DVD Technology - Manifest Technology

DVD Technology - Manifest Technology
DVD Technology
DVD Technology
Seminar Notes
Douglas Dixon
Manifest Technology® LLC
May 2005
www.manifest-tech.com
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 1
DVD Technology
DVD Technology
• DVD Technology
– Recordable formats
• DVD-Video Format
– File structure, Directory structure, Data streams
– Video formats, Aspect ratios, Audio formats, Subtitles
– Navigation
• DVD Content Protection
– Copy protection, analog & digital, Copy management
– Regional codes, Parental management
• DVD-Video Internals
– Title hierarchy, Navigation commands
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
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DVD Technology
Recordable DVD Formats
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DVD-R
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Organic dye technology, like CD-R
Compatible with most DVD drives and players
DVD-R(G) – General - intended for home use
Cheaper 650-nm laser, same as DVD-RAM
DVD-R(A) - Authoring - intended for professional development - 635-nm laser
DVD-RW
– Phase-change erasable format
– Can be rewritten about 1,000 times
•
DVD-RAM
– Phase-change dual (PD) technology with some magneto-optic (MO) features
• Defect management and zoned CLV format for rapid access.
– Not compatible with most drives and players
– Single-sided with or without cartridges (must use for write)
• Type 1 cartridges sealed, type 2 allows disc to be removed
– Can be rewritten more than 100,000 times
•
DVD+RW and DVD+R
– DVD+R – Dye-based medium, like DVD-R
– DVD+RW – Erasable phase-change format based on CD-RW technology
– Allows for CLV for sequential video access or CAV for random access
• Only CLV can be read in standard DVD drives, DVD+R record only in CLV
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 3
DVD Technology
DVD-Video – Summary
• DVD-Video
– Up to 9 video streams
– Up to 8 audio streams
– Up to 32 subtitle (subpicture) streams
• Video
– Up to NTSC 720x480, 29.97 fps; or PAL 720x576, 25 fps
– MPEG-2, MPEG-1 compression
• Audio
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5/2005
Multi-channel, surround
Uncompressed PCM
Dolby Digital (AC-3), MPEG
DTS, SDDS optional
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 4
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DVD Technology
DVD File Structure
•
File Systems
– ISO-9660 – CD-ROM file system
– UDF – Universal Disc Format) – DVD file system used for (condensed micro-UDF)
– UDF Bridge – ISO-9660 for CD and micro-UDF for DVD, backward compatibility
•
DVD Folders
– DVD Volume – DVD disc directory structure and files
• Video Object (VOB) files with actual multimedia data, video and audio
• Associated navigation information (IFO) and backup (BUP) files that describe contents
• Created for each Video Title Set (VTS), split into multiple VOB files no larger than 1GB
– VIDEO_TS – Root directory of DVD-Video production stored on a DVD disc
– AUDIO_TS – Root directory of DVD-Audio production stored on a DVD disc
•
DVD Files
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–
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VTS files – Video Title Set – Video contents (VOB) and navigational info (IFO)
IFO file – Navigation information file for a title set
BUP file – Backup for the IFO navigation file of a title set
Video Object (VOB) – MPEG program stream
Includes multiplexed video, audio, subpictures, and control information.
– VOB file – Video Object file – Video clips (VRO recorders, fragmented)
– DAT file –Video data file on Video CD disc. Contains MPEG-1 video
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 5
DVD Technology
DVD Directory Structure
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•
Optional main menu
Up to 99 titles (Video Title Set) - each with main menu
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VIDEO_TS
VIDEO_TS.IFO
VIDEO_TS.VOB
VIDEO_TS.BUP
VTS_tt_0.IFO/.BUP
VTS_tt_0.VOB
VTS_tt_n.IFO/.BUP
VTS_tt_n.VOB
•
•
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5/2005
AUDIO_TS
DVD_RTAV
JACKET_P
Video zone - DVD-Video
Main Menu
Main menu information
Video Manager Information (VMGI)
Video Manager Title Set (VMTS)
Video Manager (VMG) menu
Backup of IFO file (VMGI)
VTS Menu
Video Title Set Information (VTSI) - VTS Menu
Video Objects (VOB) - VTS Menu
Title Sets (01 - 99)
Video Title Set Information (VTSI)
Video Objects (VOB) - 1 - 9 per title set
DVD-Audio
Recording
Jacket Picture
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
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DVD Technology
DVD Data Streams
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Overall maximum bit rate Maximum stream bit rate Average video bit rate Stream Types
Data type
Video
Audio
Subpictures
Still pictures
Navigation
10.08 Mbps, including control information
9.8 Mbps for video, audio and subpictures
4.7 Mbps, for 133 minute playing time
#Streams
1
8 max
32 max
Max rate (Mbps)
Coding Format
9.8
MPEG-1 or MPEG-2, including stills
6.144
Dolby Digital, MPEG, LPCM etc
3.360
2 bits/pixel run length encoded
1
-
Program Chains (PGCs) for interactivity
Video - MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 - standard MPEG elementary stream
Audio - MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 - standard MPEG elementary stream
PCI & DCI - MPEG private stream
Subpicture and all other audio - MPEG private streams
•
Stream Rates
Stream type
MPEG-2 video
MPEG-1 video
PCM audio
Dolby digital
MPEG-1 audio
MPEG-2 audio
5/2005
Min Rate
~1500
~900
786
64
64
64
Typical
3500
1150
1536
384
192
384
Max Data Rate (Kbps)
9800
1856
6144
448
384
912
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 7
DVD Technology
DVD-Video – Video Formats
• Maximum dimensions
– 720x480 (525/60 NTSC) or 720x576 (625/50 PAL/SECAM)
• Allowable picture resolutions:
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MPEG-2, 525/60 (NTSC): 720x480, 704x480, 352x480, 352x240
MPEG-2, 625/50 (PAL): 720x576, 704x576, 352x576, 352x288
MPEG-1, 525/60 (NTSC): 352x240
MPEG-1, 625/50 (PAL): 352x288
• MPEG-2 maximum video bit rate 9.8 Mbps
Typical video bit rate around 4 Mbps
• MPEG-1 video rate limited to 1.856 Mbps
Typical video 1.15 Mbps
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
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DVD Technology
DVD Aspect Ratios
• DVD Aspect Ratios
– Standard TV
– Widescreen
4:3 (1.33)
16:9 (1.78)
• DVD Playback Modes – one for 4:3 video and three for 16:9 video
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Full frame
Auto letterbox
Auto pan & scan
Widescreen
(4:3 video for 4:3 display)
(16:9 anamorphic video for 4:3 display)
(16:9 anamorphic video for 4:3 display)
(16:9 anamorphic video for 16:9 display)
• Anamorphic
– Stored squeezed horizontally to fit 4:3 rectangle
– Unsqueezed during playback
• Film
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5/2005
Letterbox – Theatrical aspect - black bars, mattes at the top and bottom
Pan & scan - TV window pan and zoom across wider movie, crop sides
Most movies 1.66, 1.85 ("flat"), or 2.40 ("scope")
Most movies shot soft matte, full 1.33 aspect film frame
(both 1.33 and 1.85 frame marks in viewfinder, allow for both formats
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 9
DVD Technology
DVD-Video – Audio Formats
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LPCM – Linear PCM – Pulse Code Modulation
– Uncompressed (lossless), 1 to 8 channels. Used for CD-Audio. Required
– Sample rate 48 or 96 kHz; 16, 20, 24 bits (Audio CD to 44.1 kHz, 16 bits)
– Bitrate 6.144 Mbps max
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Dolby Digital – AC-3
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Multichannel surround-sound audio. Lossy. Required
Sample rate 48 kHz, up to 24 bits
Bitrate 64 to 448 kbps, 384 or 448 normal for 5.1, 192 for stereo
One to five full-range channels
• “.1” for Low-Frequency Effects (LFE) channel, low bass sounds.
• Front Left, Front Center, Front Right, Left Surround, Right Surround
•
MPEG audio – Moving Picture Experts Group
– Multichannel, digital audio. MPEG-1 and -2. Lossy. Required for PAL
– Sample rate 48 kHz, 16 or 20 bits
– Bitrate variable 32 to 912 kbps, normal average 384, MPEG-1 to 384 kbps
•
DTS – Digital Theater Systems
•
SDDS – Sony Dynamic Digital Sound
– Surround-sound. Used in movie theaters. Optional, sep. decoder
– Surround-sound. Used for cinemas. Optional, separate decoder
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 10
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DVD Technology
DVD-Video – Subtitles
• DVD-Video – Subtitle / Subpicture Formats
– Up to 32 subpicture streams that overlay the video
– Full-screen, run-length-encoded bitmaps, two bits per pixel
four color values and four transparency values
– Four colors from palette of 16, four transparency from 16 levels
Reserved one for transparency (video show through), 3 left
– Maximum data rate 3.36 Mbps, max size per frame 53220 bytes
– Commands – Delay, scrolling, wipes & fades, animation
• NTSC Closed Captions
– Closed Caption text stored in video stream as MPEG-2 user data
(in packet headers)
– Regenerated by player as line-21 analog waveform in video signal
– Decoded by Closed Caption decoder in television
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 11
DVD Technology
DVD Navigation
• Title Menus
– Title (top) menu of title (in first VTS, with submenus)
– Submenus:
• Part of title (Chapter) submenu; Audio (Audio/language) submenu
• Angle (Video angle) submenu; Subpicture (Subtitle/language) submenu
• Remote Control Menu Keys
– "Title" of "Top" menu – Disc menu (VMGM, not current VTS)
– "Menu" or Root or Digest menu – Local hierarchy (current VTSM)
– "Return" or Go Up – Back/Prev to parent menu, or current title
• Buttons
– Up to 36 rectangular buttons (18 / 12 for widescreen modes)
– Highlight with subpictures - Color and opacity (can be invisible)
Normal – Selected – Activated
– Four directional links – Arrow keys
– One command – Link, or to dummy PGC with more commands
– Auto activate; Idle out – timeout – forced activation
• User Operations (UOPs)
– Can restrict user's navigation options
– Nested scope to disallow: Title, PGC, VOBU (PCI)
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
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DVD Technology
DVD Content Protection
• Content Protection
– Copy protection, Copy management, encryption - Required
• APS – Analog Protection System – Macrovision
– Distort video signal (AGC, colorburst) to prevent VCR copying
– NTSC only, composite and s-video outputs. Required w/ CSS
• CGMS – Copy Generation Management System
– Prevents initial copies or generational copies (copies of copies)
– For recorders: Permitted copying: none, one, any number
• CSS – Content Scrambling System
– Encrypt video, require authorized key
• Regional Codes
– Authorize playback in 7 geographic locales or zones
• Parental Management
– Block play, or alternate versions
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 13
DVD Technology
Content Protection Requirements
• Content protection system architecture
– Encryption, watermarking, protect analog and digital outputs
– Guard against casual copying
"keep the honest people honest“, can't stop well-equipped pirates
• DVD Requirements
– Macrovision, CGMS, CSS, and CPPM optional for disc producer
Don’t need to protect your content
– CSS decryption optional for hardware and software playback products
Don’t need to play protected content
– DVD-ROM drives and computers must support Macrovision, CGMS, CSS
– Establish a secure connection between drive and decoder hardware
– CPRM handled automatically by DVD recorders, optional
– PC video cards with TV outputs must support Macrovision
– DTCP and HDCP handled by DVD players with digital video outputs
– Computers with IEEE 1394/FireWire must support the final DCPS
– Computers with HDMI (DVI) connections must support HDCP output
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 14
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DVD Technology
Content Protection Mechanisms
• Content Protection for Recordable Media (CPRM)
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Ties recording to the media on which it is recorded
Supported by some DVD recorders, not by many DVD players
Blank recordable has a unique 64-bit media ID etched in BCA
Protected recorded content encrypted using media ID
• Copy Generation Management System (CGMS)
– Equipment making copy must recognize and respect CGMS info
– Analog standard (CGMS-A) encodes on NTSC line 21 or 20
Most digital camcorders and some computer capture cards
– Digital standard (CGMS-D) included in DTCP and HDMI
for digital connections such as IEEE 1394/FireWire
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 15
DVD Technology
Content Protection Mechanisms
• Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM) – DVD-Audio
– Improvement to CSS
• Digital Copy Protection System (DCPS)
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For next gen digital TVs, digital receivers, digital video recorders
Require new DVD players with digital connectors
Encryption done by the player, no changes to existing discs.
Five digital copy protection systems proposed to the CEA
• High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP, DVI, and HDMI)
– HDCP similar to DTCP, designed for digital video monitor interfaces
– Digital Visual Interface (DVI)
• 4.95 Gbps, can support 1600×1200 (UXGA), all HDTV resolutions
– HDCP / HDMI
• Intel proposed HDCP as a security component for DVI
• HDMI combines DVI and HDCP
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 16
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DVD Technology
DVD Regional Codes
• Seven regions (aka locales or zones) assigned a number
(cover marked with region number on world globe)
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1: U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories
2: Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Middle East (including Egypt)
3: Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong)
4: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands,
Central America, Mexico, South America, Caribbean
5: Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union)
Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, Mongolia
6: China
7: Reserved
8: Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.)
• Optional - one byte on the disc that the player checks
– Only DVD-Video, not DVD-Audio, DVD-ROM, or recordable DVD
• All-region discs can be played on any player
– Manual code-switchable players, modify to "code-free" (all region)
– Auto-switching players, “smart" discs programmed region code checking
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 17
DVD Technology
DVD-Video Title Hierarchy
• Disc Structure
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VMG
Video Manager (optional VTS)
VTS 1 [- n]
Video Title Sets (title)
Disc contains multiple Video Title Sets (VTS)
Optional first VMG title set - Main menu, title menu, top menu
• Disc Hierarchy
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5/2005
Video Title Set (VTS)
Video Object Sets (VOBS)
VOB
Cell
Video Object Units (VOBU)
Pack (PCK)
Packet (PKT)
99 per disc
99 per VTS
32767 per VOBS
255 per VOB
- Title, Tracks same format
- For seamless branch
- MPEG-2 program stream
- Smallest address chunk
- Smallest unit of playback
2048 bytes
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 18
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DVD Technology
DVD-Video Title Elements
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Video Title Set (VTS)
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First VOBS can be optional root menu - VTSM
Contains title information: menu pointers, time maps, cell addresses, etc.
Applies to all titles in set- same number and format of tracks
Video Object Sets (VOBS)
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Group or interleave VOBs for seamless branching and camera angles
Contains attributes for video, audio, subpictures; Language codes
Same format: MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 video, NTSC or PAL TV system, aspect ratio
Display mode letterbox, pan and scan, or both; 4:3 letterboxed
Video Object (VOB)
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All or part of an MPEG-2 program stream
Cells linked by Program Chains (PGCs) with programming instructions
Cell
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Smallest addressable chunk
Group of pictures or audio blocks, From 1 second to entire movie
Video Object Units (VOBU)
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Smallest unit of playback
Integer number of fields, 0.4 to 1 seconds - last to 1.2 seconds
Usually contains one GOP, can be zero or more
Pack (PCK)
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MPEG program stream, 2048 bytes
Stored in recording order, identify associated stream
Different packs for video, audio, subpicture, navigation
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 19
DVD Technology
DVD Navigation Controls
• Control
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• PGCI Search (jump to menu)
Format (NTSC/PAL)
Language
Audio stream
Subpicture stream
Parental management
Karaoke
Display mode and aspect
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Title (disc menu - VMG)
Root (local menu - VTS)
Audio (Audio/language submenu)
Subpicture (Subtitle/language submenu)
Angle (Video angle submenu)
Part of title (Chapter submenu)
• Presentation Data Search
• Navigation
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5/2005
General parameters
System parameters
Navigation timer
Buttons
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Title
Part of title (chapter)
Program (next/previous)
Time
Angle
VOBU (trick play)
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 20
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DVD Technology
DVD Navigation Commands
•
Max 128 commands, stored in table, index by number (can repeat)
– PGC – Pre-command(s); Cells (w/ one optional post) ...; Post-command(s)
– Menu button - One command, stored in PCI
•
Links and jumps limited by the current and destination domains
– Cannot link directly between PGC or VTS in different domains
– Use dummy PGCs in the VMGM as switching points
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Programming commands
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Math operations: add, subtract, multipley, divide, modulo, random
Logical (bitwise) operations: and, or, xor
Comparisons: [not] equal, greater, less than [or equal to]
Register operations: load, move, swap; Program flow: goto, break
Video presentation control: link, jump, call, resume, exit
System Parameters (SPRMs)
– 24 system registers, 16-bit
– Player state (read-only) - parental level, language code, ...
– Player control (r/w) - video, audio, subpicture, angles; Countdown timer
•
General Parameters (GPRM)
– 16 general-use registers, 16-bit
– Cleared on title search, title play, stop, eject, off
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
Page 21
DVD Technology
DVD Navigation - Presentation
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Presentation Data Structure
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Presentation Data
– Logical hierarchy – Grouping of video sequences, playback order each video block
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Menu (VMG) - or Autoplay PGC
Title
99 per disc
Parental Block (PB) Parental management
Program Chain (PGC) ...
999 / title, 16 / parental block
(Part of Title (PTT)
999 / title, 99 / one-seq.-PGC title
Program Chain Information (PGCI) ...
Program (PG) ... 99 / PGC – Groupings of Cells in VOBs
Cell pointers ...
255 / PGC
Title
– Monolithic - Play straight through; Multiple PGCs for varying program flow
– Part-of-Title (PTT) marker - Chapter - Marker or branch point
•
Program Chains (PGC)
– PGCs control playback of Cells in VOBs
• Video, audio and subtitles, display menus, respond to user commands
• Different sequences through cells - reuse cells, seamless branching
– First is Entry PGC – Title menu and each root menu
– Dummy PGC - no Programs (no VOBs) - only navigation commands
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
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DVD Technology
For More Information
Manifest Technology®
www.manifest-tech.com
The Manifest Technology site by Douglas Dixon
contains over 150 articles and technical references
on multimedia technology, especially digital video
editing and DVD authoring.
Manifest Technology is a registered trademark of Douglas Dixon
5/2005
Copyright 2004-2005 Douglas Dixon, All Rights Reserved - www.manifest-tech.com
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