Educators` Resource - Healthy Food For All

Educators` Resource - Healthy Food For All
Educators’ Resource
A guide to educating the community about
nutrition, shopping and cooking
An initiative of Foodbank WA
Educators’ Resource
Acknowledgements
Written by
Vanessa Bobongie
Gemma Devenish
Thanks to the following people for their contributions, assistance,
feedback and advice:
Andrea Begley, Sally Blane, Cathy Campbell, Ana Gowrea, Emma Groves,
Stephanie McFaull, Rex Milligan and Irene Verteramo.
Document prepared by Insomnia Design, Perth, Western Australia
© Foodbank WA 2011
“This publication is protected by copyright. You may download, print and
copy the material in an unaltered form only, with acknowledgement to
Foodbank WA for non-commercial purposes. If you wish to use it for any
other purpose please contact Foodbank WA.”
An initiative of Foodbank WA:
63 Division St Welshpool 6106
PO Box 143 Cloverdale WA 6985
Phone: 9258 9277 Fax: 9258 5177
Email: [email protected]
Resource number: HFFA2011_03
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Educators’ Resource
CONTENTS
Foodbank WA
4
Who is This Resource For?
5
How to Use This Resource
5
Useful Websites and Contacts
6
Part 1: Nutrition
7
Dietary Guidelines For Australians
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
The Healthy Eating Pyramid
Growing Your Own Healthy Food
Nutrition Myths
‘I‘ve Heard That…’
So How Do I Know What the Truth Is?
11
14
22
25
29
30
33
Appendix A: Activities and Resources
35
Part 2: Shopping and Budgeting
82
Food Spending Principles: The 10-Plan
Getting More for Your Money
87
92
Appendix B: Activities and Resources
95
Part 3: Cooking
107
Conducting Cooking Workshops
An Additional Activity: Cost and Taste Comparison
Appendix C: Recipes
References
111
120
123
131
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Educators’ Resource
Foodbank WA
Foodbank WA is a non-denominational, not-for-profit organisation, established in Perth in
1994. Foodbank WA provides a bridge of support between the food industry and community
support agencies looking after Western Australians in need, many of whom are children.
Foodbank WA is supported by over 500 companies and reaches out to over 600 community
agencies. There are regional branches of Foodbank in Albany, Bunbury, Geraldton and
Mandurah.
Foodbank WA is continually forging partnerships between business, the food industry,
government and the community, to help find solutions to the problem of hunger and poor
nutrition in the Western Australian community.
For more information go to www.foodbankwa.org.au
The Foodbank WA Food Sensations Program
The Foodbank WA Food Sensations program is a practical food budgeting program which
has been developed for Foodbank WA’s school and community networks. The program
incorporates the WA Department of Health FOODcents® nutrition and budgeting program.
Food Sensations aims to improve knowledge and understanding of nutritious foods, and
provide the skills to purchase and prepare them. It covers a range of food related topics
including:
• basic nutrition principles
• food budgeting
• food preparation and cooking skills
• school and community kitchen gardens
The Food Sensations program is open to schools for students, parents, teachers and
education assistants; as well as agency representatives and other health professionals.
For more information about Foodbank WA and the Food Sensations program go to:
www.schoolbreakfastprogram.com.au
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Educators’ Resource
Who is this resource for?
This resource has been developed to accompany the Food Sensations program, and to share
information, resources and activities with educators.
There is a wide range of information and resources in this manual that can be used in a school
or community setting, with adults or children.
If teaching nutrition and cooking, it is hoped that this resource will be relevant and useful to you,
regardless of your background, experience, setting and target group.
How to use this resource
This resource is divided into three parts:
Part 1: Nutrition
Part 2: Shopping and Budgeting
Part 3: Cooking
Each section is accompanied by an Appendix containing relevant activities, lesson plans and
recipes (in Part 3).
The resource does not have to be used in order - you may skip through to the sections that are
relevant to you.
This is a FREE resource; you may photocopy pages and distribute widely, but do not alter the
content or layout in any way.
This resource is available to download in sections from the School Breakfast Program
website: www.schoolbreakfastprogram.com.au
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Educators’ Resource
Useful Websites
Dietary Guidelines for Australians
HealthInSite
www.nhmrc.gov.au
www.healthinsite.gov.au
The Cancer Council
Western Australia
Heart Foundation® Australia
www.heartfoundation.org.au
www.cancerwa.asn.au
North Metropolitan Area Health Service
Department of Health & Ageing
www.nmahs.health.wa.gov.au
www.health.gov.au
Nutrition Australia
Department of Health WA
www.nutritionaustralia.org
www.health.wa.gov.au
Australian Red Cross
Diabetes Australia
www.redcross.org.au
www.diabetesaustralia.com
South Metropolitan Area Health Service
Dietitians Association of Australia
www.smahs.health.wa.gov.au
www.daa.asn.au
taste.com.au
Find thirty
®
www.taste.com.au
www.find30.com.au
Food Standards Australia New Zealand
(FSANZ)
Foodbank WA school breakfast
program®
www.foodstandards.gov.au
www.schoolbreakfastprogram.com.au
FOODcents®
www.foodcentsprogram.com.au
Go for 2&5®
www.gofor2and5.com.au
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PART 1:
NUTRITION
Educators’ Resource
CONTENTS
Introduction
10
Dietary Guidelines for Australians
11
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
14
The Healthy Eating Pyramid
22
The Nutrition Information Panel
24
Growing Your Own Healthy Food
25
Nutrition Myths
29
I heard about this amazing diet…
29
‘I’ve heard that…’
30
organic foods are more nutritious
chickens are full of hormones
carbohydrates are bad for you
eggs are bad for your cholesterol
avocadoes are unhealthy vegetables
30
31
31
32
32
So how do I know what the truth is?
33
10 Red Flags of Junk Science
33
Appendix A: Activities, Resources and Handouts
35
The Interactive Pyramid
The Healthy Eating Pyramid Worksheet
Healthy Eating Crossword
Healthy Eating Word Sleuth
AGTHE 24 hour Recall Activity
Nutrition Information Panel Line-up Activity
Take Away vs Homemade Foods
Goal Setting Activity and Worksheet
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander FOODcents® Nutrition Quiz
9
39
41
43
46
48
57
67
77
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Educators’ Resource
Introduction
The Nutrition section of this manual covers the basics of human nutrition, current national
guidelines and some explanations of common nutrition myths. Also included in this section is
information on growing your own healthy food, school and community gardens and several
activities and resources for use in various school and community settings.
Why teach people, particularly children and adolescents about nutrition and health?
• It is widely agreed that nutrition and health-related habits formed in childhood are carried into adulthood (Edwards & Hartwell, 2002) (Blanchette & Brug, 2005) (Stables et al., 2008) (Powers, Struempler, Guarino & Parmer, 2005) (Fahlman, Dake, McCaughtry & Martin, 2008)
• Eating a healthy, nutrient rich diet can aid in maintaining a healthy body composition,
improving mood and sense of wellbeing and avoiding the risk of developing disease or
premature death (Perez-Rodrigo, Klepp, Yngve et al., 2001)
• Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption and quality dietary intake in youth is also
associated with reduced cancer risk in adulthood (Stables et al., 2005)
• In Australia, between 1985 and 1995 childhood obesity tripled in prevalence and is
continuing to rise (Laurence, Peterken & Burns, 2007)
• Overweight adolescents have an 80% chance of becoming overweight adults (Fahlman,
Dake, McCaughtry & Martin, 2008)
Nutrition is important to maintaining good health. Good nutrition is an important factor in the
prevention of chronic diseases and conditions such as obesity, Type 2 diabetes, high blood
pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, coronary heart disease, some types of cancer (e.g. colorectal
cancer) (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2011).
Today there are many different nutrition related messages that come from a variety of sources.
Some of these include television, advertising, family and friends, group emails, newspapers,
magazines, doctors and so on. There is a lot of nutrition misinformation circulating among the
general public, and it can be difficult to determine whether information has come from a credible
source or not. The Australian Government is addressing these issues with resources such as
Dietary Guidelines for Australians, and the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.
A variety of heath resources can be ordered from: www.dohpackcentre.com.au/DOH
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Educators’ Resource
The Dietary Guidelines for Australians
Food for Health: Dietary Guidelines for Australians were developed for the Australian
Government by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in consultation
with professionals in the nutrition and food industry. The current edition was published in 2003,
and combines the Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults and the Dietary Guidelines for
Children and Adolescents in Australia in the one document.
The Dietary Guidelines highlight the groups of foods and lifestyle patterns that promote
healthy eating:
• No guideline is more important than another
• Each guideline deals with a key health issue and is like a piece of a puzzle.
The guide helps you to put the the puzzle pieces together.
• Nutritional needs differ at different stages of life and these are reflected in the
Dietary Guidelines:
- For the newborn there is no better food than breast milk.
- Older children need a balance of foods to ensure good growth and development.
- The scales are tilted differently to balance eating and physical activity to prevent weight gain.
• For both children and adults, some principles always remain the same, e.g. the need to ensure that food is handled well and is safe to eat; and to enjoy a wide variety of
nutritious foods.
(NHMRC 2003)
The Dietary Guidelines for Australians are currently under review
and are expected to become available in late 2011
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Educators’ Resource
The Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults are:
Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods:
• Eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits
• Eat plenty of cereals (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles),
preferably wholegrain
• Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives
• Include milks, yoghurts, cheeses and/or alternatives.
Reduced-fat varieties should be chosen, where possible
• Drink plenty of water
and take care to:
• Limit saturated fat and moderate total fat intake
• Choose foods low in salt
• Limit your alcohol intake if you choose to drink
• Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing added
sugars
Prevent weight gain: be physically active and eat according to your
energy needs
Care for your food: prepare and store it safely
Encourage and support breastfeeding
National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2003
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Educators’ Resource
The Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia are:
Children and Adolescents need sufficient nutritious foods to grow and
develop normally
• Growth should be checked regularly for young children
• Physical activity is important for all children and adolescents
Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods:
Children and adolescents should be encouraged to:
• Eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits
• Eat plenty of cereals (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles), preferably
wholegrain
• Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives
• Include milks, yoghurts, cheeses and/or alternatives. Reduced-fat milks are not suitable for young children under 2 years because of their high energy
needs, but reduced fat varieties should be encouraged for older children
and adolescents
• Choose water as a drink
and take care to:
• Limit saturated fat and moderate total fat intake.
• Low fat diets are not suitable for infants
• Choose foods low in salt
• Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing
added sugars
Care for your child’s food: prepare and store it safely
Encourage and support breastfeeding
National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2003
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Educators’ Resource
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGTHE) (Department of Health & Ageing, 1998) was
developed to give Australians information about the types of foods to consume as well as the
amount or serving sizes of the types of foods.
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating uses plate or pie chart model (Figure 1, p.17). The
AGTHE categorises food into groups according to their similar nutrient profiles. The food groups
are accompanied by tables that outline the recommended number of serves for people of
different genders and at various stages of life (Tables 1-3, p.18 & 19).
The food groups are as follows:
Bread, cereals, rice, pasta, noodles
This includes foods made from cereal grains including
wheat, rice, rye, oats, corn, and barley. Wholegrain
varieties should be chosen where possible because
they contain more fibre and other nutrients than
the more refined versions (e.g. white bread). This
group provides carbohydrate and protein, as well
as fibre and many vitamins and minerals including
folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and iron. The
recommended number of serves for this group is
displayed as a range. This is to allow for variation
in individual physical activity levels. For example, the
recommended number of serves for a woman aged
19-60 is 4-9. An inactive woman can assume that 4
serves is adequate, whereas a highly active woman would
need up to 9 serves.
Vegetables, legumes
This group provides a range of vitamins and
minerals as well as carbohydrate and fibre.
It also includes legumes such as peas, beans
and lentils; and the nutrient profile varies greatly
between types of vegetables. Most vegetables are
low in energy density but have high vitamin and
mineral content so they are highly recommended
to all people in the population. When buying
canned vegetables, choose low salt or no added
salt varieties.
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Educators’ Resource
Fruit
In general, a fruit is the flower of a plant, and therefore
contains the seeds of the plant. It is high in vitamins,
especially vitamin C and folate, as well as a good
source of fibre. Fruit also contains carbohydrates,
mainly in the form of sugar. This group also includes
dried fruit and 100% fruit juice, but because these
are highly concentrated foods, the sugar and kilojoule
content is much higher than for whole fruit. In general:
fresh fruit is the best choice, with frozen and tinned
fruit a close second. Tinned fruit is highly nutritious,
but select varieties tinned in natural juice to avoid
added sugars.
Milk, yoghurt, cheese
These foods are grouped together because they
are all derivatives of milk, and are high in calcium.
They are also good sources of protein, riboflavin and
vitamin B12. Foods in this group include milk (fresh,
longlife, powdered or evaporated), cheese (firm
cheeses), and yoghurt. If choosing soy milk or rice
milk, select varieties with added calcium, as it does
not appear naturally in the product. It is recommended
that low or reduced fat varieties are chosen, unless
there is a special requirement (e.g. children under 5,
pregnant women, the elderly etc). Butter, cream, icecream and chocolate do not appear in this group as
they are generally low in nutrients such as calcium and
are high in fat and sugar.
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes
This group incorporates all varieties of meat,
poultry and fish, as well as eggs, nuts, seeds and
legumes. This group contains foods that provide
protein, iron, niacin and vitamin B12. Red meats are
also an excellent source of iron and zinc, and so
consumption of red meat is recommended at 3-4
serves a week to satisfy our requirements. Legumes
are included in the meat category even though
they are vegetables, as they are a good source of
protein and iron and, along with eggs and nuts, are
considered a meat alternative for vegetarians.
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Educators’ Resource
Extra foods
These foods are also referred to as ‘sometimes
foods’, ‘junk foods’ or ‘red foods’. They do not fit into
any of the above food groups because they do not
provide necessary nutrients and are often high in fat,
salt and/or sugar. They tend to be energy dense and
nutrient poor, but they also may add to the pleasure
of eating. These foods are OK for most people to
consume occasionally and in small quantities, but a
diet with little or no foods in this group is healthier.
These foods should never be used as a main food
source. Rather, they should complement the flavour
and enhance the enjoyment of healthy foods, and
serve on special occasions as treats or party foods.
Foods in this category vary widely and include: fast food, chips, chocolate, lollies, soft drinks,
energy drinks, alcohol, cordial, cream, ice cream, cakes, biscuits, pies, pastries and so on. Fats
and oils also fall into this group as they should only be consumed occasionally and in small
amounts. Included in this are oil, butter, lard, dripping, margarine and ghee.
Some points to be aware of when discussing food groups:
•Be careful using the word Dairy to describe the food group containing milk and milk
products. When asked to list dairy foods people tend to include butter and cream. Butter and cream are both high in saturated fat and are therefore considered an Extra food.
Instead use Milk and Milk Products or just name the foods in the group eg the Milk,
Yoghurt, Cheese group.
•Legumes appear in both the meat and the vegetable food groups. This is because although legumes are vegetables their nutrient profile has similarities to BOTH vegetables and meat products. They can be counted as either (or both). For vegetarians, they are a very important meat alternative and count towards the recommended serves of vegetables as well. They are highly nutritious and should appear in the diet regularly.
The Dietary Guidelines for Australians are currently under review
and are expected to become available in late 2011
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Educators’ Resource
Figure 1: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
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Educators’ Resource
Milk, yoghurt & cheese
Meat, fish, poultry,
eggs, nuts & legumes
Extra foods
4 -7 years
5-7
2
1
2
½
1-2
8 - 11 years
6-9
3
1
2
1
1-2
12 - 18 years
5 -11
3
3
2
1
1-2
Breads, cereals, rice
pasta & noodles
Fruit
Recommended sample serves for children & adolescents from
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
Vegetables & legumes
Table 1:
Adapted from The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (1998) p. 20
Recommended sample serves for women from
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
Fruit
Milk, yoghurt & cheese
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs,
nuts & legumes
Extra foods
Women 19 – 60 years
4-9
5
2
2
1
0 - 2½
Pregnant
4-6
5-6
4
2
1½
0 - 2½
Breastfeeding
5-7
7
5
2
2
2 - 2½
60+ years
4-7
5
2
2
1
0-2
Breads, cereals, rice
pasta & noodles
Vegetables & legumes
Table 2: Adapted from The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (1998) p. 20
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Educators’ Resource
Recommended sample serves for men from
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating
Breads, cereals, rice
pasta & noodles
Vegetables & legumes
Fruit
Milk, yoghurt & cheese
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs,
nuts & legumes
Extra foods
Table 3: Men 19 – 60 years
6 - 12
5
2
2
1
0-3
60+ years
4-9
5
2
2
1
0 - 2½
Adapted from The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (1998) p. 20
What is a sample serve?
Here are some examples of a serve of different foods. For more items see AGTHE Background
info for consumers booklet.
Vegetables & legumes
Milk, yoghurt, cheese
• ½ cup of cooked vegetables
• ½ cup cooked dried beans,
peas or lentils
• 1 cup salad vegetables
• 1 potato
• 250ml (1 cup) milk
• ½ cup evaporated milk
• 40g (2 slices) cheese
• 200g (small carton) yoghurt
• 250ml (1 cup) custard
Fruit
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs,
nuts, legumes
• 1 medium piece: apple, pear,
banana etc
• 2 small pieces: apricots, kiwi
fruit, plums
• 1 cup diced pieces or canned
fruit
• 1 cup of juice
• dried fruit- 4 dried apricot
halves
• 1½ tablespoons of sultanas
• 65-100g cooked meat,
chicken e.g. ½ cup lean mince,
2 small chops or 2 slices of
roast meat
• ½ cup cooked (dried) beans,
lentils, chick peas, split peas or
canned beans
• 80-100g cooked fish fillet
• 2 small eggs
• 1/3 cup peanuts/ almonds
• ¼ cup sunflower seeds or
sesame seeds
Adapted from The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (1998) p. 18-19
19
Bread, cereals, rice, pasta or
noodles
• 2 slices of bread
• 1 medium bread roll
• 1 cup of cooked pasta,
rice, noodles
• 1 cup of porridge
• 11/3 cup breakfast cereal
flakes
• ½ cup of muesli
Extra foods
• 1 (40g) doughnut
• 4 (35g) sweet plain biscuits
• 1 slice (40g) plain cake
• ½ small chocolate bar
• 1 tablespoon butter,
margarine, oil
• 200ml wine (2 standard drinks)
• 1 can soft drink
Educators’ Resource
Increasing your serves of Vegetables
Breakfast
• Try topping your toast with veges eg: tomato & Vegemite,
avocado & tomato, creamed corn, grilled mushroom or spinach
• Have baked beans on toast for breakfast
• Add veges like spinach, tomato, spring onion, mushroom, capsicum and corn kernels to scrambled eggs or omelettes
Lunch
• Fill a sandwich with salad veges. Try lettuce or spinach, capsicum, cucumber, tomato,
sprouts, mushroom, avocado and grated carrot. Put lettuce between the tomato and
the bread to stop it going soggy!
• Make a yummy salad with the above veges. Add leftover roast veges like pumpkin
and sweet potato and some cheese and nuts to make it fancy
• Make a nibbly lunch. Serve cut up veg sticks, cherry tomatoes, some nuts, olives
and mushrooms with crackers or bread and some dip or relish
• Take vege leftovers from last night’s dinner
Dinner
• Add tinned or dried lentils to curries, soups and stews
• Add extra chopped or grated veges to dishes
• Make a vege side dish, like stir-fried veg, vege curry, veges in white sauce
• Try vegetarian alternatives to your favourite meals like vege lasagne, vege burgers,
vege curry
• Try to have one or two meat-free dinners each week
Snacks
• Raw veges are yummy: munch on a carrot, a celery stick, a tomato or a piece of
cucumber in between meals
• Frozen peas are a tasty treat in summer: eat them just out of the freezer!
• Cook a whole corn cob, still in its husk (the green outer layer), in the microwave
for 4 minutes
• Cut up veg and eat with an easy home-made dip like tzatziki or hummus
• Make healthy wedges by cutting up potato, sweet potato and/or pumpkin, then boil
or microwave until soft. Spray or lightly drizzle with oil, add herbs and bake in the
oven or grill until crunchy
• Make vege kebabs: thread cut-up veges onto a skewer and eat fresh (use tomato,
cucumber, capsicum, mushroom & a piece of cheese) or BBQ (use onion, zucchini,
eggplant, capsicum & tomato)
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Educators’ Resource
Increasing your serves of Fruit
Breakfast
• Top your cereal or porridge with banana, apple, sultanas etc.
• Have fruit and yoghurt for breakfast
• If you are in ‘too much of a hurry to have breakfast’, grab a banana on your way
out the door. They are quick and easy to eat on-the-go, and are a filling breakfast
on their own
Lunch
• Finish off your lunch with a piece of fruit
• If you take your lunch to school or work, take easy-to-eat fruit such as apples,
bananas, mandarins, kiwifruit (with a spoon), grapes and strawberries
Dinner
• Put slices of apple or orange into garden salads
• Have fruity desserts
• Fresh or tinned fruit with yoghurt or custard
• Fruit crumble, strudel or pie
• Baked apples
• Fruit kebabs
• Fruit fondue
• Choc-dipped strawberries, bananas etc.
Snacks
• Fruit on its own is a delicious snack
• Tinned, fresh or frozen fruit are all equally nutritious
• Make a smoothie with a banana, some berries, or mango or pineapple, and some
milk, juice or yoghurt and lots of ice. Ice can help make the smoothie thick, so you
don’t need to add ice-cream. If it is not sweet enough for you; stir in a little honey
– but taste it first, as sometimes fruit is incredibly sweet
• Keep plenty of fresh fruit in the house, it is much easier to choose fruit as a snack if it
is sitting there in the fridge or fruit bowl!
• Buy a piece of fruit as a treat when you go to the supermarket. Try something you’ve
never had before, like a mangosteen or some lychees
• Try freezing your own fruit in summer instead of ice creams: try bite-sized pieces
like grapes, orange or mandarin segments, or chopped up pineapple, watermelon
or banana
• Cheese and apple is a yummy combination on its own, or in a sandwich
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Educators’ Resource
The Healthy Eating Pyramid
The Healthy Eating Pyramid is used by the FOODcents® program, Nutrition Australia, and
numerous other health promoting organisations. It can be used on its own or in conjunction
with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGTHE). Although the format is different, a
comparable message is delivered.
There are slight variations between the two models. Firstly, the Eat Least foods on the Healthy
Eating Pyramid do not appear within the core foods circle of AGTHE. Secondly, AGTHE
recommends two serves of fruit, which is a similar amount to recommendations for the meat and
milk groups and so the segment in the circle appears to be small, whereas in the Healthy Eating
Pyramid fruit is included in the Eat Most section.
The Healthy Eating Pyramid (see Figure 2) is divided into three sections: Eat Most, Eat
Moderately and Eat Least.
Food Sensations uses the Healthy Eating Pyramid as a pictorial guide to show which foods
should be eaten in what proportions to have a healthy, balanced diet.
Adapted from the FOODcents® program
Figure 2: The Healthy Eating Pyramid
The Eat Most foods form the base of the pyramid. This is the largest section of the pyramid and
most of the foods eaten should be chosen from here. Eat Most foods are all plant foods and
include breads, cereals, rice, pasta, flour, fruits, vegetables and legumes. These foods are very
nutritious and tend to be low in fat. Eat Most foods should form the basis of every meal.
The middle of the pyramid indicates foods in the Eat Moderately (Eat Some) section which
should be chosen daily, but in smaller quantities. These foods are mostly animal products and
include lean meat, chicken (no skin), fish, eggs, nuts, milk, cheese and yoghurt. These foods are
nutritious; but also tend to be higher in kilojoules and fat than Eat Most foods.
We could draw a line here, cutting off the Eat Least section of the pyramid. Foods included
in this section do not need to be eaten at all to be part of a healthy diet; therefore, should be
eaten in small amounts, if at all. These foods are mostly highly processed foods and include
butter, margarine, soft drink, pizza, chocolate, chips, takeaway etc. These foods tend to be low
in nutrients, and also contain high amounts of fat, salt and/or sugar. However, Eat Least foods
often provide a lot of enjoyment to eating, so they can be used in making most foods more
enticing. It is good to think of them as party foods, for the occasional
indulgence, rather than as a whole food on their own.
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Educators’ Resource
The Healthy Eating Pyramid
Figure 2: The Healthy Eating Pyramid
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Educators’ Resource
The Nutrition Information Panel
Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ)
develop and oversee the use of the Australia New Zealand
Food Standards Code. This code covers requirements for areas
related to the production and distribution of food including
additives, food safety, labelling and genetically modified foods.
One aspect of food labelling that is regulated by FSANZ is
the Nutrition Information Panel - a legal requirement for most
processed foods.
NUTRITION INFORMATION
Servings per package: 1.00
Serving Size: 150g
Apple
Energy
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
Average qty
per serving
282kj
0.4g
0.0g
0.0g
14.6g
14.4g
3mg
Average qty
per 100g
204kj
0.3g
0.0g
0.0g
10.6g
10.4g
2mg
The nutrition information panel (NIP) must contain the following parts:
Ingredient list
This is a list of all the ingredients that are present in the food. Ingredients listed appear in
descending order of weight, e.g. if sugar is one of the first few ingredients listed, then the
product contains a lot of sugar! Packaged foods that have a long ingredient list also tend to be
highly processed, energy dense and nutrient poor (muesli is one exception to this rule).
Nutrient list
The nutrient list is the left-hand column in the NIP and lists some of the nutrients in the food.
There are 7 compulsory nutrients that all food products must display in their NIP: energy,
protein, total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrate, sugars and sodium. If a food product claims
to be high in a particular nutrient the product must also include that nutrient in the NIP. For
example, milk that claims to be high in calcium or cereals that state they are high in fibre must
display the levels of these nutrients on the NIP. The main nutrients to look at in the list are fat,
sugar and sodium (salt), however fibre and saturated fat may also be useful when comparing
particular foods.
Nutrients per serve
This column lists the amount of a particular nutrient in a serve of the food product. This
column should be used with some degree of scepticism, as the food company nominates
what constitutes a serve of the product. This can be made small to make a product look low
in energy or fat, or high to make a product look like it contains a lot of a particular nutrient.
Sometimes a single serve product like a 600mL soft-drink is proposed to be two serves! This
column may be useful for items that are consumed in very small amounts, such as Vegemite.
It is important to also consider how much you eat when looking at this column e.g. you may eat
several times more than the suggested serving size of a food.
Nutrients per 100g
This is the column that gives the most useful information. This column lists the amount of a
particular nutrient in 100g of the food product. We can use this column to compare the nutrients
in different food products, by saying ‘if I ate 100g of apple would I get more or less sugar than
if I ate 100g Froot Loops®?’. We can also use this to roughly suggest what proportion of the
product is a particular nutrient. For example, Froot Loops® contain 38g sugar per 100g, so Fruit
Loops® are approximately 38% sugar!
For more information on FSANZ: www.foodstandards.gov.au
You can also download a fact sheet on reading food labels from the Simply Great Meals
website (produced by Simplot Australia): www.simplygreatmeals.com.au
Click on the nutrition tab, then click on fact sheets.
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Growing Your Own Healthy Food
Growing your own food is a relatively simple undertaking that
has a wide range of benefits. Household vege patches yield
crops that taste better and are fresher than anything you could
buy in a shop. There are also numerous environmental benefits
due to reduced transport and storage, and you have control
over issues including pesticide use and genetic modification.
The costs of setting up and maintaining a garden are relatively
small when offset by the reduction in shopping costs from
decreased need to purchase fruit and vegetables.
Foodbank WA has a garden on-site which is used as a
teaching tool, and a living example of an operational kitchen
garden. In September 2008, the Foodbank WA School and
Community Kitchen Garden was established and has since
been extended by volunteers. The result is a garden that
produces vegetables, fruit and herbs which are regularly
used in Food Sensations cooking workshops as well as for
staff and volunteer lunches.
In recent years vegetable gardens and kitchen gardens have begun to increase in popularity,
with a greater interest in organic foods and sustainable lifestyles. Foods produced in a home
vege garden have low food miles (or carbon kilometres), because they do not use a lot of fuel
for shipping, transportation, storage, packaging etc. People may also choose to grow their own
produce as they know exactly what was used in each stage of the process and they prefer the
taste of very fresh produce. There is also a great sense of pride in harvesting the first tomatoes of
the season, or giving away fresh beans to friends and neighbours from a bumper crop.
What is a permaculture garden?
The term permaculture is a combination of the words permanent and agriculture, and is a concept
that can be applied to any type of garden, whether food producing or ornamental. Permaculture
gardens are designed so that the planting area is never fully emptied; annual plants are planted
according to the relevant seasons, but are interspersed amongst perennial crops and other
companion species. The plants are regularly allowed to go to seed and self-sow and the soil is not
turned, but regularly enriched with compost and other organic material. Benefits of permaculture
gardens include natural pest control, lower maintenance costs and less environmental impact.
What is a school kitchen garden?
Edible school gardens and school kitchen gardens are food producing gardens established
and maintained on site at a school. These programs are as varied as the school communities
in which they operate. They generally aim to influence and educate children in the productive
activities of growing, harvesting, preparing and eating food in an enjoyable and interactive way.
A school kitchen garden can be used right across the curriculum to teach a range of subjects.
In addition, the school kitchen garden provides a dynamic and engaging learning environment
for the school community that may help to create positive eating habits.
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What is a community garden?
A community garden is a garden or outdoor environment which is initiated, established and/ or
maintained by a community of people. Gardens are located in community or neighbourhood
centres in inner city, suburban or regional and remote areas. The gardens can include one
or more of a variety of themes such as therapeutic, ornamental, edible/kitchen, herb and
indigenous/bush tucker gardens. Community gardens are often supported by community
groups, non-government organisations and/or local governments.
How can schools and agencies get involved with the Foodbank WA School and
Community Kitchen Garden?
• School teachers, breakfast program coordinators and agency representatives can attend a
Food Sensations Professional Development Day. These currently include a garden workshop, along with harvesting and preparation of some of the produce. A Professional Development Day also covers nutrition, budgeting and cooking, as well as strategies to teach these concepts in a school or community setting.
• Schools and agencies are encouraged to view the Foodbank WA School and Community Kitchen Garden on their regular visits to collect School Breakfast Program or general Foodbank WA food.
• You can contact Foodbank WA to have a school kitchen garden information pack sent to you.
• Members of the Food Sensations team at Foodbank are available to discuss our garden, and offer advice and information about starting, maintaining and utilising a kitchen garden.
• Schools can contact the Healthy Schools Coordinators for their district to ask for assistance with funding applications.
• There are many groups now offering financial and resource assistance for School and Community Kitchen Gardens. Some of these include: Stephanie Alexander, Woolworths, McCain, Coles, Landcare, Yates and Australia’s Open Garden Scheme.
The Foodbank WA School and Community Garden
There is a fantastic new FREE online resource available through the Biological Farmers
Association of Australia. The website has an abundance of information about how to get
started in school gardens, as well as lesson plans, activities, and teachers’ notes for lessons
for students aged 8-12. Go to: www.organicschools.com.au
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School and Community Garden Links
Education Links
Health Promoting Schools Framework
Schools are in an ideal position to promote and maintain the health of
children, young people, school staff and the wider community. A health
promoting school is one that is based on a social model of health. This model takes into
account the physical, social and emotional needs of all members of the school community.
bswb.det.wa.edu.au
WA Health Promoting Schools Association Inc.
The WA Health Promoting Schools Association Inc. (WAHPSA) advocates and supports a whole
school and community approach to health and wellbeing. The Association achieves this through
education, coordination and collaboration with school communities and health agencies.
Established in 1989, WAHPSA membership is inclusive of the health and education sectors and
other related sectors with the common goal of improving the health of young people through
school based health promotion activities.
www.wahpsa.org.au
WA Department of Education and Training: Healthy Food and Drink Policy
The Healthy Food & Drink Policy is an Australian Better Health Initiative, developed in response
to the growing obesity epidemic amongst school-aged children. The policy is built upon a
‘traffic-light’ system of green, amber and red food categories.
det.wa.edu.au/healthyfoodanddrink/index
Western Australian School Canteens Association Inc.
Western Australian School Canteens Association Inc. (WASCA) is an independent non-profit
organisation, which assists schools across all education sectors to establish and maintain
healthy and profitable school canteens through the provision of information, advice, resources
and training. WASCA works closely with the Department of Education to support schools
implementing the Healthy Food and Drink Policy.
www.waschoolcanteens.org.au
Gardening & Food Networks
City Farm
City Farm is an organic community garden, education and network centre that operates on
permaculture principles. The East Perth City Farm was founded in 1994 as an initiative of the
Planetary Action Network (PAN), the youth branch of Men of the Trees in Western Australia.
Before becoming an organic permaculture centre the site was used as a scrap metal yard
and a battery recycling plant. City Farm has transformed the site in order to demonstrate how
heavily degraded land can be rehabilitated. City Farm promotes environmental awareness and
responsible practices by providing information, training and hosting community-based projects.
With their parent body, Men of the Trees, they facilitate tree-planting trips around the State and
hold public demonstrations for events and festivals. Schools can get involved with City Farm in
several ways, including tours, workshops, training and other initiatives.
www.cityfarmperth.org.au
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Seed Savers’ Network
The Seed Savers Network recently published a book, Seed to Seed:
Food Gardens in Schools. The 90-page book covers everything from
selecting a garden site, to maintenance, collecting and storing seeds and
ideas for school curriculums. Visit their website to download a free copy
of the book, or to order a hard copy.
www.seedsavers.net
Slow Food Perth
Slow Food Perth is the local chapter of the international, not-for-profit organisation Slow Food
which aims to counteract fast food and fast life – in particular, people’s dwindling interest in the
food they eat, where it comes from and how it tastes. Through their school garden program,
Slow Food Perth works with students, teachers and parents to enhance children’s awareness
of, and involvement with, fresh food, through the provision of starter funding and information.
www.slowfoodperth.org.au
Stephanie Alexander School Kitchen Garden Foundation
Founded by acclaimed chef Stephanie Alexander, the Kitchen Garden Program aims to
influence children’s food choices through hands-on experiential learning activities – growing,
harvesting, preparing and sharing food. Initially a Victorian program, it has been launched
nationwide, with the support of the federal government.
www.kitchengardenfoundation.org.au
The Australian City Farms and Community Gardens Network
The Australian City Farms and Community Gardens Network is a community-based
organisation that works to link people interested in community gardens throughout Australia.
Within the limits of its capacity, the network will:
• advocate on behalf of community gardeners
• provide information on the website that is adequate and accurate
• provide presentations and advice to local government, other institutions and communities interested in establishing community gardens
• document the development of community gardening in Australia
• provide a list of contacts through which the public may contact community gardens
www.communitygarden.org.au
Biological Farmers of Australia
There is a fantastic new FREE online resource available through the Biological Farmers of
Australia. The website has an abundance of information about how to get started in school
gardens, as well as lesson plans, activities, and teachers’ notes for lessons for students aged
8-12 years.
www.organicschools.com.au
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Nutrition Myths
This section covers a number of terms and issues that may come
up in a discussion of food and nutrition. These are issues that are
often sources of misinformation so here are some basic definitions
and information about these topics.
I heard about this amazing diet…
(…where you eat certain foods according to your star sign/blood type/hair colour and cut out
foods that start with the letter “T” on Mondays and alternate Wednesdays, and avoid pink foods
on Fridays. It really works! )
This is a topic that deserves an entire textbook of information, but can be answered relatively
simply. The only weight loss that has ever occurred has been when the amount of energy
consumed in foods is exceeded by the amount of energy used by the body. This message is
not something people like to hear, so it gets re-packaged into various ‘diets’. These can be
difficult to follow, expensive and potentially harmful to your health. In addition, people who diet
regularly tend to experience overall weight gain.
But why do we gain weight? To answer this we need to look back at the hunter-gatherer days
where people tended to go through periods of feast and famine. When a large animal was
caught and eaten, the human body stored up all the excess energy as fat for the long periods
of lean time between big kills. Our body has honed this habit of storing the excess energy in
preparation for the lean times; however, in western society the lean times do not occur and so
our bodies store more and more excess energy and we gain weight.
So, if a person wishes to lose weight, they need to eat less and exercise more. In general, just
eating less won’t help because our bodies are very cautious about weight loss. Another ability
our bodies have developed from the hunter-gatherer days is that of decreasing energy usage
when energy consumption is low. The human body uses energy constantly in various processes
that maintain life: for example breathing, circulation, digestion and various cellular processes to
name a few. An average 70kg person uses about 270 Kilojoules (65 Calories) per hour when
they are asleep (Sherwood, 2004). But if the body is not receiving enough energy to match the
energy it uses to perform basic functions, it will compensate by becoming more energy efficient
and changes in weight loss will slow. To counteract this, we must exercise regularly in addition
to altering our food intake.
The simple answer to the dieting and weight loss question is not something people wish to
hear: the most successful weight control activities are those that result from eating a range of
healthy foods in moderation and exercising more. A healthy weight is achieved from longterm lifestyle changes, not short-term acts such as cutting out a food group. Looking at the
recommended serves from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Healthy Eating
Pyramid we can see that the foods that are recommended as ‘Eat Most’ foods are fruit,
vegetables, breads and cereal foods. All these foods come from plants and are generally low in
fat. The fruit and vegetables also tend to be low in kilojoules, so if a person changed their eating
habits to consist mostly of foods in this group they would be able to eat more food, consume
less kilojoules, improve their health in general and potentially lose weight.
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‘I’ve heard that…’
Often in conversations about nutrition someone will start a sentence with the words ‘I’ve
heard that…’ and then finish with something strange and unexpected like ‘you can’t absorb
the calcium from milk’, ‘you shouldn’t eat fruit with protein’ or that ‘carbohydrates after 5pm
get turned to fat’. Often if you ask them where they heard this information they either can’t
remember, or it came from the internet or a conversation with another person. The tricky thing
is, sometimes these statements have half-truths in them which make them seem plausible. Here
are some quick (and by no means comprehensive) responses to a few such statements:
organic foods are more nutritious
Reports are constantly coming out on both sides of the argument on this one. Currently, the
credible evidence suggests that this is not the case. Organic foods are chemical free and
many people claim that they taste better, but recent studies have shown that they are no more
nutritious than non-organic crops. In fact, the main influence on nutritional quality of a food is its
storage, transport and processing rather than whether it was produced organically or not. Often
organic food is transported in the same way as non-organic food and it is these processes
where nutrient levels are depleted. The presence or absence of chemicals appears to have no
effect on the nutritional quality of the foods.
Evidence does suggest that local produce may be more nutritious as the storage and transport
times are lessened and the shorter the distance from the garden to the table, the fewer nutrients
are lost. So grow your own food. If you can’t, buy it directly from someone who grows it. If you
can’t, buy it as locally as possible. If you can’t, buy it from the supermarket.
Please note: This is a discussion of optimisation rather than adequacy - produce purchased
from the supermarket is still highly nutritious and an adequate source of nutrients. In addition,
there is no regulation over the use of the term ‘organic’ in food labelling. So a food company
can label any food product as ‘organic’, regardless of how it is produced.
So if you choose locally grown organic food do it for the environmental benefits, the taste, the
low food miles, or to support local industry. But don’t choose it for the nutritional benefits, as
current evidence suggests that conventionally grown food is equally nutritious.
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chickens are full of hormones
The Australian Chicken Meat Federation Inc. states that Australian chickens are not fed
hormones, and that since no chicken is imported from overseas, all chicken in Australia is
hormone free. They observe that chickens are bigger now because of extensive cross-breeding
and selective-breeding to produce larger birds that grow quickly and are more resistant to
disease. The use of hormones in chicken production has been banned in Australia since the
1960s and the annual National Residue Survey conducted by the Department of Agriculture,
Fisheries and Forestry consistently finds no evidence of hormones in Australian chicken.
For more information on the Australian Chicken Meat Federation go to: www.chicken.org.au
For more information on the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry go to:
www.daff.gov.au
carbohydrates are bad for you
Carbohydrates have been receiving a lot of media attention in recent years, most of which
has been negative and often misleading. The half-truth that makes this myth stick is that
carbohydrates in their simplest form are sugar units. High consumption of sugar in processed
foods can have detrimental effects to the consumer in terms of weight gain and dental caries
(tooth decay) among other things. Lowering sugar intake can have a positive impact on the
health and wellbeing of the consumer.
The tricky part is – breads and cereals contain high levels of carbohydrate, as does fruit.
Looking at the recommended serves from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, and the
Healthy Eating Pyramid we can see that both fruit, breads and cereals are all foods that are
recommended as ‘Eat Most’ foods.
Consumption of bread and cereal products supplies the body with many important vitamins
and minerals including folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and iron. Bread and cereal products
also supply fibre, which aids digestion by absorbing water and assisting defecation. Wholegrain
breads and cereals also tend to be low in fat.
Fruit contains natural sugar (fructose), the consumption of which is generally outweighed by the
vitamins, minerals and fibre in a whole piece of fruit. Fruit sugar is only a concern if it is added
to foods and beverages, or consumed as fruit juice, which is a very concentrated source of
fruit. One glass of fruit juice might require 6-10 pieces of fruit to make, and can be consumed
consumed more quickly than a piece of fruit.
Cutting out carbohydrate may aid the consumer in temporary weight loss because
carbohydrate is one source of energy (fat, protein and alcohol are the others). If a person
replaces high carbohydrate (high energy) foods with vegetables (low energy) then they may
experience weight loss. However if a person replaces high carbohydrate (high energy) foods
with other high energy foods (such as meat, eggs, cheese etc) they will probably consume just
as much energy, but in the forms of protein and fat instead, and make little difference to their
bodyweight.
Cutting out a whole food group in a crash diet is not sustainable long-term, as discussed on
page 29 under ‘I heard about this amazing diet...’
So watch your sugar intake, enjoy your fresh fruit and consume wholegrain breads and cereals
guilt free!
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eggs are bad for your cholesterol
The egg issue is relatively simple, as the recommendations about egg consumption changed
to suit the best knowledge of the time. The first observations that occurred around eggs
and cholesterol were that eggs contain cholesterol, cholesterol leads to heart disease and
atherosclerosis, and therefore eggs lead to heart disease and atherosclerosis. It was then
recommended that consumers lowered their egg consumption, particularly if trying to lower their
cholesterol levels. This is no longer the recommendation and eggs now qualify for the Heart
Foundation Tick.
Current science has found that blood cholesterol levels are regulated by the liver, and that
cholesterol consumption generally doesn’t affect the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
Evidence now suggests that it is saturated fat consumption that increases blood cholesterol
levels, and since eggs are low in saturated fat they appear to have little or no effect on blood
cholesterol levels. So eggs are now recommended to the general public for
regular consumption as they are a nutritious food.
For more information on eggs go to www.eggs.org.au
avocados are unhealthy vegetables
Avocados receive mixed press around the issue of health
– some positive, some negative. Avocados never contain
cholesterol, as cholesterol is produced in the liver and avocado plants do
not have livers. It can also be concluded that no plant foods contain cholesterol as plants
do not have livers.
Avocado does contain some fat; however it is mostly monounsaturated – similar to olives
and olive oil. Regardless of type, fat is a source of energy (kilojoules), so if you are concerned
about weight gain you may want to limit your avocado consumption. For the average person
avocados are a healthy and nutritious food, high in vitamins and minerals and so delicious!
For more information on avocados go to www.avocado.org.au
The National Heart Foundation of Australia Stance on Fats
The National Heart Foundation has written a position paper summarising the current
evidence surrounding types of fat and health. It reads:
‘While fats are an essential part of a healthy balanced diet you should avoid consuming
too much saturated and trans fat. It’s important to have some fat in your meals because
fat helps your body to absorb some vitamins. It’s also a good source of energy and of the
essential fatty acids that your body can’t make.
Too much saturated and trans fat contributes to the build up of fatty material (plaque) on the
inside of your blood vessels (arteries). This process is called atherosclerosis and is a major
cause of heart disease. Saturated and trans fats increase LDL cholesterol in your blood,
which leads to plaque. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats reduce LDL cholesterol
and increase HDL cholesterol. Cholesterol in food has only a small effect on LDL cholesterol.
Saturated and trans fats in food causes a much greater increase in LDL cholesterol.’
(National Heart Foundation 2009)
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So how do I know what the truth is?
When looking at nutrition issues it may be useful to note The 10 Red Flags of Junk Science.
This is a valuable tool that was published in 1995 by the Food and Nutrition Science Alliance; a
network of professional nutrition science organisations in the USA. Many of these red flags can
be applied to various areas of general science, but all ten are particularly useful in sorting out the
nutrition fact from fallacy.
The 10 Red Flags of Junk Science
These are indicators that the company or product claims may not be scientifically sound:
• Recommendations that promise a quick fix
• Dire warnings of danger from a single product or regimen
• Claims that sound too good to be true
• Simplistic conclusions drawn from a complex study
• Recommendations based on a single study
• Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organisations
• Lists of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ foods
• Recommendations made to help sell a product
• Recommendations based on studies published without peer review
• Recommendations from studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups
There are many reliable sources of valid nutrition information in Western Australia. Look for
information that is being provided by reputable health organisations such as the Department of
Health, Nutrition Australia, Dietitians Association of Australia, and not-for-profits such as Cancer
Council WA, Diabetes WA, The National Heart Foundation of Australia, Australian Red Cross
and Foodbank WA. These organisations employ qualified nutrition and dietetics professionals
who present credible, science based nutrition information. All of these organisations have a
primary aim to improve the health of Australians, and do not seek to sell products or promote
particular brands.
Nutrition Australia has published a detailed FAQ section on their website which is reviewed
regularly by a volunteer group of nutrition professionals. Many of the topics covered in this
section are covered in more detail and there are discussions on various other topics that are not
addressed in this resource.
See a list of useful websites on page 6
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Appendix A:
Activities, Resources
& Handouts
Educators’ Resource
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The following pages contain worksheets and lesson plans for several activities that can be used
to promote the concepts discussed in the Nutrition section of this manual. The worksheets
and lesson plans can also be downloaded from the Foodbank WA School Breakfast Program
website: www.schoolbreakfastprogram.com.au. When deciding which activities to use it is
important to consider the specific needs and requirements of your target group. For example,
are there any literacy, numeracy or language barriers, is your group particularly advanced etc?
Below is a brief description of these activities sorted by age group.
The Interactive Pyramid
This is a whole-class activity that is a great way to introduce the Healthy Eating Pyramid.
It can be adapted to teach the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, and is suitable for a
range of age groups.
The Healthy Eating Pyramid Worksheet
This worksheet was developed to give students an understanding of the different parts of the
pyramid. The activity allows for the students to write, draw or glue the different food groups into
the relevant sections.
Healthy Eating Crossword
The crossword was developed for primary school students, and doubles as a knowledge
evaluation tool, because the questions contained relate to fruit and vegetable knowledge, as
well as understanding of the Healthy Eating Pyramid concepts.
Healthy Eating Word Sleuth
This word sleuth covers the basic foods as discussed in the Australian Guide to Healthy
Eating, as well as the terms ‘Eat Most’, ‘Eat Moderately’ and ‘Eat Least’ – used in the Healthy
Eating Pyramid. It is generally used with primary school students in years 5-7.
AGTHE 24hr Recall Activity
This activity is designed for students to get a snapshot of how one day’s food intake compares
to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating’s recommendations for them. Students write
down everything they ate on the previous day and then estimate quantities and tally the number
of serves they consumed from each food group. They then compare this number to the
recommended number given by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.
Nutrition Information Panel Line-up Activity
This is a quick and easy way to actively teach students how to read a nutrition information
panel. There is no worksheet for this activity, but there is a lesson plan and some resources
supplied in the appendices. This does require some preparation, mainly around the acquisition
of some empty food boxes.
Takeaway vs Homemade Foods Activity
In this visual activity students use the nutrition information panel to determine the number of
teaspoons of fat and sugar in some common take away foods and their homemade equivalents.
This requires moderate numeracy levels, and creates a great opportunity for discussion.
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Goal Setting Activity and Worksheet
This is best used as a follow-on activity, after a lesson or discussion of health. It can be used for
any healthy lifestyle goals, not specifically nutrition.
ATSI FOODcents® Nutrition Quiz
This is a short questionnaire that has been designed by the Department of Health WA for
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. You may find it useful if conducting a session for this
group. There is a text version and a pictorial version so it may also be useful for groups with
low literacy or with English as a second language. It was designed for rural and remote areas
where the food supply is more limited than metro areas; so you may choose to adapt some of
the questions to incorporate a wider range of cuisines. For example, question 1 asks how many
slices of bread you eat each day. This could be substituted to incorporate other cereal products
such as rice, pasta, noodles etc.
All worksheets and lesson plans are also available to download for free from the Foodbank
WA School Breakfast program website. Go to: www.schoolbreakfastprogram.com.au
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The Interactive Pyramid
This is a whole-class activity that is a great way to introduce the Healthy Eating Pyramid. It
can be adapted to teach the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGTHE), and is suitable
for a range of age groups and learning abilities. It is one of the key activities used in the Food
Sensations program.
Preparation/Resources
Read through the information on pages 22-23 to familiarise yourself with the Healthy Eating Pyramid.
You will need:
• Some sort of visual pyramid tool
You could draw a pyramid on the whiteboard or on butchers’ paper, print one copy of
the Healthy Eating Pyramid worksheet in A3 size or use a pyramid poster. This could also be done on an interactive whiteboard or smartboard. The Foodbank WA Food Sensations
team use a felt pyramid with Velcro stick-on pictures. You can create one using a pin-up board and some ribbon
• Labels for the sections of the pyramid and stick-on pictures of the food groups
We printed the labels and the AGTHE food group pictures and then laminated them. You
could also cut up a poster, look for pictures on the internet, or print cards with the food groups
written on in words
• Stick-on pictures of a range of different foods
We cut out food pictures from supermarket catalogues, then laminated them and stuck Velcro
on the back. If you use butchers’ paper you could cut pictures out of catalogues and glue
them on. You could also handwrite the words on a whiteboard or butchers’ paper
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Lesson:
1.
2.
Explain the three sections of the pyramid: Eat Least, Eat Moderately and Eat Most.
Ask the students to name a food, or a food group, and then discuss where it fits on
the pyramid (see pages 22-23). During this time, place the food group pictures on the pyramid. At the end of this discussion your pyramid should look something like this:
3.
Give each student 1-2 pictures of different foods and ask them to come up to the front
one at a time, tell the class what picture(s) they have and then stick them on the pyramid in the relevant section(s). If you are using words only, you can ask for a student to come to the front, then give them a marker and name a food for them to write on the pyramid in the relevant section. At the end of this activity your pyramid will look something like this:
Variations:
This activity can be modified to incorporate the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.
Follow up:
This activity can be followed up with The Healthy Eating Pyramid worksheet or any of the other
nutrition activities in this manual.
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The Healthy Eating Pyramid Worksheet
This worksheet aims to give students an understanding of the different parts of the pyramid. The
activity allows for the students to write, draw or glue the different food groups into the relevant
sections, and can be used to support the Interactive Pyramid activity (page 39) or as a standalone lesson.
Preparation/Resources
You will need:
•Copies of The Healthy Eating Pyramid worksheet.
•The students will need a pencil or pen
or colouring pencils, crayons or markers
or scissors, glue and food pictures (supermarket catalogues, magazines etc)
(You could ask students to bring in old supermarket catalogues and magazines from home)
A good time to go to the supermarket asking for spare catalogues is on the last day of
the old catalogue specials, or on the first day of the new catalogue. Currently in WA this
occurs at the weekend for Woolworths and IGA, and on Wednesday/Thursday for Coles.
The supermarkets often throw out old catalogues at the end of the specials period and are
happy to give you some. You may need to plan well in advance for this as some weeks the
catalogues run out.
Read through the information in this manual about The Healthy Eating Pyramid on pages 22-23.
It may be useful to use some sort of visual tool when discussing the pyramid with the class.
See the Interactive Pyramid activity for ideas.
Lesson:
1.
2.
Hand out the worksheet to the class. Explain the three sections of the pyramid and which food groups go in each section. See the Interactive Pyramid activity for more information.
Ask the students to write or draw pictures of the foods in the pyramid, or cut pictures out of supermarket catalogues to stick on the pyramid.
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The Healthy Eating Pyramid
Draw or write the types of foods that go in each section of the pyramid.
Eat
Eat
Eat
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The Healthy Eating Crossword
1
3
4
2
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
18
16
19
21
20
22
23
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ACROSS
DOWN
1. A type of breakfast cereal that contains a mix of
oats, bran and dried fruit
3. Looks like a cauliflower, but green
6. Meat that swims in the ocean
9. Fruit that is green on the outside, red on the inside
10. A vegetarian does not eat ____
12. Butter is unhealthy because it is high in ____
13. This small fruit grows on a bunch on a vine
15. Looks like a zucchini, but goes in salads
17. The most important drink
20. An orange vegetable that has seeds inside
22. Cashew, almonds and macadamias are all ___
23. A collection of raw veges, chopped up together
24. A cooked slice of bread
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
11.
14.
16.
18.
19.
21.
43
Cheese is made from this
A purple vegetable
A citrus fruit
An orange vegetable that grows underground
Wholemeal bread is high in ____
A green fruit that rhymes with “spare”
Made from milk, but you usually eat it with a spoon
This fruit can be green, red or yellow
Lollies are unhealthy because they are high in ____
It is important to eat this every morning
Red, juicy and full of seeds that you eat
A yellow fruit
Made from wheat
Educators’ Resource
The Healthy Eating Crossword – Answer Key (part 1)
1
3
4
2
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
18
16
19
20
21
22
23
24
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Educators’ Resource
The Healthy Eating Crossword – Answer Key (part 2)
ACROSS
QUESTION
ANSWER
1
A type of breakfast cereal that contains a mix of oats, bran and dried fruit
Muesli
3
Looks like a cauliflower, but green
Broccoli
6
Meat that swims in the ocean
Fish
9
Fruit that is green on the outside, red on the inside
Watermelon
10
A vegetarian does not eat ____
Meat
12
Butter is unhealthy because it is high in ___
Fat
13
This small fruit grows on a bunch on a vine
Grapes
15
Looks like a zucchini, but goes in salads
Cucumber
17
The most important drink
Water
20
An orange vegetable that has seeds inside
Pumpkin
22
Cashew, almonds and macadamias are all ___
Nuts
23
A collection of raw veges, chopped up together
Salad
24
A cooked slice of bread
Toast
DOWN
QUESTION
ANSWER
1
Cheese is made from this
Milk
2
A purple vegetable
Eggplant
4
A citrus fruit
Orange
5
An orange vegetable that grows underground
Carrot
6
Wholemeal bread is high in ____
Fibre
7
A green fruit that rhymes with “spare
Pear
8
Made from milk, but you usually eat it with a spoon
Yoghurt
11
This fruit can be green, red or yellow
Apple
14
Lollies are unhealthy because they are high in _____
Sugar
16
It is important to eat this every morning
Breakfast
18
Red, juicy and full of seeds that you eat
Tomato
19
A yellow fruit
Banana
21
Made from wheat
Bread
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Educators’ Resource
Healthy Eating Word Sleuth
Find these words:
BREAD
FRUIT
MILK
RED MEAT
RICE
VEGETABLE
CHEESE
KANGAROO
PASTA
LEGUMES
YOGHURT
FISH
NOODLES
BAKED BEANS
EAT MOST
POULTRY
46
CEREAL
WATER
EAT SOME
NUTS
PORRIDGE
HEALTHY
EAT LEAST
EGGS
EXERCISE
NUTRITION
Educators’ Resource
Healthy Eating Word Sleuth - Answer Key
Find these words:
BREAD
FRUIT
MILK
RED MEAT
RICE
VEGETABLE
CHEESE
KANGAROO
PASTA
LEGUMES
YOGHURT
FISH
NOODLES
BAKED BEANS
EAT MOST
POULTRY
47
CEREAL
WATER
EAT SOME
NUTS
PORRIDGE
HEALTHY
EAT LEAST
EGGS
EXERCISE
NUTRITION
Educators’ Resource
AGTHE 24hr Recall Activity
This activity is designed for adults and high school students to get a snapshot of how one day’s
food intake compares to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGTHE) recommendations.
Participants write down everything they ate and drank on the previous day and then estimate
quantities and tally the number of serves they consumed from each food group. They then
compare this to the recommended number of serves given by the Australian Guide to Healthy
Eating. You may find it useful to order some AGTHE resources from the Department of Health
and Ageing (contact National Mailing and Marketing on 1800 020 103) but the activity is designed
to be used without needing any additional resources.
Preparation/Resources
Do not tell the students about the activity until the day you ask them to complete the 24 hour
recall worksheet, as their diets might change in anticipation. If required, the group can be given
the first two pages to take home and fill in as they go for 24 hours (note: this often changes the
behaviours of the students, but can still be very useful).
You will need:
• Food Diary - 24 Hour Recall activity worksheets (see pages 50-52)
• ‘How much is a serve?’ handout relevant to the participants.
• The participants will need a pen or a pencil
• Optional: Australian Guide to Healthy Eating resources
(i.e. poster, background information etc)
Read through the information in this manual about the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating on
pages 14-19. Take special note of the ‘extras’ group, as the worksheet does not have an AGTHE
recommendations column for this food group. There is a handout on pages 55-56 outlining some common
extra foods, and how they compare to the AGTHE serves. This may be a useful reference for participants.
Note: you may like to complete the worksheet for yourself first so you have a clear understanding of it.
Lesson:
1.
Hand out the worksheets and ask the students to fill in everything they ate and drank yesterday. Explain that this worksheet will not be shared with the class and that it is good to
be honest. Tell them that the more accurate it is the better and that there will be no
right/wrong or good/bad judgement.
If they have trouble remembering what they ate you can offer the three-pass method:
a.Write down anything you remember eating as it pops into your head (you may like to use scrap paper for this)
b.Then think methodically about your day; everything you did, and use that to jog your
memory of any food involved
c.Have one final look and add any additional foods or beverages as you think of them.
When they are nearly done, try and jog their memory by suggesting some of the little things that
they may forget. For example, mention the use of butter, margarine or mayonnaise on bread, or a
biscuit with a hot drink. Did they eat or drink when they came home from school, or buy anything
from the canteen at recess or lunch or from the shops on the way home? How about after dinner,
or while they were studying? Did a friend share their food with them, or did they receive a food
reward or treat?
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Educators’ Resource
2.
Ask them to try and work out the quantities of the foods they ate yesterday. This might take a while and they may need help. You could bring in food packets or cup measures to help the students visualise the volume of food they ate. You may want to bring in a set of scales and some common foods and have them weigh a normal serve i.e. measure a bowl of cereal, serve rice or pasta on a plate etc.
When eating a mixed ingredient food, such as sushi or lasagne, encourage the students
to think about the ingredients used and the quantities of each. For example, a standard
6-8 piece tuna sushi set would consist of approximately 1 cup of rice, 100g tuna, ½ cup of
mixed veg from the lettuce and nori, and about 1 tablespoon of mayonnaise. This equates to
1 serve of breads and cereals, 1 serve of meat, ½ serve of veg and 1 serve of extra.
This = That: A Life-Size Photo Guide to Food Serves by Trudy Williams is a useful resource.
It contains full-size photos of a ‘serve’ of various foods that participants can look at and
compare to how much they usually eat. It is available to buy online from the Food Talk
website www.foodtalk.com.au or ask your local bookstore to order it in. The Food Talk
website also allows you to view 6 pages of the book online.
3.
Once they have completed the first two columns of the table ask the participants to use the
‘How much is a serve?’ handout to convert the amounts of the foods consumed into serves. This will require some rounding and estimation. Your group will also need to be able to place the foods that they ate into the correct food groups, so a lesson on this prior to the activity may be necessary, or you can teach it at this point in the current activity.
4. When the table is complete, ask the participants to add up the total number of serves in each group and write them in the last row of the table. They can then transfer these totals to the second worksheet under ‘Yesterday I Ate…’
5.
Ask the participants to use the “How much is a serve?” handout to transfer the recommended number of serves for each food group to the second worksheet under
‘The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Recommends I Eat…’ and to calculate the difference between the recommended serves and the participants’ actual serves.
6. Discuss. Ask the participants questions:
• which food groups did you get too much of?
• which food groups didn’t you get enough of?
• which food groups did you get about right?
• were there any surprises?
• what were the foods that tipped you over into too much of something?
• are there any changes you would like to make to your diet?
Ask the participants to write down three things they would like to change. Try and get them
to make specific goals, like ‘eat a piece of fruit when I get home from school every day’ or
‘buy nothing from the canteen for a week’ rather than the generic but immeasurable ‘eat more
healthy foods’.
Follow-up
If this was something the students enjoyed you could ask them to write their goals somewhere
that they will see regularly. You could review how their goals are going after a few weeks.
You could do the activity again in a few months to see if they have made any changes and
encourage them to keep going with it. There is Goal Setting Activity and worksheet on page 77.
49
Amount eaten (approx)
50
Fruit
During the evening
Vegetables Dinner
Breads & Cereals
During the afternoon
Lunch
Baked beans
Toast (wholemeal bread)
Margarine
During the morning
Breakfast
Example:
Meal
TOTAL :
1/3 can
2 slices
1 teaspoon
1
Cereals
1
Amount eaten Food Group (number of serves in each group)
(approx)
Breads &
Vegetables Fruit
Dairy
- Write down everything you ate and drank yesterday, and then tally the number of serves in each food group.
Meal Food & drink consumed
serves in each group)
Food & drink consumed
Food Diary- 24hr Recall
Meat
¼
Extras
Educators’ Resource
Food Group (number of
Dairy Meat Extras
Meal
Food & drink consumed
Food Diary- 24hr Recall -Extra space for additional notes:
51
51
TOTAL :
Cereals
Amount eaten Food Group (number of serves in each group)
(approx)
Breads &
Vegetables Fruit
Dairy
Meat
Extras
Educators’ Resource
Educators’ Resource
Educators’ Resource
Food Diary – 24hr Recall
Adding it all up:
Now that you have filled in the 24 hour recall table, write down your totals and the totals from
the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for each food group in the boxes below:
Breads,
Cereals,
Rice, Pasta,
Noodles
Vegetables &
Legumes
Fruit
Milk, Yoghurt,
Cheese
Meat, Fish,
Poultry,
Eggs, Nuts,
Legumes
Extra Foods
Yesterday I ate:
serves
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating recommends I eat:
0–2
serves every day
Difference:
Is there anything I want to change?
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How much is a serve for children and adolescents?
Food Group
Children
8 - 11
Years
ADOLESCENTS
12-18
YEARS
What is one serve?
Bread, Cereals, Rice, Pasta,
Noodles
6-9
Serves
per day
5 - 11
Serves
per day
= 2 slices bread
= 1 medium bread roll
= 1cup cooked rice, pasta or noodles
= 1 cup porridge
= 1 1/3 cup dry breakfast cereal
= 1/2 cup untoasted muesli
Vegetables, Legumes
3 serves
per day
3 serves
per day
= 1/2 cooked vegetables
= 1/2 cup cooked or canned beans, lentils,
chick peas or split peas
= 1 cup salad vegetables
= 1 small potato
Fruit
1 serve
per day
3 serves
per day
= 1 medium piece of fruit (e.g. apple,
banana, orange, pear)
= 2 small pieces of fruit (e.g. apricots,
kiwifruit, plums)
= 125ml 100% juice ( 1/2 cup)
= dried fruit (e.g. 4 apricot halves or 11/2
tablespoons sultanas)
Milk, Yoghurt, Cheese
2 serves
per day
2 serves
per day
= 1 cup milk (250ml)
= 125ml evaporated milk ( 1/2 cup)
= 2 slices hard cheese (40g)
= 1 small tub yoghurt (200g)
= 1 cup custard (250ml)
Meat, Fish, Poultry, Eggs,
Nuts, Legumes
1 serve
per day
1 serve
per day
= 65-100g cooked lean meat or chicken
(eg 2 small chops, 1/2 cup mince)
= 80-120g cooked fish
= 1/2 cup cooked or canned beans, lentils,
chick peas or split peas
= 2 small eggs
= 1/3 cup nuts (eg peanuts, almonds)
= 1/4 cup of sunflower or pumpkin seeds
Adapted from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating 1998 pg
18-19. Active people should eat more than the recommended
number of serves to gain sufficient energy. They should eat
more serves primarily from the breads & cereals, and fruits &
vegetables groups. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
should also eat more from these groups, as well as an
additional serve from the meat group.
53
This is a recommended minimum amount of
foods required to provide adequate nutrition.
Individual needs may vary.
Educators’ Resource
How much is a serve for women and men?
WOMEN
19 - 60
Years
MEN
19 - 60
YEARS
Bread, Cereals, Rice, Pasta,
Noodles
4-9
serves
per day
6 - 12
serves
per day
= 2 slices bread
= 1 medium bread roll
= 1cup cooked rice, pasta or noodles
= 1 cup porridge
= 1 1/3 cup dry breakfast cereal
= 1/2 cup untoasted muesli
Vegetables, Legumes
5 serves
per day
5 serves
per day
= 1/2 cooked vegetables
= 1/2 cup cooked or canned beans, lentils,
chick peas or split peas
= 1 cup salad vegetables
= 1 small potato
Fruit
2 serves
per day
2 serves
per day
= 1 medium piece of fruit (e.g. apple,
banana, orange, pear)
= 2 small pieces of fruit (e.g. apricots,
kiwifruit, plums)
= 125ml 100% juice ( 1/2 cup)
= dried fruit (e.g. 4 apricot halves or 11/2
tablespoons sultanas)
Milk, Yoghurt, Cheese
2 serves
per day
2 serves
per day
= 1 cup milk (250ml)
= 125ml evaporated milk ( 1/2 cup)
= 2 slices hard cheese (40g)
= 1 small tub yoghurt (200g)
= 1 cup custard (250ml)
Meat, Fish, Poultry, Eggs,
Nuts, Legumes
1 serve
per day
1 serve
per day
= 65-100g cooked lean meat or chicken
(eg 2 small chops, 1/2 cup mince)
= 80-120g cooked fish
= 1/2 cup cooked or canned beans, lentils,
chick peas or split peas
= 2 small eggs
= 1/3 cup nuts (eg peanuts, almonds)
= 1/4 cup of sunflower or pumpkin seeds
Food Group
Adapted from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating 1998 pg
18-19. Active people should eat more than the recommended
number of serves to gain sufficient energy. They should eat
more serves primarily from the breads & cereals, and fruits &
vegetables groups. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
should also eat more from these groups, as well as an
additional serve from the meat group.
54
What is one serve?
This is a recommended minimum amount of
foods required to provide adequate nutrition.
Individual needs may vary.
Educators’ Resource
Extra Foods – How many serves?
Use this table along with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating to determine how many
serves of ‘extra’ foods you are really eating. It is recommended that Australians eat no more
than 2 serves of extra foods in a day. One serve of extra foods is equal to 600kj.
Food Item
Size
Number of Serves
of Extra FoODS*
TAKEAWAY FOODS
Soft Drink
375ml can
600ml bottle
1.25L bottle
2L bottle
1
1½
3¾
6
Energy Drink
250ml slim can
375ml regular can
500ml large can
¾
1
1½
Fries
Small
Medium
Large
1¾
2½
3
Hot Chips
Regular box / bucket
Large box / bucket
Family box
2½
4
5¾
Wedges
1 bowl (café)
5¾
Hamburger (takeaway)
(e.g. 1 meat patty, cheese, sauce, with or without salad)
Regular
5½
Double Hamburger (takeaway)
2 meat patties, 2 cheese slices, sauce, with or
without salad
Regular
with bacon
7
8½
Pizza (takeaway)
1 regular slice
½ regular pizza
1 regular pizza
1
5
9¾
Sausage roll
Party size
Full size
1
3½
Meat pie
Party size
Regular
¾
3
Other bakery pastry items (croissant, Danish etc)
1 regular size
2
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Educators’ Resource
Food Item
Size
Number of Serves
of Extra Foods*
SNACK FOODS
Potato Crisps (potato chips)
20g multipack bag
¾
45g small bag
1½
175g large bag
6¼
Le Snack®
1 packet (22g)
½
Roll-Ups®
1 roll-up (15g)
½
LCMs
1 bar (23g)
¾
12g Fun size
½
®
Chocolate Bar
Chocolate
Lollies
Buttons made from chocolate and/or
lollies: M&M’s®, Smarties®, skittles® etc.
53g Regular bar
1¾
80g King size bar
2¾
2 squares
½
1 row
1
½ block (100g)
3¾
1 block (200g)
7½
15 Jellybeans / Jelly Babies®
1
1 small lollypop
½
2 small sticks of liquorice
¼
Small pack (55g)
2
DESSERTS
Ice-Cream
Cake
Small soft serve cone
1½
Gelato – one scoop
1¼
– two scoops
2½
Banana bread
2½
Chocolate mud cake
3
Doughnut
Cinnamon (40g)
1
Biscuit / Cookie
2 Small (e.g. Scotch Finger)
1
Large (e.g. Subway® cookie)
1½
Choc-coated or choc-dipped (e.g. Tim Tam)
¾
1 tablespoon (20ml)
½
2 tablespoons (40ml)
1
Custard
½ cup
½
Jelly
½ cup
½
1 teaspoon (5g)
¼
1 tablespoon (20g)
¾
Condiments such as Mayonnaise, aioli etc.
1 tablespoon (20ml)
1
Condiments such as tomato sauce
1 tablespoon (20ml)
¼
Cream
OTHER FOODS
Margarine / Butter
*1 serve of extra foods = 600kJ
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Educators’ Resource
Nutrition Information Panel Line-up Activity
This is a quick and easy way to actively teach adults and high school students how to read a
nutrition information panel. There is no worksheet for this activity, but there are some resources
supplied below. This activity requires some preparation; mainly around the acquisition of some
empty food boxes.
Preparation/Resources:
•You will need one empty food packet for each member of the class (or 1 between 2 for
partner work).
Make sure you get a range of foods and that all of them contain a nutrition information panel
(NIP). In the next few pages you will find some NIPs of foods that are not present on the food
item such as an apple and a carrot, as well as a fast food burger and fries. There are also
photos of some of the foods which you can print, cut out and laminate if you like. Foodbank
owns some plastic food models of fruit and vegetables and has attached a laminated NIP to
each food item, but you could use an actual apple and carrot, or the photos supplied.
Try to include a mix of foods, as well as pairs of more, and less, healthy foods such as:
Pairs
Core foods
Snacks & Extras
Convenience foods
Nutri-Grain® & Weetbix™ Fruit & vegetables
Le Snack®, Roll-Ups® etc
Fast food
Sausage & chicken
breast
Milk
Potato chips
2 minute noodles
Wholemeal & white
bread
Yoghurt (low fat)
Chocolate bar
Chicken nuggets
Tin of tomatoes & jar
pasta sauce
Rice & pasta
Sweet biscuits
Sausage roll
You can acquire nutrition information from websites such as Calorie King™ to construct your
own NIP for a wide range of foods. Go to: www.calorieking.com.au
It may be easier to construct your activity around one particular food type. For example
acquire NIPs for a range of cereals, bread, types of meat or snack foods etc.
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Educators’ Resource
Lesson:
1. Hand out a food packet to each student and ask them to locate the nutrition information
panel.
2. Explain that a nutrition information panel (NIP) is legally required to appear on all processed
foods and give a brief overview of the parts of an NIP (see page 24). When discussing
the ingredient list you might like to ask the students to raise their hands if their product
contains more than five, and then more than ten ingredients, and if sugar is one of the first 3
ingredients on the list.
3. Explain that in this activity we are going compare the fat, salt and sugar content in all these
foods and that to do this we need to look at the nutrient list and the ‘per 100g’ column.
4. While everyone is still sitting ask them to work out the fat content per 100g of their food
product (use total fat). Once everyone has found it, invite them to stand and line up from
highest to lowest across the room. You may need to help a few students at the start. Have
the students stand shoulder to shoulder rather than one behind the other so that they can
all see each other. Encourage the line to curve slightly (in a semicircle) for better visibility.
5. Once they are standing in a line, ask them to hold their products out in front of them and
have a look. Name the bottom few foods, and then name the top few foods. Ask the
students how much processing goes into the foods at the bottom vs the foods at the top
Compare the foods that have a pair (i.e. look at where the sausages are, but what about the
chicken?). Ask if anything was surprising or interesting.
Note: If doing ‘best out of three’ extension (see page 59) demonstrate the cut-off point
6. Then ask the students to find the sugar per 100g and rearrange themselves in the line.
Discuss (as for step 5). Repeat with salt (sodium) and discuss.
Some products that are ‘unhealthy’ will appear to be OK when you look at some nutrients.
For example Froot Loops are low in fat and French Fries are low in sugar. If the students
observe this, encourage them to look at where these products end up when you look at
different nutrients.
Note: if doing the ‘best out of 3’ extension (see page 59) ask the students to split into two
groups now and discuss the result
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Educators’ Resource
Variations and Extensions
Best out of three: the Draw the Line campaign has put out some recommendations around
how much of a particular nutrient a product should have, per 100g, to be considered a good
choice. These are very general, but can be used in this activity to determine a ‘best out of
three’ score for the food products. The recommendations are as follows:
Nutrient
Recommendation
Total Fat
less than 3g of total fat per 100g
Sugar
less than 10g of sugar per 100g
Sodium
less than 120mg sodium per 100g
Source: www.drawthelinewa.com.au
You can incorporate this concept into the NIP activity by reading out the recommendation
and indicating the cut-off point between participants when they are in the line for each nutrient
(i.e. at the end of step 5). Ask the participants to note whether they are above or below the
recommendations for each nutrient. When you get to the end of the activity (at the end of step
6) ask the participants to get into two groups based on whether they were mostly outside the
recommendations or mostly inside the recommendations (i.e. best out of three).
Discuss with the participants which foods were unexpectedly ‘in’ or ‘out’. Ask the participants
why they think certain foods came in within the recommendations. This might be the place to
offer the idea that there is a cost/benefit factor around other nutrients such as vitamins and
minerals. For example, Roll-Ups® are high in sugar, but low in fat and sodium so they would end
up in the ‘acceptable’ group. However, Roll-Ups® contain very little apart from sugar, colours
and flavours so there is no nutritional benefit to eating them (there are very few vitamins or
minerals in Roll-Ups®) and the amount of sugar in Roll-Ups® is very high.
Also, cheese contains salt and fat outside of the recommendations, so it would end up in the
‘unacceptable’ group, but cheese is very high in calcium and other important nutrients so the fat
and salt that is consumed in cheese is worth consuming for the nutritional benefits it provides.
And there are reduced fat cheeses available.
Pyramid or AGTHE: at the end of the activity you could use the boxes to reinforce the participants’
knowledge of the Healthy Eating Pyramid or the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.
Once the activity is complete ask the participants to place their boxes onto a poster, pinup board, whiteboard or table in the correct places for the Healthy Eating Pyramid or the
Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Use pins, Velcro or blu-tack or place the boxes on a
table or the ground. Mark out a pyramid or AGTHE shape beforehand if possible to guide the
participants. Foodbank WA has a felt pyramid and uses Velcro to attach the food boxes.
Price per kilogram: to reinforce the Kilo-Cents concepts (discussed in the shopping and
budgeting section of this resource) ask the participants to calculate the price per kilogram of
the foods they hold. They can then line up in order of price, place the prices onto the boxes to
create a display, or calculate the average per kilo price of the ‘best out of three’ groups.
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Nutritional Information Panel activity resources:
Food photos and Nutrition Information Panels
NUTRITION INFORMATION
Serving size: 442g
Ultimate Double Whopper – Hungry Jacks
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
5085kj
1148kj
Protein
70.1g
15.8g
Fat - Total
80.5g
18.2g
Fat - Saturated
32.1g
7.2g
Carbohydrate
50.9g
11.5g
Sugars
11.3g
2.5g
Sodium
2386mg
539mg
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Educators’ Resource
NUTRITION INFORMATION
Servings size: 116g
Medium Fries – Hungry Jacks
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
1566kj
1350kj
Protein
4.4g
3.8g
Fat - Total
19.5g
16.8g
Fat - Saturated
2.7g
2.3g
Carbohydrate
45.1g
38.9g
Sugars
0.6g
0.5g
Sodium
411mg
355mg
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Educators’ Resource
NUTRITION INFORMATION
Serving Size: 150g
Apple
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
282kj
204kj
Protein
0.4g
0.3g
Fat - Total
0.0g
0.0g
Fat - Saturated
0.0g
0.0g
Carbohydrate
14.6g
10.6g
Sugars
14.4g
10.4g
Sodium
3mg
2mg
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NUTRITION INFORMATION
Serving Size: 150g
Tomato
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
111kj
74kj
Protein
1.8g
1g
Fat - Total
0.2g
0.1g
Fat - Saturated
0.0g
0.0g
Carbohydrate
0.6g
2.4g
Sugars
3.5g
2.3g
Sodium
12mg
8mg
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NUTRITION INFORMATION
Serving Size: 100g
Carrot
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
132kj
132kj
Protein
0.8g
0.8g
Fat - Total
0.1g
0.1g
Fat - Saturated
0.0g
0.0g
Carbohydrate
5g
5g
Sugars
5g
5g
Sodium
40mg
40mg
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NUTRITION INFORMATION
Serving Size (1 breast): 236g
Chicken breast (skinless)
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
1085kj
460kj
Protein
54.5g
23.1g
Fat - Total
2.9g
1.2g
Fat - Saturated
0.8g
0.3g
Carbohydrate
0.0g
0.0g
Sugars
0.0g
0.0g
Sodium
153mg
65mg
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NUTRITION INFORMATION
Serving Size: 140g
Sausage
Average qty
per serving
Average qty
per 100g
Energy
1515kj
1082kj
Protein
16.7g
11.9g
Fat - Total
30.4g
21.7g
Fat - Saturated
13.9g
9.9g
Carbohydrate
5.9g
4.2g
Sugars
0.7g
0.5g
Sodium
1064mg
760mg
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Takeaway vs Homemade Foods
This is a great follow on activity for participants who have already learned how to read a nutrition
information panel. Participants use the nutrition information panels supplied to determine the
number of teaspoons of fat and sugar in some common take away foods and their homemade
equivalents. This requires moderate numeracy and literacy levels, but low level numeracy and
literacy groups can complete the activity with assistance. This activity works best if you allow
plenty of time for group discussion at the end.
Note: In this activity you are looking at the per serve column of a nutrition information panel, to
determine how much fat or sugar you consume when you eat the whole food item.
Preparation / resources
You will need:
• Copies of the comparison cards
• Plastic teaspoons in 2 different colours (approximately 50 of each)
Lesson:
1. Divide the participants into groups of 2 or 3; give out a food comparison card and some
teaspoons to each group.
2. Briefly explain the Nutrition Panel (see page 24), and that today you are comparing the
amount of fat and sugar in a serve of some take away and homemade foods.
3. If necessary, do an example calculation using a large nutrition information panel to work
out the number of teaspoons required to represent the fat and sugar. Remember 5g = 1
teaspoon, so if the total fat per serve is 25g, a serve contains 5 teaspoons of fat.
4. Ask the participants to count out the corresponding number of teaspoons of fat and sugar
for the foods on their comparison cards. Help out with the calculations as needed. You can
set out the spoons like this:
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5. Once everyone has finished go around the group and ask each pair to read out the foods
they have and the number of teaspoons of fat and sugar. You may like to mention the
differences in salt (sodium) content for the relevant foods. For the high sugar foods you
might like to ask the participants if they could imagine putting that many teaspoons of sugar
in their cup of milk or tea!
6. It may also be useful to discuss the serve sizes for the relevant foods, for example the
chicken comparison activity compares one piece of roast, BBQ and deep fried chicken
breast. At home you might eat one piece of chicken at a meal, but when eating fast food
people tend to eat multiple pieces (e.g. a 3-piece feed, or a bucket). So you could actually
multiply the teaspoons by the number of pieces of chicken the participants say that they
tend to eat.
7. To finish ask the participants to create the best and worst choices (main, side and drink)
– and place the corresponding teaspoons in the middle of the table. You should have a
homemade food combination with very few teaspoons at all, and a take away combination
with copious teaspoons.
8. During your discussion, you may like to talk about the cost variation between the take away
and homemade foods (see page 122), and the fact that the healthy foods are not only lower
in fat, salt and sugar but also much higher in nutrients such as vitamins, minerals etc.
Variations
For low literacy groups – you can highlight the appropriate numbers in the nutrition information
panels so they are easier to find. You could also do the maths beforehand and tell the
participants the number of spoons for each food item, encouraging them to simply count out
the number of spoons and discuss.
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69
25g
=
5tsp
35g
=
7tsp
1210kj
23.7g
7.5g
2.5g
28.3g
5.5g
352mg
Energy
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
Average qty
per serving
Home made beef patty, wholemeal bun with lettuce,
tomato and alfalfa sprouts
Home Made Beef Burger
126mg
2.0g
10.1g
0.9g
2.7g
8.5g
434kj
Average qty
per 100g
30g
=
6tsp
Remember; 1 teaspoon = 5 grams
Sodium
Sugars
Carbohydrate
Fat - Saturated
Fat - Total
Protein
Energy
Big Mac – McDonalds
958mg
5.6g
35.1g
10.6g
26.9g
25.1g
2060kj
Average qty
per serving
Serving Size: 200g
20g
=
4tsp
Serving Size: 280g
15g
=
3tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
10g
=
2tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
5g
=
1tsp
Burgers – Homemade vs Big Mac vs Ultimate Double Whopper
477mg
2.8g
17.5g
5.3g
13.4g
12.5g
1030kj
Average qty
per 100g
Sodium
Sugars
Carbohydrate
Fat - Saturated
Fat - Total
Protein
Energy
2386mg
11.3g
50.9g
32.1g
80.5g
70.1g
5085kj
Average qty
per serving
Whopper – Hungry Jacks
Serving Size: 442g
NUTRITION INFORMATION
539mg
2.5g
11.5g
7.2g
18.2g
15.8g
1148kj
Average qty
per 100g
71
832kj
39g
5.2g
2.0g
0g
0g
59mg
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
Average qty
per serving
Energy
skin removed, roasted
Chicken - Home Made
45mg
0g
0g
1.5g
4g
30g
640kj
Average qty
per 100g
35g
=
7tsp
Remember; 1 teaspoon = 5 grams
1300kj
33.0g
15.8g
7.5g
9.0g
0.2g
690mg
Energy
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
Average qty
per serving
BBQ Roast Chicken - Chooks
Serving Size: 150g
30g
=
6tsp
Serving Size: 130g
25g
=
5tsp
Serving: 1 breast fillet
20g
=
4tsp
Serving: 1 breast fillet
15g
=
3tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
10g
=
2tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
5g
=
1tsp
Chicken – Homemade vs Takeaway roasted vs Takeaway fried
460mg
0.1g
6.0g
5.0g
10.5g
22.0g
865kj
Average qty
per 100g
Sodium
Sugars
Carbohydrate
Fat - Saturated
Fat - Total
Protein
Energy
1010mg
0.2g
13.4g
12.1g
30.2g
34.8g
1945kj
Average qty
per serving
Chicken - KFC Fried Chicken
Serving Size: 164g
Serving: 1 breast piece
NUTRITION -INFORMATION
616mg
0.1g
8.2g
7.4g
18.4g
21.2g
1186kj
Average qty
per 100g
73
35g
=
7tsp
590kj
4.2g
0.8g
0.2g
26.7g
0g
58mg
Energy
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
45mg
0g
17.8g
0.1g
0.5g
2.8g
393kj
Sodium
Sugars
Carbohydrate
Fat - Saturated
Fat - Total
Protein
Energy
392mg
1.2g
29g
0.8g
9.6g
4.9g
957kj
Average qty
per serving
oven bake, straight cut
Average qty
per serving
Chips – Birds Eye
Remember; 1 teaspoon = 5 grams
skin on, oven baked
Average qty
per 100g
30g
=
6tsp
Chips – Home Made
25g
=
5tsp
Serving Size: 150g
20g
=
4tsp
Serving Size: 150g
15g
=
3tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
10g
=
2tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
5g
=
1tsp
Chips – Homemade vs Oven Bake vs Takeaway
261mg
0.8g
19.3g
0.5g
6.4g
3.3g
638kj
Average qty
per 100g
1601kj
5.9g
19.0g
10.2g
44.7g
0.6g
452mg
Energy
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
Average qty
per serving
Medium fries – Hungry Jacks
Serving Size: 164g
NUTRITION -INFORMATION
390mg
0.5g
38.5g
8.8g
16.4g
5.1g
1380kj
Average qty
per 100g
75
0kj
0g
0g
0g
0g
0g
0mg
Energy
Protein
Fat - Total
Fat - Saturated
Carbohydrate
Sugars
Sodium
Average qty
per serving
0mg
0g
0g
0g
0g
0g
0kj
Average qty
per 100g
35g
=
7tsp
Remember; 1 teaspoon = 5 grams
Sodium
Sugars
Carbohydrate
Fat - Saturated
Fat - Total
Protein
Energy
135mg
15g
15g
1.3g
2.5g
10g
500kj
Average qty
per serving
Milk - Reduced fat (e.g.. HiLo)
30g
=
6tsp
Water - plain (tap or bottled)
25g
=
5tsp
Serving: Size 1 glass (250ml)
20g
=
4tsp
Serving Size: 1 glass
15g
=
3tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
10g
=
2tsp
NUTRITION INFORMATION
5g
=
1tsp
Drinks – Water vs Milk vs Thickshake
54mg
6g
6g
0.5g
1g
4g
200kj
Average qty
per 100ml
Sodium
Sugars
Carbohydrate
Fat - Saturated
Fat - Total
Protein
Energy
326mg
73.2g
77.8g
6.1g
9.1g
9.1g
1824kj
Average qty
per serving
Strawberry Shake - Hungry Jacks
Serving Size: 305ml (medium)
NUTRITION INFORMATION
107mg
24g
25.5g
2g
3g
3g
598kj
Average qty
per 100ml
Educators’ Resource
Goal Setting Activity and Worksheet
The Goal Setting activity is a great way for people to think about their own health and lifestyle.
The worksheet asks participants to set some short term and long term goals for themselves.
Preparation / Resources
You will need:
• Goal setting worksheet
• Pencils/pens
Lesson:
1. Explain what the worksheet is and why it is important to set goals. Goals give you purpose
and direction in your life and can inspire you to make changes to your current habits
2. The goals that are written on the worksheet do not need to be shared with anyone else
3. Start with short term goals. Participants can write up to three goals that they would like to
achieve in the short term. Goals need to be specific. For example don’t just write ‘I will try
and eat healthier’, be more specific, like ‘I will aim to eat two pieces of fruit each day’
4. Then ask participants to write three long term goals. Goals they would like to achieve in the
long term e.g. eat more than 3 serves of vegetables each day
5. Next ask participants to think about specific changes they could make to food/eating habits.
An example on the worksheet: eat white bread changing to eating wholemeal bread
This worksheet can then be taken home by the participants. If this session is part of a series of
sessions with the same group, it is worth revisiting the goals further down the track. This is an
opportunity for individuals to reassess their goals.
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Goal Setting
A great way to try and achieve a healthy lifestyle is to set some personal goals.
When setting goals, you need to be quite specific.
For example – don’t just say ‘I will try and eat healthier’; be more specific, ‘I will aim to eat 2
pieces of fruit each day’.
Short term goals
1.
2.
3.
Long term goals
1.
2.
3.
Goals for changing food/ eating habits
Current food/eating habits
Changes you will make
e.g. eat white bread
e.g. eat wholemeal bread
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ATSI Diet Quiz
Source: The following pages have been taken from the FOODcents® for Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander People in WA Program
Looking at your Diet Quiz
This activity looks at some foods people may eat and how often they are eaten. The group
finishes the activity by thinking about some changes that they could make so they could eat
more healthy foods. The activity is suitable for people who have limited numeracy and literacy.
Each person in the group does their own quiz, using stickers or markers to answer the question.
Preparation/Resources
You will need:
• 12 green, orange and red stickers for each person (or markers/pencils)
• Looking at your Diet Quiz - Answer sheet, one for each person
• Quiz sheet (one copy only for you)
Lesson:
1. Explain to the group that this activity will look at some foods they may eat. They will be able to see if they can make some changes so that they can eat more foods for good health.
2. Hand out a set of coloured stickers (markers/pencils) for each person.
3. Hand out a Diet Quiz-Answer Sheet. Explain that depending on their answer they should place the coloured sticker in the column with that colour.
4. Read one quiz question at a time. Read out all possible answers and ask each person to give their answer using one of the stickers onto their Answer Sheet.
5. Read through each remaining question, answering after each one.
6. After all questions have been asked, ask each person to see which column has the
most stickers.
7. Explain results to group. If they have:
• Mostly greens – then they are doing well, and should keep up the good work!
• Mostly oranges – then they doing OK but there is still some room for improvement.
• Mostly reds – then there are some things they can do so that they eat more foods for
good health.
8. Ask the group to finish the activity by thinking about some changes that they could make so that they could eat more healthy foods.
Note: some people in your group may ask for a copy of the questions. You may like to have
some spare copies available to give out if requested.
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Activity Sheet: Looking at your Diet Quiz
These questions are about the foods you eat. Read out the question one at a time and give
possible answers with matching colour.
1. How many slices of bread do you usually eat each day?
Six or more
Green
Three to five
Orange
One, two or none
Red
2. How do you spread butter or margarine on bread?
Don’t use butter or margarine
Green
Thinly or moderately
Orange
Thickly
Red
3. How often do you eat take-away foods such as meat pies, hot chips, fried chicken or fish?
Rarely or never
Green
Once to four times a week
Orange
Almost daily
Red
4. What type of milk do you usually use?
Skim or HiLo
Green
Regular or Sunshine full cream milk powder™
Orange
Don’t use milk
Red
5. How many days a week do you have a meal with three or more different vegetables?
Six to seven times a week
Green
Three to five times a week
Orange
Less than three
Red
6. How often do you eat potato crisps, corn chips, Cheezels™, Twisties™ or similar foods?
Rarely or never
Green
Once to four times a week
Orange
Almost every day
Red
7. How often do you eat lollies, chocolates or sweetened health bars?
Rarely or never
Green
Once to four times a week
Orange
Almost every day
Red
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8. How many days a week do you eat two or more pieces of fruit?
Six to seven
Green
Three to five
Orange
Less than three
Red
9. How often do you use foods like baked beans, three bean mix, lentils, split peas, dried beans?
Almost every day or at least four times a week
Green
Once to three times a week
Orange
Rarely or never
Red
10. How often do you drink sweetened cordial or cool drinks?
Rarely or never
Green
Once to four times a week
Orange
Almost every day
Red
11. How often do you eat bought pre-packed biscuits and cakes?
Rarely or never
Green
Once to four times a week
Orange
Almost every day
Red
12. What type of breakfast cereal do you usually eat?
Porridge, rolled oats, Weet-Bix™, or Vitabrits™
Green
Cereals like Cornflakes®, Special K™, Rice Bubbles™
NutriGrain™, Coco Pops™
Orange
Don’t eat breakfast cereal
Red
How did you go?
Check your answers:
• Mostly green stickers mean you are on the right track, keep up the good work!
• Mostly orange stickers mean you are getting there, but there are some things to work on
• Mostly red stickers mean that there are lots of ways you can start to eat a healthier way
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PART 2:
SHOPPING &
BUDGETING
Educators’ Resource
CONTENTS
Introduction
86
Food Spending Principles: The 10-Plan
87
Calculating Kilo-Cents: Comparing price per kilogram
Kilo-Cents Comparison Display Board
88
90
Getting more for your money
92
Appendix B: Activities and Resources
95
FOODcents 10-Plan
Calculating Kilo-Cents
Kilo-Cents Comparison activity
98
100
103
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Introduction
The shopping and budgeting section of the Foodbank WA Food Sensations manual explains
shopping and budgeting concepts, which can help people to choose healthy foods.
This section of the resource also outlines the FOODcents® program; as well as how it can be
adapted to use the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. In addition there is information about
developing a Kilo-Cents board as well as some budgeting tips and tricks promoted by the
Foodbank WA Food Sensations program.
FOODcents®
The FOODcents® program was originally developed in 1992 by Ruth Foley, a dietitian working in
WA’s Great Southern Health Region. It was implemented state-wide by the WA Department
of Health in 1995 and has been used as a teaching program throughout metro and rural WA
ever since.
The Food Sensations program was developed by the nutrition promotion team at Foodbank
WA. The underlying principles behind the Food Sensations program are representative
of the Department of Health’s FOODcents® program. The program provides details of the
fundamentals of the FOODcents® program including the nutrition and budgeting components.
Basic Principles
FOODcents® principles are based around the fact that core healthy foods (i.e. those that fit into
the Eat Most and Eat Moderately groups of the Healthy Eating Pyramid) are cheaper to buy per
kilogram than unhealthy foods (from the Eat Least group). The FOODcents® program is suitable
for any person who has an interest in good nutrition as well as saving money. Parts of the
program can be used in a class room or in a community setting. The food budget is a cost that
cannot be avoided as we all have to eat! The FOODcents® program gives people guidance on
the most effective way (in terms of health and money) to shop.
The Food Sensations program expands on these concepts as well as giving extra information
that can be useful when delivering nutrition information to your target group.
For further information on the Healthy Eating Pyramid see ‘Part 1: Nutrition’ on page 7.
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Food Spending Principles: The 10-Plan
The Healthy Eating Pyramid fits in to the FOODcents® resources and The 10-Plan Shopping
Guide. The 10-Plan Shopping Guide is an easy way to explain to your participants how to use
the pyramid model to explain how to balance their food budget and balance their diet,
(see FOODcents® 10-Plan Shopping Guide)
Eat Most foods = Spend Most
Eat Moderately foods = Spend Moderately
Eat Least foods = Spend Least
According to The 10-Plan Shopping Guide, the money spent on food is divided into 10 parts.
Spend 6 parts on Eat Most food, 3 parts on Eat Moderately foods and 1 part on Eat Least foods.
In Australia, the average household spends over half its food budget on Eat Least foods and
less than one quarter on Eat Most foods. FOODcents® advocates for only 1 part or 10% of the
food budget to be spent on Eat Least foods. The other 90% is spent on Eat Moderately (30%)
and Eat Most 60%).
Source: 2003–04 Household Expenditure Survey, Australia: Detailed Expenditure Items (ABS cat. no.
6535.0.55.001).
How to spend $10:
Eat Least foods
1 Part
Eat Least foods
Spend $1
Eat Moderately
foods
3 Parts
Eat Moderately
foods
Spend $3
Eat Most
foods
6 Parts
Eat Most
foods
Spend $6
For example: Spend $100 per week on food, divide this by 10 to give you 1 part
100 ÷ 10 = $10.00 per part
Spend $100 per week, then 10% or 1 part would be $10
Spend $200 per week, then 10% or 1 part would be $20
So for a food budget of $100:
$60 is to be spent on Eat Most foods
$30 is to be spent on Eat Moderately foods
$10 is to be spent on Eat Least foods
= 6 parts x $10
= 3 parts x $10
= 1 part x $10
Following the 10-Plan ensures that not only do you purchase healthier food; you also receive a
greater volume of food for your money. Aim for the majority of your food budget to be spent on
foods in the Eat Most category.
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Calculating Kilo-Cents: Comparing price per kilogram
The Food Sensations program has adapted the Kilo-Cents Counter to enable the calculation
of the exact price per kilogram. The Kilo-Cents Calculation Card teaches how to work out the
price per kilogram of a food product. The cost of the product and the weight of the item is all
that is needed.
The price per kilogram enables the comparison of prices by weight. Once this is worked out it
can then be decided whether or not a particular item is good value for money. Calculating the
price per kilogram allows the comparison of prices between brands as well as products.
To work out the price per kilo:
Cost ($) ÷ weight (grams) x 1000 = Price per kilogram
Figure 3: Kilo-Cents Calculation Card Working out the price per kilo is a useful tool when shopping for food and trying to get the
best value for money. It is great for working out the cost comparisons between snack foods
and fresh fruit and vegetables, fresh foods and canned or frozen foods as well as comparing
convenience foods/pre-packaged foods such as cake mixes with flour and sugar or pre-made
pasta meals with a packet of pasta and tinned tomatoes.
Working out price per kilogram demonstrates that processed, packaged and highly advertised
foods are more expensive than basic foods or fresh fruit and vegetables. Some supermarkets
have changed their pricing system to include the price per 100 grams or price per kilogram
(depending on the item) on the shelf price tag. This makes it easy for the consumer to compare
prices between foods, without having to work it out.
If the price per kilogram on the packaged goods is compared to the price of fresh fruit and
vegetables, consumers will realise that it can be cheaper to eat healthy foods, such as fresh fruit
and vegetables.
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Try Comparing:
Quick Oats
to
Instant Oat (single serve sachets)
to
Breakfast bars
Loose popping corn
to
Microwave popcorn
to
Popcorn at the movies
1Kg block cheese
to
Grated or sliced cheese
to
Cheese and cracker packs
e.g. Munchables or
On the Go or Le Snack
Potatoes
to
Oven-baked wedges
to
Potato crisps
Water
to
A can of soft drink
to
A can of energy drink
Weet-Bix™
to
Froot Loops®
to
Individual serve cereal
mini-boxes (6pk)
to
A homemade recipe to Packet equivalent
Takeaway meal for the family (e.g. 4 quarter chicken and chips)
Other good foods to use to demonstrate the high price of Eat Least foods include:
• Surprise toy eggs (e.g. Kinder Surprise™)
• Boxed chocolates (e.g. Lindt™)
• Sweet biscuits (e.g. Tim Tams™, Kez’s™ Florentines etc.)
• Multipack potato chips
• Snack bars (especially protein or health bars!)
• Diet products (e.g. Optifast® bars or shakes)
• Pudding cups, powdered dessert sachets etc.
Compare these to the average price of fruits, vegetables, legumes etc.
Unit Pricing in Supermarkets
Now many supermarkets are using unit pricing on their shelves most products in a
supermarket have a shelf price as well as a unit price on the price tag. Unit price is is the
cost of the goods per unit i.e. 100g, 100mL, 1kg or 1L. This enables all consumers to
compare prices quickly and easily, then choosing the product that is best value for money.
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Kilo-Cents Comparison Display Board
The Kilo-Cents Comparison display board is a useful health promotion tool that can be
used in a variety of settings. The display board is a simple visual tool, as it displays the basic
FOODcents® Kilo-Cents concepts with great effectiveness.
The purpose of the Kilo-Cents board is to show people the price per kilogram of foods.
Displaying foods from all sections of the Healthy Eating Pyramid visually shows the difference in
price between Eat Most foods and Eat Least foods. When displaying the board it is important to
display foods that are relevant to your target group.
Although consumers usually do not buy a kilo of chocolate or chips at one time, the amount
that is spent over the year adds up. By replacing some of the snack foods with healthier and
cheaper choices a substantial amount of money can be saved each year.
Note: You can make your own per kilogram price labels for your Kilo-Cents board using the blank
Kilo-Cents template (Figure 5).
Figure 4: A Kilo-Cents Comparison Display Board
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Educators’ Resource
Kilo-Cents Board Templates
The template below can be used to create your own Kilo-Cents comparison board for your
school or community group.
Figure 5: A Kilo-Cents board template
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Getting More for your Money
There are a number of ways to get more healthy food for your money. People develop different
shopping habits and have a number of ways of saving money at the shop. Listed below are just
some of the ways that may improve your shopping budget as well as your health.
In the supermarket:
• Make a weekly or fortnightly menu and shop only for what is needed
• Make a shopping list and stick to it!
• Use seasonal produce to keep the costs low (see below)
• Use Kilo-Cents to compare prices between brands
• Use supermarket catalogues to buy foods on special
• Shop close to closing time as sometimes foods such as meat, bread, fruit & vegetables are reduced in price
• Buy cheaper meat cuts for stews and curries
• Buy less meat and bulk up meals with lentils, beans and more vegetables
• Buy in bulk (if practical) - this can sometimes be cheaper than buying in smaller amounts
Fruit & vegetables in season
It is often cheaper to buy fruit and vegetables that are in season. Choosing fruit and vegetables
that are in season can mean that the produce is fresher and many people say that the produce
tastes better. There is often a lowered length of time and distance travelled between the farm
and the consumer which is better for the environment because of the reduced storage and
transport needs. Also, when a product is in season there is usually an abundance of that fruit
therefore the price is lower.
There is a range of information and resources available from the Go for 2&5® website, including
fruit and veg in season and an A-Z fruit and veg guide. Go to: www.gofor2and5.com.au
Meat cuts
Buying cheaper meat cuts is a good option for people wanting to reduce the cost of their food
bill. Cheaper cuts of meat can be purchased and are great in stews and curries but may require
longer cooking:
• Cheaper cuts of beef are usually oyster blade or gravy beef
• Cheaper lamb cuts are forequarter or chump chops or mutton
• Cheaper options for chicken are drumsticks or wings (choose skinless)
Sometimes buying meat from a local butcher can be cheaper than buying from a supermarket.
Check out the prices in your area and make a decision as to what is best for you and your family.
See the following page for tips on choosing the right cut of meat.
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Choose the Right Cut of Meat
Use the orange boxes to match the cut of meat with your cooking technique.
ROASTING
STIR-FRYING
BEEF
Oyster Blade
Round or Knuckle
Blade
Topside or Silverside
Round or Knuckle Beef Strips
Chuck Steak
Round, Skirt or Boneless Shin
Shin
Brisket
Rump
Mince
LAMB
Shoulder
Easy Carve Shoulder
Forequarter Rack
Neck Fillet Roast
Diced Forequarter
Forequarter Chops
Neck
Chump Chops
Rump
Loin Chops
Mince
KANGAROO
Mince
Steak
Tail
CHICKEN
Breast
Thigh
Drumsticks
Wings
Whole
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BBQ/PAN FRYING
CASSEROLE/STEWING
Appendix B:
Activities and Resources
Educators’ Resource
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Worksheet 1 – FOODcents® 10-Plan The 10-Plan activity explains the 10-Plan concept in simple terms. This activity enables anyone
to work out a spending plan for their food budget.
Worksheet 2 - Calculating Kilo-Cents
This activity involves students working out the price per kilogram of foods and ranking them in
order from highest to lowest price. The worksheet aims to reinforce the concepts of
Kilo-Cents- that foods in the Eat Least category are much higher in price than foods in the
Eat Most category.
Worksheet 3 - Kilo-Cents Comparisons
This worksheet is a simple activity that explains the Kilo-Cents concepts. This is a quick activity
that can be done with a parent or community group.
All worksheets and lesson plans are available to download free from the School Breakfast
Program website www.schoolbreakfastprogram.com.au
FOODcents® activities, resources and training are available free from
www.foodcentsprogram.com.au.
There are numerous activities around FOODcents® – all appear in the FOODcents® Advisor
Training Manual, available free from www.dohpackcentre.com.au/DOH
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FOODcents® 10-Plan
The 10-Plan activity explains the 10-Plan concept in simple terms. This activity enables anyone
to work out a spending plan for their food budget.
You will need:
• FOODcents® 10-Plan worksheet (page 99)
• pencils
• calculators
Prerequisite:
Participants will need to have a basic understanding of the 10-Plan and why it can be a good
way of allocating your food budget.
Lesson:
1. The 10-Plan concept divides up a person’s food budget into parts, to allocate
money according to the 10-plan principles
2. As the worksheet explains:
Divide the food budget of $100 into 10 equal parts (100 ÷ 10) = $10 per part
Eat Most
6 parts, therefore 6 x $10 = $60
Eat Moderately
3 parts, therefore 3 x $10 = $30
Eat Least
1 part, therefore 1 x $10 = $10
The food budget parts will then add up to the original total of $100.
3. Explain to the participants this can be done for any food budget amount.
Extension activity:
Participants can work out the food budget allocation according to the 10-Plan for a food budget
of $20, $50, $150, $200 and so on.
Eat Least foods
1 Part
Eat Moderately
foods
3 Parts
Eat Most
foods
6 Parts
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FOODcents 10-Plan
To help choose a healthy diet when shopping, the FOODcents® 10-Plan can be a useful tool.
You can work out how to balance your diet and food budget below.
For a food budget of $
per week/fortnight/month
Your food budget / week ________ ÷ 10 = _______/ part
Eat Most – 6 Parts
6 x
$ =
(6 parts)
Eat Moderately – 3 Parts
3 x $
=
(3 parts)
Eat Least – 1 Part
1 x
$
=
(1 part)
All these parts will add up to your total food budget. At home, try working out how your food
budget should be spent according to the 10-Plan.
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Calculating Kilo-Cents
This activity aims to reinforce the concepts of Kilo-Cents – that foods in the Eat Least category
are much higher in price than foods in the Eat Most category.
You will need:
• Supermarket catalogues (enough for one per person or one per pair)
• Calculators
• Pencils
• Calculating Kilo-Cents worksheet (page 101-102)
Prerequisite
Students need to have an understanding of the Healthy Eating Pyramid before attempting the
activity as it requires students to identify foods from the three parts of the pyramid.
Lesson:
1. Students can either work independently or in pairs. Using supermarket catalogues, students
are to choose three Eat Most, three Eat Moderately foods and three Eat Least foods.
Encourage the students to choose food items rather than beverages, as products like
softdrink tend to be fairly cheap.
2. Hand out the Calculating Kilo-Cents worksheet, and ask the students to write the weight of
the item (in grams) and the cost of the item (in dollars) (Note: sometimes catalogues write a
range for the weight of the item i.e. 110g- 250g. Use the lowest weight when working out the
price per kilogram).
3. Once they have done this, ask the students to calculate the cost per kilogram of the foods
they have selected and then rank them order from 1-9; 1 being the least expensive and 9
the most expensive.
4. As the students begin to complete their table, instruct them to turn the worksheet over and
fill in the information on the back. Students are to write the three most expensive foods and
the three least expensive foods and then complete the questions about ‘what surprised
them?’ and ‘what did they notice about the foods that were ranked 1-9?’.
The main aim of the activity is for students to understand the concept that processed and
packaged foods are generally more expensive than fresh fruits and vegetables and foods in the
Eat Most category.
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Calculating Kilo-Cents
1. Use the food packets provided to work out the price of foods per kilo
2. Choose 3 foods from each group (Eat Most, Eat Moderately or Eat Least) and fill in
the table below
3. Rank the foods based on cost per kilogram from least expensive (1) to most expensive (9)
Remember : Cost ($) ÷ weight (grams) x 1000 = Cost per kilogram
Food Item
Weight of
item (grams)
Cost of item ($)
Choose 3 Eat Most Foods
Choose 3 Eat Moderately Foods
Choose 3 Eat Least Foods
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Cost per kilogram
Rank
(1-9)
Educators’ Resource
Calculating Kilo-Cents
Now that you have filled in the table, use your results to complete the following:
Write down the three most expensive foods (Ranked 7-9):
Rank 9: Eat
Least
Rank 8: Rank 7: Write down the three cheapest foods (Ranked 1-3):
Eat
Moderately
Rank 1: Eat Most
Rank 2: Rank 3: Did anything surprise you? If so; what?
Look at the three groups in the table. Do you notice anything about how the Eat Most, Eat
Moderately and Eat Least foods are ranked?
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Kilo-Cents Comparison Activity
You will need:
• Supermarket catalogues (enough for one per person or one per pair)
• Calculators
• Pencils
• Kilo-Cents comparisons worksheet (page 104-105)
Prerequisite:
Participants need to have an understanding of the Healthy Eating Pyramid before attempting
the activity as it requires students to identify foods from the three parts of the pyramid.
Lesson:
1. Participants can either work independently or in pairs. Using supermarket catalogues,
students are to work out the prices per kilogram of the three examples listed.
2. Answers are :
Froot Loops®: $6.11 ÷ 340 x 1000 = $17.97 per kilogram
Twisties®: $1.42 ÷ 50 x 1000 = $28.40 per kilogram
LCM’s®:
$5.08 ÷ 176 x 1000 = $28.86 per kilogram
3. Participants are then to choose four different food items from the catalogue and work out
the price per kilogram. Participants write the weight of the item (in grams) and the cost of
the item (in dollars) (Note: sometimes catalogues write a range for the weight of the item
e.g. 110g- 250g. Use the lowest weight when working out the price per kilogram). Then the
price per kilogram can be calculated.
4. Participants then decide which is the food item that has the highest price per kilogram and
the food item that has the lowest price per kilogram.
5. Participants are then to compare the price of the packaged foods with the price of fruits and
vegetables and write what they notice about the difference in price.
6. The main theme here is that fruits and vegetables are usually cheaper than packaged and
processed food.
Fruit and Veg are cheaper than packaged and processed foods because:
• Less processing is involved, therefore less staff, machinery, transport, development costs etc.
• Food companies advertise their products, and pass this cost on to consumers.
• Fruit and veg tend to have less packaging.
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Kilo-Cents Comparisons
Using the Kilo-Cents Calculation Card (see below) you can calculate the price per kilogram of
any food product as long as you know the price and the weight of the item.
Cost ($) ÷ weight (grams) x 1000 = Price per kilogram
For example: Roll-Ups® (snack food)
If the item costs $4.35 and the weight is 94g
To work out the cost per kg 4.35 ÷ 94g = 0.04627
then… 0.04627 x 1000 = $46.27 per kg
Work out these examples below:
Froot Loops®:
price $6.11
weight 340g price per kg Twisties®: price $1.42
weight 50g
LCMs :
price $5.08
weight 176g price per kg ®
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price per kg Educators’ Resource
Activity
Work out the price per kilogram of four foods from the catalogue.
Item price weight price per kilo Item price weight price per kilo Item price weight price per kilo Item price weight price per kilo Which food has the lowest price per kilogram and which food has the highest price per kilogram?
Highest priced food per kilogram price per kg
Lowest priced food per kilogram price per kg
Compare the price per kilogram of the processed foods to the prices per kilogram of fruits and
vegetables. What do you notice?
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PART 3:
COOKING
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CONTENTS
Introduction
110
Conducting cooking workshops
111
Preparation and planning: before you begin
During your session
Clean up and Evaluation
An additional activity: cost and taste comparison
Takeaway food compared to homemade food
111
116
119
120
122
Appendix C Recipes
123
Easy Pizzas
Yummy Wraps
Pizza Scrolls
Healthy Hummus
Kangaroo Bolognaise
Minestrone Soup
125
126
127
128
129
130
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Introduction
A healthy diet is difficult to achieve without possessing some degree of cooking ability. Healthy
foods tend to be less processed than unhealthy foods, and there are a variety of ways to
prepare them. Involving children in the cooking process from a young age allows them to
develop the skills required to prepare healthy foods as they get older. Cooking is a skill that
is learned and needs to be practiced, but that has many benefits that go beyond the simple
provision of food.
In an increasingly ‘convenience-driven’ society pre-prepared foods have reduced the cooking
skills required to create a meal. This has led to consumers losing the ability to prepare food from
scratch, which is leading to a reduction in the number of nutritious meals being cooked at home.
Conducting cooking workshops is a vital part of promoting healthy eating, because a lack of
basic cooking skills is a significant barrier to consuming healthy foods for many people. Learning
how to prepare food and cook can be an opportunity to learn fundamental life skills that can
aid in the consumption of healthy foods. Reading recipes, measuring ingredients and following
instructions are important skills to learn in order to be able to prepare healthy foods.
Cooking workshops are a way to arouse interest in food preparation, which can then follow
through into the home. Many people love food and would like to prepare their own meals but
don’t know where to start. Hosting a cooking workshop can give people the confidence they
need to start to cook and prepare meals from basic ingredients.
Part 3: Cooking covers how to prepare, run, cleanup and evaluate cooking workshops. Topics
include how to choose a venue, recruit participants, select recipes, shop and run a cooking
workshop. There is also food safety information and a cost and taste comparison activity that
can be used to reinforce some of the nutrition and budgeting concepts covered in Part 1 and
Part 2 of this resource.
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Conducting Cooking Workshops
Preparation and planning: before you begin
There are a number of aspects to think about before holding a cooking session.
Being prepared is the key.
Venue
Organise an appropriate venue to hold the session. It is useful to visit the venue beforehand to
decide on how it is going to be set up, check out the kitchen facilities for utensils, knives, tea
towels, plates etc. Also look at other equipment needed such as chairs and tables. If these are
not available, some supplies will need to be brought in. Have an equipment list that indicates
which equipment is required for each recipe. This makes it easy to check off so no equipment
is forgotten. Make a list of items to bring with you when you return. Location of the toilets, fire
escapes and location of first aid kits is also important knowledge to have, just in case.
On the day, prepare the space and have the food preparation area set up before the
participants arrive. Get out all the necessary equipment and utensils to prevent the chaos of ten
people rummaging through three cupboards. Wash fruit and vegetables beforehand, but then
store them in the fridge (if there is one) along with any other cold storage items. If you do not
have access to a fridge, take an esky or cold-bag with you. Most supermarkets sell reusable
cold bags for only a few dollars.
Provide self-serve tea/coffee and water for your participants to drink during the theory session
and when they first arrive. A cup of tea serves as a comfort in unfamiliar surroundings, and
something to do if a participant arrives first before the rest of the group.
In a school there are additional factors to consider. Having a suitable space i.e. running water,
electrical outlets, tables/desks to work on, hand washing facilities and teacher supervision are
all important issues to be aware of.
Participants
Find out who will be participating and how many will be participating in the session. Tailor your
session to your target group and modify the program if your participants have any special
needs. Special needs may include food allergies, language, socio-cultural, mobility/access, and
literacy or numeracy issues.
Find out how long people can stay at the session, and if any will be bringing children. Child
minding facilities may need to be provided, or spread the information out over a few shorter
sessions.
Depending on your target group and the participants in the session, it may be appropriate for an
acknowledgement of Indigenous land ownership. The ‘Welcome to Country’ may be delivered
by a respected community elder in your area.
In a school, knowledge of any food allergies is particularly important, especially when working
with children. If any student has a food allergy, then it is wise to leave the food out of any recipes
to be prepared
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Resources and Promotion
Organise what resources are needed for the session. Photocopy worksheets etc with a few
spares just in case. Bring enough pens or pencils for everyone.
Some FOODcents® and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating resources can be ordered
for free from the Department of Health at www.dohpackcentre.com.au/DOH, or by calling
1300 518 963.
Be sure to promote the session. Put a notice up or send out a flyer to your target group with
information about date, time, place and how to book or RSVP for the session. It may also be
appropriate to invite specific participants directly, or via a supportive member of their community
that they already know.
In a school, it is a good idea to promote your session by having information in the school
newsletter. If you are trying to capture parent interest, placing a flyer in the newsletter or sending
an invitation home is a great way to encourage parent involvement.
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Choosing Recipes
Choose recipes that are appropriate for the target group. Appendix C (page 123) contains a
number of recipes used in the Food Sensations program. You can use recipes from anywhere,
including from the FOODcents® booklets Eat Smart for Four and Eat Smart for Two and also the
Deadly Tucker cookbook and brochures.
The skill level of the target group will determine which recipes you choose to cook in the
practical cooking session. Choose recipes which are largely pictorial for groups with limited
literacy, and simple recipes for groups of children.
If kitchen safety is a concern, switching from a stovetop to an electric frypan or sandwich press
may be appropriate. Always do a safety briefing outlining potential risks before beginning the
session, and lay down some ground rules about moving around with knives and staying clear of
the stove.
If the group has limited cooking ability then more time may need to be spent on teaching the
group basic food preparation skills. This can include demonstrations on holding and using
knives, cutting an onion, slicing, dicing etc. If the group has basic food preparation skills then
less time needs to be spent on this and the group can get straight into the cooking.
In a school, choose recipes to suit the ability of the students. Also remember to consider
any food allergies. It is a good idea to pre-prepare the cutting up of hard vegetables such as
pumpkin and sweet potato. This reduces the risk of injury, decreases the food preparation time
and can help make the lesson run smoothly.
Shopping
Shopping for ingredients needs to be done before the session.
Make a shopping list that can be reused, and can also be updated
as necessary. Printing and laminating a generic shopping list that is
broken down to recipes and ingredients required is an easy way to
shop and ensures that no ingredients are forgotten. If doing more than
one session in the week, it saves time to shop for both sessions at
once (as long as there is enough storage space for the ingredients).
It is also worthwhile working out quantities needed before going
shopping. Knowing the number of participants attending and then
working out amounts/quantities required for ingredients ensures that
there are enough ingredients for all participating. There is an example
shopping list on the following page.
In a school, sometimes there is a budget for activities like cooking. If not, you can liaise with a
local supermarket or grower to donate some produce for you to use in your classroom. If your
school has a kitchen garden you can use the harvested produce as a basis for some recipes. If
cooking activities are going to become a regular occurrence, it may be a good idea to ask parents
to pay a small amount of money at the beginning of the year to cover some of the food costs.
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Example of shopping / ingredient list:
Vegetable Sticks
Super-mini Sandwiches
2 carrots
½ continental cucumber
1 punnet cherry tomatoes
1 red capsicum
1 green capsicum
100g sugar snap or snow peas
1 packet crackers
2 carrots
½ cucumber
½ punnet alfalfa sprouts
½ avocado
¼ lettuce
1 tub cream cheese
2 loaves wholemeal bread
toothpicks
& Tzatziki Dip
½ continental or 1 Lebanese cucumber
1 clove garlic
1 cup Greek style yoghurt
Pizza
2 tomatoes
1 capsicum
250g cheese
1 pkt of Lebanese bread
1 jar tomato pasta sauce/pizza sauce
Fruit Crumble Cups
Small clear plastic cups- 20
1.5kg vanilla yoghurt
2 x 825g can fruit
muesli
Toasties
2 tomato
1 bag/ bunch of spinach
125g tasty cheese
1-2 pkts of Lebanese bread
Yummy Wraps
2 packets tortillas or Lebanese bread
2 carrots
½ cucumber
½ punnet alfalfa sprouts
½ avocado
¼ lettuce
toothpicks
& Grilled Veg
250g pumpkin
1 medium sweet potato
Corn on the Cob
3 cobs of corn
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Example equipment checklist:
Equipment List
Grilled Veg
& Toasties
Tzatziki
& Veg
Pizza
Fruit Crumble
Cups
Super-mini
Sandwiches
Yummy
Wraps
Total
cutting matt
(2)
cutting matt
(2)
cutting matt
(2)
cutting matt
(1)
cutting matt
(2)
cutting matt
(2)
11
non-slip (2)
non-slip (2)
non-slip (2)
non-slip (1)
non-slip (2)
non-slip (2)
11
lettuce knife
(2)
lettuce knife
(2)
lettuce knife
(2)
lettuce knife
(2)
lettuce knife
(2)
10
platter
platter
platter
platter
platter
5
sandwich
press
tongs
tongs
veg peeler
veg peeler
sandwich
press
2
tongs
3
veg peeler
veg peeler
spatula
grater
1
grater
grater
grater
grater
bowl (2)
spoon
5
2
spoon
spoon
spoon (3)
butter knife
butter knife
1 cup
measure
cook’s knife
4
6/2
1
cook’s knife
2
1
can opener
plastic cups &
spoons (20)
115
toothpicks
toothpicks
20/60
Educators’ Resource
Utensils
If cooking sessions are going to be a regular occurrence it is a handy to have a small bag/box
of utensils. Sometimes venues don’t have suitable equipment and these need to be provided by
the facilitator. The following list of utensils can form the basis of a small cooking kit:
• Vegetable peelers
• Tongs
• Graters
• Spoons
• Knives
• Can opener
• Lettuce knives for children
• Measuring cups/spoons
• Chopping boards
• Bowls
It is also a good idea to have an equipment checklist which lists the equipment/ utensils
required for the recipes that will be prepared. This ensures that essential equipment will not be
forgotten. There is an example equipment list on the previous page.
In a school, it is a great idea to do a kitchen utensil drive. Many households have a number of
spare utensils that never get used. Ask families to bring in any unused or unwanted utensils and
cooking equipment. This may form the beginnings of a basic cooking kit. Utensils and cooking
equipment can also be bought from op shops and discount stores.
During your session
Icebreakers
Always do an icebreaker, regardless of whether people know each other or not, to help
everyone relax. A good start is getting everyone in the group taking a turn saying their name
and a point of interest. For example the Foodbank WA Food Sensations program uses a food
related topic such as a favourite food memory (good or bad), or their favourite or least favourite
food. Other possibilities include; if you could only eat one food for the rest of your life with no
consequence what would it be? Or what did you have for dinner last night? Just keep it short
and lighthearted.
Demonstration Techniques
As mentioned above, a demonstration session might be useful to teach specific skills to the
whole group. If doing a cooking demonstration for the first time, practice talking and cooking at
home beforehand. Some people find this skill easy while others need to practice to comfortably
and effectively do both activities at once. When you are in front of a group you may feel nervous
and this will affect your performance. If you are comfortable, confident and well practiced at
home, then you will be better equipped to manage the session if you feel nervous.
Group Cooking
Working together as a group or in small groups can be a great way of getting people to work
together as a team to achieve a common goal. In the case of cooking, the goal is preparing a
recipe. Working in groups gives people an opportunity to get to know others, to work in a team
environment and to share knowledge they have on cooking and food in general.
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Eating Together
Food is a topic that crosses all cultural and societal barriers. A lot of events throughout a
person’s life revolve around food. We have people come to dinner, we meet people out for
dinner, we catch up for coffee, we welcome new neighbours with food, we offer food at
meetings, we use food to celebrate and also commemorate. Food and eating is relevant to
everyone and eating is a great way to relax and enjoy the company you are in.
After the cooking session it is a great opportunity to sit and share the meals together. It gives
participants a chance to talk to each other about the food and listen to the informal comments
about the recipes. Depending on your target group, the opportunity to sit together to eat may
be the only time they do so with other people. This may be the case especially when working
with the elderly and other socially isolated groups.
If training others to deliver nutrition information, the eating time gives participants the opportunity
to discuss the sort of groups they work with and how they may implement the program.
Food Safety
Food safety is an important issue to consider when running your session, as the facilitator
is responsible for the health and safety of the participants. It is important to maintain and
demonstrate food hygiene standards at the session. Some behaviours that seem acceptable at
home may not be OK in the context of your session, for example:
• Defrosting meat out of the fridge
• Using foods on the day of expiry
• Cutting the mould off cheddar cheese
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To support safe food behaviours by participants during the cooking session, to do a quick
rundown of kitchen safety, highlighting major risks for the foods you are preparing. Actions
speak louder than words, so it is important that the facilitator follows safe food practices during
the session. There are a few additional points to consider:
• Aprons and hair coverings protect participants clothing and hair, but also help to maintain food safety. Hair coverings can be caps, hairnets or bandannas, and are useful in preventing participants from unknowingly scratching their head or hair and then contaminating foods.
• It is important for all participants to wash their hands thoroughly with soap after they put on their aprons and hair coverings. Alternatively, participants can use food handling gloves. Food handling gloves are essential for people wearing hand jewellery, with cuts or scratches on their hands, or with long or painted nails. It is important for the demonstrator to always wear food handling gloves and to change them frequently.
• If working with raw meat, designate a specific chopping board to its use. Foodbank WA has
a red coloured chopping board which is to be used specifically for raw meat. Its colour
makes it stand out, so it never gets mixed up with the other chopping boards. It is also
important that all utensils that interact with the raw meat (such as knives) are washed
thoroughly before being used for any other purpose.
• Make sure any foods that are dropped on the floor are thrown away immediately, and
that all utensils that are dropped are replaced with clean ones or washed with hot soapy
water before re-use. If you see something dropped on the floor during a workshop, approach group with a clean utensil or with the bin; it will help them out and will make a very clear point about food safety.
• When cooking with children, use plastic knives, like a lettuce knife (see
figure 5). Lettuce knives are suitable for cutting most vegetables (except hard vegetables like
carrot and potato). These are available at most kitchen stores. Older children and adults that
have previous food preparation experience are usually capable of using a sharp knife.
Figure 5: Lettuce knife
• It is wise to have a basic first aid kit on hand. There are kitchen first aid kits available which include kitchen band aids (blue), burn cream etc.
• When eating together at the end make sure there are serving plates and utensils such as tongs, ladles, serving spoons etc. Allowing participants to pick up food from a platter with their hands, or use their eating spoon or fork to serve food are risky behaviours.
For more information on food safety please see the following fact sheet from the WA
Department of Health:
www.public.health.wa.gov.au/cproot/1535/2/Food_Safety_for_Consumers.pdf
This brochure can be ordered for free through the Department of Health at
www.dohpackcentre.com.au/DOH or by calling 1300 518 963.
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Clean up and Evaluation
Clean up
Clean up is much easier if it is done together as a group. It can be done at the end of the
session or as the session progresses. Often there are periods of waiting during the cooking
session for ingredients to cook. This is a good time for participants to clean up their work area
and wash utensils that they no longer need. There may be some final cleaning or tidying at the
end, but if some clean up is done as a group the pack-up will be much quicker and easier.
Encourage participants to clean up as they go with subtle hints. For example, if you fill a sink
with washing up water and start clearing some utensils individuals with nothing to do may join
you. If you wash a few dishes and have plenty of tea-towels around some participants may start
drying for you. You may need to step in and ask participants to help directly; but often leading
by doing is highly effective.
Evaluation
Process or formative evaluation is important to gather at your session. Knowing how people
attended, who attended, participant satisfaction with the program and if you completed all the
activities you intended to, is important information to have as this can assist in improving or
adjusting the program for next time.
Impact evaluation is also important information to gather. It can be easier to gather impact
evaluation information via a short written survey or questionnaire. These can be anonymous as
people may be more inclined to be honest. The surveys can be multiple choice and/or pictorial
(smiley faces indicating response), simple yes/no, Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, unsure,
disagree, strongly disagree) or ranking in order (1-5). Ask questions about intention of behaviour
change, whether or not they will cook more at home as a result of attending the session.
If a written survey is not suitable for your group then some informal verbal feedback can be
gathered by just having a chat while eating together after your cooking session. You could talk
about:
• Taste, texture and ingredients used
• Would these be types of dishes that you or your family would eat?
• Would you be confident guiding groups in the preparation of the recipes and preparing these
dishes at home?
• If not, how can we make it easier for you to feel more confident in preparing these recipes?
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An Additional Activity: Cost and Taste Comparison
This is an activity that ties in with FOODcents® budgeting principles outlined in Part 2 Shopping and Budgeting. It is in this section because it is linked to the cooking and eating
session. If you make pumpkin soup in your cooking session this cost and taste comparison is
a great eye-opening activity, regardless of whether you have done a budgeting session or not.
This activity can also be adapted for use with any dish you cook – just do the maths first!
The purpose of the cost and taste comparison activity is to compare the taste of a variety of types
of the same food with the cost over a week and over a year (eating it five days per week, for fiftytwo weeks). The Food Sensations program includes a section that compares different types of
pumpkin soups. Five different varieties of Pumpkin Soup are included; four are pre-packaged and
one is home-made using the recipe using the recipe from the ‘Deadly Tucker’ brochure.
Soups used in the cost and taste comparison activity are:
• Container (microwavable plastic container)
• Canned (e.g. Campbells, Heinz)
• Tetra Pack (e.g. Velish)
• Powdered (e.g. Cup-a-soup)
• Home-made (Deadly Tucker) recipe
Prepare the soups as per the instructions. Five mugs labelled with numbers 1-5 are used. Place
each soup in a different mug (making note of which soup is in what mug). Ask participants to
taste each soup and write a comment on the whiteboard or on paper. Participants need to
identify which soup they prefer. Everyone can participate; or you can select a few volunteers to
taste on behalf of the group.
To maintain food hygiene while tasting you have two options:
• Food Sensations uses the first method: put a teaspoon in each cup and give each participant one dessert or soup spoon. The tasters then deliver soup from the teaspoon in the cup onto their spoon, and taste from that. This requires the least number of spoons, but food hygiene is at the mercy of the tasters, so it may not be appropriate for all groups
• The alternative method is that each taster gets 5 spoons and then only taste from each spoon once. This uses a lot of spoons, and is best suited if you are only using a few tasters
Once everybody has tasted the different soups, made their comments and chosen their
preferred soup, the identity of each soup can be revealed and the prices added in. The results
can then be discussed – it is important to reiterate that there are no right or wrong answers.
Everyone has their own taste preferences, likes and dislikes. It is highly probable that some of
the tasters will choose the packaged versions; that is fine.
Hopefully the majority of the participants would choose the homemade soup, but if not discuss
the cost difference between the shop bought varieties and the homemade soup.
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Table 1: Type
Taste (salty, sweet,
nice, yuk etc.)
Sample table: Cost and taste comparison
Texture
(smooth, thick etc.)
Preference
Cost
Per 250 mL Per year
1
2
3
4
5
Product Cost and Taste Comparison
July 2010 – Metropolitan Perth prices
Type
Cost
Cost per kg
($)
Cost per
250mL ($)
Cost 5 days
($)
Cost per
year ($)
1 Container
(microwavable)
430 g @ $3.80
8.83
2.20
11.04
573.95
2 Canned
420g @ $1.99
4.74
1.18
5.92
307.97
3 Tetra Pack
500gm @ $3.41
5.97
1.49
7.45
387.40
4 Powdered
55 gm @ $1.96
35.63 (dried)
49c
2.45
127.40
41c
2.05
106.60
1.96 per kg
with water
5 Homemade
2 litres @ $3.34
1.67
The outcome of the cost & taste comparison activity demonstrates that it is cheaper to make
your own soup using the simple Food Sensations recipes provided. The convenience of the
other pre-made soups can come at a cost. Costs such as marketing and packaging contribute
to the overall high cost of the products in ‘special’ containers. Not only is making your own
soup a cheaper option, it is also environmentally friendly as there are no containers that need to
be disposed of.
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Takeaway Food compared with Homemade Food
The Food Sensations program shows people that it is easy to eat a healthy diet and in doing
so can save yourself and your family a substantial amount of money. The focus is making
small changes to your diet. We don’t advocate for a major overhaul of breakfast, lunch and
dinner, but just to start by making one or two small changes per week. This doesn’t make it so
overwhelming for individuals or families.
Today, everything and everyone operates at such a fast pace. Due to various reasons, some
families are buying a number of takeaway meals per week. Some buy for convenience; think it
saves time; think it is cheaper or lack the confidence to cook. The Food Sensations program
has been developed to give people information on how to prepare and cook healthy snacks and
meals. In doing so, you will save your family money as well as improve their health.
A great way to talk to a group about the cost of takeaway foods compared to homemade foods
is to compare the costs.
• The average takeaway meal for a family of four is around $30 dollars
• If you were to buy groceries with $30, you would be able to buy a lot more than for just
one meal
• The simple message is to just replace one takeaway meal per week with a simple recipe such as Tomato and Bean Pasta (approximate cost $7.50).’ This on its own can save you over $20 per week. That adds up to over $1000 per year!
• Think what you could do with $1000!
Applying the saving of over $1000 to your group:
• If they have families- think about what the saving could mean for the family. A family holiday at the end of the year, sports equipment etc.
• Using the Kilo-Cents concepts (working out the per kilogram price) and reducing the
number of takeaway meals per week would certainly put more money in your own pocket
and significantly increase the amount of healthy food consumed.
There is a Takeaway vs Homemade foods nutrition comparison activity on page 66
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Appendix C:
Recipes
Educators’ Resource
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Easy Pizzas
Serves: 6
Time: 20 mins
Ingredients:
5 pieces Lebanese bread
½-1 cup of tomato passata
(cooking sauce)
1 capsicum
Equipment:
• Sandwich press
• Spoon
• Knife
• Plate
1½ cups grated cheese
1 tomato
5 tablespoons basil, oregano
or thyme
Method:
1.Turn on the sandwich press, or preheat oven to 175ºC. Place one piece of Lebanese bread on a plate or chopping board (this is your pizza base).
2.Chop tomato and capsicum into cubes
3.Spread tomato sauce over the base of the pizza.
4.Sprinkle ¼ cup of grated cheese over the sauce.
5.Place toppings on the pizza. Add more cheese if you like.
6.Place on sandwich press and close lid until just above the pizza. The heat from the top will melt the cheese and the heat from the bottom will make the pizza base crispy. Or place on an oven tray in the oven for 5-10mins or until the cheese melts.
7.When the cheese is melted and the base is crispy it is ready (will only take about 4-5
minutes to cook).
8.Serve immediately.
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Yummy Wraps
Serves: Makes approx 32 pieces
Time: 10 mins
Ingredients:
1 packet of tortillas or wrap bread
200g reduced fat cream cheese
3 medium carrots
1 cucumber
Equipment:
• Knife
• Chopping board
• Grater
• Toothpicks
1 Cos or Iceberg lettuce
200g alfalfa sprouts
1 avocado
Method:
1.Grate the carrot, shred the lettuce & slice the cucumber into thin strips
2.Place 1 piece of flatbread onto the chopping board and spread cream cheese
in a strip down the middle
3.Cover the cream cheese with some avocado, alfalfa, carrot, cucumber & finally, lettuce
4.Roll the flatbread up to enclose the filling
5.Cut into 4 pieces, place a toothpick in each roll & serve
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Pizza Scrolls
Makes: 12
Time: 15 mins preparation, 50 mins cooking
Ingredients:
Equipment:
Dough:
Toppings:
Baking tray
300g (2 cups) self raising flour
pinch of salt
90g butter, cut into cubes
175 mL (3/4) milk (reduced fat)
Choose any of your favourite
pizza toppings, eg:
Ham and pineapple
Marinated olive, eggplant and
sundried tomato
Leftover roast or grilled veges
Fresh veges; tomato,
capsicum, mushroom, onion,
spinach
Salami, tuna, cooked chicken
or beef
Fresh or dried herbs (oregano,
basil, rosemary etc
80g (1 cup) grated cheese
Sieve
Sauce:
Choose one of the following:
60g (1/4 cup) pizza/pasta
sauce OR;
tomato paste;OR
tinned tomato
60g (1/4 cup) pesto
60g (1/4 cup) bbq sauce
Mixing bowl
Rolling pin (optional)
Knife
Chopping board or clean
bench
Method:
1.Turn oven to 200 C. Line a baking tray with non-stick baking paper.
2.Sift the flour and salt into a large mixing bowl. Use your fingertips to rub the butter and flour together until it looks like breadcrumbs.
3.Add the milk to the mixture and cut into the mixture using a butter knife to bring the ingredients together.
4.When the dough is beginning to come together, turn the mixture out onto a clean surface or chopping board and gently knead until a smooth dough forms. If you knead it too much the dough will become rock-hard when cooked.
5.Use a rolling pin, or your hands to press the dough into a thin, flat rectangle. Cover the
dough with your chosen sauce and toppings, leaving a 2cm border around the edge.
Sprinkle with cheese.
6.Starting from a long side, roll the rectangle up carefully to form a log. Brush or rub a little
extra milk over the last edge and press down firmly to seal. Use a knife to cut even sized
slices (about 2cm thick) off the log.
7.Lay the slices on the baking tray and bake for 20-30 minutes or until golden. Serve hot or cold.
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Hummus
Serves: 6
Time: 15 mins
Ingredients:
For Basic Hummus:
Equipment:
Optional Extras:
1 tin chick peas
pepper
juice of 1 lemon
1-2 tablespoons
tahini paste
pinch salt
1 teaspoon cumin
2 cloves garlic
diced fresh chilli
or cayenne pepper
• Knife
• Chopping board
• Stick mixer, blender or food processor
• Teaspoon
• Bowl
1 teaspoon coriander
Method:
1.Drain and rinse chick peas, peel the garlic
2.Combine chick peas, salt, cumin, half the garlic, approx 1 Tablespoon of lemon juice and
2 Tablespoons of water in a bowl or food processor
3.Blend until smooth
4.Taste, and add more lemon juice, garlic and any extras. Add more water until it is the right
thickness (thicker to spread, thinner to dip)
5.Serve sprinkled with cumin, pepper or paprika, or garnished with fresh parsley or coriander
6.Serve topped with cheese
Some ways to use hummus:
Tips and tricks:
• Serve as a dip with a selection of sliced fresh vegetables such as carrot, capsicum, celery, snow peas, cucumber, broccoli, and cauliflower
• Use as a sandwich spread or in hamburgers, burritos etc
• Home made hummus can be kept in a container in the fridge for up to 1 week, or frozen
for up to 3 months
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Kangaroo Bolognaise
Serves: 6
Time: 15 mins
Ingredients:
For Basic Bolognaise:
Optional Extras:
1 onion, diced
½ cup red lentils, rinsed
2 cloves garlic
finely chopped
1 zucchini, grated
500g kangaroo mince
¼ cup Red Wine
200g mushrooms, chopped
2 tins diced tomatoes
2 tablespoons
tomato paste
1 carrot, finely grated
pinch salt and pepper
½ tspn sugar
1 tablespoon chopped
fresh basil, OR
1 teaspoon dried basil
or oregano)
Method:
1.Heat 1 teaspoon of oil in a pot, add onion and garlic, and cook until onion becomes soft
2.Add the carrot (and zucchini, if using) and fry for 2-3 mins
3.Add the tinned tomatoes, tomato paste, herbs, salt, pepper and sugar and bring to the boil. (Add the lentils, if using)
4.Boil gently for as long as you can (15mins for a chunky sauce; up to 5 hours for a smoother sauce). Add the mushrooms in the last 10 mins (if using)
Some ways to use bolognaise:
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Minestrone Soup
Serves: 6
Time: 30 mins
This entire recipe contains approx:
16 Serves of Vegetables
2 Serves of Breads and Cereals
Ingredients:
1 tablespoon oil
1 medium brown onion
1 clove garlic
1 can crushed/diced
tomatoes (400g)
1 can of your favourite
beans (300g-400g)
(four bean mix, borlotti
beans, red kidney beans,
cannellini beans etc)
1 bay leaf
1 tablespoon tomato paste
4 cups beef, chicken or
vegetable stock
(salt reduced)
½ cup small pasta
(e.g. small shells)
2 cups of chopped
vegetables, choose a
selection of the following
(fresh, frozen or canned):
Hard Veg:
Carrot
Celery
Parsnip
Broccoli
Cauliflower
Potato
Soft Veg:
Mushrooms
Cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Spinach
Peas
grated cheese to serve
(optional)
Equipment:
• Knife
• Chopping board
• Saucepan
Method:
1.Chop vegetables into even sized pieces. Finely chop garlic, dice onion.
Drain and rinse the canned beans
2.Cook onion and garlic with a little oil until onion becomes clear
3.Add any hard vegetables, stock, bay leaf, tomatoes, tomato paste, tinned tomato & 2 cups water and boil for 10 minutes
4.Add the pasta, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes (or until pasta is almost cooked)
5.Add any soft vegetables and beans and heat for 5 minutes
6.Remove the bay leaf, sprinkle with grated cheese and serve with crusty bread
Tips and tricks:
• Stretch this recipe by adding more of your favourite ingredient
(i.e. extra veges or another tin of beans)
• Make your own stock by placing a chicken carcass (from leftover roast or BBQ chicken) in
a saucepan with enough water to cover the bones. Boil for 2-3 hours. Strain, allow to
cool, and then use a spoon to remove the fat floating on top. Use within 3-4 days.
Homemade stock is much healthier and practically free!
• Soup or leftover stock can be frozen for up to 4 months
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