2488 - PDF Text Files
D00776200A
Digital Portastudio
USER’S GUIDE
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CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
REMOVE COVER (OR BACK). NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS
INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol, within an equilateral triangle, is intended to alert
the user to the presence of uninsulated “dangerous voltage” within the product’s enclosure
that may be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature
accompanying the appliance.
This appliance has a serial number
located on the rear panel. Please record
the model number and serial number
and retain them for your records.
Model number
Serial number
WARNING: TO PREVENT FIRE OR SHOCK
HAZARD, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS
APPLIANCE TO RAIN OR MOISTURE.
Additions and changes to the TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
Since the original 2488 manual was produced, there
have been a number of changes and revisions which
should be noted carefully before attempting to use
your 2488.
Notes on the use of the CD-RW drive
Media types Do not use 12x or high-speed (over
12x) CD-RW media with the 2488, as these types of
media are not supported. Only use 1x–4x CD-RW
discs.
Damaged media If a disc is scratched or dirty,
the 2488 may not operate properly. If this happens,
shut down the unit, and restart it. Do not attempt to
re-use the defective disc.
Compatibility with players In common with
other CD recorders, the 2488 can produce CD-RW
discs, but such discs may not be playable on ordinary
CD players (as mentioned on page 63 of the User’s
Guide). For compatibility with other CD players, we
strongly recommend that you use only CD-R media.
Recorded disc types The 2488 recognizes for
reading (and in the case of CD-RW media, erasing)
only CD-ROM MODE1 or CD-DA discs. Other
types of disc recorded using different standards cannot be read or erased by the 2488,
Ejecting discs It is important that you do not press
the CD-RW drive eject button while the drive is operational. If you do, it may cause problems in the operation of the 2488. We therefore recommend that you
always use the CD EJECT menu item (“CD EJECT” on
page 67 of the User’s Guide) to eject discs.
Notes on the hard disk format
As described in “Disk management and file import/
export” on page 65, the 2488 uses two disk formats
in its internal hard disk.
unused. TASCAM native partitions cannot be
accessed from a host computer using USB.
The FAT partition, used for USB data transfer, is
4 GB in size and the size cannot be changed.
and USB” on page 73 of the User’s Guide, it is mentioned that MacOS 9.0 and above is supported. We
strongly recommend that for best results, MacOS 9.2
is used. Upgrade from 9. or 9.1 if necessary.
The TASCAM native partitions take up the remainder of the disk, and may be 4, 8, 16 or 32 GB in size.
A maximum of four partitions may be allocated.
Note that it is possible to allocate four smaller partitions, and therefore leave part of the hard disk space
Supported operating systems In “The 2488
Formatting As mentioned in “Formatting the
disk” on page 66, you should not turn off the 2488
while formatting the hard disk, as this may prevent
the 2488 from booting.
TASCAM 2488 Additions and Changes to User’s Guide 1
Additions and changes to the TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
Corrections and additions to the manual
Page 18, step 8 Instead of “or press and hold
Page 66, “Formatting the disk” The infor-
SHIFT and press EQ”, read “or use SHIFT and YES
to turn the EQ on, and use SHIFT and NO to turn the
mation given in the manual is incorrect. The data on
the FAT partition is erased, along with the data on the
native TASCAM partitions, when the disk is formatted.
EQ off”.
Page 59, “Pre-mastering”, step 2 The screen
shows PreMastering, not MASTERING.
Page 62, “TAO recording”, step 7 Instead of
Pages 68, 70 and 74, USB mode Note the
following procedure to close (exit) USB mode.
“The top line of the display gives an indication of the
time remaining for the operation”, read “A progress
bar is shown on screen”.
1 Disconnect the 2488 from the computer, fol-
Page 64, “Playing back CDs using the
2488” As explained in “Playing back CDs using the
2 Press and hold down the EXIT key.
2488” on page 64, the REW and F FWD keys are
used to skip playback forward and backward a track
at a time. They cannot be used for search functions
within tracks.
Page 65, “Disk management” Note that the
FAT partition is FAT-32, not FAT-16 as described in
the manual.
lowing the notes in “The 2488 and USB” on
page 73.
3 When the popup message appears, press the
ENTER key to exit (close) the USB mode.
Note that when USB mode is active, the HD indicator lights steadily. It is th erefore very important that
you follow step 1 above, to ensure the disk is not in
use.
Page 79, “Metronome” Use the CLICK key,
not the screen setting, to turn the metronome on
(indicator lights orange) and off (indicator goes off).
TEAC CORPORATION
Phone: +81-422-52-5082
3-7-3, Nakacho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8550, Japan
www.tascam.com
TEAC AMERICA, INC.
Phone: +1-323-726-0303
7733 Telegraph Road, Montebello, California 90640
2 TASCAM 2488 Additions and Changes to User’s Guide
www.tascam.com
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1
2
3
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5
6
7
Read these instructions.
Keep these instructions.
Heed all warnings.
Follow all instructions.
Do not use this apparatus near water.
Clean only with dry cloth.
Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8 Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus
(including amplifiers) that produce heat.
9 Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized
or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has
two blades with one wider than the other.
Grounding type plug has two blades and a third
grounding prong. The wide blade or the third
prong are provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult
an electrician for replacement of the obsolete
outlet.
10 Protect the power cord from being walked on or
pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience
receptacles, and the point where they exit from
the apparatus.
11 Only use attachments/accessories specified by
the manufacturer.
2
TASCAM 2488 User's Guide
12 Use only with the cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or
table specified by the manufacturer or sold with
the apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution
when moving the cart/apparatus combination to
avoid injury from tip-over.
13 Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or
when unused for long periods of time.
14 Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has
been damaged in any way, such as power-supply
cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled
or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the
apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture,
does not operate normally, or has been dropped.
● Do not expose this apparatus to drips or
splashes.
● Do not place any objects filled with liquids, such
as vases, on the apparatus.
● Do not install this apparatus in a confined space
such as a book case or similar unit.
● The apparatus draws nominal non-operating
power from the AC outlet with its POWER
switch in the off position.
IMPORTANT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
IMPORTANT (for U.K. Customers)
For U.S.A
DO NOT cut off the mains plug from this equipment.
TO THE USER
If the plug fitted is not suitable for the power points in your
home or the cable is too short to reach a power point, then
obtain an appropriate safety approved extension lead or
consult your dealer.
If nonetheless the mains plug is cut off, remove the fuse and
dispose of the plug immediately, to avoid a possible shock
hazard by inadvertent connection to the mains supply.
If this product is not provided with a mains plug, or one has
to be fitted, then follow the instructions given below:
IMPORTANT: The wires in this mains lead are coloured in
accordance with the following code:
GREEN-AND-YELLOW:EARTH
BLUE
: NEUTRAL
BROWN
: LIVE
WARNING: This apparatus must be earthed.
As the colours of the wires in the mains lead of this
apparatus may not correspond with the coloured markings
identifying the terminals in your plug proceed as follows:
The wire which is coloured GREEN-and-YELLOW must be
connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked by the
letter E or by the safety earth symbol ç or coloured
GREEN or GREEN-and-YELLOW.
The wire which is coloured BLUE must be connected to the
terminal which is marked with the letter N or coloured
BLACK.
The wire which is coloured BROWN must be connected to
the terminal which is marked with the letter L or coloured
RED.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply
with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to
Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed
to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will
not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment
does cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the
equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures.
a) Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
b) Increase the separation between the equipment
and receiver.
c) Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit
different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
d) Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV
technician for help.
CAUTION
Changes or modifications to this equipment not
expressly approved by TEAC CORPORATION for
compliance could void the user’s authority to operate
this equipment.
When replacing the fuse only a correctly rated approved
type should be used and be sure to re-fit the fuse cover.
IF IN DOUBT
ELECTRICIAN
—
CONSULT
A
COMPETENT
TASCAM 2488 User's Guide 3
SAFETY INFORMATION
SAFETY INFORMATION
This product has been designed and manufactured according to FDA regulations "title 21, CFR, chapter 1, subchapter
J, based on the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act
of 1968", and is classified as a class 1 laser product. There
is no hazardous invisible laser radiation during operation
because invisible laser radiation emitted inside of this product is completely confined in the protective housings.
The label required in this regulation is shown in 1.
CAUTION
- DO NOT REMOVE THE PROTECTIVE HOUSING USING A
SCREWDRIVER.
- USE OF CONTROLS OR ADJUSTMENTS OR PERFORMANCE OF PROCEDURES OTHER THAN THOSE SPECIFIED HEREIN MAY RESULT IN HAZARDOUS RADIATION
EXPOSURE.
- IF THIS PRODUCT DEVELOPS TROUBLE, CONTACT
YOUR NEAREST QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL, AND
DO NOT USE THE PRODUCT IN ITS DAMAGED STATE.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT
LASER KLASS 1
Optical pickup: Type : SF-W35
Manufacturer : SANYO Electric Co. Ltd.
Laser output : Less than 0.7 mW (Play) and 74 mW
Laser output : (Record) on the objective lens
Wavelength: 780 - 786 nm
4
TASCAM 2488 User's Guide
Contents
1 – Setting up and introduction
Important notice ................................................8
Copyright............................................................9
An overview of the 2488 ..................................9
Setting up the 2488 ...........................................10
Shutting down the 2488....................................11
Some general notes on using the 2488 .........11
The HD indicator
Saving songs
Navigation
Confirming
Escaping
SHIFT key
Changing values
Titling
Main menu
Home screen
Some notes on CD-R media..............................13
About CD-R and CD-RW discs............................13
Handling of compact discs ................................14
Additional notes with regard to CD-R and
CD-RW discs.....................................................14
Never use a stabilizer or printable discs ..........15
Setting up your first song ................................15
New song............................................................15
Setting the tempo ..............................................16
Making the first recording ................................16
Recording the guitar..........................................17
Lead line .............................................................19
Congratulations! ................................................20
2 – Mixer
Inputs and assignments ....................................21
Checking assignments .......................................21
Breaking assignments........................................21
Saving and loading assignments (QUCK
ROUTING) ........................................................22
The channels ........................................................22
Input channels....................................................22
Digital pad/gain .................................................22
EQ........................................................................23
Effect send..........................................................23
The fader/pan screen.........................................24
Phase...................................................................24
Pan ......................................................................24
Faders..................................................................24
Mute....................................................................25
Linking channels ................................................25
Stereo bus ............................................................25
EQ........................................................................26
Dynamics ............................................................26
Dynamics library
Fader ...................................................................27
Output selection ................................................27
Monitoring ...........................................................27
Monitor selection...............................................27
Mono monitoring...............................................28
Record source monitoring .................................28
Monitor muting ................................................. 28
Soloing and toggle ............................................ 29
Sub mix ................................................................ 29
Scene memories ................................................. 29
3 – Effects
Mic effects ........................................................... 31
MIC X 4
MIC X 8
Assigning mic effects ........................................ 31
Selecting mic effects.......................................... 31
Editing mic effects ............................................. 32
Compressor (CMP)
De-esser (DSR)
Exciter (EXC)
Multi-effect ......................................................... 32
Assigning the multi-effect to a channel or
input ................................................................ 32
Editing the multi-effect..................................... 32
Modulation effects
Using the multi-effect library ........................... 33
Single effect ........................................................ 34
Single effect library presets.............................. 34
REV
DLY
CHO
PIT
FLG
PHA
GRV
Saving your own settings ................................. 34
Tuner ..................................................................... 35
4 – Recorder
First steps in recording (song management)36
Creating a song.................................................. 36
Loading a song .................................................. 36
Saving a song..................................................... 36
Reverting to the previously saved version of a
song................................................................. 36
Erasing a song.................................................... 37
Copying songs ................................................... 37
Deleting unused space from a song................. 38
Protecting a song............................................... 38
Transport controls ............................................. 39
Setting the playback position........................... 39
Return to zero (RTZ) .......................................... 39
Last Recording Position (LRP) ........................... 39
Jog positioning .................................................. 39
Fast forward and rewind .................................. 40
During playback
From the stop position
Recording ............................................................. 40
Recording (ii)...................................................... 41
Hands-free recording ........................................ 41
Dropping out of record mode .......................... 41
Rehearsing recording ........................................ 41
IN/OUT/TO points .............................................. 42
Setting the IN, OUT and TO points................... 42
TASCAM 2488 User's Guide 5
Contents
Locating to the points....................................... 42
Editing the IN, OUT and TO points................... 42
Markers ................................................................ 42
Direct location ................................................... 42
Direct location (i)
Direct location (ii)
Location marks .................................................. 44
Entering location marks
Active location marks........................................ 44
Giving a title to the active location mark
Deleting the active location mark
Editing the active mark..................................... 44
Using the location mark list.............................. 45
Locating using the list
Using the IN OUT and TO marks
Titling using the list
Repeat .................................................................. 46
Setting the repeat interval ............................... 46
Auto punch operations .................................... 46
Setting the punch points .................................. 47
LAST REC
IN -> OUT
LAST TAKE LOAD
Checking the punch points ............................... 47
Rehearsing the punch ....................................... 47
Recording the punch ......................................... 48
Checking the take.............................................. 48
After finishing the punch ................................. 48
If you change your mind................................... 49
Bouncing tracks .................................................. 49
Making a bounce mix........................................ 49
About track editing ........................................... 49
IN, OUT and TO.................................................. 50
Entering the edit mode..................................... 50
Track editing functions ..................................... 50
COPY -> PASTE................................................... 51
COPY -> INSERT ................................................. 51
MOVE -> PASTE ................................................. 52
MOVE -> INSERT ................................................ 52
OPEN................................................................... 53
CUT ..................................................................... 53
SILENCE .............................................................. 53
CLONE TRACK .................................................... 54
CLEAN OUT ........................................................ 54
UNDO and REDO ................................................ 54
Undoing and redoing actions........................... 55
An undo/redo example..................................... 55
Virtual tracks....................................................... 56
Varispeed operations (pitch and SSA) .......... 57
Pitch.................................................................... 58
To use the set pitch
SSA (Slow Speed Audition) .............................. 58
To use the SSA
6 TASCAM 2488 User's Guide
5 – Mastering
Pre-mastering ......................................................59
Recording the pre-master..................................59
Exiting mastering...............................................60
Checking the master ..........................................60
Exiting master checking
Trimming the master .........................................60
Recording to CD-R ..............................................61
Recording to CD-R (TAO recording)..................61
Finalizing the disc ..............................................62
Recording to CD-R (multiple tracks) ...............62
Playing back CDs using the 2488 ....................64
6 – Disk management and file import/export
Disk management ..............................................65
Selecting the active partition ..........................65
Enabling and disabling USB .............................65
Formatting the disk ...........................................66
Reformatting individual partitions ................66
Reformatting the FAT partition ......................67
CD-RW erase ........................................................67
CD EJECT ...............................................................67
File import and export ......................................68
USB import (audio files) ....................................68
USB import (SMF files).......................................68
USB export (audio files).....................................69
Disc import (audio files) ....................................70
Disc export (audio files).....................................70
7 – Backup and restore
Backup ..................................................................72
Restoring ..............................................................72
Using USB for backup and restore .................73
Backing up ..........................................................74
Restoring ............................................................74
8 – MIDI
Internal module mode .......................................76
SMF ........................................................................76
Editing the MIDI instruments............................77
Tempo map ..........................................................78
Tapping the tempo ............................................78
Time signature ...................................................79
Metronome ..........................................................79
Patterns ................................................................80
Deleting a section
Inserting a section
Copying sections
Selecting the drum kit .......................................81
MTC, MIDI clock, etc. .........................................81
MIDI Time Code..................................................82
MIDI clock ...........................................................83
Remote..................................................................83
Contents
9 – General preferences
Global preferences .............................................84
Key sense time
Meter peak hold time
Meter release time
Shift key behavior
Mixer preferences ..............................................84
Fader matching
Digital input
Recorder ...............................................................85
User word ............................................................85
10 – Specifications, etc.
Block diagram .....................................................86
Level diagram......................................................87
Dimensional drawing ........................................88
Specifications ......................................................88
Audio connections .............................................88
Audio performance ...........................................89
Physical specifications, etc. ...............................89
TASCAM 2488 User's Guide 7
1 – Setting up and introduction
About this manual
This manual is designed to give you an overview of
how to use the features of the 2488.
Read it carefully to understand how the different features work alone and with each other.
NOTE
Throughout this manual we show controls and indicators on the 2488 like this: HOME.
Inputs and controls of other equipment are written like
this: AUX IN.
Messages shown on the 2488’s display are written like
this: Are you sure? .
We use the term “key” to describe a push-button control on the 2488’s surface.
We use the term “soft switch” or “button” to describe
an on/off control on the display.
Also note the difference between “disc” and “disk”.
When we refer to a disc, we are refer to a CD-R, CD-RW
or pre-recorded audio CD. A disk, on the other hand,
refers to the 2488’s internal hard disk drive, or that of a
connected computer.
The different sections of the manual are as follows
(arranged roughly in the order in which you will
carry out operations in a project):
1, “Setting up and introduction” (page 8)
This section. Read it carefully to get an overall picture of the 2488 and the basic operations which you
will find yourself using all the time. It includes a
brief tutorial to help you get acquainted with the way
to work with the 2488.
2, “Mixer” (page 21) The 2488 incorporates a
fully-featured mixer. Read this section to understand
how the input assignment, the EQ, effect sends, etc.
work, as well as scene memories and other information essential to the everyday operation of the unit.
3, “Effects” (page 31) There are three types of
insertion, a multi-effect, which may be inserted to
give guitars, etc. some life, and a single effect which
may be used on mixdown. This section explains the
effects and how they work.
4, “Recorder” (page 36) The 2488’s 24-track
recorder incorporates many advanced features: location memories, rehearsal and auto-punch modes,
undo and redo operations, and virtual tracks. Read
this section to understand its operation.
5, “Mastering” (page 59) After recording, the
final stage is mastering. Use the 2488’s built-in CD
recorder to produce your own CDs.
6, “Disk management and file import/
export” (page 65) Like that of a personal computer, the 2488 internal hard disk can be formatted
and managed, with audio and MIDI files being copied between the hard disk and recordable CD media,
as well as a personal computer connected using a
USB 2.0 connection.
7, “Backup and restore” (page 72) To
ensure the integrity of your projects, you should back
up your song data to recordable CD media or a personal computer (through USB).
8, “MIDI” (page 76) The 2488 integrates into
your MIDI system as a master or slave device, allowing external MIDI devices to synchronize and play
with the recorded audio. In addition, there is an internal GM-compatible tone generator, which can either
be used to play backing patterns, or imported Standard MIDI files.
9, “General preferences” (page 84) This
section explains the settings you can make to personalize the 2488 for your style of working.
10, “Specifications, etc.” (page 86) The
facts and figures (including block and level diagrams) about your 2488.
digital effects included in the 2488: mic effects for
Important notice
NOTE
This product is designed to help you record and reproduce sound works to which you own the copyright, or
where you have obtained permission from the copyright holder or the rightful licensor. Unless you own the
copyright, or have obtained the appropriate permission
from the copyright holder or the rightful licensor, your
8 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
unauthorized recording, reproduction or distribution
thereof may result in severe criminal penalties under
copyright laws and international copyright treaties. If
you are uncertain about your rights, contact your legal
advisor. Under no circumstances will TEAC Corporation
be responsible for the consequences of any illegal copying performed using the 2488.
1 – Setting up and introduction
Copyright
Windows, Windows XP, and Windows 2000 are
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Macintosh, MacOS, and MacOS X are trademarks of
Apple Computer.
Home key
An overview of the 2488
Shift key
The “road map” above can help you find your way
around the 2488. At first, the array of keys and controls may seem a little daunting, but we are sure that
with a little time, you will become familiar with the
layout and operation of the 2488.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
9
1 – Setting up and introduction
Setting up the 2488
First, find a flat level surface for the 2488 which is
stable and can’t be jogged or jolted easily.
Plug a standard pair of headphones into the 1/4"
PHONES jack at the front left of the 2488.
This should be a hard surface. Don’t put the 2488 on
a carpet or furnishings, as this will block the airflow
and possibly cause overheating.
You should avoid moving the 2488 while it is
switched on. Especially, you should never move it
while the HD indicator by the display is lit or
flashing.
Leave a little space at the back of the 2488 to plug
and unplug microphones, etc.
Before switching on the 2488, you should connect
the monitoring system (this term refers to the amplifier and speakers and headphones that you will use to
listen to your recordings).
Plug in and turn on the 2488. The power switch is on
the rear, by the power cord.
TIP
When you are recording electric guitars and basses, etc.,
you can listen through speakers. When you are recording using a microphone, this may cause acoustic feedback, so you should use headphones at this time.
The display shows the “loading” screen.
Most sound professionals recommend that you do not
use headphones for monitoring all the time, even
though they are very convenient and useful in some circumstances.
Connect the MONITOR OUTPUT jacks on the rear
panel to your amplifier’s AUX inputs (or any inputs
except those designed for a record turntable). You
will probably need a pair of 1/4"-to-RCA cables for
this.
NOTE
The 2488 outputs balanced signals from the monitor
outputs. If you are lucky enough to have an amplifier
with balanced inputs, use balanced cables rather than
unbalanced connections here.
10 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
After about 10 seconds, the 2488 will be ready and
the HD (hard disk) indicator stops flashing.
Adjust the display so that it is comfortable for you to
read, using the contrast control.
1 – Setting up and introduction
Shutting down the 2488
It may seem odd to talk about turning off the 2488
before you’ve even started to use it, but there is a reason for this. The 2488 contains a hard disk which is
used to store your song data. If you simply turn off
the unit using the power switch, there may be some
data in the 2488’s memory which hasn’t been written
to disk and you will therefore lose that data when you
turn off the unit.
1 Press and hold down the SHUT DOWN key for
a second or two. The red indicator lights, and
the display shows an Are you sure? message.
2 Press the YES key. The HD indicator (orange)
flashes as data is written to the hard disk (the
display also shows this process).
You should always use the SHUT DOWN key before
turning off the 2488.
3 When all data is written to the hard disk, the
SHUT DOWN indicator flashes red. The dis-
play shows SHUT DOWN COMPLETE.
4 Use the power switch at the rear of the 2488 to
turn off the unit.
Some general notes on using the 2488
NOTE
When transporting the unit, always use the original packing
materials. For this reason, we strongly recommend that you
save all the packing materials that came with the 2488, in
case you need to transport it in the future.
In addition, when transporting the unit, you should tape the
disc tray closed, using an adhesive tape that will not spoil
the finish of the unit.
NOTE
A “song” consists of not only the audio material that
you have recorded, but the mixer and recorder settings,
editing, etc. that you have made.
1 Press the MENU key, move to the SONG icon,
and press ENTER.
The HD indicator This indicator, located by the
display, shows when data is being read from the
internal hard disk or written to it. You should avoid
moving the 2488 when it is switched on, in any case,
but you should never move or jolt the 2488 when the
HD indicator is lit, as there is a (small) risk of your
losing your data.
2 Move the cursor to highlight the SAVE option,
and press ENTER. The song is saved, the HD
indicator lights, and when the song is saved
(progress is shown by an on-screen indicator),
the display shows the home screen again.
Navigation To navigate inside the 2488 screens,
use the cursor keys to move the cursor.
Saving songs To be sure that all your data is safe,
you should save songs manually at intervals (just in
case the power goes off unexpectedly).
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
11
1 – Setting up and introduction
Confirming Press the YES/ENTER key to do an
action, to enter a sub-menu or to answer “yes” to a
question. We’ll often refer to this as just the YES key
or the ENTER key.
and hold it while you are pressing the other key, or a
latching key that stays on until the other key is pressed.
See “Shift key behavior” on page 84 for details of how
to make this change.
Changing values Use the JOG/DATA wheel
(we’ll just call it “the wheel” from now on) to
increase or decrease values shown on the screen.
Escaping Press the NO/EXIT key to do the opposite
of confirming (that is, to “escape” from a screen
without performing an action, to go up a menu level,
or to answer “no” to a question). We’ll often refer to
this as just the NO key or the EXIT key.
Titling An important feature of the 2488 is the ability to give real names to songs, virtual tracks, effect
settings and so on.
Press and hold the SHIFT key and press the TITLE
key to set or edit the title of one of these objects. A
popup appears allowing you to edit the title:
SHIFT key Many keys have two functions: the first
is written in normal (black) type, and the second is
written under this in white on a blue background (the
exception is the HOME key, which works in shifted
or unshifted mode).
To access these second shifted functions:
Use the left and right cursor keys to move around
inside the title, and the wheel to select a character at
the cursor position.
Use the INSERT and DELETE keys to insert and
delete characters at the cursor position.
1 Press the SHIFT key so that the indicator
lights.
2 Press the key whose second function you want
to use.
The SHIFT indicator goes out.
NOTE
As the 2488 is shipped from the factory, if you press the
SHIFT key and do not press another key within a second or so, the SHIFT indicator goes out. This prevents
you from accessing unwanted functions by accident. If
you hold down the SHIFT key while you are looking
for the next key, it will stay on.
You can change this behavior so that the SHIFT key
becomes a non-latching key—that is, you have to press
12 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
You can also use the up and down cursor keys as
“shift” keys, allowing you to select between:
•
•
•
•
CAPS—uppercase
CAPITAL LETTERS
small—lowercase small letters
NUM—numbers
WORD—you can use the wheel to select from a
range of preset words (VERSE, CHORUS, etc.)
The preset words can be edited to meet your needs,
as described in “User word” on page 85.
1 – Setting up and introduction
Main menu This is the “control center” for the
2488’s setup, maintenance and preference setting,
etc. operations.
Press the MENU key to enter the main menu screen:
NOTE
When the menu screen is active, you may not be able to
perform some operations on the 2488 (including transport operations).
Home screen This shows the track levels, current
position in the song, the current song and the total
number of minutes remaining on the disk for recording further material. Press the HOME key to see this
screen:
Use the cursor keys to move around the screen, and
press ENTER when the function you want to use is
highlighted.
Some notes on CD-R media
The 2488 incorporates a CD-RW drive. To obtain the
best results when using this, please take the trouble to
read these notes.
About CD-R and CD-RW discs
The 2488 uses CD-R and CD-RW media, and can
also use CD-R and CD-RW Digital Audio media.
In this manual, when we refer to “CD-R” and CDRW” discs, we always include “CD-R Digital Audio”
and “CD-RW Digital Audio”, even when this is not
explicitly stated.
CD-R discs can be recorded once only. Once they
have been used for recording, they cannot be erased
or re-recorded. However, if space is available on the
disc, additional material can be recorded. The packaging of CD-R discs will include one of the following logos:
By contrast, a CD-RW disc can be used in much the
same way as a CD-R disc, but the last track or tracks
recorded can be erased before the disc has been
“finalized”, and the space on the disc can be re- used
for other recordings. The packaging of CD-RW discs
will include one of the following logos:
However, you should note that an audio CD created
using a CD-RW disc may not play back satisfactorily
on every audio CD player. It will, naturally, be playable on the 2488. This is in no way a limitation of the
2488 itself, but of the difference between the different types of media and the methods used to read
them.
CD-R discs created on the 2488, by contrast, may be
played satisfactorily on the majority of audio CD
players.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
13
1 – Setting up and introduction
Handling of compact discs
Observe the following:
• Always place the compact discs in the trays with
their label facing upward (compact discs can only
be played on one side).
• To remove a disc from its storage case, press down
on the center of the case, and lift the disc out, holding it carefully by the edges.
• Finger marks and dust should be carefully wiped
off the disc’s recorded surface with a soft cloth.
Unlike traditional vinyl records, the compact disc
has no grooves to collect dust and microscopic
debris, so gently wiping with a soft cloth should
remove most particles.
• Wipe in a straight motion from the inside to the
outside of the disc. Small dust particles and light
stains will have absolutely no effect on reproduction quality.
• Never use such chemicals as record sprays, antistatic sprays or fluid, benzine or thinner to clean
compact discs. Such chemicals will do irreparable
damage to the disc’s plastic surface.
• Discs should be returned to their cases after use to
avoid serious scratches that could cause the laser
pickup to “skip”.
• Don’t expose discs to direct sunlight or high
humidity and temperature for extended periods.
Long exposure to high temperature can warp the
disc.
• Only use circular compact discs. Avoid using noncircular promotional, etc. discs.
• To keep the laser pickups clean, don’t touch them.
For the same reason, don’t leave the disc tray
opened unnecessarily.
Additional notes with regard to CD-R and CD-RW discs
There are additional precautions that you should take
when handling CD-R and CD-RW discs, that are different to those that you should take when handling
ordinary CDs.
• Avoid touching the recording (non-label) side of a
disc on which you will be recording. Recording on
a disc requires a cleaner surface than playing back,
and fingerprints, grease, etc. can cause errors in the
recording process.
• CD-R discs are more sensitive to the effects of heat
and ultraviolet rays than ordinary CDs. It is important that they are not stored in a location where
direct sunlight will fall on them, and which is away
from sources of heat such as radiators or heat-generating electrical devices.
14 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
• Always store CD-R discs in their “jewel cases” to
avoid dirt and dust accumulating on their surfaces.
• Do not put labels or protective sheets on the discs
and do not use any protective coating spray.
• When labeling CD-R discs, always use a soft oilbased felt-tipped pen to write the information.
Never use a ball-point or hard-tipped pen, as this
may cause damage to the recorded side.
• Dirty discs may be cleaned using a soft dry cloth
and/or a commercial CD cleaning fluid or ethyl
alcohol. Do not use thinner, gasoline, benzene or
LP cleaning fluid, as these will damage the disc.
• If you are in any doubt as to the care and handling
of a CD-R disc, read the precautions supplied with
the disc, or contact the disc manufacturer directly.
1 – Setting up and introduction
Never use a stabilizer or printable discs
Using commercially available CD stabilizers or
printable recordable discs with this player will damage the mechanism and cause it to malfunction.
NOTE
Never use a disc that has had a stabilizer mounted to it.
The residual adhesive may cause the disc to stick to the
mechanism of the 2488. If it sticks to the mechanism,
you will need a technician to get it out.
Setting up your first song
This first song won’t be very musical, but it will help
you get used to finding your way around the 2488.
We really suggest that you do through these procedures—it will help you later when you come to do
more complex work with the 2488.
New song
To make sure we start with a “clean slate”, we’ll create a new song.
NOTE
been used before, it will automatically load the last
song that was worked on, and you may need to follow
these instructions to create a new song. Normally,
though, this won’t be needed.
The 2488 is shipped from the factory with a new song
ready to for you to record. However, if the 2488 has
1 Press the MENU key, and use the
cursor keys to highlight the SONG
item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor
keys to highlight the CREATE option.
Press ENTER.
3 In the CREATE screen, press the SHIFT
key followed by the TITLE key to
enter titling mode.
4 Use the wheel and the cursor keys to
give the song a name up to 12 characters in length.
Press ENTER when you’re done. The
display shows the home screen.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
15
1 – Setting up and introduction
Setting the tempo
The 2488 has a built-in metronome. We’ll set up a
very simple 4/4 beat which stays the same all the way
through, to drive the metronome and help you stay in
time.
1 Press the MENU key, and use the
cursor keys to highlight the SYNC/
MIDI item. Press ENTER.
2 Highlight the METRONOME option in
the SYNC/MIDI menu and press ENTER.
Use the cursor keys and wheel to set
the OUTPUT to INTERNAL, set the mode
to REC, the LEVEL to 100, and press
ENTER.
3 At the SYNC/MIDI menu, use the cursor
keys to highlight the TEMPO MAP
option. Press ENTER.
4 Move the cursor to the TEMPO field,
and use the wheel to set a value (if
you want to tap a value, see “Tapping the tempo” on page 78).
Press EXIT when you’re done, to
return to the HOME screen.
5 Press the CLICK key. The indicator
lights orange.
Making the first recording
We assume that you’re recording the rhythm guitar to
start with, and that you are going to be recording it on
track 1.
Note that inputs on the 2488 are lettered from A
through H. Tracks are numbered from 1 through 24.
16 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
Input H is special on the 2488—it is duplicated at the
front of the 2488 with an input for electric guitars
and passive basses (active basses should use a 1/4"
LINE jack at the rear of the unit). Only use this front
input jack for electric guitars (and basses) and do not
plug these instruments into any other jacks.
1 – Setting up and introduction
Recording the guitar
1 Plug the guitar into the GUITAR [H]
input on the front of the 2488.
Then plug a pair of headphones into
the PHONES jack on the front
panel.
2 Play the guitar, and adjust the level
using TRIM control H so that when
you play a loud note, the OL indicator above the INPUT-H key lights
very briefly. Then turn the TRIM
counterclockwise a little more.
If you want to tune the guitar using
the 2488, see “Tuner” on page 35.
3 Press and hold the INPUT-H key so
that it starts to flash. While holding
it down, press the SELECT key of
channel 1. Now both these keys will
flash.
Now release both keys. They will
both be lit. This means that input H
is now assigned to track 1.
4 Press the REC key of track 1. It
starts to flash.
5 Set both fader 1 and the STEREO
fader to the 0 position.
6 Adjust your listening level by using
the MONITOR level control with the
MONITOR SOURCE set to STEREO.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
17
1 – Setting up and introduction
7 Adjust the tone of the guitar, by
pressing the SELECT key of channel
1, and then pressing the EQ key.
8 Use the cursor keys and the wheel to
move around the display and change
values. The settings are shown as
numbers and as a graph.
Use the on-screen SW on the left side
of the display (or press and hold
SHIFT and press EQ) to compare the
sound with and without the equalization.
9 Press and hold down the RECORD
key and press the PLAY key. The
PLAY and RECORD indicators above
the transport keys both light, and the
REC key of track 1 lights solidly.
10 The metronome you set up earlier
starts to play, and you can play your
rhythm part along with it, recording
as you go.
Press the STOP key when you are
finished.
11 To return to the zero position, where
your song began, press and hold the
STOP key, and press the REW key
(marked as RTZ—“return to zero”).
12 When you’ve finished recording,
press channel 1’s REC key to safe the
track.
18 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
1 – Setting up and introduction
Lead line
Now we can use track 2 to record the lead guitar line.
We’ll add an effect to the lead guitar to make it sound
a little more interesting.
If you don’t want to play through the whole song,
you can use the procedures described in “Auto punch
operations” on page 46.
NOTE
You can also perform audio edits, cutting, copying and
pasting between tracks, etc. to correct small mistakes.
These operations are explained in “About track editing” on page 49.
1 Assign the guitar input (H) to track
2.
You can always see all the current
mappings by pressing SHIFT followed by the MAP key (use the cursor keys to view the mappings for
tracks 13 through 24).
2 Play the song to a little before the
\
place where you want the guitar solo
to start. Use fader 1 to adjust the
level of the previous track.
Use the transport keys to move back
about five seconds before this. Press
and hold the SHIFT key and press the
IN key to set a convenient location
point.
3 Press and hold the MULTI key, and
press the channel 2 SELECT key to
assign the multi-effect to channel 2.
4 Press the MULTI key again to bring
up the multi-effect screen.
Press ENTER to show the library
choices, move the cursor to PRESET to
select the preset multi-effect library.
5 Use the wheel to select the preset
multi effect. See “Using the multieffect library” on page 33 for details
of the effects available.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
19
1 – Setting up and introduction
6 Press the RHSL key to enter
rehearsal mode. When this mode is
active, you do not actually record
when the RECORD key and PLAY
keys are pressed (the RECORD indicator flashes).
Continue rehearsing, and use the IN
key (without SHIFT) to locate back to
the point you set earlier.
7 When you’re happy with the solo,
press the RHSL key once more to
turn the indicator off.
8 Use the RECORD and PLAY keys to
record the solo.
9 Press channel 2’s REC key to safe the
track.
Congratulations!
By now you should be familiar with the basic concepts of the 2488: how the inputs and channels work
together; how the mixer controls are accessed and
20 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
operated, how recording and playback take place,
and a little about the location and effect facilities provided by the 2488.
2 – Mixer
Inputs and assignments
The 2488 has eight inputs, marked from A through H,
and twenty-four mixer channels.
Inputs A through D are fitted with dual XLR-1/4"
balanced inputs and can be supplied with +48 V
phantom power for condenser microphones.
WARNING
Never connect or disconnect microphones to or from
inputs A through D with the phantom power turned
on.
Never use unbalanced dynamic microphones with
microphone inputs A through D with phantom power
turned on. If you are in any doubt, consult your local
audio expert.
Assigning inputs is carried out by pressing and holding the appropriate input key below the TRIM controls (the key flashes), and then pressing the
appropriate channel SELECT key(s) which will also
flash. It is also possible to reverse the order (press
and hold a channel’s SELECT key and press the
appropriate input key).
An input can be assigned to more than one channel,
but of course a channel cannot be fed by more than
one input.
This shows an instrument (guitar or bass) plugged
into input H being assigned to channel 1
Inputs E through H are suitable for line input, and are
fitted with 1/4" balanced jacks. An unbalanced “mirror” of H, with an impedance suitable for electric
guitars and basses, is provided at the front of the unit.
It is possible to record up to eight tracks at one time,
with the inputs being freely assignable to the tracks.
Checking assignments
When either an input key (or channel SELECT key)
is pressed and held down it flashes, together with the
channel (or input key) to which it has been assigned.
Also, if the SHIFT key is pressed, followed by the
MAP key, a screen is shown with the current assignments.
The eight inputs are represented by horizontal lines,
which are joined to the channel labels at the bottom
of the screen by vertical lines when they are assigned
to the channels.
Use the left and right cursor keys to change between
viewing channels 1 through 12, and 13 through 24.
Breaking assignments
If an input or channel SELECT key is held down, the
assigned channel (or input) key flashes. Press the
other key to break the assignment.
NOTE
Assigning and unassigning linked channels (see “Linking channels” on page 25) works in much the same way
as for single channels. Pressing one SELECT key of a
linked channel pair is typically the same as pressing
both together.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide 21
2 – Mixer
Saving and loading assignments (QUCK ROUTING)
There are three “slots” that can be used to save com2 Use the wheel or “up” and “down” cursor
monly used routing assignments. These slots
accessed through the QUICK ROUTING key:
keys to select the slot to be loaded or to which
the current routing assignments will be saved.
3 Use the “left” and “right” cursor keys to select
LOAD
or SAVE.
4 Press ENTER. The routing assignments are
either stored (the home screen shows Save
routing briefly) or loaded (the home screen
shows Load routing briefly).
NOTE
1 Press the QUICK ROUTING key to bring up the
screen shown here.
If you save a routing assignment to the BOUNCE slot,
even if you are not in bounce mode (“Making a bounce
mix” on page 49), the 2488 will enter bounce mode
when this assignment is next recalled.
The channels
Each of the 24 channels provides the following facilities:
• Digital pad/gain
• 3-band parametric EQ
• Effect sends
• Phase reversal switch
• Panpot
• A physical fader (which may be overridden by an
internal “virtual fader”)
• A mute key
• Solo facilities
Input channels
Like the 24 track channels, the eight inputs are provided with phase, digital pad/gain, EQ, effect sends,
etc.
They are not provided with physical faders, but the
output from these “extra channels” can be adjusted
on-screen. Although these settings can be made at
any time, they are only effective when the inputs
have been assigned to the sub mix. See “Sub mix” on
page 29 for details.
In this manual we talk about “pressing a channel’s
SELECT key” to select the appropriate screen, often
this includes the INPUT keys as well, even when this
is not actually stated.
Many times, there will be no need for these facilities
to be used on the input channel (there are times when
this is useful, though—see the sections on “Monitoring” on page 27 and “Sub mix” on page 29).
Digital pad/gain
Press the channel’s SELECT key, followed by the EQ
key (this order can be reversed).
Use the cursor keys to navigate to the PAN/GAIN
area, and set the value to between –42 and +6 dB.
Usually, this value will be set to 0.
Use this to add volume to a quiet instrument or to
remove excess volume from a loud one.
When a channel’s EQ screen is shown, simply pressing the SELECT key of another channel will show
the EQ screen for that channel.
22 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
2 – Mixer
EQ
Set the three-band equalization for each channel
using the same screen as the digital pad/gain (see
above)
On the 2488 channels, you can adjust the gain (the
amount that the signal is cut and boosted) by ±12 dB,
and the frequency (high or low) affected by the
equalization in three bands. The frequencies are (in
Hz):
Low (L) 32 — 1.6k
Mid (M) 32 — 18k
High (H) 1.7k — 18k
Note that the frequencies are set in discrete steps; it is
not possible to set the center frequencies to intermediate values.
In addition, you can adjust the “Q” (the width of the
effect) in the center band from 0.25 to 16.
TIP
“Q” is defined as the center frequency of the equalization band divided by the bandwidth. A high Q value
provides narrow filtering.
As you adjust the equalization, the graph at the bottom of the screen changes to provide an idea of how
the equalization affects the signals.
TIP
You can press and hold the SHIFT key and press the
EQ key to “zero” (return to default setting) the
selected channel’s EQ settings.
There is also an on/off soft switch provided at the
upper left of the screen to allow A/B comparison of
the equalized and unequalized signals. Press SHIFT +
YES to turn it on, and SHIFT + NO turn it on off (you
can also use the cursor).
Effect send
There is one stereo “loop” send (using the internal
effects) in addition two effect sends (using the external EFFECT SENDS jacks) for each channel.
NOTE
For each effect send, there is a soft switch at the left
side of the screen. Use the wheel to set this switch
either OFF or POST (post-fader) or PRE (pre-fader).
TIP
Recording effects can also be inserted at the input
stage. See the section on effects (“Effects” on page 31)
for full details of the effect architecture and use. Such
effects are not affected by these channel sends.
“Pre-fader” means that the channel fader does not
affect the level of the effect send, as opposed to “postfader” where the effect send level is affected by the
channel fader setting.
Press the channel’s SELECT key, followed by the
SEND key (this order can be reversed).
Set the level of each channel send (LVL) from 0 to 127.
This screen also allows the master send level (MSTR)
to be set (again from 0 to 127).
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
23
2 – Mixer
The fader/pan screen
Press the channel’s SELECT key, followed by the
FADER/PAN key (this order can be reversed) to bring
up this screen:
Here, you can make phase and pan settings and view
the fader settings for four channels at a time (linked
channels still count as two channels here).
Phase
Use this to correct miswired microphones, etc. Outof-phase sources can result in unnatural EQ and a
“hole in the middle” stereo effect.
The phase symbol (∅)shows the current status of the
channel: either normal (N) or reversed (R). Use the
cursor keys and wheel to change these settings.
Pan
The pan position (PAN) refers to the stereo position
(left or right) of the channel in the mix.
Full left (“hard left”) is represented by L63, and hard
right by R63. The center position, where the signal is
sent equally to the left and right is represented by C.
TIP
Press and hold SHIFT and press the PAN key to reset
the highlighted channel’s pan position to the center. In
the case of linked channels, the pan position both of
the highlighted channel and the channel to which it is
linked will be centered.
Faders
The faders cannot be set in this screen (except for the
inputs). However, it is possible to obtain a numerical
representation of the physical position of the fader, as
well as a view of the virtual position of the fader, if
this is different.
The minimum fader value as shown on screen is 0
(full cut), and the full level is 127. A level of 100 corresponds to the “unity gain” position of 0 dB.
Because the 2488 supports the storage and recall of
scenes (see “Scene memories” on page 29), as well
as MIDI control of the faders and other mixer controls, it may sometimes happen that the physical
fader position is not the same as the internal “virtual”
fader level, as set by the software control.
24 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
See “Fader matching” on page 84 for an explanation
of the different ways in which the physical and virtual faders can be set to interact.
In order to reconcile the physical position with the
virtual position, a process known as nulling must be
carried out.
1 Press and hold the SHIFT key and press the
NULL key:
2 – Mixer
2 In this screen, the physical faders are represented with side-pointing triangles beside
them representing the virtual fader positions.
Above each on-screen fader whose position
does not correspond to that of the internal virtual fader, there is an arrow pointing either up
or down, depending on whether the physical
fader must be moved up or down to null it.
A fader which is nulled (faders 15+16 in the
screen above) has no triangle above it.
Mute
The MUTE keys for each channel also serve as solo
keys (see “Soloing and toggle” on page 29).
When a channel’s MUTE key is pressed (when soloing is not active), the orange indicator lights, and the
sound from that channel is not sent to the stereo bus.
The channel’s recording source is also muted.
Linking channels
Stereo linking provides a way of controlling two
channels (usually, but not always, a stereo pair) with
one set of controls.
Controls shared by linked channels are:
• Fader (the left fader of the pair controls the level
for both channels)
• EQ
• Digital pad/gain
• Effect send levels and pre/post position
• SELECT keys
Record arming, muting and soloing are carried out
separately for each linked pair.
Pan and phase are linked, but these can be changed
independently after linking.
An odd-numbered channel can be linked to the evennumbered channel to its right. In other words, channels 1 can be linked to channel 2, but to no other
channel (and channel 2 cannot be linked to any channel other than 1).
Linking channels is done by pressing and holding
down the SELECT key of one of the pair of channels
to be linked, and pressing the other.
Unlinking channels is done by pressing the SELECT
key of one of the linked pair (both keys flash) and
pressing the other.
NOTE
It is also possible to link two inputs together in the
same way so that the EQ, etc. for each input is controlled in common.
Stereo bus
The stereo bus may be thought of as a special permanently-linked pair of channels.
and is also as the source for mastering and rendering
the final mix (see “Recorder” on page 36).
The output from this bus can be monitored as the
STEREO selection (see “Monitoring” on page 27)
At the final mastering stage, it is possible to add
equalization and dynamics to the stereo bus.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
25
2 – Mixer
EQ
Like the ordinary channels, the stereo bus has threeband equalization, with sweepable center frequencies, and variable Q for the midrange.
2 Press the EQ key:
To access this,
1 Press the STEREO key.
3 Use the cursor keys and wheel to select and
adjust the EQ parameters for the stereo bus.
Dynamics
The stereo bus has a stereo dynamics processor
(compressor or expander) available.
1 Press and hold the SHIFT key.
Dynamics library From the screen above, pressing ENTER brings up the stereo dynamics library
screen.
2 Press the STEREO key.
3 Use the cursor keys and wheel to select and
adjust the parameters for the effect. Note that
the last parameter is an on/off switch. When
set to OFF, the dynamics processor is bypassed.
Use the left and right keys to select the PRESET or
USER libraries, or to SAVE the current setting.
Use the wheel to select library entries and press
ENTER to load the entry.
If you save a setting, you can add a title to the current
stereo dynamics settings and press ENTER to save it
as a user library effect.
26 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
2 – Mixer
Fader
Like the channel faders, the position of the STEREO
fader can differ from the internal setting if it has been
changed as the result of a MIDI command or a scene
recall.
Press the STEREO key alone to bring up the stereo
bus fader screen:
In this case, the LVL value corresponds to the physical
fader level, and INT gives the internal virtual fader
value (as marked by the triangular symbol beside the
on-screen fader). In both cases, 0 is full cut, 127 is full
up, and 100 is the unity gain value.
Output selection
A pair of tracks can be routed for direct output
through the analog STEREO OUT terminals (and the
DIGITAL OUT).
However, you can use the wheel to select a pair of
tracks for output from these terminals, though.
Usually, the DIRECT OUTPUT parameter should be set to
OFF (that is, the stereo bus is the signal output from
these terminals).
When this function is on, the channel and stereo faders
have no effect.
NOTE
Monitoring
Monitoring is a vital part of the whole recording and
production process. The 2488 provides stereo monitoring facilities through an external amplifier/speakers combination, as well as headphones.
The level for these two monitoring systems is set
using the MONITOR LEVEL control.
This monitoring level is affected by the level from
the STEREO fader, but does not affect the level of the
stereo bus.
Monitor selection
As well as the stereo bus, it is possible to monitor the
sub mix (see “Sub mix” on page 29), the effect loop,
and the two effect sends (one in each channel), which
are all shown by indicators; as well as turning off the
monitoring, when no indicator is lit.
Monitoring the loop and effect sends is useful when
you want to check the exact mix (as created by the
effect sends) of the signals being sent to the effects.
Use the MONITOR SELECT key to cycle through the
selections.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
27
2 – Mixer
Mono monitoring
Typically monitoring is carried out in stereo, echoing
the stereo bus. However, there may be times when
you want to check what the mix sounds like in mono.
1 Press the shifted MONITOR SOURCE key.
While the monitoring is in mono, the appropriate monitor selection indicator flashes.
Use the MONITOR SOURCE key to turn off
mono monitoring.
Record source monitoring
Record source monitoring is a feature of the 2488. It
allows monitoring of the input sources rather than the
monitoring coming from the mixer channels.
This has a number of advantages as can be seen when
we examine a highly simplified block diagram.
The signal is passed through the input section, to the
track. From there, it is passed through the channel.
Input
Track
Channel
Typically, monitoring is done from the track, and
therefore any effects and EQ added to the channel, as
well as any effects, EQ added to the input, will be
monitored.
Sometimes, however, it’s a good idea to record “dry”
(that is, with no effect). An effect setting, for example, which sounds fine during recording, may clash
with another effect added later on in the project.
However, singers and other performers often like to
hear the effects in their headphones (it helps with the
recording in many cases). The answer is to add some
effects to the channel, allowing the artiste to hear the
effected sound. Meanwhile, the sound is actually
recorded dry.
This presents a minor problem, though; the effect
may mask any imperfections in the source material
recording process, and it’s a good idea to be able to
monitor the “dry” signal sometimes.
This is where the record source monitoring comes in.
As you can see from the illustration below, the usual
monitoring source is the channel.
Input
"dry"
Track
Usual Monitoring Mode
Input
"dry"
Monitoring
Track
Channel
(+ FX)
Monitoring
Channel
(+ FX)
Record Source Monitoring
Mode
In the record source monitor mode, the source is the
input.
1 Simply press the RECORD SOURCE
MONITOR key. The indicator lights when
record source monitoring is in operation.
Note that this only applies to monitoring the
STEREO bus, not to the sub mix or the effect sends
or loops.
Monitor muting
When recording with microphones, the microphones
and speakers should not be in the same space, as this
will cause feedback. If you are using the microphone
in the same room as the 2488, you should then use
headphones when monitoring.
28 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
The monitor MUTE key allows you to cut the output
to the monitor amplifier/speakers, while still monitoring through headphones. The MUTE indicator
lights when muting is active.
2 – Mixer
Soloing and toggle
Soloing is also an important part of the recording
process, allowing you to temporarily isolate problem
areas (channels or tracks) and listen to them with
your full attention.
The MUTE/SOLO keys of any soloed channels flash
while being soloed.
The MUTE keys for each channel also act as SOLO
keys when the SOLO indicator is flashing (solo mode
is active).
The solo is an in-place solo—any changes to fader
levels, pan position, etc. made in solo mode are
reflected in the solo signal.
Muted channels cannot be soloed or unmuted while
solo mode is active.
Sub mix
The 2488 sub mix facility allows you to add up to
eight more inputs (usually on mixdown) to the
twenty-four tracks already recorded. These could be
inputs from a multi-timbral MIDI device, synchronized using MIDI clock information from the 2488
driving a sequencer.
Press the SUB MIX key to bring up the appropriate
screen (if it’s not already displayed):
The eight inputs from A through H are pressed into
service here and they feed a bus that can be routed to
the stereo bus (or to the recorder in bounce mix—see
“Making a bounce mix” on page 49).
1 Press and hold down the source INPUT key of
an input to be assigned to the sub mix and
press the SUB MIX key (above the STEREO
fader) to assign the input to the sub mix.
2 Repeat this process for all inputs to be
assigned to the sub mix.
3 Finally, assign the sub mix itself to the stereo
bus. Press and hold the SUB MIX key, and
press the STEREO key.
This shows the current assignment of inputs to the
sub mix, and the current assignment of the sub mix
output.
There is also a level control (0 to 127, 100 is unity
gain). Use the wheel to set this level.
NOTE
You can also bounce recorded tracks (“Bouncing tracks”
on page 49). Because this uses the sub mixer, you cannot use the sub mix as described here and perform track
bouncing at the same time.
Scene memories
The 2488 can store and recall up to 100 scene memories. Each memory stores all the digital parameters
for:
• Input assignment
• EQ settings
• Effector settings and assignment (assignment and
parameters for both internal effects units)
•
•
•
•
•
Effect send and loop levels
Pan
Digital pad/gain
Fader settings (including the STEREO fader)
Sub-mixer settings
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
29
2 – Mixer
NOTE
Monitor settings and TRIM control settings are not
stored as part of a scene.
To access the scene memories:
1 Press the SCENE key:
3 Use the left and right cursor keys to select LOAD
(settings from the library) or SAVE (current settings to the library).
4 When saving, use the wheel to select a setting
which you will overwrite, or select the (new
scene) option to create a new library entry.
When loading a scene, you should simply
select the library entry.
5 Press ENTER. The scene will be loaded or
saved.
2 From the scene library screen, use the wheel to
select a scene.
NOTE
Take care when recalling a scene. The audio level may
jump dramatically from the current level.
You can also add meaningful titles to the scenes by
pressing the shifted MENU key (TITLE). See
“Titling” on page 12.
30 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
3 – Effects
The 2488 includes high-quality effects that may be
used to enhance your playing.
They may be used in a number of different ways for
use in different stages of the production process.
• Firstly, the effects may be used on up to eight channels and/or inputs (that is, eight signals in total) as
inserted mic effects.
• Alternatively, up to four mic effects may be used
together with an inserted multi-effect.
• Lastly, a single high-quality effect may be used.
This is fed by the internal LOOP (“Effect send” on
page 23).
The parameters of the effects may be edited and
stored in libraries allowing the same effect setting to
be used on multiple tracks or used in different parts
of the same project.
These library effects are available between songs
(and disk partitions—see “Disk management” on
page 65).
Whether or not the parameters are stored in a library
entry, effect assignments and parameters are always
stored as part of a song.
Mic effects
MIC X 4 Select four mic effects and the multi-effect
by pressing the MICX4 EFFECT key.
above the channels. Press and hold one of these keys
and then press the other one.
If the eight mic effects setting has previously been
selected, the mic effect assignments already made are
unassigned.
If the four mic effects + multi-effect setting is already
selected, the multi-effect is unassigned, and the four
mic effect assignments are left in place.
MIC X 8 Select eight mic effects by using the
To “unlink” these two keys, press and hold them
together again.
MULTI and MICX4 EFFECT keys (MICX8)located
Assigning mic effects
Assign and unassign channels and inputs in the same
way that channels are assigned to inputs (see “Inputs
and assignments” on page 21). In other words, pressing and holding the MICX4 key (whether four or eight
mic effects are selected) and pressing a channel or
input SELECT key assigns or unassigns the mic
effect to or from the channel/input.
If all available mic effects are being used, attempting
to assign another channel or input has no effect. You
must free up some inputs or channels to allow new
ones to be assigned.
A stereo channel (13-14 through 23-24) counts as
two channels. In other words, up to eight mono or
four stereo, or intermediate combinations at a time,
can use mic effects in this mode.
Selecting mic effects
1 When the MICX4 key is pressed (regardless of
2 Press ENTER to access the effect library:
whether eight or four mic effects have been
selected), and the SELECT key of the input or
track is pressed, the MIC EFFECT screen is shown:
3 Use the left and right keys to select either the
preset (PRESET) library, the user library (USER)
or save (SAVE) the current setting.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide 31
3 – Effects
three-letter abbreviation for the effect type
cannot be changed. See “Titling” on page 12.
The basic types of mic effects available are:
• Vocal compressor (VOCAL-COMP/CMP)
• De-esser (DE-ESSER/ DSR)
• Vocal exciter (VOCAL-EXC/EXC)
5 Press ENTER to load (or save) the effect. The
display shows the parameter editing MIC EFFECT
screen.
4 Use the wheel to select the effect to load (or
Pressing EXIT cancels the load and returns the
settings to the previous parameters.
when saving, the “slot” in which to save).
If you’re saving an effect, you can give it a
title, such as SLAP BASS, FUNKY KOTO, etc. The
Editing mic effects
The parameters to be edited for the effects differ
according to the type of effect selected.
TIP
If you are unsure of the operation of a compressor or
any of the effects described here, it is a good idea to
read one of the many excellent introductory books on
audio and recording.
Compressor (CMP) The THRESHOLD at which the
compressor kicks in, the RATIO of the compressor, and
the ATTACK and POST GAIN times.
De-esser (DSR) The FREQUENCY at which the deesser operates and the DEPTH of the effect.
Exciter (EXC) The FREQUENCY and the DEPTH of the
effect.
Multi-effect
On the 2488, a “multi-effect” is a chain of effects
which can be used together as one insert effect for
processing a guitar sound, for example.
A multi-effect is made available together with the
four mic effect setting.
Selecting the multi-effect for use is done in the same
way as selecting the four mic effects (see above).
Assigning the multi-effect to a channel or input
The multi-effect is assigned in the same way as the
mic effects: press and hold the MULTI key and press
the input or channel SELECT key.
Any input or channel assigned when the MULTI key
is first pressed flash.
Unassigning the multi-effect follows the same procedure: press and hold the MULTI key, and press the
flashing SELECT key.
NOTE
The multi-effect can be freely assigned to mono inputs
or channels or to linked or stereo input or channels.
Editing the multi-effect
Pressing the MULTI key brings up the multi-effect
screen.
At the bottom of the screen, below the parameters, is
a block of three-letter abbreviations (circled in the
illustration here). These represent the different individual components of the multi-effect. The positions
of the effect components in the chain cannot be
changed.
Use the right and left cursor keys to navigate between
them.
• NSP: Noise Suppressor (noise gate). This effect is
always at the start of the chain. Adjust the
THRESHOLD, amount of SUPPRESSION, ATTACK and
RELEASE. You can also SWITCH this effect on or off
(in or out of the chain).
32 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
3 – Effects
• DST: Distortion. Either this effect or the compressor
(below) is in the second position in the chain.
Adjust the DISTORTION level, TONE and amount of
POST GAIN (gain applied after the effect). You can
also SWITCH this effect on or off (in or out of the
chain).
• CMP: Compressor. Either this effect or the distortion
(above) is in the second position in the chain.
Adjust the THRESHOLD, compression RATIO, the COMP
LEVEL, and the amount of DIRECT MIX. You can also
SWITCH this effect on or off (in or out of the chain).
• AMP: Amplifier model. This effect is always the
third in the chain. Adjust the PRE GAIN (corresponds
to pre-amplifier gain setting, the TONE, the BOX SIZE
(speaker cabinet size), and the POST GAIN (overall
output volume). You can also SWITCH this effect on
or off (in or out of the chain).
• Modulation, etc. effects (see below). One of these
effects is always in the fourth place in the chain.
• DLY: Delay. This is always the final effect in the
chain. Adjust the DELAY TIME, amount of FEEDBACK,
HI DAMP (the amount by which high frequencies are
damped with successive repeats) and the overall
MIX LEVEL. You can also SWITCH this effect on or off
(in or out of the chain).
Modulation effects One of the following effects
always takes the fourth place in the chain.
• FLG: Flanger. Adjust the SPEED, DEPTH, RESONANCE
and MIX level of this flanging effect. You can also
SWITCH this effect on or off (in or out of the chain).
• PHA: Phaser. Adjust the SPEED, DEPTH and RESONANCE
of this phasing effect. You can also SWITCH this
effect on or off (in or out of the chain).
• CHO: Chorus. Adjust the SPEED, DEPTH, TONE and MIX
level of this chorus effect. You can also SWITCH this
effect on or off (in or out of the chain).
• EXC: Exciter. Adjust the FREQUENCY and DEPTH of this
exciter effect. You can also SWITCH this effect on or
off (in or out of the chain).
• PIT: Pitch shifter. Adjust the PITCH (in semitones)
and use the FINE setting for fine-tuning. Set the MIX
LEVEL. You can also SWITCH this effect on or off (in
or out of the chain).
• TRM: Tremolo. Adjust the SPEED and DEPTH as well
as the SHAPE of the waveform. You can also SWITCH
this effect on or off (in or out of the chain).
• VIB: Vibrato. Adjust the SPEED and DEPTH of this
vibrato effect. You can also SWITCH this effect on or
off (in or out of the chain).
• WAH: Wah effect. Adjust the ATTACK of the effect,
the SENSE (sensitivity) of the effect, and whether the
PEDAL (the EXPRESSION pedal connected at the
front of the unit) is used or not to control the effect
(if OFF, this becomes an auto-wah effect).
Using the multi-effect library
1 From the multi-effect parameter screen, press
ENTER:
In the right column, you can see the chief components of the effect. The first part of the
name represents the second effect in the chain
(either DIST- for distortion, or CLEAN- for compression, followed by one of the eight modulation effects (FLG, PHA, CHO, EXC, PIT, TRM, VIB, and
WAH). There are therefore 16 “starting points”
for multi-effect settings.
3 To save the current settings as an effect in the
bank, move the cursor to SAVE and press
ENTER. Select an existing effect to overwrite,
or pick a new library entry into which to save
the parameters.
USER
2 Use the left and right cursor keys to select
either the PRESET memory banks, the USER
memory banks, or SAVE the current setting.
The left side of the PRESET memory banks provides a description of the effect (GRUNGE, LEAD
SOLO, etc.).
You can rename any entry in the user banks
using the techniques described in “Titling” on
page 12. The basic type of effect (for instance,
DIST-FLG) is always shown in the right column
of the list, so even if you call it HEAVY LEAD, for
example, you can still recognize the basic
starting point.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
33
3 – Effects
Single effect
The single effect provides you with a quality effect in
the internal effect loop. This is most useful in the
mixdown and mastering stages, but it can be used at
any time.
Press the ENTER key to enter the library screen to
recall a preset effect or a user effect or to save the
current parameters.
The send level to this effect is controlled by the channels’ LOOP levels (“Effect send” on page 23) and the
master LOOP level.
The return from this effect is sent to the stereo master
bus, or to the bounce sub mix (“Making a bounce
mix” on page 49).
Press the SINGLE EFFECT key. It lights, and the
screen changes to the SINGLE EFFECT screen:
Use the “left” and “right” cursor keys to select the
choices, the USER settings, or to SAVE the current parameters.
PRESET
Scroll up and down through the list that appears, and
press ENTER to confirm your choice.
Single effect library presets
PIT Pitch shifting with delay. Adjust the PITCH (in
The choices available from the PRESET library are
based on the following basic types, as shown in the
right column of the library screen:
semitones), the FINE pitch adjustment, the PRE DELAY,
the FEEDBACK and the LEVEL.
REV A reverb effect with different types and charac-
FLG An expressive flanger. Adjust the RATE, DEPTH,
teristics. Adjust the ROOM TYPE, PRE DELAY, REV TIME,
DIFFUSION and LEVEL.
FB DELAY
DLY A flexible delay effect with different settings.
RESONANCE, STEP
Adjust the TYPE, PRE DELAY, FB DELAY (feedback delay),
FEEDBACK and LEVEL.
GRV Gated reverb. Adjust the TYPE, the gate
CHO A warm-sounding chorus. Adjust the RATE,
DEPTH, FB DELAY (feedback
delay), FEEDBACK and LEVEL.
(feedback delay), FEEDBACK and LEVEL.
PHA A phasing effect. Adjust the RATE, DEPTH,
and LEVEL.
THRESHOLD, GATE TIME, DENSITY
LEVEL.
(of the reverb) and
Once you have loaded a preset, you can adjust the
parameters to suit your project.
Saving your own settings
Like the mic and multi-effects, it is possible to save
and name your own single effect settings, either overwriting an existing setting or adding a new setting.
34 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
In the library, no matter what name you give to an
effect (for example HEAVY BASS), the three-letter
abbreviation of the original preset that was edited to
create the user setting is always shown (for example
PHA).
3 – Effects
Tuner
This is not really an effect, but uses one of the keys.
Press the shifted MULTI key to bring up the TUNER
screen.
The tuner is used with the signal from input H on the
front panel (reserved for guitars and basses). It cannot be used with any other input.
When a note is played, the 2488 tuner displays the
note closest to that note, and the bars under the name
show whether the actual note is more sharp (the bars
to the right of the center are highlighted) or flat (the
bars to the left of the center are highlighted) than the
true value.
When the larger center bar alone is highlighted, the
instrument is tuned to the displayed note.
You can set the reference A to a value other than
440Hz if necessary.
Exit the tuner by pressing the shifted MULTI key
again.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
35
4 – Recorder
First steps in recording (song management)
These functions are not completely recorder-related,
but they do have play important roles in the recorder
operation. These are all accessed through the SONG
menu from the main menu (press MENU, navigate to
and press ENTER).
SONG,
Creating a song
Before starting work on any project, you need to
1 Press the MENU key, and use the cursor keys
to highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the CREATE option. Press ENTER.
3 Use the wheel to select between 16-bit and 24bit resolution. As you might expect, 24-bit
songs take up more space on disk than 16-bit
songs of the same length, but the audio quality
is higher (there is more subtlety in the
dynamic range).
4 In the CREATE screen, press the SHIFT key followed by the TITLE key to enter titling mode.
5 Use the wheel and the cursor keys to give the
song a name up to 12 characters in length.
Press ENTER when you’re done. The display
shows the home screen.
Loading a song
To load a previously-saved song from disk (the current song will be written to disk automatically when
the song is loaded):
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the LOAD option. Press ENTER.
3 Select the song to be loaded.
The current song is automatically saved, and
the selected song is loaded from disk.
NOTE
This menu reads the songs stored on the currentlyselected partition. If you are loading a song from another
partition, you must select it first.
Saving a song
The function described here saves the song to disk.
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
As the song is saved, appropriate messages are
displayed. The current song will be reloaded
after it has been saved, and you can resume
work on it.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the SAVE option. Press ENTER.
Reverting to the previously saved version of a song
If you have saved a song and you want to return to
3 The 2488 asks if you are sure. Press YES if you
the version of the song at the time it was last saved:
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the REVERT option. Press ENTER.
36 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
want to throw away all changes since the last
save operation, otherwise press NO.
NOTE
You will lose all recordings and edits made since the last
save, and they will disappear from the undo list. This
revert operation is not undoable. Be sure that the work
you have done since the last save operation is really
work that you do not want to keep before reverting to
a previous version.
4 – Recorder
Erasing a song
To free up space on a disk partition, and delete a song
or songs, you should perform the following operations:
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the ERASE option. Press ENTER.
3 Select the song or songs to be erased using the
wheel to highlight the songs and the INSERT
key to place a check mark (✔) beside them.
If you select a song for erasure by accident,
use the DELETE key to deselect it.
4 Press YES to erase the selected song(s).
5 The 2488 asks you if you are sure. Press YES if
you really are sure that you want to erase
these songs.
NOTE
This operation cannot be undone. Erasing songs is a
permanent operation. Always think carefully before
you erase a song or songs.
This menu can erase only the songs stored on the currently-selected partition. If you want to erase a song or
songs from another partition, you must select it first.
If you have selected all the songs on a partition for erasure, a new song will automatically be created after all
the existing songs have been erased.
Copying songs
As well as copying songs, so that you can work on
another version of them, you can also use this menu
item as a tool to back up songs to another partition
(you can also back up to CD-R, but this is a separate
process).
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the COPY option. Press ENTER.
3 Select the song or songs to be copied using the
wheel to highlight the songs and the INSERT
key to place a check mark (✔) beside them.
If you select a song for copying by accident,
use the DELETE key to deselect it.
4 When all the songs to be copied have been
marked, press the ENTER key. A list of all the
currently-available partitions is shown.
5 Use the wheel to select the partition to which
the selection will be copied, and press ENTER.
6 The 2488 asks you if you are sure that you
want to make the copy. Press YES to continue
with the operation, and NO to cancel.
NOTE
Copying a song may take some time. Be patient while
the song is being copied, and take care not to power
down the 2488 in the middle of a copy operation.
If you copy a song to the partition where it was originally stored, it will be copied with the same title as originally, so the list will contain two songs with the same
title. If you want two copies of the same song on one
partition, you should rename one of the copies immediately after the copy operation has been carried out.
When you make the selection for copying, only those
songs in the currently-selected partition are listed. If
you need to back up from many different partitions,
you must select each partition in turn and then select
the songs on the selected partition.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
37
4 – Recorder
Deleting unused space from a song
As we explained earlier, a song does not consist of
just the recorded audio, but also of the “playlist” and
the recorded but unused parts of the song.
By “unused”, we mean parts of a song which have
been completely overwritten by other parts. If the
start or end or both of a new part extends beyond the
start or end of a new part, it will not be deleted in this
operation.
New guitar solo over the old
Old guitar solo (will be deleted)
New guitar solo over the old
Old guitar solo (will not be deleted)
New guitar solo over the old
Old guitar solo (will not be deleted)
To free up this disk space, once you’ve made all your
edit decisions (there’s no undo on this):
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the DELETE UNUSED option. Press ENTER.
3 The 2488 asks you if you are sure. If you want
to delete all the unused portions of the song,
press YES. If you have second thoughts, press
NO.
NOTE
Although there is no undo operation here, and you lose
all the unused parts of the song permanently, you can
back up the song to CD-R, before performing this
“cleanup” operation. If you change your mind later on,
you can restore this backed up version.
Remember that you cannot undo this operation.
A virtual track which is not currently assigned as an
active track does not count as “unused” here.
Protecting a song
When a song is protected, recording is not possible
(the track REC keys are disabled), it cannot be edited
using the track editing functions, and it cannot be
erased, etc. using the SONG menu.
Only the currently-loaded song can be protected or
unprotected at any one time (though, of course, songs
stored on the disk can be stored as protected or
unprotected).
It is also impossible to set or edit location marks
except the IN and OUT points for repeat operations,
or to permanently reassign virtual tracks. Virtual
tracks can be assigned for audition purposes, but not
permanently saved.
1 Press the MENU key and use the cursor keys to
In operations which show a list of available songs
(for instance, loading a song), any protected songs
have a small padlock icon beside the song title.
3 Use the wheel to set the protection ON or OFF,
38 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
highlight the SONG item. Press ENTER.
2 At the SONG menu, use the cursor keys to highlight the PROTECT option. Press ENTER.
and press ENTER to confirm the setting.
4 – Recorder
Transport controls
Most of the 2488 controls work the same as a normal
tape recorder, but there are a few important differences, as outlined below.
Setting the playback position
The 2488 provides you with a number of ways to set
the position from which playback starts when you
press the PLAY key. Some of these are described in
the section on location operations (“Locating to the
points” on page 42) The ways of setting the playback
point which involve the transport keys are described
here.
Return to zero (RTZ)
This allows you to return instantly to the “zero
point”, (expressed as the absolute time).
To return to zero (from stop, play or record):
1 Press and hold down STOP.
2 Press REW. Playback/recording stops and the
playback position returns to the zero point.
Last Recording Position (LRP)
This is an extremely useful feature that allows you to
return instantly to the point where recording last
started. You can use this in any of the following situations (these are examples, you may think of others
for yourself):
• after you interrupt a bad take halfway through the
recording and want to return instantly to the same
position to retake
• after a successful take, and you want to return to
the point where recording started to check the take
• when you are recording a number of different
tracks in turn, all to start from the same point
• after a take, you may want to set the point where
the take started as a reference location mark
To return to the position where recording last started
(from stop, play or record):
1 Press and hold down the STOP key
2 Press F FWD. Playback/recording stops, and
the playback position returns to the point
where recording last started.
Jog positioning
To position the playback point precisely, you can
“jog” the playback position, using the wheel. As you
move backwards and forwards through the recording,
you can hear the recorded sound at slow speed, either
backward or forward, depending on the direction you
are turning the wheel.
waveform of the currently selected track at the
current playback position.
1 Position the playback point to the rough position where you want the final point to be.
2 Press and hold the STOP key and press the
PLAY key. The display shows a view of the
3 Press the SELECT key of the track that you
want to view (pressing the SELECT key of any
of the stereo tracks (13/14, 15/16, 17/18, 19/20,
21/22, 23/24) alternates between viewing the
odd- and even-numbered tracks). The display
changes to the waveform of that track.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
39
4 – Recorder
4 Use the Ó and Á cursor keys to zoom out
and in respectively horizontally.
In other words, pressing the Á key will
increase the amount of space on the screen
taken by a certain amount of time, and pressing the Ó key will make the same amount of
time take less space on the screen. The three
zoom levels available are: x 1, x 2 (allowing
approximately single-frame accuracy in
adjustment), and x 32 (allowing approximately
an accuracy of about 10 sub-frames). The resolution is shown below the time display.
5 Use the § and ¶ cursor keys to adjust the
vertical scale (the way that the volume of the
sound is shown).
The zoom levels here are x 1, x 2, x 4, x 8, x 16
and x 32. Pressing the § key increases the vertical scaling of the display, and pressing the ¶
key decreases the scale.
TIP
If you can’t see any waveforms when you first enter this
display, press the § key to zoom the volume so that
you can see the quiet passages.
6 Use the wheel to move the cursor. You can
monitor the “jogged” sound of the selected
track through the monitoring system.
7 To move past the edge of the screen and position the cursor roughly at the correct location,
press and hold the F FWD or REW keys to play
all the tracks forwards or backwards at normal speed. When you release the keys, the
playback will stop. You can then use the wheel
to position the cursor precisely.
8 Press STOP (or ENTER or EXIT) to return to
the home screen, with the playback position
now being the point which has just been set.
NOTE
Because only one track can be jogged at a time, only
one track of a stereo pair can be heard at a time in this
mode. If it is difficult to hear the track, you may want to
monitor in mono (see “Monitoring” on page 27).
Fast forward and rewind
On a tape recorder, you can use the fast forward and
fast rewind keys to spool through a tape. A disk
recorder like the 2488 works in a somewhat different
way.
The forward and rewind keys can be used in the following ways:
During playback When the 2488 is playing back
material, if you press and hold either the F FWD or
the REW key, the playback position moves forward
or backward (depending on which key is being held
down) at ten times the normal playback speed (as
shown by the FF x10 or REW x10 in the home display.
At this time, playback is muted, and the PLAY indicator flashes.
When you release the F FWD or REW key, playback
starts at the position which has been reached.
You cannot perform this operation while recording—
only from playback.
From the stop position When playback is
stopped, you can press and release the F FWD or
REW keys to start “fast rewind” or “fast forward”.
While this “winding” is taking place, playback is
muted.
Holding down the keys for more than one second, or
pressing the keys repeatedly, changes the “wind
speed” from ten times (x10 shown on the home
screen), to fifty times (x50) to one hundred times
(x100) to one thousand times (x1000).
While the 2488 is “winding” in one direction, pressing the opposite key (for example, F FWD while
rewinding) will immediately start location at 10x in
the new direction.
Recording
To start recording from the stopped state:
2 Press and hold down the RECORD key.
1 At least one track should be armed (press the
3 Press the PLAY key. Both the PLAY (green)
REC key(s) of the track(s) on which recording
is to take place). The REC keys(s) start to
flash).
40 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
and RECORD (red) indicators light, and the
flashing REC indicator(s) light steadily.
4 Stop recording by pressing the STOP key.
4 – Recorder
NOTE
When a track is “armed” for recording (i.e. its REC
indicator is lit or flashing), the corresponding track indi-
cator number in the bottom of the home screen is
reversed to show this.
In the screen above, tracks 5 and 6are armed.
Recording (ii)
To drop into record mode while playing back:
1 Start playing back a song by pressing the
PLAY key. The PLAY indicator will light.
2 Arm one or more tracks by pressing their REC
keys. Their indicators start to flash.
3 Press the RECORD key. The RECORD indicator will light, and the REC indicators of the
armed tracks will also light.
NOTE
At least one track must be armed before you start to
record. It is not possible to enter a “record ready” mode
and press the REC keys of tracks to start recording.
Hands-free recording
You can also use a suitable footswitch (for example
the TASCAM RC-30P) connected to the PUNCH
jack on the front, to drop into record mode. When a
track is armed, and playback is taking place, pressing
the footswitch will change from playback mode to
record mode.
When recording, pressing the footswitch will drop
out of record mode into playback mode.
Dropping out of record mode
When record mode has been entered in any of the
ways described above, it is possible to drop out of the
recording mode simply by pressing the PLAY key.
The RECORD indicator goes out.
Of course, you can always press the STOP key to
stop recording.
TIP
You can “undo” recordings, (unlike on a tape recorder).
Even if you accidentally record over a perfect performance, the undo function can still retrieve the original.
See “UNDO and REDO” on page 54 for details.
Rehearsing recording
Sometimes, even with the undo facilities and the virtual tracks of the 2488, it may be useful for you to
rehearse a take without actually committing anything
to disk. This is probably most useful in auto punch
operations (see “Auto punch operations” on page 46)
but can be useful in other situations as well.
ing, but the input signal, although passed through to
the disk track, does not actually go to the disk.
In a rehearsal, the monitoring and other operations
and recording functions are the same as when record-
steadily, to show that the rehearsal is taking place.
To use the rehearsal mode, simply press the RHSL
key so that the indicator is lit.
When actually “recording” in rehearsal mode, the
RECORD indicator flashes, rather than lighting
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
41
4 – Recorder
IN/OUT/TO points
The IN and OUT points are used for repeat playback
(“Repeat” on page 46), for punch operations (“Auto
punch operations” on page 46)and, often with the TO
point, for track editing (“About track editing” on
page 49).
Setting the IN, OUT and TO points
To set these points:
1 Locate to the position where the IN, OUT or
TO point is to be set.
2 Pres the shifted IN, OUT or TO key.
When the IN, OUT or TO key has been pressed,
Set IN ! or Set OUT ! appears on the home display.
NOTE
You cannot set the IN and OUT points while the repeat
mode is active (the REPEAT indicator is lit).
Locating to the points
Simply press the IN, OUT or TO key to locate to the
appropriate point. You cannot do this in repeat mode
or while recording.
Editing the IN, OUT and TO points
When the points have been set, it may be necessary
to “trim” them, or to slip them backwards or forwards a little.
NOTE
You cannot edit the IN and OUT points while the repeat
mode is active (the REPEAT indicator is lit).
To edit the points:
1 Press the IN, OUT or TO key to locate to the
appropriate point.
2 Press and hold the STOP key and press the
PLAY key. The JOG indicator lights. The dis-
play shows a view of the waveform of the currently selected track at the IN or OUT point
(depending on which was pressed).
3 Press the SELECT key of the track that you
want to view. The display changes to the waveform of that track.
4 Follow the instructions in “Jog positioning” on
page 39 for zooming and moving the current
jog position.
5 When you have set the point where you want
the point to be, press the shifted key to set the
respective point. The display returns to the
home screen.
Press EXIT to return to the home screen without setting the points (remember that ENTER
does not set these points).
Markers
As well as the IN and OUT points, which are used in
punch and editing, there are also 999 location marks
available for each song.
These can be inserted, deleted, named and edited
freely, and they are stored with the song, allowing
you to return at any time to a part of the song which
you have marked as needing attention.
There is also an easy method of directly locating to a
position without using the location marks, as
described here:
Direct location
In this method, you use the cursor keys and the wheel
to locate to a specified position.
There are three modes in which the time can be
shown on the home screen: ABS (the absolute time),
MTC (MIDI Time Code) and BAR (which represents
42 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
the time in bars and beats, according to a tempo map
from the following sources: the 2488’s internal map,
that of a Standard MIDI File selected for playback, or
else from the pattern tempo map (see “MIDI” on
page 76 for details of these).
4 – Recorder
In the first two of these modes, you can locate to subframe accuracy. There are ten sub-frames in a frame,
and the length of a frame depends on the frame rate
set up in the sync operations, but is between 1/30 and
1/24 of a second. In the last mode, you can locate to
beat accuracy.
Direct location (i) For the first two modes (ABS
and MTC), the way to locate directly is as follows:
1 Make sure the transport is stopped. You cannot perform this direct location when playing
back or recording.
2 If the “home” display is not shown, press the
will be reset to the previous value before you
started to edit it.
Direct location (ii) As well as the ABS and MTC
timings just described, it is possible to locate to a
“musical” time, when the display shows bars (measures) and beats, and the 2488 is synchronized to a
tempo map.
1 Make sure the transport is stopped. You cannot perform this direct location when playing
back or recording.
2 If the “home” display is not shown, press the
HOME key.
HOME key. There is an “underline” cursor at
the top of the screen.
If the top left of the screen does not show ABS
or MTC (that is, it shows BAR), move the cursor
to under BAR, and turn the wheel counterclockwise until ABS or MTC is showing.
3 Use the left and right cursor keys to move the
cursor to any of the following fields: hours (h),
minutes (m), seconds (s), frames (s) or 10 subframes (no indication on the display, though
the value is shown).
Hours
Minutes
Frames
Seconds 10s of sub-frames
4 Use the wheel to increase or decrease the number over the cursor (in the illustration here,
the cursor is under the “hours” value).
If you increase a value past the maximum (for
example, if you try to increase the “seconds”
value over 59), the number will “wrap round”;
that is, the “minutes” value will increase by
one, and the “seconds” value will be set to 0.
5 When you change a value, the values on the
top line will start to blink and will continue to
blink for a few seconds.
6 Press ENTER while the values are blinking to
set the value, or PLAY to start immediate playback at that value. Also, if you do not press
any keys or turn the wheel for a few seconds,
the values stop blinking, and the new time
value that has been set becomes the current
playback position.
If you press the EXIT key (or the STOP key)
while the values are blinking, the time value
3 There is an “underline” cursor at the top of
the screen.
If the top left of the screen does not show BAR
(that is, it shows MTC or ABS), move the cursor
under the left field, and turn the wheel clockwise until BAR is shown.
4 Use the cursor keys to move the cursor to
either of the following: bars (3 digits), or beats
(2 digits).
Bars (measures) Beats
The tempo value cannot be altered here—it is
set by the tempo map.
5 Use the wheel to increase or decrease the number over the cursor (in the illustration, the
cursor is under the “bars” value).
If you increase the “beats” value past the maximum number of beats on a bar at that point
in the tempo map, the number will “wrap
round”; that is, the “bars” value will increase
by one, and the “beats” value will be set to 1.
6 When you change a value, the values on the
top line will start to blink and will continue to
blink for a few seconds.
7 Press ENTER while the values are blinking to
set the value, or PLAY to start immediate playback at that value. Also, if you do not press
any keys or turn the wheel for a few seconds,
the values stop blinking, and the new time
value that has been set becomes the current
playback position.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
43
4 – Recorder
If you press the EXIT key (or the STOP key)
while the values are blinking, the time value
will be reset to the previous value before you
started to edit it.
Location marks
As mentioned earlier, the 2488 allows you to set up
to 999 location marks in each song. These location
marks are stored in slots which may either be empty,
or filled with a location point value.
As each mark is entered, its slot is filled (from 1
through 999). If a mark is deleted, the slot it occupied
becomes available for another mark to be entered,
Location marks are handled in the following way:
Entering location marks Location marks can
be entered when playing back or recording, in jog
mode, or when the transport is stopped. They cannot
be entered when fast forward or rewind is taking
place.
There are two ways of entering location marks:
1 Press the shifted LOCATE key.
or
1 Press the INSERT key.
2 When a mark has been entered, the location
value is entered into the next available slot,
and the number of this slot (now the number
of the mark) is shown on the screen on the
right, below the time line.
Active location marks
When you have entered location marks, as playback
progresses, and the playback point passes the points
at which the marks are located, the marks’ titles are
displayed on the screen. The location mark which is
shown on screen is referred to as the active mark.
This active mark can be accessed easily for titling,
deletion and editing, as explained below.
Giving a title to the active location mark
You can give a title to the active location mark while
playing back or recording, or while the playback is
stopped.
1 When the active mark’s current title is displayed (this will be Mark xxx when the mark is
first set), press the shifted TITLE key.
The pop-up screen appears on the display, and
you can edit the title as described in “Titling”
on page 12.
2 When you press ENTER after editing the
TIP
You can use the words here to enter location mark titles
quickly.
Deleting the active location mark You can
delete the active location mark while playback is
stopped, but you cannot delete it while playing back
or recording (a popup message appears briefly if you
try and you must press EXIT to dismiss the message).
1 To delete the active mark, press the DELETE
key. You do not have to confirm the deletion,
but the words Clear mark! appear briefly on the
display.
2 When the active mark has been deleted, the
mark immediately before the active mark (if
there is one) becomes the active mark, and its
title is shown on screen.
NOTE
You cannot undo a mark deletion.
name, the new name replaces the old mark
name.
Editing the active mark
This process is sometimes referred to as trimming.
This is a similar process to the jog positioning of the
playback point (see “Jog positioning” on page 39),
except that in this operation, the final position is
stored as the position of the active mark.
44 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
You can edit the active mark when playback is
stopped. You cannot edit the active mark when
recording or playing back.
1 Make sure that the mark you want to edit is
shown on the home display and that playback
is stopped.
4 – Recorder
2 Press the TRIM key. The display shows TRIM
and a view of the waveform of the currently
selected track at the active mark.
5 Use the § and ¶ keys to adjust the vertical
scale (the way that the volume of the sound is
shown). The zoom levels here are x 1, x 2, x 4, x
8, x 16 and x 32. Pressing the § key increases
the vertical scaling of the display, and pressing
the ¶ key decreases the scale.
NOTE
If you can’t see any waveforms when you first enter this
display, press the § key to zoom the volume so that
you can see the quiet passages.
6 Use the wheel to move the cursor. You can
3 Press the SELECT key of the track that you
want to view. The display changes to the waveform of that track.
Although the location mark applies to all
tracks, if you have a track selected with nothing or little recorded on it at that point, it will
be impossible to see or hear anything using
this function.
4 Use the Ó and Á keys to zoom out and in
respectively horizontally. This is, pressing the
Á key will increase the amount of space on
the screen taken by a certain amount of time,
and pressing the Ó key will make the same
amount of time take less space on the screen.
The three zoom levels available are: x 1, x 2 at
about single-frame accuracy), and x 32 at
about 10-sub-frame accuracy (shown below
the time display).
monitor the jogged sound of the selected track
through the monitoring system.
NOTE
You cannot move the mark to a position before the previous mark or after the next mark.
7 To move past the edge of the screen, press and
hold the F FWD and REW keys to play the
tracks forwards or backwards at normal
speed for a rough position. When you release
the keys, the playback will stop.
8 Press ENTER to accept the new position as the
location mark value (the playback position is
now the new position), and return to the home
screen.
9 Press EXIT to return to the home screen with
the playback position being the point which
has just been set, but the location mark value
is unchanged.
Using the location mark list
Every time a location mark is stored, it is entered into
a list, and every time a mark is deleted, it is removed
from the list.
You can use this list to select a mark for location, or
for giving a title to a mark. You cannot edit the time
value of a mark, or delete a mark using the list.
To see the list, press the LOCATE key:
NOTE
Even when the time display on the home screen is
shown in bars and beats, or the MTC time display is
selected, the marks’ time values are always shown using
the absolute time values.
Items in the list are always sorted in time order, not
the order of the location mark names or numbers.
Locating using the list To locate using the
location mark list:
1 Press the LOCATE key.
2 Select the location mark using the wheel (or
the cursor keys).
3 Press ENTER. The playback point jumps to
the selected location mark.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
45
4 – Recorder
Using the IN OUT and TO marks Jump to
these marks simply by pressing the IN, OUT or TO
key, as appropriate.
Titling using the list
1 Press the LOCATE key.
2 Select the location mark to be renamed, using
the wheel (or the cursor keys).
3 Press the shifted TITLE key.
4 Give a title to the mark, using the procedure
described in “Titling” on page 12.
5 When you press ENTER to confirm the name,
the screen returns to the list.
Two marks can have the same title (but it is not a very
sensible idea to give the same title to more than one
mark), but they cannot have the same time value.
It is not possible to rename the IN, OUT or TO
marks—these have special functions, and cannot be
renamed.
Repeat
You can repeat playback between the IN and OUT
points by pressing and releasing the REPEAT key so
that the indicator lights.
Repeat recording is handled using the auto punch
facility (see “Auto punch operations” on page 46)
Setting the repeat interval
On a tape recorder repeating a section, there is a
delay while the tape rewinds. The “instant rewind” of
a disk recorder can give you no time to prepare your
fingers, take a breath, etc. ready for the next take.
1 Press and hold the REPEAT key so that a
popup screen appears.
The 2488 allows you to set a time between reaching
the OUT point and starting to replay from the IN
point again: from 0 seconds to 9.9 seconds.
2 Use the wheel to set the interval, and ENTER
to confirm the value.
Auto punch operations
Punch operations allow you to start and stop recording at predefined points, and these can be automated,
as described here.
When auto punch recording begins, playback starts at
pre-roll point some time before recording is due to
start, the punch-in point is reached, and recording
starts. When the punch-out point is reached, recording stops, and playback continues until the post-roll
point.
In addition, when you perform an auto punch recording, during the pre-roll period, you hear what has
previously been recorded, together with the signal
source; during the punch recording itself, you hear
the signal source alone; and for the post-roll period,
46 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
you hear the previously recorded material and the
signal source together.
The 2488 allows all of this to happen in rehearsal
mode as well as in an actual recording mode. The
rehearsal mode allows you to simulate the punch
recording, both to practise the actual take, and also to
check punch points before recording actually begins.
You can also use the repeat function together with the
punch operations, allowing you to make repeated
rehearsals of a punch section, as well as repeated
takes of the same section (multi-takes) or when
you’re recording, repeated recordings can be used as
multi-takes. When you have recorded a section many
times in this way, you can then choose the best possible take to insert into the track.
4 – Recorder
Setting the punch points
The 2488 provides three different punch settings.
1 With at least one track armed (the REC indicator flashing), and playback stopped, press
the AUTO PUNCH key:
NOTE
It is not strictly necessary to have a track armed when
you first press the AUTO PUNCH key, but this is probably the most logical way to work.
LAST REC This sets the punch-in point to be the
last point at which recording started (the same as the
LRP described in “Last Recording Position (LRP)”
on page 39. The punch-out point is set to be the point
at which recording stopped (either when recording
dropped into play mode, or when the transport was
stopped). Note that this last recording does not have
to be a punch recording.
2 Select one of the three options, explained
below, using the wheel or cursor keys to move
the cursor, and the ENTER key to confirm the
selection (EXIT exits this screen without making any settings).
3 When the selection has been made, the AUTO
PUNCH indicator lights, and the home display
shows AUTO.
IN -> OUT This uses the IN and OUT points as the
punch-in and the punch-out points. The first of these
points will be used as the punch-in point, and the second as the punch-out point, even if the OUT point is
before the IN point.
LAST TAKE LOAD This option is only available if
a punch recording has taken place, and no recording,
no track editing or undo/redo operations or virtual
track assignments have been done since then. It
allows you to select the takes from this punch session, in the same way as described later in this section.
Checking the punch points
When the punch points have been set, you can press
the PLAY key. The home display shows CHECK, and
the playback starts at the pre-roll point. It continues
to the post-roll point.
If the punch positions are not what you want, you can
press the AUTO PUNCH key to turn off the punch
mode, and reset the punch points as described above.
You can also adjust the pre-roll and post-roll time
using the menu system (see “Recorder” on page 85),
but you must exit the auto punch mode first by pressing the AUTO PUNCH key so that the indicator goes
out.
If you the punch points and pre and post-roll times
are what you want, you should proceed to the
rehearsal stage, as described below.
Rehearsing the punch
Although you don’t have to use the rehearsal feature
(see “Rehearsing recording” on page 41) with the
auto punch, it’s probably a good idea to rehearse
most punch recordings a few times before making a
take.
1 With the AUTO PUNCH indicator lit, and a
track armed, press the RHSL (rehearsal) key.
The indicator lights.
2 Press and hold down the RECORD key and
press the PLAY key.
• The display shows TAKE.
• Playback starts at the pre-roll point. Both
the input source and previously-recorded
material can be monitored.
• When playback reaches the punch-in point,
the monitored signal on the armed track(s)
is muted. The RECORD indicator flashes (to
show that it is a rehearsal).
• When playback reaches the punch-out
point, the recorded material is added to the
monitored signal. The RECORD indicator
goes out.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
47
4 – Recorder
• Playback continues to the punch-out point
and stops.
• Playback continues to the post-roll point and
stops.
If you press the REPEAT key before the rehearsal, so
that the indicator is lit (as well as the AUTO PUNCH
and RHSL indicators), the rehearsal process will
repeat until you press the STOP key. There is about a
second’s interval between the post-roll and the
restarting of the rehearsal at the pre-roll point. You
cannot change this interval.
Recording the punch
When you are happy with the rehearsed punch material, you record the punch in the following way:
1 Press the RHSL key so that the indicator goes
out.
2 Press and hold the RECORD key and press the
PLAY key.
• The display shows TAKE.
• Playback starts at the pre-roll point. Both
the input source and previously-recorded
material can be monitored.
• When playback reaches the punch-in point,
• When playback reaches the punch-out
point, the recorded material is added to the
monitored signal. The RECORD indicator
goes out.
• Playback continues to the punch-out point
and stops.
If the REPEAT indicator is lit, the punch recording
will continue to repeat (up to 99 times) until you
press STOP, allowing you to select from a list of
“multi-takes” (see “Checking the take” on page 48).
The time between repeat takes is about one second.
You cannot change this time.
the monitored signal on the armed track(s)
is muted. The RECORD indicator lights
steadily.
Checking the take
After a take or series of takes has completed, you can
make an instant check of the take by following the
procedure here.
• When the take is complete, a screen similar
to the following appears:
• The screen above shows three takes and the
original track.
• Use the wheel to highlight a take from the
list, including the original track before the
punch was started.
• Press PLAY to check the highlighted take by
playing it back (starting at the pre-roll point,
and continuing to the post-roll point).
• If you are happy with the take, you can move
to the next stage below (“After finishing the
punch” on page 48.
• If you want to record another take, press
and hold RECORD, and press PLAY.
After finishing the punch
When you have finished the punch recording:
1 Use the wheel to highlight the take which you
feel is the best (or if none of them was any
good, select ORIGINAL, which is the unchanged
version).
2 Press to select the selected take (or the original
version).
48 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
A pop-up display asks you if you are sure that
you want to use the take.
3 Press ENTER if you are sure, but if you change
your mind to select another take, press EXIT.
NOTE
You must select one of the takes or the original to exit
auto punch mode.
4 – Recorder
The recording between the punch-in and
punch-out points is now replaced by the selection. The AUTO PUNCH indicator goes out.
If you change your mind
Like recording, an punch operation is undoable. It is
shown in the list of operations as an AUTO PUNCH operation.
In addition, as we mentioned earlier, the third choice
when you press the AUTO PUNCH key, LAST TAKE
LOAD, allows you to select any of the multi-takes from
the last punch session.
However, if you have recorded anything, performed
an undo or redo operation, or any track editing opera-
tions, (whether punch recording or not) since the last
punch session, the list of multi-takes is no longer
available. The list is available of a song has been
saved, closed and reopened, however, if none of the
above operations have been carried out.
NOTE
Even if you undo the recording that has overwritten the
list of multi-takes, the multi-take list will not be available to you after the undo.
Bouncing tracks
Like many multitrack recorders, the 2488 allows you
to “bounce” a collection of recorded tracks to a
smaller number of tracks. This allows you to record
more than 24 tracks (but once bounced onto a track
or pair of tracks, the original tracks cannot be separated out again).
In the case of the 2488, you can bounce up to 23
tracks into one track or 22 tracks into two tracks. In
this case, a stereo track counts as two tracks.
While you are performing a bounce operation, you
cannot use the sub mix facility (“Sub mix” on
page 29).
Making a bounce mix
1 Press the shifted BOUNCE key (located above
the STEREO fader).
The words BOUNCE MODE are displayed on the
home screen while bounce is active.
2 Select the destination. Press the REC keys for
a single track (mono bounce), or two tracks
(or a stereo track) for a stereo bounce.
3 Adjust the source tracks’ levels, EQ and pan
positions, etc. for the bounce mix.
TIP
When you monitor the bounce, you are monitoring the
bounce destination. If any EQ etc. is applied to the destination track(s), this is added to the signal you are
monitoring. You may therefore want to make sure that
the EQ is turned off on the destination tracks.
4 Make the recording from the start of where
you want to do the bounce in the normal way.
You can undo the recording if you find that
your bounce mix is not perfect.
5 When you’ve finished bouncing tracks, restore
normal recording mode by pressing SHIFT
and BOUNCE again.
About track editing
One of the most useful features of a disk-based
recorder such as the 2488 is the ability to edit material easily. When working with a stereo tape recorder
in the past, the usual editing method involved a white
pencil, a razor blade and sticky splicing tape. This
was not an easy process, and was very difficult to
undo if there were any mistakes.
The 2488 allows you to edit songs, copying and moving material from one part of a song to another. This
editing is known as non-destructive editing, meaning
that the operation does not actually destroy data, and
you can undo mistaken editing operations easily.
If you have ever used a word-processor on a computer, you will probably find most of the 2488’s editing operations pretty simple. If you have never used a
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
49
4 – Recorder
computer, the 2488’s editing operations are nothing
to be scared about—just read through this section to
see how it all works.
IN, OUT and TO
We have previously seen how the IN, OUT and TO
points can be used for punching and for location.
They are also used in these track editing operations.
The IN point marks the start of the part of the track
which is selected when editing a part of a track
(rather than a whole track).
The OUT point marks the end of the part of the track
which is selected when editing part of a track.
The TO point marks the final destination of a copy or
a move operation.
Entering the edit mode
1 Make sure that the 2488 is stopped (not playing back or recording).
2 Press the EDIT TRK key (below the monitor
controls).
3 Use the wheel to highlight the track editing
function you will be using and press the
ENTER key.
4 Select the appropriate values, as described
below.
5 Press YES to perform the operation, or NO to
exit without performing the operation.
Track editing functions
The track editing functions available on the 2488 are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
COPY->PASTE
COPY->INSERT
MOVE->PASTE
MOVE->INSERT
OPEN
CUT
SILENCE
CLONE TRACK
CLEAN OUT
50 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
See the sections below for details of how to use these
functions.
NOTE
You can undo any of these operations (see “UNDO and
REDO” on page 54). Even if you delete all the material
on every track using these functions, you can still get it
back with only a few key-presses.
Although you cannot use virtual tracks as the source
for copy and move operations, you can assign a virtual track to a track temporarily to (say) copy part of
a virtual track to an already-assigned track and then
reassign the original.
4 – Recorder
COPY -> PASTE
This function takes the section of a track or tracks
marked by the IN and OUT points, copies it, and
places it at the TO point on the chosen track or
tracks.
IN
OUT
TO
IN
OUT
TO
The original source is left unchanged.
The copy operation overwrites anything which is
already recorded at the destination. The destination is
the same length as it was before the operation.
You can copy the section more than once in one operation.
You can change the following values:
select an individual track. Choose 1/2, 3/4, 5/6 etc. to
select a pair of tracks. Choose 1-24 to select all tracks.
Dst. Trk This sets the destination track or tracks to
which the selected section is pasted. What you can
select here depends on what you have selected for the
source track. If you have selected a single track, you
can select tracks 1 through 24 here. If you have
selected a pair of tracks (for instance, 1/2), you can
only select track pairs here. If you have selected all
tracks (1-24), then 1-24 is the only option available to
you here.
Times This is the number of times that the selected
section is pasted into the destination track or tracks.
You can set this value from 1 to 99.
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
NOTE
You can also use the SHIFT + TRIM key combination to
enter this function easily.
Src.Trk This sets the source track or tracks from
which the section is copied. Choose 1 through 24 to
COPY -> INSERT
This function takes the section of a track or tracks
marked by the IN and OUT points, copies it, and
places it on the chosen track or tracks, inserting it as
new material, starting at the TO point.
IN
OUT
TO
You can change the following values:
Src. Trk This sets the source track or tracks from
which the section is copied. Choose 1 through 24 to
select an individual track. Choose 1/2, 3/4, 5/6 etc. to
select a pair of tracks. Choose 1-24 to select all tracks.
Dst. Trk This sets the destination track or tracks
IN
OUT
TO
The original source is left unchanged.
The insert operation adds the selected section as new
material to the destination. Nothing is overwritten on
the destination, as any existing material following the
TO point is moved to the end of the newly-inserted
section. The destination is longer than it was before
the operation.
into which the selected section is inserted. What you
can select here depends on what you have selected
for the source track. If you have selected a single
track, you can select tracks 1 through 24 here. If you
have selected a pair of tracks (for instance, 1/2), you
can only select track pairs here. If you have selected
all tracks (1-24), then 1-24 is the only option available
to you here.
Times This is the number of times that the selected
section is inserted (end-to-end) in the destination
track or tracks. You can set this value from 1 to 99.
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
You can copy the section more than once in one
operation.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
51
4 – Recorder
MOVE -> PASTE
This function takes the section of a track or tracks
marked by the IN and OUT points, and moves it to
the chosen track or tracks, starting at the TO point.
IN
OUT
TO
Src. Trk This sets the source track or tracks from
which the section is taken. Choose 1 through 24 to
select an individual track. Choose 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc. to
select a pair of tracks. Choose 1-24 to select all tracks.
Dst. Trk This sets the destination track or tracks to
IN
OUT
TO
After the operation, the selected section of the source
between the IN and OUT points is replaced by
silence.
This operation overwrites anything which is already
recorded at the destination. The destination is therefore the same length as it was before the operation.
You can change the following values:
which the selected section is moved. What you can
select here depends on what you have selected for the
source track. If you have selected a single track, you
can select tracks 1 through 24 here. If you have
selected a pair of tracks (for instance, 1/2), you can
only select track pairs here. If you have selected all
tracks (1-24), then 1-24 is the only option available to
you here.
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
NOTE
You can also use the SHIFT + INSERT key combination
to enter this function easily.
MOVE -> INSERT
This function takes the section of a track or tracks
marked by the IN and OUT points, and moves it to
the chosen track or tracks, inserting it as new material, starting at the TO point.
IN
OUT
TO
IN
OUT
TO
After the operation, the selected section of the source
between the IN and OUT points is replaced by
silence.
The insert operation adds the selected section as new
material to the destination. Nothing is overwritten on
the destination, as any material following the TO
point is moved to the end of the newly-inserted
52 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
section. The destination is therefore longer than it
was before the operation.
You can change the following values:
Src. Trk This sets the source track or tracks from
which the section is taken. Choose 1 through 24 to
select an individual track. Choose 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc. to
select a pair of tracks. Choose 1-24 to select all tracks.
Dst. Trk This sets the destination track or tracks
into which the selected section is inserted. What you
can select here depends on what you have selected
for the source track. If you have selected a single
track, you can select tracks 1 through 24 here. If you
have selected a pair of tracks (for instance, 1/2), you
can only select track pairs here. If you have selected
all tracks (1-24), then this is the only option available
to you here.
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
4 – Recorder
OPEN
This function “opens up” a silent gap between the IN
and OUT points on the chosen track or tracks.
IN
OUT
The source and destination are the same, and after the
operation, the track is split at the IN point, with the
material which followed the IN point now moved to
follow the OUT point. The result is therefore longer
than the original.
There is only one value that you can change:
IN
OUT
Src. Trk Select an individual track (1 through 24), a
pair of tracks (1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc.), all of the tracks (1-24)
or all tracks, including the virtual tracks (all).
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
CUT
This function deletes the material between the IN and
OUT points on the chosen track or tracks and “closes
up” the gap.
IN
OUT
point now moved to follow the IN point. Material
which was between the IN and OUT points is
deleted. The result is therefore shorter than the
original.
There is only one value that you can change:
Src. Trk Select an individual track (1 through 24), a
pair of tracks (1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc.), all of the “real”
tracks (1-24) or all tracks, including the virtual tracks
(ALL).
IN
The source and destination are the same, and after the
operation, the material which followed the OUT
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
SILENCE
This function is equivalent to recording silence
between the IN and OUT points on the chosen track
or tracks.
IN
OUT
No material is added or deleted, and the length of the
result is therefore the same as that of the original.
There is only one value that you can change:
Src. Trk Select an individual track (1 through 8), a
pair of tracks (1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc.), or all the tracks (124).
IN
OUT
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
NOTE
You can also use the SHIFT + DELETE key combination to enter this function easily.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
53
4 – Recorder
CLONE TRACK
This copies a track or pair of tracks to another track
or pair of tracks. The IN and OUT points do not have
any meaning here.
Dst. Trk This sets the destination track or tracks to
which the source track is cloned. What you can select
here depends on what you have selected for the
source track. If you have selected a single track, you
can select tracks 1 through 24 here. If you have
selected a pair of tracks (for instance, 1/2), you can
only select track pairs here.
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
There are two values that you can change:
Src. Trk Select an individual track (1 through 24), or
a pair of tracks (1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc.) or the MASTER stereo
track.
If you try to select the same track as a destination that
you have selected as the source, when you press the
YES key, a message will appear: SAME TRACK.
Redo the operation with a different set of tracks.
CLEAN OUT
This deletes all the material in a track or tracks. The
IN and OUT points do not have any meaning here.
Src. Trk Select an individual track (1 through 24), a
pair of tracks (1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc.), or all the tracks (124).
Press YES to perform the operation or NO to leave
this screen.
There is only one value that you can change:
If you need to delete the contents of a virtual track
that is not currently assigned to a track, you must
assign it to a track and then perform this operation.
UNDO and REDO
Unlike a tape recorder, but like most word-processors, you can undo your mistakes (the 2488 remembers up to the last 999 operations you perform in
each song). What is more, you can undo your undo
operations (redo).
The operations that you can undo are:
• The different track editing functions described in
this section
• Recording operations
54 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
• Auto punch operations
• Mastering operations
In addition, all these operations are stored as part of
the song on the disk; even when you turn the machine
off, the history of all the previous operations is stored
ready for next time.
What this means is that you can finish your work for
the day, come back in the morning with fresh ears,
and decide that maybe you didn’t want that overdub
after all. With the 2488, this is no problem.
4 – Recorder
Undoing and redoing actions
1 Press the UNDO/REDO key and a list of the
operations that you have done since the start
of the song is shown on screen:
3 Press ENTER, to return to the point in your
work just before you made your mistake.
You can also redo an action that you have undone in
exactly the same way.
TIP
As well as using the wheel to scroll through the list, you
can also use the UNDO /REDO key to position the cursor automatically at the event before or after the current event.
If you press the UNDO key (unshifted), the cursor
moves to the event immediately before the current
event. Press ENTER to undo the last event.
The first action (START UP) at the bottom of the
display is numbered 0, and all the actions after
this (above this) are then numbered in order.
2 Use the wheel to scroll through the list until
the cursor highlights the action to where you
want to undo.
If you press REDO (SHIFT + UNDO ), the cursor moves
to the event immediately following the current event
(i.e. the last action that has been undone). Press the
ENTER key to redo this action.
NOTE
Performing an action after the redo clears the list of redoable actions (i.e. those actions which have been
undone).
An undo/redo example
Here’s an extremely simplified example (in fact, it’s
extremely unlikely that you’d work this way, but it
shows the principles involved):
>RECORDING
RECORDING
AUTO PUNCH
RECORDING
AUTO PUNCH
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
COPY->PASTE
RECORDING
START UP
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
This is yet another retake of the lead vocal
Another attempt at the whole of the lead vocal
A try to correct a bad note in the lead vocal
First try at the lead vocal
Repairing the bad guitar bridge
Recording the guitar solo
Piano (alternative part)
Piano
Guide vocals
Bass line
Looping the drum part
Basic drum loop
Beginning of song
This is the history of a recording session so far. Suppose that you decide that items 11 and 12 in the list
are not needed (in other words, the first take (9) with
its correction (10) have been overwritten by 11 and
12, but you feel that the original take (9) with its correction (10) has more energy, so you want to retrieve
it:
1 Press the UNDO key.
2 Use the wheel to scroll down to the step to
where you want to undo (here it’s 11—the first
retry of the original take).
3 Press ENTER. All steps up to and including the
selected step are now undone.
Now you have the track back again. If you
press the UNDO key, you’ll see that there’s a
check mark beside 10 - this shows that this is
the “undo mark”.
RECORDING
RECORDING
>AUTO PUNCH
RECORDING
AUTO PUNCH
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
COPY->PASTE
RECORDING
START UP
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
This is yet another retake of the lead vocal
Another attempt at the whole of the lead vocal
A try to correct a bad note in the lead vocal
First try at the lead vocal
Repairing the bad guitar bridge
Recording the guitar solo
Piano (alternative part)
Piano
This line marks the
Guide vocals
point to where we have
Bass line
made the undo
Looping the drum part
Basic drum loop
Beginning of song
Notice that we can still see items 11 and 12.
This is because we can still redo them, if we
decide that the first vocal take (9 and 10)
wasn’t so great after all.
To redo them is just as simple as undoing
them: press the UNDO key, highlight the step
to which you want to return, and press
ENTER.
Items above the “undo” line are visible and you can
redo them until you perform another action after the
undo operation.
For instance, if you decided that you wanted to have
another go at repairing the lead guitar bridge…
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
55
4 – Recorder
You could undo all items up to item 7:
RECORDING
RECORDING
AUTO PUNCH
RECORDING
AUTO PUNCH
>RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
COPY->PASTE
RECORDING
START UP
This is yet another retake of the lead vocal
Another attempt at the whole of the lead vocal
A try to correct a bad note in the lead vocal
First try at the lead vocal
Repairing the bad guitar bridge
Recording the guitar solo
Piano (alternative part)
Piano
Guide vocals
Bass line
Looping the drum part
Basic drum loop
Beginning of song
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
The new recording would replace everything above
the line”.
All the pr
evious ite
ms have
gone
now
AUTO PUNCH
>RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
COPY->PASTE
RECORDING
START UP
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
This was the second go at repairing the bridge
Recording the guitar solo
Piano (alternative part)
Piano
Guide vocals
Bass line
Looping the drum part
Basic drum loop
Beginning of song
…and then re-record the guitar bridge.
After this, though, if you wanted to restore the vocal
tracks which we’d recorded, you wouldn’t be able to.
NOTE
Performing an action after the redo clears the list of
redoable actions (i.e. those actions which have been
undone).
Virtual tracks
When you use the 2488, you can record “spare”
tracks; for instance, different versions of the lead
vocals, and pick and choose between the different
versions to find the one which works best.
When a virtual track is assigned to be an “active”
disk track, it cannot be assigned to any other track.
These “spare tracks” are known as virtual tracks.
With the 2488, you can record up to 250 tracks per
song. From those 250 tracks, you pick the ones that
you want and fit them together to make your finished
mixed song. This can be re-takes of the same material (for instance, many attempts by a singer to capture the perfect vocal line), or alternative tracks
(different guitar lines or effect settings, etc.). This
allows you much more freedom to experiment than a
tape recorder can provide.
To assign a virtual track to a disk track:
Virtual tracks are mono tracks. You need to assign
one virtual track to each track of a stereo pair.
1 Press the shifted VIRT TRK key.
Different harmony arrangements for
backing vocals
Lead vocal attempts
Bass line played on different instruments
Saxophone takes
Rhythm guitar experiments with
different effect settings
Different takes of lead guitar line
Virtual
tracks
Here, we pick the best
takes from the virtual
tracks and assign them to
our playback tracks.
Track 1:
Drums Left
Track 2:
Drums Right
Track 3:
Lead Guitar
Track 4:
Rhythm Guitar
Track 5:
Saxophone
Track 6:
Bass line
Track 7:
Lead vocals
Track 8:
Backing vocals
Tracks 9 through 24 use
other virtual tracks (not
shown here for clarity)
56 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
2 Use the channel SELECT keys or the (Ó and
Á keys) to select the disk track to which the
virtual track will be assigned, as shown by the
inverted numbers at the bottom of the screen.
Repeated pressing of the stereo channel
SELECT keys (13/14 through 23/24) changes
between the odd and even numbered channels
of that pair.
3 Use the wheel to choose which virtual track
Assigned
playback
tracks
will be assigned to the disk track and become
active.
4 Press ENTER (or PLAY) to make the assignment, or EXIT to exit the track assignment
screen without actually making the
assignment.
4 – Recorder
5 In this screen, you can press the TITLE key to
name the highlighted virtual track for future
reference.
If you have not worked with a system using virtual
tracks before, you may find it a little confusing.
Then pick the one that fits best, and you can re-use
the other two unused disk tracks with new virtual
tracks—keep the alternative takes for the future if
you change your mind later on.
Virtual tracks (different takes of
the bass line; the best one has
now been selected for use, and
the other two are unused)
Some ideas to bear in mind:
• A virtual track can only be assigned once (a virtual
track cannot be used on two active tracks at the
same time). When you start a song, virtual tracks 1
through 24 are assigned to active tracks 1 through
24.
• If you’re recording a difficult part, you don’t have
to re-record over the top of “almost, but not quite
perfect” takes. Keep these for later, just in case you
never get a better take. Simply assign a different
virtual track when you record the next take.
• You do not have to select all the final “active”
tracks at the same time. For example, if you have
recorded the drum part of a song, and you have
recorded three different takes of the bass line on
three different virtual tracks, you can assign these
three virtual tracks to three disk tracks and use the
faders to listen to each of them in turn (for simplicity, these illustrations show only the first eight
tracks).
Virtual tracks (drums)
1
2
Drums
3
4
5
6
7
8
The best
bass take
Alternatively, if you want to assemble a track for the
whole song, you could assign the three different
takes of the part to three different active tracks and
use the track editing functions to copy and paste the
good parts of each track to make a perfect whole.
Then use the two non-perfect tracks with other virtual tracks for new parts.
NOTE
Of course, virtual tracks take up disk space, even when
you’re not using them. If you really don’t need a virtual
track, you should assign it temporarily to a disk track
and then clean it out to save disk space.
Virtual tracks (different takes of
the bass line)
Virtual tracks (drums)
1
2
Drums
3
4
5
6
7
8
The three best
bass takes
Varispeed operations (pitch and SSA)
You can play back and record at speeds which are
greater or less than the original (±6%) to allow for
differences in tuning, etc.
speed, and can be combined with repeat playback
(“Repeat” on page 46) for easy rehearsals.
It is also possible to play back a selected pair of
tracks at the same pitch, but slower than the original
(the SSA—Slow Speed Audition feature). This allows
you to rehearse tricky lead lines, etc. at a slower
The monitoring status of the tracks played back using the
pitch (varispeed) or SAA features is exactly the same as for
normal playback,; that is, if they have been assigned to a
channel, the volume, etc. is controlled by the channel fader
and controls.
NOTE
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
57
4 – Recorder
Pitch
1 Press and hold the PITCH/SSA key for about a
second and release it. The indicator lights and
the display changes:
ried out while this is done, you will be able to
hear the change.
4 Press the PITCH/SSA key to return to the
home screen and once again to turn off the
pitch change.
NOTE
The above steps can be carried out while playback is
stopped or in operation, but cannot be carried out during recording. It is also possible to start playback while
adjusting the pitch, but not to start recording at that
time.
2 If the PITCH CONTROL section at the left of the
screen is not active (it is not surrounded by the
thicker frame), press the Ó key to move the
cursor there.
3 Use the wheel to change the pitch from -6.0% to
+6.0%
in 0.1% steps. If playback is being car-
To use the set pitch When the pitch change
value has been set in the way described above, and
the 2488 shows the home screen, simply press the
PITCH/SSA key briefly to turn the indicator on and
to change the pitch.
Press the PITCH/SSA key briefly once again to turn
off the pitch change.
SSA (Slow Speed Audition)
1 Press and hold the PITCH/SSA key for about a
second and release it. The indicator lights and
the display changes:
4 Use the wheel to change the speed between
50%, 60%, 70%, 80%,
and 90% (the displayed values are approximate). If playback is being carried out while this is done, you will be able to
hear the change.
NOTE
The above steps can be carried out while playback is
stopped or in operation, but cannot be carried out during recording. It is also possible to start playback while
adjusting the speed, but not to start recording at that
time.
5 Press the PITCH/SSA key to return to the
2 If the SLOW SPEED section at the right of the
screen is not active (it is not surrounded by the
thicker frame), press the Á key to move the
cursor there.
3 Use the channel SELECT keys to select the
tracks which will be played back. These tracks
are always in pairs.
home screen and once again to turn off the
SSA mode.
To use the SSA When the speed change value has
been set in the way described above, simply press the
PITCH/SSA key briefly to turn the indicator on and
to change the speed, but without changing the screen
display.
Press the PITCH/SSA key briefly once again to turn
off the speed change.
58 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
5 – Mastering
When all your tracks have been recorded, it’s time to
make a stereo mix onto CD. These operations are all
controlled from the AUDIO CD menu.
2 Press ENTER.
NOTE
The operations all deal with songs on the currentlyselected partition. If the song you want is on another
partition, you must select another disk partition as the
active partition before proceeding (see “Selecting the
active partition” on page 65).
All mastering operations are accessed from the AUDIO
CD menu.
1 Press the MENU key and navigate to AUDIO CD.
Pre-mastering
The start of the pre-mastered material is always the
00:00:00.00 point, and the end of the pre-mastered
material is the OUT point.
Before starting the pre-mastering process, make sure
that if you are using the sub-mixer, this is assigned to
the stereo outputs.
1 Set the OUT point at the position where you
want the pre-mastered material to stop.
2 On the AUDIO CD menu, move the cursor to PRE
MASTER
and press ENTER.
The screen changes to the home screen, but
with the word MASTERING at the top left of the
screen.
If any REC READY indicators are on, they are
turned off, and they cannot be turned on again
while pre-mastering is being carried out.
While pre-mastering, transport controls work in the
usual way, except that:
• Playback and fast forward will stop at the OUT
point, and the playback position cannot move past
this point.
• Auto punch operations are disabled.
• Jog and trim are disabled.
• Pitch control and SSA are disabled.
• Direct location is disabled.
• Recording is carried out as explained below.
Recording the pre-master
To record the pre-master stereo tracks, press and hold
the RECORD key, and then press the PLAY key. Both
the PLAY and the RECORD indicators light.
The maximum length for a CD track recorded from the
2488 is 80 minutes. Tracks made from the 2488 should
not exceed this length,
Recording always starts (regardless of the current
position) at 00:00:00.00.
During the mastering operation, all channel operations (EQ, send, fader/pan) can be carried out, either
from the 2488’s controls, or by means of MIDI commands.
The mastering records the effects of all mixer settings and effect settings, etc.
If you do not stop the recording before the OUT
point, it will automatically stop at the OUT point. If
you stop the recording at the OUT point, the master
recording will stop there, and the length of the track
will be from the 00:00:00.00 point to the point where
the recording stopped.
NOTE
The minimum length for a CD track is four seconds.
Make sure that all mastered recordings are at least this
length.
NOTE
While you are recording the master, synchronization
and the sub-mixer can be used to add synchronized
MIDI sound sources to the stereo master mix.
You can set and edit effect parameters and recall
effects from the effect libraries while mastering.
It is also possible for you to make assignments while
mastering, and recall scene memories.
When you have mastered the recording, you can
either re-master the recording (simply press and hold
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide 59
5 – Mastering
the RECORD key and press the PLAY key again) or
proceed to the master check operation (see below).
Mastering operations are included in the undo list. If
you make an almost perfect pre-master, but all other
attempts after that fail to achieve the perfection you
are looking for, you can decide to use the almost-perfect original, and undo all the less-than-perfect
attempts which followed.
Exiting mastering
To exit the mastering operation and allow normal
operation:
2 Press the EXIT key to remove the MASTERING
from the display.
1 If the display does not show the home screen,
press the HOME key.
Checking the master
When the master has been recorded, you will almost
certainly want to check it. After exiting from the
mastering mode:
1 On the AUDIO CD menu, move the cursor to
CHECK MASTER
and press ENTER.
The screen changes to show the CHECK MASTER
screen, which shows the title of the current
song and its running time.
The transport controls work in the following way:
• PLAY plays back from the current position to the
end of the master track.
• REW and F FWD move the playback position backward or forward at 10x, 50x, 100x or 1000x the
normal playback speed (as usual), but the wind
“speed” is not shown on screen.
• STOP stops playback or “winding” at the current
position.
• Recording is disabled.
• All location functions are disabled.
• Jog, varispeed, SSA, repeat, etc. are disabled.
NOTE
While playing back the master track, it is output from
the STEREO (and DIGITAL OUTPUT) jacks as well as
from the MONITOR and PHONES jacks. It is therefore
possible to use the pre-mastering and master check
functions to mix to a DAT or MD recorder, etc.
All monitoring is now from the STEREO selection
only. All other monitor selections are disabled and
cannot be changed.
No faders or other mixer controls (including assignment) have any effect. The only possible control is of
the monitor volume is through the MONITOR controls.
Exiting master checking When you have listened to the master, you may decide to proceed with
burning a disc, or you may want to re-master the
song.
In either case, press the EXIT key to return to the
home screen, and restore the assignments, etc. which
were in operation before the master check.
Trimming the master
You may sometimes want to trim the beginning or the
end of a master track after checking it. For example,
you may have made a perfect mix, except that there is
too much “dead time” or a cough, fret noise, etc.
before the start of the track, or there may be too much
time after the end of the track, as the OUT point was
not set correctly.
To correct these, without having to do the whole mix
again:
1 Make sure the 2488 is in “normal” mode, that
is, not in the master check mode or mastering
mode.
2 Move the playback position to the approximate position where you want to trim (either
the start or the end of the master).
60 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
5 – Mastering
If you want to trim the start of the master:
5 Use the Track Edit CUT function to cut all
tracks between the IN and the OUT point. You
must select the all option for the master track
to be cut in this way.
3 Set the IN point to be the 00:00:00:00 point.
4 Use the jog control to set the OUT point to the
exact position where you want the master to
start.
If you want to trim the end of the master:
If you are trimming the end of the master:
6 Make sure that the OUT point is now located
at the real end of the track (where you set the
IN point previously).
3 Set the IN point to the point where you want
the end of the master to be, using the jog
method to set the point.
4 Set the OUT point to be some way after the
existing OUT point.
In both cases (trimming the start and trimming the end):
7 Play back the master track, as described
above. The start and end should now be as you
want them.
In both cases (trimming the start and trimming the end):
Recording to CD-R
There are two ways of using the 2488 to record a disc
either a track at a time; TAO (Track At Once) with
the disc being finalized after the last track has been
recorded, or a number of tracks together; DAO (Disk
At Once), with the disc being finalized at the end of
the session.
Recording many tracks at once allows you to reorder
the tracks on the disc. It also allows you to put varying lengths of silence between tracks (ranging from 0
to almost 10 seconds).
Remember that whichever method you use to record
your CDs, you can record a maximum of 99 tracks on
one CD, the minimum length of a track is four seconds, and the maximum track length you can record
from the 2488 is 80 minutes.
NOTE
I
It is not possible to record a disc using both methods of
recording. If you record a disk using the track method,
you cannot then add a number of tracks together, but
you can add single tracks. Likewise, if you record a number of tracks together, you cannot add any tracks (singly
or together) later on.
Recording to CD-R (TAO recording)
Before starting this operation you must make sure
that there is a recordable disc inserted in the CD-RW
drive. If there is no recordable disc (that is, a CD-R
or CD-RW disc that has not been finalized), the 2488
shows an appropriate message.
1 Make sure the 2488 is in “normal” mode, that
is, not in the master check mode or mastering
mode. On the AUDIO CD menu, move the cursor
to CD WRITER and press ENTER.
If you want to change partitions, see “Selecting a disk”
on page 32.
2 Use the wheel to select the song to be recorded,
and press ENTER.
You may now rename the song using the TITLE
key.
3 Choose at this point whether you want to
finalize the disc.
The 2488 checks the CD-RW drive. If there is
a valid disc in the drive containing at least one
pre-mastered song, the display shows a list of
the songs which have been mastered on the
current disk partition.
NOTE
If a song has been recorded, but has not been mastered,
it will not appear in the list.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
61
5 – Mastering
If you finalize the disc at this stage, you cannot
record any further songs on it. If you do not
finalize the disc, you will not be able to play it
on ordinary audio CD players.
NOTE
If you choose not to finalize the disc at this point, you
can finalize it later, without recording another song.
4 Press ENTER to continue, and EXIT if you
want to choose a different song.
5 You are asked if you are sure that you want to
record the song. Press ENTER to proceed with
the recording, or EXIT to cancel.
6 If there is not enough space on the internal
disk for preparation, or on the CD disc for the
song that you have selected for recording, the
2488 gives an appropriate error message.
7 The 2488 makes an image of the song on disc
(to allow for smooth and easy transfer) and
then starts writing it to the CD.
• The top line of the display gives an indication of the time remaining for the operation.
• While the image and writing to disc is going
on, all the 2488 controls are disabled, and no
action is possible.
NOTE
DO NOT TURN OFF the 2488 or the CD-RW drive while
this writing operation is taking place. You will almost
certainly spoil the disc and may corrupt the song data.
Two seconds of silence are added to the end of each
track recorded to disc in this way.
8 To check the recorded disc, use the CD PLAYER
option described below.
Finalizing the disc
When you have recorded the last track on the disc,
you must finalize it in order to allow it to be played
on ordinary CD players, but you can check the
recorded tracks using the 2488’s CD PLAYER function.
The CD-RW drive must contain an unfinalized disc
before you start the process.
1 Make sure the 2488 is in “normal” mode, that
• If you continue, the CD session is closed and
the finalizing material (Table of Contents or
TOC) is written to the disc.
NOTE
You cannot record further tracks on a finalized disc. You
can only finalize a disc once, and you cannot unfinalize
a disc.
is, not in the master check mode or mastering
mode. On the AUDIO CD menu, move the cursor
to FINALIZE and press ENTER.
The CD-RW drive eject button is locked while writing is
going on. You can only eject the disc after writing has
finished.
• A pop-up screen asks if you are sure. Press
If you use CD-RW media, you cannot play the resulting
discs in most audio CD players.
ENTER to continue, EXIT to stop the finalize
process.
Recording to CD-R (multiple tracks)
When recording multiple tracks, the tracks can be
recorded in any order, and varying lengths of silence
can be added.
Once a CD has been made in this way, no further
tracks can be added, as the CD is automatically finalized at the end of the operation.
There must be a recordable CD disc in the drive
before starting this operation.
1 Make sure the 2488 is in “normal” mode, that
is, not in the master check mode or mastering
mode. On the AUDIO CD menu, move the cursor
to CD WRITER and press ENTER.
62 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
The 2488 checks the CD-RW drive. If there is a
valid disc in the drive, the display shows a list
of the songs which have been mastered on the
current partition.
NOTE
If a song has been recorded, but has not been mastered,
it will not appear in the list.
If you have a song in another partition which you want
to add to the list in the current partition, you should
copy it from the old partition to the current partition
(see “Copying songs” on page 29).
Use the wheel to scroll through the list of
songs, and when you highlight a song that you
5 – Mastering
wish to add to the final CD, press the INSERT
key.
A check mark (✔) appears by the title of every
selected song. There is no need to worry about
the final running order of the CD at this stage.
If you have made a mistake in adding a song to
the list, you can remove it by highlighting the
title and pressing the DELETE key.
2 When you have added all the songs to the list
that you want to record on the CD, press
ENTER.
NOTE
If you have only selected one song, the procedure from
now is as if you had highlighted the song and pressed
ENTER, as described above. Read that section, and
ignore the remainder of this section.
The screen changes to the song order screen (if
you want to return to the song selection
screen, press EXIT).
7 Use the § and ¶ keys to move the cursor to
the gaps between the songs on the CD.
8 Use the wheel to set the time in seconds
between songs, from 0.0 seconds (no gap)
through 9.9 seconds in 0.1 second steps.
NOTE
When you come to play back the disc on a CD player,
the start of the gap will appear as Index 0 on the track
following the gap, and the start of the track will appear
as Index 1. Because the gap counts as a part of the
track, the total length of the track and gap together
cannot exceed 80 minutes.
9 When all the gaps have been set, press ENTER.
A pop-up asks if you are sure. Use the YES key
to proceed with writing the CD or the NO key
to cancel the operation.
10 When you press YES, a disk image is made of
each song in turn, which is then written to the
CD.
3 Use the wheel to scroll through the list of
songs.
4 When a song title is highlighted, use the §
and ¶ keys to move it up and down in the list.
As the song is moved up and down in the list it
remains highlighted.
5 Select further songs for rearrangement using
the wheel.
6 When you have completed the running order,
press ENTER.
The screen changes to the “gap setting”
screen. This allows you to set the gap between
tracks on the CD (press EXIT to return to the
song order screen)
NOTE
DO NOT TURN OFF the 2488 or the CD-RW drive while
this writing operation is taking place. You will almost
certainly spoil the disc and may corrupt the song data.
11 When the last song has been written, the disk
is finalized. You can now eject the disc and
play it in a CD player.
NOTE
The CD-RW drive eject button is locked while writing is
going on. You can only eject the disc after writing has
finished.
If you use CD-RW media, you cannot play the resulting
discs in most audio CD players.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
63
5 – Mastering
Playing back CDs using the 2488
If an audio CD (either finalized or unfinalized) is
inserted into the 2488’s CD-RW drive, the 2488 can
play it back.
The sound is output through the MONITOR and
PHONES jacks. The only control over the sound
from the 2488 is through the MONITOR control knob.
All other mixer controls are disabled.
1 Make sure the 2488 is in “normal” mode, that
is, not in the master check mode or mastering
mode. On the AUDIO CD menu, move the cursor
to CD PLAYER and press ENTER.
The screen shows:
• The track list and the lengths of the tracks.
The current track is indicated by an arrow
(when the CD player function is first
entered, the track number will always be 1)
• The stereo meters also show the level of the
audio recorded on the disc
The 2488 transport controls are used to control playback of the CD, as explained here:
PLAY starts playback from the current playback position. While the disc is locating, the PLAY indicator
flashes, and while playback is actually taking place,
it lights steadily
STOP stops playback at the current position
REW and F FWD take the playback position forward
or backward one track, while playback is stopped
The wheel can also be used to move the playback
position forward or backward one track while playback is stopped
All other playback functions are disabled
NOTE
• Whether the disc is finalized or not
• The number of tracks and the total running
time of the disc.
64 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
While this screen is displayed (the CD Player function is
active), the eject button on the CD-RW drive is disabled.
To eject the CD, press EXIT to exit the CD player function, and then press the CD-RW drive eject key.
6 – Disk management and file import/export
Disk management
The 2488 formats its hard disk into multiple partitions. One of these partitions is in FAT-16 format and
is used for exchanging files between the 2488 and a
USB-equipped computer. The FAT partition is a fixed
size, and does not appear in the disk partition or song
menus, as it is only used for file exchange. The partition is only accessed with the backup and restore
operations using USB and the wave import/export
and SMF import operations.
The rest of the hard disk is formatted in the 2488
“native” format, further subdivided into partitions
(see the section below for details of how to do this).
These partitions are not accessible from a computer.
File names on the FAT section are restricted to 8.3
format (FILENAME.EXT). Any files taken from the native
partitions to the FAT section are automatically
renamed appropriately. Any long filenames taken
from a computer to the 2488 are also renamed automatically by the 2488.
Selecting the active partition
As explained above, the “native” part of the hard disk
may be divided into partitions.
When a partition is selected, it is said to be active,
and data from other partitions is not accessible.
To select a partition:
1 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
2 Use the wheel to select the partition (the free
space on each is shown at the side of the
screen).
3 Press ENTER to confirm the selection. The
current song is saved, if necessary, before the
partition is selected.
menu, highlight SELECT, and press ENTER.
Enabling and disabling USB
When the 2488 is connected to a personal computer
for backup/restore or file transfer to and from the
2488’s FAT partition, the USB must be enabled
(opened) on the 2488 side in order to allow the 2488
and computer to communicate. After the data transfer, the USB must be disabled (shut off).
1 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
menu, highlight USB OPEN/CLOSE, and press
ENTER.
2 The 2488 saves your data, restarts, and a
popup message appears.
While this popup is showing, you are “locked
out” of any operations on the 2488. It can only
be used as a USB disk.
3 Connect the 2488 to the personal computer.
4 Perform all USB operations with the personal
computer (file copy, etc.).
5 Disconnect the computer (you should first see
“The 2488 and USB” on page 73).
6 Press EXIT to close the USB and restart the
2488.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide 65
6 – Disk management and file import/export
Formatting the disk
WARNING
When you perform this operation, all data on the
native part of the disk is destroyed. This operation cannot be undone. Before performing this operation, make
sure that all songs and data that you want to keep are
backed up, either to disc or to a personal computer (see
“Backup and restore” on page 72).
When you format a disk, you can also change the size
of the native partitions. All partitions are created with
the same size, which may be 4, 8, 16 or 32
gigabytes1.
This operation does not affect the FAT partition.
1 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
menu, highlight FORMAT, and press ENTER.
2 The hard disk size is shown at the top of the
screen, and the partition size is shown below
this. Use the wheel to change the partition size.
3 Ask yourself once more if you want to format
the disk and erase all the data on it. Press
ENTER to continue with the format operation.
Press EXIT to halt the operation.
4 If you continue with the format, a popup message appears to ask you once again whether
you are really sure you want to format the
disk.
Press ENTER to continue with the format, and
EXIT to stop the process.
NOTE
While the format operation is taking place, the HD
indicator lights and you cannot perform any operations.
Make sure that you do not turn off the 2488 during the
format operation.
5 When the format operation is complete, a new
blank song is automatically created on each
partition.
1. A gigabyte is defined here as 1024 megabytes.
A gigabyte holds just under four hours’ worth
of 16-bit mono audio.
Reformatting individual partitions
In addition to formatting the whole disk, it is possible
to clean out and reformat the entire contents of individual partitions.
1 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
menu, highlight REFORM, and press ENTER.
NOTE
When you perform this operation, all data on the
selected partition is destroyed. This operation cannot
be undone. Before performing this operation, make
sure that all songs and data that you want to keep are
backed up, either to disc or to a personal computer (see
“Backup and restore” on page 72).
2 Use the wheel to select the partition to be
reformatted, Press ENTER.
A popup message appears.
3 Ask yourself once more if you want to format
the partition and erase all the data on it. Press
66 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
6 – Disk management and file import/export
ENTER to continue with the format operation.
Press EXIT to halt the operation.
NOTE
While the format operation is taking place, the HD
indicator lights and you cannot perform any operations.
Make sure that you do not turn off the 2488 during the
format operation.
4 When the format operation is complete, a new
blank song is automatically created on the
partition.
Reformatting the FAT partition
If the FAT partition is full, you should follow the procedure below.
NOTE
Do not attempt to format the FAT partition using a
computer. Use only this procedure to perform the
operation.
Note that it is not possible to erase individual files
from the FAT partition using the 2488 alone. To do
that, you must connect the 2488 to a computer, and
treat the FAT partition as a computer hard disk.
1 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
menu, highlight FAT REFORM, and press ENTER.
2 A popup message appears.
3 Ask yourself once more if you want to erase all
the data on the FAT partition. Press ENTER to
continue with the operation when a popup
appears, or press EXIT to halt the operation.
• When the FAT partition has been erased,
three directories (folders) are automatically
created, named WAVE, SMF and BACKUP). Use
these folders for audio files, Standard MIDI
Files and backup data respectively.
NOTE
When you perform this operation, all existing data on
the FAT partition is destroyed. This operation cannot be
undone. Before performing this operation, make sure
that all data on the FAT that you want to keep are
backed up to a personal computer (see “Backup and
restore” on page 72).
CD-RW erase
To erase a CD-RW disc created on the 2488, you
must use this function. You cannot erase such a disc
on any other equipment.
1 Insert the CD-RW disc to be erased into the
Also note that you must erase the whole disc. You
cannot erase individual data files (or songs on an
audio disc). This operation cannot be undone. Once
the data is erased from the disc it cannot be recovered
from the disc. Make sure you have copies of any data
you might want in the future.
2 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
drive (use the drive eject key or the tray open/
close function described below to do this).
menu, highlight CD-RW ERASE, and press
ENTER. A popup confirmation message
appears.
Alternatively, press EXIT to cancel the operation.
3 After the disc has been erased, the drive tray
opens automatically.
CD EJECT
You can use this function to open the disc drive tray.
You can also use the drive button itself to open and
close the tray, and you can push the tray itself, when
it is open, to close it.
1 With the transport stopped, from the DISK
menu, highlight CD EJECT, and press ENTER.
2 The tray opens and a popup appears. Remove
or change or insert the disc.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
67
6 – Disk management and file import/export
File import and export
The 2488 can import and export the following file
types:
The sampling frequency must be 44.1 kHz, and the
word length may be either 16 or 24 bits.
• WAV audio files (see below)
• SMF (Standard MIDI files) for playback by the
2488 internal tone generator
The WAV files used by the 2488 are assigned to virtual tracks. Since virtual tracks are mono, the audio
files used must be also be mono.
Note that if you are importing a 16-bit audio file for
use in a 24-bit song, you will only enjoy 16 bits of
resolution in the imported audio—the 2488 cannot
magically recreate the extra eight bits. And if you
import a 24-bit audio file into a 16-bit song, the bottom eight bits will be truncated.
USB import (audio files)
USB file import is done using the FAT partition (see
above).
7 Use the wheel to select the wave file that you
want to use. Press ENTER.
1 Select the DISK option and press ENTER and
then select the USB OPEN/CLOSE option and press
ENTER.
2 Connect the 2488 to the computer.
The 2488 will appear as a removable disk on
your computer system.
3 Drag and drop the wave file(s) from your computer’s disk to the 2488.
4 You can now disconnect the 2488 from the
computer (see “Using USB for backup and
restore” on page 73).
5 Press EXIT to dismiss the popup message on
the 2488.
The 2488 restarts.
6 Now copy the files from the FAT partition to
the virtual tracks. From the WAVE IN/OUT menu,
select the USB IMPORT option.
8 Now you can select the virtual track to which
the wave file will be copied. Press ENTER.
9 Assign the virtual track to a 2488 track (see
“Virtual tracks” on page 56).
NOTE
You can repeat step 3 as many times as you like (provided there is space on the disk), followed by steps 6
through 9 as many times as you like.
USB import (SMF files)
You can also import Standard MIDI Files through the
USB connection. For full details of how to use the
SMF files and the tone generator, see “MIDI” on
page 76.
68 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
1 Select the DISK option and press ENTER and
then select the USB OPEN/CLOSE option and press
ENTER.
2 Connect the 2488 to the computer.
6 – Disk management and file import/export
The 2488 will appear as a removable disk on
your computer system.
7 More the cursor to the on-screen LOAD button,
and press ENTER.
3 Drag and drop the Standard MIDI file(s) from
your computer’s disk to the 2488.
4 You can now disconnect the 2488 from the
computer (see “Using USB for backup and
restore” on page 73).
5 Press EXIT to dismiss the popup message on
the 2488.
The 2488 restarts.
6 Now you can load the files from the FAT partition to the MIDI playback unit. From the MIDI
PLAYER menu, with SMF set as the tone generator mode, press the MIDI PLAYER key (above
the STEREO fader):
8 Move the cursor to the file you want to load
and press ENTER.
NOTE
Note that there is no SMF export function (the 2488
cannot create or edit MIDI sequences).
You can repeat step 3 as many times as you like, followed by steps 6 through 8 as many times as you like.
USB export (audio files)
This is basically the reverse of the import procedure.
First, select a virtual track and then export its contents to the FAT partition before connecting the 2488
to the computer and copying the file.
2 Select the virtual track to be exported and
press ENTER.
1 With the transport stopped, from the WAVE IN/
OUT
menu, select the USB EXPORT option.
3 Select the resolution of the resulting file (16 or
24 bits). The resolution of the exported data
affects the size of the file. Press ENTER to
export the data to the FAT partition, or EXIT
to cancel the process.
4 Select the DISK option and press ENTER and
then select the USB OPEN/CLOSE option and press
ENTER.
5 Connect the 2488 to the computer.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
69
6 – Disk management and file import/export
The 2488 will appear as a removable disk on
your computer system.
6 Copy the wave file from the FAT partition to
the computer.
7 You can now disconnect the 2488 from the
computer (see “Using USB for backup and
restore” on page 73).
8 Press EXIT to dismiss the popup message on
the 2488.
The 2488 restarts.
NOTE
You can repeat steps 1 through 3 as many times as you
like (provided there is space on the disk), followed by
steps 5 through 7 as many times as you like.
Disc import (audio files)
The 2488 can only read mono WAV format files from
the top-level directory (root) of a data disc with no
other files on the disk. Files in subdirectories cannot
be imported.
3 Use the wheel to select the wave file to be
imported, and press ENTER:
When these files are imported, they are assigned to a
virtual track, that must then be assigned to a real
track.
1 Insert the disc containing the files into the disc
drive.
2 With the transport stopped, from the WAVE IN/
OUT
menu, select CD IMPORT, and press ENTER.
4 Use the ENTER key to confirm the load of the
file to the virtual track (popup mess) or EXIT
to cancel.
Disc export (audio files)
This allows you to export virtual tracks to audio files.
Even if the song is being recorded at 24-bit resolution, you can export 16-bit files (and the other way
round).
70 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
1 With the transport stopped, from the WAVE IN/
OUT
menu, select the CD EXPORT option.
6 – Disk management and file import/export
2 Select the virtual track to be exported and
press ENTER.
3 Select the resolution of the resulting file (16 or
24 bits). The resolution of the exported data
affects the size of the file.
4 Press ENTER to copy the virtual track contents to disc, or EXIT to cancel the process.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
71
7 – Backup and restore
Backup
You can use the 2488 disc drive to back up your work
to disc. You can either use CD-R media (cheaper, but
you can only use it once) or CD-RW media (slightly
more expensive, but you can erase and reuse it a
number of times).
NOTE
The operations all deal with songs on the currentlyselected partition. If the song you want is on another
partition, you must select another disk partition as the
active partition before proceeding (see “Selecting the
active partition” on page 65).
The discs you make in this way are not audio CD—
you cannot play it on a CD player, and it can be read
only by a 2488. If you have friends with 2488 units,
this is a very convenient way of taking your songs
around (you could record the drums in one location,
take the CD over to the bassist, then the guitarist, and
vocalist, and then finish the mixdown at yet another
location with great monitoring facilities).
2 Press ENTER, and a popup appears, telling
you that the song is being saved. The HD indicator lights as the song is saved.
The display shows the home screen after the
save has been done.
3 Open the CD-RW drive, using the eject button
on the drive, and load your blank disc into the
tray, recording side down. Use the drive button to close the tray.
Now press the MENU key and select DATA
BACKUP.
NOTE
Observe the usual precautions when working with
recordable media: handle discs by their edges, avoid
getting fingerprints or grease on the recording surface,
and keep them clean. Also, avoid using hard pens or
pencils or oil-based markers to label the discs.
Have a blank CD-R or CD-RW disc ready before
proceeding with the instructions described here.
1 First, save all your song to disk.
Press MENU, select SONG, and then select SAVE.
4 Select your song using the wheel and press
ENTER. A pop-up message appears telling you
how many discs will be needed to back up the
song.
5 Press ENTER again. A pop-up message tells
you the progress of the backup operation.
A backup may span more than one disc.
6 When the backup is complete or if the first
disc is full, the disc drive tray opens. Remove
the disc, label it and store it in a safe place.
7 Continue the process if more discs are needed
until the backup is complete.
NOTE
If you are backing up to more than one disc, you must
ensure that the discs are identical (from the same manufacturer). Even if two discs from different manufacturers have the same stated capacity, you may not be able
to use them in the same backup operation.
Restoring
If you ever need to restore your data from a data
backup CD or CDs, you basically reverse the
process.
72 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
Before you start restoring a song, make sure that you
have all the discs that were used to back up the song.
If some of the discs are missing, you will not be able
to restore the song (you cannot load half a song).
7 – Backup and restore
1 Put the first (or only, if there is only one) disc
of the backup set into the CD-RW drive.
2 With the transport stopped, press the MENU
key.
From the DATA BACKUP menu, select CD RESTORE.
The 2488 reads the title of the song from the
disc and asks you if you want to continue.
3 Press YES to continue, NO to eject the disc and
cancel the operation.
4 If you go ahead with the restore, the 2488 copies the data from the disc to the active disk
partition. A bar graph on screen shows the
progress.
5 If the backup is spanning more than one disc,
when the first disc has been read, it is ejected,
and a message asks you to put in the next disc.
Insert the next disc and press YES.
If you insert the wrong disc (out of sequence
or from a different backup set), the 2488 ejects
the “bad” disc and asks you again for the correct one. If you really cannot find the right
disc, you must press NO to cancel the restore.
If you cancel the restore operation part of the
way through, none of the song is restored, and
the 2488 goes back to the state before the
restore was started.
6 When data is restored from the last disc, the
disc is ejected, and the restored song is loaded.
Using USB for backup and restore
By using a USB cable to connect the 2488 and a personal computer, it is possible to back up songs and
restore them to and from the computer’s disk drive.
However, you should always follow your computer’s
instructions on how to disconnect a USB removable
drive safely from your system.
The song data backed up in this way is not audio data
which can be played on the computer—it is an
archive of tracks, virtual tracks and edits, just like the
songs backed up to CD.
Windows Me/Windows 2000/Windows XP
It is also possible to use the USB connection to
import and export audio files. See “Disk management and file import/export” on page 65 for details.
The 2488 and USB
Data transfer is carried out at USB 2.0 speeds (but if
your computer has the older 1.1 USB standard fitted,
it will still work, just slower. Consult your computer
documentation for details.
We recommend that you always use a cable designed
for USB 2.0 operations to ensure accurate fast data
transfer.
The 2488 will work with the following Microsoft
operating systems: Windows Me, Windows 2000,
and Windows XP. It will work with the following
operating systems from Apple Computer: MacOS 9.0
and above, and MacOS X 10.2 and above.
With Windows Me, Windows 2000 and Windows XP,
the procedure is a little more complex.
In the system tray (typically at the bottom right of the
screen), you see an icon picture of a PC card and an
arrow.
Left-click this icon to show a popup bar: Click this
popup bar to allow the 2488 to be removed from the
computer. When the panel telling you it is safe to
remove the 2488 appears, unplug the USB cable.
If a panel telling you that it is not safe to remove the
2488 appears, do not unplug the 2488. Close all programs and windows that are accessing the files on the
2488 and try again.
Macintosh
When removing the 2488 from a Macintosh system
(OS 9 or OS X), drag the disk icon to the trash, or
press Command-E (OS X 10.3 also has a button in
the Finder which allows ejecting removable media).
When the icon has disappeared from your desktop,
you can disconnect the 2488.
For all the above operating systems, no driver is
required. The 2488 simply appears as a removable
disk.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
73
7 – Backup and restore
Backing up
If you do not understand the 2488’s disk arrangement, you should read “Disk management and file
import/export” on page 65 before proceeding.
Backup to a computer connected via USB is a twostage process. The first stage is copying the song data
from the native partition to the FAT partition, and the
second stage is copying from the FAT partition to the
computer.
To backup:
1 With the transport stopped, press the MENU
key. Note that you do not have to connect the
2488 to the computer at this stage.
From the DATA BACKUP menu, select USB BACKUP.
The screen shows a list of songs on the current
partition, and their size.
• The song files in the FAT partition will
appear as “8.3” filenames, rather than with
the 12-character internal names. The “real”
longer names are stored as a part of the
song.
4 When the copy is finished, attach the 2488 to
your computer using a USB 2.0 cable.
5 Select the DISK option and press ENTER and
then select the USB OPEN/CLOSE option and press
ENTER (see “Enabling and disabling USB” on
page 65).
The 2488 will appear as a removable disk on
your computer system.
6 Drag and drop the song file from the 2488 to
your computer’s disk. You can then archive it,
burn a backup CD-R, etc. Note that you
should not rename it at all—when you come to
restore it, the 2488 needs the filename in its
original state as it came from the 2488.
7 You can now disconnect the 2488 from the
computer (see “Using USB for backup and
restore” on page 73).
8 Press EXIT to dismiss the popup message on
the 2488.
2 Note the size of the free space available on the
FAT partition, and select a song which will fit
onto that partition.
3 Press ENTER when you’ve selected the song.
The HD indicator flashes as the song data is
copied.
The 2488 restarts.
TIP
If you repeat this process many times, you may find that
the FAT partition fills up. You can manage the files on
the FAT partition from your computer, as well as erasing
the FAT partitions’s contents from the 2488.
Restoring
This is basically the reverse of the backup process.
The archived song data is copied from the computer
onto the 2488’s FAT partition and then onto the
2488’s native disk partition.
1 Select the DISK option and press ENTER and
then select the USB OPEN/CLOSE option and press
ENTER.
2 Connect the 2488 to the computer.
The 2488 will appear as a removable disk on
your computer system.
74 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
3 Drag and drop the song file from your computer’s disk to the 2488.
4 You can now disconnect the 2488 from the
computer (see “Using USB for backup and
restore” on page 73).
5 Press EXIT to dismiss the popup message on
the 2488.
The 2488 restarts.
6 Press the MENU key. From the DATA BACKUP
menu, select USB RESTORE. The screen shows a
7 – Backup and restore
list of songs on the FAT partition, and their
size.
7 Use the wheel to select the song to restore and
then press ENTER. The HD indicator flashes as
the song is copied from the FAT partition to
the native partition.
8 When the copy is finished, the song is automatically loaded and becomes your current
working song. You can then use the song management features to load another song, if you
want (“First steps in recording (song management)” on page 36.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
75
8 – MIDI
The MIDI module inside the 2488 is a GM-compatible MIDI tone generator (TG) which can be used
either to play Standard MIDI Files (SMFs) or drum
patterns as a backing for the audio tracks recorded on
the 2488.
The instruments in the tone generator can be mixed
(volume, pan position, etc.)
Internal module mode
To change between the MIDI file playback mode and
pattern playback mode:
2 Use the wheel to select either SMF (file player)
1 From the SYNC/MIDI menu, select and press MIDI
3 You can also turn MIDI OUT either ON or OFF.
PLAYER.
or PATTERN or OFF).
NOTE
This allows you to use the 2488’s playback facilities to
drive external MIDI devices, whose audio outputs can
then be recorded through the audio inputs of the 2488.
SMF
The Standard MIDI File format provides a common
file format allowing MIDI songs to be transferred
between different sequencers and sequencing software, etc.
These files may be transferred from a personal computer attached to the 2488 via USB using the procedure described in “USB import (SMF files)” on
page 68.
When an SMF is read from the FAT partition in this
way, it becomes the active SMF, as shown in the SMF
PLAYER screen, which is also used to load the SMF:
76 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
There is only one parameter that can be changed on
this screen, the SPEED, which is expressed as a percentage of the original speed (since an SMF can
include tempo changes, expressing this in BPM is not
very useful).
The screen shows how many bars (measures) are in
the SMF, and also the MIDI channels used by the
SMF (these are the numbers from 1 through 16 at the
bottom of the screen. Active MIDI channels are
shown in inverse.
8 – MIDI
Editing the MIDI instruments
Although it is not possible to edit the notes in the
SMF, it is possible to edit the initial settings for the
tone generator.
1 Press the shifted TG SELECT (GM EDIT) key.
• Ch: The MIDI channel which will be used to play
this part.
• KEY: Sets transposition (from +63 to -64 semitones).
• PAN: Hard left is L63, center is C, hard right is R63.
• VOLUME: 0 is no output level, 127 is full volume.
The on-screen fader moves as you change this
value (there is no physical control corresponding to
this fader).
• REVERB: The send level of this part to the tone generator’s internal reverb effect.
• CHORUS: The send level of this part to the tone generator’s internal chorus effect.
NOTE
The numbers of parts which are playing are
shown in the outline font (parts 1, 2, 3 and 4 in
this illustration). Part numbers are initially set
to incoming MIDI channels.
2 Use the cursor keys to navigate to the field you
want to change, and the wheel to change the
values.
There are three screens in all. Use the left and right
keys to change between the screens (they don’t
“wrap round”).
Screen 1
Screen 2
Screen 3
The reverb and chorus of the tone generator are not
connected with the other effects as described in
“Effects” on page 31, and all settings etc. are independent of these “main” effects. It is not possible to use
these tone generator effects with any sound sources
other than the tone generator instruments.
In addition to the instrument settings, the last screen
of the GM EDIT series also allows you to pick the effect
to be assigned to the tone generator reverb and chorus effects. Apart from the type of effect, no parameters are available for editing the effect sounds:
Reverb
ROOM1
ROOM2
ROOM3
HALL1
HALL2
The parameters you can edit are:
• MUTE: Muting ON or OFF (muting ON means the
instrument is off).
• INSTRUMENT: Select the instrument for this part from
the standard GM instrument list.
Chorus
CHORUS1
Room type reverbs CHORUS2 Different “flavors” of
CHORUS3 chorus
Hall-type reverbs
CHORUS4
FEEDBACK Feedback effect
PLATE
Plate-type reverb
FLANGER Flanger effect
DELAY
Delay setting
SHRT DLY Short delay
PAN DLY
Panned stereo delay FB DLY
Delay with feedback
NOTE
If you are playing back an SMF which includes any
changes to these parameters, or if an external Control
Change message is received to change any of them, the
settings you make here are overridden.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
77
8 – MIDI
Tempo map
Creating a tempo map is essential for working with
beats and bars rather than minutes and seconds. If
there is no tempo assigned to a song, the 2488 will
have no way of “thinking” in bars and beats
(see“Markers” on page 42 for details of how this is
used), if it is not playing an SMF or patterns.
1 From the SYNC/MIDI menu item, select TEMPO MAP
and press ENTER.
You can input up to 9999 tempo changes in
one song. Tempos can be set between 20.0 and
250.0 beats per minute.
2 Use the cursor keys to navigate around the
screen, and the wheel to change values.
3 Use the INSERT key to add a new line (tempo
change) to the map, and the DELETE key to
delete lines.
Tapping the tempo
In addition to setting numerical values for tempos,
you can also tap along to the music in order to set the
tempo.
3 Press the PLAY key to start playback.
1 With the transport stopped at the start, from
the SYNC/MIDI screen, select TAP, and press
ENTER.
4 Press the TAP key to start entering the tempo
to the map and tap. The time between taps is
averaged out (either between two taps or four
taps, as specified above) and added to the
tempo maps for as long as you keep tapping
and the transport is moving.
2 Set the tap DIVISION to either quarter notes
(crochets) or eighth notes (quavers) and the
lower parameter to either 2, 3 or 4 to tell the
2488 how many taps to expect when working
out the tempo.
5 Press STOP to stop the transport. The tapped
tempos are now added to the map, which can
be edited as described above.
78 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
8 – MIDI
Time signature
In order to accurately display bars and beats, the
2488 needs to know the time signature of the music
being played.
Most pop and rock is in 4/4 time, but there are some
famous exceptions, and many music outside these
fields is in other time signatures.
Music may also change time signature part of the
way through.
1 With the transport stopped, from the SYNC/MIDI
screen, select TIME SIGNATURE, and press ENTER.
2 This is very similar to the tempo map. Use the
INSERT and DELETE keys to insert and delete
entries and the cursor keys to scroll through
the list.
Use the cursor keys and wheel to select and
change the BAR in which the time signature
changes (obviously, a time signature cannot
change halfway through a bar!) and the time
signature (TIME SIG.) itself.
3 Press ENTER when done.
Metronome
The metronome is an important tool to keep you in
time while you play. The 2488’s metronome can be a
MIDI note output to an external tone generator, or it
can be an audio click.
1 With the transport stopped, from the SYNC/MIDI
MIDI OUT terminal (MIDI) or off (OFF). In the
case of the INTERNAL setting, the level can be set
between 0 and 127.
4 If MIDI is chosen, the following parameters
can be set:
screen, select METRONOME, and press ENTER.
2 You can select the MODE of the metronome
(when it will play) as either REC (the metronome plays through the monitoring system
only when recording) or REC&PLAY (the metronome sounds both when playing back and
recording).
3 The other parameter allows you to set up
whether the metronome is an internal audio
click (INTERNAL) or a MIDI note sent from the
Select the MIDI channel (MIDI Ch 10 is usually
reserved for drums and percussion), and the
Note and Velocity used for the Accent (the first note
of each bar) and Normal beats.
Use the CLICK key above the transport keys can be
used to turn the metronome click on and off easily
(whether INTERNAL or MIDI is selected).
The indicator lights orange while waiting, and while
the click is output, flashes red to mark the start of a
bar, and green for other beats.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
79
8 – MIDI
Patterns
In addition to being able to play SMF pieces, the
2488 can also play backing patterns (drums and percussion only).
Select PATTERN as the player mode to enable this feature (“Internal module mode” on page 76).
When the pattern mode is selected, pressing the MIDI
PLAYER key brings up the PATTERN ARRANGE screen:
ture of the selected section is shown at the bottom
of the display.
• LENGTH (if you choose a length different to the
default length of the selected section, the number
of bars (measures) shows an asterisk * following
it).
NOTE
Do not use ENTER to confirm your settings, as this will
bring up the style library screen).
The tempos set here override any settings made using
the tempo map (“Tempo map” on page 78).
All the settings made here become a part of the current song and are saved with it.
To select a “global” playback style from this screen,
press ENTER. The PRESET STYLE LIBRARY screen is
shown:
Deleting a section To delete a section from the
arrangement, move the cursor to the section to be
deleted, and use the DELETE key (locate section) to
delete it.
Inserting a section To insert a section into the
arrangement, move the cursor to the section above
which the new part will be inserted, and use the
INSERT key (locate section) to insert a new section
which can then be edited.
Copying sections You may want to copy a number of sections that occur frequently in your song,
such as verse+chorus+fill (which you can represent
by different verse and fill variations). Here’s how you
do it.
Use the wheel to select from the range of styles, classified as rock, pop, etc.), and the ENTER key to confirm (the EXIT key cancels a selection) a style for the
whole song, which is loaded along with its drum kit
and its default tempo (the selected style replaces any
previously-selected style throughout the whole song
and the sections and lengths will change).
You can then use the cursor keys and wheel to select
and edit (
•
•
•
•
BAR at
which the pattern starts
TEMPO (in bpm)
STYLE (set the individual section’s style from here)
SECTION (this is the section of a song in the selected
style, such as verse, fill, intro, etc.) The time signa-
80 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
1 Move the cursor to the start of the block that
you want to copy.
2 Press the COPY TO key (shifted TRIM key).
The selected line is highlighted.
3 Use the wheel or cursor keys to move to the
final section of the block that you want to
copy.
8 – MIDI
4 Press ENTER.
5 Move the “line” cursor to the point to where
the block will be copied and press ENTER once
again. The block is copied.
NOTE
If you select the bars and beats display (“Markers” on
page 42), this reflects the settings made here.
Selecting the drum kit
The 2488’s tone generator includes a number of different drum kits, which you can use to give a different sound to your songs.
When a preset style is loaded, a suitable drum kit is
also loaded along with the pattern type. The same
drum kit is retained for the whole song.
Twenty different kits are available for use, including
Latin sets, famous drum machine sounds, and so on.
Use the cursor keys or wheel to select a different
drum kit for your song. Press ENTER when done (or
EXIT to leave the kit as it is). The PATTERN ARRANGE
screen is then shown.
With the PATTERN ARRANGE screen displayed, press
SHIFT and ENTER.
MTC, MIDI clock, etc.
The 2488 can synchronize to external MIDI Time
Code (MTC) or can generate MTC in order to synchronize other MIDI devices.
In addition it is capable of generating MIDI Clock
commands which are typically used by drum and
rhythm machines, as well as by some sequencers.
Other devices may be sequencers or DAWs which are
enabled for MTC.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
81
8 – MIDI
MIDI Time Code
With the transport stopped, from the SYNC/MIDI menu,
select the SYNC option and press ENTER:
• SOURCE can be INTERNAL (the 2488 acts as the master
unit) or EXTERNAL (the 2488 takes its synchronization from another unit).
82 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
• FRAME TYPE refers to the format of the MTC sent
and received by the 2488. This can be either 24
(film), 25 (EBU TV), 29D (29 fps drop-frame, used
with NTSC color), 29ND (29fps non-drop, also used
with NTSC color), or 30 (NTSTC monochrome and
often used for audio-only work)
• OFFSET allows you to select the offset of the 2488
relative to the incoming timecode (outgoing timecode is always the same as the absolute position).
For example, your song always starts at the “all
zeroes” position, but if you are dubbing it onto
video at 30 minutes into the video, you should have
an offset of 30 minutes set here.
8 – MIDI
• GENERATOR can be OFF, MTC or CLOCK. OFF and MTC
explain themselves. See below for an explanation
of the CLOCK setting.
NOTE
Timecode (including MTC) does not include any information about bars and beats or tempo. MIDI Clock does
not contain any information about the absolute time at
which events take place.
MIDI clock
MIDI Clock and associated MIDI commands (Start/
Stop, Song Position Pointer etc.) can be transmitted
from the 2488 when it is in INTERNAL mode and the
GENERATOR parameter is set to CLOCK. In this setting,
the 2488 can be used to control an external sequencers, drum machines, etc. whose audio outputs are fed
to the 2488.
NOTE
Remember that there is no absolute time information
contained in this MIDI Clock data. Any external devices
synchronized to the 2488 which need timing information should either be synchronized using MTC, or have
their own tempo maps.
Remote
From the SYNC/MIDI menu, this REMOTE option allows
the setting of a number of parameters connected with
remote control of the 2488.
scene changes (“Scene memories” on page 29) and
mixer parameters.
• MMC (MIDI Machine Control) The 2488 can act
in MASTER or a SLAVE MODE, either controlling or being controlled by other devices in the system. Each device in such a setup must have an ID
assigned to it. The settings here are from 1 to 127,
or ALL (the last setting means that the 2488 will
respond to all MMC commands received, not just
those specifically addressed to it).
NOTE
• MIDI IN MODE allows you to specify what will happen
when MIDI messages are received. The choices
are: OFF (incoming MIDI messages are ignored), TG
(incoming MIDI messages control the tone generator) and REMOTE (incoming MIDI messages control
It is possible for a device to act as an MMC master, and a
timecode slave, or the other way around. MMC and
timecode are independent of each other.
• REMOTE CONTROL settings. You can enable or disable
Program Change messages for the following: SCENE
and EFF (effect change). In addition you can turn
CONTROL CHANGE messages on or off (for individual
mixer parameters).
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
83
9 – General preferences
There are four sets of general preferences that you
can make in order to customize the 2488 to your
working style.
Access all of these through the PREFERENCES menu.
Global preferences
These all affect the overall operation of the 2488
This parameter can take the following values: OFF,
where the meters do not hold the peak value at all,
ON; the peak meters hold the value for a second or so
and then drop back, or KEEP, where the peak value is
always shown on screen until this value is changed.
You can also use SHIFT + HOME to clear these held
peak values.
Use the cursor keys to highlight the parameter, and
the wheel to change it
TIP
\
Key sense time Some of the keys on the unit
have two different functions, spending on whether
they are pressed and released in a short space of time,
or whether they are pressed and held down for a
longer period.
The pitch control is a good example of this. If the
PITCH/SSA key is pressed and released briefly, the
pitch control is turned on. If it is pressed and held for
the time set here, a screen appears allowing you to
make the settings for the pitch and the slow speed
audition functions.
The setting for the key sense time is from 0.3 to 2.0
seconds, in 0.1 second steps.
Meter peak hold time The meters shown on
the home display and other pages can be configured
to hold the peak value.
The KEEP setting is useful if you want a permanent
record of the highest value, but you cannot keep your
eyes on the meters during the whole take or rehearsal.
Meter release time The meter “drop-back”
time can be configured to be from 30ms to 100ms in
10ms steps using the cursor keys to highlight the
parameter, and the dial to change it.
Note that the meters are always peak meters, and the
rise time is fixed.
Shift key behavior The SHIFT key can be used
in one of three ways, as set by this parameter: AUTO
SAFE, in which the SHIFT key can be pressed and
released, and remain active for about a second; and
UNLOCK, in which the key is non-latching; that is, you
must press and hold the SHIFT key while pressing
the other key to be shifted. The HOLD setting latches
the SHIFT key on until another key is pressed.
Mixer preferences
As the name says, these affect mixer items:
Fader matching The option affects the way in
which the physical and the virtual faders interact (see
“Faders” on page 24). There are three options here:
• REAL: if the internal fader level is changed using a
scene change or a MIDI Control Change, this is
ignored. The actual physical fader is the only way
in which the fader level is set.
• JUMP: the internal fader level jumps to the level set
by the physical fader as soon as the physical fader
is moved. Since this can result in sudden changes
in volume, resulting in possible damage to hearing
and monitoring equipment, this option should be
used with caution.
84 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
9 – General preferences
• CATCH: the fader level remains the same initially.
However, if you then move the physical fader so
that the physical level becomes the internal level
(the faders “catch” the internal level), the physical
level changes at that point. This ensures that there
are no sudden leaps in volume due to a difference
between the physical fader and the internal setting.
NOTE
NOTE
Note that the setting made for this option will apply to
the current song, and any songs loaded afterwards,
until the setting is changed.
Digital input The digital input can be assigned to
any pair of inputs (A/B, C/D, E/F, G/H). These inputs may
then be assigned to channels in the usual way.
Press the ENTER key to confirm the assignment.
This assignment is not made until the ENTER key is
pressed, with the digital source connected, and is not
stored as part of the song information.
The 2488 can accept digital audio from 44.1 kHz
sources.
Recorder
These preferences affect the recorder operation:
There are only two parameters here, used to change
the pre roll and post roll times of the auto punch
operation (see “Auto punch operations” on page 46).
User word
When titling, you can use preset words or phrases in
your location points.
The 2488 comes with many standard useful phrases,
but if you are playing a style of music not catered for
by these words, you can use this preference screen to
add your own words (up to 12 characters long), for
example BANJO SOLO.
Select the word to be edited and then press TITLE
(shifted MENU) to edit it, as described in “Titling” on
page 12. Press ENTER when you have finished editing the word.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
85
86 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
No Input
SUBMIX
T.G
Input1..8
REC SRC SELECT
On
Track Mixer(x24)
Meter
T.G
TRK
DIGITAL IN
ANALOG INPUTS
Meter
Meter
2
Mute
Multi/Mic
Insert
Pad/Gain
Multi/Mic
Insert
Pad/Gain
3-Band
EQ
REC SRC SELECT
Pad/Gain
Output Select
TG REC
3-Band
EQ
On
Mute
On
Track
1..24
Solo
Un-Select
Solo
Off
Mixer
Un-Select
INPUT ASSIGN
REC SRC SELECT
3-Band
EQ
REC SOURCE MONITOR
INPUT SELECT
Input(x8)
Fader
(intp)
Fader
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Off
Off
Off
Bounce
Sub
Main
Off
Off
Off
Bounce
Sub
Main
Off
Off
Off
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
REC SRC SELECT
(for Bounce)
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Sub Submix
/Bounce
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Pan(intp)
Loop
Stereo
2
3-Band
EQ
Output Select
Nomal
Bounce
2
St Mix
Rec
2
Off
Output Level
(intp)
Send Level
(intp)
Level
(intp)
Send2 Level
(intp)
Send1 Level
(intp)
2
Single
2
2
2
2
Metronome
Loop Effect
TRK23/24
TRK1/2
Master
Track
ST DYN
2
STEREO
TO EFF LOOP
SUB MIX
EFF SEND1/2
Level
Effect Send
Stereo Fader
(intp)
LR
Sub Mix
MONITOR
LR LR LR 12
Peak
2
2
Level
(intp)
Stereo
/Mono
STEREO OUTPUT
SEND2
SEND1
EFFECT SENDS
MONITOR OUTPUT
DIGITAL OUT
10 – Specifications, etc.
Block diagram
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
+30
(dBV)
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
+30
(dBV)
(dBu)
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
+30
(dBu)
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
+30
+20dBu
-27dBu
(MIN)
-27dBu
+8dBu
GUITAR
-55dBu
MIC/LINE
-40dBu
-43dBu
-8dBu
GUITAR
+4dBu
MIC/LINE
+20dBu
INPUT E-H
MIC (XLR)
-57dBu
(MAX)
TRIM
47dB
(MIN)
(MAX)
TRIM
LINE (TRS)
-41dBu 47dB
-43dBu
MIC (XLR)
-10dBu
LINE (TRS)
+6dBu
+4dBu
INPUT A-D
Head Room
16dB
Head Room
16dB
-14dBu
+2dBu
0 dBFS
-16dBFS
0 dBFS
-16dBFS
ADC
-14dBu
+2dBu
ADC
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
(dBFS)
0
-42dB
+6dB
PRE
-12dB
+12dB
[1dB/step]
[6dB/step]
[INSERTION]
EQ
PAD/GAIN
-0.15dBFS
OL
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
-inf
+6dB
LEVEL
FADER
-inf
+6dB
EFECT SEND
LEVEL
POST
-12dB
+12dB
[1dB/step]
STEREO EQ
-inf
+6dB
SUB MIX BUSS
LEVEL
-inf
+6dB
STEREO
FADER
-inf
+6dB
MONITOR
LEVEL
EFECT SEND 1/2
SUB MIX BUSS
MAXIMUM LEVEL
-30
-20
-10
0
(dBFS)
-30
-20
-10
0
(dBFS)
-30
-20
-10
0
(dBFS)
-30
-20
-10
0
(dBFS)
-16dBFS
0 dBFS
-16dBFS
0 dBFS
-16dBFS
0 dBFS
-16dBFS
0 dBFS
-9dBu
+7dBu
DAC
DAC
-9dBu
+7dBu
-9dBu
+7dBu
-9dBu
+7dBu
DAC
DAC
55mW+55mW/30ohm
PHONES
-2dBu
+14dBu
MONITOR OUT
-10dBV
+6dBV
EFFECT SEND 1/2
-10dBV
+6dBV
STEREO OUTPUTS
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
-20
-10
0
+10
-20
-10
0
+10
(dBu) (dBV)
+10
+20
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
(dBu) (dBV)
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
(dBu) (dBV)
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
(dBu) (dBV)
10 – Specifications, etc.
Level diagram
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
87
10 – Specifications, etc.
355 mm (14")
Dimensional drawing
545 mm (21.5")
113 (4.5")
145 (5.7")
94 (3.7")
Specifications
Audio connections
MIC/LINE inputs (A to D)
Combined XLR-1/4" TRS connector
XLR
Input impedance: 2 kΩ
Input level: –57 dBu (MIC) to –10 dBu (LINE)
Nominal input level: –10 dBu
Maximum input level: +6 dBu
1/4” TRS
Input impedance: 8 kΩ
Input level: –43 dBu (MIC) to +4 dBu (LINE)
Nominal input level: +4 dBu
Maximum input level: +20 dBu
MIC/LINE inputs (E to H)
1/4" TRS connectors (input H also has a GUITAR front panel unbalanced 1/4” jack—see below)
Input impedance: 4 kΩ
Input level: –43 dBu (MIC) to +4 dBu (LINE)
Nominal input level: +4 dBu
Maximum input level: +20 dBu
Input H (GUITAR)
Input impedance: 1 MΩ
Input level: –55 dBu to –8 dBu
STEREO L/R outputs
2 x unbalanced RCA jacks
Output impedance: 100 Ω
Nominal output level: –10 dBV
Maximum output level: +6 dBV
EFFECT SENDS 1 and 2
1 x unbalanced 1/4" jack per send
Output impedance: 100 Ω
Nominal output level: –10 dBV
Maximum output level: +6 dBV
88 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
10 – Specifications, etc.
MONITOR L/R outputs
2 x TRS balanced TRS 1/4" jacks
Output impedance: 100 Ω
Nominal output level: –2 dBu
Maximum output level: +14 dBu
PHONES
Stereo 1/4" jack
Maximum output level 55 mW + 55 mW (into 30 Ω)
DIGITAL input
RCA jack
Data format: IEC60958 consumer use (S/PDIF)
DIGITAL output
RCA jack
Data format: IEC60958 consumer use (S/PDIF)
Audio performance
Sampling frequency:
44.1 kHz
Word length:
16-bit/24-bit (user-selectable, per song)
Crossfade time:
10 ms
Number of tracks
24 (8 may be recorded simultaneously)
Frequency response
INPUTS A to H → STEREO/MONITOR/EFFECT SEND: 20 Hz — 20 kHz +1.0/–1.0 dB (trim at min.)
Noise level (inputs with 150 Ω terminator,
faders at nominal, 20kLPF+A curve)
INPUTS A to H → STEREO/EFFECT SEND: <90 dBV → MONITOR <82 dBu (trim at min.)
Dynamic range
Faders at nominal, INPUTS A to H → STEREO/EFFECT SEND/MONITOR: >96 dB
20kLPF+A curve
Crosstalk
Faders at nominal, INPUTS A to H → STEREO/EFFECT SEND/MONITOR: >80 dB @ 1 kHz (trim at minimum, 1 input at max)
20kLPF+A curve
Total Harmonic
Distortion
Inputs at Max,
20kLPF
INPUTS A to H → STEREO/EFFECT SEND/MONITOR: < 0.01% (trim at min.)
Physical specifications, etc.
Dimensions (w x d x h)
545 x 355 x 145 (mm), 21.5 x 14 x 5.7 (in.)
Weight
8 kg (17.6 lbs)
Power requirements
(USA/Canada 120 VAC, 60 Hz
International 230/240 VAC, 50/60 Hz
Power consumption
41 W
Applicable electromagnetic environment:
E4
Supplied accessories
Power cord
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
89
Notes
90 TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
10 – Specifications, etc.
TASCAM 2488 User’s Guide
91
2488
TEAC CORPORATION
Phone: +81-422-52-5082
3-7-3, Nakacho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8550, Japan
www.tascam.com
TEAC AMERICA, INC.
Phone: +1-323-726-0303
7733 Telegraph Road, Montebello, California 90640
www.tascam.com
TEAC CANADA LTD.
Phone: +1905-890-8008 Facsimile: +1905-890-9888
5939 Wallace Street, Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 1Z8, Canada
www.tascam.com
TEAC MEXICO, S.A. De C.V
Phone: +52-555-581-5500
Campesinos No. 184, Colonia Granjes Esmeralda, Delegaacion Iztapalapa CP 09810, Mexico DF
www.tascam.com
TEAC UK LIMITED
Phone: +44-1923-438880
5 Marlin House, Croxley Business Park, Watford, Hertfordshire. WD1 8TE, U.K.
www.tascam.co.uk
TEAC DEUTSCHLAND GmbH
Phone: +49-611-71580
Bahnstrasse 12, 65205 Wiesbaden-Erbenheim, Germany
www.tascam.de
TEAC FRANCE S. A.
Phone: +33-1-42-37-01-02
17 Rue Alexis-de-Tocqueville, CE 005 92182 Antony Cedex, France
www.tascam.fr
TEAC AUSTRALIA PTY.,LTD. A.B.N. 80 005 408 462
Phone: +61-3-9672-2400 Facsimile: +61-3-9672-2249
280 William Street, Port Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
www.tascam.com.au
TEAC ITALIANA S.p.A.
Phone: +39-02-66010500
Via C. Cantù 11, 20092 Cinisello Balsamo, Milano, Italy
www.teac.it
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