Linea Research 44M/48M Series Advanced System

Linea Research 44M/48M Series Advanced System
LNR series processors
44M/48M Series Amplifier
Linea Research
44M/48M Series Advanced System Amplifier
User Guide
Version 4 (For firmware version 1.218 and above)
1
Contents
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ......................................................................................................................5
CONSIGNES DE SÉCURITÉ IMPORTANTES ..............................................................................................6
COMPLIANCE ..........................................................................................................................................................8
FOR CUSTOMERS IN EUROPE .............................................................................................................................8
FOR CUSTOMERS IN THE USA .............................................................................................................................9
FOR CUSTOMERS IN THE CANADA .................................................................................................................. 10
Thanks and Unpacking ......................................................................................................................................... 11
Unpacking the Linea Research 44/48 Series Amplifier.................................................................................... 11
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 12
Mechanical Installation ................................................................................................................................... 12
AC Power Connection ...................................................................................................................................... 13
The User Guide .................................................................................................................................................... 14
Introduction and Key Features ............................................................................................................................ 15
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
Key Features ................................................................................................................................................ 15
Audio Connections............................................................................................................................................... 18
Input Connections ........................................................................................................................................... 18
Using unbalanced connections ........................................................................................................................ 18
Amplifier Output Connections......................................................................................................................... 19
Load Matching ................................................................................................................................................. 20
Panel Layouts ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
Operation............................................................................................................................................................. 23
Starting up the unit.......................................................................................................................................... 23
Overview of Modules, Presets Components and Snapshots........................................................................... 23
Navigation........................................................................................................................................................ 24
The Home Page................................................................................................................................................ 25
Drive Modules ................................................................................................................................................. 25
Drive Module Presets ...................................................................................................................................... 25
Component Presets ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Factory Module Presets ................................................................................................................................... 26
Storing Module Presets ............................................................................................................................... 26
Recalling Module Presets ............................................................................................................................ 26
Recalling Components ................................................................................................................................. 27
Input ................................................................................................................................................................ 27
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AES3 Inputs .................................................................................................................................................. 27
Networked Audio (Dante) Inputs ................................................................................................................ 27
Automatic Input Selection (Fallover) ........................................................................................................... 28
Gain and Polarity ......................................................................................................................................... 28
Delay ............................................................................................................................................................ 28
High Pass Filter ............................................................................................................................................ 28
Parametric Equalisation............................................................................................................................... 28
FIR Shelving EQ ............................................................................................................................................ 28
Parametric Filters ........................................................................................................................................ 29
Routing......................................................................................................................................................... 29
Output ............................................................................................................................................................. 29
Gain and Polarity ......................................................................................................................................... 29
Delay ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
High and Low pass Filters ............................................................................................................................ 29
LIR Crossover Filtering ................................................................................................................................. 30
Parametric Equalisation and All-Pass Filters ............................................................................................... 30
Limiters ........................................................................................................................................................ 30
Bridge ........................................................................................................................................................... 32
Routing......................................................................................................................................................... 32
Utility Pages ..................................................................................................................................................... 32
Screen Contrast ........................................................................................................................................... 32
Stereo Linking .............................................................................................................................................. 32
Current Ethernet IP Address ........................................................................................................................ 32
IP Mode........................................................................................................................................................ 32
IP Static ........................................................................................................................................................ 33
Store Snapshot............................................................................................................................................. 33
Recall Snapshot............................................................................................................................................ 33
Bandwidth Units .......................................................................................................................................... 33
Aux Style ...................................................................................................................................................... 33
ECO .............................................................................................................................................................. 33
External Breaker Protection (EBP) ................................................................................................................... 33
Ethernet ........................................................................................................................................................... 34
Ethernet configurations ............................................................................................................................... 34
DHCP ............................................................................................................................................................ 34
AUTO-IP ....................................................................................................................................................... 34
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Static-IP ........................................................................................................................................................ 34
IP Troubleshooting....................................................................................................................................... 34
Snapshots ........................................................................................................................................................ 34
AUX Port .......................................................................................................................................................... 35
Latency delay ................................................................................................................................................... 36
Input/Output Latencies ............................................................................................................................... 36
Processing Latencies .................................................................................................................................... 36
Secure Mode.................................................................................................................................................... 37
Overlay Flush ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Protection Systems .......................................................................................................................................... 37
Summary of Protection Indication ...................................................................................................................... 38
Incident Reporting ........................................................................................................................................... 38
Fault Relay ....................................................................................................................................................... 38
Performance Logging ....................................................................................................................................... 39
Processing Block Diagram .................................................................................................................................... 40
Output Menu Map............................................................................................................................................... 42
EQ and Filter Response Graphs ........................................................................................................................... 43
Technical Specifications ....................................................................................................................................... 47
General ............................................................................................................................................................ 47
Audio................................................................................................................................................................ 47
Digital processing............................................................................................................................................. 47
Power Output .................................................................................................................................................. 48
Power supply ................................................................................................................................................... 48
Protection systems .......................................................................................................................................... 48
System protection ......................................................................................................................................... 49
Power distribution protection systems ........................................................................................................... 49
Monitoring and logging ................................................................................................................................... 49
OEM Features .................................................................................................................................................. 49
Physical ............................................................................................................................................................ 49
Options ................................................................................................................................................................ 50
4
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
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Read these instructions.
Keep these instructions.
Heed all warnings.
Follow all instructions.
Do not use this apparatus near water.
Clean only with dry cloth.
Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions.
Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves or other
apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding type plug. A polarized plug
has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug had two blades and a
third grounding prong. The wide blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the
provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the
obsolete outlet.
Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched particularly at plugs, convenience
receptacles and the point where they exit from the apparatus.
Only use attachments / accessories specified by the manufacturer.
Use only with the cart, tripod, bracket or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with
the apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart / apparatus
combination to avoid injury from tip-over.
Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time.
Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Service is required when the apparatus has
been damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug damaged, liquid has been spilled
or objects have fallen into the apparatus, this apparatus has been exposed to rain or
moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped.
SAFETY WARNING
Do not remove any covers, loosen any fixings or allow items to enter any aperture.
SAFETY WARNING
The rear of the product may get hot. Avoid direct skin contact during operation and for at least 5
minutes after power has been isolated.
SAFETY WARNING
The product must only be positioned at floor level when operated in a horizontal position.
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CONSIGNES DE SÉCURITÉ IMPORTANTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Lisez ces instructions.
Conservez ces instructions.
Respectez tous les avertissements.
Suivez toutes les instructions.
Ne pas utiliser cet appareil près de l'eau.
Nettoyer uniquement avec un chiffon sec.
Ne pas bloquer les ouvertures de ventilation. Installer conformément aux instructions du
fabricant.
8. Ne pas installer près de sources de chaleur telles que radiateurs, registres de chaleur, poêles
ou autres appareils (y compris les amplificateurs) qui produisent de la chaleur.
9. Ne supprimez pas le dispositif de sécurité de la fiche polarisée ou mise à la terre. Une fiche
polarisée possède deux lames dont l'une est plus large que l'autre. Une prise de terre a eu
deux lames et une troisième broche de terre. La lame large ou la troisième broche sont
fournies pour votre sécurité. Si la fiche fournie ne rentre pas dans votre prise, consultez un
électricien pour remplacer la prise obsolète.
10. Protéger le cordon d'alimentation soit écrasé ou pincé, particulièrement au niveau des fiches,
des prises et le point où ils sortent de l'appareil.
11. Utilisez uniquement les accessoires spécifiés par le fabricant.
12. Utilisez uniquement le chariot, le trépied, le support ou la table spécifiés par le fabricant, ou
vendu avec l'appareil. Quand un chariot est utilisé, soyez prudent lorsque vous déplacez
l'ensemble chariot / appareil afin d'éviter toute blessure en cas de chute.
13. Débranchez cet appareil pendant les orages ou lorsqu'il n'est pas utilisé pendant de longues
périodes de temps.
14. Adressez-vous à un personnel qualifié. Une réparation est requise lorsque l'appareil a été
endommagé de quelque façon que ce soit le cordon d'alimentation ou la fiche endommagé,
du liquide a été renversé ou des objets sont tombés dans l'appareil, cet appareil a été exposé
à la pluie ou à l'humidité, ne fonctionne pas normalement, ou s'il est tombé.
15. Le dispositif ne doit pas être exposé à des gouttes ou des éclaboussures et aucun objet rempli
de liquides, tels que des vases, doit être placé sur l'appareil.
16. Déconnexion permanente de l'alimentation secteur doit être atteint en supprimant le
connecteur du cordon fourni à l'arrière de l'unité. Ce connecteur doit être facilement
utilisable.
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AVERTISSEMENT DE SECURITE
Ne retirez pas les couvercles, ne desserrez pas les fixations et ne laissez aucune pièce s'introduire
dans les ouvertures.
AVERTISSEMENT DE SECURITE
Le radiateur arrière de cet appareil devient chaud. Evitez tout contact direct avec la peau pendant le
fonctionnement et au moins 5 minutes après la mise hors tension de l'appareil.
AVERTISSEMENT DE SECURITE
Le produit ne doit être positionné au niveau du sol lorsqu'il est utilisé en position horizontale.
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COMPLIANCE
FOR CUSTOMERS IN EUROPE
This product complies with both the LVD (electrical safety) 73/23/EEC and EMC (electromagnetic
compatibility) 89/336/EEC directives issues by the commission of the European community.
Compliance with these directives implies conformity with the following European standards:
EN60065
Product safety
EN55103-1
EMC emissions
EN55103-2
EMC immunity
This product is intended for the following electromagnetic environments: E1, E2; E3 & E4.
THIS PRODUCT MUST BE EARTHED. Use only a flexible cable or cord with a green and yellow core
which must be connected to the protective earthing terminal of a suitable mains plug or the earthing
terminal of the installation. The cord must be a maximum of 2m long, have a 2.5mm 2 CSA, a
300/500V rating and comply with EN50525-2-11 / H05W-F.
THIS PRODUCT IS DESIGNED FOR PERMANENT INSTALLATION. It must be fitted in to a 19” rack
enclosure and not operated unless so installed. The rack enclosure should be open at the front and
back to allow free ventilation and movement of air through the product.
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FOR CUSTOMERS IN THE USA
This product complies with UL60065 7th edition.
THIS PRODUCT MUST BE EARTHED. Use only a flexible cable or cord with a green or green / yellow
core which must be connected to the protective earthing terminal of a suitable mains plug or the
earthing terminal of the installation. The cord must be a maximum of 6’ long, be 14AWG, have a
rating SJ, SJT, SJE or 300/500V H05W-F and be marked VW-1.
THIS PRODUCT IS DESIGNED FOR PERMANENT INSTALLATION. It must be fitted in to a 19” rack
enclosure and not operated unless so installed. The rack enclosure should be open at the front and
back to allow free ventilation and movement of air through the product.
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY WITH FCC RULES
We, Linea Research Ltd. of 1 Marquis Business Centre, Royston Road, Baldock, Hertfordshire, SG7
6XL, England, declare under our sole responsibility that this family of devices, complies with Part 15
of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause
harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION NOTICE
An example of this equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential and commercial installation.
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try and correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:




Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the distance between the equipment and the receiver.
Connect the equipment to an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Caution: Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user’s authority to operate this equipment.
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FOR CUSTOMERS IN THE CANADA
This product complies with CA /CSA C22.2 No.60065-03
Ce produit est conforme avec CA /CSA C22.2 No.60065-03
THIS PRODUCT MUST BE EARTHED. Use only a flexible cable or cord with a green or green / yellow
core which must be connected to the protective earthing terminal of a suitable mains plug or the
earthing terminal of the installation. The cord must be a maximum of 6’ long, be 14AWG, have a
rating SJ, SJT, SJE or 300/500V H05W-F and be marked VW-1.
CE PRODUIT DOIT ÊTRE MIS À LA TERRE. Utilisez uniquement un câble souple avec un noyau vert ou
vert / jaune qui doit être relié à la borne de terre de connecteur d'alimentation ou la borne de terre
de l'installation. Le cordon doit être un maximum de 6' (2m) de long, 14 AWG (2.5mm 2 CSA), être
classé SJ, SJT, SJE ou 300/500V H05W-F et être marquée VW-1
THIS PRODUCT IS DESIGNED FOR PERMANENT INSTALLATION. It must be fitted in to a 19” rack
enclosure and not operated unless so installed. The rack enclosure should be open at the front and
back to allow free ventilation and movement of air through the product.
CE PRODUIT EST CONÇU POUR UNE INSTALLATION PERMANENTE. Il doit être installé dans un boîtier
rack 19 ". Le rack devrait être ouvert à l'avant et l'arrière pour permettre la ventilation et le
mouvement d'air libre à travers le produit .
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY WITH CANADIAN ICES-003
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
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Thanks and Unpacking
Thank you for choosing a Linea Research 44/48 Series Advanced System Amplifier for your application. Please
spare a little time to study the contents of this manual, so that you obtain the best possible performance from
this unit.
All Linea Research products are carefully engineered for world-class performance and reliability.
If you would like further information about this or any other Linea Research product, please contact us. We
look forward to helping you in the near future.
Unpacking the Linea Research 44/48 Series Amplifier
After unpacking the unit please check carefully for damage. If damage is found, please notify the carrier
concerned at once. You, the consignee, must instigate any claim. Please retain all packaging in case of future
re-shipment.
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INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
Mechanical Installation
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431
The 44/48 Series Amplifier system is designed to be mounted in a standard 19” rack enclosure.
Where the amplifier is used in a fixed installation, as long as the bottom unit is supported and there are no
gaps between units, it is acceptable to use only the front panel 19” rack holes when fitting it in a standard
rack enclosure. If the amplifier is mounted in a mobile rack it is important that the rear is supported with a
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rear rack mounting kit (part number ZA1182). Damage caused by insufficient support is not covered by the
warranty.
To prevent damage to the front panel it is recommended that plastic cups or washers are fitted underneath
the rack mounting bolt heads.
It is possible to mount multiple 44/48 Series amplifiers without ventilation gaps between them but it is
essential that an unobstructed flow of clean air is available from the front of the unit to the rear. It is
important that neither the air intakes on the front of the unit or the exhaust vents at the rear are covered.
Steps must be taken to ensure that hot air does not continually circulate through the amplifiers from the back
of the rack to the front.
The amplifier should never be exposed to rain or moisture during operation or storage. If the unit does come
into contact with moisture, remove the AC power cord immediately and leave it in a dry and warm location to
dry out.
Note that when any equipment is taken from a cold location into a hot humid one, condensation may occur
inside the device. Always allow time for the equipment to attain the same temperature as its surrounding
environment before connecting the AC power cord.
IMPORTANT
It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that dirt, liquids and vapour from theatrical smoke and fog
machines is not ingested by the amplifier. Damage so caused is not covered by the manufacturer’s warranty.
AC Power Connection
The amplifier utilises a 32A Neutrik PowerConTM type locking AC power connector. Use only an AC power cord
with a correctly terminated PowerConTM type connector to make the connection to the mains power supply.
The amplifiers are designed to operate on 50/60 Hz AC power. The power supply sections automatically
configure themselves for either 115V or 230V nominal voltage at turn on. The amplifiers will operate over an
extended range of supply voltages (please refer to the technical specifications).
Note that whilst the amplifier will operate correctly at voltages indicated, the specified output power will only
be achieved when operating with the stated nominal voltages.
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The User Guide
This user manual gives a progressively more detailed description of the functions of the Linea Research 44/48
Series Advanced System Amplifier. A single page quick reference guide is provided for those users who are
experienced with this type of equipment and just need to know how to ‘drive’ the front panel. A detailed
explanation of the front and rear panel controls and indicators is contained in the next section.
The final section describes each individual function or feature with annotated images explaining its use.
Where appropriate, the graphical display is shown to further elaborate on the units operation.
To complete the manual a reference section is included, describing the technical performance of the device
complete with graphs of filter responses.
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Introduction and Key Features
Introduction
The Linea Research 44/48 Series Advanced System Amplifier represents current state-of-the-art technology in
several areas. This product is the result of several years of research, from which many advances in switched
mode power technologies and ever finer detail in signal processing have stemmed. Taking advantage of the
latest advances in analogue to digital conversion technologies, the unit achieves performance levels among
the very best that engineering permits.
Below is a list of key features, followed by some information on the major advanced features of the product.
Key Features
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Four/Eight channels of sonically pure Class D amplification
Very high power density - packs four channels and 20kW or eight channels and 10kW into just 2U of
rack space
Packed with robust protection and monitoring systems to keep the show going
External Breaker Protection (EBP) limits the current draw to prevent breakers opening
Linea Research minimal signal path design
Class leading sonic performance achieved by the use of state of the art Amplifier technologies and
highly advanced DSP algorithms using Linea Micro Detail (LMD)
96kHz sampling frequency provides for a nominally flat response beyond 40kHz.
Rotary encoders, illuminated buttons and graphical display provide a rapid, intuitive and user-friendly
control interface
High speed Ethernet communications supporting DHCP, static-IP and auto-IP and direct connection to
a computer without the need for a router or a switch
Powerful Drive Module concept, abstraction from device centric to speaker based control
Innovative Component Presets to allow individual outputs to be used for selected drivers of a
loudspeaker system
Twelve layers of Parameter Overlays for trouble-free Grouping
Unique VX limiter providing dynamic control for passive 2-way enclosures
Unique LIR linear phase crossover shapes giving FIR-like performance without the drawbacks
Linear phase HF system EQ profiling which provides perfect integration between enclosures
Innovative excursion control limiter with sliding High Pass Filter; limits only the damaging low
frequencies
Transducer thermal modelling provides regulation limiters, addressing long term overload
Overshoot limiter governs amplitude of transient signals retaining average power whilst constraining
peak energy
Dante audio networking with automatic fallover to Analogue or AES3
AES3 inputs
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Drive Modules
The 44/48 Series processor has a new way of ordering and grouping channels in order to give a more speakerbased approach to controlling, designing and recalling speaker configurations; these are called Drive Modules.
A Drive Module is the Processing provided by one Input DSP Block, and a number of Output DSP Blocks, which
are associated with one-another by means of routing. For example, if Input DSP Block B is routed to Outputs 3
and 4, then this is a 2-way Drive Module with Input DSP Block B forming the ‘Master’ control, and Output DSP
Blocks 3 and 4 providing the driver-related control. Overall, this forms the processing typically for one
loudspeaker sub-system. The PodWare Drive Module control panel for this sub-system may then be used for
control and monitoring of the associated speaker.
Drive Modules may be included in Module Groups, which use the Parameter Overlay feature in the Device to
achieve trouble-free Grouping in the PodWare application.
The Presets in the Device are Drive-Module centric, and are used to configure individual Drive Modules rather
than the whole device.
Importantly, Drive Modules move the focus away from the processing device, and onto the loudspeaker
systems.
Component Presets allow the Drive Module Presets to be broken apart, allowing any output to be used for
any component within a Drive Module Preset (i.e. any driver in a loudspeaker subsystem).
See Overview of Modules
Overlays
When the Device is used in Modules view in PodWare, this allows the modules to be grouped into Overlay
Groups. These groups allow various Input (master) parameters to be adjusted in all modules in that group,
whist maintaining independent parameter values across each group. This is achieved in the device by
combining the parameters for all the layers for a given section (Gain Delay, EQ etc.). When an Overlay
parameter is active, the Overlay indicator will become illuminated. The combined Gain or Delay etc.
associated with a given section is shown on the module panel in PodWare, within square brackets [ ] under
the Delay and Gain for each input channel. The combined EQ curve is shown in an olive colour. The Input
Mute button in PodWare will flash if an overlay mute is active. On the device, the presence of an active
overlay is generally indicated by square brackets “[]” after the parameter value on the display. An input
overlay mute is indicated on the mute/clip indicator for that channel flashing. Note that overlay parameters
cannot be adjusted on the Device itself; these can only be controlled by the PodWare application. However,
overlay parameters may be removed on the device – see Overlay Flush.
LIR Linear Phase Crossover Filtering
The Device also includes a new type of crossover filtering “Linear Impulse Response” (LIR) crossover filtering,
which results in a Linear Phase crossover that has a constant delay regardless of frequency (unlike other types
of crossover which delay different frequencies to a different extent, thus smearing the arrival time). The LIR
crossover can thus be described as having a flat Group Delay response, and thus entirely free of Group Delay
Distortion.
The shape of the LIR crossover filter is quite similar to a 4th order or 24dB/Oct Linkwitz-Riley filter, and
maintains zero phase difference between the adjacent bands across the crossover region to keep the polar
response rock steady.
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FIR Linear Phase Equalisation
The Input High-Shelf Equalisers use Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filtering to produce Linear Phase
equalisation; that is all frequencies are delayed by the same amount, perfectly preserving the transient
response. This can also be important in applications where different amounts of EQ are applied to different
parts of a speaker cluster, such as to add 'Throw' EQ boost so that parts of cluster which are throwing further
can have HF absorption correction added. If this EQ is not linear phase, then the zones where the speakers
combine may suffer frequency response anomalies.
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Audio Connections
Input Connections
For each input channel there is a female XLR connector for analogue inputs. There is also one female XLR for
one stream (two channels) of AES3 digital audio. Note that only two channels of AES3 digital audio are
available. The Dante option permits more channels of Digital Audio inputs.
The HOT, + or ‘in phase’ connection should be made to pin 2 of the XLR connector.
The COLD, - or ‘out of phase’ connection should be made to pin 3 of the XLR connector.
Pin 1 of the XLR connectors is internally connected to the chassis. The shield of the input cable should always
be connected Pin 1 of the XLR to ensure that EMC performance and regulations are met.
Input XLR balanced connection
2
1
3
Pin 2 HOT +
Pin 3 COLD Pin 1 Shield
Using unbalanced connections
Please note that the use of unbalanced connections is not recommended, however when connecting the
amplifier to an unbalanced audio source, the signal conductor should be connected to XLR pin2. The ‘Cold’
conductor or cable screen should be connected to XLR pin 1 with a short connection made between pin 1 and
pin 3.
Input XLR unbalanced connection
2
1
3
HOT +
Shield
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Amplifier Output Connections
The 44M amplifier is fitted with one SpeakonTM connector per amplifier channel.. The appropriate conductor
terminations are shown below and on the rear panel of the unit.
Amplifier output connections – 44M
1+
Speaker Speaker +
12+
2-
Additionally, the channel 2 output is duplicated on the SpeakonTM connector for amplifier channel 1 for BiAmp wiring. Similarly, the channel 4 output is duplicated on the SpeakonTM connector for amplifier channel 3.
This can be useful for making a connection to two loudspeakers with one 4-core cable (i.e. Bi-Amp).
On the 48M model, all outputs are Bi-Amp; each SpeakonTM connector carries two amplifier outputs –
Channels 1&2, Channels 3&4, Channels 5&6 and Channels 7&8.
Amplifier output connections – 48M and Bi Amp
1+
Speaker1 Speaker1 +
12+
2-
Speaker2 Speaker2 +
In addition, the channel 1 or channel 3 connector (all the SpeakonTM connectors on the 48M model) can also
be used if the pair of amplifier channels is being operated in bridged mode.
Amplifier output connections – Bridge
1+
Speaker +
12+
2-
Speaker -
More than one speaker can be connected to each channel provided the total impedance per channel is not
less than 2 ohms. In bridged mode the minimum total impedance should not be less than 4 ohms.
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Load Matching
Each output of the device can be optimised to drive either a low impedance load (e.g. 2, 4 or 8 Ohms), or a
Constant Voltage (C.V.) using the Load parameter in the Output menu. There are several C.V. settings (25V,
70V and 100V Line) which determine the maximum RMS voltage that the amplifier will produce. Select the
one which is appropriate for the installation. A number of low impedance settings (depending on the model)
are also available. Although it is not critical that this setting matches the impedance of the connected load,
this will maximise the power that is available for the load.
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Panel Layouts
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
(The 44M is illustrated. The 48M is similar, but with more output indicators and mute buttons)
1. Input Signal Indicators- A set of five indicators show “Sig”, “-12”, “0dBu”, “+6” and “+12” and “Clip (mute)” for each
of the DSP inputs “A” “B” “C” “D”. The signal present Indicators operate at approximately –40 dBu. The Clip/mute
Indicators warn the user of input overload and operate at 1dB before clip. This indicator also shows a muted input
2. Power Switch- Applies mains power to the device. If the device has entered Sleep mode, it may be woken up again
either from the PodWare application, or by switching this switch off, then on again.
3. Menu Buttons- There are three buttons to determine which section of the device to view or edit. The <OUTPUT>
button displays pages of parameters associated with a particular output channel. The <INPUT> button displays pages
of parameters associated with a particular input socket or input DSP channel. Pressing <INPUT> or <OUTPUT>
buttons repeatedly will scroll through the inputs/outputs of the device. After the last channel, navigation returns to
the Home screen. The <UTILITY> button displays pages of miscellaneous parameters not associated with any
particular channel. Whilst in Edit mode, one of these three buttons will be illuminated. They are mutually exclusive –
pressing one of the buttons will deselect any others that are active. Pressing Utils will escape back to the Home
screen.
4. Page Selection Buttons- When one of the buttons <INPUT>, <OUTPUT> or <UTILITY> is illuminated, the up <> and
down <> arrows will also illuminate, informing the user that these buttons may be used to scroll through the
various pages of parameters that may be viewed and edited. The <ENTER> button is used to confirm an operation
such as storing or recalling a preset or snapshot. It will illuminate when the user is being invited to press it. It will flash
when warning the user that pressing this button will activate an important function.
5. Graphical Display- This will show the Home screen; a useful overview of channel allocation. On most pages the
currently selected channel and parameter information is displayed on the upper part of the screen and the parameter
value on the lower part of the screen. The screen contrast can be changed by pressing the <UTILITY> button to
navigate to “Screen” and using the encoders to change the percentage; this can also optimise the viewing angle.
6. Status Indicators- The “OVERLAY” indicator shows when there are parameters active on a group layer, which the
user cannot access through the front panel of the device (see Overlay Flush). The “NETAUDIO” indicator shows that a
networked digital audio card is installed and routed (Such as Dante™). The “ONLINE” indicator has three states: Off –
the unit is offline and not connected to a computer or network. Flashing- the unit is searching for an IP address; if the
unit does not find an IP address the unit will assign itself an IP address automatically and the indicator will stop
flashing. On- the unit is online and connected with software. IP settings can be viewed or changed within the
<UTILITY> pages. The “AES3 IN” indicator illuminates when one or more of the inputs is using an AES3 source.
7. Parameter Encoders- Two velocity sensitive parameter encoders are used to adjust parameters shown on the display.
Up to three parameters at a time are displayed on the screen. The parameter name is shown above the parameter
value in each of the three screen sections. Use SELECT to highlight the parameter, then ADJUST to change it.
8. Bridge Indicator- This will illuminate when the channel pair is in Bridge mode. The controls for the left channel of the
pair will determine the settings. See Bridge Mode
9. Mute Buttons- DSP output mute status is indicated and controlled by an illuminated button for each channel. These
flash when the entire unit is muted from the AUX port or from PodWare Mute-All, or if this channel has been muted
by the protection systems.
10. Amplifier Indicator- This indicates when the amplifier protection systems are reducing the gain to keep the
parameters of the amplifier within specification, or when that the channel is clipping.
11. Driver Indicator- This indicates a signal 6dB higher than the limiter threshold, or when the threshold of the excursion
limiter has been exceeded, or when the thermal limiter is active. Please note that because of the long release time of
the thermal limiter, this indicator may remain illuminated for several seconds after signal on that channel is reduced.
12. Limiter Indicators- The output indicators shows the status of the limiter and output level. The <SIG> indicator shows
when a signal is present on the output. The second indicator <-6dB> shows that the signal has reached 6dB below the
limiter threshold. The third <LIMIT> indicator indicates that the threshold of that output channel has been reached.
21
Relay output- This isolated relay output may be used to indicate abnormal conditions to external monitoring
apparatus. See Fault Relay
Power Inlet- The unit should be connected to a suitable mains electricity supply using an earthed Powercon connection
power lead. The device has a switch mode power supply that is capable of operating with a nominal mains voltage of
100V to 230V, 50/60Hz without re-configuration.
NOTE: The device must be earthed to a suitable power earth; failure to do so may affect performance and/or operation
and will invalidate warranty and could be potentially hazardous.
Auxiliary Port- The auxiliary port may be configured to recall snapshots or apply muting.
Ethernet Communications Port- The device may be controlled entirely from another controller, typically a Personal
Computer, running an application that is compliant with the ObCom standard such as PodWare. Connection will
normally be made to the controller via this Ethernet port connector. This port is also used for updating the firmware in
the unit.
Networked Audio Ports- The device has the option for networked audio ports; if none are required a blanking plate
will be fitted. There are several options for networked audio including Dante™. For a full list please consult your
vendor.
AES3 Audio Input Connectors- For inputting Digital Audio signals. The Input is fully balanced and wired: pin-1 to
ground, pin-2 data+ & pin-3 data. The Link connector allows a buffered AES3 signal to be passed on to another device.
Analogue Audio Input Connectors- All audio connections are fully balanced and wired: pin-1 to ground (as required by
the AES48 standard), pin-2 hot & pin-3 cold.
Analogue Audio Link Connectors- Carries a duplicate (parallel) connection (to another amplifier for example).
Loudspeaker Connectors (44M)- The amplifier SpeakonTM outputs. Connect the loudspeaker to the 1+ and 1terminals. CH1 also carries the (duplicated) loudspeaker output for channel 2 on terminals 2+ and 2-. Similarly, CH3
carries the loudspeaker output for channel 4 on terminals 2+ and 2-. For Bridged mode, use terminals 1+ and 2+ of
either CH1 or CH3.
Loudspeaker Connectors (48M)- The amplifier SpeakonTM outputs. Connect the first loudspeaker to the 1+ and 1terminals and the second loudspeaker to the 2+ and 2- terminals. For Bridged mode, use terminals 1+ and 2+.
22
Operation
Starting up the unit
When power switch is switched on the unit will go through its start-up cycle, checking all the sub-systems as it
does so. Along the way, the screen will inform you of its progress. Once this is complete the display will then
show the Home screen indicating drive module configurations.
Overview of Modules, Presets Components and Snapshots
A Drive Module represents a loudspeaker subsystem, and comprises one input channel and a number of
output channels, associated with one-another by routing. The size of the Drive module is determined by the
number of outputs in it. The device may contain up to four Modules.
Output 1
DSP Input A
Output 2
A Module Preset is a collection of settings (parameters) for a Drive Module of a particular size. The Preset
contains a set of parameters for one input and a set of parameters for each of the outputs in the module.
When a Module Preset is recalled, it will automatically change the routing between Input DSPs and Outputs,
consuming a number of outputs according to the size of the Drive Module. Recalling a Module Preset thus
always creates a Drive Module with consecutive outputs.
Input
component
parameters
Output
component
parameters
Output
component
parameters
A Component is a collection of settings (parameters) for one (input or output) channel. Any one of the output
components in a Module Preset may be recalled to any individual output.
Input
parameters
Output
component
parameters
Component
Output
component
parameters
23
These concepts are depicted in the PodWare application as in the following example of a 2-way Module:
A Snapshot is a device-wide representation of most of the settings in the device. This is represented as four
Input Component numbers, eight Output Component numbers, plus a number of machine-centric settings
such as routing and Input/Output Analogue/Digital selection etc.
Input A component number
Device
Settings
Input B component number
Input C component number
Input D component number
Output 1 component number
Output 2 component number
Output 3 component number
Output 4 component number
Output 5 component number
Output 6 component number
Output 7 component number
Output 8 component number
Navigation
Parameter navigation and adjustment on the 44/48 Series is very straightforward. There is no concept of
drilling down deeper into hidden menus; every parameter is accessible by simply scrolling across a ‘map’ of
parameter pages which can be thought of as placed on a 2-dimensional grid. Horizontally across the width of
the grid are the various channels, and vertically up and down the grid are the parameter pages for each
section of processing.
To view a parameter, repeatedly press the desired <INPUT> or <OUTPUT> channel button until the desired
channel is reached. Then repeatedly press the up <> and down <> buttons to scroll through the
processing parameters for the selected input/output.
Two encoders allow you to select and adjust a parameter. Often, several parameters will be shown in various
zones on the display. To select a parameter for adjustment, turn the right-most encoder such that the
parameter you wish to adjust is highlighted. Then turn the leftmost encoder to adjust the value of that
parameter. Turning this encoder clockwise will increase the value of a parameter, or anticlockwise will
decrease it. The encoders are velocity-sensitive so turning an encoder rapidly will cause the action to
‘accelerate’, so the value changes more rapidly.
Turn the SELECT encoder to highlight the zone you wish to adjust.
Turn the ADJUST encoder to change its value.
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The Home Page
The Home Page presents an overview of the configuration of the device. It indicates the user-define Device
Name at the top, and shows the four Drive Modules. In each Drive Module the top line shows the Input DSP
channel (‘A’, ‘B’ etc), and the name the user has given to this channel. The bottom line shows the physical
input number, and a list of the outputs which are routed from the Drive Module.
Device Name
DSP Input
Physical Input
Input Name
Outputs assigned
Drive Modules
The 44/48 Series uses Drive Modules to represent loudspeaker sub-systems. Drive modules result in a less
processor-centric and more speaker-orientated system design. A drive module is defined as the processing
provided by one Input DSP, and a number of outputs, which are associated with one-another by means of
routing. For example, if Input DSP B is routed to outputs 3 and 4, then this is a 2-way Drive Module; input DSP
B forming the ‘master’ control, and output DSP 3 and 4 providing the driver-related control. The Input DSP
parameters then control the Drive Module (and thus the speaker sub-system). The Drive Module control
panel in the PodWare application is then used for control and monitoring of this sub-system.
Drive Module Presets
Presets do not change the settings device-wide. Rather, recalling a Module Preset creates a Drive Module by
‘consuming’ a number of consecutive outputs and setting up routing between the Input the preset was
recalled on and those outputs. The parameters in that Drive Module are then set according to the parameters
in the components in the Module Preset.
Note however, that modules with non-consecutive outputs can be created by manually manipulating the
routing, and then recalling Component Presets to the individual outputs. The resulting system can then be
stored in a Snapshot. Such a Module cannot be saved in a Module Preset.
Note: When a Module Preset Recall consumes outputs to construct a module, it treats a pair of Bridged
outputs as a single channel, so recalling a 2-way Module Preset will consume 3 output channels if a Bridged
pair is encountered. See Bridge Mode
Note: DSP inputs are not the same as physical inputs. The 44/48 Series has four audio inputs and four DSP
inputs. This is a matrix mixing system where any physical inputs, be they analogue, AES3 or networked
audio feeds, can drive any number of DSP inputs.
Component Presets
A Component Preset represents the processing for just one output. Any part of a Module Preset may be
recalled to any one output. A Drive Module comprised of parameters which have been recalled to its outputs
25
using Component Preset Recalls can then be saved into another Module Preset provided the outputs remain
consecutive (i.e. you have not changed the routing manually). If the routing has been changed manually, then
the whole arrangement may be saved into a Snapshot. Also see Snapshots and Recalling Components.
Factory Module Presets
The device may contain a library of Factory Presets designed to suit a range of enclosures.
Factory Presets may contain some parameters that are fixed and hidden from view; the remainder of the
parameters are available for user manipulation. The number and type of hidden parameters is dependent on
the Factory Preset, typically crossover frequencies, output delay and some EQs are hidden; those settings that
are a function of the loudspeaker cabinet design and should not require adjustment for different applications.
Factory Presets are locked (as indicated by a ‘box’ symbol after the Preset name) so they cannot be overwritten. The user can, however, store an edited version of a Factory Preset in any free preset location.
In addition to the Factory Presets the device may have further ‘Skeleton Presets’ which will help to create new
presets. They can be used to develop settings for any loudspeaker combination and are recalled in the same
way as the Factory Presets described above. These Presets are also usually locked but the user can name and
store their own edited versions in any free preset location.
Storing Module Presets
Once a drive module has been created it can be stored by pressing the <INPUT> button until the edited
channel is reached, then pressing the down <> button until store page is reached. Using “ADJUST” encoder
will change the preset number. When the destination preset is reached, pressing the <ENTER> button will
enable the name associated with that preset to be changed. Once the name changing is active, the character
to be changed will be highlighted and the “ADJUST” encoder will edit the character. Using the “SELECT”
encoder will move through the character positions. Once the new preset name has been assembled, the
operation can be confirmed by pressing the <ENTER> button, then a message will be displayed, “Enter to
confirm or  to exit”; pressing <ENTER> will store the preset.
A STOR Preset
SUBS
40
Name
2 X 18 BASS
Note: Storing a Drive Module preset for a module which is not configured with consecutive outputs is not
permitted.
Note: When storing a Drive Module preset on the device, Component Names cannot be edited. To change
Component names, the Module Preset must be saved in the PodWare application.
Recalling Module Presets
To recall a Drive Module preset, press the <INPUT> button, then use the down <> button navigate to the
RECL Preset page. Using the “ADJUST” encoder will scroll through the presets available. When the desired
preset is reached, pressing <ENTER> will display the message “Enter to confirm or  to exit”, pressing
<ENTER> will recall the preset. Note that presets do not contain and do not disturb parameter Overlays. See
Overlays
26
A RECL Preset
SUBS
40
Name
2 X 18 BASS
Recalling Components
To recall a Component Preset (to a single output), press the <OUTPUT> button, then use the down <>
button navigate to the RECL Preset page. Using the encoder, “A” will scroll through the component presets
available (as indicated by the ModulePreset.Component number and ModulePreset.Component name). When
the desired component is reached, pressing <ENTER> will flash the Enter button. Pressing <ENTER> again will
then recall the component preset. Note that component presets do not contain and do not disturb parameter
Overlays. See Overlays
A RECL Comp
SUBS
40.2
Name
SP28.Mid
Also see Snapshots.
Input
AES3 Inputs
In addition to the usual analogue inputs, the Device can also accept AES3 digital inputs. When a DSP input
channel is assigned to an AES3 channel, the “AES3” indicator will illuminate.
There is no ‘standard’ for the relative gains between Analogue and AES3 so depending on the levels delivered
by the audio source, it may be necessary to adjust the digital input gain trims to normalise them. It is possible
to adjust the gain of the AES3 input using the Input Trim AES3 Gain parameter. For example, to achieve 0dBFS
= +18dBu, set the AES3 trim to -2dB. To achieve 0dBFS = +24dBu, set the trim to +4dB.
This device will automatically lock onto any sample rate within the range 28kHz and 108kHz.
Networked Audio (Dante) Inputs
When the Digital Audio Network option is fitted, it is possible to select any channel(s) as being sourced from
this network. To do this, connect the audio network connection to the connection on the rear of the Device,
and set the relevant Input Type menu Type parameter to “Dante” (for example.)
When the Digital Audio Network input is installed and routed, the “Net Audio” indicator above the encoders
will illuminate. This indicator will come on even if there are no cables plugged into the networked audio port
on the Device.
As for the AES3 inputs, it is possible to set the relative gain between an Analogue input and the signals
sourced from the Digital Audio Network using the Input Trim Dante gain parameter.
The amplifier will automatically select the correct sample rate from the incoming stream.
27
For other details on the operation of the Digital Audio Network, please refer to the relevant manufacturer’s
documentation.
Automatic Input Selection (Fallover)
It is possible to configure the input selection to be automated. The Input TYPE screen has a Fallover
parameter, which defaults to Manual, allowing you to select what Type of input you wish to use. When
Fallover AES3>Analogue is selected (on an input channel which supports AES3), then the AES3 source will be
automatically selected if it has a valid audio stream on it. If the AES3 stream should fail, then Analogue is
automatically selected instead.
When Fallover Dante>Analogue is selected (when the Dante option is fitted), then the Dante source will be
automatically selected if it has a valid audio stream on it. If the Dante stream should fail, then Analogue is
automatically selected instead.
Similarly, it is possible to select Fallover Dante>AES3 on a channel that supports AES3 and the Dante option is
fitted.
The ‘Auto’ setting allows the highest priority input source that is active to be automatically selected, so the
user could just plug a source into any input and it will be automatically selected. The priorities are: Dante first,
AES3 second, Analogue third.
Note that any automatic selection will take precedence over manual selection, so if you try to manually select
Dante when there is no valid Dante stream, then it will revert to the fallover input source.
Gain and Polarity
The gain page of the input channel selected allows users to increase or decrease the amount of signal going
into the selected input. Using the “SELECT” encoder to highlight the Gain value allows the value to be changed
by the “ADJUST encoder in 0.2dB steps from -40dB to +20dB. The presence of an active Group Overlay
parameter is indicated by the ‘[]’ symbol (See Overlays). This page will also allow users to change the polarity
of the selected input from normal to reverse. And to mute the selected channel.
Delay
The delay page which controls the amount of delay associated with the input channel selected and is
adjustable from 0 to 998ms. The delay parameter is adjustable in fine steps at low values; the adjustment
becomes progressively coarser as the value increases. The presence of an active Group Overlay parameter is
indicated by the ‘[]’ symbol. See Overlays.
High Pass Filter
System high pass filtering is provided for the input signal. Filter type is selectable from 1st order, Butterworth,
Bessel, Linkwitz-Riley and Hardman. Filter slopes of up to 4th order or 24dB / octave are provided. Not all
filter types are available in all slopes. For example 18dB / octave Linkwitz-Riley filters do not exist.
The Hardman type filter is always described by its order as the filter becomes progressively steeper rather
than following a linear slope so a dB/octave description is not accurate.
Parametric Equalisation
There are nine stages of equalisation available for each input channel, three shelving filters and six parametric
filters.
FIR Shelving EQ
The Input High Shelf EQ is implemented using a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter, and exhibits a linear phase
response; that is all frequencies are delayed by the same amount. This can be important in applications where
different amounts of EQ are applied to different parts of a speaker cluster, such as to add 'Throw' EQ boost so
28
that parts of cluster which are throwing further can have HF absorption correction added. If this EQ is not
linear phase, then the zones where the speakers combine may suffer frequency response anomalies.
Being a linear phase FIR equaliser, this necessarily introduces some latency delay, which is constant regardless
of the settings. However, when the ‘Enable’ parameter is set to “Off”, it is removed from the signal path
entirely, so it does not add any latency. In this page you can change the frequency parameter from 2kHz to
20kHz, enable/disable the filter, and change the cut or boost in 0.2dB increments. The presence of an active
Group Overlay parameter is indicated by the ‘[]’ symbol being appended to the Gain value (See Overlays). The
filter (and its associated latency) can be completely removed by setting the enable parameter to the “Off”
position. Note that this EQ can only be used in Module Groups if set to ‘On’.
Also see Latency Delay.
Parametric Filters
Parametric filters are defined by frequency, bandwidth and gain. The frequency is adjustable over the range
from 10Hz to 25.6kHz. The bandwidth shown as Width on the screen, ranges from 0.10 octaves to 5.2 octaves.
Bandwidth can be shown and adjusted as Q or Octaves (Oct). Gain is adjusted in 0.2dB increments. The
presence of an active Group Overlay parameter is indicated by the ‘[]’ symbol being appended to the Gain
value. See Overlays.
Also see Bandwidth Units in Utilities.
Routing
Routing allows users to route any physical analogue or digital signal channel to any DSP input. This is
effectively a matrix mixing system where all DSPs can be driven from any one input, or from pairs of inputs
“1+2”, “3+4”, “1+3”, “1+4”, “2+3” or “2+4”. Summed inputs have 6dB of attenuation so that a sum of largely
similar programme material remains at the correct calibrated level.
Output
Gain and Polarity
The gain page of the output channel allows users to increase or decrease the relative signal gain for the
selected output. The Gain value may be adjusted in 0.2dB steps from -40dB to +20dB. This page will also allow
users to change the polarity of the selected output from normal to reverse.
Delay
The delay page controls the amount of delay associated with the output channel selected and is adjustable
from 0 to 998ms. The delay parameter is adjustable in fine steps at low values; the adjustment becomes
progressively coarser as the value increases.
High and Low pass Filters
High pass crossover filtering is provided for the output signal. Filter type is selectable from 1st order,
Butterworth, Bessel, Linkwitz-Riley, Hardman and LIR Linear Phase. Filter slopes of up to 8th order or 48dB /
octave are provided. Not all filter types are available in all slopes. For example 18dB / octave Linkwitz-Riley
filters cannot be selected because they do not exist.
The Hardman type filter is always described by its order as the filter becomes progressively steeper rather
than following a linear slope so a dB/octave description is not accurate.
29
LIR Crossover Filtering
Unique to Linea Research, “Linear Impulse Response” (LIR) crossover filtering gives a Linear Phase crossover
which has a constant delay regardless of frequency (unlike other types of crossover which delay different
frequencies to a different extent, thus smearing the arrival time). The LIR crossover can thus be described as
having a flat Group Delay response, and thus entirely free of Group Delay Distortion, this is exactly the same
as can be provided by common FIR filtering but without the complications and disadvantages inherent with
the FIR technique.
The shape of the LIR crossover filter is similar to a 4th order Linkwitz-Riley filter, and maintains zero phase
difference between the adjacent bands across the crossover region to keep the polar response rock steady.
Note that very narrow bandwidths are not possible with this crossover type. If the Low Pass frequency is too
close to the High Pass frequency, then the filter will ‘mute’.
Linear Phase filtering necessarily introduces delay; the laws of physics demand it. To keep this delay to a
minimum, it is recommended that more conventional crossover shapes (such as Linkwitz-Riley) are used for
the very lowest frequency high-pass edge, particularly if this is less than perhaps 100Hz, which is well below
the frequency thought to cause audible ‘Group Delay Distortion’.
This constant delay will depend on the lowest high-pass frequency used in the crossover filters in a given Drive
Module.
Also see the section on Latency Delays.
Parametric Equalisation and All-Pass Filters
There are ten different EQ filters; two shelving filters and eight parametric filters. Parametric filters are
defined by frequency, bandwidth and gain. The frequency is controlled over the range from 10Hz to 25.6kHz.
The bandwidth, shown as Width on the screen, ranges from 0.10 octaves to 5.2 octaves. Bandwidth can be
shown and adjusted as Q or Octaves (Oct). Gain is adjustable in 0.2dB increments.
Any of the six Parametric filters can be used as All-Pass filters. When a filter is set to All-Pass mode, the Gain
parameter value will show as “AllPass” on the display. This setting may only be engaged or disengaged from
the PodWare PC application.
Also see Bandwidth Units in Utilities.
Limiters
The 44/48 Series includes three limiters in the output signal path. Please note that whilst the Limiters in this
product offer protection for amplifiers and drivers, they can never protect from all possible scenarios,
therefore Linea Research is not responsible for any damage which might occur.
VX Limiter (Unique to Linea Research)
This is a peak-detecting signal limiter. The VX Mode parameter determines the style of limiter. When Virtual
Crossover (VX) mode is off, the limiter is controlled in a conventional manner; the only controls being
Threshold and Overshoot.
The Overshoot limiter prevents the signal from exceeding threshold during the attack phase of the main
limiter by more than a predetermined amount. The optimal Overshoot setting is usually about 8dB. Lower
Overshoot settings will sound progressively ‘harder’.
30
When VX mode is engaged, the user can choose the crossover point of a ‘virtual crossover’, which
incorporates two limiters per output so the user can individually limit the drivers in a passive 2-way enclosure
using individual thresholds, and optimised attack and release characteristics for each. The Threshold of the
second ‘Hi’ limiter is set relative to the threshold of the first ‘Lo’ limiter.
The effect of the VX threshold and split frequency on the Limiter curve can be seen in PodWare.
This Limiter introduces some delay. In non-VX mode, this delay will depend on the lowest high-pass frequency
used in the crossover filters in a given Drive Module. In VX mode, the delay is related to the Split frequency.
This delay will be applied to all of the outputs in a given Drive Module to keep them in phase.
Also see Latency Delays
Tmax Thermal Limiter
The Thermal Limiter is intended to protect the driver against damage due to over-heating. It models the
temperature of the driver, and constrains the output signal level in order to keep the average output power
below a predetermined limit, applying attack and release characteristics to go some way towards modelling
the complex thermal circuit of a driver’s voice coil and magnet assembly.
Three parameters are available for adjustment:
Threshold – the continuous RMS voltage which the driver should be able to withstand. This is calibrated at the
output of the amplifier. The Thermal Limiter can be defeated by setting the Threshold to the maximum “Off”
value.
Attack – The time-constant of the speed at which the driver heats up (in seconds).
Release – The time-constant of the speed at which the driver cools down (expressed as a multiple of the
Attack time).
Xmax Excursion Limiter
The Excursion Limiter protects the driver against excessive linear movement of the cone and voice-coil which
could otherwise cause mechanical damage. Since this movement (excursion) is largely related to the inverse
of the signal frequency, drivers are prone to being damaged by very low frequencies. This limiter is
progressively more sensitive at lower frequencies and, rather than varying the gain to provide the limiting
action, it uses a sliding high-pass filter to progressively curtail the low-frequency response, effectively limiting
the linear excursion to below the X-max specification of the driver.
To set the limiter up, it is necessary to know the shape of the family of Excursion vs. Frequency curves of the
driver for various drive voltage levels. A curve should then be chosen where the slope is high where it passes
though the specified X-Max value for the driver. The peak voltage and frequency of this point should then be
noted.
The Xmax limiter is usually then set up using just two parameters:
Threshold – the peak voltage of the point arrived at above. This is calibrated at the output of the amplifier.
The Excursion Limiter can be defeated by setting Threshold to the maximum “Off” value.
Frequency – The frequency at which the above threshold voltage is appropriate.
A further parameter “Min” may also be available for more advanced applications. This allows the increasing
limiting action at lower frequencies to level-off below a certain frequency. In most application, this would be
left set to its default value of 5Hz.
Note: For further information on setting up limiters, please see the Application Note DE3457 Setting Up
Limiters.
31
Bridge
When an amplifier pair is set to Bridge Mode, it uses two amplifier channels to drive one loudspeaker with
greater power. In this mode, only one set of Output controls is active per pair of amplifier channels since both
of the amplifiers in the pair are driven with the same signals, as determined by the left-hand (lower
numbered) channel of the pair controls. Bridge settings should be set up before recalling Drive Module
Presets. Module Preset Recall will see a bridged pair of outputs as a single channel.
Bridge Mode is enabled or disabled in the AMP page for a given odd numbered Output. When enabled, the
Bridge indicator will be illuminated between the bridged channels.
When Bridged, the partner (even numbered) channel will not show any signal on the limiter meter, and the
Mute button will not operate, neither will you be able access any of its parameters for adjustment. The
Amplifier protection indicator however will still operate.
Routing
Outputs can be driven from any DSP input. This routing is the fundamental means by which Drive Modules are
created. Routing should always consume outputs consecutively alphabetically and numerically. However, nonconsecutive Drive Modules may be created using manual routing and Recalling Components. See the drive
module section of this user manual for more information.
Driver
The optimal drive level may be adjusted for a given driver impedance using the Load parameter. See Load
Matching.
The live measured impedance value is also shown on the Driver page. Since the device can only measure this
when there is a signal, the impedance is indicated as “?” when there is insufficient signal level to perform a
measurement.
Utility Pages
Screen Contrast
The Screen page in the “UTILITY” section adjusts the contrast (and optimal viewing angle) of the screen from
0-100% in 1% increments.
Stereo Linking
Stereo linking is available between DSP Drive Modules A & B and between C & D. Changing a parameter in
either of the stereo linked Drive Modules will change the other linked Drive Module. Stereo linking is
controlled by the STEREO page in the “UTILITY” menu.
Note: Stereo linking will only work when the linked Drive Modules are of equal size.
Current Ethernet IP Address
This may be viewed in the “IP Curr” page of the “UTILITY” menu. This value cannot be edited.
IP Mode
The Ethernet IP address may be automatic “Auto” or may be a fixed static value “Static” as determined by the
“IP Mode” page of the “UTILITY” menu.
WARNING – Do NOT use Static mode unless your IT system specifically requires it. Auto mode should always
be used where possible since in this mode, the Device can always be ‘discovered’ by the PodWare
application. When in Static mode, the IP Address will flash on the Home screen.
32
Also see Ethernet Configurations.
IP Static
This allows the Static Ethernet IP address to be adjusted by the rotary encoders on the IP Static page of the
“UTILITY” menu. This page will only be visible when in Static mode.
Store Snapshot
This page of the “UTILITY” menu allows a Snapshot of the device to be stored.
Also see Snapshots.
Recall Snapshot
This page of the “UTILITY” menu allows a Snapshot to be recalled.
Also see Snapshots and Aux Port.
Bandwidth Units
This page of the “UTILITY” menu allows the Bandwidth of Parametric Equalisers to be viewed and adjusted in
either Octaves or ‘Q’.
Aux Style
This page of the “UTILITY” menu allows the action of the Aux port to be viewed and adjusted.
Also see Aux Port.
ECO
This page of the “UTILITY” menu allows the device to save power by going into a low power mode when it is
not being used.
Standby is a fast mode which saves some energy, but will wake-up very quickly if an audio input is detected.
The associated Standby Time parameter allows the amplifier to automatically go into power-save if no audio
signal has been detected for a period of time. This function can be defeated by setting the latter control to
Manual. Linea would strongly advise leaving it set to automatic however as there is no negative consequence
to doing this since ‘wake-up’ on detecting the presence of an audio input signal is instantaneous.
The Standby Now ‘parameter’ allows the amplifier to be put into standby mode manually when it is not being
used.
Sleep is a deep power save mode which saves the most energy, however it will take a small number of
seconds for the amplifier to wake-up, and it may only be woken up manually (either from the PodWare
application or by switching the device off then on again). The associated Sleep Time parameter allows the
amplifier to automatically go into Sleep mode if no audio signal has been detected for a period of time. This
function can be defeated by setting the latter control to Manual.
External Breaker Protection (EBP)
The Power (“PWR”) utility page provides access to the External Breaker Protection (EBP) feature, which allows
the output power to be limited in order to prevent the nuisance tripping of mains circuit breakers or fuses
when the amplifier needs to be operated on a mains supply with restricted capacity. Set the EBP value to that
of the circuit breaker or fuse to which the amplifier is connected.
33
Ethernet
Ethernet configurations
IP addressing in the Device can be completely automatic; No setup is required.
When first installing and launching PodWare, the computer Firewall may ask to allow PodWare to access the
network. NOTE: This must be allowed for both private and public networks.
DHCP
There are two primary IP address ranges – one used when there is a DHCP server, and another (‘Link Local’)
where there is no DHCP server (so the Device and the Computer will instead use 'Auto IP' to allocate
themselves an IP address). Both the device and the computer must be in the same IP address range. In a local
network environment such as an office where there is a DHCP server, both the computer and the Device will
be in the DHCP IP address range, and so will connect immediately.
AUTO-IP
The device will initially search for a DHCP server when first switched on (during which time its Online Indicator
will be flashing). As it can take up to one minute to establish that there is no DHCP server available, this is the
time it may take before Auto IP is entered.
Please be aware that it can also take some time from a computer being switched on in an isolated network
(without a DHCP server), or unplugged from a network with DHCP to time out of DHCP searching, so it will not
connect immediately to amplifiers that are already using Auto IP. The time it takes before it decides to revert
to Auto IP depends on the operating system but it can take several minutes to acquire an Auto IP address.
Static-IP
If the device or the computer has a static IP address set, PodWare may not be able to 'see' the device if it is in
a different IP Address range (i.e. in a different subnet). Unless there are good reasons it is best to avoid the
use of static IP addressing if at all possible.
IP Troubleshooting
If PodWare cannot connect to the device:




A Router acting as a DHCP server is highly recommended as this provides the most trouble-free way of
administering IP addresses. Always switch on any DHCP server before connecting either the computer
or Amplifier to the network.
If not using a DHCP server, check that the Current IP address in the device is compatible with the IP
address of the computer. Generally, the leftmost two sets of 3 digits should be the same.
If there is no Router in the system acting as a DHCP server, wait 10 minutes (for the computer to
acquire the correct IP address) and try again.
Check that the Firewall in the computer will allow PodWare access to the network for both private
and public networks. Please refer to the Help feature in the PodWare application for further guidance
on this
Snapshots
A Snapshot may be recalled either via the device User Interface, from the PodWare application or via the AUX
port on the rear of the Device.
The snapshot menu is accessed via the utility pages. Recalling a Snapshot triggers the recalling of a
Component to each input and output, and may change other device-wide settings, effectively recalling a
34
processor-wide preset. In addition to being able to recall snapshots from Podware and from the Device's front
panel, some of the snapshots are also recallable from the auxiliary port.
Also see Aux Port
The parameters inside the Drive Modules are not individually stored in Snapshots. Recalling a Snapshot will
merely trigger the recall of the appropriate Input and Output Components, rather than restoring the
parameters that were active when the Snapshot was stored. This has the distinct advantage that the library of
OEM presets may be updated without having to be concerned about what parameters might have been saved
in users Snapshots. It does however require that any existing edits to the parameters in Drive Modules are
stored into Drive Module presets before a Snapshot is stored.
Also see Overview Of Modules Components and Snapshots
AUX Port
The AUX has two inputs, X & Y. These allow simple contact closure devices (relays or switches) or external
logic signals to change the state of the amplifier as described below. Connecting an AUX input to ground (the
earth symbol) will trigger it; there is no requirement for an external voltage. However, the ports can also be
triggered directly by a logic signal as long as the logic ‘low’ goes below +0.5V. Do not connect systems if their
logic ‘high’ voltage exceeds +24V.
The AUX port may be configured to work in a number of ways by adjusting the Style parameter in the Aux
page of the Utility menu:





None - No operation
2+Mute (Event or State) – Either Snapshot 1 or Snapshot 2 may be recalled by applying a momentary
or static connection to an Aux port terminal, or the device may be muted by Grounding both Aux port
terminals
3 Snaps (Event or State) – Either Snapshot 1 or 2 or 3 may be recalled by applying a momentary or
static connection pattern to an Aux port terminals
4 Snaps (State) – One of the four Snapshots 1,2,3,4 may be selected by applying a static connection
pattern to the Aux port terminals
3+Mute (State) - One of the three Snapshots 1,2,3 may be selected by applying a static connection
pattern to the Aux port terminals, or the device may be mute by Grounding both Aux port terminals
The following table shows the action taken for various Aux connection patterns in the various Aux port
modes:
AUX X
AUX Y
2+Mute ACTION
3 Snaps ACTION
4 Snaps ACTION
3+Mute ACTION
(State or Event)
(State or Event)
(State)
(State)
Open
Open
No Change
No Change
Recall Snapshot 1
Recall Snapshot 1
Gnd
Open
Recall Snapshot 1
Recall Snapshot 1
Recall Snapshot 2
Recall Snapshot 2
Open
Gnd
Recall Snapshot 2
Recall Snapshot 2
Recall Snapshot 3
Recall Snapshot 3
Gnd
Gnd
Mute
Recall Snapshot 3
Recall Snapshot 4
Mute
35
Some of the above modes allow the AUX Port to be used either in Event mode (whereby a momentary pushbutton or momentary relay contact closure on one of the AUX lines will cause a Snapshot to be recalled). Or in
State mode (where a rotary switch etc. connected to both of the AUX lines selects which Snapshot to use).
Some of the other modes only allow State mode, requiring the connection pattern to persist in order for the
Snapshot to be held as the current one.
NOTE: That if the contact closure port is being driven, or if the Aux Style is set to one of the State modes,
this will override the snapshot recall setting in the menu (or in PodWare). Also under these conditions, the
snapshot menu items are not accessible, and the Home screen will show the Snapshot number as a
reminder.
Also see Snapshots.
Latency delay
All Digital Signal Processing, and conversion between different formats of signal – analogue/digital/network
etc., necessarily introduce some delay (latency) to the signal path. Of course, we strive to minimise these
latencies. Small as they are, it is sometimes useful to know their precise values. The following describes the
principal latencies introduced by various parts of the Device product:
Input/Output Latencies
Analogue Input
0.385ms
Digital input at 96KHz sample rate
0.5ms
Digital input at 48KHz sample rate
0.66ms
Analogue Output
0.402ms
OR
AES3 Output
0.1ms
OR
Dante Output
0.5ms (TBC)
Processing Latencies (limited to a minimum of 1.53ms):
OR
OR
Input HiShelf FIR
0.48ms (0ms if set to ‘Off’)
LIR Linear Phase crossover
1.19ms/Fhp(kHz), limited to 30ms maximum **
VxLim Limiter (VX mode off)
0.12ms/Fhp(kHz), limited to 1.53ms maximum **
OR
VxLim Limiter (VX mode on)
0.358ms/Fsplit(kHz), limited to 1.53ms max 
** This latency figure is calculated using the crossover High-pass frequency (in kHz)
 This latency figure is calculated using the Vx Split frequency (in kHz)
Important tip: The processing latency is constant at 1.53ms unless LIR crossover filters or FIR HiShelf EQs are
used, so normally you would just need to add the Input and Output delays to this constant value.
If LIR or FIR are in use, the Processing latency of a Drive Module may increase beyond this figure. The Drive
Module Latency may be viewed on the Latency page of the relevant Input DSP channel. This can be accessed
by pressing Input then down until the latency page is reached.
When LIR, is used the Vx Limiter can take the overall latency above the 1.53ms. When high pass frequency is
set below 40Hz the filter will automatically revert to Linkwitz riley, this is set so that the latency will not
exceed 30ms as stated.
Note that the latency reported on the Latency screen in the utilities menu does not include the
Input/Output latencies.
36
When using input FIR filters, LIR or VX Limiters always check the view latency screen to see the latency
attributed to that Drive Module.
Example:
Input/Output
Analogue Input
Analogue Output
Processing
Input HiShelf FIR (Off)
LIR Linear Phase crossover (500Hz)
VxLim Lim (VX mode on, 1KHz Fsplit)
Total
0.385ms
0.402ms
0ms
2.38ms
0.358ms
3.525ms
Note that the latencies within a Drive Module are equalised among outputs of that Drive Module. That is,
padding delay will be automatically added to some outputs such that the total latency is the same in each
output of a Drive Module.
This latency equalisation does not extend outside a Drive Module, so Drive Modules are not guaranteed to
have the same latency as one-another.
Secure Mode
When activated, this will disable all the front panel controls so they cannot affect the signal path, making the
unit secure against tampering. The only option that is left for user control is snapshot recall. If this is not
required then storing the same device state in every snapshot will effectively disable this feature. When in
secure mode, the indicators still operate normally. To activate secure mode, press and hold the utility button
for 5 seconds. To deactivate, press and hold the utility button for 5 seconds. When in secure mode, this will be
shown on the display. Note that the Ethernet communications port is still active in secure mode.
Overlay Flush
If the device has been used in Module Groups, and still has an active Overlay (as indicated by the Overlay
indicator), these can be removed by simultaneously pressing and holding for 5 seconds the Utility and Enter
buttons. See Overlays.
Protection Systems
Comprehensive protection features preserve the longevity of the loudspeaker and amplifier by continuously
monitoring several critical parameters, and reducing the gain, or muting the amplifier either temporarily or
permanently depending on the nature and seriousness of the fault or misuse. The amplifier will recover and
restart if at all possible, but may remain in shut down if a serious fault persists.
Limiters deal with routine over-driving of the amplifier, making sure that the driver(s) are not pushed too
hard. The limiter indicators will warn you when the driver is being driven into limit.
Minor faults are dealt with by ‘dimming’ the amplifier, reducing the level to a sufficient degree and for a
sufficient time that the amplifier is able to recover gracefully without any user interaction. When the fault
condition has passed, the amplifier will recover automatically.
37
When the protection systems are reducing the level, this is indicated by illuminating the left-hand Amplifier
channel protection indicator. This will also illuminate when the output voltage is ‘clipping’.
This indicator will remain permanently illuminated if the channel has been muted by the protection systems.
The Mute button will also flash. This will usually also be indicated by a warning message on the display.
Some types of protection affect all output channels, so you may see the Amplifier indicator illuminated, and
the Mute button flash, on every channel.
Summary of Protection Indication
The reasons for the protection indicators illuminating are summarised as follows:
Amplifier Indicator
Amplifier clipping
Amplifier clip limiting
Amplifier Current limiting
Amplifier VHF limiting
PSU Current limiting
PSU Power limiting
Thermal limiting
Driver Indicator
Limiter 6dB over
Thermal limiting
Excursion limiting
Notes
Will show on all output channels
Will show on all output channels
Will show on all output channels
Incident Reporting
In the PodWare application, a coloured indicator appears on a Device Bar in the System View which displays
the Incident state of the device. The Incident state may be one of three states:
 Red: Fault (The device is faulty in some way and requires attention)
 Yellow: Check (The device may not be performing to its full and should be checked)
 Green: OK (The device is performing well and requires no attention)
Holding your mouse over the Incident indicator for a few seconds will show the current incident level and
name.
If an incident is reported you can disable it, and all less serious incidents, by right clicking the bar in System
View and selecting ‘Enable/Disable Alarms’. Doing this will show a cross over the Incident indicator and the
device will no longer report any Incidents at this level or below.
If any Incidents have previously been disabled they can be enabled by using the right click context menu and
selecting ‘Enable/Disable Alarms’ again.
Any active incident will be shown on the display of the device.
A Fault state will also cause the Fault Relay to open. See Fault Relay
Fault Relay
Three connections are available via the Phoenix connector for this relay. The schematic representation
printed on the rear panel shows the ‘idle’ state of the relay (when the amplifier is not switched on). When the
amplifier is switched on, the relay will normally energise. When a Fault incident occurs, the relay will be deenergised. This will allow either a Fault Incident or a loss of power to be seen as a ‘Fault’.
38
Also see Incident Reporting
Performance Logging
The PodWare application allows you to inspect various performance measurements, including various graphs
of performance against time, recording events over a period of up to three days. Since the amplifier cannot
record any events whilst powered-off, breaks in a log due to power-downs are indicated by a break symbol ||
in the log.
The events recorded are:
Supply Current - How much current is being supplied to the device via the mains inlet
DC Link Voltage – A voltage which is derived from the mains supply voltage
Thermal Capacity – How much of the available thermal capacity has been used
Driver Current (for each output) – The average current being delivered to the driver
Driver Impedance (for each output) – The average impedance of the driver
Protection Limiting (for each output) - How much the amplifier is ‘dimming’ itself in order to protect itself
from potential damage
The data in the log can be exported by right-clicking on the log to launch a context menu, and selecting “copy
log data to clipboard”. The data could then be pasted into a spreadsheet for further analysis. Your dealer may
ask you to do this is you have experienced a problem.
Alternatively, all of the operational and performance data, including the logs may be collected together into a
single file by selecting File > Save Device Diagnostics. Your dealer will be able to read and interpret this data.
39
Processing Block Diagram
40
Input Menu Map
Utility Menu Map
STATIC IP
CH A
CH B
CH C
CH D
FIR/
FIR/
FIR/
FIR/
HOME
EQ6
EQ6
EQ6
EQ6
HOME
EQ5
EQ5
EQ5
EQ5
HOME
IP MODE
CURR
IP CURR
UTIL
EQ4
EQ4
EQ4
EQ4
HOME
EQ3
EQ3
EQ3
EQ3
HOME
EQ 2
EQ 2
EQ 2
EQ 2
HOME
STEREO
HOME
POWER
SAVE
EBP
SCREEN
EQ 1
EQ 1
EQ 1
EQ 1
HOME
EQb\
EQb\
EQb\
EQb\
HOME
EQa\
EQa\
EQa\
EQa\
HOME
AUX
STYLE
EQ BW
SCREEN
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HOME
DEL
DEL
DEL
DEL
HOME
GAIN
GAIN
GAIN
GAIN
HOME
RECL
RECL
RECL
RECL
HOME
RECAL
SNAP
KEY
IN
MENU PAGE
MENU BUTTON
STOR
STOR
STOR
STOR
HOME
CHANNEL NO.
IN
IN
IN
IN
HOME
UP/DOWN BUTTON PRESS
TYPE
TYPE
TYPE
TYPE
HOME
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
HOME
LATEN
LATEN
LATEN
LATEN
HOME
MENU BUTTON PRESS
41
Output Menu Map
OUT
CH 1
CH 2
..Other
Channels..
CH N
EQ /
EQ /
EQ /
EQ /
HOME
EQ 8
EQ 8
EQ 8
EQ 8
HOME
EQ 7
EQ 7
EQ 7
EQ 7
HOME
EQ 6
EQ 6
EQ 6
EQ 6
HOME
EQ 5
EQ 5
EQ 5
EQ 5
HOME
EQ 4
EQ 4
EQ 4
EQ 4
HOME
EQ 3
EQ 3
EQ 3
EQ 3
HOME
EQ 2
EQ 2
EQ 2
EQ 2
HOME
EQ 1
EQ 1
EQ 1
EQ 1
HOME
EQ \
EQ \
EQ \
EQ \
HOME
LPF
LPF
LPF
LPF
HOME
HPF
HPF
HPF
HPF
HOME
DEL
DEL
DEL
DEL
HOME
GAIN
GAIN
GAIN
GAIN
HOME
RECL
RECL
RECL
RECL
HOME
ROUT
ROUT
ROUT
ROUT
HOME
DRIVER
DRIVER
DRIVER
DRIVER
HOME
LIM
LIM
LIM
LIM
HOME
TMAX
TMAX
TMAX
TMAX
HOME
XMAX
XMAX
XMAX
XMAX
HOME
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
HOME
42
EQ and Filter Response Graphs
43
44
45
46
Technical Specifications
General
Number of Output channels
Four (44M) or Eight (48M)
Total power output (44M)
20,000/10,000/6,000 Watts RMS (44M20, 44M10, 44M06)
Total power output (48M)
10,000/6,000/3,000 Watts RMS (48M10, 48M06, 48M03)
Input types
Analog, AES3 (Dante as model option)
Ethernet, configurable function Volt-free relay and contact
closure port
Standby and deep sleep, both with auto-sleep timers
Front panel switch, network command, contact closure
and audio detection
40degC (105degF)
Control, monitoring & alarm
Energy saving modes
System sleep and wakeup
Max ambient temperature (full power, no limiting)
Audio
Amplifier topology
Amplifier modulation scheme
Proprietary 5th generation Linea Research Class D.
Low feedback, multiple loop, with feedforward error
correction.
Dynamic range (analog input to speaker output)
>113dBA typ.
Dynamic range (AES3 or Dante input to output)
>114dBA typ.
Frequency response
<7Hz to >30kHz, 4 Ohms, -2.5dB.
Total harmonic distortion, THD
<0.05% typ, 1kHz, AES17, 4 Ohms.
Inter-channel crosstalk (worst combination of
channels)
better than -85dBr at 1kHz.
better than -75dBr at 10kHz.
Maximum analog input level
+20dBu.
Analog input sensitivity range for full output
0dBu to +20dBu, continuously adjustable.
Analog input
20k Ohm, electronically balanced.
Analog link
Directly connected to the analog input.
Analog ground scheme
AES48 standard compliant.
AES3 input
Transformer isolated with active cable equalisation for
extended range (unique to Linea).
AES3 link
Active signal regeneration with automatic direct bypass
to the AES3 input if the unit is unpowered.
AES3 supported sampling rates
24kHz to 192kHz (auto locking).
Digital processing
Resolution
Sample rate
40 bit, using proprietary LMD (Linea-Micro-Detail) algorithms.
96kHz throughout.
Special functionality:
Class leading limiter suite
Hardman crossover filters
LIR crossover filters
FIR Shelving EQ filters
Overlays
See the ‘speaker protection systems’ section.
Better out of band rejection than Linkwitz-Riley (Unique to Linea).
Linear Phase without the compromises of FIR filters (Unique to Linea).
For linear phase filtering.
Twelve additional independent overlays of EQ, Delay and Gain.
47
Power Output
Model
44 series M20
44 series M10
44 series M06
Power specification
RMS output power per channel, all channels driven with continuous program material
and a nominal ambient temperature of 40degC / 105degF
Crest Factor of 4 (12dB), 2-Ohm nominal load
5,000W
2,500W
1,500W
Crest Factor of 2.8 (9dB), 4-Ohm nominal load
3,000W
2,500W
1,500W
Crest Factor of 2 (6dB), 8-Ohm nominal load
1,500W
1,500W
750W
Bridged, per channel pair, 4 Ohm load
10,000W
5,000W
3,000W
25V line (CV) operation, Crest Factor 4 (12dB)
1250W
885W
685W
70V line (CV) operation, Crest Factor 4 (12dB)
3500W
2,500W
1,500W
100V line (CV) operation, Crest Factor 4 (12dB)
5,000W
2,500W
1,500W
Model
48 series M10
48 series M06
48 series M03
Power specification
RMS output power per channel, all channels driven with continuous program material
and a nominal ambient temperature of 40degC / 105degF
Crest Factor of 4 (12dB), 2-Ohm nominal load
1,250W
750W
400W
Crest Factor of 2.8 (9dB), 4-Ohm nominal load
1,250W
750W
400W
Crest Factor of 2 (6dB), 8-Ohm nominal load
1,250W
750W
400W
Bridged, per channel pair, 4 Ohm load
2,500W
1,500W
800W
25V line (CV) operation, Crest Factor 4 (12dB)
625W
485W
355W
70V line (CV) operation, Crest Factor 4 (12dB)
1,250W
750W
400W
100V line (CV) operation, Crest Factor 4 (12dB)
1,250W
750W
400W
Power supply
Topology (main power supply)
3rd generation Series Resonant.
Topology (auxiliary and standby supplies)
Low quiescent Eco-Flyback.
Internally stored energy
>600 Joules.
Mains input voltage range (automatically configured)
85V to 240V.
Mains input frequency range
47Hz to 63Hz.
Mains inrush current (max for <10ms)
6A at 115V, 12A at 230V.
Protection systems
Note : Under all circumstances the control and protection systems will endeavor to deliver the maximum power possible for
a given set of conditions, applying limiters only in extreme circumstances. Muting will only occur when a dangerous situation
is detected, normal operation automatically resuming when the condition clears.
48
System protection
Speaker protection
Excessive output current
Audio soft-clip limiter
Excessive power supply current
VxLim, Multiband peak limiter
(Unique to Linea)
Excessive amplifier section temperature
VxMax, Multiband overshoot limiter
(Unique to Linea)
Excessive power supply section temperature
Vx-Xmax, Driver excursion limiter
Excessive DSP section temperature
Vx-Tmax, Driver thermal limiter
(long term power limiter)
Mains voltage out of range
DC offset protection
Fan speeds out of range
Excessive HF energy (VHF) limiter
Internal power rails out of range
Power distribution protection systems
Mains inrush current limiting (soft start and anti-surge).
Mains average current limiting (mains breaker / fuse trip protection).
Randomised initialisation when powered up to reduce the peak power demand in large systems.
Monitoring and logging
Supply current logged vs time
Supply voltage logged vs time
Thermal Capacity logged vs time
Each driver current logged vs time
Each driver impedance logged vs time
Protection limiting for each output logged vs time
Number of power cycles counted
Number of mains brownout events counted
Fan speeds continuously monitored
Fan underspeed events counted
Various protection mute events counted
Driver Impedance continuously monitored
An inbuilt alarm and notification system can be configured to indicate problems to remote devices either via the network or
the Volt-free changeover relay contacts accessibly on the rear panel.
OEM Features
Most parameters may be individually hidden (OEM locked) from the user with access being password protected.
Physical
Cooling
Variable speed fans.
Airflow
Front to back.
Air filtration
Washable media, changeable without the use of
tools.
Analog IN and LINK connectors
Genuine Neutrik XLR.
AES3 IN and LINK connectors
Genuine Neutrik XLR.
Audio output connector
Genuine Neutrik Speakon.
Mains input connector
Genuine Neutrik 32A Powercon.
Dante Primary and Secondary
Shielded RJ45.
Relay output & contact closure inputs
Phoenix pluggable terminal block.
Front panel display (backlit)
Graphical, high contrast, daylight visible.
Front panel encoders
Two, indented, velocity sensitive.
Front panel push buttons
Large, tactile, illuminated.
49
LED indicators
Bright, easily differentiated. Enclosure Standard 19”
2U (88mm) with handles and optional rear support
system
Depth (behind rack ears)
357mm (14”).
Net Weight
12.5kg (27.5 pounds).
Options
There is internal provision for digital audio network option cards to be factory fitted. Currently Linea Research
support Dante from Audinate.
Rear rack support kit (part number ZA1182).
50
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