The word “Computer” - Principal Controller of Accounts

The word “Computer” - Principal Controller of Accounts
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COMPUTER BASICS
What is a Computer?
The word “Computer” comes from the word “compute” which means to calculate.
A computer is an electronic device, which stores and processes data to give
meaningful information. Processing is done with the help of instructions given by
the user, which are also stored within the computer.
Data refers to all the basic elements that can be produced or processed by a
computer.
Data is a collection of facts and figures which has to be processed by some
processing system, (whether a human being or a machine) to be understandable.
Information: It is the processed form of data, which makes some sense and helps
in reaching a conclusion.
Characteristics of Computers
Speed
The computer was invented as a high-speed calculator. This has led to many
scientific projects which were previously impossible. If we want tomorrow's
weather forecast today, meteorologist can use the computer to perform the
necessary calculations and analysis.
Storage
A computer can store a vast amount of information in its storage location for
future use which can be recalled at any time.
Logical decision
A computer is capable of comparing data, both numeric and non-numeric;
depending on the results, it makes certain decisions. These decisions are logical
decisions which help the computer in deciding its way of action.
Super Efficiency and Automation
Unlike human beings computers can work for hours and produce error free results.
Computers process data with the help of instructions fed into them, that is it work
automatically. Computers manipulate data according to the instructions and they
never get tired.
Accuracy
The computer's accuracy is consistently high. Errors in the machinery can occur
but, due to increased efficiency in error detecting techniques, this seldom leads to
incorrect results.
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Reliability
Computer output is generally very reliable, subject to the condition the input data
entering the computer should be correct and the program of instructions should be
reliable and correct.
Versatility
Computers seem capable of performing almost any task, provided that the task can
be reduced to a series of logical steps for e.g., a task such as preparing the payroll
or controlling the flow of traffic can be broken down into a logical sequence of
operations. Yet the computer itself has only limited ability and, in the final
analysis, actually performs only four basic operations:
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It exchanges information to the outside world via I/O devices.
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It transfers data internally within the CPU.
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It performs the basic arithmetical operations.
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It performs operations of comparisons
INPUT
PROCESS
OUTPUT
Computer system is made up of the following components
 Input device
 Central Processing Unit
 Output device
Input device
Input means putting the raw data through input device into the processing device
Input Unit allows us to communicate with the computer. An input unit converts the
numbers, alphabet or other signals into the internal binary code (will be discussed
later). Keyboard, mouse, joystick, light pen are the examples of input unit. We will
discuss about the input device in details later.
Central Processing Unit
Another important component of the computer system is known as CPU. It accepts
instructions through keyboard, stores them into memory and later on executes
them. It can be also thought of as the "brain" of the computer. It performs all the
calculations and controls the overall activities of the computer.
CPU consists of three components
 Arithmetic Logic Unit
 Memory Unit
 Control Unit
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Output device
The devices, through which we get the processed information or the desired result,
are known as the output devices. There are a variety of output devices which
return the information given by the user. The most popularly used output devices
are Visual Display Unit (VDU) or monitor, printers, plotters etc.
How does a computer Work
Central Processing Unit: Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the processing device of
computer. It inhere that the actual work is done. The CPU is like the `brain' of the
computer. It takes information from the input unit and memory and uses or processes
it according to the instructions given. It may put information into the memory or give
results to the output unit.
The following figure indicates the movement of data in a computer.
ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) In the ALU, calculations such as addition,
multiplication etc. of numbers is carried out. The ALU can also carry out logical
operations like comparing two numbers to see which is the larger. A modern
computer can perform a single addition in nano seconds (1 nano second = 10-9
seconds)
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Control Unit: It controls the overall activities of a computer system. It gets
information from the input unit, sends information to the output unit or transfers
information to or from the computer's memory. It is important that everything is done
in exactly the right order and at the right time, so there is an accurate clock within the
computer which is connected to the control unit.
Internal Memory / Primary Memory In a PC, internal memory is usually contained
in silicon chips. It holds instructions and data which the computer is currently
working on, and which can be accessed by the CPU whenever required. Internal
memory needs to work very rapidly because the speed of the CPU is very high and
requires information to be readily available.
Internal Semiconductor Memory is of two types
RAM
ROM
RAM (Random Access Memory) is an electronic memory which is used to store
data and instructions from the operating system and any program you are using. RAM
Stores information temporarily. If the power is interrupted, even for an instant the
information is lost for ever. The CPU accepts information from RAM as and when
required, processes it and returns to RAM.
ROM (Read Only Memory) ROM or Read Only Memory holds sets of instructions
which tell the computer what to do. For instance, a ROM will tell the processor how
to recognize which key has been pressed and how to light up the screen. Information
stored in ROM can be “read” it can not be erased or added to because when chip is
manufactured it is made non-writable. The information stored in ROM is not erased
even if Power is switched off.
Disk Drives
Disk drives provide a means of storing work, or data. Floppy disks are
transportable from PC to PC and come in two sizes, 31/2” and 51/4” diameter.
Hard disks are fixed inside the system unit and have much higher storage
capacities than floppies.
Hard disks (or fixed disks) work on the same principle as floppy disks but are
fixed inside the PC in a sealed unit. They can store a great deal more information
than floppy disks and range in capacity from 10MB to several hundred MB.
Access times (i.e. the time taken to read and write information) for hard disks are
much faster than for floppy disks. Manufacturers often quote access times as well
as capacities for hard disks.
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Information is stored on disk in the form of files. A file might be a program or data
such as a word processor document. Files can be grouped together on disk in
directories.
The Monitor
The monitor provides display output from the PC. Monitors vary in screen
resolution and colours available. Monitors are available in colour and
monochrome versions and in different screen sizes.
The Keyboard
The keyboard allows you to input commands and information into the PC. The
keyboard is normally connected to the main unit via a 5 pin DIN type socket.
Peripherals
As well as the essential keyboard and monitor, peripheral items such as printers
and mice are often found connected to PCs.
Printers and Plotters
A printer may be connected to one of the serial or, more commonly, parallel ports
of a PC. The availability of a printer is especially important for applications such
as word processing. Printers vary enormously in quality and speed of output.
Printer Types
Printers can be grouped by the method with which they print.
Dot-Matrix Printers
The most common type of printers is dot-matrix. This refers to the way ink is
applied to the paper - by a set of pins impacting onto the paper through an inked
ribbon to form each character. Printer quality depends on the number of pins on
the printer head. This is usually 9 pins, but 24 pin printers are available with a
corresponding increase in print quality (and cost). Most dot-matrix printers have
NLQ (Near Letter Quality) options where higher quality output is produced at a
lower print speed.
Laser Printers
Laser printers have the advantage of being able to produce letter quality text as
well as high quality graphics. Their disadvantage is that they are expensive to buy
and run; although costs are coming down. Laser printer quality is measured in dots
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per inch, the most common being 300 dpi. They are page printers, fan fold paper
cannot be used; but one (or sometimes two) automatic paper feed trays are an
integral part. Printing speed is usually quoted in pages per minute (ppm).
Inkjet Printers
Inkjet printers work by spraying a fine jet of ink on the paper to form the
characters or graphic. Inkjet printers produce high quality output, next to laser
printers, and are quiet in operation.
Plotters
A pen plotter is an output device essential for graphical applications like computer
Aided Design (CAD). Plotters provide a better quality graphics output than
printers and allow the use of different colours (high quality colour printers are
available, but very expensive).
The Mouse
A mouse is a device which moves a pointer around the screen, options being
selected by pressing (or `clicking') a mouse button. In present day Software a
mouse is essential. Graphical User Interfaces, such as Windows require the use of
a mouse.
The Keyboard
This section covers the use of the keyboard.
Layout of the Keyboard
There are two styles of keyboard in common use, the older 84-key and the now
more common 102-key expanded keyboard. The 102-key keyboard normally
consists of four main parts;
A typewriter-style alphanumeric keyboard with four extra keys labeled Esc
(Escape), Ctrl (Control), and Alt (Alternate).
A numeric keypad, situated at the far right of the keyboard, providing the digits 0
to 9, a decimal point and plus and minus signs, together with four special keys
labeled Num Lock (Number Lock), Scroll Lock, Ins (Insert) and Del (Delete).
On the 84-key keyboard the numeric keys are also used as cursor control keys. In
between the alphabetic keys and the numeric keypad there are two groups of keys.
The top group repeats the functions on the numeric keypad. Below there are four
cursor keys. These are not present on the 84-key keyboard.
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A set of twelve function keys situated in a single row above the main typewriter
keyboard and labeled F1 to F12. On the 84-key keyboards there are ten function
keys situated to the left of the main typewriter keys.
The layout of these keys is shown in figure 6 and their general uses are described
in the following sections. The position of some of the keys may be different from
that described below.
In order to save space, the keyboards on portable and notebooks PCs have largely
different layouts from that described above.
102 Key Keyboard Layout
Capital Letters and Punctuation Marks
As with a typewriter, to type upper case (capital) letters, or to obtain a punctuation
mark or symbol shown on the upper half of a key, hold down one or other of the
two <Shift> keys while pressing the key marked with the required character.
The Shift keys are normally situated on each side of the bottom line of letter keys
and are often marked with a `fat' up-arrow). To type text in capital letters, the
keyboard can be `locked' into capitals by pressing the Caps-Lock key (the key or
a sign on the keyboard may be lit). Since Caps Lock only affects the letter keys, it
will still be necessary to hold down a Shift key to obtain the punctuation marks
and symbols shown on the upper half of keys. To return to lowercase letters, press
the Caps-Lock key again (the light will go out). If you press Shift while CapsLock is engaged you will revert to lowercase i.e. Shift always reverses the current
state of Caps-Lock.
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Numeric Keypad
The numeric keypad at the right of the keyboard can be used for numeric input
only if the Num Lock key is pressed (the key or a sign on the keyboard may be
lit). To release the numeric keypad and hence use the cursor keys (labeled with
arrows), press the Num Lock key again; the light will go out.
On some keyboards the cursor keys are also a separate group of four keys (see
figure 6). Either set of cursor keys may be used.
Screen Control Keys
As well as the four cursor control keys, keys marked PgDn (Page Down), PgUp
(Page Up), Home and End are available for cursor movement, depending on the
software being used. These keys are also duplicated on the numeric keypad.
Entering Commands
The key on the right-hand side of the alphanumeric keyboard that is often Lshaped and larger than the other keys, and is labeled with a right-angled, leftpointing arrow ([[??]]) and/or Return or Enter (see figure 6), is used to send a
command line to the computer to be processed. After typing in a command to the
PC, this key must be pressed to enter or start the command. In general, commands
may be entered in upper or lower case letters, or a mixture of the two.
The <Return> key is sometimes known as the <Enter> key. There is also an
<Enter> key on the numeric keypad which can be used in exactly the same way as
the <Return> key.
Correcting Typing Mistakes
To correct a mistake that you notice before you have pressed the <Return> key,
use the <Backspace> key to `erase' the mistake. The <Backspace> key is situated
above the <Return> key and is labeled with a left-pointing arrow.
Each time the <Backspace> key is pressed, the character to the left of the current
cursor position is deleted. (The cursor is the flashing underline displayed on the
screen.) The correct characters can then be retyped before pressing the <Return>
key.
The Insert Key
The Insert key sometimes marked INS acts as a toggle key when entering data or
commands. In insert mode any characters entered push into the current line at the
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cursor position. In overstrike mode any characters entered will overwrite any
characters currently displayed.
Other Useful Keys
The operation of the Function Keys depends on the particular software being
used. For example pressing F1 calls up a help screen in a lot of software packages.
The ESC key usually allows you to `escape' from a particular environment.
The Print Screen key, sometimes marked PrtSc, when pressed in conjunction
with the Shift key copies the screen image to the printer.
The Alt and Control keys are used in combination with other keys to execute
particular commands depending on the software being used. For example ControlF2 will initiate a spell check when using Word Perfect.
Networking
PCs were designed as single user stand-alone systems. It is possible, however, to
link PCs so they are able to share data and peripherals and use electronic mail. PCs
are linked via a network. The network is normally controlled from a PC called a
fileserver. The fileserver has a large, fast hard-disk containing applications
software and data which is available to the other PCs on the network. The
advantages of networks are numerous. For example if a new version of a software
package were to be used, rather than installing it on every PC in the office, it need
only be installed on the fileserver. Also, peripherals such as plotters and printers
can be added to the network, allowing sharing of resources.
Creating a network involves additional hardware and software. As well as the
cabling involved, each PC in the network needs an expansion card called a
network controller. There are several different networking protocols available, the
most common being Ethernet. Software is also needed to control the network, the
standard for PC networks being Novell Netware.
Hardware
Hardware is the physical part of a computer, something which we can touch, feels
with our hand. Technically, we can define the Hardware as all the equipment and
electronic circuits that make up the computer i.e. keyboard, screen, disk drives,
printers etc. However the hardware can do nothing without the software
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What is Software?
Software is the set of operational instructions to the hardware, which tells the
computer what to do, how to act, how to generate picture, how to print a bio-data
and other documents and so on. Technically we can define the software as the
information that the computer needs to work on. The information can be
instructions, which tell the computer what to do or the data that is used by the
instruction. For example to perform addition, the actual numbers that are entered
into the computer for addition are the data.
A set of instructions that performs a task is known as a program. You cannot
touch the software; it can only be stored on floppy disk, hard disk drive, Compact
Disks (CDs), just the way music is stored in cassettes and CDs.
Types of Software
Operating System Software: this is the most important software which is used as
an interpreter between the user and the computer. It also manages the input and
output devices of a computer.
Application Software: this is customized software created for user’s specific need
and is done with the help of a programming language.
OPERATING SYSTEM
An operating system is a collection of programs which manage system resources
and aid in the development and execution of application programs. It is difficult
for a major y of us to communicate with computers in Binary Language.
Therefore, programs are written in high level language. The programs written in
high level language are translated to machine, language by another program called
compiler.
The operating system used in different computer system is
Microcomputer: DOS (MS-DOS, PC-DOS), CP/M-80, WINDOWS, XENIX,
AOS, OS/l, OS/2, Macintosh etc.
Minicomputer: RSX-11, RTOS, VMS (VAX system) etc.
Mainframe computer: MULTICS, OS/MFT, OS/VMT, VM 370, MCP, XDS,
UNIX, LINUX etc.
A computer not only has hardware and high level language translators but also
many routines which enable user to use the computer efficiently.
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The operating system acts as an interface between the user and the computer.
Various functions performed by the operating system are
1. Bootstrap loader: This program resides in ROM. This is used to read the main
portion of the operating system from the disk when the computer is first turned on.
2. Diagnostics tests: The operating system performs various diagnostic tests.
These tests are for checking the operation of the disk drives, checking the RAM
etc.
3. Operating System Supervisor: This is the supervisory program which controls
all the activities of the system.
Various tasks performed by this program are as follows
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It assigns processors to task properly.
It allocates memory and other storage areas.
It interprets commands/instructions.
It handles job to job transitions.
It acts as an internal time clock.
It establishes and enforces a job priority system.
It schedules the processing of jobs/tasks.
It co-ordinates and assigns I/O devices.
It manages the correct execution of a program.
It establishes data security and integrity.
It maintains an account for processor time, I/O time etc. for billing
purposes.
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Microsoft Windows
Introduction:
Microsoft's Windows is the program that governs all operations on your computer.
Windows uses a graphical user interface (GUI) consisting of windows, menus,
icons, and dialog boxes to help you tell your computer what to do. Windows
presents options and commands to you, accepts your responses, and translates
them into commands for the computer. Windows eliminates the need for you to
remember and type complex commands that require exact syntax.
Using Windows to Interact With Your Computer:
You interact with your computer in a number of ways. You enter data and the
commands into the computer using an input device. The mouse and the keyboard
are the most common input devices. Floppy disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and
microphones are also input devices. The computer uses an output device to send
information to you. Monitors, printers, and speakers are common output devices.
Windows allows you to communicate with the computer and control these devices
by using menus and dialog boxes to request and accept information from you.
Windows Features:
The following are some Windows features.
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Multi-tasking: Perhaps the greatest advantage of windows is the ability to
have several programs and documents open at the same time. Having this
capability to work quickly and efficiently, namely by not having to exit a
program when you want to access information from another program. You
can quickly switch among programs to activate the one you need to use. For
example, you can have a word processing program, a database program, and
an Internet browser open at the same time. With a few simple keystrokes,
you can copy information from one program to another, without having to
close any windows.
Standard Menu System: Microsoft imposes strict formatting guidelines for
Windows programs. All Windows programs must use a standard menu
system. As a result, you will find the same menu system and similar choices
in all Windows programs.
Menu Commands: Commands are directions for the computer. When you
invoke a command you are telling the computer to perform a specific task.
In Windows, you enter commands by choosing them from menus listed on
your screen.
Clipboard: The Clipboard is a temporary storage area. The Clipboard
"holds" cut or copied information until you paste it or cut or copy new
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information. You use the clipboard whenever you move or copy information
in one program to another program.
Recycle Bin: Whenever you delete a folder or file from your computer,
Windows places the item in the Recycle Bin. The Recycle Bin allows you to
retrieve items that you accidentally deleted or items you decided were
important after all.
The Desktop and Taskbar
Introduction:
The Desktop and Taskbar always appear on the screen when you start Windows.
The Desktop and the Taskbar serve as the main graphical interface to your
computer. Together, the Desktop and the Taskbar cover the entire computer
screen. You can access all your programs and files from either the Desktop or the
Taskbar.
With the default installation of Windows 2000 the desktop looks similar to this:
The Windows Desktop:
The Desktop takes up the majority of the space on the screen. The Desktop lists
program icons which you can use to start a program. (Not every program on your
computer is represented by an icon on the Desktop, however.) Each time you start
a program, it appears on the Desktop. As a result, the program icons may not
always appear on the screen.
Think of the desktop as being similar to the top of your desk. As you work, you
may place several folders and documents from different projects on your desk at
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the same time. After a while, your folders and documents start to overlap and "pile
up." Similarly, as you work in Windows, you may open several programs and
documents. These programs and documents appear on your electronic Desktop.
Just as programs and documents you place on your office desktop, eventually,
your electronic folders and documents may overlap on the computer Desktop. Also
like the folders and documents on your desk, you can reshuffle, close, and throwaway the folders and documents on your electronic Desktop.
The Taskbar:
The Taskbar is a thin, horizontal bar below the Desktop. By default, the Taskbar
always appears on the screen, even when you have a program running. The
Taskbar contains the Start button, buttons for open programs, and a clock. The
Taskbar allows you to quickly start programs, manage tasks on the Desktop and on
your computer, and exit Windows. From the taskbar, you can start any program on
your computer and access any document.
What is a Window?
Introduction:
A window is simply a framed region on the Desktop. Each window contains a
different program or document. The number of windows which can appear on the
Desktop depends on your computer's memory, the Windows program, the amount
of memory your programs require, and the manner in which you choose to display
them.
Types of Windows:
Windows uses two types of windows, program windows and document windows.
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Program Window: A computer program is a set of instructions that
perform a specific task, such as word processing or data management. Each
time you open a program, Windows 2000 opens a program window through
which you enter commands for the program. The more programs you start,
the more windows you open. As a result, you may have several program
windows open on your Desktop at the same time. A program window might
contain several document windows. You can only enter commands through
a program window.
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Document Window: A document is any information you create with a
program, such as a letter, spreadsheet, or database file. When you open or
create a document in a program, you open a document window. Each
document window contains a single document and always appears in the
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program window's work area. This type of window is sometimes referred to
as a child window.
Window Elements:
Most windows contain a combination of the following elements:
Window Borders: Window borders are the four edges that define a window.
Control Menu: The control menu lets you move, close, or change the size of a
window.
Control-Menu Box: The Control-menu box is a button appearing in the top, left
corner of the window. When you activate the Control-menu box the Control menu
appears. In Internet Explorer, the Control-menu box appears as the following:
Title Bar: The title bar is a horizontal bar directly below the window's top border
between the Control-menu box and the resize buttons. The title bar lists the
window's name. The following is an example of a title bar:
Resize and Close Buttons: The resize and close buttons appear in the top, right
corner of the window. You must use the mouse pointer to activate these buttons.
The resize buttons perform the same tasks as the sizing commands on the Control
menu. The Close button performs the same task as the Close command on the File
menu. Therefore, you may find it easier to use the menu commands rather than
these buttons. From left to right they are minimize, maximize and close buttons.
These buttons appear as the following on every window:
Menu Bar: The menu bar is a horizontal bar the length of the window. It appears
at the top of a program window, directly beneath the title bar. The menu bar lists
all menus for the program. In Internet Explorer, the Menu Bar appears as the
following:
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Work Area: Every window has a work area. What you do in the work area
depends on the window. Generally, a window's work area holds information. For
example, a program window's work area holds the document window.
Icons: Icons are small, graphic representations of programs, drives, folders, and
documents. When you activate an icon you start the program, open the document,
or access the contents of the drive or folder. By default, the Recycle Bin icon is
located on your desktop.
Scroll Bar: A scroll bar is a bar along the right edge and/or bottom edge of a
window that lets you scroll the contents of a window or list box to show
information not currently visible on the screen. An example of a horizontal scroll
bar is shown below:
Status Bar: The status bar is a horizontal bar beneath a document window. It lists
status information such as page number, date, time, or status of task. In Internet
Explorer Communicator, your status bar should like similar to the following:
The Mouse?
Introduction:
The mouse is an input device used to navigate through Windows 2000 and enter
commands. You can use a keyboard shortcut to perform most tasks which are
performed with a mouse. A keyboard shortcut is a single keystroke or a
combination of keystrokes that executes a command.
You may encounter tasks that cannot be performed using a keyboard shortcut. To
complete these tasks you must use the left and right mouse button keys.
Mouse Terminology:
Because you may need to use the mouse button keys, you should become familiar
with terms associated with the mouse functions. The following terms are
associated with the mouse:
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Point: Point means to place the mouse pointer on a specific item.
Point to the File menu located in the upper left corner of your
window.
Your mouse should look like.
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Click: Click is the act of pressing and releasing the left-mouse button one
time. When you click on an item, you are selecting it.
Click on the Recycle Bin icon located on your desktop.
Your icon should now be highlighted.
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Right-Click: Right-Click is the act of pressing and releasing the right-mouse
button one time. When you right-click in Windows 2000, a shortcut menu
appears.
Right-Click on your desktop.
The following shortcut menu will appear:
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Double-Click: Double-Click is the act of pressing and releasing the left (or
right) mouse button twice in a rapid succession. When you double-click on
an item, Windows selects and executes the command associated with the
item. For example, you may double-click on a program icon to start the
program.
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Drag: Dragging is the act of moving a selected item to a different location
on the screen.
Drag the Recycle Bin around your desktop.
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Topic: Selection Cursor, Insertion Point, and Mouse Pointer
Introduction:
Windows uses the insertion point, the selection cursor, and the mouse pointer to
indicate where on the screen the computer's attention, or focus, is directed. You
can use keystrokes to control these items and direct the computer's focus to
another area or object on the screen.
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Selection Cursor: The selection cursor appears as a frame around a selected
item or as a highlight, changing the color of the selected item. The selection
cursor appears on menus to indicate which menu or command is selected. A
selection cursor appears on menus to indicate which menu or command is
selected and on dialog boxes to indicate which field is selected. A selection
cursor also appears around text selected for editing functions, such as
bolding and underlining. The computer does not do anything to the item in
the selection cursor until you give it a command. For example, you must
press Enter to tell the computer to execute a selected menu command; you
must execute the Copy command in order to copy selected text. The
selection cursor is sometimes referred to as simply the "highlight."
Insertion Point: An insertion point is a flashing vertical bar that indicates
where the information you type will appear. The insertion point appears in
documents and text boxes. The insertion point always appears to the right of
the last character you typed. The insertion point is usually referred to as the
"cursor."
Mouse Pointer: The mouse pointer indicates the position of the mouse on
the Desktop. The mouse pointer always follows the movement of the mouse.
As a result, the mouse pointer is not always in the same position on the
screen as the insertion point or selection cursor. However, the computer
ignores the mouse pointer until you activate it by clicking the left or right
mouse button, either on the mouse itself or using the equivalent keystroke.
When you activate the mouse pointer, you are telling the computer to direct
its attention to the item or area on the screen where the mouse pointer
appears.
Mouse Pointer Shapes: The shape of the mouse pointer depends on which
program you are using, where the mouse pointer appears on the screen, and
which task you are performing. The following list describes the different
mouse pointer shapes and their functions.
1. I-Beam: The I-Beam indicates the mouse pointer is positioned on an
area where you can type text such as on a document, text box, or
combo box.
2. ( )Arrow: The Arrow indicates the mouse pointer is positioned on
an item that can be selected or activated, such as a button, menu,
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menu command, an item selected for dragging or resizing, or an
inactive window.
3. Hand: The Hand indicates the text on which the mouse pointer is
positioned is a hypertext link. When you activate a link, you change
the computer's focus to another place in the document or to another
document or program entirely. The Hand is commonly found in the
Help program where text formatted as a hypertext link opens new
Help topics or provides you with a definition.
Topic: Menus and Menu Commands
Introduction:
A menu contains a list of available commands in a program. Rather than having
you memorize all the commands a program can accept, Windows organizes the
commands into menus. While all Windows programs use a menu system to group
related commands, the number and names of menus and the number and types of
commands listed on a menu depend on the Windows program you are using.
However, most Windows programs will have at least a File menu and a Help
menu.
Some menu commands require you to enter additional information. When you
select these commands, a dialog box appears prompting you for information. For
example, when you choose the Shut Down command on the Start menu, a dialog
box appears prompting you to tell the computer which shut down option you want.
Other menu commands require you to select additional commands from a submenu which opens to the side of the main menu. For example, when you choose
the Programs command on the Start menu, a sub-menu appears with a list of
programs you can start or program folders you can open.
An example of a menu is the Start Menu:
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Menu and Menu Command Hot Keys:
A hot key is a single key that represents the menu or menu command. The hot key
is the underlined letter in the name of the menu or menu command. For example,
the letter P in the Programs command is underlined indicating the P key is the hot
key for this command. Often, a keyboard shortcut includes the command hot key.
Click on the Start button. Type the letter H.
The following should appear:
Close the Help Topics window.
Start Menu Commands:
The Start menu appears when you activate the Start button on the Taskbar. You
use this menu to start programs, open documents, change your computer settings,
find Help information, and shut down your computer. The number of commands
that appear on your Start menu depends on your installation. However, the
following commands appear on the Start menu by default.



Programs: The programs command brings up the Programs sub-menu. From
the Programs sub-menu, you can choose to open a program folder or start a
program. The P key is the hot key for this command.
Documents: The Documents command activates the Document sub-menu.
The Documents sub-menu lists the last fifteen documents you worked with
in Windows. The D key is the hot key for this command.
Settings: The settings command activates the Settings sub-menu. From the
Settings sub-menu, you can change your computer settings using the
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



Control Panel, change your printer set-up, and change the Taskbar settings.
The S key is the hot key for this command.
Find: The Find command activates the Find sub-menu. You can choose
commands to find files or folders on your computer or find computers in
your Network Neighborhood. The F key is the hot key for this command.
Help: The Help command opens the Windows Help program. You can use
the Help program to find answers to your questions about Windows. The H
key is the hot key for this command.
Run: The Run command opens the Run dialog box. If you know the name
and path of a program, you can use the Run dialog box to start the program.
The R key is the hot key for this command.
Shut Down: The Shut Down command opens the Shut Down dialog box.
From the Shut Down dialog box, you can choose to shut down, restart or
logoff the computer. The U key is the hot key for this command.
Topic: Dialog Boxes
Introduction:
Windows uses dialog boxes to either display or request information. A dialog box
is a rectangular window which varies in size and usually appears in the center of
the screen. A dialog box can be very simple, displaying a brief message or listing
just a few fields of information. Other dialog boxes have numerous fields and can
contain menu and button bars.
You can either accept the information listed in the fields on the dialog box or
change it. A field in a dialog box can be formatted as a Check Box, Command
Button, Drop-down List Box, List Box, Option Button, Spin Box, or Text Box. A
dialog box may also contain Tabbed Pages. Refer to the definitions below for more
information about dialog box fields.
An example of a dialog box occurs when the Print option is selected from the File
menu.
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Another example occurs when Options... is chosen in a number of applications.
The following image is also a dialog box which occurs when inserting the date
and/or time into a document.
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Dialog Box Fields:
The following definitions describe the dialog box fields. Refer to the above image
for the following fields.

Check Box: Check boxes appear next to options you can turn on or off. If
the option is on, an X appears in the check box. If the box is empty, the
option is off. You may check more than one option when they are formatted
as check boxes. A check box field appears in the update automatically
option in the dialog box above.

Command Button: A command button tells the computer to carry out an
action. For example, the OK button tells the Windows to close the dialog
box and accept the information listed in the dialog box. The Cancel button
tells Windows to close the dialog box. The Cancel button tells the Windows
to close the dialog box and ignore any changes made in the dialog box. The
Print dialog box seen above consists of two command buttons; OK and
Cancel.

Drop-Down List Box: Initially, a drop-down list box contains one option.
However, when you press the Intermediate down Arrow key a list of
additional options descends from the box. You can only select one option
from the list. The Print dialog box provides a drop-down list box in the
Name: option. The arrow to the right is used to select a printer from the
options available.

List Box: A list box contains a list of options. Usually, you can only select
one option in a list box. The Date and Time dialog box consists of a list
box.

Option Box: When you are allowed to only choose one in a list of options,
the options are grouped together as option buttons. The currently selected
option has a darkened circle. In the Print dialog box, the Print range
consists of an option box. In this case, you can either print the entire
document or you can specify the pages.

Spin Box: A spin box contains incremental values. You may type in a valid
value, or use the Intermediate Up or Down Arrow key to select a higher or
lower value from a defined list. Increments can be in terms of percents or
whole numbers. Spin boxes are normally used when you are to set the size
of the specific item, such as a margin. In the Print dialog box, a spin box is
used to specify the number of pages.
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
Tabbed Pages: When a dialog box contains numerous fields, it is divided
into tabbed pages. Tabbed pages look like hanging file folders in a file
cabinet drawer. Each tabbed page contains a different set of fields. The
Options dialog box consists of six tabbed pages.

Text Box: A text box allows you to enter text. When the text box is empty,
an insertion point appears in the field. If the text box contains text, a
selection cursor appears around the text. The Print dialog box contains two
text boxes. They are found in the Print range box where you can select
which pages you want to print.
Exiting Windows
Introduction: You should always exit Windows before you turn off your computer.
Windows must save information to the hard drive as it closes. You may loose
important information if you turn the power off before Windows closes
completely.
In addition, you should always make sure all your documents and programs are
closed before exiting Windows. If you attempt to exit Windows with a program
open, Windows will prompt you to save any changes before Windows shuts down.
The message "It is now safe to turn off your computer" appears when Windows
has closed completely. You can then turn off your computer.
What Files Are
Files are a collection of data onto a permanent storage structure. They are stored
on a permanent storage media such as a computer hard drive, CD ROM drive,
floppy disk drive or sometimes even a tape drive. Files take a certain amount of
room to store. For example if you have two text files and one file has one sentence
in it while the other file has 200 sentences in it, the file with 200 sentences will use
more room on the storage media.
File Functions
Different files have different purposes. Files are used to do one or more of the
following functions:


Provide machine executable code which is used to run application programs
and the operating system.
Store application program or operating system configuration information.
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
Store data used by the user such as Microsoft Word document files.
Therefore there are three types of information that files contain:



Executable code.
System or program configuration information.
User data.
These files are read by an application program or the operating system
File Characteristics
Files have the below characteristics:






Name
Optional extension name - Part of the name, it is used by Windows
operating systems to identify an associated program that can be used to read
it
Size - Shows the space the file requires for storage normally showed in
kilobytes (Kb) which is 1000 bytes
Type - Indicates the program used to access the file. The next section will
talk more about file types.
Date Modified - Shows the last date the file was created or changed.
File structure - This characteristic is not viewable by the computer user but
some programs can examine file structure to determine the type of file it is
even when the file extension is changed.
The main items to remember include the facts that all files take a certain amount of
room on their storage media and all files have a type which indicates whether they
can be run by your computer. The file extension is one indication of the file type
but not the only way to determine type.
If you are browsing your files using "My Computer" and click on "View" and
"Details" you will see a window showing the file characteristics like the one
below. Folders only take a little room on the hard drive and do not normally take
as much room as files.
File Organization
Files can be placed in folders similar to the way single sheets of paper can be
placed into folders in a file cabinet. Folders can be created on the hard drive or
nested inside each other any way the computer user desires.
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What is a folder?
A folder is a container that stores computer files in an organised way.
A folder is not made up of actual data in the same way a file is, it simply organises
files in convenient groups which make it easy for you to find the files again.
You can have folders within folders (called sub-folders) which help to further
classify your files.
Think of your computer as a cupboard: the different disk drives are like the
sections of the cupboard. Inside the drives are folders, just as the sections of the
cupboard contain different drawers (e.g. your sock drawer). You use folders to
organise your files or documents, just as you use different drawers to organise
your items of clothing (e.g. socks go into the sock drawer).
Windows Explorer: Managing Your Files
Before learning how to Find, Save, Copy, Move, Delete files, etc. let's take a look
at one of the most useful tools to help you manage your files. The program is
called Windows Explorer. As you learn about file management in the steps to
follow, refer to the image below of Windows Explorer. Notice the identification of
the parts of Explorer below.
Accessing Windows Explorer
To access your Windows Explorer:
1. Click on Start, Programs, Windows Explorer
2. Size the window for your desired viewing. You can also size each of the
vertical windows within the larger one to see all the information
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Parts of Windows Explorer
Try to think of the structure of this file management tool as a filing cabinet with
folders inside of filing drawers, etc. This concept is represented in Explorer with a
"tree" type of appearance -- directories come off main drives; files come off
directories, etc.
On the left side of your Explorer window are the folders in your chosen drive. The
Explorer view begins with Desktop, followed by My Computer, and lists all your
drives, followed by other folders or programs contained within the Desktop and
My Computer.
Your directory structure is indicated by the indentation levels in Explorer's left
pane. On the right side are the files and folders that are contained within the folder
you select at left. Your selected folder appears to be open, with its contents spilling
out into the right panel.
A minus sign on a folder means that it is fully expanded. A plus sign on a folder
means that more files are contained inside it than are visible.
When you want to see details of your files (i.e. size, date created/modified), click
on 'View', 'Details'. When you just want to see a list of files, click on 'View', 'List'.
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Finding Files
If you save a file and then can't remember what you named it or where it was
saved, you can search for the file using the Windows Find feature. Windows 95 or
98 allows you to locate files based on file name, a portion of a name, date, and/or
the text included in a file. To conduct a search, you can



use your START menu and choose FIND, Files and Folders, or
click on Tools on the menu bar and choose Find, Files or Folders, or
right click My Computer, and choose FIND.
The Find dialogue box comes up which looks like the image below.
Using a basic search, you indicate the file name or a portion of the file name (if
you don't know it all) and search either your entire computer, or any drives or
directories that you choose.
Here are some examples of ways of searching:


You saved a Word document to your hard drive [C:] but you can't remember
the name or where it was saved (but would recognize it). The syntax for
entering into the 'Named:' box would be
*.doc (this says show all files with a .doc extension)
*.ppt (this says show all files with a .ppt extension)
You want to find the file called 'budg-req. but you only remember part of
the name -- 'budg'. The syntax would be
budg* (this says show all files beginning with budg).
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

In the 'Look in:' box, click the Browse button and click on [C:] so that the
search will start from the main level or root of the c: drive.
Then click on 'Find Now' to start the search
Your search results screen will list the file or files which match your criteria. The
screen functions like a window in Explorer or My Computer. Here you may open,
delete, move, and copy files.
Saving Files
Although Windows Explorer is not used for saving files, this operation will be
covered here, as it involves the need to be familiar with the directory structure of
Windows in order to know where to save or retrieve files when using applications.
When saving any document, using any application, you will follow these steps:
1. When you are ready to save a file, click on 'File', 'Save As'
2. When the 'Save As' dialogue box comes up, click on the little triangle button
at the end of the 'Save in:' box to display your drives.
3. Scroll to the drive letter (C: or A:), then double click on the folder
(directory) to which you wish to save the file. You will then see that folder
pop into the 'Save in:' box.
4. In the 'File name:' box below, enter your choice of a filename.
5. In the 'Save as type:' box, you notice that the application being used is
already in the box. If you wish to save the file as another file type (i.e. text
only, etc.), click the little triangle button at the end of the box to select.
6. Lastly, click on the 'Save' button.
NOTE: When retrieving files with extensions other than the application's
extension, you will need to click on 'All Files' in the 'Files of type:' box to see and
select your files. For example, WORD automatically puts the file extension .doc
after the filename. If, for example, you are using WORD and you saved a file with
the name 'smith.let'. When you click on File, Open you will need to select 'All
Files' in the 'Files of type:' box to see that file because just the files with the .doc
extension will be showing in the file list.
Copying Files
You can use several methods for copying (and moving) files:




right clicking,
clicking a toolbar icon,
clicking edit, copy on the menu bar,
pressing 'control c' on your keyboard, or
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
Dragging your files to another location. As you gain more experience and
confidence, you will probably use the dragging option more frequently.
Initially, you may prefer the other options.
Basically when copying files from one directory or drive to another, you are going
to select the file, then use one of these methods to copy it to another location.
MENU BAR




Click once on a file on your disk (A :), on the menu bar choose edit, copy.
Navigate to the directory folder where you wish to place your file (Temp).
Select it by clicking on it once.
On the menu bar choose edit, paste.
Check it by double clicking on Temp to see it displayed on the right side.
KEYBOARD




Select a file on you A: drive (disk) by clicking on it once, press Ctrl C (hold
down control while you press the letter c). Then release it--you have just
copied it.
Navigate to the directory where you wish to place your file (Temp). Select it
by left clicking on Temp once.
Press Ctrl V (hold down control while your press v).
Check it by double clicking on Temp and see it displayed on the right.
DRAGGING
NOTE: You need both directories visible to use this option. Or you can open up
Explorer again and move the windows around for good viewing.



Then in one window locate the file to be copied.
In the 2nd window scroll to the desired target drive and folder so that it is
visible.
Then click and hold the left mouse button on the file in the first window and
drag it to the 2nd window to the desired folder:
a) if copying it to the same drive, hold down the letter C on your keyboard
while you drag it. (Remember: C for copy!)
b) if copying to a different drive, just drag it.
(Windows 95 or 98 automatically copies rather than moves to different
drives.)
Drop it precisely on the folder to which it will go. A small box will be visible
around the selected folder, so that you can drop it within that folder.
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If you miss, check the folders above and below your selected folder to see if the
file landed there. Otherwise, you may have to search to locate it.
TIP: You can copy several files at a time by


Left clicking on 1 file, hold down the 'Ctrl' key while you select the
other files
Release the Ctrl key and on any one of the selected files drag to desired
location.
Moving Files
The process of moving files from one place to another is essentially the same.
When right clicking, or choosing Edit from the menu,



Select your file.
Choose cut instead of copy
Then go to the drive or directory where you want to move the file and select
paste.
Note: Dragging files only copies files -- they remain in 2 places. Also, remember
you can move multiple files in the same manner as described under 'Copying
Files'.
Deleting Files
Deleting files and folders is easy - almost too easy. Here again, you have several
options:




select the file or folder and click the delete icon on your toolbar
select the file or folder and press the delete key (del)
right click the file or folder and choose delete.
drag the file and drop it in the recycling bin on your desktop
Unless you have indicated in the recycle bin that you wish all files that you delete
to be permanently deleted, and unless you are on a floppy drive,
deleting will merely send your files to the recycle bin, from where you
can permanently delete them later.
WARNING: When you delete a folder, you delete all files in that folder.
Before deleting a folder, be sure that it does not contain files you wish
to keep!
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Remember, only files deleted from your hard drive can be retrieved from the
Recycle Bin.
Renaming Files
Renaming files and folders is easy - almost too easy. Here again, you have several
options:




select the file or folder and click the file menu click rename
enter the new name and press enter
right click the file or folder and choose rename
enter the new name and press enter
How to Create Folder Directories
Create folders by performing these steps:
1. Open Windows Explorer -- Start, Programs, Windows Explorer
2. If your window is small you may need to enlarge it (maximize it or drag the
right lower corner).
3. To create a folder (directory) on C: click one time on C: (on left) to
highlight/select it.
4. Go up to the menu bar at the top and click on 'File', 'New', ‘Folder’.
5. A folder box appears on the right. Type your desired folder name and click
Enter.
6. On the menu bar at the top, click 'View', 'Refresh' and now you will see your
new folder on the left.
NOTE: Sub folders can be created under already established folders in the same
manner. On the menu bar, click one time on the folder and click 'File', 'New',
'Folder'.
Copying Multiple Files
There are several tricks that can be used to make copying or moving multiple files
easier. They involve the selection of the files to be copied or moved. You can hold
down the Shift key and select one file by clicking on it with the left mouse button
(called left clicking). While still holding the Shift key down left click on another
file several files down on the list. This will cause all files from the first one
through the last one selected to be highlighted and selected. Release the Shift key.
After this, you can hold down the Ctrl key and by left clicking on any other files,
they can be either selected or de-selected. Release the Ctrl key. Once you have
selected the files you can move them by dragging and dropping them (after
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releasing both the shift and control keys) into another folder. This is done as
follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Put the mouse cursor over one of the selected files.
Left clicking the mouse and hold it down
Drag the file to the desired location such as a folder icon.
Release the left mouse button.
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Microsoft Word
Starting Word
Before you start Word, you mast have Word installed on your computer, and you
should have basic understanding of Windows operating system.
To start Word, follow the following steps.
1. Click the Start Button
2. Move your mouse pointer to program. A menu of programs appear
3. Move your mouse pointer over Microsoft Word and click on it. Word starts
and displays the screen as shown below.
Screen Layout
Parts of the Word Screen
SCREEN ELEMENT
Work Area
Title Bar
FUNCTION
Your document displays here for text entry and
editing.
The program name, user name and the name of the
current document display here. At the right end of
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Menu Bar
Toolbars
Status Bar
Scroll Bar
the title bar are buttons to minimize, restore and
close program.
Men headings on this bar let you access Word’s
menu command.
The small pictures or buttons on the toolbars let you
select commonly needed commands by clicking the
mouse.
Word displays information about the document on
the status bar
You click and hold on the scroll bar to move around
the document
As you use Word, you will issue commands to tell Word what action you want.
You can carry out most Word commands using either the menu or the Toolbars
Menus
The menus in Word 2000 display only the commands you have recently used. To
view all options in each menu, you must click the double arrows at the bottom of
the menu.
Shortcut Menus
These features allow you to access various Word commands faster than using the
options on the menu bar. View shortcut menus by right-clicking with the mouse.
The options on this menu will vary depending on the element that was rightclicked. For example, the shortcut menu below is produced by right-clicking on a
bulleted list.
Actions such as "Decrease Indent" and "Increase Indent" are only applicable to
lists and therefore only appear on the list shortcut menu. The shortcut menus are
helpful because they only display the options that can be applied to the item that
was right-clicked and, therefore, prevent searching through the many menu
options.
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Toolbars
Many toolbars displaying shortcut buttons are also available to make editing and
formatting quicker and easier. Select View|Toolbars from the menu bar to select
the toolbars. The toolbars that are already displayed on the screen are checked.
Add a toolbar simply by clicking on the name.
Quitting the Program
When you have finished working with word you have several option to exiting the
program. All of these methods have the same result.
 Click File | Exit
 Press Alt + F4
 Click the close button on the title bar.
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Understanding Document Templates
Every Word document is based on a template. As the name suggest a template is a
model for a document. Word comes with a variety of predefined templates that are
ready for you to use. These templates cover a range of common documents needed
such as fax, memos, business letters and web pages. You can also create your own
templates.
Creating and Opening Documents
There are several ways to create new documents, open existing documents, and
save documents in Word:
Create a New Document



Click the New Document button on the menu bar.
Choose File|New from the menu bar.
Press CTRL+N (depress the CTRL key while pressing "N") on the
keyboard.
Open an Existing Document



Click the Open File button on the menu bar.
Choose File|Open from the menu bar.
Press CTRL+O on the keyboard.
Each method will show the Open dialog box. Choose the file and click the
Open button.
Save a Document



Click the Save button on the menu bar.
Select File|Save from the menu bar.
Press CTRL+S on the keyboard.
Saving the Document as you work
After naming and saving a document you still need to save it periodically as you
work to minimize data loss in the event of power failure or other system problem.
After you name a document you can easily save the current version
 Click File | Save
 Click the save button on the Standard Toolbar
 Press Ctrl+S
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Changing the Document Name
After you have names a document you may need to change its name. For example
you may keen an old version of a document under its original name and save the
revised version under a new name. To change a document name follow the steps.
 Click File| Save as - the Save as dialog Box Appears
 In the file name text box change the file name
 Click Save
Renaming Documents
To rename a Word document while using the program, select File|Open and find
the file you want to rename. Right-click on the document name with the mouse
and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the new name for the file and
press the ENTER key.
Close a Document
Close the current document by selecting File|Close or click the Close icon if it's
visible on the Standard Toolbar.
Document Property
Every Word document has a set of property that provides information about the
document. To enter of view the document property




Click File | Property
Click the Summary Tab
Enter or edit the summary information
Click OK
Typing and Inserting Text
To enter text, just start typing! The text will appear where the blinking cursor is
located. Move the cursor by using the arrow buttons on the keyboard or
positioning the mouse and clicking the left button. The keyboard shortcuts listed
below are also helpful when moving through the text of a document:
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Move Action
Beginning of the line
End of the line
Top of the document
End of the document
Left , right up & down
Keystroke
HOME
END
CTRL+HOME
CTRL+END
Arrow Keys
Paragraph
The idea of paragraph is important in word because certain types of information
apply to individual paragraphs. In word you end one paragraph and start a new
paragraph by pressing Enter. Word inserts a new blank line and positions the
cursor at the beginning of it.
Selecting Text
To change any attributes of text it must be highlighted first. Select the text by
dragging the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button
depressed, or hold down the SHIFT key on the keyboard while using the arrow
buttons to highlight the text. The following table contains shortcuts for selecting a
portion of the text:
Selection
Technique
Whole word
double-click within the word
Whole paragraph triple-click within the paragraph
Several words or drag the mouse over the words, or hold down SHIFT
lines
while using the arrow keys
Entire document choose Edit|Select All from the menu bar, or press
CTRL+A
Deselect the text by clicking anywhere outside of the selection on the page or press
an arrow key on the keyboard.
Deleting Text
Use the BACKSPACE and DELETE keys on the keyboard to delete text.
Backspace will delete text to the left of the cursor and Delete will erase text to the
right. To delete a large selection of text, highlight it using any of the methods
outlined above and press the DELETE key.
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Moving (Cutting) Text
Highlight the text that will be moved and select Edit|Cut from the menu bar, click
the Cut button on the standard tool bar, or press CTRL+X at once. This will move
the text to a clipboard.
To move a small amount of text a short distance, the drag-and-drop method may
be quicker. Highlight the text you want to move, click the selection with the
mouse, drag the selection to the new location, and release the mouse button.
Copying Text
To copy text, choose Edit|Copy, click the Copy button on the standard toolbar, or
press CTRL+C to copy the text to the clipboard.
Paste Text
To paste cut or copied text, move the cursor to the location you want to move the
text to and select Edit|Paste from the menu bar, click the Paste button on the
standard toolbar, or press CTRL+V.
The Clipboard
The last 12 elements that were cut or copied are placed onto Word's clipboard.
You can view the elements on the clipboard by selecting
View|Toolbars|Clipboard from the menu bar.
Place the mouse arrow over each element in the clipboard to view the contents of
each item and click on an element to add its contents to the document. Click Paste
All to add all of the items to the document at once. Click the Clear Clipboard
button (the icon with an "X" over the clipboard image) to clear the contents of the
clipboard.
Formatting Text
The formatting toolbar is the easiest way to change many attributes of text. If the
toolbar as shown below isn't displayed on the screen, select View|Toolbars and
choose Formatting.
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
Font Face - Click the arrowhead to the right of the font name box to view
the list of fonts available. Scroll down to the font you want and select it by
clicking on the name once with the mouse. A serif font (one with "feet"
circled in the illustration below) is recommended for paragraphs of text that
will be printed on paper as they are most readable. The following graphic
demonstrates the difference between serif (Times New Roman on the left)
and
sans-serif
("no
feet",
Arial
on
the
right)
fonts.

Font Size - Click on the white part of the font size box to enter a value for
the font size or click the arrowhead to the right of the box to view a list of
font sizes available. Select a size by clicking on it once. A font size of 10 or
12 is best for paragraphs of text.
Font Style - Use these buttons to bold, italicize, and underline text.
Alignment - Text can be aligned to the left, center, or right side of the page
or it can be justified across the page.
Numbered and Bulleted Lists - Lists are explained in detail later in this
tutorial.
Increase/Decrease Indent - Change the indentation of a paragraph in
relation to the side of the page.
Outside Border - Add a border around a text selection.
Highlight Color - Use this option to change the color behind a text
selection. The color shown on the button is the last color used. To select a
different color, click the arrowhead next to the image on the button.
Text Color - This option changes the color of the text. The color shown on
the button is the last color chosen. Click the arrowhead next to the button
image to select another color.







The Font dialog box allows you to choose from a larger selection of
formatting options. Select Format|Font from the menu bar to access the
box.
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Special Font Effect
Word has a number of special font effects that you can use. These include
superscripting, subscripting, strikeout, and several graphic effects.
Click format
In the effect area select the effect you want or to remove an effect by selecting or
deselecting the check box.
Click OK
Displaying Border or Shading
Word border command lets you improve the appearance of the document by
displaying border around the selected text or shading the text. You can apply
border or shading by:





selecting the text
click Format|Border and shading
click the appropriate tab for border or shading
click the button to view the palette of available border and shadings
click the desired border or shading
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Format Painter
A handy feature for formatting text is the Format Painter located on the standard
toolbar. For example, if you have formatting a paragraph heading with a certain
font face, size, and style and you want to format another heading the same way,
you do not need to manually add each attribute to the new headline. Instead, use
the Format Painter by following these steps:



Place the cursor within the text that contains the formatting you want to
copy.
Click the Format Painter button in the standard toolbar. Notice that your
pointer now has a paintbrush beside it.
Highlight the text you want to add the same format to with the mouse and
release the mouse button.
To add the formatting to multiple selections of text, double-click the Format
Painter button instead of clicking once. The format painter then stays active until
you press the ESC key to turn it off.
Undo
Feel free to experiment with various text styles. You can always undo your last
action by clicking the Undo button on the standard toolbar or selecting
Edit|Undo... from the menu bar. Click the Redo button on the standard toolbar or
select Edit|Redo... to erase the undo action.
To create a bulleted or numbered list, use the list features provided by Word.
Bulleted and Numbered Lists



Click the Bulleted List button
or Numbered List button
on the
formatting toolbar.
Type the first entry and press ENTER. This will create a new bullet or
number on the next line. If you want to start a new line without adding
another bullet or number, hold down the SHIFT key while pressing
ENTER.
Continue to typing entries and press ENTER twice when you are finished
typing to end the list.
Use the Increase Indent
and Decrease Indent
toolbar to create lists of multiple levels.
buttons on the formatting
NOTE: You can also type the text first, highlight the section, and press the
Bulleted List or Numbered List buttons to add the bullets or numbers.
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Nested Lists
To create a nested list, such as a numbered list inside of a bulleted list, follow
these steps:

Type the list and increase the indentation of the items that will make up the
nested list by clicking the Increase Indent button for each item.

Highlight the items and click the Numbered List button on the formatting
toolbar.
Formatting Lists
The bullet image and numbering format can be changed by using the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box.


Highlight the entire list to change all the bullets or numbers, or
Place the cursor on one line within the list to change a single bullet.
Access the dialog box by selecting Format|Bullets and Numbering from
the menu bar or by right-clicking within the list and selecting Bullets and
Numbering
from
the
shortcut
menu.
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

Select the list style from one of the seven choices given, or click the
Picture... button to choose a different icon. Click the Numbered tab to
choose a numbered list style.
Click OK when finished.
Controlling Line Brakes
The word wrap feature automatically breaks each line in a paragraph when it
reaches the right margin. Word offers a couple of methods to control the way line
break
Word default is to break lines as needed at spaces or hyphens.
 To insert a non breakable hyphen Press Ctrl +shift+ - (hyphen)
 To insert a non breakable space Press Ctrl +shift+ spacebar
 To insert a breakable word Press ctrl + - (hyphen)
Tabs
Tabs provide a way to control the indentation and vertical alignment of a text in
your document. When you press tab key word inserts a tab in the document which
moves the text and cursor to the right of it
Using the Help System
Word has several methods by which you can get help. They are divided into three
categories.
 The Office Assistant
 The Help Topic
 What’s This Help
Asking the Office Assistant
You have probably already met the Office Assistant It’s the paper clip character
that pops up to give you advice. The Office Assistant is a very powerful help
system that keeps track of what you are doing and can make some very intelligent
guidance about what information you want.
By default Office Assistant is turned on and sits on top of whatever you’re
working on. You can turn The Office Assistant off by clicking the close button in
the upper right corner of its window.
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To turn the Office Assistant on click the Help button on the standard toolbar or
click Help, Microsoft Word Help.
Asking the Office Assistant a question
 If you need help on a particular topic, simple type a question in the text box.
 Click the search button the Office Assistant provides some topic that might
match what you’re looking for.
 Click on the option that best describes what you’re trying to do. The help
window appears with instructions for the specific topic.
Find and Replace
Find - Using the Menu
 Type the following:
Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her daughter
attends Eastern High School.
 Highlight: "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her
daughter attends Eastern High School."
 Click on Edit.
 Highlight Find. Press Enter.
 Type east in the Find What field.
 Click on Find Next.
Note that the "East" in Easton is highlighted.
 Click on Find Next.
Note that "east" is highlighted.
 Click on Find Next.
Note that the "East" in Eastern is highlighted.
 Click on Find Next. The following message should appear: "Word has
finished searching the selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the
document?"
 Click on No.
 Click on Cancel.
Replace - Using the Menu
 Highlight "Monica is from Easton. She lives on the east side of town. Her
daughter attends Eastern High School."
 Click on Edit.
 Highlight Replace. Press Enter.
 Type "east" in the Find What box.
 Click on Find Next. Do not replace the "East" in "Easton."
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





Click on Find Next.
In the Replace With box, type west.
Click on Replace.
The "East" in Eastern is highlighted.
Click on Replace.
The following message will appear: "Word has finished searching the
selection. Do you want to search the remainder of the document?"
 Click on No.
 Click on Close.
 Your text should now read:
"Monica is from Easton. She lives on the west side of town. Her daughter
attends Western High School."
Document Display option
Word offers several ways to display tur document. Esch of these viewa is designed
to make certain task easier. The available views are:




Normal view - Best for general editing task
Page Layout - Ideal for working with formatting and page layout
Online Layout - Optimize view on-screen
Outline – Designed for working with outlines
Draft font view
Draft font view is a display option which provides a single generic font for all text
it indicates special formatting by underlining or boldface. Graphics display as
empty boxes. Draft font view provides the fastest editing and screen display and I
is particularly useful when editing the content of document that contains a lot f
fancy formatting and graphics.





To turn Draft mode view on or off
Click Tools|Option
In Necessary click View tab to display view options
Select the Draft font check box to turn on or off
Select OK
Full Screen View
Full screen view provides the maximum amount f screen real estate to display your
document contents. In full screen view the title bar, menus, toolbars, status bar and
all other word elements are hidden and your document occupies the entire screen.
You can enter or edit text and select from the menu using the keyboard command.
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To turn Full screen view on or off
Click View|Full Screen
Zooming the Screen
The zooming command lets you control the size of your document on-screen. You
can enlarge it to facilitate reading small fonts or decrease it to view an entire page.
Click View|Zoom
Select the desired radio button




200%, 100% or 75%
Enter custom magnification
Page width
whole page
Click OK
Tables
Tables are used to display data and there are several ways to build them in Word.
Begin by placing the cursor where you want the table to appear in the document
and choose one of the following methods.
Insert a Table
There are two ways to add a table to the document using the Insert feature:

Click the Insert Table button on the standard toolbar. Drag the mouse along
the grid, highlighting the number of rows and columns for the table.

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
Or, select Table|Insert|Table from the menu bar. Select the number of rows
and
columns
for
the
table
and
click
OK.
Draw the Table
A table can also be drawn onto the document:

Draw the table by selecting Table|Draw Table from the menu bar. The
cursor is now the image of a pencil and the Tables and Borders toolbar has
appeared.

Draw the cells of the table with the mouse. If you make a mistake, click the
Eraser button and drag the mouse over the area to be deleted.
To draw more cells, click on the Draw Table button .

Inserting Rows and Columns
Once the table is drawn, insert additional rows by placing the cursor in the row
you want to be adjacent to. Select Table|Insert|Rows Above or Rows Below. Or,
select an entire row and right-click with the mouse. Choose Insert Rows from the
shortcut menu.
Much like inserting a row, add a new column by placing the cursor in a cell
adjacent to where the new column will be added. Select Table|Insert|Columns to
the Left or Columns to the Right. Or, select the column, right-click with the
mouse, and select Insert Columns.
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Moving and Resizing a Table
A four-sided moving arrow and open box resizing handle will appear on the
corners of the table if the mouse is placed over the table. Click and drag the fourended arrow to move the table and release the mouse button when the table is
positioned where you want it. Click and drag the open box handle to resize the
table. Change the column widths and row heights by clicking the cell dividers and
dragging them with the mouse.
Tables and Borders Toolbar
The Tables and Borders toolbar allows you to add border styles, shading, text
effects, alignment, and more options to your table. Access the toolbar by clicking
Table|Draw Table or View|Toolbars|Tables and Borders.
You will need to highlight the cells of the table you want to format. Click and drag
the mouse over the cells, or use the following shortcuts:
Selection
Menu Method
One cell
Table|Select|Cell
One row
Table|Select|Row
One column Table|Select|Column
Several rows (none)
Several
columns
Entire table
(none)
Table|Select|Table
Mouse Method
Click the bottom, left corner of the cell
when a black arrow appears
Click outside the table to the left of the
row
Click outside the table above the
column when a black arrow appears
Click outside the table to the left of the
row and drag the mouse down
Click outside the table above the
column
Triple-click to the left of the table
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Table Properties
Use the Table Properties dialog box to modify the alignment of the table with the
body text and the text within the table. Access the box by selecting Tables|Table
Properties.



Size - Check the Preferred width box and enter a value if the table should
be an exact width.
Alignment - Highlight the illustration that represents the alignment of the
table in relation to the text of the document.
Text wrapping - Highlight "None" if the table should appear on a separate
line from the text or choose "Around" if the text should wrap around the
table.
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
Borders and Shading - Select from a number of border styles, colors, and
widths. Click the Shading tab to change the background color and pattern.

Options - Click the Options button on the Table Properties window. To
change the spacing between the document text and the table borders under
Default cell margins. Check the Allow spacing between cells box and
enter a value to add space between the table cells.

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Columns
To quickly place text in a column format, click the Columns button on the
standard toolbar and select the number of columns by dragging the mouse over the
diagram.
For more column options, select Format|Columns from the menu bar. The
Columns dialog box allows you to choose the properties of the columns. Select
the number and width of the columns from the dialog box.
Drop Caps
A drop cap is a large letter that begins a paragraph and drops through several lines
of text as shown below.
Add a drop cap to a paragraph by following these steps:
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




Place the cursor within the paragraph whose first letter will be dropped.
Select Format|Drop Cap from the menu bar.
The Drop Cap dialog box allows you to select the position of the drop cap,
the font, the number of lines to drop, and the distance from the body text.
Click OK when all selections have been made.
To modify a drop cap, select Format|Drop Cap again to change the
attributes, or click on the letter and use the handles to move and resize the
letter.
Adding Clip Art
To add a clip art image from the Microsoft library to a document, follow these
steps:

Select Insert|Picture|Clip Art from the menu bar.

To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips. Delete
the words "Type one or more words. . ." and enter keywords describing the
image you want to use.
- OR Click one of the category icons.
Click once on the image you want to add to the document and the following
popup menu will appear:

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Insert Clip to add the image to the document.
 Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the
document. Drag the bottom, right corner of the preview window to
resize the image and click the "x" close button to end the preview.
 Add Clip to Favorites will add the selected image to your favorites
directory that can be chosen from the Insert ClipArt dialog box.
 Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have
chosen.
Continue selecting images to add to the document and click the Close
button in the top, right corner of the Insert ClipArt window to stop adding
clip art to the document.


Add an Image from a File
Follow these steps to add a photo or graphic from an existing file:



Select Insert|Picture|From File on the menu bar.
Click the down arrow button on the right of the Look in: window to find the
image on your computer.
Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.
Editing A Graphic
Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Nine
handles will appear around the graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the
image. The handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the handles on
the straight lines will stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using
the Picture toolbar. The Picture toolbar should appear when you click on the
image. Otherwise, select View|Toolbars|Picture from the menu bar to activate it.

Insert Picture will display the image selection window and allows you to
change the image.

Image Control allows to to make the image grayscale, black and white, or a
watermark.
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
More/Less Contrast modifies the contrast between the colors of the image.

More/Less Brightness will darken or brighten the image.

Click Crop and drag the handles on the activated image to delete outer
portions of the image.

Line Style will add a variety of borders to the graphic.

Text Wrapping will modify the way the document text wraps around the
graphic.

Format Picture displays all the image properties in a separate window.

Reset Picture will delete all the modifications made to the image.
Auto Shapes
The AutoShapes toolbar will allow you to draw many different geometrical
shapes, arrows, flow chart symbols, stars, and banners on the document. Activate
the AutoShapes toolbar by selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or
View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the menu bar, or clicking the AutoShapes
button on the Drawing toolbar. Click each button on the toolbar to view the
options for drawing the shape.

Lines - After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a
straight line, arrow, or double-ended arrow from the first row of options by
clicking the respective button. Click in the document where you would like
the line to begin and click again where it should end. To draw a curved line
or freeform shape, select curved lines from the menu (first and second
buttons of second row), click in the document where the line should appear,
and click the mouse every time a curve should begin. End creating the
graphic by clicking on the starting end or pressing the ESC key. To
scribble, click the last button in the second row, click the mouse in the
document and hold down the left button while you draw the design. Let go
of the mouse button to stop drawing.
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
Basic Shapes - Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to
select from many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and
brackets. Use the drag-and-drop method to draw the shape in the document.
When the shape has been made, it can be resized using the open box handles
and other adjustments specific to each shape can be modified using the
yellow diamond handles.

Block Arrows - Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of twoand three-dimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the document
and use the open box and yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads.
Each AutoShape can also be rotated by first clicking the Free Rotate button
on the drawing toolbar . Click and drag the green handles around the
image to rotate it. The tree image below was created from an arrow rotated
90
degrees.

Flow Chart - Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements
to the document and use the line menu to draw connections between the
elements.

Stars and Banners - Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and
scrolls.

Call Outs - Select from the speech and thought bubbles, and line call outs.
Enter the call out text in the text box that is made.

More AutoShapes - Click this button to choose from a list of clip art
categories.
Each of the submenus on the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar.
Just click and drag the gray bar across the top of the submenus off of the toolbar
and it will become a separate floating toolbar.
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AutoCorrect
Word automatically corrects many commonly misspelled words and punctuation
marks with the AutoCorrect feature. To view the list of words that are
automatically corrected, select Tools|AutoCorrect. This may be a hidden feature
so click the double arrows at the bottom of the Tools menu listing if the
AutoCorrect choice is not listed.
Many options including the accidental capitalization of the first two letters of a
word and capitalization of the first word of the sentence can be automatically
corrected from this page. If there are words you often misspell, enter the wrong
and correct spellings in the Replace and With fields.
Spelling and Grammar Check
Word will automatically check for spelling and grammar errors as you type unless
you turn this feature off. Spelling errors are noted in the document with a red
underline. Grammar errors are indicated by a green underline. To disable this
feature, select Tools|Options from the menu bar and click the Spelling and
Grammar tab on the dialog box. Uncheck "Check spelling as you type" and
"Check grammar as you type", and click OK.
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To use the spelling and grammar checker, follow these steps:

Select Tools|Spelling and Grammar from the menu bar. The Spelling and
Grammar dialog box will notify you of the first mistake in the document
and
misspelled
words
will
be
highlighted
in
red.

If the word is spelled correctly, click the Ignore button or click the Ignore
All button if the word appears more than once in the document.
If the word is spelled incorrectly, choose one of the suggested spellings in
the Suggestions box and click the Change button or Change All button to
correct all occurrences of the word in the document. If the correct spelling is
not suggested, enter the correct spelling in the Not In Dictionary box and
click the Change button.
If the word is spelled correctly and will appear in many documents you type
(such as your name), click the Add button to add the word to the dictionary
so it will no longer appear as a misspelled word.


As long as the Check Grammar box is checked in the Spelling and Grammar
dialog box, Word will check the grammar of the document in addition to the
spelling. If you do not want the grammar checked, remove the checkmark from
this box. Otherwise, follow these steps for correcting grammar:

If Word finds a grammar mistake, it will be shown in the box as the spelling
errors. The mistake is highlighted in green text.

Several suggestions may be given in the Suggestions box. Select the
correction that best applies and click Change.
If no correction is needed (Word is often wrong more than it is right), click
the Ignore button.

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Synonyms
Word 2000 has a new feature for finding synonyms. Simply right-click on the
word and select Synonyms from the shortcut menu. From the list of suggested
words, highlight the word you would like to use or click Thesaurus... for more
options.
Thesaurus
To use the thesaurus, select Tools|Language|Thesaurus from the menu bar or
select it from the Synonyms shortcut menu as detailed above.
A list of meanings and synonyms are given on the windows. Double-click on the
words in the Meanings box or click the Look Up button to view similar words.
Double-click words in the Replace with Synonym box to view synonyms of those
words. Highlight the word you would like to add and click the Replace button.
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Page Margins
The page margins of the document can be changed using the rulers on the page
and the Page Setup window. The ruler method is discussed first:

Move the mouse over the area where the white ruler changes to gray.

When the cursor becomes a double-ended arrow, click with the mouse and
drag the margin indicator to the desired location.
Release the mouse when the margin is set.

The margins can also be changed using the Page Setup dialog box:

Select File|Page Setup and choose the Margins tab in the dialog box.

Enter margin values in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes. The
Preview window will reflect the changes.
If the document has Headers and/or Footers, the distance this text appears
from the edge of the page can be changed.
Click OK when finished.


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Page Size and Orientation
Change the orientation page within the Page Setup dialog box.

Select File|Page Setup and choose the Paper Size tab.

Select the proper paper size from the drop-down menu.
Change the orientation from Portrait or Landscape by checking the
corresponding radio button.

Headers and Footers
A header is text that is added to the top margin of every page such as a document
title or page number and a footer is text added to the bottom margin. Follow these
steps to add or edit headers and footers in the document:

Select View|Header and Footer from the menu bar. The Header and Footer
toolbar will appear and the top of the page will be highlighted as shown
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below.





Type the heading in the Header box. You may use many of the standard
text formatting options such as font face, size, bold, italics, etc.
Click the Insert AutoText button to view a list of quick options available.
Use the other options on the toolbar to add page numbers, the current date
and time.
To edit the footer, click the Switch Between Header and Footer button on
the toolbar.
When you are finished adding headers and footers, click the Close button
on the toolbar.
Page Numbers
Follow these instructions for another way to add page numbers to a document.

Select Insert|Page Numbers from the menu bar and the following dialog
box
will
appear.

Select the position of the page numbers by choosing "Top of page" or
"Bottom of page" from the Position drop-down menu.
Select the alignment of the page numbers in the Alignment drop-down
menu.

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

If you do not want the page number to show on the first page (if it is a title
page, for example), uncheck the Show number of first page box.
Click OK when finished.
Print Preview and Printing
Preview your document by clicking the Print Preview button on the standard
toolbar or by selecting File|Print Preview. When the document is ready to print,
click the Print button from the Print Preview screen or select File|Print.
Working on Multiple Documents
Several documents can be opened simultaneously if you are typing or editing
multiple documents at once. All open documents are listed under the Window
menu as shown below. The current document has a checkmark beside the file
name. Select another name to view another open document or click the button on
the Windows taskbar at the bottom of the screen.
Switching between Documents
Select the Window menu. At the bottom is a list of all opened documents with a
check mark next to the name of the current active document
Click the name of the document you want to active
Controlling Multiple Document View
To restore or minimize or maximize windows, click its restore, minimize or
maximize button.
Word has a command that displays all your open documents. Select windows;
arrange all to tile all document windows. When you tile your document every
document is displayed in a small window with no overlapping of windows.
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Moving and copying text between Documents
When you have more than one document open you can move and copy text and
graphics between documents.
Make the source document active and select the text
Select Edit| Copy or Cut
Make the destination document active move the insertion point to the location for
the text
Select Edit|Paste
There is no command to save all opened documents in one step, save
documents one by one.
Mail Merge
Introduction
A mail merge is a word processing feature that allows creating common letters,
mailing labels, envelopes, or cataloging documents to and/or for a group of people
as stored in a database.
Some examples of mail merge scenarios are:

A letter has to be sent to various parents, tutors, or guardians of students of a
high school.

A company keeps track of its various customers with the product each
particular customer is interested in; then the company regularly sends a
letter to these customers to signal a promotion or special discount they
would benefit from.

An employer would like to send a letter to employees according to their
respective department.
When creating a Mail Merge in Microsoft Word, you can use data from various
sources including a Microsoft Outlook contact list, a Microsoft Excel worksheet, a
Microsoft Access database, or a Notepad text document. But the easiest way is to
create a small database of items in Microsoft Word. Then, insert these items or
data into a main document that you will eventually create or design.
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Create Data Source
To use a Mail Merge document in Microsoft Word, first create the document
where data will originate from: this is called the source document. The source
document resembles a small database of resources combining fields and their
related data such as customers name and other personal information.
Compose the Letter Document
Once the source document has been prepared, you can create the main letter as the
document to be sent to the intended audience, in this case the car customers.
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The document you create here is structurally similar to a regular correspondence,
except that you don't need to remember the recipients. You will be using fields
created from the source document.
Once you are back in Microsoft Word, there is a new toolbar on your screen. The
Mail Merge toolbar allows you to perform all kinds of operations related to mail
merging. We will use the buttons one by one and as we move on, you will find out
what each one is used for.
After designing the letter, you can substitute the recipient's information by
selecting the appropriate field using the Insert Merge Field button from the Mail
Merge toolbar.
Explore the Document
Once the document has been created, you can check its behavior and accuracy by
using the View Merged Data from the Mail Merge toolbar.
After you have inserted the fields, your document appears to be filled with
unreadable characters although their meaning seems obvious. To read the letter in
its real version, you should remove or toggle these characters.
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The View Merged Data allows you to read your document more
realistically. When you press it, it appears in a grayed state.
The First Record button will displays the very first record on the database.
If you have at least one record behind, click the Previous record button.
To jump to a particular record, click in the Go To Record text box, type a
number and press Enter. The corresponding record will be displayed.
When navigating through the records, click the Next Record to get to the
next.
Clicking the Last Record button will take you to the very last record in the
database.
Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard shortcuts can save time and the effort of switching from the keyboard to
the mouse to execute simple commands. Print this list of Word keyboard shortcuts
and keep it by your computer for a quick reference.
Note: A plus sign indicates that the keys need to be pressed at the same time.
Action
Keystroke
Action
Document actions
Open a file
New file
Close a file
Save As
Text Style
CTRL+O
Font face
CTRL+N
Font size
CTRL+W
Bold
F12
Italics
CTRL+S or Underline
Save
SHIFT+F12 Double underline
Print Preview
CTRL+F2
Word underline
Print
CTRL+P
All caps
Show/Hide
paragraph
Change case
CTRL+*
symbols
Subscript
Spelling and grammar
F7
Superscript
Help
F1
Make web hyperlink
Find
CTRL+F
Replace
CTRL+H
Go To
CTRL+G
Keystroke
CTRL+SHIFT+F
CTRL+SHIFT+P
CTRL+B
CTRL+I
CTRL+U
CTRL+SHIFT+D
CTRL+SHIFT+W
CTRL+SHIFT+A
SHIFT+F3
CTRL+=
CTRL+SHIFT+=
CTRL+K
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Cursor movement
Select all - entire
CTRL+A
document
Select from cursor to
SHIFT+Home
beginning of line
Select from cursor to
SHIFT+END
end of line
Go to beginning of line HOME
Go to end of line
END
Go to beginning of
CTRL+Home
document
Go to end of document CTRL+End
Tables
Go to next
Tab
cell
Go
to
SHIFT+Tab
previous cell
Go
to
beginning of ALT+PageUp
column
Highlight to
beginning of ALT+SHIFT+PageUp
column
Go to end of
ALT+PageDown
column
Highlight to
Formatting
end
of ALT+SHIFT+PageDown
Cut
CTRL+X
column
Copy
CTRL+C
Go
to
beginning of ALT+Home
Paste
CTRL+V
row
Undo
CTRL+Z
Highlight to
Redo
CTRL+Y
beginning of ALT+SHIFT+Home
Format painter
CTRL+SHIFT+C
row
Left alignment
CTRL+L
Go to end of
ALT+End
Center alignment
CTRL+E
row
Right alignment
CTRL+R
Highlight to
ALT+SHIFT+End
Justified
CTRL+J
end of row
Delete
previous
Column
CTRL+Backspace
CTRL+SHIFT+Enter
word
break
Apply bulleted list CTRL+SHIFT+L
Miscellaneous
Indent
CTRL+M
Copyright symbol Page break
CTRL+Enter
ALT+CTRL+C
©
Date field
ALT+SHIFT+D
Go to footnotes
ALT+CTRL+F
Show/Hide ¶
CTRL+SHIFT+8
Thesaurus
SHIFT+F7
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All Shortcuts
This list shows only the most common keyboard shortcuts. To print a list of all the
shortcuts in Word, follow these steps:






Select Tools|Macro|Macros from the menu bar.
From the Macros In drop-down menu, select Word Commands.
Select ListCommands from the macro listing.
Click the Run button.
Choose Current Menu and Keyboard Settings from the popup window
and click OK.
Word will automatically open a new document containing a table of
keystrokes. Print the document
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Starting Excel
Before you start Excel, you mast have Excel installed on your computer, and you
should have basic understanding of Windows operating system.
To start Excel, follow the following steps.
4. Click the Start Button
5. Move your mouse pointer to program. A menu of programs appear
6. Move your mouse pointer over Microsoft Excel and click on it. Excel starts
and displays the screen as shown below.
Screen Layout
The Title Bar
This lesson will familiarize you with the Microsoft Excel screen. You will start
with the Title bar, which is located at the very top of the screen. On the Title bar,
Microsoft Excel displays the name of the workbook you are currently using. At the
top of your screen, you should see "Microsoft Excel - Book1" or a similar name.
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The Menu Bar
The Menu bar is directly below the Title bar. The menu begins with the word File
and continues with Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window, and Help.
You use a menu to give instructions to the software. Point with your mouse to a
menu option and click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens. You can
now use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard to move left and right
across the Menu bar. You can use the up and down arrow keys to move up and
down the drop-down menu.
Toolbars
Toolbars provide shortcuts to menu commands. Toolbars are generally located just
below the Menu bar. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.
Worksheets
Microsoft Excel consists of worksheets. Each worksheet contains columns and
rows. The columns are lettered A to IV; the rows are numbered 1 to 65536. The
combination of a column coordinate and a row coordinate make up a cell address.
For example, the cell located in the upper left corner of the worksheet is cell A1,
meaning column A, and row 1. Cell E10 is located under column E on row 10.
You enter your data into the cells on the worksheet.
The Formula Bar
Formula Bar
If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address displays in the Name box on the
left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the right side of the Formula
bar. Before proceeding, make sure the Formula bar is turned on.
1. Point to View, which is located on the Menu bar.
2. Click the left mouse button. A drop-down menu opens. On the drop-down
menu, if Formula Bar has a check mark next to it, the Formula bar is turned
on. Press the Esc key to close the drop-down menu.
3. If Formula Bar does not have a check mark next to it, press the down arrow
key until Formula Bar is highlighted; then presses Enter. The Formula bar
should now appear below the toolbars.
4. Note that the current cell address displays on the left side of the Formula
bar.
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The Status Bar
Status Bar
If the Status bar is turned on, it appears at the very bottom of the screen. Before
proceeding, make sure the Status bar is turned on.
Notice the word "Ready" on the Status bar at the lower left side of the screen. The
word "Ready" tell you that Excel is in the Ready mode and awaiting your next
command. Other indicators appear on the Status bar in the lower right corner of
the screen. Here are some examples:
The Num Lock key is a toggle key. Pressing it turns the numeric keypad on and
off. You can use the numeric keypad to enter numbers as if you were using a
calculator. The letters "NUM" on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the
screen indicate that the numeric keypad is on.
The Caps Lock key is also a toggle key. Pressing it turns the caps function on and
off. When the caps function is on, your entry appears in capital letters.
Other functions that appear on the Status bar are Scroll Lock and End. Scroll Lock
and End are also toggle keys. Pressing the key toggles the function between on and
off. Scroll Lock causes the movement keys to move the window without moving
the cell pointer. End lets you jump around the screen. We will discuss both of
these later in more detail.
Make sure the Scroll Lock and End indicators are off and complete the following
exercises.
The Down Arrow Key
You can use the down arrow key to move downward one cell at a time.
The Up Arrow Key
You can use the Up Arrow key to move upward one cell at a time.
The Tab Key
You can use the Tab key to move across the page to the right, one cell at a time.
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The Shift+Tab Keys
You can hold down the Shift key and then press the Tab key to move to the left,
one cell at a time.
The Right and Left Arrow Keys
You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time.
Page Up and Page Down
The Page Up and Page Down keys move the cursor up and down one page at a
time.
The End Key
The Status Bar
The End key, used in conjunction with the arrow keys, causes the cursor to move
to the far end of the spreadsheet in the direction of the arrow.
Note: If you have entered data into the worksheet, the End key moves you to the
end of the data area.
The Home Key
The Home key, used in conjunction with the End key, moves you to cell A1 -- or
to the beginning of the data area if you have entered data.
Moving Quickly Around the Worksheet
The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell to a cell in a
different part of the worksheet.
Go to -- F5
The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. If you press the F5 key while in the
Ready mode, you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go. Enter the cell
address, and the cursor jumps to that cell.
Go to -- Ctrl-G
You can also use Ctrl-G to go to a specific cell.
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Name Box
You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell.
Scroll Lock
The Status Bar
Scroll Lock moves the window, but not the cell pointer.
Selecting Cells
If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those
cells by highlighting them.
Alternative Method: Selecting Cells by Dragging
You can also highlight an area by holding down the left mouse button and
dragging the mouse over the area. In addition, you can select noncontiguous areas
of the worksheet by doing the following:
Entering Data
In this lesson, you are going to learn how to enter data into your worksheet. First,
you place the cursor in the cell in which you would like to enter data. Then you
type the data and press Enter.
Editing a Cell
After you enter data into a cell, you can edit it by pressing F2 while you are in the
cell you wish to edit.
Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Double-Clicking in the Cell
You can change "Joker" to "Johnson" as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Move the cursor to cell A1.
Double-click in cell A1.
Press the End key. Your cursor is now at the end of your text.
Use the backspace to erase "r," "e," and "k."
Type hnson.
Press Enter.
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Changing a Cell Entry
Typing in a cell while you are in the Ready mode replaces the old cell entry with
the new information you type.
1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Type Cathy.
3. Press Enter. The name "Cathy" should replace "Johnson."
Wrapping Text
When you enter text that is too long to fit in a cell into a cell, it overlaps the next
cell. If you do not want it to overlap the next cell you can wrap the text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Move to cell A2.
Type Text too long to fit.
Press Enter.
Return to cell A2.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
Choose the Alignment tab.
Click Wrap Text.
Click OK. The text wraps.
Deleting a Cell Entry
To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells, you place the cursor in the cell or
highlight the group of cells and press Delete.
1. Place the cursor in cell A2.
2. Press the Delete key.
Entering Numbers as Labels or Values
In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers as labels or as values. Labels are
alphabetic, alphanumeric, or numeric text on which you do not perform
mathematical calculations. Values are numeric text on which you perform
mathematical calculations. If you have a numeric entry, such as an employee
number, on which you do not perform mathematical calculations, enter it as a label
by typing a single quotation mark first.
Enter a number:
1. Move the cursor to cell B1.
2. Type 100.
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3. Press Enter.
The number 100 appears in cell B1 as a numeric value. You can perform
mathematical calculations using this cell entry. Note that by default the number is
right-aligned.
Enter a value:
1. Move the cursor to cell C1.
2. Type '100.
3. Press Enter.
The number 100 appears in cell C1 as a label. Note that by default the cell entry is
left-aligned and a green triangle appears in the upper left corner of the cell.
Smart Tags
When you make an entry that Microsoft Excel believes you may want to change, a
smart tag appears. Smart tags give you the opportunity to make changes easily.
Cells with smart tag in them appear with a green triangle in the upper left corner.
When you place your cursor in the cell, the Trace Error icon appears. Click on the
Trace Error icon and options appear. When you made your entry in cell C1 in the
previous section, a smart tag should have appeared.
1. Move to cell C1.
2. Click on the Trace Error icon. An options list appears. You can convert the
label to a number, obtain help, ignore the error etc.
Saving a File
This is the end of Lesson1. To save your file:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Choose File > Save from the menu.
Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
Type lesson1 in the File Name field.
Click on Save.
Closing Microsoft Excel
Close Microsoft Excel.
1. Choose File > Close from the menu.
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Formatting Text and Performing Mathematical Calculations
In this lesson, you are going to learn how to format text and perform basic
mathematical calculations. To start, open a blank Microsoft Excel workbook.
Choosing a Default Font
Microsoft Excel enables you to choose a default font. The default font is the style
of typeface that Excel will use unless you specify a different style. For the
exercises in this lesson, you want your font to be set to Arial, Regular, and Size 10.
To set your font to Arial, Regular, and Size 10:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
Choose the Font tab.
In the Font box, choose Arial.
In the Font Style box, choose Regular.
In the Size box, choose 10.
If there is no check mark in the Normal Font box, click to place a check
mark there. Your selections are now the default.
7. Click OK.
Adjusting the Standard Column Width
When you open Microsoft Excel, the width of each cell is set to a default width.
This width is called the standard column width. You need to change the standard
column width to complete your exercises. To make the change, follow these steps:
1. Choose Format > Column > Standard Width from the menu. The Standard
Width dialog box opens.
2. Type 25 in the Standard Column Width field. Click OK. The width of every
cell on the worksheet should now be set to 25.
3. Move to cell A1.
4. Type Cathy.
5. Press Enter.
Cell Alignment
The name "Cathy" is aligned with the left side of the cell. You can change the cell
alignment.
Centering by Using the Menu
To center the name Cathy, follow these steps:
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Move the cursor to cell A1.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Alignment tab.
Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After
the drop-down box is opened, click on Center.
5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is centered.
Right-Aligning by Using the Menu
To right-align the name "Cathy," follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Move the cursor to cell A1.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Alignment tab.
Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After
the drop-down box is opened, click on Right (Indent).
5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is right-aligned.
Left-Aligning by Using the Menu
To left-align the name "Cathy," follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Move the cursor to cell A1.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Alignment tab.
Click to open the drop-down box associated with the Horizontal field. After
the drop-down box is opened, click on Left (Indent).
5. Click OK to close the dialog box. The name "Cathy" is left-aligned.
Alternate Method: Alignment by Using the Formatting Toolbar
Using the Formatting toolbar, you can quickly perform tasks. You can use the
Formatting toolbar to change alignment.
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Centering by Using the Toolbar
To center the name "Cathy," follow these steps:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Click on the Center icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
The red circle designates the Align Center icon.
Right-Aligning by Using the Toolbar
You can right-align the name "Cathy" by following these steps:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Click on the Align Right icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
The red circle designates the Align Right icon.
Left-Aligning by Using the Toolbar
You can left align the name "Cathy" by following these steps:
1. Move the cursor to cell A1.
2. Click on the Align Left icon, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
The red circle designates the Align Left icon.
Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic
You can bold, underline, or italicize text in Microsoft Excel. You can also
combine these features -- in other words, you can bold, underline, and italicize a
single piece of text.
In the exercises that follow, you will learn three different methods for bolding,
italicizing, or underlining text in Microsoft Excel. You will learn to bold, italicize,
and underline by using the menu, the icons, and the shortcut keys.
Adding Bold by Using the Menu
1. Type Bold in cell A2.
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2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check
mark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Choose the Font tab.
5. Click on Bold in the Font Style box.
6. Click OK. The word "Bold" should now be bolded.
Adding Italic by Using the Menu
1. Type Italic in cell B2.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check
mark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Click on Italic in the Font style box.
5. Click OK. The word "Italic" is italicized.
Adding Underline by Using the Menu
Microsoft Excel provides several types on underlines. The exercise that follows
illustrates some of them.
Single Underline
1. Type Underline in cell C2.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar. Clicking on the check
mark is similar to pressing Enter.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline box.
5. Click on Single.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a single underline.
Double Underline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Type Underline in cell D2.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
Click on Double.
Click OK. The cell entry now has a double underline.
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Single Accounting
1. Type Underline in cell E2.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will
open.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
5. Click on Single Accounting.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a single accounting underline.
Double Accounting
1. Type Underline in cell F2.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will
open.
4. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
5. Click on Double Accounting.
6. Click OK. The cell entry now has a double accounting underline.
Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using the Menu
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Move the cursor to cell G3.
Type all three.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Font tab.
Click on Bold Italic in the Font Style box.
Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
Then click on Single.
8. Click OK. The words "All three" are now bolded, italicized, and underlined.
Removing Bolding and Italics by Using the Menu
1. Highlight cells B1 to C1. Place your cursor in cell B1. Press the F8 key.
Press the right arrow key once.
2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
3. Click on Regular in the Font style box.
4. Click OK. Cell B1 is no longer be bolded. Cell C1 is no longer italic.
Removing an Underline by Using the Menu
1. Move to cell C2.
2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
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3. Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the Underline field.
Then click on None.
4. Click OK. The underlined is removed.
Alternate Method: Adding Bold by Using the Icon
1.
2.
3.
4.
Type Bold in cell A3.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Click on the Bold icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.
Click again on the Bold icon if you wish to remove the bolding.
Alternate Method: Adding Italic by Using the Icon
1. Type Italic in cell B3.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Italic icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.
4. Click again on the Italic icon if you wish to remove the italics.
Alternate Method: Adding Underline by Using the Icon
1. Type Underline in cell C3.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
3. Click on the Underline icon, which is on the Formatting toolbar.
4. Click again on the Underline icon if you wish to remove the underline.
Alternate Method: Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using Icons
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Type All Three in cell D3.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Click on the Bold icon.
Click on the Italic icon.
Click on the Underline icon
Alternate Method: Adding Bold by Using Shortcut Keys
1. Type Bold in cell A4.
2. Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
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3. Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b).
4. Press Ctrl-b again if you wish to remove the bolding.
Alternate Method: Adding Italic by Using Shortcut Keys
1.
2.
3.
4.
Type Italic in cell B4.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i).
Press Ctrl-i again if you wish to remove the italic formatting.
Alternate Method: Adding Underline by Using Shortcut Keys
1.
2.
3.
4.
Type Underline in cell C4.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).
Press Ctrl-u again, if you wish to remove the underline.
Alternate Method: Adding Bold, Underline, and Italic by Using Shortcut
Keys
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Type All three in cell D4.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "b" (Ctrl-b).
Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "i" (Ctrl-i).
Hold down the Ctrl key while pressing "u" (Ctrl-u).
Changing the Font, Font Size, and Font Color
You can change the Font, Font Size, and Font Color of the data you enter.
Changing the Font
1.
2.
3.
4.
Type Times New Roman in cell A5.
Click on the check mark located on the Formula bar.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Font tab. All of the Fonts listed in the Font box are available to
you.
5. Find and click on Times New Roman in the Font box.
6. Click OK. The font changes from Arial to Times New Roman.
Changing the Font Size
1. Place the cursor in cell A5.
2. Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
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3. Choose the Font tab.
4. Click on 16 in the Size box.
5. Click OK. The font size changes to 16.
Changing the Font Color
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Place the cursor in cell A5.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Font tab.
Click to open the drop-down menu associated with the color field.
Click on Blue.
Click OK. The color changes to blue.
Alternate Method: Changing the Font Color by Using the Icon
1. Place the cursor in cell A5.
2. Click on the down arrow next to the Font Color icon. Click on Red. Your
font changes to red.
Working with Long Text
Whenever you type text that is too long to fit into a cell, Microsoft Excel attempts
to display all the text. It left-aligns the text regardless of the alignment that has
been assigned to it, and it borrows space from the blank cells to the right.
However, a long text entry will never write over cells that already contain entries - instead, the cells that contain entries cuts off the long text. Do the following
exercise to see how this works.
1. Move the cursor to cell A6.
2. Type Now is the time for all good men to go to the aid of their army.
3. Press Enter. Everything that does not fit into cell A6 spills over into the
adjacent cell.
4. Move the cursor to cell B6.
5. Type TEST.
6. Press Enter. The entry in cell A6 is cut off.
7. Move the cursor to cell A6.
8. Look at the Formula bar. The text is still in the cell.
Changing a Single Column Width
Earlier you increased the column width of every column on the worksheet. You
can also increase individual column widths. If you increase the column width, you
will be able to see the long text.
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1. Make sure the cursor is anywhere under column A.
2. Choose Format > Column > Width from the menu. The column width
dialog box opens.
3. Type 55 in the Column Width field.
4. Click OK.
Column A is set to a width of 55. You should now be able to see all of the text.
Alternate Method: Changing a Single Column Width by Dragging
You can also change the column width with the cursor.
1. Place the cursor on the line between the B and C column headings. The
cursor should look like the one displayed here, with two arrows.
2. Move your mouse to the right while holding down the left mouse button.
The width indicator appears on the screen.
3. Release the left mouse button when the width indicator shows
approximately 40.
Moving to a New Worksheet
In Microsoft Excel, each workbook is made up of several worksheets. Before
moving to the next topic, move to a new worksheet.
1. Click on Sheet2 in the lower left corner of the screen.
Setting the Enter Key Direction
In Microsoft Excel, you can specify which direction the cursor moves when you
press the Enter key. You can have the cursor move up, down, left, right, or not at
all. You will now make sure the cursor is set to move down when you press the
Enter key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Choose Tools > Options from the menu. The Options dialog box opens.
Choose the Edit tab.
Make sure there is a check mark in the "Move Selection after Enter" box.
If Down is not selected, click to open the Direction drop-down box. Click
on Down.
5. Click OK.
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Making Numeric Entries
In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells.
When a number is entered into a cell, you can perform mathematical calculations
such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. When entering a
mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the following
to indicate the type of calculation you wish to perform:
+ Addition, - Subtraction, * Multiplication, / Division, ^ Exponential
Performing Mathematical Calculations
The following exercises demonstrate how to perform mathematical calculations.
Addition
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Move your cursor to cell A1.
Type 1.
Press Enter.
Type 1 in cell A2.
Press Enter.
Type =A1+A2 in cell A3.
Press Enter. Cell A1 has been added to cell A2, and the result is shown in
cell A3.
Place the cursor in cell A3 and look at the Formula bar.
Subtraction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens.
Type B1 in the Reference field.
Press Enter. The cursor should move to cell B1.
Type 5 in cell B1.
Press Enter.
Type 3 in cell B2.
Press Enter.
Type =+B1- B2 in cell B3.
Press Enter. Cell B1 has been subtracted from B2, and the result is shown in
cell B3.
Place the cursor in cell B3 and look at the Formula bar.
Multiplication
1. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl-g). The Go To dialog box
opens.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Type C1 in the Reference field.
Press Enter. You should now be in cell C1.
Type 2 in cell C1.
Press Enter.
Type 3 in cell C2.
Press Enter.
Type =C1*C2 in cell C3.
Press Enter. Cell C1 is multiplied by cell C2 and the result is displayed in
cell C3.
Place the cursor in cell C3 and look at the Formula bar.
Division
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Press F5.
Type D1 in the Reference field.
Press Enter. You should now be in cell D1.
Type 6 in cell D1.
Press Enter.
Type 3 in cell D2.
Press Enter.
Type =D1/D2 in cell D3.
Press Enter. Cell D1 is divided by cell D2 and the result is displayed in cell
D3.
Place the cursor in cell D3 and look at the Formula bar.
The AutoSum Icon
The AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar automatically adds a column of
numbers. The following illustrates the SUM function:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Go to cell F1.
Type 3. Press Enter.
Type 3. Press Enter.
Type 3. Press Enter.
Click on the AutoSum button, which is located on the Standard toolbar.
F1 to F3 should now be highlighted.
Press Enter. Cells F1 through F3 are added.
Automatic Calculation
If you have automatic calculation turned on, Microsoft Excel recalculates the
worksheet as you change cell entries. You can check to make sure automatic
calculation is turned on.
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Setting Automatic Calculation
1.
2.
3.
4.
Choose Tools > Options from the menu.
Choose the Calculation tab.
Select Automatic if it is not already selected.
Click OK.
Trying Automatic Calculation
Make the changes outlined below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically
recalculates.
1. Move to cell A1.
2. Type 2. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell A3 have changed.
The number in cell A1 has been added to the number in cell A2 and the
results display in cell A3.
3. Move to cell B1.
4. Type 6.
5. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell B3 have changed. The
number in cell B1 has been subtracted from the number in cell B2 and the
results display in cell B3.
6. Move to cell C1.
7. Type 4. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell C3 have changed. The
number in cell C1 has been multiplied by the number in cell C2 and the
results display in cell C3.
8. Move to cell D1.
9. Type 12. Press the Enter key. The results shown in cell D3 have changed.
The number in cell D1 has been divided by the number in cell D2 and the
results display in cell D3.
Formatting Numbers
You can format the numbers you enter into Microsoft Excel. You can add commas
to separate thousands, specify the number of decimal places, place a dollar sign in
front of the number, or display the number as a percent in addition to several other
options.
Before formatting
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After formatting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Move the cursor to cell A5.
Type 1234567.
Press Enter.
Move the cursor back to cell A5.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box will
open.
6. Choose the Number tab.
7. Click on Number in the Category box.
8. Type 2 in the Decimal Places box.
9. Place a check mark in the Use 1000 Separator box.
10.Click OK. The number should now display with two decimal places. The
thousands should now be separated by commas.
Adding a Dollar Sign to a Numeric Entry
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Move the cursor to cell A5.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu. The Format Cells dialog box opens.
Choose the Number tab.
Click on Currency in the Category box.
Make sure there is a "$" in the Symbol box.
6. Click OK. The number displays with a dollar sign.
Alternate Method: Formatting Numbers by Using the toolbar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Move the cursor to cell A6.
Type 1234567.
Press Enter.
Move the cursor back to cell A6.
Click twice on the Increase Decimal icon to change the number format to
two decimal places. Clicking on the Decrease Decimal icon decreases the
decimal places.
6. Click once on the Comma Style icon to add commas to the number.
7. To change the number to a currency format, click on the Currency Style
format.
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8. Move the cursor to cell A7.
9. Type .35 (note the decimal point).
10. Press Enter. Move the cursor back to cell A7.
11.Click on the Percent Style icon to turn .35 to a percent.
More Advanced Mathematical Calculations
When you perform mathematical calculations in Microsoft Excel, be careful of
precedence. Calculations are performed from left to right, with multiplication and
division performed before addition and subtraction.
1. Move to a new worksheet by clicking on Sheet3 in the lower left corner of
the screen.
2. Go to cell A1.
3. Type =3+3+12/2*4.
4. Press Enter.
Note: Microsoft Excel divided 12 by 2, multiplied the answer by 4, added 3, and
then added another 3. The answer, 30, displays in cell A1.
To change the order of calculation, use parentheses. Microsoft Excel calculates the
information in parentheses first.
1. Double-click in cell A1.
2. Edit the cell to read = (3+3+12)/2*4.
3. Press Enter.
Note: Microsoft Excel added 3 plus 3 plus 12, divided the answer by 2, and
multiplied the result by 4. The answer, 36, displays in cell A1.
Cell Addressing
Microsoft Excel records cell addresses in formulas in three different ways, called
absolute, relative, and mixed. The way a formula is recorded is important when
you copy it.
With relative cell addressing, when you copy a formula from one area of the
worksheet to another, Microsoft Excel records the position of the cell relative to
the cell that originally contained the formula. The following exercises
demonstrate:
1. Go to cell A7.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Type 1. Press Enter.
Type 1. Press Enter.
Type 1. Press Enter.
Go to cell B7.
Type 2. Press Enter.
Type 2. Press Enter.
Type 2. Press Enter.
Go to cell A10.
In addition to typing a formula, you can also enter formulas by using Point mode.
When you are in Point mode, you can enter a formula either by clicking on a cell
with your mouse or by using the arrow keys.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
You should be in cell A10.
Type =.
Use the up arrow key to move to cell A7.
Type +.
Use the up arrow key to move to cell A8.
Type +.
Use the up arrow key to move to cell A9.
Press Enter.
Look at the Formula bar while in cell A10. Note that the formula you
entered is recorded in cell A10.
Copying by Using the Menu
You can copy entries from one cell to another cell. To copy the formula you just
entered, follow these steps:
1. You should be in cell A10.
2. Choose Edit > Copy from the menu. Moving dotted lines appear around cell
A10, indicating the cells to be copied.
3. Press the Right Arrow key once to move to cell B10.
4. Choose Edit > Paste from the menu. The formula in cell A10 is copied to
cell B10.
5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.
Compare the formula in cell A10 with the formula in cell B10 (while in the
respective cell, look at the Formula bar). The formulas are the same except that the
formula in cell A10 sums the entries in column A and the formula in cell B10
sums the entries in column B. The formula was copied in a relative fashion.
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Before proceeding with the next exercise, you must copy the information in cells
A7 to B9 to cells C7 to D9. This time you will copy by using the Formatting
toolbar.
Copying by Using the Formatting Toolbar
1. Highlight cells A7 to B9. Place the cursor in cell A7. Press F8. Press the
down arrow key twice. Press the right arrow key once. A7 to B9 should be
highlighted.
2. Click on the Copy icon
, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
3. Use the arrow key to move the cursor to cell C7.
4. Click on the Paste icon
, which is located on the Formatting toolbar.
5. Press Esc to exit Copy mode.
Absolute Cell Addressing
An absolute cell address refers to the same cell, no matter where you copy the
formula. You make a cell address an absolute cell address by placing a dollar sign
in front of both the row and column identifiers. You can do this automatically by
using the F4 key. To illustrate:
1. Move the cursor to cell C10.
2. Type =.
3. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C7.
4. Press F4. Dollar signs should appear before the C and before the 7.
5. Type +.
6. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C8.
7. Press F4.
8. Type +.
9. Use the up arrow key to move to cell C9.
10.Press F4.
11.Press Enter. The formula is recorded in cell C10.
Copying by Using the Keyboard Shortcut
Now copy the formula from C10 to D10. This time, you will copy by using the
keyboard shortcut.
1. Your cursor should be in cell C10.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "c" (Ctrl-c). This copies the
contents of cell C10.
3. Press the right arrow once.
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4. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "v" (Ctrl-v). This pastes the
contents of cell C10 in cell D10.
5. Press Esc to exit the Copy mode.
Compare the formula in cell C10 with the formula in cell D10. They are the same.
The formula was copied in an absolute fashion. Both formulas sum column C.
Mixed Cell Addressing
You use mixed cell addressing to reference a cell that is part absolute and part
relative. You can use the F4 key.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Move the cursor to cell E1.
Type =.
Press the up arrow key once.
Press F4.
Press F4 again. Note that the column is relative and the row is absolute.
Press F4 again. Note that the column is absolute and the row is relative.
Press Esc.
Deleting Columns
You can delete columns from your spreadsheet. To delete columns C and D:
1. Click on column C and drag to column D.
2. Choose Edit > Delete from the menu. Column D is deleted.
3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection.
Deleting Rows
You can delete rows from your spreadsheet. To delete rows 1 through 4:
1. Click on the row 1 drag to row 4.
2. Choose Edit > Delete from the menu. Rows 1 through 4 are deleted.
3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection.
Inserting Columns
There will be times when you will need to insert a column or columns into your
spreadsheet. To insert a column:
1. Click on A to select column A.
2. Choose Insert > Columns from the menu. A column is inserted to the right
of column A.
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3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection.
Inserting Rows
You can also insert rows into your spreadsheet:
1. Click on 2 to select row 2.
2. Choose Insert > Rows from the menu. A row is inserted above row 2.
3. Click anywhere on the spreadsheet to remove your selection.
Creating Borders
You can use borders to make entries on your spreadsheet stand out. Accountants
usually place a single underline above a final number and a double underline
below. The following illustrates:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Go to cell B7.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
Choose the Border tab.
In the Style box, click on the single underline
Click on the top of the Border box.
In the Style box, click on the double underline.
Click on the bottom of the Border box.
Click OK. Cell B7 now has a border.
Alternate Method: Creating Borders by Using the Icon
1. Go to cell C7. Click on the down arrow beside the Borders icon.
2. Select the Top and Double Bottom Border. Cell C7 now has borders.
Merge and Center
You will sometimes want to center a piece of text over several columns. The
following example shows you how.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to cell B1.
Type Sample Spreadsheet.
Click the check mark on the Formula bar.
Select columns B1 to D1.
5. Click on the Merge and Center icon
C1, and D1 are merged and centered.
on the formatting toolbar. Cells B1,
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Adding Background Color
You can add background color to a cell or group of cells:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Go to cell B1.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
Choose the Patterns tab.
Choose Sky Blue.
Click OK. The background of cell B1 is now Sky Blue.
Alternate Method: Adding Background Color by Using the Icon
1. Select cells B7 to D7.
2. Click on the down-arrow next to the Fill Color icon
.
3. Select Pale Blue. The background of cells B7 to D7 is now Pale Blue.
Using Auto Format
You can format your data manually or you can use one of Microsoft Excel's many
AutoFormats.
1. Select cells B1 to D7.
2. Choose Format > Auto Format from the menu. Several formats are listed
from which you can choose.
3. Choose the Accounting 2 format.
4. Click OK. Your data is formatted in the Accounting 2 style.
Saving Your File
To save your file:Choose File>Save from the menu.
1. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
2. Type lesson2 in the File Name field.
3. Click on Save.
Closing Microsoft Excel
This is the end of Lesson 2. Close Microsoft Excel. Choose File > Exit from the
menu.
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Numbers and Mathematical Calculations
Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. Functions allow you to
quickly and easily find an average, the highest number, the lowest number, a count
of the number of items in a list, and make many other useful calculations.
Reference Operators
Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. There are two types of
reference operators, range and union.
A range reference refers to all the cells between and including the reference. A
range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. The reference
A1:A3 includes cells A1, A2, and A3. The reference A1:C3 includes A1, A2, A3,
B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, and C3.
A union reference includes two or more references. A union reference consists of
two or more cell addresses separated by a comma. The reference A7,B8,C9 refers
to cells A7, B8, and C9.
Functions
Microsoft Excel has a set of prewritten formulas called functions. Functions differ
from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators, such as +,
-, *, or /. For example, you can use the SUM function to add. When using a
function, remember the following:




Use an equal sign to begin a formula.
Specify the function name.
Enclose arguments within parentheses.
Use a comma to separate arguments.
Here is an example of a function:
=SUM (2,13,A1,B27)
In this function:
The equal sign begins the function.
SUM is the name of the function.
2, 13, A1, and B27 are the arguments.
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Parentheses enclose the arguments.
A comma separates the arguments.
The SUM function adds the arguments together. In the exercises that follow, we
will look at various functions.
Typing a Function
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Open Microsoft Excel.
Type 12 in cell B1.
Press Enter.
Type 27 in cell B2.
Press Enter.
Type 24 in cell B3.
Press Enter.
Type =SUM (B1:B3) in cell A4.
Press Enter. Microsoft Excel sums cells B1 to B3.
Alternate Method: Entering a Function by Using the Menu
1. Type 150 in cell C1.
2. Press Enter.
3. Type 85 in cell C2.
4. Press Enter.
5. Type 65 in cell C3.
6. Press Enter. Your cursor should be in cell C4.
7. Choose Insert > Function from the menu.
8. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box.
9. Click on Sum in the Select A Function box.
10.Click on OK. The Functions Arguments dialog box opens.
11.Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field, if it does not automatically appear.
12.Click on OK. Microsoft Excel sums cells C1 to C3.
13.Move to cell A4.
14.Type the word Sum.
15.Press Enter.
As you learned in Lesson 2, you can also calculate a sum by using the Sum icon.
Calculating an Average
You can use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of
numbers.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Move your cursor to cell A6.
Type Average. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6.
Type =AVERAGE (B1:B3).
Press Enter. The average of cells B1 to B3, which is 21, will appear.
Calculating an Average by Using the Sum Icon
In Microsoft Excel XP, you can use the Sum icon to calculate an average.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Move your cursor to cell C6.
Click on the drop-down arrow next to the Sum icon.
Click on Average.
Highlight C1 to C3.
Press Enter. The average of cells C1 to C3, which is 100, appears.
Calculating Min
You can use the MIN function to find the lowest number in a series of numbers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Move your cursor to cell A7.
Type Min.
Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7.
Type = MIN (B1:B3).
Press Enter. The lowest number in the series, which is 12 appears.
Calculating Max
You can use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Move your cursor to cell A8.
Type Max.
Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8.
Type = MAX (B1:B3).
Press Enter. The highest number in the series, which is 27, appears.
Note: You can also use the drop-down menu next to the Sum icon to calculate
minimums and maximums.
Calculating Count
You can use the count function to count the number of items in a series.
1. Move your cursor to cell A9.
2. Type Count
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9.
Click on the down arrow next to the Sum icon.
Click on Count.
Highlight B1 to B3.
Press Enter. The number of items in the series, which is 3 appears.
Filling Cells Automatically
You can use Microsoft Excel to fill cells automatically with a series. For example,
you can have Excel automatically fill in times, the days of the week or months of
the year, years, and other types of series. Days of the week and months of the year
fill in a similar fashion. The following demonstrates filling the days of the week:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Move to Sheet2.
Move to cell A1.
Type Sun.
Move to cell B1.
Type Sunday.
Highlight cells A1 to B1.
Bold cells A1 to B1.
Find the small black square in the lower right corner of the highlighted area.
This is called the Fill Handle.
9. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to fill cell A1 to B24. Note
how the days of the week fill the cells in a series. Also, note that the Auto
Fill Options icon appears.
10.Click on the Auto Fill Options icon.
11.Choose the Copy Cells radio button. The entry in cells A1 and B1 are
copied to all the cells highlighted.
12.Click on the Auto Fill Options icon again.
13.Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series from Sunday to
Saturday again.
14.Click on the Auto Fill Options icon again.
15.Choose the Fill without Formatting radio button. The cells fill as a series
from Sunday to Saturday, but the entries are not bolded.
16.Click on the Auto Fill Options icon again.
17.Choose the Fill Weekdays radio button. The cells fill as a series from
Monday to Friday.
Some of the entries in column B are too long to fit in the column. You can quickly
adjust the column width to fit the longest entry.
1. Move your cursor over the line that separates column B and C. The Width
Indicator appears.
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2. Double-click. The Column adjusts to fit the longest entry.
The following demonstrates filling time:
1. Type 1:00 into cell C1.
2. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells A1 to A24.
Note that each cell fills using military time.
3. Press Esc and then click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the
highlighting.
To change the format of the time:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select cells C1 to C24.
Choose Format > Cells from the menu.
Choose the Number tab.
In the Category box, choose Time.
In the Type box, choose 1:30 PM.
Click OK. The time is no longer in military time.
You can also fill numbers.
Type a 1 in cell D1.
1. Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells D1 to D24.
The number 1 fills each cell.
2. Click on the Auto Fill Options icon.
3. Choose the Fill Series radio button. The cells fill as a series starting with 1,
2, 3.
Here is another interesting fill feature.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to cell E1.
Type Lesson 1.
Grab the Fill Handle and drag with your mouse to highlight cells E1 to E24.
The cells fill in as a series: Lesson 1, Lesson 2, Lesson 3, and so on.
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Printing
The simplest way to print is to click on the Print icon located on the Standard
toolbar. Dotted lines will appear on your screen after you click on the print icon.
The dotted lines indicate the right, left, top, and bottom edges of your printed
pages.
Print Preview
There are many print options. You can select print options options in Page Setup
or in Print Preview. In Print Preview, you can see the results of your selections
onscreen. You can use print options to:





Determine whether to print landscape or portrait. If you print portrait on an
8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper, the length across the top of your page will be
8 1/2 inches. If you print landscape on an 8 1/2 by 11 sheet of paper, the
length across the top of your page will be 11 inches.
Scale your document. If your data is small in comparison to the page, you
may want to scale upward so the data fills the entire page. If your data is too
large to fit on the page, you may want to scale downward.
Specify how many pages wide and how many pages long you want your
printed document to be.
Select the paper size and print quality.
Set the first page number.
If you choose the Margins tab, you can:


Set the size of your margins including your header and footer margins.
Center your spreadsheet horizontally and/or vertically on the page.
If you choose the Header/Footer tab, you can select headers and footers. A header
is text that appears at the top of every page. A footer is text that appears at the
bottom of every page. You can use headers and footers to insert page numbers,
dates, and other information.
To choose a header:
1. Choose the Header/Footer tab.
2. Click on the down arrow next to the Header field to open the drop-down
box for the header field.
3. Choose a Header from the list.
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To choose footer:
1. Choose the Header/Footer tab.
2. Click on the down arrow next to the Footer field to open the drop-down box
for the Footer field.
3. Choose Footer from the list.
Click on the Custom Header or Custom Footer button to customize your headers
and footers. Use the Left Section to place your options on the left side of the page,
the Center Section to place your options in the center of the page, and the Right
Section to place your option’s on the right side of the page.
The Sheet tab has options that allow you to choose which rows and columns will
repeat at the left and the top of the page. It also has options that allows you to
determine whether gridlines and/or row column headings print
To preview and print your spreadsheet:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Choose File > Preview from the menu.
Click on Setup.
Choose the Page tab.
Choose Portrait.
In the Adjust To field, type 110% to set the size to 110%.
Choose the Margin tab.
Check the horizontally box in the Center on Page frame to center your
spreadsheet horizontally.
8. Click on OK.
9. Click on Print. The Print dialog box opens.
10.Click on OK to print the file.
Saving Your File
To save your file:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Choose File>Save from the menu.
Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
Type lesson3 in the File Name field.
Click on Save.
Closing Microsoft Excel
This is the end of Lesson 3. Close Microsoft Excel.
1. Choose File > Exit from the menu.
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Creating Charts
Using Microsoft Excel, you can represent numbers in a chart. You can choose
from a variety of chart types. And, as you change your data, your chart will
automatically update. You can use Microsoft Excel's Chart Wizard to take you
through the process step-by-step.
Creating a Column Chart
To create the column chart shown above, start by creating the spreadsheet below
exactly as shown.
After you have created the spreadsheet, you are ready to create your chart.
1. Highlight cells A3 to D6. You must highlight all the cells containing the
data you want in your chart. You should also include the data labels.
2. Choose Insert > Chart from the menu.
3. Click on Column to select the type of chart you want to create.
4. In the Chart Sub-type box, choose the Clustered Column icon to select
the chart sub-type.
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5. Click on Next.
6. To place the product names on the x-axis, select the Columns radio
button.
7. Click on Next.
8. Type Toy Sales in the Chart Title field. Toy Sales will appear as the title
of your chart.
9. Type Products in the Category (X) Axis field. Products will appear as
your x-axis title.
10.Type Units Sold in the Value (Y) Axis field. Units Sold will appear as
your y-axis title.
11.Choose the Data Labels tab.
12.Select Value in the Labels Contain Frame to display the data labels as
values.
13.Choose the Data Table tab.
14.Select Show Data Table. The data table will appear below your chart.
15.Click on Next.
16.Choose as Object in Sheet1 to make your chart an embedded object and
part of the worksheet.
17.Click on Finish
18.Your chart will appear on the spreadsheet.
Changing the Size and Position of a Chart
When you select a chart, handles appear on the right and left sides, the top and
bottom, and the corners of the chart. You can drag the handles on the top and
bottom of the chart to increase or decrease the height of the chart. You can drag
the handles on the left and right sides of the chart to increase or decrease the width
of the chart. You can drag the handles on the corners of the chart to increase or
decrease the size of the chart proportionally.
You can change the position of a chart by clicking on the chart and dragging
1. Use the handles to adjust the size of your chart.
2. Click on the chart and drag to position the chart under the data.
Modify Your Chart
You can modify your chart by using the Chart toolbar. If the Chart toolbar is not
already available, choose View > Toolbars > Chart from the menu.
Chart Toolbar
To change the data area font size:
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click on the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens.
Choose Data Table from the drop-down menu.
Click on the Options icon . Choose the Font tab
In the Size box, type 8.
Click on OK. Your font size is now 8.
To change the angle of the data labels:
1. Click on the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens.
2. Choose "Region 1" Data Labels from the drop-down menu.
3. Click on the Angle Counter Clockwise icon
. The Region 1 Data Labels
are angled counter-clockwise.
4. Repeat this process for Regions 2 and 3.
To change the font size of the Region data labels:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click on the down arrow on the Chart toolbar. A drop-down menu opens.
Choose "Region 1" Data Labels from the drop-down menu.
Click on the Options icon. Choose the Font tab.
In the Size box, type 6.
Click on OK. Your font size is now 6.
Repeat this process for Region 2 and 3.
You can also make changes by double-clicking on the item you want to change.
To change the chart scale:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Double-click on the scale. The Format Axis dialog box opens.
Choose the Scale tab.
Type 400 in the Major Unit field.
Click on OK. Your chart is now scaled in units of 400.
Saving Your File
To save your file:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Choose File>Save from the menu.
Go to the directory in which you want to save your file.
Type lesson4 in the File Name field.
Click on Save.
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Closing Microsoft Excel
This is the end of Lesson 4. Close Microsoft Excel.
1. Choose File > Exit from the menu.
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Page Properties and Printing
Page Breaks
To set page breaks within the worksheet, select the row you want to appear just
below the page break by clicking the row's label. Then choose Insert Page Break
from the menu bar. You may need to click the double down arrow at the bottom of
the menu list to view this option.
Page Setup
Select File Page Setup from the menu bar to format the page, set margins, and add
headers and footers.

Page
Select the Orientation under the Page tab in the Page Setup window to
make the page Landscape or Portrait. The size of the worksheet on the page
can also be formatting under Scaling. To force a worksheet to print only one
page wide so all the columns appear on the same page, select Fit to 1
page(s) wide.

Margins
Change the top, bottom, left, and right margins under the Margins tab.
Enter values in the header and footer fields to indicate how far from the
edge of the page this text should appear. Check the boxes for centering
horizontally
or
vertically
on
the
page.

Header/Footer
Add preset headers and footers to the page by clicking the drop-down
menus under the Header/Footer tab.
To modify a preset header or footer, or to make your own, click the Custom
Header and Custom Footer buttons. A new window will open allowing
you to enter text in the left, center, or right on the page.
Format Text - Click this button after highlighting the text to change the
font, size, and style.
Page Number - Insert the page number of each page.
Total Number of Pages - Use this feature along with the page number to
create strings such as "page 1 of 15".
Date - Add the current date.
Time - Add the current time.
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File Name - Add the name of the workbook file.
Tab Name - Add the name of the worksheet's tab.

Sheet
Check Gridlines if you want the gridlines dividing the cells to be printed on
the page. If the worksheet is several pages long and only the first page
includes titles for the columns, select Rows to repeat at top to choose a
title row that will be printed at the top of each page.
Print Preview
Select File Print Preview from the menu bar to view how the worksheet will
print. Click the Next and Previous buttons at the top of the window to display the
pages and click the Zoom button to view the pages closer. Make page layout
modifications needed by clicking the Page Setup button. Click Close to return to
the worksheet or Print to continue printing.
Print
To print the worksheet, select File Print from the menu bar.



Print Range - Select either all pages or a range of pages to print.
Print What - Select selection of cells highlighted on the worksheet, the
active worksheet, or all the worksheets in the entire workbook.
Copies - Choose the number of copies that should be printed. Check the
Collate box if the pages should remain in order.
Click OK to print.
Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard shortcuts can save time and the effort of switching from the keyboard to
the mouse to execute simple commands. Print this list of Excel keyboard shortcuts
and keep it by your computer for a quick reference.
Note: A plus sign indicates that the keys need to be pressed at the same time.
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Action
Document actions
Open a file
New file
Save As
Save
Print
Find
Replace
Go to
Keystroke
Action
Selecting Cells
All cells left of SHIFT+left
current cell
arrow
All cells right of SHIFT+right
current cell
arrow
Entire column
CTRL+Spacebar
Entire row
SHIFT+Spacebar
Entire worksheet
CTRL+A
CTRL+O
CTRL+N
F12
CTRL+S
CTRL+P
CTRL+F
CTRL+H
F5
Cursor Movement
One cell up
up arrow
One cell down
down arrow
One cell right
Tab
One cell left
SHIFT+Tab
Top of worksheet
CTRL+Home
(cell A1)
End of worksheet
CTRL+End
(last cell with data)
End of row
Home
End of column
CTRL+left arrow
Move
to
next
CTRL+PageDown
worksheet
Formulas
Apply AutoSum
Current date
Current time
Spelling
Help
Macros
ALT+=
CTRL+;
CTRL+:
F7
F1
ALT+F8
Keystroke
Text Style
Bold
Italics
Underline
Strikethrough
CTRL+B
CTRL+I
CTRL+U
CTRL+5
Formatting
Edit active cell
F2
Format as currency
with 2 decimal SHIFT+CTRL+$
places
Format as percent
with no decimal SHIFT+CTRL+%
places
Cut
CTRL+X
Copy
CTRL+C
Paste
CTRL+V
Undo
CTRL+Z
Redo
CTRL+Y
Format cells dialog
CTRL+1
box
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