Integrating ICTs into the curriculum: analytical catalogue of key

Integrating ICTs into the curriculum: analytical catalogue of key
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Analytical Catalogue of Key Publications
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum: Analytical Catalogue of Key Publications
Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, 2005.
110 pp. (ICT for Education Catalogue Series, Volume One)
1. ICT. 2. Information technology. 3. Communication technology. 4. Integrated
curriculum. 5. Computer assisted instruction. (Series)
ISBN 92-9223-030-1
© UNESCO 2005
Published by the
UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education
920 Sukhumvit Rd., Prakanong
Bangkok 10110, Thailand
Printed in Thailand
Editors: Caroline Haddad and Luisa Rennie
Writing/editing: Corin Golding
Design and layout: Lowil fred Espada
Supervising Editor: Cédric Wachholz
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication
do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, its authorities, or its
Trends and Recommendations iii
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
page 1
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
page 23
Technology Integration into Specific
page 47
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
page 65
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
page 79
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
page 93
Although many excellent materials
now exist that detail the full range of
potential uses of Information
Communication Technologies
(ICTs) in education, already overworked policy makers and others
often lack the time it takes to surf
the Internet, or access libraries and
other sources of information on their
own in search of ideas and material
support (usually in a second
language). In the Asia-Pacific region,
leaders, educational managers and
teachers have the added challenge of
trying to enrich education with
technologies that are often a recent
introduction to the country, or in many
cases, are not yet present. This is one
of the main reasons why we set up the
Regional Clearing House on ICTs in
Education for Asia and the Pacific
Project at UNESCO Bangkok. The
Clearing House acts as an
intermediary between this wealth of
information and the busy users namely, anyone involved in planning,
organizing, or implementing an ICT
vision, policy or project. This
includes high-level policy makers,
educational managers and staff
development teams; to curriculum and
educational content developers;
teachers and non-formal educators;
and educational researchers,
evaluators and development workers.
The Clearing House collects, analyses,
filters, repackages and disseminates
information on ICTs in education in Asia
and the Pacific in a variety of formats, be it
our Web-based portal, CD-ROMs or
publications. In this way, the Clearing House
promotes digital inclusion by providing fast,
free and equitable access to knowledge and
information to support policy formulation,
management and monitoring, teaching and
learning, community outreach, networking,
and programme implementation.
As part of this process, this publication is the
first in a new Catalogue Series on topical
issues dealing with various aspects of ICT
use in education. The purpose is to share the
best of the wealth of materials available in
our library collections, the Internet and other
sources, and to alert readers to the contents
and where they can be accessed. The series
not only provides abstracts sythenesizing the
content of each resource, but also excerpts
substantive and useful parts of the book or
electronic document. Each entry provides a
distillation of the content in order to give
readers the essence of the information
without having to read the entire book, and
includes bibliographic details, abstracts,
excerpts, and key-words for easy
This first issue deals with integrating ICTs
into schools. Many teachers have been using
ICTs as productivity tools, but have never
really authentically integrated these
technologies into subject teaching. There is a
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
need to learn from concepts, principles,
strategies and experiences on what does, and
what does not, make the integration of ICTs
within education successful. For this reason,
this catalogue contains detailed principles
and strategies to help educators and others
use ICTs in ways that can transform their
teaching practice, based on experts’
experiences of what does, as well as what
does not, make for successful integration of
technology in education. The strategies and
guidelines also extend to school
administrators, local educational leaders and
government stakeholders with case studies
describing educational policy reforms that
have explicit ICT components as well as to
government bodies developing ICT-based
resources specifically for their national
curriculum. This issue shares the best print
and Web publications we found, as well as
CD-ROMs, dealing with: General
Principles and Strategies for Integrating
Technology in Education and the
Curriculum; Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson Plans
that Integrate ICTs; Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects; Requirements for and
Barriers to Effective Technology Integration;
Evaluating Effectiveness of Technology
Integration; and Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools.
Carmelita Villanueva
and Cédric Wachholz
The Analytical Catalogue of Key
This catalogue contains a range of
resources, in the form of books, CDROMs, online publications, websites and
articles from e-journals, that aim to
provide teachers, senior school managers,
curriculum developers and administrators
with guidelines and strategies for
integrating ICTs effectively into the
teaching and learning process.
The catalogue is divided into a number of
sections, each with a particular focus area,
and the materials have been purposefully
gathered from a range of sources to
provide as broad a perspective on the
various issues as possible. For example,
websites and publications from
government agencies and departments of
education are featured, such as the British
Preface, Introduction
and Acronyms
Educational Communications and
Technology Agency and the U.S.
Department of Education, as are
organizations such as the International
Society for Technology in Education,
respected online educational journals and
case studies from regional and national
primary and secondary schools.
Most of the resources included in this
catalogue may be found online. For the
print publications and CD-ROMs, we
have included the publisher's details. All
resources may also be found in
the Information and Knowledge
Management (IKM) library based at
UNESCO Bangkok. Please contact IKM for
further information:
The following gives a summary of
the trends and recommendations
identified by the various entries in
the catalogue.
General principles and
The planning stage is recognized as
particularly important for effective
introduction of ICTs into the
curriculum. In addition to needing to
know from the outset where the
teachers and the students stand in
terms of ability and ICT skills,
consider what your and your school’s
learning goals are, and how these
will be met. For example, when
purchasing or developing materials,
ask yourself questions such as the
following: Does the product meet
national and/or institutional
objectives? Does the product
contribute to the aims and objectives
of the course? Is the content current,
unbiased, and politically and socially
sensitive? Is the use of text and
media appropriate for the needs and
objectives of the course? Can the
product be used with locally
available resources?
We see that in many cases, ICTbased lessons and materials are
being developed in line with the
national curricula described by ministries
of education and local governments. There
are case studies from Australia and the
UK, for example, illustrating how
educational software and ICT-focused
lesson plans can be integrated into
standards-based lessons, becoming part
and parcel of curricular reforms. One
article describes how, in the UK, the
national curriculum underwent a series of
reforms as educators went from
recognising the value of technology
education, but lacked any means of
assessing student competency, to ICTs
becoming a discrete subject in its own
right, to its current status as a tool that is
embedded across the curriculum used by
teachers of all subjects. In this regard, the
British Educational Communications and
Technology Agency (BECTA) has been
involved in developing and disseminating
guidelines and materials for the
integration of ICTs into subject teaching.
In terms of the practical use of computers,
one of the key issues is whether they are
located in the classroom or in ICT suites
and laboratories. There are various articles
and studies highlighting the relative merits
of each location, depending on the context
of the class being taught. Generally, it is
shown that while a computer lab may tend
to offer greater technical support, and can
ensure that all students have access to a
computer when otherwise this may not be
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
possible, teachers find it harder to
integrate the use of computers fully into
their teaching practice. With computers
strategically organized in the classroom,
the teacher often is able to set up
independent learning projects, which
allow them to play a more facilitating role
with the students taking greater
responsibility for their learning.
Other articles describe the various kinds
of activities available online: buzz groups,
syndicates, WebQuests, collaborative
projects, online debates, and treasure
hunts, among others, which can easily be
integrated into classroom activities and
into the development of lesson plans. In
general, there is consensus that the kinds
of activity that best motivate and engage
students incorporate collaborative
learning, are student-centred, offer
chances for independent learning, and are
multi-disciplinary in their scope. Many
also emphasize the fact that the
curriculum must define the kinds of
technology used and ways it is applied to
student learning, and not the other way
The general principles and strategies
found in this section often point to the fact
that in many cases, teachers may have
been trained in basic computer skills,
often for administration purposes or
perhaps simple presentations, but they
need greater training in being able to
connect the potential of ICTs to the
subject they are teaching. For real
integration of ICTs into the teaching and
learning process, teachers must be helped
to understand how educational technology
can inform and enhance pedagogy and,
thus, contribute to greater student
performance. In this regard, many experts
emphasize continuous training as essential
to teacher development, and a slow
approach, expecting teachers to take
anywhere between three and five years to
fully adapt to the new technologies and
related pedagogies. Other educators
consider it important that teachers be
trained on their own premises, and on
actual hardware and software that they can
access at school. Leadership, in the school
and at the local government level, is also
highlighted as integral to staff
development, and this in turn calls for
open dialogue between all stakeholders in
the schools system, including private
enterprises. Similarly, collaboration
between local governments and private
software developers is seen as very
effective in ensuring educational software
remains locally relevant and tied to
specific curricular objectives, both of
which are important for encouraging
teachers to make use of available ICT
Integrating technology into the
curriculum and in the classroom
ICTs are transforming the curriculum in a
number of ways, and the kinds of learning
activities that promote higher-order
thinking skills, which make use of all sorts
of software and online project-based
resources are, in turn, demanding that
teachers re-think traditional pedagogies.
All of this is having a deep impact on our
understanding of the curriculum, in terms
of what a curriculum is, who develops it
and how, and in what ways ICTs can help
students develop more critical responses
to the information they access. It is noted
that in some cases, the curriculum design
may be the responsibility of individual
schools, it may be left to local
governments, or it may be developed by
the national ministries of education in
order to set standards for teachers and
students, alike.
The curriculum is becoming more
dynamic and interactive as a result of the
many kinds of ICT-based learning
activities, projects and software
applications being developed. Students are
being encouraged to engage in more
independent, collaborative activities, able
to work with pupils from schools in other
regions and countries on projects that can
cover many curricula objectives
simultaneously. As such, curriculum
Trends and
developers are led to consider the
curriculum from alternative perspectives –
subjects do not necessarily need to be kept
discrete, but ICTs can facilitate a crosscurricular, multi-disciplinary approach.
Technology also enables teachers to
approach the curriculum from the
perspective of Multiple Intelligences (MI),
with multimedia applications stimulating
many ways of learning that have been
ignored by traditional educational
methods. MIs are described by one author
in terms of each intelligence’s relation to
different kinds of technology. For
example, assistive technologies, joysticks
and the mouse on a computer offer great
opportunities to explore the kinaesthetic
intelligence, while message boards and
discussion forums tie in well with
interpersonal intelligence. There are also
strategies for connecting various MI
elements to national standards.
Specifically, resources describe the many
kinds of application, software and
Internet-based activities that enhance
learning, and the key pedagogies needed
to employ them effectively. Some of these
resources are for quick reference, offering
teachers ideas that they can then develop
on their own; others go into more detail,
describing how different media can play
important roles at various stages of a
Examples include language arts classes
that use news stories on video and the
radio in conjunction with the Internet to
develop higher-order research skills, while
students with different intelligences can
use recording equipment to help them
prepare for writing exercises. Floor robots
in math classes, CD-ROMs for research in
science classes, and multimedia
educational software in foundational
subjects are also suggested.
Multimedia design projects are
recommended as another effective way to
develop students’ higher-order thinking
skills, while WebQuests are popular
because they tend to focus the student on
actually using information, not just
acquiring it, and they must then analyse,
synthesize and evaluate that information.
The Internet is a popular tool in many
subject areas, and there are also useful tips
for developing students’ skills in searching
for and retrieving information online. It is
suggested that students be taught generic
research skills applicable to any subject,
while electronic and hard copy resources
should be used in tandem, as students tend
to stay on task better when they have
prepared search questions before sitting
down at a computer.
Integrating technology into
specific subjects
Strategies described for integrating ICTs
into specific subjects suggest that you start
by looking at the scope and sequence or
curriculum framework of the subject in
question, and then identify specific subtopics and their objectives. The teacher
needs to decide whether those sub-topics
and objectives lend themselves easily to
the integration of ICTs, and whether these
topics will benefit from the use of ICTs.
The teacher must ask, what are the
contributions ICTs will make towards
enhancing student learning in this subject?
Will ICTs offer the students the chance to
develop their understanding of the subject
in ways that would not be possible in a
non-ICT-based class?
These materials include a sample of specific
lessons that use technology in a given
subject, such as language arts and modern
foreign languages, as well as websites that
provide detailed guidelines for using ICTs in
all subject areas at both primary and
secondary levels. A common theme is how
the Internet can be used to make a given
class instantly more engaging and relevant –
for example, using news and weather
reports for modern language classes;
accessing primary sources to better engage
students in history lessons; or going to
famous sites such as NASA for exciting
science-based activities.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
There are tips for using SmartBoards,
PowerPoint, and desktop publishing, as
well as pros and cons for using ICT suites
as opposed to class-based activities. For
example, interactive whiteboards are seen
to help the teacher remain involved in the
class and better monitor student
participation; in art and design, digital
image manipulation software encourages
student experimentation and allows less
confident pupils to make more
professional looking work, that in turn,
gives them confidence to look for
feedback. It is also suggested that software
can enhance music students’
understanding of notation and musical
The question of how to make the most of a
single-computer class is again addressed
here, in relation to specific subjects, and
four main possibilities emerge:
establishing a co-operative group station,
where different topics are assigned to
individual groups, each assigned a
particular time slot; using it as a
demonstration station, at which the
teacher instructs the whole class
simultaneously; assigning an independent
research station; and using it as part of a
learning centre, in which students are
rotated around the class and use it for a
particular activity.
The different stages of a given subject
class are also analysed, in particular at the
primary level, and the best time to use
ICTs is identified. Generally, in a one-hour
primary class, in English, math and
science, there is a 20-minute slot allocated
for group work, which tends to lend itself
best to technology-led activities. In
addition, the final plenary session at the
end is a good time to consolidate learning
using a computer for whole class
Requirements for and barriers to
effective ICT integration
One of the main themes in this section is,
unsurprisingly, teacher professional
development. Teachers who have been
found to make effective use of ICTs tend
to be those who demonstrate the following
characteristics: They set high targets for
their students with clear descriptions of
the objectives and how ICTs will help
them achieve those goals; they use a range
of technological and assessment tools;
they promote an effective learning
environment that extends beyond the
classroom to home-based study; and they
are well-trained in practical integration of
technology into classroom activities and
not only basic computer functions.
Other requirements include a supportive
infrastructure; quality contents and
materials; enabling policies and strategies
(including legal and ethical guidelines for
use of ICTs); practice informed by
evaluation and research; vision and
leadership; student-centred approaches to
learning; and relevant assessment tools.
Barriers tend to be divided into two
groups: external and internal. External
barriers include a lack of equipment,
unreliability of hardware and inadequate
technical support. Internal barriers often
comprise school-level factors, such as lack
of training (specifically in integrating
technologies) and organizational culture,
and teacher-level obstacles, including
confidence and personal beliefs about the
value of technology in their subject. In
addition, obstacles also include problems
of language, notably where English may
not be widely spoken and, the range of
educational software that can be used is
limited, as well as a lack of educational
software that can be modified according to
the specific subject being taught.
There are also alternative reasons posited
for the apparent under-use of computers in
classrooms when compared to the
prevalent use of ICTs in other spheres of
modern working life: changing and
contradictory advice from experts; the
conditions specific to the teacher’s
working environment; and the exclusion
of teachers from policy decisions
concerning appropriate hardware and
software for them and their students.
Trends and
Evaluating effective technology
There are templates for evaluating your
own or your school’s use of technology
here, as well as a host of suggested
frameworks that take into account a range
of learning goals and ICT functions.
One report identifies seven essential
dimensions that must be assessed in order
to gauge progress towards meaningful use
of ICTs: learners, learning environment,
professional competency, system capacity,
community connection, technology
capacity, and accountability.
Other steps to take include considering the
goals of the ICT integration programme,
the kinds of information you expect your
evaluation to return, and what other
stakeholders want to know. Key questions,
such as whether student performance has
increased as a result of the technology,
should be seen as long-term issues, which
should neither be ignored nor addressed
too soon.
Alternatively, there is another framework
suggested when evaluating ICT use. Six
essential conditions are translated into
measures of effectiveness: vision, practice,
proficiency, equity, access, and systems. Each
condition is presented with a number of
indicators, which are then broken down into a
series of components for closer analysis.
Case studies of successful ICT
There are case studies here that describe
particular innovative uses of ICTs in
schools around the world, as well as
research findings based on such studies,
into the common themes that point to
good practice in ICT integration.
Many of these studies identify a range of
characteristics exhibited by schools which
have successfully interwoven ICTs into
their curriculum. Common elements
include good leadership; staff professional
development; extensive curriculum
planning; technical support, in the form of
ICT co-ordinators and specialists; and
strategic leadership, which includes
vision, personal ICT use, and ability to
manage change. One particular study
identified four essential components for
quality use of ICTs by teachers: prior
experience in innovative programmes (not
necessarily ICT-based), support from
senior management, a collaborative
working environment, and a willingness to
take risks.
General findings from case studies reveal
that strategies for using ICTs in the
classroom are still evolving, while
sustainability and improvement of
provision are paramount for ongoing
success. Recommendations include
addressing the fact that, as students
increasingly have access to computers at
home, schools must address pupils’ own
innovative uses of ICTs. Further,
flexibility in teaching practices is
becoming increasingly important, as
students need greater autonomy and more
student-centred activities. Nonetheless,
studies are suggesting that technology
remains an additional resource that is vital
in achieving standards-based learning
goals, rather than taking centre stage.
As far as assessment is concerned, the
case studies also reveal that there is still
widespread uncertainty as to how to
conduct meaningful student appraisals in
the new climate of ICT-led learning, and a
number of new models for doing so are
emerging. Among these is the comparative
model, that compares achievements in ICT
and non-ICT based classes; the selfreflective method, in which students
respond to questionnaires and staff then
discuss these; and the public model, where
schools bring in parents, the local
community and the media for help
assessing pedagogical progress.
focuses explicitly on integrating ICTs into
subject teaching. These policies tend to be
characterized by a ground-up approach,
beginning with widespread use at the
primary level and slowly introducing ICTs
into the curriculum at secondary schools
and beyond. Again, this process can be led
by national ministries of education or
local governments. In Australia, for
example, regional governments have been
responsible for their own curriculum
reform, and consequently, we can see
different aspects of ICT in Education
emphasized by each region.
There are also studies from South-East
Asia that show how, with the backing of
ministries of education and national and
regional governments, in some countries
ICTs have become institutionalized into
the national curriculum, largely as a result
of careful planning and policy reform that
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Dhanarajan, G. (2002) “Objectives and strategies for effective use
of ICTs,” in Haddad, W.D. and Draxler, A. (eds.) Technologies for
Education: Potential, Parameters and Prospects. Paris: UNESCO
and Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development.
(2 March 2005)
Print publication/Online book
General Principles and
Strategies for Integrating
Technology in Education and
the Curriculum
This chapter looks at two questions central to
the theme of ICT integration in schools: Policy
and Strategy. The first question under policy,
How essential are ICTs to national goals?,
considers the driving forces behind the
introduction of ICTs into education systems.
The topics discussed include the many
challenges facing education stakeholders
around the world: the changing educational
climate and new trends in the provision of
education, the skills that tomorrow’s work
force will be expected to have acquired, and
the emerging expectations of groups
previously excluded from or overlooked by
traditional education systems. The information
explosion and illiteracy are also discussed in
this section.
The second topic under policy asks, ICTs for
what educational purpose? The report
responds by describing four major education
objectives that ICTs can help meet: expanding
access to all levels of education, improving the
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
quality of education, enhancing lifelong
learning, and facilitating non-formal
In terms of strategy, the author notes that
planning for ICTs in educational programmes
tends to be informed by any of the following
perceptions: a shift to a learner-centred
approach to education, in which multimedia
resources allow for self-paced and independent
learning; a view of the teacher as a facilitator
of learning drawing on a range of information
sources; trust in technology’s ability to offer
greater efficiency and/or effectiveness of
student learning; and ICTs’ growing
prevalence in society at large.
The many stakeholders in education must all
be accounted for in strategic planning, aligning
the learning strategy with those of libraries and
information systems, academic management,
student support systems, student
administration, and others.
The author then identifies and responds to
three essential questions that relate to ICT in
Education: Which technologies? How will
they be used? Will contentware be created or
Which technologies? The kinds of technology
discussed that are available for teaching and
learning range from low-cost tools, such as
stand-alone PCs, to expensive networked
classrooms. Specifically, the author looks at
e-mail, presentational software, the Web,
Multimedia (including CD-ROM and DVD),
satellite broadcasting, and video conferencing,
describing the strengths and weaknesses of
each. The next question, How will they be
used?, suggests these particular technologies
are generally used in one or both of two ways:
to enhance the richness and quality of
education in schools, and to facilitate offcampus and distance learning that opens
access to the quality resources available in the
first case.
As for contentware, schools can do one of two
things: design them, themselves, or in
collaboration with partners, or purchase and
adapt ready-made materials. The author
identifies and describes the many advantages
and problems associated with each choice. For
example, creating content generally will call
for at least a content expert and instructional
designer, and very often audio and video
producers, editors, ICT specialists, publishers
and project managers - a diverse team calling
for a working approach quite different from
the normal academic environment. Questions
to consider before purchasing materials,
meanwhile, include:
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Does the product meet national and/or
institutional objectives?
Does the product contribute to the aims
and objectives of the course?
Is the content current, unbiased, and
politically and socially sensitive?
Is the use of text and media appropriate for
the needs and objectives of the course?
Can the product be used with locally
available resources?
Is it cost-effective to purchase the product?
How well does the product fit the local
learning environment?
Does the product create barriers to learners
(language, cost, technology)?
Technology strategy to support
pedagogical approaches
Using tools and templates
Using models/simulations
Electronic mail
Hypermedia resources
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS)
(adaptive courseware)
Pedagogical approaches and examples Technology infrastructure requirements
Individual or group projects by students
-Course work preparation, building models,
simulations, programming
-Web page construction
-PC486 (non-multimedia)
-Pentium multimedia
-Stand-alone or networked
-Individual ownership or provided on campus
Individual self-paced learning
-Enhancing textbook and other resources
-"Virtual" laboratories/ workbenches
-Typically developed by publishers or
consortia of university
-PC486 (non-multimedia)
-Pentium multimedia
-Stand-alone or networked; possibly accessed
via Web (e.g., Java applets)
-Individually owned PC, subject to ability to
license individual copies; otherwise confined
to campus-based PC workstations
Student-teacher and student-student
-PC486 (non-multimedia)
-Connected to a network, accessible on-Improved access to academic staff,
campus only or accessible from off-campus
submission of course work, feedback, advice, -University must maintain host mail server
and discussion
-Allows asynchronous dialogue
Course resources for self-paced, self-directed
-Pentium multimedia PC
learning or for private study directed by teacher -Stand-alone (CD-ROM) or networked
-Corpus of loosely structured documentation,
including multimedia (sound, graphics,
animation, and video) with embedded
hypertext links
-Can be made available on CD-ROM or via
the Web
Self-paced learning
-Adaptive courseware extends the CBT/CAL
approach by seeking to customize "lessons,"
based on dynamically modelling individual
student performance
-PC486 (non-multimedia); ITS applications do
not always require multimedia facilities
-Pentium multimedia - stand-alone or
networked, for courseware that makes use of
multimedia - typically distributed on CD ROM
-Use off-campus may be limited, depending
on terms of copyright or site licensing
ICT and curriculum; pedagogy; strategies/
policy; ICT integration
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Fluck, A. (2001) “Some national and regional frameworks for
integrating information and communication technology into
school education.”Educational Technology & Society Vol. 4, No. 3. (2 March 2005)
Online report
Based on interviews with policy makers, this
paper describes ICT integration into classrooms
in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and
the United States, and several approaches to
curriculum change at the national and regional
In the UK, we read how the National
Curriculum has gone through two revisions
since its introduction in 1989, and each time
the changes have reflected differing
perceptions of ICTs and their place in the
curriculum. Initially, students’ learning in IT
was to be assessed in a cross-curricular
manner, with IT teachers expected to observe
students applying their skills in other subjects.
The impracticality of this led to IT becoming a
subject in its own right, although this also was
considered unsatisfactory because teachers
found it hard to interpret the objectives that
had been set for assessing students’ skills and
relate them to the classroom. For this reason, a
set of comprehensive goals and standards were
developed linking ICT skills to specific
subject areas in the curriculum, allowing
teachers to more easily see the connection
between technology and subject teaching.
In the United States, meanwhile, a national
approach to ICT integration was adopted with
a private-sector teacher group, the
International Society for Technology in
Education (ISTE), which received government
backing. Their project included developing a
set of standards for students, including those
for integrating ICTs into teaching and learning,
as well as standards for technology support
and tools for their assessment. However, staterun schools systems are not compelled to
adopt these standards, and so implementation
has proved erratic.
Australia has tended to follow a state-level
policy for implementing ICTs in schools for
learning and administration, and consequently,
there tends to be a different emphasis among
different regional governments. That said,
there are signs that an increasing numbers of
national projects are addressing benchmarks
for professional development and computer
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
literacy, especially for integrating technology
into classroom practice.
Despite these differences, the author notes a
number of areas that all countries had to
consider to effect systemic change: ICT
infrastructure, teacher professional
development, and computer integration into
each individual curriculum area. There are also
clear similarities in the focus of ICT integration
efforts – problem-solving, communication,
researching and productivity/publishing are
common themes in directing students’ use of
computers in learning, while independent
learning and social/ethical concepts are found in
some regions’ efforts and not others.
The survey also points to three main phases for
the introduction of ICTs in education: Phase 1,
where students begin to use computers in
schools and IT is a curriculum choice; Phase 2,
where ICTs becomes a part of teaching practice
across the curriculum to enhance learning; and
Phase 3, where the curriculum includes
elements that would not exist without ICT, and
the traditional face-to-face model of education
is no longer applicable.
The author notes that while most countries are
at the second stage, there is some activity
towards the third phase, and the question of
the role of computers in home-based learning
is becoming increasingly crucial.
Australia exhibits a wide range of stances
towards the integration of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) into
classroom practice. As each State and Territory
implements its own strategic plan for using
computers to improve administration and
library systems, and to enhance the IT
infrastructure in school, there is a possibility of
divergence of philosophy and practice. In some
ways each state emphasizes diferent areas in
classroom use: Tasmania for desk-top
publishing, Queensland for databases, Western
Australia for tutorial packages, and so on. There
are, however, some recent national projects
emanating from the Federal Department of
Education, Training and Youth Affairs that
appear to be investigating national benchmarks
for ICT literacy and teacher professional
development for the integration of ICTs into
classroom practice.
These glimpses into the processes of designing
and implementing a national approach to the
use of computers across the curriculum reflect
the political contexts of the countries involved.
However, it is instructive to quantify the time,
energy and resources required to undertake
such a process. Teachers have been
acknowledged as crucial in the implementation
stage, and basic computer skills training is
only the tip of the iceberg in terms of their
needs. These countries found they had to
simultaneously address ICT infrastructure
establishment, the training needs of teachers,
and the issues of computer integration into
every curriculum area as part of a coherent and
linked set of systemic changes.
ICT and curriculum; local education bodies;
planning; policy/strategies; ICT integration
Jackson, L. (November 2003) “A beginner’s guide to integrating
technology.” Education World. (2 March 2005)
Online article
This article aims
to equip
educators who
are new to using technology, whether trainee
or veteran teacher, with the skills and knowhow to bring ICT into their curriculum with
The article describes three stages in
technology integration: a four-point ‘STAR’
approach (Student skills; Teacher skills;
Access; and Resources) to assessing your
technology readiness; tips for setting goals and
planning how to meet them, including
motivational ideas; and then a six-point
framework for actual integration.
The first recommendation is to assess where
you, your students and resources stand right
now in terms of technology. What level of
competence do the students have? Do they
access computers at home? What about your
own skills? What kind of access to computers
do you have in the classroom? How many/
often? What kinds of software/hardware can
you access? Is there training available in your
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Next up, the author suggests considering what
you want to accomplish. This refers to your
school’s published plan, as well as your own
personal goals. Following this, the article
outlines a number of steps to help motivate
you and inspire you with confidence: Get
wired - this means getting Internet access at
home; Get inspired - learn from colleagues and
observe technology-enhanced classes in
action; Get informed - visit a professional
organization’s website regularly; Get
educated - subscribe to regular and relevant
publications; Get involved - join teachers in
online discussions (examples supplied); Get
trained - find out who offers training locally,
or takes courses online (examples supplied).
Enough motivation – it’s time for integration!
Take it one step at a time:
1. Manage with technology: Use technology
to manage your classes. Average grades
with a spreadsheet, use mail merge to send
parent letters, and surf the Internet for
lesson plans. Focus on using technology
yourself before introducing it to your
2. Start small: Set an initial goal of including
technology in one content area or unit a
month. Have students write a letter with a
word processing program, create a graph in
a spreadsheet program, or practice math
skills using content software.
Surf in shallow waters: Surfing students
misspell site addresses and become
distracted by commercial sites. Focus class
research by hand-picking relevant, ageappropriate websites. For help, check out
42eXplore or the Education World site
Online learning tools: Learn how to use
WebQuests, scavenger hunts, and other
online learning tools - and how to make
your own - at Ed Index. (Click Online
Learning Basics on the drop-down menu.)
Test online: Save instructional time and
motivate your kids by creating,
administering, and grading tests online.
Check out the Education World article
Motivate While You Integrate Technology:
Online Assessment for more information.
Know when to say no: Technology isn’t
perfect; it can’t replace face-to-face
teaching. Learn to determine when
technology helps - and hurts - the learning
process and use it accordingly. Your
curriculum, not your computer, should be
the focus of technology integration.
No matter what you know - or don’t know about technology, no matter how many
computers you have, no matter how skilled
your students are, you can integrate
technology. Remain confident, flexible, and
enthusiastic, and you will succeed.
ICT and curriculum; policy/strategy; staff
development; pedagogy; ICT integration
Jones, S. (1993) “Key elements of effective state planning for
educational technology.” SEIR*TEC. (2 March 2005)
specifically define planning activities.
Three experienced educational technology
planners from the United States were asked to
define the key components of educational
technology planning, and their responses are
presented under the headings: preparing;
writing; and evaluating.
Online article
This document from the United States is
intended to guide the efforts of those involved
in educational technology planning at the state
level in the US, although it will be of interest
to stakeholders in any country. Recognizing
that the individual principal and/or local
authority will be better placed to decide what
is best for a specific school, it aims to provoke
discussion and identify questions – not to
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Key aspects of this stage include:
• Strategic Vision - Bare in mind that
technology’s growing role in education is
not understood by many public figures, and
the success of your application depends on
being able to communicate effectively how
the new educational environment will look
after the introduction of an ICT
• Goals and objectives - What do you hope
to accomplish? Consider financial and
other constraints when preparing your
educational technology plan. Unrealistic
goals can lead to loss of support.
• Needs assessment - What is your state’s
current status? Consider your school
districts’ technological sophistication; how
existing technologies are being used; the
possible impact of state laws and mandates
on your technology plan.
• Scope - What will your plan cover? Both
instructional and administrative
technology? Will schools be in charge of
drafting their own technology plan? If so,
will you give guidelines? Will you define
standards for old, as well as new,
Defining stakeholders - When identifying
stakeholders, consider the following three
questions: Who has the power to accept or
reject the plan? Who can influence public
acceptance of the plan? Who can help gain
support for the plan?
Organizational structure - How will you
organize those involved in the planning?
There are many alternatives for the
difficult task of organizing those assisting
you. When designing the organizational
structure, consider: How will you gain
stakeholder input? How will you keep the
structure non-partisan? How will
individuals be selected, and what will their
tasks be? What are the tasks you want to
carry out? How will everyone’s input be
brought together?
Model schools - In every state, some
schools perform better than others, so the
question is not whether to have model
schools, but whether you will support them.
Funding - How and when will the plan be
funded? A schedule is vital to ensure that
each stage is funded on time - failure to do
so may derail the process and lose public
Equity - Various definitions of equity are
possible, depending on your state’s focus.
However it is conceived, it must be
considered at the planning stage. Failure to
do so may result in increasing, rather than
bridging, the digital divide.
Staff development - What kinds of
training are needed for staff? Teachers
must be made aware not only of how to use
technology, but how it can transform their
teaching practice. Expert suggestions
include: train staff in their own building,
on their own equipment, to meet their own
needs; schedule training when technology
is in place; make training continuous.
Consider how to establish and maintain
beneficial relationships with vendors and
consultants. They can be very helpful
sources of information; but before
involving them, decide what you want
them to do.
There are many approaches to writing a plan.
The following are some of the main elements
identified by experts:
• Vision - paint a picture for the public of
how the classroom will look
• Mission statement - include an outline of
challenges and intended actions
• Goals and objectives
• Strategy
• Scope
• Training and staff requirements
• Evaluation criteria
• Technical standards
• Cost estimates
• Timeline
• Glossary of terms
• Upgrading, maintenance and obsolescence
changes to the plan necessary to respond to
changes in the educational environment;
the evaluation criteria should be developed
alongside your goals and objectives so that
the public will know in advance what will
be achieved; plan for data collection.
Tips from the Experts
How will you judge the effectiveness of
your plan?
Keep evaluation regular - say, every 12
months; include a third-party person, for
credibility; consider who can make any
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Be prepared when you face the legislature.
(Know where you have been; where you plan
to go; and what is happening in other states.)
To further illustrate its potential, use
technology to present your plan, but do not
let technology become the focus of your
Expect to make changes to your plan.
(Build in flexibility and be prepared to
make many tradeoffs before reaching your
Be creative when seeking solutions to
Consider all your options, not just the first
or most apparent.
Borrow from what has been done before.
(For example, review the plans of other
[countries] and take advantage of
commercially developed planning
instruments, etc.)
Plan for unexpected developments.
(Always be ready with a Plan B.)
Use graphics to illustrate concepts in your
Showcase and build upon your successes.
Involve all stakeholders as appropriate.
Plan with the future in mind. (Rapid
changes in the information industry may
require you to incorporate a completely
new technology into the plan.)
Use pilots only if you know you can be
Build training and funding into a realistic
When beneficial, seek partners from
industry and higher education.
Present your plan to the legislature in
segments if it has a better chance of
approval than if presented as a whole.
(Some states have had their entire
educational technology initiative “wiped
out” by the legislature because one element
was not acceptable. If it had been presented
in pieces, the other parts of the plan might
have been approved.)
Consider all sources of funding as
resources for educational technology.
Plan for maintenance and upgrading of
obsolete equipment and materials.
Hint: Keeping higher education and
industry involved in, or aware of, your plan
can prove very helpful. This interaction
could lead to collaborative efforts
benefiting your state in the future. For
example, working with colleges of
education may help them better prepare
future teachers to meet your state’s
expectations for teaching with technology.
local educational bodies; policy/strategy;
planning; assessment; ICT integration
Maier, P. and Warren, A. (2000) Integrating Technology in
Learning and Teaching. London: Kogan Page, 162 pp.
Print publication
This resource is aimed at academics and
educators looking for new ideas and general
guidance for using ICTs in their teaching
Chapter 2, “Developing New Teaching Skills,”
describes how teaching can, and must adapt to
the changing educational environment; helps
you assess your own, your students’ and your
school’s readiness to make use of ICTs in
teaching; and discusses the pros and cons of the
various multimedia resources available.
Chapter 3, “Designing Learning
Environments,” discusses how open learning
materials can contribute to independent
learning, offers a definition of open learning
and describes how to plan and design
resources for such learning environments.
Chapter 4, “Using Communication
Technologies to Facilitate Learning,” looks at
the Internet as the ideal tool for
communication and collaborative projects in
higher education. The author describes
techniques for structuring online discussions,
provides guidelines for their facilitation and
outlines other technological tools that can aid
and support communication.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Throughout, there are references to other
resources, including websites, for further
reading and helpful tips. There are also case
studies and activities that take the user through
a series of reflective exercises to develop their
pedagogical skills and guide their teaching
preparation with a focus on embedding online
communications within both existing and new
courses. The book is also supported by a sister
Chapter 2:
Three essential requirements for all users of
Access for staff and students to suitable
computers. Suitability includes:
specification; internet connection; and
additional hardware and software (image
scanner, digital camera, sound card,
speakers, among others). Is student access
limited to computer rooms that are often
booked out ahead of class or that close at a
certain time? Are computer rooms easily
accessible (sometimes they may be off
campus, out of the way, and poorly
equipped, de-motivating students to use
them)? Check that student computers can
support the software you have been using
to prepare materials on your teachers’
Basic computer skills: ideally, everyone
should be able to use email, surf the Web
and use a word-processor.
Multimedia resource
Effort to
Word-processed documents
Adequate technical support [pp. 35-6]
Procedures for putting programs and other
resources onto a network
Your institution’s computing service will have
procedures for putting resources onto the
network so that computing staff can maintain
the system effectively, ensure that software is
properly licensed and control viruses. There
may also be procedures that regulate the
material that is published on institutional
websites so that standards can be maintained
and copyright and legal issues checked. Check
with your institution to find out about these
procedures in plenty of time, since you may
find that new software can only be installed on
the public computers during infrequent
scheduled upgrades. Do check this.
Digital images
Time and know-how for you to do this
• Identify the resources you have in terms of
text, images (photos, diagrams, pictures)
and media (video, sound).
• Do you have to worry about copyright
• Do you know how to get these resources
onto the computer? Can you get advice or
help in finding the software and then
learning how to use it? Check that you can
run the chosen software on your computer.
• How much time do you think you will
need? Is that feasible? Like so many jobs,
digitizing resources always takes twice as
long as you hoped!
Graphics and clip-art
Web pages
Digital audio
Digital video
Simple technology, low effort
Complex technology, high
Creating multimedia resources [pp. 37-9]
Most disciplines have their specific IT ‘tools
of the trade,’ such as a word processor,
spreadsheet or statistics program. However,
when we come to use ‘computers in
education,’ we find we generally want to use
them for resources and/or communications.
So, when you want to consider using ICT in
education, decide first if it is as a resource, for
communication purposes, or a mixture of the
two. In addition to this, of course, determine
the specific IT tools used in your discipline...
We are not advocating that all teaching aids
become digital, as seeing and touching the ‘real’
thing can be very important. However, many of
our teaching aids can be digitized and stored on
a computer. Once we have them there, we are
free to use them in more flexible ways.
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Whenever you make use of multimedia,
always make sure that you are clear about the
educational purpose it serves. There is nothing
more irritating than waiting for a resource to
download over the internet only to wonder at
its relevance when it arrives. Remember that it
also takes effort to create the resources in the
first instance, so choose them carefully and
create guidance notes to help students use
them intelligently.
Checklist for Chapter 2 [pp. 59-60]:
1. Do you and your students meet the
requirements covering computer access,
skills and support outlined in Section 2.2?
2. If you want to use multimedia resources,
have you searched to see if you can get
these resources already in a digital format?
You can try the subject-specific resource
gateways on the Web, the Learning &
Teaching Support Network in the UK, and
relevant mailbases (http://
3. Do you know what to do with your
resources once they are digitized technically and pedagogically? How will
you use this multimedia resource to
enhance learning?
4. Have you checked copyright issues of
using resources prepared by others?
5. Is the resource you want to digitize text,
images, audio or video? Do you know
which software packages you will need?
Do you know how to do this, or can you
get help?
6. If you go ahead on your own and get
suitable software, have you checked that
your institution can support you with this
students can even be given a pseudonym as
they argue from a certain position
regardless of their own opinion.
software? Have you checked the licensing
arrangement of any software you will use?
Check that it is suitable for multiple users.
Chapter 4 [p. 111]:
Rounds. Students post an opinion or
question by a certain date, and are given
more time to prepare than they would have
for the same kind of exercise in a face-toface group.
Buzz groups. Small-group discussions
such as these are much better suited to
face-to-face situations, as the emphasis is
on quick communication to prepare for
Q&A at the end of a lecture.
Syndicates. Better suited to online
discussions than ‘pyramids’ (pairs of
students discuss a topic, then a group of
four with another couple, then six and so
on until they present to the whole group;
the need for rapid feedback doesn’t lend
itself so well to online seminars). Subgroups prepare a task together, in a private
forum, before posting in a public forum for
all students to access.
Fishbowls. A small group of students enter
into discussion on a given topic, while the
rest of the group follows the debate by
reading the messages, without actually
joining in.
Organized debates. These role-play
debates can work very well online, where
Important interpersonal skills include: clear
expression of ideas; enthusiasm; patience;
and the ability to elicit participation.
Begin with a non-crucial task, to allow
time for ironing out any communication
problems. For example, students can post a
short introductory note about themselves,
which confirms that everyone can access
each others’ messages and post their own.
If possible, get everyone to meet ahead of
online communication activities: Being
able to put names to faces will help the
discussion work.
Keep a balance between informality and
authority in your tone, and monitor the
students’ tone, too. It is easy to offend with
ill-chosen attempts at humour.
At the end of the period of discussion, post
a message thanking everyone for their
contributions, and letting them know what
happens next. Also include a summary of
the points covered and any conclusions
Consider at this stage a questionnaire
asking for feedback on the students’
experiences and technical issues.
Facilitating online groups
Structuring online seminars
If meeting is not possible, consider one of
the structured tasks, such as syndicates, to
get everyone involved straight away.
Using familiar names from traditional
education environments helps to identify
the kind of social interaction and level of
formality expected. For example, labels
such as ‘seminar room,’ ‘office’ and ‘coffee
bar’ make it clear that each forum mirrors,
respectively, the academic, organizational
and social functions of face-to-face
At the beginning of online discussions,
clearly set out the purpose of the discussion,
its duration, milestones, expected outcomes
and methods of assessment.
Do not over-organize - flexibility
throughout the course will be necessary.
Invite an expert to join in for a few days, to
reinvigorate any flagging enthusiasm.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Learning to learn online
It is not only tutors who are unfamiliar with
what it is like to learn in an online group –
many students will also find it a new and
worrying experience. How does it work? What
are they expected to do? How can they get the
most from it? You should provide guidance on
the social and learning skills that the students
are expected to acquire – possible as part of an
initial training session in the use of the
The ground rules for the forum should spell
out such things as:
The standard of writing expected. Is it
formal and academic or relaxed and
chatty? Should spelling errors be corrected
or is it acceptable to ‘typ quicly so long
asits readable’?
The length of messages. Online groups
should be like a debate rather than a
sequence of monologues, so essay-like
messages should be discouraged unless
that is what is specifically required.
The content of messages. Should all
messages remain ‘on topic,’ or is some
social chit chat allowable?
The frequency of access. Two or three
times a week is realistic, although short
burst of daily use may be possible.
Rules about behaviour. These will
typically forbid offensive, sexist or racist
comments and insist that all criticism is
positive and academic, never negative or
On a deeper level, you should encourage all
participants to post replies that take the debate
forward instead of simply agreeing or
disagreeing. Ideally, all participants should be
leading each other towards a richer
understanding of the topic under discussion.
Skilled facilitators will lead the way by
example, hoping that the students will adopt a
similar approach as they gain in experience.
ICT and curriculum; pedagogy; open learning;
independent learning; ICT integration
March, T. (June 2001) “Working the Web for education: Theory
and practice on integrating the Web for learning.” (2 March 2005)
Topic Hotlist
Online article
A Topic Hotlist is effectively a web page that
gathers together a collection of sites that you
have bookmarked for their special relevance/
interest to the subject you are teaching. This
will save your students hours of wasted time
searching, allows you to offer them a wide
range of materials varying in scope and
quality, and can easily supplement the activity
they are working on, with tasks on handouts,
for example. Depending on availability of
resources and speed of Internet connection,
students can even develop their own Topic
Hotlist, and post it on the Web.
This article considers what the Web can really
offer the technology-rich classroom, and
describes how, in the climate of
“disintermediation,” the teacher can take
maximum advantage of the Internet.
First and foremost, the author suggests, the
Internet is next to worthless as a learning aid
without the teacher’s guidance and coordination. The article then describes one
detailed strategy for approaching the Internet
as a means of enhancing student learning,
accommodating both newcomers to the Web,
as well as more seasoned, tech-savvy teachers.
The two main phases in this strategy are:
• Harvesting the Web’s abundance
• Shaping activities related to learning goals
This strategy then leads the teacher through a
number of decisions that guides him/her to one
of five different kinds of Web-based activities:
Topic Hotlist; Multimedia Scrapbook;
Treasure Hunt; Subject Sampler; WebQuest.
The author includes a link to an example of
these learning formats after describing each in
more detail.
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Multimedia Scrapbook
The Multimedia Scrapbook, rather like the
Hotlist, consists of links to a variety of media,
such as photos, sound clips, videos and virtual
tours that students can access according to the
aspects of a topic they wish to explore. They
can then download or cut and paste these
resources to be used in, for example, desktop
slide presentations, bulletin boards or Web
pages. While the Scrapbook does not aim to
achieve specific learning goals in its own
right, it can help achieve an open, studentcentred, constructivist approach to learning in
which students pursue their own interests.
Treasure Hunt
For more specific, targeted learning, the
Treasure Hunt can offer a useful framework
for encouraging students to find, absorb and
synthesize information. Students can be given,
say, 10 to 15 web pages (the exact page, not
the home page of a huge website), with one
question for each page. Carefully-designed
treasure hunts can allow students to gradually
gather related pieces of information that
enable them to build a cumulative picture of
the topic being studied, and a well-formulated
final task can help them synthesize all the
information into a deep overall understanding
of the subject.
share their ideas, usually finishing with a task
that allows them to synthesize all their
information in some formal way, such as
presenting their information to experts through
the Internet.
new to the web
fairly web-savvy
Subject Sampler
This kind of activity offers the student the
chance to engage with a topic on a much more
personal level. The Subject Sampler takes
advantage of the host of one-off, idiosyncratic,
or passionate material on the Web that has
something specific to which the students might
relate or respond. The teacher can then guide
discussions that encourage students to interpret
the material from their own perspectives, a
process which emphasizes engagement with a
topic, rather than the pursuit of right answers.
Increasingly popular among ICT-confident
teachers, the WebQuest is an excellent way to
promote higher-order thinking using the
Internet for inquiry-based tasks. In groups,
students explore contentious current issues or
topics with at least two possible view points
and exploit the wide variety of perspectives
available on the Web to construct meaning
around complex themes. Students gain a deep
understanding of one particular perspective or
aspect of an issue, and then come together to
collect websites
shape learning
l e a r n i n g
g o a l ?
Multimedia Treasure
Suggestions for Choosing Activity
If you’re new to the Web or think students
merely need additional resources, gather links
into a Hotlist or Scrapbook. If you’re ready to
take the next step of incorporating learning
activities into a Webpage, then choose one of
the three formats based upon what might be
missing in your present curriculum. For
example, if learners need to gain more
knowledge about the subject, inform them with
a Treasure Hunt. If they come out of a current
unit apathetic, hook them with a Subject
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Sampler. If they learn enough knowledge and
like the topic, but don’t engage in higher-level
thinking, challenge them with a WebQuest..
Now you may be saying, “Okay, I’m interested
in making one of these Web pages, but I don’t
know HTML, haven’t got a clue about how to
post pages on the Internet, and mostly, I have
no time to learn either.” So the next question
arises: So do I give up?
Fear not, feisty teachers, your life just got
easier thanks to Filamentality (“combining
filaments of the Web with learners’
mentalities”). Filamentality is an interactive
Web site that we created because learning
HTML, designing a Web-based activity, and
posting pages on the Net are three pretty big
hurdles for people with students to see, papers
to grade, lessons to write, and cookies to bake
(the true glue that keeps a class happy).
Thanks to masterful Perl programming by
Jodi Reed (see her Getting Started with CGI
Webpage) and the willingness of Pacific Bell
to post user Web pages on its server, you can
be guided through choosing a topic, gathering
quality Internet sites, creating one or all five of
the activity formats described above, and
automatically posting your pages on the Web.
Want to learn more? Test drive Filamentality
on the Web or in a workshop near you.
ICT and curriculum; pedagogy; classroom
management; ICT integration
Mattingly, L. (Feb 1997) “Integrating technology in the
classroom.” Southern Indiana Education Centre. (2 March 2005)
The presentation includes colour slides that
describe effective class layout, based on a
timed-rotation approach to using computers,
with the different sections comprising: an area
for student tables, for use during whole-class
instruction; a library area; a computer area,
where students work at their own pace on preprepared assignments; and a project area, often
supervised by a parent volunteer. (The authors
include such interesting suggestions as putting
used tennis balls on the feet of the chairs,
which reduces the noise when children are
constantly rearranging the classroom as they
move from one study area to another.)
Online slide show with notes
These slides and accompanying notes,
delivered as a presentation at a computer
educators conference in the United States,
chiefly look at ICT integration from a
classroom management perspective. The slide
show includes a number of useful tips for
primary teachers on how to use computers in
both low- and high-resource settings,
particularly in literacy and mathematics
classes, and offers guidelines for effective
discipline techniques that encourage the
students to take charge of their own selfdiscipline, freeing up the teacher to
concentrate on teaching.
There are also samples from the teacher’s
notebook of classroom set-up and lesson
plans, to suggest ways to divide the class
during two-hour lessons for language arts and
mathematics, based on both five- and threecomputer classes. The examples described of
the various stages in the rotation sequence
show how the computers contribute to studentcentred activities and during project work, but
do not dominate the students’ working day.
Some of the ways software is used in language
arts classes include reading stories online,
retelling stories in writing programs, and
preparing and writing e-mails to partners at
other schools. For mathematics, software is
used that enables students to write stories that
illustrate math problems and use spreadsheets
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
to make a graph, for example, depicting the
spread of the students’ birthdays by month.
The presentation also includes a number of
useful resources for extra support, and
guidance for developing technology-rich
lessons that include MapQuests and surfing for
This was a summer school project that
involved kindergarten and first grade children.
It is called “Surfing for ABCs”. The Internet is
another kind of learning tool. Children need
time to discover how browsers work and what
information they can find on the Internet.
By beginning with a familiar concept (the
alphabet) that needs little research or
discovery on the children’s part, the child can
focus on learning how to use the Internet and
navigate the Internet. Critical thinking skills as
well as researching skills can be developed by
using this simple approach on discovering the
If you visit this webpage, you can find the
safety rules for using the Internet that the
children learned while searching for sites that
began with the alphabet using the
Yahooligan’s search engine. A lesson plan is
included with this site.
Whether you have five computers, three, or
even one computer in your classroom, we’ve
found that:
• A centre’s approach to teaching allows the
most success for integrating the computer
within your lesson plan.
I like to put my children in heterogeneous
This allows me to appoint a student
‘helper’ for each group. If a student
struggles while at a centre, they are to ask
for help from someone within their group,
rather than interrupting me.
For a centre’s approach to learning to be
successful, good discipline within your
classroom must be established.
Training has been the key to our success.
Training has helped us know our software.
We’ve been able to develop lesson plans
that integrate computer activities within
our curriculum.
For the last three years, each grade level
has been given four to five days released
time throughout each school year. Because
our training is done by grade level, we can
brainstorm together ways to correlate
computer activities.
classroom management; ICT and curriculum;
assessment; discipline; primary; ICT
Shelley, B., et al. (2001) Teachers Discovering Computers:
Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Cambridge: Course
Technology. (2 March 2005)
Print publication/
Online book
Aimed at student teachers, this book from the
Shelly Cashman Series provides a broad
introduction to computers as a teaching tool,
and describes practical, pedagogically sound
guidelines for integrating ICT resources and
teaching techniques into the classroom. There is
a sister website, at, which
offers additional information and resources,
discussion topics at the end of each chapter and
a guide to popular educational sites on the Web.
With a clear explanation of curriculum
standards and their relation to benchmarks, the
authors then emphasize that the curriculum
must determine the kinds of technology used,
not the other way round, and that relevant
technology should be used to enhance learning
at appropriate times. The relative advantages
and disadvantages of centralized computer labs
over individual classrooms are then described:
Computer labs clearly are more cost-effective
for the school administrators, and hardware is
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
more easily maintained. They also usually
connect to the Local Area Network (LAN), and
are commonly used for students working
through tutorial software and integrated
learning systems software. However, there is
evidence that computers and other technologies
are more effective in the learning process when
used at the point of instruction i.e. the
classroom. In this case, teachers can readily
access a range of resources, such as CD-ROMs
or the Internet, to respond to students’ questions
as - and when - they arise: an occasion often
referred to as ‘a teachable moment.’
The chapter then describes the particular case
of a teacher taking advantage of just such a
teachable moment, with five student
computers in the classroom allowing him to
access the school’s LAN and the Internet for a
lesson on dinosaurs. Having anticipated the
kinds of questions the students would throw at
him, the teacher had researched, identified and
evaluated a host of resources that allowed for a
stimulating and interactive class. In addition to
information available on the Internet, the
students were also able to explore the websites
of famous museums, and take virtual tours that
brought to three-dimensional life a topic that
had begun as a story about a dinosaur. The
students then returned to their desks to write
their own stories and describe what they had
Successfully integrating technology into the
teaching-learning process requires that the
teacher choose appropriate technology according
to the learning goals of the lesson, and then
develop ways to teach a group of learners with
inevitably different learning styles.
For teachers to engage students more fully in the
learning process, authentic learning experiences
are recommended to motivate them. Specifically,
teachers should ensure students are gathering,
analysing and using information in situations that
relate to real life. Similarly, teachers are urged to
promote active learning, which enables students
to be directly involved in the learning process
and, therefore, feel ownership of the information
with which they are presented. In addition,
guidelines for improving the learning process
through technology include anchored instruction,
which provides students with a knowledge base
on which to draw, especially important when
learning about more abstract or less immediately
comprehensible subjects, such as the human
digestive system, which they cannot see or touch.
Problem-based instruction then builds on this
anchor or situation, and allows students to solve
and understand more complex problems.
ICTs can help with all these types of learning.
For example, multimedia educational
software, such as Body Works for teaching all
about the human body, allows students to
experience things and concepts that textbooks
could never offer. Furthermore, multimedia
software taps into more of the ways that
children – and adults – think: namely, in
colours, sounds, and movement, and not just
words and static pictures.
Planning for technology integration is also
emphasized as a key component in effective use
of ICTs for education. In addition to
administrators providing training and mentor
programmes for new teachers, planning
obviously refers to the teachers, themselves, who
must carefully assess where in the curriculum
technology can most effectively enhance their
students’ learning experiences. Classroom
management strategies must also be clearly
thought through, and the physical layout of the
classroom must be prepared according to the
kinds and amount of hardware at your disposal.
Teachers must also consider the technological
skills of the students when planning lessons that
will entail students’ use of tools such as
computers and audio/video recorders. Skills
assessment surveys can be helpful to identify
the level of a student’s abilities, and create a
starting point for developing instructional
strategies. A KWL (Know/Want to know/will
Learn) chart is another helpful planning tool to
assess student skills and knowledge levels. The
authors also describe the ASSURE Model
(Analyze learners; State Objectives, Select,
modify, design Methods, Media, & Materials;
Utilize Methods, Media, & Materials; Require
learner Participation, Evaluate & Revise) for
planning and delivering instruction that
integrates ICTs into the teaching process.
Another tip is for teachers to turn their classroom
into an integrated learning centre, which enables
them to divide their classroom into many
different types of learning environments in one
space, and lends itself well to multi-task projects
where students use different tools and class areas
for different activities.
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Chapter 6, “Education and Technology
Integration,” describes a number of outcomes
readers will have achieved after completing
the unit. They will be able to:
• Define curriculum and explain curriculum
standards and benchmarks;
• Explain technology integration;
• Describe the use of computers in computer
labs versus classroom instruction;
• Identify ways in which technology can
positively influence learning;
• Identify ways to plan for technology
• Explain various planning tools and
instructional models;
• Describe the steps of the ASSURE
Instructional Model;
• Identify ways to get started using
technology at a new school;
• Describe the use of learning centres.
[Ch 6.8] The key to successful technology
integration is identifying what you are trying
to accomplish within your curriculum. First,
you must consider what the learning goals and
standards are, and then you must identify an
appropriate technology tool that will help you
accomplish your goals. While this process
sounds simple, complete integration of
technology in all subject areas is complex and
takes a great deal of planning [...]
Once you have determined specific learning
goals and objectives, and identified
technologies appropriate for areas of the
curriculum, you can then begin to develop
innovative ways to teach a diverse population
of learners with different learning styles. A
learning style refers to how individuals learn,
including how they prefer to receive
information, express themselves, and process
information. Learning styles vary among
individuals. For example, some people learn
better alone, while others learn better in
groups. Many different types of learning styles
exist, and most individuals learn using a
combination of several styles. The use of
technologies such as multimedia and the Web
can help address learning styles typically
neglected by traditional teaching methods. By
engaging students in different ways,
technology encourages students to take a more
active role in the learning process.
[Ch 6.13] Technology helps teachers promote
active learning and create authentic learning
experiences by allowing students to conduct
Web-based research, explore concepts in a
multimedia presentation, create a slide show
for a history presentation, create a database of
results from a group science project, and so
on. Technology also provides opportunities for
anchored instruction. Students can watch a
Web-based video clip of a Himalayan
mountain-climbing expedition, for example,
and then move on to examine the history of
Tibet, the Sherpa culture, the physical effects
of climbing in high altitudes, or how
avalanches start [...] Using discovery learning,
you can break down classroom walls with
technology, the Web, and most importantly –
imagination. Properly integrated technology
allows students to understand concepts clearer
and learn no matter who or where they are.
hands of trained teachers, make it easily
accessible, and let them decide how best to use
it in their classrooms at the point of
instruction. Teachers then can use an array of
teaching strategies to develop a learning
environment in which students are encouraged
to be independent learners and take
responsibility for their own learning.
The main goal of such teaching strategies is to
provide a consistent application of technology
tools to support instructional curriculum areas.
Also, it is important to give every student the
opportunity to work with computers and
related technologies. When proper strategies
are used for technology integration, students
enjoy learning to use technology, as well as the
content in the subject-related curriculum areas.
Already, many experienced educators are
integrating technology into subject-related
instruction – and have seen the benefits
technology integration can bring to the
learning experience. One critically important
element in effective technology integration is
continuous planning. Planning for technology
integration must take place on many levels,
including planning by the school district,
planning for integration of technology in the
classroom, and planning to integrate
technology into your lesson plans.
ICT and curriculum; pedagogy; ICT and
interactive learning; independent learning; ICT
[Ch 6.16] The best strategy for technology
integration is to put the technology into the
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
UNESCO. (2004) “Chapter 2:
Policy and regulatory
environment,” Integrating
ICTs into Education:
Lessons Learned. Bangkok:
Clung Wicha Press
(2 March 2005)
Print publication/Online book
This chapter of a UNESCO publication
describes policies for integrating ICTs into
education as they have been put into practice
in six countries in South-East Asia, each with
broadly differing political and economic
environments: Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore
and Thailand. The strengths and weaknesses of
these policies are then discussed under six
themes: policy development; transforming ICT
for education policy into action; legal and
regulatory framework; macro-economic
impact; inter-ministerial collaboration; and
advocacy and obtaining support from policy
makers and other stakeholders.
These themes are further discussed in terms of
lessons learned, with specific examples drawn
from the various countries. For example, under
policy development, the first lesson is: ‘To
ensure that ICT in education policy in
integrated into the national ICT policy,
Ministries of Education should work closely
with other government organizations,
especially those in charge of implementing
national policies in ICT and
telecommunications.’ In Indonesia, the
Ministry of National Education worked with
the Indonesian Internet Service Providers
Association, telecom operators and private
companies like CISCO to network over one
thousand schools and provide Internet access
to half a million high school students. In
Singapore, meanwhile, secondary schools
were restructured to include more technical
training, such as mathematics and computer
awareness, with the Ministry of Education
working with the National Computer Board.
The second finding here is that pilot studies
provide a good basis for implementing ICT
into education policy. Pilot studies should
involve formative and summative evaluations,
and the policy ought to be able to refine the
scope of the studies. In addition, it was found
that ICTs can be implemented in education
plans especially well when there are clearly
defined roles and responsibilities for the
relevant government ministries. This should
include clear descriptions of project
components, such as budget allocations and
Singapore is presented as an example of how a
phased approach to implementation of an ICT
policy can ensure the process is manageable,
and also allow for the policy to be tweaked as
evaluations provide useful lessons learnt. In
particular, demonstration schools used in the
first of these phases can act as models for
integration in other schools, and allow teachers
to observe best practices and share
experiences. The less effective practice in
Indonesia of individual departments within the
National Ministry of Education developing
ICT programmes in an isolated manner
illustrates the advantages of a centralized
system where the MOE supports the
development of ICTs in Education. A national
commission for this purpose may be
responsible for establishing a strategic plan
with a clear and measurable vision, planning
the budgetary requirements, and developing
and implementing clear regulations and
guidelines on ICT use, from the national to
school levels.
The legal and regulatory framework, the third
theme under lessons learned, describes two
common techniques for filtering the Internet
and restricting access to unwanted websites:
human analysis and software analysis.
Singapore emphasizes public education and
industry self-regulation, with an Internet Code
of Practice that articulates the main areas
considered offensive - namely pornography,
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
violence and materials that undermine racial
and religious harmony. In addition, there are
clear obligations for Internet Service Providers
to follow, and the three ISPs offer their own
filtering services. The report notes that no
filters are water-tight, while also warning
against total supervision of children using the
Internet, as this impedes their development of
skills essential in modern society.
The recommendation, in response to the above,
is to ensure education of Internet surfing issues
becomes an integral part of parenting and
teaching, at school and at home. This includes
training teachers and parents to prepare them
for this important supervisory role. Measures in
the countries included in this report vary in
terms of their responses to the threat of
undesirable Internet sites. In Indonesia, for
example, a private institution airs a programme
called ‘Healthy Internet’, which provides
information and guidance on, among other
things, e-banking and opening attachments
from unknown senders. In Thailand,
meanwhile, there is still an absence of
censorship regulation, and the recommendation
is for teachers and parents to become more
closely involved in guiding students.
The macro-economic impact of ICTs in
Education centres on bridging the digital
divide, and to this end it is recommended that
government policy complement other
initiatives in this area. In the Republic of
Korea, for example, an initiative to promote
equality of access involved providing PCs and
financial support to poor families, led by the
Ministry of Education and Human Resources
Development, as well as awards to exceptional
students. In Malaysia, the Universal Service
Provision Project provided over 200 schools
with the necessary basic infrastructure to bring
the Internet into schools, such as electricity,
telephone lines and computers, and the project
will be expanded into a national SchoolNet, to
take in 10,000 schools in the country.
Inter-ministerial collaboration is identified as
an essential component in integrating ICTs
into schools, as it helps co-ordinate and
harmonise implementation efforts. Examples
include the Philippines, where the Department
of Trade and Industry have worked with the
Department of Education on a project called
‘PCs for public schools.’ The DTI secured the
funding, while the DepEd selected participant
schools and helped at the monitoring stage.
Private-sector participation in inter-ministerial
projects is also encouraged. Industry partners
in Singapore have joined in the ‘Adopt a
School’ project, developing a range of services
for schools using Interactive Broadband
Multimedia technologies, as well as providing
training for teachers and students to use the
relevant tools and providing technical support.
Essentially, the recommendation is to link ICT
in Education policy to national education
objectives, to elicit more help from
stakeholders and policy makers, and to
improve communication with these
stakeholders, especially in terms of making
available recent research into the benefits of
ICTs in Education, and sharing MOE steering
committee decisions to involve stakeholders
and develop a sense of involvement.
Based on the experiences of the six countries
[...] the lessons learned are the following:
1. Policy Development (focus on pre-launch
of an ICT in Education policy)
• To ensure that ICT in Education policy
is integrated in the national ICT policy,
Ministries of Education (MOE) should
work closely with other government
organizations, especially those in
charge of implementing national
policies on ICT and
• Lessons learned from pilot projects and
studies in education that are carried out
at different levels of the school system
provide the basis for further policy
• Harmonized implementation of ICT
into education programmes can be
achieved by defining clearly the roles
and responsibilities of all departments
(within the MOE and other relevant
ministerial departments) in the
implementation of ICT master plans,
showing clearly the different
components of project activities,
including budget allocations,
manpower requirements and timetables.
2. Transforming Policy into Action
• Phased implementation of ICT in
Education policy ensures that the
implementation process is manageable
and the development of best practices
and lessons learned is gradual. It also
provides opportunities for evaluations
so that the policy can be revised and
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Central support from the MOE to
pursue a clear and measurable vision
helps in developing and implementing a
comprehensive programme for the
capacity-building of schools in using
3. Legal and Regulatory Framework
• Initial filtering of the Internet from
undesirable websites is necessary in
order to prevent their harmful influence
on younger students who may not be
able to discern the veracity and
reliability of information.
• More than any software or hardware
device, better protection is ensured by
making education on safety issues
pertaining to the Internet an integral
part of parenting, teaching and learning
activities at home and in the school.
4. Macro-Economic Impact
• To narrow the digital divide, ICT in
Education policy should complement
other government initiatives, such as
public education in ICT, donation of
computers and provision of free
Internet access.
5. Inter-Ministerial Collaboration
• Sharing expertise, experiences and
infrastructures among ministries and
government agencies helps to
coordinate and harmonise
implementation of ICT in Education
• Creating a national policymaking,
regulatory and implementing agency
for ICT development systematizes
inter-ministerial cooperation on ICT in
general, including education.
Beyond ministries and government
agencies, inter-ministerial
collaborations could involve private
sector participation.
6. Advocacy and Obtaining Support from
Policymakers and Other Stakeholders
• By linking the objectives of ICT in
Education policy with national
education objectives, support from
policymakers and other MOE
stakeholders, including human
capacity-building, could be more
• By making policymakers and
stakeholders regularly aware of, and
updated on, the benefits of ICT for
education, advocacy for the acceptance
of ICT use in education is further
strengthened through research results
and documentation of experiences.
• By making all decisions taken or
amended by the MOE’s highest steering
committee known to all members of the
committee and heads of departments,
their sense of ownership and
involvement is enhanced.
policy/strategy; planning; local educational
bodies; government educational bodies; ICT
10. UNESCO. (2004) “Chapter 6: Curriculum, Pedagogy and
Content Development,” Integrating ICTs into Education:
Lessons Learned. Bangkok: Clung Wicha Press (2 March 2005)
Print publication/Online book
Chapter 6 of this UNESCO publication looks
at the context in which ICTs are being
introduced into education in the six countries
described. Generally, studies suggest that ICTs
are not being fully incorporated into national
curricula in the region, although recent policy
changes have attempted to address that, and
the lessons learned here provide a range of
recommendations based on the perceived
shortcomings and strengths of these countries.
Integrating technology into the curriculum is
the first of six themes in this section, and the
lessons emphasize the following four key
points: teachers must understand that ICT can
be used to achieve specific curricular goals;
students must have the necessary computer
skills if ICT is to be effectively used in the
classroom; teachers play the key role in
integrating ICTs into the curriculum; and when
ICTs are introduced into the assessment
process, that process itself must be reassessed.
Specifically, various ICT tools should
complement each other and be designed in line
with curriculum and pedagogical
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
requirements. In Malaysia, ICT-based
materials have been developed for teaching
and learning in four main subject areas, in the
form of courseware, teacher guides and sample
lesson plans. They have been designed to
allow for easy cross-curricular and intradisciplinary integration. The ICT skills taught
in these countries inevitably depends on the
infrastructure available: those schools in
Indonesia that have the facilities to do so teach
ICT as a subject, and cover word processing
and spreadsheets, Internet browsing
techniques, and creative programs such as
Photoshop, while high school graduates in
Singapore will be expected to have acquired
competencies in desktop publishing and online
research skills. For teachers to lead the
integration of ICT into the curriculum, it is
recognised that they must be fully supported in
a number of ways, including professional
development, both formal and informal, and
access to technology resources.
The second theme in this chapter concerns the
shifting pedagogy that results from the use of
ICTs. Firstly, it is noted that this is a timeconsuming process. Use of ICTs clearly
depends on basic infrastructure being in place,
and many schools in a number of the countries
described here lack the necessary conditions to
begin to think about technology-enhanced
instruction. The Republic of Korea offers an
example of how teaching and learning can be
reoriented as a result of ICTs. Firstly, students
are able to choose both the time and place of
learning, as well as the activity they pursue,
which results in more individualised learning.
Secondly, knowledge is generated by each
student, and both teacher and student roles
change accordingly. Furthermore, in order to
fully optimize the use of ICTs in schools, it is
noted that shifting pedagogies and redesigning
assessment must be accompanied by greater
autonomy for each school.
Next up: content and services that support the
improvement of curriculum and assessment.
Local development of ICT resources is seen as
crucial, and to this end, attracting international
educational software developers to work with
local companies is recommended. This can
help create locally-relevant and authentic
resources for both teachers and students. A
second recommendation here is to establish a
clearinghouse or digital library of ready-touse, tailored resources to help teachers save
time, and encourage them to become familiar
with the benefits of ICTs in teaching. The
Ministries of Education could also provide a
list of recommended sites and software for
particular subjects, again to save time,
especially for novice teachers. For example, a
digital library is a part of SchoolNet services
in Thailand, which contains several thousand
lesson plans in ten subject areas.
Evaluating content for political and cultural
sensitivity, as well as reliability, is also
essential. The Malaysian consortium for
evaluating software includes teachers, teacher
trainers and ministry officials, and their
warranty for software runs for a year after the
end of the pilot project, during which time any
bugs or defects will be fixed.
Inevitably, English is the dominant language
of much of the available educational software.
While local-language software promotes the
use of ICT in local schools, the widespread use
of English as the lingua franca increases the
need for students to have decent levels of
competency in the language. Thus, countries
such as Thailand are seen to be making moves
towards upgrading students’ English language
skills to take greater advantage of the wealth
of educational software available to bilingual
Finally, it is necessary to consider the financial
implications of either purchasing the
intellectual property rights to educational
software, or buying a licence allowing for the
perpetual use of those materials. In Malaysia,
it was felt that the Government should acquire
the property rights to the Smart School
Integrated Solution and Applications Software,
thus allowing all government schools to use it
without having to pay fees.
Based on the experiences of the six countries
with respect to curriculum, pedagogy and
content development in the integration of ICT
into education, the following are the lessons
1. Integrating Technology in the
Curriculum and Assessment
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
When teachers perceive ICT as a tool to
meet curricular goals, they are more
likely to integrate ICT into their
• Equipping students with ICT skills
facilitates the effective integration of
ICT in schools.
• Teachers play a pivotal role in the
integration of ICT into school
curriculum and assessment.
• When ICT is introduced into the
assessment process, there is a need to
reconsider the assessment approaches.
2. Shift in Pedagogy as a Result of
Integrating ICT in the Curriculum
• Shifting pedagogical approaches to the
use of ICT in Education is timeconsuming.
• Shifting pedagogies, redesigning the
curriculum and assessment, and
providing more autonomy to the
schools help to optimize the use of ICT.
• Shifting pedagogical approaches is
facilitated through appropriate
professional development of teachers.
3. Contents and Services that Support
Continuous Improvement of
Curriculum Practices
• Attracting well-established foreign
education software developers to work
with local companies helps to develop
high quality ICT-based resources.
• Establishing a clearing house or digital
libraries of ready-to-use and
customizable ICT-based resources
promotes better use of ICT in teaching,
and facilitates quick and easy access to
resources for making lesson plans and
for teaching.
4. Development and Selection of Culturally
Sensitive Content
• Having a mechanism in place for
evaluating content developed for
schools ensures political and cultural
validity, reliability and correctness.
5. Ethical and Political Implications of
Using English as Lingua Franca
• While local content in the local
language promotes better use of ICTbased resources and materials, the use
of English in schools optimizes the
potential of ICT (especially the
Internet) for teaching and for learning.
6. Intellectual Property Rights Related to
Educational Software
• A cost-benefit analysis conducted
before deciding on whether to acquire
the intellectual property rights to
educational materials, or to acquire a
perpetual license to use the materials,
prevents waste of resources.
ICT and curriculum; pedagogy; policy/
strategy; evaluation; ICT integration
General Principles and Strategies for
Integrating Technology in Education
and the Curriculum
Emans, B. (undated) “Guidelines for primary school teachers for
integration of ICT in their lessons.” Ecolenet. (2 March 2005)
pedagogical function, rather than on the
technical skills it may foster.
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing
Lesson Plans that Integrate
Children’s development of ICT skills will
automatically follow as a result of using
technology in the class, especially when
working together on collaborative projects. In
addition, working collectively with ICTs on
guided projects develops skills such as critical
thinking, how to receive feedback, reading,
writing and communication skills, and
organization and planning strategies.
Online article
This article is aimed at the teacher confronted
with emerging technologies but with no
experience in using them in the classroom.
The author emphasizes the correlation between
learning new skills oneself and feeling
comfortable enough to integrate them in
student activities. For example, the teacher can
become familiar with using e-mail, and then
confidently devise language-based tasks for
the students where they send each other
e-mails. Starting with simple technologies and
activities, the teacher is encouraged to base his
or her choice of ICT on its particular
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
Finally, like so many discussions of the subject
today, this article emphasizes the changing
role of the teacher, as he or she moves from
instructor to facilitator, by underlining the still
vital, if re-oriented, role that teachers play in
thestudent learning experience.
Overview of 6 principles
1. Do not be afraid
Computers might look difficult, but anyone
can learn to master them. Any teacher can
find ways to use ICT in the classroom, as
long as they make sure they can cope with
2. Make a simple start
Start with very simple ICT-projects in your
class. Only projects where you can solve
the problems will be a success. Later on,
with more experience, your projects can
become more complex.
3. Make combinations
ICT projects are not necessarily extra
lessons in your curriculum. Think about
making combinations with your normal
lessons. This will give you better control of
the project, and thus, it will increase the
chance for success. Furthermore, it
provides a back-up plan and might also
save you time.
4. Focus on didactics, not technical aspects
Make sure that the use of ICT serves a
didactical goal. Computers must not be
used in the classroom because they are
computers. They are used to improve the
learning process.
5. Role of the teacher changes
Be aware of the changing role of the
teacher. This role shifts from an instructor
to other roles like mentor, coach, guide and
6. You are a learner, too
A teacher is a learner, too. Everyday, he/
she will find new information, as well,
especially when computers and the Internet
are involved. Don’t be afraid to admit to
your pupils that you, too, have to learn.
ICT in the classroom; staff development;
pedagogy; ICT and curriculum; ICT
English, A. (2001) “Strategies to improve the effectiveness of
Internet use by low ability pupils.” Technology-integrated
Pedagogical Strategies. (2 March 2005)
Online report
This is the report from a small-scale study into
strategies for using the Internet to support lowability students in a geography class in the
UK. The methods of research included a
student questionnaire, observations, diaries
and group interviews. It generally found that
students grew in confidence and competence
throughout the duration on the course.
Findings that need careful attention when
planning to use the Internet as a learning
resource include the following:
• These lower-ability students were less
familiar with basic computer skills than
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
more able pupils
Some pupils said they were easily
distracted by the mass of options on the
Students were frequently distracted by
banners when using search engines, and
others were often frustrated at not being
able to easily find sites containing the
required content
The complexity of some websites added to
the difficulties some students faced
A portal page containing Internet links
prepared by the teacher eased the students’
difficulties, but resulted in some pupils
feeling they were being helped too much
Sometimes, students were asked to look
out for keywords when searching online,
which most felt helped them find the
information they were seeking
In addition, constantly being reminded to
stay focused while using search engines
seemed to help, but also tended to set a
negative tone
The following points are based on evidence
collected by interviews and the observations
by the teacher and assistant:
• The interviews and questionnaires suggest
that the pupils in low ability groups have
less access to computers and the Internet at
home than pupils in higher ability groups,
and so they may be less confident and
competent when using them at school.
Pupils quickly developed skills such as
cutting and pasting text and photographs
from web pages into their own word
processed documents.
Pupils identified the problem that text on
web pages is often difficult to read for the
following reasons: small text size, long
sentences stretching across the screen,
difficult vocabulary and the text being set
against a strongly coloured or patterned
Pupils reported that they found difficult
sections of text easier to read when they
cut and pasted the words onto a plain
background and made the text larger and
the width of text narrower using word
processing software
Pupils in low ability groups reported that
they were confused by the complexity and
wide range of options offered by some web
pages. However, strategies can be
developed to help them to focus on the
search for key words on the page, without
being distracted by links and information
which will not help them with their task.
Pupils reported that their behaviour is
better in the ICT suites than in the
classroom. This seemed to be supported by
observation by the teacher and other
independent adults.
ICT in the classroom; special educational
needs; pedagogy; ICT integration
Grosse Pointe Public Schools. (May 2004) “Strategies for
integrating technology into your curriculum.” Grosse Pointe
Public School System. (2 March 2005)
Online article
These tips are aimed at K-12 teachers, and
focus on technology-led projects for students.
The Grosse Pointe schools system has
developed a range of useful materials and sites
of their own, as well as linking to external
sites, that provide ideas for bringing
technology into the classroom in ways that
harness the potential of ICTs for independent,
project-based learning. There are sites that can
connect students to experts in a given field,
thus opening them up to real-life feedback and
meaningful communication experiences;
perform research using the Internet as a
resource for retrieving, analysing and
processing information; collaborate with other
students and post their work on the Net; and
engage in multimedia projects, which allow
for a multi-disciplinary approach to learning,
as projects take in elements of, say,
mathematics, language arts, geography and
technology all at the same time.
The page lists 10 ideas for ICT-based
activities, and provides external links for
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
further information, examples and resources.
The ideas include:
• Using the Internet to conduct research, and
collect and analyze information. Students
can develop higher-order thinking skills if
you lay out a plan for how the information
they retrieve can be used.
• Expand students’ horizons by connecting
them to experts, at one of various “Ask-anExpert” sites. This is a great way of
supplementing the curriculum with
authentic and current information, and
shows how ICTs can be used for valuable
communication and information gathering.
• Use the Web to display tutorials and online
lessons, e.g. the Grosse Pointe tutorial page
contains a range of lessons, from basic word
processing packages to specific programs
such as PowerPoint and Photoshop.
• Publish projects on the Web. CyberKids, for
example, has a page that contains poems,
stories, art and other creative work that can
inspire students and teachers, alike.
• Use e-mail and the Web for discussion, in
forums, or to distribute ideas.
• Join in collaborative projects to encourage
students to communicate and co-operate
with other pupils from other schools and
• Harness the multimedia potential of the
Web by bringing pictures, animation,
sound and databases into your teaching.
Combine Project-Based or Problem-Based
Learning with Multimedia
In project-based learning, students participate
in collaborative projects and experience an
interdisciplinary blend of skills from math,
language arts, fine arts, geography, science,
and technology. Project-based learning has the
potential to increase students’ feelings of
responsibility for, and control over, their own
learning. Students who are allowed to define
their own learning goals will be more engaged
in learning.
[The following external link describes
strategies for planning project-based learning:
Project-based learning with multimedia:
1. Decide on the project
May include: Identifying what content will
be incorporated, identifying any
constraints, deciding on multimedia
component, deciding on scope of project,
looking over PBL+MM components and
deciding on major goals of project
2. Draft time frame
May include: Deciding on length of
project, writing down some due dates or
checkpoints for project goals to be
completed, allow room for flexibility,
growth, and changes in project
3. Plan activities
May include: Browsing the Challenge
2000 Website for appropriate activities,
selecting a few, adapting a few, drawing on
own activities, borrowing and adapting
other teachers’ ideas, deciding when in
project time frame to use activities
4. Plan for assessment
May include: Reviewing or drafting some
assessment goals (answering the question
of what to assess), planning out what
assessment tools to use, adding
assessments to time frame
5. Begin project with students
May include: Discussing goals with class,
allowing for flexibility, keeping eyes and
ears open for what is working and what is
not, remembering to give students time to
get the swing of new practices, adding
activities or backtracking to strengthen
group skills or management skills, sticking
to original time frame or discussing and
planning out any revisions to it. Students
may also contribute to some of the initial
planning of the project
6. Finish project and reflect
May include: Presenting finished product
in a special forum, discussing or writing
about highlights of project, discussing or
writing about suggested improvements for
next time, taking time to write down
personal reflections on project and things
to remember for next time
ICT in the classroom; independent learning;
ICT and curriculum; pedagogy; ICT
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Higgins, S., et al. (1999) 500
ICT Tips for Primary
Teachers. London: Kogan
Page, 200 pp.
Print publication. For orders, contact: Kogan
Page, 120 Pentonville Road, London, N1 9JN,
UK. Tel: +44 (0)20 7278 0433 Fax: +44 (0)20
7837 6348; E-mail:
(General Information); (Orders)
500 ICT Tips for Primary Teachers is aimed at
primary classroom teachers, IT co-ordinators
and school managers, and will also be of use
to parents and trainee teachers. The book
contains a rich selection of guidelines and
advice on how to make the most of ICTs all
curriculum for the primary school classroom.
Topics include practical advice on using
hardware and software in the classroom,
treating ICT as a discrete subject, integrating
ICTs into specific subjects, and accessing and
organizing resources, among many others.
In particular, Chapter 3, “IT as a Crosscurricular Subject,” offers useful tips for using
ICTs in language, maths, science and
foundation subjects. The chapter opens with a
set of general guidelines for organizing IT in
other curriculum areas, to emphasize the need
for flexibility and open-mindedness when
setting learning goals. There are also practical
tips that the new teacher may easily overlook.
For example, it recommends considering
whether headphones will be a necessary
accessory to limit disruption to and from other
activities taking place at the same time, and
being prepared to re-organize the classroom,
particularly computers, according to the subject
being taught. In addition, there are pedagogical
tips, such as using a computer as a teaching aid,
rather than assuming students can only benefit
from direct access to computers. Where access
to hardware is limited, there is the option of
using a floor robot as a demonstration aid, and
then getting the children to work on set tasks
with pencil and paper. Further general tips
include considering who else may be available
to help out, such as students, auxiliaries or
parents, and what other spaces may be more
appropriate for technology-infused classes.
Under language, the authors draw attention to
the possibilities for using various media,
including video and radio, for activities with
both younger and older students. For example,
more able students can use news reports and the
Internet for developing higher-order research
and creative writing skills, while less advanced
students may find recording ideas for stories
onto tape helpful for maintaining focus during
the writing stage. emphasizing the role ICTs can
play in listening and talking exercises the
authors suggest using video or audio recorders
to tape news bulletins or plays prepared by the
students to enhance role play activities. They
also remind the reader that word processors can
be used for a great deal more tasks than typing
out documents - they recommend using clip art
and decorative borders to brighten up creative
writing, and point out their use in drafting and
identifying spelling and grammar mistakes.
Floor robots are recommended for use in math
classes with both younger and older children, as
they can be easily adapted to the level of the
students using them, and allow for a range of
problem-solving and investigation activities. In
addressing the problem of some children
dominating ICT-based math activities, the
authors suggest getting the class to individually
record when they use specific programs, and
how far they get with them, which in turn will
help the teacher keep track of who needs help in
which areas. It is also suggested that a less
conspicuous role be played by the teacher when
using ICT-based resources, and that peer
tutoring be encouraged.
geographical landscapes; finding historical
simulations that allow children to become
more personally involved in their subject;
acquiring an easy-to-use paint program that
allows children to experiment, as well as to
use for desktop publishing; and taking
advantage of time-saving clip-art, which can
stimulate written work. Furthermore, setting
up a class database is recommended for
helping children become accustomed to
research and reference work, and they will
also develop skills for storing, sorting and
classifying information.
Despite science lessons being slightly more
limited in the ways they can involve practical
investigation work, nonetheless CD-ROMs that
contain databases can be used to set up
stimulating exploration activities, while even
young children can collect and classify
information on a computer screen, or use a
picture-based concept keyboard. ICTs can also
offer more engaging ways for students to record
and report scientific investigations; videos and
cameras, for example, can be very effective in
turning boring reporting into a creative process
and in stimulating fuller participation in
discussion activities. On a practical note, the
authors recommend certain activities, such as
data logging, be organized in groups of around
10 students, ensuring each child can see the
screen and, therefore, remain fully involved.
Tips for using ICTs in foundation subjects
include using resources that allow for
comparison exercises, for example educational
software containing photos of varying
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
The following are some sample guidelines
from this chapter:
[General] Be prepared for a bit of upheaval.
Because ICT can be used throughout the
curriculum, it may be appropriate to move
resources around, especially if you have a
classroom organized into learning areas. There
is little point in having a computer in the
language area while it is being used for a
science investigation.
Ask for it! In our experience, IT co-ordinators
can feel very isolated when it comes to
steering their curriculum area. Many would be
only too delighted to have someone else
making a few suggestions. If you feel you are
missing an opportunity, why not ask to have a
look through the huge pile of free catalogues
your co-ordinator is bound to have stashed
away. (It might be wise, however, to check
that you aren’t about to spend a budget that
has already been spoken for.)
[ICT in language] Try to identify a couple of
programs that best suit your needs. It is
unrealistic, and possibly counterproductive, to
try to use too many different programs. To get
the best from them, you need to put in time and
effort...Give your class time to come to grips
with programs, making sure everyone gets a go.
Then try to make it available so that the pupils
get the chance to extend and consolidate what
they have learnt. They can’t do this if there are
too many programs to choose from.
Try to get the best out of what you have got.
Concept keyboards, for instance, are incredibly
versatile. They can be used for very early literacy
skills in nursery and reception, where simple
sentences can be built up using sight vocabulary
and picture clues. They can provide sources of
information in, say, history work, where pressing
a picture of an artefact presents information
about that artefact on the screen. They can be a
way of communicating information, where the
children design overlays and program the
computer to present their ideas to others.
Use word processors to their full potential.
Obviously, word processors are useful for
presenting written work neatly, but, if used
well, can do a lot more besides. Pages can be
set up that act as a stimulus for written work.
A piece of clip art or decorative border that
may help inspire creative written work can be
prepared in advance. They are perfect for
drafting, editing and redrafting work because
making alterations is so easy. They often
contain spell checkers and the clarity of the
text can make identifying errors much easier.
They are too expensive to be used just as
typewriters, so try to use their full potential!
[Maths] Try to get one generic math
program that may be used throughout the
year. You will probably need a package that
allows you to work on data handling and
perhaps spreadsheet work, and a LOGO
package can be very useful. As with all generic
programs, try to get one that suits your age
group and stick to it; as the children’s
familiarity with the program develops, so does
their ability to use it independently. If possible,
try to get one that is used throughout your key
stage to promote this aim.
Keep the number of drill and practice
programs to a minimum. To get the best out
of a program, it is usually better to keep it
around for a while. If you organize it so that
each child has a go and then never sees it
again, you are missing out on one of the best
motivational factors – trying to get a higher
score than last time! Watch children (and
adults!) using computer games to remind
yourself how addictive this factor can be.
Look out for effective support packs. Many
simulated adventures come with resource or
activity packs, i.e. collections of worksheets
that go along with a piece of software.
Sometimes they provide good support
materials, with work that you can do away
from the computer, but often they are to be
used alongside the computer. If you only have
one machine in your classroom, using these
materials can become a logistical nightmare.
Do not underestimate the power of peer
tutoring. Children working in pairs on
mathematical tasks teach each other very
effectively. Just try sitting and listening to the
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
quality of discussion and co-operation going on
between two children trying to solve a
mathematical problem using a floor robot if you
want proof! Often, when using ICT-based
resources, less (of you) is more! Sometimes,
very little teacher input is required. Also, the
‘expert/apprentice’ model of working for
disseminating knowledge, understanding and
strategies, can work very well in these contexts.
[Science] Don’t expect to be able to do it all at
once. If your school is well resourced, the
possibilities and opportunities you will be able to
offer may be very different. It takes a lot of time
and effort both to come to grips with new
resources and to integrate them into your
teaching. Over time, you will be able to
incorporate them more into your work, but don’t
try to do it all at once.
Remember that databases can be an excellent
place to start investigating. There are many
aspects of science work that do not lend
themselves to practical investigations, but
databases on CD-ROM can still offer potential for
exploration. For instance, if you were to discuss
the differences between amphibians and reptiles,
searching a database and noting characteristics of
each could provide a stimulus for a great deal of
debate and further investigation.
Remember that modelling can be a
valuable, but complex, process. In theory,
computers are perfect for modelling events
and trying out possibilities. In practice this is
true, but they neglect to tell you that setting up
reasonable models, and making it clear what
these models are supposed to represent, can be
really tough. You will find that it is much
easier to stick to published software, unless
you are a bit of a whiz!
[Foundation subjects] Get a good, easy-touse paint program. A good paint program can
be worth its storage space in gold. While it can
allow children to put together illustrations for
desktop publishing activities and so on, it can
also be used to work in a way that can be too
frustrating when done in a traditional approach.
While many simple paint packages are a bit
crude, they do allow children to experiment.
This allows you to claim with justice that you
are using computers to model situations.
Illustrating work in different curriculum areas
with the same program will develop key ICT
skills and support different subjects.
Find suitable sites on the Web. If you have
access to it, it is amazing how many libraries
and museums have websites. Just looking at
one with a small group of children could open
up many new avenues of study. Not only will
it give access to new and previously
unobtainable sources of information, but it will
give children new ideas about how they might
organize and present their own work in future.
ICT in the classroom; pedagogy; ICT and
curriculum; primary; ICT integration
Hoerr, T. (July 2002) “Technology and multiple intelligences.”
New Horizons for Learning. (2 March 2005)
Looking ahead to how ICTs will inevitably
become embedded in classroom teaching in
the near future, the author describes a number
of strategies tested at his own school in the
United States. For example, one suggestion is
to get students to turn their research on famous
figures from history into living people, by
dressing up and acting out the lives of their
heroes and heroines. These can then be
recorded and used in the future, providing a
stimulating source of information that later
classes will learn from and be inspired by for
their own research.
Online article
Use videotapes as a tool for student
reflection and developing the intrapersonal
intelligence. We believe that the personal
intelligences are the most important ones, and
videotapes can be a powerful tool to give
students feedback about themselves. We use
videotapes at every grade level to tape students
as they present their research projects and
reports. We also have created forms which the
students complete while watching themselves
on tape, in order to reflect on their
performance. Watching oneself presenting on
videotape and responding to questions such as
What did you do well? With what were you not
pleased? What should you do differently next
time? is a real learning experience. Students
not only learn how to share information and
This article observes that there is a
conspicuous gulf between the ways that
technology has impacted on our daily lives and
the ways that it has affected classroom
teaching. Somebody waking after a fifty year
sleep, the author suggests, would be shocked
by the technological tools taken for granted in
our working and home lives, while the same
person would notice very little difference in
our school systems. Notwithstanding the
prominent positions computers occupy in
many schools, the nature of instruction is very
much the same as it was fifty years ago.
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
present their findings and opinions, they
develop their intrapersonal intelligence.
Use CD-ROMs to create digital portfolios.
We are beginning to talk about this as an
alternative to our traditional portfolios. Filled
with papers and photos, along with an audio
and videotape, our present student portfolios
address every intelligence each year and are
over-brimming by the time a student
completes the sixth grade (despite the fact that
we cull them each year). A digital portfolio
would not only save space, it would facilitate
sharing student progress with families at home
and around the dinner table (although we
would never want to forsake our spring
Portfolio Night). Of course, a digital portfolio
would not only be able to contain far more
information, technology would capture a far
richer picture of a child’s progress, showing
him/her “in action” while making
we also added a picture of the student holding
his/her diorama. As with the photo of the
child’s art work, discussion questions are
printed at the bottom of each page to facilitate
a dialogue among parents and students. Next
year, we plan to expand this strategy to more
grades, with digital photos ultimately being an
integral part of every report card.
Hungerford, C. (February
1998). “Using CD-ROMs
effectively in the
classroom.” techLEARNING.
hungerfo.htm (2 March 2005)
A non-New City idea is to look for software
that supports the intelligences not most
readily available in your classroom. None
of us is strong in every intelligence, and it’s
only natural that we tend to teach in those
areas in which we are the strongest. Learningcentres can be used to help address our weaker
intelligences, and software can supplement
them. Learning arcades designed around each
intelligence, moving from room to room, have
been effective at the Truman School in
Davenport, IA.
Online article
Use digital camera technology as part of
report cards. Last year it dawned on me that
is was fairly ludicrous that we at New City, an
MI school, relied almost exclusively on the
linguistic intelligence to share student progress
on our report cards. Our twice-annual report
cards - 5 to 9 pages in length and beginning
with a page devoted to the personal
intelligences - consisted of skill-based grids,
rubrics, and personalized narratives. Last year,
instead of simply writing about a student’s
progress in art class, we also used a digital
camera to include a photo of a piece of the
student’s art work in the report card. This
year, rather than simply describing a student’s
efforts in creating a Native American diorama,
ICT in the classroom; multiple intelligences;
pedagogy; ICT integration
This article describes ideas for getting the
most out of educational CD-ROMs, and draws
on the author’s experiences teaching a science
class on teenage pregnancy, using a CD called
‘nine-month miracle’.
Sensing that the CD had greater potential than
students were getting out of it, the teacher
developed a detailed course outline to
accompany the software, which is described in
this article. Activity sheets accompany the CD,
which contains QuickTime movies, pictures
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
and animation, and the teacher has also
attached a pregnancy website that shows
young mothers what is happening to their
bodies on a monthly basis.
Think Its Over, for three days. The program
responds to neglect and abuse, and must be
‘fed’ regularly. The students then write a report
describing their experiences with the simulator.
3. Don’t feel that the CD-ROM is your only
source of information. Text books are OK!
The Internet has tons of information, and so
does your library. Expose your students to all
forms of information gathering.
The author also describes four off-computer
activities to accompany the CD-based course
4. Create off-computer projects. After a
while, students may get tired of sitting in front
of the computer. Give them some activities to
do where they can get up and move around
and use their hands more than just operating a
keyboard and mouse.
First, the students use the Internet to develop
posters that show the harm that smoking,
alcohol and drugs can cause to an unborn
baby, which is then put up around the school.
Next, students write an article for the school
magazine explaining the value of exercise to
pregnant mothers. Again, they use the Internet
for research before completing the task away
from the computer.
They then write a letter from the point of view
of a mother or father of a pregnant child,
describing the pros and cons of abortion or
Finally, the students research how a particular
chemical can harm an unborn child, story-board
the findings, and then film a public service
announcement for their local cable channel.
After these activities, the teacher conducts an
Internet scavenger hunt. With very little
guidance, the students must find specific
information from a selection of websites
supplied by the teacher.
There is then an exercise revealing the support
needed for teenage parents to succeed. Finally,
students take home a baby simulator, Baby
Some may argue that all the computer stuff
isn’t needed – students could learn this out of a
textbook. However, they wouldn’t get to see
the wonderful animation of the baby
developing [in the Nine-Month Miracle CD].
Most of our students prefer the multimedia
method of learning. It’s easy for them to pick
up where they left off the day before, as they
can go to any month of the pregnancy without
having to start from scratch. I would call 9MM
a marriage between the TV and the textbook in
that it provides video to watch and plenty of
Here are some tips for others wanting to
incorporate CD-ROM and the Internet into the
1. Research CD-ROMs before you buy
them. Ask for a demo version from the
company, ask other teachers and read reviews
in computer magazines, or search on the
Internet. Don’t waste precious money; buy
only the best.
2. Once you have purchased a CD-ROM, sit
down and go through the whole thing. This
may take several days or more. You need to
know what is on the CD and what you can do
with it. This will also allow you to guide your
students through it when they get stuck or
have a problem.
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
5. CD-ROM encyclopedias (Encarta or
Groliers) can be fun for scavenger hunts
besides just looking for information. Be
6. If you only have one computer, use it in
front of the class so everyone can
participate. If you have students work on the
computer one at a time, make sure that the
student who isn’t doing so well in your class
gets on the computer. It may turn on that ‘not
so good’ student and get them interested in
7. Look for CDs that allow you to set the
pace of the material to the speed of the
learner. 9MM allows you to slow down the
presentation of information or speed it up
depending on the student.
Educational software; science; ICT in the
classroom; pedagogy; ICT integration
Intel®. “How to set up computers in your classroom.” Intel®
Innovation in Education. (2 March 2005)
classroom. The author also includes some
guidelines for accessing and creating support
groups. In addition to whatever level of
technical support the school enjoys, it
recommends setting up a network of
colleagues, and more interestingly, students,
who often spend hours on computers and are
far more adept than many teachers.
Online article
There is a lot more to setting up computers in
the classroom than simply thinking about
where to put them, as this article from Intel
explains; indeed, that question alone involves
a lot of thought. The first thing the teacher
should consider is how you are most likely to
use your computer: as a presentation station,
from which to lead the class or allow students
to do so; as a learning centre, where students
work alone or in small groups on project-based
assignments; or primarily as a teacher work
station, working mainly on administrative
Following that, the article describes a large
number of tips on how best to organize and
facilitate learning according to whether you
have a single- or multiple-computer
If you have one computer...
• Pick a home base for your computer
depending on how you expect to use it
most often. Remember that you’ll need
access to electrical outlets and, if available,
your phone or cable line.
• If possible, keep your computer on a sturdy
mobile cart so you can move it around the
room. As you and your students develop
more expertise, you’ll probably use the
computer in a greater variety of ways. For
example, even if you initially use it as a
student workstation, plan ahead so you can
move it to the front of the room to use as a
presentation tool.
• Make sure the height of your computer
station is appropriate. The monitor should
be eye-level and the keyboard elbow-high.
Use a mouse pad so the mouse rolls easily
and stays clean.
• Plug all the cables into a single power strip
equipped with a surge protector. Not all
surge protectors are the same, so be sure
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
you get a good one. Better yet, have your
district install commercial surge protection
on the circuit box.
Protect younger children by covering
unused outlets with plug caps.
If you have several computers...
• Set up one computer as a shared presentation/
teacher workstation in the front of the room.
• Use the rest of the computers as student
workstations. Most teachers form a
computer cluster in one area of the room,
usually towards the back where they’re less
apt to cause a distraction.
• If you end up with a jumble of wires,
colour-code each set and the associated
computer with stickers. That way you can
identify cables when you need to
troubleshoot or move equipment.
• Tuck wires out of the way. You may want
to consolidate them with one or more “cord
snakes,” hollow plastic tubes designed for
this purpose.
• Adapt your mini-lab to your needs.
Students sometimes work on the same
activity, but other times you may want to
designate a different role for each
computer. One station can be a reading
centre with a collection of electronic
books, another a writing centre with a word
processor and publishing tools. Add a
maths/science centre, a social studies
centre, or a music and art centre.
ICT in the classroom; classroom management;
hardware; ICT integration
Intel®. “Managing computer use in the classroom.” Intel®
Innovation in Education. (2 March 2005)
How do I arrange and track student time on
the computer(s) to achieve equal access?
How do I maximize access to Internet
information if I only have one connected
How can I provide equitable access for
students who don’t have a computer at
Online article
There are a large number of responses here to
some frequently asked questions by teachers
coping with single-computer classrooms. The
following questions are addressed:
• How can I keep students on task and working
productively when using the computer?
• How do I assist students using the
computer while minimizing the disruption
of instruction or other activities?
• When students are working collaboratively,
how do you ensure that everyone within a
group is engaged and contributing to the
• What are some techniques for ensuring
productive use of the computer lab?
Q: How do I assist students using the
computer while minimizing the disruption
of instruction or other activities?
• Train student experts to assist others on the
• Use objects to communicate when help is
Place flags on the computers or monitors.
Yellow indicates help is needed, but the
student can continue to work. A red flag
signals an urgent issue, which prevents
the student from continuing.
A similar approach is to put three cups
nested within each other upside down
on the computer or monitor. Green on
top means “everything is fine”; yellow
on top means, “I have work I want you
to check”; and red on top means, “I
need help.”
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
Q: How do I maximize access to Internet
information if I only have one connected
• Download specific websites to the
connected computer and distribute to the
other computers to view offline.
• Use offline browser software to save
websites to the hard drive. For large sites,
you may need to save the websites on a
Zip® drive or create a CD to view on
another computer.
• Project the connected computer to a larger
screen, like a TV, so that a group of
students or the whole class can view it.
• Print out valuable resources for kids to
• Complete assignment as a whole class
• Put students into groups with the same
research needs.
ICT in the classroom; hardware; classroom
management; equity issues; ICT integration
Kahn, T. and Taber Ullah, L. (1997) “Learning by design:
Integrating technology into the curriculum through student
multimedia design projects.” New Horizons for Learning. (2 March 2005)
The article describes the Institute for Research
on Learning’s (IRL) Middle School
Mathematics through Applications Project
(MMAP), where students use computer
simulation and tools to design dream homes,
develop various research stations for scientists
living in Antarctica, develop encryption and
decoding systems for secret messages, or
model population growth of animal species
within different ecological systems or habitats.
Online article
If technology is to be effective in today’s
classrooms, it must be integrated into a rich,
meaning-centred curriculum. So say the
authors of this article from New Horizons for
Learning. For this to happen, the efforts of all
stakeholders must be harnessed, which
includes teachers, students, administrators,
parents, researchers, the business community,
curriculum specialists, and technology
The authors recommend design projects as a
particularly effective way of developing
students’ higher-order thinking skills, and
integrating a variety of technological tools into
the curriculum. Furthermore, many subjects
and curriculum topics can emerge from a
design context. For example, effective
mathematics learning opportunities arise for a
number of reasons. Firstly, design is reflexive:
each new change or addition to a design opens
up more opportunities for student
participation, feedback, and discussion.
Secondly, design requires multiple
representations: some design projects involve
mathematical, graphic, and verbal
representations, as well as extensive social
discussions. Finally, design requires tools:
students seek out technology and tools to help
them with their designs. Thus, technology is
not an add-on, but an inherent requirement for
accomplishing their design goals.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Student design projects are effective
frameworks for integrating technology into the
curriculum. Design projects often require
effective use of multiple intelligences, develop
students’ higher-order thinking and problem
solving skills, sensitize students to creating a
product for use by a real client or user
audience, and enable diverse forms of
collaborative learning in engaging some
students whose talents or knowledge are often
not recognized in more traditional classroom
Design projects also encourage making
connections across curriculum areas. For
example, in the Institute for Research on
Learning’s (IRL) Middle School Mathematics
through Applications Project (MMAP),
students use computer simulation and tools to
design dream homes, develop various research
stations for scientists living in Antarctica,
develop encryption and decoding systems for
secret messages, or model population growth
of animal species within different ecological
systems or habitats.
ICT in the classroom; multimedia;
independent learning; ICT and curriculum;
ICT integration
10. Link-to-Learn. (2000) “Integrating the Internet into the curriculum:
Using WebQuests in your classroom.” Link-to-Learn
Professional Development Project. (2 March 2005)
Essentially a learning activity in which some
or all of the information that students acquire
comes from the Internet, WebQuests focus the
student on using information, rather than
looking for it, and develop their abilities to
analyse, synthesize and evaluate that
as timelines, concept maps, etc., ultimately
resulting in the creation of new Web pages
to demonstrate their understanding.
A conclusion that brings closure to the
WebQuest, reminds the students about
what they’ve learned, and encourages them
to extend the experience into other
[This page cites Bernie Dodge: http://edweb.
as the source of the above guidelines.]
Online article
This article introduces classroom teachers to
WebQuests, a popular strategy for bringing the
Internet into the classroom that is well worth
learning. The author describes, with links to
real examples, how they can be used for
teaching any subject at any level, and be
geared to one particular topic or used for
multidisciplinary learning, either in short- or
long-term projects. This page also contains a
template that allows the user to develop their
own WebQuest after sampling some successful
Successful WebQuests always include six
main components:
• A clear introductory paragraph which sets
the stage for the activity and provides some
background information.
• A central task that is concrete and
• A set of information sources needed to
complete the task. All of the knowledge
sources, both from online and real-world
sources, should be given to the students in
the form of a WebQuest handout. These
pointers to information are vital and ensure
that your students are centered on the task
at hand.
• A description of the entire process the
students should go through in
accomplishing the task.
• Guidance on how to organize the
information acquired. This can take the
form of guiding questions, or directions to
complete organizational frameworks such
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
ICT in the classroom; pedagogy; ICT and
curriculum; independent learning; ICT
11. McKenzie, J. (March 1998) Creating Technology-Enhanced
Student-Centred Learning Environments. From Now On. (2 March 2005)
least 1:4, with additional cheap word
processing devices. However, the point is
made that very little return will be had on any
investment in hardware unless it is
accompanied with adequate staff development.
In addition to hardware, the article also
emphasizes the need for adequate storage
space for student work to support appropriate
levels of gathering and sorting information
electronically without any need for printing or
saving on diskettes.
Online manual
This article from From Now On addresses the
various issues facing the technology coordinator and local or district-level educational
manager preparing to set up a fully networked
classroom. Topics include: How are
classrooms equipped? How are classrooms
arranged? How are students engaged? How
does the teacher act? and What assessments
work best? There are also links to valuable
resources throughout the text, in particular
collaborative projects and WebQuests.
The main recommendations under each of
these follow:
How classrooms are equipped: The author
recommends a student-computer ratio of at
How classrooms are arranged: For
classrooms to make the most of what hardware
is available to them, the author argues it makes
no sense to keep computers out of view.
Teachers of project-based classes tend to
spread them around, creating ‘centres of
interest’. Indeed, it is often unclear which is
the front and which the back of such learningcentred, rather than teaching-oriented,
classrooms. Another approach might be to
create ‘clusters’ of computers that divide the
classroom into separate zones for specific
How students are engaged: Indicators of a
classroom with engaged learners identified
here are: students are working on authentic,
multi-disciplinary tasks; they participate in
interactive learning; they work collaboratively;
they learn through exploration.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
The author also urges the teacher to consider
the following question when setting projects
using online sources: Does the task require
fresh thinking or mere gathering? Many
projects often target style over substance, or
effective use of software over valuable
How the teacher acts: The teacher is required
to be more flexible in his or her approach to
classroom practice, at times playing the central
role, or “Sage on the Stage,” such as when
time is a premium. At other times, the teacher
must be more of a facilitator, or “Guide on the
Side.” The latter emphasizes exploration as
central to learning, and tends to be guided by a
constructivist approach to teaching.
To bring a wired classroom to life, we must
equip all students with the technology of
questioning, and we must adopt a set of beliefs
which clarifies our purpose. One of the best is
Engaged Learning, the set of beliefs
accompanying “Plugging In.”
Characteristics of Engaged Learners*
Responsible for their own learning
They invest personally in the quest for
knowledge and understanding, in part
because the questions or issues being
investigated are drawn from their own
curiosity about the world. Projects are
pertinent and questions are essential.
Energized by learning
They feel excited, intrigued and motivated
to solve the puzzles, make new answers
and reach insight. Their work feels both
important and worthwhile.
They make thoughtful choices from a
toolkit of strategies, considering carefully
which approach, which source and which
technique may work best to resolve a
particular information challenge.
They work with others in a coordinated,
planful manner, splitting up the work
according to a plan and sharing good ideas
during the search for understanding.
*These concepts are based upon the work of Barbara
Means quoted in “Plugging In.”
[...]The One Computer Classroom
The strategy of providing a single desktop unit
only makes sense if the computer image can
be projected for the whole class to see. Few
districts can spend the $5,000 to do this
properly, but many have seen the wisdom of
providing a large monitor (the larger the
better) at a cost of $650-$850. This monitor
allows the whole class to enjoy virtual field
trips, learn search strategies and explore
curriculum topics by communicating over the
network. It can also be used by teams of
students to conduct research and present
findings, but this model affords too little
access to promote a thriving student-centred
Warning! The failure to provide a display
device is one of the worst mistakes a school or
district can make, whether they are putting
one, two, three or seven computers in the
room. A display device is a critically important
element no matter what the number of
12. McKenzie, W. (2002) Multiple
Intelligences and
Instructional Technology: A
Manual for Every Mind.
Eugene OR: ISTE, 152 pp.
[Teacher role]
When questioning, problem-solving and
investigation become the priority classroom
activities, the teacher becomes the ‘Guide on
the Side’.
In a recent hands-on workshop designed to
model this type of classroom experience,
participants provided the following list of
verbs to describe the activities of a teacher
who is a ‘Guide on the Side’ while students are
conducting their investigations:
seed planting
planning; assessment; classroom management;
ICT and curriculum; independent learning;
ICT integration
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
Print publication (For orders, see the ISTE
Bookstore at
This book targets K-12 teachers, curriculum
developers, teacher educators and pre-service
teachers. The author takes Howard Gardner’s
Multiple Intelligence theory and relates it to
educational technology, showing how the nine
intelligences can be supported with ICT to
enliven and even reformat traditional lesson
plans. The theoretical content is backed up by
copious case studies and sample lessons, and
there is also a CD-ROM containing surveys
that provide individual MI profiles.
Beginning with a brief outline of Gardner’s
model, which describes each of nine kinds of
intelligence and how they interact with each
other, the author goes on to show how each
dimension relates to components of the six
National Educational Technology Standards
devised by ISTE. For example, the sixth
standard, ‘Technology problem-solving and
decision-making tools’ contains the following
two themes:
• Students use technology resources for
solving problems and making informed
• Students employ technology in the
development of strategies for solving
problems in the real world
Both these, according to the author, relate to
the logical, intrapersonal and existential
aspects of Gardner’s model.
As far as strategies for integrating technology
into teaching are concerned, the nine
dimensions inform the use of ICTs in different
contexts, and these provide the structure of the
book. Chapter 4, for example, looks at the
impact the selection of instructional media has
on learning, while Chapter 6 presents another
model for approaching existing lessons and
modifying them according to the MI
framework. This is called the POMAT
approach - Procedure, Objective, Materials,
Assessment, Technology - which is designed
to determine the extent to which a lesson is
consistent with its objectives in the context of
the nine intelligences in the MI model.
Later chapters continue to discuss technology
in terms of the MI framework; for example
Chapter 9, “Internet-based Instruction,” aligns
the various forms of Internet technologies with
their various intelligences, and goes on to
describe, with authentic examples, how each
can best be used to achieve different learning
sorting and searching using spreadsheets.
Table 4 [see next page] shows how she is able
to address eight of the nine intelligences using
a specially structured lesson plan format that
allows her to carefully map each element of
her lesson to the appropriate intelligences.
Intelligences and digital technologies
Digital Technologies
Keyboard, electronic mail,
speech recognition devices,
text bridges
Mathematical/ Graphing calculators, FTP
clients, gophers, search
Visual/Spatial Monitor, digital
camera/camcorder, scanner
Mouse, joystick, assistive
Speakers, CD ROM disks,
CD ROM players
Online forms, real-time
Chat, message boards,
instant messengers
Floppy drive, file manager,
semantic mapping tools
MUVEs, virtual reality, virtual
communities, simulations
How can digital technology stimulate the
intelligences? The process is not usually as
hands-on as with the Industrial Age
technologies. Consider how the teacher Tronie
Gunn developed a unit for her students on
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
In this lesson students learn to sort data in
different ways, and then determine from the
results of their work which ways of sorting the
data are most efficient. Teachers can modify
this lesson to use sorting strategies that are
most appropriate for their students. The goal is
to help children experience the most useful
and efficient ways of looking at data via
Notice how Tronie’s selection of technologies
is consistent with the intelligences she wanted
to stimulate through this lesson. Her objective
is succinctly stated and the intelligences are
clearly indicated in framing the context for the
software and hardware she intends to use. The
instructional design of the lesson provides the
context for the intelligences she selects, and
the intelligences dictate the appropriate
technologies. Notice, too, that she uses both
digital and traditional media in her lesson. Her
students can look forward to a challenging,
stimulating immersion into the world of
spreadsheet filters.
1. How can the ISTE NETS for Students help
you to develop well-grounded, technologybased instruction?
2. How does the instructional context help
you to determine the intelligences a
technology will stimulate?
"Sorting and Searching" lesson
Lesson title: Sorting and Searching
Grade Level: 10
Teacher: Tronie Gunn
Westbury High School
Houston, texas
Date: October 17, 2001 Time: Two 1-hour periods
NETS for Students:
Using a spreadsheet, the learners
will test standard filters using
varied sets of data, comparing
each sort for its time and space
Computer lab (Pentium 3
Students demonstrate a sound
understanding of the nature and
operation of technology systems
Sorting and algorithmic analysis worksheet, overhead transparencies
and an erasable marker, playing cards
Verbal; Logical; Visual; Interpersonal; Intrapersonal; Kinaesthetic
Pre-lesson class preparation: Students read textbook chapter which describes a variety of sorting algorithms
that can be used in a spreadsheet. Students have previously used Excel.
1. Provide a brief review/overview (use a computer projector when applicable) of the 10 kinds of sorts
students will study and compare, the types and sizes of data that will be used and the investigation tools
Based on this overview, students will be allowed to select their preferred sort for investigation (first-come
2. Assign each student a different sort to investigate individually using the resources provided (you may
assign a sort to more than one student if your class size dictates). Students may use these three
resources to conduct their investigation:
Teach Yourself Data Structures and Algorithms CD – provides examples of most of the sorts (in fast or
slow motion and for different kinds of data)
Exposure Supplementary Materials CD – provides visual demonstration for most of the sorts (using dots
or bars)
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
Exposure CD – provides a program in Chapter 43 that allows a detailed investigation of each of the
identified sorts, specifying different types of data and providing the elapsed time required to complete the
3. Each student builds an Excel spreadsheet for the algorithm studied. If more than one student investigated
a given algorithm, average the results.
Use playing cards to demonstrate a working knowledge of how each sort works.
Reflect on why some sorts do not work for some data.
4. Use an overhead projector and transparencies to report results of the investigations and to facilitate
comparisons of the different algorithms.
Completed worksheet
Demonstration with playing cards
Class discussion
multiple intelligences; ICT in the classroom;
multimedia; assessment; pedagogy; ICT
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
13. Mead, G. (2001) “Developing and refining effective search
strategies for using the Internet in classroom teaching.”
Technology-integrated Pedagogical Strategies. (2 March 2005)
Online report
This is the report
of a study into
strategies for
student online
research and
retrieval skills. Although drawn from a GCSE
(Year 10) Latin class, teachers of all subjects
will find these recommendations valuable, as
the aim was for students to learn generic skills
using Internet-based search engines that would
be applicable in any context. The main
findings, based on teacher perspective,
independent classroom observation and
student interviews, were that students access
information much more efficiently having
defined and refined their strategies before
sitting down at the computer, and using
electronic and traditional media side by side
was the most effective approach.
While students recognized the value of off-line
preparation for searching the Internet in the
specific case of a class-based study, the report
14. Moersch, C. (2002) Beyond
Hardware: Using Existing
Technology to Promote
Higher-Level Thinking.
Eugene OR: ISTE.
suggests that: a) many students generally felt
it was an unnecessary interruption, and they
would normally follow a more random search
procedure, and b) some considered the Internet
to be their own territory, and resented the
teacher intruding and regulating how they used
• Generic search strategies and skills should
be taught and reinforced throughout the
whole school either in ICT or library
orientation sessions
• Common search protocol should be
followed in all resource-based lessons
• Teachers should pre-select specific sites
prior to a resource lesson
• Teachers should set focused, interpretative
tasks based on secure knowledge of the
potential of pre-selected sites
• Resource-based lessons should integrate
electronic and book resources
• Key websites should be catalogued as part
of the library management system
independent learning; ICT in the classroom;
ICT and curriculum
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
Print publication (For orders, see the ISTE
Bookstore at
This book from the International Society for
Technology in Education (ISTE) is aimed at
K-12 teachers, teacher educators, pre-service
teachers and education researchers. Chapter 3,
“Roadblocks to Effective Technology Use,”
outlines key reasons many schools have not
been able to translate the potential of their
technology tools into student achievement.
Targeting teachers and administrators, indeed
whole school systems, the authors aim to
provide ideas and strategies for achieving a
higher level of effective technology integration
in the classroom. In brief, the chapter proposes
the assignment of the following three elements
to achieve greater levels of ICT-enhanced
student performance: goals, structures and
resources. Poor use of available digital and
electronic educational tools can very often be
ascribed to the school’s goals being poorly set
and misaligned to recognized pedagogy; poor
resources unable to cover adequate staff
development, as well as hardware and
software; and lack of response to the need for
restructuring a school system in order to
support higher levels of technology
One example of the latter aspect, a need for
restructuring, concerns what the authors
describe as the ‘trickle down effect.’ From the
Ideal Level, to the Formal Level, the
Institutional Level, the Instructional Level, the
Operational Level and, finally, the Experiential
Level, there are a series of top-down mandates
and mixed messages. These begin with
government publications and national studies
and moving down through district offices and
teacher planning before finally reaching the
student in the classroom, all of which results in
a random use of computers in schools that lack
any cohesion or immediacy. For this reason, the
authors argue structure must be closely aligned
with a school’s individual resources and goals.
Other reasons for the poor showing of many
schools’ technological programmes, all subcategories of the three main points described
above, include: lack of strategic planning;
ineffective staff development; insufficient
computers; lack of technology leadership; and
societal acceptance of non-restructuring.
[pp. 60-61]
Ineffective Staff Development
Change is a gradual process and does not
occur over night. The integration of computer
technology is a classic example. In an effort to
encourage teachers to pursue the opportunities
available with new technologies, many school
systems have used any one of the following
staff development strategies.
Bootstraps approach
The bootstraps approach begins with the
principal or several members of the faculty
deciding, with no additional support, to
implement an innovation. Unfortunately, no
resources are tied to this new innovation, but
everything that is currently being done must
continue. In the world of staff development for
technology, this approach is seen all too often.
A school system elects to implement a new
design for using the Internet for Web projects
(e.g., WebQuests, Web folios, virtual tours),
yet teachers are ‘under the gun’ to ensure that
students perform optimally in math and
reading on the next month’s high-stakes
Superstar Strategy
The basic design behind a superstar approach
is for a school system to hire an ambitious,
bright and upward-bound educator who is well
connected in regional or national movements,
and who will lead the masses to the new
‘Technology Frontier.’ The problems with the
superstar strategy are as follows:
• Superstars tend to be profession-oriented
rather than institution’oriented. They don’t
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
wait around the same school system very
long because of their ticket on the fast
track of the professional career train.
There is a tendency toward creating an ‘us
versus them’ attitude because the superstar
allegedly brings all the right solutions.
Teachers do not have any input but are
expected to implement these solutions.
For the superstars who remain in the district
and bypass other professional opportunities,
their influence often transforms from
superstardom to what might be termed the
‘Moses Effect.’ This phenomenon involves the
transformed superstar leading the masses
along for 40 years, during which time the noninnovators either seek employment elsewhere
or retire.
Decree or Mandate
According to Hall [who identified these staff
development strategies], the decree or mandate
approach is not really a strategy because it
occurs often as an event with delivery of the
‘Word.’ With this ‘strategy,’ change is
announced: ‘As of September 1, all teachers
will be using online electronic portfolio to
conduct portfolio assessments of their
students.’ The upside of decrees is that
everyone in the organization is aware of the
administrative priority for the innovation; the
downside is that mandates often lead to
questionable implementation of the idea.
planning; assessment; pedagogy; hardware;
software; ICT integration
15. Payton, T. (April, 1997) “Tips on integrating technology into the
classroom curriculum.” techLEARNING.
(2 March 2005)
Online article
This article provides some important
management tips for using computers in the
classroom, aimed at teachers faced with new
technology in their school. The management
tips comprise:
• Use centre approach that rotates the
students through teacher-led exercises, and
then into hands-on activities, both
collaborative as well as computer-focused
• Create heterogeneous groups within the
Appoint a student-helper within each
group, so that support can come from
within when needed
Maintain good class discipline
There are also tips on how to integrate the
Internet into the curriculum, with particular
attention to developing online projects. The
author recommends that you join an
educational mailing list, listserv, or discussion
group to keep up with current online projects,
and avoid publishing a “show-and-tell” art
gallery. Most people who visit your website
are usually looking for examples of how they
can integrate the Internet into their curriculum.
Brainstorm with colleagues ways that you can
collaborate with other classrooms around the
world to get information, and build an
interactive webpage. Also, you can find a list
of suggested sites where you can register your
project at the “OnLine Projects” webpage.
find out how much training (if any) is
included with the purchase price. Training
has helped us know our software. Without
an understanding of what software can do
in the curriculum, you’ll never utilize its
full potential. Two schools purchased the
same software. Teachers in one school
were satisfied with the product and
teachers in the other school were frustrated
with it and rarely used it. The difference
was in their training. The frustrated
teachers had only one training day during
the summer and it was not mandatory.
2. Have your training sessions set up by grade
levels or teaching disciplines. Offer
released time so that teachers can
collaborate and create technology activities
that are integrated for thematic or chapter
lessons. Every year for the last 3 years at
our school, each grade level or teaching
discipline has been given 3-5 days released
time. By spreading our training sessions
throughout the year, teachers can work
with the software and then ask questions
about the software at the next training
session. Each training session has been
conducted by a representative from the
software company.
Whether you have computers within your
classroom or in a lab setting, here are some
tips to help you develop technology
ICT in the classroom; pedagogy; staff
development; classroom management; ICT
1. If you need to cut corners, don’t cut it by
leaving out a substantial amount allotted
for training. Before you purchase software,
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
16. Preston, S. and Wadsworth, P. (2001) “A study of how the
Internet can be effectively integrated into lessons.” Technologyintegrated Pedagogical Strategies.
• (2 March 2005)
clearly structured lessons, efficient searching
and well-defined objectives.
Briefly, the following recommendations were
Lesson structure: Lessons should include a
variety of activities; previewing the websites
to be visited is essential on the part of the
teacher; using a non-computer-related ‘hook’
for setting up the activity and establishing
ground rules often works well; structured work
sheets allow students to work more
independently of the teacher.
Online report
This study aims to address the dearth of
practical guidance for practising teachers in
planning and structuring lessons that use the
Internet as a teaching resource. The study
centred around Year-9 science classes, and
focused on the elements of a good lesson, and
in particular planning, especially lesson
structure, classroom management and
responding to technical difficulties. The data
collected from staff and student
questionnaires, as well as interviews, found
that ‘successful’ integration of the Internet into
classroom practice involves well-planned and
Need for guidance: While 63% of the teachers
in the study used the Internet for student
research in the classroom, only 45% use it for
lesson preparation, a discrepancy which points
to a need for greater staff training. This report
contains a good practice guide to that end.
Consideration of lesson structure. The
teacher must be in control of student
surfing. We suggest that you prescribe the
activity and specific URL or use a
structured worksheet.
Do pay attention to the grouping of
students and the number of computers
The lesson must have a product e.g. poster,
free writing, presentation etc.
Evidence suggests that the best lessons
have a clearly prescribed activity and
specific URLs. This may be achieved by
using a structured worksheet or by
discussing the task with the class.
If a worksheet is not being used, limit the
number of websites to only one or two. A
worksheet will allow more flexibility if
many sites need to be accessed.
Ensure that clear instructions are given to
students about the site(s) they to visit and
the information that they are to gather.
classroom management; science; planning;
pedagogy; staff development; ICT integration
Specific recommendations include:
• Ensure lesson objectives are clear.
• Keep an annotated record of possible sites.
• A good web site will have all the required
information within 3 clicks of the mouse
(limited hyperlinks).
• Build in differentiation – different web
pages, structure of questions, nature of
tasks etc.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
17. Trucano, M. and Hawkins, R. (January-March 2002) “Getting a
school on-line in a developing country: Common mistakes,
technology options and costs.” Techknowlogia Vol. 4, Issue 1.
main.asp?IssueNumber=15&FileType=HTML&ArticleID=368 [or http://] (2 March 2005)
Online article
This is a list of important questions to consider
when preparing to establish a networked
school. Principals, policy makers and ICT coordinators will find a huge range of frequently
asked questions that are vital to consider ahead
of any moves to get your school connected.
The range of things to consider is potentially
mind-boggling, and this resource makes it
clear just how much forethought is needed.
For example, in many countries, getting a
telephone line installed is no easy (or cheap)
task: you must consider procedure, waiting
period, installation fees and monthly charges,
whether phone lines can support data, policy
regulations for obtaining a VSAT license and
duty on imported computers. These and many
other issues are clearly outlined and divided
into the following themes:
• General overview of telecommunications
• Competition in telecommunications sector
• Costs and policy environment
• ISP information
• Connectivity costs
• Equipment
• Software
• Individual school information
• Human resources
Network software that they sell and support:
Do they offer technical training on network
Workstation software that they sell and support:
Is the software available in the local language?
Do they offer training on computer literacy?
of school, subjects taught, number of
grades/levels, number of teachers, number
of administrators, school fees)
Location (city, region, urban/rural)
Access to electricity (already electrified?
reliability of electricity? distance to electric
grid? generators?)
Number of phone lines (type of phone line,
who has phone lines)
Can the phone lines support data?
Number and type of existing computers
(include information on network
configuration, network cards, printers, UPS
systems, modems, other peripherals, and
How are existing computers being used?
By whom? If not, how will they be used,
and by whom?
Why does the school want to participate in
the programme?
Total number buildings on campus and
number of floors
Total number of classrooms in each
Is there a school library? (How big? Who
administers it?)
Total number of rooms to be connected
Physical size of room to be connected
Classroom quality (secure/safe, dry, dustfree)
Electricity outlets
Does the community on evenings/
weekends use the school?
Other relevant information
Individual School Information
Names of schools
General information about school
(including number of students, gender, type
Integrating Technology into the
Classroom and Developing Lesson
Plans that Integrate ICTs
software; hardware; classroom management;
planning; policy/strategy; ICT integration
Canterbury Christ Church University College, UK. (2003) ICT in
Subject Teaching.
photography, PowerPoint, e-mail and others
for achieving particular learning outcomes.
Each case study contains downloadable files
containing the resource material used.
Some sample case studies include:
Exploiting a French school website; using
digital cameras and PowerPoint to show how
plants need light to grow; digital photography
to analyze performance in PE; using a SMART
Board to support the learning and teaching of
children with SEN; and using PowerPoint to
support hearing-impaired children.
Technology Integration into
Specific Subjects
CD-ROM (For orders, and related online
content see:
Exploiting a French school website: Four
members of the Modern Languages
Department took part in the ICT training
which covered the use of word processing,
Microsoft PowerPoint, data-processing,
e-mail, CD ROMs and websites to enhance
learning. Having completed assignments on
each of these topics, each trainee then carried
out a project which involved planning and
delivering a lesson using at least one of the
applications. For her project lesson, Fiona
Twomey planned to work with a Year 10 group
of very mixed ability pupils and to involve
them in working with a specific website.
The class used networked computers in an ICT
suite with Internet access and web browser.
The website was also copied onto the school’s
intranet as a back-up precaution.
This CD-ROM contains a number of case
studies describing the integration of ICT into
various curriculum subjects, in primary,
secondary and SEN schools. These studies
describe how many different kinds of
technological tools can be used to support
teaching across the board, for example, in
geography, science, language arts, music,
mathematics and business studies. Some
schools describe how ICTs in general, have
become embedded in class activities, while
others provide tips and guidelines for using
specific tools, such as SMART boards, digital
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
The objectives were that pupils should:
• learn how to browse a site in order to find
relevant pages
• develop their skills of skimming and
scanning as well as close reading of text to
obtain precise details
• learn an extended and authentic vocabulary
relevant to the school topic
• read for pleasure by choosing an aspect of
the site which particularly interested them
• learn to report their findings to the rest of
the group
• appreciate the cultural differences between
their own and the French school.
The objectives of the lesson were explained to
the group so that they knew they would be
expected to access and browse the site to find
relevant details as well as information of
personal interest. Pupils were then given a
worksheet containing questions, which they
had discussed in the previous lesson to ensure
understanding. Pupils logged on to the site
following instructions displayed on the board
and worked through the sheet, which was
divided into four sections.
Section 1 contained easier factual questions,
such as ‘Où se trouve le collège?’ (Where is
the school located?) or ‘Comment peut-on y
aller?’ (How do you get there?). Section 2
asked pupils to find the French for eight
expressions, such as ‘parents’ evening’ or
‘aerial photo.’ Section 3 was a more openended task, giving pupils time to explore the
site and find something of personal interest to
them. Section 4 contained eight more
demanding questions, some of which asked
pupils to express a personal opinion or to
speculate as to why things might be so. For
example, ‘Pourquoi est-ce que les élèves
voyagent en Angleterre?’ (Why do the pupils
travel to England?)
Pupils worked at their own pace according to
ability. Two help cards, one linguistic and one
technical, were available, as were dictionaries
for those who needed extra support. During
the last fifteen minutes of the lesson, Fiona
checked Sections 1, 2 and 4 with the group
and they corrected their findings for Section 2
as necessary. For homework, pupils were
asked to learn the phrases they had found on
the site for Section 2, to prepare a presentation
and to complete a written task in which they
had to fill in twelve key words that had been
removed from a print-out of a page from the
site. In following lessons, pupils were asked to
speak briefly about a part of the site which had
interested them and later to write two
paragraphs, as if for their school prospectus, in
French. Both of these tasks formed part of the
group’s preparation for GCSE coursework.
Their learning was assessed by means of a
three-part task consisting of:
1. A vocabulary test, where pupils placed
words found in the site in an appropriate
2. A competition giving pupils five minutes to
write as many differences as possible
between British and French schools
3. A fixed time of fifteen minutes to discover
a new site. Pupils had to access one of two
sites (one primary and one secondary
school) without help, explain its structure
and make brief notes on a section they
found interesting.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Using ICT to develop an awareness of
The Foundation teacher wanted to use ICT to
support work the class were doing in Literacy.
Whilst focusing on word work/phonics
progression for Foundation in the Literacy
hour, the children were asked to select specific
sounds on the programme: c, m, s, t, g, h
(Using the ‘Rat a tat tat’ CD Rom). They
needed to use the information gathered during
their experience and present it to the class in
subsequent lessons/plenaries in support of
identifying the sounds.
The children have access to a small bank of
three or four PC systems most of which are in
areas adjacent to the classroom. They worked
at the computer in pairs or individually with
support from a partner and classroom assistant.
Discussion took place at the computer and
several questions were posed whilst using the
CD Rom, such as:
• Which letter are you selecting?
• Can you name the letter?
• Can you name the objects?
• Can you think of another object which
could be displayed on the screen?
The learning objectives were linked to the
National Literacy Strategy and focused on
providing the children access to the spoken
and written words and sounds:
• When you hear this particular sound, it is
written like this.
• When you hear this particular word, it is
written like this.
• When you see this particular sound/word,
it says this.
The following key questions were identified
by the teacher working with the children:
• What is this letter?
• What is this word?
• Why have you selected this particular
• Which letter are you selecting?
• Can you name the letter?
• Can you name the objects?
• Can you think of another object which
could be displayed on the screen?
The activity on the computer provided a
visually stimulating lesson for the children,
one in which they were having fun whilst
learning letter sounds and names. The children
were able to repeat the activity as many times
as they wished, to reinforce their learning and
provide appropriate feedback. Using the CD
Rom enabled the teacher to differentiate the
activities and provided the opportunity for
children to work independently once they
became familiar with the activities.
ICT in subject teaching; special educational
needs; case studies; hardware; educational
software; independent learning
Department for Education and Skills, UK. (undated) Embedding
ICT @ Secondary.
example, the viewer sees how a teacher can
use notepad software to create text boxes that
allow paragraphs to be moved independently
on the interactive whiteboard, search for text
of Shakespeare plays using an online search
engine, and understand how ICT-based materials
can be more motivating for the students, but
also for the teachers, who work collaboratively
and share resources they have created.
CD-ROM (For orders, see: http://
Case studies describing good use of ICTs in
subject teaching are included here, covering 12
subjects at KS3: English; Maths; Science;
Modern Foreign Languages; Geography; Art and
Design; History; Music; Design and Technology;
Physical Education; Citizenship; Religious
Education. The CD also contains lesson plans
and support resources, which contain useful links
and guidance, as well as standards and indicators
from the National Curriculum in the United
The video files show ICT in use in various
class-based activities, as well as follow teachers
through their lesson preparation. In English, for
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
In this lesson, I wanted to use the PCs to
differentiate learning, so we didn’t need to be
in a room where everyone needed to be on a
computer. I used the PCs to support the
learning and the esteem of the lower ability
students and challenged the more able students
to do a task that was much more difficult. It
allows for students who are less able to be
seen to be participating in the lesson in exactly
the same way as everyone else, and it is
meeting their needs without highlighting them
...They looked at the beginning of the Tempest
and were writing their own dialogue to match
the stage directions. The lowest ability had a
scaffolded version where they deleted the
dialogue, so they had all the stage directions
but they had to enter the dialogue. More able
students were also deciding which order the
stage directions ought to be occurring. The
advantage to using ICT for written work is that
students can continually improve their written
work. If they save a draft through ICT they
can go back and make amendments and add
things, and it becomes a document which more
truly reflects their work over a longer period
of time.
An interactive whiteboard enables the teacher
to become an interactive member of the
lesson. It enables me to engage all the students
in the lesson, and I know each student is
focused on what I’m doing on the board. You
can face the class and...the questions they ask,
and how readily they’re available to put their
hand up, help me to assess their understanding,
and the expressions on their faces. One thing I
do if I see someone’s not engaged is ask them
a question, and maybe get them demonstrating
to the rest of the class, so they feel involved in
the lesson. When they’re explaining what
they’re doing to the rest of the class it is an
ideal time for me to assess them and it helps
the students’ confidence – they are explaining
what they are doing to other members of the
questions, I can spend my time with the
students that need it.
Art and Design
The use of digital image manipulation software
introduces students to the concept of computer
graphics software as an art tool. Distorting
images may help to break down students’
preconceptions about non-conventional art
forms. Digital art should inspire students to
produce work at a higher level.
Analyzing and assessing students’ work:
The room layout helps the teacher assess how
the students are working. Intervention and
support are facilitated - students can talk
through their choices as they do them.
Students present some of the effects they have
discovered part way through the independent
work. They re-focus on the task and see what
others are doing. Less able students can
produce good images so they are more
confident to put their work forward for critique
and artistic discussion.
British Educational
Communications and
Technology Agency. ICT
(2 March 2005)
I like students using the laptops in my room
because the mathematical resources are around
them and I haven’t got the problem of going to
book an IT suite. Students working
collaboratively on a laptop seem much more
focused than working on pen and paper. I
don’t like asking questions for the sake of it. If
they’re working well on task and they’re
asking each other questions and answering
each other then I can peer over their shoulder,
to see what they’re doing, the angle the
screen’s at, I don’t have to walk over to see if
they’re focused on task and ask unnecessary
I have to make sure that they are comfortable
with the musical concepts before they apply it
to the computer, but I have found that using
the computer has enhanced the students’
understanding of the notation.
ICT in subject teaching; case studies;
multimedia; pedagogy; independent learning
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
This site from Becta offers subject teachers
general guidance and strategies, as well as
specific examples, for using ICTs in subject
teaching at both the primary and secondary
level. By clicking on one of the subject areas
in the drop-down menu on the right of the
screen, you can choose from a range of topics
describing how various technologies can be
used to enhance your teaching.
For example, clicking on “Art and Design”
under ‘Secondary’ brings up a number of
strategies under the ‘inspire me’ heading,
• Practicalities of using ICTs in art and
design: Children can get carried away with
the technical aspects of programs, so it is
better to start with something simple;
manufacturer manuals can be daunting write your own simplified version instead;
or even get more adept students to write
guides for the other pupils; good practice
demands that the best tool be used for the
job - even if that means traditional media;
avoid tools that mimic traditional materials
- instead, choose those which open up
whole new ways of working; get students
to work from life and the screen
• Using the Internet in art and design: human
contact and collaboration are two
advantages of the Internet, and vital for art
projects - students can explore websites of
famous artists, both living and dead,
learning more about their techniques and
exchanging images by e-mail around the
• Creative use of digital effects in art and
design: software packages can encourage
experimentation, like distortion and
fragmentation, such as when studying
Francis Bacon or David Hockney; digital
media can allow students to isolate or
enlarge elements of an image for closer
There are external links, too, such as National
curriculum in action: ICT, art and design, and
a page describing a student’s entitlement to
ICT in secondary art and design.
section =tl&catcode=as_cu_pr_sub_13
Science (Primary): Supporting
Information for Primary Science
When planning the science lesson, you will
probably want to start with NC statements or
learning objectives from the DfES/QCA
exemplar scheme of work. ICT should be
chosen as a resource only if it will support the
teaching and learning of these objectives.
When used appropriately, ICT can enhance
teaching and learning by, for example,
providing animations and video of the
concepts, which can help pupils to understand
scientific phenomena. ICT can also give pupils
and teachers an opportunity to use a model to
change variables and investigate the effects in
situations that are impossible to carry out in
the classroom.
If you have access to a large-screen display or
LCD projector, ICT can enhance the learning
of a whole class, as children can now have
access to a shared experience. You can
demonstrate the use of a datalogger to collect
and analyse data, displaying the information
graphically, or model concepts and ideas using
software simulations and video. Children can
benefit from the interactive nature of the
technologies to explain and present their work.
The role of the teacher is paramount in raising
standards in science. When ICT is used as a
demonstration tool, it allows the teacher to
demonstrate scientific concepts and models, to
explain and ask questions, to stimulate
discussion, invite predictions and
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
interpretations of what is displayed and to
encourage individual children to give a
response or explanation. ICT can also be used
to enhance individual learning, with structured
tasks and activities focused on the scientific
ideas. ICT can be used just as effectively in the
plenary session where children can
demonstrate and explain what they have
learned, and showcase their work.
Just as you select appropriate science activities
for your pupils, you need to select computer
activities that require appropriate levels of ICT
skills. If the children are struggling with a new
aspect of the technology, this may have a
negative effect on their learning in terms of
science. The science lesson should not
normally be used for the teaching of new ICT
skills – with the possible exception of
ICT in subject teaching; policy/strategy;
multimedia; pedagogy; standards; independent
Martin, M. and Shelley, O. (2001). “Poetry and ICT in English: Text
Re-versioning.” Technology-integrated Pedagogical Strategies. (2 March 2005)
extent to which students were staying on task
and actual learning gains. It was felt that the
nature of the ICT lab does not lend itself to the
deeper discussion that a traditional classroom
allows, in particular in terms of poetry
analysis. This was in part due to the subtle
interaction that poetry discussion requires,
which is not possible in the busy atmosphere
of ICT suite. Where dialogue between students
in groups tended to be limited to functional
ICT-related conversation. Tasks were, thus,
reorganized to set time for specific tasks, and
to encourage more meaningful and textfocused discussions.
Online article
This report describes the research of two
teachers in the UK into how ICT could help
Year-9 poetry classes with text re-versioning,
(reorganizing text to explore form, content,
genre) and with identifying the ways authors
develop arguments, structure and register.
Lesson observations found that there was a
need to develop ways to monitor both the
The report also includes questions that some
students were asked to respond to in the form
of a diary, and sample responses. Questions
1. What were your expectations for this
particular lesson?
2. What was the task in outline?
3. What actually happened in the lesson? If
you can narrate and identify particular
stages this would be helpful.
4. Try to log any specific moments of
5. How could the lesson structure have been
6. Comment on the pros and cons of
collaborative work in this particular
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
The learning points we gained from
undertaking the research and what
evidence we had to monitor this:
Lesson Observation
1. Both boys’ and girls’ groups seemed to be
engaged and enjoying lessons. However, we
feel that it is important to state that there is
undoubtedly a fashionable “buzz” factor
about ICT lessons which lends them an air
of pupil engagement whether or not learning
is being moved on through the work or not.
Our project benefited from the pupils’
natural enthusiasm for what is still currently
perceived as a desirable teaching strategy.
2. Productive oral collaboration. Our
observations, as well as the research diaries
and interviews, provided us with evidence
of some effective group work in response
to tasks.
3. Imbalance of pupil hands-on practice at the
4. Pupils needing guidance in content and
skills. We discovered at different times that
the skill base was uneven; some pupils did
not have the technical skills or they were
slow and this, of course, had an impact on
how much they got out of the lesson.
5. Great variety in rates of working and
products. For example, technical virtuosity
did not necessarily mean that the work
produced was insightful.
• We discovered that there was a skill deficit
among perhaps half of the boys which was
masked by the pair work. This came to
light when alternative “sugar-paper”
analysis was offered to decongest
computer use; to our surprise we found that
almost half of the boys declared a
preference for this non-ICT collaborative
analysis. We had to acknowledge our own
prejudice in assuming a skill base in the
boys that turned out to be less
comprehensive. It became apparent to us
too that many boys had deliberately hidden
this lack of facility to avoid
Both boys and girls said that the “sugarpaper” analysis aided their understanding
of the exploration of the poems in a way
that the ICT work hadn’t. A particularly
clear example of this occurred when we
did work on assonance and alliteration.
(See also point below).
It was in our interviews with the girls that
we identified one of the key findings of our
research; the clear difference between the
way boys and girls seem to respond to ICT.
We found that students expected there to be
a greater variety of ICT tasks; they thought
that the emphasis was to be on the
acquisition of ICT skills, whereas we were
very clear that we wanted the ICT to
enhance English learning strategies. (link
to variety stuff)
Recognition by teacher and pupil that the
poem needed to be read aloud and heard in
the room.
In general, these diaries were not kept in a
consistent fashion and, in general, they
were kept by only a thirty percent sample
who varied each time, but had a recurrent
core of four or five pupils. Time for
completion close to the lesson was difficult
to find, and we did not want to sacrifice
lesson time for completion.
Ideally, pupils needed more training time
for more thoughtful completion of the
diaries and, ideally, they needed to be
completed straight after the lesson.
As we have already mentioned there were
complaints in the earlier lessons about
repetition of lesson tasks and strategies.
An emphasis in their perception of
outcomes on technical tasks was
Recognition as the lessons progressed that
the text under scrutiny needed to be short
so that the whole could be viewed on the
screen at one time.
Complaint about the lack of discussion in
the lesson.
Complaint about the lack of individual
teacher help.
Pleasure at seeing the tightly-wrought
nature of a poem.
Failure in the earlier lessons to appreciate
the overall meaning of the text.
Students enjoyed the provisionality that
ICT use brought to the tasks.
Some students felt that ICT use improved
their understanding of the poems.
language arts; pedagogy; classroom
management; case studies; ICT integration
Qualifications and
Curriculum Authority, UK.
National Curriculum in Action.
(2 March 2005)
This site from the UK provides resources,
ideas and examples of how to integrate ICT
into subject teaching, covering all major
curriculum areas: art and design, citizenship,
design and technology, English, geography,
history, ICT, math, modern foreign languages,
music, physical education, religious education,
Choose a subject from the scroll-down menu
on the top left, and then click on one of the
links under ‘ICT in [Maths]’ in the right-hand
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
menu. There are statutory requirements for
ICTs, opportunities for using ICTs in your
subject with links to specific examples, as well
as descriptions of useful hardware, generic
software and Web resources.
For example, under English [http://], the suggestion that ICTs can help
students be creative and take risks links to the
lesson plan ‘creating poems from templates,’
which includes objectives, material (a poem)
and commentary describing the use of the
ICTs. ‘ICT statutory requirements’ in the righthand menu outlines the requirements for ICT
in English at all key stages, while ‘ICT
opportunities’ links those requirements to
specific activities. Suggestions for hardware
include interactive white boards and
networked PCs with Internet access; generic
software recommends creative software
packages, such as desk top publishing; while
online resources include cultural centres and
museums dedicated to particular authors or
their works.
ICTs help pupils learn in geography by
providing and extending access to large
quantities of information. It can help them
investigate, organise, edit and present
information in many different ways.
Using ICTs can help pupils to:
• access, select and interpret information
(see examples)
• recognise patterns, relationships and
behaviours (see examples)
• model, predict and hypothesise (see examples)
• test reliability and accuracy (see examples)
• review and modify their work to improve
the quality (see examples)
• communicate with others and present
information (see examples)
• evaluate their work (see examples)
• improve efficiency (see examples)
• be creative and take risks (see examples)
• gain confidence and independence (see
In geography, ICT can help pupils:
• enhance their skills of geographical
• extend their graphical and mapping skills,
and their skills in statistical and spatial
• provide a range of information to enhance
geographical knowledge and provide raw
material for investigation
• provide access to images of people, places
and environments and how environments
• support the understanding of geographical
patterns and processes and environmental
and spatial relationships
• enable them to simulate or model abstract
or complex geographical systems or
• enable them to communicate and exchange
information with other pupils and adults in
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
their own school and in similar/contrasting
contribute to pupils’ awareness of the
impact of ICT on the full range of human
activities and the changing patterns of
economic activities
[Clicking on the first point above: access,
select and interpret information (see examples)
brought up a number of examples of lessons
for interpreting information, including:]
GIS maps: Investigating the quality of life
in Brazil
Activity Description
In this 20-minute task, the pupils explored
regional variations in the quality of life in
Brazil using geographic information system
(GIS) software. (GIS combines mapping
functions with data analysis and representation
to provide ways of visualising a location.)
As an introduction, the pupils used GIS to
manually construct a dot map showing the
class ‘population distribution’ and a choropleth
map (using shading and symbols) to show the
class ‘population density.’ They worked from
an activity sheet in a geography textbook and
they used a map of states in Brazil from a
website (which could be read by GIS software)
as a base map. They downloaded data on the
quality of life from the Brazilian 1991 Census.
Next, the pupils worked in small groups to
explore GIS maps. They looked at a dot map
of population distribution and compared it
with the one they had constructed. They also
compared a choropleth map showing the
number of people living in each state with one
showing population density. They investigated
how altering the colour ramp changed the
map’s appearance and discussed the most
effective colour ranges. They also explored
how the maps could be rapidly redrawn, for
example using dots of different values.
The teacher explained how the indicators from
the census showing quality of life were
selected. After the class had discussed which
would be the most significant variable, the
pupils made a map to show regional variations
in the quality of life and noted which areas had
the highest and the lowest qualify of life. They
then mapped two indicators and predicted the
spatial distribution of a third. The pupils noted
that some indicators were positive, while
others were negative.
The pupils used a default option in the GIS to
draw choropleth maps with five classes. The
more able groups explored the effect of
altering the number of classes. After mapping
five variables, the pupils identified the regions
with a lower quality of life and those with a
higher one. They compared the distribution of
indicators showing quality of life with data on
rural and urban populations, and discussed the
human consequences of this, for example
rural-urban migration. In addition, they used
the software to produce layouts to record their
maps, for inclusion in their notebooks and for
a wall display.
ICT resources used:
• a suite of networked computers
geographic information system (GIS)
the internet
Activity Objectives
• To identify regional variations in quality of
life in Brazil.
To investigate ways of identifying
differences in development within a
To make thematic maps using geographic
information system (GIS) software.
To understand that the form and
appearance of digital thematic maps can be
controlled by the user.
Using ICTs
Conventional atlases can show thematic maps
in a convenient and portable form. Using GIS
tools, however, allowed the pupils to explore
patterns in the data as well as the way in which
the data was represented cartographically. In
addition, the use of ICTs enabled the pupils to
review many more maps than they could have
made manually in the time available.
The pupils selected relevant data sources and
represented the data using an appropriate style
of thematic map. They assembled evidence for
the varying quality of life in Brazil and noted
that some regions shared negative features
whereas others shared positive features.
Significantly, using the GIS software allowed
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
the pupils to discover that the form of a
choropleth map is not fixed but is subject to
decisions taken by the map-maker, such as
how data should be classified and whether it is
normalised by area or by total population.
This led some pupils to realise that maps can
be misleading. They considered the different
visual impression created by a map showing
numbers of illiterate people with a map
showing the proportion of the total population
who were illiterate. The contrast in patterns
encouraged them to ask intelligent questions
about the maps in their atlases and to be
clearer about what exactly was being shown.
By acting as map-makers themselves, pupils
achieved a deeper understanding of how maps
In a subsequent lesson, the pupils used the
query builder tool, which allowed them to
identify states that are, for example, high on
illiteracy and low on participation in higher
education. This task was presented as a
problem-solving exercise whereby the pupils
advised the Brazilian Minister for Education
on where additional resources should be
ICT programme of study references: 2a, 2c
ICT in subject teaching; pedagogy; standards;
ICT and curriculum; hardware; educational
International Society for Technology in Education. (2004)
National Educational Technology Standards for Students Connecting Curriculum and Technology. ISTE. (2 March 2005)
Online book
This online
publication from
the International
Society for
Technology in
Education (ISTE), developed by curriculum
standards experts in a range of curriculum
areas, provides examples demonstrating how
technology can facilitate implementation of
standards-based curriculum while supporting
technology literacy among students.
The publication begins with a broad overview of
issues in integrating technology into the
curriculum, and contributes with an outline of
technology standards, profiles of technologyliterate students, and indicators.
The book then focuses on five main curriculum
areas – English language arts, foreign language,
mathematics, science, and social studies – and
offers learning activities that can be accessed
online or downloaded as .pdf files. Each lesson
idea includes the relevant standards, software
and hardware needed, links to other resources
and tips for effectively using ICT to enhance
the learning outcome.
The general focus is on the curriculum discipline-specific, content-area curriculum with technology seen as a tool to foster higherlevel outcomes. With this in mind, there are
several questions that influence how
technology is used in the classroom:
• What if there is limited access to the
• How can a lesson meet both curriculum
standards and NETS (National Educational
Technology Standards) for students?
• How can technology be used in ways that
optimize instruction?
As far as access is concerned, the guidelines in
this book take into account all technology
levels, from one-computer classrooms to
environments where there is a one-to-one
student-computer ratio.
Where there is only one computer for the entire
class, the author suggests a number of ways that
it can be used as an effective tool for instruction:
Co-operative Group Station: Assign different
topics to individual groups within a larger
study. Have at least two topics dependent on
the use of the computer. In this way, two
groups will be allotted significant time on the
computer during the project. Additional time
outside the group meeting time can be set
aside for other groups to access resources or
prepare presentations. It is important to ensure
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
a rotation such that all students have an
opportunity to participate in the technologyenriched activity.
Demonstration Station: Instruct an entire
class at one time, using a large-screen monitor,
LCD panel, or classroom television connected
to a computer. The teacher can operate the
computer and/or rotate the job of “computer
engineer” between students, providing them
with some hands-on experience and positive
Independent Research Station: Place the
computer in a location that enables groups to
access electronic resources, as needed. Some
teachers find that a sign-up sheet promotes
equitable access.
Learning Centre: Position one computer as
part of a well-defined activity. This station
should be one within a rotation of a group of
learning centres.
There are also a variety of ways the teacher
can organize computer labs if they are
fortunate enough to have access to one:
Co-operative Groups: Small groups of
students work together in the lab to find
specific resources or information. They can be
assigned different aspects of a problem and
compare online information, or do different
parts of a project (e.g., preparation, searching,
and desktop publishing).
Short-Term Technical Skill-Building: The
lab is used as a place to teach students how to
use a specific piece of software to enhance a
current project. On-demand learning is most
efficient when all students are able to practise
the skill quickly and accurately, under the
tutelage of a teacher and computer specialist.
Small Group Instruction: In this setting, small
groups of students work with the teacher on a
specific topic or skill while the rest of the class
is engaged in another activity. Small group
instruction may be electronically mediated and
utilize electronic tools to check understanding.
Each of the five curriculum areas within
Curriculum Integration Lessons is preceded by
an introduction that describes the use of
technology in that particular curriculum, as well
as an overview of the learning activities within
the section. There are powerful uses for
technology in the teaching and learning of other
curriculum areas, such as music and art, but the
main focus of this book is on the five subject
areas: English language arts, foreign language,
mathematics, science and social studies.
English language arts
Birthstone Project with a Multimedia
Purpose: English language arts, science, and
technology come together in a meaningful way
through research and writing about personal
birthstones. Students focus on planning and
pacing to build their study skills.
Description: This lesson sequence is designed
to be an interdisciplinary project for an
English language arts teacher, an earth science
teacher, and if possible, a technology teacher.
The lessons focus on English and language
arts as the vehicle for expression and analysis
of valid material. Students learn about their
birthstones, as well as the mineral industry,
through online research, writing, and
development of an electronic presentation.
Science class procedure
1. Have books, charts, and periodicals available
in the science classroom. Research begins
as students discover and identify their
birthstones. Internet research is combined with
traditional materials in studying the stones
within the context of the earth sciences.
2. If possible, create a phoney site with
misinformation. Point students in its
direction, with the teaching objective that
they learn to question and challenge the
information they gather and its source.
3. Students fill in their research outline for an
essay to be written later. As part of the
research phase, emphasize taking notes for
a bibliography.
English language arts procedure
1. Students write a narrative essay titled
‘Circumstances of My Birth.’ This
autobiographical piece requires students to
do some basic research, and its purpose is to
generate interest in and enhance the success
of the research writing task. This piece will
act as a prologue, in each student’s own
voice, to the formal research paper and is
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
particularly effective when recorded in the
writer’s voice as part of a multimedia
presentation. Students write the first drafts
of their introductions in class, stressing their
personal connections to their birthstones.
Following the research outline helps
students learn the basic report format.
Technology integration procedure
1. Students word process their handwritten
research outlines.
2. Students continue to use search engines on
the Internet to locate gemstone Web sites.
They develop a file of scanned or
downloaded birthstone images, and find
short computer animations of birthstone
formation. At this point, introduce and
explain the concepts of copyright and
intellectual property. Students can use a
digital camera to produce original graphics.
These resources are saved for use in
students’ multimedia presentations.
3. Using word-processing software, students
create their first paragraphs by expanding
their outlines. Voice-rich material,
handwritten in English class, is added.
Students use this basic procedure to develop
all essays over approximately two weeks.
4. Once students have completed all their
paragraphs, they assemble them into a
formally formatted report (bound on the left).
Teach advanced word-processing skills so
that students can develop title pages, table of
contents, page numbering, and
bibliographical information.
5. After completing their reports, students
begin their multimedia stacks. Use a rubric
with performance expectations. Students
design, animate, and test cards that present
significant research text. Require that
students do a bibliography card.
6. After completing the multimedia stack,
students produce a Web page that includes
text from the formal report, links to the
stacks, and an interactive ‘Webliography’
of sites with pertinent gemstone
information. Students also create a crossreference to other student-created sites for
the same birthstone.
7. Organize a technology night for students
to demonstrate and explain their
presentations. Self-evaluation techniques
that stress connections to NETS for
Students and student performance can be
shared and promoted.
Science and technology procedure
1. Conduct a mineral lab to let students gather
firsthand data about birthstones. Students
analyze the results of the mineral lab and
compare their results using a database.
Information from the mineral lab is used in
the second draft in the appropriate sections
of the research reports.
2. The final deadline for typed research
outlines is reached after approximately two
weeks. Students submit their research
outlines, which include endnotes and a
bibliography. Outlines are reviewed by the
teaching team and scored in science class
for accuracy and completeness.
English language arts; foreign languages;
mathematics; science; social studies; ICT in
the curriculum; pedagogy; standards; ICT
Sharp, J., et al. (2002) Primary ICT: Knowledge, Understanding and
Practice, Learning Matters QTS Series. London: Exeter, 248 pp.
Chapter 8, “Planning ICT in Subject
Teaching,” describes guidelines for using ICT
in the core curriculum, moving from English
and mathematics through to foundation
subjects. Guidelines are divided under ‘low
resource’ and ‘high resource’ headings, with
ideas for activities and ways that ICT can
support class work, practical tasks to help
teachers with planning, and plenty of crossreferences to National Literacy Framework
(UK) and educational authority standards.
Print publication (For orders, see http://
Part of the Learning Matters QTS (Quality
Teacher Status) Series, this book has been
prepared to support trainee and newlyqualified primary teachers as they develop an
understanding of how ICT can enhance
teaching. Features include:
• Links to English National Curriculum and
• Links with the Scheme of Work (UK) for
ICT at Key Stages 1 and 2;
• Practical tasks providing a focus for further
reading, observation, practice, evaluation
and reflection;
• A clear focus on the core subjects.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
The following summary extracts the main
points from this chapter:
English (Literacy Hour)
The author identifies the twenty minutes
targeted for group work by the National
Literacy Strategy as the ideal time for
computer work.
Tips for low resource settings include:
Group work
• Where only one computer is available,
creative planning will be needed, perhaps
rotating small groups on a weekly basis
• Children not using the computer will need
to be given relevant tasks to occupy them
while waiting their turn
• The shorter time spent on a computer lends
itself to certain types of tutorial software CD-ROMs with short activities based
around a particular learning objective, such
as exercises to identify parts of words and
break them down into constituent sounds
Open-ended software like Word templates
allowing children to search and replace
nouns with pronouns can be useful
In such cases, ICT can offer variety and
stimulation for the children, and another
option for the hard-pressed teacher
• Teacher can lead a ten-minute
reinforcement of learning objectives, using
tutorial CD with revision games
• With appropriate software, children can
prepare small presentations for the plenary
session. This helps develop higher-order
ICT skills, and reinforces the literacy
learning point
Tips for high-resource settings include:
• If there is access to a network room, the
entire literacy hour could take place there
at regular intervals
• Plenaries could be held using large
monitors, whiteboards or screen control
• Language points can be presented to the
children during the opening sections of the
literacy hour using multimedia resources;
• Group activities to reinforce the learning
objective using tutorial software (low-level
ICT skills) or word processing activities
(higher-level ICT skills)
• Group activities on search and replace,
guided writing using palmtops (higherlevel ICT skills)
• Collaborative work throughout the literacy
hour on the learning objective using
presentation software, word processing
(higher-level ICT skills)
English (general and cross-curricular)
Children use English in a variety of crosscurricular ways, e.g.:
• Publishing a science write-up
• Creating a local-area guidebook in
• Writing school Web pages
• Generating captions to explain findings in
maths data-handling
• Reading for information in any of the
foundation subjects, science and math
The main issue in planning for these crosscurricular uses of English again relates to
differing resource settings. Even in lower
resource settings, however, there are options
for ICT in the wider curriculum.
• Speaking and listening – children defend
choices made in simulations and adventure
• Whole-class reading sessions from a
computer screen
• Word-processing for drafting documents
and learning about the writing process
teacher must be especially wary of the initial
focus being lost through the course of the ICTled activities.
The types of software that tend to lead to
middle- and higher-order ICT skills in
mathematics lessons are identified as follows:
• Software for transforming shapes;
• Data-handling software;
• Spreadsheets;
• Software for giving instructions of
movement and turn in order to develop
subject knowledge in, for example,
measurement of distance and angle;
• Software for branching and sorting in order
to develop logical thinking and problem
While tutorial software seems to offer little in
the way of ICT skills development, when its
use is focused and targeted it can be extremely
beneficial, especially in low resource settings.
However, if used to reward or occupy
children, this kind of drill and practice
software cannot be said to help achieve
meaningful learning objectives.
[revised] [pp175-181]
Again, the central part of the lesson lends itself
most readily to integration of ICT. It is
important to remember that the specific focus
of the lesson on mathematics must be
maintained, and the teacher has to draw the
class together effectively during the plenary
session at the end of the lesson. The flexible
nature of mathematics classes means the
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
Planning for science, perhaps more than other
subjects, means identifying where
technological tools will be an indispensable
part of the learning process, where it is
desirable, and where it will have no
meaningful value at all. However, science
shares with other core subjects the fact that
some activities will not develop ICT skills to
any real degree, for example tutorial-type CDROMs, while other tasks, such as the student
being required to set up and maintain a
monitoring situation with technological tools,
call for higher-order skills in both the target
subject and ICT.
Guidance included in Curriculum 2000 from
the UK includes the following:
At Key Stage 1, in learning how to recognise
and compare the physical features of humans
and animals, ‘pupils could use multimedia
sources to make comparisons’; also, in
examining variation and classification, ‘pupils
could use data collected to compile a class
While the first of these only employs lowerorder skills, the second uses much higher
skills, and there are strong links to core
components in the Scheme of Work, in
particular Labelling and Classifying and
Finding Information. Questions the teacher
needs to ask while planning these kinds of
lesson are identified as:
• Is it the case that you need a context for
developing the students’ awareness of
• Have they browsed CDs at length?
• Do you now need, in terms of the science,
to deepen their awareness of subject
knowledge in classification by asking them
to work with the data they are collecting?
Additional links between science and the ICT
scheme of work include:
• Materials and their properties – children
can combine words and pictures about
materials and objects on the computer;
• Physical processes – it is suggested that
pupils use sensors to detect and compare
sounds in their study of light and sound;
Life processes and living things/Variation
and classification – children could use a
branching database to develop and use
Life processes and living things/Adaptation
– children can use video or CD-ROM to
compare non-local habitats; and use
simulation software to show changes in the
populations of micro-organisms in
different conditions.
Planning cross-curricular English outside
the literacy hour
Consider a curriculum area in which you are
expecting the children to write at the
computer. It could be taken from [the
following list]:
• Publishing a science write-up;
• Creating a local area guidebook in
• Writing school Web pages;
• Generating a historical account;
• Writing about their beliefs in RE;
• Creating rules for classroom and
playground behaviour in PSHE;
• Generating captions to explain findings in
maths data-handling;
• Reading for information in any of the
foundation subjects, science and
Create a lesson plan which focuses on the
specific areas of development of the writing
itself which you are developing using the ICT.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Lesson overview
Include here the English element, the ICT
element and the element from the other
subject. For example, a lesson overview for
‘Creating a local area guidebook in geography’
for Year 4 might describe the ICT element as
using desktop publishing software and digital
images. The geographical element could be
from the work on localities described in
Curriculum 2000. The English element is the
developing sense of audience and of how to
present information in a clear and accessible
Learning needs of the children
Note these in the cross-curricular context.
Think about different groupings from the
literacy hour if your class employs ability
groups. Children should experience a range of
working partnerships and not always be
grouped with the same children. We know
from our understanding of the ways in which
children learn that they need to interact with
one another and learn in the context of talk
with a whole range of peers of different
Make the most of information collected on
local area trips, in particular, digital images,
video clips and sound recordings which could
be incorporated into the work on the computer.
Consider working with a multimedia authoring
package to produce a multimedia version of
the guidebook if you are fortunate enough to
be in a highly resourced setting.
NC/foundation stage context
One example for ICT could be from ‘Finding
things out’ at Key Stage 2 – children should be
taught how to ‘Prepare information for
development using ICT...’
For geography: from the Programmes of Study
for KS – In their study of localities and
themes, children should: ‘study at a range of
scales – local, regional and national...’
For English: from the Programmes of Study
for KS2 – The range of purposes for writing
should include: ‘to inform and explain,
focusing on the subject matter and how to
convey it in sufficient detail for the reader...’
Make notes under the following headings:
Your own learning needs
Organisational memory joggers
Other adults
Learning objectives
Learning needs – Early learners
Learning needs – Special Education Needs
Assessment opportunities
Key questions
Lesson format
Evaluating the lesson part 1 – operational
Evaluating the lesson part 2 – learning
Evaluating the lesson part 3 – next time
your profiling. Have you provided evidence
towards the standard for the use of ICT in
subject teaching? Look at some of the
following together:
‘Is the trainee able to select and use software
to support the teaching of the subject? Can the
trainee access interactive online database
content using, for example, the National Grid
for Learning (NGfL) or the Teacher Resource
Exchange (TRE) and select, customise and use
these materials with pupils? Can the trainee
provide opportunities for pupils to use ICT to
find things out, try things out and make things
happen? Does the trainee use ICT terminology
(See these and more on p51 of TTA/DfES
(2002) Guidance on the Standards for
Qualified Teacher Status, TTA, Tunstall, P.
and Gipps, C.)
ICT in subject teaching; standards; staff
development; ICT and curriculum; primary;
classroom management; educational software
Starr, L. (October 2002)
“Technology integration
made easy.” Education World.
tech/tech146.shtml (2 March 2005)
Online article
This article from Education World is aimed at
both teachers new to using technology in the
classroom looking for some early guidance, as
well as more experienced teachers needing
ideas to integrate ICTs more fully into their
teaching. These tips are subject-specific, and
cover all the main curricula areas: geography,
history, language arts, mathematics, modern
foreign languages, social studies, and science.
The ideas link to a broad range of websites,
both education-specific and general sites,
which contain useful resources that can easily
be used for authentic, student-centred learning
After the lesson, discuss the outcomes with
your mentor and/or professional tutor. Try to
assess the activity and see what it can add to
1. Access online weather forecasts in
French, German, or Spanish.
Begin foreign language classes with a
discussion of the day’s weather. The
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
Weather Channel provides weather
information for Brazil, Germany, France,
and Latin America in the native language
of each country.
2. Challenge students with online
mathematics problems.
Add a daily or weekly mathematics
challenge to your seatwork assignments,
math lessons, or extra credit activities. The
Math Forum’s Math Problem of the Week
offers word problems in five categories —
math fundamentals, pre-algebra, algebra,
geometry, and pre-calculus. The AIMS
Puzzle Corner Math Challenge of the
Month provides a monthly math-related
puzzle that’s appropriate for students in
upper elementary grades and middle
school. Most include printable worksheets.
Aunty Math’s Math Challenges for K-5
Learners offers biweekly word problems
for younger students, while high school
students will enjoy the news-related math
problems at Math Counts, as well as
Mike’s Puzzle of the Week. Don’t like
today’s problem? Not to worry! Most of
the sites listed also include extensive
If you teach grades 3-8, extend your
students’ online math experience and
encourage them to match wits with
students around the world by participating
in the Abacus International Math
3. Introduce a word of the day.
Extend students’ vocabulary by including
an online word of the day in opening
activities, seatwork assignments, or
language arts lessons. The Daily Buzzword
at Word Central provides a word of the day
and related activity appropriate for upper
elementary students. Vocabulary Builder
offers words and definitions for students in
grades 4-6 and grades 6-9. The words and
definitions at A Word a Day and Word of
the Day are best for students in middle and
high school. In addition, students in grades
K-8 can safely extend their online
experience by submitting phoney
definitions to Fake Out.
4. Keep them spelling.
Spelling isn’t a subject that should die in
elementary school. Prove it to your middle
and high school students by adding
spelling to language arts lessons or extra
credit assignments. Each week, Carolyn’s
Corner offers a new list of “Paideia Words
of the Week;” from the study booklet for
the Scripps Howard National Spelling Bee.
Invite your students to compete with the
nation’s best spellers!
5. Make history real.
For many kids, history is only a subject in
a book; one that’s unrelated to real people,
real events, or today’s news. Personalize
history lessons for those students by
beginning each history lesson with a quick
visit to Today in History or This Day in
6. Utilize online work sheets.
Are you worn out from trying to come up
with new and creative seatwork
assignments day after day after day? Make
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
life easier on yourself by including a few
online worksheets. Each week, Education
World provides an new printable
Scavenger Hunt and a Writing Bug creative
writing activity. In addition, Teach-nology
offers lots of work sheets in a variety of
curriculum areas. Or, add to the variety of
your seatwork assignments by having
students complete a weekly WebQuest.
7. Beef up your history lessons.
Primary source materials adds interest to
any history lessons; reading Thomas
Jefferson’s notes on the U.S. Constitution
provides insights into U.S. history that a
mere reading of the Constitution cannot.
When planning U.S. history lessons, visit
the Library of Congress’s American
Memory Collections search engine to
locate primary source material for
whatever topic you’re tackling. Encourage
students to include primary source
materials in their history papers as well.
8. Incorporate online news sources into
discussions of current events.
Don’t limit students’ current events
contributions to print newspapers;
encourage them to search online media as
well. CNN and MSNBC are excellent
places to start looking for national and
international news. Or, check out Online
Newspapers to find your local newspaper
online. The Internet Public Library also
provides links to local news sources by
country and, for the United States, by state.
9. Make the news a learning tool.
Help students better understand current
events and connect today’s news to their
own lives by encouraging them to further
explore the issues of the day. The Why
Files, for example, uses news and current
events as the basis for science, health, and
technology lessons. What caused the
tornado that devastated the Midwest or the
hurricane that hit Florida? How does war
affect those living in battle zones? What
vote-counting technique is most accurate?
The Why Files will explain it all. How
Stuff Works also is an extensive site with
information on a vast number of topics.
Today’s students, for example, might want
to learn How Stinger Missiles Work, How
Stem Cells Work, or How Hybrid Cars
10. Make science a daily event.
With the current emphasis on reading and
math in schools, getting in a daily – or
even weekly – science lesson can be
difficult. If you’re having trouble finding
time for a more formal science lesson, take
a minute to discuss NASA’s Astronomy
Picture of the Day or Goddard Space
Center’s Earth Science Picture of the Day,
both of which include a brief explanation
of the day’s photo. You might also briefly
discuss a scientist or a scientific event from
Today in Science History or explore a
Science Question of the Week.
ICT in subject teaching; ICT and curriculum;
independent learning; pedagogy; ICT
UNESCO. (2004) “Applying ICT to the teachers’ subject area.”
UNESCO/International Federation for Information Processing
(2 March 2005)
The general teacher competencies can be
summarised in the following way:
Decision-making: to be able to make
decisions about how, why and when ICT
will offer genuine benefits to the learning
objectives; to decide when different types
of multimedia presentation - whole class or
group - will be appropriate
Management: classroom management of
students to achieve teaching targets;
management of students with different ICT
Online article
This resource describes the general
competencies that all subject teachers must
acquire to effectively integrate ICT into their
classroom practice, as well as their broader
daily activities, such as administration and
training. There are guidelines for integration
into specific subjects (languages; natural
sciences; mathematics; social sciences; art), as
well as student competencies with ICT, such
as computer-led measurement, and creating
Technology Integration
into Specific Subjects
Analysis of subject-specific software:
CD-ROMs, hypermedia, websites,
courseware, etc
Guidance: to equip students with Internet
research skills, including management and
criticism of information
Training/administration tasks: to be able
to use technologies to collaborate in the
improvement of teaching and learning (e.g.
forums, bulletin boards, e-mail), and for
management of learning processes
The pages describing ICT use in specific
subjects also link to a wide range of
additional guidelines relating to particular
elements of that subject.
Additional general advice includes:
Emphasise generic, as well as specialist,
tools to improve subject teaching;
Develop pedagogy alongside technical
skills and confidence;
Don’t be afraid to experiment more as
pedagogy improves;
Use ICT in lessons that need improvement;
in this way, if it goes wrong, frustration
and insecurity over “messing up” a lesson
is avoided.
Spreadsheets and Databases (Units A4 and
Unit A5, Unit E1 and Unit E2)
In the study of social sciences, spreadsheets
and databases serve the same purpose: to
enable students to systematise and organise
information. For example, students could
make use a spreadsheet to make a list of dates,
events, countries and persons involved. This
list could then be organised by date, by
country or by the person’s name. Such lists
make good study aids. Younger students like
to collect information, and will enjoy setting
up a database, for example on facts about
countries in their region.
At a more advanced level databases and
spreadsheets could be designed by the pupils
themselves in order to help to solve a realistic
and contextual problem (see Unit E1 and Unit
Composing Documents and Presentations
(Unit A6 and Unit A3) and Information and
Communication (Unit A7)
It motivates students very much to produce a
report with ICT-tools on a topic in history,
geography or economy. Students will
appreciate ready-to-use graphics, photographs,
pictures and other information which is
available on the Internet about the topic. This
application of ICT can be used to make a
report on a certain topic, to give context to the
subject discussed in the curriculum and to
bring actuality into the classroom. Attention
should be given to the problem that students
just copy Web-pages into the presentation or
use materials from other students.
Social and Ethical Issues and Professions
(Unit A8 and Unit A9)
In the social sciences there is the best place to
discuss ICT-topics related to the protection
privacy and their attitude towards protection of
data and copyrights. This is also a good
moment for a discussion about the impact of
ICT on society (changing and new professions,
unemployment, economical value of ICTinvestment, the so called “new economy”,
etc.). Students can learn here to deal with
problematical information like racism,
violence and they can obtain a better
understanding of gender and intercultural
issues. This can be reinforced by use of
Internet (Unit A7).
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Statistics (Unit B4)
Especially when studying Geography at an
advanced level, students may need to use a
statistical package.
ICT in subject teaching; pedagogy; staff
development; standards; administration; ICT
British Educational Communications and Technology Agency.
(January 2002) “ICT Supporting Teaching: Developing effective
practice.” Becta.
effectivepractice.pdf (2 March 2005)
The following is a summary of the report’s
elaboration on these ideas:
Effective teachers support good
practice by:
Setting high expectations: Effective
teachers communicate to students the
targets they expect from them, and inspire
them to meet those targets. Software, such
as word processors, spreadsheets and
databases, allow students to meet high
standards of presentation without spending
large amounts of time on low-level activity
and, consequently, students show more
commitment to their task and make more
effort to improve the content of their work.
Having clear objectives: Teachers who
successfully integrate ICT into their classes
tend to have clear teaching objectives and
make explicit the relationship between
those goals and the ICT being used to meet
Using a variety of teaching methods: ICT
allows teachers to cater to a wide range of
learning styles, and students to learn at
their own pace, as well as receive frequent
feed-back and assessment.
Requirements for and Barriers
to Effective Technology
Online report
This report from Becta is a contribution to the
debate about what constitutes good classroom
practice in terms of technology, and what
factors determine the effective integration of
ICT into the curriculum. There are links
throughout to additional resources, many from
the Becta site. The dominant theme developed
in the report is that teachers who make
effective use of ICTs: 1) set high targets of
achievement with clear objectives for their
lessons; 2) plan and organize timing and pace
of teaching; 3) use a variety of teaching and
assessment tools; and 4) create effective
learning environments.
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
Providing ‘authentic’ experiences: The
author cites the example of how students in
a modern foreign language class can use
CD-ROMs and interactive videos to
interact with original source materials that
can lead to deeper understanding and
greater identification with their work.
Other areas the report identifies as essential to
effective use of ICTs include:
Effective teachers assist the
management of learning by:
Managing time and pace well: Teachers
need to be able to know when to intervene
in classes where students are using
computers. Timely intervention can help
maintain pace when, for example, students
need help with problem solving or need
more information.
Effective teachers promote an effective
learning environment by:
• Creating an effective learning
environment: Teachers must consider both
the physical, as well as the virtual, learning
environment. Among the many challenges,
effective teachers teach safe behaviours in
online learning alongside ensuring students
work in a safe physical environment.
Managing learning: ICTs help teachers
evaluate and monitor students’ progress,
automate some reporting tasks, and help
set targets to develop practice.
Using a range of assessment methods:
For example, computer simulations offer
new insight into student understanding,
assessment software and, diagnostic tools
as a part of Integrated Learning Systems.
Extending beyond the lesson: Many
schools establish home access to their
school intranet, so students and parents can
access lesson plans, homework
assignments and teacher feedback.
Providing feedback: Teachers can make
good use of computers and related tools to
provide fast and reliable feedback that is
non-judgemental, impartial, and identifies
student misunderstanding without demotivating them. Teachers are also free to
concentrate on developing students’
higher-order skills.
Celebrating success: Showcasing student
work online, for example, has proven to be
a very motivating influence on the
individual student, as well as on his or her
Supporting planning: Teachers can keep,
share and access databases of lesson plans
far more freely and quickly, with a large
number of sites containing portals for
lesson resources.
Modelling effective behaviours
Effective teachers model the behaviours they
wish to teach. For example, an English teacher
may model the writing process using an
interactive whiteboard. Effective teachers
develop the necessary understanding through
their own use of ICT. By being confident users
of the technology, they act as role models to
their pupils, moving beyond demonstrating
techniques (such as how to use a search
engine), towards modelling the process (of
carrying out a search) with the class.
Greater familiarity with ICT places the teacher
in a more effective position to support pupils’
use of ICT and extend their own skills. It also
increases the range of materials they can draw
upon to integrate into classroom practice. By
making these materials centrally available on
school intranet or web sites, they can help
build downloadable resources to support
essential conditions; classroom management;
staff development; pedagogy; educational
software; ICT integration
Team-working and relating to others:
Effective teachers build good team spirit
within the school and work well in
collaboration with colleagues. ICTs can
greatly enhance intra- and inter-collegiate
collaboration, with online chat rooms and
discussion forums allowing for ideas
exchange and the easy sharing of lesson
plans and resources.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
British Educational Technology and Communications Agency.
(2003) “What the research says about barriers to the use of ICT
in teaching.” Becta.
(2 March 2005)
• lack of time - for both formal training
and self-directed exploration, and for
preparing ICT resources for lessons
Online report
This report from Becta in the UK targets preand in-service teachers, identifying the
following four types of barriers to effective
teaching with ICT: resource-related factors;
factors associated with training, skills,
knowledge and computer experience;
attitudinal and personality factors; and
institutional factors. In addition, the report
divides its findings into two broad categories,
teacher-level barriers and school-level barriers,
although it acknowledges that there is a
complex interrelationship between the two.
The most cited barrier to effective technology
use internationally is lack of equipment. That
said, those most likely to complain of
inadequate equipment tend to be the teachers
using ICT the most, so this appears to be less a
problem at the introduction of ICT stage than
later down the line. Lack of equipment is an
example of what some researchers define as
‘external’ or first-order barriers, in contrast to
‘internal’ or second-order obstacles. Other
external barriers include unreliability of
hardware and lack of technical support.
Second-order barriers include school-level
obstacles, such as organizational culture, and
teacher-level factors, such as personal beliefs
about teaching and openness to change.
Interestingly, research suggests that many
first-order barriers, such as problems with
reliability of computers, actually mask secondorder factors, for example, lack of confidence
or uncertainty about the relevance of ICT to a
teacher’s subject. Thus, the author emphasizes
that first-order and second-order, as well as
teacher-level and school-level, factors cannot
be separated. In this way, one’s attitude to ICT
can both be a factor in its own right inhibiting
ICT integration, and also contribute to other
The report notes that staff training must be
tailored to the needs of the individual teachers,
in some cases providing basic ICT skills
before any talk of integration into the
curriculum. One notable problem identified is
that tutors on staff development courses often
lack experience integrating ICT into the
curriculum, and so pre-service teachers enter
the classroom unable to meet the school’s
expectations of their actual ICT use.
Teacher-level barriers
• lack of self-confidence in using ICT
• negative experiences with ICT in the
• fear of embarrassment in front of
pupils and colleagues, loss of status
and an effective degrading of
professional skills
• classroom management difficulties
when using ICT, especially where
pupil-to-computer ratios are poor
• lack of the knowledge necessary to
enable teachers to resolve technical
problems when they occur
• lack of personal change management
• perception that technology does not
enhance learning
• lack of motivation to change
• long-standing pedagogical practices
• perception of computers as
complicated and difficult to use
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
School-level barriers
• lack of ICT equipment, and the cost of
acquiring, using and maintaining ICT
• lack of access to ICT equipment due
to organizational factors such as the
deployment of computers in ICT suites
rather than classrooms
Cuban, L. (August 1999). “The technology puzzle,” Education
Week Vol. 18, No. 43. (2 March 2005)
to computer labs for specific training, but
to incorporate the use of computers into
their own classroom practice. Later, this
involved learning and teaching HTML, so
that students could create multimedia
products. At the same time, they had to
teach Internet research skills and
applications relevant to the ever-changing
working environment. The difficulties this
creates for teachers is exacerbated by the
following additional factors:
Online article
• obsolescence of software and
• unreliability of equipment
• lack of technical support
• lack of administrative support
• lack of institutional support through
leadership, planning and the
involvement of teachers as well as
managers in implementing change
• lack of training differentiated according
to teachers’ existing ICT skill levels
• lack of training focusing on integrating
technology in the classroom rather
than simply teaching basic skills
essential conditions; ICT and curriculum; staff
development; pedagogy; ICT integration
This article from Education Week identifies
five alternative reasons for the apparent
limited use of ICT in the classroom,
particularly in high-schools, for anything more
than low-end, administrative tasks. Initially
citing the usual reasons given by industry
experts, such as lack of training, too little time,
the large number of older teachers and so on,
the author then points out that in contrast to
the small number of teachers who regularly
use computers as an embedded part of their
classroom teaching, a large number admit to
using them at home, for lesson planning,
online research, e-mailing etc.
Intractable working conditions: In contrast
to most other work places, the teacher is
asked to meet ever greater demands with no
discernable shift in working conditions.
Demands from others: High-school
teachers have to juggle a large number of
roles, from friendly and demanding teacher
to disciplinarian and social worker, to
subject expert.
The inherent unreliability of the
technology: Regular breakdowns are a
severe test on the patience of even the most
committed technophile.
Policy makers’ disrespect for teachers’
opinions: Teachers are rarely involved in
discussion as to which software, hardware
and training are most suitable for them and
their students.
This discrepancy leads the author to propose
his alternative explanations. In brief, these are:
Contradictory advice from experts: The
author describes how the advice from
experts about what teachers should teach in
terms of ICT skills has shifted to a
bewildering degree over the last two
decades. First, teachers were told to teach
BASIC to all students; then, it was
applications, such as word processing.
Next, they were asked not to send students
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
The obvious question that seldom gets asked is
this: Why should very busy teachers who are
genuinely committed to doing a good job with
their students listen to experts’ changing
advice on technologies when they have to face
daily, unyielding working conditions; internal
and external demands on their time and
stamina; unreliable machines and software;
and disrespect for their opinions?
Bashing teachers for not doing more with
technology in their classrooms may give us
cute media one-liners. What the one-liners
miss, however, are the deeper, more
consequential reasons for what teachers do
every day. What corporate cheerleaders,
policymakers, and vendors who have far more
access to the media ignore are teachers’
voices, the enduring workplace conditions
within which teachers teach, inherent flaws in
the technologies, and ever-changing advice of
their own experts.
Such reasons are ignored because they go to
the heart of what happens in schools, are very
expensive to remedy, and reflect poorly on
corporate know-how in producing machines.
Nonetheless, these reasons may have more
explanatory power for solving the puzzle of
extensive home use of computers and limited,
low-end classroom use than do the currently
fashionable ones.
essential conditions; staff development;
infrastructure; policy/strategy; ICT integration
Department of Education, Tasmania. (February 2002) “Strategic
Planning Framework: Strategic policy - ICT in schools, 20022005.” DOE Tasmania: Education, Training & Information.
00000018&ID=00000145 (2 March 2005)
Online document
This document from the Tasmanian
Department of Education describes in some
detail five sets of requirements necessary for
meeting its four policy goals for ICT
integration into schools. Aimed at the
classroom teacher, school principals and
district-level curriculum planners, the report
identifies as the major motives for ensuring
effective use of ICT in schools: improving
student outcomes; ensuring equitable access;
developing required skills of school leavers;
and adapting to the changing workforce.
The four policy goals that these sets of
requirements target consider that ICT in
schools will:
1. Transform elements of teaching and
learning and act as a catalyst for other
pedagogical, curricular and organizational
improvements that expand opportunities
for learning and improve student learning
2. Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of
educational delivery and school
organization and management;
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
3. Facilitate the development of communities
of learners, regardless of the personal
circumstances or location of learners; and
4. Enable all students to leave school with the
skills needed to participate fully in a
knowledge society; become confident,
skilled and critical in their use of these
technologies; and be able to interpret
information from a myriad of sources.
The five requirements for achieving these
goals comprise:
1. Creative, capable people: In order for
teachers and support staff to become
competent, confident and creative users of
ICTs with sound pedagogy, the document
identifies the areas such as the following
for focused attention:
• Professional learning: including
training targeting integration, as well as
specialised instruction for teachers of
ICT; sufficient time and opportunities
for collaboration; relevant research.
• Access to ICTs: budgetary priority for
teachers to access appropriate
technologies at school and at home;
access for all students in all disciplines,
as well as out-of-school access for
students and parents.
• Demonstrated competence in ICT a
requirement for promotion.
2. Supportive infrastructure:
• Planning: all schools maintain a current
technologies learning plan.
• Infrastructure: will be maintained and
upgraded; a range of models to promote
equitable access, with constant
monitoring; a range of locations for using
ICTs; budgets to focus on providing 24hour access to staff and students.
• Technical support will be of a high
quality and available beyond school
3. Quality content and services:
• Curriculum framework to increase and
improve students’ ability to develop
necessary basic ICT skills, and
advanced skills that enable them to use
ICTs critically and effectively;
• Online content and delivery: innovative
content designed and made accessible
to all students regardless of background
or ability; opportunities for distance
online learning; strategic partnerships
to help sustain quality of online
content; develop means for online
testing and adaptive assessment.
4. Enabling policies and strategies,
• Congruent policy direction across all
areas affecting ICTs;
• Prioritised equity policy goals;
• Policies for improving management
and organization of school
• Access to state and national ICT
• Policies covering legal and ethical
guidelines for ICT use.
5. Practice which is informed by evaluation
and research:
• Access to research information for
teachers to evaluate their use of ICTs;
• Efficient systems and tools that allow
schools to monitor student learning
• Effective best practice implemented,
based on national and international
The Deputy Secretary of Schools and
Colleges will:
• Work with and support district
superintendents, principals and teachers
implementing this policy.
District Superintendents will:
• Assist principals in developing and
maintaining Learning Technologies Plans,
and ensure that they are congruent with
other reporting and planning requirements.
• Recognise competence in the use of ICT in
teaching and learning when assessing
principals for leadership positions.
• Work with schools to ensure sufficient
professional learning time for staff,
enabling them to introduce ICT into
teaching and learning including.
• Work in partnership with local businesses
to identify strong and appropriate pathways
from school to further education in ICT, or
work opportunities within ICT industries
within the district.
• Seek external partnerships in order to
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
secure advantages in resource acquisition
and strengthen pathways from school to
work within the district.
Support system-wide ICT in education
evaluation programmes at a District level.
Principals will:
• Ensure that schools have a current
Learning Technologies Plan in place.
• Recognize competence in the use of ICT in
teaching and learning when assessing
teachers for school leadership positions.
• Plan for increased professional learning
time for all staff to ensure the integration
of ICT into teaching and learning through
the incorporation of ICT into school-wide
professional learning provision.
• Plan for improved staff access to
computers and the Internet within the
school or college.
• Manage the development of ICT
infrastructure, including purchasing and
ongoing maintenance, with the assistance
and support of IMB Branch.
• Seek external partnerships with businesses
in order to secure advantages in resource
acquisition and strengthened pathways
from school to work.
• Actively engage parents and encourage
their support for the use of ICT in their
children’s learning.
• Develop strategies to allow after-hours
access to computers and the internet for
students and parents, to not only access
school ICT equipment, but to develop
competency through tutoring/courses.
• Promote opportunities for distance online
learning and school supported teacher
remote online learning.
Consider ways in which timetabling and
school/college organisation can facilitate
the effective use of ICT and vice versa.
Actively participate in, and co-ordinate at a
school/college level, evaluation of ICT use.
Teachers will:
• Keep informed about the potential benefits
of ICT in their teaching practices and the
ways in which this potential can be
enabled, through professional reading,
collaboration and professional learning.
• Plan for the use of ICT in their classroom
and take opportunities to share/discuss
their experiences with colleagues.
• Become familiar with online content that is
available, through regular perusal of the
Discover site, and consider ways in which
this could be utilised in their teaching
• Ensure that the ICT in Education (K-12)
policy is reflected in their IPLPs and
become involved in professional learning
opportunities that facilitate the competent
and creative use of ICT.
• Actively engage parental support for, and
involvement in, the use of ICT in their
children’s learning.
• Participate in relevant evaluation
Teacher Librarians will:
• Keep informed about the potential benefits
of ICT in their practices and the ways in
which this potential can be enabled,
through professional reading, collaboration
and professional learning.
• Plan for the increased use of ICT in
teaching and learning and take
opportunities to discuss/share their
experiences with colleagues and students.
Become familiar with online content that is
available, through regular perusal of the
Discover site, and consider ways in which
this could be utilised in staff practices.
Support staff and student access to quality
online content.
Work with teachers in improving the
ability of students to retrieve and critically
analyse information, with an emphasis on
web-based information.
Equity Standards Branch will:
• Support schools, colleges and online
content developers in addressing the
specific needs of those groups of students
identified in the Equity in Schooling policy,
in relation to access to ICT and usability of
computing devices and online content.
International Society for
Technology in Education.
(2000) "Section one:
Connecting curriculum and
technology - essential
conditions to make it
happen," in National
Educational Technology
Standards for Students:
Connecting Curriculum and
Technology. ISTE.
ess_cond.pdf (2 March 2005)
The Office for Educational Review will:
• Develop ways in which data on student
learning outcomes can be effectively and
efficiently compiled and analysed.
• Ensure there is feedback to schools and
colleges on the effects of their ICT practice
on learning outcomes.
• Collaborate in ICT evaluation programs
across schools and colleges.
essential conditions; policy/strategy;
evaluation; ICT and curriculum;
administration; ICT integration
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
Online book
This section, from the online book Connecting
Curriculum and Technology from National
Educational Technology Standards for
Students (NETS), describes the conditions
necessary for effective use of technology in
schools beyond the technology itself. Physical,
human, financial and policy dimensions are all
important for using ICT to enhance learning,
teaching and educational management.
A combination of essential conditions is
required to create learning environments
conducive to powerful uses of technology,
• Vision with support and proactive
leadership from the education system;
• Educators skilled in the use of technology
for learning;
• Content standards and curriculum
• Student-centred approaches to learning;
• Assessment of the effectiveness of
technology for learning;
• Access to contemporary technologies,
software and telecommunications networks;
• Technical assistance for maintaining and
using technology resources;
• Community partners who provide
expertise, support, and real-life
• Ongoing financial support for sustained
technology use;
• Policies and standards supporting new
learning environments.
The following chart lists characteristics representing traditional approaches to learning and
corresponding strategies associated with new learning environments:
Traditional Learning Environments
New Learning Environments
Teacher-centred instruction
Student-centred instruction
Single-sense stimulation
Multi-sensory stimulation
Single-path progression
Multi-path progression
Single media
Isolated work
Collaborative work
Information delivery
Information exchange
Isolated, artificial context
Active/exploratory/inquiry-based learning
Factual, knowledge-based learning
Critical thinking and informed decisionmaking
Reactive response
Proactive/planned action
Passive learning
Authentic, real-world context
The most effective learning environments
meld traditional approaches and new
approaches to facilitate learning of relevant
content while addressing individual
needs. The resulting learning environments
should prepare students to:
• Communicate using a variety of media and
• Access and exchange information in a
variety of ways;
• Compile, organize, analyze, and synthesize
• Draw conclusions and make
generalizations based on information
• Know content and be able to locate
additional information as needed;
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Become self-directed learners;
Collaborate and cooperate in team efforts;
Interact with others in ethical and
appropriate ways.
Teachers know that the wise use of technology
can enrich learning environments and enable
students to achieve marketable skills. It is still
critical, however, that educators analyze the
potential benefits of technology for learning
and employ it appropriately.
essential conditions; policy/strategy; planning;
staff development; standards; assessment
Knuth, R. and Rodriguez, G. (2000) “Critical Issue: Providing
professional development for effective technology use.” North
Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (2 March 2005)
Online report
This is a report from North Central Regional
Educational Laboratory (NCREL) in the
United States, which argues for the many
aspects of teacher professional development as
the key requirement for effective use of ICT in
the classroom. It states quite clearly: ‘The role
of the classroom teacher is the crucial factor in
the full development and use of technology in
the schools (Office of Technology Assessment,
1995; Trotter, 1999).’ Speaking to district
heads and educational managers, the author
sets out and elaborates on the many aspects of
staff training that are an essential part of a
school’s technology plan:
• Connection to student learning
• Hands-on technology use
• Variety of learning experiences
• Curriculum-specific applications
• New roles for teachers
• Collegial learning
• Active participation of teachers
• Ongoing process
• Sufficient time
• Technical assistance and support
• Administrative support
• Adequate resources
• Continuous funding
• Built-in evaluation
The report also includes a wide range of
references and links to relevant resources for
further information and support, as well as
video files featuring presentations from
educational specialists.
Connection to Student Learning. The
ultimate goal of professional development is to
improve student learning (Speck, 1996). A
study by the National Institute for the
Improvement of Education (Renyi, 1996)
found that 73 percent of surveyed teachers
cited improved student achievement as the
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
most important reason for participating in
professional development activities. “Teachers
value increased student achievement as an
outcome of professional development more
than any other variable and judge the value of
their professional development activities by
how much they see a leap in student learning,”
notes Lockwood (1999, p. 13). “Schools
should provide teachers with abundant
opportunities to become fluent in using
technology to bolster instruction and help
students develop higher-order thinking and
problem-solving skills,” notes the National
Staff Development Council (1999). As a
result, the use of technology enables teachers
to implement new teaching techniques, to help
students work collaboratively and develop
higher-order thinking skills, to encourage
students to be engaged in the learning process,
to assist students who have various learning
styles and special needs, and to expose
students to a broad range of information and
Hands-On Technology Use. Recent research
has shown the importance of current
professional development emphasizing
hands-on technology use. “Teachers who
received technology training in the past year
are more likely than teachers who hadn’t to
say they feel ‘better prepared’ to integrate
technology into their classroom lessons,” notes
Fatemi (1999). “They also are more likely to
use and rely on digital content for instruction,
and to spend more time trying out software
and searching for Web sites to use in class.”
Variety of Learning Experiences. “To help
teachers incorporate technology in ways that
support powerful instruction requires an array
of professional development experiences quite
different from traditional workshops and
how-to training sessions,” notes David (1996,
p. 238). Professional development for effective
technology use can come in a variety of forms,
such as mentoring, modelling, ongoing
workshops, special courses, structured
observations, and summer institutes (David,
1996; Guhlin, 1996). Whatever the format,
effective professional development utilizes
key points from adult learning theory. Adults
require relevant, concrete experiences with
adequate support, appropriate feedback, and
long-term follow-up (Speck, 1996). This type
of professional development is very different
from traditional one-time teacher workshops.
Research indicates that teachers learn and
incorporate new information best when it is
presented over a long time frame instead of a
single session.
Curriculum-Specific Applications. If
technology is to be used to produce
improvements in student achievement,
teachers must see a direct link between the
technology and the curriculum for which they
are responsible (Byrom, 1998). Professional
development for technology use should
demonstrate projects in specific curriculum
areas and help teachers integrate technology
into the content. In particular, professional
development activities should enhance
teachers’ curriculum, learning, and assessment
competencies and skills as well as classroom
and instructional management competencies
and skills.
Collegial Learning. A professional
development curriculum that helps teachers
use technology for discovery learning,
developing students’ higher-order thinking
skills, and communicating ideas is new and
demanding and thus cannot be implemented in
isolation (Guhlin, 1996). In addition to
working in pairs or teams, teachers need
access to follow-up discussion and collegial
activities, as required of professionals in other
fields (Lockwood, 1999).
Continuous Funding. Finding the funding for
ongoing technology needs and professional
development can be difficult. School funding
formulas that depend on residential property
taxes and centralized purchasing and
distribution policies may not be flexible
enough to meet these new needs. Funding
strategies that combine short- and long-term
measures-including local tax revenues, bonds,
grants, and federal programs-can help meet a
school district’s needs. Projects such as Taking
Total Cost of Ownership to the Classroom can
help planners determine all the costs involved
in operating networks and computers.
essential conditions; staff development;
assessment; evaluation; policy/strategy
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
SEIR*TEC. (undated) “Factors
that affect the effective use
of technology for teaching
and learning.” SEIR*TEC.
lessondoc.html (2 March 2005)
Online article
This article describes findings from the United
States where members of SEIR*TEC have been
offering technical assistance and professional
development to resource-poor schools in
various aspects of technology integration. The
observations and lessons learned are aimed
primarily at policy makers, curriculum
developers, principals and head teachers:
Leadership is the key ingredient
The document emphasizes that it is the
states with the most visionary governors
and legislators, and the schools with the
most forward-thinking principals and
curriculum developers that have the most
successful technology programmes.
Specifically, the authors point to the need
for leaders: to have a clear vision of what
is possible through the use of technology;
to lead through example - the principal
who expects to see ICT used seamlessly in
the classroom while unable to send e-mails
sends at best a mixed message; to support
staff, and attend professional development
sessions with faculty; to share leadership
roles and show trust in the decisions made
by committee members.
number of strategies teacher trainers and
principals can use to increase the likelihood
of educators using ICT in the classroom.
The article proposes the following:
If you don’t know where you’re going,
you’ll end up someplace else
The degree of success that a school has in
implementing technology will depend, in
part, on the quality and maturity of its
technology plan. Each organization,
whether it be a district or an individual
school, needs to spend time developing and
updating a comprehensive plan - starting
with its vision, mission and goals. Every
decision made should be one that supports
the organization’s vision.
Technology integration is a slow process
Studies show that integrating technology
meaningfully into teaching and learning is
a slow, time-consuming process, even for
the most resource-rich school. Substantial
levels of support for educators are needed
as they go through predictable stages in
their use of ICT, which typically takes
between three and five years.
Unsurprisingly, schools that receive the
most attention, in the form of technical
assistance and state-level support, tend to
move faster along the learning continuum.
No matter how many computers are
available or how much training teachers
have had, there are still substantial
numbers who are “talking the talk” but
not “walking the walk”
Notwithstanding the inevitable differences
between teachers in terms of their interest in
new technologies, and their willingness to
adopt these in their teaching, there are a
Begin with teaching and learning, not
with hardware and software; the
training-of-trainers model means more
than providing a workshop to a few
people and expecting them to train their
colleagues on what they learned; it’s a
waste of time and energy to provide
technology training when teachers
don’t have the resources, opportunity,
and support needed to apply their new
knowledge and skills.
Educators can benefit from tools that
help them gauge the progress of
technology integration over time
Effective use of technology requires
changes in teaching, and the adoption of
a new teaching strategy can be a catalyst
for technology integration
Research shows that it is a combination of
effective teaching and pedagogically sound
technologies that leads to improvements in
As we have been helping schools implement
their plans, we have noticed that there tend to
be three areas of weakness. The first is a
tendency for one individual or a few people to
write the plan, a practice that flies in the face of
the notion of stakeholder buy-in and
community involvement. A second is that many
plans lack a detailed component or plan for
professional development that covers the broad
range of skills teachers and administrators need.
The third common problem is that most plans
lack a component for evaluating the success and
effectiveness of the program. The omission of
components usually stems not from a lack of
interest, but perhaps from a lack of expertise in
how to set up an effective professional
development program in technology, or how to
conduct an evaluation that will yield
meaningful and useful results.
Each school needs easy access to
professionals with expertise in
technology and pedagogy
Teachers need on-site and on-demand
technical assistance with both the
technology and the integration of
technology into teaching and learning.
Finding professionals who have expertise in
both areas is difficult, and few schools have
professionals with both. Many districts hire
curriculum specialists and technology
specialists, and hope they work together.
Sometimes they do; sometimes they don’t.
One of our most recent observations originated
not with the intensive sites, but with some
technical assistance SEIR*TEC staff provided
to the North Carolina Department of Public
Instruction (NCDPI). The Department had
asked for help in developing a way of collecting
comparable evaluation data from 44 diverse
Technology Literacy Challenge Fund (TLCF)
grants. Working with DPI staff, we developed
an instrument that has been adopted across the
state, as well as in other states. We have
observed that the instrument not only serves its
original purpose, but also provides a non-
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
threatening framework for gauging a school’s
or district’s progress toward technology
implementation. Administrators report that it is
a tool that helps educators reflect on where they
are and where they need to go with their
technology initiatives.
In the belief that helping educators reflect on
their progress could potentially accelerate the
rate of progress, we adapted the original
instrument for use in the intensive sites.
Basically, the adaptation involved the
identification of five domains of technology
integration, principles of good practice for each
domain, and indicators of progress for each
principle. Staff also compared the domains and
principles with other instruments such as the
CEO Forum’s STaR Chart and the Milken
Exchange’s Frameworks for Technology
Integration to ensure that ours covered all the
bases. We just completed the first round of
implementing the instrument in the intensive
sites, and so far, the teachers and administrators
have reported that in addition to being a useful
gauge for progress in general, the instrument is
a good basis for discussing specific technology
initiatives across the district. It also helps them
see the bigger picture of technology integration
by showing principles of practice that they have
not yet addressed. We will monitor the use of
the instrument over the next several months and
see whether it does indeed make a difference in
program planning and implementation.
essential conditions; professional
development; standards; policy/strategy;
UNESCO. (2004) “Keys to Success: Lessons learned.” ICT in
Education Unit, UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for
Education (2 March 2005)
Several technical factors can have a negative
impact on the interactivity in learning. Virtual
education might not flourish as expected
because of disparities in bandwidth, cost of
network access, presence of dedicated
facilities, and limits on learners’ access to
necessary equipment including hardware and
software; lack of system support to fast
learners and slow learners; limitations on the
current system of course credits transfer
among institutions.
Online article
These guidelines from UNESCO are intended
chiefly for ICT programme planners and
school principals, and identify a number of
essential factors for and barriers to the
successful integration of ICTs into education.
The points mentioned include:
• technical factors
• co-ordination and integration
• teacher skills
• staff development
• the need for performance indicators
• time constraints
• the negative impact of high-stakes
examinations on experimenting with
innovative teaching tools
• the importance of adopting and following
through a national policy.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
For e-learning programmes to work, there is a
need to take into account the complexity of
platforms, ISPs, firewalls, media selection, and
portals, not to mention performance tracking and
coordination with other curricula. This implies
the need for a sophisticated management system
to coordinate, integrate, and manage all the
pieces that make up the learning system.
Teachers with only moderate skills in word
processing, e-mailing and Internet surfing
should avoid web-based education until they
have gained a certain comfort level in the use
of technology.
Successful use of ICT in learning is to a large
extent dependent on teachers who used
computers mostly for simulations and
applications generally associated with higher-
order thinking.
Any project which introduces ICT use should
include basic training in ICT literacy. Training
should not only be limited to the basic use of
computers but, more importantly, instruct on
how to integrate ICT into teaching and
curriculum development.
Success in the use of ICT can be measured if
performance indicators are developed to
monitor the use and outcomes of technologies
and to demonstrate accountability to funding
sources and the public.
One of the most important keys to sustainable
technological innovation is to follow a
thorough systematic approach, supported by a
clear policy. A well elaborated national policy
is seen as a prerequisite for countries to
compete in the new global economy and
knowledge-based society.
essential conditions; standards; assessment;
staff development; policy/strategy
Time constraints of classroom activities
magnify problems with software configuration
and similar start-up tasks. Students will often
be limited to 30-40 minutes of computer
access in a given class period. When students
from different schools are working together,
differences in class scheduling can diminish
overlap and result in even smaller windows of
opportunity for synchronous interaction.
The pressure of examinations distorts the open
style of teaching and learning. It was found in
country studies that teachers failed to
implement student-centred teaching strategies
because of high-stakes examinations.
Authoring of web content is still a single-user
activity. When a collaborator opens a word
processor on their machine, the application
sharing software broadcasts a live image of the
application to other collaborators. But at the
end of the session, any saved files are
available only to the user who started the
applications or content.
Requirements for and Barriers to
Effective Technology Integration
Agodini, R., et al. (May 2003) “The Effectiveness of Educational
Technology: Issues and recommendation for the national
study.” Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (2 March 2005)
Online publication
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
This draft report attempts to address the key
questions and issues involved in a national
study into the effectiveness of technology use
in K-12 education. In designing such a study, a
group of educational technology experts,
policy makers and research specialists worked
together to identify the core questions the
study would raise and to suggest appropriate
methods to respond to them.
In order to address the fundamental question,
Is educational technology effective in
improving student academic achievement?, the
document proposes nine recommendations for
addressing four more related questions: What
is ‘educational technology’? What is
‘effective’? What kinds of students? What is
‘academic achievement’?
Chapter 1, “Studying the Effectiveness of
Educational Technology,” elaborates on these
questions, as well as on all nine
recommendations. It also suggests key factors
to be viewed in terms of their relationship to
one another, which include teacher training
and student characteristics, as well as those of
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
their parents, teachers, classroom, school,
district and local neighbourhood.
The rest of the report goes on to propose
approaches for designing and conducting the
Design Team Recommendations for a
National Study of the Effectiveness of
Educational Technology
Question: What is “educational
Recommendation 1: Examine technology
applications designed to support teaching and
Recommendation 2: Use a public submission
process to identify technology applications to
Question: What is “effective?”
Recommendation 3: Use experimental designs
to measure effects.
Recommendation 4: Study the effects of
technology applications for schools or teachers
that do not currently use the applications, but
are interested in using them.
Recommendation 5: Design the study to detect
“moderate” to “large” effects of technology
Question: What kinds of students?
Recommendation 6: Study the effects of
technology applications for students in the
primary and secondary grade levels (K-12).
Recommendation 7: Study the effects of
technology applications for schools that
receive Title I funds.
British Educational Communications and Technology Agency.
(2004) “ICT Advice for Teachers: A basic framework to study the
impact of ICT on teaching and learning.” Becta.
(2 March 2005)
which informs the next phase. As every stage
depends upon the careful assessment of the
previous cycle, it is important to keep clear
and relevant data throughout the programme’s
implementation. The following templates
which are designed to help the teacher do just
that can be downloaded:
Question: What is “academic achievement?”
Recommendation 8: Study the effects of
technology applications on student academic
achievement as measured by commonly used
standardized tests, and collect data on other
academic indicators to provide a fuller picture.
Recommendation 9: Study the effects of
technology applications that support
instruction in reading and math.
Web page
evaluation; educational technology; local
educational bodies; staff development
This is a timesaver from the British Educational
Communications and Technology Agency
(Becta), which provides teachers with a
framework for monitoring the effect of ICT on
their classroom teaching. It is composed of a
series of templates that help teachers plan ahead
for ICT integration, as well as monitor progress
throughout the process to allow for lessons to
be identified and research to be shared.
Action research essentially entails a series of
cyclical phases, the evaluation of each of
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
1. Undertaking action research
2. Action research background information
3. Action research checklist
4. Action research contacts
5. Action research data collection
6. Action research planning sheet
7. Action research pupils involved
8. Action research purpose
9. Action research responsibilities
10. Action research timeline
11. Field notes record sheet
12. General structure for a research report
The authors suggest the following stages are
key to successful action research, and many of
these stages link to a specific template:
• Planning your research: this includes
outline (100 words); timelines; contacts
list; research and learning; field notes
record sheet
• Establish the purpose of your research
• Formulate questions for your proposed
Specify the project background
Consider ethical rules for school-based
Setting up the research: some decisions:
What data will you collect: Who will you
collect data from? In what form will data
be collected? How will recording of data
take place?
Running the study
Reporting your findings
Finding the relevant literature: includes
some useful links to websites and online
Template: Action research project checklist:
Action research project checklist
As you complete each of the following tasks,
tick the box.
Obtain consent for the study
Book computers/ICT/computer suite
Check that electrical/ICT equipment is in
working order
Obtain supplies of consumables, such as
Check that you are familiar with any
software or hardware
Check that you can obtain technical
support, if necessary
Produce and test your data collection
Keep a record of the contextual conditions
existing before the study
Check that your study is integrated into the
school’s planning
Check that your pupils understand your
aims for the research
Check your own and your pupils’ aims for
their learning
Organize classroom support, if necessary
Check that everyone involved has a
timetable for the study
Check that everyone involved has contact
details for one another
Ensure that everyone involved is clear
about the storage and retrieval system for
data collected
Build into the research timetable adequate
time for analysis, reflection and discussion
Organize a definite start and end point for
data collection
Decide who will write up the study
Decide who will read and comment on
drafts of findings
Find a way to disseminate your findings
Start (and keep updated) a research journal
Set up a system for recording questions
that arise during the study
Bond, T. (undated) “Why
isn’t it happening?” ICTNZ.
htm (2 March 2005)
Online article
evaluation; policy/strategy; planning; data
This article suggests possible reasons why,
despite a school having spent serious amounts
of money on hardware, software and highspeed connections, there may be no discernible
progress in student achievement. The author
also proposes ways to ensure better returns on
your investment.
Firstly, Mandinach’s four stages of
development with ICT are described as a way
to assess how ready a teacher is to make use of
technology in the classroom, and indicate what
kind of help they may need to progress. This
four-fold paradigm essentially can be outlined
as follows:
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
1. Survival stage
Characterised by the teacher struggling
against technology; unable to anticipate
problems; unrealistic expectations.
Understanding: Many teachers still think of
ICT as a set of skills to be taught, rather than a
tool to be integrated throughout the curriculum
to improve student learning.
2. Mastery stage
Characterised by the teacher developing
coping strategies; increased tolerance and
technical competence; more engagement.
Professional development: Within this, there
are two essential components: skills and ideas.
Skills need to be developed in order to
increase teacher confidence and competence,
while ideas are essential to take some of the
strain off the busy teacher. Furthermore, ideas
act like seeds, and once teachers have been
given a sense of what is possible they tend to
come up with their own extensions and
variations with little extra time needed after
long days in the classroom.
3. Impact stage
Characterised by a learner-centred
classroom; the teacher as facilitator of
learning; technology-enhanced curriculum
4. Innovation stage
Characterised by a restructuring of
curriculum and learning activities;
modification of learning environment.
The author identifies four major aspects to be
examined in situations in which there is little
effective integration of ICT:
Infrastructure: Even the most ardent converts
to technology will have their enthusiasm
dampened if there are consistent technical
problems with the computers.
Attitude: Some teachers will have a preexisting aversion to technology in the
curriculum, possibly because of bad prior
experiences with ICT. Try and use the
successes of other teachers to encourage them,
and show what can be achieved, especially in
terms of student and teacher motivation.
A simple guideline I use to govern the
development of ideas is to construct an activity
that has:
• A maximum of thinking for the pupils
• A maximum of discussion for the pupils
• A minimum of typing for the pupils
evaluation; staff development; ICT in the
classroom; ICT integration
A simple framework I find by which to
evaluate integration of ICT into learning is to
look and ask “What is the learning that this
ICT-based activity is fostering?” Sadly, a lot of
apparently flashy ICT use when examined this
way, returns a nil answer.
A simple question I use to ascertain if there is
an effective way of integrating ICT into any
learning session is to examine the learning
objective of the lesson and then ask “Is there
any way ICT can help us to achieve this
If the answer is no... that’s fine, we don’t
expect a carpenter to use a hammer when he
needs to cut a piece of timber, so don’t expect
the technologies to be used in every learning
experience and during every part of the
teaching day.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Coughlin, E. and Lemke, C. (2004) “Technology in American
Schools: Seven dimensions for gauging progress.” Milken
Family Foundation. (2 March 2005)
Online document
[A condition for accessing this document is
that no part of it will be reproduced. Type the
title of the publication in the search field at the
above URL.]
This framework provides a set of indicators to
help educators and policy makers assess a
school’s readiness to enhance the learning
process through ICT. The seven interdependent
dimensions are clearly laid out, and broken
down into component topics. The dimensions
1. Learners
2. Learning environments
3. Professional competency
System capacity
Community connections
Technology capacity
A core question under each heading leads into
a series of important sub-topics on that theme.
For example, the first dimension, ‘Learners,’
asks: Are students being encouraged to use
ICTs to enhance their knowledge both of a
particular curriculum subject as well as of the
world at large? The sub-topics then ask
whether students have developed sufficient
fluency in their use of IT to perform whatever
tasks that may require it; whether their use of
ICTs then helps them acquire a deeper grasp of
the basics of the subject studied; whether, by
using ICTs, the students are able to develop
higher-level thinking, learning and
communication skills; whether their use of
ICTs reflects real-life situations matches the
ways professionals use the technologies in the
workplace; whether access to ICT increases
students’ motivation to learn; and whether
students are aware of the inevitable pros and
cons in using technology?
Department of Education,
United States. (December
1998) An Educator’s Guide
to Evaluating the Use of
Technology in Schools and
Guide/index.html (2 March 2005)
Online handbook
This online guide to the evaluation process is
aimed at educators and administrators at the
district or school level. Interwoven among the
tips and examples of questions to guide the
reader is a sample evaluation from a ‘real life’
school district (Rivers School District), which
is intended to inspire the user when developing
their own evaluation.
evaluation; indicators; infrastructure; policy/
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
The handbook chapters are organized around the
following anticipated questions that those new to
making evaluations are likely to ask; within each
section there are inside tips, and appendices
contain additional sources and worksheets:
• Why am I evaluating?
• What is an evaluation anyway?
• Where do I start?
• What questions should I ask?
• What information do I need to collect?
• What’s the best way to collect my
• What are my conclusions?
• How do I communicate my results?
• Where do I go from here?
In the chapter, “What questions should I ask?,”
the authors suggest starting by reviewing the
programme goals (of the technology integration
plan), to help clarify the kinds of questions you
need to draw up. These goals may include, for
example, teacher professional development to
acquire the necessary skills to integrate technology
in the classroom. Next, it is advised that you
figure out what you want to know about the
programme in orderto focus on the aim of the
questions you ask: for example, do you want to
know how frequently students use computers in
the classroom or, perhaps, teachers’ opinions of
training programmes? Third, consider what other
stakeholders would like to know from the
evaluation: these may include the funding agency,
state officials, legislators, policy makers, parents
etc. Then, it is necessary to consider other
requirements, in particular any strings attached to
the granting of funding, such as what the money
can or cannot be used to purchase, or the kinds of
data and reports required as follow-up activities.
Finally, the handbook suggests the all-important
questions that relate to outcomes, such as, “Has
student performance improved as a result of
Well, these reasons seemed very broad, so Kathy,
using the general ideas and the list of specific
things that others wanted from the evaluation,
came up with general goals that people were
interested in and, within these goals, more
specific questions she wanted answered. The
following is the result of her work:
What Questions Did Rivers Ask?
Kathy had already asked herself why different
stakeholders wanted an evaluation and what
they wanted from an evaluation. She had also
come up with two major reasons why she
wanted an evaluation:
• To find out if the programme is beginning
to produce desired results (e.g., student
reading scores are beginning to improve,
professional development is effective, the
programme is cost effective)
• To get information on the implementation
After coming up with the questions above,
Kathy reviewed them to determine if there was
anything she was leaving out. She assessed her
priorities and made sure they were included.
She ran through her list of stakeholders –
principal, superintendent, professional
development co-ordinator, teachers, parents,
herself. All stakeholders were accounted for.
Finally, Kathy looked at the grant to see if
there were any requirements she needed to
assess. The grant was through the Technology
Literacy Challenge Fund, so it was fairly
technology?,” should be seen as long-term issues,
which should neither be ignored as the
practicalities of setting up technology programmes
take priority, nor addressed too quickly.
Improved reading performance
Will the new technology and training help
improve reading performance?
Improved dropout and attendance rates
Will the new technology and training help
lower the dropout rate and increase
Will this programme be as or more costeffective than other programmes that may
show similar results?
Effective professional development
Will the professional development help
teachers integrate technology into their
Increased computer literacy
Will students and teachers become more
computer literate as a result of the
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
flexible and many of the requirements were at
the state level. Basically, one of the biggest
requirements was that the district was
responsible for reporting back to the state
yearly on what they had done. In Kathy’s
opinion, assessing the goals that she had
developed would satisfy the state. She would
call her state technology co-ordinator to be
sure, but it looked fine and she thought she
was ready to further define her evaluation
evaluation; administration; data collection;
staff development; policy/strategy
North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. enGauge. (2 March 2005)
Implementation; Assessment; Productivity;
Ethics. Each of these is then described in terms
of, among other topics: Practice; Rationale;
Success Stories; Roles; and References.
enGauge is a
framework from North Central Regional
Educational Laboratory (NCREL) that
identifies six essential conditions for effective
use of ICTs to enhance student learning, and
provides online assessment tools for
evaluating a school’s effective use of ICTs.
The website comprises three main sections:
the framework, itself, describing the key
factors in effective use of technology for
student learning; online assessment tools and
surveys, as well as offline instruments, to
gauge a school’s use of technology, and to
report progress; and a menu of research-based,
technology supported resources that have been
seen to work with students.
The online assessment allows nine different
stakeholders to anonymously answer a set of
questions on various topics relevant to that
stakeholder, which then generates different
types of reports that provide a system-wide
picture of a school’s use of ICTs. The nine
stakeholders comprise: Educator; Student;
Parent; Board Member; District Administrator;
Building Administrator; Building Technology
Co-ordinator; District Technology Coordinator; Community Member.
The six essential conditions that the online
assessment tools translate into measures of
effectiveness are: Vision; Practice; Proficiency;
Equity; Access; and Systems. Each condition is
presented with a number of indicators, which
are then broken down into a series of
components for more detailed discussion.
Alignment to the Vision
How well is your classroom’s technology use
aligned to the school’s or district’s vision for
• Not at all
• Slightly
• Fairly well
• Very well
• Don’t know
For example, the indicators for the condition
Proficiency are identified as Skills; Planning;
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
Selection of Sample Questions for an
Educator from the Online Assessment
How well is classroom technology use aligned
with your district’s standards?
Generally, throughout your school
• Not at all
• Slightly
• Fairly well
• Very well
• Don’t know/No technology
How well is classroom technology use aligned
with your district’s standards?
Specifically, in the classes you teach
• Not at all
• Slightly
• Fairly well
• Very well
• Don’t know/No technology
Learning Environment
Which best describes your school’s readiness
for helping students become increasingly selfdirected as they progress through the grades?
• No explicit organized effort is made.
• We have some strategies in place.
• We have done significant work to
encourage self-directed learning.
• We have a comprehensive program and are
often looked to as a model.
Range of Use
Students in my school currently use
• Not at all
• Very little or for one or two types of
• In a few different ways
• In a wide variety of ways
In your class(es), how often do students use
technology for the following?
Drill and practice or tutorial (for example,
math and reading games)
• Never
• Rarely
• Occasionally
• Frequently
• Does not apply
In your class(es), how often do students use
technology for the following?
Expression/visualization (for example,
graphing and charting, KidPix, Hyperstudio,
• Never
• Rarely
• Occasionally
• Frequently
• Does not apply
In your class(es), how often do students use
technology for the following?
Integrated Learning Systems (for example,
Jostens, Plato)
• Never
• Rarely
• Occasionally
• Frequently
• Does not apply
Hopey, C., et al. (1996)
“Evaluating the
implementation of your
technology plan.” North
Central Regional Technology
in Education Consortium.
guidewww/eval.htm (2 March 2005)
Online publication
This is a page from the online document,
“Guiding Questions for Technology Planning”
from North Central Regional Educational
Laboratory. The author emphasizes the
ongoing nature of implementing technology
plans, and the importance of continuing
evaluation to allow for any necessary changes
along the way. Various modes of evaluation
are recommended, although the observations
of teachers and students who have been using
the technology in question are perhaps the
simplest and most useful. In addition, informal
meetings with teachers and students can help
gather lessons learned, while written surveys
can help keep sight of the targeted outcomes
of the plan, and reveal to what extent they
have been achieved.
evaluation; data collection; indicators; policy/
strategy; administration
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
The following questions should be addressed
when planning to evaluate your technology
plan implementation :
• How and when will you evaluate the impact
your technology plan implementation has
on student performance?
• Who will be responsible for collecting
ongoing data to assess the effectiveness of
the plan and its implementation?
• What windows of opportunity exist for
reviewing the technology plan? (For
example, the plan might be reviewed
during curriculum review cycles.)
• How will accountability for
implementation be assessed?
• How will you assess the level of
technological proficiency gained by
students, teachers, and staff?
• How will you use technology to evaluate
teaching and learning?
• What is the key indicator of success for
each component of the plan?
• How will you analyze the effectiveness of
disbursement decisions in light of
implementation priorities?
• How will you analyze implementation
decisions to accommodate for changes as a
result of new information and
• What organizational mechanism will you
create that allows changes in the
implementation of the technology plan and
in the plan itself?
evaluation; policy/strategy; data collection;
MIICE. (July 2002) “Measurement of the Impact of ICT on
Children’s Education (MIICE).” MIICE Assessment Toolbox. (2 March 2005)
The Measurement of the Impact of ICT on
Children’s Education (MIICE) project brings
together 17 Scottish education authorities and
four teacher education institutes, whose initial
aim was to produce a toolbox of measures for
teachers and technology heads to plan and
evaluate quality ICT programmes. The MIICE
toolbox reflects the range of benefits that good
use of ICT can deliver, by listing and
describing 13 ‘learning outcomes’ and their
components, developed and validated by
almost 250 teachers from a cross-section of
Scottish schools. The project emphasises that
these tools have been developed within the
education profession, and are not just another
set of targets drawn up by external authorities.
The 13 learning outcomes comprise:
1. Learner reflection
2. Skills development
3. Managing and manipulating digital
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
4. Shared planning/organization
5. Investigatory learning
6. Shared learning
7. Motivation
8. Enhancing learning outcomes
9. Quality of outcomes
10. Self-esteem/confidence
11. Teacher use of computers as productivity
12. Teacher facilitation in learning ICT
principles and good habits
13. Teacher use of ICT as a rich and effective
means of learning
These, in turn, are grouped into three sections,
relating to: the abilities and attitudes of the
learner (numbers 1 to 7); the management of
learning (numbers 8 to 10); and teachers’
continuing professional development in ICT use
(numbers 11 to 13). Each outcome consists of a
number of questions, to be ranked from 1 to 4.
For example, the second outcome, ‘Skills
development,’ which relates to learners’
development of systematic skills in using ICT
tools for a purpose, is composed of three
components: effective and responsible use of
ICT; creation and presentation of their own
material; collection and analysis of information.
The toolbox can be downloaded in summary
form, or as full reports for either primary or
secondary schools.
Group 2 - Relating to the management of learning
Progression in learning
Enhancing learning outcomes
[This relates to schools’ , teachers’ and school managers’
focus on setting expectations for continuing but realistic
progress in the uses of ICT and on putting it into a wider
Development of new teaching styles
Enable learners to modify information in a variety of forms,
including text, graphical objects, moving images, sounds and
web pages
Encourage development of informed attitudes in relation to
ICT in society
Quality of outcomes
[This relates to the setting and maintaining of high standards
for learners by teachers and school managers]
Assessment policies
Relationship to development planning priorities
Planning of resources
Breadth of experience of ICT use in context
Self esteem/confidence
Use of ICT to enhance school ethos
[This relates to the policies and practice of schools’ ,
teachers’ and school managers' in helping learners to feel a Encourage pride in work
sense of community, to take pride in their work and to be
willing to experiment]
Encourage enterprise and the exploration of new approaches
evaluation; indicators; policy/strategy;
standards; staff development
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Newhouse, C. P. (December 2002) “A framework to articulate the
impact of ICT on learning in schools.” Western Australian
Department of Education.
(2 March 2005)
the most relevant section is ‘Measuring the
Impact of ICT on Learning Environment.s. This
addresses the Learning Environment Attributes
dimension, the outcome for which is described
in the following way: ‘ICT is used to support
pedagogic practices that provide learning
environments that are more Learner-centred,
Knowledge-centred, Assessment-centred, and
Community-centred.’ Nine indicators for this
outcome are identified, along with relevant
research questions, sample data-collecting
instruments and methods for measuring the
positive impact of ICT on students’ learning
Online document
The author of this framework proposes a
number of dimensions to consider when
assessing the impact of ICTs on student
learning. Three of these dimensions are
developed in this publication, and are
accompanied by relevant research questions and
methods for measuring the impact of
technologies on students’ learning.
As far as the publication’s strategies for
measuring the impact of ICTs are concerned,
A table lays out very clearly each indicator and
its related research questions/methods of
measuring impact. These methods tend to be
one or more of the following: student activity
logs; learning programmes review; lessons
observation; and work samples of a random
students sample. Each of these is described in
further detail later in the manual.
The document also outlines the research
questions and data-collecting instruments to
address these questions, as well as providing
some sample questions for teachers to assess
the state of the current ICT learning
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
Research Questions [p 17]
Investigate reality and build knowledge
In what ways, to what degree and how often
have students investigated the real world using
up-to-date information?
How have students used tools to build a
broader and deeper knowledge base?
How has ICT been used, and how often, to
investigate the real world and build
Promote active learning and authentic
In what ways, to what degree and how often
have students been active as participants in
their own learning and learn by doing rather
than just listening or reading?
To what extent does assessment emerge from
student activity compared with being an
isolated activity?
How has ICT been used, and how often, to
encourage students to be active as participants
in their own learning and learn by doing?
Engage students by motivation and
What level of engagement do students have
with their own learning?
How have ICTs been used, and how often, to
provide more motivating and challenging
learning experiences that encourage students
to be more engaged with their learning?
Provide tools to increase student
What proportion of student time is spent on
completing repetitive, low-level tasks
involving writing, drawing and computation
that are not the main focus of study?
How has ICT been used, and how often, to
increase student productivity, particularly with
repetitive, low-level tasks involving writing,
drawing and computation?
Provide scaffolding to support higher-level
What proportion of student time is spent on
higher-level thinking tasks such as application,
analysis and synthesis?
How have ICTs been used, and how often, to
support the development of higher-level
thinking skills such as application, analysis
and synthesis?
Increase learner independence
In what ways, to what degree and how often
have students been encouraged to demonstrate
independent learning and progress at their own
How have ICTs been used, and how often, to
provide learning experiences when and where
they are needed?
Increase collaboration and cooperation
In what ways, to what degree and how often
have students been involved in learning
experiences involving cooperation and/or
collaboration among learners within and
beyond school?
What is the learning relationship between the
teacher and students?
How have ICTs been used, and how often, to
support learning experiences that involve cooperation among learners within and beyond
school and a more interactive relationship
between students and teachers?
Tailor learning to the learner
In what ways, to what degree and how often
have students been provided with learning
experiences based upon their personal learning
characteristics and needs?
How have ICTs been used, and how often, to
support more individualized learning
programmes tailored to their individual needs,
particularly in the case of students with special
Overcome physical disabilities
In what ways, to what degree and how often
have students with physical handicaps used
ICT input and/or output devices to be included
in learning activities with other students?
[Methods of gathering data] [p 23]
Work samples of a random sample of
View a variety of student work and judge
using the following criteria:
- Relevance and reality of contexts and
opportunity to build own knowledge
- Productivity level of students, particularly
with respect to low-level tasks
- Development of conceptual knowledge
drawing on high level thinking skills
Student activity logs
Students keep log entries associated with:
- Relevance and reality of contexts and
opportunity to build own knowledge
- Active and reflective processes supported
and connected to assessment processes
- Productivity level of students, particularly
with respect to low-level tasks
- Development of conceptual knowledge
drawing on high-level thinking skills
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Degree of learner independence
Support for collaboration and group-work
Review of learning programmes: Document
Judge using the following criteria ...
- Relevance and reality of contexts and
opportunity to build own knowledge
- Active and reflective processes supported
and connected to assessment processes
- Productivity level of students, particularly
with respect to low-level tasks
- Degree of learner independence
- Support for collaboration and group-work
- Accommodation for differences between
Observation of Lessons
Judge a sample of lessons using the following
criteria ...
- Active and reflective processes supported
and connected to assessment processes
- Level of engagement of all students
- Productivity level of students, particularly
with respect to low-level tasks
- Support for collaboration and group-work
evaluation; data collection; indicators; ICT and
curriculum; pedagogy
10. Sun Associates. (undated) “Are your schools getting the most
out of what technology has to offer?” (2 March 2005)
The procedure for Step 1 involves three further
stages: establish and train the evaluation
committee; formulate and review the
evaluation questions; and develop indicator
Web page
These tips for technology evaluation come
from a Sun Associates three-step scheme,
which forms the core of a service the company
offered to district leaders in the United States.
These steps describe the process that Sun
Associates follows when carrying out its
evaluations, but the ideas contained here
provide useful suggestions to anyone
embarking on an assessment of their school’s
use of ICT for improved teaching and
The three steps comprise: Step 1: Set goals;
Step 2: Analyze data; Step 3: Recommend and
Step 2 calls for gathering data by using a
variety of instruments, including surveys,
focus groups, classroom observations and
artefact analysis. Surveys may be of teachers,
administrators, students or community
members, and may make use of online or hardcopy media. Focus groups tend to involve
interviewing teachers, administrators and
technology staff. In addition to watching
teachers and students using ICTs in the
classroom, observations build up a broad
picture of technology integration by also
noting classroom setups, teaching styles and
student behaviour.
Step 3 involves an additional three stages:
scoring rubrics with the collected data;
presenting the findings and recommendations
in a final report; and disseminating the report
in a formal presentation.
evaluation; data collection; indicators; policy/
Evaluating Effectiveness of
Technology Integration
11. UNESCO. (2004) “Chapter 8:
Monitoring and evaluation,”
Integrating ICTs into
Education: Lessons Learned.
Bangkok: Clung Wicha
index.php?id=1793 (2 March 2005)
Online book
This chapter from a UNESCO resource on
integrating ICTs into education responds to the
perceived lack of monitoring and evaluation
components in many countries’ ICT
programmes. Where such evaluations have
taken place, often the results are not
disseminated widely among the educational
Within this chapter, three aspects of evaluating
ICT programmes are addressed:
documentation of ICT’s benefits to education;
evaluation methodologies; and programme
evaluation. There are lessons learned for each
of these components, which are described at
the beginning of the chapter, and the text then
draws on specific examples from the countries
in the study to further elaborate helpful
strategies and tips. The latter two components
identify the following lessons learned:
Evaluation methodologies:
• Action research is one of the best
methodologies for documenting the process
of effective ICT integration;
• There are other means besides the paperpencil test method that are more effective
for assessing the impact of ICTs on learning;
• Both quantitative and qualitative methods
should be used for assessing the integrated
use of ICT in schools, using various means
for collecting data, such as case studies,
questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and
focus groups.
Programme Evaluation: Evaluation should be
continuous and cover all aspects of the
process: planning, implementation, reflection,
refinement, effectiveness, and user acceptance.
Lesson Learned 1
Action research is one of the best
methodologies for documenting the process of
effective ICT integration
One of the best methodologies for gathering
data on the integrated use of ICT in Education
is action research, as it enables practitioners to
explore and integrate ICT in the school
curriculum, reflect on the process and outcome,
and amend and refine practices for future use.
a. Singapore: edu.QUEST, an initiative of the
MOE, showcased research projects on the use
of ICT in Education. edu.QUEST projects focus
on quality research on the impact of leading
edge technologies on educational practices and
achievements. Action research is ideal, as it is
responsive to unanticipated discoveries in the
course of experimentation with emerging
technologies. In one such project at Woodlands
Primary School, “Turning the Science Garden
into a Huge Classroom” (http://
eduquester/sciencegarden.html), the teacher
turned the school science garden into a huge
outdoor classroom with students studying plants
in their natural environment and surfing the
Web on the spot for further research on the
plants. The teacher’s evaluation noted that (i)
students can easily relate what they observe in
the science garden to what they read on the
Internet, (ii) students ask relevant questions and
compare observations/findings with their peers,
(iii) the learning environment is more
interactive and responsive and, as the teacher is
able to work with individual students or groups,
immediate feedback and adaptive instructions
are possible, and (iv) the Network Assistant
package permits better management of tasks
and the students. For example, it is possible to
monitor and freeze the students’ screens.
There is a need for teachers to be trained on how
to construct authentic assessment instruments
and interpret the results, focusing on the
development of student learning. Training should
be a complete process of teaching and learning,
as well as curriculum development. Assessment
methods are new to most teachers and they
would have to be trained to select methods suited
to specific learning activities.
a. Thailand: The new curriculum standards
encourage the use of authentic assessment across
the curriculum. The traditional paper-pencil test
method is not responsive to an instructional
process that focuses on students’ learning, in
which students are required to practice a higher
level of thinking skills and to engage in hands-on
activities to construct knowledge. Evaluation
should be obtained from various sources of
information and should make use of several
methods (e.g. group or individual observation,
report or product; interview; student’s record;
consulting between students and teachers;
practical assessment; performance assessment;
and portfolio assessment). An authentic
assessment better reflects what students have
learned or performed than the paper-pencil test
method, and provides realistic feedback to both
teacher and learner. The result of assessment can
be cross-checked using several sources of
information. A good paper-pencil test method is
only able to assess rote learning and gives no
information on what a student has learned.
Lesson Learned 2
Assessing the learning impact from ICT use is
better measured through other means besides
the paper-pencil test method
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
evaluation; policy/strategy; data collection;
planning; ICT integration
British Educational Communications and Technology Agency.
(2002) “Analysis of the Ofsted reports of schools that improved
their ICT 1996-2000.” Becta. (2 March 2005)
Online report
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in
This report targets senior school managers and
subject leaders for ICTs and aims to address
the question: Can similar characteristics be
found that account for the improvements some
schools have made in their effective use of
ICTs? The study comprises 20 schools: four
special schools, one secondary and the rest
primary schools. All the schools initially
scored very low upon inspection of their ICT
use in 1996-98, but achieved very good grades
when re-inspected in 1998-2000.
Broadly speaking, three characteristics were
identified as being present in all the improved
schools: good leadership; good teaching and
good resources. These and related questions,
including recommendations, are described in
the report.
Good leadership: Essentially, this entails the
head or governor having a clear vision for how
ICTs will help move the school forward,
which is shared with the teachers. Many
successful schools start small, focusing on
phased, specific projects, and the vision should
include how ICTs will shape the classroom,
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
and what the ‘delivered and received’
curriculum will be for the students. Teacher
confidence must be raised alongside student
performance, and a gradual approach has been
found to work best to this end.
• What is your school’s vision for student
learning and the classroom of the future in
your school for 2004, 2007...?
• What implications does this have for your
ICT policy and ICT development
Strategic planning is then vital for turning
vision into action. The report lists a series of
important questions that can help with this
stage, divided into the following areas: Vision
and policy; pupil outcomes; curriculum
implementation; resource deployment and
management; information management
strategy; finance; staff’s continuing
professional development; and parental and
community involvement.
Curriculum planning: Plans should include
an overview, as well as, medium-term planned
activities. Plans should answer questions such
as what will be assessed and how; and how
ICT will be used to enhance and extend other
• How ‘good’ is strategic and curriculum
planning at the moment?
How do we monitor our practice so we
know what pupils actually ‘receive’ and
how well pupils are doing?
Staff professional development: Use of a
selected software toolkit for staff training is
often most appropriate for primary and
subject-specific classes. Choose carefully the
type of training model, and include support
• How are teachers’ and support staff’s needs
• What range of training is offered, and is it
fit-for-purpose? Is teacher confidence and
competence being raised? Is this reflected
in classroom practice?
Resource management: Total costs of
purchasing and maintaining ICT equipment
are far greater than just the initial outlay. There
are many hidden costs, such as training,
cabling, Internet access, users’ time, and
technical support, that need to considered. The
report recommends dividing an ICT budget
into three areas: support, training and
maintenance; hardware and networks;
software and learning resources.
• How do you currently organize resources
within the school? (Use of ICT suites,
computers in classrooms or departmental
• Is there a better way to meet the vision, and
what implications will this have on budget,
use of rooms, infrastructure, timetable,
technical support, staff training, etc?
• How do you acquire resources, and does
this reflect real value for money when the
total costs of ownership are included?
What are your technical support needs, and
how can they be solved?
[p. 4]
The table below highlights some questions to
help with the review of planning:
Key area
Some possible questions to be considered
Vision and Policy
• What is it that the school hopes to achieve through the use of ICT?
• How will ICT be used to raise standards both in ICT AND in other subjects across
the curriculum?
• Is the ICT development plan part of the School Improvement Plan, and does it
reflect the schools’ ICT Policy and the school's aims?
• Are they regularly updated?
• How are national priorities reflected?
• How is best value secured?
Pupil Outcomes
• Does the Policy indicate how much curriculum time is allocated to ICT and how
ICT is delivered?
• Are there clear key stage planning over-views for whole-school delivery?
• How will the national Key Stage 3 ICT Strategy be implemented?
• Is ICT included in schemes of work for all subjects?
• How are assessment and record keeping undertaken?
• How are pupils’ attainment and achievements reported?
• How is curriculum implementation monitored?
• What role is there for ICT homework?
• What implications are there for out-of-hours use and home-school use?
• If / How are resources shared with other schools? (What role for school website?)
Are standards high enough?
What are the school's ICT targets for each key stage in 2002, 2004, 2007?
How do these link to national and local targets?
How is progress monitored, and is it on track?
What impact is ICT having on pupils’ standards in other curriculum areas?
Is ICT used effectively to support all pupils, including the gifted and talented, SEN,
EAL or those at risk of exclusion?
• Does ICT impact on pupils’ motivation to learn or satisfaction with school? (How
do you know?)
case studies; leadership; ICT and curriculum;
evaluation; policy/strategy; staff development;
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
British Educational Communications and Technology Agency.
(undated) “Remodelling with ICT.” Becta.
with greater clarity just how technology-rich
classrooms can make a difference. Interactive
whiteboards and Web cams are seen to offer
real-time communication activities,
administration staff describe the benefits of
direct links to local education authorities, and
the advantages to students with special
educational needs (SEN) are described by one
particular SEN-specialist school.
CD-ROM (For orders, see: http://
This CD-ROM contains case studies
demonstrating how ICTs have helped reform
teaching and learning practices in six schools
in the UK. (The multimedia files require
QuickTime 5 or above, which can be
downloaded from the CD.)
Teachers, principals and ICT co-ordinators
describe the effects that ICTs have had on their
students and administration, and the
multimedia format allows the viewer to see
Illustrative examples include a school with a
group of Year-5 students in a class with older
students. They are now able to be teamed up
with a larger class of their own age at a nearby
school, and enjoy the range of lessons
prepared by teachers there. At the same time,
the older students at the first school can
receive closer attention from their teacher.
It is hoped that the tips and recommendations
contained in these studies can offer food for
thought, and be adapted to individual schools’
Highlights include:
• The need for technical support - teachers
don’t have time - nor often the expertise to repair computers, and many schools now
have ICT co-ordinators or managers whose
specific task it is to maintain hardware
• ICTs do not reduce the teacher’s workload,
it changes the nature of the workload, and
gives teachers more choices about how
they work
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
teachers can plan online, which allows
them to access resources from home
they can contact one another and parents
much more easily by using database
ICTs allow for mix-and-match learning
environments, useful for a ‘plan B’ when
there is a serious shortage of teachers
applying for vacant posts
teachers can project onto large screens the
teaching and learning objectives for a given
lesson, so students know what they should
have achieved by the end of the class
students’ data can be kept in a student
achievement database, on which faculty
directors can draw for monitoring
ICTs can help with individual learning,
especially important for students with
special education needs.
[case study 3] “The children are so engrossed
and motivated by IT and the resources cover
so many curriculum areas. A wonderful
example is World War II for Year 6: the
teacher can lead with a video...and then the
children can choose a club, a breakfast club or
after-school club or Saturday go
revisit [the lesson], so they’re continually
learning independently.”
case studies; ICT in the classroom; educational
software; special educational needs;
independent learning
British Educational Communications and Technology Agency.
(2003) “What the research says about strategic leadership and
management of ICT in schools.” Becta.
(2 March 2005)
Online report
This report, aimed at senior school managers
and principals, summarises research into good
leadership and management in schools through
ICTs. It explains strategic ICT leadership as
the need for school heads of the future to have
knowledge and understanding in: how ICTs
can support and enhance learning and
teaching; how staff can be motivated to
develop skills towards effective teaching
through ICTs; how ICT resources can be
developed and sustained; and how
management information systems can be used
to boost overall school performance.
The report describes the case of an awardwinning head teacher-cum-ICT co-ordinator of
a primary school in the UK. He has spent
considerable time and money re-orienting his
school and staff to focus on raising standards
through the use of ICTs, and has introduced a
number of innovative projects to that end. For
example, with a strong emphasis on research,
he has developed a project examining the
impact of ICTs on the writing skills of boys at
his school. He has also set up a link with a
partner school in Hong Kong using e-mail, and
loaded planning templates onto all staff
laptops so that teachers can submit them
electronically. In addition, all admissions,
transfer and attendance data are gathered and
stored electronically.
Having analyzed the research, this paper
identifies five main common characteristics
shared by leaders who, themselves, use and
promote the effective use of ICTs for teaching
and other tasks.
1. Vision: Senior leaders need to share with
all levels of staff a constantly developing
vision of the ICT role in education.
2. Personal Use: It is important that senior
leaders are seen to be using technology in
their daily working lives. In this way, they
can become learners alongside students
and teachers, and effect change in the
whole school culture.
3. Continuing Professional Development:
Senior leaders should be trained in more
advanced used of management information
systems; access to online support and the
professional community can reduce their
isolation and help them learn from the
experience of others.
4. Management of Change: Innovative
managers are using ICTs to create a whole
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
new learning environment and experience
for students. They need to be able to apply
appropriate methods to the management of
5. Management Information Systems: School
leaders require further training in MIS to
fully benefit from the potential of these
tools to help with the planning and
evaluating of their schools’ performance.
Beyond the basic data-entry use of MIS,
senior leaders can learn to use them for
pupil assessment tracking and the creation
of in-house reporting and recording
Factors for effective use
• A clear vision of ICT should be
communicated to all levels of staff and the
wider school community.
• Head teachers should personally use ICT to
raise the profile of ICT in school.
• Educators should participate in online
communities to help reduce professional
• Access development is needed to
professional for strategic leadership of ICT.
• Effective use of management information
systems is important to reduce the time
spent on administrative tasks and provide
useful data.
Key questions for senior leaders
• Do you and your senior management team
lead by example in the use of ICT?
• Is ICT central to curriculum developments
in your whole-school improvement plan?
How well are teachers in your school
supported in their use of ICT through
continuing professional development,
ready access to ICT resources and
technical support?
How head teachers can embed ICT within
teaching, learning, management and
• Develop a vision for the development and
integration of ICT across the curriculum,
and promote this vision within and beyond
the school
• Provide appropriate, sustained ICT
professional development for all levels of
• Become an ICT learner along with staff
and students
• Use management information for school
• Provide staff with personal access to ICT
case studies; leadership; ICT and the
classroom; staff development; ICT integration
Carr, J. (August 2002) “Project Pillars: Foundations for success
in online curriculum projects.” Education Network Australia. (2 March 2005)
implemented their project were seen to have
taken into account:
Online report
This is a paper describing findings from an
Australian national project that aimed to
establish factors for successful implementation
of online projects in classrooms. Sixty teachers
took part in the study, and data received from
them forms the basis of the conclusions and good
practice outlined here.
The three pillars for such projects are
identified as: preparation, participation, and
pedagogy, and are seen to provide the
foundation for effective online projects. There
are then a number of factors under the heading
of each pillar that teachers who successfully
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
• Select: when selecting a project, teachers
bear in mind a range of criteria:
Student needs
Student skills
Student interests
Learning outcomes
Technology requirements
Available support
Commitment needed
• Plan: teachers plan lessons with the project
goals in mind
• Organize: materials and resources
• Support: for technology, participation and
• Reflect: on planning before and during the
life of the project
• Network: with other project participants
• Activity
• Manage: student learning experiences
• Extend ideas: develop project goals to meet
student learning needs
• Evaluate
• Traits
• Approach: many teachers in successful
online projects exhibit strong constructivist
leanings in teaching approach
Mentor: teachers’ reports often emphasize
value of mentoring students
Review: evaluation is critical for learning
ahead of the next online experience
A way of looking at [successful teachers’]
commitment is to do a comparison between
sporting teams and conducting online projects.
Players and coaches of sporting teams have an
enthusiasm and zest for success. It is a
powerful analogy that has value in online
Coaching interventions/actions to increase success and improve learning
What coaches do before a sport event:
Analyse opposition.
Prepare game plan
Organise training sessions
Prepare equipment
Train players with skills needed
Train tactics and players roles
Gain commitment from players
Ensure players know rules and times
and have right equipment
What coaches do during an event:
Warm the team up
Provide equipment
Monitor player efforts
Provide feedback to players and umpire.
Provide tactics and changes where
• Maintain motivation and enthusiasm in
What coaches do after an event:
• Analyse game and player’ s
• Check equipment and future needs
• Plan future training and skill
What teachers do before online
Analyse project
Prepare curriculum unit
Establish student needs
Prepare technology and resources
Teach students skills required
Organise student/group roles
Gain commitment/motivation
Prepare timetables, checklists and
technological support needed
What teachers do during online
Provide lessons for understanding and
concept development
Ongoing student performance
Communicate with students, project
teachers and school staff
Adapt to suit project and student needs,
develop extension activities where
Build in fun
What teachers do after online projects:
• Assess success of project and student
• Feedback to school on future
technology requirements
• Consider student skills and needs and
prepare next learning journey
case studies; planning; evaluation; pedagogy;
ICT in the classroom
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Department for Education and Skills, UK. (undated) “ICT and
Learning: ImpaCT 2 Study.”
CD-ROM (For orders, see: http://
This CD-ROM contains case studies from the
ImpaCT 2 study conducted by the Department
of Education and Skills and managed by Becta
in the UK, which attempted to assess the
progress of the ICT in Schools Programme.
The study was designed to a) identify the
impact of networked technologies on both
school- and home-based learning; and b)
ascertain the effects of these technologies on
pupils’ achievements at Key Stages 2, 3 and 4.
This report makes up one of three related
strands to the study, and explores the nature of
teaching and learning with technology in
various in-school and home-based settings.
This strand, thus, worked in 15 of the 60
schools involved in the larger research study,
looking at learning and teaching environments,
learning and teaching styles, and how the
views of teachers, parents and students had
been affected by ICTs.
Various research methods were used in a series
of connected case studies, such as observations,
interviews, video diaries and group activities, to
determine the perceptions and understandings
of the different people using ICTs in terms of
their relation to teaching and learning.
The research was conducted under five main
themes: ICTs in Schools: Practice and
Perceptions; Management and Organization of
ICTs; Technology and Infrastructure; Training
and Professional Development; and Home and
School Use of ICTs. The report describes the
following key findings:
• Strategies for the effective use of ICTs for
student learning are still developing.
• Sustainability and improvement of ICT
provision are key. Many students have
higher-quality hardware and software in
their homes, and schools are often unable
to afford the technologies they require.
• Many schools now have ICT suites, as well as
stand-alone machines in various parts of the
building. Teachers need access to computers
for staff development and preparation.
• As students increasingly have access to better
technologies at home, it is important that
schools acknowledge pupils’ innovative uses
of ICTs and develop their own practices.
Summary of key recommendations
from this strand
Training, guidance and support
• Whilst training to date has undoubtedly
benefited teachers, there is a continuing need
for training which can move beyond technical
competence and concentrate on the appropriate
application of networked ICTs into the
curriculum, along with development of
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
transferable skills such as search and evaluation
strategies for both teachers and pupils.
Additionally, there is a need for specific
guidance regarding the potential of ICT in the
areas of numeracy, literacy and special
educational needs (SEN), and more regard needs
to be taken of the impact that ICT use in primary
schools is having on secondary schools. There
are clear opportunities for developing greater
links between ways in which ICT is used in
schools and the home environment.
ICT provision and support
• Dedicated staff machines and time should be
made available to allow staff the opportunity
for professional development and teaching
preparation, and hardware and software need
to be reliable, well-maintained and up-to-date
in order to keep both staff and pupils
motivated and effective.
Development and dissemination of good
• There is recognition among teachers that a
more flexible approach is required if ICT is
to be effective. Changes in lesson style to
allow a less formal classroom atmosphere,
greater pupil autonomy, differing modes of
teacher/pupil interaction, and flexible study
space are all recognized as key success
factors for effective use of ICT. Further
good practice should also be developed in
facilitating greater links between home and
school use of ICT.
case studies; evaluation; pedagogy; ICT in the
classroom; ICT integration
Espinoza, C. and Kozma, R. (March 2001) “Integrating
technology into the curriculum to support standards-based
achievements in a middle school.” (2 March 2005)
Online report
This case study describes ‘an above average
school in an above average school district,’ a
middle school in Colorado, United States. The
wealth of information is of particular interest to
school principals, curriculum developers and
district-level educational managers, who will be
able to see what constitutes successful use of
ICTs in cross-curricular classroom practice
from the perspective of this school’s recent past,
present and projected goals for the future. The
school has a long past in recognizing the value
of ICT for enhancing subject teaching, and
teachers and students alike exhibit high levels
of ICT skills in their daily practice.
The authors then propose five hypotheses
concerning the role of ICTs in the school’s
success, as well as rival hypotheses, and use
the information provided to support their
conclusions as to which is the more valid. In
brief, it was found that:
Technology tends to be seen as an
additional resource that supports standardsbased, curriculum-driven instruction
The distribution of technology users
among the school’s teachers contradicts
traditional diffusion patterns for innovation
- a far greater number of staff members are
taking risks with technology than the
traditional model would predict
Extensive human infrastructure is central
to the school’s success with technology and
with targets that are set;
The school makes a strong case that ICT
supports high academic standards.
pertaining to one of the Bill of Rights that
they selected, search for newspaper articles
that pertained to this amendment, and
construct a poster that explained how the
amendment affects the lives of their
• Students in 8th grade used ‘Blackboard’,
an intra-net collaboration environment, to
share, read, and comment on each other’s
• Students in an 8th grade math class used
‘Geometer’s Sketch Pad’ to construct
geometrical shapes and dynamically
explore their properties.
• An 8th grade student used a video camera
and video editing software to make a report
on tennis for a project in his inquiry class.
[p 8]
Hypothesis 1.
[p 7]
The direct connection between these resources
and the instructional practices of teachers and
students was apparent during the site visit.
While observing classes, both within the
computer labs and other classrooms, the
following technology-based practices were
observed or described:
• Students in a 6th grade language arts class
used the Internet to explore and evaluate
various poetry websites and write their
own poems for Internet publication.
• Students in a 6th grade science class used
the Internet to gather information on the
Alaskan tundra ecosystem, and used a
variety of productivity tools to create a
product, such as a newspaper, mural, or
research proposal.
• Students in an 8th grade social studies
class used the Internet to study court cases
Technology is a strong catalyst for educational
innovation and improvement, especially when
the World Wide Web is involved.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
The rival hypothesis is that where true schoolwide improvement is found, technology served
only as an additional resource and not as a
catalyst, that the forces that drove the
improvements also drove the application of
technology to specific educational problems.
Evidence in support of Hypothesis 1.
By definition, technology plays a subordinate
role at Clear Ridge and Mountain. The
Principal and the Student Achievement
Specialist characterized the innovation at
Mountain as the integration of technology into
the curriculum to support student achievement
of standards. If statements like ‘they couldn’t
have done it without technology’ or ‘that
wouldn’t have happened without technology’
are the criteria for evidence for a ‘strong’ role
for the role of technology, there is little
evidence that technology has played a strong
role in driving changes in curriculum or
instruction at Mountain.
The strongest comments about the role of
technology in bringing about change were
rather modest in claim. For example, when
discussing the role of technology in the
Proficiency Centre, the Principal commented
on the ability of the software to differentiate
the instruction around the needs of individual
“A teacher can’t have thirty different
individual lessons happening in the
classroom at the same time. So that’s one
of the beauties that I really see [in using
Or an 8th grade teacher said:
“Our kids write so much more because
they have technology to use in their
Perhaps the strongest comment came from the
Student Achievement Specialist, the
technology coordinator, who said:
“Technology can make things possible that
nothing else can - writing for a larger
audience. The creation of a web site so that
other people can read what you’re doing. . .
Using spreadsheets to solve problems.”
But even here, the Student Achievement
Specialist subordinates her statement:
“That will increase student achievement of
a standard.”
Evidence in support of the rival Hypothesis.
More often, the comments made by
administrators, staff, teachers, and even
students suggested that technology was an
added resource - an important resource, but
just one more in an arsenal of resources that
supported standards-based student
achievement. The Principal commented that:
“It’s really enhancing the teaching of the
standards . . . rather than just replacing
something that they could already do in
their classroom.”
She went on to say:
“It’s just a different view of doing that, and
so I think technology, if the teacher has
that end in mind, then the technology can
be just one of the tools to enhance them
getting there.”
The direction of impact is one of standards
changing the use of technology, rather than the
other way around. The District Technology
Director, commented on the District’s
technology plan:
“This plan also talks a lot about how [we]
are going to be able to do the things that
we know are right with kids for learning.
Use technology to do that and within that
embed the standards . . . and move toward
where we need to be . . .”
Similarly, the Student Achievement Specialist
“Instead of what do you want to do and
what program do you want to use, it’s more
what standards are you trying to address
through this lesson, so it’s changed the way
that we plan.”
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
The statements most often made by teachers
were that:
• the use of technology enhances the
• it’s an alternative way for kids to express
• it can be used to do research in a slightly
different way
• technology is always one of the choices for
Teacher attitudes were best summed up by one
6th grade teacher who said:
“Technology, I kind of feel, is a way to
enhance my curriculum, because that’s a
conflict, I think ‘does curriculum drive
your instruction or does technology drive
your instruction?’ and of course, this being
a standards-based school, I have to say my
curriculum does.”
Technology is important at Clear Ridge and
Mountain Middle School, but it plays a
supportive role and it is taken for granted in
this community of frequent computer users.
The Middle School Director, made an
interesting comment on this topic. He said:
“I don’t view it [technology] as a change
agent that we’ve introduced children to
technology and then it’s infused into the
community. I just think that we reflect the
community; the school reflects the
community that it’s part of.”
case studies; evaluation; ICT and curriculum;
ICT in subject teaching; standards
European SchoolNet. (March 2002) “Education in eEurope Innovative practices in schools.” (2 March 2005)
Online report
This online
report describes
and analyzes 50
schools in
identifying the
common trends
that they share and which together might
inform schools ICT integration programmes
in the future. The field research focuses on the
dimensions of educational practice where ICTs
can be seen to have had the most impact:
pedagogy; economics; technology; sociocultural aspects; and organization, and these
categories determine the structure of the
The report also quotes research arguing that
change must be seen to occur in three key areas
before it can be deemed to be ‘systemic’ change:
the possible use of new revised materials; new
teaching approaches; and new beliefs.
Under the first dimension, pedagogy, the
report distinguishes between two broad types
of secondary school: technical and broad
curriculum. The technical schools tend to
show a uniform integration of ICTs across the
curriculum, while schools with a broad
curriculum often exhibit uneven use of
technology, although they, too, were identified
as displaying very innovative uses of their
ICTs and of teaching practices, in general.
In the primary schools described, meanwhile,
ICTs are generally integrated across the
curriculum, rather than being subject-specific,
and its use can be divided into three broad areas:
as a medium of expression, especially because of
its multimedia element; as a communication tool;
and as a collaboration tool.
Many of the schools in the study reflected
uncertainty as to the best ways to assess the
benefits of ICTs in pedagogical terms. A
number of new models for doing so are
described in the report:
• The achievement model. This is generally
used among secondary schools, where ICT
is taught as a subject in its own right.
• The comparison model. Here, the
achievements of classes using ICTs are
compared to classes with no ICT element.
• The self-reflective method. Staff discuss
students’ responses to evaluation
• The public model. Schools assess the
impact of ICTs on their pedagogical
practice based on public and parent
opinion, and media coverage.
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
Teacher training is also described under the
pedagogical dimension. The majority of
respondents quoted by the report cite selftraining as the chief source of their learning
ICT skills, while the next largest group point
to in-service training.
The most striking aspect of the economic
dimension of the report is the dearth of
specific data provided by the schools
themselves. Most schools in the study take
part in funded projects or private projects
supported by businesses or local communities,
although the lack of reported data suggests
teachers either do not see the connection
between this funding and their access to ICTs,
or else they play no part in the financial side of
the job.
In terms of technology, many schools, while
apparently still using what appear to be
traditional computer labs, describe these
computer centres in terms that make it clear
they think of them more as specialist learning
areas, where the computers are used as a
learning resource for a particular subject.
While student-computer ratios vary
considerably, even among these schools, a
high number of computers is not considered a
major indicator of innovation; however, the
teacher-computer ratio can be seen to have a
direct effect on the level of innovative use of
technology in the classroom. Hardware visible
in photos and documentation includes
scanners, printers, digital video and video
conferencing equipment, while software is
often very specialised, such as that used for
specific subjects and share- and freeware, with
the Internet often mentioned as a research tool.
The socio-cultural dimension of this
framework highlights interesting patterns in
gender analysis: specifically, while school
principals and ICT administrators tend to be
male, in best practice schools they are often
female. The report stops short of drawing any
explicit conclusions from this, but does make
mention of other research suggesting that the
hand-over of technologies control is often less
when a male teacher is in charge of a largely
female group of students. The report also notes
that a) many best practice schools recognize
the value of ICT in communication and thence
collaborative projects, and b) two broad
approaches to Internet security can be
observed, generally dividing primary and
secondary schools: supervision in the case of
the former, and filtering in the latter.
As for organization, the study noted the role of
the ICT co-ordinator (very often also a
teacher) who must work with many other
stakeholders to formulate policy, implement
programmes, and deal with maintenance and
servicing, which in turn has led to a greater
school-wide reliance on teamwork. In
addition, the changing role of the teacher and
principal is recognized, with most bestpractice schools tending to be supported by
visionary and proactive leaders. Such leaders
often try to find new ways of approaching
traditional aspects of school life, such as the
linear timetable and conventional uses of
space. In this way, they can be seen to
encourage and embody innovative approaches
to getting the most from new technologies.
[Technological dimension - p. 43]
3.2 Distribution and Access of Computers at
In the questionnaires, we have asked “Where
are computers used mainly in your school?”
The results were perhaps predictable because
primary schools have generally less
laboratories than secondary schools. However,
less predictable is the picture of what are today
classified in innovative schools as “class
rooms” and what as “laboratories.”
In the grid for delivering the “ICT How and
Where” documents, we have asked for pictures
of any rooms where computers are used and
we have suggested a list of “traditional” school
rooms. Of course, computer rooms, laboratories
and classes were among the suggested rooms,
but we got a lot of questions from teachers:
some schools responded that they have “no
laboratories,” others that they have “only
laboratories” because each subject is taught in
a dedicated “subject room.” The computer
room, when present, and the “mediatec,” a
media rich library mentioned by
Rugkobbelskolen or Zernike College, were at
the beginning the only room in the school with
any computers. Now, in these same schools,
these areas are more used for extracurricular
activities of students, for teacher training, or
for users from outside of the school.
Independently of school level, it is reported by
the schools that “normal” teaching happens in
“equipped rooms,” where students can work
together in groups, where the teacher is not an
exclusive “information source,” where pupils
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
are supposed to do actively something and not
just to listen to or to deliver written or verbal
presentations of their knowledge and skills.
Computers are an important part of the
equipment of these new “learning rooms,” but
they are not the only tools available or used.
Schools without laptops use “mobile computer
stations” (e.g. Dietrich Bonhoeffer Gymnasium,
Germany) and wireless technology will delete
the feeling of the “punishment corner” given
by some l-room-layouts (e.g. Istituto
comprensivo Jesi Centro, Italy or Carmen
Sylva High school, Romania).
With a “normality” attitude, computers are
present in the most advanced and also richest
schools in “leisure” rooms for teachers and
pupils. Even if games are not often permitted
in primary schools, these have never been
presented as rooms for learning, but rather as
rest rooms.
3.3 Maintenance and Repair
An intelligent use of old computers increases
the number of available machines. So, for
example, at Rugkobbelskolen, “The computers
placed in classrooms are mostly older
computers working as MS Terminal clients
connected to our Terminal Server – and this
way, all our oldest computers live a few years
longer in a very efficient way.” Or at Dietrich
Bonhoeffer Gymnasium the “old computer
room” is used as an ICT area where students
can use computers whenever they want. Old
computers are also the “desired object.” For
the most original “dream room” of our sample,
we have encountered such a “dream” at ITIS
Vivante, Italy: “Our dear older PCs have not
yet retired! They are stored, waiting to help us
in a project by using Opensource (Linux)
For primary schools and for the not technical
secondary schools, the repair of computers is
still a problem even when external firms and
local support are available. The external
support is expensive (RØyse skole, Norway)
and the internal one never sufficient because it
is entrusted to already busy teachers
(Realschule Graz-Weibling, Austria, Ecole
Elementaire De Belb ze les Toulose, France,
Astrid Lindgren Grundschule, Germany,
Scuola Media Dante Alighieri, Italy). Original
and effective solutions are presented by those
schools, which give a more relevant and
innovative role to pupils. So, for example at
the computer repair rooms of Åmot
ungdomskole, Norway, “The students can
choose between some subjects at our school.
One of the subjects is ‘ICT in Practice.’ In our
school we have a room where a group of
students works with upgrading and repairing
of the computers used by the entire group of
students at school. In the process, we are now
starting a service store for helping other
practical training or seminaries. We fill this
among other things, by providing ICT-support
in the primary schools of Deinze (5 schools)...
They also make an inventory of the hardware
and software in the school, and they give a
lesson about a subject chosen by the teachers.
For this lesson, they write a manual for the
The same happens to students of the Italian
ITIS Majorana, but pupils of the Belgian St
Amandus need no help:
“Children love working with the computer.
Kids like to pass on their knowledge and skills
to other children. Pupils can also take over a
few computer jobs from their teacher, such as:
starting the computer, choosing the right
programme; or installing a CD-ROM. In this
way the teacher has more time for the other
educational duties...Real educators can still
learn a lot from their pupils...A pupil who
renders assistance to the teacher or a friend
may wear the yellow cap of the @-team!”
Harris, J. (1998) Virtual
Architecture: Designing and
Directing Curriculum-Based
Telecomputing. Eugene OR:
ISTE, 148 pp.
Print publication (For orders, see the ISTE
Bookstore at
case studies; evaluation; leadership; pedagogy;
Computer repair has become a lucrative
activity for students of Sekundare schule
Minerva, Switzerland: They are in charge of
repairing school computers and get financial
compensation for it! For students of the
Belgian St Vincentius Handelinstituut,
computer repair has become part of their
curriculum: “The students of Computer
Management have in their timetable 2 hours
This book from ISTE is aimed at K-12
teachers, curriculum developers, staff
development specialists, teacher educators and
pre-service teachers. Its main theme is
telecomputing projects, and the author outlines
the essential stages that lead towards effective,
curriculum-based activities integrating
technology, in particular the Internet, into any
K-12 classroom.
The book presents this process by employing
the extended metaphor of building and
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
exploring a house, from laying the foundations,
through exploring the internal space in which
various tools are used in different ways in
different parts of the house, to looking at the
larger picture, such as the land and context in
which the house stands. There are also detailed
descriptions taken from case studies illustrating
the author’s main points.
Thus, Chapter 5: Telecollaborative Projects in
Context, considers three important elements of
educational telecomputing projects, ‘exterior’
elements. These are addressed in the form of
the questions: How do such projects ‘interface’
with the rest of the curriculum? How can
students’ project-based work best be
evaluated? How can the efficacy of project
designs be assessed?
One of the problems associated with using the
Internet for developing student-centred,
problem-based, multi-modal and
interdisciplinary projects is the question of
time. The author argues that it isn’t the
Internet, itself, that requires more time, but
rather teaching well which demands the
teacher’s resources. The suggestion is that
projects such as these could combine
curricular goals, as well as activity structures,
to counter curricula crowding.
The case study that illustrates best practice in
this regard comes from a project involving
Grade 6 students in Canada and the United
States. The project, entitled “Learning: The
Next Generation,” began by exploring answers
to two questions: “What will schools be like in
the 21st Century” and “How will students learn
and teachers teach?” Although the students
used various telecommunications tools - for
example, groups of students creating Web
pages to introduce themselves, including links
and extra information - the focus of the
activity was on problem-based, collaborative
learning. The students worked towards
creating and sharing architectural plans and
essays describing the experience of going to
school in the future.
These students could be seen to have engaged
in various kinds of learning, including
information exchange, parallel problem-solving
and electronic publishing. In answer to the
question of what curriculum targets the project
met, the author refers to a page combining
various sets of professionally-developed
standards within each subject with specific
skills and strategies: “Content Knowledge: A
Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for
K-12 Education” (
These reveal that the students involved in the
Next Generation project had addressed 10 out
of the 13 general standards identified for
language arts. In addition, the project also
addressed standards relating to mathematics,
problem-solving, geography and interpersonal
As far as evaluation of student learning and
assessment of project designs are concerned,
the author notes that it is the individual project
that should be assessed, not telecollaboration
in general. That said, there are four different
forms of assessment that are relevant to
evaluating students’ learning:
• Performance-based assessment
• Authentic assessment
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
Portfolio assessment
Journal assessment
Another case study is then described to show
how several of these types of assessment can be
used. Assessment of project design, meanwhile,
should be no different for a telecollaborative
project than for any other student-centred,
multidisciplinary learning experience. The
excerpt below elaborates on this.
[p 127]
Assessment of project designs
I have asked many different groups of teachers
throughout the United States and Canada to
determine, as a group, what the characteristics
of powerful educational activities are, whether
the activities incorporate the use of the
Internet, or whether computers in general are
used on the activities. Here, for example, is a
list of characteristics [of attributes of powerful
educational activities] generated by a group of
teachers participating in a symposium at
McGill University in Quebec:
Attributes of powerful educational activities:
1. student-centred
2. authentic
3. builds independent thinking skills
4. creative
5. students have significant ownership
6. collaborative
7. open-ended
8. self-assessment is incorporated
9. students learn from other students
10. intrinsically motivated
11. addresses differences
12. interdisciplinary
13. inclusive
14. process oriented
15. fun
16. instant feedback
17. learning is interactive
18. active participation
19. non-threatening
20. up-close and personal
21. challenging
22. meaningful
Here’s another list, developed by a group of
educators at a state-wide conference in Iowa.
Attributes of powerful educational activities:
1. freedom of inquiry
2. exhibited to the world/audience
3. problem-solving
4. active involvement
5. higher-level thinking
6. students finding own resources
7. students making connections
8. real-life
9. collaborative
10. independence in learning is encouraged
and demonstrated
11. interdisciplinary
12. multiple solutions to problems are
incorporated into the design
13. students given options for assignments
14. multiple intelligences are exercised
15. fun
16. meaningful
• conflict/resolution; problem-solving;
challenge resolution; tension/release
• student-driven or student-generated;
teacher-guided; teacher-facilitated; teachergenerated but student-driven; student as
worker, teacher as coach
• engaged learner; students and teachers
enjoy what they’re doing
• creative
• communication
• risk-taking
• decision-making
• student takes responsibility for preparation
• use of prior experience in present learning
• co-operation/collaboration
Harris, S. and Kington, A.
(2001) “Innovative
classroom practices using
ICT in England: Implications
for schools.” National
Foundation for Education
downloads/12.PDF (2 March 2005)
case studies; evaluation; collaborative
projects; independent learning; standards;
This is the
summary of a
study carried out
in the UK by the
National Foundation for Educational Research
on innovative pedagogical practices using ICT.
Schools were selected for the study based on
the following criteria: innovative classroom
practices that utilized ICT; evidence of
improving standards; levels of resources which
could be achieved by other schools; and a
favourable Office for Standards in Education
(OFSTED) report.
What kinds of overall patterns do teachers see
in these lists of characteristics? A group of
teachers in Honolulu, Hawaii offered these
ideas with reference to the attributes that their
groups named:
Three primary and three secondary schools
were chosen for the case studies, and each
demonstrated how ICTs, when appropriately
used, can have a significant positive impact on
students’ learning. Outcomes included
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
improved motivation; increased confidence
and self-esteem; enhanced social skills;
improved group-working and co-operative
skills; and enhanced achievement.
The implications of ICTs on the schools
involved redefined roles and greater demands
on both the teachers and students. Teachers,
for example, found they had to develop their
own ICT skills, show willingness to re-examine
and change their approach to teaching, support
the students, and monitor and evaluate the new
activities they had introduced. Students, on the
other hand, found they were being asked to
show greater responsibility for their work,
meet deadlines and become more reflective
about their performance. Despite these
changes, however, the teachers involved in
these case studies all expressed the view that
the greater workload was justified by the
outcomes, and were keen to continue the
Four factors were identified by the case studies
as being essential to the successful
introduction of ICTs by the teachers:
• That they had prior experience in some
form of innovative programme (not
necessarily related to ICTs)
• That they enjoyed support from senior
• That they worked together in a
collaborative environment
• That they were willing to take risks, aware
that some initiatives would inevitably fail
Some examples of innovative activities in
primary schools include the following:
Pupils were given all-day access to a PC,
and worked on a variety of assignments
that involved web-based work. Pupils with
special educational needs were especially
motivated to produce work of a higher
One school set up an e-mail exchange
between pupils and staff at a local phone
factory, encouraging writing for authentic
Older children in another school worked
collaboratively on a series of crosscurricular problems and puzzles,
developing a range of ICT skills while the
teacher played a supporting, but not a
leading, role.
The innovations in secondary schools
‘Turning potential into performance’: Using
a database to record, monitor and set
A secondary school collected data about
students’ performance in formal tests and
ongoing work in all subjects, and used this to
set targets for students. A computer database
stored this data for approximately 2,000
students in the lower and upper schools.
Teachers used the data to give them a better
picture of each student’s capabilities and to
prepare differentiated tasks for students of
different abilities. Students who were
underachieving received additional attention
and support. Students were motivated by
knowing that their teachers closely monitored
their performance.
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
An online course leading to accreditation in
Upper secondary school students worked on a
two-year online course which led to formal
accreditation in ICT at 16+ (an intermediate
General National Vocational Qualification:
equivalent to four GCSE passes at Grades AC). The materials had been prepared by staff at
another school in accordance with syllabus
requirements, and offered to other schools for
an annual fee. Students worked independently
at school and at home using multimedia
resources; teachers supervised their work at
school and marked the formal assignments.
The online course delivery was viewed as an
attraction for de-motivated students.
Using video conferencing to improve
English students’ conversational skills in
Upper secondary school students practised their
conversational skills in French by participating
in video-conferencing sessions with students in
a French school who were studying English.
High-ability students volunteered for optional
lunchtime sessions for 20 minutes each week
for ten weeks. The teachers collaborated to
prepare sheets for each week to guide the
conversations. Students spent half the session
asking questions in the other language, and half
the session answering questions in their native
language; they liked seeing as well as hearing
the reactions of the other students.
case studies; innovative practices; pedagogy;
ICT in the classroom; ICT and curriculum
10. Kozma, R. Ed. (2003) Technology, Innovation and Educational
Change: A Global Perspective. Eugene OR: ISTE, pp. 301.
Print publication (For orders, see the ISTE
Bookstore at
Chapter 7: “Stellar Cases of TechnologySupported Pedagogical Innovations” provides
an analysis of 22 stellar cases of ICT
integration chosen from the 174 cases in 28
countries featured in the rest of the book. The
summary of these 22 exemplary cases includes
an overview of the schools; a look at the ICT
used and the demographics of each individual
school; and the pedagogies used in each
The author notes that by nature these are
examples of innovations and, thus, it is very
difficult to categorize them in any satisfactory
way. Many even used a range of pedagogies
simultaneously. That said, most used
pedagogies characterised by authentic
instruction and student-centred learning, as
well as using instructional methods like
project learning, inquiry, alternative
assessment and collaborative learning.
The 22 cases represent countries from all over
the world, and illustrate wide variety in the
pedagogical innovations they employ.
Examples include:
Networked Cultures and Communities
• A group of eight schools, some of which
are in remote communities, who set up an
electronic magazine for sharing their
• A networked community of five primary
schools in Spain, in which students
developed multimedia resources reflecting
research (conducted by Internet searches,
field trips and digital photography)
describing the geography, history and
culture of their villages. Their work was
also integrated by their teachers into
specific subjects, such as geography and
• The Salt Flat project, a website developed
by a single school in Israel, that took a
cross-curricular approach and resulted in
an online learning centre containing
student projects, information banks with
historical and geographical data, visual
content and study aids (including activities
for special education and resources for
immigrant students).
• The Luring into Reading Through the
Internet innovation in a German primary
school, through which pupils collaborated
with students in the Czech Republic,
Sweden and Hungary on projects that used
fairy tales in an interdisciplinary way ‘to
stimulate students’ pleasure in reading and
to advance creative writing.’ Pupils wrote
new fairy tales or rearranged and modified
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
existing tales, using a mix of traditional
and ICT-based media and exchanging
materials with students from the other
schools. Teachers noted the students
exhibited greater attention to style and
readability of their stories as a result of the
international exchange.
Virtual Field Trips
• A laptop-based art project in Hong Kong,
in through students used art software, such
as Painter Classics and Art Dabbler, to
learn about the effects of different art
media. Specially-selected students
travelled to Beijing to work with mainland
Chinese pupils; to learn Chinese painting
techniques and critique one another’s
work; to teach them how to sketch with
laptops; and to learn how to collaborate
with students from another culture;
Pioneering Projects of Teachers
• A poetry-composition project in Thailand,
through which a teacher developed CAI
programs to teach pupils to compose Thailanguage poems. Students work together
by answering questions, performing
exercises, and coming to consensus after
discussing their differing views.
Communication between students and the
teacher takes place on the Web Board
developed by the teacher, and the pupils
can access verses online for studying. They
then compose a poem and enter it for
submission on the website.
[p 211]
Large Cross-curricular Projects
In Portugal’s stellar case, all primary school
students in the third and fourth years worked
in small groups throughout the school year to
develop school cinema projects. The project
was called “Image in Movement: Young
Cartoon Directors.” The students used ICT for
the entire process of producing an animation,
including image capturing and script design. A
major pedagogical focus was upon skills in
plastic expression and in the critical evaluation
of audio-visual messages. Art was one of five
subjects in the curriculum; the ICT-based
animation activity was allocated two hours per
week for the entire year. Each classroom was
guided by a three-teacher team consisting of
(1) the main teacher of the class, (2) the
teacher co-ordinator who gave assistance
primarily with the ICT, and (3) the teacher in
charge of ‘visual and technological education,
who helped with plastic and visual
expression.’ The latter two teachers came into
the classroom for the weekly two-hour session.
The students generally worked in groups on
their animation projects. The students learned
to use Director and Premier software in order
to produce animations. Some of the resulting
animations were extraordinary for ten-yearolds.
case studies; innovative practices; pedagogy;
collaborative projects; independent learning;
ICT and curriculum
Successful Case Studies of
Technology Integration in Schools
The following acronyms are used
throughout the catalogue:
BECTA - The British Educational
Communications and Technology Agency (UK)
CBT/CAL - Computer-based Teaching/
Computer-assisted Learning
DfES/QCA - Department for Education and
Skills/The Qualifications and Curriculum
Authority (UK)
DTI - The Department of Trade and Industry
GCSE - General Certificate of Secondary
Education (UK)
GIS - Geographic Information Systems, tools
used to gather, transform, manipulate, analyze,
and produce information related to the surface
of the Earth
HTML - Hyper-Text Mark-up Language, the
authoring language used to create documents
on the Web
ICTs - Information Communication
Technologies; the term used to describe the
tools and the processes to access, retrieve,
store, organize, manipulate, produce, present
and exchange information by electronic and
other automated means
IMB - The Information Management Branch,
The Department of Education (Tasmania)
ISP - Internet Service Provider, a company
that provides access to the Internet
ISTE - The International Society for
Technology in Education (USA)
KS - Key Stage (UK) – Under the UK National
Curriculum, primary and secondary education
Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum:
Catalogue of Selected Titles
levels are divided into four stages, after each of
which students take examinations. The Key
Stages are: Key Stage 1, Ages 5-7; Key Stage 2,
Ages 7-11; Key Stage 3, Ages 11-14; and Key
Stage 4, Ages 14-16.
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display, a type of
display used in many portable computers
MI - Multiple Intelligences (see page 37, entry
12 for more)
MIICE - The Measurement of the Impact of
ICT on Children’s Education Project
MOE - Ministry of Education
NCREL - The North Central Regional
Educational Laboratory (USA) http://
NETS - The National Educational Technology
Standards (USA)
OFSTED - The Office for Standards in
Education (UK) -
PC - Personal Computer; often used to mean an
IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer, as
opposed to other types of personal computers,
such as Apple Macintoshes
PE - Physical Education (UK)
QTS - Quality Teacher Status
SEIR*TEC - The SouthEast Initiatives
Regional Technology in Education Consortium
SEN - Special Education Needs (UK)
URL - Uniform Resource Locater, or Web
VSAT - Very Small Aperture Terminal, an
earthbound station used in satellite
communications of data, voice and video
signals, excluding broadcast television
ICT in Education Unit
UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110
Email :
Website :
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