P-3 FIG - Baseops

P-3 FIG - Baseops
P-3 FLIGHT
INSTRUCTOR’S
GUIDE
THIS GUIDE SUPERSEDES ISD/WCP JAN 2007
2A-1102.IG1
VP-30 ISD FEB 2008 (rev. 2)
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
PREFACE
Scope
Warnings, Cautions, And Notes
This Flight Instructors Guide (FIG) has been
prepared to assist the P-3 Instructor Pilot (IP) and
Instructor Flight Engineer (IFE) in their daily conduct of
training flights (e.g., syllabus flights, IP Dedicated Field
Work flights (DFWs), instrument check flights, etc.). It
contains training and instructional techniques that
supplement material presented in the P-3 NATOPS Flight
Manual, the NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual,
OPNAVINST 3710.7 series, and the Flight Training Job
Aid. It is to be used in conjunction with these sources and
does not supersede or contravene any requirements or
directives promulgated by NATOPS or other competent
authority. The FIG presents the user with proper set-up
procedures for some of the “common” malfunctions and
predicaments. Nevertheless, instructors must ensure
proper aircrew coordination, conduct thorough research,
and have a complete understanding of possible
consequences when designing a scenario.
The following definitions apply to
“WARNINGs,” “CAUTIONs,” and “NOTEs” found
throughout the guide.
A vast majority of the information in this guide
was derived from instructor experience; however, some
discussions concerning instructor techniques were taken
from the FAA Flight Instructor’s Handbook (EA-AC6116A). This publication may be used to learn more about
the fundamentals of teaching and learning in order to
improve the effectiveness of P-3 flight instruction.
WARNING
An operating procedure, practice, or condition,
etc., which may result in injury or death, if not
carefully observed or followed.
Caution
An operating procedure, practice, or condition,
etc., which may result in damage to the equipment.
Note
An operating procedure, practice, or condition,
etc., which is essential to emphasize.
Wording
The concept of word usage and intended
meaning which has been adhered to in preparing this
manual is as follows:
•
Updating The Guide
If an instructor feels a particular item should be
included in the guide, submit the item to Patrol Squadron
Thirty for consideration using the enclosed form. The
address is:
Commanding Officer PATRON 30
Attention: FLEET NATOPS Officer
Box 24
NAS Jacksonville, Florida 32212-0024
If you have any questions, please contact
VP-30’s FLEET NATOPS Officer, DSN 9423935/8102/8103/8104, COMM. (904) 5423935/8102/8103/8104. FAX. (904) 542-1317.
•
•
•
“Shall” has been used when application of a
procedure is mandatory.
“Should” has been used only when application of
a procedure is recommended.
“May” and “Need not” have been used only when
application of a procedure is optional.
“Will” has been used only to indicate futurity,
never to indicate any degree of requirement for
application of a procedure.
Change Symbol
Revised text is indicated by a black vertical line
in either margin of the page, adjacent to the affected text,
like the one printed next to this paragraph.
i (Reverse Blank)
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
P-3 Flight Instructor’s Guide
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION...................................…......................................................
1-1
CHAPTER 2
GENERAL FLIGHT TRAINING PROCEDURES...............................................................
2-1
CHAPTER 3
GROUND TRAINING PROCEDURES..............................................................................
3-1
CHAPTER 4
TAKEOFF TRAINING PROCEDURES.............................................................................
4-1
CHAPTER 5
IN-FLIGHT TRAINING PROCEDURES............................................................................
5-1
CHAPTER 6
LANDING TRAINING PROCEDURES..............................................................................
6-1
CHAPTER 7
COUNTER THREAT TRAINING PROCEDURES.........…................................................
7-1
CHAPTER 8
LEVEL D-EQUIVALENT SIMULATOR PROTOCOL......................................................... 8-1
CHAPTER 9
MALFUNCTION SET UP FOR AIRCRAFT.........…........................................................... 9-1
APPENDIX A
INSTRUCTOR UNDER TRAINING SYLLABUS…............................................................
A-1
ii (Reverse Blank)
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 1
General Information
CHAPTER 1
General Information
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Flight Instructor......................................................1-1
Instructor Training Course.............................................1-2
The Six Principles of Learning ......................................1-2
The Student....................................................................1-3
Student Anxiety .............................................................1-3
Student Fatigue..............................................................1-3
Flight Instructor Fatigue ................................................1-3
Effective Instruction ......................................................1-3
Effective Questioning....................................................1-4
3.
Encouragement of further study. Emphasize that
continued study is always required.
4.
Maintenance of specific notes on each flight while
being as unobtrusive as possible.
5.
Identification of substandard or unsatisfactory
performance. This is the most positive method of
drawing attention to weak areas. Failure to do so
encourages acceptance of unsafe practices, is unfair
to the student and reflects adversely on you as a
professional. Be patient and willing to work on
substandard areas until the student reaches the level
of proficiency required. Repetition is a good and
necessary learning process. The vast majority of
material presented will be forgotten several times
before the students get it firmly in their minds.
6.
Allowing the student as much leeway as possible in
getting the feel of the aircraft. Keep in mind, however, that it is the instructor’s responsibility to
ensure that an unsafe situation does not develop.
7.
The student needs to assume command of the
aircraft at all times unless otherwise directed.
Knowledge of the aircraft is not enough when flying
the P-3. Aircraft Commanders (AC) must be able to
coordinate their crew and make “command”
decisions.
8.
Do not “gouge” the students. Teach them to fly the
aircraft safely, not to pass exams.
The Flight Instructor
Flight instructors must be fully qualified as pilots or
flight engineers without deficiencies or faults in performance. Qualifications, however, must go beyond those required for Patrol Plane Commander (PPC) or crew holding
flight engineer. Instructors should be recognized for their
professionalism, flight safety, and most importantly their
ability to teach. Hard work, preparation, and consistent
performance are key instructor attributes.
Flying habits both during flight instruction and
related operations have a vital effect on safety. Students will,
either consciously or subconsciously, imitate the instructor’s
flying habits. An instructor who preaches strict compliance
with OPNAVINST 3710.7, NATOPS Manuals, Maintenance
Instruction Manuals (MIM), and squadron directives and yet
is seen violating those directives will have little credibility
with students. The adage “Do as I say, not as I do” has no
place in flight instruction.
The effective instructor is considerate of the
student’s point of view and personal interests, carefully
plans each period of instruction and is one who can organize
the logic of teaching to fit the psychology of the student.
The “best instructor” is one who encourages and increases
self-confidence; is considerate and easy to talk to; has a
good grasp of the subject matter and is able to explain it
effectively; is willing to spend extra time when needed and
is always ready to compliment good performance. Emphasis
should be placed on the following:
1.
Punctuality.
2.
Confidence building. Recognize and reward superior
performance with praise and/or grades as appropriate.
The “worst instructor” is one who constantly screams,
and belittles the student with extreme sarcasm and personal
abuse; uses foul language; constantly rides the controls and
emotionally upsets the students while flying and is
1-1
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General Information
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
inadequate in knowledge and presentation of syllabus
material. The following apply:
1. Do not harass or threaten the student. Confronted
with a threat the student will direct all attention to the
elimination of that threat. Statements like “We’ll stay
here till you get this right,” and “Miss it again and
it’s a down” will be interpreted as threats by the student. These situations usually result in degraded
training and performance. A positive and mature
approach yields outstanding results.
2. If the answer to a question is not known, then find the
answer. When the answer is known, ensure the
students are informed. Build your credibility.
3. If a mistake is made, admit it freely. Failure to do so
can result in the loss of respect and credibility.
Valuable training can be accomplished by a student
observing the recovery process when correcting an
error.
4. Avoid complacency. A second tour pilot or flight
engineer can be just as dangerous in the aircraft as a
first tour. Gravity respects neither rank, experience,
service, nor friendship.
5. Instructors who conduct both NATOPS checks and
pilot training flights must be able to differentiate
between evaluating and instructing.
Instructor Training Course
FIUT and VP-30 IUT both include an Instructor
Training Course (ITC) whose terminal objective is to
“promote effective learning through teaching.” For the
purpose of the Instructor Training Course, learning is simply
defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience.
That change may be physical or overt, or it may involve
complex intellectual or attitudinal changes, which affect
behavior in more subtle ways. Instructors affect this
“change in behavior” through their ability to teach. The
better an instructor is, the more a given student will “learn”
from a classroom lesson, simulator, or aircraft evolution.
The definition of teaching is quite complex and involves all
the techniques used by instructors to promote effective
learning.
At the heart of the Instructor Training Course
taught during Fleet IUT are the “Six Principles of Learning.”
They form the foundation from which the rest of the briefs
are derived. The Six Principles are Readiness, Exercise,
Effect, Primacy, Intensity, and Recency (REEPIR). Once
defined, they weave themselves throughout the fabric of the
course.
1-2
In addition to the lectures and discussions given
during the course, ITC is heavily based on the idea that
“Learning is Active” and “People learn by doing”. In
keeping with this idea, all new instructors are given
opportunities to teach in front of their peers. From their
experiences, IUTs gain confidence in themselves, polish
areas of strength, and strengthen areas of weakness or
deficiency. By the end of the course, the IUTs should have a
clear understanding of what it takes to be an effective
instructor.
The Six Principles of Learning
The Six principles of learning, although based on theory,
may be applied to any teaching situation encountered by
instructors. From the classroom to the aircraft, the ability to
maximize these principles will greatly enhance instructional
effectiveness.
Readiness: It is about motivating the student not the
preparation of the instructor. It is the instructor’s
responsibility to ensure the student is presented a strong
clear purpose, and a definite reason to learn. A properly
motivated student will meet the instructor halfway and is
eager to learn. Hazreps and sea stories are a couple of the
many techniques used to ready the students. Motivate!
Exercise: The principle of exercise states that those skills
most often repeated are best remembered. It is difficult for
the mind to retain, evaluate, and apply new concepts or
practices after a single exposure. Every time practice
occurs, learning occurs. “What I hear, I forget.” “What I
see, I remember.” “What I do, I understand.” Realizing this,
an instructor can see how important getting a student to
perform “skill” based tasks as early as possible is to
effective learning. A student may be able to repeat the
checkpoints around the landing pattern with all the
associated speeds and briefs, but until he or she actually gets
into the aircraft or simulator and performs and practices
these tasks, learning will not occur.
Effect: The principle of effect is based on the emotional
reaction of the student. It states that learning is strengthened
when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling. From
the tone set during the brief, the malfunctions presented inflight, and throughout the debrief session, instructors must
be mindful that the words and actions perceived as nonconstructive, negative, or harmful will hamper the learning
process. Admittedly, there will be times when an instructor
feels that negative effect is warranted, however this should
be considered the exception rather than the rule. Positive
constructive feedback strengthens the learning process.
Primacy: Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a
strong, almost unshakable, impression. For the instructor
this means what is taught must be correct the first time. Un-
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
teaching is more difficult than teaching. From appearance to
how to demonstrate a three-engine landing, the instructor
never gets a second chance to make a first impression. With
that said, if a demonstration is done incorrectly or poorly, it
is the instructor’s job to “come clean,” admit the mistake,
and re-demonstrate the proper procedure or techniques
correctly. A failure to do so reduces the instructors
credibility as well as reinforces the bad habit or incorrect
procedure. Teaching correctly the first time sets the
foundation for future learning.
Intensity: Exciting or dramatic experiences teach more than
routine or boring experiences. A student is likely to gain
greater understanding of three engine landings and EFBRs
by performing them rather than merely reading about them.
For instructors, this means getting students into the airplane
or simulator whenever possible.
Recency: Items most recently learned are the best
remembered. Instructors must realize that key points must
be reemphasized time and time again if they are to be
remembered. In addition, instructors must be aware of when
a student last flew an event. This will certainly dictate the
amount of proficiency one could expect early on during a
flight.
The Student
When developing the Instructor-Student relationship,
instructors should never forget that they too were once a
student. Self-respect, peer pressure, and the student’s
environment all affect performance. The instructor’s
objective must be to assist the student toward the goal of
qualification. Several factors directly affect a student’s
ability to receive instruction. Recognize and then effectively
deal with these factors in order to maintain a safe and
constructive training environment. Utilize the different
instructional techniques presented in the Fleet Instructor
Training Course (FITC) to teach various levels of students.
Students have different learning habits, so have a set of
various instructional tools available to convey your teaching
points.
Student Anxiety
Anxiety is probably the most significant psychological factor
affecting flight instruction. Anxiety results from the fear of
something, real or imagined. Some students affected by
anxiety will react appropriately and more rapidly than they
would in the absence of anxiety. Many on the other hand
may be frozen in place and incapable of doing anything to
correct the situation that has caused their anxiety. Others
may act without rational thought. Both normal and abnormal
reactions to anxiety are of concern and should be discussed.
Causes for anxiety are not always aviation related; however,
anxiety will always affect a student’s performance.
Chapter 1
General Information
Student Fatigue
An instructor must be alert to signs of student fatigue. This
is evidenced by disinterest, slow reactions, and uncharacteristic or random errors. When such a state is observed, the flight should be terminated. Definite measures
will minimize the incidence of fatigue during flight
instruction. The most important of these is to maintain the
student’s interest. This may be accomplished by limiting
repetitive maneuvers and evolutions previously learned to a
reasonable level – taking the controls, shooting approaches,
and full stop landings can be used to break the monotony
and help maintain a student’s focus.
Flight Instructor Fatigue
Instructor fatigue is potentially very dangerous. An
instructor must be mentally and physically alert at all times
and be aware of personal limitations. Extending the work
day excessively prior to flight duties is considered poor
headwork.
Effective Instruction
A flight instructor must be clear on the training evolution’s
objectives. Establish the primary objectives and organize the
teaching methods and activities to achieve these goals.
Effective instruction involves four basic steps:
1. Preparation.
2. Explanation and demonstration/Presentation.
3. Application. (Trial and performance)
4.
Review and evaluation.
To accomplish the necessary training, the instructor must
draw a fine line between simulated and actual flight
conditions. Simulating the loss of warning devices, navigational aids, and aircraft systems, while their full operation
is obvious to the student, is quite different from an actual
malfunction. The flight simulator is a valuable tool for
presenting the majority of the malfunctions germane to the
P-3. It also is a tremendous asset to bolster decision making
and headwork during challenging scenarios. Yet, due to its
low fidelity it does not provide a full substitute for flying the
aircraft. In a simulator, particularly in the ditching and
landing environments, the student’s knowledge that an
unprofessional action will not truly jeopardize his life, or the
lives of the crew, is a fact that cannot be eliminated from the
student’s mind. To ignore this fact is to invite tragedy.
These critical areas of flight should be the focus of training
conducted in the airplane.
1-3
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General Information
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
A professional instructor, through a combination of
simulated and actual conditions, can achieve an effective
training environment. Through initiative and theatrics, the
instructor can further develop the situation to approach “real
world.” Caution must be taken when this simulated situation
borders on becoming an actual problem. A distraction to
either the student or the instructor can force it beyond this
point. How far an instructor allows the situation to
deteriorate is purely a judgment call based on instructional
training, experience, and the student’s ability.
Effective Questioning
better understanding of the topic while developing their
critical thinking and decision-making skills.
Good instruction involves asking questions that focus a
student’s thoughts on the objective and, which help teach
rather than simply ask the student to recall bits of
information. When properly planned and executed, effective
questioning can help tie together ideas or guide the student
to connect their learned knowledge to better understand a
concept or situation. This understanding should lead to
better decision making during a mission.
The evaluation of the student’s learning is continual
throughout each period of instruction and involves more
than simply presenting an instructional scenario. Direct
questioning is necessary for determining the student’s
knowledge and understanding as well as judging the
effectiveness of instruction given. Furthermore, it aids in
planning the emphasis and pace of subsequent instruction.
Another important facet of effective questioning is:
understanding that different people learn in different ways.
Some comprehend ideas in very structured ways while
others need analogies or less structured ways to understand a
concept. The goal is to get every student to the same point –
to do that, it often takes varying questioning tactics to help
students connect a sequence of information/variables to form
a plan of action.
Effective questioning requires preparation.
Questions that are ambiguous or not clearly associated with
the subject at hand are of little value and can be confusing or
frustrating for the student.
Asking: “Do you understand?” or “Do you have any
questions?” has no place in effective quizzing. Few students
will opt for further discussion when given this “out” by the
instructor.
Questions should be created to gauge a particular area, or
aspect, of the student’s knowledge. For example:
Other typical types of questions that should be avoided
are:
•
Knowledge ⎯ “What brings on the FUEL PRESS
LOW light?”
•
Procedural ⎯ “What procedures do you execute with
an illumination of the FUEL PRESS LOW light?”
•
Understanding ⎯ “Why do we check for visible fuel
during the FUEL PRESS LOW procedures?”
•
•
Thought Process ⎯ “What future aircraft
malfunctions might be expected following the
illumination of the FUEL PRESS LOW light?”
Headwork/decision making ⎯ “While on station at
500 feet AGL, you gain radar contact, as you turn the
aircraft inbound, the #4 FUEL PRESS LOW light
illuminates. What actions are you going to execute
and how do they affect your ASW mission?”
A common instructor error is asking far too many
knowledge, or “evaluation”, questions – i.e. “what
temperature does that light come on at?” and not asking
more questions that gauge the student’s understanding of the
system, procedure, situation, or how it may affect the
mission. Effective questioning requires the instructor to
create objectives and devise a strategy that leads students to
1-4
•
The puzzle ⎯ “What actions do you take, if during
an in-flight restart of the number one engine, the
paralleling light on the number four engine comes
on?”
•
The oversize ⎯ “What do you do before you ditch?”
•
The toss-up ⎯ “Should the red TIT over temperature
light come on at 1078 or 1080 degrees?”
•
Bewilderment ⎯ “Since the fuel control gets 120
percent of engine fuel requirements and 20 percent is
normally by-passed and since the TD system is
capable of taking 50 percent of the fuel in the start
limiting range, is the 50 percent that the TD system
takes 50 percent of 100 percent which is 50 percent
or 50 percent of 120 percent which is 60 percent or
50 percent plus the 20 percent which is 70 percent?”
“Gotcha” questions only put the student on the defensive
and should be avoided at all times. The student might soon
develop the feeling that (s)he is engaged in a battle of wits
with the instructor, and any meaningful training could be
lost.
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Chapter 2
General Flight Training Procedures
CHAPTER 2
General Flight Training Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Planning a Training Flight and Scenario Writing ..........2-1
Flight Time Utilization ..................................................2-2
The Brief........................................................................2-2
The Debrief....................................................................2-3
Grading ..........................................................................2-3
Crew Resource Management.........................................2-3
Safety Of Flight .............................................................2-4
Airmanship ....................................................................2-4
Use Of Demonstrations .................................................2-4
Simulating Emergencies and Malfunctions ...................2-4
Simulated Malfunctions and Emergencies ....................2-5
Compound Malfunctions ...............................................2-5
Planning a Training Flight and
Scenario Writing
Preparation is the key as spontaneous scenarios are
rarely successful. A good scenario can take several hours to
prepare, especially the first few that an instructor compiles.
More unauthorized malfunctions are conducted when
scenarios are planned at the last minute. The IP and IFE
must not make last minute changes unless they completely
and thoroughly understand all of the implications. For
example, failing Bus B with TR 1 already pulled is a
completely different and a more compound emergency than
failing Bus A with TR 2 already pulled (aircraft flight
controls will become gust-locked).
Complete understanding of each event by all
instructors is absolutely essential. An event labeled “Failsto-Feather number 4” is insufficient. Both instructors should
know how far into the fails-to-feather procedure they intend
to proceed and what specifically caused the fails-to-feather.
This type of planning should occur before the evolution
begins.
To improve the quality of a training evolution the IP and
IFE must consider the following:
1. Has the malfunction ever actually happened to a P-3
flight crew? Past hazard reports are an excellent
source of material for training evolutions.
Technique versus NATOPS.......................................... 2-6
Use of Emergency Shutdown Handles ......................... 2-6
Use of The HRD Buttons.............................................. 2-5
Opening of Exits In Flight ............................................ 2-5
Securing of Electrical Busses ....................................... 2-5
Pilot Training with a Tactical Crew Onboard............... 2-6
Use of Command Bell .................................................. 2-6
IP Vacating Seat ........................................................... 2-6
Power Control............................................................... 2-6
Actual Malfunctions During Training .......................... 2-6
Instructor Pilot Defensive Positioning During Takeoff
and Landing .................................................................. 2-6
2. Is the evolution being presented as realistically as
possible? Are the ICS calls realistic?
3. Does the scenario represent the proper degree of
difficulty and challenge for the experience level of
both the TP and TFE?
4. What are the teaching points? Does this portion of
the scenario teach headwork and decision making,
system operation and troubleshooting, CRM, system
components, a local SOP or Stan Note, aircraft limits,
or reemphasize a NATOPS procedure?
Once the desired simulations have been selected, ensure
they are written down in a logical flow in the order of
occurrence. This list of malfunctions and emergencies will
provide continuity throughout the scenario as well as ensure
that each instructor understands completely what is to be
simulated and to what extent. A well written scenario is key
to a successful training flight and is not just a list of
malfunctions.
A well written scenario states the malfunction or
emergency to be simulated, the set-up procedures required,
clean-up procedures, and any particular notes to be covered
during the simulation. Enough space should be left for the
instructor to track trends and notes to readdress during the
debrief session. Each malfunction or emergency simulated
should have a valid teaching point associated with it. In
addition, a section should be created to track trends at
various points of the landing pattern. Well-written scenarios
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General Flight Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
should be used during OFT training as well as training
events in the aircraft. Scenarios for OFT events include
more complex malfunctions because of the reduced safety
concerns. A thoroughly planned scenario will aid in
providing good instruction in a timely manner. The FITC
scenario writing course provides numerous examples of both
well and poorly written scenarios.
WARNING
Deviation from the established plan of action, may
result in unintended situations that negatively affect
safety of flight. If a simulation is not proceeding as
previously planned, stop the scenario and discuss the
discrepancy. If unforeseen modifications need to be
made to the scenario, it is mandatory that these
changes be thoroughly discussed and understood by
each instructor before proceeding.
Prior to flying with a student for the first time, the
instructor should review the training jacket. This jacket
contains a wealth of useful information. Pay particular
attention to personal history and trends on grades, noting
areas of weakness including unsafe tendencies. If a jacket
review is not possible, talk to other instructors who have
flown with the student. Any information gained prior to
briefing and flying with the student will be of benefit.
Flight Time Utilization
The IP and IFE must make every effort to use
scheduled syllabus time in the most efficient manner. It is
the instructor’s responsibility to ensure that all required
items on a gradesheet are completed and that each is allotted
an appropriate portion of the scheduled time period. A
method to maximize time management is to utilize
combined malfunctions in a scenario. Combined
malfunctions, for example, a fuel system malfunction tied to
an inflight restart malfunction, are not compound
malfunctions. Time should be allotted for a quick debrief
and instructional points following each portion of the
scenario. These inflight debrief points provide the student
with immediate feedback and should be readdressed or
amplified after the flight. Items not covered should be so
indicated on the gradesheet to provide continuity during
future training evolutions.
Time management is critical. Instructors must
consider the amount of time each step in the scenario will
require. To ensure both TPs receive all possible training,
compatible scheduling of different syllabus events should be
conducted. With proper use of the simulator for high work
training, a 70-30 percent split between low and high work is
typically appropriate on a training flight. Conversely,
2-2
simulators should have a 30-70 split between low work and
high work.
Allocate the flight training time equitably between
the TP and TFE. Effective teamwork and CRM should be
stressed and independent action discouraged. IPs who
attempt to shortcut high work time in favor of more time in
the landing pattern in the simulator will jeopardize the future
level of expertise for both the TP and TFE. However,
extended high work time in the airplane focusing on systems
and procedures, unnecessarily curtails pilot training in basic
airmanship. Expert system knowledge is of little interest to a
TP attempting to land with a 15 knot crosswind in heavy
snow at night. High work systems simulations should be
conducted primarily in the simulator. Evolutions that can
not be effectively reproduced in the simulator, due to the
lack of fidelity, should be the foundation for the training
conducted in the aircraft. A vast majority of pilot and FE
systems and procedures training is accomplished during the
high work scenario in both the aircraft and simulator.
The Brief
The instructor should conduct a brief prior to each
evolution. Allow a minimum of 30 minutes for the brief and
be prepared to discuss all aspects of the forthcoming
evolution.
The purpose of a brief is to:
1. Determine if the student’s knowledge is at the proper
level for the ensuing event.
2. Check student’s motivation as it pertains to study
habits.
3. Develop a good line of communication with the
student.
4. Impart knowledge by raising specific procedural and
systems questions and providing answers and
explanations to those questions asked by the student.
5. Expand system and procedural knowledge necessary
for the evolution.
6. Review syllabus items to be covered.
7. Allow the student to “chair fly” the event prior to the
event, correcting any mistakes to minimize the
chance of reoccurrence during the flight.
The Debrief
Ensure each event presented has a detailed and
comprehensive debrief. Feedback is essential to the training.
Students must understand where their mistakes were
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Chapter 2
General Flight Training Procedures
committed and what action is needed to correct them. Just as
important, ensure the debrief stresses the students strengths
and what they did well. A debrief that is all good or all bad
is destructive and will hinder the students progress. An
effective debrief can only be achieved with thorough note
taking by the instructor. Any trend detected must be
discussed. Every effort must be made to debrief the event as
soon as possible. Instructors should remain objective,
flexible in presentation based on different student
personalities, organized, specific and constructive.
requirements should be judged unqualified. Be alert to detect
those individuals who do not measure up to the performance
standards required for P-3 operations. Examination grades,
flight grades, and personal observations are the only means
of detecting substandard performance, which cannot be
accepted. Consistently unsatisfactory performers should be
evaluated as such and redirected to other areas more fitted to
their particular abilities.
The IP and the IFE are encouraged to conduct a
short debrief together with the students discussing areas of
common interest, (i.e. crew coordination, safety of flight
issues, etc).
Coordination between instructors is absolutely essential to eliminate confusion. When the IP and IFE are pursuing unrelated areas of instruction with their respective
students, they must keep each other advised of simulated
emergencies, induced equipment malfunctions, or actual
emergencies. Make every effort to promote teamwork
between the TP and TFE.
Grading
Fill out a gradesheet for each event. Be as specific
as possible, since gradesheets are the best means of
documenting performance and trends.
One of the most important but difficult functions an
instructor will encounter is judging the performance of
students. This evaluation must be based on the standards set
for the minimum criteria for the average student at that stage
in the syllabus. By observing other instructors and noting
their evaluations, newly designated instructors can quickly
establish a valid basis for their own critiques. NATOPS
evaluation criteria is the baseline performance standard.
There will be subjectivity inherent to each evaluation
process, but the quantitative measures established by
NATOPS are the standards instructors must train towards.
The experience and judgment of the instructor are the final
criteria. The following apply:
1. Do not grade items not observed. This introduces
errors into the training system and may adversely
affect the individual’s development if these items are
not covered during a later event.
2. Do not use grades to motivate. Remember, significant
improvement in a previously weak area does not in
itself constitute performance that exceeds the
standard criteria..
3. Do not average out grades. Call them as you see
them.
4. Compare co-pilot performance with co-pilot
standards and pilot performance with pilot standards.
Satisfactory performance for a co-pilot may not meet
the standards for a pilot. (CH 26 NATOPS)
Marginal students should never be advanced to the next
event with the hope that someone else will give them the
“down”. Any performance that does not meet the minimum
Crew Resource Management
Occasionally, a disagreement may arise over the
interpretation of a procedure. Argument between instructors
will do no more than thoroughly confuse the TP and TFE
and result in a loss of confidence in both instructors. If there
is a difference of opinion, drop the subject and resolve it
after the flight. When the correct information is known,
ensure the TP and TFE also have the correct information.
During the course of instructional flights, the TFE
will carry out the commands of the TP unless directed otherwise. Proper CRM is just as important as systems and
procedural knowledge and should be taught, evaluated, and
debriefed during the event.
Although conversation within the flight station is
not normally carried out over the ICS, the TFE shall have a
mike and headset available at all times.
Safety of Flight
The instructor pilot is responsible for the safe
conduct of the training evolution and shall ensure that no
practice, maneuver, or simulated emergency is carried to the
extent that safety of flight is jeopardized. The instructor pilot
shall control the training evolution in accordance with the
scenario and in strict coordination with the instructor flight
engineer.
Note
Use of HAZREPS is worthwhile, and should be the
primary source for building realistic and challenging
scenarios both in the aircraft and the simulator. This
guide provides a foundation of malfunction set-up
procedures for scenario based training in the aircraft.
Any malfunction or emergency set-up not specifically
outlined by this guide should be thoroughly briefed by
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
the IP and IFE prior to the planeside brief and scenario
execution.
Consideration should be given to not scheduling training
flights in excess of 4 hours. Flights longer than 5 hours may
result in degraded training due to aircrew fatigue.
In order to avoid the possibility of degraded performance
and safety awareness, consideration should be given to
canceling flights that are not airborne within 5 hours of the
scheduled preflight time.
There is a temptation on instructional flights for crew
members in the flight station to relax their outside scan. It is
the responsibility of the instructor pilot to use extra trainees
aboard as flight station lookouts and to ensure that other
crew members are occupying aft lookout stations. In this
regard, instructors should avoid long systems discussions
that detract from the normal responsibilities of the students
to see and avoid other traffic.
Airmanship
Basic Airmanship is a major teaching point that
needs to be stressed. IPs should allocate portions of their
training to bolster TP’s basic airmanship. Focus should be
on instrument procedures as well as tactically maneuvering
the aircraft. This can be accomplished on training flights
with more of the systems malfunctions being incorporated
into the simulator without jeopardizing TFE training.
Use of Demonstrations
Instructors introducing new items into the syllabus
are encouraged to demonstrate as well as talk about the new
item in order for students to get the full benefit of their
knowledge and experience. Students should follow along on
the flight controls during these demonstrations in order to
receive the physiological feedback of manipulating the flight
controls. Properly demonstrated maneuvers serve as an
excellent instructional technique and also keep the IP and
IFE current and proficient. Background information such as
supporting performance data should be discussed during the
brief. Prior to conducting a demonstration, brief the required
items from the inflight job aid card, or brief the low work
item as discussed later in this document. Inform the
upgrader of important teaching points you want them to take
away from the demonstration. During the actual maneuver
pick two to five teaching points to focus on, to include the
physiological aspects of airmanship.
Simulating Emergencies and
Malfunctions
The TP and TFE are probably anxious about any
possible emergency or malfunction. The instructors should
attempt to reassure and reinforce them by emphasizing that
2-4
emergencies (i.e., those problems requiring immediate
action) are much less common than malfunctions. The TP
and TFE should learn to differentiate between the immediate
responses required by emergencies and the timely analysis
appropriate for malfunctions. Do not force the TP and TFE
to treat everything that happens as an emergency.
It cannot be overemphasized that the most critical
element involved when failing an aircraft system is the instructor’s knowledge of what they lost, and what the
ramifications are if the student reacts irrationally, or if an
actual system malfunction occurs.
The IP and IFE must be fully alert and completely aware
of what is occurring in the flight station at all times. During
simulated malfunctions, the IFE should be defensively
positioned in the flight station relative to switches, feather
buttons, or emergency shutdown handles most likely to be
used by the TFE in response to the malfunction. Students
under stress will not always react in a predictable manner, so
be alert! It can be uncomfortable to have the TFE call out
“LOW POWER number 4” when the simulated malfunction
is a low power on number 1. In this instance the IFE or IP
must be alert enough to determine if the TFE’s call was a
real “LOW POWER” or just a good case of TFE nerves.
Each simulated malfunction must be completed and cleaned
up prior to moving on to the next area of discussion.
Simulated Malfunctions and
Emergencies
It is imperative that all simulated malfunctions and
emergencies are conducted within the limits of aircraft
performance and the instructor’s own abilities. Coordination
with the ITC or INAV prior to and during crew drills is
paramount to safe and realistic simulations.
It must be realized that this guide cannot cover
every malfunction that can be simulated in flight.
Consideration must be given to the instructor’s abilities
when selecting malfunctions to present to the TP and TFE.
Simulations that require engine shutdown or setting up
major system malfunctions:
1. Shall have an IP and IFE on board.
WARNING
Safety of flight considerations dictate that major
systems or component malfunctions shall not be set
up by the IFE if he is occupying the FE seat.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Note
Flight Engineers in the IUT syllabus may set up
malfunctions provided the following:
•
A qualified IFE is in the FE seat.
•
The qualified IFE has reviewed the scenario with
the IP.
•
The IFE in the seat shall ensure proper malfunction
set-up prior to execution.
Note
Pilot training/proficiency flights on which only the
rudder boost shutoff valve circuit breaker (K13) is
pulled or any engine simulated out/no-flap landing
practice require only an IP and a qualified FE.
2. Shall not be given during hours of darkness or
under actual instrument conditions.
Note
Flight instrument malfunctions are not considered
“major systems malfunctions” but are subject to the
following restrictions, and apply to all IP’s and
designated Instrument Check Pilots:
•
FDI circuit breakers shall not be pulled under IMC.
•
Pulling the HSI and/or FDI circuit breakers during
hours of darkness is approved.
•
IFE’s are not required for Instrument Check flights
requiring the pulling of HSI and/or FDI circuit
breakers.
3. Should not be conducted in high density traffic areas
when doing so would jeopardize the safe conduct of
the flight.
Note
Consideration should be given to delaying NTS
checks, drills, simulated emergencies and
malfunctions until clear of high density traffic areas.
This does not preclude engine-out and no-flap work
in the landing pattern.
4. Shall not be conducted in fuel pits.
Chapter 2
General Flight Training Procedures
Compound Malfunctions
Compound simulated malfunctions (two or more
unrelated malfunctions concurrently for training purposes)
shall not be incorporated into scenarios.
Compound emergencies may jeopardize safety and
have the effect of unnerving the TP and TFE, decreasing
their capacity to absorb further instruction. Common sense
and good judgment must prevail at all times during training
operations. However, combined malfunctions (for example,
a fuel system malfunction tied to your in-flight restart
malfunction) are not compound malfunctions.
Technique versus NATOPS
Instructors must ensure that in the course of instruction the students do not confuse technique or recommended
procedures with established NATOPS procedures. The
instructor must be explicit in the presentation, and clearly
delineate required procedures. Technique is okay to teach,
but allow for other styles as long as they comply with
NATOPS.
Use of Emergency Shutdown
Handles
No engine shall be secured in the landing or instrument approach pattern, below 1500’, or on the active runway
unless an actual malfunction occurs and then only upon the
IP’s command.
Use of the HRD Buttons
Occasionally the HRD button will stick behind the
plastic shield adjacent to and surrounding the HRD button.
The IFE shall physically check the HRD button prior to
resetting the circuit breakers. If not checked the respective
HRD may discharge when the circuit breakers are reset.
Opening of Exits In Flight
The main cabin door or the overwing exits shall not
be opened in flight for simulated malfunctions or demonstrations.
Securing Of Electrical Busses
1. The monitorable essential busses shall not be secured
in flight.
2. During in-flight fire of unknown origin drills, the
Fuselage Fire or Electrical Fire of Unknown Origin
checklist may be performed only through the
securing of Bus A. All subsequent steps shall be
simulated. During evolutions with a tactical crew
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General Flight Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
embarked, the IP shall coordinate with the ITC/INAV
prior to planeside as to the timing and effect of
planned bus losses.
3. Bus A and Bus B shall not be turned off at the same
time.
Pilot Training with Tactical Crew
Embarked
Touch and go landing practice is authorized with a
tactical crew onboard at CO’s discretion. If a full low work
evolution is planned, the tactical crew should be
disembarked.
Use of Command Bell
The command bell may be used for all drills
provided it is prefaced by announcing “This is a drill” and
no passengers are embarked.
IP Vacating Seat
The IP or another qualified PPC shall occupy the
pilot or copilot seat anytime the aircraft is operating below
1000 feet AGL. All pilot in-flight seat swaps shall be
accomplished at or above 1000 feet AGL. The IFE shall be
in the flight station with his headset on any time the IP has
left the flight station. FE’s may swap seats above 500’
AGL.
Power Control
The TP may request the TFE to make power
settings at any time during the flight. During training
however, the TP should be encouraged to handle power
either after passing the final approach fix on a non-precision
instrument approach or on the glide path for a precision
approach. In the VFR landing pattern the TP shall, as a
minimum, handle the power after the initial power reduction
at the 180 position. The TFE may be requested to maintain
any desired cruise power at altitude or to set power during
actual or simulated foul weather approaches.
Actual Malfunctions During Training
Always be alert for actual malfunctions that may
occur when simulations are in progress (e.g. if securing the
Bus A monitoring switch results in the loss of MEAC, etc.).
If an actual malfunction occurs, the IP/IFE should inform the
crew that the malfunction is actual and direct the instructor
flight engineer to clean up from any ongoing simulated
malfunctions. The instructors should handle the malfunction
and evaluate if they can resume training after the situation
has been resolved. If training is resumed, it should
2-6
commence at the next simulation. Resuming training in a
simulation that ceased due to an actual malfunction is not
recommended due to inadvertent consequences, i.e. a
discharged HRD bottle after cleaning up from an engine fire
simulation.
Note
Instructors may allow the TP and TFE to be involved
in handling the malfunction but at all times the
instructors should make it clear to all participants that
the malfunction is actual.
Instructor Pilot Defensive
Positioning During Takeoff and
Landing
The following describes the recommended defensive
position techniques:
1. Right hand around, but not riding, the yoke.
2. Feet on, but not riding, the rudders.
3. Left hand monitoring the power levers. On
downwind and base, placing the left hand behind the
power levers is sufficient. On final and in the flare,
the IP’s hand shall be on top of the power levers.
This is the safest way to ensure that:
a. All power levers stay together.
b. The power levers are not brought over the ramp
with the nose wheel still in the air.
c. Simulated feathered engines’ power levers are
closed out in the flare.
d. One power lever is not left in the flight range
during simulated engine out landing reversal.
Note
Although always ready to take control of the aircraft,
the IP should not be so defensively oriented that he
interferes with the TP’s efforts to control the aircraft.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 3
Ground Training Procedures
CHAPTER 3
Ground Training Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preflight Inspection........................................................3-1
Planeside Brief...............................................................3-1
Engine Start Procedures and Malfunctions....................3-1
Motor Over Procedure ...................................................3-1
Engine Fire on the Ground Procedures..........................3-2
Preflight Inspection
It is the responsibility of the IP and the IFE to
ensure that a complete and proper preflight is performed.
This is accomplished through coordination with other
crewmembers, review of outstanding and previous
discrepancies, and a check of the aircraft preflight inspection
forms. In addition, the IP and IFE should ensure upgraders
understand the different components of the Aircraft
Discrepancy Book, how Maintenance Action Forms are
processed, and how aircraft discrepancies may affect various
missions.
During early stage flights, the IP and IFE should
demonstrate proper preflight procedures. If more than one
TP and one TFE are available, the TP and TFE flying first
will normally preflight the inside of the aircraft and set up
the cockpit while the second TP and TFE preflight the
outside. Aircraft walkthrough and outside preflight teaching
points should focus on developing the upgrader’s knowledge
and situational awareness as well as promote system
discussions. Inside walkthroughs should concentrate on
understanding of energized equipment during minimum
crew evolutions in order to execute the firebill and to quality
check ADB gripes. Outside preflights should help the
TP/TFE begin to formulate their own database of expected
conditions and potential hazard areas.
Plane Side Brief
Taxi Procedures ............................................................ 3-2
Brake Tapping .............................................................. 3-2
Right Seat Taxi Procedures........................................... 3-3
Propeller System Demonstration (Ground)................... 3-4
active runway unless an actual malfunction occurs and then
only upon the command of the instructor pilot. The
instructor pilot should also brief the crew of the plan of
action if an actual malfunction occurs during simulated
training. The students should be briefed on their expected
use of CRM, aircraft equipment, and training aids.
Engine Start Procedures and
Malfunctions
The sequence of events for engine starts will be
conducted in accordance with NATOPS and the Pilot/FE
Training Job Aid.
Note
If performing the torch or engine fire procedure on
the aircraft, it is recommended to exclude the aft
observer or the lineperson in order to minimize
confusion with possible actual malfunctions.
Common errors:
1. TP fails to back-up the TFE during engine starts, or
fails to monitor rotation and the lineperson.
2. TFE secures APU without engine driven generator on
line.
3. TFE secures APU without checking the EGT.
4. TP fails to place hand on the nosewheel during
engine starts.
The plane side brief is normally given by the TP
first flying. A sample plane side brief is covered in the flight
training job aid.
Motor Over Procedure
In addition to the items normally covered, the IP
shall ensure that all flight station personnel understand that
there will be no engines actually shutdown in the landing or
instrument approach pattern, below 1500’ AGL, or on the
In case the engine needs to be “motored over,” do
the Abbreviated Before Start checklist to the step “Fuel and
Ignition Switches.” Motor the engine, after rotation has
stopped, turn on the fuel and ignition switch and complete
3-1
Chapter 3
Ground Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
the Abbreviated Before Start checklist. This procedure may
be done only when the entire Before Start checklist has been
completed.
Engine Fire On The Ground
Procedures
The TP and TFE are required to know and perform
the first two steps of the Engine Fire on the Ground checklist
and then complete the entire checklist beginning with step 1.
Common errors:
CAUTION
Do not use the inboard brake during a fully
deflected turn. This is a pivot on the strut,
meaning one wheel will turn backward and the
other forward. Locking the brake at this time will
create a severe twisting moment in the area
where the gear bolts onto the wing causing
possible fuel leaks.
7. Using excessive reverse with engines in low rpm
causing excessive TIT and /or rpm decay.
1. TP calling for the Emergency Shutdown checklist.
2. TP continuing taxi.
3. TFE not pushing the HRD button.
4. TFE not waiting for the pilot’s command to transfer
and discharge the alternate bottle.
5. TFE opening the HRD transfer switch but not
moving the switch to alternate.
6. TFE actuating the APU HRD vice alternate switch
for engines 3 and 4.
7. TFE not fuel chopping the engine being started if the
fire occurs on another engine during start.
Note
The IP should position his hand on the base of the
power levers during taxi. Check TIT when power
levers are retarded towards reverse. Block power
levers as necessary.
8. Checking the HSI, turn and bank indicators in the
line area.
9. Failing to straighten the nose wheel before stopping
or parking the aircraft.
10. Losing centerline control during briefs or control
checks.
Brake Tapping
Taxi Procedures
Taxiing should be done in accordance with the
procedures in NATOPS and the Pilot/FE Training Job Aid.
Common errors:
1. Reversing as aircraft moves out of the chocks.
2. Leaving power levers in the reverse range after
stopping the aircraft.
3. Failing to set the parking brake properly whenever
the aircraft is stopped.
4. Leaving power levers too far forward, necessitating
excessive use of brakes.
5. Not using the brakes but using excessive reverse to
maintain a safe taxi speed.
6. Using the inboard brake during a fully deflected turn.
3-2
Tapping the aircraft brakes at high speeds is a
severe hazard and may result in a blown tire and tire
separation. IPs must be alert for brake tapping. In the
aircraft, the IP should follow the rudder pedals during the
flight controls check as an aid to recognizing this problem.
In the OFT, the brake indicator hold function may be used.
Prior gradesheets should point out any trends.
If brake tapping is suspected, stop the aircraft, set
the parking brake, and attempt to correct with seat and/or
rudder pedal adjustment. If unable to correct, limit runway
malfunctions to four engines until a simulator period can be
scheduled.
Note
Habitual brake tapping should be corrected in the
simulator. Additionally, the IP shall ensure that all
gradesheets thoroughly reflect this problem along
with any suggested cures.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Right Seat Taxi Procedures
The IP should be proficient in taxiing the aircraft
from the right seat. The recommended right seat taxi technique follows:
1.
Use differential power to control heading.
4. Unfeather the number 1 propeller. TP observes blade
angle decreasing and then cycling around 45 degrees
as the NTS INOP light flashes.
CAUTION
•
Feather pump operation limits: Equal time on
and off, not to exceed 60 seconds continuous
operation. Maximum accumulated time during
any 30 minute period is not to exceed 2 minutes.
•
Explain to the TP that if the feather button is
released during the static unfeather cycle above
10 degrees blade angle, the propeller should be
refeathered to prevent damage to the pitchlock
teeth.
Note
Consideration should be given to shifting inboard
engines or, if needed, all engines, to normal rpm.
2. If differential power is insufficient to maintain
centerline, use occasional light braking, but do not
ride the brakes.
3. Scan down the taxiway/runway. Concentrating on the
centerline immediately in front of the nose causes
over corrections.
Propeller System Demonstration
(Ground)
This demonstration is designed to be performed on
the ground and to show the functions of the autofeather
system, feather button, static unfeathering procedures,
airstart blade angle system, low pitch stops, and Beta
scheduling. During briefs, ensure that the TP has a basic
understanding of these systems. Prior to engine starts,
perform the demo as follows:
CAUTION
When ambient temperature is near or below 0 degrees centigrade, unnecessary static cycling of
propeller blades should be avoided. In these circumstances this demo should be performed at the end
of the flight when oil temperature is sufficient to
prevent blade seal damage.
1. Visually clear the propellers.
Chapter 3
Ground Training Procedures
5. Discuss overriding the 45 degrees protection and
depress and hold the PCO. TP observes blade angle
decreasing to 22.5 degrees.
6. Discuss the purpose of beta follow-up and the fact
that it sets minimum blade angle as scheduled by
power lever position. Move the power lever to flight
idle. TP observes blade angle decreasing to 13
degrees. Discuss the low pitch stop relationship to
minimum beta follow-up setting of 11 degrees.
7. Move power lever to maximum reverse. TP observes
blade angle decreasing to -13 degrees. Discuss how
blade angle is scheduled by power lever position in
the beta range and reposition the power lever to the
ground start position.
8. Discuss what would happen if the PCO were released
any time blade angle is below 45 degrees. Discuss
reasons for releasing feather button prior to releasing
PCO.
9. Discuss the importance of checking the FE when he
unfeathers a propeller in-flight and the result of
pulling out on the feather button of an operating
engine.
2. With the TP in the pilot’s seat, arm the autofeather
system and review its functions. Push the number 1
power lever to 90 degrees coordinator. Note the
number 1 propeller feathering and the number 1
autofeather light on. Deactivate the autofeather
system.
3. With blade angle at feather discuss what happens
when the feather button is pulled to the unfeather
position.
3-3
Chapter 3
Ground Training Procedures
3-4
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
CHAPTER 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Takeoff Procedures........................................................4-1
Takeoff Malfunctions Prior to Refusal ..........................4-1
Abort Procedures on a Back Taxi..................................4-2
Abort-and-Go Takeoffs .................................................4-2
Abort Procedures ...........................................................4-2
Takeoff Malfunctions After Refusal..............................4-4
EFAR Procedures ......................................................... 4-5
Right Seat Takeoff Procedures ..................................... 4-8
Smoke Removal Hatch Open Below / Above Refusal.. 4-8
130 Knot Climb Demonstration.................................... 4-8
Three-Engine Ferry Takeoff Demonstration................. 4-8
Takeoff Procedures
8. TFE fails to set oil coolers for takeoff.
Normal takeoffs shall be in accordance with NATOPS.
The training syllabus gradesheets outline the types of
takeoffs required.
9. TFE advances power too rapidly or does not have
power set by 80 knots.
Common errors:
1. TP fails to adjust the rudder pedals properly. This is a
critical item especially as the TP progresses to
takeoff malfunctions. Ensure the TP extends the leg
during rudder application and that the natural
extension of the foot does not result in a brake
application. Once the takeoff roll commences, only
the “ball” of the foot should be on the rudder pedal.
2. TP does not place “heels on the deck” prior to commencing the takeoff roll resulting in an inadvertent
brake application and possibly a blown tire.
3. TP continues to use the nose wheel steering after the
rudder is effective resulting in undue stress on the
nose gear.
4. TP grips the power levers and does not allow the TFE
to set power.
5. TP removes right hand from the power levers prior to
simulated refusal speed or fails to remove hand at
simulated refusal speed.
6. TP does not apply sufficient yoke back pressure at
“rotate.”
7. TP over rotates.
10. TFE scans TIT when SHP limited or scans SHP when
TIT limited.
11. TFE pulls RAWS circuit breakers without pilot
concurrence or validation of an erroneous RAWS
indication.
12. TFE fails to secure autofeather system once gear is
safely up or prior to the initial level-off.
Takeoff Malfunctions Prior To
Refusal
One of the most critical and potentially dangerous
syllabus evolutions is the takeoff malfunction. That the
malfunction is simulated does not reduce the danger of the
situation. The necessity for an alert, proficient IP is even
more evident when one realizes that a problem can be
quickly complicated by an unexpected reaction on the part of
the TP or an actual aircraft malfunction.
During the brief, discuss the definition of and basis
for refusal speed and utilize NATOPS performance charts
for the determination of refusal speed. Understanding this
will help the TP realize the flight control, power lever and
wheel brake inputs required during an abort.
The IP and IFE must mentally review the actions
required throughout the evolution prior to commencing the
abort run. The following requirements should be met:
4-1
Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
Note
1. Runway length ⎯ 6,000 feet minimum.
2. Runway width ⎯ 150 feet minimum.
3. Consider the crosswind component ⎯ More than 5–
10 knots could cause serious control problems if the
TP reacts adversely. The same holds true for the
tailwind component on back taxi abort runs.
4. Runway condition ⎯ Sufficiently dry to prevent
skidding or hydroplaning.
Abort Procedures on a Back Taxi
Takeoff malfunctions prior to refusal may be conducted on a
high speed back taxi, after coordinating with the Tower.
This practice allows for better time management during pilot
training evolutions. Takeoffs with tailwinds are not
commonplace but are conducted in real world operating
environments (weapons departures, counter threat
departures, and takeoffs from runways in high density traffic
flow areas). Tailwind components decrease aircraft refusal
speed by 1.5 knots for each knot of tailwind component.
The distance to refusal increases 2% for each knot of
tailwind. Example: Given the following parameters: 6,500
foot runway, 27 degrees C, PA = 0, 103,880 lbs GW, 10
knot tailwind, dry runway, 3500 SHP, refusal speed is 111
knots, the distance to refusal speed is 3200 feet. At all times
the IP needs to have an airspeed and runway remaining point
where an abort should be initiated in the event the simulated
malfunction does not occur as planned. Consideration
should be given to not conducting an EFBR during a back
taxi with less than 7000 feet remaining with a tailwind
component greater than 10 knots.
Abort-and-Go Takeoffs
A minimum of 6,000 feet of usable runway
remaining is required after the aircraft has been brought to a
full stop. Ensure the trim, flaps, and oil coolers are set
correctly prior to initiating the takeoff.
Abort Procedures
For training purposes, an engine/propeller malfunction, generator mechanical failure lights, chips light,
generator off light, etc. (see chapter 7 for additional
warnings, cautions, and notes), may be given to the TP as
abort criteria. As on all training flights, any command given
by the IP supersedes one given by the TP.
It is recommended that the first aborts be done with all four
engines so the TP gets the feel of reversing action.
4-2
The TP will gain little in learning to control the
aircraft if the engine is failed while he is still using
the nose wheel steering.
The simulation of an engine/propeller malfunction may
be accomplished by any one of the following:
1. Induce a power loss by use of the bleed system (see
chapter 7 for set-up), and/or announce: “Power loss”
sometime after 80 knots but prior to VR.
2. Announce some type of engine/propeller or other
system malfunction prior to VR.
WARNING
•
•
•
IP’s should scan primarily down the runway but
must be alert for the possibility of an actual
emergency occurring during all simulated engineout training.
Simulating power losses prior to refusal shall be
induced using the engine bleed system only.
Retarding a power lever is prohibited in the
aircraft.
Simulated propeller
announced by the IP.
malfunctions
shall
be
Note
For three-engine aborts, the discussion on threeengine reversal is applicable.
Ensure the TP promptly calls for, and initiates, the abort
by smoothly retarding the power levers to flight idle. Stress
the use of rudder, forward yoke pressure, aileron into the
failed engine and differential reverse power in maintaining
directional control. If moderate wheel braking is used, allow
the brakes to cool prior to setting the parking brakes. It must
be emphasized that centerline control is paramount and that
the TP must scan down the runway. The pace of the abort,
the CRM involved, and the corresponding control inputs are
the main teaching points to stress to the TP and TFE. The
TP must first learn proper control inputs to maintain
centerline without inducing oscillations prior to focusing on
minimizing runway utilized. Make sure the TP understands
the simulated scenario, i.e. are you runway limited simulated
with a refusal speed, or is the scenario based on a non
runway critical situation. During an EFBR demonstration,
the IP should have the TP follow along on the controls to
reinforce the physiological aspect of the abort. Stress CRM
behavioral skills, especially communication, during the
abort.
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Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
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Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
There is often discussion as to whether the proper
sequence is to abort-and-feather or feather-and-abort in the
event of a propeller malfunction. Delaying the power
reduction until the emergency shutdown handle has been
pulled can result in more runway being used during a critical
evolution, aircraft control problems due to VMC GRD, or
continued acceleration through refusal speed. On the other
hand, a delay in pulling the emergency shutdown handle
until the power levers have been retarded to flight idle can
result in severe control problems with flight idle power
being developed by the normally operating engines and the
pitchlocked powerplant/propeller combination producing,
under some circumstances, in excess of 1500–2000 SHP.
Obviously, further movement of the power lever into the
ground and reverse range will further aggravate control
problems with the pitchlocked propeller producing positive
thrust and the other power plants producing reverse thrust.
The pace of control inputs and the standardized
terminology used during an abort are significant teaching
points to stress to upgraders. To standardize CRM during a
three-engine abort for a simulated propeller malfunction, the
RP and RFE shall perform the following after the
malfunction is called out:
1. The TP calls out and initiates the abort, then calls for
the appropriate E-handle.
2. The RFE shall say “Check me #______” but make
no hand movements towards the E-handles.
3. The IP will announce “Simulated” and a threeengine reversal in accordance with Chapter 6 of this
guide shall then be conducted.
WARNING
Prior to practicing simulated takeoff malfunctions
below refusal, deenergize the autofeather system to
prevent inadvertent autofeather of an engine.
Always consider the wind direction. A significant
crosswind will cause the aircraft to weathercock into the
wind and could compound the power loss problem for the
TP.
Common errors:
1. TP slow in retarding the power levers with the
aircraft below VMC GRD airspeed.
2. TP uses incorrect rudder inputs.
4-4
WARNING
•
The IP should block the wrong rudder pedal with
his foot and take the aircraft if the TP pushes the
wrong rudder pedal.
•
It is important to first stop the aircraft’s
movement towards the side of the runway, then
stop the movement toward the end of the runway.
Trying to do both simultaneously may result in
severe control difficulties.
3. TP retards power levers too quickly, leaving a power
lever over the ramp during a propeller malfunction,
or inducing control difficulties due to an inability to
react to changing power output.
4. TP attempts to use nose wheel steering at high speed.
5. TP applies brakes during rudder application.
6. TP does not call for the emergency shutdown handle
prior to entering the ground operating range on a
propeller malfunction.
7. TP uses maximum reverse excessively, causing additional control problems as speed decreases.
Takeoff Malfunctions After Refusal
A discussion of refusal speed is appropriate for the
brief. With long runways and at training weights, refusal
speed is normally the rotate speed in most cases. Since this
would not allow practice three-engine takeoffs, this figure is
artificially reduced to 100 knots. For training purposes only,
the takeoff should be continued if a simulated malfunction
occurs above this speed. Explain to the TP that the IP still
has the option to abort the takeoff in the 100-115 knots range
in the event that an actual malfunction occurs.
The IP and IFE must mentally review the actions required for the evolution prior to commencing the takeoff.
The following conditions should exist:
1. Runway length ⎯ 6,000 feet minimum.
2. Runway width ⎯ 150 feet minimum.
3. Consider the crosswind component. Caution should
be exercised in simulating an upwind engine loss
when crosswinds are present. Crosswinds may
increase VMC GRD 2 knots for every 3 knots of
crosswind component. More than 5–10 knots could
cause control problems if the TP reacts adversely.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Actual engine failures during takeoffs do not take
wind direction into account. The adverse effects on
controllability should be stressed to more senior
upgraders and discussed during all pilot meetings.
Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
The simulation of an engine/propeller malfunction
after refusal may be accomplished by any one of the
following:
1. Retard a power lever to simulate an engine failure.
4.
Runway condition ⎯ Sufficiently dry to prevent
skidding or hydroplaning.
EFAR Procedures
Explain to the TP that a pilot’s first indication of an
engine failure is a swerve into the failed engine. The primary
concern at this time must be controlling the aircraft while
continuing down the runway. The TFE will determine the
nature of the malfunction and call it out. The key to keeping
the aircraft on runway centerline is coordinated aileron,
rudder, and forward pressure on the yoke. This aids in tricycle gear directional stability. Emphasize in the brief that this
is an easy time to tap a brake if feet are improperly
positioned. The control inputs utilized to regain centerline
control and maintain into the initial climb out attitude are
also important teaching points.
The IP will call “rotate” and the TP should
smoothly fly the aircraft off the runway raising the failed
engine as necessary to fly straight (toward a maximum 5
degrees of bank in order to minimize VMC AIR and optimize
climb out performance). The TP should continue to hold
some degree of rudder and aileron correction as the landing
gear break contact with the deck, or a skidding, unbalanced
attitude will occur. As the aircraft climbs, the TP calls for
the gear to be raised. Once the aircraft has exited the VMC AIR
region, the TP can reduce the angle of bank used in order to
fly out on runway centerline/heading or climb out
instructions. Once safely airborne, the TP should ask the
TFE what emergency has occurred, and then take the
appropriate action. Stress to the TP the importance of proper
CRM and adherence to the adage “Aviate, navigate,
communicate”. Proper coordination allows a complete
analysis of cockpit indications once safely airborne (i.e.,
even though a power loss was called by the TFE, the engine
may still be producing power), and ensures aircraft safety
while performing corrective action. This coordination allows
the TP to perform the primary duty of safely flying the
aircraft and also allows for the pilot and copilot to backup or
observe the TFE perform the corrective action.
For training purposes, an engine/propeller malfunction, chips light, generator off light, etc. (see chapter 7 for
additional warnings, cautions, and notes), may be given
above VR to permit the TP to gain experience in controlling
the aircraft and to ensure that he understands the meaning
and importance of “Refusal” during the takeoff evolution.
2. Retard power lever to about 60 degrees coordinator
to simulate fuel governing action and propeller drag
associated with overspeed.
3. IP announces some type of engine/propeller or other
system malfunction.
WARNING
•
Prior to practicing simulated takeoff malfunctions above refusal, deenergize the autofeather
system to prevent inadvertent autofeather of an
engine.
•
If a simulated engine failure occurs after Vr do
not fail a second engine until traffic pattern
altitude is reached. Action other than this will
unnecessarily compound the malfunction, and
more importantly, may cause VMC AIR to increase above the aircraft airspeed.
Note
It is recommended that prior warning be given to
the TP on the first few engine failures (not which
engine, but that one will be failed).
If the TP has control problems on the runway, the IP may
delay calling rotate to ensure the aircraft is under control.
Note
Although additional power is available when using
reduced power for takeoff, the TP should often be
exposed to simulated malfunctions after refusal as if
he had maximum power set, which would be the case
if an actual refusal speed existed. This should prompt
the TP to make a decision regarding flap selection
during climb out. The IP may use additional power on
any engine if he deems it necessary.
Common errors:
1.
TP places his hand back on the power levers and
attempts to abort.
Note
•
Prevent this by positioning the hand at the base
of the power lever, blocking any attempt to
reverse.
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Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
4-6
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
•
If the TP is able to retard the power levers aft, the
IP shall take the aircraft and either abort the
takeoff or push the power back up and continue
the takeoff. This decision depends on airspeed,
runway remaining, how far back the power levers
were retarded, etc.
Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
Right Seat Takeoff Procedures
2. TP fails to input correct aileron and rudder.
When demonstrating abort procedures and engine
failures after refusal, the IP may make the takeoff from the
right seat. Explain to the TP that this takeoff technique is
being used to eliminate the problems possibly encountered
with two people controlling the aircraft during this critical
evolution, and that it is not the normal takeoff procedure.
3. TP taps brake while applying rudder.
The following is one recommended technique:
4. TP uses insufficient or opposite rudder.
WARNING
•
•
If the TP uses the wrong rudder, the IP shall
immediately take the aircraft and rotate while
simultaneously reestablishing power on all four
engines.
VRO airspeed is not a consideration during this
predicament. The IP should not wait for 115
knots because if he does, the aircraft will likely
be off the runway. At training weights, the
aircraft will have no problem flying with
airspeed in the 100–115 knot range.
Note
To prevent this, the IP should block the wrong
rudder with his foot.
1. Taxi the aircraft onto the runway centerline with the
nose wheel straight ahead and set the parking brake.
2. Advance the power levers to 2500 SHP (which
should put the power levers above the 66 degrees
coordinator crossover point).
Note
•
With no crosswind, right rudder will normally be
required for the takeoff and may be applied at
this time.
•
If there is a significant left crosswind, setting
2500 SHP on number 1 and 2000 SHP on the
remaining engines will provide better centerline
control.
3. Release the parking brake and smoothly release the
brakes.
Note
5. TP attempts to rotate early (before rotate).
Another technique is to do a rolling takeoff where
the IP smoothly advances the power levers from
flight idle as the brakes are released.
Note
•
•
Try to prevent this by blocking the yoke, until
rotation is desirable.
If the TP attempts to rotate early, stop rotation, if
possible, but once the nose wheel is airborne,
take control and continue the takeoff, using all
four power levers.
6. TP tries to determine problem instead of flying aircraft.
4. As the rudder becomes effective, smoothly advance
the power levers.
Note
Asymmetric power lever advancement may be
required to maintain centerline.
5. As the speed increases and rudder authority is
established, call for briefed takeoff power.
7. TP forgets to raise the gear.
8. TP fails to raise the flaps (if necessary).
6. Call “80 knots”, “Refusal”, and “Rotate” as required
for the demonstration.
Note
•
The IP’s takeoff technique should allow
directional control to be gained early enough to
ensure that the briefed power is established by 80
knots.
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Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
•
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
When performing a right seat takeoff, the left
hand should remain on the power levers at all
times. This is a precaution against any
malfunction (occurring after simulated refusal
speed) which may require an abort. The IP
should move his hand to the base of the power
levers to simulate refusal, and maintain that hand
position through rotation.
aircraft. A normal takeoff sequence is made for training purposes. When clearance is a factor, maximum power should
be applied with the brakes set.
Do not rotate early. Maintain strict adherence to the
speed schedule. After rotation, adjust the nose attitude
(about 15 degrees nose high) to maintain climb airspeed.
When airborne, raise the gear. Use maximum power until
level off.
Common errors:
WARNING
1. Not ensuring the nose wheel is straight when the
parking brake is set.
2. Applying brakes during takeoff roll, giving the TP
the appearance that the IP is using brakes to steer the
aircraft.
3. Retarding power levers versus advancing them in
order to maintain centerline. Retarding a power lever
multiplies the number of corrections required and
induces control problems. This also increases the
time required to establish SHP and the runway
required for takeoff.
Smoke Removal Hatch Open Below
and Above Refusal
This demonstration should be accomplished
sometime during the syllabus. IPs have the option of having
the IFE open the door upon a given signal (e.g., head nod) or
at a certain speed. This malfunction may be given before or
after refusal, but is more dramatic after refusal due to
increased noise. If after VR, the takeoff must be completed
and the door closed after safely airborne. Be alert to the
possibility of an unplanned abort after VR.
130 Knot Climb Demonstration
This demonstration is used as a confidence building
maneuver. Consult the appropriate charts for a discussion of
stall speed, VMC AIR, V50 3 and 4-engine speeds. A general
speed for climb out is 130 KIAS for aircraft weights of
90,000 to 108,000 lb.
WARNING
Rotate speeds from the charts are 115 knots and
rotation should take place at that speed.
The crew must be briefed to be securely strapped in with
emphasis given to preventing gear from going adrift in the
4-8
Do not raise the flaps above takeoff until level off
(airspeed greater than 140).
Emphasize that normal takeoff speeds are used for this
demonstration in order to provide a safe margin above stall
and VMC airspeeds. Use of the minimum distance speed
schedule would result in less ground run distance but would
significantly reduce the safety margins above both stall and
VMC airspeeds. Maximum performance takeoffs are usually
made under conditions of some urgency when the results of
engine failure cannot be considered.
Three-Engine Ferrying Takeoff
Demonstration
Although not normally performed during the training
syllabus in the aircraft, the following steps and notes
supplement the current NATOPS procedures for training.
Ensure the crew refers to the NATOPS for three-engine
ferrying takeoff procedures prior to the takeoff.
This demonstration may only be performed with
authorization from unit commanders.
The minimum recommended runway dimensions are
8,000 feet long and 200 feet wide. Discuss minimum
control speed ground (VMC GRD) and the three-engine
performance charts available in NATOPS calculating the
actual values.
Note
VRO is 130 knots for all weights up to and including
recommended maximum gross of 100,000 pounds.
Takeoff performance and ground roll distance should be
computed using appropriate NATOPS charts.
1.
During the takeoff brief, brief the copilot to call out
VMC GRD and 115 knots, in addition to 80 knots and
rotate.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
2.
At the hold short complete the NATOPS threeengine ferrying procedures.
3.
With brakes set, apply maximum power on the
symmetrical engines. Initially apply full rudder
toward the asymmetric engine.
4.
Release the brakes and allow the aircraft to
accelerate before attempting to increase power.
Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
WARNING
No attempt should be made to apply maximum
power on the asymmetric engine prior to reaching
VMC GRD.
If a three-engine ferry takeoff demonstration is
conducted in the aircraft, be prepared to use all four power
levers for the takeoff if directional control difficulties are
encountered. Slow power application will significantly
increase distance required to accelerate to 130 knots and the
aircraft may reach a point where aborting the takeoff would
not be advisable.
Only the two symmetrical engines will produce
forecasted SHP when passing 80 knots.
The power lever should be advanced in such a way so that
full rudder deflection is not required. There should be a
reserve of rudder travel (in both directions) available at all
times to make heading corrections.
Ensure maximum power is set by 115 knots.
4-9
Chapter 4
Takeoff Training Procedures
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
CHAPTER 5
In-flight Training Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Climb Procedures ..........................................................5-1
NTS Check Procedures..................................................5-1
Governor Indexing.........................................................5-2
Steep Turns....................................................................5-2
Control Boost-Out Airwork...........................................5-3
160 Knot Maneuver .......................................................5-3
Loiter Procedures...........................................................5-4
Engine Restart During Flight.........................................5-4
Stall Buffet Demonstration ............................................5-5
Asymmetric Power Flying Qualities..............................5-6
VMC Air Demonstration ...................................................5-6
Two-Engine Waveoff at Altitude ..................................5-6
Ram Effect Demonstration ............................................5-7
Emergency Gear Extension ...........................................5-7
In-Flight Prop System Demonstration ...........................5-8
45 Degree Airstart System Demonstration ................... 5-8
Air Conditioning and Pressurization System Demo ..... 5-9
Emergency Depressurization Demonstration................ 5-9
with Electrical Power
........................... 5-9
without Electrical Power.................................. 5-10
Flight Idle Stop Demonstration....................................5-10
Engine Fire and Emergency Shutdown Procedures .....5-10
Propeller Fails to Feather Procedures ..........................5-10
Inadvertent Engine Shutdown During Flight ...............5-11
Ditching Drill...............................................................5-11
Engine Out Ditching .......................................... 5-12
Bailout Drill.................................................................5-13
Fire of Unknown Origin Drill......................................5-13
Emergency Descent .....................................................5-15
Climb Procedures
NTS Check Procedures
The autofeather system will be secured after
informing the pilot and when the aircraft is safely airborne.
One standardized technique taught to FRS TFEs is to secure
the autofeather as soon as the landing gear is raised and
should be done prior to the initial power reduction. The
autofeather system can be secured prior to the climb
checklist.
Emphasis should be placed on maintaining a visual
lookout for traffic while conducting the NTS check. If
possible, delay check until leaving high density area.
Note
With the autofeathering system armed, rapid power
application initiated from a low power setting may be
sufficient to feather an engine.
Common errors:
1. TP fails to account for P-factor after liftoff, dipping
the right wing vice using right rudder.
2. TP fails to make a crosswind correction after liftoff.
3. TP accelerates through 190 knots prior to retracting
the flaps from the takeoff position.
Common errors:
1. TP displays poor basic airwork.
2. TP fails to maintain an outside scan.
3. TP/TFE does not consider minimum airspeed for
current gross weight (1.52Vs).
4. TFE does not use fuselage bleed air valves to get
NTS action when required.
5. TFE opens engine bleed air valve with less than 800
SHP.
6. TFE does not observe SHP fluctuation or allow RPM
to stabilize during NTS action.
7. TFE fixates on the feather valve light.
5-1
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
8. TFE forgets to reset the ice control panel/bleed air
panel after the check has been completed.
2. G-loading required to maintain level flight.
3. Aircraft weight and stall/stall buffet speeds for the
configuration.
Governor Indexing
The TP should know and understand the governor
indexing procedures even though they are carried out by the
TFE.
Common errors:
1. TP moves power levers while indexing.
2. TP fails to ensure Climb checklist complete.
3. TFE turns on a sync switch with a master selected.
4. TFE not alert for propeller malfunctions during
indexing.
Steep Turns
Steep turns on upgrade syllabus training flights
should normally be performed no lower than 4,000 feet
AGL. To provide for familiarity with high angle of bank
maneuvering (>45 degrees AOB) at lower altitude,
upgrading pilots should be provided the opportunity to
conduct tactical maneuvering on training flights within
NATOPS altitude and angle of bank limits with a qualified
instructor pilot. This guidance does not restrict realistic use
of “high angles of bank” (i.e., over 45 degrees) for short
periods of time when needed on tactical missions. Use of
high angles of bank at low altitude must take into account
pilot experience, fatigue, time of day, weather, altitude, fuel
consumption and impact on aircrew performance. The
objective of steep turn training is to prepare pilots to fly the
aircraft effectively in tactical situations while minimizing
unnecessary risks in the performance of such training.
Practice steep turns should be conducted only after
extensive briefing between the IP and TP. The turns should
be taught as confidence maneuvers and closely monitored
throughout.
The IP should brief as a minimum:
1. Anticipated angles of bank and NATOPS limitations.
5-2
4. Stall recovery techniques, emphasizing the
importance of leveling wings.
5. Duration of turns (i.e., 180 or 360 degrees).
6. Minimum maneuvering airspeed (gross weight +110
knots recommended) and the use of the AOA
indicator.
7. Minimum acceptable weather conditions. Steep turns
of 45 degrees angle of bank or greater shall be
limited to daylight VMC with a clearly discernible
horizon.
8. Use of power and utilization of the flight engineer.
9. Figure 5-1 should be used to brief the effects of angle
of bank on the aircraft in balanced flight:
Practice turns with sustained angles of bank over 60
degrees are not recommended. A pull up from a 70 degrees
angle of bank turn will exceed the airframe limits (3.0 g’s)
of the aircraft.
Be alert for any abrupt control movements and
teach the student to smoothly apply force on the controls.
Control reversals should be avoided.
Alert the crew, set Condition V, clear the area and
begin with turns of 45 degrees angle of bank. Turn for 180
degrees of heading change. Note that as the aircraft bank
angle increases, the lift vector tilts from the vertical and the
aircraft must increase AOA to maintain level flight. Note the
increasing amount of control force required to maintain level
flight. After the student has mastered 45 degrees advance to
60 degrees angle of bank.
Note
Aircraft loading of 2 g’s is required for a level 60
degree angle of bank turn. Aircraft loading of 3 g’s is
required for a level 70 degree angle of bank turn (see
figure 5-1).
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
Degrees AOB
Approximate G Loading
Percent Increase
Stall Speed
0 Thrust Stall
100,000 lb. Aircraft
0
1.00
0
114
15
1.04
2
116
30
1.15
8
123
45
1.41
19
136
60
2.00
40
162
70
2.94
70
195
Figure 5-1. Effects Of Angle Of Bank On G’s During Balanced Flight
Control Boost-Out Airwork
Booster shift control handles shall not be pulled to practice
boost-off airwork:
1. If one or more engines are actually shutdown.
the trim tabs. A turn at altitude can be made with the use
of asymmetric power rather than muscle on the yoke (i.e.,
left turn, increase power on number 3 and number 4
engines). When the desired angle of bank is reached,
reset the horsepower.
WARNING
2. Below 4000 feet AGL.
3. During hours of darkness.
4. Under IMC.
Boost-out airwork is a condition that will occur
with either the loss of all hydraulic pumps, certain flight
control malfunctions, or the loss of all electrical power.
Point out that “gust lock” will result from failure of either
hydraulic or electrical systems, or improper procedures
while combating an electrical fire of unknown origin.
WARNING
•
•
•
•
In-flight, securing all hydraulic pumps prior to
boost-out training is prohibited.
The unable-to-shift boost controls scenario shall
only be performed by simulating the hydraulic
pumps are simulated secured.
Inform the crew and secure loose equipment
prior to shifting.
It is possible to pull all axis boost handles past the
mechanical stops.
Note
Instruct the TFE to pull the boost handles one at a time.
Allow the TP to fly the aircraft in this condition.
Demonstrate how easily altitude can be maintained using
Beware of large power changes at low speeds. To
demonstrate, slow to 140-150 knots, wings level,
flaps up, boost-out, 500 SHP. At typical training
weights of 80,000 to 110,000 lb., power off stall
buffet speeds range from approximately 111 knots to
128 knots respectively. To simulate a waveoff, add
power to break the rate of descent, roll in some nose
down trim and add power slowly. Return the system
to normal. Explain that the boost-out approach to a
landing is no longer performed as a training
maneuver in the aircraft. It is an emergency evolution
and will be accomplished only at that time. If this
emergency were to arise, consideration should be
given to proceeding to a satisfactory alternate when
adverse weather or high wind conditions exist at the
destination.
160 Knot Maneuver
The primary purpose of this maneuver is to show
the TP the reason behind the P-3 waveoff procedures.
Additionally, the TP will gain an appreciation for power and
trim requirements in various configurations which will help
develop basic airwork skills. Ensure that the TP stabilizes at
each increment to properly note power and trim changes
before continuing. Begin by having the TP establish the
aircraft on an assigned altitude and heading in the clean
configuration at 160 knots (trimmed hands-off). Reference
your 1.52 Vs. Note the power (approximately 1000 SHP)
and trim required. Stress the importance of an instrument
and visual scan and the importance of the VSI in altitude
control.
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
1. Select maneuver flaps and have the TP maintain
altitude and 160 knots, noting power and trim
changes.
2. Select approach flaps and have the TP maintain altitude and 160 knots, noting power and trim changes.
3. Leave approach flaps set and drop the gear maintaining altitude and 160 knots, noting power and trim
changes.
4. Raise the gear and set landing flaps. As airspeed
bleeds off it will become apparent that the power
setting will not be sufficient to maintain 160 knots
(Note the elevator trim required, 19–23 units up).
This serves as a good explanation for retracting the
flaps to approach before raising the landing gear
during a waveoff.
5. (Optional). With land flaps set, lower the landing
gear again and slow to 140 knots; execute a waveoff
climbing straight ahead. Although this is not an “in
close” type waveoff when speeds may be less than
1.3 VS, it will give the TP an appreciation for the trim
required once the flaps are raised past the
takeoff/approach position.
Common errors:
1. TP uses little or no rudder trim.
2. TP does not stabilize at each configuration to note
power and trim changes.
3. TP flies primarily by use of the trim vice the primary
flight controls.
4. TP does not maintain a positive rate of climb while
executing waveoff procedures.
5. TP displays poor instrument scan.
Loiter Procedures
If a loiter shutdown is required by the syllabus,
discuss the requirements that must be met before loitering an
engine. Address the advantages of high altitude loiter and
restart, and review the use of the loiter operating tables in
the NATOPS Flight Manual. A sample loiter brief is listed in
the Pilot/FE Training Job Aid.
Common errors:
1. TFE fails to get checked before pulling the emergency shutdown handle.
5-4
2. TFE fails to get checked prior to turning the fuel and
ignition switch off.
3. TP does not suggest the reposition of the propeller for
a bad “X” that is causing buffet.
Engine Restart During Flight
The TP and TFE should understand that proper
crew coordination during an in-flight restart is paramount.
Both should closely monitor cockpit indications, especially
RPM and the annunciator lights. A sample restart brief is
listed in the Pilot/FE Training Job Aid.
Common errors:
1. TP allows a start with no brief or an inadequate brief.
2. TP and TFE do not post an aft observer prior to the
start.
3. TP does not watch the propeller during PCO.
4. TP does not check the TFE unfeathering the correct
propeller.
5. TP does not observe blade angle and rotation.
6. TP does not check the TFE on the correct fuel and
ignition switch.
7. TP or TFE does not call for continuation of the
checklist.
Stall Buffet Demonstration
Power-off approach to stalls may be carried out in any
configuration and must be conducted in accordance with
procedures given in the NATOPS. The stall buffet
demonstration shall be conducted in a power-off, zero
degrees AOB condition and shall not be conducted:
1. If one or more engines are actually shutdown.
2. Below 10,000 feet AGL.
3. During hours of darkness.
4. Under IMC.
This demonstration is designed to introduce the TP
to stall buffet and stall recovery techniques and is an excellent method of building confidence in P-3 performance
characteristics. Instructors should brief the upgrader of the
most likely scenarios of entering stall buffet and the
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Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
performance charts that relate to those situations. Some
teaching points to focus on include: the feeling of airframe
buffet, AOA, recovery procedures, and altitude loss.
7. The aircraft should be kept in balanced flight
throughout the maneuver or a rolling tendency will
occur on stall buffet entry and/or recovery.
During the brief, determine actual stall speed and
stall buffet speed for the desired aircraft configuration.
Note
•
CAUTION
When conducting the stall buffet demo, the IP shall
recover the aircraft if the calculated stall buffet speed is
reached and the plane has not yet entered buffet. The
speeds shall be recomputed and if during the second
attempt the plane still does not buffet at the calculated
speed, the airspeed may be allowed to decrease below the
calculated value at the IP’s discretion. Good judgment
prevails as to how slow the aircraft should be allowed to
fly.
Note
The IFE shall ensure that the TFE gives the correct
stall and stall buffet speeds.
When conducting the approach to stall series, brief
the TP to scan the AOA indicator. As the aircraft decelerates
toward stall buffet the AOA indicator will enter the hashed
band and stall buffet will occur at 20 units AOA.
In addition to the procedures in the NATOPS the following
steps shall be performed:
1. Set Condition V, notify all crew members and
execute clearing turns.
2. Initially set 300 SHP. This will allow SHP to remain
positive as the aircraft decelerates.
3. Discontinue trimming 20 knots above the charted
stall buffet speed and gradually decrease the airspeed
at approximately 1 knot per second. This will require
a loss of altitude, with typical rates of descent
between 600 and 800 FPM.
4. Do not make large attitude corrections in an attempt
to maintain altitude or an accelerated stall may occur.
5. Initiate recovery as the aircraft enters the stall buffet
region. Relax back pressure on the yoke, advance the
power levers and call for normal rated power. Use
rudder and aileron to maintain balanced flight and
wings level. Stress a smooth recovery.
6. Diving to accelerate is undesirable as this would not
be possible at low altitude. Show the RP that a
recovery can be made with a minimal loss of altitude.
•
Maintaining a visual scan, especially during recovery, is extremely helpful in developing a
smooth coordinated technique.
Wings level attitude is very important. If a wing
is dropped there is a probability of stalling one
wing.
Common errors:
1. Decelerating too slowly resulting in excessive altitude loss and mushy stall buffet entry.
2. Decelerating too rapidly causing abrupt or accelerated stall buffet.
3. Dropping a wing or not keeping the aircraft in
balanced flight.
4. Lowering the nose excessively during recovery,
resulting in unnecessary altitude loss.
5. Applying insufficient power during recovery,
possibly resulting in accelerated stall.
Asymmetric Power Flying Qualities
The P-3 has good engine-out handling qualities in
all configurations. The published one and two engine out
VMC AIR for 5 degrees angle of bank toward the operating
engines is rudder limited. At these airspeeds and power
settings, aileron is effective in controlling angle of bank, and
marginally effective to arrest roll rates following a sudden
power loss or power addition. As the aircraft slows below
these speeds, the aileron available to stop rolling conditions
from power changes decreases, eventually resulting in
insufficient aileron to hold the desired angle of bank.
Establishing a 3–5 degree angle of bank into the operating engines for straight flight results in the best climb
performance (zero sideslip) and is a compromise between
engine thrust and sideslip generated drag. This attitude results in the balance ball deflecting toward the operating
engines. Under these conditions a centered balance ball is
not optimum and should not be used. If maximum climb
performance is required in a turn, this same ball deflection
should be maintained.
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
VMC Air Demonstration (Sim only)
This demonstration is designed to show the aircraft
yaw moments that can be expected during flight below
minimum control airspeed regime. The IP should discuss
what may cause the aircraft to enter VMC AIR, and the
techniques used to recover.
CAUTION
This demonstration shall only be performed in the
simulator.
Procedures
* Perform maneuver at moderate to light gross weights
(<100,000 lbs).
1. Ensure #1 and #2 are feathered and Rudder Boost
Shutoff Valve CB (K13) is pulled.
2. Gear down, flaps at approach.
3. Establish aircraft 8-10 NM from field at 2500-3000’
AGL in VMC. Use runway as visual reference point.
4. Maintain 145 KIAS, 600-800 FPM ROD on final.
5. Reduce power on #3 and #4 and decelerate towards
120 KIAS to simulate getting slow on approach.
Two-Engine Waveoff At Altitude
1. At an airspeed of 145 knots with gear down and flaps
at approach, simulate feather on number 1 and 2.
Reestablish power on number 3 and 4 required to fly
a gradual descent of approximately 600 to 800 FPM.
2. Initiate the waveoff by gradually applying 925
degrees TIT or 3200 SHP while rolling in 5 degrees
right wing down and sufficient rudder to prevent
yaw. Emphasize visual references and a frequent but
secondary instrument scan.
4. Repeat the waveoff until the TP can use power,
aileron, and rudder simultaneously and instinctively,
then add elevator for altitude adjustments.
Note
The same points apply to three-engine waveoffs.
Directional control must be established before a
climb is attempted. A slight loss in altitude with
directional control is more desirable than a possible
greater loss caused by improper action. This
demonstration is conducted to either emphasize the
actual two-engine waveoff procedures and the pace
that it should be conducted or a step by step recovery
to emphasize the importance of reducing drag to
generate ROC.
Common errors:
6. Rapidly set max power on #3 and #4 and enter Vmc
Air. Demonstrate full control deflections with
nose tracking left for about 30-60 degrees of heading
change.
7. Lower the nose and accelerate above VmcAir. (1st
way to get out of VmcAir- results in loss of approx
500’)
8. Once re-established on course and glideslope,
smoothly re-apply max power again and raise the
nose to re-enter VmcAir.
9. Once in VmcAir, rapidly reduce power on #4, raise
the left wing and correct back to centerline. (2nd way
to get out of VmcAir)
10. Continue approach at 1.35 Vs + 5 knots (145
minimum until landing is assured).
11. At 300 feet AGL execute NATOPS 2 Engine
Waveoff Procedures.
5-6
1. TP attempts waveoff without using visual reference.
2. TP attempts a climb before adequate directional
control is established.
Ram Effect Demonstration
The IP should demonstrate acceleration and
deceleration characteristics and ram effect with the autopilot
engaged and altitude hold selected. Ram effect is most vividly demonstrated by placing the power levers in the temp
controlling range at an even horsepower setting (2,500 ± 500
SHP) and then observing both fuel flow and SHP increases
as the aircraft accelerates. The demonstration may then be
reversed by retarding the power levers and observing both
fuel and SHP decrease as the aircraft slows.
It is of academic interest to realize that ram effect is
a result of T-56 fuel scheduling processes. It is important,
however, for the TP to realize and understand that ram effect
displays itself in the form of a more sluggish initial response
with rather long term effects whenever the power levers are
repositioned for airspeed changes. The pilot should therefore
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
be aware of airspeed after making any significant power
change.
Emergency Gear Extension
Emphasize the fact that for all landing gear
emergencies, reference to the NATOPS is desirable. This
portion of the demonstration may be performed in the
aircraft.
To demonstrate gear not extending because of
electrical malfunction, pull the landing gear control circuit
breaker (E17). When the TP calls for gear down, announce
that the gear is not coming down, but that hydraulic pressure
is normal. Ensure that the TP and TFE review the procedures
in NATOPS. Have the TP or TFE operate the selector valve
to the DOWN position. The selector valve may be used to
raise the gear if desired. Be sure that the TP and TFE understand that the valve must be held in the UP position until the
gear is up and locked or else it will freefall down. Do not
forget to reset the landing gear control circuit breaker when
finished with the demonstration.
The next demonstration may be initiated by
simulating a failed number 1 hydraulic system. Turn off
hydraulic pumps 1 and 1A and request gear down. The TP’s
and TFE’s reaction should be to recognize a situation where
the gear must be dropped manually. Ensure that TP and TFE
review the procedures in NATOPS. Do not forget the
warning about holding the nose gear until the main mounts
are down and locked. The 1B hydraulic pump receives its
control and power from the GOB whenever its switch is
turned on and accumulator pressure is below 2200 PSI.
Discuss methods available for energizing the GOB.
Demonstrate use of the 1B pump on the deck. Turn
off the number 1 system and reduce system brake pressure
below 2200 PSI level by pumping the brakes. Discuss the
purpose of the 1B pump and its source of electrical power.
Turn on the 1B pump and allow the brake accumulator to
pressurize. Discuss time for normal number 1 system
pressure to replenish, and return system to normal.
Note
Expand this discussion to include brake check
during Landing checklist with only the 1B pump
operative and unsafe landing gear procedures.
1. TP and TFE do not turn on the number 1B pump
during landing (simulator).
2. TP and TFE do not refer to NATOPS.
3. TP/TFE lack understanding of NATOPS procedures.
4. TP and TFE lack knowledge of the number 1B pump
operation.
5. TP or TFE releases the selector valve while raising
the gear before they are fully retracted.
In-Flight Prop System
Demonstration
The purpose of this demonstration is to explain
various components in the propeller system and to observe
their in-flight operation.
CAUTION
This demonstration shall only be performed in the
simulator.
1.
Number 1 sync servo off, eliminating possible sync
biasing of propellers during the demonstration.
2.
Secure Bus B to secure power to propeller feather
pump. Discuss alternate power source for engines
number 1 and number 4.
3.
Airspeed 190 knots.
4.
NTS feather valve switch to feather valve check.
5.
Set normal rated power on number 1.
Note
Failure to set normal rated power may result in
engine–propeller decouple due to NTS values being
exceeded.
6.
Fuel chop number 1 engine with the fuel and ignition switch. Observe NTS operation, RPM 35–40
percent and note the flashing feather valve check
light and fluctuating SHP.
7.
Arm the autofeather system. Observe the feather
button pull in, the autofeather light ON, and the
feather pump not running. The feather solenoid has
positioned the feather valve to the feather position.
CAUTION
The landing gear must be cycled at least once
normally prior to landing. This will ensure that
the landing gear selector valve has been properly
positioned down, enabling nose wheel steering.
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
Common errors:
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In-flight Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
At this time, the output of propeller pumps 1 and 2
should bring RPM below 10 percent.
8.
Place the feather transfer switch (number 1 and 4) to
alternate. Note the light in the feather button on; the
propeller pump number 1 light out, and the propeller
feathers.
9.
Turn the autofeather switch off.
10. Place the feather transfer switch to NORMAL.
11. Restore Bus B.
12. Review the functions of the feather button (AC
power to the feather motor, DC power to position
the feather valve solenoid, DC power to the fuel
shutoff valve in the fuel control).
45 Degree Airstart System
Demonstration
CAUTION
This demonstration shall only be performed in the
simulator.
The airstart blade angle system is discussed in the
NATOPS manual. Review the components of the system (45
degrees blade angle switch on the beta shaft, feather button,
pressure cutout override switch).
Note
Impress on the TP that this system is not actuated
during a normal restart and that when it does actuate,
a malfunction exists.
1. Complete the Restart checklist through the item PCO.
2. Brief the FE as follows: After the fuel and ignition
switch is placed on, continue to hold the feather
button. This will result in actuation of the airstart
blade angle system, illuminating the NTS INOP light
as the blade angle goes to 45 degrees after light-off.
The FE will continue to hold out on the button while
announcing “NTS INOP”. Observe RPM stabilizing
at less than 100 percent, approximately 75–80
percent, and TIT steady at 830 degrees. The FE will
then pull the emergency shutdown handle while
continuing to hold out on the feather button.
3.
5-8
After the propeller has been refeathered, conduct a
normal restart, and complete the restart checklist.
Note
Discuss that normal NTS action has made this a
controlled situation. In the event of an NTS failure,
the decrease in blade angle from the feather position
would be considerably more rapid, and the resultant
cycling around the 45 degrees blade position would
also be rougher. This can be demonstrated by
inserting the NTS INOP malfunction for the
subsequent restart. Stress the importance of the FE’s
responsibility to hold out on the feather button until
the emergency shutdown handle is fully pulled.
Discuss what would happen if the FE accidentally
pulled out on the wrong feather button while in a 2or 3-engine loiter configuration and the importance of
always checking the FE during feather or unfeather
operation.
Air Conditioning And Pressurization
System Demonstration
Demonstrate the air conditioning and pressurization
systems as follows:
1. During the planeside brief inquire if any crew
member has problems equalizing pressure in their
ears.
2. Prior to takeoff, place the outflow valve switch to
OFF to keep the outflow valve in the OPEN position.
After takeoff, note that the cabin will climb at the
same rate as the aircraft.
3. Between 3,000 and 4,000 feet, position the outflow
valve switch to AUTO; the aircraft should start to
pressurize. Note the cabin rate of descent, the ability
to control this descent with the rate selector knob,
and the corresponding increase in differential
pressure.
4. Continue with automatic pressurization while
climbing the aircraft. Dump one EDC and note that
the aircraft will still pressurize on the remaining
EDC. Place the dump switch back to NORMAL.
5.
Level the aircraft at 17,000 feet or higher. Reduce
the cabin altitude slowly by use of the closed position on the override switch noting the differential
pressure to rise to 13.9–14.4" (11.7–12.2"). After the
safety relief valve opens, place the override switch
in the CLOSED position to completely close the
outflow valve. The cabin altitude at this point will be
approximately 2000 feet below sea level. Restore
pressurization with outflow override switch. Climb
the aircraft approximately 1000 feet, noting the
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
constant differential pressure at the safety relief
valve setting and increasing cabin altitude.
WARNING
Performing this procedure below 17,000 feet could
expose the crew to hyperbaric conditions.
Emergency Depressurization
Demonstration
WARNING
Instructors shall ensure that engines are not secured
prior to obtaining a satisfactory NTS check.
After an engine has been secured for a simulated
malfunction, the IP and FE shall “clean up” from the
simulated malfunction, and initiate the first 9 steps of the
restart checklist. Discussions concerning the simulated malfunction shall only be conducted after the malfunction has
been cleaned up and the first 9 steps of the restart checklist
have been completed.
WARNING
Notify the crew before conducting any depressurization demo. For these demonstrations, aircraft
altitude shall not exceed 10,000 feet.
With Electrical Power
The TP and TFE are required to have the checklist
memorized. Explain that as long as FEAC is powered, the
aircraft can be depressurized with the outflow valve and
procedures for depressurization without electrical power do
not apply. While discussing this procedure, conduct a review
of the pressurization system and component parts.
Without Electrical Power
Ensure the TP realizes that the aircraft can be
depressurized pneumatically or using the free fall chute.
Flight Idle Stop Demonstration
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
CAUTION
If the oil tank shut off valve circuit breaker is
inadvertently reset on a shutdown engine it shall be
left in until the engine has been restarted. The circuit
breaker shall then be pulled so the valve will remain
open.
Emergency Engine Shutdown training shall only be
accomplished if:
1. If no other engines are shutdown*
2. During daylight hours
3. Above 1500 FT AGL
4. VMC
*Does not apply to IUT Events (See considerations
on page A-14)
Common errors:
1. TP does not confirm that an engine fire exists before
calling for discharge of the second HRD.
With all engines secured, pull the flight idle stop
control circuit breakers and allow the TP to become familiar
with the force required to overcome the flight idle stop on
each power lever.
2. TP/TFE do not utilize good CRM while conducting
the Emergency Shutdown Checklist.
Engine Fire And Emergency
Shutdown Procedures
4. TFE does not secure crossfeed and boost pumps to
respective engine when shutdown for a fire or fuel
leak.
Both the TP and the TFE are required to know the
first two memory items of the emergency shutdown
checklist. The TFE is expected to execute them upon
command of the pilot when a malfunction requires an engine
to be secured. Both students should have a thorough
knowledge of all electrical and mechanical functions of the
emergency shutdown handle.
3. TFE does not get checked on the proper emergency
shutdown handle.
Propeller Fails To Feather
Procedures
The IP and IFE should designate the step at which
the propeller feathers during this procedure. It is advisable to
use engines number 3 or 4, so the TP and TFE can be
informed that the propeller is still turning in the event the
propeller has to be feathered prior to the step desired.
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
CAUTION
Do not let the propeller rotate for more than 45
seconds due to the possibility of damaging the
propeller brake.
Note
•
•
It is normal for oil to be vented overboard through
the lab seal vent during this malfunction. Lab seal
leaks are due to the reduction of fourteenth stage
bleed air and insufficient oil scavenge during
extremely low rpm operations, and because the
number 3 engine lab seal vent is more noticeable
from inside the aircraft, this is often reported by
crewmen to the flight station. Unnecessary 3engine landings have been made because this was
treated as a malfunction.
Although the “Two Bottle Fire Fails-To-Feather”
scenario is unlikely in the P-3, it is a good
teaching tool for both pilots and engineers. Due to
the complexity and scenario variations, this
malfunction should be taught in the simulator.
Inadvertent Engine Shutdown
During Flight
An engine can be inadvertently secured by mistakes
which include:
1. Autofeather system is left on after takeoff and engine
feathers after level off and subsequent power
application.
2.
TFE unintentionally secures the wrong engine as a
result of an induced malfunction (e.g. pushes in the
wrong feather button while executing the propeller
fails to feather procedure, turns off the wrong fuel
and ignition switch during the execution of the
Restart checklist, etc.).
If an inadvertent engine shutdown occurs and the
result is two engines shutdown, or if an inadvertent engine
shutdown occurs prior to obtaining an NTS check:
1. The IP shall take the airplane.
2. The IFE shall immediately ensure any simulated
malfunctions are cleaned up.
3. The IFE shall ensure the APU is started, if applicable.
4. The IFE shall get in the seat.
5-10
5. Complete the Emergency Shutdown checklist
through propeller.
6. Restart an engine using the Restart checklist. The
restart checklist may be accomplished for two
engines simultaneously; however, the engines shall
be restarted individually.
Note
At the discretion of the IP and IFE, the TFE may be
put back in the seat after the engine that was
unintentionally shutdown has been restarted. The
TFE should restart the original engine to complete
this item in the training syllabus if the IP and IFE are
confident in the safety of the evolution.
Ditching Drill
WARNING
The minimum ditching speed with a tactical crew
embarked is 125 knots. Minimum recovery altitude is
4000 feet AGL.
Note
Only the night or instrument technique for water
entry shall be used during simulated ditching. The
immediate ditch can be simulated to instruct
headwork and help develop a thought process of
executing ditching procedures in a timely manner.
Ditching drills evaluate basic airwork and
headwork. The success or failure of a ditch will depend
largely on good headwork and the physical manner in which
the aircraft enters the water. The TP should enter the
simulated water with wings level, on ditch heading, at the
minimum rate of descent (100 FPM rate of descent
optimum), and at the minimum airspeed commensurate with
the configuration and controllability. Ensure that the TP
fully understands the consequences of wings not level, fast
or slow touchdown or an excessive rate of descent. Ensure
Coordination with INAV or ITC is conducted during the
planeside brief and prior to execution of this drill when a
tactical crew is embarked.
It is the TP’s responsibility to make the decision to
ditch or bailout. Therefore, make the simulated emergency
dictate the desired response.
Give an altitude for simulated water impact and the
ditch heading, or have the TP give you a sea and wind
evaluation for a ditch heading under existing conditions.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
As a technique, the aircraft should be stabilized at the ditch
speed and properly configured with the checklist complete,
no later than 300 feet above the simulated water impact
altitude.
The TP should call water impact using the
barometric altimeter with both hands on the yoke.
IFE defensive positioning is most effective to the left of the
RFE. If required for an emergency, the IFE can easily step in
front of the FE seat as the RFE exits the seat.
•
a. Helmet on, visor down, chin strap tight (time
permitting).
b. Gloves on.
The IP shall always recover from ditching drills using
all four engines. Failure to increase your airspeed or
with insufficient power addition prior to retracting
flaps to approach from land can lead to a settling
effect with a nose high attitude. Stall buffet may
result.
c. Zippers zipped.
d. Flight station cleaned (e.g., charts, bottles, etc.).
e. The landing gear warning circuit breaker may be
pulled by the TFE under the direction of the pilot
at the controls.
Note the TP’s and TFE’s execution of the following
minimum procedures:
Completing the Ditching checklist.
Note
•
•
•
•
•
The importance of keeping the crew informed of
time until impact should be emphasized.
The IFE shall ensure that the TFE gives the
correct ditch speed. The IP may approximate the
land flap ditch speed using ½ gross weight + 63.
Occasionally some discrepancy may exist
between the TP’s and IP’s airspeed indicator or
altimeter. Get an airspeed and altitude check
prior to simulated water impact.
Pull the auxiliary ventilation control circuit
breaker on MEDC (J21) or the auxiliary
ventilation actuator circuit breaker on MEAC
(J21), the EDC dump circuit breakers on MEDC
(H23 and H24) and the outflow valve manual
override circuit breaker on FEAC if
depressurization is desired.
If the jettison system is to be demonstrated,
ensure the bomb bay is empty prior to switch actuation.
Specific items on the Ditching checklist can be
performed at any time during the maneuver and
the TP should be encouraged to get ahead and
then use the checklist as a review. For instance,
the TP does not have to wait until JETTISON on
the checklist to jettison stores or fuel.
2. Ditch preparation. Proper preparation for the TP and
TFE includes:
WARNING
1.
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
Engine Out Ditching
A simulated three-engine ditch may be practiced in
later stage flights, but the IP should demonstrate the
difference in SHP and flight control requirements.
In situations where one or more engines have
failed, it is possible that someone may try to ditch the
aircraft at an airspeed below VMC AIR for existing conditions.
With one or more engines out (which has been the case
during all ditches and training ditch crashes), most of the
factors affecting VMC AIR are no longer variables. The
relationship of ditching speeds to VMC AIR is critical. The
accompanying figure (figure 5-2) compares VMC AIR (on
three- and two-engines) to the NATOPS ditching speeds at
various configurations. For the conditions stated, an
interesting relationship exists. A comparison of the
minimum ditch speed and VMC AIR at maximum power, 0
degrees bank angle, sea level, and the critical engine(s)
inoperative reveals the following:
1. With both the number 1 and the number 2 engines
failed, the ditching speed is below VMC AIR at all gross
weights at both approach and land flaps.
2.
With only the number 1 engine failed, the ditching
speed is below VMC AIR for gross weights below
118,000 lb. at land flaps; below 108,000 lb. for
approach flaps. Again, however, this would probably be only temporary to correct low airspeed/high
sink rate at a critically low altitude.
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
Common errors:
3. TP does not notify the crew.
1. TFE gives the wrong ditch speed.
4. TP forgets to instruct copilot to attempt communication contact or to transmit emergency code on the
IFF.
2. TP selects incorrect flap position.
3. TP is unaware of correct ditching speed.
5. TP does not plan for the IP or TFE to get out of the
aircraft when their assistance is no longer needed.
4. TP descends too slowly to ditching altitude (i.e.,
trying to descend at 100 feet per minute from 1000
feet altitude).
6. TP does not set up the aircraft properly; does not
slow aircraft when possible.
5. TP flares before water impact to reduce excessive
rate of descent.
7. TP gives no thought to aircraft heading when bailing
out over land.
6. TP ditches with the wings not level; aircraft not in
balanced flight.
7. For engine-out ditch, TP fails to consider aircraft
controllability.
Bailout Drill
A bailout drill is a good opportunity to accomplish
a pilot swap. Ensure Coordination with INAV or ITC is
conducted during the planeside brief and prior to execution
of this drill when a tactical crew is embarked.
WARNING
The main cabin door shall not be opened in-flight for
demonstration purposes.
8. TP and TFE do not know the location of survival
gear.
Fire Of Unknown Origin Drill
The Fire of Unknown Origin (FOUO) drill requires
the utmost in prior planning because it is the most difficult
emergency to realistically simulate. Many headwork
decisions will face the crew. The speed at which you
progress through the checklist will depend on many factors
such as day or night flight, environmental conditions, nature
of the fire, fumes or smoke, and the amount of information
about the fire that the flight station is receiving. Ensure
coordination with INAV or ITC is conducted during the
planeside brief and prior to execution of this drill when a
tactical crew is embarked.
The following items shall be considered prior to
execution of the FOUO drill:
Common errors:
1.
Determine ahead of time the exact point at which to
stop the checklist.
2.
Ensure that the drill moves at a realistic pace. An
important aspect of a FOUO is the tempo at which
1. TP and TFE do not properly depressurize aircraft.
2. TP or TFE do not wear or have the appropriate
survival gear.
GROSS
WEIGHT
80,000
90,000
100,000
110,000
120,000
130,000
Land flaps
103
108
114
119
124
131
App flaps
108
113
119
124
129
136
Flaps up
123
128
134
139
144
151
3 engine VMC
123
123
123
123
123
123
2 engine VMC
141
141
141
141
141
141
Figure 5-2. Minimum Ditch Speed Versus VMC AIR
5-12
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
steps are accomplished as well as effective CRM
within the flight station and with aft crewmembers.
Control the pace at which the TP and TFE progress
through the checklist by realistically simulating crew
actions and/or providing information about the fire,
to include the IP acting as a realistic copilot.
3.
When the TP and TFE become reluctant to progress
through the checklist, add a new dimension (such as
an extreme smoke problem) to compel their
continuation of the checklist.
Chapter 5
In-flight Training Procedures
WARNING
During a simulated fire, the FOUO checklist may
only be completed through BUS A – OFF.
Note
The IP may need to re-select UHF radios in order to
maintain external communications after Bus A is
deenergized.
4.
When giving the fire in a supervisory panel, be
aware of the possibility of the TP or TFE feathering
without power to the feather pump. Do not let the
simulations create an emergency greater than the
one being simulated. In the airborne environment,
keep it simple and safe, leaving the exotic for the
simulator.
The TP and TFE shall be familiar with the use of
the smoke mask. Explain why the smoke masks should be
donned whether or not smoke is readily apparent in the flight
station. (i.e., burning electrical components produce toxic
gases or by-products such as carbon monoxide, which can be
colorless. These gases can quickly incapacitate crew
members.)
5.
If a restart is to be made during the FOUO drill, plan
no restart malfunctions unless they relate to the
FOUO, this eliminates student confusion.
6.
The cabin exhaust fan may be turned back on,
leaving the red guard open, to provide INU cooling.
If, after a FOUO, smoke or fumes are a significant
problem, the TP and TFE must make a decision to either
remove the smoke or restore electrical power. This will
depend on how bad the smoke in the aircraft is. It is a
headwork decision, so give them information needed to
arrive at the desired conclusion and response.
The intent of this simulation is to check the TP’s
and TFE’s systematic use of the FOUO checklist as well
as effective CRM with other crewmembers. It allows
them to become aware of what they have available at any
given time in a progressive electrical power reduction
(i.e., radios, navaids, feather capability, etc.). The TP and
TFE should be aware that the checklist is designed to
secure electrical power in the most logical sequence. The
use of the PA system is recommended as long as ICS is
available.
Note
Emphasize that when the source of the fire is determined, the FOUO checklist is no longer required.
The TP must base his assessment of the emergency
on information received from the IP and IFE. The student’s
mental picture of the simulated problem will therefore be
only as vivid as the instructor’s ability to convey the information necessary to describe a realistic situation.
Immediately after smoke, fumes, or fire have been detected,
the TP shall alert the crew and activate the firebill. The TFE
shall turn the cabin exhaust fan off and the FOUO checklist
shall be started with item number 1.
WARNING
The over-wing exit shall not be removed during flight
for simulated malfunctions.
Note
Practice in removing the exit can be done on the
deck.
Electrical power shall be restored by use of the Restoring
Electrical Power checklist upon completion of the drill. The
sole purpose is the systematic restoration of power in the
reverse order from which it was secured.
Common errors:
1. TP or TFE is unfamiliar with smoke mask operation.
2. TP and TFE use an inappropriate pace while
executing checklists.
3. TP and TFE continue the Fire of Unknown Origin
checklist after the source of the fire is determined.
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4. TP and TFE are unaware of intentional equipment
degradation as the Fire of Unknown Origin checklist
progresses.
5. TP and TFE execute the Smoke or Fume Elimination
checklist prior to determining the source of the fire.
6. TP and TFE continue Smoke or Fume Elimination
checklist when not required.
7. TP and TFE fail to conduct a thorough flight station
positional inspection.
Emergency Descent
The emergency descent should be conducted as outlined in NATOPS. Before commencing the descent, conduct
a clearing turn and give the TP a minimum recovery altitude.
The minimum recovery altitude shall not be less than
4,000’AGL.
CAUTION
Ensure that the landing lights are retracted.
The Descent checklist should be initiated as you are
commencing the descent or as soon as practicable thereafter.
CAUTION
Ensure that IAS is below 190 knots before the
landing gear is retracted.
The effects of flaps on the rate of descent can be
graphically demonstrated by commencing the descent at a
nominal altitude of 17,500 feet with the aircraft in the land
flap configuration. Accelerate to 160 knots and note the rate
of descent on the VSI. Raise the flaps to approach,
accelerate to 180 knots and note the rate of descent. Now
bring the flaps up, accelerate to 300 knots (250 if restricted
by FAA below 10,000 feet) and again note the rate of
descent. The best rate of descent is with the flaps up; the
steepest angle of descent is in the land flap configuration.
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Chapter 6
Landing Training Procedures
CHAPTER 6
Landing Training Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................6-1
VFR Landing Pattern.....................................................6-2
Descent Procedures........................................................6-2
Pattern Entry..................................................................6-2
Downwind Leg ..............................................................6-2
Base Leg ........................................................................6-2
Final...............................................................................6-5
Land Flap Landing.........................................................6-5
Approach Flap Landing .................................................6-6
Crosswind Landings ......................................................6-6
Right Seat Landings.......................................................6-6
Power Setting Selection.................................................6-5
Stop-And-Go Landings .................................................6-7
Touch-And-Go Landings...............................................6-7
Malfunctions During Touch-And-Go Landings ............6-7
Engine Out Landing Training........................................6-8
Simulated Three Engine Landing ..................................6-8
Simulated Two Engine Landing ....................................6-9
No-Flap Landing .........................................................6-10
No-Flap Touch-And-Go ..............................................6-12
VFR Break...................................................................6-11
Introduction
simulated emergency landings. This will afford the
instructor more time to concentrate on weak areas.
TPs experiencing difficulty may require more time to
learn the techniques of a good landing but an excessive
number of landings may endanger safety or reach a point
of diminishing returns. One recommended technique
when training two pilots on the same flight is to alternate
TPs in the landing pattern every 5 to 6 landings to reduce
fatigue and to allow the TP a chance to take a break and
learn by observing the other TP. This would be especially
beneficial if one particular TP is having problems in the
pattern. IPs must be extremely vigilant to guard against
complacency during extensive periods in the touch-andgo pattern. IPs are encouraged to break monotony by
swapping TPs, departing the VFR pattern for an IFR
approach, or performing a landing for IP proficiency.
Instructing the landing pattern is one of the
greatest challenges for the instructional team. It requires
not only personal proficiency and knowledge, but also an
understanding of the landing pattern and the ability to
diagnose problems and offer corrective actions. Effective
instruction helps improve the TP’s understanding of how
the aircraft reacts under various situations as well as the
“cause and effect” of various inputs or corrections.
Another challenging aspect of instructing in the
landing pattern is attempting to ascertain what
information a TP is seeing and processing in order to
make corrections. Often TPs will fly based on diagnosis
by the IP rather than seeing the deviation themselves and
processing the information in order to make the required
change. One technique that can be effective is to ask the
TP how the aircraft is positioned at various checkpoints
rather than telling them.
The training syllabus gradesheets outline the
types of landings required. The number of emergency
landings should be at least one of each type. Ten to twelve
landings per student per flight is normally sufficient
considering the fatigue of the TP as well as that of the IP.
Do not belabor a point. If the TP has demonstrated
satisfactory performance in normal landings, move on to
VFR Landing Pattern
The purpose of practicing VFR landings (see
figure 6-1) is to become proficient not only on the runway
but on the transition from an actual IFR approach.
Accordingly, the VFR “picture” should approximate that
seen on breakout from an IFR approach.
There are several keys to flying a consistently
good VFR approach and landing. The FRS teaches a
descending–decelerating approach to a visual glide slope
and touchdown in a nose-high attitude with the power
levers at or near flight idle. Two of these keys are smooth
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basic airwork and power lever/SHP control. Although
smooth basic airwork generally comes with experience,
the TP should strive to make positive corrections and
coordinated turns, using a combination instrument–visual
scan to arrive on final looking at the same “picture” every
time. Small power adjustments in the P-3 may not be
detected audibly, giving rise to the common tendency to
make rather large adjustments. The TP should be instructed to include the SHP gauges in his/her scan and to
allow each small power adjustment to take effect prior to
making an additional change.
The TP should be able to describe the VFR
landing pattern with correct altitudes and airspeed s. See
Figure 6-1, page 6-3.
While in the landing pattern, established airspeeds and
altitudes should be adhered to, this consisting of ± 5 knots
and ± 100 feet of prescribed limits. Airspeed for the
approach is as published in the simplified schedule posted
in the cockpit, and the TFE shall call out the correct
airspeed associated with the type of landing being
executed.
Descent Procedures
Discuss different types of descents. Check that
the TP is using the checklists in a timely and correct
manner. The Descent and Approach checklists should be
completed prior to entering the landing pattern. If the
VFR pattern is entered immediately after the first takeoff
of the day, the climb checklist shall be completed to
ensure the autofeather system is de-energized. The
Approach checklist shall be completed to obtain the
proper landing speeds.
Pattern Entry
Every effort should be made to enter the VFR
pattern after an instrument approach has been completed.
The use of VFR breaks or VFR downwind entries should
be kept to a minimum. If an instrument approach was not
previously executed, pattern entry is via the downwind
leg; at which point approach flaps need to be extended.
Premature flap extension will merely slow the aircraft
unnecessarily wasting fuel and instructional time.
Note
When other aircraft are present in the VFR pattern,
notify the tower upon entering the pattern or when
turning crosswind of the landing intentions, if
other than a touch-and-go. This allows the followon interval to extend upwind for spacing and help
maintain pattern integrity off the 180.
6-2
Downwind Leg
Upon entering downwind, the TP should give the
touch-and-go brief. On subsequent VFR approaches the
TP can shorten the brief appropriately but should review
the SHP to be used on the “go” portion.
Note
•
•
In the VFR pattern, the TP may use the TFE to
set power on takeoff, climb out, level off, and
the initial power reduction off the 180 position.
During the remainder of the approach and
landing, the TP should make his own power
adjustments. This requirement is a minimum
and will enable the TP to learn the importance
of power control in developing smooth basic
airwork. Additionally, the above requirement
will allow the TFE to receive more practice in
setting SHP and scanning engine instruments.
If extended on downwind, consideration should
be given to maintaining airspeed and pattern
altitude until intercepting a 3-degree
glideslope.
Base Leg
Regardless of aircraft configuration, the landing
gear shall be lowered no later than abeam the intended
point of landing (first 1000 to 2000 feet of runway. The
TP should commence his turn off the 180 in order to fly a
consistent path over the ground, compensating for winds
as necessary. The use of VFR checkpoints is an excellent
way to promote a consistent path over the ground and
decrease the reliance on instruments. It also promotes a
better VFR scan for traffic and can help the TP ascertain
wind direction and its effect on the aircraft. A power
reduction should be made off the 180 position so the
aircraft will decelerate in the descent. Various techniques
are available as to the exact point at which a power
reduction is made. Factors such as aircraft gross weight,
winds, pattern altitude, and extensions due to traffic
should be considered. Normally the power reduction is
made either just before or as the turn is initiated. The TP
should start a gradually descending, decelerating turn to
reach the 90 degree position at roughly two-thirds pattern
altitude. With a 1000 feet AGL pattern this will be the
standard 600-700 feet AGL. However, with a higher
pattern altitude (1200 or 1500 feet AGL) the downwind
distance is slightly wider and the aircraft’s path over the
ground is slightly longer. Thus, the 90-altitude checkpoint
needs to be a little higher (800 or 1000 feet AGL,
respectively). Emphasize use of the VSI in the base leg
turn and the importance of checking altitude and airspeed
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 6
Landing Training Procedures
Figure 1. Normal landing Pattern
6-3
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
before making a power adjustment. Minimum power
changes, coordinated turns, and proper use of trim are all
essential for a smooth base leg turn.
Minimize system quizzing once the Landing
checklist has been initiated.
Common errors by the TP:
1. Fails to compensate at the abeam position for
strong cross or axial winds.
2. Climbs when the gear comes down.
3. Too much or too little power reduction at the 180.
4. Flat turn from 180 to 90 or too steep a turn from
180.
5. Inadequate crosswind correction.
6. Drops land flaps too early, requiring excessive
power to reach the runway.
7. Fails to keep nose down after selecting land flaps
causing airspeed to dissipate rapidly.
Land Flap Landing
If land flaps are used, they should be selected at
a comfortable distance from the landing threshold. Ideal
land flap selection for a visual 3 degrees glide path will
occur at 200-300 feet AGL with airspeed tapering to 1.35
VS. Elevator trim will be required (normally 15-20
degrees up) so that the nose will not feel unnecessarily
“heavy” when the flare is established. Without the proper
trim, the common tendency is to land flat. Caution the TP
that when land flaps are selected, the nose must remain
pointed down toward the intended point of landing to
prevent the rapid deceleration associated with level flight
and land flaps. Once the flaps are full down, taper the
airspeed so as to enter the flare at 1.3 VS. The approach
indexer (12 units AOA or doughnut) may be used as a
cross check when passing over the end of the runway. The
power should be reduced gradually as the nose is rotated
for the flare. The power–nose coordination in the flare is
critical to achieve a desirable rate of descent at
touchdown.
Note
•
8. Power back to flight idle approaching the end of
the runway.
9. Fails to use instrument scan to backup visual
references (i.e., airspeed, altitude, and VSI).
10. Fails to scan SHP gauges when making power
changes in the base leg turn, resulting in too many
power adjustments.
Final
At approximately 1/2 to 3/4 mile, 300-400 feet
AGL, the runway centerline and final glideslope should
be intercepted. Alignment at this time is quite important
since it will enable the TP to detect and correct for a
crosswind. Lineup can most easily be achieved by having
the TP “straddle” the centerline. The normal tendency is
for the TP to line up left. The target airspeed range rolling
final should not fall below 1.35 VS with approach flaps
(1.3 VS with land flaps). Stress that it is not desirable to
arrive at these speeds early on final approach and that
airspeed should be slowly tapered to the final flap
configuration speed as the flare is established.
Touchdown normally occurs 6-8 knots below this speed.
6-4
•
•
The touchdown point may be in the first third
of the runway. The TP should, however, strive
to land in the first 1000–2000 feet. This will
become increasingly important during adverse
weather conditions.
The importance of smooth power reduction and
nose attitude change while looking down the
runway to detect and control sink rate to
touchdown cannot be overstressed.
Emphasize that the landing evolution is not a
mechanical process resulting in touchdown
with a predetermined power setting and nose
attitude.
As the main gear touch down, retard the power
levers to flight idle, if not already there, and lower the
nose gear gently to the runway. Once the nose wheel is on
the runway, check speed below 135 knots and bring the
power levers over the ramp to the ground start position.
After the Beta lights illuminate, reverse as necessary.
Point out that reverse is most effective at high airspeeds
and that brakes are most effective at low speeds.
Directional control should be maintained by rudder,
aileron, and asymmetric power, then shifting to nose
wheel steering below 60 knots. Teach the TP the proper
use of the brakes by giving them an opportunity to use the
brakes to varying degrees.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 6
Landing Training Procedures
Note
•
•
Stress the importance of centerline control on
landing rollout.
In the FRS, the TP is taught to use normal reversing techniques (i.e., use reverse power as
necessary to stop the aircraft in the available
field length) for all normal and emergency
landings. They are also introduced to the critical field length reversal technique for normal
and emergency landings.
Common errors:
1.
•
•
TP flares too high, floats, and/or lands long.
Note
It is recommended that the aircraft not be
allowed to touchdown past the first third of
the runway.
Although the IP may elect to allow TP to land
the aircraft past the first third of the runway,
he must be mindful of remaining runway
length (especially less than 5000 feet
remaining) if a touch and go is going to be
attempted.
2. TP spots the deck and does not flare.
3. TP chops power in the flare.
WARNING
This is one of the more dangerous situations and
could result in severe damage to the aircraft should
it be allowed to impact the ground. The IP should
take the aircraft, immediately apply power and
execute a waveoff. Do not try to salvage a bad
landing.
Note
The IP shall have his hands on top of the power
levers to prevent excessive movement.
8. Overly cautious coming into ground range.
9. Places hand on nose wheel too early on rollout, or
fails to use nose wheel steering.
10. Releases crosswind control inputs at touchdown.
11. TP attempts to reverse above 135 KIAS.
Approach Flap Landing
This maneuver is a good warm-up for a no-flap
landing as rate of descent and airspeed must be controlled
more closely. The approach flap landing is a normal
maneuver that should be considered when high
crosswinds are present or during periods of low visibility
when touchdown point and ground roll distance is not a
problem. Touch-and-go landings can be made in an approach flap configuration, but because of higher rollout
airspeeds, be careful not to allow the TP to rotate if the
SHP is low (minimum 2500), regardless of speed attained.
Consideration should be given to calculating your ground
roll distance and brief the co-pilot on calling airspeed
below 135 knots for reversal on full stop approach flap
landings.
Crosswind Landings
The TP should already know the proper
crosswind landing procedures. The wing-down/top-rudder
method is best unless the component is severe, when a
combination of crab/wing-down is better, as described in
NATOPS.
Right Seat Landings
Landing from the right seat is introduced in the
PPP syllabus and is a main focal point during PPC
upgrading. All landing patterns and procedures remain
the same with the exception of the pilot at controls (PAC)
is manipulating the flaps, plus both the flaps and trim
during the touch-and-go. The upgrading flight engineer
should also gain valuable experience of operating the
opposite set of power levers during touch-and-go
landings. A common trend is to land right of centerline in
a slight skid.
4. Flares too late.
5. Lands left of centerline.
6. Lands in a skid (usually left or into a crosswind).
7. Fails to close-out power levers when main mounts
are on the runway.
Power Setting Selection
Reduced power takeoffs should be performed
whenever possible to preserve turbine life. Power settings
should be based on gross weight, runway length and
environmental conditions. TIT should be reduced as
gross weight permits to produce a minimum of 3000 SHP
while not exceeding 1010 TIT provided aircraft
6-5
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Landing Training Procedures
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE
performance does not result in runway length or climb
performance becoming critical. It is recommended that
takeoff or touch-and-go power be reduced from 3500 to
3000 SHP when aircraft weight has decreased to 95,000
or 90,000 lbs. depending on runway length. Power shall
not be reduced to less than 3000 SHP for takeoffs or
touch-and-go's.
Stop-And-Go Landings
The stop-and-go landing is a time saving
evolution and may be used whenever practicable. A
minimum of 6,000 feet of usable runway remaining is
required for the “go” portion. Simulated emergencies may
be practiced on the “go” portion.
While executing stop-and-go landings, it is not
desirable to conduct the entire abbreviated Takeoff
checklist while on the runway. Before initiating the “go”
portion, the IP and IFE shall ensure the following are
completed:
1. Flaps ⎯ Takeoff.
2. Trim (rudder and elevator) ⎯ Reset.
3. Rudder boost shutoff valve circuit breaker (K13)
⎯ Reset.
4. Oil coolers ⎯ Set.
Touch-And-Go Landings
Four-engine land flap, approach flap, and no-flap
are the only authorized configurations for performing
touch-and-go landings. Under normal situations all other
configurations will be made to a full stop. No-flap touchand-go landings should only be conducted during
remedial training, IP DFWs, or on annual NATOPS
events for qualified pilots. Syllabus events that call for a
no-flap landing shall be done to a full stop. Prior to
rotating off any type of touch-and-go, flaps and trim shall
be reset as necessary with a minimum of 2500 SHP set
prior to initiating rotation.
Malfunctions During Touch-AndGo Landings
Should an actual malfunction occur prior to
rotate, an abort may cause more of a hazard than
reestablishing flight. The IP must immediately evaluate
the nature of the malfunction, aircraft’s speed, current
power setting, and runway remaining in order to make the
decision to abort or continue the takeoff. Each IP should
have a well thought out plan for the safest course of
action. Hangar flying discussions are crucial to
developing a pilot’s runway SA and decision making. If
an upgrading pilot displays sub-standard performance in
6-6
this area, an OFT session should be scheduled to reinforce
the importance of runway SA.
WARNING
• Simulated emergencies or malfunctions prior to
rotate shall not be given on touch-and-go landings
except during the PPC Defensive Flying event,
PPC check rides, or IUT events.
• EFARs during a touch-and-go landing are
prohibited.
• Simulated malfunctions shall not be given during a
no-flap touch-and-go or landing.
Note
Failing the flap indicator during co-pilot duties for an
upgrading pilot while the IP is at the controls is valid
training and is authorized.
Any emergency or malfunction given during a
touch-and-go shall be simple and specific with an obvious
course of action. (Example: IP call “EDC Press Low LT #
3” with power levers at flight idle.) These emergencies
should evaluate the upgrader’s situational awareness
during a critical stage of flight. It is strongly
recommended that an IUT IP be scheduled for the PPC
Defensive Flying event. The IP giving a malfunction
during a touch-and-go should be prepared to take the
controls should the upgrader delay his/her decision or
proceed with a decision that could jeopardize flight
safety.
Note
• Instructors are encouraged to use runway
markers to determine actual VR capabilities as
governed by environmental conditions.
• Any time the IP determines the aircraft cannot
be stopped with the available runway remaining
a “refusal” call should be made to alleviate any
confusion on the part of the other pilot.
Engine Out Landing Training
Simulated engine-out training and no-flap
training is prohibited during hours of darkness. Simulated
two-engine approaches and landings shall be conducted
during day, VMC only.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Three-engine and no-flap approach training is
permissible during daylight hours provided the ceiling is
1,000 feet and the visibility is 3 miles or better.
For both three-engine landings and two-engine
landings the following requirements exist:
1. Runway length ⎯ 6,000 feet minimum.
2. Runway width ⎯ 150 feet minimum.
3. Consider crosswind ⎯ More than 5 to 10 knots
crosswind component requires extra caution.
4. Runway condition ⎯ Sufficiently dry to prevent
skidding or hydroplaning.
Simulated Three Engine Landing
The IP should initiate a simulated emergency
situation which normally requires an engine to be
shutdown. The student shall initiate the Emergency
Shutdown checklist by performing the memory items and
then call for the checklist. The IP will retard the power
lever to 175 SHP to simulate a feathered engine and will
report: “Emergency Shutdown checklist simulated
complete down to APU”. The students will then report
whether or not the APU is required.
Explain to the TP that the pattern and airspeeds
for the three engine landing do not differ from those for a
normal approach and landing. The aircraft responds to
total power and with one engine out, the horsepower lost
must be added to the three operating engines. Stress the
importance of being ahead of the aircraft on power calls
and concentrating on flying the aircraft first, then
handling the emergency and briefing the copilot.
Chapter 6
Landing Training Procedures
the Beta range and releasing a power lever at the IP’s
command. Ensure the TP knows the difference between a
favorable and an unfavorable wind with respect to landing
and rollout. If necessary a turn may be made at pattern
altitude to give the TP time to set up for the approach.
Note
If the TP is trimming properly throughout a three
engine approach, the rudder trim setting should be
relatively neutral prior to touchdown.
Once the aircraft is on the runway, the TP should
bring all power levers over the ramp. After scanning for
all four beta lights, the IP may call for the power lever on
the “failed engine.” The TP should then release the power
lever and continue to reverse with the “operating”
engines, counteracting the tendency to swerve with
rudder, aileron into the failed engine, and forward yoke
pressure. When the speed has decreased to the point
where directional control cannot be maintained with the
flight controls, but the speed is still too high to use nose
wheel steering, ease the asymmetric engine out of reverse
to maintain centerline. Another technique at this speed is
to bring the power levers out of maximum reverse
towards ground idle. This creates renewed airflow over
the rudder, extending its effectiveness. After the aircraft
has slowed further, a combination of reverse, brakes, and
nose wheel steering can be used to complete the landing
rollout.
Centerline control is extremely important
throughout final and during the landing ground roll. The
IP should scan primarily down the runway, but be alert
for an actual emergency. Being off centerline will only
put the IP further behind the aircraft. Additionally, the TP
learns little about directional control if “transiting” (as
opposed to established on) centerline.
Common errors:
Note
Stress that practice normal and emergency
landings (three-engine, two-engine, and no-flap)
are conducted in the VFR pattern from a 180 position in order to maximize available training time,
and in most cases the preferred method would be
to accomplish an emergency landing from an
extended final position. Practice engine-out and
no-flap GCAs are considered excellent training
techniques.
A brief by the TP should be given on the
downwind leg to include all of the NATOPS required
brief items. The TP’s brief should cover anticipated use of
the flight controls, power levers, nose wheel steering, and
brakes based on existing wind and runway conditions.
The TP should brief bringing all four power levers into
1.
TP does not bring failed engine power lever into
the BETA range, or is reluctant to use asymmetric
reverse once in the ground range.
Note
•
•
IP should use a hand position that maintains
contact with all four power levers during the
entire landing evolution.
IP must ensure the “dropped” power lever is
in the ground range.
2. TP uses nose wheel steering and/or brakes at high
speed.
3. TP reverses with the wrong engine.
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Simulated Two Engine Landing
The requirements, procedures and general briefs listed for
three engine landings also apply for two-engine landings.
The two-engine landing is normally started from a
position downwind.
WARNING
The second engine should not be failed until
established at pattern altitude. Downwind
speed should be maintained above 160 knots
with approach flaps or l.52 VS in the clean
configuration.
The discussion will arise regarding when to taper
airspeed below 1.35VS/145 knots or exactly when the
“landing is assured”. The 1.35 VS/145 knot airspeed
should be maintained to ensure an adequate margin above
VMC AIR in the event of a waveoff. Tapering the airspeed
below 1.35 VS/145 knots essentially eliminates the
waveoff option unless altitude can be traded for airspeed.
The need for an actual two engine waveoff is perhaps
overemphasized in the training environment and would
probably be attempted only if the approach was too high
and too fast. If the opposite situation occurred, the pilot
should be committed to land and hopefully, close enough
to add some power and make the runway. The point at
which the landing is assured is the product of sound
judgment. The pilot should consider the following:
1. Is the Landing checklist complete?
2. Is the existing SHP commensurate to a two engine
landing?
3. Am I on or near normal visual glideslope?
4. Am I in a position to intercept the extended runway centerline without using excessive angle of
bank?
5. Have I obtained landing clearance?
Note
TPs may assume that in an actual two-engine
approach there would be no conflicting VFR
traffic. Consequently, they should not delay their
deceleration to landing speeds because of another
VFR interval (e.g., “cleared to follow, cleared
number 2, continue”).
On final and assuming the landing can be made,
select land flaps at the pilot’s discretion and reset SHP as
6-8
needed on the remaining engines. Touchdown as in a
normal landing. After the nose wheel is on the runway,
the TP should bring all power levers over the ramp. After
scanning for all four beta lights, the IP may call for the
power lever on the “failed engines.” The TP should then
release those power levers and continue to reverse with
the “operating” engines, counteracting any tendency to
swerve with rudder, aileron, and forward yoke pressure.
Stress the importance of anticipating and coordinating
aileron and rudder application to maintain centerline
throughout final/landing ground roll evolution. The flight
control/power lever technique during reverse is essentially
the same as on a three engine landing (i.e., use the flight
controls for directional control, then asymmetric power
once the flight controls begin to lose their effectiveness).
Note
Emphasize to the TP that the outboard operating
engine will be the primary cause of control
problems.
The IP may introduce symmetrical two-engine
out failures prior to asymmetrical engine out training, if
dictated by the environment or if desiring power control
training for the TP. When practicing these types of symmetric landings, the additional points of waveoff capabilities and non-applicability of the 145 knot minimum
airspeed need to be addressed. If at any time a waveoff is
required, the IP should take the aircraft and climb using
all four power levers.
No-Flap Landing
A flap asymmetry, elevator boost out, flap
control cable problem, or loss of both hydraulic systems
may make the no-flap landing necessary. The TP should
give the no-flap landing brief when on downwind. The IP
shall ensure that the rudder boost shutoff valve circuit
breaker is pulled and the TFE shall compute landing
ground roll distance prior to commencing approach phase.
For no flap landings for training, the following
requirements exist:
1. Runway length ⎯ 7,000 feet minimum.
2. Runway width ⎯ 150 feet minimum.
3. Consider crosswind ⎯ More than 5 to 10 knots
crosswind component requires extra caution.
4.
Runway condition ⎯ Sufficiently dry to prevent
skidding or hydroplaning.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Note
Sound judgment should prevail when the TP briefs
a go-around point for this landing. Even though
the ground roll distance may be less than 4000
feet, few pilots would consider the “four board” an
appropriate waveoff point for a 12,000 feet
runway. Pilots should strive to land in the first
1000 to 2000 feet, and certainly within the first
third of the runway.
No-flap landings will be conducted in the aircraft for
training purposes in accordance with the following:
1. During scheduled upgrade syllabus flights which
call for no-flap landing.
2. On NATOPS evaluation flights.
3. IPs should maintain proficiency in accordance
with current guidance, to include no-flap landing
demonstrations as required on the above flights.
4. No-flap landings will not be practiced above
103,880 lb. (or above 91,320 lb. on lightweight
aircraft).
The approach may be slightly wider throughout.
Altitude checkpoints in the pattern are the same as for
normal patterns though the approach may be flatter due to
a deeper track flown over the ground. Review the pattern
airspeeds with the TP. Because of reduced drag less SHP
will be required to fly this particular pattern and approach.
Taper the speed in the base leg turn to arrive on final at
1.2 VS (minimum 135 knots).
Use power as necessary and fly the aircraft to
touchdown. Ensure the TP understands the relationship
between nose attitude and airspeed, plus power settings
and rate of decent. A normal flare is not used.
WARNING
•
•
Beware of the TP who arrives at the 90 low
and slow. An abrupt pull on the yoke may put
the aircraft close to stall buffet speed. Poweroff stall buffet speed for 100,000 lb., 30
degrees AOB, and flaps up is approximately
132 knots.
Emphasize that a no-flap landing is a deferred
emergency and there is no commitment to
land on the first pass. Beware of larger power
changes on final, especially from the TP
correcting from a high and fast final..
Retarding the power levers rapidly on final
Chapter 6
Landing Training Procedures
causes high sink rates. Waveoff in this
situation.
Watch for the TP who flies a beautiful approach
and then drops the nose wheel to the deck. Fly the nose
wheel gently to the deck and check the airspeed. The TP
should brief the copilot to call the airspeed “below 135
knots.” This restriction reduces the possibility of decouple
or pitchlock.
WARNING
Guard against the TP who tries to reverse or even
pick up the power levers above 135 knots. With
hands on top of the power levers and a slight
downward pressure, the IP can easily prevent
upward movement.
Extreme caution should be used to ensure that
pitchlock or decouple does not occur while going into the
Beta range. The TFE should scan fuel flow, RPM and
SHP for proper indications. Comment on the excessive
amount of runway used while landing at high speeds.
Stress smooth application and the effectiveness of reverse
at high speeds as compared to brakes. Brakes may be
applied as the aircraft slows. Syllabus events that call for
a no-flap landing shall be done to a full stop. Figure 6-2
is provided to indicate the landing ground roll distance for
a no-flap landing. Values are based on moderate wheel
braking, zero wind and zero slope.
Airspeeds in excess of 135 knots on touchdown
will significantly increase the runway required. For
instance a touchdown speed of 145 knots may require an
additional 1000-1500 feet of runway to allow airspeed to
decrease below 135 knots and initiate reversal. Airspeed
in excess of 1.2Vs at the landing ground roll distance
remaining is to fast and a waveoff should be executed. If
a no-flap approach is continued to a landing past the
maximum intended touchdown point, a normal reversal
may be insufficient to stop the aircraft on the runway
unless hard wheel braking is used. The preferred
alternative would be to execute a touch and go. In either
of the above cases, if the aircraft touches down, the IP
should take the controls.
WARNING
If a waveoff is warranted from a no-flap approach, be
aware of a substantial nose-up pitch with the addition of
waveoff power, in close proximity to the runway, a
tailstrike could occurs.
6-9
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Landing Training Procedures
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OAT
80000 LB.
85000 LB.
90000 LB.
95000 LB.
103880 LB.
300 C
3760 feet
4010 feet
4260 feet
4600 feet
5420 feet
250 C
3708 feet
3960 feet
4210 feet
4550 feet
5320 feet
200 C
3630 feet
3880 feet
4130 feet
4470 feet
5230 feet
150 C
3560 feet
3810 feet
4060 feet
4400 feet
5170 feet
Figure 6-2. No-Flap Landing Ground Roll Distance
Common TP errors:
1. Not referencing or flying 1.52Vs or 1.2 Vs
minimum speeds.
2. Slow (below 135) close to runway with insufficient
correction.
3. Landing long or fast.
4. Not flying the nosewheel to the deck.
No-Flap Touch-and-Go
The purpose of No-Flap touch and go’s is to
provide extra training to upgrading students that exhibit
difficulty with the profile of a no-flap approach, while
reducing full stops for aircraft fatigue life purposes. They
may also be used to supplement training to ensure
qualified pilots have proficiency in the maneuver.
However, it is important to note that students must have
adequate training for no-flap full stops. To this end, if a
gradesheet calls for a no-flap landing the student should
perform at least one no-flap to a full stop. Annual (not
Initial) NATOPS checks may use a touch-and-go in lieu
of a full stop. If an upgrading pilot has no deficiencies
with the no-flap approach, they should only perform the
specified number of no-flap landings in the syllabus, all to
a full stop. The following paragraphs will discuss the
procedures, cautions and notes associated with the
maneuver. The teaching points discussed for a no flap
landing are still pertinent as well as the added notes.
For no-flap touch-and-go training the following
requirements exist:
1. Runway length ⎯ 7,000 feet minimum.
2. Runway width ⎯ 150 feet minimum.
3. Consider crosswind ⎯ More than 5 to 10 knots
crosswind component requires extra caution.
6-10
4. Runway condition ⎯ Sufficiently dry to prevent
skidding or hydroplaning.
Until the point of reverse or go, all no-flap
landings shall be conducted in the same manner.
NATOPS 16-1 shall be briefed, landing ground roll
distance calculated, and K-13 pulled. [In the event of
multiple touch-and-go’s, 16-1 need not be briefed each
time as long as no major changes occur between
approaches (i.e. Runway change)] and the approaches are
done consecutively. The IP shall hold the student to the
same standards for touch-and-go’s and full stops. (i.e. do
not allow touch-and-go’s to be landed if a full stop would
be waved-off.)
For the touch-and-go, the student shall land,
close-out the power levers and fly the nosewheel to the
deck. The IP should roll in “1 – 2 handfuls” of nose-down
trim, wait until below 135 kts and then call “go”. The
student will then call for 3000 SHP. Once the aircraft has
reached 1.2Vs speed, the IP will call rotate. The student
and IP should be aware of the tendency for the nose to
pitch towards 8 to 10 degrees up, and fly the aircraft
smoothly off the deck.
Reset K-13 once safely established on the climb
out. Be alert for possible valid RAWS warnings after
gear retraction.
In the case of a waveoff / go around, execute
procedures as normal (just like an approach flap waveoff),
without the addition of trim, being cognizant of the
increased nose-up pitch. This should be accomplished as
soon as it is realized the aircraft cannot remain within safe
no-flap parameters prior to touchdown.
WARNING
If a waveoff is warranted from a no-flap approach, be
aware of a substantial nose-up pitch with the addition
of waveoff power, in close proximity to the runway, a
tailstrike could occur.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Having to execute a “go” after placing the
aircraft on deck due to insufficient runway remaining is a
likely situation a pilot would encounter on a no-flap
landing should be taught on PPC F5 defensive flying
event
Chapter 6
Landing Training Procedures
altitude is usually higher than normal pattern altitude.
While proceeding inbound to the field, locate other traffic
in the pattern to ensure separation since visual contact
may likely be lost during the break. The break may be
performed power-on or power-off.
Power On Break
Cautions:
1. The nose will have a tendency to pitch up at rotate.
The student and IP shall guard against overrotation, IAW the no-flap brief in the JOB AID.
2. The IP shall be cognizant of landing ground-roll
distance and airspeed at all times when on the
approach and runway. In the event of an actual
malfunction or student error, the IP shall be
prepared to take the controls and abort or go
depending on the situation.
Note
This is not a DFW practice maneuver, but may be
used during non-initial NATOPS checks, IPDFWs,
or dedicated syllabus events. Rotate at the 1.2 Vs
speed.
WARNING
Simulated malfunctions shall not be given during a
no-flap touch-and-go or landing.
Common student errors:
1. Landing long and/or fast
When in position and cleared for the break, the
pilot should make a coordinated roll into a 60 degrees
AOB (less AOB may be used) turn. The power which was
set prior to the break should be maintained through 180
degrees of turn. The pilot should maintain altitude;
however, his or her primary scan should be outside of the
aircraft keeping the nose on the horizon. As the TP rolls
wings level on downwind, the power levers should be
reduced to flight idle and maneuver flaps selected. When
established on downwind, start the descent while selecting
gear down (at 1 G) and complete the landing checklist.
With gear down and airspeed less than 190 KIAS the
flaps should be selected to approach. The remainder of the
approach is conducted just as a normal VFR landing.
Power Off Break
When in position and cleared for the break, the
pilot should make a coordinated roll into a 60 degrees
AOB turn and simultaneously retard the power levers to
flight idle. The pilot should maintain altitude through 180
degrees of turn; however, his or her primary scan should
be outside of the aircraft keeping the nose on the horizon.
As the TP rolls wings level on downwind, select
maneuver flaps and start the descent while selecting gear
down (at 1 G). Complete the Landing checklist. With
gear down and airspeed less than 190 KIAS the flaps
should be selected to approach. The remainder of the
approach is conducted just as a normal VFR landing.
2. Not closing out the power levers.
3. Calling for flaps and trim.
4. Not flying the nosewheel to the deck.
5. Over-rotation.
VFR BREAK
It is strongly encouraged that an instrument
approach be utilized for pattern entry in order to provide
valuable instrument training for pilots. However, the
VFR break usually provides the most expeditious means
of entering the landing pattern, and is an excellent basic
air work drill and confidence building maneuver. The
VFR break is a standardized maneuver not to exceed 60
degrees AOB or 250 knots. If a break is to be conducted,
the altitude should conform to local directives. Break
WARNING
Instructor pilots need to be aware of the increase in
stall speed associated with high angle of bank and high
G turns. Zero thrust stall speed for a 100,000 LB
aircraft is 162 knots at 60 degrees AOB (2 G’s) and
198 knots at 70 degrees AOB (3 G’s). Refer to figure
5-1.
CAUTION
Remember the restriction of 190 KIAS to extend the
gear at greater than 1 G.
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Landing Training Procedures
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Landing Training Procedures
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Chapter 7
Counter Threat Training
CHAPTER 7
Counter Threat Training Procedures
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................7-1
CTT Basics ....................................................................7-1
Definitions and Equipment Limitations....................7-1
Permissible Flight Envelope & Applicable Limits ...7-1
ORM Considerations .....................................................7-2
Combat Departure..........................................................7-2
Low-Level Departure................................................7-2
Introduction:
The purpose of this chapter is to standardize instruction
for conducting Counter Threat Training (CTT) during inflight and OFT evolutions. It contains training and
instructional techniques that support actual maneuvers
delineated in the P-3 NTTP. The dynamic and
challenging maneuvers require the instructor to ensure the
aircraft remains within the flight envelope at all times.
CTT is a training evolution not to exceed the limits of
NATOPS/NAVAIR restrictions. The aim is to provide
proper procedures to train pilots to safely and confidently
operate the P-3 aircraft in a threat environment, while not
exceeding the aircraft envelope. This training
encompasses not only basic airwork, but also Operational
Risk Management (ORM) and Crew Resource
Management (CRM). It is imperative both during this
training and in the operational environment that the
operator be concerned with its impact on P-3 Fleet Life
Expectancy (FLE). While Tactics, Techniques, and
Procedures are presented for discussion and exposure,
actual operational maneuvers are classified and can be
referenced either in NTTP 3-22.5, Chapter 9, or by
consulting the appropriate CTG SIPR website.
CTT Basics
1) Definitions and equipment limitations:
Control Inputs at High Airspeed- As per NATOPS Ch.
10.3.3.1, abrupt pitch inputs at high airspeeds (above 300
KIAS) should be avoided. This discussion was based
upon a 3.0 G airframe limitation, not the current more
restrictive limits. Due to the 2.5 G limitation, abrupt
inputs even at speeds at or below 300 KIAS will cause an
Spiraling Departure.................................................. 7-3
Counter Threat Maneuvering........................................ 7-3
Combat Arrivals............................................................ 7-4
Steep Arrival............................................................ 7-4
Spiral Arrival ........................................................... 7-5
overstress. It is therefore imperative that the operator in
normal circumstances make control inputs that are smooth
and conservative (i.e. 2 seconds or greater to complete the
input).
The cockpit g meter has limitations: it does not indicate
the Gs occurring at critical aircraft structure points, and it
does not indicate accurately during short duration or
highly dynamic Gs. Based upon observed performance, it
does not accurately mirror data reported by the SDRS.
Because of these limitations, it is, at best, only a crossreference tool. Illumination of the flight station SDRS
“tattletale” light is the only accurate means of determining
whether 2.5 G has been exceeded. Pending the
installation of more advanced equipment (a flight station
digital SDRS repeater) the operator must rely on proper
control inputs to avoid exceeding aircraft flight envelope
limitations. Reference CPRG INST 4790.9 for guidance
on utilization of the SDRS.
Note
2.5Gs is max. If the SDRS “tattletale” illuminates in
the flight station, CTT shall cease and the mission
should be aborted. Sound ORM and aircrew
judgement should apply to the same scenario during
an operational mission.
2) Permissible flight envelope & applicable
limits:
Practice of steep turns (i.e., greater than 45° AOB in
accordance with CTM) should be conducted at a moderate
aircraft weight and at a minimum altitude of 4,000’ AGL.
Practice steep turns shall never be attempted unless
7-1
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Counter Threat Training
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Condition V has been set and the practice maneuvers have
been thoroughly briefed.
Note
All CTT maneuvers in the aircraft shall be conducted
only during daylight, VMC conditions. Simulated
malfunctions shall not be given in the aircraft during
CTT maneuvers.
BOTTOM LINE: Absent a serious emergency (i.e.
aircraft under imminent or actual enemy fire)
exceeding 2.5 Gs / 300 KIAS is not acceptable!
ORM Considerations
Example teaching/discussing points (not allinclusive) :
1. Current airfield diagrams (USAF TACARDs) can be
found on the CAOC website. These are very useful
to familiarize crews with the actual procedures in use
for their respective AOR.
2. Utilize squadron / wing intel resources- Have there
been any recent SAFIRE reports? What is the nature
and engagement envelope of the anti-aircraft threat in
the area?
3. Maneuvering below threat envelope? In threat
envelope/beneath MOSA? At what point does the
risk of performing a given maneuver outweigh the
anti-aircraft threat?
4. Equipment/tool familiarity and application: CMDS,
MWS, TACAN/VOR, engine run-up/darken
ship/strobes/windows, mark the numbers for NAV
(GPS coordinates for referencing 1nm from the
approach runway threshold)
5. Discuss potential emergencies (supplement with
HAZREPs):
a. Fire warning in the descent: 18k’, 6000fpm
ROD?
b. Single or Dual EDC failure overland?
c. Incoming missile and CRM.
Combat Departure
Combat departures are challenging and dynamic
maneuvers that require thorough coordination and
training. The two techniques that will be presented here
are the low-level departure and the spiraling departure.
Tactical Priority:
1. Minimize time in threat envelope
2. Randomize departure sector
Low-Level Departure- This departure allows the
aircraft to quickly transit through a possible threat area
enroute to onstation.
7-2
1. Request a low-altitude departure with ATC.
2. Complete Takeoff checklist, Takeoff Brief, and
Combat Departure brief. Reference 1.52Vs.
TIP: Mark the GPS when on the runway prior to takeoff
for reference during arrival.
An example of a combat departure brief:
“Copilot, ensure Auto Feather is secured and landing
lights are retracted when you select gear up. Arm CMDS
once airborne. I’ll call for flaps to maneuver, then up as
we accelerate and level at 500’ AGL, I’ll maneuver to
sector ___. When clean, call airspeed every 10 knots on
acceleration and on the climb out. At 250 knots smoothly
pitch 15º nose up, and relax to 10º when 10 knots above
1.52Vs. Once stabilized in the climb, I’ll call for Climb
Checklist. We’ll set Condition IV once established in the
climb.”
Note
In an operational setting, all speeds may be used
within NATOPS limitations. 250 KIAS is set as the
limit for training to comply with FAR airspeed
restrictions and to provide a margin of safety for
overstress during the climb transition.
3. After rotate, disarm autofeather, retract the landing
gear and flaps climb to 500’ AGL and accelerate to
250 KIAS. While transiting to “safe area” turns no
greater than 45˚ AOB may be executed to simulate
low-level maneuvering.
WARNING
Failure to secure autofeather after takeoff may lead to
inadvertant engine shutdown if power levers are
retarded and then re-advanced.
4. When appropriate point is reached, announce
“Standby tactical climb” to crew. Then smoothly (2˚3˚ per second of pitch rate) transition the nose to 15˚
nose up. Set power as desired (950 TIT
recommended at training weights). When 10 knots
above desired speed (1.52 Vs or climb scheduled),
lower the nose to 10˚ nose up, and then set pitch
attitude as required to maintain desired speed while
climbing to desired altitude. It is important to
emphasize that it is NOT desirable to target 2.0 G in
the climb transition. The above outlined gentle
transition will not result in appreciably decreased
climb performance from a 2 G pull-up. An
overaggressive pull-up will result in increased Ginduced drag, actually decreasing climb
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
performance, as well as bringing aircraft G-loading
close to the 2.5 G overstress limit.
Note
Climb airspeed is at aircrew discretion. 1.52 Vs (12
units AOA) will result in a faster climb to any
altitude, whereas climb scheduled airspeed allows
greater margin above stall in case evasive
maneuvering is required. In no cases should a climb
at speeds less than 1.52 Vs be attempted, because of
small margin above stall and the possibility of
inducing an engine fire warning.
5. Inspect SDRS for overstress indications.
Teaching points: CRM, air work, smooth climb
transition. Stress ICS discipline.
TIP: Climb to an altitude that will allow immediate
commencement of a steep arrival.
Common errors:
1. Abrupt nose pull-up leading to overstress
2. Autofeather not secured
3. TP allows airspeed to decrease excessively during the
climb
4. Poor airwork at low altitude
5. Failing to notify crew prior to climb
Spiraling Departure- This techinque is designed
to allow the aircraft to safely climb within a notional
sanitized area.
Coordinate with tower for a spiraling departure Set
reduced power to simulate heavy weight takeoff
conditions and provide a good VFR sight picture. Rotate
on normal takeoff speed schedule, raise the landing gear,
and allow the aircraft to accelerate. At 160 KIAS, roll
into a 45˚ AOB turn and climb to briefed altitude. Secure
autofeather, and simulate CMDS arming. When altitude
is reached execute climb checklist and depart as
necessary.
WARNING
Failure to secure autofeather after takeoff may lead to
inadvertant engine shutdown if power levers are
retarded and then re-advanced.
Common Errors
1. Not maintaining aircraft over safe area due to poor
airwork or outside scan
2. Autofeather not secured
3. Exceeding takeoff / approach flaps speed at top of
climb
Chapter 7
Counter Threat Training
Counter Threat Maneuvering
Practice Counter Threat Manevuers should be performed
on upgrade syllabus flights to teach proper execution of
basic P-3 defensive tactics. All maneuvers should be
thoroughly briefed prior to the flight with reference to the
NATOPS, Chapter 10, and the NTTP, Chapter 9. Stall
speeds shall be computed IAW Chapter 27 and stall
recovery procedures briefed.
The specifics of each manuever are classified SECRET
and are discussed in detail in the NTTP. However, certain
teaching points apply to all of these maneuvers:
1. Random altitude changes present the greatest risk for
aircraft damage and injury to personnel. Limit pitch
inputs to 2 seconds for full yoke deflection. During
slow inputs, the yoke forces resisting elevator
movement will remain sufficient and the G buildup
will appear to follow the pilot’s inputs.
2. The flight station G meter does not provide adequate
warning of high G loading. It should be referenced
as a cross-check. Proper teaching of control inputs
and the SDRS tattletale light are the most accurate
ways of protecting the aircraft from overstress.
3. At manuevering speed (GW +110), it is possible to
reach 2.5 G before the onset of stall buffet.
4. All manuevers shall be conducted during daylight
VMC, with minimum altitude of 4000’ AGL.
5. During maneuvers that call for a descent in
conjunction with steep AOB turns, the operator must
be alert to both the possibilty of a rolling pull-out, as
well exceeding 300 KIAS and 2.5 G as the aircraft
transitions back to level flight.
6. During level altitude maneuvers, it is important to
impress upon the TP that during an actual combat
engagement, it may be desirable in some cases to
sacrifice altitude for rate of turn. This unloading of
the aircraft will further prevent both entering stall
buffet and excursions above 2.5 G. However, an
excessive altitude loss may put the aircraft in greater
danger due to entering the envelope for different
weapons, or by increasing the effectiveness of the
weapon being countered. Operational Flight Crews
will have to weigh these conflicting requirements.
Climb back above appropriate minimum altitude after
threat has been defeated.
Any crewmember may call “knock-it-off” for any of the
following reasons:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Airsickness
SDRS “tattletale” light illuminates.
Gear becomes adrift
Condition V is broken
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WARNING
Aircrew have been severely injured by not setting or
maintaining Condition V during maneuvers.
Note
2.5Gs is max. If the SDRS “tattletale” illuminates in
the flight station, CTT shall cease and the mission
should be aborted. Sound ORM and aircrew
judgement should apply to the same scenario during
an operational mission.
Combat Arrival
Combat arrivals are dynamic, demanding maneuvers that
require thorough training and coordination. Both steep
arrivals and spiraling arrivals are presented here as valid
techniques.
Tactical Priority:
1. Maneuver to a safe position to land the aircraft
2. Minimize time in threat envelope
Steep Arrival:
1. Request tactical arrival with appropriate ATC.
2. Complete the Descent, Approach, and Landing
checklist before commencing descent. Brief
configuration (gear down/ maneuver flaps
recommended).
3. Coordinate MOSA with NAVCOM and SS3.
Profile:
1000’ to 1 + 5 nm is recommended for initial training.
1 to 1 requires multiple S-turns, unless the headwind is
significant.
Recommend slowing initially to 1.52 Vs to allow for
greater rate of descent initially. If slowing is undesirable
due to possible threat, recommend maintaining at least
GW +110 KIAS.
Recommend using Gear down/maneuver flaps
configuration.
Checkpoints are helpful and should be used to ensure that
the aircraft is remaining on profile: Use the GPS mark
from the departure and reference 1 nm from the approach
end of the active runway for the arrival. Ultimately the
aircraft should be at normal approach speeds and on a
normal glideslope 2 miles from the end of the runway.
Prior to deployment aircrews should practice the arrivals
7-4
in the OFT to specific operational fields, utilizing various
daylight and visibility conditions. This time is a great
opportunity to introduce various emergencies during
arrivals and departures (i.e. engine failure, FOUO, loss of
pressurization, incoming enemy fire).
4. To begin the descent, configure and pitch about 25°30° nose down. At about 255 KIAS transition to
approximately 10˚ nose down. The VSI should be
pegged. With maneuver flaps the recommended
airspeed is 250 KIAS – this gives a margin below
maximum flap speed.
5. Copilot duties are important- the arrival is not a
single-piloted evolution, and should not be trained to
as such. The copilot must back up the pilot on
airspeed, altitude, altimeter settings, and whether or
not the aircraft is ahead/behind of the desired descent
profile.
6. Early analysis of the descent is important- If the
aircraft is high, S-turns (limited to 45°AOB) or a slip
(limited to 15°of sideslip) can be attempted to lose
altitude. If this is unsuccessful, it is imperative for
the flight crew to recognize it and proceed with an
alternate plan. Examples include:
a. Power-off break
b. Enter a downwind for opposite runway (traffic
permitting)
c. A 360˚ turn
If the aircraft is ahead on profile 300-400 SHP on each
engine may be added as necessary to arrest the rate of
descent. It is generally undesirable to arrive at altitude far
from the runway as this causes the aircraft to spend longer
in a possible threat envelope.
TIP: It takes 3-4 miles to slow the airspeed 100 knots
with power at flight idle. Keep this in mind when
crosschecking DME/altitude/VSI/groundspeed. Use the
GPS to give an accurate distance from the runway
threshold (often more accurate than TACAN DME)
7. If a safe approach cannot be made- WAVEOFF.
8. Inspect SDRS for overstress indications.
WARNING
Rates of descent in excess of 3000 fpm are normal
and allow the aircraft to exit the threat envelope as
soon as possible. Failure to transition to a normal
landing profile can result in excessively hard
landings. Execute a waveoff in this situation.
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Counter Threat Training
Common errors:
1. Overspeeding the gear or flaps
2. Not aggressive enough with initial nose-down
maneuver
3. Improper distance and altitude calculation
4. Incomplete checklists, briefs, etc.
5. Excessive speed on final leading to float down
runway or excessive touchdown speed
6. Not recognizing an unsafe situation
Spiral arrival- this technique allows the aircraft to
descend over a given sanitized area, minimizing exposure
to enemy ground fire.
1. Coordinate a spiraling arrival with ATC. Complete
all Descent, Approach and Landing checklists.
2. Select approach or land flaps and roll into a 45 ˚
AOB turn (recommend 145 KIAS and land flaps for
training). Maneuver aircraft to arrive on short final
in normal landing configuration (airspeed and rate of
descent), and make normal landing or touch and go
as applicable. Usually this will result in a rate of
descent of approximately 4000 fpm (useful in
determining altitude from which to begin descent).
WARNING
Rates of descent in excess of 3000 fpm are normal
and allow the aircraft to exit the threat envelope as
soon as possible. Failure to transition to a normal
landing profile can result in excessively hard
landings. Execute a waveoff in this situation.
Common Errors
1. Not maintaining aircraft over “safe area”
2. No wind corrections
3. Poor outside scan, referencing of VFR checkpoints
4. Excessive speed on final
5. Incomplete checklists, briefs, etc.
7-5
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Chapter 8
Level D Simulator Protocol
CHAPTER 8
Level D-equivalent Simulator Protocol
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Level D-e Simulator…………………8-1
Effective Use of the Level D-e OFT...…...8-1
Logging of Level D-e Time……………....8-1
Effective Instruction……………..……….8-2
Protocol for NATOPS Checks in the Level D-e
OFT…………………………………………..8-2
Simulator Sickness…………………………...8-2
The Level D-e Simulator
The Level D-equivalent high fidelity flight
trainer is comprised of various upgraded and legacy
components from the previous 2F87 simulator model.
Upgraded components include a high resolution visual
package, control loading, motion, the aerodynamic model
and the systems model. Legacy components consist of
most hardware, the Instructor Operating System (IOS)
software and the communications suite, which is over 30
years old in most flight trainers.
Effective Use of the Level D-e OFT
Instructors must use all resources at their
disposal to make the quality of the training commensurate
with the high fidelity technology. IPs and IFEs shall use
the following items to the maximum extent practical:
The visual package contains 156 properly
modeled airfields, 16 of which have one-foot high
resolution imagery. The worldwide database is comprised
of 10-meter imagery.
The Level D-e physics based systems model
allows the operator to stimulate aircraft systems as a
means of presenting emergencies and malfunctions. For
example, the malfunction labeled “Cross Ship Manifold
Leak” does not automatically bring on the FUS DUCT
HOT Light, but rather triggers a leak that gradually
increases the temperature in the cross ship manifold. The
light then illuminates once the temperature in the
manifold reaches a sufficient value. Instructor pilots and
flight engineers must therefore possess precise systems
knowledge and have a solid grasp on Level D-e operating
principles in order to provide effective instruction in the
device.
Instructors shall use the communications suite to
the maximum extent practicable, but must remember it is
an aging component. ICS and radio sustainability relies
heavily on the instructors’ willingness to
exercise and gripe the system, and the technicians’ ability
to tune it.
•
Donning of flight gloves, mock survival vests
and harnesses by students in the seat
•
Use of smoke masks during FOUO drills
•
Computer Aided Debrief System (CADS)
•
Record/Replay function
•
Aural cue volume level 3-5
•
Communications suite
•
The VFR landing pattern and engine-out runway
maneuvers
•
Enhanced environmental features
Logging of Level D-e Time
The flight trainer must be on motion in order to
log Level D-e time. Flight time in the Level D-e shall be
logged at the back of the aviator’s logbook under its own
classification of flight time.
Effective Instruction
Instructors must have a firm grasp of how to
employ the training device. All Level D-e OFT operators
must have completed the Level D-e Operator Course and
should reference the Instructor Utilization Handbook
(IUH) before and during simulator events. Operators
should note the following items during training events:
8-1
Chapter 8
Level D Simulator Protocol
•
•
•
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Several malfunction codes trigger fluid or bleed
air leaks that eventually cause an annunciator
light to illuminate. The following table is
provided for scenario planning purposes:
Malfunction Label
Time for Light
to Illuminate
(Approximate)
•
A qualified NATOPS instructor shall occupy the
right seat.
Left/Right EDC Duct Leak
Cross Ship Manifold Leak
Left/Right Wing Manifold Leak
Massive Engine Bleed Air Leak
Nacelle Over-heat
Anti-ice Failed On
Prop Fluid Leak 20 gal./min.
1:15
1:05
0:25
1:00
0:55
1:10
PP1—3:00
PP2—6:00
•
Visual parameters must be set to daylight hours
under visual meteorological conditions in the
VFR landing pattern and high work area.
•
Crosswind components and other environmental
settings shall be set to reasonable values
throughout the evolution.
•
Ditching drills may be conducted to water
impact.
•
Evaluations in the simulator shall adhere to the
criteria outlined in Chapter 26 of NATOPS.
•
The instructor shall avoid scenarios that are
unrealistically difficult. The focus should be on
the student’s basic ability to safely operate the
aircraft.
The malfunction labeled “Eng. X Off Speed Prop
Gov” presents a gradual propeller off speed
condition. The most effective off speed
malfunction to present during an EFBR
maneuver is the one labeled “Eng. X Sync
Induced Off Speed.”
There are two different coupler failures in the
model. The one labeled “Engine X Coupler
Fail” is an isolated coupler failure that causes
RPM to decrease and then stabilize at 100%.
The one labeled “Eng. X Decouple Overspeed”
triggers an over speed condition followed by a
decouple.
•
More realistic power lever alignment may be
accomplished through use of the four
malfunctions labeled “Eng. X Efficiency.”
•
In order to freeze an engine bleed air valve a
given number of degrees open, one must use
malfunctions 236-241. Proper placement of the
valve is difficult to accomplish when pulling the
respective circuit breaker.
•
The high fidelity visual package allows the
operator to insert very realistic weather
conditions, but each weather variable is
independent of the others.
Protocol for NATOPS Checks in the Level D-e OFT
The Level D-e OFT is an ideal platform from
which to administer annual NATOPS evaluation flights.
However, although some capabilities provide more
realistic training during certain flight maneuvers and
aircraft emergencies, others have the propensity to create
a nearly impossible scenario for even the most seasoned
aviator. In an effort to create a reasonable setting for
8-2
NATOPS flight evaluations in the OFT and avoid giving
an unfair advantage to pilots who receive their evaluation
flight in the aircraft, the following protocol shall be
followed during NATOPS check flights in the Level D-e:
Simulator Sickness
Simulator sickness is a medical phenomenon that
is addressed in the OPNAV 3710 series. It is not unusual
to experience nausea or disorientation during or after a
simulator event. Data suggests that more experienced
aviators and individuals who are new to the simulator are
most susceptible to these symptoms. In accordance with
OPNAV 3710.7, “flight personnel exhibiting symptoms
of simulator exposure should abstain from same day
flying duties. Individuals who have experienced
simulator sickness in the past have a greater probability of
recurrence and should not be scheduled to fly for 24 hours
following simulator exposure.”
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
CHAPTER 9
Malfunction Set Up For Aircraft
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Auxiliary Power Unit Malfunctions ..............................8-2
Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions..............8-2
Flight Instrument Malfunctions .....................................8-3
Propeller System Malfunctions......................................8-4
Propulsion System Malfunctions...................................8-5
Engine & Aircraft Fuel System Malfunctions ...............8-7
Engine & Aircraft Foul Weather System Malfunct. ......8-7
Air Conditioning & Press. System Malfunctions.......... 8-7
Hydraulic & Flight Control System Malfunctions........ 8-9
Engine Start Malfunctions ...........................................8-10
Takeoff Malfunctions ..................................................8-13
NTS Check Malfunctions ............................................8-15
In-Flight Restart Malfunctions.....................................8-16
Note
Any simulated malfunctions (i.e., propeller pump
lights, press low lights, etc.) that must be
announced by the IP or IFE are not included in this
malfunction index. This does not prevent
instructors from presenting these malfunctions in
the aircraft.
Indicator circuit breakers may be pulled for scan
checks at the discretion of the IP/IFE.
The following set-up matrix cannot cover all
simulated malfunctions possible. Consideration should be
given to the predicted outcome of the malfunction and the
instructor’s abilities.
To the maximum extent practical, training in the
aircraft should encompass only items that are not
adequately reproduced in the simulator. Leverage the
simulator to conduct as much high work and system
training as possible in order to provide more realistic
training and maximize aircraft utilization efficiencies.
9-1
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Auxiliary Power Unit Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
A1
APU flameout.
SET-UP
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
1. Pull APU start control circuit
breaker (F32).
Electrical Power Supply System
Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
SET-UP
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
B1
Generator failure.
1. Turn off respective generator
switch.
Note
Reset procedures can be simulated in
flight by using the APU generator
switch.
B2
APU generator fails.
1. Pull generator control circuit
breaker (G29).
Note
Pull prior to shifting down the last
engine driven generator.
B3
Loss of a main AC bus.
1. Turn off respective bus monitor
switch.
or
1. Pull Bus A or B control circuit
breaker (J1, J2).
2. Turn off associated generator or
downshift the engine.
or
1. Pull generator 4 transfer circuit
breaker prior to downshifting an
inboard engine or securing the
APU.
B4
Loss of Main DC.
1. Pull TR number 1 and TR number 2 circuit breakers.
or
1. TR 2 circuit breaker out on a fire
of unknown origin.
CAUTION
Loss of MDC will fail ground/air
sensing, shifting engines up and
failing power to ground air conditioning. EDCs will have to be
dumped manually to prevent
overheated air cycle cooling units.
Do not try this with TR 1 out and
failing Bus B in-flight or gustlock will
occur.
9-2
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
MALFUNCTIONS
B5
B6
Loss of FEAC.
SET-UP
1. Pull phase A and/or phase B
circuit breaker(s).
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Total loss of Flight AC shall not be
performed in aircraft. Transponder
will be lost if phase C is pulled.
Loss of MEAC/MEDC.
WARNING
Shall not be performed in aircraft; loss
of MEDC would cause failure of
warning lights, ICS, communications,
and may result in sheared EDC drive
shafts.
B7
Loss of SEDC during restart.
Pull essential DC Feeder number 3.
Note
Pull the circuit breaker prior to fuel
and ignition switch being turned on.
CAUTION
Cycle temperature datum switches
prior to restart.
B8
Inverter failure.
1. Pull inverter power circuit
breaker (C36).
2. Pull power sensing circuit
breaker (J3).
Note
Pull prior to TFE selecting an engine
or turning on inverter–battery test
switch.
CAUTION
Null TDs if this malfunction is
conducted with malfunction J5 on an
in-flight restart.
B9
Loss of SEAC.
Pull start essential AC circuit breaker
Note
(C4).
Digital TIT indicators will blank.
Flight Instrument Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
C1
SET-UP
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Pilot’s HSI failure (TP-3A).
1. Pull pilot’s HSI circuit breaker
(26V AC and 115V AC on FWD
navigation interconnection box).
Note
Pull circuit breaker at discretion of the
IP.
Pilot’s HSI failure (P-3C).
1. Turn on NAV Simulator.
or
1. Pull pilot’s HSI control circuit
breaker.
On EFDS aircraft, the EHSI will go
blank and the EFDI will go to split
screen mode, if the EHSI CB is
pulled.
9-3
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
MALFUNCTIONS
C2
Pilot’s turn needle failure.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
SET-UP
1. Pull pilot’s turn rate gyro circuit
breaker (H13).
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breaker at discretion of the
IP.
Not available on EFDS aircraft.
Propeller System Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
D1
Fluctuating rpm.
D2
Decouple.
SET-UP
1. Call out malfunction.
Or
1. Cycle respective engine anti-ice
circuit breaker (H9-12).
1. Retard power lever.
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Cycling anti-ice circuit breaker will
also cause slight SHP/TIT fluctuation.
2. Call out indication, i.e., TIT, rpm,
fuel flow, for desired type
decouple.
D3
Tach generator failure.
1. Call out indication.
2. IP move power lever.
D4
Emergency shutdown with a propeller fails to feather.
1. Pull propeller feather control circuit breaker (E22, E23, J26, J27).
2. Reset propeller control circuit
breaker.
Or
1. Pull left and right wiper switch
circuit breakers. (H5-8,J5-8).
Note
If sync is not turned off, power lever
movement simulates fluctuation in
TIT, SHP, and fuel flow.
Note
Pull propeller feather control circuit breaker prior to inducing a
malfunction requiring shutdown.
Reset at IP/IFE discretion depending on intent of demonstration, i.e. alternate bus, PCO, etc.
Be aware of normal lab seal vent
leakage.
CAUTION
Do not allow the propeller to rotate for an extended period of time
(45 second maximum) due to the
possibility of damaging the
propeller brake.
If this malfunction is conducted in
conjunction with an engine fire see
malfunction E5 for set-up
instructions.
9-4
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
MALFUNCTIONS
D5
D6
Sync system INOP.
No NTS light on shutdown.
SET-UP
1. Pull sync control circuit breaker
(G22).
Or
1. Pull sync power on Bus A circuit
breaker.
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to FE synchronizing the propellers.
CAUTION
Ensure sync switches are off prior to
resetting circuit breaker.
1. Pull NTS check circuit breaker
immediately after light illuminates, then reset it.
Propulsion System Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
E1
Engine fire on the ground.
SET-UP
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
1. Pull all engine fire extinguisher
C/B’s (E5-E8 and K9-Kl2).
2. Pull APU manual fire
extinguisher C/B’s (F25, F26) if
simulated fire is on engine
number 3 or 4.
Note
Before resetting the HRD circuit
breakers check that the HRD
button is out.
3. Pull propeller feather control C/B
(E22, 23, J26, J27).
Before pushing in the emergency
shutdown handle, allow propeller
to feather.
4. Pull oil tank shutoff valve C/B
(H17-20).
5. Actuate fire detector test switch.
Do not reset the oil tank shutoff
valve circuit breaker after the After Start checklist complete.
CLEAN-UP
1. Reset HRD circuit breakers.
2. Reset propeller control C/B.
3. Push in E handle.
E2
Oil cooler inducer malfunction.
E3
Autofeather system malfunction.
4. Reset oil tank shutoff valve circuit breaker.
1. Pull respective flight idle stop
circuit breaker (H25-H28).
CAUTION
Or
IFE
monitor
engine oil temp closely.
1. Pull oil cooler act. circuit breaker
(A-13, 14, B-13, 14).
1. Pull respective autofeather circuit
Note
breaker (F21-F24).
Pull circuit breaker prior to TFE
arming system.
9-5
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
MALFUNCTIONS
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
SET-UP
E4
Low oil pressure in normal rpm.
1. Pull oil pressure indicator circuit
breaker (26V INST. BUS number
1 or 2) (J31, 32, 37, 38).
E5
Engine Fire.
1. Pull all engine fire extinguisher
circuit breaker’s (E5-E8 and
K9-K12)
2. Pull APU manual fire
extinguisher circuit breakers
(F25, F26) if simulated fire is on
engines 3 or 4.
E6
Engine anti-ice light on, switch off.
3. Actuate fire detector test switch.
1. Pull respective torquemeter circuit breaker (D7-10).
2. Pull respective engine ice control
circuit breaker (H9-12).
3. Reset engine ice circuit breaker.
4. Reset torquemeter circuit
breaker.
E7
E8
Fluctuating SHP.
Engine fails to shutdown.
1. Cycle respective engine anti-ice
circuit breaker (H9-12).
or
1. Cycle TD control circuit breaker
(A36-39).
1. Pull propeller feather control circuit breaker (E22, E23, J26, 27).
2. Pull oil tank shutoff valve circuit
breaker (H17-20).
3. Pull respective fuel and ignition
circuit breaker (A32-A35).
CLEAN-UP
1. Reset propeller control circuit
breaker.
2. Push in emergency shutdown
handle.
3. Reset oil tank shutoff valve circuit breaker.
9-6
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to engine
being shifted to normal RPM.
CAUTION
Do not allow the oil tank shutoff
valve circuit breaker to be set.
If this malfunction is done with a
propeller fails to feather, see
malfunction D4.
Note
Engine anti-ice light will illuminate in approximately 90 seconds.
Reset engine ice control circuit
breaker prior to TFE troubleshooting.
Reset torquemeter circuit breaker
immediately after resetting ice
control circuit breaker.
CAUTION
Cycle TD control circuit breaker
only if power lever is below 66
degrees coordinator.
Note
Pull circuit breakers prior to TFE
shutting down the engine.
CAUTION
Allow engine to terminate feather
before pushing in emergency
shutdown handle.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
Engine and Aircraft Fuel System
Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
F1
F2
Boost pump failure.
Crossfeed valve failure.
SET-UP
1. Pull fuel boost pump control circuit breaker (E9-E12).
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
CAUTION
During the climb, be aware for
possible engine power loss due to
aeration.
1. Pull crossfeed valve circuit
breaker (B7-10).
Engine and Aircraft Foul Weather System
Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
G1
Wing deice check malfunction.
G2
Engine anti-ice light on with control
switch off.
SET-UP
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
1. Pull wing deice modulation valve
Note
circuit breaker (F13-F15).
Pull wing deice modulation valve
or
circuit breaker prior to TFE turning on
1. Cycle respective engine anti-ice
wing deice switches
circuit breaker (H9-12).
Pull and reset respective engine antiice circuit breaker as wing deice
turned on/off.
1. Pull engine anti-ice circuit
breaker (H9-12).
Air Conditioning And Pressurization
System Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
H1
No, or loss of ground air
conditioning.
SET-UP
1. Pull start control circuit breaker
(B31).
or
1. Pull air multiplier valve circuit
breaker (J24).
or
1. Pull APU load and shutoff valve
circuit breaker (G31).
or
1. Pull Aux-vent control circuit
breaker (J21).
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
CAUTION
Pulling the Aux-vent control circuit
breaker (J21) with either inboard
engine operating undumps the EDCs
without operating heat exchanger
fans.
EDC’s will have to be manually
dumped to prevent overheating of the
air-cycle cooling units.
9-7
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
MALFUNCTIONS
H2
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
SET-UP
Scissors switch failure on the
ground.
1. Pull ground–air sensing circuit
breaker on MDC (No. 1 upper,
on main load center).
H3
EDC PRESS LOW, TEMP HIGH,
etc.
1. Simulated in the aircraft by calling out malfunction.
H4
Quill shaft failure.
1. Pull disconnect circuit breakers
(H21, 22).
2. Dump EDC, pull EDC air press
indicator circuit breaker (K29,
K35).
3. Undump EDC.
or
1. Fail the indicator circuit breaker
on a touch-and-go before the
spread comes back.
or
1. Fail the indicator circuit breaker
before in-flight restart.
H5
Scissor switch failure during flight.
1. Utilize a small enough differential to minimize discomfort, then
open the auxiliary ventilation.
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
CAUTION
Loss of ground–air sensing shifts up
the engines and fails power to ground
air conditioning. EDCs have to be
manually dumped to prevent
overheating of the air cycle cooling
units.
Note
Pull EDC disconnect circuit breakers
(H21-22).
Note
Recommend set up on number 3
EDC so TP and TFE do not detect
EDC not dumping.
EDC will indicate loss of spread,
no press low light.
CAUTION
With EDC dumped, do not pull EDC
dump circuit breakers (H23, H24).
This can cause an inadvertent sheared
EDC driveshaft.
WARNING
Aircraft will depressurize rapidly.
Ensure crew is notified prior and
aircraft is below 10,000 feet.
9-8
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
MALFUNCTIONS
SET-UP
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
H6
No or partial pressurization.
Pull outflow valve circuit breaker,
1. Pull outflow valve circuit breaker
position switch, or open chute
(FEAC).
prior to takeoff.
or
1. Place outflow switch to off.
Pull aux. vent circuit breaker
or
during starts when ground air
1. Place aux. vent switch to open.
conditioning is off.
or
1. Open free fall chute.
or
CAUTION
1. Pull aux. vent actuator circuit
Pulling the Aux-vent control circuit
breaker (B21) on MEAC.
breaker (J21) with either inboard
engine operating undumps the EDCs
without operating heat exchanger
fans.
H7
Cabin exhaust FAN OUT light.
1. Pull cabin exhaust fan control
circuit breaker (E1).
Note
If airflow across the outflow valve
is still sufficient, the FAN OUT
light may not illuminate.
INS warning horn may startle aft
observer. (LTN-72 Only)
CAUTION
Do not allow avionics equipment to
overheat.
Hydraulic And Flight Control System
Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
I1
Control surface binding during taxi.
SET-UP
1. Block rudder.
or
1. Engage Autopilot.
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Have AFCS on or foot positioned
prior to controls check on Takeoff
checklist.
I2
Landing gear fails to retract.
1. Pull landing gear control circuit
breaker (E17)
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to or just
after selecting gear up.
I3
Hydraulic pump failure.
1. Pull respective hydraulic system
pump control circuit breaker
(E13, K14, E15)
Note
Expect approximately 5-10 second
delay before annunciator light
illuminates.
Reset circuit breaker after FE turns
the respective pump switch off to
ensure pump is available if needed.
9-9
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
MALFUNCTIONS
I4
Single hydraulic system failure.
SET-UP
1. Pull #2 hydraulic pump control
circuit breaker (E15).
2. Pull hydraulic system quantity
circuit breaker (E16).
I5
Rudder power light.
1. Pull rudder boost circuit breaker
(K13).
I6
Unsafe gear up or down.
1. Pull landing position indicator
circuit breaker (E18).
I7
Flap asymmetry.
1. Set flaps at desired position, i.e.,
up, maneuver or approach.
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
CAUTION
Ensure the TFE has uncovered the
boost handles.
Note
Reset circuit breaker after FE turns
the respective pump switch off to
ensure the pump is available if
needed.
Note
Pull circuit breaker with flaps above
60 percent.
Note
Do not set flaps at an intermediate
position.
2. Call out malfunction.
Call out as flaps are extended or
retracted.
I8
Binding flight control/unable to shift. 1. IP hold affected control.
WARNING
Inducing a gustlock during flight in
any channel is prohibited, except
rudder above 4000 feet on IUT
events.
After clean-up, the IFE shall ensure
boost handles are in and locked.
Engine Start Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
J1
9-10
Bleed air valve partially open or unable to open.
SET-UP
1. Pull bleed air valve circuit
breaker (B36-B39).
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breaker immediately after
the bleed air valve light comes on, or
pull circuit breaker prior to opening
valve.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
MALFUNCTIONS
J2
SET-UP
No bleed air pressure or loss of bleed 1. Pull bleed air start valve circuit
air.
breaker (G32).
or
1. Pull APU load and shutoff valve
circuit breaker (G31).
or
1. Pull start control circuit breaker
(B31).
or
1. Place in-flight arm switch to arm.
or
1. Pull bleed air manifold pressure
indicator circuit breaker (H29).
or
1. Pull instrument bus 1 transformer
circuit breaker on MEAC (B4).
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breakers prior to selecting an engine. When using
APU bleed air, pull circuit breaker
after turning off ground air
conditioning.
Position the in-flight arm switch to
arm prior to selecting an engine.
Pulling the bleed air manifold
pressure indicator circuit breaker
or the instrument bus 1 circuit
breaker also works with an external air source. Pull circuit breaker
prior to connecting huffer.
To indicate a loss of bleed air, pull
Bleed air shutoff valve circuit
breaker or APU load and shutoff
circuit breaker after engine
selected.
J3
Starter button will not stay in.
1. Pull Start control circuit breaker
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to actuation
(B31).
of the starter button.
Or
1. Pull essential DC feeder #3 circuit
breaker behind co-pilot seat.
CAUTION
Cycle TD switches for a minimum of
5 seconds prior to engine start.
J4
Torch.
1. Call out malfunction.
J5
Loss of SEDC.
1. Pull essential DC feeder number
3 circuit breaker behind copilot
seat.
J6
No fuel flow, no light off.
1. Pull fuel shutoff valve circuit
breaker (B32-B35).
Note
Pull fire extinguisher circuit breakers.
CAUTION
Do not pull the essential DC
feeder number 3 circuit breaker
any time after the 16% RPM or
fuel flow has been initiated.
Cycle TD switches for a minimum
of 5 seconds prior to engine start.
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to 16 percent.
CAUTION
Do not reset circuit breaker during
start to simulate late fuel flow and
lightoff.
9-11
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
MALFUNCTIONS
J7
Fuel flow, no lightoff.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
SET-UP
1. Pull fuel shutoff valve circuit
breaker (B32-35).
2. Reset circuit breaker after FE
discontinues start with the fuel
and ignition switch.
J8
Premature starter disengagement.
1. Pull start control circuit breaker
(B31).
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breaker immediately after
fuel flow has initiated.
CAUTION
Motor engine prior to next start.
CAUTION
Pull start control circuit breaker at
or above 50 percent and positive
SHP to prevent engine stagnation
or stall.
Do not use the essential DC feeder
number 3 for this malfunction.
J9
Low oil pressure.
1. Pull oil pressure indicator circuit
breaker (26V INST. BUS No. 1
or No. 2) (J31, 32, 37, 38).
Note
Pull circuit breaker after FE checks
rising pressure at 35 percent RPM.
J10
No oil pressure at 35 %.
1. Pull oil pressure indicator circuit
breaker (26V instrument bus
number 1 or 2) (J31, 32, 37, 38).
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to rotation.
CAUTION
IP and IFE shall ensure start is secured prior to 35 percent.
J11
No air rise due to a failure of
instrument bus No. 1 while starting
engine No. 1 or 4.
1. Pull propeller feather control circuit breaker (J26 or 27).
2. Pull oil tank shutoff valve circuit
breaker (H17 or 20).
3. Pull instrument bus 1 circuit
breaker (B4 on MEAC).
CLEAN-UP
1. Reset propeller control circuit
breaker.
2. Push in emergency shutdown
handle.
3. Reset oil tank shutoff valve circuit breaker.
9-12
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
MALFUNCTIONS
J12
SHP gauge failure.
SET-UP
1. Pull torquemeter circuit breaker
(D7-D10).
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Pull circuit breaker when SHP cycles
through zero.
Digital SHP gauge blanks with CB
pulled.
J13
No air rise when starter button pops.
1. Pull propeller feather control
circuit breaker (E22, E23, J26 or
J27).
2. Pull oil tank shutoff valve circuit
breaker (H17 - H20).
3. Pull bleed air manifold indicator
circuit breaker (H29).
Note
Pull bleed air manifold indicator
circuit breaker after checking air
pressure at 16 percent.
Push in bleed air manifold circuit
breaker after bleed air valve closes
if bad start control valve, leave it
out if failed gage.
4. Push in bleed air manifold
indicator circuit breaker (H29).
WARNING
Monitor start valve light and TIT for
closure of start valve.
CLEAN-UP
1. Reset propeller control circuit
breaker.
2. Push in emergency shutdown
handle.
Note
Before pushing in the emergency
shutdown handle, allow propeller
to feather.
Do not reset the oil tank shutoff valve
circuit breaker after the after start
checklist complete.
3. Reset oil tank shutoff valve
circuit breaker.
Takeoff Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
K1
SET-UP
Aborted takeoff due to a malfunction 1. Pull circuit breaker or turn off
before refusal.
equipment which will immediately activate a caution light;
such as pitot heater, generator
off, etc.
or
1. IP call out any simulated malfunction.
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
IP consider pattern traffic.
Pull circuit breaker or turn off
equipment after calling 80 knots and
prior to VR.
Do not use time delay malfunction
such as hydraulic pump or cabin
exhaust fan.
9-13
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
MALFUNCTIONS
K2
Aborted takeoff due to low power or
power loss.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
SET-UP
1. Open bleed air valve.
2. Turn on any or all wing deice
modulation valves and anti-ice
valve.
CLEAN-UP
1. Close bleed air valve and turn off
wing deice modulation and antiice valves.
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
IP consider pattern traffic.
To simulate a low power, open
modulation valves as takeoff
power is being set. For a power
loss, open modulation valves after
power has been set. Close valves
when abort initiated.
IP be prepared to call the malfunction prior to VR if TFE fails to
recognize it.
WARNING
K3
Aborted takeoff due to a propeller
malfunction.
1. IP call out the indication (i.e.,
overspeed number 1 engine, propeller pump light number 3, etc.).
IFE monitor power on other engines
in event the TFE calls another one.
Note
IP consider pattern traffic.
May be done in conjunction with a
power loss.
WARNING
Do not simulate partial power loss by
retarding power lever due to VMC GRD
K4
Malfunctions after refusal.
1. IP discretion.
K5
Sheared speed sense control.
1. IP reduce power to approximately 830 TIT on one engine.
9-14
Note
IP call out or induce malfunction after
refusal.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Chapter 9
Malfunction Set-up
NTS Check Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
L1
Stuck NTS plunger during NTS
check.
SET-UP
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
1. Push in respective feather button.
CAUTION
Ensure NTS system is operating prior
to pushing in feather button. Ensure
clean up from NTS check after
malfunction.
If set up to a propeller fails to feather,
the feather pump AC circuit breaker
shall be pulled and not the DC circuit
breaker. Pulling the DC circuit
breaker may result in a propeller
decouple.
L2
Misrigged alpha shaft and/or stuck
power lever during NTS check.
1. IP hold power lever at flight idle.
2. IP call overspeed for misrigged
alpha shaft.
Note
Release power lever when SHP goes
positive.
If SHP gauge CB pulled to simulate
negative SHP, the gauge will go blank
with digital SHP gauges installed.
WARNING
If scenario includes shutting down the
motor to a fails to feather via the
feather button, the feather pump AC
circuit breaker shall be pulled and not
the DC circuit breaker. Pulling the DC
circuit breaker may result in a
propeller decouple.
CAUTION
Ensure NTS system is operating before allowing TFE to shutdown engine.
L3
Not enough air bled off during NTS
check.
L4
No SHP fluctuation, or SHP in
excess of 500 during NTS check.
1. Pull bleed air valve circuit breaker
as soon as BAV light comes on
(B36-39).
or
1. Fail wing mod valve (F13-15).
1. Pull torquemeter circuit breaker
Note
(D7-10).
Pull circuit breaker as SHP cycles in
negative range after NTS action is
observed, or pull circuit breaker as
SHP needle is moving in negative
direction after NTS is observed.
With digital SHP gauges they will go
blank with the torquemeter CB pulled.
9-15
Chapter 9
Malfunction Setup
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
In-Flight Restart Malfunctions
MALFUNCTIONS
SET-UP
M1
Steady feather light.
1. Place the NTS feather valve
switch to the NTS position.
M2
Loss of power to the propeller
feather pump during PCO.
1. Pull propeller control circuit
breaker (E22, E23, J26, J27).
NOTES-CAUTIONS-WARNINGS
Note
Position switch while TFE is watching
for indicated rotation.
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to or during
TFE pushing PCO.
CAUTION
Do not pull circuit breaker while
unfeathering propeller as the airstart
switch protection is lost.
M3
Light remains on in feather button
after PCO is released.
1. Depress PCO after FE releases the
feather button.
2. Release PCO when emergency
shutdown handle is pulled out.
M4
No fuel flow, no light off.
M5
No fuel flow but light off.
M6
Fuel flow, no light off.
M7
Oil pressure failure.
1. Pull fuel shutoff circuit breaker
(B32-35).
or
2. Pull essential DC feeder number 3
behind copilot.
Note
Pull circuit breaker prior to unfeathering propeller.
CAUTION
Cycle TD switches for a minimum of
5 seconds prior to engine start if the
essential DC feeder #3 is pulled.
1. Pull fuel flow power supply circuit
Note
breaker on Main AC Bus A.
Pull circuit breaker prior to unfeathering propeller.
1. Pull fuel shutoff valve circuit
Note
breaker (B32-35).
Pull circuit breaker immediately after
2. Reset after feather button pushed
fuel flow.
in.
1. Pull oil pressure indicator circuit
Note
breaker (26V instrument bus
Pull circuit breaker prior to rotation.
number 1 or 2) (J31, 32, 37, 38).
M8
Instrument bus 1 failure while starting engine number 1 or 4).
1. Pull instrument bus 1 circuit
breaker (B4 on MEAC).
M9
Premature lightoff.
1. Pull fuel and ignition circuit
breaker (A32-35).
CAUTION
IP and IFE shall ensure start is secured prior to 35 percent.
Note
Pull Instrument Bus 1 circuit breaker
before unfeathering the propeller.
Note
•
•
Pull fuel and ignition circuit breaker prior to unfeathering.
Guard circuit breaker in case TFE
refeathers propeller.
Do not reset until fuel and ignition
switch has been turned back on.
9-16
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
APPENDIX A
INSTRUCTOR UNDER TRAINING (IUT)
SYLLABUS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Scope………………………………………A-1
Terminology……………………………….A-1
The Fleet Squadron Instructor…………….A-2
FIG Applicability………………….………A-2
Crew Makeup…………………….………..A-3
Role Playing…………………………….…A-3
Event Scenarios……………………..……. A-4
Student Pilot/FE Mistakes……….….…….A-8
Event Preparation…………………..……..A-9
Preflight…………………………………...A-9
Planeside Brief…………………………….A-9
In-Flight……...……………………………A-9
Instructor Predicament List………………A-11
Takeoff Predicaments……………………A-12
In-Flight Predicaments………...…………A-14
Landing Pattern Predicaments…………...A-16
General Predicaments……………………A-20
SCOPE
This appendix has been prepared to assist squadrons and their designated IUT instructors in the
conduct of ACTC Level 4 IUT syllabus events. It presents the user with information designed to
standardize the IUT instructional process, reduce risks associated with IUT training and maximize the
effectiveness of instructor training. Additionally, it contains training and instructional technique
guidance that supplements material presented in the P-3 NATOPS Flight Manual, the NATOPS
Instrument Flight Manual, OPNAV 3710.7 Series, Pilot/FE Training Job Aid and elsewhere in this
Guide. Its purpose is to govern the conduct of IUT flights in conjunction with the sources listed above
and is not intended to supersede any requirements or directives promulgated by NATOPS, OPNAV or
other competent authority. This appendix should be used as a guide while drafting a squadron Instructor
Pilot Training Program (1525.1).
IUT syllabus guidance is not to be utilized for other than formally scheduled ACTC Level 4 IUT
training events. Where this appendix contradicts guidance contained in the rest of the FIG, this guidance
applies to IUT events only. It is critical that IUT instructors ensure proper crew coordination and
effective event preparation. IUT instructors must have a complete understanding of all possible
outcomes when designing and delivering IUT training and take all necessary steps to ensure the safe
completion of IUT events. All ACTC 4 IUT events should be conducted by a designated IUT Instructor.
The IUT syllabus, at the Commanding Officer’s discretion, may be modified for pilots and flight
engineers with prior instructor designation. Recommended factors to consider: amount of previous P-3
instructional experience, time out of the P-3 and the nature of recent duty (flying/non-flying).
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TERMINOLOGY
To clarify discussion terminology for the purposes of this appendix, the following terminology
definitions apply:
-
IUT = Prospective Instructor Pilot
IUT FE = Prospective Instructor Flight Engineer
IP = IUT Instructor Pilot (generally in role as a student pilot)
IFE = IUT Instructor Flight Engineer (generally in role as a student Flight Engineer)
IUT Team = IUT and IUT FE
IUT Instructors = IP and IFE
THE FLEET SQUADRON IUT INSTRUCTOR
Due to the demanding nature of the instructor training process, IUT Instructors must be
eminently qualified to conduct IUT training. Qualification requirements must be more stringent than
those used for IP or IFE designation. IUT instructors are the cornerstone of an effective squadron
upgrade syllabus and standardization among individual squadron instructors. The IP or IFE should be
recognized for their instructional experience, teaching ability, professionalism and attention to flight
safety. In addition to the key instructor attributes identified elsewhere in the FIG, the IP or IFE should
possess significant P-3 instructional experience, a significant number of total flight hours and
exceptional proficiency in the aircraft. Experience as an FRS IP/IFE or NATOPS Instructor can be
beneficial, however, neither is crucial to the effectiveness as an IUT Instructor. Most critical to the
safety and success of the IUT instructor are overall proficiency, currency, situational awareness and
teaching ability. IUT instructors should have completed their squadron IUT instructor syllabus. This
syllabus could consist of observations of IUT events and an interview with senior IUT IPs.
Commanding Officers should carefully consider the presence of the above listed attributes prior to
designating an IUT Instructor.
FIG APPLICABILITY
Guidance promulgated by the P-3 NATOPS Flight Manual, the NATOPS Instrument Flight
Manual and the OPNAV 3710.7 Series cannot be waived under the auspices of this appendix. IUT
Instructors are responsible for ensuring that safety of flight is not compromised and NATOPS/OPNAV
guidance is not violated. FIG guidance for normal training flights contained in the previous chapters of
this document may not apply to IUT training events.
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
CREW MAKEUP
In general, crew make up for an IUT event is as depicted below:
FLIGHT STATION
LEFT SEAT
IP (IUT INST PILOT)
FE SEAT
IFE (IUT INST FE)
RIGHT SEAT
IUT (UPGRADING PILOT*)
CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL
IUT IFE (UPGRADING FE*)
SAFETY OBSERVER
ADDITIONAL IP** OR IFE**
* On occasion, it may become necessary to fly an IUT or IUT FE without a flight partner. In that
case, the missing IUT or IUT FE may only be replaced with a positionally qualified instructor.
** When feasible, the use of a Safety Observer (an additional IP or IFE or an upgrading IUT
instructor) should be used on IUT-2, 4, 5 and 6X to increase safety and training efficiency. If the Safety
Observer is a Pilot, he may only pull circuit breakers for scan items. Only qualified IUT Instructor
Pilots or IFE’s may fail systems using circuit breakers for the purpose of presenting simulated actual
malfunctions.
OPNAV 3710.7T authorizes the aircraft commander to be out of the seat during IUT landing
pattern work, if a qualified IUT instructor pilot is occupying one of the flight control stations. Each
squadron’s Commanding Officer retains the option to require that the individual who signed the "A
Sheet" shall occupy one of the pilot seats during all landing pattern evolutions.
ROLE PLAYING
The use of appropriate role-playing during the IUT is critical to the development of an effective
IP or IFE. The goal of role-playing should not be to confuse, overwhelm, or intimidate the IUT Team;
instead, the "role" should seek to expose the IUT Team to various levels of student performance in a
controlled environment. Role-playing normally involves the portrayal of a typical “student” with a
specific, generally recognized set of training deficiencies. An IUT or IUT FE should be exposed to
numerous roles as part of the IUT process in order for him/her to develop the skills necessary to
effectively train fleet students. Each characteristic the IUT instructor emulates should have a distinct
teaching point associated with it. The IUT instructor should portray the minimal amount of “roleplaying” to convey the teaching point. Once the IUT has produced an adequate solution to the
characteristic portrayed, the IUT instructor should discontinue that portion of the “Role.” Some of the
most common roles include:
1. Below Average First Tour
a. Primary subtypes could include early or late stage of training (i.e. PPP Fly 1 or PPC
stage), secondary subtypes could include Meek (shy, retiring personality) or Aggressive
(i.e. significant non-P-3 aviation experience)
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
2.
3.
4.
5.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
b. First tour FEs should have basic operating skills and systems knowledge.
Average First Tour (same subtypes apply)
Above Average First Tour (same subtypes as Below Average First Tour apply)
Recent upgraders with distinct deficiencies
Second Tour
a. As with first tour, experience portrayed could include highly experienced (i.e. former
FRS instructor or TPS grad) or relatively inexperienced (i.e. low hours, eight years out of
the cockpit). Personality subtypes could include meek or aggressive.
It is imperative that the IP and IFE maintain clear control of instructor “roles” in order to avoid
confusion during scenario execution. More specifically, the IP and IFE must clearly delineate when “in
role” and when “out of role.” While “in role”, the IP or IFE is expected to play his/her part fully,
avoiding instructing the IUT Team so that they have the opportunity to fully develop their instructional
skills. Only while “out of role” should the IP or IFE provide instruction. The IUT instructors will be
“out of role” only if a safety of flight issue arises, or if there is a significant instructional point that needs
to be debriefed. The IP shall announce “I have the controls” if he/she feels that he/she must take control
of the aircraft in the event that a safety of flight concern arises. While “out of role”, the IP and IFE
should remain out of role until all safety of flight concerns have been resolved and all necessary
instruction has been given. Only after confirming all outstanding issues are resolved should the IP and
IFE clearly announce that they are “back in role” and training resumed.
EVENT SCENARIOS
The P-3 Instructor P3QS is designed for the squadrons’ use in training IUTs and IUT FEs. The
program consists of P3QS and Aircrew Evolutions. The overall theme throughout all the Aircrew
Evolutions fall under the following three categories in order of importance:
1. Safety of Flight
2. Effective Instruction with Accurate Evaluation
3. Crew Resource Management
The specific focus of the Aircrew Evolutions are as follows:
PPIP/IFE OFT-1:
IUT Emphasis - The development of right seat proficiency while conducting high and low work
demonstrations. Focus on FIG/NATOPS knowledge, standardization, basic instructional skills and
defensive positioning IAW the FIG. The IUT will be in a single pilot environment to practice radio /
checklist management and overall IP situational awareness (scan).
IUT FE Emphasis - The IUT FE should practice basic malfunction setup, OFT operation,
developing an IFE scan / defensive position and be challenged with NATOPS discussions.
Scenario - None. However, IUT and IUT FE will control the flow and pace of the event to begin
practicing time management.
IP Role - None.
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Instructor Under Training Syllabus
IFE Role - None.
Note - This event is best taught by a senior squadron IUT IP and IUT IFE to ensure the correct
habit patterns and safety envelopes are formed early in the IUT.
PPIP/IFE OFT-2:
IUT Emphasis - The further development of right seat proficiency, the introduction of scenario
presentation and an introduction to trend recognition and correction. IUT Team crew coordination skills
should be emphasized.
IUT FE Emphasis - The introduction of scenario presentation and an introduction to trend
recognition and correction. IUT Team crew coordination skills should be emphasized.
Scenario - A basic scenario should be written by the IUT based on the PPIP/IFE OFT-2
gradesheet (no OFT codes maybe used by the IUTs to setup their malfunctions).
IP Role - No personality. IP will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments.
IFE Role - No personality. IFE will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments.
Note - Critical predicament demos include (but are not limited to) incorrect rudder on EFAR,
early rotate, unplanned engine shutdown, “actual” malfunction during scenario, etc. Time shall be
allotted for the IUT to practice right seat demonstrations.
PPIP OFT-3:
IUT Emphasis - The development of right seat proficiency while conducting Combat Threat
Training (CTT). Focus on instructing Combat Threat Maneuvering (CTM) safely within the operating
envelope of the aircraft.
IUT FE Emphasis – IUT FE does not participate in PPIP OFT-3.
Scenario - None. However, IUT will control the flow and pace of the event to practice time
management.
IP Role - None.
IFE Role - None.
Note - None
PPIP OFT-4 (FIUT):
IUT Emphasis - The further development of right seat proficiency while conducting high and
low work demonstrations. Focus on FIG/NATOPS knowledge, standardization, basic instructional skills
and defensive positioning IAW the FIG. The IUT will be in a single pilot environment to practice radio /
checklist management and overall IP situational awareness (scan).
IUT FE Emphasis – IUT FE does not participate in PPIP OFT-4.
Scenario - None. However, IUT will control the flow and pace of the event to practice time
management.
IP Role - None.
IFE Role - None.
Note - FIUT will discuss current fleet trends, ensure fleet standardization and polish the IUT’s
presentation of right seat demonstrations.
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
PPIP OFT-5 and PPIFE OFT-3 (FIUT):
IUT Emphasis – This event will stress instruction, scenario presentation, trend
recognition/correction and develop the IUT’s ability to maintain SOF when both the aircraft and
RP/RFE team are not operating to their maximum potential. IUT Team crew coordination skills will be
emphasized.
IUT FE Emphasis - This event will stress instruction, scenario presentation, trend
recognition/correction and develop the IUT FE’s ability to maintain SOF when both the aircraft and
RP/RFE team are not operating to their maximum potential. IUT Team crew coordination skills will be
emphasized.
Scenario - A scenario should be written by the IUT based on the PPIP/IFE OFT-5 gradesheet (no
OFT codes maybe used by the IUTs to setup their malfunctions).
IP Role - Early PPP syllabus pilot. IP will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments as well as force the IUT to deal with a malfunctioning aircraft.
IFE Role - Multiple tour FE that is new to the squadron after finishing a non flying shore tour.
IFE will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and predicaments as well as force the IUT FE to
deal with a malfunctioning aircraft.
Note - None.
PPIP/PPIFE Fly-1:
IUT Emphasis - The first IUT flight should be used to refine the basic skills developed in the
OFT. The event should focus on developing complete comfort for the IUT in all types of right seat
landings, right seat demos, other runway work, defensive positioning, radio / checklist management in
the pattern and overall IP situational awareness (scan).
IUT FE Emphasis - The IUT FE should practice basic malfunction setup, OFT operation,
developing an IFE scan / defensive position and be challenged with NATOPS discussions.
Scenario - None. However, IUT and IUT FE will control the flow and pace of the event to
practice time management.
IP Role - None.
IFE Role - None.
Note - This event is best taught by a senior squadron IUT IP and IUT IFE to ensure the correct
habit patterns and safety envelopes are formed early in the IUT.
PPIP/PPIFE Fly-2:
IUT Emphasis - The further development of right seat proficiency, the introduction of scenario
presentation and an introduction to trend recognition and correction. IUT Team crew coordination skills
should be emphasized.
IUT FE Emphasis - The introduction of scenario presentation and an introduction to trend
recognition and correction. IUT Team crew coordination skills should be emphasized.
Scenario - A basic scenario should be written by the IUT based on the PPIP/IFE FLY-2
gradesheet.
IP Role - No personality. IP will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments.
IFE Role - No personality. IFE will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments.
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Note - Critical predicament demos include (but are not limited to) incorrect rudder on EFAR,
early rotate, unplanned engine shutdown, “actual” malfunction during scenario, etc. Time shall be
allotted for the IUT to practice right seat demonstrations.
PPIP/PPIFE Fly-3 (FIUT):
IUT Emphasis - The event will focus on standardizing and refining the IUT’s right seat
demonstrations. The IUT shall maintain safety of flight at all times while demonstrating proficient right
seat BAW.
IUT FE Emphasis - The IUT FE should practice basic malfunction setup, developing an IFE scan
/ defensive position and be challenged with NATOPS discussions.
Scenario - None. However, IUT and IUT FE will control the flow and pace of the event to
practice time management.
IP Role - None.
IFE Role - None.
Note - None.
PPIP/PPIFE Fly-4 (FIUT):
IUT Emphasis – This event will stress instruction, scenario presentation, trend
recognition/correction and further develop the IUT’s ability to maintain SOF when both the aircraft and
RP/RFE team are not operating to their maximum potential. IUT Team crew coordination skills will be
emphasized.
IUT FE Emphasis - This event will stress instruction, scenario presentation, trend
recognition/correction and further develop the IUT FE’s ability to maintain SOF when both the aircraft
and RP/RFE team are not operating to their maximum potential. IUT Team crew coordination skills
will be emphasized.
Scenario - A scenario should be written by the IUT based on the PPIP/IFE Fly-4 gradesheet.
IP Role - Late PPP syllabus pilot. IP will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments as well as force the IUT to deal with a malfunctioning aircraft.
IFE Role – Early PPFE syllabus FE. IFE will demonstrate common student mistakes, trends and
predicaments as well as force the IUT FE to deal with a malfunctioning aircraft.
Note - This event will involve in-depth role playing, presentation of “simulated actual
malfunction” scenarios by the IP and IFE (scenarios that require safety of flight decisions to be made by
the IUT Team) and refinement of IUT Team defensive positioning skills through predicaments.
PPIP/PPIFE Fly-5:
IUT Emphasis – This event will stress instruction, scenario presentation, trend
recognition/correction and further develop the IUT’s ability to maintain SOF when both the aircraft and
RP/RFE team are not operating to their maximum potential. IUT Team crew coordination skills will be
emphasized.
IUT FE Emphasis - This event will stress instruction, scenario presentation, trend
recognition/correction and further develop the IUT FE’s ability to maintain SOF when both the aircraft
and RP/RFE team are not operating to their maximum potential. IUT Team crew coordination skills
will be emphasized.
Scenario - A scenario should be written by the IUT based on the PPIP/IFE Fly-5 gradesheet.
IP Role - IP discretion.
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
IFE Role - IFE discretion.
Note - This event will involve in-depth role playing, presentation of “simulated actual
malfunction” scenarios by the IP and IFE (scenarios that require safety of flight decisions to be made by
the IUT Team) and refinement of IUT Team defensive positioning skills through predicaments. Due to
the challenging nature of this event, the Commanding Officer should use the utmost care in selection of
the IP and IFE team. Only the most seasoned and experienced instructors should be chosen.
Assignment of a senior second tour IP and IFE would be the normal expectation.
PPIP/PPIFE Fly-6X:
IUT Emphasis - An overall evaluation of the IUT’s instructor abilities. The IUT shall
demonstrate an ability to mentor and train student while maintaining a safe training environment.
IUT FE Emphasis - An overall evaluation of the IUT’s instructor abilities. The IUT shall
demonstrate an ability to mentor and train student while maintaining a safe training environment.
Scenario - A scenario should be written by the IUT based on the PPIP/IFE Fly-6X gradesheet.
IP Role - Senior squadron IP’s discretion.
IFE Role – Senior squadron IFE’s discretion.
Note - This event is normally flown with the senior squadron IP and IFE and will also serve as a
standardization check for basic squadron instructional technique. The IUT/IUTFE shall be designated
only after successfully completing this flight.
IUT Syllabus Notes
1. IUT events are demanding on all participants. In light of this fact, excluding IUT-1 and 3, flight
events should be scheduled as “stand alone” events (i.e. should not be scheduled in conjunction with
other pilot training syllabus events). The fatigue level of both the IP/IFE and IUT Team should be
constantly evaluated and the event terminated if fatigue levels begin to affect performance and
safety.
2. To avoid the possibility that a non-IUT upgrader could misunderstand specific IUT training points
or role-playing, observation of IUT events by non-instructors is discouraged.
3. The use of IDFW events to develop right seat skills prior to IUT Fly-1 is encouraged. It is critical
that right seat proficiency be confirmed prior to the IUT beginning VP-30 FIUT training.
4. Role-playing and safety of flight should be thoroughly briefed and adhered to by the IP and IFE.
Ideally, an IUT scenario should be available to the IP and IFE the day prior to the IUT event and
used to develop role-play scenarios. Changes to the briefed plan should be avoided to limit
confusion during the IUT event.
5. The post-flight debrief is a critical component of IUT training. Intentional errors made by the IP /
IFE while in-role are often missed and often appeared unrealistic to the IUTs. These errors must be
fully debriefed and the teaching points clarified prior to concluding the training evolution. It is
recommended that as many as possible of these intentional errors be debriefed with all cockpit
crewmembers present.
STUDENT PILOT/FE MISTAKES
A critical part of the IUT/IUT FE training process is the development of the ability to react
appropriately to student mistakes. The IP and IFE must allow the IUT Team to make mistakes in
scenario and demo presentations, thereby developing their instructional skills while maintaining an
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acceptable safety of flight envelope. As long as safety of flight is not compromised, the IP and IFE
should not be too quick to rescue the IUT Team from a poorly set up malfunction or below average
demo. The IP and IFE should use their experience and scan to remain within an acceptable safety of
flight envelope while allowing the IUT Team to learn from their own mistakes.
The IP and IFE must also impart to the IUT Team the ability to recognize and react to mistakes
in their own students. Student mistakes can be separated into categories of instructive (i.e. failing to
open bleed air valves for engine start) and compromising (i.e. power chop in the flare). It is incumbent
upon the IP and IFE to instill a sense of what defines an instructive mistake (and is therefore allowable
as part of the learning process) and what student mistakes may compromise safety of flight. The IUT
Team ultimately must learn to react quickly to contain compromising mistakes, and more slowly to
correct instructive mistakes. This sense can only be imparted through adequate role playing
performance and a credible IUT training process.
EVENT PREPARATION
Preparation for an IUT event should begin well prior to the walk to Maintenance Control to read
the ADB. It is critical that time is allowed for an adequate preflight brief. The preflight briefing not
only covers information critical to the conduct of the upcoming flight, it also sets the tone for the new
instructor as he or she develops his or her own briefing routines. During the brief, PQS completion for
the respective IUT event should be verified, the planned role should be discussed, flight planning
conducted and areas of focus should be identified for the flight. The day prior to the brief, a written
scenario should be presented to the IP and IFE by the IUT Team.
The IP and IFE shall thoroughly brief the scenario, planned predicaments and any simulated
actual malfunctions planned.
PREFLIGHT
During preflight, the entire crew’s focus should be on safely preparing the aircraft for flight.
Although role-playing is acceptable, it should not interfere with attention to flight safety. The IP and
IFE should ensure preflight duties are clearly established by the IUT Team. During early stage flights
when role playing is not an issue, the preflight can be used to review preflight items with the goal of
standardizing presentation and imparting “evaluator level” NATOPS knowledge. The IP and IFE should
always conduct a thorough pre-flight walk around regardless of assigned duties.
PLANESIDE BRIEF
The completion of a proper Planeside Brief is critical to the safety of an IUT event. Planeside
brief is normally completed in role for later stage IUT flights to give the IUT the opportunity to practice
critique of the “students” brief as well as the opportunity to practice a normal IP brief. The IP should
follow the IUT brief critique with a clear “out of role” and “I have the controls” brief that covers crew
coordination, handling of actual emergencies and in/out of role distinctions.
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
IN-FLIGHT
The in-flight portion of an IUT event can be broken down into the distinct phases of taxi, takeoff,
climb/NTS check, high work and low work. The three general objectives common to all phases of inflight IUT instruction are:
1. Validation by the IP and IFE of IUT Team’s ability to safely conduct flight operations in the
instructional environment.
2. Instruction of the IUT Team in techniques and procedures for the safe presentation of aircraft
malfunctions in the instructional environment, to include time management.
3. Presentation, instruction and practice with specific student “Predicaments” for the IUT Team.
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
INSTRUCTOR PREDICAMENT LIST
The following is a detailed description of the predicaments that, over the years, have been
found to correspond to some of the more common errors made by upgrading pilots on familiarization
flights. Each predicament is described, explaining how the IP shall perform it, ways the IUT can prevent
the predicament from happening, and finally, what the IUT Team shall do to get out of the predicament
should it happen. Some predicaments have additional maneuvers that will be shown to the IUT Team in
the OFT. While this list is thorough, it is not meant to be all-inclusive. The IP may present additional
predicaments, malfunctions, and emergencies as long as they do not contradict any requirements or
directives contained in this supplement or promulgated by competent authority. The importance of
hangar flying discussions between IUT instructors cannot be stressed enough. Emphasis on such
discussions promotes instructors covering as many predicaments as possible and devising a plan of
action for when these predicaments arise.
WARNING
The following predicaments shall not be performed in the aircraft:
1. Actual engine shutdown by any means while on the runway or below 1500’ AGL.
2. Early rotate below 100 KIAS.
3. Autofeather or intentional shutdown of an engine prior to an in-flight NTS check.
4. Incomplete extension of the Emergency Shutdown Handle (soft E-handle).
5. Intentional gust lock of flight control, except rudder above 4000’ AGL on IUT events.
Note
HRD buttons shall not be pushed unless proper set-up has been verified by the IFE
in the seat or a qualified flight station observer.
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
TAKEOFF PREDICAMENTS
WRONG RUDDER ON ENGINE FAILURE BEFORE REFUSAL (SIMULATOR ONLY)
WARNING
This predicament shall not be performed in the aircraft because of the limited
recovery margin.
Execution - In this predicament the IP will use the wrong rudder during the three engine abort.
Prevention - IUT should block the wrong rudder pedal with his/her foot.
Response - IUT should take the aircraft and correct back to centerline using the following technique:
A. Power to flight idle to alleviate the effects of VMC ground.
B. Establish directional control of the aircraft.
C. Stop the aircraft.
Wrong Rudder On Engine Failure After Refusal (CO APPROVAL)
WARNING
The Wrong Rudder on Engine Failure After Refusal requires Commanding Officer
approval prior to conducting in the aircraft.
The IP shall use minimal wrong rudder and shall not 'push through' the IUT's block.
Execution - IP initiates wrong rudder application during EFAR. Minimal wrong rudder will result in noticeable centerline deviation.
Prevention - IUT should block the wrong rudder pedal with his/her foot.
Response - This must be purely reactionary. The IUT does not have the time to assess the situation prior
to the aircraft departing the side of the runway. The IUT must immediately take the aircraft and rotate
while simultaneously reestablishing power on all four engines.
WARNING
Vro airspeed is not a consideration during this predicament. The IUT should not
wait for 115 knots because the aircraft will more than likely depart the runway. At
training weights, the aircraft will have no problem flying with airspeed in the 100–
115 knot range.
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Instructor Under Training Syllabus
Note
During an IUT SIM, the IUT should be shown the ramifications of a slow response to this
predicament.
No Rudder On Engine Failure Before Refusal
Execution – IP will not use rudder during the three-engine abort.
Prevention - IUT should block the wrong rudder pedal with his/her foot.
Response - - IUT should assess the speed at which the aircraft is moving toward the side of the runway.
If the IP makes no correction toward centerline, IUT should take the aircraft and correct back to
centerline using rudder and asymmetric power and, as a last resort, brakes.
No Rudder On Engine Failure After Refusal
Execution - IP will not use rudder during the EFAR.
Prevention – IUT should be aware of insufficient use of rudder by RP.
Response - IUT should assess the speed at which the aircraft is moving toward the side of the runway.
If the IP makes no correction toward centerline, the IUT must immediately take the aircraft and rotate
while simultaneously reestablishing power on all four engines.
Abort After Refusal
Execution - IP attempts to abort after the simulated refusal speed of 100 knots when given a
malfunction.
Prevention - IUT’s hands at the base of the power levers should prevent IP from retarding power levers
too much.
Response - If IP is able to retard power levers aft then IUT shall take the aircraft and either abort the
takeoff him/herself or push the power back up and continue the takeoff.
Note
The decision whether to continue the abort or push the power back up and continue the
takeoff is a judgment call the IUT will have to make at the time depending on the
airspeed, runway remaining, how far back the power levers were retarded, etc.
EARLY ROTATE
Execution - Vro is confused with Vr. Rotate occurs at 100 knots. This can occur on a takeoff or touch
and go.
Prevention - Arm and hand position should be such that the yoke is blocked until the IUT wants rotate to
occur.
Response - The IUT should first consider not calling refusal if IP brings hand to yoke early. However, if
nosewheel does leave runway, the IUT should take controls, hold nosewheel off the deck and continue
with the takeoff.
Note
Rotate at less than 100 knots shall only be demonstrated during the IUT simulator phase.
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
IN-FLIGHT PREDICAMENTS
Two Engines Inadvertently Shutdown On The Same Side (CO APPROVAL)
WARNING
The Two-Engine Inadvertently Shutdown on the Same Side scenario may only be
performed in the aircraft with Commanding Officer approval.
IAW NATOPS, conducting emergency maneuvers with two engines shutdown is prohibited. Maintain
straight and level flight, and limit the duration in this configuration.
If two engine-driven generators are to be shutdown, the APU shall be started prior to executing this
predicament.
This scenario may be performed in the aircraft with the following precautions:
•
•
•
•
Single-engine performance shall be evaluated by the IP and IFE prior to execution. A 100,000 lb.
aircraft will have a 420 FPM rate-of-descent (standard day, normal-rated power, three propellers
feathered).
Minimum airspeed shall be loiter speed.
Minimum altitude for execution shall be 4000 feet AGL. Given the above single-engine conditions,
this altitude will provide over eight minutes to restart engines.
No additional malfunctions or predicaments shall be presented while in a two-engine configuration.
The following items pertain to presenting the predicament in either the simulator or the aircraft:
Note
During the IUT SIM, single engine flight characteristics should be discussed and
practiced.
Execution – Two engines inadvertently shutdown usually occurs when the IFE pushes in the wrong
feather button during a prop-fails-to-feather scenario.
Prevention – This is very difficult to prevent. The IUT and or IUT FE may try to stop the IFE by raising
their voices or through physical contact.
Response – If two engines are inadvertently shutdown, the IUT shall take the aircraft, get the IUT FE in
the FE seat and complete the Emergency Shutdown and Restart checklists IAW Chapter 5. The inboard
engine should be restarted first. The IUT Team should then determine if training is to be continued.
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
Engine Is Autofeathered (SIMULATOR ONLY)
Execution - The autofeather is inadvertently left on and an engine is autofeathered. This can occur with
rapid power lever movement during level-off and subsequent climb.
Prevention – The IUT should get in the habit of utilizing the Climb checklist as soon as practical after
takeoff to ensure the autofeather is OFF. Many flight engineers routinely turn autofeather off when
safely airborne but the IUT should not count on this technique. The IUTFE should ensure the
autofeather is secured when safely airborne.
Response - The IUT and IUT FE should halt all training until the situation is resolved. If an engine
autofeathers, the IUT should take the aircraft, have the IUTFE get in the seat and restart the engine using
the Restart checklist.
Note
During an IUT SIM, discuss the ramifications of restarting an engine that has not had an
NTS check performed.
SIMULATED Actual Malfunction During High Work
The IUT and IUT FE must develop the ability to interrupt training to deal with unexpected events.
Presentation of malfunctions to the IUT and IUT FE during IUT events (we will call these “simulated
actual malfunctions”) by the IP and IFE team allows the IUT and IUT FE to develop necessary skills to
react to situations that might occur during a typical student training event. Simulated actual
malfunctions should be realistic (i.e. resolvable using existing NATOPS procedures) to provide effective
training (an example could be prop fails to feather during a normal shutdown). The IP and IFE should
remain in role during presentation of a simulated actual malfunction unless safety of flight becomes an
issue.
Execution - Any number of malfunctions or emergencies can occur during training.
Prevention - Maintaining situational awareness and an active scan will alert the instructor to potentially
dangerous situations.
Response – The IUT and IUT FE should halt all training until the situation is resolved. Once cleaned up
from all simulated malfunctions, the IUT should handle the emergency or malfunction and evaluate if
he/she can resume training after the situation has been resolved. IUT may request IP and IFE
involvement in role in handling the malfunction but at all times should make it clear to all participants
that this is an actual malfunction. If necessary, the IP and IFE should come out of role and work
together with the IUT Team to resolve the situation.
The use of a second IUT Instructor Pilot as a “Safety Pilot” can increase the safety and efficiency
of the IUT event. The Safety Pilot, if used, should not be directly involved in instruction or roleplaying. The Safety Pilot should participate in the event as an observer; taking notes as required and
providing a back up to the IP and IFE on safety of flight issues. The Safety Pilot may pull circuit
breakers for scan items. The Safety pilot shall not set up major system malfunctions (e.g. engine fire).
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Appendix A
Instructor Under Training Syllabus
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
LANDING PATTERN PREDICAMENTS
Simulated Actual Malfunction During Touch-And-Go
WARNING
An EFAR shall not be conducted during a touch-and-go.
Execution – Simulated malfunction given during touch-and-go.
Prevention - None
Response - IUT should make decision whether or not to abort the touch-and-go, taking into account the
runway remaining and aircraft speed.
WARNING
During a no-flap touch and go, simulated malfunctions shall not be conducted.
Abort During Touch and Go
Execution – IP aborts during Touch and Go.
Prevention - IUT should guard against the student bringing the power levers into the ground range.
Response - IUT should make decision whether or not to abort the Touch and Go, taking into account the
runway remaining and aircraft speed.
Low Or High On Final
WARNING
If the IUT does not recognize an unsafe situation, the IP shall immediately execute a
waveoff.
Execution - Aircraft deviates from a three degree glideslope.
Prevention - IUT should stress a three degree glideslope and the visual cues that can be used to learn
how a three degree approach looks (i.e. “the ball”, ILS, VASI, etc.).
Response - IUT should alert the IP to this deviation if corrective action is not being taken and take
control of the aircraft as required to maintain safety of flight limits.
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Power Chop In Flare
WARNING
IP should be aware of IUT not recognizing power chop. If the IUT does not
recognize an unsafe situation, the IP shall immediately execute a waveoff.
Execution - Power levers are rapidly retarded to flight idle. Additional airspeed should be utilized when
performing this predicament. Airspeed shall not be less than 1.3 or 1.35 Vs. Typically a pilot will take
this action when he / she is high and fast or when he / she has yet to establish a “feel” for power lever
movement.
Prevention - The IUT shall have his/her hands on top of the power levers and prevent excessive
movement.
Response - This is one of the most dangerous situations and could result in severe damage to the aircraft
should it be allowed to impact the ground. The IUT should take the aircraft, immediately apply power
and execute a waveoff.
Aircraft Floats In Flare
WARNING
If the IUT does not recognize an unsafe situation, the IP shall immediately execute a
waveoff.
Execution - IP is fast on final and aircraft touchdown is past the first third of the runway.
Prevention - It is not recommended that the aircraft be allowed to touchdown past the first third of the
runway.
Response - Although the IUT may elect to allow an IP to land the aircraft past the first third of the
runway, he/she must be mindful of remaining runway length (especially less than 5000 feet remaining)
if a touch-and-go is going to be attempted.
Note
In an IUT SIM, the IUT shall be shown various touch-and-go scenarios with touchdowns
at various runway remaining distances (i.e. touchdown at “4” board). This demonstration
should reemphasize the concept of an actual refusal point on touch-and-go’s.
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Appendix A
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
Land Aircraft Off Centerline
WARNING
IUT should not allow IP to land with mainmounts outside of centerline. If the IUT
does not recognize an unsafe situation, the IP shall immediately execute a waveoff.
Execution - Aircraft touches down with centerline outside of mainmounts.
Prevention - IUT should constantly stress centerline control. In addition the IUT should be aware of
runway width (exercise caution with 150 feet or less) and obstructions that are close to the
runway might be impacted by a prop or wing.
Response - IUT must determine if it is advantageous to allow aircraft to continue or to waveoff.
Reversing With The Wrong Engine During A Simulated Engine Out Landing
Execution - The IP will forget which engine has been simulated shutdown especially when all four
power levers are very close to being married up.
Prevention - IUT should maintain scenario awareness.
Response - If briefed incorrectly, the IUT should correct the IP. Consideration should be given if the
crosswind component is more than 5 to 10 knots. Extra caution is required. If this occurs during
touchdown and reversal allow the IP to continue with the wrong engine and discuss the “mix-up”
afterwards. The resulting runway airwork will still call for proper use of rudder, aileron and asymmetric
power.
On ENGINE OUT REVERSAL All Four Power Levers Not Brought into the Ground Range
Execution - IP leaves a power lever in the flight range, or leaves the power lever just over the ramp.
Prevention - IUT should utilize a hand position that maintains contact with all four power levers during
the entire landing evolution.
Response - IUT should bring the “dropped” power lever into the ground range.
ATTEMPTED REVERSAL above 135 knots
WARNING
The IP shall not bring the power levers into the ground range, as pitchlock may occur.
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Instructor Under Training Syllabus
Execution - IP lifts the power levers at the flight idle position as if bringing them into the ground range.
Prevention - IUT should position hand on the power levers to prevent inadvertent movement into the
ground range.
Response - IUT should block the power levers until the airspeed has decreased to below 135 knots.
LONG OR FAST ON No Flap (LEADS TO Touch-And-Go)
Execution - IP may land with less than the no-flap ground roll distance remaining.
Prevention - IUT should recognize that insufficient runway remains and not allow the aircraft to touchdown.
Response - If the aircraft does touchdown the IUT should add power, accelerate to and rotate at 1.2 Vs
or 135 knots, whichever is greater. IUT should be mindful of the aircraft tendency to pitch up with
power application.
Aircraft Takeoff With Flaps At Land
Execution - Either on a touch-and-go, stop-and-go, or a normal takeoff the flaps are positioned at land
with the flap position indicator failed at approach.
Prevention - None. This predicament is conducted strictly for IUT exposure.
Response - IUT should notice the difference in aircraft angle of attack, the greater power required, the
LGWS alert, etc.
No Flap Landing With The Flaps At Approach
Execution - Off the “180” and after the Landing checklist has been completed, the flaps should be
lowered to “approach” with the flap position indicator failed in the “up” position.
Prevention - None. This predicament is conducted strictly for IUT exposure.
Response - IUT should notice the lower angle of attack and the higher power setting required to fly the same
pattern/approach.
Approach Flap Landing With Flaps Up
WARNING
If the IUT is flying the aircraft, this predicament shall only be flown to a low
approach. The IP/IFE shall ensure that the aircraft is not flown below the
appropriate 1.52/1.2 speeds.
Execution - The flap position indicator should be failed and the flaps should slowly be brought to the
“up” position.
Prevention - None. This predicament is strictly for IUT exposure.
Response - IUT should notice the higher angle of attack and the lower power setting required to fly the
same pattern/approach.
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Appendix A
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FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
GENERAL PREDICAMENTS
Scan Items
The IUT flights are also the time to emphasize the importance of a good scan, both outside and
inside. It is very important for the IUT to be observant and maintain the highest degree of situational
awareness, especially considering that he/she may be the only qualified crewmember occupying a flight
station seat. In order to improve IUT cockpit awareness and inside scan various items will be randomly
failed throughout the IUT syllabus.
Note
When feasible, the use of a Safety Observer (an IUT Instructor Pilot or qualified IFE)
should be used on IUT-2, 5, and 6X to increase safety and training efficiency. The Safety
Pilot can participate in the event as an observer, taking notes as required and providing a
back up to the IP and IFE on safety of flight issues. If the Safety Observer is a pilot, he
may only pull circuit breakers for scan items. Only qualified IFE’s may fail systems
using circuit breakers for the purpose of presenting simulated actual malfunctions.
Incorrect checklists
WARNING
The IP shall not commence the takeoff roll or descend below 500 feet AGL on an
approach until all checklists are completed correctly and in their entirety.
Execution - IP does not call for the checklists or gives the wrong checklist response. IUT should also be
wary of those times when the IP might read the checklists (i.e. copilot duties) and the possibility of
skipping an item.
Prevention - IUT should have a technique for ensuring all checklists are completed (i.e. physically
holding the checklist or positioning the checklist in the glareshield). The IUT should be knowledgeable
enough about the checklists such that he/she recognizes when an item has been skipped.
Response – IUT should complete the correct checklist in a timely and thorough manner.
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