What`s New in MySQL 5.7
What’s New in MySQL 5.7
A MySQL White Paper
October 2015
Copyright © 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Page 1
Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3
Performance Improvements .............................................................................. 3
3x Faster than MySQL 5.6: SQL Point Selects ............................................................. 3
Native JSON Support .......................................................................................... 4
Performance Schema ......................................................................................... 5
SYS Schema ........................................................................................................ 5
InnoDB Improvements ........................................................................................ 6
InnoDB Online Operations ............................................................................................ 6
InnoDB General Tablespaces ....................................................................................... 6
InnoDB Transparent Page Level Compression ............................................................ 6
InnoDB Native Partitioning ............................................................................................ 7
InnoDB Native Full Text Search .................................................................................... 7
InnoDB Cache Retention .............................................................................................. 8
Optimizer Improvements .................................................................................... 8
Optimizer Cost Model ................................................................................................... 9
JSON Explain .............................................................................................................. 10
New and Improved Optimizer Hints ............................................................................ 11
Query Rewrite Plugin .................................................................................................. 11
Generated Columns .......................................................................................... 11
Server Side Statement Timeouts ..................................................................... 12
Replication Improvements ............................................................................... 12
Multi-Source Replication ............................................................................................. 12
Transaction Based Parallel Replication ...................................................................... 13
Online Replication Changes ....................................................................................... 14
Semi-Sync Replication Enhancements ....................................................................... 15
Enhanced Monitoring .................................................................................................. 15
Group Replication ....................................................................................................... 15
High Availability Improvements ...................................................................... 16
GIS Improvements ............................................................................................ 17
GeoJSON .................................................................................................................... 17
GeoHash ..................................................................................................................... 17
Spatial Aware Client Tools .......................................................................................... 17
Security Improvements .................................................................................... 18
AES 256 Encryption .................................................................................................... 18
Password Rotation Policies ........................................................................................ 19
MySQL Secure Installation ......................................................................................... 19
MySQL Enterprise Edition ................................................................................ 19
Conclusion......................................................................................................... 21
Additional Resources ....................................................................................... 22
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Page 2
Introduction
MySQL is the most trusted and depended-on open source database platform in
use today. 9 out of the top 10 most popular and highly-trafficked websites in the
world rely on MySQL primarily due to its ubiquity across heterogeneous platforms
and application stacks and for its proven performance, reliability, and ease of
use. MySQL 5.7 builds on this momentum by delivering across the board
improvements designed to enable innovative DBAs and Developers to create
and deploy the next generation of web, embedded, and
Cloud/SaaS/PaaS/DBaaS applications on the latest generation of development
frameworks and hardware platforms.
This paper serves as a DBA and Developer guide to MySQL 5.7 as it highlights
the key new features. To conclude, there is a summary of how MySQL 5.7 can
be implemented using best practices comprising production-ready support and
services of the MySQL Enterprise Edition offering.
Performance Improvements
MySQL 5.7 delivers significant performance improvements on all workloads and
sets new benchmark records.
3x Faster than MySQL 5.6: SQL Point Selects
MySQL 5.7 delivers 1,600,000 Queries/Second in the Point Select query
benchmark, 3x faster than MySQL 5.6.
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For context, the benchmark shown above was run on the following platform
configuration:
• Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E7-8890 v3
• 4 sockets x 18 cores-HT (144 CPU threads)
• 2.5 Ghz, 512GB RAM
• Linux kernel 3.16
For more information on the MySQL 5.7 benchmarks, visit:
http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/benchmarks/
The SysBench benchmark tool is freely available for application use-case
specific benchmarks and can be downloaded here:
http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/benchmarks.html
Native JSON Support
In MySQL 5.7 a new data type for storing JSON data in MySQL tables has been
added. Having a native data type for JSON provides some major benefits:
•
•
•
•
Document Validation - Only valid JSON documents can be stored in a
JSON column, so you get automatic validation of your data.
Efficient Access - More importantly, when you store a JSON document in
a JSON column, it is not stored as a plain text value. Instead, it is stored in
an optimized binary format that allows for quicker access to object
members and array elements.
Performance - Improve your query performance by creating indexes on
values within the JSON columns. This can be achieved with “functional
indexes” on virtual columns.
Convenience - The additional inline syntax for JSON columns makes it
very natural to integrate Document queries within your SQL. For example
(features.feature is a JSON column):
SELECTfeature->"$.properties.STREET"ASproperty_streetFROMfeatures
WHEREid=121254;
With MySQL 5.7, you can now seamlessly blend the best of the Relational and
Document paradigms in a single tool, using whatever is best for each specific
application and use case. This opens up a tremendous number of new use cases
for MySQL users.
For more information:
- Native JSON Data Type and Binary Format
- JSON Functions, Part 1 - Manipulation JSON Data
- JSON Functions, Part 2 – Querying JSON Data
- Virtual Columns and Effective Functional Indexes in InnoDB
- JSON Manual
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Performance Schema
Monitoring is important to our users and customers, and essential to any data
management system. At the core of our monitoring strategy we have
Performance Schema. The Performance Schema enhancements to MySQL 5.7
include numerous new monitoring capabilities, reduced footprint and overhead,
and significantly improved ease of use with the new SYS Schema. On the
monitoring side, we have instrumented:
• Metadata Locking - critical to understand metadata lock dependencies
between sessions.
• Stage Tracking - follow the progress of long running operations (e.g.
ALTER TABLE).
• Transactions - monitor all aspects of transaction processing within the
server and storage engines.
• Memory Usage - aggregates memory usage statistics to understand and
tune the memory consumption of a server.
• Stored Programs – instrumentation for stored procedures, stored
functions, events scheduler events and table triggers.
• Prepared Statements - Provide aggregated statistics by prepared
statements and expose prepared statements in use by the server.
We have exposed SHOW SLAVE STATUS information and user variables in
Performance Schema. We also expose the GLOBAL and SESSION level
STATUS and VARIABLES while preserving the corresponding SHOW STATUS
and SHOW VARIABLES commands for backward compatibility.
For more information:
- Performance Schema Reference Manual
- Performance Schema and SYS Schema in MySQL 5.7
- Performance Schema Overview & New Features
SYS Schema
MySQL SYS Schema is a database schema with a set of objects (views, stored
procedures, stored functions, tables, and triggers) that were implemented to give
easy, readable, DBA and Developer based use case access to the wealth of
instrumentation data available primarily within Performance Schema, but also
within various INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables as well.
MySQL SYS Schema is included in the MySQL 5.7 Server by default and
provides summary views to answers common questions, like:
•
•
“Who is taking up all the resources on my database server?”
“Which hosts are hitting my database server those most?”
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•
“Where is all the memory going on my instance?
For more information:
- The MySQL SYS Schema in MySQL 5.7
- Performance Schema and SYS Schema in MySQL 5.7
- MySQL SYS Schema Version 1.5.0 Released
InnoDB Improvements
InnoDB Online Operations
MySQL 5.7 supports additional online operations for developers and DBAs that
need to manage MySQL in production environments. The biggest feature we
have added in this space is the ability to resize your InnoDB Buffer Pool online.
Now you can adjust your Buffer Pool size dynamically in order to adapt to
changing needs without restarting MySQL. InnoDB can also now automatically
truncate the InnoDB UNDO log and tablespaces as an online operation, thus
eliminating one common cause of large shared tablespace files (ibdata1). Lastly,
we have added support for online RENAME INDEX and enlarge VARCHAR
column size operations.
For more information:
- Truncate Undo Tablespace
- Innodb Buffer Pool Online Resize
- Innodb Overview of Online DDL
InnoDB General Tablespaces
You can now group schemas and tables together into logical and physical
tablespaces, thus improving resource utilization and providing an easy and
efficient way to do data migrations in various cases (e.g. using a dedicated
tablespace per customer/user).
For more information:
- InnoDB General Tablespaces
InnoDB Transparent Page Level Compression
InnoDB has supported table compression since MySQL 5.1. InnoDB Page Level
Compression--the idea originally introduced by FusionIO (now part of SanDisk)-is a new feature in MySQL 5.7 and it complements the existing InnoDB table
compression, allowing them to coexist in the same server instance. Users can
now choose the compression scheme that makes the most sense for their use
case, even on a table-by-table basis.
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Supported compression algorithms include Zlib and LZ4. When a page is
written, it is compressed using the specified compression algorithm. The
compressed data is written to disk, where the hole punching mechanism then
releases empty blocks from the end of the page. If compression fails, data is
written out as-is.
InnoDB now also supports 32K and 64K page sizes, which is a nice complement
to the page level compression. In general, larger page sizes will typically
increase the amount of redundant data and thus improve the potential
compression ratios.
All of the above work, when also combined with the new support in 5.7 for a user
configurable fill factor and page merge thresholds, allow InnoDB to make the
best use of your storage space.
For more information:
- InnoDB Transparent Page Compression
- InnoDB Supporting Page Sizes of 32k and 64k
InnoDB Native Partitioning
In MySQL 5.7 InnoDB now contains native support for partitioning. The InnoDB
native partitioning removes overhead and reduces memory requirements by up
to 90%. This work also paves the way for us to both remove existing limitations
on partitioned tables, as well as add new features such as global indexes and
parallel query execution.
For more information:
- InnoDB Native Partitioning
InnoDB Native Full Text Search
We introduced InnoDB Full Text Search in 5.6. We have now added greater
flexibility and further optimizations in MySQL 5.7. For example, FullText indexes
in InnoDB now support an external parser. The plugin can either replace the
built-in parser or it can act as a front-end for it. We have also implemented
Optimizer hints that are passed down to InnoDB about a query so that InnoDB
may skip part of the Full-Text search processing, e.g. not to compute the ranking
values if they are not needed.
As of MySQL 5.7.6, MySQL also provides a built-in full-text N-gram parser plugin
that supports Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK), as well as an installable
MeCab full-text parser plugin for Japanese.
For more information:
- InnoDB Supports Full-Text Plugin Parser
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- MySQL Full-Text Plugins
- InnoDB Full-Text N-gram Parser
- InnoDB MeCab Full-Text Parser Plugin
InnoDB Cache Retention
InnoDB now automatically retains the hottest 25% of your buffer pool across
MySQL restarts. No longer do you need to use any manual process to preload or
warm your data cache, nor do you suffer the associated performance penalty
when a restart of MySQL is required.
For more information:
- InnoDB Preload Buffer Pool
- MySQL Dumping and Reloading the InnoDB Buffer Pool
Optimizer Improvements
We have refactored the MySQL optimizer and as a result, large parts of the
parser, optimizer, and cost model have been rewritten to improve maintainability,
extendibility, and performance.
New MySQL Parser
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New MySQL Optimizer
Optimizer Cost Model
To generate optimal execution plans, the optimizer uses a cost model that is
based on estimates for the costs of various operations that occur during query
execution. The optimizer has historically relied on a set of compiled-in default
“cost constants” to make execution plan decisions.
In MySQL 5.7, the cost based optimizer has been improved to make dynamic,
intelligent, and ultimately better cost based decisions. For example, better cost
estimates take into account new hardware architectures (larger buffers & caches,
SSDs, etc.). Better cost estimates will lead to better decisions by the optimizer
and thus better query performance.
The MySQL 5.7 optimizer includes a configurable database of cost estimates to
use during execution plan construction. These estimates are stored in the
server_cost and engine_cost tables within the mysql system database.
For more information:
- The MySQL Optimizer Cost Model Project
- Optimizer Cost Model Manual
- Optimizer Cost Model Presentation
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JSON Explain
We have enhanced the JSON EXPLAIN output by printing the related cost
estimates, and the estimated amount of data to be processed. This will make it
easier for a DBA to see the critical differences between execution plans.
Explain Costs
For more information:
- Optimizer Cost Model Improvements in MySQL 5.7.5 DMR
-Explain Output Manual
Workbench Visual Explain
These new insights also allow for clients to provide additional visual
representations of this data. The new Visual Explain functionality in MySQL
Workbench is a great example.
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For more information:
- MySQL EXPLAIN Explained
New and Improved Optimizer Hints
We have added parser rules to support a new hint syntax for optimizer hints.
Hints can now be specified directly after the SELECT, INSERT, REPLACE,
UPDATE, and DELETE keywords in an SQL statement, enclosed in /*+ */ style
comments. Not only does this provide the end-user with a more consistent,
powerful, and easy-to-use method of managing hints, but the internal refactoring
done makes it far easier to add Server side support for additional hints moving
forward. For example, we have added many new index and join related hints in
MySQL 5.7.
For more information:
- New Optimizer Hints in MySQL
- Optimizer Hints Manual
Query Rewrite Plugin
MySQL 5.7 implements a Query Rewrite Plugin. The Query Rewrite Plugin
allows you to specify how certain queries that arrive at the server should be
rewritten before they are processed and executed by the server. For example,
the Query Rewrite Plugin can enforce/prevent a certain query plan by adding
hints to a query. The Query Rewrite Plugin is a superb tool for handling
problematic queries when you cannot rewrite the query within the application
itself, e.g. because it originates from an external tool (like an Object Relational
Mapping tool such as Hibernate) or from some other 3rd party application. As
part of this work, we’ve also created two APIs that can be used to write custom
Query Rewrite Plugins.
For more information:
- Query Rewrite Plugins
- Write Yourself a Query Rewrite Plugin Part 1
- Write Yourself a Query Rewrite Plugin Part 2
Generated Columns
Generated or “Computed” Columns are virtual columns that are not physically
stored in the table, unless the column is explicitly defined as STORED. This
offers a convenient way to cache the results of commonly used expressions, and
offer what’s often referred to as “functional indexes” or “function based indexes”.
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It also makes it convenient and efficient to mix dynamic schema-less data within
your relational tables and SQL, for example when using JSON Documents.
For more information:
- Generated Columns in MySQL 5.7.5
- Create Table Manual
Server Side Statement Timeouts
This brings users the ability to set query timeout limits at the global level, on a
per-session basis, and for individual queries. For example:
SELECT/*+MAX_EXECUTION_TIME(1000)*/*FROMmy_table;
For more information:
- Server Side SELECT Statement Timeouts
Replication Improvements
Multi-Source Replication
MySQL Multi-Source Replication enables a replication slave to receive
transactions from multiple sources simultaneously. Multi-source replication can
be used to:
• Consolidate data from multiple servers to a single server
• Back up multiple servers to a single server
• Merge table shards
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The monitoring interfaces now provide details for each replication channel, and
we have also introduced new performance_schema tables to easily monitor
your entire multi-source replication topology.
For more information:
- Introducing Multi-Source Replication
- Multi-Source Replication Manual
Transaction Based Parallel Replication
MySQL 5.7 adds intra-schema multi-threaded slaves. With this implementation
(slave-parallel-type=LOGICAL-CLOCK) the slave will be able to apply transactions in
parallel, even within a single database or schema, as long as they have a disjoint
read and write set. This work allows the slave to keep up with the master, thus
eliminating the most common cause of “slave lag”.
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250%#
Slave#throughput#vs.#96#Thread#Master#
200%#
150%#
100%#
50%#
0%#
1#
8#
24#
48#
Slave#Threads#
For more information:
- MySQL 5.7 Enhanced MTS: configuring slave for Intra-database parallelization
Online Replication Changes
You can now enable Global Transaction ID based replication as an online
operation, allowing you to take advantage of next generation replication features
without incurring downtime in your MySQL production environments.
You can also change replication filters online now, providing a variety of ways to
configure data replication within your MySQL farm, and finally you can perform
master failover operations (CHANGEMASTER) without stopping replication execution
on slaves.
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For more information:
- Replication Enable GTIDs Online
- Enabling GTIDs Without Downtime
- Change Replication Filter
Semi-Sync Replication Enhancements
The Semi-Sync replication plugin has improved semantics that provide better
performance and reliability.
For more information:
- Loss-Less Semi-Sync Replication
Enhanced Monitoring
In addition to the legacy SHOW commands, we have added a variety of new
Performance Schema tables that offer unprecedented insights into what is
happening and how things are performing. This allows you to easily ensure that
your replication topology is healthy and performing well, while also providing the
information needed to debug any issues that may occur.
For more information:
- Performance Schema Replication Tables
Group Replication
This work brings native active/active write anywhere replication clusters to
MySQL. You can now choose a mix of appropriate replication models based on
your specific needs: asynchronous, semi-synchronous, and (virtually)
synchronous (Group Replication).
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Group Replication takes care of membership, consistency, and other
management related functions without the need for manual intervention or
custom tooling. Easy High Availability for MySQL has arrived!
For more information:
- MySQL Group Replication: Hello World
- MySQL Goup Replication Blog Posts
- State of Group Replication Presentation
High Availability Improvements
Support for tracking session transaction state offers better support for load
balancing across nodes in a cluster.
Server version tokens offer better support for caching in distributed systems.
A new data migration tool--mysqlpump--improves data migration and sharding
operations between nodes (e.g. shard rebalancing).
Improved Replication options in HA groups
• Improved slave performance with logical clock based parallelization
• Loss-less Semi-Sync Replication plugin supporting multi-node acks
• Synchronous replication (Group Replication plugin)
For more information:
-MySQL Session Tracking
- MySQL Version Tokens
- Introducing mysqlpump
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GIS Improvements
We have seen tremendous growth in mobile applications and the need for
location based services. To address these needs, MySQL 5.7 includes significant
GIS improvements.
New & Improved Spatial Extensions
MySQL 5.7 replaces the legacy code used for geometry computations with an
external library, namely Boost.Geometry. Boost.Geometry is a powerful, reliable,
open source geometric engine with an active and vibrant development
community that we are actively engaged in. We have two of the lead
Boost.Geometry developers in-house, and we happily contribute our code back
to the upstream project. The end result of all this is that we have a better
performing, more fully featured, reliable, and standards compliant MySQL GIS.
InnoDB Spatial Indexes
Furthermore, InnoDB now supports Spatial Indexes (implemented as R-Tree
indexes). This makes any spatial search far more efficient, while adding the
transactional support, MVCC, and ACID guarantees that Enterprises need today.
GeoJSON
In recent years, GeoJSON has become a popular data format for exchanging
GIS data due the fact that it’s easy to read, it’s simple, and it’s lightweight. In
MySQL 5.7 we have added support for parsing and generating GeoJSON
documents via two new functions: ST_GeomFromGeoJson() and
ST_AsGeoJson(). These functions make it easy to connect MySQL with other
GeoJSON enabled software and services, such as the Google Maps Javascript
API.
GeoHash
In MySQL 5.7 we introduced new functions for encoding and decoding Geohash
data. Geohash is a well known system for encoding and decoding longitude and
latitude coordinates (in the WGS 84 coordinate system) into a text string.
Spatial Aware Client Tools
Our popular graphical client tool, MySQL Workbench, now includes a new Spatial
Viewer. This is automatically presented as a viewing option when GEOMETRY
columns are detected in the results. We’ve also now incorporated valid spatial
data in the Sakila sample database (the address.location column) to make it easy
and convenient to test out the new GIS work.
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MySQL Workbench provides visual tools for developing GIS applications
For more information:
- MySQL 5.7 and GIS, an Example
- GeoJSON Functions
- Geohash Functions
- Spatial Extensions Manual
Security Improvements
MySQL 5.7 adds “secure by default” installations, as well as many features that
help users keep their database instances free from unintended use. This includes
better data encryption, better password handling, better transport layer
security, and more.
AES 256 Encryption
MySQL supports multiple AES Encryption modes. We have enhanced the
security strength of our Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
encryption/decryption functions—AES_ENCRYPT() and AES_DECRYPT()—by
adding support for larger key sizes and different block modes.
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Password Rotation Policies
MySQL enables database administrators to expire account passwords manually,
and to establish a policy for automatic password expiration. Any user who
connects to the server using an account for which the password is past its
permitted lifetime must change the password.
For more information:
- Password Expiration Policy in MySQL Server 5.7
MySQL Secure Installation
mysql_secure_installation enables you to improve the security of your MySQL
installation in the following ways:
• You can set a password for root accounts.
• You can remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local
host.
• You can remove anonymous-user accounts.
• You can remove the test database (which by default can be accessed by
all users, even anonymous users).
MySQL deployments installed using mysqld --initialize are secure by default.
•
•
•
The installation process creates only a single root account,
'root'@'localhost', automatically generates a random password for this
account, and marks the password expired. The MySQL administrator must
connect as root using the random password and assign a new password.
Installation creates no anonymous user accounts.
Installation creates no test database.
MySQL Enterprise Edition
•
MySQL Database – The most secure and up to date version of MySQL is
used to power the most demanding online, web, cloud and OLTP
applications and services. The MySQL commercial server is a fully
integrated transaction-safe, ACID compliant database with full commit,
rollback, crash- recovery and row level locking capabilities. MySQL is
known for its performance, reliability and ease-of-use across all Linux,
UNIX, Mac OS X, and Windows platforms.
•
MySQL Enterprise Backup – MySQL Enterprise Backup performs online,
non-blocking backups of your MySQL databases. Perform full,
incremental, and partial backups for all InnoDB data while MySQL is fully
available for transactional operations. All backup operations are executed
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in parallel for quick results and also support compression options that
reduce the size of backup images by up to 90%. Recovery options include
backward compatible full recovery, precise one-click point-in-time
recovery, and partial recovery for restoring a specific set of objects
•
MySQL Enterprise Firewall - Blocks SQL Injection attacks that can result
in loss of valuable personal and financial data. Whitelist creation, real-time
threat monitoring, SQL statement blocking and alerting all enable DBAs to
protect vital data assets. Acting as an intrusion detection system, MySQL
Enterprise Firewall can notify administrators to SQL statement activity that
does not match an approved whitelist.
•
MySQL Enterprise Audit - MySQL Enterprise Edition provides an easy to
use, policy-based auditing solution that helps developers implement
stronger security controls and satisfy regulatory compliance without
changes to existing applications.
•
MySQL Enterprise Scalability - To meet the sustained performance and
scalability of ever increasing users, query, and data loads--MySQL
Enterprise Edition provides the MySQL Thread Pool. The Enterprise
Thread Pool provides a highly scalable, queue-based thread-handling
model designed to reduce overhead in managing client connections and
statement execution threads.
•
MySQL Enterprise Authentication - MySQL Enterprise Edition provides
ready to use external authentication modules so DBAs and developers
can easily integrate MySQL with existing security infrastructures, including
Linux Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) and Windows Active
Directory.
•
MySQL Enterprise Encryption - To protect sensitive data throughout its
lifecycle, MySQL Enterprise Encryption provides industry standard
functionality for asymmetric encryption (Public Key Cryptography). MySQL
Enterprise Encryption also provides encryption, key generation, digital
signatures and other cryptographic features to help organizations protect
confidential data and comply with regulatory requirements such as HIPAA,
Sarbanes-Oxley, and the PCI Data Security Standard.
•
MySQL Enterprise High Availability - MySQL Enterprise Edition offers a
wide range of solutions for database high availability, to automatically
detect and recover from failures--whether these occur at the network,
host, OS or database layer--as well as minimize downtime resulting from
scheduled maintenance activities.
•
MySQL Enterprise Monitor and Query Analyzer – Continuously
monitors MySQL databases and proactively alerts DBA to potential
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problems, queries, and tuning opportunities before they impact key
systems or applications. The Monitor provides a set of MySQL expert
advisors that provide insight and detailed guidance on fixing and tuning
MySQL configurations and variables for optimal security, performance and
availability. The built-in, advanced Query Analyzer allows developers to
visually find and tune expensive query code without the need for Slow
Query Log, SHOW PROCESS LIST or other labor intensive methods.
•
Oracle Enterprise Manager for MySQL
The Oracle Enterprise Manager for MySQL provides Oracle developers
and DBAs with real-time monitoring and delivers comprehensive
performance, availability and configuration information for your MySQL
databases. In addition to the default MySQL compliance rules, you can
also create custom critical and warning thresholds can for each of the
collected metrics.
•
MySQL Workbench – Provides GUI-based data modeling, SQL
development, deployment, database migration and comprehensive
administrative tools (server configuration, user administration, object
management) for database architects, developers, and DBAs.
•
Oracle Premier Lifetime Support for MySQL – Provide direct access to
expert MySQL Support engineers who are ready to assist users in the
development, deployment, and management of MySQL applications. The
MySQL Support team is composed of seasoned MySQL developers and
database experts who understand the issues and challenges users face
because they've overcome these same challenges themselves.
Conclusion
MySQL is the most popular and widely used open source database in the world
because of its performance, reliability, and ease of use. MySQL 5.7 builds on this
momentum by providing DBAs and developers with the added performance,
scalability, and across the board improvements needed when building the next
generation of web-based, cloud-based, and embedded applications and services.
These improvements, further demonstrating that Oracle drives MySQL
innovation, make MySQL 5.7 by far the most comprehensive and feature rich
release in our history.
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Additional Resources
MySQL 5.7 Downloads
http://www.mysql.com/downloads/
MySQL 5.7 Documentation
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/
MySQL Enterprise Edition
http://mysql.com/products/enterprise/
MySQL Customers and Case Studies
http://www.mysql.com/customers
MySQL Professional Services and Consulting
http://mysql.com/consulting/
For more information on Oracle’s MySQL products and services, please visit:
http://www.mysql.com/products/
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