Component Reliability - Thermo Fisher Scientific

Component Reliability - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Component Reliability
The CR Marketplace
Compliance Test Solution Products and the
Markets They Address
Component Reliability Overview
• Component Reliability - refers to the testing of components,
rather than complete systems, as is the case with Thermo
Scientific™ Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) products.
• Components that our systems are used to test:
• Integrated Circuits (ICs)
• Diodes / Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
• Transistors
• Modules or Sub-assemblies
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Component Reliability Overview
• Thermo Scientific manufactures test instruments that are used by
manufacturers of electronic components to test for the effects of:
• Electrostatic Discharges – ESD (static)
• HBM / MM / CDM
• Electrical Over Stresses – Latch-up Testing
• Transmission Line Pulsing – TLP
• Our testers allow manufactures to evaluate their designs, so they can
understand the level of susceptibility of their devices to these different
events. If their part is susceptible to these events, they can redesign it
before shipping to their customers, there by avoiding unnecessary and
cost and of course, unhappy customers!!
• Although there are standards that specify how these tests should be performed, the biggest
reasons for companies to perform this testing is to provide the best products they can. This of
course also relates to what they can charge for their products!!
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Why does this matter?
• Because we all want things to be faster and smaller, and of course,
cheaper….
• Computers, HD TVs, cell phones, I-Pods, X-Box, etc…
• This means the integrated circuits that make these devices possible,
need to be smaller and faster, and because they’re smaller and faster,
they’re much more sensitive to outside influences…such as ESD
(Electrostatic Discharge)
• We all want reliable products!!
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What’s this mean to me?
• Your wireless telephone doesn’t turn off when ever you
touch the key pad and feel a “ZAP” (ESD event)!
• Your TV or cable box doesn’t shut off or worse yet, doesn’t
turn on when you walk across your living room carpet and
touch the controls – of course this would only occur if you
weren’t using your remote!!
• The radio in your car works, even after you slide across the
seat, touch the controls and feel that dreaded “ZAP”!
• Worse yet, suppose you car’s electronically controlled
breaking system could be damaged by you touching a
control on the dashboard, today’s car electronics are tested
using our systems!
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Standards we address
• Electrostatic Discharge Association (ESDA)
• ESDA STM5.1
Human Body Model (HBM)
• Superseded by JS-001-2010
• ESDA STM5.2
Machine Model (MM)
• ESDA STM5.3.1
Charged Device Model (CDM)
• ESDA SP5.3.2
Socketed Charged Device Model (SCDM)
• ESDA SP5.4
Transient Latch-up (TLU)
• ESDA SP5.5
Transmission Line Pulse (TLP/VF-TLP)
• ESDA SP5.6
Human Metal Model (HMM) 2 pin testing
• ESDA 14.3
System Level / Cable Discharge Event
• Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC)
• JEDEC JESD22-A114
Human Body Model (HBM)
• Superseded by JS-001-2010
• JEDEC JESD22-A115
Machine Model (MM)
• JEDEC JESD22-C101
Charged Device Model (CDM)
• JEDEC JESD78
Latch-up
• Joint JEDEC and ESD Association standard
• JS-001-2010
Human Body Model (HBM)
• Automotive Electronics Council (AEC)
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AEC-Q100-002
AEC-Q100-003
AEC-Q100-011
AEC-Q100-004
Human Body Model (HBM)
Machine Model (MM)
Charged Device Model (CDM)
Latch-up
EOS or ESD ?
ESD - Electro-Static Discharge ZAP!!
Equalization of different electrostatic potentials between two or more
objects
Rapid discharge of a limited amount of energy
EOS - Electrical Over-Stress (Latch-up)
An electrical event that exceeds the data sheet maximums of the device
under test
Supply overvoltage and fast slew rates, ground dip, incorrect supply
sequencing and data line transients can damage CMOS IC’s.
EOS most often causes functional failures.
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EOS or ESD ?
• Both will damage devices by:
• Rapid localized heating of the semiconductor material
• Creating capacitive displacement currents internal to the device due
to strong electrical field transients
• Even very small discharges or over-stresses can be fatal or
cause latent failures
The following slides show just how these failures can appear on
an integrated circuit under magnification or under the human eye
on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB).
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EOS or ESD ?
Photo courtesy of Ian Morgan
ESD event which caused excessive heating damaging the device!!
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EOS or ESD ?
PINHOLES
ESD event which caused small holes to develop between
layers on the device, subsequently damaging it!!
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EOS or ESD ??
EOS event which caused a hole to develop between
layers on the device, subsequently damaging it!!
11
EOS or ESD ?
EOS event which caused excessive amount of current to be drawn
by the device, so much so that it actually caught fire!!
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Electrostatic Discharge - ESD
A person or charged object discharging into a sensitive electronic
component or circuit can cause a device to fail or circuit to be upset.
• The threshold of feeling is 2kV to 4kV
• Everyone can feel 5kV*
• 15kV is a memorable event!!!
Human Body Model Event (HBM)
It really is a miniature
lightning bolt!!
Machine Model Event (MM)
*Why will 110 volts kill me if I put my finger
in a light socket when 5,000 volts of static
won’t?
Static electricity does not have sufficient
current to hurt you, although it can damage
electronics!!
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Charged Device Model Event (CDM)
Electrical Over Stress – Latch-up
• EOS or Latch-up events are Voltage or Current transients on power
lines, telecom or other I/O lines that are connected to a device through
either the PCB it is mounted on or the event maybe caused by plugging
a printer cable into a PC when the PC is turned on.
• These events can cause the device to go into an unexpected condition, where it
may draw excessive current from the power supply. In the worse case, should
the power not be removed, the device can actually catch fire (as shown on slide
12) or simply “blow” it’s top off. Either case is not good, especially if this device
is say controlling your car or the plane you are flying on!!
• Our Latch-up testers allow manufactures to evaluate their designs, so they can
understand the level of susceptibility of their devices to latch-up events. If their
part is susceptible to these events, they can redesign it before shipping to their
customers, there by avoiding unnecessary and cost and of course, unhappy
customers!!
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ESD and Latch-up Simulators
• The ESD Latch-up Simulators are:
• The MK.4 2304 pin tester for
production/high throughput testing of
high pin count devices
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Combined ESD and Latch-up system
Small footprint 4’ tall, 3’ wide and 3’, 6” deep
2304 max channels, offerings include 1152, 1728 and 2304
8 Matrix VI channels, high speed matrix matched supplies
 100VA V/I power supply
• Pin conditioning (vectoring) on every pin
 256K deep / Drive and Readback
 6 different drive levels
• High Speed E/M matrix based on 96 channel matrix design
• New physical architecture. Principle well proven
• Enhanced parallelism, Zap and Trace. Estimate at least 5x
throughput improvement
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ESD and Latch-up Simulators
• The ESD Latch-up Simulators are:
• The MK.2 768 pin production tester for
testing multiple low pin count devices or
devices in the 768 pin range
• Combined ESD and Latch-up system
• 768 max channels, offerings include 128, 256, 384, 512 and 768
• 6 Matrix VI channels, high speed matrix matched supplies
 Dual Range 30V/5A, 100V/1A power supplies
• Pin conditioning (vectoring) on every pin
 64K deep / Drive and Readback
 Single drive level
• High Speed E/M matrix based on 16/8 channel matrix design
• Enhanced parallelism allowing Zapping of up to 8 devices
simultaneously
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ESD and Latch-up Simulators
• The ESD Latch-up Simulators are:
• The MK.1 Low Pin Count (256 pin) production
tester for testing multiple low pin count devices or
devices in the 256 pin range
• The MK.1 features:
• Direct ZapMaster replacement
• ESD – HBM and MM testing as standard
• Centrally located HBM pulse sources deliver exceptional waveforms
• MM pulse sources on each matrix to deliver consistent waveforms across
the system
• Software selectable – no need to switch waveform networks
• Latch-up testing capabilities optional
• Curve Tracing for failure detection as standard
• Spot measurements for failure detection also standard
• Bias supplies for powering the device during curve tracing optional
• Relay based architecture providing unsurpassed testing through- put
• Fixtures with multiple sockets can be tested sequentially
• Limited mechanical movement – no wear and tear
• Only movement is to lower the test fixture onto the test head
• Pin count expandability (64pins to 256pins)
• Small foot print – won’t take up valuable test floor space
• Test Fixture board compatibility – uses existing ZapMaster fixtures directly
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ESD Manual Simulators
• NEW ESD Manual Simulator:
• Pegasus is a NEW system designed to meet the Human
Metal Model testing requirements up to 12kV
• It also offers Human Body Model (HBM) to 12kV
• More of a manual tester than say the MK.x series of
testers
• Allows testing of 2 pins only and can be used to test
components (devices), at Wafer or on system level
applications.
• Also provides curve tracing for failure analysis
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ESD CDM Simulator
• Orion2 Charged Device Model (CDM) Simulator
• Orion2 CDM test system: which meets today’s
industry standards for testing devices to understand
their vulnerability to a charged device discharge event
• Provides testing to all of today’s Field Induced CDM standards
• Also provides a path for the future!
• Dual High Resolution color cameras make device outline creation and alignment easy!
• Enclosed interlocked test chamber allows control of the testing environment!
• Windows based software provides flexibility for test creation and waveform verification
using our integrated scope interface!
• Highly accurate mechanism makes testing of high density devices possible!
• Large device test area allows testing of today’s high pin count devices as well!
• Vacuum and variable alignment plate allows testing of most devices without the need
for special fixturing!
• Discharge event detector helps ensure your testing is correct!
• Also, ready for the future of CDM testing
CDM2 – A new method for controlled CDM testing
CDM2 is a new approach to CDM testing which eliminates FICDM testing
issues, such as air discharge and environmental impacts on waveform /
testing integrity!
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TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) Testing
• TLP testing is different from ESD and Latch-up testing
• Generally it is a non destructive test, however it can be used to cause a
device to fail
• It provides more information for design engineers than just the failure
threshold information that is gathered from ESD and Latch-up testing
• Testing can be performed either at the packaged IC level or at Wafer level,
which can speed up the release of a device to production – which means $$
for the device manufacturer
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TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) Testing
Our Transmission Line Pulse (TLP) test systems
Celestron TLP Test System
Used for characterizing ESD protection structures.
By providing a controlled TLP square wave pulse and
gathering information from the reflections of the pulse,
the ESD structure characteristics can be thoroughly
analyzed by designers. VI Curve Tracing can also be
performed.
System offers:
• Wafer and Package testing
• Bench top TLP system
• Pulsed I-V Curve generation
• DC Curve Tracing
• Protection Structure Studies
• Design engineering flexibility
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• Various optional modes available
(TDR style testing is standard)
• Optional VF-TLP
• Optional HBM and MM ESD testing
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