-edit mode
Tooltip showing cursor position
Velocity column
Tooltips give you a constant readout of the cursor position, how much
you’ve edited the selection, and how many notes you’re editing.
In the picture below, the tooltip lists the current location of the cursor, how
far the selection has moved from its original location (1252 ticks to the
right), the current pitch level and MIDI note number of the cursor (E8 100),
how far from the note’s original pitch the cursor has moved (1 half-step
higher), and how many notes are in the selection.
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When you drag multiple notes, if you enable Polyphonic Note Audition in
the Edit MIDI Event Type dropdown menu, the Piano Roll view “auditions”
them, so you can hear all of them as they pass through different pitch levels.
To Edit Notes with the Draw Tool
1. If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the
Select tool. Editing any of the notes in the selection edits all the
selected notes in the same way.
2. Click
to select the Draw tool. If the Draw tool button is in Auto-Erase
mode, it looks like this:
. If the Draw tool is in Auto-Erase mode, use
the dropdown menu that’s next to it to disable Auto-Erase mode, unless
you want to delete notes.
3. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline
Piano Roll view, make sure you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid
dialog).
4. Edit notes as described in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Change the start time, but not
the duration
Drag the left edge of the note in either
direction.
The start time of the note is moved to the new
location.
Change the pitch
Drag the middle of the note up or down.
Move the note horizontally
Move the cursor just inside the left edge of the
note until it looks like this:
Then drag left or right.
Change the duration
Drag the right edge of the note in either
direction.
Editing MIDI Events and
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
383
Copy and paste notes
Hold the Ctrl key down, and drag notes so as
to either move them horizontally or change the
pitch (see above), and release the mouse at
the desired location.
Add a note
See “To Draw Notes” on page 384.
Edit velocity
See “To Edit Velocity” on page 385.
Delete notes
Enable the Draw tool’s Auto-Erase mode (in
the dropdown menu next to it), and click notes.
When the Draw tool’s Auto-Erase mode is
enabled, a small eraser icon appears at the
bottom of the Draw tool when the Draw tool
approaches notes from below. Alternatively,
click the Erase tool to enable it, and click each
note that you want to delete, or drag through
multiple notes.
Tip: hold the Alt key down to toggle the Draw
tool’s Auto-Erase mode, or to temporarily turn
the Erase tool into the Draw tool.
To Draw Notes
1. In the Edit MIDI Event Type menu in the Piano Roll view, or the Inline
Piano Roll view (depending on which view you’re working in), select
Notes/Velocity.
2. Enable the Draw tool in the Piano Roll toolbar, or the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar.
3. Choose a duration for the note by clicking a note-head button in the
Piano Roll toolbar, or the Note Duration menu in the track controls if
you’re using the Inline Piano Roll view.
4. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline
Piano Roll view, make sure you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid
dialog).
5. Click in the Notes pane at the pitch and location where you want the
note: pitch locations are marked by grey rows for the sharps or flats,
and white rows for naturals. Octaves are labeled on the keyboard
display on the left side of the view (this is called the MIDI Scale in the
Inline Piano Roll view). You can display different octaves by dragging
the vertical scroll bar that’s on the right side of the Piano Roll view, or by
dragging the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. The time
locations are marked by the measure numbers in the horizontal time
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ruler that’s at the top of each view. You can display vertical grid lines
that mark the beats in the measure by clicking the Show/Hide Grid
button
in the Piano Roll view, or by right-clicking the Clips pane
(not the Inline Piano Roll view), choosing View Options from the popup
menu, and checking the Display Vertical Rules checkbox.
To Use the Erase Tool
1. Enable the Erase tool
(make it turn blue) by clicking it, or by
pressing e when the Piano Roll view has focus.
2. Click or drag through the notes or controllers you want to delete.
3. To turn the Erase tool into the Draw tool temporarily, hold the Alt key
down.
To Edit Velocity
1. If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the
Select tool. Editing any of the notes in the selection edits all the
selected notes in the same way.
2. Make sure Velocity has a checkmark next to it in the Show/Hide MIDI
Events menu.
3. Enable the Draw tool.
4. Move the cursor over the upper third of the middle of the note. When
you reach the target area, the Draw tool displays a small velocity
column to show that you have enabled velocity editing (this only
happens if you’ve hidden the Controller pane).
5. Drag up or down to edit velocity. The tooltip shows you the velocity
value that the cursor is passing through, the difference from the original
value, and how many notes you’re editing. If you want to hear the
changes in velocity as you make them, enable Velocity Audition in the
Edit MIDI Event Type dropdown menu.
Note 1: instead of moving the cursor over the upper third of the note to
activate velocity editing, you can hold down the Ctrl key instead. This allows
you to drag the Draw tool horizontally to draw the desired velocity level(s).
Note 2: if you prefer to edit velocity in the Controller pane, display the
Controller pane (press C), and use the Draw tool to drag horizontally
through the vertical lines in the Controller pane that represent the velocity of
each note. You can also use the Draw tool or the Select tool to drag the tip
of a vertical line up or down. While you drag, a tooltip displays velocity and
location data.
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385
To Edit Notes with the Select Tool
1. If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the
Select tool. Editing any of the notes in the selection edits all the
selected notes in the same way.
2. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline
Piano Roll view, make sure you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid
dialog).
3. Edit notes as described in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Change the start time, but not
the duration
Drag the note left or right
Change the pitch
Drag the note up or down.
Move selected notes, or a
single note only vertically, or
only horizontally
Hold the Shift key down, and move the Select
tool over a note so that the cursor displays a
horizontal double-ended arrow (if you want to
drag horizontally) or a vertical double-ended
arrow (if you want to drag vertically), and then
move the note(s).
Copy and paste notes
Hold the Ctrl key down, and drag notes
horizontally and/or vertically, and release the
mouse at the desired location.
Delete notes
Press the Delete key.
To Change Note Properties
1. Right-click a single note to display the Note Properties dialog box.
2. Edit the desired start time, pitch, duration, velocity, or channel.
3. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR updates the note event accordingly. Note that you can also edit
note velocity in the Notes pane and the Event Inspector toolbar. For
information on changing note velocities in the Drum Grid Editor, see
“Editing Note Velocities” on page 457. For more information, see “Velocity,
Pitch Wheel, and Aftertouch” on page 431.
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To Scrub (Audition) Tracks in the Piano Roll View
1. Click
or press B to select the Scrub tool.
2. Press and hold the left mouse button in the Piano Roll view. SONAR
displays a vertical line and plays any notes that are underneath the line.
3. Drag the line to the left or right, at any desired speed.
Note that the Mute, Solo and Arm buttons do not affect Scrub. If the track is
hidden, however, you do not hear notes in that track.
To Audition Notes
•
To audition multiple notes, select them, make sure that Polyphonic
Note Audition is selected in the Edit MIDI Event Type dropdown menu,
and move the notes with either the Select tool or the Draw tool. You can
also click one of the selected notes with the Draw tool, if you first move
the Draw tool to the center of a selected note so that the Draw tool
cursor becomes a double-ended vertical arrow.
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano
Roll View
Controller events (MIDI continuous controllers, pitch wheel, NRPN’s, and
RPN’s) appear in either the Notes Pane or the Controller pane, depending
on whether you choose to display the Controller pane or not. Each
controller event has an edit handle at the top, which you can drag to edit,
and a tail under the edit handle, which graphically demonstrates the
controller event’s current value. The tail changes colors to show whether
you can edit a particular type of controller, and also turns dark to show that
the controller event is selected. Controller events appear in different colors
so you can differentiate them when you’re displaying multiple controller
events, possibly in multiple tracks.
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387
Note: only the current track and current events appear in a solid color. All
other tracks and events appear in de-saturated colors.
A single controller event
Edit handle (also called
Controller handle)
Controller tail
To show which events belong to which track, and which ones are the
“current” events (the ones you can edit), and which events are selected,
controller events use the following color patterns:
•
Controller tail—uses the same color as the edit handle when the
controller can be edited (in other words, when the controller is selected
in the Edit MIDI Event Type menu). You can automatically enable a
controller type for editing by clicking its edit handle with the Draw tool.
•
Selected—if a controller event is selected, both the edit handle and the
tail darken in shade the way that selected notes do.
Adding Controllers
When you add a new controller type to a track, the controller type is
automatically chosen in the Show/Hide MIDI Events menu, so that you can
see it. For help showing and hiding all the other MIDI data you may have in
your track or tracks, see “Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline
Piano Roll View” on page 395, “Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano
Roll View Only)” on page 378, and “Working with Multiple Tracks in the
Piano Roll View” on page 376.
To Add Controller Data with the Draw Tool
1. Click the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
Value Type from the popup menu.
, and choose New
The MIDI Event Type dialog appears.
2. Choose options from the following fields:
•
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Type—choose the type of controller you want to add (for example,
choose Control if you want to edit volume).
Editing MIDI Events and
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View
•
Value—this field is greyed-out if you choose Wheel or ChanAft in
the Type field. If you choose Control, RPN, or NRPN in the Type
field, choose which Control, RPN, or NRPN you want to add. For
example, to edit volume, choose 7-Volume in this field if you chose
Control in the Type field.
•
Channel—choose a MIDI channel for the controller if you want. If
your track has a MIDI channel listed in the Ch field, all MIDI data in
your track uses the listed MIDI channel.
3. Click OK to close the dialog.
4. Activate the Draw tool in either the Piano Roll view toolbar or the Inline
Piano Roll toolbar (depending on which view you’re working in), and
add your controller values by using one of the following methods:
•
Depress the mouse at the point where you want your controller
messages to start, and drag the Draw tool to draw the kind of curve
you want your controller messages to follow. A tooltip appears
when you depress the mouse, and constantly reports the controller
name, channel, value, and location of the controller value that you
are entering. Release the mouse where you want your curve to
end.
Tip: to draw a straight line, hold the Shift key down while you draw.
•
To add one controller event at a time, click each place that you want
to add a controller value. A tooltip appears when you click, and
reports the controller name, channel, value, and location of the
controller value that you are entering.
The controller events you added appear as vertical lines, each with an edit
handle at the top that you can drag. Each different type of controller event
appears with a different color.
When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse
determines the density of controller events. To insert a larger number of
controller events with relatively small changes in value, move the mouse
slowly. To insert a smaller number of controller events with relatively large
changes in value, drag the mouse quickly.
To Insert a Series of Controllers
1. Choose Insert-Series of Controllers to display the Insert Series of
Controllers dialog box.
2. Choose the controller type from the Insert list.
3. Choose the controller number or type from the Number list.
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389
4. Use the spinners or enter the desired MIDI channel.
5. Enter a starting and ending value in the Begin and End boxes.
6. Enter a starting and ending time in the From and Thru boxes.
7. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts a series of controller events with values that change
smoothly over time from the starting to the ending value indicated in the
dialog box. This command never inserts more than one event on the same
clock tick. If any controllers of the type you have selected already exist in
the time region, SONAR deletes these before inserting the new ones.
Selecting Controllers
To perform many editing procedures on controllers, you first need to select
the controller events you want to edit. A selected controller event turns dark
when it is selected. You can select a single controller event, multiple
controller events of the same type, or all controller events.
To Select Controller Events of the Same Type
1. Click the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
, choose the type of
event you want to select from the popup menu.
2. Activate the Select tool in the Piano Roll toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar (depending on which view you’re working in), and select one or
more controller events by using the following techniques:
•
Drag a rectangle around the edit handles of the controller events
that you want to select.
•
Shift-click or Shift-drag to add other controllers to the selection.
•
Ctrl-click to or Ctrl-drag toggle the selection state of a controller.
•
Click and drag in the Time Ruler.
Editing Controllers
Each controller value appears with a handle at the top of it, which you can
drag vertically with the Select tool or the Draw tool, or horizontally (Select
tool only).
Activate the Select tool or the Draw tool by clicking their respective icons in
either the Piano Roll view toolbar, or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar,
depending on which view you’re working in.
Tip: you can assign the Inline Piano Roll view tools to key bindings.
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To Edit or Delete Controller Events with the Select Tool
1. Select the type of controller events you want to edit by clicking the Edit
MIDI Event Type menu
, and choosing the controller
type from the popup menu.
The controller events you chose change shade to show that you can
edit them.
2. Drag the edit handle of each controller event that you want to edit
vertically and/or horizontally. A tooltip appears when you depress the
mouse, and constantly reports the controller name, channel, value, and
location of the controller value that you are editing. Release the mouse
where you want your controller value to be.
3. To delete controller events, select them, and press the Delete key.
To Edit or Delete Controller Events with the Draw Tool
1. Select the type of controller events you want to edit by clicking the Edit
MIDI Event Type menu, and choosing the controller type from the
popup menu.
Or
1. Click an edit handle on the type of controller events you want to edit.
This automatically chooses the controller in the Edit MIDI Event Type
menu.
The tails of the controller events you choose change to the same color
as their edit handles to show that you can edit them.
2. Edit the controller by using any of the following methods:
•
To edit a single event, drag an edit handle vertically.
•
Redraw a series of controller events by dragging a new curve
through the events.
•
Delete a single controller event by activating the Erase button, and
clicking a controller’s edit handle. You can override the Erase
button (temporarily reverse its current state) by holding down the Alt
key while you click.
The Inline Piano Roll View
The Inline Piano Roll view lets you edit note and continuous controller
events for a single track directly in the Track view. Clicking the PRV Mode
button in a track changes the Clips pane for that track into a single-track
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391
Piano Roll view which displays all the track’s MIDI data, including data from
all track layers. If a track uses a Drum Map, the Inline Piano Roll view for
that track displays the Drum Map’s note names on the track’s MIDI Scale
(see “The MIDI Scale” on page 393 for more information).
In this view, you can:
•
Edit notes and controller events
•
Edit multiple notes or events
•
Display multiple controller types simultaneously
•
Choose which MIDI events you want to display
•
Use separate Snap to Grid settings in the Clips pane mode and Inline
Piano Roll mode
You control the Inline Piano Roll view with controls in the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar, the MIDI Scale, and four buttons found in the Track strip controls of
each track: the PRV Mode button, the Show/Hide MIDI Events button, the
Edit MIDI Event Type button, and the Note Duration button. These three
buttons appear when you enable the PRV Mode button.
The Inline Piano Roll toolbar is part of the Track view toolbar.
See the following two figures:
Track strip in PRV mode
Show/Hide MIDI Events button
PRV Mode button
Note Duration menu
Edit MIDI Event Type
menu
MIDI Scale
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The Inline Piano Roll View
Inline Piano Roll toolbar
Show/Hide Notes
Draw tool
Draw tool
Auto Erase
menu
Show/Hide Velocity Tails (on
drum-mapped tracks)
PRV Select tool
PRV Mode
Erase tool
Show/Hide
Controllers
Fit Content
To draw and edit notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view, see
“Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View” on page 379 and “Adding
and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View” on page 387
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View
Use the following methods to hide or show the Inline Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show an Individual Track’s Inline Piano Roll
View
•
In the Track pane, click the PRV mode button of the track that you want
to display in Inline Piano Roll view mode.
Or
•
Double-click a MIDI clip in the Clips pane, if Inline Piano Roll Mode is
selected in the MIDI Clips field of the Clip View Options dialog. To open
the Clips View Options dialog, right-click in the Clips pane, and select
View Options from the popup menu.
To Hide or Show All Tracks’ Inline Piano Roll Views
•
In the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, click the PRV mode button. The Inline
Piano Roll toolbar is part of the Track view toolbar.
Or
•
Use the Tracks-In-line PRV-PRV Mode command.
The MIDI Scale
MIDI tracks have a control called the MIDI Scale. This control displays a
vertical ruler labeled with MIDI values (in 7bit Values mode) or MIDI notes
(in Notes mode), giving you a visual guide for editing notes and controllers.
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393
The MIDI Scale is also a vertical zoom control. If a track uses a Drum Map,
the MIDI Scale for that track displays the Drum Map’s note names on the
track’s MIDI Scale (in Notes mode).
MIDI Scale in Notes mode
MIDI Scale
To Zoom Vertically with the MIDI Scale
1. Put the MIDI Scale into notes mode by right-clicking the MIDI Scale and
choosing Notes from the popup menu.
2. Hold the mouse over the MIDI Scale so that the cursor changes to a
small vertical keyboard, and drag upward to zoom in. The Inline Piano
Roll view zooms in.
Note: in Notes mode, if the track is zoomed-out too far, there is not
enough room in the MIDI Scale to display the keyboard. To see the
keyboard, you need to zoom in far enough to display the keyboard.
3. To zoom out, drag downward on the keyboard display.
You can also zoom by using the Track view zoom controls.
To Scroll Vertically with the MIDI Scale
•
Right-click the MIDI Scale and drag up or down to scroll.
To Fit a Single Track’s Content into its Inline Piano Roll
View
•
Right-click the MIDI Scale and choose Fit Content from the popup
menu.
Or
•
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Ctrl-double-click the MIDI Scale.
Editing MIDI Events and
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To Audition and Select Notes
•
To audition and select a note, Shift-click the note’s pitch in the MIDI
Scale.
•
To audition and select all notes within a certain range, Shift-drag
through the notes’ range of pitches in the MIDI Scale.
To Fit All Tracks’ Contents into their Inline Piano Roll
Views
1. If you only want to use this command on certain tracks, select the tracks
first. If no MIDI tracks are selected, or if all MIDI tracks are selected, the
command works on all MIDI tracks.
2. Do one of the following:
Use the Tracks-In-line PRV-Fit Content command.
Or
Click the Fit Content button on the Inline Piano Roll toolbar. The Inline
Piano Roll toolbar is part of the Track view toolbar.
To Change the MIDI Scale’s Display Mode
•
Right-click the MIDI Scale to display the popup menu, and choose
either 7bit Values (this displays MIDI values), or Notes (this displays
the keyboard).
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano
Roll View
Every MIDI track in the Track pane displays a Show/Hide MIDI Events
button when the track is in Inline Piano Roll mode. These buttons work
independently in each track, and are also independent from the Show/Hide
MIDI Events button in the Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show Data in Individual Tracks
1. Click the dropdown arrow on the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
to display the menu of MIDI data in the track.
2. Choose from the following menu options:
•
To hide or show notes, click Show Notes.
•
To hide or show a controller, click the name of the controller (for
example, click CC: 1-Modulation (Chan: 2)).
•
To show all controllers in the current track, click Display All
Continuous Events, or use step 4 below.
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395
•
To show or hide all the outlines of any clips in the track, click Show
Clip Outlines.
3. After you choose an option, the menu closes. You can repeat steps 1
and 2 to choose more options.
4. To hide or show all controllers, click the left side of the Show/Hide
MIDI Events button. The button turns white when all controllers are
hidden, and blue when all controllers are showing.
To Hide or Show Notes in All Tracks
•
Click the Show/Hide Notes button in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
or
•
Use the Tracks-Show/Hide Notes command.
Both of these commands override the Show/Hide MIDI Events buttons in
individual tracks.
To Hide or Show Controllers in All Tracks
•
Click the Show/Hide Continuous button in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
or
•
Use the Tracks-In-line PRV-Show/Hide Continuous Events
command.
Both of these commands override the Show/Hide MIDI Events buttons in
individual tracks.
Drawing and editing notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view is the
same in the Piano Roll view, with a few minor exceptions (noted in the
appropriate topics). To draw and edit notes and controllers in the Inline
Piano Roll view, see “Selecting Notes” on page 380, “Editing Notes with the
Draw Tool and the Select Tool” on page 382, “Selecting Notes” on page
380, “Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool” on page 382,
“Adding Controllers” on page 388, “Selecting Controllers” on page 390, and
“Editing Controllers” on page 390.
Selecting and Editing Events
SONAR has many editing commands that you can use to modify the events
that make up your project. Here are some of the things you can do:
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•
Transpose events, clips, tracks, or an entire project to a different key
•
Shift events to an earlier or later time
•
Stretch or shrink material to a different length
Editing MIDI Events and
Selecting and Editing Events
•
Reverse the notes in a clip to create new arrangements
•
Modify the note velocities
The following sections describe these editing commands and how to use
them. SONAR also has some special commands you can use to modify or
clean up a performance or to search for or select events that meet certain
criteria. For more information, see the following sections of this chapter.
Copying and Pasting MIDI Data
You can copy and paste both notes and controller data in SONAR.
To Copy and Paste MIDI Data with the Copy/Paste
Commands
1. Select the data you want to copy.
2. Use the Edit-Copy command, or press Ctrl+C.
3. Use the Edit-Paste command, or press Ctrl+V.
The Paste dialog appears.
4. Fill in options, and click OK. Click the Help button in the dialog for an
explanation of each option.
SONAR pastes the copied data to the desired location.
Transposing
The Process-Transpose command transposes the pitches of selected
note events up or down by a fixed number of steps. It does so by changing
the MIDI key numbers of note events. Simply enter the number of halfsteps—a negative number to transpose down, a positive number to
transpose up.
SONAR can also perform diatonic transposition, which shifts all the notes
up and down the major scale of the current signature by the designated
number of steps. For instance, if you specify an amount of +1 and the key
signature is C-major, a C becomes a D (up a whole step), an E becomes an
F (up a half step), and so on. Diatonic transposition assures you that the
transposed notes fit with the original key signature.
As an option, you can choose to transpose selected audio clips along with
any selected MIDI clips. SONAR uses pitch-shifting (a plug in for changing
audio pitch) to perform the transposition. You can transpose audio only a
single octave in either direction (-12 to +12), and you cannot transpose
audio when you are using diatonic transposition.
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To Transpose Selected Events
1. Select the tracks, clips, or events you want to transpose.
2. Choose Process-Transpose to display the Transpose dialog box.
3. Use the spinners or enter the number of semi-tones to transpose.
Or
Use the + and - keys on your keypad to go up or down by one or [ and ]
to go up or down by octaves.
4. Check Diatonic Math if you want to transpose along the major scale of
the current key.
5. Choose Transpose Audio if you want to pitch-shift selected audio
clips. If you check this checkbox. SONAR transposes any selected audio data
up or down, but only by halfsteps, not diatonically. When this checkbox is
enabled, the following two options become available:
•
Type—choose the type of audio data you're transposing. Choose
options based on the source material: single voice or instrument
versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic), and how
long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take
a long time if you're processing several tracks.
•
Formant scaling—possible values range from -2.000 to 2.000
octaves. Formants give a voice its characteristic sound. You can
use the Formant Scaling value to offset the pitch transposition
you're applying. For example, if you're transposing the pitch down,
you can raise the formant to try and maintain the characteristics of
the sound.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR transposes the selected events.
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Shifting Events in Time
The Track view lets you move entire clips forward or backward in time by
using drag and drop editing or by changing the start time of selected clips.
The Process-Slide command is slightly more flexible—you can use it to
shift individual events and markers (or selected events and markers) either
forward or backward in time. This has an effect that is similar to the Time+
parameter in the Track view. However, the Process-Slide command
modifies the time stored with each event, while the Time+ parameter simply
applies a temporary change during playback.
You can also use the Process-Slide command to move markers located
within the selection. If you have selected any locked markers, SONAR will
ask whether they should slide, too.
To Shift Events in Time
1. Select the events and/or markers you want to shift.
2. Choose Process-Slide to display the Slide dialog box.
3. Check the types of event you want to slide (events and/or
markers).
4. Enter the number of measures, ticks, seconds, frames or samples to
slide. Enter a negative number to shift material earlier. Note that you
cannot slide any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if the current
selection starts at 2:01:000, you cannot slide events earlier by more
than one measure.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR shifts the selected events and/or markers. You can also use the
Process-Nudge command to move events. See “Nudge” on page 273 for
more information.
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project
The Insert-Time/Measures command lets you insert any number of blank
measures, ticks, seconds, or frames into a project. You can insert the blank
measures (or other period of time) into all tracks or into one or more
selected tracks. If you insert the blank time into the entire project, all events
in each track—markers, meter and key settings, and tempo changes—are
shifted automatically by default. If you insert the blank time into one or more
selected tracks, only the events in those tracks are shifted by default. You
can always choose which types of events should be shifted.
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399
To Insert a Single Blank Measure into a Project
1. Press Ctrl+Shift+A or select Edit-Select-None to make sure that no
track or time range is selected.
2. Set the Now time to the place where you want to insert the measure.
3. Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures
dialog box.
4. Verify that the settings are correct and click OK.
SONAR inserts a blank measure at the Now time.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into a Project
1. Select Edit-Select-None to make sure that no track or time range is
selected.
2. Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time
Ruler.
3. Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures
dialog box.
4. If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5. If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number
and choosing the units you want from the list.
6. Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from
the Slide list.
7. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into Selected Tracks
1. Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time
Ruler.
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Selecting and Editing Events
2. Select one or more tracks by Ctrl-clicking on the track numbers.
3. Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures
dialog box.
4. If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5. If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number
and choosing the units you want from the list.
6. Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from
the Slide list.
7. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
Deleting Measures or Time from One or More Tracks
There are two methods for deleting time or measures:
•
If there is any audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete, you can
use the Edit-Delete command to delete the area that you select.
Portions of MIDI clips may have no data in them: they have boundaries
but no dark lines inside—if that’s the case, use the following method.
•
If there is no data in the area you want to delete, you can simply drag
any clips that come after the empty area to their proper destinations.
You can also use this method if there is data in the area you want to
delete—you just have to choose whether you want to replace the data
in the deleted area, blend it with the data you’re moving, or slide it over
to make room.
To delete time when there is audio or MIDI data in the area you want to
delete:
1. In the Track view, select the track(s) you want to delete measures or
time from by doing one of the following:
•
Select a single track by clicking the track number.
•
Select multiple tracks by Ctrl-clicking the track numbers.
2. Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For
example, if you want to delete whole measures, set the Snap to Grid
value to a whole measure.
3. In the Clips pane, select the measures or time you want to delete by
dragging in the Time Ruler located just above the first track.
4. Select Edit-Delete.
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The Delete dialog box appears.
5. Click the following checkboxes:
•
Events in Tracks
•
Delete Hole—if you want the data that comes after the hole to
retain its same placement in a measure, check the Shift by Whole
Measures option.
6. Click any of the other options you want to delete.
7. Click OK.
SONAR deletes the time or measures you selected.
To delete time when there is no audio or MIDI data in the area you want to
delete (or if there is data, but you like to drag and drop):
1. Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For
example, if you want to delete whole measures, set the Snap to Grid
value to a whole measure.
2. In the Track view, select the clips you want to move.
3. Drag one of the selected clips to its proper destination—the Drag and
Drop Options dialog box appears.
4. Choose options and click OK.
All the selected clips move by the amount that you dragged the mouse.
Stretching and Shrinking Events
The Process-Length and Process-Fit to Time commands can be used to
stretch or shrink a portion of a project. Process-Length lets you stretch or
shrink the selection by a fixed percentage and makes the adjustment by
altering the individual events. A value of 200 percent, for example,
stretches the selection to twice its original length, while a value of 50
percent shrinks the selection to half its original length.
Process-Fit to Time stretches or shrinks the selection so that it ends at a
specific time, expressed in either measure:beat:tick (MBT) or
hours:minutes:seconds:frames (SMPTE) format. This command gives you
a choice of modifying the events or modifying the underlying tempo. This is
useful when you want a portion of a project to have an exact length. The
start time of the selection does not change, but the end time is altered as
necessary to fit the required time interval.
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Both of these commands offer the option to stretch audio clips along with
the MIDI information. Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your
audio.
Here are some examples:
•
If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might
want to change the tempo of the background music without altering the
voice-over
•
If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a
sampled drum groove, you want to leave the audio unchanged
•
If your audio consists solely of sound effects, you most likely do not
want to adjust them
Audio can be stretched or condensed up to a factor of 4 (e.g., it can be
shrunk to as little as 25 percent of its original length, or expanded to as
much as 400 percent of its original length).
You can also use the Process-Length command to alter only the start
times or the durations of notes. For example, changing the durations of
notes to 50 percent of their original length can create a staccato effect.
To Stretch or Shrink Using Percentages
1. Select the events you want to change.
2. Choose Process-Length to display the Length dialog box.
3. Choose to change the Start Times and/or Durations of selected notes
by checking the boxes.
4. If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box.
When this checkbox is enabled, the following two options become available:
•
Type—choose the type of audio data you're stretching. Choose
options based on the source material: single voice or instrument
versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic), and how
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long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take
a long time if you're processing several tracks.
•
Formant scaling—possible values range from -2.000 to 2.000
octaves. Formants give a voice its characteristic sound. If you find
that changing the length of your audio changes the timbre too
much, you can raise or lower the formant to try and maintain the
characteristics of the sound
5. Use the spinners or type in the desired percent change in length.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events.
To Stretch or Shrink to a Specific Length
1. Select the events you want to change.
2. Choose Process-Fit to Time to display the Fit to Time dialog box.
3. Enter the desired end time in the New Thru box. Click Format to switch
between MBT and SMPTE format.
4. Choose one of the following:
•
Tempo Map–Choose this option if you want the tempo to change
but not the duration of notes and events. For example, if your clip
contains quarter notes, and you want those notes to stay quarter
notes even though the elapsed time of the clip changes, choose
Tempo Map. SONAR alters the tempo but not the events in the
track.
•
Event Times–Choose this option if you want the tempo(s) to remain
unchanged while note durations and event start times change.
Important note: This option is unavailable if your selected data includes
any Groove clips.
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5. If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box.
The following options become available:
•
Type (disabled unless Stretch Audio is checked)—choose options
based on the source material: single voice or instrument versus a
group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic), and how long you
want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a long
time if you're processing several tracks.
•
Formant Scaling (disabled unless Stretch Audio is checked)—the
possible values range from -2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give
a voice its characteristic sound. If you find that changing the length
of your audio changes the timbre too much, you can raise or lower
the formant to try and maintain the characteristics of the sound
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events or changes the tempo map,
as you requested.
Reversing Notes in a Clip
The Process-Retrograde command reverses the order of events in a
selection. If one or more clips are selected, then the events within each clip
are reversed. If several clips are selected from the same track, then the
order of the clips is also reversed. You could use this command, for
example, to take a scale or other long run of notes and reverse the order in
which they are played. The Process-Retrograde command does not
reverse the contents of audio clips. It only changes their start times. You can
use the Process-Audio-Reverse command to reverse audio clips.
To Reverse the Sequence of Notes or Other Events
1. Select the notes you want to reverse.
2. Choose Process-Retrograde.
SONAR reverses the order of the selected events.
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos
The Process-Scale Velocity command lets you create crescendos and
decrescendos on those instruments that respond to MIDI velocity. Most
such instruments map changes in velocity to changes in note loudness.
Many synthesizer patches alter the timbre of the sound as well, so that
higher velocities produce brighter, as well as louder, sounds. Changes in
velocity also affect the playback of audio clips.
This command lets you set a starting and ending velocity for the entire time
range of the selection. SONAR scales the velocity of each event to create a
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smooth linear change in velocity. As an option, you can enter a starting and
ending percentage; existing velocity values are modified by the designated
percentage.
You can also edit note velocities in the Notes pane of the Piano Roll view,
which lets you draw shapes other than straight line changes. For more
information, see “Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View” on page
379.
To Scale Velocities
1. Select the events whose velocity data you want to change.
2. Choose Process-Scale Velocity to display the Scale Velocity dialog
box.
3. Enter the starting and ending velocity values.
4. Check the Percentages box if the values are percentages.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR alters the velocity of selected events.
Changing the Timing of a Recording
When you record a performance, there may be problems you’d like to
correct. For example, the note timing may not have been as accurate as
you would like. Or, you may have recorded without using a metronome and
strayed from the tempo in one direction or another.
SONAR has two types of commands that you can use to modify the timing
of a clip. The Quantize commands alter the timing of the notes in your
recording so that they fit a time grid.
The grid can have fixed time intervals or intervals that are based on some
existing note pattern. The Fit to Improvisation command, on the other
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hand, sets up a series of tempos that fit the material you have recorded.
Here’s a summary of when to use each type of command:
Use this
command...
To do this...
Quantize
Change the timing of the notes you’ve recorded to fit with the
tempo of a project
Fit to
Improvisation
Change the tempos of a project to fit with the performance
you’ve recorded
These two types of commands are discussed in the following sections.
Quantizing
Quantizing is one of the most important editing functions in SONAR. You
use this feature to correct timing errors you make when recording from a
MIDI instrument or to adjust the timing of audio clips.
Very few musicians are capable of performing in perfect time. As you play,
you are likely to strike some notes slightly before or after the beat or to hold
some notes slightly longer than you intended. The Quantize commands
can help to correct these types of timing mistakes.
SONAR has two different quantize commands:
Command...
How it works...
Process-Quantize
Adjusts the start time and duration of selected
notes so that they line up with a fixed size grid
Process-Groove
Quantize
Lays a grid over an existing piece of music (the
groove pattern), and then adjusts the start time,
duration, and velocity of selected notes so that
they line up with the grid
These commands have quite a few settings, making them very flexible and
powerful. In addition, both of these commands lets you create, save, and reuse presets. This means that once you find the settings you like, you can
save them and then apply them to other projects in a consistent way.
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Resolution
The resolution indicates the spacing of the grid. You can use any value
from a whole note down to a thirty-second note triplet. You can also specify
resolution in clock ticks. A rule of thumb is to select a resolution that
matches the smallest note in the region you are quantizing. If you are
quantizing a run of sixteenth notes, use a sixteenth note as the resolution. If
you are quantizing a mix of sixteenth and eighth notes, you should still use
a sixteenth note. At the default timebase of 480 PPQ, 480 clock ticks is
equal to quarter-note resolution.
When you use Groove Quantize, SONAR creates a grid at the desired
resolution on top of the notes in the groove. For example, if the groove
contains only quarter notes but you choose sixteenth-note resolution,
SONAR builds the grid by dividing the space between each quarter note
into four equal sections. In places where the groove file contains no notes,
SONAR builds a fixed grid of the desired resolution.
Offset
Normally, the resolution grid is aligned evenly with the start of measures
and beats. As an option, you can shift the grid earlier or later by any desired
number of clock ticks. If the resolution is a quarter note and you’ve set the
offset to +3 ticks, then a note that is originally near 1:01:000 would be
moved to 1:01:003—three ticks beyond the beat boundary.
Duration
As an option, SONAR can adjust the duration of note events so that each
note ends one clock tick before the start of the nearest resolution-sized
note. This ensures that the notes do not overlap, which can cause problems
on some synthesizers. The adjustment may lengthen the duration of some
notes and shorten the duration of others.
When you use Groove Quantize, the duration adjustment compares the
note length to the duration of the sample note in the groove. If no duration
information is available, SONAR uses the distance to the start of the groove
event closest to the end of the note.
Velocity
The velocity adjustment, which is only available with the Groove Quantize
command, adjusts the note velocity to the velocity of the corresponding
notes in the groove.
Strength
The human ear is tuned to the slight “imperfections” we hear from most
musicians. If you quantize a project so that all notes are perfectly in
position, it may end up sounding mechanical or rigid. To avoid this, SONAR
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lets you adjust the strength of the adjustment. A strength of 100 percent
indicates that all notes are moved so that they are in perfect time, while a
strength of 50 percent means that all notes are moved half-way towards the
desired position. This lets you “tighten up” the timing as much as you want,
without going too far.
The Groove Quantize command also lets you control the strength of
duration and velocity adjustments. As you work with this command, you will
notice that the note start time has a greater effect than the duration on the
rhythmic feel of the track. For this reason, changing the starting times (time
strength close to 100 percent) has a more noticeable effect than changing
durations (duration strength close to 100 percent). However, there are
situations in which you might want to change both to avoid ending up with
notes that overlap or with unwanted rests.
Swing
Many projects do not have notes positioned on a perfectly even time grid.
For example, projects with a swing feel, though they may be written entirely
in eighth notes, are often played more like eighth-note triplets, with the first
note extended and the second one shortened. The swing option lets you
distort the timing grid so each pair of notes is spaced unevenly, giving the
quantized material a swing feel.
A swing value of 50 percent (the default) means that the grid points are
spaced evenly. A value of 66 percent means that the time between the first
and second grid points is twice as long as the time between the second and
third points. The figure below illustrates the effect of the swing setting on the
timing grid:
Swing = 50%
Swing = 66%
Swing = 33%
Window
When you quantize some portion of a project, you might not want to adjust
notes that are very far from the grid. The window, or sensitivity, setting lets
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you choose how close to the resolution grid a note must be located for
quantize to move it.
A window of 100 percent includes all notes and guarantees that all notes
will be shifted to lie exactly on the grid. The window extends half the
resolution distance before and after the quantization point. A window of 50
percent extends only a quarter of the way toward the adjacent quantization
points.
When you use Groove Quantize, you can also perform adjustments on
out-of-window events. There are four options:
Option...
How it works...
Do Not Change
Notes outside the window are not changed.
Quantize to Resolution
Notes outside the window are snapped to a
regular grid of the specified resolution.
Move to Nearest
The window or sensitivity setting is ignored—all
notes are moved toward the nearest reference
event, regardless of how far off the grid they are
located.
Scale Time
SONAR finds the two closest events before and
after the event in question that are within the
window sensitivity and adjusts any bracketed outof-window events so that their relative timing is
the same. This option can uniformly speed up,
slow down, or shift out-of-window events.
Other Settings
If you want, you can restrict the types of events that are affected by the
Quantize commands to only notes, lyrics, and audio clips. If you choose
this option, SONAR will not modify other events, like controllers.
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To Use the Quantize Command
1. Select the material you want to quantize using any of the selection tools
and commands.
2. Choose Process-Quantize to display the Quantize dialog box.
3. Choose one of your own presets from the list, or enter the settings you
want according to the table:
Setting…
What to do…
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the
number of clock ticks
Change
Check the event types and
characteristics you want to change
Options
Enter values for Strength, Swing,
Window, and Offset
4. Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press
Stop to stop auditioning the change.
5. Make adjustments as necessary.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can
use Undo to restore the material to its original state.
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To Use the Groove Quantize Command
1. Select the track or clip you want to quantize, using any of the selection
tools and commands.
2. Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize
dialog box.
3. Choose a groove file from the Groove File field.
4. Choose a groove pattern from the Groove Pattern field.
5. Use the following fields to configure your pattern:
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Setting…
What to do…
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the
number of clock ticks
Window Sensitivity
Enter the window sensitivity value
(percentage)
If Outside Window
Choose what should happen to
events outside the window
Only Notes, Lyrics and
Audio
Check to prevent MIDI controller,
aftertouch, and xRPN data from
being adjusted
Stretch Audio
Check to stretch audio clips to
adjust their duration
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Strength
Use the sliders or enter values for
Note strength, Duration strength,
and Velocity strength
6. Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press
Stop to stop auditioning the change.
7. Make adjustments as necessary.
8. Optionally, type a name in the preset field (located at the top of the
dialog box) and click the Save button to save your settings.
9. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can
use Undo to restore the material to its original state. If you saved your
settings, you can apply them to any pattern you want by selecting the
pattern and choosing a preset from the preset field. To delete a group of
settings, select the group from the preset field and click the Delete button.
Defining a Groove
To use the groove quantize feature, you must create or choose a small
snippet of music—the groove pattern—for SONAR to use as the timing and
accent reference. You can use either of the following:
•
A track, clip, or portion of a clip stored on the Windows clipboard
•
A groove stored in a SONAR groove file
Any MIDI data that you place onto the Windows clipboard can be used as a
groove pattern. With a carefully defined groove pattern, you can give an old
project an entirely new feel. If you like the groove pattern you have created,
you can save it to a groove file.
Groove files can store one or more groove patterns. SONAR supports two
types of groove files:
•
DNA™ grooves, which contain only timing information but are
compatible with some other MIDI sequencer software products
•
SONAR’s native groove format, which stores timing, duration, and
velocity information and can handle longer patterns and longer gaps
between quantization points
You can add groove patterns to these files from the Windows clipboard, edit
existing patterns, or delete patterns you do not want to keep. There is no
limit to the number of groove patterns that can be stored in a single file. You
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can organize your grooves into several files or keep them all together in a
single file. Groove files have an extension of .GRV.
A groove pattern can be as short or long as you like. If the groove pattern is
shorter than the material to be quantized, the pattern will be repeated as
many times as necessary.
To Define a New Groove
1. Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools
and commands.
2. Choose Edit-Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
You can now use the Groove Quantize command with the clipboard as the
“Groove File.”
To Save a Groove Pattern
1. Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools
and commands.
2. Choose Edit-Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
3. Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize
dialog box.
4. Choose the Clipboard as the groove “Groove File.”
5. Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
6. Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
7. Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
8. Click OK.
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9. If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing
version.
10. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog
box.
SONAR stores the groove in the file and chooses the new groove as the
current groove source.
To Copy an Existing Groove
1. Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize
dialog box.
2. Choose the groove file and groove pattern you want to copy.
3. Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
4. Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
5. Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
6. Click OK.
7. If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing
version.
8. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog
box.
SONAR stores the groove on the Windows clipboard and chooses the new
groove as the current groove source.
To Delete a Groove
1. Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize
dialog box.
2. Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
3. Select the file containing the groove to delete.
4. Select the pattern name of the groove.
5. Click the Delete button, and confirm that you want to delete the groove
pattern.
6. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for each groove you wish to delete.
7. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog
box.
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Groove Quantize Tips
Here are some tips to help you with groove quantizing:
Aligning sloppy tracks with a good one. Select the portion of the “good”
track that you want to apply to the “sloppy” tracks and copy it to the
Clipboard. Select the portion of the sloppy tracks you want to modify.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize, choose the Clipboard as the groove
source, and click OK.
Accenting beats in each measure. Create a sample measure containing
note events at the desired accent points. Give the notes on the accented
beats a greater velocity and the others a lesser velocity. Select the
measure, copy it to the Clipboard, and then choose Process-Groove
Quantize. Set the velocity strength as high as necessary so that the notes
get accented the way you want.
Stealing that feeling. Suppose you have a dry piece that was composed
and entered into SONAR with a rigid sense of timing (for example, using
step recording). You’ve recorded a bass line that has exactly the off-beat
rhythmic dynamic you want for the dry piece. You’d like to force your other
tracks to share that feel. Copy the bass track to the Clipboard; from the
Groove Quantize dialog box, select the Clipboard as the groove source;
choose a resolution value roughly on the order of the duration of the bass
notes and a window of 100 percent. SONAR aligns the melody note events
with the nearest bass notes.
Synchronizing rhythm and solo tracks. If you want to preserve the
unique rhythm of each track but want to synchronize them together in time,
try a larger resolution value and a smaller window. For example, suppose
you have one track with a highly stylized drum beat and another track
containing a jazz solo with some very nice runs in it. The drum beats fall
primarily on quarter notes, but the solo consists of runs of fast notes that
aren’t quite sixteenth triplets. Copy the drum track to the Clipboard, and
groove quantize using a quarter-note resolution and a window of perhaps
10 percent. SONAR aligns the solo notes near the quarter-note drum beats
but maintains the feel of the solo during the fast runs of notes in between.
Correcting off-tempo tracks. Suppose you have both rhythm and melody
tracks recorded, but the melody was played erratically. First, copy the
rhythm track to the Windows clipboard. Then use groove quantize with a
whole-note resolution, a window of 25 percent or less, and with the Scale
Time option selected. The Groove Quantize command will synchronize the
melody track with the groove source at roughly measure boundaries, while
maintaining the relative timing of the notes in each measure.
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Fixing a bad verse. Copy a good verse to the Clipboard. Then change the
selected range to cover only the bad verse. Perform a groove quantize
using the Clipboard contents as the groove source. The rhythms of the two
verses then match.
Fit Improvisation
SONAR lets you record music from a MIDI controller without requiring that
you use a fixed tempo. In fact, if you record without using a metronome, you
are very likely to end up with a recording that does not fit onto a fixed tempo
grid.
The Process-Fit Improvisation command lets you take a recording and
create a tempo map (with measure and beat boundaries) that fits what you
played. Your performance is not changed in any way, even though the note
start times and durations are adjusted to fit the new tempo map. This is
important if you later want to use any of SONAR’s editing features that
depend on a proper tempo map for best results.
To use this command, you must record a reference track containing a single
clip that matches your original track or tracks but has only a single note on
each beat boundary. You should make sure that the reference track has one
event for every single beat, with no extra beats or missing beats. The first
beat of the reference track should be at 1:01:000. You can use any editing
command to adjust the reference track.
If you want, you can use other types of events as markers on the reference
track, such as a sustain pedal. Remember, however, that MIDI sustain
pedals generate one event when the pedal is pressed and another when it
is released. So if you want to use the sustain pedal for the reference track,
keep this in mind. Click down, up, down, up, for one, two, three, four.
Remember that the better the quality of your reference track, the better job
the Fit Improvisation command can do. You want each of your reference
track events to be as close as possible to the beat of the music. Note that
some keyboards transmit aftertouch events when you record your reference
track. These extra events will prevent Process-Fit Improvisation from
working properly. Therefore, you should delete these events before using
this command, or filter them out when recording the reference track (using
Options-Global-MIDI).
To Fit Tempos to an Improvisation
1. Record the reference track.
2. Select the reference track.
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3. If necessary, combine all clips in the reference track into a single clip
using the Edit-Bounce to Clip(s) command.
4. Choose Process-Fit Improvisation.
SONAR adds tempo changes as necessary to fit the tempo grid to the
reference track. When you’re done, you should mute the reference track,
since the reference track events are not rescaled.
Note:
If the resulting tempo grid exceeds 250 beats per minute, you will
see an error message. If this happens, you can shorten the start
times of each event using the Edit-Length command, decrease
the tempo to compensate for the change, and then try again.
Snap to Scale
When Snap to Scale is enabled, any notes that you draw in the Piano Roll
view (or Inline Piano Roll view) stay within the selected scale. Also, any
notes that you move with the Select tool stay within the selected scale.
When Snap to Scale is enabled, both Piano Roll views display grey rows at
the pitch levels that are not in the selected scale. Also, both the Select tool
and the Draw tool display a tuning fork icon when you create or modify
notes to show that Snap to Scale is enabled.
You can create custom scales, modify existing ones, and choose how
SONAR handles non-scale notes.
To Enable or Disable Snap to Scale for a Single Track
•
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In the Track view, in the track that you want to affect, click the Scale
Snap button.
Editing MIDI Events and
Snap to Scale
Scale menu
Scale Snap button
Root Note menu
Or
•
In the Piano Roll view, in the Track List pane, right-click the track that
you want to affect, and choose Enable Snap to Scale from the popup
menu.
To Momentarily Bypass the Snap to Scale Feature
•
Hold down both mouse buttons while you edit.
To Enable or Disable Snap to Scale for Multiple Tracks
1. Select the tracks in which you want to enable or disable Snap to Scale.
2. Use the Tracks-Snap to Scale-Enable/Disable Snap to Scale
command.
To Choose a Root Note for a Single Track
•
Do either of the following:
•
In the Track view, click the dropdown arrow in a track’s Root Note
menu, and choose a root note from the menu that appears.
•
In the Piano Roll view, right-click a track’s name in the Track List
pane, and choose Root Note-(name of root note) from the popup
menu.
To Choose a Scale for a Single Track
•
Do either or the following:
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•
In the Track view, click the dropdown arrow in the track’s Scale
menu, and choose a scale from the menu that appears. The scale
options in the menu contain both factory-supplied scales and ones
that you create and/or edit.
•
In the Piano Roll view, right-click a track’s name in the Track List
pane, and choose Scales-(kind of scale)-(name of scale) from
the popup menu.
To Choose a Root Note and/or a Scale for Multiple
Tracks
1. Select the tracks for which you want to choose root notes and/or
scales.
2. To select a root note for the selected tracks, use the Tracks-Snap to
Scale-Root Note command, and select the desired root note from the
submenu.
3. To select a scale for the selected tracks, use the Tracks-Snap to
Scale-Scales command, and select the desired scale from the
submenu.
To Create a Scale
1. Open the Scale Manager dialog by clicking the dropdown arrow in the
Scale menu, and choosing Scale Manager from the menu that appears
(you can also use the Tracks-Snap to Scale-Scales-Scale Manager
command, or the right-click menu in the Piano Roll view’s Track List
pane).
2. In the Scale Family field, click the scale family that you want your scale
to appear under when your scale appears in the Scale menu.
3. Click the Create New Scale button
.
The Scale Manager displays a default name (New Scale “n”) for the
new scale, and automatically selects C as the root note of the scale.
Note: all scales in the Scale Manager dialog use C as the root note.
4. Edit the name of the new scale by clicking the default name (New Scale
“n”) where it appears at the very top of the Scale: field, and then typing
a new name for the scale.
5. Include or exclude individual notes for the scale by clicking either the
keys in the keyboard display, or by clicking the scale degree buttons
under the Scale Degrees field. Included notes appear as blue dots in
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Editing MIDI Events and
Snap to Scale
the keyboard display, as depressed scale degree buttons, and as scale
degrees in the Scale Degrees field.
Keyboard display
Scale degree buttons
6. When you’re through choosing scale degrees, click the Close button to
save your changes. If you want to delete your scale, just highlight it in
the Scale: field, and click the Delete button
.
To Edit or Delete a Scale
1. Open the Scale Manager dialog (click the dropdown arrow in the Scale
menu, and choose Scale Manager from the menu, or use the Track
menu command, or the right-click menu in the Track List pane of the
Piano Roll view).
2. In the Scale Family field, click the scale family that the desired scale is
filed under.
3. Select the desired scale by clicking the scale’s name in the Scale: field.
If you want to delete the scale, click the Delete button
.
4. Include or exclude individual notes for the scale by clicking either the
keys in the keyboard display, or by clicking the scale degree buttons
under the Scale Degrees field. Included notes appear as blue dots in
the keyboard display, as depressed scale degree buttons, and as scale
degrees in the Scale Degrees field.
Editing MIDI Events and
Snap to Scale
421
Keyboard display
Scale degree buttons
5. When you’re through choosing scale degrees, click the Close button to
save your changes.
To Restore a Scale or Scales to Factory Settings
1. Open the Scale Manager dialog.
2. If you want to restore a particular scale to factory settings, select it in
the Scale: field, click the Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults
dialog, select Restore Current Scale (if factory), and click OK.
3. If you have deleted a factory-supplied scale and want to replace it with
the original version, click the Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults
dialog, select Restore Any Missing Scales, and click OK.
4. If you want to restore all factory-supplied scales to factory settings, click
the Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore All
Factory Scales, and click OK.
To Choose How SONAR Handles Non-scale Notes
1. Open the Snap Settings dialog by clicking the dropdown arrow in the
Scale menu, and choosing Snap Settings from the menu that appears.
You can also use the Tracks-Snap to Scale-Scales-Snap Settings
command, or the right-click menu in the Track List pane of the Piano
Roll view.
2. Choose one of the following options:
422
•
Adjust to Next, Higher Note—if you choose this option, SONAR
moves any non-scale note that you move to the next higher note in
the selected scale.
•
Adjust to Previous, Lower Note—if you choose this option, SONAR
moves any non-scale note that you move to the previous, lower
note in the selected scale.
Editing MIDI Events and
Snap to Scale
•
Adjust to Nearest Note—if you choose this option, SONAR moves
any non-scale note that you move to the note that is closest in pitch
in the selected scale.
Searching for Events
The events in a project have many different parameters. For example, all
MIDI notes have a channel, starting time, pitch, velocity, and duration.
Controllers have a controller number and value. SONAR makes it simple to
find, select, and modify events that have certain values for specific
attributes.
Here are some of the things you can do and the commands that you would
use to do them:
Action...
Command...
Search through a project to find the first event that
has specific attributes, and then search again to find
the next such event
Go-Search, Go-Search
Next
Select all the events in a project that have the
specified attributes
Edit-Select-By Filter
Modify an existing selection to keep only those
events that have the specified attributes
Edit-Select-By Filter
Replace all events that meet specified attributes with
modified versions of the events
Edit-Interpolate
These capabilities can help you find problem spots or errors in a project or
make systematic changes to events that have particular attributes. All of
these capabilities rely on the use of an event filter, which lets you choose
the types of events you want to work with and the range of values in which
you are interested.
Event Filters
When you select individual clips, or select portions of clips by dragging the
Time Ruler, you automatically select all the events that fall within the
designated time range. Sometimes you need finer control over which
events are selected. For example, you might want to:
•
Select the notes that are played in a certain octave, so you can copy
them to another track
Editing MIDI Events and
Searching for Events
423
•
Select and boost the velocity of notes that have a velocity below a
certain threshold
•
Find the first patch change event on a particular track
•
Select and change the duration of all notes that occur on the third beat
of any measure
The Event Filter dialog box looks like this:
Check to include this type of event
Enter the range of values for the events you want
Different types of events have different parameters, as shown in the table:
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This event type...
Has these parameters...
Note
Pitch, velocity, and duration
Key Aftertouch
Pitch and pressure value
Controller
Controller number and value
RPN/NRPN
RPN/NRPN number and value
Editing MIDI Events and
Searching for Events
This event type...
Has these parameters...
Patch Change
Bank and patch numbers
Channel Aftertouch
Pressure value
Pitch Wheel
Value
The event filter only accepts events that meet all the specified ranges. This
means that a note event must fall within the pitch range, the velocity range,
and the duration range in order to be included. The event filter can also be
used to accept events that occur in a range of channel numbers, beats, and
clock ticks.
You can choose either to include or exclude the events that meet the
specified criteria. To exclude events within the designated range and select
the ones outside the designated range, check the exc checkbox for that
value range.
The event filter can also be used to identify several special event types:
audio, System Exclusive events, Lyrics, MCI commands, envelope shades,
and a few others. You do not enter a range of values for these special
events; SONAR finds all events of the types you choose.
The All and None buttons help you set up the event filter the way you want:
Click this button...
To do this...
All
Set the event filter to include all events. You can
then modify the value ranges to narrow down
your search or uncheck the types of events you
want to exclude.
None
Set the event filter to not include any events.
Starting from a blank slate, you can check off the
types of events you want to find or select and
enter the desired ranges of values.
In any place in the event filter where you would normally enter a pitch string,
you can also enter the pitch by pressing a key on your MIDI keyboard. Also,
you can use the question mark in place of the octave number as a wild card.
This lets the event filter accept a single note, regardless of the octave. For
example, the pitch string C? will match a C in any octave.
Editing MIDI Events and
Searching for Events
425
Searching for an Event
The Go-Search command is used to find the next event (searching forward
from the Now time) that meets the criteria you lay out in an event filter.
Once you have found the first such event, you can find the next event that
meets the criteria using the Go-Search Again command (or by pressing
F3).
To Search for an Event
1. Choose Go-Search to display the Event Filter dialog box.
2. Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
3. Click OK.
SONAR finds the next event that meets the criteria and sets the Now time
to the start time of that event. To find the next occurrence, press F3 or
choose Go-Search Again.
Selecting Events
The Edit-Select-By Filter command is used to refine a selection by
applying an event filter to an initial selection. You can use this command
any number of times to refine the selection even further. Before using this
command, use any of the selection commands and tools to create an initial
set of selected event. You can use the Edit-Select-All command to select
all events in the current view.
The Track view cannot display individual selected events. As a result, the
Edit-Select-By Filter command will not necessarily change the
appearance of the Track view. SONAR applies the event filter rule, but the
change is not visible. However, once you change the selection in any way
(for example, by clicking on a track number or by clicking in the Time Ruler),
the effects of the event filter are erased. If you want to use the filter, you
must choose Edit-Select-By Filter again and click OK to use the same
filter values.
Note:
The shading of a clip in the Track view indicates how many of the
events in the clip are selected. If the clip is shown in solid black,
all events in the clip are selected. If a portion of a clip is shown in
medium gray, all the events in that time range are selected. If the
clip is shown in light gray, only some of the events in the shaded
time range are selected.
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Editing MIDI Events and
Searching for Events
To Select Events Using the Event Filter
1. First, select an initial set of tracks, clips, or events.
2. Choose Edit-Select-By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3. Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
4. Click OK.
SONAR searches the currently selected events and weeds out those that
do not meet the requirements of the event filter.
Example: Splitting Left-Hand and Right-Hand Parts
Suppose you recorded a keyboard riff on Track 1 but want to split the left
and right hands apart into separate tracks so you can edit them separately.
Suppose that all the right-hand notes are above C4. Here’s how to proceed:
1. Select all of Track 1 by clicking on the track number in the Track view.
2. Choose Edit-Select-By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3. Click the None button to clear the dialog box.
4. Check the Note checkbox, and enter a minimum value of C4. The
maximum should already be set to C9.
5. Click OK. SONAR selects all the notes from C4 up.
6. Choose Edit-Cut to move the selected notes to the clipboard.
7. Choose Edit-Paste and paste the events to a different track.
Process-Interpolate
The Process-Interpolate command is an extremely flexible way of
manipulating the data parameters of events. It works something like the
search-and-replace function in a word processor but with scaling rather
than simple replacement.
This command uses two event filters. The first event filter lets you set up
your search criteria. The second event filter is used to define the
replacement value ranges. When an event satisfies the search criteria, its
parameters are scaled between the search ranges and the replacement
ranges. This permits transposition, inversion, key signature changes, and
other operations to be accomplished with this one simple command.
In the second Event Filter dialog box, the checkboxes and value ranges for
beats and ticks are ignored. Only the replacement value ranges for the
selected event types are used.
Editing MIDI Events and
Searching for Events
427
The Process-Interpolate command understands a wild card octave
number in the second event filter to mean, “replace the original note with a
different note in the original octave.” Using octave wild cards for both the
search and replacement event filters lets you, for instance, change all Eflats to E-naturals, preserving the octave of each note.
A few examples will illustrate some of the many uses of the ProcessInterpolate command. These examples apply to the note event type,
though the command can be used on any type of event.
428
Parameter.
..
Search
range...
Replaceme
nt range...
Effect...
Pitch (key)
From C2 to C4
From C4 to C6
Transposes all notes in the
search range up two octaves
Pitch
From E2 to E2
From Eb2 to
Eb2
Converts all Es in octave 2 to
Eb in the same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From Eb? to
Eb?
Converts all Es in all octaves
to Eb in the same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From E? to Eb5
Converts all Es to Eb in
octave 5
Pitch
From C1 to C8
From C8 to C1
Inverts all the notes in the
specified range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 80 to 127
Compresses the velocity
values into a narrower range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 127 to 0
Inverts the velocity values
(makes loud notes soft, and
soft notes loud)
Duration
From 0:01:00
to 0:02:000
From 0:01:000
to 0:01:000
Converts all notes that are
between a quarter note and
half note in length, and
makes them all quarter notes
Channel
From 1 to 1
From 2 to 2
Changes all events on MIDI
channel 1 to MIDI channel 2
Channel
From 1 to 16
From 4 to 4
Reassigns all events to MIDI
channel 4
Editing MIDI Events and
Searching for Events
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data
SONAR projects contain a lot more information than the notes and digital
audio files that are at the heart of your work. Controllers, RPNs, and NRPNs
(xRPNs, for short) are special types of events used by MIDI software and
hardware to control the details of how MIDI music is played. Automation
data are used to adjust volume, pan, and other parameters of MIDI and
audio tracks on the fly while playback is in progress.
SONAR lets you enter or edit controller, xRPN, and automation data in
several ways:
•
Using envelopes in the Track view
•
Using the Piano Roll view and Inline Piano Roll view
•
Using the Insert-Series of Controllers command
•
Editing controller events in the Event List view
Editing data in the Track view’s Clips pane or the Piano Roll view gives you
great flexibility. You can examine the controllers in graphical form and edit
them even while recording or playback is in progress. This means you can
loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on the
next loop.
Note: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll view and MIDI
envelopes you create in the Track view Clips pane are actually separate
envelopes, even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of
envelopes are visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be used to
control the same parameter. You can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to
Track view envelopes by selecting the time range and tracks that the Piano
Roll envelopes occupy, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes
command.
For more information on automation, see the online help topics
“Automation,” and “Mixing.” For more information about the Event List view,
see “The Event List View” on page 431.
Controllers
Controllers are the MIDI events such as volume, sustain pedal, and pan that
you use to change the sound while you're playing. You can enter controller
data from within SONAR, or record them from external devices such as
MIDI keyboards.
Controllers let you control the detail and character of your music. Say you’re
playing a guitar sound on your synthesizer, but it sounds lifeless and dull.
Editing MIDI Events and
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data
429
That’s partly because a guitar player doesn’t just play notes one after
another—he often bends or slides on the strings to put emotion into his
playing. You can use controllers in the same way, creating bends, volume
swells, and other effects that make sounds more realistic and more fun to
listen to.
Your computer can work the controllers on your electronic instrument by
sending MIDI Controller messages. The MIDI specification allows for 128
different types of controllers, many of which are used for standard
purposes. For example, controller 7 is normally used for volume events,
and controller 10 is normally used for pan. Every controller can take on a
value ranging from 0 to 127.
The Piano Roll toolbar contains several dropdown lists that let you choose
the controller you want to see and edit. The contents of these lists depend
on the output and channel settings and on the instrument assigned to that
output and channel. Different instruments use controllers in different ways.
See the online help topic: Instrument Definitions.
RPNs and NRPNs
RPNs (Registered Parameter Numbers) and NRPNs (Non-Registered
Parameter Numbers) are similar to controllers, except that both the
parameter number and data value can be any number between 0 and
16,383.
When RPNs and NRPNs are transmitted via MIDI or stored in a standard
MIDI file, they are converted into four separate controller messages.
SONAR detects incoming xRPN messages from MIDI inputs or files and
reassembles them into a single RPN or NRPN event. This provides the
convenience of single RPN or NRPN events in SONAR plus compatibility
with existing files, equipment, and software. The following table shows the
controller numbers SONAR uses for RPN and NRPN events:
Message
...
Parameter
number
MSB
Controller...
Parameter
number
LSB
Controller...
Data value
MSB
Controller...
Data value
LSB
Controller...
RPN
101
100
6
38
NRPN
99
98
6
38
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Editing MIDI Events and
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data
Automation Data
The Track and Console views allow you to record automation data that
define changes in volume, pan and many other parameters throughout a
project. The automation data can include step changes recorded using the
snapshot button or continuous changes recorded while using the knobs,
faders, and buttons.
The Track view allows you to create envelopes to adjust several
parameters. For more about automation, see the online help topic
“Automation.”
Velocity, Pitch Wheel, and Aftertouch
SONAR lets you display and edit several other types of data the same way
you do controller data. These data include:
•
MIDI pitch wheel or pitch-bend messages
•
MIDI channel aftertouch (ChanAft) values
•
MIDI key aftertouch (KeyAft) values
Remember that note velocity is an attribute of each note and not a
completely separate event. You cannot add or remove velocity events in the
Notes pane, but you can use the draw tool to adjust the velocity values for
existing notes. You can also edit velocities with the Edit-Scale Velocities
command. For more information, see “Adding Crescendos and
Decrescendos” on page 405. You can edit individual note velocities in the
Note Properties dialog box, described in “Changing Note Properties” on
page 669.
The Event List View
The Event List view shows events in a list format. You can insert, delete, or
modify any kind of event, including notes, pitch-wheel data, velocity, MIDI
controllers, patch changes, Wave files, lyrics, text strings, MCI commands,
System Exclusive meta-events, and more.
There are three ways to open the Event List view:
•
Select one or more tracks and choose Views-Event List
•
Select one or more tracks and click
•
Right-click a clip in the Clips pane and choose Views-Event List from
the popup menu
Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
in the Views toolbar
431
Toolbar
Track
This event
is selected
Event time
Event List view
Event type
Event channel
Show events outside slip edit boundary
Hide different kinds of events buttons
Event Manager
Event List toolbar
Insert
Delete
Pick Tracks
The events in the selected tracks are listed one per line, from top to bottom.
As you move the highlight through the event list, SONAR updates the Now
marker (time display). During playback, the event list scrolls to display the
events at the current time. The current event is centered in the Event List
during playback, and the highlight is on the correct event when playback
stops. Any time you change the Now time, the event list is updated and the
highlight is moved to the event that will be played next.
When the Event List view includes more than one track, events are mixed
together in chronological order. For example, if you select tracks 1 and 3
when you open the Event List view, you see a single list of intermingled
events from tracks 1 and 3. You can have any number of Event List views,
each containing any number of tracks, open at the same time. You can
change the tracks shown in the Event List view by clicking the
button
and choosing the tracks you want.
Event List Buttons and Overview
Each line of the Event List view shows a single event along with all of its
parameters. There are many different types of events. All share the
following parameters:
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Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
•
The time of the event, displayed in SMPTE
(hours:minutes:seconds:frames) format
•
The time of the event, displayed in MBT (measures:beats:ticks) format
•
The event type, or kind of event
The remaining parameters vary by event type. You can hide or show each
kind of event by clicking its button in the Event List toolbar or by checking its
checkbox in the Event Manager dialog box. Here is a summary listing of the
parameters that apply to each type of event.
Short name
and display
button...
Type of event...
Parameters...
Note
MIDI note
Pitch (MIDI key number), velocity (0127), duration (beats:ticks or simply
ticks), MIDI channel (1-16)
KeyAft
MIDI key aftertouch
Pitch (MIDI key number), pressure
amount (0-127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Control
MIDI controller change
Controller number (0-127), controller
value (0-127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Patch
MIDI patch change
Bank select method, bank number,
number or name of the patch, MIDI
channel (1-16)
ChanAft
MIDI channel
aftertouch
Pressure amount (0-127), MIDI
channel (1-16)
Wheel
MIDI pitch wheel
position
Wheel position (-8192 to 8191, where
the center is 0)
RPN
Registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383),
parameter value (0-16383), MIDI
channel (1-16)
NRPN
Non-registered
Parameter Number
Parameter number (0-16383),
parameter value (0-16383), MIDI
channel (1-16)
Sysx Bank
System Exclusive data
bank
Sysx bank number (0-8191)
Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
433
434
Sysx Data
System Exclusive data
message
Sysx message up to 255 bytes long
Text
Text
Text
Lyric
Lyric
Text (a single word or syllable)
MCIcmd
Windows Media
Control Interface (MCI)
command
MCI command text
Wave Audio
Digital audio wave
Name, velocity (0-127), and number of
samples
Shape Events
Automation graph
segments made up of a
solid line between two
nodes
Change in values, kind of shape, and
length in MBT format.
Expression
Staff view expression
marking
Text of expression mark
Hairpin
Staff view dynamics
marking
Direction (crescendo or diminuendo)
and duration
Chord
Staff view chord symbol
The name of the chord
Event List
Manager
Opens Event Manager
dialog box
Shows or hides various kinds of
events
Events Out of Slip
Edit Boundaries
Events that are outside
of slip-edited
boundaries
Note, audio, or controller data
Insert Event
Inserts a copy of
highlighted event—
double-click the event’s
Kind parameter to
change it to the kind of
event you want
Whatever the highlighted event’s
parameters are
Delete Event
Deletes the highlighted
event
Whatever the highlighted event’s
parameters are
Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
Note: Shape events cannot be edited,
only deleted.
Pick Tracks and
Show Next/
Previous Track
Left side of button
opens Pick Tracks
dialog; right side of
button opens Next
Track/Previous Track
dropdown menu
Allows you to pick what tracks the
Event List shows events for
Here are some notes about events and their parameters:
•
The Channel parameter in the Track view can force an event to play on
a different MIDI channel from the one shown in the event list.
•
Pedal marks entered in the Staff view are displayed in the Event List
view as controller events (64).
•
Many keyboards do not support key aftertouch and channel aftertouch.
Consult the User’s Guide for your keyboard for more information.
•
When you double-click the value of a patch event, SONAR displays the
Bank/Patch Change dialog box. For more information about bank and
patch changes, “To Insert a Bank/Patch Change” on page 167.
•
See Chapter , System Exclusive Data, for more information about
System Exclusive banks.
•
See Chapter , Editing Audio, for more information about audio clips.
Selecting Events in the Event List View
The following table describes how to select events in the Event List view:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a single event
Click on the event.
Select multiple, contiguous events
Select the first event, hold the Shift key
down and click the last event.
Select multiple, contiguous events
using the arrow keys
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys while
pressing the up or down arrows.
Select multiple, non-contiguous
events
Select an event, hold the Ctrl key while
selecting additional events
Additional information about note events and MCIcmd events appears later
in this chapter.
Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
435
Event List Display Filter
You can configure the Event List view to display different event types, as
described in the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Hide events of a certain type
Select the event type in the toolbar, in
the Event List view popup menu, or in
the Event Manager. To display a type
of event, deselect it.
Open the Event Manager
Choose Event Manager from the
popup menu, or click
.
Show or hide slip-edited events
As a default, if you slip edit the
boundaries of a clip, all events outside
those boundaries are hidden in the
Event List view. If you want to see
these events, click this button
.
Note: You can not edit slip-edited
material in the Event List view.
Editing Events and Event Parameters
The Event List view lets you add, delete, or change events one by one. You
can also print the list of events or audition the events one at a time to see
how they sound.
You can change the parameters of any event by moving the rectangular
highlight to the cell you want to change and doing one of the following:
436
•
Type a new value and then press Enter
•
Press the - and + keys on the numeric keypad to decrease or increase
values by a small amount
•
Press the [ and ] keys to decrease or increase values by a larger
amount
•
Click and hold the mouse button, and then drag the mouse up or down
to change the value by a small amount
•
Click and hold both mouse buttons, and then drag the mouse up or
down to change the value by a larger amount
•
Double-click a cell, and then enter or choose a new value
Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
If you change the time of an event, it may also change its position in the
event list. The Event List view follows that event to its new location.
If you try to change the event type (kind of event), SONAR lets you choose
the kind of event you want from a dialog box. When you change one kind of
MIDI event into another kind of MIDI event, SONAR preserves the
parameters as fully as possible.
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only deleted.
To Insert a New Event
1. Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the point at which
you want to insert an event.
2. Press Insert, or click
event.
. SONAR makes a copy of the highlighted
3. Change the event to the kind of event you need by double-clicking the
name of the event that’s listed in the Kind column. The Kind of Event
dialog box appears.
4. Choose what kind of event you want and click OK. SONAR changes the
highlighted event to the kind you chose.
5. Edit the event time and other parameter values as required.
If the Event List is initially empty, pressing the Insert key creates a default
note event.
To Delete an Event
1. Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the event you want
to delete.
2. Press Delete, or click
.
SONAR deletes the event.
To Delete Several Events
1. Select the events you want to delete by clicking, dragging, or Ctrl or
Shift-clicking in the first column of the Event List view.
2. Choose Edit-Cut.
SONAR deletes the selected events.
Editing MIDI Events and
The Event List View
437
To Print the Event List
1. Choose File-Print Preview to display a preview of the printed event
listing.
2. Click the Zoom button (or just click the page) to zoom in and out, and
use the Page Up and Page Down keys to review the pages.
3. Click Print to print the event list, or click Close to close the Preview
window without printing.
To Play Events Step by Step
1. Using the keyboard, hold the Ctrl and Shift keys and press the
Spacebar to play the currently highlighted event. If the event is a note
event, it plays until you release the Spacebar.
2. When you release the Spacebar, the highlight moves to the next event.
3. Continue pressing the Spacebar to play events one by one.
4. To edit the last event you heard, release the Shift key.
The highlight moves back to the last event you heard, so you can make
changes. You can also audition a single event using the mouse. Ctrl-click
on an event to play the event. If the event is a note or Wave event, it plays
until you release the mouse button.
Additional Event Information
Note Events—There are three values parameters for note events:
•
A pitch, which represents the MIDI key number as a note and an
octave.
•
A velocity (0–127), which is how fast the key is struck. Some keyboards
don’t transmit or receive velocity messages.
•
A duration, which is how long the note lasts. This amount is shown in
beats:ticks format. (If the note lasts less then one beat, then only the
number of ticks is shown.)
Note names may also represent percussion instruments, and lists of such
note names are sometimes associated with a particular percussion patch.
The note C3, for example, may really be “kick drum.” If a patch is
associated with a percussion note name list, the name of the percussion
instrument appears in Event List view rather than a note and an octave from
the piano keyboard.
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The Event List View
SONAR uses the following notation to display flats and sharps in this and
other views:
Character...
Meaning...
b
flat
#
sharp
"
double flat
x
double sharp
MCIcmd Events
Media Control Interface (MCI) commands are special events that let you
control other multimedia hardware and software (e.g., CD-ROM drives,
laserdiscs, sound cards, animations, video) during playback. MCI
commands are part of the multimedia extensions in Windows. MCIcmd
events have one parameter—the command line text of the MCI command.
Here are some examples:
This command...
Does this...
PLAY C:\TRAIN.WAV
Plays the Wave file TRAIN.WAV
PLAY
C:\VIDEOS\VACATION.AVI
Plays the video file VACATION.AVI from the
VIDEOS folder
SET CDAUDIO TIME
FORMAT TMSF PLAY
CDAUDIO 3
Plays a specific track from the CD drive
STOP CDAUDIO
Stops the CD from playing
While MCI commands can be used to play Wave files, these files are played
at their normal speed and are not necessarily synchronized with MIDI or
other audio data. By contrast, Wave audio clips are played in lock-step
synchronization with MIDI and other audio data.
For complete documentation of Windows MCI commands, search for MCI
on the Microsoft World Wide Web site (www.microsoft.com).
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The Event List View
439
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in MIDI effects. Using plug-in
effects is similar to using the MIDI processing commands off-line. The
overall procedure is as follows:
•
Select the MIDI data to be affected.
•
Choose the effect you want from the Process-MIDI Effects menu or
from the popup menu’s MIDI Effects menu.
•
Set effect parameters (or select a preset if you’ve made one for this
purpose).
•
Click Audition to preview the music with the effect applied.
•
Click OK to apply the effect to the selected MIDI data.
If you're not happy with the result, choose Edit-Undo before doing any
additional work.
MIDI effects can be applied to whole or partial clips. For example, you can
apply an echo to just one note.
MIDI effects can also be applied to MIDI tracks in real time (during
playback) in the Track and Console views. Unlike any of the processing
described so far, using effects in real time is non-destructive. This means
that the MIDI data itself is not modified.
Note:
Offline effects may cause your MIDI events to grow in size. For
example, when you apply echo, the clip may need to grow to
accommodate the tail end of the echo.
MIDI Effects Presets
The MIDI effects dialogs support the use of presets. For information about
presets, see “Presets and Property Pages” on page 550.
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MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
Quantizing
The Quantize command moves events to (or towards) an evenly-spaced
timing grid. The Quantize effect is similar to the Process-MIDI EffectsCakewalk FX-Quantize command. For more information, see “Other
Settings” on page 410.
The quantize effect parameters are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Start Times
Quantize event start times.
Durations
Quantize event durations.
Resolution
The spacing of the grid used for quantization.
Tuplet
Specify the resolution as a tuplet note, for example
5 notes in the time of 4.
Strength (%)
The strength of the adjustments. 100% indicates
perfect quantization; otherwise, the command
moves the notes only part way towards the desired
position.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing
feel. A value of 50% indicates a straight rendition;
negative and positive values produce distortion of
the timing grid. For more information about swing,
see “Swing” on page 409.
Window (%)
The sensitivity of quantization. A value of 100%
causes all notes to be quantized. Lower values
cause the effect not to quantize notes that are far
from the timing grid.
Offset (Ticks)
The offset of the quantization grid from the start of
measure boundaries. A value of 0 indicates perfect
alignment. Values less than 0 shift the grid points
earlier; values greater than 0 shift the grid later.
Randomize
Causes a random time offset to be added to or
subtracted from each new event time. You must
also specify the maximum offset, as a percentage
of the quantization resolution.
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441
To Quantize MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Quantize to open the Quantize dialog box.
3. Set the quantization parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified quantization to the selected data.
Adding Echo/Delay
The Echo Delay command creates a series of repeating echoes of each
note. The echo notes can decrease or increase in velocity, and can be
transposed from the original by regular intervals.
The parameters used to specify the echo/delay effect are as follows:
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Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Decay (%)
The reduction in velocity with each echo. A value greater than
100% indicates an increase in velocity.
No. Echoes
The number of echo notes for each original note. If the velocity
reaches 0 before the specified number of echoes, the effect
generates no more echo notes.
Delay
The delay between successive echo notes.
Delay Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in
ticks, in milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Tap
The delay you specify by tapping the control with the mouse.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel to the
echo. A value of 0% indicates a straight rendition; negative
and positive values produce distortion of the timing grid. For
more information about swing, see “Swing” on page 409.
Pitch (Steps)
The number of steps to transpose each echo note from the
previous. You can specify a Diatonic or Chromatic scale.
Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
To Apply Echo/Delay to MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Echo Delay from the Process
menu or from the popup menu to open the Echo Delay dialog box.
3. Set the echo/delay parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified echo effect to the selected data.
Filtering Events
The Event Filter command lets you remove events from the MIDI data,
keeping or passing through only those events that you specify. The Event
Filter effect works almost identically to the event filter used by the EditSelect-By Filter command. For more information, see “Event Filters” on
page 423.
To Apply an Event Filter to MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk-FX MIDI Event Filter from the
Process menu or from the popup menu to open the Event Filter dialog
box.
3. Set the event filter parameters.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified event filter to the selected data, removing all
those events that do not meet the filter criteria.
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443
Adding Arpeggio
The Arpeggiator command applies an arpeggio to its input and plays it
back in real time. You can make it arpeggiate with a swing feel, or straight
and staccato or legato, vary its speed and direction, and specify its range.
The parameters used to specify the arpeggiator effect are as follows:
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Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel.
A value of 0% indicates a straight rendition; negative
and positive values produce distortion of the timing
grid. For more information on swing, see “Swing” on
page 409.
Rate
The delay between successive notes.
Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify
delay in ticks, in milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Legato (%)
The smoothness of the notes of the arpeggio. 1
percent plays each notes and releases it instantly. 99
percent plays each note up to the start of the next
note.
Path
The direction of the arpeggio. Options are Up, Up
(arpeggios go up), Up, Down (arpeggios go up, then
down), Down, Down (arpeggios go down), Down, Up
(arpeggios go down, then up).
Play thru
The disposition of the notes you play to specify the
arpeggio. Checked plays the original notes.
Unchecked filters out the original notes.
Specify output range
The range over which the arpeggio plays. Checked
specifies that the arpeggiator repeats notes at each
octave over the entire specified range. Unchecked
specifies that the arpeggiator includes only the notes
you actually play.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note of the arpeggio.
Numbers run from 0 to 127.
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run
from 12 to 127.
Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
Use chord control
The chord you specify. Checked specifies that the
arpeggiator infers the chord from the notes played in
the range. It identifies the chord in the Chord
recognized box and uses it to play arpeggios for notes
outside the range.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note the arpeggiator
uses for chord recognition (0 to 126).
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run
from 1 to 127.
Chord recognized
The chord the Arpeggiator recognizes and plays.
To Apply the Arpeggiator to MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Arpeggiator from the Process
menu or from the popup menu to open the Arpeggiator dialog box.
3. Set the arpeggiator parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified arpeggio effect to the selected data.
Analyzing Chords
The Chord Analyzer command analyzes chords. You select the notes to be
analyzed in one of SONAR’s windows, then open the Chord analyzer and
press the Audition button. The chord appears on the MIDI display and the
staff, and its name with possible alternatives appears in the Chords
recognized box.
You can play the notes on your MIDI input device and have the Chord
Analyzer identify the chords in real time. You do not have to set to playback.
You can open the Chord Analyzer in the Track and Console views, press
Playback and have the Chord Analyzer identify the chords in real time
Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
445
The Chord Analyzer has a single parameter:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Analysis window
The frequency with which the Chord Analyzer
samples the chord. Lower numbers (smaller
intervals) are more accurate, but require more
computation.
To Analyze a Chord
1. Select the notes to be analyzed.
2. Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Chord Analyzer from the
Process menu or from the popup menu to open the Transpose dialog
box.
3. Click the Audition key.
SONAR displays the chord and its name.
To clear the display, press the Clear button.
Note: When analyzing chords you may see chords being displayed before
you hear them. You can reduce the amount of time these chords appear
ahead of playback. To do so, open the MIDI tab in the Global Options dialog
(Options-Global) and enter a lower value in the Prepare Using “N”
Milliseconds Buffer option. Excessively low values may cause glitches
during playback, so it is best to gradually reduce the value in this option
until the desired result is achieved.
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect
The Velocity effect lets you adjust velocities of MIDI notes. You can set
velocity values, set scale values, add specific or random offsets, create
smooth transitions, and limit the velocity range.
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MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
The velocity effect options are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Set all velocities to X
Sets all velocities to the specified value.
Change velocities by
X
Adds a specified increment to all velocities.
Scale velocities to X%
of their current value
Multiplies all velocities by a constant factor.
Change gradually
from X to Y
Creates a smooth velocity change across the
selection.
Change gradually
from X% to Y%
Scales velocities by a gradually changing factor.
Limit range from X to
Y
Brings all velocities into the specified range.
Randomize by +/- X
Adds or subtracts a random offset from each
velocity. You must also specify the maximum
offset. You can select this option in addition to one
of the previous options.
Tendency
The tendency of the random offset to be lower or
higher, on a scale from -10 to 10.
To Change Note Velocities
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Velocity from the Process menu
or from the popup menu to open the Velocity dialog box.
3. Select options as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR changes note velocities according to the specified options.
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect
The Process-MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Transpose command is a
flexible transposition feature. You can perform simple chromatic or diatonic
Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
447
transpositions, transpose from one key to another, or define your own
custom transposition.
The transpose options are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Interval
Specifies chromatic transposition. Transposes
notes by the specified number of steps.
Diatonic
Specifies diatonic transposition. Transposes notes
by the specified number of scale steps within the
specified scale.
Key/Scale
Specifies transposition from one scale and key to
another.
Custom Map
Specifies custom transposition as defined by the
map.
Offset
For Interval transposition, the number of steps for
the transposition.
For Diatonic Transposition, the number of scale
degrees for the transposition.
For Key/Scale transposition, a number of octaves
added to each note after transposition.
Key
For Diatonic transposition, the key in which the
transposition is made.
From, To
For Key/Scale transposition, the starting and
ending key and scale.
Transposition Map
A table of pitch mappings for the specified
transposition. You can select to show the pitches
as note names or as note numbers. For Diatonic
and Key/Scale transpositions, pitches not in the
starting (from) key are indented.
To Change a pitch mapping, click on a From pitch
and select a To pitch with the popup slider. If you
change a pitch mapping, the transposition type is
automatically set to Custom Map.
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Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
Constrain to Scale
For Diatonic and Key/Scale transpositions, forces
all non-scale notes to be transposed to the nearest
appropriate scale tone.
To Transpose MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Transpose from the Process
menu or from the popup menu to open the Transpose dialog box.
3. Set the transposition options as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR transposes the selected data according to the options you
specified.
Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
449
450
Editing MIDI Events and
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
Drum Maps and the
Drum Grid Pane
There are several panes in the Piano Roll view designed
for use with MIDI drum tracks: the Note Map pane which
lists the original pitch values and the mapped values for
each note, and the Drum Grid pane which displays your
drum tracks (any track assigned to a drum map) and
where you can edit your drum tracks.
In This Chapter
The Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Creating and Editing a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
The Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
The Basics
Drum maps are virtual MIDI ports that you create and edit. Drum maps give
you total control over all the MIDI drum sounds you have access to either in
the form of software (soft synths) or hardware (external MIDI sound
modules).
Drum maps in SONAR allow you to do the following:
•
Re-map note events, for example, map a General MIDI drum kit to a
non-General MIDI drum kit.
•
Create a custom drum kit from several MIDI devices (soft synths,
hardware synths) and play it from a single MIDI track if desired.
•
Use the Drum Grid Editor to show only the drum sounds you want to
see.
•
Sort drum sounds to suit your needs.
•
Mute and solo individual drum sounds
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
You can create a drum map by either modifying an existing drum map or by
creating a new drum map.
The Drum Map Manager
In the Drum Map Manager dialog you can create and save drum maps for
use with hardware or software synths and samplers. You can customize
drum maps to select specific sounds on any of your available sound
sources.
To Open the Drum Map Manager Dialog
You can open the Drum Map manager in one of the following ways:
•
Select Options-Drum Map Manager from the menu
Or
•
452
Click on the Output field of your MIDI drum track and select Drum Map
Manager
Drum Maps and the Drum
The Basics
New Drum
Map button
Delete Drum
Map button
Current Drum Map
Preset list
Click to
create a
new row
Rows
Port/Channel
pairs
Drum Maps Used in Current Project
This field displays all the currently available drum maps. click the New
button
to create a new drum map and Delete
to delete a drum
map. Select a drum map to display the drum mappings in the Drum Map
Manager. All drum maps in this field are saved with the current project.
Presets
Presets can be used to populate the fields in the Drum Map Manager. This
field is also used to save new drum maps by entering a name in the field
and clicking the save button.
Settings
The Settings section is where you map the following for each In Note
(source):
•
In Note—The source MIDI note value.
•
Out Note—The MIDI note value that plays on the destination sound
source.
•
Name—The user-defined name for the row.
Drum Maps and the Drum
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
453
•
Chn—The channel on which the note is transmitted.
•
Out Port—The hardware output port or software virtual output port to
which you are sending the note.
•
Vel+—Apply a velocity offset setting to an individual mapped pitch.
•
V Scale—The V Scale value sets a level of compression or expansion.
A value below 100% is compression. A value above 100% is
expansion. The Vel+ setting allows for gain make-up.
Ports and Channels
This section lists each unique Port and Channel pairing. This allows you to
make quick global changes that Port and Channel pairing’s bank and patch
settings.
Working in the Drum Map Manager
The following table lists several ways of editing settings in the Drum Map
Manager.
To do this…
Do this…
Audition a row
Select the row and press
Shift+Spacebar
Sort rows
Drag and drop a row to a new location
Select multiple rows
Click a row, hold down the Ctrl key
while selecting additional rows
Change the Output Port for all
rows with the same Channel/
Port
Press Ctrl+Shift while changing the
port.
Undo an edit
Press the Undo button
The Map Properties Dialog
The Map Properties dialog lets you change all the settings for an individual
mapped note in your drum map. The settings in the Map Properties dialog
are the same as a single row in the Drum Map Manager. If you want to edit
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Drum Maps and the Drum
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
more than one drum note pitch mapping, click the Map Mgr button to open
the Drum Map Manager dialog.
To Open the Map Properties Dialog
•
Double-click on a row in the Note Map pane.
Or
•
Right-click on a row in the Note Map pane and select Map Properties
from the menu that appears.
Saving a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to save a new or modified drum map.
1. In the Drum Map Manager, enter a name for the new drum map in the
Preset field.
2. Click the Save button
.
Drum map presets are saved and available for all projects. Drum maps are
saved on a per-project basis.
Drum Maps and the Drum
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
455
Using Drum Maps
The following topics cover using drum-mapped tracks, including how to
display drum tracks in the Drum Grid pane and how to edit note velocities.
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to assign a MIDI track to a drum map:
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1. Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2. In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output
dropdown and select a drum map from the options in the menu that
appears.
Opening a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to open a drum map in the Drum pane:
To Open a Drum Map
1. In the Track view, assign the drum map you want to open to a MIDI
track. See “Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map” on page 456.
2. Select the MIDI track you just assigned the drum map to and select
Views-Piano Roll.
To Open All Tracks Assigned to a Drum Map
1. Select a single track assigned to the drum map.
2. Hold down Ctrl+Shift while selecting Views-Piano Roll.
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Use the following procedure to display a drum track or tracks in the Drum
Grid pane.
To Display Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
1. Create a drum map if you have not already done so. See “Creating and
Editing a Drum Map” on page 452.
2. Change the focus to the Track view.
3. In the track(s) you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor, select a drum
map from the Output dropdown menu.
4. Select the tracks you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor and select
Views-Piano Roll.
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Drum Maps and the Drum
Using Drum Maps
The Piano Roll view appears with the selected track’s data appearing in the
Drum Grid Editor.
Velocity Tails
In the Drum Grid pane, you have the option of showing the velocity of each
note as a series of bars. The higher the bars, the higher the velocity value.
Notes with velocity showing
Notes without velocity showing
To Display Velocity Tails in the Drum Grid Pane
•
Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
toolbar.
in the Piano Roll view
Or
•
Press the Y key.
Editing Note Velocities
In the Drum Map Editor you can display note velocities as a series of
horizontal bars behind the note. Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
to display note velocities.
To Edit a Note Velocity in the Drum Grid Pane
1. Click the Draw tool button
.
2. Move your cursor over the velocity tail you want to edit until the cursor
changes to look like this:
3. Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag
it down to decrease the velocity.
To Edit Multiple Note Velocities in the Drum Grid Editor
When you edit multiple notes that have different initial velocities, the
velocities are adjusted on a relative basis, so if you reduce a velocity by
50%, all other selected notes have their velocities reduced by the same
Drum Maps and the Drum
Using Drum Maps
457
percentage. For example: you select three notes. The first has a velocity of
100, the second a velocity of 50, and the third a velocity of 30. You click and
drag the velocity of the first note down to 50. The second note’s velocity
changes from 50 to 25 and the third note’s velocity changes from 30 to 15.
1. Select the notes you want to change the velocity of.
2. Click the Draw tool button
.
3. Move your cursor over one of the selected notes.
4. Hold down the Shift key.
5. Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag
it down to decrease the velocity.
Previewing a Mapped Sound
Use the following procedure to hear the drum sound you have mapped a
note to.
To Preview a Mapped Sound
•
In the Note Map pane, click on the name of the sound you want to hear.
The Note Map Pane
The Note Map pane displays the current drum map. In the Note Map pane
each row represents a pitch. The Note In pitch is the recorded pitch. You
map the recorded pitch to whatever pitch you want using the Note Out pitch
setting. You can also change the name of the mapped note and mute or
solo the mapped note.
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Drum Maps and the Drum
The Note Map Pane
Changing Mapped-note Settings
You can change the following settings in the Note Map pane:
•
Mapped-note name
•
Note Out
•
Mute
•
Solo
To Change the Name Setting
The name of a mapped note in the Note Map pane is a user-assigned
variable. Make it descriptive for easy reference. To change the Name
setting, use the following procedure:
1. In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2. In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new name in the Name field and
press the Enter key.
To Change the Note Out Setting
The Note Out setting is the actual note you hear when the Note In value is
played. To change the Note Out setting, use the following procedure:
1. In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2. In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new value in the Note Out field
and press the Enter key, or use the +/- buttons to change the value and
press the Enter key.
To Change Multiple Note Out Settings
1. Open the Drum Map Manager.
2. In the Drum Map Manager, select a contiguous range of rows by
selecting the first in the range, and holding down the Shift key while
selecting the last in the range.
Or
Select a non-contiguous range by selecting one row and holding down
the Ctrl key while selecting additional rows.
3. Hold down both the Ctrl and Shift keys while selecting a new Output in
the Output column.
Drum Maps and the Drum
The Note Map Pane
459
To Mute or Solo a Mapped Note
The Mute and Solo controls in the Note Map pane allow you to mute or solo
an individual mapped note. To mute or solo a mapped note, use the
following procedure:
•
In the Note Map pane, click the Mute
appropriate row.
or Solo
button in the
Or
•
Right-click on the row you want to mute or solo and select Mute or Solo
from the menu that appears.
To Display the Note In and Note Out Values By Their
Pitch Name
You have the option of showing the Note In and Note Out values by their
pitch names. To do so, use the following procedure:
•
Right-click on any row in the Note Map pane and select the Display
Pitch Names command from the menu that appears.
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map
Pane
Use the following procedure to change the order of mapped notes in the
Note Map pane.
1. Move your cursor over the row you want to move in the Note Map pane.
2. When your cursor changes to look like this , click and drag the row to
the place you want it to be and release the mouse button.
The Drum Grid Pane
The Drum Grid pane is where you edit your drum tracks. The Drum Grid
pane is the top pane in the Piano Roll view and opens automatically when
you open a MIDI drum track.
Grid Lines
The Drum Grid pane is divided into a time grid. You can set the resolution of
the grid lines from 1/4 note to 1/64 note, or to follow the current snap grid
setting.
The Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
toggles on and off the grid
lines in the Drum Grid pane and sets the grid line resolution.
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The Drum Grid Pane
To Turn on Grid Lines in the Drum Map Pane
•
Click the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
view toolbar.
in the Piano Roll
Or
•
Press the I key.
To Set the Drum Map Pane Grid Line Resolution
•
Click the down arrow on the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
and select an option from the menu that appears.
The Pattern Brush Tool
The Pattern Brush tool
, on the Piano Roll View toolbar, allows you to
insert multiple notes using your mouse, either following a pattern used in an
existing MIDI file or at the current note duration setting.
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
When you select the Pattern Brush tool you can click and drag in the Drum
Grid pane (also works in the Note pane) to produce a series of notes. Which
notes appear in the Drum Grid depends on the settings you make in the
Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu. To open the Pattern Brush tool’s
dropdown menu, click the right side of the Pattern Brush tool.
The following table covers the options found in the Pattern Brush tool’s
dropdown menu:
Option…
Description…
Velocity
Select this option to open the Pattern Velocity
dialog. The value you enter in this dialog sets the
default velocity for all notes entered using the
Pattern Brush tool unless you select Use Pattern
Velocities.
Use Pattern Velocities
Select this option to use the note velocities used in
the custom pattern file you are using. If you are
using the Note Duration option, this option is not
available.
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Use Pattern Polyphony
Select this option to use the pitch values from the
custom pattern file you are using. If you are using
the Note Duration option, this option is not
available. When using this option, the vertical
position of your mouse does not affect the note
pitches draw; that information is read from the
pattern.
Note Duration
This option uses the current note duration setting in
the Piano Roll View toolbar as the interval between
notes.
To Paint Notes Using the Pattern Brush Tool
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane or the Note pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Note Duration.
3. In the Piano Roll View toolbar, select a note duration. This value is the
interval between notes when using the Pattern Brush tool.
4. Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this
when in the Drum Grid pane.
5. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have
inserted all the notes you want.
6. Release the mouse button.
SONAR creates a series of notes, at equal intervals.
To Paint a Custom Pattern of Notes Using the Pattern
Brush Tool
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern
you want to use. If you need to create a custom pattern, see “Creating
Custom Patterns” on page 463.
3. Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have
inserted all the notes you want.
5. Release the mouse button.
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The Pattern Brush Tool
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Note Velocities
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern
you want to use. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Use
Pattern Velocities.
3. Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have
inserted all the notes you want.
5. Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Pitch Values
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern
you want to use. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Use
Pattern Polyphony.
3. Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have
inserted all the notes you want.
5. Release the mouse button.
Creating Custom Patterns
You can create custom patterns and use the Pattern Brush tool to quickly
paint them into the Drum Grid pane. Use the following procedure to create a
custom pattern.
To Create a Custom Pattern
1. Create a new file, or open an existing MIDI file or pattern file that you
want to edit.
2. Right-click in the Time Ruler where you want the pattern to start and
select Insert Marker from the menu that appears.
The Marker dialog appears.
3. Enter the name you want to use for the first pattern and click OK.
4. In a MIDI track, enter a pattern of notes.
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463
5. If you want to create a second pattern, repeat steps 2 through 4.
6. Create as many patterns as you want, ending the last pattern with a
marker called “end”.
7. Save the file as a MIDI file (.MID) in the Pattern Brush Patterns folder in
the directory where you installed SONAR.
Note: You can change the default directory where SONAR looks for
patterns in the Folders tab of the Global Options dialog.
You may need to re-start SONAR to see the new patterns in the dropdown
menu next to the Pattern Brush. The name you gave the file appears with
an arrow next to it. Move your mouse over it to see a subdirectory which
contains each of the patterns you created.
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Editing Audio
The Track view lets you edit and arrange audio clips. You
can perform basic tasks such as cut, copy, paste, and
move; apply simple audio processing such as gain
change, fades, and equalization; and use sophisticated
audio effects such as stereo chorus and reverb. The
Track view lets you see your audio clips on a timeline,
arranged by track, to help you visualize the organization of
your project’s audio data.
Most audio processing commands and audio effects can be
used from the Event List view as well, by selecting one or more
audio clips, then choosing the desired command from the ProcessAudio or Process-Audio Effects menu. Plug-in effects can also be
applied to audio data non-destructively, in real time, in both the Console and
Track views. For more information, see the online help topic “Mixing.”
In This Chapter
Digital Audio Fundamentals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Basic Audio Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Digital audio is a numeric representation of sound; it is sound stored as
numbers. In order to understand what the numbers mean, you need to start
with the basic principles of acoustics, the science of sound.
Basic Acoustics
Sound is produced when molecules in the air are disturbed by some type of
motion produced by a vibrating object. This object, which might be a guitar
string, human vocal cord, or a garbage can, is set into motion because
energy is applied to it. The guitar string is struck by a pick or finger, while
the garbage can is hit perhaps by a hammer, but the basic result is the
same: they both begin to vibrate. The rate and amount of vibration is critical
to our perception of the sound. If it is not fast enough or strong enough, we
won't hear it. But if the vibration occurs at least twenty times a second and
the molecules in the air are moved enough, then we will hear sound.
Example—A Guitar String
To understand the process better, let's take a closer look at a guitar string.
When a finger picks a guitar string, the entire string starts to move back and
forth at a certain rate. This rate is called the frequency of the vibration.
Because a single back and forth motion is called a cycle, we use a
measure of frequency called cycles per second, or cps. This measure is
also known as Hertz, abbreviated Hz. Often the frequency of vibration of an
object is very fast, so we can also express the frequency in thousands of
cycles per second, or kilohertz (abbreviated kHz).
The actual distance the string moves is called its displacement. This is
proportional to how hard the string is plucked. A greater displacement
results in a louder sound.
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The displacement of the string changes as the string vibrates, as shown
here:
The segment marked “A” represents the string as it is pulled back by the
pick; “B” shows it moving back towards its resting point, “C” represents the
string moving through the resting point and onward to its outer limit; then “D”
has it moving back towards the point of rest. This pattern repeats
continuously until the friction of the molecules in the air gradually slows the
string to a stop. As the string vibrates, it causes the molecules of air around
it to vibrate as well. The vibrations are passed along through the air as
sound waves. When the vibrations enter your ear, they make your eardrum
vibrate, and you hear a sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a
microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send out electrical
signals.
In order for us humans to hear the sound, the frequency of the vibration
must be at least 20 Hz. The highest frequency sound we can hear is
theoretically 20 kHz, but, in reality, it's probably closer to 15 or 17 kHz.
Other animals, and microphones, have different hearing ranges.
If the simple back-and-forth motion of the string was the only phenomenon
involved in creating a sound, then all stringed instruments would probably
sound much the same. We know this is not true, of course; the laws of
physics are not quite so simple. In fact, the string vibrates not only at its
entire length, but at one-half its length, one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, and
so on. These additional vibrations (overtones) occur at a rate faster than
the rate of the original vibration (the fundamental frequency), but are
usually weaker in strength. Our ear doesn't hear each frequency of vibration
individually, however. If it if did, we would hear a multinote chord every time
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467
a single string were played. Rather, all these vibrations are added together
to form a complex or composite sound that our ear perceives as a single
tone.
Fundamental
frequency (1f)
100% amplitude
2x fundamental (2f)
50% amplitude
3x fundamental (3f)
33% amplitude
4x fundamental (4f)
25% amplitude
5x fundamental (5f)
20% amplitude
This composite waveform still doesn't account for the uniqueness of the
sound of different instruments. For example, stringed instruments usually
have a resonator. In the case of the guitar, the resonator is the big block of
hollow wood to which the string is attached (the guitar body). This has a
major impact on the sound we perceive when a guitar is played because it
enhances or amplifies some of the vibrations produced by the string and
diminishes or attenuates others. The ultimate effect of all the vibrations
occurring simultaneously, being altered by the resonator, adds up to the
sound we know as guitar.
Waveforms
A sound wave can be represented in many different ways: as a
mathematical formula, as a series of numbers, or graphically as a
waveform. A waveform displays the size, or amplitude, of the vibration as
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a function of time. For example, the waveform of the sound of the plucked
guitar string might look like this:
The waveform of a trumpet blast might look like this:
And the waveform of a spoken word might look like this:
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The three waveforms shown above are quite different from one another,
both in appearance and sound. Each has its own characteristic shape, or
envelope, and each has its own complex combination of frequency
components, which can change across the duration of the sound.
The center line of a waveform is the zero line; it corresponds to the rest
position (displacement of 0) of the original vibrating object. (A waveform for
perfect silence would be a horizontal line at zero.) Back and forth motions of
the vibrating object translate to upward (positive) and downward (negative)
excursions of waveform amplitude. For example, a close-up of a portion of
the guitar waveform might look like this:
The waveform crosses the zero line twice during each complete vibration.
These zero-crossings are important in digital audio processing; they are
good places to cut waveforms apart and splice them together. If waveforms
are cut or spliced at other locations, clicks and pops can occur. The
maximum amplitude of the waveform in each vibration is also important: it
determines the strength of the vibration, and thus the loudness of the
sound.
Recording a Sound
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal
generated by a microphone (or some other electroacoustical device).
Because the signal is caused by a sound, the signal strength varies in direct
proportion to the sound’s waveform. The computer measures and saves the
strength of the electrical signal from the microphone, thus recording the
waveform.
There are two important aspects of this measuring process. First is the
sampling rate, the rate at which the computer saves measurements of the
signal strength. It is a known fact of physics that you must measure, or
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sample, the signal at a rate at least twice that of the highest frequency you
wish to capture. For example, suppose you want to record a moderately
high note on a violin—say the A whose fundamental frequency is 440 Hz
and all overtones up to five times the fundamental. The highest frequency
you want to capture is 2,200 Hz, so you need to measure the electrical
signal from the microphone at least 4,400 times per second.
Since humans can hear frequencies well above 10 kHz, most sound cards
and digital recording systems are capable of sampling at much higher rates
than that. Typical sampling rates used by modern musicians and audio
engineers are 22 kHz, 44.1 kHz, and 48 kHz. The 44.1 kHz rate is called
CD-quality, since it is the rate used by audio compact discs.
The other important aspect of the measuring process is the sampling
resolution. The sampling resolution determines how accurately the
amplitude of each sample is measured. At present, the music industry has
settled on a system that provides 65,536 different values to assign to the
amplitude of a waveform at any given instant. Thus, each sample saved by
your computer requires 2 bytes (16 bits) to store, since it takes 2 bytes to
store a number from –32,768 to 32,767. The scaling of the electrical input
signal level to amplitude value is determined by your audio hardware and by
the position of your input level control.
What if the amplitude of the sampled signal gets too high, such that a 16-bit
number is not large enough to represent it? What typically happens is that
the signal is clipped, cut off at the maximum value.
Here is what a clipped waveform might look like:
Clipping is not usually desirable and may have unpleasant audible effects.
Sudden irregularities in the waveform of any type can cause clicks, pops,
and distortion of the original sound.
The Decibel Scale
In acoustics, the decibel (dB) scale is a scale for measuring the relative
loudness of two sounds. For example, environmental noise is often
measured as follows:
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L = 20 log (p/p0)
where L is the sound pressure level (in dB), p is the sound pressure
amplitude, and p0 is a reference amplitude of 20 micropascals (less than
one billionth of atmospheric pressure). On this scale, a barely audible
sound (p = p0) has a sound pressure level of 0 dB, normal conversation (p
= 1,000*p0) is at a level of around 60 dB, and a jet engine at close range (p
= 1,000,000*p0) is at a level of around 120 dB.
Similar decibel scales are used in other branches of science and
engineering to measure electrical power levels and other signal levels,
always with respect to some reference level.
In SONAR, decibels are used in several places:
•
To indicate volume levels of audio tracks in the Track view and Console
view
•
To indicate the effects of filters and equalizers
The reference level (0 dB) usually corresponds to the current loudness of
the sound. A positive change in decibels makes the sound louder; a
negative change makes the sound quieter.
Audio Clips
If you have read from the beginning of the chapter, you should have a good
idea of what is contained in a SONAR audio clip. An audio clip contains a
long series of numbers, or samples, representing the fluctuating amplitude
of a waveform. Audio clips are typically quite large, hundreds of kilobytes to
many megabytes in size. By comparison, a MIDI event takes only a few
bytes to store.
The Track view lets you see your audio waveforms in great detail; you can
zoom in until you see the individual samples.
You should also now be aware of some things to watch out for when editing
your audio data. First, if you cut audio clips apart or splice them together,
you should do so at zero-crossings in the waveform (places where the
amplitude is zero), in order to avoid sudden changes in amplitude that may
cause clicks and pops. Second, you should beware of clipping. Clipping of
the audio waveform can occur if you record a signal at too high a record
level, or if you apply audio processing or effects that increase the waveform
amplitude too much. If you accidentally cause the waveform to clip, you
should undo the command and try again with different parameters.
Clipping can also occur in other situations, for example, if you try to play or
mix several loud audio tracks together, the aggregate signal strength may
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at times exceed the clipping limit, and the output signal will be distorted. To
correct the problem, you can create a volume envelope to reduce the level
in loud audio clips or reduce the track volume in the Console or Track views.
Managing Audio Data
Because of the great size of audio data, SONAR uses an intelligent scheme
for storing audio clips on disk to conserve disk space and minimize the time
it takes to load and save data. Audio data is not stored directly in your
project file, but rather in separate files in a special directory. For more
information, see “System Configuration” on page 768.
You can export your project in MP3, WMA, or Wave format. You can also
convert your project’s MIDI data to audio and export it to any of the above
formats. For more information, see “Preparing Audio for Distribution” on
page 585.
Basic Audio Editing
The Track view lets you perform basic editing tasks such as cut, copy,
paste, delete, drag-and-drop, split, and bounce. You can drag fade-ins and
fade-outs onto a clip using your mouse or you can set complex envelopes
on both clips and tracks. You can use envelopes to change settings for gain
(volume), pan, mute, bus send level and bus send pan. The Scrub tool lets
you audition portions of audio by dragging the mouse.
Use the Select tool to make selections.
Here is a summary of the ways in which you can select audio clips:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a single clip
Click the clip
Select several clips at once
Drag a rectangle around them
Select part of a clip
Press Alt and drag over a portion of the
clip
Add clips to the selection
Press Shift and either click the clips or
drag a rectangle around the clips
Add or remove clips from the
selection
Press Ctrl and either click the clips or
drag a rectangle around the clips
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To do this...
Do this...
Add or remove clips in a track
from the selection
Press Ctrl and click the track number
Select clips in a time range
Drag in the Time Ruler
Select clips between two markers
Click between the markers
Remove all selections
Click in an empty area outside of any
clip
Editing Clip Properties
Audio clips have several properties that you can change:
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Property...
Description...
Name
The name of a clip is used in the Track view and
Event List view. You can assign any name to
help you remember the contents of the clip.
Start
The start determines when the sample is
played.
Length
The length indicates the size of the clip.
Snap Offset
A value that represents the number of samples
into the clip at which the clip snaps to.
Display Color
The clip’s color in the Track view.
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To Change an Audio Clip’s Name
1. Right-click the audio clip and choose Clip Properties.
2. Type a new name in the Name box.
3. Click OK.
The new clip name appears in the upper left corner of the clip.
To Change a Clip’s Start
1. Right-click an audio clip and choose Clip Properties.
2. Enter a new starting time in the Start field.
3. Click OK.
The Track view displays the clip at the new starting time.
Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio
Clips
Clips can be cut, copied, pasted, and deleted with Edit menu commands, or
moved and copied with drag-and-drop techniques. For more information,
see “Arranging” on page 247.
Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the
waveform in a track or bus. Audio scaling allows you to make detailed edits
by zooming in on the parts of the waveform closest to the zero crossing
(silence) while preserving the track or bus size. By showing just the quietest
parts of a clip, you can make very precise edits. You can also zoom out on
the waveform.
You can change the audio scale using keyboard shortcuts or the Audio
Scale Ruler.
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The Audio Scale Ruler is located in the vertical splitter bar between the
Clips pane and the Track pane.
Track pane
Clips pane
Audio Scale Ruler
Note: the Audio Scale Ruler does not appear on multi-layered tracks.
There are three display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
•
Percentage—shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the
highest percentage in the Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the
parts of the waveform which are within 2% of the zero crossing appear
in the clip.
•
dB—shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the
Audio Scaling Ruler reads -36, then only the parts of the waveform
which are 36 dB below 0 dB appear in the clip.
•
Zoom Factor—shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the
Zoom Factor reads 10, then the waveform is zoomed in by a factor of
10.
Note: The Audio Scale Ruler display reflects the type of audio clip directly
beneath it. If it is a stereo waveform, the Audio Scale Ruler appears in
stereo (one for each channel). If it is a mono clip it appears in mono. Also,
the Audio Scale Ruler only displays numbers when it is above a certain
height. If you cannot see the Audio Scale Ruler, increase the size of your
track or bus.
To Change the Audio Scale Display Option
1. Right-click on the Audio Scale Ruler in any track.
A menu appears. The current display option is checked.
2. Select an option from the menu.
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To Scale All Audio Tracks Together
To scale all audio tracks together, follow the instructions in the table below:
To do this...
Do this...
Increase the scale for all
tracks
Press Alt+Up Arrow.
Or
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Vertical
Zoom In button. When you hold down the
Ctrl key and position your cursor over the
Vertical Zoom In button, your cursor looks
like this:
Decrease the scale for all
tracks
Press Alt+Down Arrow.
Or
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Vertical
Zoom Out button. When you hold down the
Ctrl key and position your cursor over the
Vertical Zoom Out button, your cursor looks
like this:
Increase/Decrease the
scale for all tracks using
your mouse
Hold down the Ctrl key, click the Vertical
Zoom Fader and drag the fader up or down.
When you hold down the Ctrl key and
position your cursor over the Vertical Zoom
fader, your cursor looks like this:
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To do this...
Do this...
Increase to maximum scale
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and click
the Vertical Zoom In button. When you hold
down the Shift and Ctrl keys and position
your cursor over the Vertical Zoom In button,
your cursor looks like this:
Decrease to minimum scale
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and click
the Vertical Zoom Out button. When you hold
down the Shift and Ctrl keys and position
your cursor over the Vertical Zoom Out
button, your cursor looks like this:
To Scale a Single Track or Bus
To scale a single audio track, follow the instructions in the table below:
To do this...
Do this...
Increase/decrease the scale
of individual stereo or mono
tracks
There are several ways to increase or decrease
the size of an individual track’s or bus’s waveform:
•
Press Ctrl+Alt+Up/Down arrows
•
Click and drag vertically in the track’s Audio Scale
Ruler.
When you click and drag in the Audio Scale ruler of a
track, your cursor looks like this:
•
Restore a track to minimum
scale
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Select the Zoom tool, hold the Shift key and drag
around the clip you want to zoom in on.
Double-click in the track’s Audio Scale Ruler.
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Basic Audio Editing
To Undo Audio Scaling
•
Press the U key.
To Scale a Single Track or Bus Using the Audio Scale
Ruler
•
In the track in which you want to change the audio scale, click in the
Audio Scale Ruler and drag. Drag up to increase the audio scaling.
Drag down to decrease the audio scaling.
To Show or Hide the Audio Scale Ruler
1. Right-click in the Clips pane.
2. Select View Options from the menu that appears.
The Track View Options dialog appears.
3. In the Track View Options dialog, click the Show Audio Scale checkbox
and click OK.
Splitting Audio Clips
You can split long audio clips into shorter ones. This lets you extract and
rearrange individual sounds, adjust timing and alignment, and apply effects
selectively. Audio clips can be split using the Scissors tool in the Track view
or with the Split command.
To Split Clips with the Scissors Tool
1. If necessary, zoom-in in the Track view and use the Scrub tool to
determine where you want to make a split.
2. If you want the split to be made on a note or measure boundary, a
marker, or by an event, open the Snap to Grid dialog, make the
appropriate settings and click the Snap to Grid button to turn on the
Snap to Grid.
3. Click the Scissors tool button on the Track view toolbar.
4. Click once to make a single split, or to make two splits, click where you
want the first split, drag within a clip and release to make a second split.
To Split Clips with the Split Command
1. Select the clip you want to split.
2. Right-click the selected clip and select Split from the menu.
The Split Clips dialog appears.
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3. In the Split Clips dialog, select from the following options.
Option...
Description...
Split At Time
Specify the time at which you want to split
the clip and the time format.
Split Repeatedly
Specify the first measure at which you want
to split the clip in the Starting At Measure
field and the intervals at which you want to
split the clip in the And Again Every field.
Split At Each Marker
Creates a split in the clip at every marker.
Split When Silent For At
Least
Creates a split after each period of silence
which exceeds the number of measures
specified.
SONAR splits the audio clip according to your specifications. Each new clip
has the same name as the original clip.
Note: A shortcut to split a selected clip is to move the Now time to where
you want to split it, and press s on your computer keyboard.
Bouncing to Clips
Individual audio clips in the same track can be combined into a single clip
with the Bounce to Clip(s) command.
Note 1: Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips
using the Bounce to Clip(s) command. When a slip-edited clip is combined
with another clip, any slip-edited data (audio clips or MIDI events that are
cropped from view) is overwritten.
Note 2: You control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing,
freezing, applying effects) on the Audio Data tab of the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field. The
default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for
Rendering Audio” on page 774 for more information.
To Bounce to Clips
1. Select the clips to be combined in the Track view.
2. Choose Edit-Bounce to Clip(s).
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The clips are combined into a single clip. Empty space between clips is
filled with silence in the new clip. All clip automation from the source clips is
applied to the new clip.
To Bounce Multiple Audio Clips to a New Track
1. Select the clips to be combined in the Track view.
2. Choose Edit-Bounce to Track(s).
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog appears.
3. Select the track you want to bounce to in the Destination field.
4. Select other options in the Mixdown Audio/Bounce to Track(s) dialog
and click OK.
The clips are combined into a single clip on the destination track. Empty
space between clips is filled with silence in the new clip.
Scrubbing
You can use the Scrub tool to locate or audition a particular sound or
passage as you drag the mouse. You can scrub a single audio track by
dragging over that track or all tracks by dragging in the Time Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool is not affected by current Mute and Solo settings of a
track.
To Audition Audio with the Scrub Tool
1. Click the Scrub tool
.
2. Click and drag the pointer over an audio track.
Tip:
To hear the clips in all audio tracks, drag with the Scrub tool in the
horizontal ruler.
Basic Audio Processing
Audio processing commands let you modify audio data according to some
rule or algorithm. The rule can be as simple as reversing the audio data or
boosting it by a certain factor, or as complex as performing a Fourier
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analysis and selectively amplifying or attenuating sounds at certain
frequencies.
Audio processing commands can work on whole, partial and noncontiguous clips. For example, suppose you want to make certain words in
a vocal passage softer. You can create a volume envelope and use it to
lower the volume, non-destructively in just the section of the track
containing those words. You could also use the Process-Audio-Gain
command to lower the volume destructively.
You should listen to the results of your work after each audio processing
command. If you don’t like what you hear, you can use Edit-Undo to
restore your audio data to its previous state.
Many of the dialog boxes associated with SONAR’s audio processing and
effects commands have two important features: Audition and Presets.
The Audition button is used to audition the processed audio data. When
you click Audition, SONAR processes the first few seconds of your data,
then plays it repeatedly until you click Stop. This helps you to get an idea of
whether the settings in the dialog box are producing the desired effect.
The audition duration is three seconds by default. You can change this
value by choosing Options-Global, selecting the General tab and
changing Audition Commands for ( ) Seconds.
Presets are a way to store dialog settings so that you can apply the exact
same processing or effect again in the future. The following table tells you
how to use presets in the effects dialog boxes.
To do this...
Do this...
Save the current settings as a
preset
Enter a preset name and click the
Save button
Use a preset
Select the preset from the dropdown
list
Delete a preset
Select the preset, then click the Delete
button
Many audio processing and effects presets are supplied with SONAR.
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Using the Normalize and Gain Commands
SONAR provides several commands to boost or cut the volume of audio
data. The Process-Audio-Normalize command, and the Process-AudioGain commands are used to control the volume of selected audio data, in
decibels. For more information on the decibel scale, see “The Decibel
Scale” on page 471. The Normalize command “normalizes” the audio data:
it boosts the volume until the maximum amplitude is reached somewhere in
the data. By normalizing the data, you achieve the maximum possible
volume without distortion or clipping. The Gain command lets you edit the
volume, phase, and stereo interleave of selected audio data. You can also
use this command to remove center material from a clip (good for removing
vocals).
Like all the audio processing commands, these commands work by
modifying the waveform data. You can achieve volume changes nondestructively using automation. For more information, see the online help
topic “Automation.”
When increasing or decreasing the volume of audio clips, you should
consider the following points:
•
Normalize raises the noise floor; that is, while it increases the volume
of the signal, it also boosts the noise it contains. (This is true when you
raise the volume by other means, too.)
•
Due to the nature and limitations of digital audio, the sum of all audio
signals played together cannot exceed the waveform amplitude limit.
Even though no individual clip is clipped, the combination may cause
distortion.
If the selection contains any loud signals, Normalize may not seem to have
any effect. This is because the volume increase is determined by the
loudest audio in the selection. If an audio clip contains segments that are
too quiet and others that are loud, you should probably split off the quiet
segments into separate clips and then normalize those.
To Normalize Audio Data
1. Select the audio data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Audio-Normalize from the menu.
The Normalize dialog appears.
3. Drag the Normalize Level slider to the approximate level you think is
appropriate.
4. Click OK to process the selected audio.
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Listen to the edited data. You can use the Edit-Undo command if you don’t
like the results, and then try a different setting in the Normalize dialog.
To Use the Gain Command
1. Select the audio data you want to edit.
2. Use the Process-Audio-Gain command to open the Gain dialog.
3. If you only want to change the overall volume of the selection, move the
New Left Channel-From Left slider and the New Right Channel-From
Right sliders by a similar amount. You can press the Audition button to
try out your edits.
4. If you want to switch the two channels, reverse all four sliders from their
present positions.
5. If you want to invert the left channel phase, click the Invert left-channel
phase button
. If you want to invert the right-channel phase, click the
Invert right-channel phase button in the New Right Channel section.
6. If you want to remove center material (usually where the vocal track is),
set the New Left Channel-From Left slider and the New Right ChannelFrom Right slider to 100%, and set the New Left Channel-From Right
slider and the New Right Channel-From Left slider to -100% (negative
100%).
7. Press the Audition button if you want to audition your edits.
8. Click OK to process the selected audio.
Listen to the edited data in your mix. You can use the Edit-Undo command
if you don’t like the results, and then try different settings in the Gain dialog.
Reversing Audio Data
By reversing audio data, you can make it play backwards. You may wish to
do this to obtain unusual sounds for special effects.
The Reverse command does not reverse the musical position of audio
data. Use the Process-Retrograde command to invert the order of clips in
time.
To Reverse Audio Data
1. Select the audio data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Audio-Reverse from the menu.
SONAR reverses the selected audio data.
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Advanced Audio Processing
SONAR provides a number of advanced audio processing commands for
power users. Among these are commands to remove silent sections of
audio from the data and to apply fades, and crossfades.
Removing Silence
The Remove Silence command detects sections of audio that fall below a
given loudness threshold, and replaces those sections with absolute
silence. Remove Silence gives you the option of actually deleting the silent
sections from the selected audio clips, splitting long audio clips into a
greater number of shorter audio clips.
SONAR treats passages of absolute silence intelligently. It doesn’t store
stretches of silence on disk, and thereby conserves disk space. During a
passage of absolute silence, SONAR sends no signal to the digital output
port; this results in cleaner audio playback. Remove Silence is great for
cleaning up your final audio mix, because it can mute all audio tracks in
which the live performers were “laying out.”
Using Remove Silence to split long audio clips into smaller ones opens a
variety of creative possibilities.
The parameters in the Remove Silence dialog box are used to specify
exactly what you mean by silence. More precisely, Remove Silence
employs what is called a digital noise gate. The gate is a type of filter, it
passes data through, or stops it from passing through, according to certain
criteria. Parameters in the dialog box specify the conditions under which the
gate is opened and under which it closes again.
The digital noise gate parameters are described in the following table.
Parameter...
Meaning...
Open Level (dB)
The loudness threshold for opening the noise
gate. The gate officially opens when loudness
rises above this level, although it can open
earlier because of the Attack Time.
Close Level (dB)
The loudness threshold for closing the noise
gate. The gate officially closes when loudness
falls below this level, although it can stay open
later because of the Release Time.
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Attack Time (ms)
The value in this field is the interval of time after
the volume reaches the Open Level for the gate
to fully open. Opening the gate gradually
produces a fade-in effect instead of an instant
on-off sound.
Hold Time (ms)
The minimum time for the gate to stay open.
Hold Time is useful when you’ve set high open
and close levels, for example, when your source
signal is very loud. Noise gates set this way
tend to react to repeated percussive passages
(such as drum rolls) by repeatedly opening and
closing; this can sound unpleasant. By setting a
hold time, you can ensure that the gate stays
open long enough during percussive passages.
Release Time (ms)
The amount of time after the Close Level is
reached that the gate actually closes. This lets
the tail end of sounds pass through without
being clipped.
Look Ahead (ms)
The value in this field causes the gate to open
slightly before the sound reaches the Open
Level so you don’t lose the sound’s attack.
To Remove Silence
1. Select the audio data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Audio-Remove Silence to open the Remove
Silence dialog box.
3. Set the digital noise gate parameters as described in the table above.
4. Check the Split Clips box to delete the silent sections of audio.
5. Click OK to remove silence from the selected data.
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SONAR processes the audio as directed.
Removing DC Offset
Some models of audio hardware produce a DC offset while recording,
which is caused by electrical mismatches between the audio hardware and
the input device or instrument. Although imperceptible, DC offset may
cause problems in further stages of sound processing.
Note: An easy way to spot DC offset is to zoom in to a silent section of your
sound file. If the silent waveform matches the centerline in the waveform
display, your file does not contain DC offset.
To Remove DC Offset From Existing Audio
1. Select the audio data and choose Process-Audio-Remove DC Offset.
This launches the Remove DC Offset dialog.
2. Choose from the following options, and click OK:
•
DC Offset Threshold (dB)—you can set a minimum dB threshold. If the analyzed
DC offset is below this value, no removal takes place.
•
Analyze Left Channel (dB) and Right Channel (dB)—this field displays the DC
offset separately for the left and right channels. Press the Audition button to
update the display.
•
Compute DC Offset from first 5 seconds only—to speed processing, select the
Compute DC offset from first 5 seconds only checkbox. Only the first five seconds
of a sound file will be analyzed when measuring the DC offset. The only time
that five seconds is not sufficient is if a long fade-in or mute has been applied at
the beginning of the file.
To Remove DC Offset During Recording
1. Use the Process-Audio-Remove DC Offset command to open the
Remove DC Offset dialog.
2. In the DC Offset Threshold (dB) field, set a minimum dB threshold, and
click OK to close the dialog. If the analyzed DC offset is below this
value, no removal takes place.
3. Open the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio command), and on the
Advanced tab, enable the Remove DC Offset During Recording
checkbox, and click OK.
This option filters out DC Offset according to the threshold value that you
set in the Remove DC Offset dialog.
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487
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline
SONAR provides several commands for applying gradual volume changes
to audio data. The first command, Fade/Envelope, lets you fade-in or fadeout, and lets you choose an envelope, a curve that governs the rate of the
fade. The starting envelope can be linear (straight line), exponential, or
inverse exponential. You can change the shape of the envelope before
applying the fade.
The envelope in the Fade/Envelope dialog box is made of one or more
connected line segments (the linear curves are a single segment, the
exponential curves consist of nine segments each). Although the endpoints
of the curve are fixed, you can move the intermediate points, and create
new intermediate points, to change the shape of the curve.
To do this...
Do this...
Move a point
Click and drag it to a new location
Insert a new point
Click on the line between existing points
Remove a point
Drag it onto the next point
Restart from the original
curve
Click Reset
The second command, Crossfade, lets you create a smooth transition from
one audio clip to another, by fading two overlapping audio clips
simultaneously (one fades out, the other fades in). As with Fade/Envelope,
you can choose from three different starting curves and change the shape
of the curve.
To Apply a Fade to Audio Data
1. Select the audio data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Audio-Fade/Envelope to open the Fade/Envelope
dialog box.
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3. Select an envelope from the dropdown list.
4. If desired, manipulate the curve as described in the table above.
5. Click OK.
SONAR applies the fade to the selected audio data.
To Crossfade Two Overlapping Clips
1. Select two overlapping audio clips. They need not be on the same
track, but they must overlap in time for the command to have any effect.
2. Choose Process-Audio-Crossfade to open the Crossfade dialog box.
3. Select an envelope from the dropdown list.
4. If desired, manipulate the curve as described in the table above. You
can manipulate only the curve pertaining to the first of the two
overlapping clips; the second curve is automatically adjusted so that the
two curves constantly add up to 100%.
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5. Click OK.
SONAR applies the two fades to the selected data.
See “Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing)” on page 312 for information on
non-destructive editing.
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in audio effects. Some audio plug-in
effects are supplied with SONAR. Others can be purchased from third-party
software manufacturers, and appear automatically in SONAR’s menus
once they are installed on your system. If you need help when using a plugin, press the F1 key on your computer keyboard to open the plug-in’s help
file. Please note that third-party plug-ins may not have a help file.
This section describes the effects that are included with SONAR.
Using plug-in effects is similar to using the audio processing commands offline. The overall procedure is as follows:
•
In the Track view, right-click the FX bin and select an effect from the
popup menu.
•
Set effect parameters (or select a preset).
•
Listen to the track and adjust parameters based on what you hear.
You can add audio effects, like MIDI effects, to audio tracks in real time
(during playback) in the Console and Track views. Unlike some of the audio
processing discussed so far, using effects in real time is non-destructive.
This means that the audio clip data itself is not modified, and no new audio
files are created. See Mixing,” for more information on real-time effects.
Note:
Offline effects may cause your audio clips to grow in size. For
example, when you apply reverb, your clip may need to grow to
accommodate the tail end of an echo.
Applying Audio Effects
From the Console and Track views you can destructively apply audio
effects for one or more tracks. When you are pleased with the audio effects
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you have patched into a track, you can apply the effects to the track.
Destructively applying effects to a track saves resources, allowing you to
include additional tracks and/or effects.
To Apply Audio Effects
Add one or more audio effects to one or more tracks in either the Track view
or the Console view, and then:
1. In the Track view, select the tracks you want to be affected.
2. Select Process-Apply Audio Effects from the menu.
3. If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
4. Click OK.
If you do not delete the effects from each track after applying them, they
remain active.
Note:
Applying effects can be undone, but the effects are not then repatched in the FX bin.
Directly Applying Audio Effects
You can also directly apply an audio effect to an audio clip. Right-click the
clip and select an effect from the Process Effect menu. Set the effect
parameters, and click OK to start processing.
Shifting Pitch
The Cakewalk-Pitch Shifter raises or lowers the pitch of an audio signal,
while leaving the duration of the audio clip unchanged. The pitch shift
parameters are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Pitch
The amount by which the pitch is changed, in
semitones
Dry Mix (%)
The volume of the original, unprocessed signal
passed to the output
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Wet Mix (%)
The volume of the processed signal passed to the
output
Feedback Mix (%)
The amount of pitch-shifted signal that is fed into a
delay line
Delay Time (ms)
The length of the delay in milliseconds
Mod. Depth (ms)
The amount the delay time will vary
To Apply Pitch Shift to Audio Data
1. Select the audio data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Pitch Shifter to open the
Cakewalk FX Pitch Shifter dialog box.
3. Set the pitch shift parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the pitch shift to the selected data.
This is a fast pitch shifter that uses minimal computation time. The
Cakewalk Time/Pitch Stretch command, described below, can produce
higher quality output, but requires a lot more computational time.
Stretching Time and Pitch
The Cakewalk-Time/Pitch Stretch command lengthens or shortens audio
data, and raises or lowers pitch. Time and pitch can be stretched
independently. You can use this effect to stretch or compress audio while
preserving pitch, or to change pitch while preserving duration, or both.
Time/Pitch Stretch is not available in real-time. For real-time time and pitch
stretching, use Groove clips. For more information, see Chapter , Using
Loops.
The time/pitch stretch parameters are as follows:
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Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Time (%)
The new length of the audio clip, as a percentage
of the length of the original clip.
Editing Audio
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)
Pitch
The amount by which the pitch is changed, in
semitones.
Source Material
The type of audio data. Selecting an option sets
recommended values for the Block Rate,
Overlap Ratio, Crossfade Ratio, Accuracy, and
Algorithm parameters.
Block Rate (Hz)
Used to calculate the size of the data “blocks”
processed by Time/Pitch Stretch. Lower values
lead to larger block sizes. If the material to be
processed is generally less percussive or lower
in pitch, using a lower block rate will make the
algorithm operate more efficiently.
Overlap Ratio
The amount of overlap between consecutive
blocks.
Crossfade Ratio
The crossfade amount for the blocks.
Accuracy
The accuracy of the calculations. Normal is good
for most sounds. High accuracy gives slightly
better quality, but takes longer to process.
Algorithm
The algorithm used for pitch stretching. The
MPEX algorithm is the default. Select Normal if
you want to use the same algorithm used by
previous versions of SONAR.
The Time and Pitch parameters can be set by typing numbers in the
appropriate boxes, or by dragging the sliders or the crosshair in the graph.
Holding Shift while dragging the crosshair snaps the crosshair to the
nearest axis: X (time), Y (pitch), or the diagonal (equal time and pitch).
Diagonal values on the graph can be processed very quickly and with very
high quality, but have the trade-off that changing pitch does not preserve
duration, and vice versa.
For the most natural-sounding results, choose low settings; transpose by no
more than a third or a fourth. Higher values, though, can be used for special
effects.
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To Apply Time/Pitch Stretch to Audio Data
1. Select the audio data to be affected.
2. Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Time/Pitch Stretch from the
Process menu or from the popup menu to open the Cakewalk FX
Time/Pitch Stretch dialog box.
3. Set the time/pitch stretch parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the time/pitch stretch to the selected data.
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Software Synthesizers
SONAR’s Synth Rack view (also referred to as just the
Synth Rack) makes insertig a soft synth or ReWire
instrument a one-step process, and makes viewing and
configuring these instruments simple. In the Synth Rack
you can insert and delete synths, create control knobs to
control and/or automate parameters, scroll through
patches and presets, mute, solo, freeze, and choose what
track to display automation data on. You can easily control
all of your soft synths from one view.
SONAR also supports multi-port synths, which allow you to
use different synth tracks and effects for each patch or group of
patches in a multi-timbral, multi-port synth.
SONAR now seamlessly integrates VST synths. The VST Configuration
Wizard runs automatically on startup, registering all your VST plug-ins. See
“VST Configuration” on page 554 for more information.
In This Chapter
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
ReWire Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Stand-alone Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Synth Rack View
Open the Synth Rack view with the Views-Synth Rack command. The
Synth Rack view lets you view, insert, delete, and configure your soft
synths. You can also mute, solo, and freeze any or all of them from this
view. Each time you insert a soft synth into your project, a new row appears
in the Synth Rack view with the name of the soft synth and its current
preset. You can select different presets from the view. You can insert as
many copies of the same soft synth as you like; each new copy appears in
a new row and has the same name, but has a higher number after the
name (ReWire soft synths can only have one copy open). The new highernumbered name also appears on the menus of synth track inputs and MIDI
track outputs.
One Row in the Synth Rack
Patch menu
Synth name
Automation track
menu
Solo button
Mute button
Synth icon
Freeze/Unfreeze button
Quick Freeze/Quick
Unfreeze button
Connect/
Disconnect synth
button
Show/Hide
Assigned
Controls button
Read button
Assign Controls button
Automated knobs
Write button
Synth Tracks
Using a soft synth introduces a third kind of track to your project alongside
audio and MIDI tracks. A synth track functions much like an audio track,
but with a few differences:
496
•
A synth track’s input is always a synth or a ReWire device, which
means you cannot record audio or enable input monitoring from
another source on that track.
•
A synth track can display a waveform preview of its output. When you
Software Synthesizers
Synth Rack View
enable this display function by clicking the
button on the track strip,
the amplitude of a synth track's audio signal is graphed in real time as a
waveform.
•
Synth tracks are distinguished by the synth icon to the right of the track
number.
Synth icon
Inserting Soft Synths
In order to play a soft synth from a MIDI controller or with recorded MIDI
data, you need to have at least one synth track that lists the soft synth in its
Input field, and at least one MIDI track that lists the soft synth in its Output
field. The data from the MIDI track feeds the synth track and plays the soft
synth. If you’re playing the soft synth with a MIDI controller, the MIDI track
that’s feeding the synth track must have the focus (lighter color). You can
also patch the soft synth into an audio track’s FX bin instead of a synth
track’s Input field.
To add a soft synth to the audio and synth tracks’ Input menus (drop-downs)
and the MIDI tracks’ Output menus, you have to insert each soft synth that
you want to use into each project. There are two basic ways to insert soft
synths in SONAR:
1. You can insert soft synths from the Synth Rack view or with the InsertSoft Synths command. If you use this method, you can choose to have
SONAR create the necessary synth and MIDI tracks, and patch them
together correctly. If you want to use multiple synth tracks to take
advantage of SONAR’s support for the multi-output soft synth format,
you need to create and patch additional MIDI tracks manually to feed
the additional synth tracks.
2. You can insert soft synths into FX bins of individual audio tracks. If you
use this method, you need to set a MIDI track’s Output field to the name
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497
of the soft synth you inserted. Then you can record MIDI data in the
MIDI track to play the soft synth with.
The procedure for inserting multi-output and single-output soft synths is
basically the same. There are just more tracks possibly involved when you
insert a multi-output soft synth.
You can insert more than one copy (also called an instance) of the same
soft synth. Each new copy has the same name as the previous copy except
for having a higher number after the name. Every copy appears in a
separate row in the drop-down menus of synth and audio track inputs and
MIDI track outputs.
To Insert a Soft Synth from the Synth Rack View or
Menu
1. If you want to use the Synth Rack view, open the Synth Rack view with
the Views-Synth Rack command, and click the Insert button
display the popup menu of installed soft synths.
to
2. If you want to use the menu command, use the Insert-Soft Synths
command to display the popup menu of installed soft synths.
3. In the popup menu, click the name of the soft synth you want to insert.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears, unless you’ve previously
unchecked the Ask This Every Time checkbox that’s in the dialog. If you
have, SONAR inserts the soft synth according to the preferences you
set the last time you used the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog. If you
need to open the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog when it’s hidden,
click the Insert Soft Synth Options button
toolbar.
in the Synth Rack view
4. Choose options from the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog according to
the following:
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•
If you want to create a MIDI track that uses the soft synth as an
output, check the Create These Tracks: MIDI Source checkbox.
•
If you want to create a single synth track that acts as an output for
Output 1 of the soft synth, check the Create These Tracks: First
Synth Audio Output checkbox.
•
If you want to create separate synth tracks for each of the soft
synth’s outputs, check the Create These Tracks: All Synth Audio
Outputs checkbox.
Software Synthesizers
Inserting Soft Synths
•
If you want to use existing MIDI and audio tracks to play the soft
synth, uncheck all of the Create These Tracks options. SONAR
adds the soft synth to the audio track input and MIDI track output
menus. You need to set an existing MIDI track’s Output field to the
soft synth, and set an existing audio track’s Input field to the soft
synth (the audio track will then become a synth track).
•
If you want to open the soft synth’s interface from this dialog, check
the Open These Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox.
•
If you opened this dialog from the Insert menu and want to open the
Synth Rack view, check the Open These Windows: Synth Rack
View checkbox.
•
If the synth you’re inserting can create or send MIDI data, and you
want to record or redirect this MIDI data, enable the Enable MIDI
Output checkbox.
•
Any automation data you create for this synth is displayed by
default on the Synth track for this synth. If you want to display this
data on a different track, choose the track in the Display Automation
On menu.
•
If you create some new knobs on the Synth Rack to control certain
parameters on a particular synth, you can display the same knobs
every time you insert that synth by enabling the Recall Assignable
Controls checkbox.
•
If you want to open this dialog every time you use the Insert-Soft
Synths command, or click the Insert button in the Synth Rack view
and choose a synth from the popup menu, check the Ask This
Every Time option. If you always insert soft synths in the same way,
you can uncheck this option so you don’t have to deal with the
dialog each time. To open the dialog when the option is unchecked,
click the Insert Soft Synth Options button
view toolbar.
in the Synth Rack
5. Click OK to close the dialog and insert the synth.
SONAR adds the soft synth to the audio track input and MIDI track output
menus, and creates any new tracks that you requested. The new tracks
already have the correct inputs and outputs patched. Now you can record
MIDI data in the soft synth MIDI tracks, and/or play the soft synth from a
MIDI keyboard or controller.
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499
To Insert a Soft Synth in an FX Bin
1. In either the Track or Console view, right-click the FX bin of an unused
audio track or bus.
Note: If you patch a soft synth into a bus that has no audio track
assigned to it, the soft synth does not sound. Always use a bus that has
at least one audio track sending data to it.
The plug-in menu appears.
2. Under Soft Synths, choose the name of a soft synth.
Two things happen: the soft synth’s interface appears, and the soft
synth’s name appears in the track’s or bus’s FX bin, with a bypass
button next to the name.
3. Set the soft synth’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag
its interface out of the way.
4. Click the Output field of a MIDI track to display the output menu.
5. Select the name of the soft synth that you patched into the audio track
or bus.
6. If the soft synth is multi-timbral, choose a MIDI channel for the MIDI
track.
7. Also in the MIDI track, select a bank and patch.
Now you can record some MIDI data into the MIDI track to play the soft
synth with. See “To Play a Soft Synth with Recorded MIDI Data” on page
502.
You can also play the soft synth in real-time from a MIDI controller. See “To
Play a Soft Synth from a MIDI Controller” on page 503.
Opening a Soft Synth’s Property Page
There are several different methods to open a soft synth’s property page
(interface):
500
•
When you insert the soft synth from the Insert menu or Synth Rack
view, check the Open These Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox
in the Insert soft synth Synth Options dialog.
•
Double-click the name of the soft synth in either a MIDI track’s Output
field or a synth track’s Input field.
•
Double-click the row in the Synth Rack view that displays the soft synth.
Software Synthesizers
Opening a Soft Synth’s Property Page
•
Double-click the name of the soft synth in an FX bin.
•
Click one of the rows in the Synth Rack view to select it, and then click
the Properties button in the Synth Rack toolbar (or press c).
Synth Rack Icons
Each Synth Rack strip displays a synth icon so that you can easily tell one
synth from another when the rack contains multiple synths.
Icons have the same image format and file location as track icons, and use
the same commands to show or hide the icons. Synth Rack Icons are
enabled in SONAR by default, and the default icon for each synth is
track_icon_dxi_large.bmp. The Synth Rack only displays large format
icons, fixed at 48x48 pixels.
Use the following procedures to manage your synth icons:
To do this...
Do this...
To hide Synth Rack icons
Right-click an icon in the Synth Rack
and choose Show Synth Icons from
the popup menu.
Or
Use the Options-Icons-Synth RackShow Large Icons command.
To show Synth Rack icons
Use the Options-Icons-Synth RackShow Large Icons command.
To load a particular synth icon
Right-click the icon in the Synth Rack
that you want to change, and select
Load Synth Icon from the popup
menu.
To reset a particular synth icon to
its original icon
Right-click the icon in the Synth Rack
that you want to reset, and select
Reset Synth Icon from the popup
menu.
To open a synth’s property page
Double-click the synth’s icon in the
Synth Rack.
Software Synthesizers
Synth Rack Icons
501
Playing a Soft Synth
There are several ways to play a soft synth:
•
You can record MIDI data and use the soft synth as a playback device.
Note: WDM or ASIO drivers do not improve performance when you
play back recorded MIDI data—the improvement comes only when you
play a soft synth in real time from an external MIDI controller or
keyboard.
•
You can play the soft synth in real time from a MIDI controller or
keyboard. To avoid excessive latency, your sound card must be using a
WDM or ASIO driver. Also, you must set mixing latency to the lowest
achievable level (probably less than 10 msec.), which you do by using
the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog box,
and dragging the Buffer Size slider on the General tab.
•
Some soft synths that use the DXi 2 format can send MIDI data,
sometimes including MIDI notes, from their interfaces to SONAR. For
example, some soft synths have MIDI keyboards built into their
interfaces that you can click to send note on/off messages.
See “Recording a Soft Synth’s MIDI Output” on page 509 for more
information.
To Play a Soft Synth with Recorded MIDI Data
1. Insert a soft synth into the project.
2. In the MIDI track that sends its output to the soft synth, choose a MIDI
channel.
3. Open the soft synth’s interface (if it’s not open already) by clicking the
Properties button in the Synth Rack view, or by double-clicking the
name of the soft synth if it’s patched into the FX bin of an audio track.
4. Set the soft synth’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag
its interface out of the way (the soft synth’s interface does not have to
be open for the soft synth to sound).
5. If you want to save your soft synth settings, type a name in the Presets
field, and click the Disk icon that’s next to the Presets field.
6. Record some MIDI data into the MIDI track.
When you play back the recorded MIDI data, you should hear the soft synth
through your sound card’s outputs. If you don’t, make sure your data is in
the right range; a bank, patch, and channel are selected; your monitor
502
Software Synthesizers
Playing a Soft Synth
speakers or headphones are turned up; and that none of the relevant tracks
are muted.
You can add effects to each of the synth tracks. You can also add MIDI
effects to your soft synth MIDI tracks.
To Play a Soft Synth from a MIDI Controller
1. Make sure your controller is set to local off.
2. Make sure that the Audio Engine button
depressed.
in the Transport toolbar is
3. Insert a soft synth into your project (see “Inserting Soft Synths” on page
497, if necessary).
Note: If you patch a soft synth into a bus that has no audio track
assigned to it, the soft synth does not sound. Always use a bus that has
at least one audio track sending data to it.
4. In the MIDI track that sends its output to the soft synth, choose a MIDI
channel.
5. Open the soft synth’s interface (if it’s not open already) by clicking the
Properties button in the Synth Rack view, or by double-clicking the
name of the soft synth if it’s patched into the FX bin of an audio track.
Note: You can also open a soft synth’s interface by double-clicking its
name where it appears in a MIDI track’s Out menu or a synth track’s In
menu.
6. Set the soft synth’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag
its interface out of the way.
7. If you want to save your soft synth settings, type a name in the Presets
field, and click the Disk icon that’s next to the Presets field.
8. Make sure that the MIDI track has the focus (its titlebar is lighter), and
play your MIDI controller.
When you play your MIDI controller you should hear the soft synth through
your sound card’s outputs. If you don’t, make sure you’re playing in the right
range; a bank, patch, and channel are selected; your monitor speakers or
headphones are turned up; your controller is attached to your MIDI
interface; and that none of the relevant tracks are muted.
To Remove A Soft Synth from a Track or Bus
•
If your soft synth is patched into the FX bin of an audio track or bus,
right-click the name of the soft synth, and choose Delete from the
Software Synthesizers
Playing a Soft Synth
503
popup menu.
OR
•
In the synth track that uses the soft synth as an input, choose another
input for the track. If you don’t select another soft synth as an input, the
synth track becomes a regular audio track.
To Remove a Soft Synth from a Project
•
If your soft synth is patched into the FX bin of an audio track or bus,
right-click the name of the soft synth, and choose Delete from the
popup menu.
•
If your soft synth is patched into the Input field of a synth track, go to the
Synth Rack view, click the name of the soft synth to select it, and then
click the Delete button. SONAR deletes the soft synth strip from the
Synth Rack view and sets the inputs and MIDI outputs of all affected
tracks to the next lower-numbered option. SONAR does not delete the
affected tracks.
Note: If you’re using a ReWire instrument and not a soft synth, always
close the ReWire instrument’s interface before you delete the
instrument from SONAR, or before you close SONAR.
Muting and Soloing Soft Synth Tracks
SONAR automatically places any synth and MIDI tracks that use soft
synths into a group that makes muting and soloing the tracks easy:
•
To mute or solo a MIDI track that is patched to a synth track, simply
mute or solo the MIDI track—SONAR automatically mutes or solos the
correct synth track. If another MIDI track uses the synth track as an
output, SONAR leaves the synth track unmuted.
•
To mute or solo all the MIDI tracks that are patched to a specific soft
synth, simply mute or solo the synth track that the MIDI tracks are
patched into.—SONAR automatically mutes or solos all the correct
MIDI tracks.
Or
•
Click the M or S buttons (mute and solo, respectively) next to the soft
synth’s name in the Synth Rack view. This mutes or solos all the tracks
associated with this instance of the soft synth.
You can use the mute and solo buttons in the Track view, Synth Rack view,
or Console view.
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Software Synthesizers
Muting and Soloing Soft Synth Tracks
Multi-port Soft Synths
A multi-port soft synth allows you the option of using a different synth track
for every output that the soft synth has. This allows you to use different
plug-in effects for each sound (or in some cases, group of sounds) that a
soft synth produces. For example, if a soft synth can produce 16 sounds at
the same time, and has 4 outputs, you can send any of the 16 sounds out
through any of 4 different outputs, giving you a choice of 4 different plug-in
configurations for that soft synth. You would use 4 different synth tracks:
one for each output. If a soft synth can produce 8 sounds at the same time,
and has 8 outputs, you could use 8 synth tracks and 8 plug-in
configurations. If you need more plug-in configurations or just more sounds,
you can insert more copies of the same soft synth, using new synth tracks
for all of the new copy’s outputs. You can also send all the MIDI tracks out
the same output and synth track if you don’t need separate plug-ins for each
sound, or just want to use the soft synth’s internal effects.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog gives you the option of automatically
creating a separate synth track for each audio output that the soft synth has,
or creating just one synth track for Output 1 of that particular soft synth.
Each new copy (also called an instance) of a soft synth is considered to be
a separate instrument, and appears in a separate row in the Synth Rack
view, with a number after its name representing which copy it is.
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to
Audio
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, it’s extremely easy to
convert your soft synth MIDI tracks to either new audio tracks, or Wave,
MP3, or other exported files.
You can also do a temporary conversion, called freezing. See “Freeze
Tracks and Synths” on page 543 for more information.
To Convert Your Soft Synth Tracks to New Audio Tracks
1. Mute all tracks that you don’t want to convert.
2. Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog box appears.
3. In the Destination field, choose a new or pre-existing track to put the
new audio data on.
Software Synthesizers
Multi-port Soft Synths
505
4. If you’ve saved presets from previous bounce operations, you can
choose a preset from the Preset field.
5. In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
6. In the Channel Format field, choose mono if you want a mono track,
stereo if you want a stereo track, and split mono if you want to create
separate mono tracks.
7. In the Source/Buses field, choose the output bus(es) that the soft synth
tracks are using (usually the main outputs).
8. In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
9. Click OK.
SONAR creates new audio tracks from the outputs you selected. When
you’re through converting, don’t forget to mute your MIDI tracks so you
won’t hear them and the new audio track(s) at the same time.
Note: you control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing,
freezing, applying effects) on the Audio Data tab of the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field. The
default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for
Rendering Audio” on page 774 for more information.
To Export Your Soft Synth Tracks as Wave, MP3, or
Other Type Files
1. Mute all tracks that you don’t want to export; make sure you don’t mute
the synth track or the audio track that the soft synth is patched into, or
the MIDI track(s) that you are using as a source.
2. Use the File-Export-Audio command.
The Export Audio dialog box appears.
3. In the Look in field, choose the location where you want the new,
exported file to be.
4. Type a file name in the File name field.
5. Choose the type of file, the format, and the bit depth of the new file
you’re creating—for MP3 use 16 bits.
6. In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
7. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new audio file of the type you specified. Find the file in
the folder you specified, and double-click it to listen to it.
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Software Synthesizers
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio
Using the Assignable Controls Feature
You can create knobs on the Synth Rack to control any of a synth’s
automatable parameters (each knob learns what parameter to control when
you create the knob). This makes it easy to adjust the controls that you use
most often on a particular synth, and also lets you record automation from
the Synth Rack. After you create some control knobs, the next time you
insert the same synth, you can choose to display the same control knobs
that you used previously.
You can also group control knobs on the Synth Rack, and use Remote
Control to move the knobs.
To Create Control Knobs on the Synth Rack
1. In the Synth Rack, open the property page (interface) of the synth that
you want to create knobs for.
2. In that synth’s strip of controls in the Synth Rack, click the Assign
Controls button to enable it.
3. While the Assign Controls button is enabled, click on each control in the
synth’s property page that you want to create a knob for.
4. When you’re finished clicking on controls, click the Assign Controls
button to disable it.
The Synth Rack displays knobs for the controls you selected, with the each
knob’s name displayed below each knob. Now you can adjust some of the
synth’s parameters by moving the appropriate knob in the Synth Rack.
To Hide or Show Control Knobs on the Synth Rack
•
In the Synth Rack, click the Show/Hide Assigned Controls button.
The Synth Rack displays knobs for the controls you selected, with the each
knob’s name displayed below each knob. Now you can adjust some of the
synth’s parameters by moving the appropriate knob in the Synth Rack.
Software Synthesizers
Using the Assignable Controls Feature
507
Automating Controls from the Synth
Rack
Note: Your synth’s manufacturer determines which controls (if any) you can
automate. If your synth does not expose its controls to SONAR, you can not
automate the synth.
Once you create some control knobs on the Synth Rack, you can record
automation from them. Use the same procedure you would use to record
automation of any other SONAR knob or widget. See “Recording Individual
Fader or Knob Movements” on page 623 and “Displaying Synth Rack
Automation” on page 508 for more information
You can also draw and edit synth automation in the Clips pane. See
Drawing Soft Synth Automation in the Clips Pane“Drawing Soft Synth
Automation in the Clips Pane” on page 509 for more information.
Displaying Synth Rack Automation
You can choose what track you want a synth’s automation to appear in for
editing. Use the Automation Track menu in each strip of controls in the
Synth Rack to choose what track you want to display the synth’s
automation on. You can display the automation from several different
synths on the same track, or put a synth’s automation on a track that is
completely unrelated to the synth if you want.
See “Synth Rack View” on page 496 for a picture of the Synth Rack and all
its components.
Remote Control of the Synth Rack
Once you create some control knobs on the Synth Rack, you can assign
knobs or sliders on your MIDI controller to control the Synth Rack knobs.
See “Using Remote Control” on page 579 for more information.
508
Software Synthesizers
Automating Controls from the Synth Rack
Drawing Soft Synth Automation in the Clips
Pane
Some synths have controls that you can automate by drawing envelopes in
the Track view.
To Automate a Soft Synth’s Controls in the Clips Pane
1. In the Synth Rack, the Automation Track menu in a particular synth’s
control strip displays the track that this synth’s automation appears in.
Right-click in the Clips pane of this track, and choose EnvelopesCreate Track Envelope-Name of your synth from the popup menu.
The Synth Envelope dialog box appears.
2. Click the checkbox(es) of the parameter(s) you want to draw.
3. Choose a color (optional).
4. Click OK.
SONAR draws an envelope for the parameter that you chose. You can edit
the envelope to make the parameter behave as you want it to.
Soft Synth MIDI Output Support
Some soft synths produce MIDI output as well as audio output. You can
now record the MIDI output of both VST and DirectX instruments that have
this feature.
Recording a Soft Synth’s MIDI Output
SONAR allows you to record the MIDI output of a synth onto another MIDI
track in your project. This can be convenient if your synth creates
arpeggios, drum patterns, or other MIDI data that you wish to edit as a MIDI
clip.
To Enable MIDI Outputs on a Synth
•
When inserting a synth from the Insert menu or the Synth Rack, check
the Enable MIDI Output checkbox in the Insert Soft Synth Options
dialog box.
Or
•
Right-click a synth name in the Synth Rack to enable or disable Enable
Software Synthesizers
Soft Synth MIDI Output Support
509
MIDI Output from a popup menu.
The soft synth will now appear as an Input option on all MIDI tracks just like
any hardware inputs.
To Hear a Soft Synth’s MIDI Output Through Another
Track
1. Verify that Enable MIDI Output is enabled for the synth whose MIDI
output you wish to hear through another track.
2. On a new MIDI track in your project, set the Input to the synth whose
MIDI output you wish to hear.
3. Set the Output of that track to another synth or MIDI output used in your
project and enable Input Echo.
4. Play some MIDI data through the synth whose MIDI Output has been
enabled.
The MIDI data sent from that synth will be echoed through the Output of the
new MIDI track.
To Record a Soft Synth’s MIDI Output to a Track
1. Verify that Enable MIDI Output is enabled for the synth whose MIDI
output you wish to record.
2. On a new MIDI track in your project, set the Input to the synth whose
MIDI output you wish to record and arm the track.
3. Click the Record button to start recording.
4. If you’re recording live MIDI input through the synth, place track focus
on the synth’s MIDI track and begin playing your MIDI controller. If
you’re recording pre-existing MIDI data through the synth, record
through the duration of the pre-existing clips.
The MIDI Output of the synth will be recorded to the new MIDI track. You
can then edit the MIDI data and route it to a different MIDI output as you see
fit.
Note: Be careful to avoid creating a MIDI feedback loop. To prevent this,
make sure the Input of a soft synth’s MIDI track is not set to the same
synth’s Output.
510
Software Synthesizers
Soft Synth MIDI Output Support
ReWire
SONAR 6 can send MIDI events to any object in a ReWire client application
on as many MIDI channels as the client application makes available.
ReWire Instruments
ReWire is a technology for transferring audio data between software
applications in real time—the software equivalent of a multi-channel audio
cable. ReWire is built on the following cornerstones:
•
Real-time audio streaming between applications
•
Sample accurate synchronization
•
Common transport functionality
SONAR supports the ReWire 2.0 format, but with some differences.
SONAR interacts with ReWire applications in the following ways:
•
You can insert one instance of a ReWire application into each SONAR
project.
•
You can use as many MIDI channels and devices in each ReWire
application as that application makes available.
•
You can insert ReWire devices into SONAR projects from the Synth
Rack view or Insert menu, and you can tell SONAR to create the
necessary synth tracks and one MIDI track at that time. You can also
tell SONAR to open the ReWire application’s property page, because,
unlike synths, ReWire applications must have their property pages
(interfaces) open in order to function.
•
SONAR’s tempo, transport, and loop points are linked to the ReWire
application. Activating or changing any of these settings in the ReWire
application(s) changes the same setting in SONAR, and vice versa. If
you have several applications open and you make a change in one of
them, it may be necessary to put the focus on the other application(s) to
update their interfaces.
•
You cannot send patch or bank changes from SONAR to the ReWire
application. All other track property controls in SONAR control the
ReWire device, except the pan controls on MIDI tracks. The pan
controls on SONAR’s synth tracks control the ReWire device’s panning.
•
You can mix down or bounce ReWire tracks in SONAR the same way
you mix down or bounce synth tracks.
•
You can use SONAR’s automation functions on both synth and MIDI
Software Synthesizers
ReWire
511
tracks that the ReWire application uses.
•
Muting or soloing a synth track that a ReWire device uses automatically
mutes or solos the MIDI track that feeds that synth track. Muting or
soloing a MIDI track that a ReWire device uses will mute or solo the
corresponding synth track only if there is only one MIDI track feeding
that synth track.
•
You must always close your ReWire application(s) before you close
SONAR. Some ReWire applications prevent SONAR from closing
properly if the ReWire applications are still open.
Inserting a ReWire Instrument
After you install your ReWire applications and reboot your computer, the
names of the ReWire applications appear in SONAR’s Insert menu under
ReWire Devices, and also in the Synth Rack view’s Insert button popup
menu.
To Insert a ReWire Instrument
1. Open a SONAR project. Do not launch your ReWire application.
2. In the SONAR’s Synth Rack view, click the Insert button, and click
ReWire Devices to display the submenu of installed ReWire devices.
OR
Use the Insert-ReWire Devices command to display the submenu of
installed ReWire devices.
3. Click the name of the ReWire device you want to insert.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
4. Choose options from the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog according to
the following:
512
•
If you want to create a MIDI track that uses the ReWire Instrument
as an output, check the Create These Tracks: MIDI Source
checkbox.
•
If you want to create a single synth track that acts as an output for
Output 1 of the ReWire Instrument, check the Create These
Tracks: First Synth Audio Output checkbox.
•
If you want to create separate synth tracks for each of the ReWire
Instrument’s outputs, check the Create These Tracks: All Synth
Audio Outputs checkbox.
Software Synthesizers
ReWire
•
If you want to use existing MIDI and audio tracks to play the ReWire
Instrument, uncheck all of the Create These Tracks options.
SONAR adds the ReWire Instrument to the audio track input and
MIDI track output menus. You need to set an existing audio track’s
Input field to the ReWire Instrument, and set an existing MIDI
track’s Output field to the ReWire Instrument. The existing audio
track will then become a synth track.
•
If you want to open the ReWire Instrument’s interface from this
dialog, check the Open These Windows: Synth Property Page
checkbox (always check this option: ReWire Instruments do not
sound unless their property pages are open).
•
If you opened this dialog from the Insert menu and want to open the
Synth Rack view, check the Open These Windows: Synth Rack
View checkbox.
•
If you want to open this dialog every time you use the InsertReWire Instrument command, or click the Insert button in the
Synth Rack view and choose a ReWire instrument from the popup
menu, check the Ask This Every Time option. If you always insert
ReWire Instruments in the same way, you can uncheck this option
so you don’t have to deal with the dialog each time. To open the
dialog when the option is unchecked, click the Insert Soft Synth
Options button
in the Synth Rack view toolbar.
5. Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR adds your ReWire devices to the audio and synth track Input
menus and the MIDI track Output and Channel menus, creates any
tracks you requested, adds the ReWire instrument to the Synth Rack
view, and opens the ReWire application’s interface.
6. In the MIDI track whose output is the ReWire synth track, click the dropdown arrow in the Channel field to display the names of the available
ReWire devices in your ReWire instrument.
7. Click the name of the device you want to use.
8. Make sure that the synth track you want to hear the ReWire instrument
through has the appropriate ReWire channel listed in its Input field.
Now you can record MIDI data in the MIDI track and hear it through the
synth track. If you want to use different synth tracks for each ReWire device,
see the following procedure.
Software Synthesizers
ReWire
513
Note: Always close your ReWire applications before closing a SONAR
project.
To Use Separate Synth Tracks for Each ReWire Device
1. Open SONAR, insert a ReWire instrument, and choose All Synth Audio
Outputs option in the Create These Tracks field of the Insert Soft Synth
Options dialog. Make sure you choose to open the Synth window, and
click OK.
SONAR inserts the ReWire instrument and creates multiple synth
tracks.
2. In your ReWire application, assign the devices you want to use to the
outputs or channels you want to use. For example, in Propellerheads
Reason, you use the back panel of the mixer to drag cables from a
device to the output channel you want to use for that instrument.
3. In SONAR, set the Output field of a MIDI track to the name of your
ReWire application, and set the Channel field to the name of the
ReWire device you want to play with this track.
4. Record some MIDI data in the track and play it. Find the synth track
whose Input field lists the output channel you patched your device
into—the playback meter lights up as you play the MIDI track that plays
your device.
Now you can use separate effects for each of your ReWire devices.
Note: Always close your ReWire applications before closing SONAR or a
SONAR project.
Routing MIDI Data to ReWire Instruments
Some ReWire applications can create large numbers of instruments. You
can send a track’s MIDI data to any of these instruments by selecting the
specific instrument in the MIDI channel menu of the relevant track.
To Send MIDI Data to a Specific ReWire Instrument
1. In the SONAR MIDI track that contains the recorded MIDI data you
want to send, make sure that the Output menu is set to the correct
ReWire device.
2. Then use the Ch menu in the same track to choose the instrument you
want to send to. This also works if you just want to use this track to play
your MIDI controller through a particular instrument in the ReWire
application.
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Software Synthesizers
ReWire
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments
To either mix down or bounce ReWire instruments to new audio tracks, use
the same procedures as for synths.
Automating ReWire Instruments
You can automate audio and MIDI tracks that are patched to ReWire
instruments the same ways you can automate any of SONAR’s audio and
MIDI tracks.
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide
The following lists some common issues when you use ReWire with
SONAR:
•
SONAR Won’t Close Properly—Always close your ReWire
applications before closing SONAR or a SONAR project.
•
Rebirth Won’t Play After I Open Its Property Page—Make sure that
the Loop switch in Rebirth is enabled.
•
My ReWire Project Plays at a Different Tempo when Opened from
SONAR—When you open a ReWire project from SONAR, the ReWire
project assumes SONAR’s default tempo, which is 100. Change
SONAR’s tempo to match your ReWire project.
•
My MIDI Controller Works in SONAR or my ReWire Application, but
not Both—Choose different MIDI In ports for both SONAR and your
ReWire application. Do this in SONAR by using the Options-MIDI
Devices command, and highlighting the MIDI In port you want to use in
SONAR. If you only have one MIDI In port on your MIDI interface or
sound card, enable that input in either SONAR or your ReWire
application, and disable that input in the other application.
•
I Get a MIDI Input Error Message When I Open a ReWire
Application—If you only have one MIDI Input port on your MIDI
interface, you probably have that one reserved for SONAR, leaving
none for your ReWire application. If you would rather use your MIDI
controller in the ReWire application instead of SONAR, you can
deselect your MIDI input port in SONAR’s MIDI Devices dialog
(Options-MIDI Devices command), and then select that MIDI Input
from whatever menu your ReWire application has for that purpose. If
you have multiple inputs on your MIDI interface, simply select different
ones for SONAR and your ReWire application.
Software Synthesizers
ReWire
515
Stand-alone Synths
Some soft synths can be run independently of SONAR’ and do not need to
be inserted to the Synth Rack or an FX bin to use. After you install this kind
of synth and restart your computer, the name of the synth’s MIDI driver
appears in SONAR’s MIDI Devices dialog box under Outputs.
Playing a Stand-alone Synth
SONAR plays this kind of synth by seeing it as additional MIDI outputs in
both the MIDI Devices dialog box and in MIDI tracks’ output fields.
To Play a Stand-alone Synth
1. Use the Options-MIDI Devices command to open the MIDI Devices
dialog box.
2. In the Outputs field, make sure the name of your stand-alone synth’s
MIDI driver is highlighted, and click OK.
3. Click the Output field of an unused MIDI track to display the output
menu.
4. Select the name of the stand-alone synth’s MIDI driver.
5. If your stand-alone synth is multi-timbral, change the track’s MIDI
channel to the same one that the synth uses for the sound you want to
hear.
6. Select a bank and patch on your stand-alone synth, if you haven’t
already.
7. Record some MIDI data in the MIDI track, or play any MIDI controller
that’s an input for the MIDI track.
When you play your MIDI controller or play back the recorded MIDI data,
you should hear the stand-alone synth through your sound card’s outputs. If
you don’t, make sure you’re playing in the right range and that your monitor
speakers or headphones are turned up, and that none of the relevant tracks
are muted.
Recording a Stand-alone Synth
There are several ways to record a stand-alone synth:
•
516
You can use the synth’s wave capture function, if it has one. See your
synth’s documentation for a procedure. Make a note of where the
resulting captured Wave file is stored, and then you can import the file
into SONAR by using the File-Import-Audio command.
Software Synthesizers
Stand-alone Synths
•
You can connect your sound card’s outputs to your sound card’s inputs,
either internally or externally, depending on your sound card’s design.
After you do this, you need to arm an audio track in SONAR and select
one of your sound card’s wave drivers as an input. Start recording, and
make sure the MIDI track that is routed to the synth is playing back.
•
You can use your sound card’s wave capture or “what-you-hear” option,
if it has one. See the following procedure.
To Record A Stand-alone Synth with your Sound Card’s
Wave Capture Function
1. Pick a destination audio track and set the Input field to Stereo.
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one
that your stand-alone synth uses as an output.
2. Arm the destination track.
3. Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the
destination track.
4. If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a
click, disable the metronome during recording option in the Project
Options dialog box. To do this, select Options-Project to open the
Project Options dialog box, select the Metronome tab and uncheck
Recording in the General section.
5. Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by doubleclicking the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar, or by choosing StartPrograms-Accessories- Multimedia-Volume Control-OptionsProperties.
Note: Some sound cards, such as the SoundBlaster Live, have their
own proprietary mixer. If yours has one, please use it instead.
6. Click Adjust Volume For Recording, and make sure all boxes below are
checked.
7. Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or
What You Hear. Check the Select box at the bottom, then close the
window.
8. In SONAR, click the Record button.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to the stand-alone
synth as a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so
you don’t hear them and the new audio track at the same time.
Software Synthesizers
Stand-alone Synths
517
518
Software Synthesizers
Stand-alone Synths
Mixing
SONAR lets you mix your projects with tremendous
control and flexibility. The extensive bussing controls,
support for DX and VST plug-ins, built-in EQ’s,
automation, remote control, metering, grouping, and
freeze features let you design your own style of mixing,
with your own workflow. (Automation is covered in a
separate chapter.)
After you finish mixing a project, you can export the project
in a variety of audio file formats to create a CD master or to
publish your work on the Internet. You can choose to include all
real-time effects and control movements in the mixed-down tracks
that you export (see “Preparing Audio for Distribution” on page 585.
In this Chapter
Preparing to Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Signal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
nUsing Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Organizing Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Using the Per-track EQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Preparing to Mix
The Console and Track views contain all the controls you need to mix your
project. To open the Console view click the Console view button
or
choose Views-Console. The Track view is always open.
Note: You can control all sliders and knobs in the Console and Track Views
by hovering over them with the mouse and manipulating the mouse wheel.
Audio module
MIDI module
MIDI velocity
Bus out
Show/hide
for tracks,
buses,
mains
Widen all strips
Show/hide strip controls buttons
Bus pane
Note: The above view does not show EQ. It is pictured below.
Gain
Band Q
Frequency
EQ enable
Band select
EQ type select
520
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Main out
Sound controls in the Console view are grouped in modules. There are several
types of modules:
Module
type...
What you can do...
MIDI track
Set the track’s output, channel, bank, and patch; set the
input; mute, solo, and arm the track; set channel
volume, panning, chorus, and reverb levels; add realtime effects
Audio track
Set the track’s output (bus or Main out destination);
choose an input; monitor input levels; mute, solo, and
arm the track; set track volume and panning; add realtime effects; send audio data to buses or main outs.
Synth track
Set the track’s output (bus or Main out destination); set
the input; mute and solo the track; set track volume and
panning; add real-time effects; send audio data to buses
or main outs.
Bus
Receive input from one or more audio tracks, add realtime effects, and send the results to a main out or
another bus
Main outs
Monitor output levels using meters and control the
stereo volume of audio to an output on your audio
interface. To adjust both the left and right volume levels
at the same time, use the Link button
for that
module.
One module’s name is always outlined with a white line. This corresponds
to the track with the focus. You can change the focus by clicking to the right
of the module’s volume fader.
You can adjust Console view controls in the following ways:
•
Click on the center of the knob and drag the mouse up or down to
adjust the knob
•
Click and drag a fader up or down
•
Double-click the center of the knob to return it to its snap-to position
Volume and pan faders also have snap-to positions; double-click a fader’s
knob to return the fader to its snap-to value.
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521
The controls and effects patch points all have tool tips associated with
them. To see a description of a particular control or effect, simply rest the
cursor over the item for a few seconds.
There are four types of modules in the Track view:
Track
type...
What you can do...
MIDI track
Set the track’s output, channel, bank, and patch; set the
input; mute, solo, and arm the track; set channel volume,
panning, chorus, and reverb levels; add real-time effects.
Audio track
Set the track’s output; set the input and monitor input levels;
mute, solo, and arm the track; set track volume and
panning; add real-time effects; send audio data to buses or
main outs.
Synth track
Set the track’s output; set the input; mute and solo the track;
enable a waveform preview; set track volume and panning;
add real-time effects; send audio data to buses or main
outs.
Bus
Receive input from one or more audio tracks, add real-time
effects, and send the results to a main out or another bus.
For information on using the controls in the Track view, see “Changing
Track Settings” on page 151.
Volume, pan, bus send level and bus send pan also have snap-to positions;
double-click the control to return it to its snap-to value.
The controls and effects patch points all have tool tips associated with
them. To see a description of a particular control or effect, simply rest the
cursor over the item for a few seconds.
Configuring the Console and Track Views
The Console and Track view can be reconfigured in a variety of ways. You
can:
522
•
Choose the tracks that you want to see
•
Adjust the display of audio meters and clip indicators
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Preparing to Mix
•
Change the number of buses
•
Set control snap-to positions
•
Insert new tracks
•
Name tracks and buses
Note: the Console view has additional controls to configure its appearance.
See the online help topic “Console View” for more information.
Meters are helpful in determining the relative volumes of your audio tracks
and in detecting and preventing overload. By default, the Console view
displays output level meters in main out modules at all times, and displays
record level meters in individual tracks whenever they are armed and have
an audio input. The display of meters, however, can place a considerable
load on your computer. Showing only the peak indicators, or hiding the
meters entirely, can reduce the load on your computer. This may increase
the number of audio tracks and real-time effects you can play back at one
time.
In the Track view, there are several ways to configure which tracks are
displayed.
To Display All the Tracks in a Project
•
Click the Zoom tool’s
the Zoom tool menu.
down arrow and select Show All Tracks from
To Hide Selected Tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to hide.
2. Click the Zoom tool’s down arrow and select Hide Selected Tracks from
the Zoom tool menu.
To Display Only Selected Tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to display.
2. Click the Zoom tool’s down arrow and select Show Selected Tracks
from the Zoom tool menu.
To Choose the Tracks that are Displayed Using the
Track Manager
1. Click the down arrow next to the Zoom tool and select Track Manager to
open the Track Manager dialog box You can also press m when in the
Track or Console view to access this dialog box.
2. In the list, check those tracks you would like displayed in the view in
which you are working, and uncheck the rest. You can use Shift-click,
Control-click, or the quick select buttons to select multiple modules;
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523
press the Spacebar to check or uncheck all the selected modules at
once. Please note that the track display selections you make in the
Track view do not affect those in the Console view and vice versa.
3. Click OK.
To Hide a Bus or Track
•
Right-click on the module and choose Hide Track or Hide Bus.
To Show or Hide Meters in the Track View
•
Click the Show/Hide Meters button
to display all meters or click on
the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button to display only the
meters you want to see or to customize the appearance of your meters.
Option…
What it does…
Record meters
Displays record meters for any armed track.
Playback meters
Displays playback meters.
Output bus meters
Displays meters in buses
For more information about metering options, see “Changing the Meters’
Display” on page 537.
To Change a Meter’s Range
•
Right-click on the meter and choose a new range.
To Add a Bus
1. Right-click in the Bus pane (to add a bus at the end of the current
buses) or over an existing bus (to add a bus before it).
2. Select Insert Stereo Bus or Insert Surround Bus from the menu that
appears.
A bus appears in the Bus pane.
To Delete a Bus
1. Right-click in the Bus pane over an existing bus.
2. Select Delete Bus from the menu that appears.
The bus is deleted from the Bus pane.
Note: If you have any track or bus routed through the bus you delete, the
signal will be rerouted to the deleted bus’s output.
524
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To Create a Bus Send in a Track
1. Right-click in an empty part of the Track pane (Track view) or a track
module (Console view).
2. Select Insert Send for a list of buses available.
3. Select a bus from the list.
To Set the Snap-to Position of a Knob or Fader
1. Set the control to the desired position.
2. Right-click on the control and choose Value-Set Snap-To=Current.
From now on, the control returns to this position when double-clicked.
To Insert a New Track
1. Right-click in the Console view or on the header of a track in the Track
view.
2. Choose Insert Audio Track or Insert MIDI Track.
SONAR adds a new track to the project.
To Rename a Track or Bus
1. In the Console view, click on the module name. In the Track view
double-click on the Track name.
2. Type a new name.
3. Press Enter.
If you rename a track, the new name is copied to the Track view. If no name
has been assigned to a track, the Console view and Track view display the
track’s number.
To Link Left/Right Faders in a Console View Module
1. In the module whose faders you want to link, adjust the volume of each
fader to the appropriate level.
2. Click the Link button
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.
525
Mixing MIDI
SONAR gives you many tools to control your MIDI mix. When your MIDI
tracks sound the way you want them to, there are several ways to convert
them to audio (see “Converting MIDI to Audio” on page 527).
Mixing a MIDI Track
You can control the mixing and playback of a MIDI track as follows:
526
To do this...
Do this...
Add a real-time MIDI
effect to the track
Right-click in the FX bin and select an effect
from the list (for more information, “Using
Real-Time Effects” later in the chapter)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete or rightclick and select Delete.
Select the output
Click the Output control and choose one from
the list
Select the channel
Click the Channel button and choose one from
the list
Select the bank
Click the Bank button and choose one from
the list
Select the patch
Click the Patch button and choose one from
the list
Set the Chorus level
Adjust the Chorus slider
Set the Reverb level
Adjust the Reverb slider
Mute the track
Click the Mute button
Solo the track
Click the Solo button
Arm the track for
recording
Click the Arm button
Set the Pan level
Adjust the Pan fader
Set the Volume level
Adjust the Volume fader
Mixing
Mixing MIDI
To do this...
Do this...
Select the input
Click the input button and choose one from the
list
When moving the Volume fader, the Value box in the toolbar displays the
level from a scale of 0 (minimum) to 127 (maximum). When you move the
Pan slider, the Value box displays the pan value on a scale that ranges from
100% Left to 100% Right with center represented by a C.
Converting MIDI to Audio
The following options cover three basic MIDI setups:
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through a soft synth, use either the FileExport-Audio or Edit-Bounce to Track(s) commands (see the
procedures in “To Export Your Soft Synth Tracks as Wave, MP3, or
Other Type Files” on page 506, and “To Convert Your Soft Synth Tracks
to New Audio Tracks” on page 505).
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through your sound card’s synthesizer,
see the procedure below.
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through external MIDI modules, simply
connect their analog outputs to the inputs on your sound card, and
record to new audio tracks.
To Convert a Sound Card’s Synth Tracks to a Stereo
Audio Track
1. Pick a destination audio track and set the Input field to Stereo-(name of
your sound card).
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one
that your synth uses as an output.
2. Arm the destination track.
3. Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the
destination track.
4. If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a
click, disable the metronome during recording option in the Project
Options dialog box. To do this, select Options-Project to open the
Project Options dialog box, select the Metronome tab and uncheck
Recording in the General section.
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527
5. Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by doubleclicking the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar, or by choosing StartPrograms-Accessories- Multimedia-Volume Control-OptionsProperties.
6. Open the sound card’s recording control window (the command is
probably Options-Properties-Adjust Volume For Recording) and
make sure all boxes below Adjust Volume For Recording are
checked.
7. Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or
What You Hear. Check the Select box at the bottom, then close the
window.
8. In SONAR, click the Record button.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to the sound card
synth as a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so
you don’t hear them and the new audio track at the same time.
528
Mixing
Mixing MIDI
Signal Flow
Hardware input
Audio clip
Soft Synth input
Clip mute
V-Vocal
Clip fades
Input meters (record)
Clip envelopes/Clip Mute regions
Clip FX bin
Volume Trim
Phase/Interleave
Playback Meter (pre fader/pre FX)
Pre fader sends are affected by M-S buttons unless you change
the LinkPFSend registry option.
FX bin
(
)
Volume fader
Send pan
Stereo pan or
Surround pan
Playback Meter
(post fader)
Surround or
Stereo Bus
Hardware out
Post fader
send
Stereo bus
Surround bus
Input volume
Pre fader
send
Send level
Input volume
Input pan
Pre fader
send
Volume
Volume
Pan
Post fader
send
Playback meter (post fader)
Post fader
send
Hardware Outputs
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529
You control the mixing and playback of an audio track as follows:
530
To do this...
Do this...
Add a real-time audio
effect to the track
Right-click in the FX bin and select an effect
from the list (for more information, see “Using
Real-Time Effects” later in the chapter)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete or right-click
and select Delete.
Send audio data from
the track to a bus
Insert a send in the track controls by rightclicking in the track controls and selecting
Insert-Send-[name of bus you want the data
to go to]. Click the FX tab at the bottom of the
Track pane, and then click the track’s bus
enable button so that it turns green, and set the
Bus Send Level and Bus Send Pan (for more
information, see “Stereo Buses” on page 532”)
Mute the track
Click the Mute button
Solo the track
Click the Solo button
Arm the track for
recording
Click the Arm button
Set the Pan level
Adjust the Pan control
Set the Send Pan to be
the same as the bus that
the send feeds into
Right-click the Send Pan control and choose
Follow Track Pan from the popup menu. This
setting is only active when the send has the
same interleave as the bus that the send feeds
into, and is set to "Post Fader." If enabled, the
Send Pan control no longer affects the output.
Set the Volume level
Adjust the Volume fader
Select the output
Click the dropdown arrow in the Output field and
choose one from the list
Select the input
Click the dropdown arrow in the Input field and
choose one from the list
Mixing
Signal Flow
SONAR displays volume in dB (decibels). When adjusting the volume or
bus send level controls, a value of 0 dB indicates full signal strength;
positive values, up to 6 dB, indicate a signal gain; negative values indicate
an attenuated signal. When you move the Pan control, the Value box
displays the pan value on a scale that ranges from 100%L (hard left)
100%R (hard right).
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio
Any audio track can be tapped, before or after the track volume control, and
sent to one or more buses. A bus can tap any number of audio tracks. Each
track’s data passes through the track’s send level knob on its way to the
bus. This is shown in the diagram below:
This track is routed to
Aux 1 and Aux 2
Pre-fader: output level to Bus 2 is not
affected by the track’s volume fader
Bus enable button: must be lit to send
track data to bus
Post-fader: track’s volume fader
controls output level to Bus 1
The audio in each bus is processed by the input gain and pan controls
(main output buses don’t have these controls), then processed by any real-
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531
time effects you have patched, sent through the bus output level and pan
controls, and then sent to the designated main out, in stereo. You can also
insert a send control on a bus, and send the bus signal to another bus, or
route the output of a bus to another bus.
At each main out, all audio data from audio tracks and buses that were
routed to that main are mixed together. Finally, the data passes through
each main’s master volume fader
Stereo Buses
Buses are useful for mixing together different audio tracks (in stereo) and
applying effects to the mix. You can mix the tracks at different volume levels
by adjusting each track’s bus send level. Buses output to either other buses
or to a main out.
You control the bus as follows:
532
To do this...
Do this...
Send audio data from an audio
track to the bus
In an audio track, press the Bus Send Enable
button corresponding to the bus, or choose the
bus as an output for the track. If the track
doesn’t have a Send module, you can insert
one by right-clicking the track and choosing
Insert-Send-[name of bus you want the
data to go to].
Send audio data from a bus to
another bus
If the bus doesn’t have a Send module, you
can insert one by right-clicking the bus and
choosing Insert-Send-[name of bus you
want the data to go to]. Then click the Bus
Send Enable button so that it’s green, and
adjust the Bus Send Level and Bus Send Pan.
Set the level of the audio data
sent to the bus
In an audio track, set the Bus Send Level
corresponding to the bus, or volume fader if
the output is to the bus
Set the pan of the audio data sent
to the bus
Adjust the Bus Send Pan knob
Set the input level to the bus
Adjust the Input gain on the bus itself
Set the input panning to the bus
Adjust the Input pan on the bus itself
Mixing
Signal Flow
Display the waveform of the audio
that’s flowing through the bus
Enable the bus’s Waveform Preview button
Add a real-time audio effect to the
bus
Right-click in the FX bin and select an effect
from the list (for more information, see “Using
Real-Time Effects” on page 546)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete, or rightclick and choose Delete
Set the output level
Adjust the Output volume
Set the output panning
Adjust the Pan setting
Set the Send Pan to be the same
as the bus that the bus feeds into
Right-click the Send Pan control and choose
Follow Bus Pan from the popup menu. This
setting is only active when the send has the
same interleave as the bus it feeds into, and is
set to "Post Fader." If enabled, the Send Pan
control no longer affects the output.
Select the output
Click the Output button and choose one from
the list
Surround Buses (Producer Edition Only)
Surround buses are useful for mixing and adding effects to create a
surround mix.
To Patch a Track Through a Bus
1. Open the Console view (Views-Console) or the Track view (ViewsTrack).
2. If you want to add effects to the bus, right-click in the FX bin of a bus (if
it is not in use already) and choose an effect from the effects popup
menu. (If you are working in the Track view, you may first need to
display the Bus pane by clicking the Show/Hide Bus Pane button
located at the bottom of the Track view.)
The name of the effect you have chosen appears in the bus FX bin.
3. Set the effect’s parameters and close it.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for any additional effects you want to use.
5. In a track module that you want to patch through the bus, do the
following:
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533
•
Drag the Bus Send Level control for the bus to the approximate
level you want.
•
Drag the Bus Send pan to the approximate setting you want.
•
Click the Bus Enable button for the appropriate bus.
6. Repeat step 5 for all the tracks you want to patch through the bus.
7. In the bus, adjust the Input Gain and Output volume controls to the
approximate level you want.
8. In the bus, drag the Input pan and Output pan controls to the
approximate positions you want.
9. Play your tracks and adjust the Send Level controls, the pan controls,
etc.
To Mute or Solo a Bus
Each bus has a Mute button and a Solo button. These controls act like the
Mute and Solo buttons in a track, but they affect all the signal routed
through the bus.
1. Open the Track view or the Console view.
2. Click the Mute or Solo button in the bus you want to mute or solo.
To Display the Audio Waveform of a Bus
•
Enable the bus’s Waveform Preview button
. This displays the
waveform of the audio that is flowing through the bus.
Main Outs
Each enabled hardware channel has a main out channel strip in the
Console view. Main outs are the final destination for all of your audio in
SONAR. Main outs accept input from both tracks and buses.
Main outs contains a left channel and a right channel, but only one volume
fader. You control the left/right balance of each main out with the balance
slider.
Here’s what you can do in a main out module:
534
To do this...
Do this...
Set the output volume
Adjust the Volume control
Mixing
Signal Flow
Adjust the left/right
balance
Adjust the pan slider that’s on that output
module
Metering
The Console and Track views both have meters to measure playback level,
record level, bus output level, and main output level. The Track view also
has bus return meters. You can configure the meters differently in each
view, if you want.
The responsiveness of your record meters (which also measure input
monitoring) is dependent upon the latency setting in the Audio Options
dialog and the settings in the Audio Meter Settings dialog. With higher
latency settings the meters may appear sluggish.
There are three basic things you should know about meters:
•
What the meters measure
•
How to show or hide different kinds of meters
•
How to choose display options for each kind of meter
Note: Metering uses significant amounts of your computer’s processing
power, especially RMS metering. If you need to free up resources, turning
off metering where you don’t absolutely need it helps. Using peak metering
on tracks and peak plus RMS metering on the main out is a good option. To
disable all metering, turn off metering in both the Track view and Console
view.
What the Meters Measure
The following table summarizes what each kind of meter measures:
Kind of meter...
What it measures...
Record
The level of the instrument listed as an input for
the track you are monitoring—the track must be
armed to enable the meter
Playback
A playback meter measures the playback level
of any pre-existing data in the track you are
monitoring, either before or after the track
faders, depending on what display options you
choose
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535
Main outs
The level of the signal output by each main out.
Buses
The level of the output signal the bus is sending
back from the effects.
Hiding and Showing Meters
The display and configuration of the meters in the Track view is
independent of the meters in the Console view, and vice versa. The Show/
Hide Meters button in the Track view toolbar hides or shows all the meters
of each kind in the Track view. The dropdown arrow on the Vol button in the
Console view displays the meter menu in the Console view. To show or hide
meters on individual tracks or buses, use the right-click popup menu that’s
available from the title bar of each track or bus.
Note: If you want to conserve the maximum amount of your CPU’s
resources, turn off all metering in both the Track and Console views.
Track view toolbar
Console view Vol button
Show/Hide All Meters
Meter Options menu
Meter Options menu
To Show or Hide all Meters of a Certain Type
•
In the Console view, click the dropown arrow on the Vol button, and
check or uncheck the kind of meters you want to show or hide.
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters
button
and check or uncheck the kind of meters you want to show
or hide. To hide all meters, click the Show/Hide Meters button so that it
is not lit.
To Show or Hide Individual Meters on Tracks or Buses
•
536
Right-click the track or bus to display the popup menu, and check or
uncheck the appropriate show meter option.
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Metering
Changing the Meters’ Display
You control the range and kind of units that the various meters display in the
Track and Console views. The display of meters in each of the two views is
independent of the display in the other view. In the Track view, you can
access all meter options from the Show/Hide All Meters button. In the
Console view, you can access all meter options from the dropdown arrow
on the Vol button.
You also have the option of using segmented or non-segmented meters in
the Track and Console views. The Audio Meter Settings dialog (OptionsAudio Meter Settings command) lets you choose segmented or nonsegmented meters for the Track and/or Console views. Meter colors are
also now customizable in the Configure Colors dialog—use the OptionsColors command, and choose VU LO Level, VU HI Level, or VU Tick
Marks.
The dropdown menus give you the following display options:
Menu option...
What it does...
Horizontal Meters (Track
view only)
Choose this option to display the Track view meters
horizontally instead of vertically.
Vertical Meters (Track
view only)
Choose this option to display the Track view meters
vertically instead of horizontally.
Show Numeric Peak
Values (Track view only)
Choose this option to display peak values in each track
header next to the Input Echo button (see also “Peak
Markers” on page 540)
Show Track Peak
Markers (Track view
only)
See “Peak Markers” on page 540)
Show Bus Peak Markers
(Track view only)
See “Peak Markers” on page 540)
Reset All Meters
If a track clips, its meter shows a red clipping indicator.
Click this button to reset the clipping indicator to its nonclipping state.
Peak
Choosing this option causes the meter to display the
highest amplitude in the signal that occurs in a complete
cycle of a frequency.
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537
RMS
Choosing this option causes the meter to display more of
an average of the amplitudes that occur in a complete
cycle of a frequency. RMS, or Root-Mean-Square, is a little
over seventy percent of peak level.
Peak + RMS
Choosing this option causes the meter to display both the
RMS and peak levels. The RMS level is displayed by the
solid bar on the left side of the meter, and the peak level is
displayed as a small line that follows the RMS level just to
the right of it.
Pre Fader/Post Fader
(This option is for
playback and bus
meters only)
Choose Pre Fader or Post Fader to measure the playback
level either before or after the track’s or bus’ volume fader.
Pre Fader/Post FX (This
option is for the buses
only)
Choose Pre Fader/Post FX to measure the bus volume
before the fader, but after any real-time effects.
-12 dB....-90 dB
Choosing one of these numbers sets the scale of the
meter to a certain range of dB. For example, choosing -90
dB sets the range of measurement of that meter to 90 dB.
Note: You can also change the scale of a meter by rightclicking the meter to display a popup menu and choosing a
new dB range.
538
Show Labels (Track view
only)
Clicking this option hides or shows the dB markings on the
meter. Hiding the markings shrinks the meter significantly,
saving space.
Hold Peaks
Choosing this option causes the meter to display a small
vertical line (the peak marker) that shows the peak level
and then decays until a new peak is reached.
Lock Peaks
Choosing this option causes the meter to lock the peak
marker at the highest level, until a higher level occurs.
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Metering
Segmented and Non-segmented Meters
You can display meters as segmented (the default) or non-segmented
meters. Non-segmented meters have the advantage of taking up less room
in a track strip.
segmented meter
non-segmented meter
The Audio Meter Settings dialog (Options- Audio Meter Settings
command) lets you choose segmented or non-segmented meters for the
Track and/or Console views.
You can customize the colors of non-segmented meters in the Configure
Colors dialog—use the Options-Colors command, and choose VU LO
Level, VU HI Level, or VU Tick Marks.
Changing the Meters’ Performance
There are two major factors that determine the performance of meters in
SONAR. One is audio latency which you can adjust, within the limits of your
audio hardware drivers, in the General tab of the Audio Options dialog. The
second is the settings in the Audio Meter Settings dialog.
SONAR has configurable meter ballistics that allow you to adjust the rise
and fall times of both the RMS and Peak Meters. Out of the box, SONAR
ships with industry-standard settings that mimic meter ballistics for common
hardware consoles.
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The following table covers how to adjust your meter settings to meet your
needs.
To do this...
Do this...
Increase or decrease meter
refresh rates
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog (select
Options-Audio Meter Settings to open), adjust
the Refresh rate field. Valid values are from 25 to
250 milliseconds.
Change the decay rate (the
amount of time the meter display
stays at its peak)
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog, adjust the
Decay Rate value. Valid values are from 1 to 150
milliseconds.
Increase or decrease the amount
of time the meter displays a peak
value
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog, adjust the
Hold Time value. Valid values are from 0 to 5000
milliseconds.
Adjust rise and fall times
In the Audio Meter Settings dialog, adjust the
Rise or Fall settings for RMS or Peak. Valid Rise
values are from 0 to 1000 milliseconds. Valid Fall
values are from 0 to 2500 milliseconds.
Here are the default values for the various settings:
•
Refresh Rate = 40 msec
•
Peak Hold – Decay Rate = 50 msec
•
Peak Hold – Hold Time = 750 msec
•
RMS Rise = 300 msec
•
RMS Fall = 300 msec
•
Peak Rise = 0 msec
•
Peak Fall = 1000 msec
Peak Markers
Buses and audio tracks have a feature called Peak Markers. A Peak
Marker in each audio track or bus moves along in the Clips pane just behind
the Now Time cursor displaying the highest peak found during playback.
Peak Markers appear in two different colors: one color if the peak is below 0
dB, and a different color if the peak is above 0dB. By default, peaks below
0dB will be green, and peaks above 0dB will be red. Colors for both Peak
540
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Metering
Markers and their text fields are configurable in the Configure Colors dialog
(Options-Colors command).
Peak marker
To Hide or Show Peak Markers Globally
•
Click the Meter Options dropdown arrow
in the Track view toolbar,
and choose Show Track Peak Markers and/or Show Bus Peak
Markers.
To Hide or Show Peak Markers on an Individual Track
or Bus
•
Right-click the track or bus, and choose Show Peak Marker from the
popup menu.
To Jump to a Peak Marker
•
Right-click the numeric peak display in the track/bus header strip, and
choose Go To Peak from the context menu (see picture below). Doing
so will center the peak location and Now time in the Clips pane. This is
useful because a Peak Marker may be offscreen.
To Hide or Show the Numeric Peak Display
•
Click Show Numeric Peak Values in the Meter Options menu.
To Clear Peak Markers From a Track
•
Double-click the meter.
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541
Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth
Tracks
You can choose to display a waveform for the audio output of a bus or synth
track. When you enable the display function, the amplitude of a bus’s or
synth track’s audio signal is graphed in real time as a waveform. The
waveform turns red wherever clipping is occurring. Waveform preview
allows you to visualize a mix and verify levels over the duration of a project,
easily detecting peaks and other level problems that may require attention.
You can choose to display Peak Markers if you want to (see “Peak Markers”
on page 540 for more information). If you change the volume of the audio
signal and replay the project, the waveform changes to reflect the new bus
or synth track volume.
Each bus or synth track has a Waveform Preview button, which allows you
to enable/disable waveforms display on an individual basis. By default,
each button is turned off.
You can change the color of the waveform preview by choosing a color for
Waveform Preview in the Configure Colors dialog (Options-Colors
command).
To Enable/Disable Waveform Preview on a Bus or Synth
Track
•
For buses, find the desired bus in the Bus pane of the Track view, and
click the bus’s Waveform Preview button
. This button is also in the
Bus Inspector.
•
For synth tracks, find the desired synth track in the Track view, and click
the track’s Waveform Preview button
. This button is also in the
Track Inspector.
Waveform Preview button in
Track view
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Waveform Preview
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Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth Tracks
Waveform Preview button in Bus Inspector
Freeze Tracks and Synths
The Freeze feature allows you to temporarily bounce your track, including
soft synths and effects, to reduce the amount of CPU power needed. The
Freeze feature also works for synths patched in the Synth Rack.
The following are the available commands for track freezing:
•
Freeze Track—bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or
clips, applies any effects, and disables the FX bin.
•
Unfreeze Track—discards the bounced audio, restores the original
audio to the way it was before the last freeze or quick freeze command,
and enables the FX bin.
•
Quick Unfreeze Track—hides and mutes the bounced audio, restores
the original audio to the way it was before the last freeze or quick freeze
command, and enables the FX bin. Bounced audio is retained,
however, and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze
should be instantaneous.
•
Quick Freeze Track—only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick
Freeze function redisplays and unmutes the bounced audio
instantaneously and disables the FX bin.
The following are the available commands for synth freezing:
•
Freeze Synth—audio from a soft synth is bounced and placed on the
synth’s track. Output from the synth is disabled, as is the FX bin on the
synth track.
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543
•
Unfreeze Synth—discards bounced audio, enables the synth and track
FX bin. Bounced audio is discarded, and will be re-bounced if you
choose Freeze again.
•
Quick Unfreeze Synth—hides and mutes the bounced audio, enables
the synth and track FX bin. Bounced audio is retained, and toggling
between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be instantaneous.
•
Quick Freeze Synth—only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick
Freeze function redisplays and unmutes the bounced audio
instantaneously, disables the synth, and any effects on the synth track.
Note 1: An Unfreeze or Quick Unfreeze command restores the audio on a
track to the way it was before the last Freeze or Quick Freeze command.
Any editing you do to a frozen track is discarded when you Unfreeze or
Quick Unfreeze the track.
Note 2: You control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing,
freezing, applying effects) on the Audio Data tab of the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field. The
default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for
Rendering Audio” on page 774 for more information.
To Freeze a Track
1. Right-click on a track.
2. Select Freeze-Freeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips, applies
any effects, and disables the FX bin.
To Unfreeze a Track
1. Right-click on a track.
2. Select Freeze-Unfreeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR discards the bounced audio, restores the original audio, and
enables the FX bin. Audio will be re-bounced if Freeze is chosen again.
To Do a Quick Unfreeze of a Track
1. Right-click on a frozen track.
2. Select Freeze-Quick Unfreeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR hides and mutes the bounced audio, restores the original audio,
and enables the FX bin. Bounced audio is retained, however, and toggling
between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be instantaneous.
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Mixing
Freeze Tracks and Synths
To Quick Freeze a Track
1. Right-click on a track that you did a Quick Unfreeze on.
2. Select Freeze-Quick Freeze Track from the menu that appears.
Only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze function redisplays
and unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously
To Freeze a Soft Synth
•
Right-click a synth track or a synth’s MIDI track, and choose FreezeFreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
.
SONAR bounces the synth’s audio data to the synth track. SONAR disables
the synth’s output, and disables the FX bin on the synth track.
Note: If a soft synth has been inserted to an audio track’s FX bin, the
Freeze/Unfreeze button is not present in the Synth Rack view for that synth.
To freeze that synth, right-click the track or the synth’s MIDI track and
choose Freeze-Freeze Synth from the menu that appears.
To Unfreeze a Synth
•
Right-click a synth MIDI or audio track, and choose Freeze-Unfreeze
Synth from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
, and
choose Freeze-Unfreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
SONAR discards bounced audio, enables the synth and the synth audio
track’s FX bin. SONAR will be re-bounce the audio if you choose Freeze
again.
To Do a Quick Unfreeze of a Synth
•
Right-click a frozen synth MIDI or audio track, and choose FreezeQuick Unfreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
, and
choose Freeze-Quick Unfreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
SONAR hides and mutes the bounced audio, enables the synth and track
FX bin. Bounced audio is retained, and toggling between Quick Freeze and
Quick Unfreeze should be instantaneous.
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545
To Quick Freeze a Synth
•
Right-click a quick unfrozen synth track or synth MIDI track, and
choose Freeze-Quick Freeze Synth from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
, and
choose Freeze-Quick Freeze Synth from the menu that appears.
Only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze command
redisplays and unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously, disables the
synth, and any effects on the synth track.
To Set Freeze Options
1. Right-click an audio or synth track, and choose Freeze-Freeze
Options from the menu that appears.
Or
1. In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
choose Freeze Options from the menu that appears.
, and
2. Choose options in the Freeze Options dialog. For help choosing
options, click the Help button in the dialog.
Tip: All Freeze commands are also available in the Track menu.
Using Real-Time Effects
In the Console view and Track view, you can use plug-in effects nondestructively, in real time (to apply effects offline, see “Applying Audio
Effects” on page 572). You can also hear your plug-in effects in real time on
any live instruments you are recording—just make sure Input Monitoring is
enabled (see “Input Monitoring” on page 214). You can also insert effects
directly on clips (see “Effects on Clips” on page 552).
For example, suppose you want to add a reverb effect to an audio track
containing a recorded violin solo. You could do it in two different ways:
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•
Destructive—The digital audio data itself is modified. Although this may
be exactly what you want, it does limit your options. If you want to
modify the effect parameters slightly or to remove the effect and try a
different effect, you must use the Undo command, or revert to a saved
copy of the original data.
•
Non-destructive (real-time)—The digital audio data in your track is not
changed but simply altered on the fly during playback. This means you
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Using Real-Time Effects
can experiment with effects parameters, bypass effects, or remove
them entirely at any time. Since most effects require complex numeric
calculations, real-time effects processing puts a heavy load on your
computer’s CPU. If you use too many effects, the CPU will not be able
to keep up and playback will sound choppy and disconnected.
You can also apply real-time audio effects to a submix in a bus. For
example, rather than patching separate reverb effects in each of several
guitar tracks, you can mix the guitar tracks together in a bus and apply a
single reverb effect to the submix. This makes much more efficient use of
CPU time. Patching effects on a bus also opens up new creative
possibilities.
There are several reasons why you might want to apply effects offline
(destructively):
•
If you want to apply more effects than your CPU can handle, applying
some of the effects offline will reduce CPU usage during playback.
•
If you want to apply effects to an individual audio clip, rather than the
whole track, it is simpler to do so using offline effects.
The File-Export-Audio command, allows you to apply real-time effects
when you export, so you do not need to apply your effects destructively or
use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command to prepare the tracks
beforehand. For information about exporting audio, see “Preparing Audio
for Distribution” on page 585.
All plug-in effects and soft synths have a Preset window you can use to
save and recall your favorite settings for those plug-ins.
Effects Parameters
Each effect in an effects patch point has its own independent set of
parameter values. For example, you can apply a short reverb in one track
and a long reverb in another track. The dialog boxes for real-time effects
contain the same parameters as the offline effects, though there are a few
differences:
•
You can adjust the parameters while playback is in progress, so there is
no need for an Audition button.
•
For Audio effects, because mixing is handled through the Track view or
Console view, there is no Mixing tab.
•
You do not need to click OK for the effect to be applied.
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547
Refer to the sections “MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)” on page 440 and “Audio
Effects (Audio Plug-ins)” on page 490 for descriptions of the effects and
their parameters.
How to Use Real-Time Effects
You can patch effects into the tracks and buses in both the Track view and
Console view. After you patch one or more effects into an FX bin, you can
reorder the effects, delete them, or add new ones.
An FX bin in a track in the Track view
An FX bin in a bus in the Track
view
An FX bin in a track in
the Console view
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Using Real-Time Effects
An FX bin in a bus in the
Console view
Here’s how to insert and configure effects:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a real-time effect to a
MIDI track, audio track,
synth track or bus.
Right-click in the FX bin of the track or bus you want to
add the effect to, and select an effect from the popup
menu.
Change the order in which
effects are used.
Drag an effect up or down in the FX bin.
Edit an effect’s
parameters.
Double-click on the effect to open the effect’s dialog box.
Move an effect to a
different bin.
Drag the effect to another effects bin.
Copy an effect to a
different bin.
Hold down the Ctrl key and drag the effect to another
effects bin.
Delete an effect.
Right-click the name of the effect, and choose Delete
from the popup menu.
Send all keystrokes to a
plug-in that has focus
Enable the keystroke button
page
Use a preset.
See “Presets and Property Pages” on page 550 for more
information.
in the plug-in’s property
When you place an effect in an FX bin, an abbreviated name is used to
describe the effect. Sometimes the limited space makes it impossible to
identify the effect. If this occurs, simply rest the cursor over the effect for a
second or two, and a tooltip will pop up to display the full name of the effect.
Effects in FX bins display “ticks” that tell you whether the effect is outputting
a mono, stereo, or surround signal:
Mono indicator
Stereo indicator
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549
Surround indicator (in 5.1 mode)
If you’re using the double-precision audio engine, plug-ins that can send
and receive 64-bit data display doubled ticks.
Stereo indicator in 64-bit mode
Presets and Property Pages
Presets are a way to store property page settings so that you can recall the
exact same group of settings again in the future. Effects and soft synths use
presets, and so do some other functions you’ll find in certain dialogs.
You manage presets with the Presets window that appears at the top of a
plug-in property page, and the buttons next to the Presets window.
Previous/Next button
Presets menu displays the
name of the current preset
Save button
The VST button preset controls
appear only on VST plug-ins
Delete button
Automation read and write
buttons
Send all keystrokes
plug-in button
The Presets menu displays presets in the following order:
550
•
Most Recently Used presets—these appear at the top of the Presets
menu, up to 8 in number, and followed by a horizontal line to separate
this section from the next section of the menu.
•
VST factory presets—any VST factory presets appear below the Most
Recently Used section, and are also followed by a horizontal separator
line.
•
Cakewalk and user presets—these appear at the bottom of the Presets
menu.
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Using Real-Time Effects
The following table tells you how to use presets:
To do this...
Do this...
Load a preset
Do either of the following:
Save the current settings
as a preset
•
Click the dropdown arrow on the right side of
the Presets menu, and click the name of the
preset in the dropdown menu.
•
Click the left or right side of the Prev/Next
button to load the previous or next preset in the
menu. You can click the button repeatedly to
step through the menu.
If you’re using:
•
A VST factory preset—these can not be deleted
or overwritten (the Delete button appears
greyed-out). If you want to change one of these,
double-click the name, enter a new name, and
click the Save button.
Note: VST presets can be stored by
saving a .fxp file (see below for
instructions).
•
A Cakewalk or user preset—either save these
under a new name: double-click the name,
enter a new name, and click the Save button, or
just click the Save button to overwrite the preset
with current values.
Delete a preset
VST factory presets can not be deleted. If
you’re not using a VST factory preset,
simply display the preset name in the
Presets window, and then click the Delete
button.
Load or save a .fxp file
Use the Load Preset or Save Preset
commands, respectively, in the VST
button dropdown menu
Load or save a .fxb file
Use the Load Bank or Save Bank
commands, respectively, in the VST
button dropdown menu
The Presets window also has a feature called Preset Dirty Flags. A Preset
Dirty Flag is an asterisk that appears next to the name of the preset. The
asterisk tells you that you changed and saved this particular preset in
another project, and the settings in the current project are different from the
saved version. If you re-save the preset in the current project with the
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551
current settings, the asterisk disappears, but will reappear in the other
project, showing you that the displayed settings in that project are different
from the last saved version of the preset. If you want to get rid of the
asterisk in all projects, save the preset in each project with the exact same
settings.
Plug-in property pages have a couple of other controls not related to
presets:
•
Automation read and write buttons—these buttons enable or disable
automation playback and recording for the plug-in’s parameters. See
the online help topic “Automation,” for more information.
•
Keystrokes button—enabling this button sends all keystrokes to a
particular instance of a plug-in when the plug-in’s property page has
focus.
Effects on Clips
Both audio and MIDI clips now contain full-featured FX bins. You can insert
real-time effects on clips, in both MIDI and audio tracks. Each clip that you
insert an effect on displays its own FX bin, that you can use to manage the
effects on that clip.
The characteristics of clip-based effects are:
•
Splitting a clip copies the effect(s) onto both clips.
•
You can copy or move clip-based effects from one clip to another, and
to or from the FX bin on a track.
•
A clip’s FX bin also appears on the General tab of the clip’s Clip
Properties dialog (to open: right-click the clip and choose Clip
Properties from the popup menu).
Note: you cannot drag effects to or from the Clip Properties dialog.
552
•
You can patch an effect onto multiple clips at the same time by first
selecting the clips.
•
Audio effects can be automated by using clip envelopes.
•
The Edit-Bounce to Clip(s) command follows clip boundaries—effects
tails are cut off, unless you slip-edit the end of the clip to leave space.
•
Freezing a track or synth will also freeze the per-clip FX bins.
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Using Real-Time Effects
To Insert an Effect on a Clip or Clips
1. If you want to insert an effect onto multiple clips, select the clips.
2. Right-clip a clip that you want to insert an effect onto.
The Clips pane context menu appears.
3. Choose Insert Effect-[Audio or MIDI]-[name of desired effect].
The FX icon appears on the clip(s) after you insert the effect (see picture,
below).
FX icon
To Open or Close the FX Bin on a Clip
•
To open a clip’s FX bin, click the FX icon, or right-click the FX icon and
select Open Clip Effects Bin from the popup menu.
•
To close a clip’s FX bin, click the X icon that’s in the upper left corner of
the clip’s FX bin, or click anywhere outside of the FX bin.
To Delete, Bypass, Move, Copy, or Re-order a Clip Effect
•
To delete an effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from
the popup menu.
•
To bypass or un-bypass all the effects on a clip, right-click in the clips’s
FX bin and choose Bypass Bin from the popup menu.
•
To enable or disable an individual effect, click the effect’s green on/off
switch.
•
To move an effect to another FX bin (on a track or a clip), drag the name
of the effect to the other FX bin.
•
To copy an effect to another FX bin (on a track or a clip), hold the Ctrl
key down, and then drag the name of the effect to the other FX bin.
•
To change the order of an effect in an FX bin, drag the name of the
effect up or down to the desired place in the effects chain.
To Apply Inserted Clip Effects
1. If you want to apply the inserted effects on more than one clip, select
them.
2. If you want to leave room at the end of any clips for effects tails, slip-edit
the ends of the clips to leave some empty space.
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553
3. Use the Edit-Bounce to Clip(s) command.
After the progress bar disappears, the bounced clips appear with new
waveforms to reflect the effects processing. The inserted clip effects are
removed from the bounced clips automatically.
Organizing Plug-ins
Once you have more than a few plug-in effects and/or soft synths installed
on your computer, you might want to organize the way they appear in the
various plug-in and synth menus that you use. The Cakcwalk Plug-in
Manager is a powerful tool to organize your plug-in menus. Open the Plugin Manager by using the Tools-Cakewalk Plug-in Manager command, and
display the Plug-in Manager’s help file by pressing F1.
Even if you don’t use the Plug-in Manager, SONAR now automatically
organizes all DX and VST plug-ins into a default plug-in menu layout called
Default – All Plug-ins. If you select the Plug-in Layouts-Manage Layouts
option from a plug-in menu, the Plug-in Manager opens and automatically
populates the Plug-in Layout area with the Default Layout, which produces
a solid starting point for customizing layouts.
VST plug-ins are organized in menus according to the file folder structure in
which they reside on your hard disk.
VST Configuration
SONAR automatically scans your VST folders for new plug-ins on startup,
registering any unscanned VST plug-ins so that they become available in
SONAR’s plug-in menus. You can turn off automatic scanning by using the
Options-Global command, and unchecking the Scan For VST Plug-ins On
Startup checkbox that is on the VST Plug-ins tab.
To configure your VST plug-ins manually, use either the VST Plug-ins tab of
the Global Options dialog, or the Cakewalk Plug-in Manager. You can use
the Global Options dialog to set general VST options, such as choosing
which folders to scan, but not specific options on individual plug-ins. Use
the Cakewalk Plug-in Manager to set options on individual plug-ins (use the
Tools-Cakewalk Plug-in Manager command to open the Plug-in
Manager). The following procedures explain how to use the VST Plug-ins
tab of the Global Options dialog. The Cakewalk Plug-in Manager has its
own help.
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Organizing Plug-ins
To Display the Global Options Dialog/VST Plug-ins Tab
•
Use the Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog,
and click the VST Plug-ins tab.
To Add a Folder to Scan
1. On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, click the Add button to
open the Browse for Folder dialog.
2. Choose the folder you want to add, and click OK.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to add any additional folders you might want to
scan.
The new folders appear in the VST Scan Folder(s) list, along with any
folders that were already in the list.
To Remove a Folder from the VST Scan Folder(s) List
•
On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
Folder(s) list, select the folder you want to remove, and click the
Remove button.
To Set Options for All Plug-ins in a Folder
1. On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
Folder(s) list, select the folder you want to set options for, then click the
Folder Defaults button.
2. In the dialog that appears, choose from the following options (options
that control properties for individual plug-ins are greyed-out: use the
Cakewalk Plug-in Manager to set those options):
•
Enable as plug-in—enable this option if you want to use the plugins in this folder as audio effects.
•
Configure as tempo-based effect—if the effects in this folder are
supposed to respond to tempo information (for example, a temposynced delay), and they are not responding, make sure this box is
checked.
•
Force stereo operation—if you need to use mono plug-ins in
situations that requires stereo, you can enable this option to run the
plug-ins in stereo mode. This option simply creates two identical
output streams from the plug-ins where only one existed.
•
Do not intercept NRPNs—SONAR uses NRPNs to run automation
of your VST plug-ins. However, some instruments have their own
implementation of this process, so checking this box passes the
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NRPNs directly to the instrument, allowing it to manage its own
automation.
3. Click OK to close the dialog.
To Turn Automatic Scanning On or Off
•
On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
Options section, check or uncheck the Scan For VST Options On
Startup option. The next time you launch SONAR, your VST folders will
either be scanned or not, depending on the option you chose.
To Re-scan Failed Plug-ins
•
On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
Options section, enable the Re-scan Failed Plug-ins option. The next
time you scan, any plug-ins that did not scan correctly during previous
scans will be re-scanned.
To Re-scan Existing Plug-ins
•
On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
Options section, enable the Re-scan Existing Plug-ins option. The next
time you scan, any plug-ins that have already been scanned will be rescanned, and any new folder default options you have chosen will be
implemented.
To Run a Scan
•
On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
section, click the Scan VST Folders button.
To Set All VST Plug-ins to Folder Defaults
•
On the Global Options dialog/VST Plug-ins tab, in the VST Scan
section, click the Reset All VST Plug-ins button. The next time you
scan, SONAR will set all plug-ins in your VST Scan folders to your
folder default settings.
V-Vocal Clips
V-Vocal is a vocal processor that integrates Roland’s VariPhrase
technology into SONAR Producer. Designed for monophonic sounds,
especially vocals, V-Vocal does pitch correction on notes and phrases, edits
formants, adds vibrato if you want, and can also correct timing.
Access V-Vocal by selecting audio data, and then inserting an instance of
V-Vocal. This creates a monophonic V-Vocal clip, which means that the
selected audio data is copied to create the V-Vocal clip, while the original
audio data is muted and left unchanged.
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V-Vocal Clips
The following procedures explain how to manage V-Vocal clips. For
information about using V-Vocal, see “Using V-Vocal” on page 558.
To Create a V-Vocal Clip
1. Select the audio data you want to use.
2. Use the Edit-Create V-Vocal Region command, or right-click the clip
and choose V-Vocal-Create V-Vocal Clip from the Clips pane popup
menu.
SONAR copies the selected audio data, inserts an instance of V-Vocal on
the copied data, and displays the new V-Vocal clip (the copied audio data
that contains an instance of V-Vocal) where the selected audio data was,
and opens the V-Vocal interface. The V-Vocal icon
appears on
the V-Vocal clip. The original audio data is muted. No track data is moved or
otherwise modified by creating a V-Vocal clip. You can drag the V-Vocal clip
away from the original audio data if you want.
To Open a V-Vocal Interface
•
If the V-Vocal interface of the clip you want to edit is not open, right-click
the V-Vocal clip and choose V-Vocal-V-Vocal Editor from the Clips
pane popup menu. You can also double-click the V-Vocal clip, or create
your own key binding to launch V-Vocal.
To Move, Edit, or Copy a V-Vocal Clip
•
Use standard editing commands (nudge, drag-and-drop, slip-edit, etc.)
to move, edit, or copy the clip. When you move a V-Vocal clip, the
original audio clip is revealed underneath it. You can unmute the
original clip by using the Mute tool. You can also or create your own key
binding to launch the V-Vocal editor.
Note: offline processing commands such as Process-Normalize and
Process-Gain do not work on a V-Vocal clip.
To Bypass or Unbypass a Single V-Vocal Clip
•
Right-click the V-Vocal clip and choose V-Vocal-Bypass/Unbypass
from the Clips pane popup menu.
When you bypass a V-Vocal clip, you hear the original audio data that
makes up the V-Vocal clip without hearing any V-Vocal processing. When
Bypass is enabled, the Bypass button in the V-Vocal interface appears red.
To Bypass or Unbypass All V-Vocal Clips in a Track
•
Right-click a V-Vocal clip and choose V-Vocal-Bypass All V-Vocal
Clips from the Clips pane popup menu.
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To Delete a V-Vocal Clip
•
Select a V-Vocal clip (the orange clip with the V-Vocal icon, not the
original audio clip) and use the Edit-Delete command, or press Delete
on your keyboard.
Note: V-Vocal commands can also be accessed by clicking the V icon in the
V-Vocal clip
.
Using V-Vocal
V-Vocal is a vocal processor that does pitch correction on notes and
phrases, corrects timing, edits formants and dynamics, and can add vibrato.
The following topics describe using the V-Vocal interface to process audio
data. For information about inserting and managing V-Vocal in SONAR, see
“V-Vocal Clips” on page 556.
Here’s a description of the interface:
AutoScroll
Rewind
Bypass
Mute
Solo
Play/Stop
LoopMode
Undo/Redo
Cent indicator
Timeline
Tools
Select pitch
correction key
Spread editing
area
Scroll
Formant
control
Pitch correction
Edit mode
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Zoom
Information view
Description of Interface Components
•
Edit mode—select the parameter you want to edit: pitch, time, formant,
or dynamics.
•
Zoom—continuous horizontal or vertical zooming by dragging the
center vertically or horizontally. If you drag the center while pressing the
Shift key, you can restrict the zoom direction to horizontal or vertical.
Zoom In or Out incrementally by clicking any of the four arrows. Doubleclicking the center shows the overall clip.
•
AutoScroll—the editing display scrolls when you turn on AutoScroll.
•
Formant control—the Pitch Follow knob increases or decreases the
formant according to pitch. The Shift knob increases or decreases the
formant for the entire phrase.
•
Pitch Correction
•
Keyboard and Scale buttons—assign the target notes with the
keyboard button; each key has a bypass button (B) located under
or over the key. The Scale button lets you assign the target notes
by scale: click the Scale button, click Maj or Min, and click a note on
the keyboard button to choose the root of the scale.
•
Note button—use this button to set the rate of pitch correction. This
function can adjust the pitch to the selected notes’ grids by
increasing or decreasing the pitch of the selected region.
•
Vibrato—set the depth of the vibrato. If you choose 100%, vibrato
depth is set to zero.
•
Sense—this is a sensitivity control for pitch correction for unstable
pitch areas such as portamento. Pitch correction gets stronger if
you increase the value.
•
Cent indicator—this indicator shows the pitch correction amount by
cents in realtime (+/- 100 cents).
•
Timeline—this gives a graphical display of the playback time in beats.
•
Select pitch correction key—set the target notes for the pitch correction.
Each time you click a note, the note’s color is changed to red, grey, or
blue in turn. Meaning of each color is as follows:
•
•
Blue: selected
•
Gray: not selected
•
Red: Bypassed
Arrow tool
—for selecting the editing region, and for increasing or
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decreasing the pitch of the selected region.
•
Line tool
lines.
—for drawing Pitch, Formant, and Dynamics with straight
•
Pen tool
—for drawing Pitch, Formant, and Dynamics freehand.
•
Vibrato/LFO tool
selected region.
•
Eraser
•
Hand tool
—for scrolling the display. If you drag in the editing area
while pressing the Ctrl key, you can zoom.
•
Rectangle zoom
—for selecting an area to zoom in to. Drag a border
around the area you want to zoom to. Overall area is displayed by
double clicking.
—for adding and editing Vibrato or LFO at the
—for resetting the selected region to its initial value.
Playing Back V-Vocal Clips
You can play back V-Vocal clips by clicking the buttons at the top of the VVocal interface. Besides playing the V-Vocal clip, you can mute it, solo it,
loop it, and rewind it. Clicking in the time ruler at the top of the graph moves
the playback time.
To Play a V-Vocal Clip
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•
To play a V-Vocal clip, click the play button in the V-Vocal interface, or
press the Spacebar.
•
To stop playback, press the Spacebar, or click the Stop button.
•
To mute the track that the V-Vocal clip is in, click the M button in the VVocal interface.
•
To Solo the track that the V-Vocal clip is in, click the S button in the VVocal interface.
•
To rewind the V-Vocal clip, click the rewind button in the V-Vocal
interface.
•
To loop the V-Vocal clip, click the loop mode button in the V-Vocal
interface.
•
To set the playback time for the V-Vocal clip, click in the timeline that’s
at the top of the graph.
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Using V-Vocal
Pitch Editing
Pitch editing requires that the Pitch button in the edit mode section is
enabled. Here’s a description of the interface in pitch editing mode:
•
The yellow line is the edited Pitch curve and this line is the actual
sounding pitch.
•
The red line is the original Pitch curve and this line cannot be edited.
•
The green dot is a Node. Nodes are automatically assigned to the start
and end of the edited region. You can select the specific region
between the nodes if you click the yellow line between the nodes.
•
The white horizontal line is called Center Pitch. Center Pitch is used as
a baseline for increasing or decreasing vibrato or for pitch correction.
To Change the Pitch of a Selected Region
1. Use the Arrow tool to select the part of the yellow line that you want to
transpose (make sure that the Pitch button in the edit mode section is
enabled).
The selected region turns blue to show that it is selected.
2. Drag the yellow line up or down.
Nodes appear automatically when you shift pitch.
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Tips:
•
Ctrl-dragging snaps the pitch to the pitch correction grid. Shift dragging
moves the pitch by 100 cent increments.
•
You can also edit pitch by dragging a node up or down.
•
You can undo each edit you do by pressing Ctrl+Z. You can use this
command repeatedly to undo multiple edits.
About Pitch Correction
The key for making manipulated sound more natural is using the
parameters in the Pitch Correction section: Note, Vibrato and Sense.
Functions for each parameter are as follows:
•
Note—controls the ratio of pitch shifting to the nearest scale note. With
a value of 100, each section is completely shifting to the nearest scale
note.
•
Vibrato—as the value increases, the vibrato depth gets narrower. At a
value of 100, Vibrato is completely eliminated.
•
Sense—as the value increases, the range of affecting pitch correction
gets wider.
If you set all of above parameters to a value of 100, you will get a "robot
voice”-type sound.
Current default values are:
•
Note: 100
•
Vibrato: 50
•
Sense: 100
This setup is a bit too artificial. If you want to make the sound more natural,
we suggest the following setup:
•
Note: 70-100; be careful of intonation.
•
Vibrato: 0-20; try 0, if you'd like to keep the original.
•
Sense: 20-30; please adjust to fit the data.
The above suggestion is just one example. Different types of audio might
require different settings.
In addition, try adjusting the Pitch Follow parameter in the Formant Control
section as follows:
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•
Set the value close to 100 if you'd like to do subtle pitch correction.
•
Set close to 0 if you'd like drastic rephrasing.
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Using V-Vocal
To Draw Freehand Pitch Changes
1. Click the Pen tool.
2. Draw a shape on the graph.
To Draw Straight Line Pitch Changes
1. Click the Line tool.
2. Draw a line on the graph.
To Correct Pitch
1. Select the region you want to correct by using the Arrow tool.
2. Select the notes that you want the selected region to become by
clicking notes on the Keyboard button. The selected notes should be
light blue. The deselected notes are dark blue. When you click the
Correct button, the selected area conforms to the light blue notes on the
keyboard. You can also click the note names in the Select Pitch
Correction field to select notes. Note that light blue note names are
selected, grey note names are not selected, and red note names are
bypassed.
Note: to display different octaves, drag the vertical scroll bar that is at
the right side of the graph up or down.
3. Set the amount of pitch correction you want by adjusting the Note knob.
100 cents is equal to a half-step. Between 70 and 100 is a good place
to start.
4. If the selected region has any unstable pitch areas such as portamento,
you can adjust the Sense knob, which adjusts pitch correction
sensitivity. Pitch correction gets stronger if you increase the value. 30 is
a good starting point. If the selection has vibrato, try 0 to 30.
5. Click the Correct button. The pitch in the selected region moves to the
target pitches (the light blue notes on the keyboard).
To Conform Pitches to a Scale
1. Use the Arrow tool to select the region where you want to correct
pitches.
2. Click the Scale button so that it is enabled (light blue).
3. Click a Maj or Min button to select a major or minor scale, respectively.
4. Click a note on the Keyboard button to select the root note of the scale.
The notes of the scale you selected turn light blue on the Keyboard
button.
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5. Click the Correct button.
The selected area conforms to the light blue notes on the keyboard.
To Restore Original Pitch
•
Use the Eraser tool to drag over a region. The region you drag over
returns to original pitch.
To Add Vibrato
1. Click the Vibrato/LFO tool.
2. Move the cursor to the place where you want the vibrato to start.
The cursor displays a vibrato icon when it is ready to add new vibrato:
.
3. Drag to the right for the length of the vibrato segment that you want to
add.
To Edit Vibrato
1. Move the Vibrato/LFO tool over the vibrato segment that you want to
edit.
The cursor displays a double-arrow icon when it is ready to edit vibrato:
.
2. Drag the vibrato segment vertically to edit amplitude, or horizontally to
edit frequency.
Tips:
•
Holding the Ctrl key down while you drag restricts vibrato editing to
amplitude only.
•
Holding the Shift key down while you drag restricts vibrato editing to
frequency only.
To Fade-in Vibrato
1. Move the Vibrato/LFO tool over the beginning of a vibrato segment.
The cursor displays a fade-in icon when it is ready to add a fade-in:
2. Drag the vibrato segment to the right for the length of the fade-in that
you want to add.
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Using V-Vocal
.
Editing Time
To edit timing with V-Vocal, the Time button in the edit mode section must
be enabled.
To Edit Time
1. Make sure the Time button is enabled.
2. Move the Arrow tool near the vertical center of the graph until the cursor
changes to the double arrow, and click at each point where you want to
preserve the original timing. A vertical green line appears at each point
that you click.
3. Now add new green lines between the existing ones.
4. Drag the new lines to the left or right to compress or expand each
region.
Tips:
•
Hold down the Ctrl key while you move lines to move all the following
lines by an equal amount.
•
To erase lines, drag a region with the eraser. Timing reverts to its
original condition in the areas where you erase lines.
Editing Formants
A rough definition of formants is that they are vowel sounds. To edit
formants with V-Vocal, the Formant button in the edit mode section must be
enabled.
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565
Here’s a picture of the V-Vocal interface in formant mode:
The red line in the graph is the formant line. The red dots on the line are
nodes.
To Shift the Formant of a Region
1. Use the Arrow tool to select the region you want to shift.
2. Drag the red line in the region up or down.
When you drag the red line, nodes are automatically created at the start
and end of the selected region. You can drag the nodes to create different
shapes.
Tips:
566
•
Double-clicking the red line in a selected region adds nodes to the
place where you click, and also to the start and end of the selected
region.
•
You can do freehand editing with the Pen tool.
•
You can add an LFO to a selected region by dragging the red line up or
down with the Vibrato tool. Dragging left or right modifies the LFO
frequency.
•
You can reset segments of the red line by dragging with the Eraser.
•
You can increase or decrease the formant for the entire phrase by
adjusting the Shift knob.
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Using V-Vocal
To Link the Formant Line to the Pitch Line
•
To increase or decrease the formant relative to pitch, adjust the Pitch
Follow knob. You can view pitch at the same time as formants by rightclicking the graph, and choosing Views-Pitch from the context menu.
Editing Dynamics
The basic procedures for editing dynamics with V-Vocal are the same as for
formant editing, except that dynamics are represented by a yellow line, and
you must have the Dynamics button enabled in the edit mode section.
Context Menu
If you right-click the graph, the V-Vocal context menu appears.
The menu has the following commands:
•
Undo—use this command to undo your last editing action. You can use
this command repeatedly to undo a series of editing actions, starting
with the latest.
•
Redo—use this command to redo an editing action that was just
cancelled by an Undo command.
•
Select All—use this command to select the whole phrase. You can
deselect a selection by clicking away from the waveform.
•
View—use this command and the options in its submenu to hide or
show the phrase’s waveform (Wave option on submenu), the pitch
display (Pitch), the formant line (Formant), and the dynamics line
(Dynamics).
•
Group Node—deletes nodes in the selected region.
•
Pitch Detect Mode—method for redetecting center pitch (the white
horizontal line) of LFO or Vibrato. After you select the region you want
to redetect, choose from these options the following submenus.
•
Standard 1—generally, you do not need to select this option,
because it is used to detect pitch as soon as you create a V-Vocal
clip. If you decide to use another method, but change your mind
and want to use this method, you can select this method to recreate
the original data.
•
Standard 2—this is a general pitch detection setting that often
performs better on styles with deeper vibratos.
•
Deep Vibrato—special purpose pitch detection method for phrases
that contain very deep vibratos; this detection method tends to
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create longer center pitches, but may detect multiple notes as a
single note.
•
•
Precision—special purpose pitch detection method for very high
resolution pitch detection of phrases; this detection method will
create more accurate center pitches for styles containing fast
variations of pitch. This method, however, may divide a single
vibrato section into multiple pitches.
LFO Pen Type—select the type of the waves of vibrato added by the
vibrato tool.
Keyboard Shortcuts
The following table lists the V-Vocal keyboard shortcuts:
568
Command...
Shortcut...
Arrow tool
S
Line tool
L, or hold down Shift while using the Pen tool
Pen tool
D
Vibrato/LFO tool
V
Erase tool
E
Hand tool
H
Zoom tool
Z
Undo zoom
U
Redo zoom
Shift+U
Zoom vertically
Ctrl+Up/Down arrow keys
Zoom horizontally
Ctrl+Left/Right arrow keys
Fit entire region into
display
Shift+F
Fit content vertically
F
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Using V-Vocal
Pitch edit mode
1
Time edit mode
2
Formant edit mode
3
Dynamics edit mode
4
Cycle through all modes Shift+Left/Right arrow keys
Play/Stop
Spacebar
Rewind
W
Bypass
B
AutoScroll
A
Loop on/off
\
Undo
Ctrl+Z
Redo
Ctrl+Shift+Z
Cancel drag gesture
Esc
Select All
Ctrl+A
Select None
Ctrl+Shift+A
Return selection to
default settings
Delete
Solo track
/
Show/hide waveform in Shift+W
Pitch edit mode
Go to/Center cursor
G
Scroll up/down
Up/Down arrow keys; PageUp/PageDown
Scroll left/right
Left/Right arrow keys
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569
Using the Per-track EQ
SONAR has a 4-band EQ patched into each audio track by default. You can
adjust these EQ’s in the Console view and the Track Inspector. You can
hide the EQ, hide its graph (plot), display only one band, or display all four
bands
Here’s a graphic of the EQ and its controls:
Console view
Track or Bus Inspector
Plot
Enable EQ
Choose type of
filter, band 4
Frequency, Gain, and Q
controls for band 3
Enable band 2
EQ Plot button
EQ button
Display button
Module options
Here’s how to use it:
To Show or Hide the EQ in all Audio Tracks
•
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In the Console view, click the EQ button; in the Track or Bus Inspector,
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Using the Per-track EQ
click the Display button and click EQ.
To Show Either One Band’s Controls or Four Band’s
Controls
•
In the Console view, right-click the EQ button and choose options; in the
Track or Bus Inspector, click the Module Options button, choose EQ
and Plot, and choose options.
To Enable or Disable the EQ in a Track or Bus
•
Click the EQ Enable button.
To Enable or Disable a Band
•
Click the Enable/Disable Band button that’s at the top of each band’s
controls.
To Choose the Filter Type for Each Band
•
Click the filter type menu, and choose a filter type.
To Set Frequency, Gain, and Q for Each Band
•
In the Track or Bus Inspector, in the band that you want to configure,
drag the frequency slider, gain slider, or Q slider, respectively, to the left
or right. In the Console view, rotate the buttons that correspond to each
parameter. There are tooltips for each control.
To Hide or Show the Plot (Graph)
•
In the Console view, click the Plot button. In the Inspector, click the
Display button, and click Plot.
To Change the Plot Resolution
•
In the Console view, right-click the Plot button and choose options. In
the Inspector, click the Module Options button, choose EQ and Plot,
and choose options.
To Open the EQ Interface
•
Double-click the Plot.
To Turn Off Bands 5 and 6
•
If you are using bands 5 and/or 6, you can turn these bands off by rightclicking the Plot, and choosing Reset Hidden EQ Parameters.
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Applying Audio Effects
You can destructively apply audio effects for one or more tracks. When you
are pleased with the audio effects you have patched into a track, you can
apply the effects to the track. Applying effects to a track saves resources,
allowing you to include additional tracks and/or effects
Note:
When applied effects are undone, they are not re-patched in the
FX bin(s).
To Apply Multiple Audio Effects Offline
1. Add one or more audio effects to one or more tracks in either the Track
view or the Console view.
2. In the Track view, select the tracks or clips you want to be affected.
3. Select Process-Apply Audio Effects.
The Apply Audio Effects dialog appears.
4. If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
5. Click OK.
If you do not delete the effects after applying them, they remain active.
CPU Usage of Audio Effects
The number of real-time audio effects that your computer can handle
depends on the number of audio tracks in your project, the number and
type of effects you want to use, and the type and speed of your CPU.
Certain effects are more CPU-intensive than others, and enabling certain
settings (such as using equalization within the Stereo Reverb) increases
CPU usage for those effects.
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Applying Audio Effects
Applying MIDI Effects
You can destructively apply the MIDI effects in a track’s patch point. This
makes it easy for you to experiment with MIDI effects before you commit to
them on a more permanent basis.
To Apply MIDI Effects Destructively
1. In the Track view, select the tracks or clips to be affected.
2. Select Process-Apply MIDI Effects.
3. If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
4. Click OK.
If you don’t delete effects after applying them, they continue to be active
during playback, even though they have already been applied.
Using Control Groups
SONAR lets you link faders, knobs, or buttons in the Track and Console
views into groups. Groups are collections of controls whose movements
are linked together. For example:
•
Two volume faders or controls can be grouped so that when you
increase or decrease the volume of one track, the volume of the other
track changes in exactly the same way.
•
Four mute buttons can be grouped so that when you click on the mute
button to mute track 1, tracks 1 and 2 are muted and tracks 3 and 4 are
un-muted.
The Console view and Track view identify controls, knobs and faders that
are grouped using a colored group indicator that is displayed on the controls
in each group. The controls in group A are displayed with a red indicator,
the controls in group B with a green indicator, and so on. Controls, faders
and knobs can be grouped together.
When you group buttons together, the way they work is based on their
position when you create the group:
•
Buttons that are in the same position when grouped will turn on and off
together at all times.
•
Buttons that are in opposite positions when grouped will always remain
in opposite positions.
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573
When you group buttons with knobs or faders, the button turns on/off when
the knob or fader reaches its halfway point.
You have several additional options. There are three general types of
groups: absolute, relative, and custom. Here’s how they work.
Absolute
The range of motion in all controls in the group is identical. When you move
one control in the group, all other controls in the group move the same
amount in the same direction. The controls do not necessarily need to start
at the same level.
Relative
The range of motion for controls in the group is not the same. All controls in
the group have the same value at one point—the lowest level for send,
return, and volume levels, and zero for pan controls.
Custom
Sometimes you want to define a more complex relationship between the
controls in a group. For example:
•
You want two controls two operate in reverse—when one fader drops,
the other increases (cross fade).
•
You want two volume faders grouped so that they are locked together
at maximum level, but drop at different rates.
•
You want two faders to be locked together with the same range of
motion, but a third fader grouped with them to have a different range of
motion.
Custom groups let you set the range of motion for each control in the group
by entering a starting and ending value. As any one control in the group is
moved from its starting position to its ending position, the other controls in
the group exercise their full range of motion.
When you have defined a custom group, you can adjust the starting and
ending position of each control using the Group Settings dialog box or using
popup menus on the controls in the group.
Note: By default, the relative gain between grouped controls that affect gain
is preserved. If you prefer the relative position of the controls to be
preserved regardless of the relative gain, there is a checkbox in the Group
Properties dialog that will toggle between these two behaviors.
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To Add a Control to a Group
1. Right-click on the control.
2. Choose a group from the Group submenu.
SONAR adds the control to the group. Controls, knobs and faders are
highlighted with the group’s color indicator.
To Remove a Control from Its Group
1. Right-click on the control.
2. Choose Remove From Group from the menu.
SONAR removes the control from the group and displays the control with
the neutral color indicator.
To Remove All Controls from a Group
•
Right-click a control in the group, and choose Clear Group from the
popup menu.
To Override a Control’s Grouping
•
Hold down the Ctrl key while moving the control.
The control remains part of the group and functions as such once the Ctrl
key is lifted.
To Set the Group Type to Relative or Absolute
1. Right-click on any control in the group and choose Group Manager to
display the Group Manager dialog.
2. Choose Absolute or Relative as the group type and click OK.
SONAR uses the type to determine the range of motion for the group’s
controls.
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575
To Create a Custom Group
1. Right-click on any control in the group and choose Group Manager to
display the Group Manager dialog.
2. Choose Custom as the group type. The starting and ending values for
each control are displayed.
3. To change the starting or ending value for a control, click on the control
in the list and enter new values in the Start and End box.
4. To swap the starting and ending value, click the Swap button.
5. Click Close when you are done.
SONAR uses the type to determine the range of motion for the group’s
controls.
To Adjust the Start Value of a Control
1. Set the control to the desired starting value.
2. Right-click on the control.
3. Choose Set Start = Current.
SONAR sets the start value of the control.
The Set Start = Current and Set End = Current commands set the range
of motion that a grouped control moves through as the other members of
the group move through their starting and ending values. You don’t have to
designate a group as a custom group to create a custom group—just group
some controls and set their starting and ending values.
To Adjust the End Value of a Control
1. Set the control to the desired ending value.
2. Right click on the control.
3. Choose Set End = Current.
SONAR sets the end value of the control.
The Set Start = Current and Set End = Current commands set the range
of motion that a grouped control moves through as the other members of
the group move through their starting and ending values. You don’t have to
designate a group as a custom group to create a custom group—just group
some controls and set their starting and ending values.
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Quick Groups
You can create a temporary group (a Quick Group) of track or bus controls
by clicking the strip selector on each track or bus that you want to group.
Similar or identical controls in the grouped tracks or buses will then move
synchronously when you adjust them. For example, if you made a Quick
Group of an audio track and a MIDI track, and then dragged the volume
fader in the MIDI track, the volume fader in the audio track would move in
similar fashion. If you dragged the Velocity Trim fader in the MIDI track, the
Volume Trim fader in the audio track would move also.
Note: not all controls can be Quick Grouped or Grouped. Controls such as
Input, Output, and Effects Send Selector on Audio tracks as well as the
Input, Output, Channel, Bank, Patch, Time+ and Key+ controls on MIDI
tracks cannot be grouped (they can have identical values set though by
using the Tracks-Property-[name of property] command).
The additional attributes of Quick Groups are:
•
Only one Quick Group can exist at a time.
•
If a control is part of a Quick Group and a permanent group, the Quick
Group takes precedence.
•
Track and bus controls cannot be in the same Quick Group.
Strip selectors are located in the upper left corner of a track or bus number
in the Track view, and are located in the upper left corner of a track or bus
name in the Console view. Traditional track selection (selecting a track and
all its recorded MIDI or audio data) is still performed by clicking the track
number, but not in the upper left corner.
A track strip selector in the
Track view
A track selector in the Track view
A bus strip selector in the Track view
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577
A track strip selector in the
Console view
A bus strip selector in the Console view
You can make part of a Quick Group into a permanent group by rightclicking a grouped control, and using the Group-Save command from the
popup menu. This creates a group of whatever kind of control you rightclicked from all the tracks or buses in the Quick Group. For example, if you
have a Quick Group made of three audio tracks, you could right-click the
volume fader of one of the tracks, and save the group. This would create a
permanent group of the volume faders in the three audio tracks.
To Create a Quick Group
•
Highlight the track strip or bus strip selectors of the tracks or buses you
want to group by using any of the following methods:
•
Ctrl-click strip selectors if they are not adjacent.
•
Click one strip selector, then shift-click another strip selector to
select all tracks or buses that are between them.
•
Ctrl-click any strip selector that you want to de-select.
•
Double-click a strip selector to select all tracks or buses.
To Remove all Controls from a Quick Group
•
Click a strip selector that is in or out of the group.
Or
•
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Right-click a control in the group, and choose Clear Group from the
popup menu.
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Using Control Groups
To Make a Quick Group a Permanent Group
1. In a pre-existing Quick Group, right-click the kind of control that you
want to group (for example, volume) to open the popup menu.
2. Use the Group-Save command from the popup menu.
The Group Attributes dialog appears.
3. Choose a Group name and color, and click OK.
If you right-click a control to display the popup menu again, the name of
your new group appears in the Group menu. You can add other controls to
the group by right-clicking a control, and choosing the group from the popup
menu.
You can choose the default color for Quick Groups in the Configure Colors
dialog (Options-Colors command).
Using Remote Control
This section explains how to assign knobs or sliders on a MIDI controller to
control specific parameters on specific tracks. If you have a control surface
with groups of faders such as a Tascam US-428 or CM Labs MotorMix, see
the online help topic “Working with External Devices.”
SONAR‘s Remote Control function lets you use a MIDI device to remotely
control knobs, buttons, and sliders in the Track and Console views. For
example, you can:
•
Use a key on your keyboard to temporarily mute a track
•
Work the send level in a bus with your pitch bend wheel
•
Set the main volume levels with NRPN messages
•
Prevent SONAR from sending any controller messages to your MIDI
device.
•
Record automation from an external controller
If you set up remote control for a grouped control, the remote control works
all controls in the group.
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579
The type of MIDI message used to work a control is selected in the Remote
Control dialog box. The options are as follows:
Message
option...
Message effect
on buttons...
Message effect on sliders
and knobs...
None
No remote control
No remote control
Note On
The button state is
toggled
The slider/knob is alternately
maximized and minimized
Note On/Off
The button state is
toggled when Note On
is received, and toggled
again when Note Off is
received
The slider/knob is maximized when
Note On is received, and minimized
when Note Off is received
Controller
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the
controller value
Wheel
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the
wheel value, with the values
mapped from their original range of
–8,192 to 8,191 to a range of 0 to
127
RPN
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the
RPN value, with the values mapped
from their original range of 0 to
16,383 to a range of 0 to 127
NRPN
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the
NRPN value, with the values
mapped from their original range of
0 to 16,383 to a range of 0 to 127
To Set Up Remote Control for a Knob, Button, or Fader
1. Right-click on the control and choose Remote Control from the popup
menu.
2. Choose the remote control type, as described in the table above.
3. Set the note or controller number if applicable.
4. Set the MIDI Channel field to the channel that your controller sends out.
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5. Click OK.
You can now work the control from your MIDI device. If you click the
Automation Write button on the track strip of the track you are recording on,
you can record your external controller’s knob or fader movements. Make
sure the Automation Write button in the Automation toolbar is enabled.
To Disable Remote Control
•
Right-click on the control and choose Disable Remote Control from
the popup menu.
To Prevent SONAR from Sending Controller Data to
Your MIDI Device
•
Right-click each knob or fader in SONAR that is sending unwanted
controller data to your MIDI device and choose Disable Control from
the popup menu.
Using the Learn Option
The Learn option in the Remote Control dialog allows you to bind a
parameter in SONAR to a knob or fader on your controller.
To Bind a Control Using the Learn Option
1. Right-click on the parameter you want to arm in either the Track view or
Console view and select Remote Control from the popup menu.
2. Move a knob or fader on your controller.
3. Click the Learn button in the Remote Control dialog and click OK.
The control in SONAR is now bound to the knob or fader on your controller.
Bouncing Tracks
The Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command lets you combine one or more
audio tracks into a submix. A submix can be a mono track, a stereo track or
several mono tracks that contain the mixture of the original tracks,
preserving the volume, pan, and effects for each track. If you’re bouncing
tracks that are routed to a surround bus (SONAR Producer only), you can
bounce them to as many mono tracks as you have surround channels, by
choosing the Split Mono option in the Channel Format field of the Bounce to
Tracks dialog, and also choosing a surround bus in the Source Category
field. After their creation, the submix tracks are just like any other tracks—
you can edit them, add effects, copy them to another project, etc. The
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original, unmixed audio tracks are not deleted, so you can archive them and
recover them later, or continue using them as before.
Note: you control the bit depth of all rendering operations (bouncing,
freezing, applying effects) on the Audio Data tab of the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command) in the Render Bit Depth field. The
default value of 32 is the best for most situations. See “Bit Depths for
Rendering Audio” on page 774 for more information.
The Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command operates completely offline,
meaning you can mix down tracks that may be too complex for your
machine to actually play in real time.
Here are some reasons to use Edit-Bounce to Track(s):
•
Your mix is so complex that real-time playback is impossible. EditBounce to Track(s) produces the correct mix, and store the result in a
new track or tracks.
•
You require more CPU time for your real-time effects. With EditBounce to Track(s), you can premix some of your tracks with real-time
effects applied, saving CPU time during playback.
If you mix down to tracks that already have data, the new events are placed
in the track, but do not overwrite existing material.
To Mix Down (Bounce) Audio Tracks
1. Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want
them.
2. Select the tracks or clips you want to mix down.
3. If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down
at this time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus an
extra measure for the reverb or effects “tail.”
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4. Choose Edit-Bounce to Track(s) to open the Bounce to Track(s)
dialog.
5. Select the first destination track for the mixdown.
6. If you’ve saved a preset configuration for the Bounce to Tracks dialog,
select it now in the Preset window.
7. In the Source Category field, select the source you want to use for your
bounced track(s) from the following options:
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each
track you highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field. Each track you
highlight will produce a new mono track, stereo track, or two new
mono tracks (the Split Mono option), depending on what you
choose in the Channel Format field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each
bus you highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field. Each bus you
highlight will produce a new mono track, stereo track, or two to
eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono option), depending on
whether the bus is a stereo or surround bus, and depending on
what you choose in the Channel Format field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates new separate tracks
for each main output you highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
Each main output you highlight will produce a new mono track,
stereo track, or two to eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono
option), depending on whether the output is a stereo output or the
Surround Main, and depending on what you choose in the Channel
Format field.
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583
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option bounces your entire mix down to a
new mono track, stereo track, or two to eight new mono tracks (the
Split Mono option), depending on whether the output is a stereo
output or the Surround Main, and depending on what you choose in
the Channel Format field.
8. Select a channel format: the kind of track(s) you want to create with
your bounce.
9. Select source buses or tracks.
10. Select the kind of dithering you want for your bounce, or select None.
•
In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only
soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked. Make sure Fast
Bounce is checked, otherwise the bounce process will take as long as it
takes to play your selected track data in real time. Usually, you also
want to check 64-bit Mix Engine. This option lets you turn on the 64-bit
mix engine temporarily while you bounce your tracks. This produces a
higher-quality bounce without taxing your CPU during the rest of your
session.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you
check Track FX to include synths that are patched into tracks, and
check Bus FX to include synths that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation, any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will
be exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If
you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export.
11. If you want to save your settings as a preset, type a name for them in
the Preset window, and then click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the
Preset window.
12. Click OK.
SONAR mixes the audio data and a new track or tracks appear in your
project.
Preparing to Create an Audio CD
You can create an audio CD from any wave file or files (extension .WAV) of
up to either 74 or 80 minutes (depending on the recordable CD media you
have). If your projects are audio only, you can simply mix down to a stereo
wave file. If your projects contain MIDI, you must first convert the MIDI
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tracks to audio tracks. Once you have all the stereo wave files you want to
include on your CD, you are ready to burn a CD. Most CD burners come
with CD burning software, if yours did not, you will need to buy CD burning
software, like Cakewalk’s Pyro. To download a free demo of Pyro, visit the
Cakewalk website.
Preparing Audio for Distribution
The File-Export Audio command exports your project as a new file or files
that you can burn to a CD, or distribute via the Web or e-mail. In addition,
SONAR Producer allows you to export surround-encoded files (see
“Exporting Surround Mixes” on page 618). The following export formats are
supported:
Format...
Definition...
Wave (surround files in
Wave format are
supported by SONAR
Producer only)
The standard digital audio format used under Windows
for burning CDs, with a file extension of .WAV
Windows Media Advanced
Streaming Format
(includes Windows Media
Pro; surround files are
supported by SONAR
Producer only)
Compressed digital audio for streaming over the
Internet, with the file extension .WMA.
MP3
Highly compressed digital audio designed for quick
downloads via the Internet, with the file extension .MP3.
The MP3 encoder that comes with SONAR is a trial
version which will time-out. The full version is available
for download at www.cakewalk.com.
OMF
The Open Media Format, created by AVID Technology,
is designed to port a project to other applications or
platforms. OMF files preserve tracks, clip positions, slip
edits and some other project attributes depending on
which application is writing or reading the OMF file.
If your audio hardware is configured for stereo playback, Wave files are
created in stereo; if your audio hardware is configured for monophonic
playback, the Wave file is created in mono.
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Preparing Audio for Distribution
585
To Export Audio to Wave File Format
1. Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want
them.
2. If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now. If
you don’t select anything, everything’s selected.
3. If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down
at this time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus
extra time for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4. Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5. Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6. Enter a file name.
7. Choose one of the following from the Files of type dropdown list:
•
Riff Wave—choose this if you want to export a standard wave file,
or if you’re exporting a surround project in wave format.
•
Broadcast Wave—choose this if you want to create a Broadcast
Wave file (see description below).
8. In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
•
Tracks—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each track
that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus
that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—Choosing this option creates a separate file for
each main output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—Choosing this option creates one file for your entire
mix, unless you’re exporting a surround mix with Split Mono
selected in the Channel Format field.
9. In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want
to use as a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source
Category field, only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
586
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo
file or files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file
or files.
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Preparing Audio for Distribution
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to
separate mono files.
•
Multichannel—All exported tracks are mixed down to a
multichannel wave file or files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source
file is 16 and you export to 24, you get more precision for any audio
effects in the mix (and a larger file). If your source file is 24 and you
export to 16, you lose some sound definition, but you get some of it
back if the Dithering option is on in the Audio Options dialog box (see
“Dithering” on page 593 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only
soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you
check Track FX to include synths that are patched into tracks, and
check Bus Returns to include synths that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will
be exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If
you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export. If you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance
settings at the main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog,
type a name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy
disk icon that’s next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The audio is exported to the Wave file or files.
If you chose Broadcast Wave as the export format, the following information
is stored in the file(s):
•
Description—A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave.
Limited to 256 characters.
•
Originator—The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is
taken from the Author field in the File Info dialog.
•
Originator Reference—A unique reference identifier created by
SONAR.
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587
•
Origination Date—The date the file was created.
•
Origination Time—The time the file was created.
•
Time Reference—The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of
broadcast wave.
To Export a Project in Windows Media Format
1. Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want
them.
2. If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3. If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down
at this time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus
extra time for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4. Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5. Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6. Enter a file name.
7. Choose Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format from the Files of
type dropdown list.
8. In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track
that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus
that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each
main output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix,
unless you’re exporting a surround mix with Split Mono selected in
the Channel Format field.
9. In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want
to use as a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source
Category field, only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
588
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo
file or files.
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Preparing Audio for Distribution
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file
or files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to
separate mono files.
•
Multichannel—All exported tracks are mixed down to a
multichannel WMA file or files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source
file is 16 and you export to 24, you get more precision for any audio
effects in the mix (and a larger file). If your source file is 24 and you
export to 16, you lose some sound definition, but you get some of it
back if the Dithering option is on in the Audio Options dialog box (see
“Dithering” on page 593 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only
soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you
check Track FX to include synths that are patched into tracks, and
check Bus Returns to include synths that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will
be exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If
you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export. If you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance
settings at the main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog,
type a name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy
disk icon that’s next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The Windows Media Format Encode Options dialog appears.
16. Select options and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to a file or files with the extension
.WMA.
To Export a Project in MP3 Format
1. Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want
them.
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Preparing Audio for Distribution
589
2. If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3. If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down
at this time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus an
extra measure for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4. Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5. Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6. Enter a file name.
7. Choose MP3 from the Files of type dropdown list.
8. In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track
that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus
that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each
main output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix.
9. In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want
to use as a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source
Category field, only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo
file or files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file
or files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to
separate mono files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. In the Bit Depth field, select 16. If your source file is 24 and you export
to 16, you lose some sound definition, but you get some of it back if the
Dithering option is on in the Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering”
on page 593 for more information).
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13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only
soloed tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a synth into a track or bus, make sure you
check Track FX to include synths that are patched into tracks, and
check Bus Returns to include synths that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will
be exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If
you don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during
export. If you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance
settings at the main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog,
type a name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy
disk icon that’s next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The Cakewalk MP3 Encoder dialog appears.
16. Choose options and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to a file or files with the extension
.MP3.
Exporting OMF Files
OMF (Open Media Format) files are designed for cross-platform
compatibility. For more information about the OMF format, see “Importing
OMF Projects” on page 238.
If you plan to export a SONAR project to another program that can read
OMF files, it pays to consider three things before you start your SONAR
project:
•
Sample rate and audio bit depth of the target system
•
Number of tracks the target system can handle
•
SONAR and most other audio programs do not include video in the
OMF file
Mixing
Preparing Audio for Distribution
591
To Export a Project as an OMF File
1. Select File-Export-OMF.
The Export OMF dialog appears.
2. Enter a File Name (maximum 64 characters—SONAR limits name
length for ISO CDR compatibility), and in the Save As Type field,
choose OMF Version 1 or 2. Most applications expect Version 2, but
check with your engineer.
3. Audio Packaging: usually you should choose Embed Audio Within
OMF, which includes the audio data in the OMF file. But you should
check with your engineer.
4. Split Stereo Tracks Into Dual Mono: see what your engineer wants. If
exporting a 24-bit project to a Pro Tools system, enable "Split Stereo
Tracks Into Dual Mono," as some Pro Tools systems do not support 24bit interleaved stereo files.
5. Include Archived Tracks: you can choose to include archived tracks in
your exported file.
6. Mix Each Groove Clip As A Separate Clip: if you have several Groove
Clips in a track SONAR exports them as one clip unless you check this
option. If you check this option, SONAR has to do a separate export
operation for each Groove Clip in the track, which is very timeconsuming. If you only have one Groove Clip in a track, and you have
rolled out numerous repetitions of the clip, SONAR exports a single clip
that is the length of the original clip and all the repetitions, which is not a
time-consuming operation.
7. Audio Format: ask your engineer what format the studio uses, Windows
(RIFF Wave) or Mac (AIFC).
8. Click the Save button.
9. SONAR exports the project as an OMF file. In the Save as Type field,
select the OMF version you want to save the project as. Version 1 is
compatible with older applications. See your target application’s
documentation for information on which version it supports.
Note: OMF files save the following:
592
•
Tracks
•
Clip positions
•
Slip edits
•
Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)
Mixing
Preparing Audio for Distribution
The following information is discarded:
•
Volume
•
Pan
•
Automation
•
Effects
Dithering
Dithering—whenever an audio signal is converted from a higher-bit
resolution to a lower resolution, it is necessary to apply dither to avoid
introducing undesirable quantization noise or harmonic distortion into the
signal. The purpose of dither is to reduce the resulting distortion by adding
low-level random noise or “dither” to the audio signal. Different
mathematical calculations are used to generate dither, each method has
advantages and disadvantages depending on the particular operation.
SONAR Producer features the Pow-r dithering process, short for Psychoacoustically Optimized Wordlength Reduction, which can produce lower-bit
files that sound indistinguishable from higher-bit source files. When this
option is turned on, SONAR uses dithering when you export a higher-bit file
at a lower resolution, or lower the bit depth of a project’s audio files by using
the Tools-Change Audio Format command, or when you “render” audio
(bounce, freeze, or apply effects).
SONAR Producer offers five kinds of dithering:
•
Rectangular—essentially white noise, no noise shaping.
Advantages: least CPU-intensive, lowest signal-to-noise ratio,
preferable to shaped dither when successive dithering can occur
(e.g. bouncing, freezing). Disadvantages: suffers from
intermodulation distortion, higher perceived loudness than Pow-r
dither.
•
Triangular—higher level than rectangular, no noise shaping.
Advantages: low CPU-intensive dither, superior to Rectangular as it
does not suffer from modulation noise effects. Preferable to shaped
(Pow-r) dither when successive dithering can occur (e.g. bouncing,
freezing). Disadvantages: higher perceived loudness than Pow-r
dither.
•
Pow-r 1—noise-shaped dither. Advantages: less CPU-intensive
than Pow-r types 2 and 3, lower perceived loudness than
Rectangular or Triangular. Disadvantages: less noise shaping than
Pow-r types 2 and 3, not recommended for operations where dither
will be applied successively (e.g. bounce and freeze).
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593
•
Pow-r 2—noise-shaped dither. Advantages: lowest perceived
loudness, highest quality settings, recommended for audio export.
Disadvantages: highest CPU-intensive settings, not recommended
for operations where dither will be applied successively (e.g.
bounce and freeze).
•
Pow-r 3—same as Pow-r 2 except most CPU-intensive and
transparent of all choices.
To Choose Dithering Options
1. Open the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio command).
2. On the Advanced tab, under Playback and Recording, choose the kind
of dithering you want in the Dithering field.
3. Click OK.
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Mixing
Preparing Audio for Distribution
Surround Mixing
SONAR Producer fully supports surround mixing
(SONAR Studio can open surround projects created in
Producer, converting them to stereo). SONAR
(Producer) can create finished surround mixes in all
popular surround formats, including Windows Media 9
Pro. You can use a joystick to control surround panning if
you want.
Note: it’s always advisable to know the required sampling
rate and audio driver bit depth for the target medium that your
surround project will be used in. That way you can work in the
correct format from the start, without having to convert later. You
can set these parameters in the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio
command).
To get a complete understanding of SONAR’s surround functions, start with
the “Surround Basics” on page 596.
In This Chapter
Surround Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
Joystick Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Surround Metering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
Bass Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Exporting Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
Surround Basics
Surround sound is a common name for various techniques for positioning
audio in reference to the listener. Whereas regular stereo is limited to left/
right positioning, within a relatively narrow field, surround sound opens
possibilities of positioning an audio source anywhere around the listener.
Surround sound comes in many formats. The differences between the
formats are in three areas:
•
The number of speakers—this varies from 3.2 all the way to 8.1.
•
The angles of the speakers.
•
The intended final coding format—this depends on the media the audio
will be "stored" on: film, broadcast video or DVD, for example.
The most common format is 5.1, which consists of five full-range channels
and a low-frequency effects (LFE) channel (the “.1” in 5.1 is the LFE or sub
channel). The five full-range channels are reproduced by left, right, and
center speakers positioned in front of the listener (L, R, and C for short),
and left and right surround speakers positioned behind the listener (Ls and
Rs for short). The LFE channel can be routed to the main speakers or to a
subwoofer that can be positioned almost anywhere.
The center channel is typically used to lock dialog or sounds to a video
screen. The LFE channel is generally routed to a subwoofer to enhance low
audio frequencies for effects such as explosions or crashes. Audio in this
channel is limited to a range of approximately 25 Hz to 120 Hz.
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
This section covers setting up SONAR for surround sound.
Using Surround Format Templates
A Surround Format template specifies the number of speakers and the
order in which the speakers are arranged.
There are several different surround formats, including LCRS, 5.1, 6.1, and
7.1, with 5.1 being most common. The number after the decimal point refers
to the number of Low Frequency Effect (LFE) speakers. However, there are
even different flavors of 5.1. The different flavors specify in which order the
speakers are arranged, and the speaker angles.
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Surround Mixing
Surround Basics
For example:
Surround Format
Speaker Order
5.1 SMPTE/ITU
L, R, C, LFE, Ls, Rs
5.1 Music Alternative
L, R, Ls, Rs, C, LFE
5.1 Film Alternative
L, C, R, Ls, Rs, LFE
The speaker positions, moving clockwise from center, are identified as:
Label
Speaker
C
Center (directly in front of listener)
Rc
Right of Center
R
Right (standard Stereo placement)
Sr
Side right—directly to the right of the listener
Rs
Right Surround
Cs
Surround (rear center)
Ls
Left Surround
Sl
Side Left—directly to the left of the listener
L
Left (standard Stereo placement)
Lc
Left of center
LFE
Low Frequency Effect speaker(s)—placed
according to room acoustics
To mix in surround sound in SONAR, you must insert at least one surround
bus.
A project can include multiple surround buses, but all surround buses in a
project use the same surround format (5.1, 7.1, etc.).
The project’s surround format is based on one of the following Surround
Format templates:
•
2.0
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597
598
•
2.1
•
LCR
•
LRC+LFE
•
LRS
•
LFS+LFE
•
Matrix UHJ
•
QUAD
•
4.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
Quad+LFE
•
PanAmbio 4.1
•
LCRS
•
Surround (SMPTE/ITU)
•
Surround Media
•
LCRS+LFE
•
5.1 (Standard 3/2)
•
5.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
5.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
5.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
6.0 (Hexagon)
•
6.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
6.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
6.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
6.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
6.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
7.0 (Heptagon)
•
7.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
7.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
7.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
7.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
7.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
Surround Mixing
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
•
8.0 (Octagon)
•
8.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
8.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
8.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
8.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
8.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
5.1 (SMPTE/ITU) is the default template.
The Surround Format templates are hard-coded, and cannot be deleted.
However, you can freely assign any enabled audio output port to any
surround channel, and save the configuration as a preset.
Surround settings are per project. Surround speaker assignments default to
unique audio output channels when you choose a new template.
You configure your surround settings in the Project Options dialog on the
Surround tab (use the Options-Project command and click the Surround
tab).
Choosing a Surround Format
Using the Options-Project command and clicking the Surround tab
displays several fields of surround options. Choosing a surround format
sets the number of speakers your project is using, and lets you choose a
specific sound card output for each speaker. Here you can also choose
parameters for bass management, and for downmixing, which means
converting a surround mix into a stereo mix.
The group of sound card outputs that you choose on the Surround tab of the
Project Options dialog make up the “Surround Main.” The Surround Main
becomes a choice on the Outputs menus of tracks and buses as soon as
you insert a surround bus into your project. You won’t see a “Surround
Main” output module in the output modules section of the Console view,
because it’s just a term for the group of sound card outputs you choose for
surround mixing. The pan control on any track or bus that outputs to the
“Surround Main” controls which hardware outputs receive the signal that the
track or bus sends to the “Surround Main.”
SONAR saves the surround settings you choose on the Surround tab of the
Project Options dialog with your project, including your downmixing
parameters. If you have some particular settings you might use again, you
can save a group of settings as a preset (except for downmixing
parameters—you can change these, but they aren’t saved in presets). To
save a group of settings as a preset, type a name in the Presets field and
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Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
599
then click the Disk icon that’s to the right of the field. When you want to use
this preset in a project, just choose it from the Presets dropdown menu.
To Choose a Surround Format and Set Sound Card
Outputs
1. Use the Options-Project command.
The Project Options dialog appears.
2. Click the Surround tab.
3. Select a format from the Surround Format dropdown.
The diagram to the right of the Surround Format menu changes to
illustrate the speaker placement of the format that you chose.
4. In the Output column, assign each channel to a sound card output.
Note: Consumer-grade sound cards, such as Audigy or SoundBlaster,
typically reserve output 4 for the LFE channel. Check your sound card
manual for details.
5. Click OK.
Note: Take a moment to make sure your speakers are correctly hooked up
to the corresponding outputs before you attempt any playback. See the
diagram in the Project Options dialog for the speaker setup. If you are not
sure what the abbreviations for the speaker names are, see “Surround
Basics” on page 596.
Surround Buses
You have to have at least one surround bus in your project to use surround
sound. A surround bus differs from a stereo bus in that it simply has more
channels. For example, if a project is set to 7.1, then the bus has 8
channels: 7 directional channels and one LFE channel.
To Insert a Surround Bus
1. In the Bus Pane of the Track view or the Console view, right-click to
display a popup menu of bus options.
2. Select Insert Surround Bus from the popup menu.
Or
•
600
Use the Insert-Surround Bus menu command.
Surround Mixing
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
Routing in Surround
Tracks can send output to a surround bus, the Surround Main, or a
hardware output. If a track is routed to a surround bus or the Surround
Main, it has surround meters and a surround panner. You can route any
track or bus to another bus, the Surround Main or a hardware out. However,
you are prevented from creating a signal loop by routing the signal back into
a bus that is already in the signal flow. The following table lists how each of
these routing options affects the signal:
Signal Flow
Result
Track to stereo bus
No change
Mono track to surround bus
Mono signal is routed to both Left and
Right channels of surround format. You
can change the routing to other
surround channels by using the
surround panner on the track.
Stereo track to surround bus
Stereo left channel is routed to Left
channel of surround format; stereo
right channel is routed to Right channel
of surround format. You can change
the routing to other surround channels
by using the surround panner on the
track.
Track to hardware output
No change
Stereo bus to stereo bus
No change
Stereo bus to surround bus or the
Surround Main
Stereo left channel is routed to Left
channel of surround format; stereo
right channel is routed to Right channel
of surround format. You can change
the routing to other surround channels
by using the surround panner on the
stereo bus.
Stereo bus to hardware output
No change
Surround bus to stereo bus
Surround channels are downmixed to
stereo
Surround Mixing
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
601
Surround bus to surround bus or
the Surround Main
No change
To Assign a Track to a Surround Bus or Surround Main
•
Click in the track’s output field and select a surround bus, the Surround
Main, or New Surround Bus as an output.
Downmixing
Downmixing is a way of previewing your surround project in stereo only.
There are various cases where surround is not available and it may be that
someone plays your project in stereo only. A radio broadcast is a good
example. Downmixing is a valuable tool for determining if your project will
sound good in stereo. However, you can export your project in stereo, and
SONAR uses your downmix settings to create your exported file.
The following table lists the downmixing settings in the Surround tab of the
Project Options dialog and gives a brief description of what the setting
does. You can also manually enter other values besides these preset ones:
602
Downmixing
Setting
Options
Center Downmix Level
(dB)
These options determine how much of the center is
mixed to the left and right.
•
-3 dB—Maintains the same level of center channel
sound when you listen in a typically reverberant
room
•
-4.5 dB—A compromise level between -3dB and -6
dB
•
-6 dB—Maintains the same level of center channel
sound when you listen to direct sound without
typical room reverberations
•
-INF—Eliminates all of the Center channel signal
Surround Mixing
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
Surround Downmix Level
(dB)
LFE Level (dB)
The amount of Left Surround and Right Surround mixed
into the Left and Right channels respectively.
•
-3 dB—Maintains the same level of surround
•
-6 dB—Reduces the level of surround so that it
doesn’t compete with center channel sound such as
dialog
•
-INF—Eliminates all of the Surround channel signal
The amount of the LFE channel mixed into the Left and
Right channels respectively.
•
-12 (or type in a value)—Lets you choose the level
of LFE in the stereo mix
•
-INF—Eliminates all LFE
To Downmix a Project
1. If you do not have a stereo bus in your project, create one by rightclicking in the Bus pane in the Track view or Console view and selecting
Insert Stereo Bus from the menu that appears.
2. Open the Project Options dialog (Options-Project command), select a
center downmix level and a surround downmix level in the Surround
tab, and click OK.
3. In each of the surround buses, assign the output to a stereo bus.
4. Listen to your project through the stereo bus, and make any final
adjustments to the stereo mix by changing the values in the Surround
tab of the Project Options dialog.
5. If you want to export your stereo mix, use the File-Export Audio
command. This command obeys your downmix settings.
Panning in Surround
Unlike stereo panning which sends sound to left and right speakers,
surround panning means sending sound to multiple speakers at points
along a circle.
When a track/bus/send is assigned to a surround bus, the Pan control turns
into a multi-dimensional surround panner. The surround panner comes in
four sizes:
•
Micro—this is found in the Track view.
Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
603
•
Small—this is found on sends.
•
Medium—this is the surround panner which is displayed in the Track
Inspector and Console view.
•
Large—this is a large surround panner (see “Controlling Surround
Panning” on page 605) which has additional controls, and appears
when you right-click a surround panner and choose Open Surround
Panner from the popup menu, or double-click outside the surround
panner circle, or press Enter when the panner has focus.
MIcro surround panner in
Track view
Six channel output meter
Medium surround panner in Console view
The small and large panners are always synchronized; the large panner
simply provides increased resolution when you adjust the surround pan
position.
Note 1: Surround panning is not available for tracks/sends that are routed
to non-surround buses.
Note 2: If the track/bus/send is reassigned to a stereo bus, any surround
automation will be orphaned, but will automatically reconnect if the track/
bus/send is later assigned back to a surround bus.
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Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
Controlling Surround Panning
Here are pictures of the large surround panner and medium surround
panner:
Large Surround Panner
Angle and focus
marker
Right speaker icon
Width markers
Medium Surround Panner
The large surround panner has some sliders at the bottom that the medium
surround panner doesn’t have, except for the LFE Send slider, which the
medium panner has. Except for the sliders, the large and medium surround
panners have the following controls:
Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
605
•
606
Angle and Focus marker—a small sphere that you can drag in any
direction to both control and display the following two parameters:
•
Angle—this is the perceived angle of the sound source as it differs
from the position directly in front of the listener. The scale is 0 to
180 degrees on the listener’s right, and 0 to -180 degrees on the
listener’s left. 0 means the sound is coming from directly in front of
the listener, and plus or minus 180 degrees means that the sound
is coming from directly behind the listener.
•
Focus—this is the perceived distance of the sound source from the
center of the circle on a scale of 0 to 100, 0 meaning the center of
the circle, and 100 meaning the perimeter.
•
Width markers—these are two smaller spheres equidistant from the
Angle and Focus marker. Their distance from each other and from the
front of the circle shows the Width value (see definition below). You can
also drag the Width markers to control Angle and Focus.
•
Speaker icons/squares—each surround channel is represented by a
speaker icon in the large panner, and a white square in the small
panner. The large panner also has a corresponding volume level in dB
directly in front of each icon. The position of each speaker icon shows
you each speaker’s position in the surround mix. Clicking a speaker
icon or square mutes the corresponding channel, causing the icon or
square to become grey. Double-clicking the icon solos its channel,
turning the icon green.
•
Angle slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls
the angle value.
•
Focus slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls
the focus value.
•
Width slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls
the width value. Width is a measure of how wide an area the sound
seems to be coming from on a scale of 0 to 360 degrees. At 0 and 360
degrees, the sound seems to all come from a single speaker. At 180
degrees the sound seems to come from directly opposite sides. The
default angle matches the project’s left and right channel angle. For
example, in 5.1 SMPTE/ITU surround, the default width is 60 degrees.
•
Front/Rear Balance slider (large panner only)—abbreviated as
FrntRrBl, this slider adjusts the front and rear balance. Drag it to the left
to reduce the level from the front speakers, or drag it to the right to
reduce rear level.
•
LFE slider—this slider both displays and controls the level of sound
Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
sent to the LFE channel.
•
LFE Only button (large panner only)—this button mutes all channels
except the LFE channel.
To Open the Large Surround Panner
•
Right-click the small surround panner or the pan control in a track, and
choose Open Surround Panner from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select a track, and either use the Views-Surround Panner command,
or click the Surround Panner button in the Views toolbar.
Or
•
Double-click outside the Surround Panner circle.
Or
•
Press Enter when the panner has focus.
To Change the Angle
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the Angle and Focus
marker to the left or right.
Or
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Angle slider.
To Change the Focus
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the Angle and Focus
marker toward or away from the center.
Or
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Focus slider.
To Mute a Surround Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, click a speaker icon to mute its output.
The speaker icon turns grey when the speaker is muted.
Or
•
In the small surround panner, click a white square to mute a speaker’s
output. The square turns grey when the speaker is muted.
To Solo a Surround Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, double-click a speaker icon to solo its
output. The speaker icon turns green when the speaker is soloed.
Or
Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
607
•
In the small surround panner, double-click a white square to solo a
speaker’s output. The square turns green when the speaker is soloed.
To Change the Width
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Width slider.
To Change the Front/Rear Balance
•
In the large surround panner, drag the FrntRrBl slider left to reduce
front level, or right to reduce rear level.
To Change the LFE Send Level
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the LFE slider.
Note: double-clicking any surround panner control will reset the control to
its default value, which for the LFE control is -INF.
To Solo or Unsolo the LFE Channel
•
In the large surround panner, click the LFE Solo button.
To Isolate a Signal in One Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Width slider to 0, the Focus
slider to 100, and then drag the Angle slider until the sphere icon is
directly in front of the correct speaker.
Or
•
Press the desired Numeric Keypad key that represents the speaker
position (7=L, 8=C, 9=R, see “Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 609).
To Group Panner Controls
•
In the large surround panner, right-click each slider that you want to add
to the group, and choose Group-”n” from the popup menu.
Now you can move a single slider, and all sliders in that same group move
synchronously.
Note: if you group sliders that are in the same surround panner, you can no
longer move the markers that represent those sliders’ values. You can only
move a grouped marker by moving its associated slider.
608
Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
Keyboard Shortcuts
The following shortcuts allow you to control a surround panner from the
keyboard:
Shortcut...
Function...
Alt+drag
Constrains to angle
Alt+Shift+drag
Constrains to angle at 100% focus
Ctrl+Shift+drag
Constrains to focus only
Shift+click
Sets panner point to the point that you
click (large and medium panners only)
Shift+drag controls (Angle, Width,
etc.)
Fine resolution
Up/Down cursor keys
Move to next/previous widget in
surround panner
Left/Right cursor keys
Move to next/previous panner in same
track
Ctrl+up/down
Move to surround panner in another
track
Ctrl+NumPad 0-9
Speaker mutes
NumPad 0-9
Jump to speaker angle at 100% focus
NumPad assignments:
•
0 = n/a
•
1 = Ls
•
2 = Cs
•
3 = Rs
•
4 = Sl
•
5 = centers the panner
•
6 = Sr
•
7=L
Surround Mixing
Panning in Surround
609
•
8=C
•
9=R
•
/ = Lc
•
* = Rc
Automating Surround Panning
You can arm or disarm for automation all the controls in a surround panner
by clicking any control in the surround panner (except LFE Solo), and
choosing Write Enable from the popup menu.
Joystick Support
SONAR Producer allows you to use a joystick to control surround panning.
A force-feedback joystick such as the Microsoft® SideWinder® Force
Feedback 2 joystick can add a tactile element to mixing sessions, and add
button control to some SONAR transport and/or menu commands with the
extra buttons on the joystick module.
The joystick will grab the current pan position/sphere anytime you pull the
trigger button (the "firing" button under your index finger). When recording
automation, you write new automation every time you pull the trigger
button.
Various joystick buttons can be used to:
•
Control SONAR’s transport
•
Switch focus to adjacent tracks/sends
•
Solo/unsolo current channel
•
Open/close the large surround panner window
To Connect the Joystick to SONAR Producer
1. Use the Options-Controller/Surfaces command.
2. In the Controller/Surfaces dialog, click the Add button
, and choose
Joystick Panner in the Controller/Surface field of the Controller/Surface
Settings dialog; click OK.
3. Close the Controller/Surfaces dialog, and display the Controller/
Surfaces toolbar (Views-Toolbars-Controller/Surfaces command).
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4. On the left side of the toolbar, choose Joystick Panner in the dropdown
menu, and then click the Properties button
the toolbar.
that’s on the right side of
5. In the Joystick Panner dialog, select button 1 in the Buttons field, and
then select Engage Pan Mode in the Button Actions field.
6. Now select Button 2, and select Engage Pan Nav Mode in the Button
Actions field.
7. Select any other buttons your joystick has (one at a time), and connect
them to any transport or menu commands you want in the Button
Actions field; close the Joystick Panner dialog.
Now when you hold down button 1 (the “trigger button”), the joystick
controls the surround panner on the current track or send. When the pan/
sphere is in the desired position, let button 1 up to hold the position. When
you hold down button 2, move the joystick vertically to change the current
track, and horizontally to change to a different send control. The window on
the right side of the Controller/Surfaces toolbar displays the names of the
current track and send. Use any other buttons you configured to control
other SONAR Producer functions.
You can save your button assignments as a preset by typing a name for the
current group of settings in the Presets window in the Joystick Panner
dialog, and then clicking the floppy disk icon that’s next to the Presets
window. Whenever you want to load a preset, just select it in the Presets
window.
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Joystick Support
611
Surround Metering
Meters in tracks routed to surround buses or the Surround Main, and
meters in surround buses work the same as stereo meters (see “Metering”
on page 535), however, surround meters display more channels. For
example, a project in 5.1 would have a six-channel meter.
Six-channel meter
Bass Management
A bass management system takes all the frequencies below a certain
frequency (normally 80Hz) from the main channels, and the signal from the
LFE channel, and mixes them together into the speaker that is best
equipped to handle them. This is usually a subwoofer, but sometimes the
left and right front speakers are used if a subwoofer isn’t available. The
reason why this is done is to make use of the subwoofer for more than the
occasional low frequency effect, since the subwoofer is there anyway, and
to lower the effective response of the system to about 25 Hz.
When you encode to Dolby Digital, the LFE channel gets a +10dB gain on
playback from Dolby's decoder. This gives you the option of delivering
some really powerful deep bass during playback, like in that earthquake
sound effect in your recording. Consider also that this +10 dB of low bass
can be added to any low bass that came out of the other 5 channels from
redirection, so you realistically can deliver a sound from the subwoofer that
is more than +20dB above the sound from any other speaker.
What this means during mixing is that you would have to turn the analog
gain to your subwoofer up 10 dB relative to the other 5 speakers, so that
you hear the sound as it will be played back in home theater systems that
use bass management, and you will get your levels set right in the mix.
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SONAR’s bass management system allows you to monitor how a surround
project will sound with bass management, so you don’t have to change the
gain to your subwoofer during mixing. SONAR’s bass management system
only applies to monitoring, and is ignored when you export your file.
To Monitor With Bass Management
1. If necessary, open the project you want to use bass management with.
2. Select Options-Project from the SONAR menu.
The Project Options dialog appears.
3. Click the Surround tab.
4. Check the Monitor with Bass Management option.
5. Select an option in the Low Pass Cutoff (Hz) dropdown, and click OK.
Surround Effects
SONAR lets you use your existing stereo or mono effects as surround
effects. SONAR does this through the SurroundBridge, which automatically
sets up your existing mono & stereo plug-ins so you can patch them into
surround buses (buses, not tracks).
The SurroundBridge
The SurroundBridge automatically loads enough instances of a plug-in to
handle all your surround channels. For example, if you patch a stereo effect
into a surround bus that uses 5.1 SMPTE/ITU panning, the SurroundBridge
automatically assigns the Left and Right channels of the bus to instance 1 of
the plug-in, assigns the Left Surround and Right Surround channels to
instance 2, the Center channel to instance 3, and the LFE channel to
instance 4. If you patch a mono effect into a surround bus, the
SurroundBridge assigns each channel to a single instance of the mono
effect, which would create six instances of the effect on a 5.1 surround bus.
You can view and edit these assignments on the SurroundBridge tab that’s
in the property page of every effect that’s patched into a surround bus. For
example, if you want a certain effect on the Left Surround channel of a
surround bus, but not on the Right Surround channel, you can assign these
two channels to different instances of the effect you’re patching by choosing
options on the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page.
The SurroundBridge also links the automatable parameters of each
instance so that when you change a parameter in one instance, you
automatically change the same parameter in all the other instances. You
Surround Mixing
Surround Effects
613
can unlink parameters individually, or per-instance (see “How to Patch and
Configure Surround Effects” on page 614).
Effect Property Pages
A single property page controls all instances of an effect that is patched into
a surround bus. The effect’s property page displays a different tab for each
instance of the effect. By default, when you change an automatable
parameter on one tab of the property page, that change is duplicated on all
the tabs of the property page. However, you can “unlink” individual
parameters from the other tabs by clicking the Unlink Controls button in the
effect property page, and while the button is enabled (red), move the
parameter you want to unlink, and then click the Unlink Controls button
again to disable it. Now you can change that parameter on one tab without
changing the same parameter on the other tabs. You can also link or unlink
all of an instance’s parameters by using the controls on the SurroundBridge
tab.
Effect Presets
You can use existing (non-surround) effects presets when you patch an
effect to a surround bus—selecting a non-surround preset sets all of a plugin’s instances to the settings of the preset; selecting a surround preset sets
each instance’s parameters individually, according to the information stored
in the preset.
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures.
To Patch an Effect Into a Surround Bus
•
Right-click the FX bin of a surround bus and choose a mono or stereo
effect from the popup menu.
The SurroundBridge patches multiple instances of the effect you chose into
the bus’s FX bin (however, only one effect appears in the bin), with default
assignments of surround channels to plug-in instances.
To Change Channel Assignments for a Patched Effect
1. If the effect’s property page is not open, display it by double-clicking the
name of the effect in the surround bus’s FX bin.
2. On the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page, use the
dropdown menus in the Left Input and Right Input columns to assign
individual surround channels to instances of the effect.
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Your assignments take effect immediately, and the names of the tabs in the
property page change to reflect the new assignments.
To Unlink Individual Effect Parameters from Other
Effect Instances
1. In the property page of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus,
click the Unlink Controls button so that it turns red.
2. Make some adjustments to the automatable parameters you want to
unlink (non-automatable parameters are not linked together). You can
select parameters on any tab. SONAR will automatically capture which
controls you change and unlink them from the corresponding controls
for the other surround channels.
3. When you’re finished adjusting parameters, click the Unlink Controls
button again so that it’s not red.
Now you can adjust the parameters you adjusted, without automatically
adjusting the same parameters that are on other tabs of the effect’s property
page. As long as the Unlink Controls button is not red, all other controls will
remain linked.
A list of the parameters that you unlinked appears in the Unlinked Controls
field on the SurroundBridge tab, with the instance number listed in the Plugin # column of the Unlinked Controls field.
If you unlinked some but not all of an instance’s parameters, the instance’s
checkbox in the Controls Linked to Group column appears grey, with a
check.
To view a list of the automatable parameters in a particular effect, uncheck
one of the Controls Linked to Group checkboxes on the SurroundBridge
tab, and read the list in the Unlinked Controls field.
To Relink Individual Effect Parameters to Other Effect
Instances
1. In the Unlinked Controls field on the SurroundBridge tab, select the
parameters you want to relink—if the parameters you want to select are
adjacent, you can Shift-click the first and last ones in the group. If
they’re not adjacent, you can Ctrl-click them individually.
2. Click the Relink Controls button.
The parameters you relinked are removed from the list.
Surround Mixing
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615
To Unlink All of an Instance’s Parameters from Other
Instances
1. In the property page of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus,
click the SurroundBridge tab.
2. Find the instance you want to unlink in the Plug-in # column, and
uncheck its Controls Linked to Group checkbox.
The parameters you unlinked appear in the Unlinked Controls field, with the
instance number listed in the Plug-in # column of the Unlinked Controls
field.
Note: to relink all of an instance’s parameters, recheck its Controls Linked
to Group checkbox.
To Disable an Instance
•
On the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page, uncheck the
Enable checkbox of the plug-in you want to disable. The instance’s tab
becomes greyed-out when you do this. You can re-enable the instance
by rechecking the checkbox.
The Enable checkbox is a separate bypass system from the Bypass button
that is on the instance’s individual property tab. Disabling an instance by
using the Enable checkbox lightens the CPU load by taking the instance out
of the processing path. The Bypass button on the instance’s property tab
does not change color when you click the Enable checkbox, because it is a
separate system. The Bypass button is automatable in some plug-ins.
To Save a Preset
1. Set the effect’s parameters the way you want them.
2. In the Presets field of the effect’s property page, type a name for the
preset, and click the floppy disk icon that’s just right of the Presets field.
Saving a preset of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus creates a
surround preset, which includes channel assignments and parameter
linkage settings.
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Importing Surround Mixes
SONAR imports multi-channel (surround) files as a group of mono files. If
the files contain information that labels the speaker location of each channel
in the file, SONAR copies these labels to the clips in your audio tracks, but
does not pan the tracks according to these labels. This is because you may
not have your SONAR project set to the same multi-channel format as the
imported project.
You can import the following types of multi-channel files:
•
Multi-channel PCM wave files (.WAV)
•
Dolby AC3 encoded files. (.AC3)—these are encoded for Dolby
surround. You will need to install an AC3 decoder filter such as this one:
http://ac3filter.sourceforge.net in order to be able to decode these files
in SONAR. Important: After installing the above AC3 codec, go to
Control Panel and launch the "AC3 Filter" control panel applet. From
there you can set up the default speaker output for this filter to 5.1
channels. Until you do this it will only stream in stereo. Also check the
sample rate of the imported file. It’s recommended that you set your
project sample rate to whatever the file uses before importing.
Otherwise the import process will go through a time consuming
resampling pass for each channel.
•
Windows Media Pro
To Import a Surround Multi-channel File
1. Use the File-Import-Audio command to open the Import Audio dialog.
2. Select a file of a supported file type.
3. Check Import As Mono Tracks.
4. Click Open.
SONAR imports each channel to a separate mono track.
Tip: You can also rip the soundtrack from a video file by opening the video
file directly from the Import Audio dialog.
Surround Mixing
Importing Surround Mixes
617
Exporting Surround Mixes
You can export your surround mixes as multi-channel PCM wave files, or as
Windows Media Pro files.
To Export a Surround Multi-channel File
1. Use the File-Export-Audio command to open the Export Audio dialog.
2. Type a name for your file.
3. In the Files of Type field, choose one of the following:
•
If you want to create a multi-channel wave file, choose RIFF Wave.
•
If you want to create a multi-channel Windows Media file, choose
Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format.
4. In the Source Category field, choose Buses, Main Outputs, or Entire
Mix.
5. Choose the bus or buses in the Source Buses/Tracks field that you
want to export your mix from.
6. Choose Multichannel in the Channel Format field.
7. Choose any other options you want such as Sample Rate and Bit
Depth.
8. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog,
type a name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy
disk icon that’s next to the window.
9. Click Export.
SONAR exports your project in the file format you selected.
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Exporting Surround Mixes
Automation
Automation means to record the movement of a fader,
knob, or other control so that the next time you play your
project, that control moves automatically. SONAR allows
you to graphically automate much more than just volume
and pan controls—you can automate individual controls,
faders, and knobs that control the main outs, individual
tracks, buses, individual effects’ parameters (including
some plug-in synths), and even individual clips. Easy to use
read and write controls are featured on each automatable
component of SONAR.
In This Chapter
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
The Automation Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
Automating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Reassigning Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
Quick Automation Guide
The following table summarizes Console and Track view automation:
What you
can
automate...
Parameters you
can automate...
How you can
automate them...
Individual tracks
Gain, pan, mute, bus
send gain, bus send
balance, MIDI
controllers, MIDI chorus
and reverb, pitch wheel,
channel aftertouch, RPN
and NRPN
Draw envelopes in the
Clips pane, record the
fader movements, or take
a snapshot
Buses
Input gain and pan,
output gain and pan
Draw envelopes in the
Clips pane, record the
fader movements, or take
a snapshot
Individual effects
Varies with the effect
Draw envelopes in the
Clips pane, record the
fader movements, or take
a snapshot
Soft Synth
controls
Varies with the synth
See “Drawing Soft Synth
Automation in the Clips
Pane” on page
509“Automating Controls
from the Synth Rack” on
page 508
Groups of faders
or other controls
Whatever the faders or
other controls in the
group control
Record fader movements
Individual clips
Gain and pan for audio
clips, velocity for MIDI
clips
Draw envelopes in the
Clips pane
In addition, SONAR allows you to copy and paste envelopes between
tracks. The only controls that you can’t automate are the Arm, Solo, Pre/
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Quick Automation Guide
Post, Interleave (Mono/Stereo selector), Bus Enable, and Phase buttons;
and the Trim fader.
The Automation Toolbar
Display the Automation toolbar
by using the Views-Toolbars
command to open the Toolbars dialog box, and making sure that the
Automation checkbox is checked. If you slide the cursor over each button or
field in the toolbar, tooltips pop up to tell you each function. The Automation
toolbar gives you quick access to some powerful automation controls:
•
Enable/Disable Automation Playback—Click this button to either
enable or disable any automation data the project contains.
•
Enable/Disable Automation Recording—Click this button to globally
turn on/off the ability to record automation.
•
Snapshot—Click this button to take a snapshot of all controls at a
particular Now time. When you play back your project, when your
project reaches the Now time where you took the snapshot, all controls
snap to the positions they held when you took the snapshot.
•
Clear All Automation Write Enables—Click this button to disarm
every control that is armed for automation recording.
•
Envelope/Offset mode—Click this button to toggle between Envelope
mode and Offset mode.
Automation Methods
There are several ways to automate controls in the Track and Console
views:
•
Recording the movements of individual faders, knobs, or controls—this
method includes any knob, slider, or control except the Solo, Arm,
Phase, Interleave, Vol Trim, Bus Enable, Pre/Post buttons, bank, patch,
channel, key+, time+, input and output
•
Drawing envelopes in the Clips pane for audio and/or MIDI data—an
envelope is a graph of the change in level of a particular parameter over
time
•
Recording automation data from an external controller
•
Snapshots
Automation
The Automation Toolbar
621
Automation Read and Automation Write
Buttons
SONAR now has buttons to enable/disable automation playback (the
Automation Read buttons) and automation recording (the Automation Write
buttons) on the following modules:
•
Tracks
•
Buses
•
Plug-in property pages
•
Clip effects property pages (Automation Read button only)
In addition, SONAR has right-click commands to enable/disable automation
playback and recording for individual parameters. The read/write buttons
enable or disable automation playback and recording respectively on all the
parameters on an individual track, bus, or plug-in at once. The read/write
commands enable or disable automation playback and recording
respectively on individual parameters of tracks, buses, or plug-ins.
The Automation Read button enables playback of automation envelopes for
all automatable parameters in the track, bus, or plug-in that the button is on,
and is a handy way to temporarily turn off envelopes for a particular track or
bus while mixing.
The Automation Write button replaces the old pre SONAR 6 “automation
arm” property and enables all automatable parameters on a specific audio
track, bus, or plug-in to be recorded.
The Automation Read and the Automation Write buttons are located by
default next to the Mute/Solo/Arm buttons on track and bus strips in the
Track View, on the console strip in the Console View, and below the Mute
and Solo buttons in the Synth Rack. They are also available in Cakewalk
Soft Synth and Cakewalk effects plug-ins. Automation Read and
Automation Write buttons have three states; enabled, disabled, and dim.
Enabled buttons indicate that all associated parameters are read/write
enabled. A dim button indicates that some parameters in the track strip or
plug-in are read or write enabled, while others are not. During automation
recording, you will see the automation preview envelope being drawn in
real time alongside the normal waveform or MIDI preview.
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Automation Read button
Automation Write button
Enabling Individual Parameters
You can read-enable or write-enable individual parameters on tracks and
buses by right-clicking them and choosing Automation Read Enable or
Automation Write Enable from the popup menu.
If you right-click an effect in an effect bin, the Read Enable Parameter and
Write Enable Parameter menu choices open dialogs that allow you to
select which parameters you want to enable.
Recording Individual Fader or Knob
Movements
Recording automation for knobs and faders works in the Track view, the
Console view, and Synth Rack. You can record automation during both
playback and recording operations.
To Record Individual Fader or Knob Movements
1. Do one of the following:
•
To write-enable an individual track or bus control, right-click the
fader or control you want to automate and choose Automation
Write Enable from the popup menu.
•
To write-enable individual plug-in parameters, right-click the name
of the plug-in in the FX bin, and choose Write Enable Parameter
from the popup menu. This opens a dialog that allows you to
choose which parameters to write-enable.
•
To write-enable individual synth parameters, right-click the synth’s
Automation Write button in the Synth Rack, and choose Write
Enable Parameter from the popup menu. This opens a dialog that
allows you to choose which parameters to write-enable.
•
To write-enable all parameters in an audio track, bus, synth, or
effect, enable the Automation Write button
on the track, bus,
Synth Rack strip, or plug-in property page you are recording
automation for. Enabling the Automation Write button on a track or
bus also write-enables all parameters of any effects on the track or
bus.
Automation
Automation Methods
623
2. Start playback or recording.
3. Move the armed parameter control(s).
4. Stop playback or recording.
After you record the automation data, SONAR draws a graph of it (an
envelope) in the Clips pane, which you can edit with the mouse by adding
and dragging nodes (see the rest of this chapter). Once you record
automation data in a track, the widget that you automated displays an
indicator to show that automation has been applied. You can also group
controls, so that automating one control automates all the controls in the
group.
Creating and Editing Audio Envelopes
You can create audio envelopes for both audio tracks and buses. Drawing
an envelope for audio data overwrites any preexisting envelope for the
same parameter that occurs at the same time in the same track or bus.
After you create an envelope, you can edit it with the following procedure,
but you can also edit by using the Envelope Draw tool to draw freehand or
preset shapes. See “Using the Envelope Draw Tool” on page 629 for more
information.
To Create and Edit Audio Envelopes with the Select or
Envelope Tools
1. Right-click in the Clips pane in the track (or bus) you want to automate.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2. From the menu, choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-(name of
the control you want to automate). Notice the envelope’s color at the
right side of the menu.
The envelope appears in the Clips pane as a straight, dotted line in the
envelope’s individual color, with a node (very small circle) at the
beginning. When you move the cursor over the envelope, a vertical,
double-ended arrow appears under it with the name and current value
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of the envelope in a box next to the cursor. The envelope’s vertical
position reflects the current value of the parameter you are editing.
Envelope name and current value
Node
Envelope value range
Note: An automated mute envelope changes the track’s mute status
whenever the envelope crosses the middle of its value range.
3. Using either the Select
or Envelope
tools, move the cursor
over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it
(notice that the name and current value of the envelope appear in a box
next to the cursor), and right-click the envelope. If you use the Envelope
tool, you can’t accidentally edit any other data besides the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
4. Choose Add Node from the menu.
A node appears on the envelope.
Note: A shortcut to add a node is to double-click the envelope.
5. Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag
the node in any direction you want.
6. Double-click the envelope to add another node.
7. Drag the new node in any direction you want and release the mouse.
8. Move the cursor over the segment of the envelope that lies between the
two nodes until the double-ended arrow appears, and right-click the
envelope to open the Envelope Editing menu.
9. Choose one of the following shapes from the Envelope Editing menu:
•
Jump—This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree
jump where the envelope reaches the second node. SONAR
displays jumps with a dotted line, meaning that there is automation
data at the nodes where the dotted line begins and ends, but not
where the line itself is.
•
Linear—This choice draws a straight line between the two nodes.
Automation
Automation Methods
625
•
Fast Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes
that changes value rapidly at first, but more slowly toward the end
of the curve.
•
Slow Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes
that changes value slowly at first, but more rapidly toward the end
of the curve.
SONAR adds a shape between the nodes. You can drag any shape
except a jump up or down and it maintains its curve or angle. To edit a
jump, drag the node that’s at either end of the jump.
Make sure the Automation Read button is enabled, play the project and
listen to the results. You can undo any step by using the Edit-Undo
command (Ctrl+Z) directly after that step. You can drag the nodes in any
direction you want. You can play back your project with or without the
automation data by clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
in
the Automation toolbar.
Note: When you add a “gain” envelope to a track in SONAR, you increase
the track’s level post-effects, or after the effects processors. Some
hardware mixers call this level “volume,” because it is post-effects, but
other mixers refer to this as “gain.” Either way, SONAR’s gain envelopes
increase a track’s level after the effects processors in the signal chain.
When you add multiple envelopes to a track or bus, you can choose which
envelopes you want to display. See “Showing or Hiding Envelopes” on page
631.
You can also draw envelopes on MIDI tracks. See “Creating and Editing
MIDI Envelopes” on page 626.
Creating and Editing MIDI Envelopes
This method is only available in the Clips pane. You can also draw MIDI
controller data in the Piano Roll view, but the technique is different (see
“Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll View” on page 387).
Note 1: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll Notes pane and MIDI
envelopes you create in the Track view Clips pane are actually separate
envelopes, even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of
envelopes are visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be used to
control the same parameter. You can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to
Track view envelopes by selecting the time range and tracks that the Piano
Roll envelopes occupy, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes
command.
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Note 2: After you create an envelope, you can edit it by adding nodes and
choosing shapes for the line segments that are between nodes (see the
following procedure), but you can also edit by using the Envelope Draw tool
to draw freehand or preset shapes. See “Using the Envelope Draw Tool” on
page 629 for more information.
To Draw MIDI Envelopes in the Track View
1. Right-click in the Clips pane in the track you want to automate.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2. If you want to create an envelope to control volume, pan, chorus,
reverb, or automated mute, choose Envelopes-Create Track
Envelope and choose one of those items from the menu.
The envelope appears in the Clips pane as a straight, dotted line in the
envelope’s individual color, with a node (very small circle) at the
beginning. When you move the cursor over the envelope, a vertical,
double-ended arrow appears under it with the name and current value
of the envelope in a box next to the cursor. The envelope’s vertical
position reflects the current value of the parameter you are editing.
Node
Envelope name and current value
Envelope value range
Note: An automated mute envelope changes the track’s mute status
whenever the envelope crosses the middle of its value range.
3. If you want to create an envelope to control any other MIDI controller,
choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-MIDI....
The MIDI Envelope dialog box appears:
•
In the Type field, choose what kind of MIDI event you want to
control with your envelope.
•
In the Value field, choose the name of the controller you want to
edit.
•
In the Channel field, choose the MIDI channel that you want the
envelope to send data on, and click OK.
SONAR creates the envelope you chose.
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4. Move the cursor over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow
appears under it, and right-click the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
5. Choose Add Node from the menu.
A node (very small rectangle) appears on the envelope.
Note: A shortcut to create a node is to double-click the envelope.
6. Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag
the node in any direction you want.
When you release the mouse, the envelope changes to follow the
node’s new position.
7. Double-click the envelope to add another node.
8. Drag the new node in any direction you want and release the mouse.
9. Move the cursor over the segment of the envelope that lies between the
two nodes until the double-ended arrow appears, and right-click the
envelope to open the Envelope Editing menu.
10. Choose one of the following shapes from the envelope editing menu:
•
Jump—This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree
jump when the envelope reaches the second node. SONAR
displays jumps with a dotted line, meaning that there is automation
data at the nodes where the dotted line begins and ends, but not
where the line itself is.
•
Linear—This choice draws a straight line between the two nodes.
•
Fast Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes
that changes value rapidly at first, but more slowly toward the end
of the curve.
•
Slow Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes
that changes value slowly at first, but more rapidly toward the end
of the curve.
SONAR adds a shape between the nodes. You can drag any shape
except a jump up or down and it maintains its curve or angle. To edit a
jump, drag the node that’s at either end of the jump.
Make sure the Automation Read button is enabled, play your track and
listen to the results. You can undo any step by using the Edit-Undo
command (Ctrl+Z) directly after that step. You can play back your project
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with or without the automation data by clicking the Enable Automation
Playback button
in the Automation toolbar.
When you add multiple envelopes to a track, you can choose which
envelopes you want to display. See “Showing or Hiding Envelopes” on page
631.
You can also draw envelopes on audio tracks. See “Creating and Editing
Audio Envelopes” on page 624.
Dotted Lines
The dotted line in an envelope shows two things:
•
There is no automation data at the time in a track where the dotted line
is.
•
The value of the last piece of automation data that exists before the
dotted line is represented by the vertical level of the dotted line.
You can move an automated control while your project plays, and if you
move it during a time where that control has a dotted line in its envelope, the
control will stay where you move it. As soon as the Now time reaches a
node or solid line, the control snaps to the value of the node or solid line.
Using the Envelope Draw Tool
The Envelope Draw tool allows you to draw both freehand and preset
shapes on an existing envelope.
To Draw Freehand
1. Activate the envelope you want to edit (click it with the Envelope tool
).
2. Enable the Envelope Draw tool: click
in the Track view toolbar.
3. Click the dropdown arrow on the side of the Envelope Draw tool, and
select Freehand from the menu.
4. Click and hold the mouse button in the Clips pane at the place where
you want to edit the envelope. Drag to the right or left to draw the
desired shape, and release the mouse when you’re finished.
To Draw a Preset Shape
1. Activate the envelope you want to edit (click it with the Envelope tool
).
2. Enable the Envelope Draw tool: click
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in the Track view toolbar.
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3. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired length of each cycle of the shape
you want to draw. For example, if you want to draw sine curves, and
you want each complete sine curve to last one beat, set the Snap to
Grid to a value of Quarter. If the Snap to Grid is disabled, the default
cycle is one measure.
4. Click the dropdown arrow on the side of the Envelope Draw tool, and
select the kind of shape you want to draw. After you select a shape,
both the Envelope Draw tool and the cursor display the kind of shape
you selected.
5. Click and hold the mouse button in the Clips pane at the place where
you want to edit the envelope. The place where you click also sets the
vertical midpoint of the shape you’re creating.
6. Drag up or down to set the vertical range of the envelope, and then
drag to the right or left to set the length of your edit. As you drag, the
cursor’s vertical distance from the midpoint (the point where you
originally clicked) determines the amplitude of the graph. To create a
series of identical shapes, hold the Shift key down while you drag. To
gradually increase or decrease the amplitude, gradually move the
cursor farther from or closer to the midpoint.
7. Release the mouse when you’ve finished editing. The shape you
selected appears, repeating according to the Snap to Grid setting.
To Halve or Double the Shape Cycle Frequency
•
To halve the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter
note, make each cycle a half note), hold down the Ctrl key while you
draw.
•
To double the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter
note, make each cycle an eighth note), hold down the Alt key while you
draw.
To Invert the Phase of a Pattern
•
You can invert the phase of the pattern by dragging the cursor below
the zero-line/center (where you initially clicked to start the pattern).
To Toggle Between the Envelope Tool and the Envelope
Draw Tool
•
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When the mouse button is NOT pressed, hold down the Alt key to
momentarily switch between the two tools.
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To Stretch a Shape
1. Select the nodes in the part of the shape that you want to stretch: use
the Envelope tool to drag around the part of the shape you want to
select. Nodes turn white when they are selected.
2. Drag one of the selected nodes in the direction that you want to move
the selected area. Stretching stops if any selected node bumps into an
adjacent unselected node.
Drawing Envelopes on Clips
You can also draw envelopes on audio clips, but only for gain, pan, and any
automatable effects that are inserted on the clips. On MIDI clips, you can
draw velocity envelopes. If there is already a Track-level envelope on the
clip, the clip envelope data merges with the track envelope data.
Note: The Trim value of a track is actually a clip parameter, not a track
parameter. SONAR applies clip volume settings, including Trim, to a clip
before the clip’s audio data reaches any plug-in effects. Effects can sound
very different when their incoming data changes volume, even if the final
volume is unchanged.
To Draw Envelopes on Clips
1. Right-click the clip that you want to draw the envelope on.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2. Choose Envelopes-Clip-(Gain or Pan or Velocity) from the menu.
An envelope appears on the clip with a node at each end.
Edit the envelope just as you would a track envelope, using the Select tool,
the Envelope tool, and the Envelope Draw tool.
Showing or Hiding Envelopes
You can choose to show or hide any or all envelopes in a track or bus.
To Show or Hide All Envelopes
1. In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow
that’s next to
the Envelope tool to display the Envelope Options menu.
2. Choose either Show All Envelopes or Hide All Envelopes.
To Show All of One Kind of Envelope
1. In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow
that’s next to
the Envelope tool to display the Envelope Options menu.
2. Choose the kind of envelope that you want to show.
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To Show or Hide Individual Envelopes
1. Right-click the Clips pane in the track that contains the envelope(s) that
you want to show or hide.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2. Choose Envelopes-Show Track Envelopes.
A menu of all the envelopes in the track appears. A checkmark appears
to the left of each envelope that is currently showing.
3. Click the name of one envelope that you want to show (if it’s currently
hidden), or hide (if it’s currently showing).
SONAR hides or displays the envelope.
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for each envelope that you want to show or hide.
You can also hide, but not show, individual envelopes by right-clicking an
envelope and choosing Hide Envelope from the Envelope Editing menu.
Deleting Envelopes
To Delete a Single Envelope
1. Move the cursor over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow
appears under it, and right-click the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
2. Choose Delete Envelope from the menu.
SONAR deletes the envelope.
To Delete Several or All Envelopes
1. Select the data that contains the envelopes you want to delete—you
can select parts of tracks, one or more whole tracks, or all tracks.
2. Use the Edit-Cut command to open the Cut dialog box.
3. Select Track/Bus Automation if it’s listed.
4. Select Clip Automation if it’s listed.
5. Click OK.
SONAR deletes any track and clip envelopes that are in the data you
selected.
Copying and Pasting Envelopes
You can copy and paste envelopes or parts of envelopes between tracks
and clips. You cannot, however, copy and paste a clip envelope without
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also copying and pasting the audio or MIDI data that is in that clip. If you
paste a clip envelope into a track without the clip that it came from, the clip
envelope becomes a track envelope.
To Copy an Envelope
1. In the Track view or the Clips pane, select the track or clip that has the
envelope you want to copy. If you want to copy all the automation data
in the track, select the whole track. If you want to select only a clip, but
want to select any track envelopes in that track, click the dropdown
arrow next to the Select tool
, and make sure that the Select Track
Envelopes With Selected Clips option has a checkmark next to it.
2. Press Ctrl+C or use the Edit-Copy command.
The Copy dialog box appears.
3. Choose Clip Automation and/or Track/Bus Automation.
Note: If the Track/Bus Automation field is greyed-out, you must reselect a part of the clip that contains either a node or a solid line
(shape). A dotted line by itself is not an envelope and can not be
copied.
4. Choose any other kinds of data you want to copy—if you only want to
copy the automation data, choose only Track/Bus Automation and/or
Clip Automation.
5. Click OK.
SONAR copies the data you selected to the clipboard.
To Paste an Envelope
1. Select the track(s) and location (Now Time) you want to paste the data
to.
2. Press Ctrl+V or use the Edit-Paste command.
The Paste dialog box appears.
3. Choose a track and location to paste to, if you haven’t already.
4. Click OK.
SONAR pastes the automation data and any other types of data you chose
in the Copy dialog box into the track and location you selected.
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or Neutral
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Values
You can reset an envelope so that it becomes a horizontal line at the
current value of the parameter it controls, which eliminates any curves or
jumps from the envelope. You can reset a node so that it jumps to the
neutral value of the parameter it controls. For example, the neutral value of
the pan parameter is C, or 0%.
To Reset an Envelope to the Current Value
1. Move the Now time to where the envelope’s value is to your liking.
2. Right-click the envelope to display the Envelope Editing menu.
3. Choose Clear All from the menu.
SONAR resets the envelope to the current value.
To Reset a Node to a Neutral Value
Do either of the following:
•
Double-click the node.
•
Move the cursor over the node until it a cross appears under it, rightclick the node, and choose Reset Node from the popup menu.
The node jumps to the neutral value for the parameter it controls.
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode
There are two modes which control how your volume faders, pan faders,
bus send faders, and bus send pan faders behave during playback. The
two modes are Envelope mode and Offset mode.
Envelope mode—In envelope mode, volume and pan faders follow the
project’s automation and do not respond to changes you make in real-time.
Offset mode—In Offset mode, you “offset” the current automation in a
track using a parameter’s controls. For example, if a pan envelope is set to
hard left (100% left) and you adjust the pan in offset mode to 100% right,
then the pan parameter is now set to hard right. Setting the pan in offset
mode to 50% right would set the pan to the center.
Note: Any position that you set a fader to in Offset mode remains in effect
when you switch back to Envelope mode. For example, if you set a volume
fader to -INF while in Offset mode, switch to Envelope mode and drag the
fader to its maximum level, you will not hear anything.
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To Turn On Offset Mode
There are several ways to turn on Offset mode in SONAR:
•
In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow that’s next to
Envelope Tool
button. Choose Offset from the menu to enable/
disable Offset mode.
•
In the Automation toolbar, click the Offset
•
Press the o key.
button.
In Offset mode, all controls that can be offset appear with a plus sign. For
example Vol+.
The following audio controls support both Envelope and Offset modes:
Control
Envelope Mode
Range
Offset Mode Range
Volume
-Infinity to +6dB, default is
0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is
C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Bus Send
Level
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0
dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Bus Send
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is
C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Bus Return
Level
-Infinity to +6dB, default is
0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Bus Return
Balance
100% L to 100% R, default is
C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Main Out
Volume
-Infinity to +6dB, default is
0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Main Out
Balance
100% L to 100% R, default is
C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
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The following MIDI controls support both Envelope and Offset modes:
Control
Envelope Mode
Range
Offset Mode Range
Volume
0 to 127, default is 101
0 to 127, default is 101
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is
C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Chorus
0 to 127, default is 0
-127 to 127, default is 100
Reverb
0 to 127, default is 0
-127 to 127, default is 100
To Open Non-SONAR Envelope Display on a Percentage
Scale
You can globally configure the placement of 0 dB for your envelopes in the
Clips pane. The default placement in the Clips pane of 0 dB is roughly 1/3
from the top of the clip. You can change the position of 0 dB in all envelopes
to the middle of the clip.
There are several advantages when using the Envelope Display on a
Percentage Scale option:
•
It makes it easier to tell if there have been any changes.
•
There is a finer resolution around 0 dB.
Note: In Envelope mode, newly created volume clips appear at the same
dB value as the current Vol setting. F