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State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Development in Thermal Manufacturing
State of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology and Process Developments in
Thermal Manufacturing
Advanced technologies have the potential to improve the efficiency, productivity, and global
competitiveness of a wide range of thermal manufacturing processes (e.g., drying, curing and forming,
and heat treating) and various end-use industries (e.g., automotive and computer and electronic
products). However, previous efforts to identify and pursue these technology advances have been done
in isolation, rather than through collaboration across key stakeholders. Roadmaps were developed
independently from one another by the different industries that rely on or supply thermal equipment
and processes.
While much work to date has been conducted in isolation, a number of key technologies and process
improvement areas cross-cut the different industries and processes that comprise the broad thermal
manufacturing community. This state-of-the-art review aims to develop a foundation of the needs and
opportunities for advanced thermal manufacturing technologies across relevant industries and
involving all key stakeholders. To develop this overview, we reviewed previous industry roadmaps and
pulled key needs and opportunities in thermal manufacturing, interviewed 20 experts in the thermal
manufacturing community, and searched the websites of relevant organizations to provide an overview
of recent or current work related to thermal manufacturing (see Bibliography for list of interviewees,
roadmaps and documents, and organization websites).
The current needs and opportunities as well as the recent and current work being conducted in this
area are categorized by the following high-level technology and process areas:
• Modeling and Simulation
• Energy and Emissions Reduction
• Sensors
• Automation and Robotics
• Heat Generation Methods
• Advanced Materials
• Process Intensification
While each of these areas provides value alone, advancing and implementing multiple technologies in
parallel will have the maximum impact. Needs and opportunities as well as current and recent work
have been categorized based on the technology and process area of most relevance; in most cases, one
technology and process area enables or is dependent on another area of work (e.g., improved sensors
could enable more advanced automation and facilitate improved data collection for modeling and
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Modeling and Simulation
The increased use of modeling and simulation can
help optimize manufacturing processes and products
and save money by reducing trial and error
approaches in materials and process development.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
Improved decision-making tools
More accurate models validated with real
operating data
Improved user friendliness of models that are Figure 1: Simulation of a thermal distribution
adaptable for different processes
More comprehensive and accurate materials
properties and process databases
Increased accessibility and affordability of data
Improved computational speed that is consistent with data processing speed needs
Advanced models that integrate all relevant characteristics that impact process optimization and
product quality
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for modeling and simulation in
thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a
selective literature review.
Table 1: Current State of Modeling and Simulation in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
General Modeling Needs
• Educate industry to better understand the economic value of modeling software and increase
their willingness to buy software licenses
• Demonstrations of user-friendly modeling software packages (e.g., with auto-meshing
capabilities) for non-experts
• Increased communication between modelers and producers/processers
• Through-process modeling that relates all processes in the manufacture of a product
• Modeling software that includes thermal efficiencies
• Simulation software coupled with macroscale modeling software (finite element/difference)
for property and microstructure prediction
• Life-cycle analysis models that relate structural properties to manufacturing processes to
determine effectiveness of varying thermal manufacturing processes
• Process models that help generate material/microstructure specifications based on userentered application-specific criteria (e.g., wear, forces, corrosion)
Data Needs
• Universal interface for exporting data
• Mechanical, thermal, and metallurgical data (e.g., thermal strains and transformation
kinetics) as a function of time and temperature
• Consistent data for mold filling
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Steel transformation data and thermal strain information (e.g., heat treat with quench
Diffusion data for specific alloys
Stress-strain database as a function of phase, temperature, and strain rate
Understanding of aluminum rheology, including liquid and plastic deformation characteristics
Data to better understand intergranular oxidation concerns of carburization in protective
Cast/Solidification Models
• Integration of CALPHAD in solidification codes
• Adequate models of turbulence in the casting process
• Ability to predict micro-structure as a function of composition and processing
• North American solidification models that account for centerline segregation and
• Comprehensive heat transfer, fluid flow, and solidification models to define the thermal
conditions in the growing shell and rotating roll and to enable in situ compensation or
correction for roll distortions
• Advanced heat transfer and fluid flow models that include the free surface of liquid/liquid
boundaries; slag emulsification; cast surface shape and position; inclusions or bubble
distribution; and segregation patterns
Heat Treatment Modeling
• Full-load heat treat simulations to design the furnace process for optimal load density
• Computational fluid dynamics analysis for high-pressure gas quenching systems that includes
phase changes
• Thermochemical models of atmosphere-material interactions during carburizing and nitriding,
• Model for volumetric strains resulting from transformations during heating and cooling
• Heat-transfer coefficient database based on time-temperature data and scaling rules
• Computational fluid dynamics modeling of quench baths to predict flow patterns and cooling
rates in loaded baths
Electromagnetic Modeling
• Methods to analyze 3-D problems in time frames that can be useful for individual runs
• Temperature-dependent electromagnetic material properties database
Phase/Precipitation Modeling
• Martensitic transformation modeling
• Temper kinetics of martensite modeling
• Modeling athermal transformation of retained austenite fraction in steel alloys
• Precipitation kinetics in micro-alloyed steel
Process Efficiency/Energy Modeling
• Modeling of thermal gradients in furnaces to optimize furnace design
• Modeling to design process flow path to meet final customer product requirements
• Predictive software that process implementers can use to compare and select thermal
manufacturing equipment from different suppliers
• Coupled heat and mass transfer models to allow prediction of the effect of ladle metallurgy
on chemistry and inclusion control
• A ladle model that would include heat transfer with the container and the slag, reaction
between the steel and the slag, reheating, degassing, and refining
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Model that combines flow modeling and finite element thermal analysis to predict the
location and rate of accretion in refractory materials
Modeling of the electric arc furnace process with variable air infiltration, flexible charges, and
variable degrees of post-combustion to benchmark the optimum process and improve design
Plant layouts modeled with infrared imaging to develop more efficient plant process flow and
better energy management
Recent or Current Work
General Modeling Needs
• CALPHAD thermal expansion database (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
• Integrated manufacturing process simulation framework that enhances understanding of
what occurs as AA6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets undergo shearing or trimming in
preparation for the subsequent forming process (Ford Motor Company and Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory)
• Method for predicting the stability and elasticity of certain alloys for millions of atomic
configurations of the materials to help identify materials with optimized properties for an
application (Hamburg University of Technology)
• Models for density and viscosity of crude oil and natural gas at high temperatures and high
pressures (National Energy Technology Laboratory)
• Analytical and numerical models of specific top down and bottom up nanofabrication
techniques and processes, as well as models and simulations of their associated metrology
challenges (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
• Reference Architecture (RA) and Solution Stack (SS) for smart manufacturing systems to
enable easy composition of solutions for the large, evolving, and heterogeneous systems in
factories and production networks (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
• Measurement data and techniques to allow for accurate assessment of the thermal
properties of insulating materials, including insulation meant for applications up to 250°C,
microporous insulation, and phase-change materials (National Institute of Standards and
• Model to improve control of sheet reheating that considers temperature-dependent
properties, sheet color, and operating conditions (McGill University)
Data Needs
• Energy landscape of glass that maps all possible energy positions of glass molecules to
improve manipulation of properties and better control of glass aging (Duke University)
Cast/Solidification Models
• Composite element test modeling for the repair of commercial single crystal nickel-based
superalloys to define processing parameters and the correlation between solidification
conditions and microstructure (University of Birmingham)
• Electronic database for rapid selection of aluminum die casting alloys (Worcester Polytechnic
• Telluride Code Project: models and optimizes the gravity-pour casting processes which are
currently ongoing at LANL foundries (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
• Use of high-energy protons to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting
and solidification (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
• Experimental methodology/apparatus to quantitatively measure and characterize hot tearing
in aluminum cast alloys (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
• Castability control in metal casting via fluidity measures (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Heat Treatment Modeling
• Predicting the response of aluminum casting alloys to heat treatment (Worcester Polytechnic
• Tools for prediction/control of distortion and residual stresses in heat treated components
(Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
Electromagnetic Modeling
• Electromagnetic and thermal-stress modeling of induction scan hardening (DANTE)
Phase/Precipitation Modeling
• Using CALPHAD to increase understanding of multicomponent systems (e.g., phase changes,
heating rates) (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
• Phase-field modeling of microstructure evolution during processing of cold-rolled dual-phase
steels (RWTH Aachen)
• Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied
by direct coupling of transmission (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
• Data repositories for use with CALPHAD so relevant low-order (unary, binary, and ternary)
systems can be re-assessed efficiently to develop new multicomponent descriptions (National
Institute of Standards and Technology)
Process Efficiency/Energy Modeling
• Integration of Advanced Combustion GmbH’s Representative Interactive Flamelet mode with
CONVERGE computational fluid dynamics software to model ignition, combustion, and
emissions within a diffusion flame (Convergent Science)
• Publicly available combustion chemistry models for alternative fuels that are more
sophisticated and detailed than commercially available computational fluid dynamics models
(Argonne National Laboratory)
• Computer models based on Front-Tracking and Lattice-Boltzmann (LBM) techniques for direct
numerical simulation of an internal combustion engine spray in the near-injector region
(Argonne National Laboratory)
• Simulations and validation of two-phase flow experiments and the largest unstructured Large
Eddy Simulation (LES) of combustors (CERFACS)
• Diagnostic capability that provides three-dimensional measurements of turbulent flame
dynamics using high-repetition rate tomographic particle image velocimetry (Sandia National
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Improved sensor technologies can enable more
accurate measuring, monitoring, and control of the
high-temperature and corrosive operating
environments of thermal manufacturing and can
improve the quality and reliability of products.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
Low-cost, real-time, non-intrusive sensors
capable of measuring, controlling, and
monitoring multi-element emissions from the
combustion system, process operation (e.g.,
temperature and atmospheric composition
and pressure), and the physical properties of
equipment and the product being heated
Smart systems that can detect and diagnose
Figure 2: Optical sensor
product quality problems, predict process
requirements and changes, signal
maintenance activities based on operating
conditions, and automatically adjust process variables for optimization
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for sensors in thermal
manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a selective
literature review.
Table 2: Current State of Sensors in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
General Process Control Sensors
• Advanced microelectromechanical systems for embedded microsensors
• Improved understanding of the maintenance needs of sensors to ensure more accurate data
• Smart sensors that indicate in real time when they are not performing as designed and have
the ability to self-calibrate
• Reliable basic oxygen furnace sensors to detect lance-to-steel bath distance and provide realtime feedback to improve the consistency of the process reaction path
Physical Property Sensors
• Real-time case-carbon quenching sensors to quantify heat transfer process variability
• Ultrasonic inclusion sensors or continuous-monitoring sensors to assist molten metal and
glass analysis
• Increased use of non-contact laser ultrasonics to monitor the recrystallization of continuously
cast strip prior to coiling
• Sensor to determine whether a part’s surface is clean enough to be correctly carburized
• In-line, real-time, operator-friendly, continuous non-contact sensor and method to identify
and separate scrap
• A more sophisticated probe that addresses surface finish and geometry issues for quenching
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Gas/Electrochemical/Galvanic sensors
• Sensors to measure amount of carbon in the process atmosphere for carburizing and nitriding
• Laser-based immersion probe system that provides elemental analysis within a minute
• Oxygen sensors with improved resistance to carbon deposits
Temperature/Infrared Sensors
• Better low-cost methods for measuring internal moisture and temperature in parts
• Measurement devices that can provide a 3-D thermal profile of the combustion space as well
as the thermal velocity
• Sensors that can detect flame instability
• Hardware capable of making in-process temperature measurements to enable real-time
fabrication of glass containers and tableware
• Improved understanding of glass composition effects on physical properties (e.g., as the Fe2O3
content in the glass changes, so does the emissivity) to improve the capacity for infrared
sensors to detect temperature
Force/Stress/Strain Measurement Sensors
• Incipient crack sensors
• Nondestructive method to detect residual stress
• Crack detection in unfinished parts
Recent or Current Work
General Process Control Sensors
• Wireless sensors that form a network with one or more sensor interrogators, data
concentrators, or processing nodes, and communicate the information generated by the
sensors with a central operator or automated monitor (Pacific Northwest National
• Calibration methodology to address error readings due to sensor degradations (Argonne
National Laboratory, Case Western University)
• Microelectromechanical systems fabricated from silicon and other materials to sense and
react to environmental changes (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
• In-line fluid analysis technology that provides real-time analysis data that indicates the
condition of oils or other lubricants and detects contamination and metal wear content
(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
• Semiconductor fabrication lines coupled with radio frequency interrogators and product
identification tags to record processing steps for each wafer in a central database (Texas
• Integrated methodology and protocols to enable, assess, and assure the real-time
performance of secure wireless platforms in smart manufacturing systems (National Institute
of Standards and Technology)
• Three-dimensional silicon sensors in which the n- and p-type electrodes penetrate through
the entire substrate (SINTEF and Stanford Nanofabrication Facility)
• Technique to produce machines made of elastic materials and liquid metals by embedding a
liquid-alloy pattern inside a rubber-like polymer to form a network of sensors to mimic the
functionality of human skin (Purdue University)
Physical Property Sensors
• Method to monitor curing or cross-linking of adhesives and polymers to ensure proper
processing (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Integrated Micron-sized subwavelength structured photonic sensors that monitor critical
thermomechanical phenomena (University of Illinois)
Ultrasonic sensor that characterizes a fiber suspension to determine the degree of refining,
making the refining process more efficient (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Rapid, non-destructive method to measure hardening depth and gradient of treated steel
parts (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Microsensors designed and fabricated in the type of surface mount components (e.g.,
resistors and capacitors) and soldered directly onto networks for corrosion assessment of
copper, aluminum, and wire-bonded chips (Sandia National Laboratories)
Gas/Electrochemical/Galvanic sensors
• Stand-alone, self-calibrating, high-temperature flue gas sensor capable of detecting nitrogen
oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen sulfide, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water,
hydrogen chloride, ammonia, phosphine, toluene, and mercaptons (Georgia Institute of
• Process monitor featuring Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for
remote monitoring, MATLAB-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive
software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display (Pacific Northwest National
• Method for amplifying signals in graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensors through a
process called “magneto-electrochemical immunoassay” (Northwestern University)
• “Batteryless” nanosensor that can identify different chemical species in less than a second
(Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
• Improved accuracy and durability of co-fired ceramic sensor elements and other ceramic
components, for use in nitrogen oxides and particulate matter sensors (EmiSense
Technologies LLC)
• Multifunctional chemical vapor sensors of aligned carbon nanotube and polymer composites
(University of Dayton and Air Force Research Laboratory)
• Porous silicon-based conductometric gas sensor with a resistance of around 40 ohms that
detects gaseous hydrogen chloride, ammonia, nitrogen oxide, and organic materials at
concentrations of 10–100 parts per million (ppm) (Georgia Institute of Technology)
• Multifunctional metal oxide/perovskite-based in situ composite nanosensors for industrial
and combustion gas detection at high temperature (700°C –1,300°C) (National Energy
Technology Laboratory)
• Sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline
silicon filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible
gases (Sandia National Laboratory, University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
and University of New Mexico)
• Low-cost, high-sensitivity, wide-range oxygen sensor with a diffusion barrier, electrolyte
material, and counter-electrode (Georgia Tech)
• BTU4400-NOx: portable flue-gas analyzer designed for emissions monitoring and
maintenance as well as tuning of combustion processes (E Instruments International)
Temperature/Infrared Sensors
• Improved accuracy of infrared devices in measuring skin temperatures on furnace coils by
studying emissivity of typical furnace coils (BASF)
• Active Millimeter Wave Pyrometer to determine the spatial distribution of the surface
temperature of an object using non-contact methods (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Temperature sensor with an outer wall of a conventional oxidization-resistant nickel alloy and
an inner wall of a different nickel alloy that prevents contamination and can reduce drift by
80%–90% at 1,200°C –1,300°C (University of Cambridge)
Force/Stress/Strain Measurement Sensors
• Non-destructive ultrasonic method to detect stresses and damage not visually identifiable
(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
• Miniaturized fiber-optical sensor system that can be fully embedded in a composite material
and automatically monitor its structural health (Ghent University, imec, and SMARTFIBER)
• Micro-bead melt sensor that indicates the imposed strains of temperature and radial force
strain as melt density “K” electro-motive force (emf) readout (Society of Plastics Engineers)
• System to monitor the effects of use-loading on structural members and detect failure
precursors (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Heat Generation Methods
Due to the inherent energy-intensiveness of thermal
manufacturing, there is a continuous need for more
cost-effective, energy-efficient, and cleaner
combustion methods with improved heat transfer.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
Improved indirect heating methods (i.e., heat
must be transferred from the heat source to
the product via conduction, convection, or
Hybrid combustion methods that combine
existing methods or couple a new method
with an existing method to increase efficiency Figure 3: Open gas burner
Alternative fuels with increased energy
Advanced combustion methods with increased stabilization
Reduced cost and improved purity of on-site oxygen production for oxy-fuel firing, including
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for combustion methods in
thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a
selective literature review.
Table 3: Current State of Combustion Methods in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
• Increased use of oxygen/natural gas combustion process in glass furnaces
• Lower-cost technologies that can simultaneously reduce nitrogen oxides to low levels and
achieve high thermal efficiency
• State-of-the-art combustion laboratories to validate computational fluid dynamics models
• Computational tools that contain validated, high-fidelity combustion models
• Method of direct heating that eliminates scale on metals
• Advanced boiler and combustion cycles (e.g., pressurized combustion systems, turbocharged
combinations) with minimum operating conditions of 1,500 psi, 1,500°F, and 3:1 pressure
• Combustion equipment for low heat-value fuels (e.g., waste fuels)
• Increased use of waste heat boilers that transfer heat from the byproducts of production to
high-pressure steam for plant use or conversion into electricity
• Rapid-cycle regenerative systems
• Materials and designs that can withstand dirty, contaminated, unpredictable combustion flue
• Use of exhaust heat for absorption cooling
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Combustion Reaction Catalysts
• High-temperature catalyst materials
• Catalysts that help achieve flame stability and low nitrogen oxide at lower temperature
• A single, non-energy requiring biocatalyst for hydrocarbon and hetero-atom conversion
Oxyfuel Combustion
• Better understanding of the impacts of oxyfuel technology on the clinker-burning process of
cement manufacturing
• High turn-down, low-pressure-drop, variable geometry burner
• Unified code that accounts for burner-furnace geometry and includes emissivities and multiflame interactions
• Adaptation of existing complex computational fluid optimization codes to burners
• Additional work in low-energy nuclear reactions, which could potentially be driven by waste
• Laser-based machining integrated in combustion equipment
Recent or Current Work
• Virtual Engine Research Institute and Fuels Initiative: first and only source in the world for
high-fidelity, three-dimensional, end-to-end, combustion engine simulation/visualization,
simultaneous powertrain, and fuel simulation, with uncertainty quantification (Argonne
National Laboratory)
• Use of spinning gas near sonic velocities to achieve higher heating capacity and more closely
reach the Carnot efficiency (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory)
• Two-minute production time to produce skutterudite compounds using microwave energy,
improving methods of capturing waste heat (Oregon State University)
Combustion Reaction Catalysts
• Research in how metal oxide surfaces interact with water to better understand and control
chemical reactions in fields ranging from catalysis to geochemistry (University of WisconsinMadison, Aarhus University, and Lund University)
• High-activity de-alloyed platinum catalysts: durable high-activity catalysts show reduced cost
by using various de-alloying techniques and mass activity that meets DOE targets after 30,000
voltage cycles (United States Council for Automotive Research)
• Catalytic pyrolysis technology to produce advanced lignocellulosic biofuels (Fortum, UPM, and
• Lignin valorization through integrated biological funneling and chemical catalysis; conversion
of lignin into a variety of renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials for a sustainable energy
economy (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
• High-intensity colorless distributed combustion for ultra-low emissions and enhanced
performance (Ames Laboratory)
• Bionic liquids from lignin and hemicellulose that could realize a closed-loop process (e.g., in
paper production) (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Process Intensification
Process intensification involves engineering advances
that decrease the size of equipment, increase energy
efficiency, and reduce waste and emissions. The
ultimate goal of process intensification is to reduce
the time it takes for a product to progress from raw
material to an end-use product, while reducing
energy use and cost.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
More flexible equipment that can be used for
multiple processes
Figure 4: Industrial laser cutter
Improved manufacturing plant layouts that
reduce inefficiencies
Shorter processing times and elimination of processing steps
Retrofit equipment on existing capital equipment to increase efficiency while reducing the
typical cost of integrating new equipment
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for process intensification in
thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a
selective literature review.
Table 4: Current State of Process Intensification in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
Alternate/Improved Heating Methods
• Heat treating equipment for one-piece flow (batches of one) to support synchronous
• High magnetic field processing for development of ultralightweight metals with tailored
microstructures and properties
• Impingent jets with good heat transfer coefficients that exert little force on products so as not
to damage food and paper products
• High-temperature, high-pressure drying process that allows for vapor release without
damaging food and paper products
• Alternative cell concepts to electrolytic reduction process, such as a combination of inert
anode/wetted and drained cathode or systems approach for designing dimensionally stable
• Commercial-scale carbothermic reduction process
• Continuous, high-productivity, thin-strip casting process at lower gauge
• Water and inert-gas quenching methods to emulate salt and oil quenching
• Quenching media that are nonpolluting and safe to use
• New heat treating processes for advanced materials such as intermetallic materials and metal
matrix composites
• Cleaner melting/pouring technologies
• Technologies capable of "casting to shape" by making better use of cavities
• In situ methods for melting and casting metals
• Environmentally friendly reactive flux gases for metal treatment
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Smart burners that adjust heat release profile
More efficient radiant heater with uniform surface temperature
Cost-effective, energy-efficient furnace modification packages that can be adopted by small
Agglomeration process to form glass pellets or briquettes that achieves good thermal
efficiency and minimizes dusting of the unmelted glass
Processing Speed and Step Elimination
• More compact melting equipment with more flexible operation
• Paint/coating processes that allow for fast curing at lower temperatures to reduce energy
consumption and allow for use of other materials that can’t handle as high of temperatures
• Processes capable of ramping up or slowing down quickly
• Advanced forming techniques to manufacture net shapes without intermediate processes
• High-temperature (>1,010°C) carburizing processes, including atmosphere and vacuum
carburizing processes, to shorten cycles
• Die materials and coatings that eliminate the need for solder and heat checks
• Equipment that combines mass and heat transfer mechanisms and catalysis (e.g., catalytic
distillation) to achieve the desired results more efficiently
• Bypassing the initial distillation of crude altogether through revolutionary new pathways,
such as thermal cracking
Thermal Intensity/Uniformity
• Increased casting temperature consistency when pouring metals to make sure metal
properties aren’t adversely affected
• Improved consistency and robustness of induction heat treating to ensure uniform part
characteristics and properties
• Hybrid rapid infrared superheating furnace for treatment of aluminum alloys
• Induction coils that make optimum use of the electromagnetic field distribution for heating
• Improved high-temperature seal materials and seal designs
• Low-density, low-permeability insulation
Enabling Support
• Demonstrations of infrared heating processes to increase understanding of how it works and
its energy-saving abilities
• Guidelines for the use of intermetallic materials in furnace hardware and fixturing
• Understanding of the threshold conditions of fouling with the chemical composition of crude
to determine the effectiveness of mitigation methods for various crude blending processes
• Better understanding of heat transfer limits in glass, both in the furnace and in forming
Recent or Current Work
Alternate/Improved Heating Methods
• Industrial-scale high magnetic field processing and thermomagnetic field processing facility
with an integrated induction heating and quenching capability (Oak Ridge National
• Advanced vacuum furnace design with a 15-bar quenching system and a full human-machine
interface data retrieval control package to improve the hardness and corrosion resistance of
stainless steel (Seco-Warwick Corp.)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Easycoil: flexible induction heating coil for large, oddly shaped parts that cannot be heated
with a traditional copper coil (Ambrell)
Laser surface modification techniques to enhance a material’s resistance to the detrimental
effects of corrosion, abrasion, and wear (University of North Texas)
Flash processing of steel to produce high strength and high ductility (Ohio State University,
University of Tennessee, SFP Works LLC)
Constant oxygen range across the entire firing range of a boiler using controls and sensors to
improve efficiency (Cleaver-Brooks Inc.)
Heat treating with diode lasers to enable lighter and stiffer constructions, reduced process
steps, and high reproducibility (Laserline GmbH)
In situ oxidation of precursor ferritic stainless steel powders using a unique gas atomization
reaction synthesis technique (National Energy Technology Laboratory)
Powder metal manufacturing technology to custom engineer novel titanium compositions
and structures with new and useful combinations of properties, not producible by traditional
melt processing (International Titanium Association)
Foam injection molding using nitrogen and carbon dioxide as co-blowing agents to improve
the morphology and mechanical properties of melts (University of Wisconsin)
Using additives in the casting process to introduce characteristics to Nafion membranes that
enable the fabrication of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators with high conductivity and
output force (Xi'an Jiaotong University)
Low-cost, energy-efficient, zero-emissions process for making magnesium (INFINIUM)
Batch integral quench furnace technologies that maintain temperature uniformity and are
designed to provide uniform quench flow velocities with minimum spread (Surface
Multilayer Feeder Furnace: energy-efficient modular furnace with automation for press
hardening (AP&T North America)
Titanium-based catalyst that will enable a more efficient magnesium extraction process and
should cut magnesium production costs in half (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Processing Speed and Step Elimination
• Integration of heat treating directly into the machining production line using flat-panel
radiators (ALD Vacuum Technologies)
• Three-step heat treat process to austenite condition, in situ cool, and bright age harden 17-7
precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel in a vacuum furnace without breaking vacuum
(Solar Atmospheres)
• Vacuum induction degassing (VID) furnace that allows for meltdown, vacuum refining, and
pouring under inert gas (ALD Vacuum Technologies)
• Increased use of radio frequency identification to drive efficiency and product quality
• Torque amplification analysis program to help mills process tougher alloys, increase output
with thicker slabs or higher speeds, protect against cold-end slabs, or mitigate torsional
vibration (Emerson Power Transmission Solutions)
• Equipment that offers continuous quality control and repairing for reinforced thermoplastic
pipes during the manufacturing process (Element Hitchin)
• Abrasive disc brushes that automate the deburring process while delivering an ideal surface
finish to non-ferrous, cast iron, mild steel and ductile iron, stainless and alloy steels, titanium,
and high nickel alloys (Orange Vise Co.)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Contact elements designed to facilitate seamless plastics injection mold changes without
typical sensor dismount or removal requirements, minimizing downtime and increasing
throughput capabilities (Kistler)
Thermal Intensity/Uniformity
• Rotating process added to induction hardening process to provide uniform heating
Enabling Support
• Techniques that will lead to improvements in surface cleanliness of heat treated parts,
surface cleaning equipment design, and in the development and use of alternative (green and
cost effective) cleaning fluids and processes (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
• Aging cycle optimization for aluminum alloys based on dimensional stability, yield strength
requirements, and heat treatment costs (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
• Plasma display panel recycling technologies that recover rare earth phosphors and indium
(Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Energy and Emissions Reduction Technology
More stringent environmental standards and
regulations necessitate advanced energy and
emissions reduction technologies that can help
improve the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness
of thermal manufacturing processes while improving
the environmental sustainability of manufacturing, as
well as the health and safety of workers.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
Increased efficiency in the use of raw
materials, energy, and water
Lower-cost emissions measurement
technologies and controls
More effective heat exchanger technologies
High-performance thermoelectric materials
Figure 5: Heat exchanger
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for energy and emissions
reduction technology in thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this
area based on a selective literature review.
Table 5: Current State of Energy and Emissions Reduction Technology in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
• Improved seals on oven doors and oven charging ports atop the battery to reduce gas
• Cost-effective methods for filtering nitrogen from ambient air for combustion systems
• Processes to minimize solid waste and wastewater production
• Integration of a predictive emissions model with a process control model to allow both
process optimization and emissions minimization
New/Alternative Equipment
• Cost-effective reliable means for detecting leaks in pipes, valves, and equipment in petroleum
refineries to reduce fugitive emissions
• Alternative quenchants to oil
• Alternative to nitrogen dioxide and nitrates, copernicium and barium salts, and solvent
• Effective options for controlling fine particulate (<10 microns) emissions for a wide variety of
process stream conditions
• New low-cost sensing techniques and processes to reduce volatile organic compounds
• Heating technology and equipment with higher heat transfer rates including plasma and
induction processing
• Use of high-velocity impingement to increase the rate of heat transfer
Emissions Reduction Technologies
• Post-combustion chemical absorption and membrane technologies
• Carbonate looping as a potential retrofit option in the cement industry
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Reuse of deactivated sorbents from power plants as a secondary raw material in cement kilns
Waste Heat Reduction or Recovery
• More compact heat exchanger technology
• Improved holding furnace technology to reduce heat loss during materials transfer
• More cost-effective Seebeck couples with a higher figure of merit
• A pollution control system for electric induction furnaces and gas-fired furnaces that
separates out the pollution without sacrificing thermal energy, allowing heat to be
recuperated for heating floors and water
• Heat sinks for small-scale, non-continuous food processing equipment
• High-temperature cascading heat pump to recover all energy
Recent or Current Work
New/Alternative Equipment
• Kiln technology that works in combination with lower-firing materials to cut energy costs for
ceramics producers by up to 30% and reduce carbon emissions (Ceram)
• Continuous, zero-toxic-emission system that converts non-recycled plastics into crude oil and
costs a quarter the price of other systems to run, while producing greater yields
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
• Pure Oxygen Anode technology that enables three to five times higher production of
aluminum per footprint than conventional processes, with virtually no emissions (Infinium
Metals Inc.)
• Use of low-energy electron beams from particle accelerators to sterilize packaging, enabling
lighter-weight and new packaging concepts, reducing waste, and reducing energy
consumption during transport (Advanced Electron Beams)
• Passive high-temperature sealing device that acts as a high-temperature shutoff valve for
pipes and ducts (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions)
• High-efficiency graphite hot zone (Solar Manufacturing)
Emissions Reduction Technologies
• Catalytic oxidation and catalytic reduction to control emissions by chemically transforming
pollutants (American Institutes of Chemical Engineers)
• Bio-catalyst that strips carbon from liquefied gas (e.g., methane) and rearranges it into long
chain plastic molecules (Newlight Technologies)
• New materials based on a pre-existing combination of copper, bipyridine (C5H4N)2, and
hexafluorosilicate (SiF62−) anions to capture carbon dioxide from combustion gases
(University of South Florida and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology)
• Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI): partnership among national laboratories,
industry, and academic institutions to develop and deploy state-of-the-art computational
modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the development of carbon capture technologies
(National Energy Technology Laboratory)
• Single-component CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs)—Alkanolguanidines and
alkanolamidines—for post combustion CO2 capture (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Waste Heat Reduction or Recovery
• High-performance thermoelectric materials that use liquid-like copper ions to carry electric
current around a solid selenium crystal lattice (Chinese Academy of Science’s Shanghai
Institute of Ceramics)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Placement of nanocrystals of rock salt into lead telluride, creating a material that can more
efficiently harness electricity from heat-generating items such as vehicle exhaust systems,
industrial processes and equipment, and sun light (Northwestern University)
Gravity-film heat exchanger to recover heat from wastewater (Doucette Industries)
Microchannel heat exchangers that are smaller in size and have proven more effective than
conventional clamshell and tubular heat exchangers (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Automation and Robotics
Automation and robotics integrate mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, and computer
science to streamline manufacturing processes and
improve precision, processing speed, dexterity, and
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
Increased safety by reducing the need for
humans to interface with hot equipment and
Reduced human management and error
Improved ability to measure and predict
energy consumption, equipment degradation, Figure 6: 3-D printing apparatus
and cycle and process management, and to
better integrate controls, sensors,
automation, and documentation technologies
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for automation and robotics in
thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a
selective literature review.
Table 6: Current State of Automation and Robotics in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
Updated standards and specifications in end-use industries (e.g., aerospace) to enable
increased integration of process control and automation
A wireless hub that can get real-time reporting to employees throughout a plant
Increased use of control systems that can better manage energy use and reduce energy
spikes that result in electricity demand charges
Automation of forging lubricant application to improve environmental performance
Control system to allow equipment to assess and respond to changing process requirements
and evaluate fuel options in real time
Fast-response, closed-loop diecast shot cylinder controls
Increased use of robotic analytical units on the floor and disciplined electrode changing
practices for electric arc furnaces
Methods to relate surface quality measurements to the processing history of the material
Recent or Current Work
EASYHEAT induction heating system with robotics (Ambrell Inc. and Nutek Industrial Systems)
Vacuum heat-treating furnace-loading system that eliminates the need to disconnect the
heating elements each time the system is used (Ipsen)
Robot automation systems for mold heat treatment with off-line programming (SAE
Miniature robotic bees that may be able to be produced cheaply by the thousands to take the
place of a single expensive robot (Vibrant Research)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Arm sensors that read a human’s muscle movements, allowing robots to correct their own
movements to improve manufacturing safety and efficiency (Georgia Institute of Technology)
Automated Determination of Root Cause: uses a big data technique to determine the most
likely root cause of upsets in a control loop and eliminate several costly and time-consuming
steps in the problem-solving process (Metso Automation USA)
Automated guided vehicles that serve as unmanned pallet trucks and tow tractors (American
Society of Mechanical Engineers)
Robotics-based laser cladding system that can apply welded deposits on multi-dimensional
surfaces in a single cladding run (Sulzer Metco and MetroClad)
E-Whisker tactile sensors from composite films of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles
that will give robots new abilities to “see” and “feel” their surrounding environment
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California)
Sensor and control system that can operate a highly articulated robotic arm without striking
obstacles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Sequential Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation (SMART): real-time control
system coupled with commercially available robotic platforms to perform complex,
cooperative behaviors (Sandia National Laboratories)
Automated sorting of non-ferrous metals using X-ray and induction sensors (RWTH Aachen)
Improved robot path accuracy by implementing real-time closed loop positional control of the
robot end effector using a high-speed, high-accuracy metrology device (Manufacturing
Technology Centre, England)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Advanced Materials
By manipulating the composition of materials and the
processing techniques with which the materials are
created and formed, scientists can develop
equipment and end-use product materials with
optimized mechanical, chemical, and physical
properties better able to withstand the extreme
operating conditions of thermal manufacturing.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
More cost-effective materials that are more
resistant to corrosion, heat, creep, pressure,
shock, and abrasion for both equipment and
end-use products
Figure 7: Scanning electron microscope
More cost-effective equipment that requires image of metal foam
less maintenance, lasts longer, is more
efficient, and is more compact
End-use products that are higher quality, lower cost, and have more homogeneous structures
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for advanced materials in
thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a
selective literature review.
Table 7: Current State of Advanced Materials in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
• Return on investment communicated in terms of weight reduction, longer product life,
improved distortion, and energy savings
• Materials technologies that can be disassembled to allow critical non-renewable resources to
be reused
• Method to control or analyze the introduction of deleterious elements or contaminants (e.g.,
antimony, phosphorus, sulfur) from recycled materials
End Use Materials
• Advanced surface engineering processes (e.g., carbonnealing) that coat inexpensive materials
with more expensive ones with the desired materials properties
• Use of geopolymers (aluminosilicate base) in cement production to reduce the cost and
carbon footprint of cement
• Paper that contains embedded phase-change materials that act as a heat source and heat
sink during the drying process
• Aluminum and magnesium castings with corrosion-inhibiting properties and high-quality
ductile iron castings
• Materials that adhere to dies and do not have to be replaced each cycle
• Metallic glasses and materials with ultra-fine structures for casting
• Phase diagrams of rapidly austenized materials
• High-temperature (1,850°F) carburizing steels with grain growth resistance
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Fine powders for metal injection molding (MIM) and micro-MIM
More compact powders for electrical and electromagnetic applications
New types of iron ore pellets more suitable for blast furnaces with high levels of coal injection
Alloys and composites that will enable stronger and thinner-wall castings
Materials Handling & Process Heating Equipment
• Baskets and racking (e.g., carbon baskets) with lower thermal mass to decrease energy use
and cost
• Ceramic ladles that are more insulative and have a lower heat capacity to reduce heat loss
when transferring or pouring metals
• Pulp/paper presses with moisture-absorbing materials, decreasing the amount of moisture
that needs to be removed during drying
• Food processing belts with embedded phase-change materials to improve efficiency of the
corresponding drying process
• Improved temperature control of ceramic refractory shells used for stainless steel investment
• Material surfaces that withstand high surface temperatures and do not react with glass
• Stirring and sheathing materials for sensors and camera shields that can withstand furnace
environments for 10+ years
• Improved glass mold materials for container manufacturing, improved lehr roll materials that
are self-lubricating and do not stain the glass surface, and blades used in shearing operations
that do not require lubrication
• New non-metallic pattern materials for casting applications
• Sand molding or core systems with low or no emissions
• Tundish and mold fluxes that achieve the proper fusing temperature and fluidity and are not
corrosive to the refractories, while providing protection from reoxidation and the ability to
capture inclusions
• New materials for medium-temperature thermal storage, between 100°C and 300°C, such as
phase change, sorption, and thermochemical materials
• New sorption material coatings for heat exchanger surfaces and new heat and mass transfer
• Refractory-coated tubes to enable more robust, continuous monitoring of molten metal
Recent or Current Work
• Multi-agency initiative designed to create a new era of policy, resources, and infrastructure
that support U.S. institutions in the effort to discover, manufacture, and deploy advanced
materials twice as fast, at a fraction of the cost (Materials Genome Initiative)
• New thermoelectric material that can convert 15% to 20% of waste heat to useful electricity
(Northwestern University)
• High-velocity laser-accelerated deposition using advanced lasers to produce protective
coatings with ultra-high-strength, explosively bonded interfaces that prevent corrosion, wear,
and other modes of degradation in extreme environments (Lawrence Livermore National
• Portable aluminum deposition system (PADS) that uses newly developed ionic liquid
electrolytes and a novel electrolyte dispensing mechanism to deposit aluminum, allowing
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
manufacturers to safely conduct aluminum deposition in open atmosphere (Oak Ridge
National Laboratory)
End Use Materials
• P x n–type transverse thermoelectric (p-cross-n) with p-type Seebeck in one direction and ntype orthogonal: a narrow gap semiconductor with both electrons and holes carrying
comparable magnitudes of orthogonally directed heat currents (Argonne National Laboratory)
• Aluminum-based die casting alloys with either 8-10% higher yield strength or 20-30% higher
elongation than A380 aluminum alloy so as to produce a 10-12% improvement in the alloy’s
quality index (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
• Carbon fiber from C-lignin, a linear polymer found in plants (University of North Texas)
• Designing new cobalt superalloys (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
• Alternate eutectic systems other than aluminum-silicon for aluminum casting alloys
(Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
• Using a corrugated, specially formulated paper-derived carbon-based template to easily and
flexibly obtain a ceramic honeycomb topology through a number of thermochemical routes
(Georgia Tech)
• Thermoplastic composite materials for aerospace structural metal replacement in complexshape applications (Greene, Tweed, and Aerolia)
• Alloy design for high-density metallic glasses/composites with high toughness (Case Western
• Curing functional inks with a toolset that delivers intense pulses of light from large flashlamps
for short periods of time (Novacentrix)
• Double-sided tin nanowires array for high performance thermal interface materials (Georgia
• Advanced nanomaterials
o Chemical anchoring of carbon nanotube structures (Georgia Tech)
o Nano-additives that incorporate time-release attributes similar to those used in
pharmaceutical drug formulation and design to reduce friction and wear and prevent
scuffing (Argonne National Laboratory)
o Carbon nanotube arrays that yield extremely high thermal properties and can be
configured in vertically aligned multi‐walled, double‐walled, few‐walled, or single‐
walled carbon nanotubes (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
o Aluminum nanocomposites for elevated temperature applications (Worcester
Polytechnic Institute)
• Advanced composites
o Self-healing 3D vascular system that allows fiber-reinforced plastic composite
materials to heal autonomously and repeatedly (University of Illinois)
o 3D woven composites for metallic and 2D composite materials substitution (CFM
o Multidimensionally crosslinkable rigid-rod benzobisazole polymer fibers with high
tensile strength and modulus (Georgia Tech)
o AlMgB14-based composites with high-wear resistance through powder metallurgy
processing (Ames Laboratory)
o Titanium/graphene composite with a greater range of applications than titanium
alone produced using advanced powder metallurgy (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
o Metallosupramolecular polymers capable of becoming a supple liquid that fills
crevasses and gaps left by scrapes and scuffs when placed under ultraviolet light for
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
less than a minute and then resolidifying (University of Arizona and Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute)
Materials Handling & Process Heating Equipment
• Stability enhancement of paraffin/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet composites for latent heat
thermal storage systems (Georgia Tech)
• Low-stress conformal coatings for microelectromechanical-system-based multi-chip module
encapsulation systems (Georgia Tech)
• Innovative corrosion inhibitors for electrically conductive adhesives on lead-free surfaces
(Georgia Tech)
• Hydrophobic coating material to improve efficiency of steam condensation (Massachusetts
Institute of Technology)
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Expert Interviews
Kevin Anderson, Mercury Marine
Diran Apelian, WPI
Carrie Campbell, NIST
Tom Clements, Caterpillar
Bill Disler, AFC-Holcroft
Lynn Ferguson, Dante Solutions
Bob Gaster, John Deere
Dan Herring, The Herring Group
Bob Hill, Metal Treating Institute and
Solar Atmospheres
Peter Hushek, Phoenix Heat Treating
Joseph Pickens, Consultant
Anoush Poursartip, University of British
Tom Prucha, American Foundry Society
Philip Ross, Glass Industry Consulting
Steve Sikirica, DOE Advanced
Manufacturing Office
John Speer, Colorado School of Mines
Michael Stowe, Advanced Energy
David Williams, ASI International
Jamal Yagoobi, WPI
Chenn Zhou, Purdue University Calumet
Roadmaps and Sources for Needs and Opportunities
The Aluminum Association. Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap. February 2003.
American Iron and Steel Institute. “Chapter 2: Process Development.” Steel Technology Roadmap.
December 2001.
ASM Heat Treating Society, an ASM International affiliate. An R&D Plan for the Heat Treating
Community. 2001.
ASM Heat Treating Society, an ASM International affiliate. “Heat Treating Technology Roadmap Update
2007: Vision 2020.” Heat Treating Progress. January/February 2007.
ASM Heat Treating Society, an ASM International affiliate. 1999 Research & Development Plan. 1999.
“The Big Picture on Process Heating.” Process Heating. January 2001.
Cast Metal Coalition of the American Foundrymen's Society, North American Die Casting Association,
and Steel Founders’ Society of America. Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap. January 1998.
Dutch Institute for Sustainable Process Technology. Research Agenda for Process Intensification Towards
a Sustainable World of 2050. July 2011.
European Commission Ad-hoc Industrial Advisory Group. Factories of the Future PPP: Strategic MultiAnnual Roadmap. 2010.
Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation. Forging Industry Technology Roadmap: 2008
Update. June 2008.
Glass Manufacturing Industry Council and U.S. Department of Energy. Glass Industry Technology
Roadmap. April 2002.
Houghton, Richard L., ASM Heat Treating Society R&D Committee. “Heat Treating Technology Roadmap
Update 2006, Part I: Process & Materials Technology.” Heat Treating Progress. May/June 2006.
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Industrial Heating Equipment Association and U.S. Department of Energy. Roadmap for Process Heating
Technology. March 2001.
International Energy Agency. Technology Roadmap: Solar Heating and Cooling. 2012.
International Energy Agency and World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Cement
Technology Roadmap 2009: Carbon Emissions Reductions up to 2050. 2009.
Metal Powder Industries Federation. 2012 PM Industry Roadmap, Technology Update for the Powder
Metallurgy Industry. 2011.
Metal Powder Industries Federation and U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies.
PM2 Industry: Vision and Technology Roadmap, Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials.
September 2001.
Morral, John and Mohammed Maniruzzaman, Ohio State University and Caterpillar Inc. “Diffusion Data
Need for Heat Treating Industries,” PowerPoint presentation, 10th NIST Diffusion Workshop, 2011.
Pfaffmann, George, ASM Heat Treating Society R&D Committee. “Heat Treating Technology Roadmap
Update 2006, Part III: Equipment & Hardware Materials Technology.” Heat Treating Progress.
November/December 2006.
Sikirica, Stephen J. and Douglas P. Welling, ASM Heat Treating Society R&D Committee. “Heat Treating
Technology Roadmap Update 2006, Part II: Energy & Environmental Technology.” Heat Treating
Progress. September/October 2006.
Stankiewicz, Andzej I., and Jacob A. Moulijn, Delft University. “Process Intensification: Transforming
Chemical Engineering.” Chemical Engineering Progress. January 2000.
U.S. Department of Energy. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. April 1999.
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Technology Roadmap for
the Petroleum Industry. February 2000.
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and the
Industrial Heating Equipment Association. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A
Sourcebook for Industry. 2004.
Relevant Organizations Searched for Current or Recent Work
Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy
American Forest and Paper Association
Aluminum Association
American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers
Aerospace Industries Association
American Gear Manufacturers Association
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturing
American Institute of Chemical Engineers
American Ceramics Society
American Iron and Steel Institute
American Chemistry Council
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Coatings Association
ASM International
American Composites Manufacturers
ASM International Heat Treating Society
State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Association for Iron and Steel Technology
Association for Manufacturing Excellence
Association of Equipment Manufacturers
Case Western Reserve University
Chemical Coater Associations International
Colorado School of Mines
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
National Energy Technology Laboratory
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Sandia National Laboratory
National Marine Manufacturers Association
Advanced Steel Processing and Products
Research Center
National Network for Manufacturing Innovation
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
National Science Foundation
Fabricators & Manufacturers Association,
National Institute of Science and Technology
Farm Equipment Manufacturers Association
Food Processing Suppliers Association
Rubber Manufacturers Association
RWth Aachen
Forging Industry Association
Society for Advancement of Materials and
Process Engineering
Georgia Tech
Society for Modeling & Simulation International
Glass Association of North America
Society of Automotive Engineers
Industrial Heating Equipment Association
Society of Plastics Engineers
International Federation for Heat Treatment
and Surface Engineering
Steel Manufacturers Association
International Titanium Association
Technological Association of the Pulp and Paper
Industry (TAPPI)
Investment Casting Institute
The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society
Manufacturing Institutes
United States Council for Automotive Research
Materials Genome Initiative
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Medical Device Manufacturers Association
World Steel Association
Metal Treating Institute
Worcester Polytechnic Institute - Center for
Heat Treating Excellence (CHTE), Advanced
Casting Research Center (ACRC), Center for
Resource Recovery and Recycling (CR3)
National Association of Manufacturers
National Center for Manufacturing Sciences
National Glass Association
National Laboratories
• Ames Laboratory
• Argonne National Laboratory
• Brookhaven National Laboratory
• Idaho National Laboratory
• Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
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