Recording the Frank Sinatra "OL` BLUE EYES IS BACK"

Recording the Frank Sinatra "OL` BLUE EYES IS BACK"
` e/p
VOLUME
4 NUMBER 5
SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER
Recording the Frank Sinatra
TV Special and album:
"OL' BLUE EYES IS BACK"
RELATING RECORDING SCIENCE
TO RECORDING ART
TO RECORDING EQUIPMENT
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Altec,
we challenge you.
Any company that achieves a position of leadership must be prepared to
meet the challenge of innovation. In the recording industry, this is a particularly
crucial factor because constantly evolving musical material demands
-
ever newer and better recording techniques.
For nearly 30 years, one name has dominated the studio monitor market.
Altec. In 1973, Altec had more than twice as many speakers in recording studio
use in the U.S. than its nearest competitor. And nearly as many as all
other brands combined. (Source: Billboard's 1973 International Directory of
Recording Studios.) That's leadership without question.
Now someone is about to challenge that leadership. Us.
Our first step: introduce three all -new monitor loudspeakers. They're a
whole new breed, designed for tomorrow's recordings. And they exceed the
performance characteristics of every monitor ever made. Including Altec's.
They're packed with improvements and specs guaranteed to satisfy the
goldenest of ears. Improved accuracy and definition. Better transient response.
Flatter frequency response. Greater bandwidth. Greater power handling.
And much more.
Add to all that our 37 -plus years in the field of sound reproduction, and we
think we're ready to challenge the leader.
Even if we have to do it ourselves.
AL.TLG
fáe aund of experi9
z
.
1515 S. Manchester
Anaheim, Calif. 92803
The challengers.
From front to back, it's the 9849A, the
If you listen for a
living, you should know more about them.
Write or call. We'll send you all the
facts and figures.
9846 -8A and the 9848A.
Circle No. 101
Re/p 3
ED
t,
"COMPLIMIiER ""
PERFORMANCE: The SPECTRA SONICS Model 610 "COMPLIMITER "TM
czn accomplish,
independently or simultaneously, limiting and compression functions with performance that is unequalled
by most linear ampl.-jiers. The minimal noise irherent in this system assures a low threshold of -40dBM and
permits an input sersitivity substantially greater than other systems. Through the use of the most advanced
circuitry, the Model 610 "COMPLIMITER "TM has the fastest attack time (100 nanoseconds to 2 microseconds). The "COIVIPLIMITER "TM allows undistorted recording and transmission at levels that are
measurably higher than those commonly in use. In tape recording, for example, this "limit ng only" mode
eliminates approximately 6dB usually set aside for tape overload protection.
RELIABILITY: The extensive
of the "COMPLIMITER "TM in the audio industry con=irms the highest
order of confidence in reliable, consistent operation.
use
-
Today's competiticn can only be met through the most advanced designs
"Beyond The State Of The
Art." For more information on audio products of superior performance contact SPECTRA SON ICS at:
770 Wall Avenue
Ogden, Utah 8440e(801) 392 -7531
6430 Sunset Blvd., Suite 1117
Hollywood, Calif. 90028
(213) 461 -4321
P[[TUH TONICS
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IN
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RECORDING
engineer/ producer
-
-
the magazine to exclusively serve the
all those
recording studio market
whose work involves the recording
of commercially marketable sound.
...
..
SEPTEMBER /OCTOBER 1973
VOLUME 4 - NUMBER 5
the magazine produced to relate
RECORDING ART to RECORDING
to RECORDING EQUIPSCIENCE
MENT.
.
...
Editor /Publisher.... MARTIN GALLAY
WAYNE YENTIS
Associate Editor
RON MALO
Engineering Editors
WILLIAM ROBINSON
GARY DAVIS
Business Manager
V.L. GAFFNEY
Circulation Manager
D.S. WI LLIAMS
Art Director ...DENNIS LEATHERMAN
Recording the
FRANK SINATRA
TV SPECIAL and ALBUM
interviews with
MGM's ED GREENE
and GOLDWYN'S
DON MACDOUGALL
15
Wayne Yentis
MASTERING FOR
TAPE DUPLICATION
25
Peter Butt
THE
TUBE VS TRANSISTOR
CONTROVERSY
35
Russell O. Hamm
.
RECORDING engineer /producer is published bi- monthly and is sent free to
qualified recipients in the United States.
Subscriptions for other than qualified
individuals or companies may be purchased at $5.00 per year. (All foreign
subscriptions: $6.00 per year.) Material
appearing in R -e/p may not be reproduced without written permission of the
Publisher.
Letters and Late News 8
RECORDING engineer /producer is
responsible for any claim made by
person based upon the publication
RECORDING engineer/producer of
terial submitted for publication.
Notes on Demagnetizing 13
not
any
by
New Product News 43
ma-
Classified 51
about the cover:
circulation postage paid at
Los Angeles, California.
RECORDING engineer /producer
6430 Sunset Boulevard
Controlled
FRANK SINATRA as
portrayed in bronze
by renowned sculptor
ROBERT BERKS
P.O. Box 2287
Hollywood, Ca. 90028
(213) 461 -7907
4.
Circle No. 102
Re/p 7
LETTERS
and LATE NEWS
q05
Pin
i<105 Pin 5
From the
1005 Pin
READERS
An editorial material rating of
002 131n 5
the most useful feature article, as
gathered from the Reader Service
Cards received prior to press time.
o
4
8
emove
wire from Pin 17, KI05
And conned here
Conned This wiry to vacated
Pin 17, K1o5
JULY /AUGUST ISSUE:
-o
Cue
I'M OKAY
OKAY...
YOU'RE OKAY ..
.
by Gary Davis
34.1%
A SIMPLE LOW -PASS FILTER
by Wayne Yentis
10.5%
CREATIVE MIXING FOR BETTER
DISC MASTERING
(v Kulka, MacLeod, Malo
50.8%
A MODIFIED EDITING FUNCTION
FOR THE SCULLY 280/284
SERIES DECK
by Peter Butt
04.6%
FROM:
Dave Michelson
Production Supervisor
Bonneville Program Services
Bonneville International Corp.
As an alternative to the suggested
modification for the Scully 280 editing
function by Peter Butt, I would like to
contribute the enclosed schematic which,
I believe, is a more practical solution to
the problem for the non -motion sense
machines.
This system adds one more button to
the transport, ala the old Presto, the best
editing machine ever built, for cue function. Thus the edit -spill function is
As the industry has grown, so
has the demand for larger and
larger tape systems. Unfortunately
the number of tracks increases,
the signal to noise, cross -talk, etc.,
gets worse. And if that's not bad
enough, the price of a 24 track
machine is almost double that of
a 16 track.
A few years ago people started
to consider the benefits of synchronizing multi -track machines.
The result? The birth of a new
generation of tape synchronizing
equipment. The advantages are obas
Re/p 8
o-
vious: unlimited track expansion
with great audio specs! The cost?
About half the price of a 16 track.
Our basic system features
SMPTE Generator, Reader, and
Synchronizer. Operating in conjunction with the TCS Reader, the
TCS Synchronizer provides the requisite speed up or down error signals to capstans that can be either
AC Synchronous or DC Servo controlled. The TCS Generator is NTSC
Circle No. 103
retained on one button, not two (edit
and start), and cue control is on its
own button.
Installation of this button is best
made 2- inches to the right of the existing edit button where, conveniently enough, Scully has seen fit to pre-punch
the transport plate for easy installation.
All one need do is drill a hole through the
pot-metal face cover.
The necessary relay installation can
also go in a factory pre -punched hole to
the right of the existing relays on the
transport chasis.
I hope this idea may be of some
benefit to your readers.
or PAL data rate selectable. A provision for optional data display and
lever -wheel code preset allows
SMPTE hours, minutes, seconds
and frames to be read and /or preselected. Optional accessories offered include a Motor Drive Amplifier and "Search and Find"
match -up system.
The Synchronization Generation has arrived
and it's about
time!
-
*TCS-Time Code Synchronizing
System
QUAD /EIGHT ELECTRONICS
Pete Butt's reply:
Mr. Michelsons' alternative approach
to modification of the Scully 280 EDIT
mode is quite applicable to the non motion -sense models. It appears to grow
a
little more complicated when applied
to motion -sense models, however.
I can only blame my neglect of Mr.
Michelsons' method upon my reluctance
to drill holes and to my parsimonious
nature.
In addition, working with both types
of decks, I wanted a single modification
procedure equally applicable to both
types of machines.
HAECO & CBS ANNOUNCE CROSSLICENSING OF CSG AND QUADRATURE EQUIPMENT
In a recent announcement, Howard
Holzer, President of HAECO, and Benjamin Bauer, Vice President of CBS
Labs., announced the cross-licensing of
the patent rights for Holzer's CSG (Compatible Stereo Generator) and a similar
device known as the CBS Quadrature.
Both devices are utilized to combine
stereophonic mixes to a mono program
with near-perfect aesthetic balance without a rerun( session. The Holzer CSG unit
was introduced late in 1967 and the CBS
unit some time later. The HAECO CSG
will also produce encoded stereophonic
discs or tapes which can be combined to
mono at any time by merely combining
UREI APPOINTS WARRANTY REPAIR
REPRESENTATIVE
Associated Sound Systems, 5558 Cahuenga Blvd., North Hollywood, California 91601 has been appointed exclusive
Factory Authorized repair station for
both warranty and non -warranty service
of UREI, Universal Audio and Teletronix
products, according to D.F. (Bud) Morris,
UREI vice president and general manager.
Associated Sound Systems, headed by
Michael Ragsdale and Michael Levey, has
for several years performed contract electronic maintenance for recording and
film studios in the greater Los Angeles
area, which has already gained them wide
experience in servicing UREI equipment
at the end user level. During the past six
months, Associated personnel have received extensive test and calibration
training at the UREI factory, and have
been performing warranty and non -warranty service on all UREI products for
the past four months.
According to Morris, the shifting of
customer repair service from the factory
to Associated will provide expedited handling of warranty and non -warranty repairs, with no compromise in quality of
workmanship.
For prompt service, units requiring
repair should now be sent directly to
Associated Sound Systems, rather than
the factory. Telephone inquiries regarding service should be to Mike Levey,
(213) 985 -9200.
sole.
MCI, INC. OF FT. LAUDERDALE ANNOUNCES WEST COAST DEALERS
Mr. G.C. (Jeep) Harned, president of
MCI, Inc., has announced the appointment of two new dealers for MCI's line of
professional recording equipment. The
dealerships were awarded to Audio Industries of Hollywood, California, and
Quad -Eight Electronics of North Hollywood, California. Both companies will
represent MCI in southern California.
MCI is one of the few professional
audio manufactures that manufactures
both recording consoles and tape machines. MCI's newest product includes
the JH -100 transport with DC capstan
servo drive. This new tape deck is part of
Money talks
All Solid State OP Amp
144 Patch Points
Studio Talkback
2 Cue Systems
Pan Pots on each input
Conductive Plastic Linear Attenuators
Compact Size: 28 x 48 x 15
inches
DB
Frequency Response: +
20
20,000 Hz.
De-
sign
Sixteen Track, Wet Monitor Dry Record, Monitoring
Nine Frequency Equalization
(Low- Mid -High) on each input
Plus 29 dbm headroom
Distortion less than 0.1 % at
rated output
20 VU Meters
WHETHER YOU'RE SPENDING IT, OR SAVING IT
6636 BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA 35210 PHONE (205) 591 -4000
-
1
AZE
That's why it makes good dollar sense to consider the
1008 -16 console for your operation. It's a completely professional 16 in -16 out unit with features you can't believe
possible in a $9500 console. There are no extras to buy
and no hidden costs.
P.O. DOX
MCI's JH -16 and JH -24 tape machine.
the two channels together. Under the
terms of the agreement, CBS will make
available (in their own studios only) the
use of CSG's or Quadrature units to anyone desirous of availing themselves of
these time and money saving devices.
HAECO will also provide CSG units on a
daily rental, or long-term lease basis to
any recording studios. Neither HAECO
nor CBS has any plans to market these
units in the immediate future. Aside
from the stereophonic CSG units, HAECO will also be leasing a CSG -4 which
will permit discrete quadraphonic program mixes such as CD -4 to be combined
into near-perfect stereo and mono mixes
without going back to the mixing con-
CORPORATION
OFFICES AND WAREHOUSE,
.
514 ALTON ROAD BIRMINGHAM. ALABAMA
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Re/p 9
DON FOSTER, PRO -AUDIO PIONEER
SUCCUMBS
John Donald Foster (1910 - 1973):
Most R -e /p readers will remember Don
Foster as the author in recent issues of
several excellent audio research and recording applications articles. Regretfully,
only a few knew him more deeply as the
finest kind of human being, as well as a
truely innovative designer and engineer
of audio products, and during World War
II the inventor and developer of significant electronic ordinance devices.
A true broadcast pioneer, Foster was
one of the earliest radio sound -effects
men. The number of shows, only one of
which was the "Shadow" series, on which
he worked is legend.
A Columbia Broadcasting System employee for 20 years, Don was very much
involved in the technical evolution of
color television and video tape recording.
Among the major honors accorded
Don during his life was his selection to
supervise all audio and recording activities during President Eisenhower's tour
of India and Italy.
Don is survived by his wife and four
children.
BURNETT, KENNY ASSUME NEW 3M
MINCOM DIV DUTIES, RELOCATE TO
ST. PAUL HEADQUARTERS
Robert F. Burnett has been appointed to the new position of sales manager,
consumer /professional products of the
3M Company's Mincom Division.
Burnett had been market manager of
professional audio products in Camarillo,
California since 1970.
STITUTE OF AUDIO RESEARCH IN
NEW YORK NOVEMBER 15 - 18
A four day workshop exploring topics
of major importance and interest to
producers and arrangers will be presented
by the Institute of Audio Research, Inc.
Thursday, November 15 through Sunday,
November 18, in New York. The workshop will cover audio recording and
technology topics relevant to both the
producer and arranger.
Experts in the field will discuss automation and quadraphonics in a forum type conference with the students. Also,
the workshop will cover studio technology, monitoring, session preparation,
signal processing, control room techniques, stereo tape to disc transfer, and
microphones. Discussions on microphones will explore the characteristics, applications and techniques of recording
strings, horns, acoustical and electronic
I
instruments.
Thomas W. Kenny has been appointed
to the position of market manager, consumer /professional markets, Mincom Div,
3M Company.
Kenny joined 3M in 1961 as a service
representative at the Camarillo facility
and has held various sales positions within the Division since that time.
Both Burnett and Kenny will relocate
to 3M headquarters in St. Paul, Minn.
PRODUCERS
SHOP TO
BE
-
ARRANGERS WORKPRESENTED BY IN-
One day of the seminar will be spent
at Ultra-Sonic Recording Studios, 16
track fully Dolbyized facility in Hempstead.
Fee for the Producers - Arrangers
Workshop is $250.00. Course outline and
schedule are available by contacting Iry
Diehl, Institute of Audio Research, Inc.,
64 University Place, New York, N.Y.,
10003.
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF RECORDING ENGINEERS FORMED
The National Council of Recording
Engineers, or (NCRE) founded by engin-
fiore people
are ksar ¡ng things
our way!
-
Model 100 -A
Sonipulse Room
Equalization System
A. Model LA -3A
- Leveling Amplifier
- Cooper Time Cube
- Active Graphic
Equalizer
Model 1176LN - Limiting Amplifier
Model 565 - "Little Dipper" - Filtet
Set
Model BL -40 - Broadcast Limiter
B. Model 920-16
C. Model 527-A
D.
E.
F.
G. Model 963
- Digital Metronome
F.
NI
_,:
q
"MOD ONE"
Re/p 10
- Broadcast Console
eers from across the country, has recently been formed to: create an exchange
of ideas among engineers, encourage
manufacturers to live up to their claims,
evaluate equipment and disseminate results among members, provide manufac-
turers with a central forum for suggestion
or evaluation of new equipment ideas,
and intends to promote a higher state of
the art within the industry.
Membership is open to any professional working in the sound industry who
is not directly involved in the manufacturing or sale of equipment. The membership fee of $10 per year will be used
to cover printing and mailing costs for
the organizations frequent newsletters.
Requests for membership applications
should be sent to: NCRE, P.O. Box
8659, Universal City, Calif. 91608. Inquiries may be addressed to Larry Levine, A &M Records, 1416 N. LaBrea
Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 90028.
GARNICK ELECTED ELECTRO -VOICE
PRESIDENT, WOODBRIDGE NAMED
MARKETING EXECUTIVE
Philip Garnick has been elected president of Electro- Voice, Inc., a subsidiary
of Gulton Industries, Inc., it was announced today by Walter F. Gips, Jr.,
Gulton president and chief executive
officer.
Mr. Garnick succeeds Joseph Marks
who continues as a corporate Gulton
vice president.
Prior to joining Gulton as a corporate
group vice president in January, 1970,
Mr. Garnick's top management assignments included vice president of manufacturing operations with The Harvey
Group, Inc., and vice president of engineering and vice president of marketing
operations with Sigma Instruments, Inc.
He acquired his B.S. degree in electrical
engineering from Northeastern University, Boston, where he later returned for
graduate work in advanced mathematics.
He has designed and conducted a number
of industrial marketing courses and seminars.
Gulton Industries, Inc., Philip Garnick,
Electro -Voice president and a Gulton
corporate group vice president, announced today.
In making the announcement, Mr.
Garnick stated that Mr. Woodbridge will
have total responsibility for all marketing, sales, and related support activities
for Electro- Voice.
During the past three years, Mr. Woodbridge has been president of Gulton's
West Instrument Division.
BOOK REVIEW
Ideas, Inventions and Patents an Introduction To Patent Information, by David
Abernathy and Wayne Knipe. Pioneer
Press, Atlanta, Ga.
The authors' motivation for writing
this book was the realization that there
was no such book in existence. In dealing
with the process of patenting, the development of ideas in various stages of
development, we realize that there were
few books in print to help the beginner.
When an idea is developing into an
needs help, some
ó invention, the inventor
of which he ought to be able to provide
á for himself without having to ask an
m
attorney, patent agent or patent attorney. So we have tried to provide some
Jahleel D. Woodbridge has been ap- advice and facts to help an inventor,
pointed to the newly -created position of realizing that spending large sums of
executive vice president of marketing for money and a great deal of time will be
Electro- Voice, Inc., a major subsidiary of needed to perfect an invention and de-
More and more recording and broadcast people are
looking to UREI for innovative products to create and
control the hot new sounds of today's music. Many
UREI products have become standards in the industry.
Our solid state LA -3A Leveling and 1176LN Limiter
amplifiers outsell all other limiters put together. Our 565
"Little Dipper" filter cleans up problems of noise, hums,
whistles, etc., like nothing else will. Our 920 -16
"Cooper Time Cube" creates quad sound out of stereo,
stereo out of mono, or enhances volume simply and
economically. Our 100-A Sonipulse room equalization
system analyses frequency response over the full audio
spectrum in less than 3 minutes. Its companion, 527 -A
Active Graphic Equalizer, offers 27 precise 1/3 octave
equalizers from 40 Hz to 16 kHz for spectrum contouring or correction. Our new "Mod One" Broadcast Console is a modest cost little beauty with off-the -shelf
plug in modules and features not found in most small
consoles. It can be budget minded to fit present requirements and yet expandable for the future.
Contact us for complete technical specifications of all
products listed.
cep those cards .m.o.,
11.
Es
letters coming!
Circle No. 106
11922 Valerio Street, No. Hollywood, California 91605
(213) 764 -1500
Exclusive export agent: Gotham Export Corporation, New York
Re/p
71
velop it to the patentable stage.
Questions about inventions and patents answered by this book: How can I
get a patent? Who can patent? What is a
patent? Why should I patent? How can I
find a patent attorney? What is a patent
agent? Will a copyright protect my idea?
How long does a patent last? How can I
make money from a patent? How long
does it take to get a patent? When
should I start to patent? How do I know
if my idea has been patented? How many
types of patents are there?
and many more
Available from R -e /p Books
118 Pages, soft cover, $5.55 postpaid. Prepaid orders only. Send check or
money order to RECORDING engineer/
producer, P.O. Box 2287, Hollywood,
Ca. 90028
:
POLYDOR AWARD BREAKS WITH
TRADITION, THE `GOLDEN GRAMAPHONE' TROPHY AWARDED TO BERLINER FAMILY
The Golden Gramophone trophy, normally awarded only to outstanding recording artists, has recently been presented (September 18 in Hamburg) by
the Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft
division of Polydor Records to Oliver
Berliner, grandson of Emile Berliner,
founder of DGG and inventor of the
microphone, the disc record, the disc
dbx216
provides
player and the method of mass -producing
discs from a single master. At a televised
celebration in the Congress Center in
Hamburg, whose keynote speaker was
Dr. Gustav Heinemann, President of Germany, Mr. Berliner accepted for the
Berliner family the tribute to his grandfather. The trophy is a gold 1/3 -scale
precise replica of Emile Berliner's original
production "gramophone" (Berliner also
coined the word).
This discussion appears courtesy of
the R.B. Annis Co., Indianapolis, Inc.
NOTES ON DEMAGNETIZING
Magnetic tape recording mechanisms,
like a majority of other modern technological gadgets, comprise an assemblage
of many materials. Predominant among
16 channels of noise reduction in seven
inches of rack space. The system improves
headroom by 10dB and delivers 30dB of
noise reduction. Simultaneous code, decode
and bypass functions can be selected at the
panel or by remote control. Price, including
a spare 310D module, is $8,200.
Available from professional audio dealers
or direct from dbx, Incorporated, 296 Newton Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154.
d
Re/p 12
Circle No. 107
their important working parts is most
apt to be that ubiquitous and versatile
alloy of iron called steel.
Steel is chosen because it is inherently
strong, it can be readily worked into
many useful forms and it is relatively
cheap. Sometimes it is chosen because
of its superior magnetic permeability, the
ability to "conduct" magnetism some
thousands of times better than any other
common material. This property is used
to advantage in all kinds of electromagnetic equipment such as transformers, relays, electric motors and tape
recording heads.
Steel for such electro- magnetic components is not only designed for high
orders of permeability, but it must also
be magnetically "soft" as well, with a
very low value of "magnetic memory"
or retentivity. In other words, when the
influence of any magnetizing force is
removed, such magnetically "soft" steel
retains a very small amount of magnetism
as a residual.
In contrast to the above "soft" magnetic steels, there exists a wide variety of
magnetically "hard" steels. These are
usually more highly alloyed, they may be
heat treated or perhaps work-hardened
for strength, wear resistance or hardness
etc., wherever superior mechanical characteristics are necessary.
Such magnetically hard materials have
a somewhat lesser ability to conduct magnetism but have a relatively good "magnetic memory ". Should magnetically
hard steel be exposed to magnetism,
even if only for a fraction of a second, it
will "remember" the exposure by retaining a fair portion of the original
magnetism, becoming a secondary source
of magnetism in its own right, acting
somewhat like a permanent magnet.
There are all shadings of magnetically
soft to magnetically hard steels, with
most mechanical components such as
capstans, guides, rollers and springs falling in the middle to hard range so as to
obtain superior mechanical strength and
wear characteristics.
Unfortunately, but naturally the magnetic coating on recording tape is very
sensitive to extraneous magnetism inasmuch as the recorded signal itself is only
a modulation of the residual magnetism
retained in the thin layer of magnetic
coating compound. Exposure to subsequent magnetic fields of any consequence
degrades the recorded signal. This degradation is proportional to the strength
of such subsequent magnetic field exposure and somewhat to the number of
times the tape is played or "wiped"
across such fields. Degradation is noticeable as a loss or attenuation of the higher recorded frequencies as well as a
noticeable increase in unwelcome background noise, which can amount to several dB.
bx,nc.
Steel capstans and guides, usually being made of hard magnetic materials, are
often major offenders in retaining unwanted magnetism which tends to degrade the recorded signal every time a
tape is played.
Some tape recorders and magnetic
sound projectors etc. are inherently bad
actors because of "built in" extraneous
magnetism in the tape transport area. In
such equipment (and nameplates don't
always mean too much), capstans and
other tape transport components will be
found to be rather highly magnetized
and tend to stay that way in spite of
any normal demagnetizing procedure.
One of the most common causes of
such high levels of stubborn magnetism
in components is due to their close
proximity to an unshielded dynamic loud
speaker. Such a speaker is one that has an
external permanent magnet, located on
the outside of the field structure. This
type of field construction generates full
magnetic potential between the front and
rear of the speaker assembly, creating a
strong and extensive stray magnetic field
area that can induce high values of undesirable magnetism in any steel tape
transport components located in the area.
Such loud speakers are o.k. in themselves
but their extensive stray field is "poison"
in magnetic recording gear. This is in
contrast to dynamic type speakers where
the field magnet is internal, contained
within a steel pot-like structure where
most of the magnetic potential appears
across the annular voice -coil gap, where
it should appear.
Beware of any magnetic sound equipment having built in loud speakers with
external magnet type fields that radiate
stray magnetism all over the place. These
are easily checked with a pocket magnetometer before you buy. If you already
have one, the only permanent cure is to
remove the offending speaker to a more
remote location or replace it with one of
the internal magnet, self- shielding type
speakers. After making this change, you
can then demagnetize the tape transport
components with every hope of success.
Some portable recorders have permanent
magnet field type drive motors that are
efficient from the standpoint of conservation of battery power, but they
radiate a rather strong stray magnetic
field which, in some cases, encompasses
the tape transport area.
There are many, other sources of magnetism that can directly or indirectly
magnetize steel tape recorder components. Every time an electric current flows,
a magnetic field is generated. The intensity of this field is proportional to
the amount of current flowing. Whenever
switching is done in an inductive circuit
there is a random chance of creating a
"switching surge" which causes a momentary high current peak. Capacitors, often
employed in electronic circuits, can also
create high peak charging currents. Often
the circuitry includes a multiple turn
coil where the magnetic effect of the
current is multiplied in proportion to the
number of turns. Any steel within the
area of such field will become magnetized, a portion of which will be retained as residual magnetism. Care should
also be taken not to bring magnetized
tools or other magnetic devices near
steel tape recorder components. Even the
effect of the earth's magnetic field should
not be discounted. This source of magnetism is ever with us. Remember - the
mariners magnetic compass is actuated
entirely by just the horizontal component of force created by the earth's field.
Typical for most of the U.S.A., the
vertical component of the earth's magnetic field is considerably stronger than
the horizontal component, due to the
fact that the field dips down about 70
degrees toward the north. This steep
angle of dip is due not only to curvature
of the earth's surface but also to the
fact that the effective magnetic pole area
of the earth is displaced and located
considerably below the surface.
continued on page 54
What you need is a console
that works when you
get it.
That's the
a
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ouditronics. inc.
Box 12637
Memphis, Tenn. 38112
(901) 276 -6338
P. O.
Circle No. 108
Re/p 13
If you want to lay down
a 113 dB signal*
flat from 28 to 18,000 Hz,
radiating through an angle of 120°
the SENTRY III is it.
On the other hand,
if you need 4 dB more level
on axis, and are willing to
give up just 22 Hz of bass consider
the SENTRY 'IVA.
*4'
on axis with just 50 watts, with
optional SEQ Active Equalizer. Response
without equalizer, 40- 18,000 Hz.
Both monitor systems share the same mid -range
and high frequency speaker components. Both
have tweeter protector circuits bui!It ün to save the
systems from inadvertent damage. The Sentry IVA
uses a dual- speaker, horn- Roaded bass end for
efficiency. The Sentry Ill uses a single speaker in
a
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Gabon
C O M P A N Y
ELECTRO- VOICE, INC., Dept.
Re/p 14
vented enclosure for extended range.
Sentry Ill. Sentry IVA. The two best ways to
recreate the actual sound pressure sensations and
response range of live music ... in the studio or
in demanding sound reinforcement installations.
From the innovators at E -V.
a
Cecil Street, Buchanan, Michigan 49107
Circle No. 109
931 RP, 674
Recording the Frank Sinatra
TV Special and Album:
OL' BLUE EYES IS BACK!
Interviews with MGM Recording's Ed Greene
and Samuel Goldwyn Studio's Don MacDougall
by: WAYNE YENTIS
RAINBOW RECORDING
SANTA BARBARA, CA.
Ed Greene
The T.V. Special
Frank Sinatra's albums mean something to everyone, and
his return to the recording studio, after several years of
retirement, is of special significance in gaining perspective on
the changes and developments in the recording arts. The
Warner/Reprise album release "01' Blue Eyes Is Back ", is
backed by a companion TV Special by the same name sponsored by Magnavox, featuring stage productions of some of
the same songs recorded on the album. The TV production
involved recording a similar orchestral set -up and arrangement
as the album recording, but in a different studio, with
different equipment, with different engineers and crews, and
with the additional requirement of being coordinated with
television production. Ed Greene, Director of Engineering
of MGM Recording Studios in Hollywood, was responsible
for audio end result for both productions; and, although he
didn't do the actual recording of the album sessions, he did
the mixing of both productions at the MGM Recording
Studios.
R -elp: You did two sessions, one the record album, and then
the TV special. There are different approaches in recording
each, and it would be interesting to discuss these differences.
ED GREENE: I think it would be better for me to concentrate on the TV show rather than the album. I didn't record
the album, I remixed it. It was recorded at Samuel Goldwyn
Studios by a very fine mixer named Don MacDougall. They
really wanted the feeling of that particular room at Goldwyn
for the album. The TV recording sessions, although similar in
many ways to the album, posed some very interesting additional problems. 16 track original recording was used on
both, the tracks were laid out similarly, and the orchestra
instrumentation was roughly the same, although the brass
section was expanded to accommodate some of the arrangements used for the TV show. The things that made it different from the recording sessions were the various feeds and
program mixes that were supplied from the audio truck to the
main TV truck, and the other interfacing elements. We had to
deal with a live audience, we had to accommodate the fact
that Mr. Sinatra was on a hand mike, lavalier and boom mikes,
and we had to do this over a physically large area. At the same
time, close communication had to be maintained with all the
production elements involved.
continued on page
16
Don MacDougall
The Album
Don MacDougall, the music scoring mixer at Samuel
Goldwyn Studios, engineered the recording sessions for the
record album. The recording studio, actually a vintage motion
picture scoring stage, was outfitted with equipment oriented
toward movie and TV production, and aside from a 16 track
reçording machine, the existing equipment was used.
DON MACDOUGALL: I was, well, not exactly apprehensive,
but terrified when I learned I was to do a session with
Frank Sinatra. The biggest thing was, that for the kind of
set up he wanted it was going to be difficult to accommodate
him. He had to be in the center of the stage in front of the
conductor, Gordon Jenkins for the most of the things (and
Gordon is lefthanded), so he had to see him from a different
perspective. I put him in the middle of the stage, which
could accommodate maybe 120 guys. I think the orchestra I
had was just around 45 men. The room we used here at
Goldwyn, Scoring Stage 7, has a unique history in that it was
built way back in the late 20's for Eddy Cantor. They recorded orchestra and chorus, singers, dancers, everything, and
they recorded them with 3 microphones. Historically, its a
very old stage, and as I understand it Frank Sinatra did
record there once before in the 50's. I think he did "Guys
and Dolls" there. He's done some other things there too, he
did an album with Lenny Hayton two or three years ago. To
my way of thinking the stage is probably the finest acoustical
room I've seen. It has a big music hall quality, yet if you
baffle it properly, it can be intimate enough to be a very
small room too.
R -elp: Were there any
particular problems with using the
stage audio equipment?
DON MACDOUGALL: One of the biggest problems I had
there was that the theater speakers that we have on the
scoring stage are tuned for theatrical release, so the high end
comes back off maybe at 9,000, and the bottom starts at
about 100, so you don't really know what you have on the 16
track. For playback, I went through a 16 track matrix and
over to a playback console on the stage. It wasn't ideal for
playback because that high end was gone, and with those big
Altec speakers out there you had to put so much through
them in order for them to respond adequately, that I was
kind of worried about distortion, but I never did hear any
continued on page 22
Re/p 15
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What's so great about it? First off, it's really
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Here's what you get:
S/N ratios at a consistent 72 dB at
mastering speeds on full track, .25 inch tapes.
Improved headroom and increased record
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Band widths are just about flat at -E-2dB, 30
Hz to 18 KHz. Tape handling is incredible. Our
new motion sensing system (OPTAC') gets rid
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transport's in PLAY.
Re/p 16
Maintenance is a snap, too. We got rid of all
the spaghetti and replaced it with plug in IC's.
And TTL logic for high reliability and low
power consumption. Test and adjustments are
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Individual channel modules come out easily.
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You can get all the specs (or a machine) by
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O Scully/Metrotech
Recording Divisions of Dictaphone
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Scully and OPTAC are vade marks of Dictaphone Corporation. Rye. New York.
truck; they put the truck together based
on the equipment we specified. Outboard
mixers and some microphone input multing expanded the Heider API board to
77 inputs used. We used two basic recording set -ups. One was used for live recording and the other for two dance segments. These were video pre- recorded
two days before the live show to audio
music track playback with half recorded,
half live vocal. This set -up is shown in
the block diagram A. The live recording
set -up is shown in block diagram B.
Marty Pasetta had outlined the programming he felt was required to cover
his post -production needs and these configurations were the result. The outputs
were used as shown with some gentle
buss limiting added to the rhythm and
sweetening by two Spectra Sonics limiters. Ampex 440 -4's were used for the
audio music track playback, and 3M
16 tracks recorded two different program
configurations. We could punch -up any
combination of program on the monitor
panel just to the right of the console.
In addition, this monitor system also
programmed three separate headphone
mixes for the major sections of the
orchestra: strings, rhythm, and winds
and brass. The output of this monitor
mix fed two UREI 1/3 octave filters,
Maclntosh power amplifiers and finally
two JBL 4310 speakers. The monitor
system was equalized to mixer position
using the UREI Sonipulse.
R -e /p: That's a significant difference.
ED GREENE: The idea was to try and
find microphones and suitable techniques
that would yield results similar to the
record.
What were some of the really
tough things you had to solve?
ED GREENE: The tough problems were
taken care of in alot of meetings before
the production. The director, Marty
Pasetta, not only knows audio but really
did his homework in all the problem
areas and got the right people together
so these were pretty well taken care of
by program time. You don't keep somebody waiting while you fix a buzz or
something, things have to be ready in
advance. Otherwise, an artist is not going
to feel comfortable, and the artist MUST
feel comfortable, he must feel that everything is straight ahead and ready. So we
really spent most of our time not operating the set -up, but simply setting it up,
by getting rid of those grounding problems, by having the light man go
through every cue he could imagine,
with all the mikes wide open. The name
of the game is to not have problems;
its preventative medicine. In addition,
Marty saw to it that we were covered in
about six different ways for about everything short of a power failure.
R -elp:
R -e/p: How about your choice
lot of auxiliary equipment. Did you
use most of this gear?
ED GREENE: We used everything in the
a
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o
Stri
Viol
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u87g
Violins
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o
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Guìlar5
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U.87
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Sony C31 FET's
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0
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Violins
Bel Is
666
K1+\'84
gq's
hand mike is that unless you stay on axis,
or keep the same angular and distance
relationship to it, you're going to have a
difference in sound illusion or quality.
With an "omni" you get much less of
that. That's one of the reasons for the
"omni ". Also, the KM -83 has no proximity effect; that is, there is no build -up
of the low end as you get close to the
microphone. So with some careful level
riding, it makes a pretty nice sound
against the orchestra. It's not a particularly unusual microphone, although
C4.51E
EV
o
R -e /p: Is the KM -83 the same microphone Mr. Sinatra used on the album?
ED GREENE: No, a U -67 was used on
the record, a cardioid used at some distance, about a foot and a half, so that
there was really little change of perspective if he moved around a little. But
the problem with using a cardioid as a
001%O Irums
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sin
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Vibes
the show. I originally shied away myself
from an "omni" just because you have to
work it a little closer. But in this case,
being the professional that he is, Mr.
Sinatra worked it just beautifully.
On the segment of the show that
required a lavalier we used an electret
Sony ECM -50, also an omni, because
its sound closely matched the KM -83.
The boom mikes, Sennheiser 415's
were not used during the live show, but
during the video pre-record two days
before.
Basses
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Percussion
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TV gp¢c0l
of mic-
rophones?
ED GREENE: The hand microphone that
we ended up with was a Neumann
KM -83, believe it or not, an omni mic-
R -elp: Wally's truck was equipped with
rophone. I hated to use the word "omni"
around people who weren't really technically oriented because right away they
said, "Omigod, that'll never work!" But,
in fact, it worked very well. We must
have tried 15 or 18 microphones and
came down to about 5 that we tried on
4]FEfs
o
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Conducfior
Re/p 17
TV SPECIAL,
13CKP INPUT ASSIGNMENTS
1
2
3
4
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5
6
7
8
9
Arco
Harp
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10
12
11
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5399
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13
14
15
16
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Try
with extreme separation is, although you
may end up with tracks that are ultra
separated, you lose a sense of "ensemble"; there's no orchestra left. It's
just bits and pieces. Frankly, I think
that show could have been recorded, not
as well, but very well, with maybe 3
microphones, just to pick it up as an
overall orchestra. I'm sorry that I didn't
have them available.
couldn't find
another one in town. So, we had one
flown in from New York as a backup.
The director didn't like the standard
black pop filter, so we used a dull
chrome grill from another microphone.
once we had chosen it we
R -e /p: What were the areas of concern in
dealing with the orchestra?
ED GREENE: Well, things like separation
You know, in this case we're dealing
with arrangements from some of the
best people around, and their arrangements lay pretty well, you know, listening to them live. What we had was pretty
much a good standard orchestra set -up.
It was generally set -up with strings, harp
and basses to the left, rhythm in the
center, and brass and woodwinds to the
right. It was changed several times, more
for logistical reasons than anything else.
As far as baffling is concerned, we set up
a plexiglas booth around the drums. That
was the only baffle we ended up with,
there were several others that were proposed but they either looked funny or
R -e /p:
Why, then, did you use this
plexi drum booth?
ED GREENE: There was just a little
splash into the harp and strings and
into the acoustic guitars in front of
the drums. It helped a lot to have that
partition there, particularly for the up
tempo songs with strings.
R -elp: Since you had some isolation on
the drums, did you use an elaborate
mike set-up?
ED GREENE: No, I used two microphones. The drummer played with a well balanced sound, that was Iry Cotler. It
wasn't a set -up like some of the rock
they just weren't necessary. The trouble
MCI INTRODUCES
A NEW STANDARD
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MJJO °
17
18
*
Lim
frank yet
OL-z1LJOE
ENTRY BUTTONS
PROVIDE INPUT TO LOCATE POSITION
MEMORY.
SHIFT BUTTON
SHIFT BUTTON
SHIFTS TAPE POSITION MEMORY DATA
INTO LOCATE POSITION.
SHIFTS LOCATE POSITION MEMORY
DATA INTO TAPE POSITION MEMORY.
TAPE POSITION MEMORY
GIVES CURRENT TAPE LOCATION IN
MINUTES AND HUNDREDTHS.
taee oowrr,on
LOCATE POSITION MEMORY
GIVES DESIRED TAPE LOCATION IN
MINUTES AND HUNDREDTHS.
RESET BUTTON
SETS TAPE POSITION MEMORY TO
ZERO.
RESET BUTTON
SETS LOCATE POSITION MEMORY TO
ZERO.
START BUTTON
STARTS AUTO-LOCATION PROCESS.
MASTER STATUS BUTTONS
SELECTS REPRODUCE, INPUT, AND
AUTOMATIC OVERDUB. NORMALLY IN
AUTO, TRACKS SWITCH FROM CUE TO
INPUT WHEN BROUGHT INTO RECORD.
IF INPUT AND AUTO ARE PRESSED,
TRACKS GO TO INPUT WHEN RECORD
READY IS SELECTED.
MOTION REMOTE
DUPLICATES DECK
CONTROLS
RECORD READY
SELECTS TRACKS TO BE BROUGHT
INTO RECORD BY PRESSING
RECORD BUTTON
CUE
SELECTS INDIVIDUAL CUE
STATUS FOR ANY CHANNEL
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
SIZE:
Re/p 18
JH -16
JH -16
JH -24
JH -24
CONSOLE
REMOTE
CONSOLE
REMOTE
- 33" Wide, 30" Deep, 45" High
- 111" Wide, 5" Deep, 8" High
- 47" Wide, 32" Deep, 45" High
- 11W' Wide, 5" Deep, 9" High
Circle No. 111
't
Frank
(Spare)
20
144
'Fmk
Lay,
things, where there'll be extra tom-toms
and things like that. It was just a very
straightforward set of drums. I used one
AKG C -451E above and an EV triple
six on the kick drum.
In the rhythm section, the Fender
bass was taken direct, and on the string
bass I used a Sony C -37FET just off the
instrument. Ray Brown, having played
that particular bass on many recording
dates, knew where that mike would
sound good. He gets a phenomenal sound
from his instrument anyway. All of the
musicians put out a really good sound.
The object there was to simply pick up
this good sound, and not try to manufacture anything. If there was an approach in miking and in pick-up, it was
that, to try and simply arrive at what was
there and not manufacture something in
any way, especially Mr. Sinatra. His
sound is not a manufactured sound, I
mean, that's him.
On acoustic guitars we used a pair of
Neumann U -87's which seemed to work
very well. On piano we used a U-87
under the lid, at half stick. There was a
THE AUTO- LOCATOR II USES SOPHISTICATED ARITHMETIC LOGIC TO ALLOW A VELOCITY
PROPORTIONED APPROACH TO BE MADE TO ANY ARBITRARY POINT, FROM ANYWHERE ON
THE TAPE, IN EITHER DIRECTION, IN REAL TIME, AND WITHOUT OVERSHOOT.
AND RELIABILITY
19
WEIGHT: JH -16 CONSOLE
JH -24 CONSOLE
- 405
- 575
lbs. (Shipped)
lbs. (Shipped)
RE 411
21
'arc
22
'Drums
24
23
yews
K
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25
27
28
29
30
VII,
VIt,V/c
WW"
Horns
26
Guí1A Guitar
óoanis
31
on
32
33
34
35
3é
Trum
Gdílar
Guilar
Piano
Celesle
E/13a5s
ioe15
8x55
39
38
37
Ke1Z
Top
Drums
40
Spare
Harp
celeste used on one tune. On that, we
used a pair of 666's; celestes have a
tendency to have little notes that ring
here and there, and using a pair of mikes
in parallel has a tendency to offset that a
little. On percussion we used A C -451 E
on the tympani, and two Sony C -37
FET's for the rest, vibes and bells, etc.
Originally, I planned to use just a few
microphones on the string section, but
because we were a little concerned with
the PA feeding into them and possible
feedback problems, I decided to go in a
little closer and use a mike for every
two chairs. There were 18 violins, the
first row had. U- 47FET's and the rest had
U -87's. The 6 violi had U-87's.
R -e /p: Why did you have U-47's in
front and U-87's in back?
ED GREENE: Really, they're all very
close in nature, the 47's just gave a
little bit of an edge to the first violins,
but they're all very close. The 47's
came up on the board separately so I had
some adjustment on them. In a couple
of the arrangements, it was necessary to
bring up the first violins separately. The
cello section had KM -84's, one for each
instrument, and the "arco" bass had an
M-50 Altec omni tucked -up in it. There
was a KM-84 on the harp, in this case,
about a foot and a half in front and on
the harpist's right side, close to the low
strings, but pointed toward the high
strings. The whole string section was on
two tracks; violins on one and all the
rest on the other.
In the brass section, there were a
pair of AKG C -414's on trombones, on
cardioid pattern set back a little so we
could get more of a section sound.
Remember, the idea was to try and get a
concert kind of sound. Again, if I had
my druthers, and if we'd had the tracks
available, I would have put up some
overall mixes. I think it would have been
a lovely sound.
different mikes, but it was more of a
studio set -up on the album, where there
was a little more baffling done in terms
of the brass and percussion sections. The
strings were very similar. The drum set
was a little more elaborate.
R -e /p: Getting back to the TV session,
was the orchestra on camera?
ED GREENE: There was a concert seg-
of miking
set -up used on the album recording date?
ED GREENE: Roughly. It was a little
different on the album; they used some
R -e /p: Was this the same kind
ment, yes, they were on camera for
that. However, we had no restrictions
concerning microphone replacement in
the orchestra. None at all. The orchestra
was large, with 51 pieces.
R -e/p: How did you mike the audience?
ED GREENE: There were 14 mikes for
the audience, which were pre -mixed and
came up on a single pot. The audience
was distributed around the stage and the
director did not want to see an audience
mike. He didn't mind orchestra mikes,
but audience mikes had to be out of
sight. We used EV DL42's interlaced
among the PA monitors way up in the
ceiling.
O
IJVnIILS
Jl°OO OO ONEWCD
PN 'QaaMOß`J
IMPEDENCE ROLLER
HAS A MAGNETIC CLUTCH TO
PERMIT DISENGAGING OF INERTIA
IN FAST MODES.
SOLID STATE POWER
CONTROL CIRCUITS AND I'LL LOGIC.
DYNAMIC BRAKING USED EXCLUSIVELY
EXCEPT FOR FAIL -SAFE AND IN EDIT,
WHERE BAND BRAKES ARE EMPLOYED.
QUICK CHANGE HEADS
FOR FAST ONE INCH TO TWO INCH CONVERSION
SERVO CONTROLLED REEL MOTORS
ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED A.C. TORQUE MOTORS
PROVIDE CONSTANT TAPE TENSION IN PLAY AND
VELOCITY SERVOED FAST MODES.
RUGGED DECK PLATE
MACHINED FROM HIGHLY STABLE W JIG PLATE.
REAL -TIME TACHOMETER
PROVIDES LINEAR TAPE TRAVEL INFORMATION FOR
THE REAL -TIME AUTO -LOCATOR. II
TAPE BREAK SENSOR
SENSES TAPE BREAK OR END OF TAPE OPTICALLY.
USES FOCUSED LIGHT EMITTING DIODE AND INFRA RED
SENSOR TO INSURE IMMUNITY TO ROOM LIGHT.
PHASE -LOCKED CAPSTAN MOTOR
PROVIDES THE ULTIMATE IN ACCURATE LONG TERM
TAPE SPEED. TAPE SPEED IS NO LONGER A FUNCTION OF
LINE VOLTAGE OR FREQUENCY.
CAPSTAN SHAFT MACHINED FROM EXTREMELY HARD
NON MAGNETIC CERAMIC MATERIAL.
(See also Reference and Speed Selectors)
MANUAL VELOCITY CONTROL
MACHINE IN STOP MODE
HOLDING JOYSTICK CAUSES TAPE TO SHUTTLE IN
EITHER DIRECTION AT ANY SPEED SELECTED WITH
TAPE ON HEADS.
MACHINE IN FAST MODE
THE FAST WIND SPEED SERVOS TO WHATEVER SPEED
THE JOYSTICK COMMANDED WHEN LAST TOUCHED.
REFERENCE SELECTOR
a ±20% variation i
the tape speed.
FIXED - Provides a Crystal Controlled
Reference Frequency for the Capstan Senn
EXTERNAL - Provides wide range speed
control using ±5 volt external control signal.
Permits interface for Audio -Audio and
Audio -Video Lockup Equipment.
VARIABLE - Permits
EDIT BUTTON
LIFTING TAPE OUT OF TAPE BREAK SENSOR AND
PRESSING EDIT BUTTON CAUSES CAPSTAN TO RUN
AND RIGHT REEL TO STOP.
EDIT BUTTON ALWAYS LOWERS SHIELD INTO
LOCKED" POSITION.
TAPE SPEED
IN VARIABLE MODE.
BOTTOM KNOB SELECTS TAPE SPEED
MANUAL LIFTER CONTROL
PROVIDES MANUAL CONTROL OF TAPE
LIFTER. SHIELDS WILL LOWER WHEN
LIFTER IS OPERATED MANUALLY.
SPECIFICATIONS
TAPE WIDTH AND HEAD
CONFIGURATION
One Inch
Two Inch
Two Inch
-
-
8
Tracks
16 Tracks
24 Tracks
TAPE TENSION
6 Oz. at All Play Speeds
±2% for Line Variations from
105 to 140 Volts AC
TAPE SPEEDS
15 1. P. S.
30 1. P. S.
LONG TERM SPEED STABILITY
(Beginning to End of Tape)
Less than 10 Hz. Change of
15 KHz Recorded Tone
FLUTTER AND WOW
(15 and 30 I.
P. S.)
Less than .05%
Peak (DIN)
Less than .1%
Weighted
Unweighted
Peak (DIN)
START TIME
.3 Seconds at 15
I.
P. S.
.6 Seconds at 30 I. P. S.
REEL SIZES
6" to 10.5" NAB Hubs
-
REWIND TIME
(For 2,400' Reel)
85 Seconds
SHIELD BUTTON
LOWERS SHIELD BUT REMOVES "LOCK". SHIELD THEN
COMES UP WHEN PLAY OR STOP IS DEPRESSED.
TOP KNOB PROVIDES "="20% VARIATION
OF 15 OR 30 I.P.S.
JH -100
AUTOMATIC TAPE
LIFTERSB,SHIELOS
OPERATE AS THE
MACHINE CHANGES
MODES.
RECORD BUTTON
PUSHING RECORD WHILE IN PLAY PUTS SELECTED
CHANNELS INTO RECORD.
PUSHING PLAY WHILE IN RECORD TAKES MACHINE
OUT OF RECORD.
Circle No. 112
4007 N.E. 6th AVENUE
FORT LAUDERDALE, FLA. 33308
(305) 566 -2853
Re/p 19
R -elp: Did you handle the PA system?
ED GREENE: No, the PA was provided
by Hannon Engineering. There was a
blanket of loudspeakers, as I recall, 10 or
more, about 20' above the stage, that
provided an even covering of sound over
the audience stage. The PA mixer had a
mult of each of the solo mikes on a
separate feed, along with the rhythm mix
and sweetening mix that were being fed
to the Pacific Video truck. If it became
necessary to favor rhythm at some point,
for Mr. Sinatra to hear a cue, he could do
that. Really, when we did our first run throughs, it felt so good, it had such a
good feel to it that Mr. Sinatra asked
that we pull the PA sound level way
back, for more of a natural sound, with
only slight reinforcement. Everybody
seemed to hear very well.
What about clicks, pops, and
buzzes?
ED GREENE: Well, it was the Heider
crew that was called in on everybody's
click and pop problems. They have such
terrific experience in dealing with them.
There were incredible grounding problems that were discovered as we set -up,
but they helped deal with everyone of
them. The hand mikes, for instance,
were run and rerun several times to get
out of the way of some of the lighting,
R -elp:
Rthm
Dlt,6ram
Vocal
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Taps
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En6ineerin8
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Board
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API Board
(Wally Heider)
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4Track.
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Recorder
lapa
Z
Fran lZ
(hol
used)
SMP'IE
Set' Up for Live Shoal
Diagram
3
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Rehm Orch
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SoloWleT
k frank
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R -e /p:
Did you have to make many
changes in set -up during the show?
ED GREENE: There were some changes
made in the mixing depending on the
nature of the tune; differences between a
rhythm and brass tune, and a lush ballad
sort of thing. The set -up was designed to
handle that sort of thing, nothing more
drastic.
R -e /p: Did you use any echo or EQ
Orchestra
SelUp ¡or 11,c.Zecord9
especially some of the dimmers. The AC
for the whole audio set -up came from
the Heider truck. All the electric instruments on stage and any audio equipment was powered by lines from the
Heider truck, which was completely isolated.
Audilronics
Board
(R,,c.\(ic Video)
during recording?
ED GREENE: There were four echo
chambers available, all AKG. We used
them on the program mixes, but not on
the 16 track recordings. One chamber
was used on the vocal track of the program mix, another was available for the
rhythm section but I didn't use it. A
third was used on strings and brass in the
program mix. Pacific Video had a chamber available to them which they used
when they switched to a boom mike,
which was controlled by their system.
We coordinated levels so that our systems
sounded roughly the same. But again,
when it comes down to it, by the time
the stage was set -up it became a concert
hall, so it had some natural sound of its
own. Aside from maybe enhancing the
vocal a little bit, with just a gentle echo
sound, there's really not that much to do.
There's some to do, but not that much. I
think what the producer and director
were after was a very natural sort of feel,
like you'd come on in a performance.
That kind of live feel.
R -e/p: Was there any occasion for a
stop or redo anytime during the performance?
ED GREENE: It happened once, but it
was just a minor thing. There were no
retakes after that.
R -e /p: What about overdubbing?
ED GREENE: There was a chorus that
was staged on a particular tune, and
4Trocir`
after the show we dubbed them on a
track. Aside from that, there was none,
although they may be doing some later.
Announcer
Recorder
*1
13
15
Audience
6
R -elp: Did you play your mixes of the
album recordings in the truck for re-
API Board
(Wally Neider)
1óTrack
4Track.
S>T;-;
Recorder
-112
Fmn1Z
Orch. Inputs
77
Re/p 20
Nies
14 Audience IVIkes
RFmix
R$corder
#k2
ference?
ED GREENE: Yes, I had not only a 2
track master of the album but a 16 track
master there. But I had been living with
that album tape for so long that I
could tell right away if we were in the
right audio ballpark. We spent quite a
bit of time mixing that tape.
fact that you were recording for a TV feed affect the way
you mixed?
ED GREENE: I will provide a finished,
complete mix of all music and vocals on
a track, and the audience on a track. I
may have to reference to the picture on
a couple of shots for perspective, whether its a closeup or distant shot. But the
overall sound we got on the program
mixes seems to work pretty well with
the picture, so its just a matter of
touching up here and there when we
remix the 16 track tapes.
R -e /p: Did the
R -elp:
How
much rehearsal did you
have?
ED GREENE: The show was shot actually in two segments. In one segment there
was a dance number that was prerecorded and shot to lip sync. The other
segment was the actual performance
night. We had a chance to hear the
orchestra for two days before show
night. We had actually done some of the
pre- records only a half hour after hearing the orchestra for the first time. But
by that time the room was pretty well
set up. It was a pretty good room they
built. Imagine, they took this huge bare
sound stage, stage 19 at Paramount, and
built everything specifically for this
show. And at orchestra downbeat on the
first rehearsal everything seemed to fall
into place.
mixing the album
quad?
ED GREENE: Yes, it's being done
discrete tape, and of course its
Warner /Reprise so they'll be using
CD -4 system.
R -elp: Are you
in
on
for
the
R -elp: When you mixed the album, was
Mr. Sinatra in attendance?
ED GREENE: He wasn't there personally, but the arranger, Don Costa, was
there and we'd submit some mixes.
They'd come back with some notes, we'd
make some changes, but they were minor
changes, and again the whole thing was
pretty much a straight ahead album. I
made a few mixes on my own to try out
a few things, but every time I introduced
a gimmick, things like time delays on
guitars, and little extra repeat echo
things, they just seemed to get in the
way, and I discarded them.
Who made the overall sound
quality judgements for the TV date?
ED GREENE: Well, the arrangers and
conductors, Don Costa and Gordon Jenkins, both stopped by the truck and
gave their OK for the sound we were
getting.
I'll be remixing the 16 track for the
show at our MGM studios and I'm
sure there'll be some additional judgements made after that.
NOTES ON YOUR NEXT BOARD or:
AUTOMATION WILL SAVE THE DATE!
Subject: AUTOMATION
Automation is here, no question about it. To handle a 24 track
mixdown needs guts and nimble fingers. But, it is expensive. No
question about it.
What can you do? Go full -tilt for total automation? Man, that is expensive. Or forget it, maybe automation will go away - back to the
good old days. Now that's letting progress run you, instead of you
running progress.
What should you do? Why not talk to one of the best names in the
business? Bushnell. One outfit that doesn't want to sell you what
you don't need. Bushnell. A group of people that doesn't have an
axe to grind, other than caring for your needs. Bushnell doesn't
automation system of our own, but we do have ideas about
the existing automation systems you should hear. Any of the automation systems is available to you in a Bushnell board - we've
gotten it together for you!
have an
Subject: BOARD SIZES
Here in the Los Angeles area, we tend to take
as:
for granted
areas such
24 track machines, automation, 24 track boards. We do forget
that lots of you in other parts of the country don't consider (nor
even need) 24 track and the stuff that goes with it. Does this mean
we aren't interested? No way! What can we do for you? If you
accept a stock board such as Auditronics or MCI, then we can't
match their prices. BUT, if you realize the need and the validity for
a board tailored to your studio, then we can do lots for you. 16 by
4, around $14,000. 16 by 8, around $19,500. That's custom design,
not stock!
At the AES convention in May, we showed a board
built for recording and sound reinforcement. 12 by 8, expandable
to 16 by 8. 10 watt monitor amps built in, or to be used with
larger amps outside of the board. It has a very low profile, only 35"
high! In addition, the base is removable, so it'll go thru a regular
30" door, and very easily. Would you like pictures and specs? Just
drop me a note. Don't mark the reader service card, they haven't
As an example.
got room.
a new brochure that tells what we can do for you. To get it
(the brochure), just mark the card.
We have
INQUIRING?
Send us
a
letter, telling what you need. Don't worry about block
diagrams, that's what our engineers (Don, Bill and Deane) provide.
Tell us about your studio, what you need. I'll get back to you with
a rough price, so you know where you're going. Leasing? That we
can handle. How big is
your studio, how long in business, these are
some things we'll need.
R -elp:
H U011111111
ELECTRONICS
CORPORATION
15801 Stagg Street, Van Nuys, California 91406
(213) 989 -2740
Circle No. 113
Re/p 21
Would you change anything if corded without being in the monitor
you had to do it over again?
channels. When we got to the dub -down
ED GREENE: I might add those overall
stages, it was kind of a surprise. But we
mikes to the orchestra, just to get a had it all.
little more ensemble feeling. Aside from
that, I'll let you know.
R -e /p: How did you approach the set -up
procedure?
DON MACDOUGALL: Well, all the orchestral and vocal elements were broken
Don MacDougall .. .
down to 14 tracks usually, sometimes
The Album
16. I usually keep some tracks open but
a couple of times I couldn't. I put Mr.
distortion. It was a nice warm rich Sinatra in the center of the stage and
sound. It sounded beautiful, but it didn't put a baffle on each side of him, high
sound anything like it sounded at the flats, soft side to him. I used a Neumann
dub -down studio over at MGM.
U-67 on a boom, and used a Teletronix
peak limiter with about 5 dB of limitR -e /p: What monitor system did you
ing, which allowed me to record pretty
use?
flat through the system and get rid of
DON MACDOUGALL: We had the same all the unwanted extraneous sounds and
Altec A4's on the stage and in the con- get some pretty good tracks. The U -67's
trol booth, but in the booth they were we used are really classy mikes, they've
better, newer; they had been revamped been rebuilt and they're pretty flat. And
and the high end was a little better, we recorded Mr. Sinatra that way, flat,
about to 10K. But all the playback the whole band was actually recorded
systems were rolled off for theater re- flat; no equalization, no reverberation,
lease. You kind of fly by the seat of nothing. The natural room acoustics were
your pants. The board is a basic 24 about, I would say, 3 seconds reverb
channel board with 7 outputs. In this time, and it lent a marvelous kind of
case, recording on 16 track, it didn't ring to everything.
work ideally, for instance some of the
tracks like the fuzz guitar and Fender R -elp: Did you close -mike the orchestra?
bass that were recorded direct were re- DON MACDOUGALL: The sections weR -elp:
,
re close -miked. The french horn section
had a hard surfaced accordion -shaped
baffle in back, and we mike those horns
two ways, front and back. In back I used
a pair of RCA 44's and a Telefunken
U-47 with a "Church" capsule in front.
The orchestra was on the floor except
for the horns. There was a wooden baffle
in front of the woodwinds. I had a Ushaped baffle around the drummer using
the old Norelco C -60 microphones on
him, with an Altec 639 on the bass drum.
Don Costa lent me his patio umbrella to
cover the drummer. I used more Nor elco's in the percussion section, and on
tympani. In another booth I had a
Telefunken "Church" on Fender and
string basses, and next to that the guitars
in another booth each miked with Sennheiser 401's. The two pianos had Sony
mikes, ECM 22's. That little condenser
mike is the best thing I've found for
piano.
Most of our stuff is very old, its not
really considered to be "state of the art ",
at least in the recording industry.
What are the characteristics of
the Telefunken "Church" mike?
DON MACDOUGALL: I would say it
has a very rich low end, close to about
40 cycles. It has very smooth response
between about 40 to ten thousand. On
R -e /p:
Norelco C-ío0s
Drumg
'Percussion
639
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Violi
o
Sennheiser 401's
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Re/p 22
Ordustra
Mu?
one of the sessions, we had a solo
trumpet which used an RCA 77.
R -elp: Did you use any overall mikes
for
ambience?
DON MACDOUGALL:
I had them available to me but I didn't use them. We
picked up plenty of the room sound even
though we were fairly close -miked. Its a
fantastic sound in this room.
R -e /p: Who specified that room
for the
session?
DON MACDOUGALL: I don't know, I
imagine Mr. Sinatra. I guess he's the one
who said he wanted to record here. Its
kind of nice that he did, especially when
you think of all the great studios there
are in town. The room is really sort of
miraculous in that its difficult to do
anything wrong in it acoustically. I've
found in working there over the years its
sound is really consistently good. We
have to cheat a lot with baffling. We do a
lot of television shows: "Cannon ", "Streets of San Francisco ", "Barnaby Jones ",
and you have to baffle sections to bring
down the reverb time of the room. But
for this particular session I think the
thing that really made it sound so good is
that in playing for Frank Sinatra the
string players, the whole orchestra, everyone played a little more in tune, a little
more enthusiastically. In that environment no one laid back at all.
R -elp: Did the whole string section come
up on one track?
DON MACDOUGALL: No it was divided; violins, violi, celli, and basses on
separate tracks.
R -e /p: What were the characteristics
of
the accordion baffle behind the horns?
DON MACDOUGALL: All that really
does is send the french horn back to the
front, where I usually have an overall
section mike, and this way I have an
opportunity to get the balance of the
horn section with a little reverb time
included. If you record them directly
you get sort of a pointed sound. The
accordion -shaped baffle seems to sound
better than a flat baffle, and the horn
players also seem to have an affinity for
playing in front of it, they say they
sound better to themselves. There was no
trumpet section, although Conte Candoli
did a solo on one number. He was with
the horn section, on a separate mike.
R -e /p: Was there a PA or monitor system
so that Mr. Sinatra could hear himself more in balance with the orchestra?
DON MACDOUGALL: He had headphones available, but he didn't use them.
No one in the orchestra used them either.
R -e /p: What kind of sound were you
looking for?
DON MACDOUGALL: The recording
supervisor was Don Costa, Sinatra's conductor on the road. He wanted a very
live, real sound for the session, he didn't
want any gimmicks. If we had EQ in the
system I'm sure he would have used it in
the monitors just for his own ears, so he
really listen to him with that big an
orchestra coming through the monitors I
had. I wasn't guessing really, but I was
straining to hear the clarity I knew was
there and that was what I finally heard
on the dub -down.
could hear things a little more point- R-e /p: Have you heard the record on the
edly. I had to tell him there were some radio?
things he wasn't going to hear on play- DON MACDOUGALL: Yes, I think its
back, at least on the stage. Most film sensational, one of the best things he's
studios are really not with the recording ever done. Even on AM radio, it sounds
state of the art. Of all the film studios in well balanced, all the values are still
the recording field, at least as we con- there. All Ed really did, I think, in a
sider the recording field, Warner Brothers couple of cases was add just a little bit
(The Burbank Studios), has done a great of chamber to Mr. Sinatra, and just a
deal to update their equipment. They've little refinement; sometimes we had a
gone to a marvelous new board, and 60 cycle in a guitar amplifier which he
spent alot of money on new equipment. got rid of. Outside of that I don't
We've done the samething here at Samuel think he had to do much.
Goldwyn Studios, but in a different
I can't remember ever hearing a badly
area, in the area of re- recording. In the mixed Sinatra record. I believe a music
state of the motion picture art, we feel mixer ought to be a musician, or should
re- recording is really the most important have pretty good ears and know what
place to put your bucks. We've up -dated music's about. It's pretty important. I
our equipment to the point where I'd say also feel that there aren't enough young
its the finest dubbing facility in the guys coming up that have really paid
world. Warner Brothers can't compete their dues enough to get into it.
with us in dubbing, but they've got
the finest equipment on the scoring R -e /p: How many sessions were required
stages. On the other hand, we've got to do the album?
this recording room that acoustically is DON MACDOUGALL: We had several
second to none. So we have to fool with sessions, about four get -togethers, and
the equipment a little. When you hear they went from 7 o'clock to around midthe results of the album, and what night. Generally, everything was very
we've done with old stuff and what guys relaxed. On the first night of recording,
like Dick Hornung, or maintenance en- on the very first song, there was no
gineer, Allen Holly my stage man, and percussion on this song and the drummer,
recordist Bill Schlegel; guys who make Johnny Guerin, decided to come into
this stuff work for you, well, it's nice to the booth. He walked in right in the
think it can still be done. Especially middle of a take and kicked out the
when you hear it back on marvelous master AC plug. Everything went dead.
equipment like Ed Greene has there at I had to tell Mr. Sinatra we'd have to
MGM.
start over again. "You're a new kid," he
said, "and that's ONE."
R-elp: Is yours a tube or solid state
board?
R -elp: Had you used only 2 or 3 mikes
DON MACDOUGALL: Its a tube board. overall, with maybe a vocal mike on
It's an oldy.
Sinatra, do you think the results might
have been better?
R -e /p: What did you think of the mixDON MACDOUGALL: It would have
down?
sounded pretty good, but I don't think
DON MACDOUGALL: I couldn't believe it would have sounded better. Otherwise
what Ed did. I went over one night after we would have done it that way. But it
a long date here and he played a song
would've still sounded pretty good, with
from "A Little Night Music" "Clowns" maybe more of a cathedral quality. Of
and I'll tell you it wasn't to be believed.
course, in the old days, that's the way
Of course I couldn't hear it on playback they did it. Once we started making takes
here, and when I heard it there I was we just kind of let him go. He has such a
dumbfounded.
phenomenal knowledge of how to relate
to a microphone. P's, for example, have a
R -e /p: Did you use any noise reduction
tendency to pop alot if a performer
equipment?
doesn't know how to treat a microphone.
DON MACDOUGALL: None at all. The
But he's a master. He could hear himself
only thing that was used at all was just a and if he popped he would stop and not
little Teletronix limiting to account for pop the next time. It was a monumental
the lows and highs in Mr. Sinatra's session. I was thrilled and flattered to
voice, in volume only; sometimes he have an opportunity to work with him,
would sing very very softly. And the after all the years of growing up to his
monitoring was a problem too, I couldn't music.
Re/p 23
With your great ear, maybe
you can get perfect sound sync.
But can you really afford it?
Getting sound
sync by ear is costing
you a lot more than it
has to. Because now you
can get sound sync that's
right on the money, instantly.
By using the SMPTE
Edit Code and the new 3M
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No more trial- and -error tape positioning, no "rocking and rolling;' no time wasting- tweaking of tape speeds until
they sound right.
Just fast and easy sound sync,
because with the edit code on your video
and audio tapes, you've got split- second,
absolute identification of the entire
tape length.
For VTR editing, first transfer the
sound track and edit code from your
master tape (quad or slant track, monochrome or color) to any multitrack 3M
Professional Audio Recorder.
Then manually park the tapes to
within half a minute of each other using
the Synchronizer's built -in edit code
reader and start your VTR. The audio
recorder automatically slaves to your
VTR and locks into perfect sync, with no
drift, no knob twisting no matter how
long the tapes.
With this kind of precision, you
can build a useable sound effects track
by using the edit code for effect location.
Get a high quality sound track by recording video and the code on your VTR,
sound and the same edit code on a
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And, of course, your
audio recorders should be
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handling, extremely low
wow and flutter and signal -tonoise ratios that are state -of- the -art.
Used together, the 3M Series 79
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Re /p 24
Circle No. 114
Give a listen at any
of these 3M dealers:
Accurate Sound Corporation
2702 National Circle Road
Garland, Texas 75041
214/278.0553
Aengus Engineering, Inc.
50 Oak Hill Road
Fayville, Mass. 01745
617/481 -7600
Audio Designs & Mfg.. Inc.
16005 Sturgeon
Roseville. Mich. 48066
313/778.8400
Audio Recorders of Arizona
3830 No. 7th St.
Phoenix. Arizona 85014
602/277-4723
Automated Processes, Inc.
80 Marcus Drive
Melville. N.Y. 11746
516/694-9212
AudiMmics, Inc.
180 -8 South Cooper Street
Memphis, Tenn. 38124
207 Summit Street
Memphis. Tenn. 38124
901/276 -6338
Audio Graphic Labs
16400 E. Truman Road
Independence. Mo. 64050
816/836-4000
R. A. Dimier & Assoc.
4613 Elm Ridge Drive
P.O. Box 1643
Garland, Texas 75040
214/272-5055
Fidelity Sound Company. Inc.
GSA Dealer
1200 18th St., N.W.. Suite 105
Washington, D.C. 20036
202/296 -9110
Gill Custom House, Inc.
8813 W. 95th St.
Palos Hills, Ill. 60465
312/598-2400
High Fidelity Showroom
6383 Clayton Road
Clayton, Missouri 63117
MASTERING i'oue
i'AI'L I)UI'LICA'IIOk%!
314 /7216500
Houston Electronics
8000 Harwin, Suite 275
Houston, Texas 77036
713/785.5511
Jackson Sound Productions, Ltd.
1403 S. Lipan
by PETER BUTT, Chief Engineer
SUPERSCOPE RECORDED TAPES
Denver. Colorado 80223
303/722-7019
The Maze Corporation
1900 First Ave. No.
Irondale, Birmingham. Ala. 35210
205/591-4800
Milam Audio Corp.
700 West Main St.
South Pekin, Ill. 61564
309/348-3112
Martin Audio
320 West 46th Street
New York, N.Y. 10036
212/265.6470
Pams, Inc.
4141 Office Parkway
Dallas, Texas 75204
214/827-0901
RCA Corp.
Bldg. 1761
Delaware & Market Streets
Camden, N.J. 08102
Sound Specialties
2009 Naudain St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19146
214/732-7250
Seco Labs, Inc.
206 South 44th St.
Omaha, Nebraska 68131
402/553 -1166
Seneca Sound, Inc.
116 Killewald Ave.
Tonawanda. N.Y. 14150
Westlake Audio. Inc.
6311
Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, Calif. 90048
213/655 -0303
I would like to begin this article by
extending my compliments to Messrs.
Kulka, MacLeod, and Malo on their fruitful collaboration on disc mastering appearing in R -e /p's last issue. I recommend
it to all as a relatively compact statement
of what is widely referred to throughout
the audio industry as "standard practice". I am aware of no other literature
where all of the information given in
that piece can be found assembled under
one title. It is my purpose to add to what
those gentlemen have already presented.
Tape duplication differs from disc
mastering primarily in that no electromechanical conversion of the audio signal
need occur. Absolute chastity with regard
to proper net channel signal phase relationships, therefore, is not strictly required. If one has some serious compulsion to mix his stereo program out of
phase, that program could be duplicated
quite well in cassette and /or 8-track
cartridge form with minimal difficulty.
If such a thing were to be presented to
any self- respecting tape duplicator, the
out-of-phase situation would either be
corrected internally or questioned by the
duplicator.
I have always been led to believe that
one of the guiding principles of most
professions, audio included, is that doing
a job right the first time is generally to be
regarded with favor. In the spirit of that
ideal, let us pursue a rough format for
stereo music masters that will not only be
a boon to tape duplicators and disc
masterers alike, but should help minimize
the misunderstandings that seem to persist between studio personnel and producers and those, like myself, who are
frequent recipients of their work.
Re/p 25
First of all, a complete alignment of
the tape machines to be used in generation of the source master tape should
have been completed shortly prior to
beginning the mastering process. Obviously, this applies to all machines utilized in
the process. I say this because the playback machine alignment is sometimes
neglected as being of minor importance
compared with that of the record machine. As an aid toward this end, I would
like to urge that more studios install
phase scopes in the monitoring outputs
of their consoles so that the phase characteristics of the signal being monitored
can be continuously observed. Such a
scope is also very useful in multi -track
tape machine alignment and can serve as
a tool to observe and localize faults such
as clipping and can be used to indicate
compression in a more meaningful way
than a simple gain- reduction meter. I am
more -or-less accustomed to not finding
phase scopes in the control rooms of
most studios of my acquaintance. The
value of a relatively cheap oscilloscope
has been proven in my experience many
times. In my intellectual parochialism I
marvel that others have not come to
rely upon them as I have. With a little
outboarding, an X -Y scope can even
yield some pretty significant information
regarding phasing and balance of quadraphonic program material. 1
Having aligned his equipment, the
master tape preparer should record a
series of 30-second tones at the head-end
of the program material. I think that the
frequencies of 700, 10,000, and 100 Hz
are generally considered to yield an accurate indication of the condition of the
recorder /reproducer in question. It is
important to emphasize that the tones be
recorded in such a way as to appear to
the originator of the material to be
flat within the ± 2 dB tolerance for
professional tape equipment. Just to eliminate any misunderstanding subsequent to this process, the tones should be
included, by frequency and observed
playback level, along with the music title
listing that should be a part of every
mastering effort. The observed playback
levels should be logged with candor usually reserved for the confessional. If you
see a 1 or 2 dB hump at 10 kHz in playback, for a constant input level, please
note it. I, for one, will not relay that
information to your competitors. Your
secret will be safe with me, and we'll
both gain a better end -product for it.
Honesty is, indeed, the best policy. Without these tones and the written description of them, variations not only in
equipment calibration, but in standard
1.
D.L. Patton, QUADRAPHONIC DISPLAY
TECHNIQUE, Journal of the A.E.S. Vol. 20
No. 6
Re/p 26
alignment tape characteristics cannot be
prevented from coloring the program
quality. It may appear that the points I
have brought up so far are so elementry
that they usually go unmentioned. I am
mentioning them for precisely that reason. Unless the recipient of the master
tape can set his playback system to
duplicate the levels and azimuth observed
by the originator of that tape, he must
presume that his local standards are
equally applicable to the recorder on
which the master was generated. After
having had occasion to examine alignment tapes from several sources, I must
confess that this is a somewhat shaky presumption. A recorder, after all, can't be
aligned more accurately than the limits
determined by the alignment tape used
to determine the machine's playback
characteristic. Alignment tapes often disagree between manufacturers not only to
the extent of high- frequency boost but
also as to the value of flux supposedly
representative of the 185 nano Weber/
meter defined as N.A.B. zero. Aging
alone can account for a couple or so dB
along the high end of an alignment tape.
As far as who's right, or least wrong in
the alignment tape business, I don't
care to venture, but it appears that
magnetic flux standards do vary from
standard to standard.
I think it's also well to mention that,
in the past, I have noted a distinct
scarcity of master tapes prepared at
established studios across the country
that include these tones and the information necessary to maximise their usefulness. While we're on the subject of
tones, any noise reduction equipment to
be used during the program transfer
should be bypassed during this operation.
It's the recording machine characteristic
we're after. Not that of the machine
coupled with whatever peripheral equipment that may be in the program chain.
In passing, although it is beyond the
scope of this article, inclusion of the tone
set at the head end of 1 ", 1" and 2"
masters should also be a standard practice
as well. In all cases the tones should be
leadered to facilitate their location and to
separate them from the program itself.
Now then, the program material
should be transferred with due attention
payed to the points made by the afore
mentioned Kulka, MacLeod and Malo.
Further, a clear listing of the program
material by title and clock time, in
chronological order of appearance from
the head of the tape, should be included
with the master more often than it seems
to be. This is especially important in the
case of purely instrumental selections
and foreign language material.
Further, and very important, if any
noise reduction system has been used in
processing your master tape, note the
fact on your cue sheet and specify
whether it's been Dolby'd, DBX'd, or
Burwen'd or whatever. This may strike
some as a rather self- evident practice,
but more than one source tape in my
experience has had some unspecified system of noise reduction applied to it
with no obvious indication as to what
type was used. In fact I've even seen a
couple that had processed and unprocessed segments within the same tape,
again with no indication as to what had
been done, noise reduction systems are
no more invariant than tape machine
alignments.
With regard to flat spectrum or other
extremely bright program material for
duplication in tape format, keep in mind
that although cutting stylus velocity is
not a factor, the high -speed duplicator
record pre- emphasis curve often rises to
greater than 15 dB above a 500 Hz
reference level and therefore may be
responsible for saturation of the cassette
or 8 -track tape during duplication. The
pre- emphasis curves used for the 15 and
30 ips professional machines have much
less high -end boost, permitting recording
of zero -level signals to beyond 15 kHz,
without danger of tape saturation. If
saturation is to be avoided on 8-track
cartridge and cassette copy, the audio
spectrum in the 10 kHz to 15 kHz
region should generally be down 10 to
15 dB from a 500 Hz reference. The
point of all this is that excessively bright
material is as much of a problem to tape
duplicators as it is to disc cutters. Both
disc and tape media are limited rather
strictly in the peak signal amplitudes
they are capable of successfully reproducing. The total flux representing an
audio signal existant on a piece of tape
is the algebraic sum of the components of
that signal within the band -pass of that
signal, with pre- emphasis added, just as
the groove excursions on a disc represent
the algebraic sum of those same components, with pre- emphasis added. The
point is that there is a maximum level
over a given bandwidth that can be
accommodated on a piece of consumer
priced tape just as there is on a stereo
disc. For this reason the mixer should be
aware that his program material will fit
within some rather inflexible limits, regardless of what form the ultimate duplicated product may take. Very high levels
of high frequency information should be
restricted in the multi-track mixing process rather than in the tape duplicators'
running master generation. Additionally,
the mixer should realize that an excessively high low frequency component can
result in saturation of high frequency
energy riding on top of it. The high end
of the spectrum is not the sole source of
trouble for either disc or tape media.
Suppose, now we turn our attention to
continued on page 31
Circle No. 115
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.;
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90048
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Cassete Tape Dimensions and
6.1,rc
some of the restrictions upon the stereo
program material peculiar to the tape
format, most notably cassette and 8 -track
cartridge. Let us now consider the stereo
cassette.
As we all know, this little beastie consists of a roughly symmetrical set of
plastic shells welded or glued together to
form a protective case containing a pair
of tape spools, tape guiding devices of
varied kind, and means for access to the
tape by the cassette machine playback
head and tape transport system consisting of a pinch -roller and capstan mechanism. There are a bunch of other goodies
within your basic cassette, too, but it is
not our purpose to dwell upon them
here.
Inspection of a typical sample of the
species will reveal that the tape contained
in one of these little jewels differs in at
least a couple of ways from your ordinary, garden variety of magnetic tape.
Reference to Figure 1 will serve to define
many of the dimensional characteristics
peculiar to cassette tape and the cassette
stereo track format. Of course, just about
everyone throughout creation, with the
exception of mothers -in -law, are thoroughly aware of all this, but here it is
anyway. For those of us who have not
already chosen to avert our eyes, the
drawing is intended to show the cassette
tape as it would appear when viewed in
the cassette with stereo program A in the
process of being played. That is, oxide
out, tape motion from left to right. The
arrows point to the head end of their
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respective programs A and B. Widely
accepted dimensions are given as design
centers with tolerances omitted for clarity. The tape itself is about 0.150 inches
wide with a thickness of about 0.8
thousandths for C -60 tape and about 0.5
thousandths for C -90.
A word or two of clarification regarding the significance of the C -60 and C-90
designations may be in order. The "C"
may be taken to stand for some obscure
nomenclature of which I am not fully
aware, (Cassette, possibly ?) and the subsequent digits refer to the total playing
time, in minutes, available on the cassette, for both sides. By way of illustration, a C -90 cassette could be expected
to play for 45 minutes in each direction,
a C -60, for 30 minutes, etc. The standard
playing speed for audio cassettes is, of
course, nominally 1 7/8 inches per second. I insert the modifying adjective
owing to the scarcity of cassette players
of my acquaintance that do, in fact,
operate at the 1 7/8 I.P.S. speed. The
majority seem to run as much as 5%
faster than the naive would initially
expect them to. The implications of this,
regarding tonal pitch and actual program
playing time, I think, are obvious and
may be inferred by the reader. This
description of the cassette itself is presented primarily as a guide to be kept in
mind in the preparation of a master
source tape whose program material will
eventually be contained within each of a
presumably large number of the little
wonders.
The stereo cassette track format is set
out the way it is to permit a certain
amount of compatibility between mono
and stereo cassette players and mono and
stereo cassettes. This has been done by
arranging the sixty- thousandths wide
mono cassette tracks for programs A and
B so that the single mono track covers
the left and right stereo tracks of the
program of interest, including the guard
band between them. The energy from the
left and right channels is then combined
within the mono playback head as the
well known L + R monophonic sum of
the stereo channels. Obviously, phase
cancellation and addition will occur between channels of a stereo program when
played back in a mono player. Improprieties regarding the phase relationships of program components during the
mix -down can have some rather jarring
repercussions when observed through the
mono cassette playback head. Although a
given stereo program may sound just
great in a stereo player, that's no guarantee that the cassette will sound ok in a
mono player.
As far as the arrangement of the
sequence of selections for duplication is
concerned, the reader is urged to consider that programs are contained on the
same piece of tape, side -by -side. I'm sure,
by this time, no one will flinch at this
idea, but I mention it to emphasize that
it is important to arrange a given sequence of selections in such a way as to
split the first and second halves of the
program as nearly equally as possible
between sides of the cassette. Unlike the
45 and 33 1/3 R.P.M. disc, the length of
side A of the cassette is exactly the
same length as side B. Since the longer
of the two programs will determine the
actual playing time of the cassette, several benefits may be realized by making
the lengths of programs A and B very
nearly equal. One of these is that the
length of tape necessary to contain the
entire program will be minimized and,
also, there will be a minimum of blank
tape to be plodded through by the
listener of the finished product. One side
being very much longer that the other
will result in an annoyingly long portion
of blank tape at the end of one program
or the other. Casual reflection will reveal
that there is very little either edifying or
entertaining about a long period of silence at the beginning or end of parts of
a cassette.
Now for the good old 8 -track Lear
tape cartridge. The Lear cartridge is a
plastic case containing a rotating hub on
which the tape containing the program
has been wound, oxide out. Access to the
tape, as it passes from the center of the
rotating hub, over the tape pack and
across the front of the cartridge, is gained
by a playback head protruding from the
cartridge player through openings in the
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cartridge plastic case. The tape is drawn
across the head by a capstan within the
player that is positioned opposite a pinch
roller contained within the cartridge
body. The tape passes over the pinch
roller so that it is engaged between the
player capstan and the cartridge pinch
roller. Engagement of the pinch roller
with the capstan then pulls the tape
across the player head. The tape is held
in contact with the reproduce head by a
pressure pad and a system of tape guides
internal to the cartridge. From the capstan, the tape is routed back to the outside of the pack on the rotating hub
assembly. The tape is spliced together so
that it forms an endless loop with a
conductive foil splice retaining the two
ends of the tape. Tape circulation on the
rotating platform is facilitated by the
lubrication of the tape itself with a
graphite compound coating the tape
backing. The purpose of the conductive
foil is to indicate the end of the program
cycle and either switch the player off or
cause the reproduce head to step to the
next pair of tracks in the program sequence as the tape loop completes an
entire circuit. Got that?
Now, let's take a look at the track
format for these specimens. Figure 2
shows an approximate drawing of the
Re/p 32
.re
2
dimensions of the tracks, guard bands
and track assignments for the standard
'4 -inch 8 -track tape. Note that the track
widths are just about the same as they
are for stereo cassette tracks. The guard
bands are a little smaller than in the
cassette format.
I'm sure that very few of us would
indicate surprise at the fact that there
are four stereo pairs available on the
tape. A stereo program, to be contained
on an 8 -track cartridge, must be divided
into four very nearly equal length segments and the segments arranged so
that they will be played as programs A
through D in alphabetical sequence. Even
though up to about 90 minutes of playing time is available in the 8 -track format, a break in the program continuity
must be tolerated at the point where the
tape completes its cycle and the reproduce head must be switched to the subsequent pair of tracks to continue playing the program. This seemingly minor
technical detail, like other minor details,
is only important when it is not considered. The "click -thunk" interrupting
8 -track program segments may be thought objectionable enough to take some
pains, when arranging the time sequence
of program selections, to avoid having
one selection begin at the end of one
program segment and conclude on another. Most importantly, such a case
must not occur with program D and
program A.
Sometimes, try as we might, there's
just no other remedy for fitting a program on an 8 -track other than to allow a
gross disparity between segment lengths
or to tolerate the interruption of a
selection. 8 -track programming can be
somewhat of a knotty problem in the
case of a program sequence that must
preserve a certain sequential order. Solutions to this sort of situation can be
difficult indeed if the freedom to rearrange selection order is restricted.
In closing, I think a brief discussion of
the sound quality capabilities of duplicated tape products is in order. The
question of the viability of tape recordings as opposed to the stereo disc has
occurred to more than one audio professional. Almost everyone seems to
know that tapes just don't sound anywhere near as good as records and
cassettes are a waste of time to even
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consider as a quality consumer sound
medium.
Why even issue tape product in the
form of cassettes at all, when everybody
knows that 8 -track cartridge sales exceed
cassettes by about 5 to 1? Not only that,
cassettes with their skinny little tracks
and slow tape speed are the low riders
of the retail music industry. Everybody
knows that. Right?
Well, almost. I don't know that. In
fact, the results that we at Superscope
have been able to achieve in the form of
stereo cassette product has been rather
pleasantly surprising in terms of quality.
The sound quality of cassettes of my
recent experience has been at least as
good as the product we produce in any
other tape format, and often exceeds
results realizable in 8 -track cartridge.
Peak signal-to -noise ratios of about 50
dB are generally achievable in stereo
cassette and 8 -track format. Frequency
response variations observed in playback
measurements taken from six slaves fall
within the limits shown in Figure 3.
Subjective results of duplicated music
comparisons in 8 -track and cassette formats generally indicate that the lowly
cassette does not suffer relative to other
tape formats or even by very much when
compared to disc recordings.
Once more, I would like to underscore the importance of supplying program material of the very highest quality
possible to any duplicator. Most duplication establishments are intimately aware of the capabilities and limitations
of their respective facilities and tape formats. Obviously, your material can't very
well emerge from the high -speed duplication process very much better than it
was when it went in. Degradation of
quality will occur in any duplication
process whatever so we may as well
start out as well as we can in the first
place. The importance of an accurate,
complete master tape cue sheet should
not be discounted.
It is difficult to argue that cassettes
are the key to the high volume tape
market. I do, however, believe that the
cassette is too often ruled out of many
marketing plans because it is generally
believed that it is incapable of yielding
results consistant with other recorded
music formats. I think that general realization of the capabilities and limitations
of consumer tape formats would enable
the industry to make more judicious
choices in marketing strategy. The availability of high quality music in the lower cost cassette form should yield benefits
to the industry and to the consumer.
I only ascend to the soap box to rebutt
an indictment of the cassette that I have
heard from both layman and professional
alike. Evidently, very few of us realize
how good a pre- recorded tape can sound.
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Circle No. 116
J
Re/p 33
If
ou for
what tiou need
you're seriously into music or
Tou
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Re/p 34
Circle No. 117
UJI3H vs
IA%IIOI%
by RUSSELL O. HAMM
SEAR SOUND
NEW YORK
Ask a recording engineer what makes
one studio sound different from another
and he'll tell you
"acoustics." Why?
Because there are a lot of articles about
building studios with technical looking
stuff like sound absorption coefficients.
Supposedly these things affect the sound.
How about electronics, does the console
affect the sound? "Oh no." Why? "Cause
the specs say so. Just look at an ad for a
good console and you'll see the frequency response, noise and distortion all
look good."
With this premise in mind I spent a
couple of years trying to improve the
sound of a bad studio. I literally rebuilt
the whole studio acoustically. The place
still sounded abominable. Then one day I
had a bright idea. I plugged the mikes
directly into a small mixer instead of the
regular console. Wow! what a difference.
From that day on acoustics were out the
window in my book. All the acoustic
changes I had made had never come
close to the change in sound made
...
electronically.
About this same time I had an interesting discussion with a guitar player who
was searching for the best amp he could
get. He told me, "You know, there is a
night and day difference between amps,
especially tubes and transistors." I asked
him if he'd looked into the specs on the
different amps to see what they had to
say. His reply: "I just go by my ear, I
can't read them specs, man."
So I posed the question to a lot of
people: what about this tube sound vs.
transistor sound business? Is there a difference? Musicians, engineers, hi -fi bugs
everyone could talk about it. "Really,
it's a very hot topic," is the one point
that came across very clearly though
everyone had opinions but no facts.
Here are a few examples.
An electrical engineer, one who designs recording consoles, absolutely proved to me that there was nothing to the
argument. He did this by getting out his
data sheets and quoting some figures
This article was derived from a paper presented at the 43rd convention
which were visually very impressive. It's
true, according to the parameters being
measured there should be no difference
in the sound of equivalent tube and
transistor amplifiers. My question was,
are some important parameters not being
measured? Said another engineer, "You
just have to get used to the nice clean
sound of transistors. What you've been
listening to on tubes is a lot of distortion." Well that could be too, but have
you looked at the hi-fi ads recently?
Seems now that unless you buy a super
high power amp, you're going to get clipping distortion. I guess those nice clean
old amps weren't so clean afterall . . .
I asked a few musicians and producers
to tell me what they heard as the difference between tubes and transistors.
"Tube amps have more bass . . . The
bass actually sounds an octave lower,"
said one guitarist. A couple of different
people pointed out that there was a big
difference in the mid range sound. Tubes
seemed clear while transistors were
of the AES, New York.
Re/p 35
cloudy, "Transistor records are very
clean but they lack the `air' of a good
tube recording."
I showed a transistor to one older
musician and his immediate reaction was:
"no wonder they don't have any 'air' in
the sound, there ain't .enough room in
'em!" Different people told me that
they heard a lot of buzzing or white
noise on transistor recordings especially
on the attack of notes. Of course I heard
several theories that tubes overload
gently so they don't cause distortion on
attacks. One producer told me he liked
transistors because they had better highs
and lows but they didn't have the
'punch' of tubes. "Sometimes transistors
sound like they're under a blanket."
I started a collection of records grouping them according to their sound. Quite
surprisingly they did seem to fall into
three general categories. Comparing records with one another is a bit of a problem since the musical selections and
instrumentation is different on every
one. Still, a general sound quality or
electronic cast prevails over each record
regardless of musical content. The records in category one had a 'closed'
sound, they were brilliant yet they seemed to have a 'covered' quality. Within
the sound texture the instruments seemed masked so determining just what was
playing was difficult. Played loud the
records were 'buzzy' and rather annoying, at normal levels they were fine.
Category two's predominant trait was
loudness. These records were so loud
compared to others it seemed like they
were at the breaking point. One more
dB and the record would shatter. They
were distorted somewhat but the sound
still seemed clearer than the first category. Instruments were defineable within
the sound but they did not sound real or
live. Category three was very different.
Realism prevailed. If the records were
played at a 'live' sound level they actually sounded like the band was sitting
in the room. Each instrument was very
clear; distortion seemed almost nonexistent. The loudness was nowhere near
category two and as the playback level
was reduced on the phonograph the
sound became thin with the highs very
overbalanced. This characteristic was not
so dominant in either of the other categories.
It took quite a bit of time to do all of
this listening and categorizing which I
have so briefly described here. The next
step was to track down some of the
studios or engineers who had made these
recordings and find out what sort of
equipment they had used. Needless to
say this too was a big project. All of
this is, of course, a psychoacoustical
study where there is bound to be error
and indeed there was. But, in general, the
main factor in each category was the
Re/p 36
type of amplifiers used in the recording
console. Category one was transistors,
two was vacuum tubes and three was
operational amplifiers. Electronics was
again the predominant cause of sound
coloration. With this premise in mind I
decided to look into amplifier distortion
characteristics.
As the new hi -fi ads tell us most
amplifiers clip on peak program material.
Here, I thought, might be where the
sound coloration is coming from but first
I decided to check up on this clipping
business. To get an idea of the kind of
levels mike preamplifiers have to handle
under actual studio operating conditions,
I built some special test equipment. A
peak reading meter allowed me to read
the instantaneous level of signal transients while a special log amplifier showed
the whole signal on the scope. This way I
could get an idea of how significant the
peaks were relative to the actual signal
level. I hooked this rig up to the console
and monitored different mike lines during regular sessions. The results were
amazing. Sure I expected to get loud
signals, especially from the drums with
close miking, but not this loud. Table
No. 1 gives a few good examples.
If you get a manufacturer's data sheet
for one of the mikes listed in the table
you'll notice they give the sensitivity of
the mike at some standard sound pressure level. My calculations, based upon
that data, indicate that sound pressures
in excess of 130 dB are common. While
the latest console amplifiers have less
noise, less distortion and more knobs
Table
1
-
than ever before they are not designed to
handle this kind of level. Most commercially available preamplifiers operate at
40 dB gain and overload at an input level
of about - 20 dBm. From the table you'll
note that the U -87 mike puts out a peak
of - 1 dBm from the large floor tom.
Amplification of this by 40 dB gives
severe amplifier overload and logically
causes lots of distortion.
The high level mike signal problem is
curable of course. Most consoles today
have pads on the microphone inputs
which can attenuate these signals to a
range where the preamplifier can handle
them. The use of pads however raises two
unresolved problems. One, pads were not
used 10 years ago on tube type consoles.
In fact they weren't even common on the
first generation of transistor consoles
either. Yet, I have popular recordings
made back then that don't sound severely distorted. Secondly, how much padding do you add? Too much and you
don't have any range on your fader or
too little and the peaks clip.
I set up three commercially available
preamplifiers in the studio. One transistor type, one IC and one vacuum tube.
I adjusted them to a gain of exactly
40 dB and I regulated their operating
voltages so they would overload at the
same output level, + 18 dBm. Each amp
was connected to the console monitoring
network. As the test signal I used the
U -87 microphone over a large floor tom.
The mike fed into a variable pad and
then to a switch which could select each
preamp. I got together a few studio
PEAK MICROPHONE OUTPUT LEVELS FOR PERCUSSIVE SOUNDS
Instrument
D
Microphone output level open circuit OdB
'stance
U-87
6"
Bass Drum
0
U-47
77-DX
C-28
-6
-9
-15
=
.775
666
(single head)
Large Tom Tom
12"
-1
-6
-9
-10
Small Tom Tom
12"
-1
-5
-7
-9
-5
Piano
(single note)
6"
-25
-29
-38
-35
-32
Piano
6"
-23
-27
-36
-33
-33
Orchestra Bells
18"
-16
-25
-33
-33
-30
Cow Bell
12"
-10
-12
-29
-19
-15
0
-11
-
-10
-10
(chord)
4"
Loud Yell
U
-87 and
U
-47
made by Neumann, 77DX
AKG, 666 made by Electro- Voice.
made by RCA,
C
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Circle No. 118
Re/p 37
the margin of error we had with the
transistor amp almost disappeared. A
2 dB change in pad made the difference
between no distortion and very audible
distortion.
Amp three was a push pull triode
tube design. Quite surprisingly this amp
didn't need any padding. Its output was
quite clean.
Just to make sure the amplifiers were
operating ok I inserted 25 dB of attenuation and switched the mike signal to
each of them. Everyone agreed they all
sounded the same. clean.
These listening tests quite clearly indicate that the overload margin varies
people and we listened to the output of
each amp as a strong armed drummer
beat away.
The transistor amp was a push pull
silicon design. Its output signal sounded
very distorted. I adjusted the pad until
everyone agreed that the distortion had
disappeared. I did this adjustment several
times so I could get a range of attenuation settings. It turned out that 10 to 15
dB padding did the trick.
The second amp was one of those
cast epoxy operational amplifier designs.
Again the output was very distorted
without padding. It turned out that
20 dB of attenuation was necessary and
/
50
I
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40
-
Op AMP
Fgutt
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Triode
30
,
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Transistor
=
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36
24
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Input Level, d8
MElttikt5e amplifier comparison
Harmonic Dislortion
RRJAiive
01 To1al
50
40
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,
figure 2
I
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4th
10
3rd
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24
Relative Input Level, dB
Dìslorfiion Components for two
WAvéorm fior Triode amplfier
Re/p 38
Triode Amplifier
zit 12
dB Overload
widely between different types of amplifiers. It's well known that when an
amplifier operates in its overload region
it introduces distortion. Any amplifier
design for audio use has a total harmonic
distortion specification at some particular signal level. These tests illustrate
however that all the amplifiers could be
driven beyond this point without the
distortion being too noticeable. Obviously this is not the kind of distortion the
ear normally associates with electronic
overload yet the amplifier is distorting.
Distortion is the addition of harmonics
to the signal. Harmonics are what gives a
sound it's character. Adding harmonics
changes a sound. Therefore it must be in
this region of inaudible overload where
the sound coloration is added by the
amplifier causing the difference between
transistors, tubes and ICs.
Using a conventional THD (total harmonic distortion) analyzer, I checked out
approximately 50 different amplifier designs. I plotted a curve of THD against
input level as each amplifier was driven
into its distortion region. The results
were very disappointing, all the curves
came out about the same as figure No. 1
shows. These particular examples were
chosen because they are representative
of the family of devices. A quick glance
will show you that tubes do not overload
more gently than transistors; another
popular myth laid to rest!
THD is actually a measurement of the
sum of the individual distortion components. In other words you can determine it
by adding up the contribution of each
harmonic. Here is an area for problems
however since THD tells absolutely nothing about which harmonics are causing
how much of the distortion. For several
of the amps I repeated the overload tests
but this time I examined the output
signal, on a spectrum analyzer. After a
bit of testing it seemed that measuring
the first seven harmonics was enough to
see how most of the prominent distortion components behaved. The harmonics higher than the seventh were quite
low in amplitude and very hard to
measure accurately.
This time the results were very revealing. Figure No. 2 is a good example
of the distortion from a triode tube
amplifier. The distortion is composed of
strong 2nd and 3rd harmonics with the
higher ones in diminishing order of importance. Look at the output waveform,
notice that the top is flattened but the
bottom is still rounded like the sine wave
input. The next amplifier, figure No. 3, is
a push pull, silicon transistor type. The
3rd harmonic is very strong while the
2nd is about the same magnitude as the
higher ones. Now it becomes clearer
where THD measurements can be misleading. Figure No. 1 indicates that the
THD for both these amps is about the
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Re/p 39
50
40
E
5
30
3rd
t
5'" --..,
20
,
v 4t
2^d
r-
10
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0
36
24
12
1?glklive
Input Level, d5
pistorlion Components for Mullis-168e, Transformer
Coupled, Transistor Amplifier
vlaveform for transistor amplifier a1 12d5 overload
Figure 3
50
40
3rd
0Ç
,
30
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10
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Relative Input Level, d6
Distortion Components for N\onolfthic Operational
Amplifier with Hybrid Ouiptd 51c6e
Wavelorm ¡or operational arnplifiier 6t
Figure 4
Re/p 40
12
dl3 overload
same. But, from figures No. 1 and No. 2
we see that the actual distortion components are quite different. Look at the
waveform for the transistor amplifier, it
is almost a square wave, quite different
from the tube. Next, in figure No. 4, is
the distortion for an IC amplifier. Here
again the 3rd harmonic is the strongest
but, there are two more very different
characteristics. One, there are no even
numbered harmonics present. Second,
the 5th and 7th harmonics are very
strong. Look at the output waveform,
with sharp and symmetrical clipping.
From these spectrum plots of distortion we have found out then that each
type of amplifier is generating different
harmonics as it goes into overload. From
our listening tests we know that the
audibility of this distortion varies from
one amplifier to another. With this in
mind we decided to check out the effect
of various harmonics on our musical
hearing. Fortunately there is quite a bit
of published information in this area. It
seems that instrument builders and physicists have been working on mechanically
varying harmonic structure of sounds for
centuries. What makes a trumpet sound
different from an oboe has a great deal of
relevance to what makes a tube sound
different from a transistor. Basically harmonics can be broken into two parts.
Odd harmonics like the 3rd and the 5th
produce a `stopped' or covered sound.
Even harmonics like the 2nd and 4th
produce a `choral' or open sound. In
combinations the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th
produce instrument sounds particularly
the `brassy' type. This is quite basic and
needless to say no where near the whole
story for the lower harmonics. For our
purposes it will do nicely. Next, the
upper harmonics like the 7th and higher
actually get out of tune musically with
our Westernized ear, they are not musical. As these high harmonics begin to
appear they sound grating and very noticeable. The musicians and physicists
have called this effect `edge'. It's the
bite of the sound. Actually engineers
are familiar with this in the form of the
`presence' equalizer. Studies have been
done which show that the edge is a
strong ear clue for loudness. A trumpet
playing loud or soft maintains the same
balance of fundamental on lower harmonics, its the balance of the edge to the
fundamental which actually clues the ear
that it is playing louder, not nearer.
Now, to apply what we've learned to
the problem at hand: tubes versus transistors. From the electrical tests we see
that transistor amplifiers generate strong
3rd harmonic distortion when they overload. The instrument theory says that
3rd harmonic generates a `covered'
sound. Hence when the producer I spoke
to said that transistor records sounded
like they were under a blanket he didn't
realize just how good a distortion analyzer he was. IC's, too, generate this
strong 3rd harmonic but here there is the
factor of `edge' to take into account.
Besides the 3rd the IC generates strong
5th and 7th which sounds awful. Right
away you hear it and correct the overloading. This agrees with the listening
tests where the amp went into audible
distortion with a couple dB over the
overload point. IC's actually have an
audible warning system which prevents
generating the 3rd harmonic which is
responsible for `covered' sound. With
IC's then you stay pretty much in the
linear range and get very clean sound.
Now, if you don't notice the distortion
especially on short transients you get
that `shattered glass' effect. Exactly the
sound that some of the musicians said
they heard. It comes from too much
edge on the attacks.
Tubes are quite a different story from
the solid state amplifiers. When the tube
amp overloads it adds all the lower harmonics. You get the `brassy' sound on
overload instead of the `covered' sound.
The higher harmonics don't add appreciable edge until the amp is quite aways
into distortion and very brassy. This
point, according to the listening tests can
be 15 to 20 dB into distortion. Is this
bad? It depends upon what you are
looking for in your finished recording.
The reason why the tube records seemed
to jump out of the speaker is because
every input signal is being compressed
and equalized (distorted). You hear more
bass because the higher harmonics are
enhanced and cause a `synthetic bass'
effect. You get the clarity of mid range
at low volume again because of the compression, you are recording the signal at a
higher level relative to the normal `real'
level. You cannot get these effects with
transistor amplifiers. Neither can you get
them with tube amplifiers if they are not
operating in the right distortion range.
How do you know if it's the right
range? You take your chances.
My point is not to start a revival of
tube amplifiers but rather to shed some
scientific light upon a controversy which
has been long on answers and short on
fact. Perhaps the real question we should
all be thinking about is: are records supposed to be a recreation of the `real'
acoustic event or are they a manufactured product tailored to make record
players sound good? Either way we have
a long way to go.
As a non- technical friend asked me a
while ago, "Why is recorded music sometimes so soft I have to turn up the
volume and the next minute it's so loud
it's blasting? Why can't you record it so
the entire record comes out at the same
loudness ?" To think we spend so much
time and money on a 70 dB dynamic
range!!!
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Re/p 41
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Re/p 42
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Circle No. 122
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NEW PRODUCT NEWS
MEMORIES LITTLE HELPER AUTOMATED MIXDOWN SYSTEM
Allison Research Inc. of Nashville
has introduced their "MEMORIES LITTLE HELPER" system of Automated
Mixdown.
Memories Little Helper is unique in
the respect that it allows existing control
boards to be easily converted to automated operation without extensive down
time or mechanical alterations.
In a typical installation, the wires to
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special multi-pin connector, which serves
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Little Helper unit. When a dummy plug
is inserted, normal non -automated console operation is restored.
When the automation system is connected, however, the audio is routed
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Once installed in this manner, Memories Little Helper allows automated mixing on the console faders themselves,
rather than on a relatively awkward
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Another side advantage claimed for
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A complete 16 track unit measures
only 8 3/4" x 19" x 9" and can be rack
mounted, pedestal mounted or set on a
table or producers desk.
Contained in the package are the
programmer, 16 voltage controlled amplifiers (VCA2 -1), all operating controls,
level -match and over-range indicators and
all associated circuitry.
-
ANC_ ,
by
license from
ALLISON RESEARCH, INC.
iriC")
MEMORIES LITTLE HELPER
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t-COU rs
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PROGRAMMED
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WRITE
WRITE
UPDATE
UPDATE
IO
THE CONTROLS:
As seen in the close detail photo, each
of the individual channel modules contains the following operating controls or
indicators:
Read, write and update controls
(momentary, illuminated buttons with
electronic latching. Used for selection of
individual track operating modes.)
Level -match null indicators (LEDs
used for locating relative fader to programmer relationship, when switching
from read to write modes. These LEDs
also serve as overrange indicators.
Group master selector which allows
sub groups (i.e. rhythm, horns, voices) to
be assigned to one of five grouping
sub-masters, whereby they are controlled
in blocks, while maintaining echo and
panning perspectives. The effect of the
group master may be programmed or
non -programmed.
MASTER CONTROL MODULE:
A seventeenth module in the package
contains controls for simultaneously
placing all modules in "read" "write" or
"update" modes, as well as data track
change -over selector and group master
status selector.
All controls, individual and master,
may be remote controlled. A pre-set
control module is also in development.
THE PROGRAMMER:
The programmer in the Memories
Little Helper system is, of course, the
r
READ
REA
I WRIT'
IODATE
II
Allison Research / Automated Processes
unit, and is the same device used in
automated consoles currently being delivered by Automated Processes Inc.
Its unique multi -level digital code is
claimed to offer larger capacity, higher
update speeds and greater inherent protection from dropouts and splices than
more conventional bi phase digital systems. It is readily expandable to up to
256 variable automation functions (2048
equivalent bit functions) via plug-in
cards. The physical space alloted in the
Memories Little Helper system, however,
allows expansion to only 128 variable
functions.
SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS:
Functions automated, individual track
level, 5 grouping submasters. Linear range of controls, 100
dB. Update speed, to 125 scans per
second. Accuracy -resolution, .5 dB (first
50 dB attenuation), 2 dB (last 50 dB
attenuation), (not affected by multiple
passes). Signal to noise ratio, 111 dB
typical. Distortion, under .05% typical.
Max attenuation (kill), 130 dB. Storage
medium, master or slave tape machine,
(2 tracks required).
Complete 16 track system $9,250.00.
Complete 24 track system $13,500.00,
Available November 1973.
ALLISON RESEARCH, INC., 2817
ERICA PL., BOX 40288, NASHVILLE,
TN. 37204
level, master
Circle No. 123
NEW MICMIX REVERBERATION UNIT
The MICMIX MR-II Master -Room is a
professional, studio-quality unit and is
one of a series of economical designs
which permit application of exactly the
right amount and type of reverberation to
individual tracks or to any type of mixdown. The Master-Room series is avail-
able in equivalent room volumes from
4000 to over a million cubic feet. The
MR -II model is the 4K cubic foot equivalent and has a nominal decay time of 2
seconds, which is most applicable to
both speech and music. The larger equivalent room volumes are more useful with
strings and similar instruments. Since a
reverb is 'captured' by the most predominant sound applied, individual -track
reverbs are becoming highly desirable and
Master -Room's cost allows the best type
and amount to be applied to a particular
type of sound.
Master -Room incorporates a patent pending design which eliminates the need
Re/p 43
Who would want to
own...an 80dB
dynamic range record?
range be produced? The fact is that
only the Burwen Noise Eliminator
makes such recording possible ...
and it's expensive! You will be convinced, as we are, that it can boost
your record sales 10% to 20% ... and
decide that it is more than worth the
investment.
Exampiles of records selling because
of superb sound, alone, are becoming
more numerous. And small wonder!
For, in a recent survey of customers
who already own high -quality, home
sound systems, over 80% of those
who responded to a request for sug-
gested improvements said, "Do something to get better sounding records,
tapes and FM."
How can records of 80dB dynamic
To get complete facts on the Burwen
Noise Eliminator, Model 2000 ...
just call or write:
tol L3uruien
LABORATORIES, INC.
Re/p 44
209 MIDDLESEX TURNPIKE, BURLINGTON, MA. 01803 /TEL. (617) 273 -1488
Circle No. 125
for any tape-delay mechanism as well as
the `twang' and flutter-echo effects generally found in other moderately priced
reverbs. Each Master -Room includes a
Brilliance control to adjust the character
of the Room to fit the type of sound
being processed. Featuring monaural
drive and stereo -perspective outputs, input impedance on the standard model is a
bridging 10K ohms, with 600 ohm balanced input units also available. Standard
output impedance is 150 ohms on each
channel which is enough to drive loads of
up to 500 ohms at rated output. 600 ohm
balanced outputs are also available in the
:\1astcr -Room series.
tape mastering and duplicating facilities,
and FM broadcasters can eliminate objectionable high frequency distortion or
carrier modulation.
.
button tape track transfer, mike-line signal mixing and automatic demagnetization of tape heads.
..
The Model 400 operates much like a
standard program limiter except that it
does not cover the full audio band width.
Only the high frequency components are
controlled.
It is particularly effective in cassette
duplication. Masters processed using the
Model 400 Limiter significantly reduce
high frequency distortion, such as sibilant
sound, on the duplicated tapes.
The Model 400 Limiter is compatible
with standard studio grade equipment.
With an internal power supply, it is
totally self- contained. A single knob controls primary power and limits in /out
functions. Front panel lamps provide
visual indication of limiter modes.
Price, $1050.
AUDIO /TEK INC., P.O. BOX 5012, SAN
JOSE, CA. 95150
Solid state with FET front end, Super Seven is a product of the Ferrograph
Company, Ltd., Great Britain's leading
producer of quality tape recorders.
ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES, INC.
NEW HYDE PARK, N.Y. 11040 AND
SCOTTSDALE, AZ. 85260
Circle No. 128
Circle No. 127
Standard input level is set for +4 VU,
but almost any other design level is
readily obtainable. Standard output level
is also +4 VU. Saturation level on the
Master -Room series is at +18 dBm peak
and noise is rated at -66 dB. An acoustic
susceptibility level of 100 dB SPL permits
use of the Master -Room in the monitor
area without feedback problems, while its
small size and weight (the MR -II is only
38 inches high and weighs 22 pounds)
allows it to be placed almost anywhere.
XLR connections are featured for both
input and output with mating connectors
supplied, and the unit is housed in an
attractive walnut finish wood cabinet.
The unit is self- contained and operates on
115 volts, 50/60 Hz power.
Price: $985 (Standard Model MR-II),
and up.
MICMIX AUDIO PRODUCTS, INC., PO
BOX 9691, DALLAS, TEXAS 75214
Circle No. 126
DUAL CHANNEL FREQUENCY SELECTIVE LIMITER FROM AUDIO /TEK
Audio /Tek's Model 500 Frequency Selective Limiter is designed to limit high
frequency energy below a fixed value.
With this capability, recording studios,
FERROGRAPH SUPER SEVEN TAPE
RECORDER FROM ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES
The Ferrograph Super- Seven, a 3speed 10 1/2" real recorder, offers 2 and
4 track stereo and mono models with or
without integrated power amplifier and
speakers. With 3-speeds (7 1/2, 3 3/4,
1
7/8 ips), Super -Seven is the only
reel -to -reel machine offering 1 7/8 ips
and only Ferrograph offers this speed
with Dolby "B" noise reduction.
An optional high speed unit operates
at 15, 7 1/2 and 3 3/4 ips and is available
at no additional cost. (Dolby "B" noise
reduction system is also available at all
speeds except 15 ips. Dolby is not available at 15 ips on any 10 1/2" machine).
A host of thirty -five features includes
instant slur-free starts on record and playback, bias adjustment on front deck,
variable speed wind /rewind for fast editing, push button tape source comparison
for each channel, professional electronic
editing, push button bias readings, push
NEW ANNIS COMPANY KIT PROVIDES EVERYTHING NEEDED TO MEAS-
URE AND ELIMINATE MAGNETISM
FROM AUDIO AND VIDEO TAPE RECORDER COMPONENTS
Known as the Han -D -Kit, the kit provides everything needed to measure and
eliminate damaging magnetism. Included
is a pocket magnetometer to measure
residual magnetism, a clip-on extension
probe to reach recessed components,
Don't. Production profits are up to you.
GRAfDson
is on the way with help.
0 ouditronics. inc.
P.O. Box 12637
Circle No. 129
Memphis, Tennessee 38112
Re/p 45
dual -purpose Han -D -Mag demagnetizer,
experimental test strips, and complete
instructions. Han -D -Mag has a demagnetizing field strength of over 350 oersteds
at /4" distance from end of probe, compared to 70 -80 oersteds on demagnetizers
formerly available.
Complete measurement and demagnetizing of an average recorder takes only a
few minutes. In operation, the Han -DMag plugs into any 115 VAC circuit. Its
plastic jacketed probe is shaped to demagnetize hard -to -reach components.
The opposite, flush pole end, measures
over 800 oersteds, so powerful it can be
used for limited bulk demagnetizing of
tapes up to 'A" wide if regular bulk
tape eraser is not available.
Two kits are offered by Annis. Economy kit 20/B5 at $29.75 includes the
standard magnetometer, while Deluxe kit
25/S5 at $51.00 features a jewelled magnetometer with greater stability and accuracy. Above prices are postpaid in U.S.
PERFORMERS' MODEL 671 SINGLE -D
MICROPHONE
Buchanan, Michigan, September 12,
1973 - The Electro -Voice Model 671 is a
new "ball type" single -D cardioid microphone which emphasizes low frequencies
when used "close up." Its carefully
shaped response is ideal for the exacting
needs of high quality sound reinforcement, public address, and recording.
1
lates the transducer assembly from mechanical noises. An internal Acoustifoam
TM filter allows close talking without excessive "P- popping" and prevents dirt and
magnetic particles from accumulating on
the diaphragm.
The 671 uses the broadcast standard
A3M -type connector and the matching
tapered cable plug becomes a part of the
microphone's shapely silhouette. This
"ball type" microphone's more beautifully detailed styling is indicative of its
outstanding performance.
The microphone is equipped with a
locking device to keep the switch in the
"on" position when desired. Impedance
is selectable Hi -Z or Lo-Z at the connector.
Suggested resale net price of $54.75
for the Model 671. Also available are
Models 671P, with phone plug at end of
cable at $57 net, and the 671PC with
plug and in handsome carrying case priced at $60 net.
ELECTRO-VOICE, INC., 600 CECIL
STREET, BUCHANAN, MI. 49107
A.
Special export model kits are available with 230 -volt 50/60 Hz Han-D -Mag
at $4.50 extra, plus export shipping
charges.
Circle No. 132
A new head design and an exclusive
hologram designed Volumetric TM diaphragm provide exceptionally wide, linear response at all angles of incidence for
high gain- before -feedback in sound reinforcement applications. Off -axis coloration is virtually eliminated. The head
subassembly is user replaceable. As part
of this assembly, a newly designed and
extremely effective shock absorber iso-
R.B. ANNIS COMPANY, 1101 NORTH
DELAWARE ST., INDIANAPOLIS, IND.
46202
Circle No. 130
.
MCI ANNOUNCES TAPE TRANSPORT,
RECORDING CONSOLE PRODUCT
LINE UPDATES:
MCI JH -100 SERVO DRIVEN TAPE
TRANSPORT
The MCI JH -100 transport replaces
the JH -10 transport in MCI's JH -16 and
JH -24, 8, 16, and 24 track recorders. The
JH -100 combines state of the art electronically controlled tape handling and
the following unique features:
D.C. capstan servo drive. Super accurate crystal controlled. Fixed tape speeds,
15 -30 -ips (7.5 ips available).
Stable variable speed operation from
front panel for special effects and speed
corrections.
A NEW STANDARD
IN PERFORMANCE
D -190E
Cardioid dynamic microphone.
For information on the entire
AKG product line call or write
sti
I.
IC
l'
MICROPHONES HEADPHONES
OISTRIEWTED
NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS CORPORATION
,00 EAST
AKG CANADA
Re/p 46
2nn
STREET. NEW VORN. NEW VORN 100,7
DIVISION OF DOUBLE DIAMOND ELECTRONICS
Circle No. 131
SCARBOROUGH, ONTARIO
Wide range external speed programming for inter -machine sync, audio /video
or audio /audio remote speed control,
special effects.
"Piano Proof" flutter; typically .04%
15 ips Din weighted, .06% 15 ips Din
unweighted.
All mode reel tension control system,
constant tape tension, high speed accuracy anywhere in reel, consistant tape
packing.
Full manual velocity programming for
cueing, editing, special effects.
Totally "Relay- Less" design with full
TTL deck logic.
New "Mark II" auto locator, full
bidirectional operation, key board entry,
readout and operation in real time, no
over shoot -controlled approach speed.
New decor and trim.
MCI, 4007 N.E. 6th AVENUE, FT.
LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA 33308
Circle No. 134
JH -416
CONSOLES
Circle No. 135
NEW ECONOMICAL PROFESSIONAL
SOUND LEVEL METER FROM SCOTT
INSTRUMENTS
Scott Instruments announces its new
portable 451C professional sound level
meter with "C" weighting for flat response. Designed for use by the audio
professional and the advanced enthusiast
alike, the 451C instrument is pocket
sized, yet gives readings which meet or
exceed ANSI type S3C accuracy.
Circle No. 133
MCI
the signals of interest. Its large, easy -toread meter reads directly in dBC without
interpolation or computation. The 451C
is housed in a rugged, all metal case and
uses a single transistor radio battery
giving over 200 hours operation. The
451C is priced at $98.00 and is available
from professional audio dealers or the
factory. For full product information and
list of dealers contact the manufacturer.
SCOTT INSTRUMENT LABORATORIES, 30 CROSS STREET, CAMBRIDGE,
MASSACHUSETTS 02139.
preamp to accomodate the full range of
professional microphones (I.M. distortion
ODBM input less than .15 %).
Monitor mute switching and echo return muting.
Full quad panning - both L -R and F -B
for 360° quad positioning on all input
modules and echo returns.
48 additional tie - lines and jacks on
patch bay.
MCI, 4007 N.E. SIXTH AVENUE, FT.
LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA 33308
`STOCK' RECORDING
NEW UREI "ACTIVE" CROSSOVER
NETWORK FOR BI -AMP AND TRIAMP OF TWO -WAY AND THREE -WAY
SPEAKER SYSTEMS
A radically different concept in Electronic Crossover Systems is employed
ahead of power amplifiers to increase
efficiency and performance of loudspeaker systems. Two plug in cards, the 521L
(for two -way) and 521H (for mid and
high in three -way) make the crossover
frequencies continuously tunable: 200
Hz to 2 kHz for 521L and 1 kHz to
10 kHz for 521H. No changing of fixed
components to establish optimum crossover frequencies for any two -way or
three -way speaker system. All inputs and
outputs are transformer isolated but may
be bypassed if desired. Filter characteristic is 2 pole Butterworth, yeilding
12 dB per octave or 40 dB per decade
attenuation rate with essentially perfect
frequency flatness within the passband.
Available with or without internal power
supply. One card (521L) is required for
each two -way system; two cards (521L
and 521H) provide three -way outputs
for tri- amplification.
Model 521P housing holds four cards
and has its own power supply; Model
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.EASTERN
AIR
°N
TYPE 451 SOUND
.MpMtftC
,JN0
In response to input from the 65
owners of the MCI JH -416 recording
console the following features have been
added to the MCI `Stock' board:
Improved conductive plastic faders by
Penny and Giles Ltd with improved
illumitation.
Illuminated mute switch with channel
number.
Full reciprocal midrange equalization boost or cut of 14DB.
EQ in /out switch.
Mike input pad and new higher gain
*SI
The time has come whá
gital
elay for both the recording studio
nd sound contractor is no longer
luxury but a necessity. Pandora
Systems has developed a unit
wrr ch fulfil s the needs of both, and
as flexibility and technical excel ence that surpasses any compaable device available on the ma
et today.
High resolution 12 bit digital
oding produces a full 7
amic range
aking the use of sign
Itering noise recuction
niecessary.
Coupled
less than .1% distor(measured at Lill out 00 HZ) the Time Lin
is a black box that
DEVICES
411
MT
LEVEL
.,flER
Ml..LNC.y
EV EL-dBf
Its range of 45 to 130 dBC sound
pressure level permits measurements of
ambient and background noise as well as
generates time delays withcu- any
alteration to the signal.
By using modular construction
the unit can be expanded at any
time. The main frame holds 449 ms.
of delay and 5 outputs. Inter-connecting frames are available for
longer delays.
Delay times are variable in - m
Allsteps by simple front panel patc
ing or internal strapping for pe
manent installations.
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Circle No. 136
Tie this all together wi
the lowest basic prise
the industry, the Ti
Line becomes the t_lt ma
time machine. Pricing
starts at $2,500. De
and contractor irq
invited.
TENN. 37202
Re/p 47
One
of a series of brief discussions
by Electro -Voice engineers
THE
BACK OF
THE BOOK
WILLIAM RAVENTOS
Professional Products
Marketing Manager
Part of the fun of reading any microphone
catalog is looking at the new models designed
to solve old problems. While most manufacturers, ourselves included, put their greatest emphasis on microphone design, the area
of accessories can often be vitally important
to the operating engineer.
Several items soon to be seen in the E -V
catalog deserve special notice. New line matching transformers that convert 150 ohms to
Hi -Z have been introduced. Not only are they
smaller and more convenient (with plugs
already installed, for instance) but performance has been upgraded as well, the result
of superior transformer design.
The Model 380 Mike Line Attenuator is a
simple device (you can easily build your own
from our information) but when packaged
with plugs installed in a small tube, the convenience of controlling pre -amp overload by
simply plugging in a 380 cannot be overlooked.
The Model 513A High -Pass Filter is an improved version of this useful tool. Cost has
been cut 1/3, and weight by even more.
Connectors are now integral and the switch
has been eliminated. Getting rid of rumble,
low- frequency wind noise, and other problems is now a simple plug -in operation.
A novel answer to stage sound pickup needs
is the "Mike Mouse ". It's a molded Acoustifoam TM support that permits locating a
microphone inconspicuously on the stage
floor surface. Our original discussion of stage
pickup methods tell how and why this simple
bit of foam worked so well. Write for Sound
Techniques, Vol. 3, No. 1.
There are times when you may wish to use a
professional microphone with an On - Off
switch and stud mount. Enter the Model 342
Stud Adapter. It can be added to any 3/4"
mike with XL-style connector. An Allen
screw firmly clamps the mike without marring the case, and the unit can be freed
from the stud adapter whenever desired.
Theft of microphones
common, and
seemingly increasing problem. The E -V Model 340 Security Clamp is designed to thwart
the thieves. Two Allen screws can be used to
hold the mike. One squeezes a shoe that
clamps the microphone firmly without marring. The other can actually bite into the
case of the mike, making unauthorized removal a major problem. It is generally agreed
that if the microphone can't be stolen in the
first 15 -20 seconds, the likelihood of loss is
greatly reduced. This security clamp should
sharply cut your losses.
is
a
continually on the lookout for new
ideas from the field that can increase the
utility and effectiveness of our microphones.
The accessories in the back of our catalogs
are our response to your need for greater
flexibility in meeting today's sound chalE-V is
521E holds four cards and has no power
supply, but can be powered from the
521P. Up to eleven cards can be mounted
in a 19" rack (31/2" high) for large
installations, using a standard card cage
15 to 24 vdc supply.
and external
Send for complete technical information.
UREI, 11922 VALERIO ST., NORTH
HOLLYWOOD, CA. 91605
t
Circle No. 138
PANDORA DIGITAL DELAY LINE
TIME LINE - a high quality digital delay
line specifically designed for professional
audio. High resolution 12 bit encoding
produces a full 72 dB dynamic range
naturally, making the use of signal altering noise reduction systems unnecessary.
I
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yç4E4t`k.
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gke,,CrOler.®
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Circle No. 137
Circle No. 140
HAECO IMPROVED SUSPENSION ADAPTER
FOR WESTREX / CUTTER HEADS ANNOUNCED
HAECO introduces a new suspension
for use with Westrex heads mounted to
Scully lathes. The suspension helps significantly in the reduction of advance
ball pressure, thereby reducing the sometimes troublesome scoring problem. The
HAECO CS -1 suspension can be directly
retrofitted to any existing Scully lathe
and includes within its structure the
facility for automatic headlift, automatic
heated stylus control, and built -in dash
pot.
,..
`4N
Tt9E';l:
c
.
,.
11\l
The main frame is expandable to 5 outputs and 449 ms of delay. Larger units
are available. The delay time switching is
accomplished by simple patching in 1 ms.
steps. The basic frame is 89 ms. 1 output.
Price - $2,500.00.
PANDORA SYSTEMS, P.O. BOX 964,
NASHVILLE, TN. 37202
Circle No. 139
MULTI -TRACK SERIES "B" MIXING
CONSOLES
Multi -Track of Hollywood California
announces the addition of the Series "B"
modular mixing console system to their
product line. This mixing system was
designed by the same engineers who
developed the vari -band sweep equalizer.
Channel features include 9 frequency
equalization, solo -mute, dry channel pan,
echo pan, monitor mix, earphone mix,
echo send, line -mic switch, input gain
OM MIN MN
ONE
a®
lenges.
For reprints of other discussions in this series,
or technical data on any E-V product, write:
ELECTRO- VOICE, INC., Dept. 1033J
623 Cecil St., Buchanan, Michigan 49107
trim, bus selector, and in line fader.
Amplification is plug in operational amplifier and all signal switching is solid
state MOS analog switch. All circuits are
designed to 1% tolerences and are made
from 100% American components. This
series according to Multi-Track is priced
half-way between the low cost import
consoles and the twenty thousand dollar
low cost super consoles.
MULTI - TRACK, P. O. BOX 3187,
HOLLYWOOD, CA. 90028
YItY eire
&&C
&Y
Besides effectively lowering the mass
of the cutterhead, one of the most important features of the suspension is the
ease of removal and re- insertion without
disturbing the absolute diametric relationship of the cutting stylus.
HOLZER AUDIO ENG. CORP., 14110
AETNA ST., VAN NUYS, CA. 91401
Circle No. 141
MODEL DL42, LONG REACH MICROPHONE
The Cardiline Model DL42 is said to
represent the newest state -of- the-art generation in highly directional microphones, utilizing a
combination of character-
istics of hypercardioid and distributed
front opening designs. The hyper-cardioid
action gives the microphone essentially
uniform characteristics at frequencies up
to 500 Hz. At this point, the distributed
front opening takes over for the balance
of the range to which it responds.
Benefits derived from this new design
include wider range response, better con-
trol of polar response, plus high level and
greater directivity. These features make
possible a working distance which is two,
three, or four times that of conventional
directional microphones.
Ps
In deriving the polar pattern (off axis
response) of the microphone, specific
considerations were made to achieve the
lowest possible directivity index at all
frequencies (highest possible directionality). The directivity index even down to
100 Hz approaches the theoretical. Maximum attenuation of off-axis energy occurs to the sides of the microphone
where such rejection is often most useful.
An entirely new shock -mount design
greatly reduces susceptibility to mechanical shock transference. Also, tailored
low- frequency response allows accurate
reproduction of input material, while
greatly reducing wind noise problems in
the low- frequency area.
To prevent wind noise during outdoor
use or for rapid panning in the studio, the
DL42 is equipped with an Acoustifoam
TM windscreen. Shaped low- frequency
response also greatly reduces wind noise
problems.
Ideal for boom use, fish pole use, or
handheld applications where added working distance is required, the DL42 offers
wide -range response in a comparatively
small size, plus greatly increased directivity and working distance.
The suggested net professional price:
$ 300.00.
ELECTRO- VOICE, INC., 600 CECIL
ST., BUCHANAN, MI. 49107
connectors. Monitor outputs on 1/4 inch CLOVER MODEL 714 EQUALIZER
phone jacks. The electronics in QM -8
Clover systems announces the introwere designed and evaluated over a 2 year duction
of the Model 714 equalizer.
period before being placed in production.
This
unit
offers many unique and valuDesigned for stereo or quad operation,
the 8x4 console includes monitoring and able features and is described as a plug -in
headphone cue systems. The input mod- fifteen frequency active equalizer incorule contains high and low frequency porating linear motion slide controls and
selector switches and high and low fre- high performance integrated circuitry to
quency boost -cut controls. An input se- provide a new advance in useability and
lector switch selects the signal for the performance.
module and controls microphone pre -amp
gain. A pan selector switch that switches
pan pot operation to front or rear. Buss
assignment switches an echo send control,
and a slide pot module level control.
Low frequency equalization at ± 12DB
max at 50HZ or 200Hz. High frequency
equalization at ± 12DB at 3KHZ or 10
KHZ. Output at ± 18DBM before clipping. S/N ratio is 70DB. Response ± 1DB
20- 20,000 HZ.
Priced under $2000.
QUANTUM AUDIO LABS, 1310 SARTORI AVE., TORRANCE, CA. 90501
Circle No. 143
Low frequencies are 50, 100, 250,
350, and 500 HZ. Midrange frequencies
are 500, 1100, 1700, 2500, and 3500 Hz.
High frequencies are 2500, 5000, 7000,
10000, and 12000 Hz. In addition, there
are separate high and low -pass filters
with cutoff frequencies of 85 Hz and
11 kHz respectively. An in /out switch is
provided to defeat the equalizer without
changing the control settings. The unit
has unity gain, and can be operated
either balanced or unbalanced.
Exclusive linear controls, balanced,
transformerless operation, low noise and
distortion, reciprocal peaking equaliza-
GREATAI IKE STANDS
FROM GkEAT BRITAIN
Now
}
... a
mike stand that just
may be the best looking equipment in your
studio. Keith Monks
mike stands feature
a non -tipping base,
exclusive single-action
boom clamp, and hosts
of other goodies: drum
booms, side clamps,
cable reels, etc.
Ask your professional
audio dealer or call
audiotechniques, inc.
Circle No. 142
NEW QUANTUM QM -8 MIXER SYSTEMS
Torrance Ca.
.The QM -8 Mixer
System
is ideally suited for recording,
production or sound reinforcement. It's
small size (19 "x19 "x7 ") and light weight
(37 pounds) make the new QM -8 console
equally at home as a permanently installed console or as a portable remote
unit. The unit is said to contain all the
features and functions of a full size
console. All inputs are XL type female
connectors. Mic inputs are 200 ohms
balanced, line inputs 10K ohms unbalanced. Buss outputs are XL type male
u
An exclusive Brit sh import by
142
'fie nique
'i
l*milton Avenue, %ttmfo rd,
Conn. 06902
Circle No. 144
,
inc.
Tel: 203 359 2312
Re/p 49
tion at fifteen frequencies in three ranges,
continuous boost and attenuate controls,
independent high and low -pass filters.
The unique layout of the controls is
the result of user-oriented design program, and results in a tremendous improvement in speed and useability since
the control settings can be observed with
peripheral vision from any angle or distance. EQ changes are completely free
of pops and clicks.
Clover is also offering this equalizer
in self-powered units of 4 or 8, designated Model 714 -4 and 714 -8 respectively, which are ideal for upgrading or
expanding existing installations.
CLOVER SYSTEMS, 6232 SANTA MONICA BLVD., HOLLYWOOD, CA.90038
of relatively low performance to those of
professional quality.
For operator convenience, a step -bystep test procedure is provided under a
transparent cover on top of the unit. A
self -test feature also is provided to verify
proper operation of each of the test
functions.
Circle No. 145
3M MINCOM INTRODUCES TEST SET
FOR AUDIO TAPE RECORDERS
A test set that shows at a glance if
tape recorders and other audio systems
are operating correctly has been introduced by 3M Company, Mincom Division.
The 3M brand Model 6500 Recorder
Test Set was designed to simplify the
testing process for the recorder manufacturer, user and serviceman. 3M says
special skills are not required to operate
the Model 6500. The instrument's "quick
look" meter has calibrated color bands to
indicate acceptable, marginal or unacceptable performance of the device being
tested.
The lightweight, portable unit's meter
reads a composite signal for testing input
and output levels, frequency response,
harmonic distortion, signal -to -noise ratio
and tape transport flutter for a wide cross
section of audio tape recorders and systems, 3M says.
For example, the flutter and harmonic
distortion levels can be measured up to
3 percent maximum and signal -to -noise
ratios from 20 to 50 decibels.
By the flick of a switch, the operator
can select any of three individually calibrated sets of test parameters to cover
different quality recorders - from those
Potential uses include production testing, in- service calibration and repair testing of audio tape recorders, audio multiplex systems, audio power amplifiers and
voice logging tape recorders. Other uses
include a daily confidence check of audio
recorders in offices and schools, rapid
quality assurance testing by manufacturers, and recorder production line test
stations.
The unit, which measures 10 -3/4 inches wide, 12 inches deep and 5 -1/2 inches high, weighs less than 10 pounds
and uses either AC power or six standard
"D" cell batteries.
The Model 6500 is priced at $1,595.
Availability is scheduled for early 1974.
FROM:
3M COMPANY, ST. PAUL, MN. 55133
Circle No. 146
Presenting The
VARI -BAND SWEEP EQUALIZER!
Equalization any way the ear can hear it.
Continuously variable bandcenter, bandwidth
(slope) and amplitude at a price comparable to
non -sweeping equalizers.
EE
EE
EE
E E
P.
E
E
E
E_
E
mils-fr'S.E5
PI
0. Box 3187, Hollywood, CA 90028
1965 Cheremoya Ave., Hollywood, CA 90068
(213) 467 -7890
Re/p 50
Circle No. 148
UPELECTRONICS
TAPE
RESINGLE -CHANNEL
GRADES
CORDERS
Inovonics' Model 360 Tape Recording
Electronics replaces tube -type electronics
in older single -channel professional recorders.
It is designed as a plug- for -plug replacement package for Ampex 300, 350/
351, and 354 tape transports and will
perform with original heads. The Model
360 Electronics are also adaptable to
most other single -channel tape transport
and head assemblies.
The 360 is completely self- contained
and highly reliable. The internal power
supply is fully regulated to assure stable
operation despite wide variations in line
voltage. Plug -in circuit cards and solid state design simplify maintenance and
increase performance.
NEW
All adjustments are accessible from
the front. Panel controls include Record
Gain and Repro Gain with preset CAL
positions, and solid-state Monitor and
Equalization switching to eliminate contact noise and to permit remote control
of both these functions. The 360 is
housed in a standard rack size cabinet.
Price: $645.
INOVONICS INC., 1630 DELL AVE.,
CAMPBELL, CA. 95008
Circle No. 147
ADVERTISERS INDEX
PAGE
AKG
ALLISON
ALTEC
AMPEX
AUDIO DEVICES
AUDIO TECHNIQUES
AUDITRONICS
46
37
2 -3
54
39
49
13 -45
BURWEN
44
BUSHNELL
DBX
ELECTRO -VOICE
GENERAL TIME
MAZE
21
MCI
MULTI -TRACK
PANDORA
QUAD -EIGHT
QUANTUM
SCULLY /METROTECH
SHURE BROS.
SPECTRA SONICS
STUDIO SUPPLY
TABER
TASCAM
TELEX
3M
UREI
WESTLAKE
12
14 -48
33
9
18 -19
50
47
8
41
16
56 -CVR 4
5
55 -CVR 3
41
34
42
24 -25
10 -11
27- 28 -29 -30
CLASSIFIED
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
RATES
Prepaid with submitted copy:
One column inch (1" x 2'/4 ") $20.00
1/2 column inch ('h" x 21/2")
14.00
*(If billing is required add 20 % )
Send for FREE Catalog
and Audio Applications
OPAMP LABS
172
S
Alta Vista Blvd.
71!
los Angeles. Calif. 90036
(2131
934.3566
Circle No. 152
8 and 16
TRACK RECORDING CONSOLES
THE SOUNDEST DOLLAR SPENT
IN PRO AUDIO TODAY
1965 CHE REMOYA AVE.,
HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 90028
Hollywood, CA. 90028
P.O. Box 3187,
(213) 467 -7890
Circle No. 153
EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE
ONE STOP FOR ALL YOUR PROFESSIONAL
AUDIO REQUIREMENTS.
BOTTOM LINE ORIENTED.
P. O.
F. T. C. BREWER COMPANY
8057, Pensacola, Florida, 32505
Box
PROFESSIONAL RECORDING AND
TEST EQUIPMENT for recording studios and broadcasters - Altec, Ampex,
3M, GR, HP, Tektronix - new & used.
Free equipment list, or drop in.
CHAS. E. WASHBURN CO.
6114 -R Santa Monica BI.
Hollywood, CA.
90038
AUDIO EQUIPMENT NEW AND USED
whatever your needs. Whether you're
building a new studio or re- modeling
your present one, check us first for a
package price. We will not be undersold.
AMBOY AUDIO ASSOCIATES, 236
Walnut St., South Amboy, N.J. 08879.
(201) 721 -5121
FOR SALE: MCI /API console 24 inputs and 24 outputs with 24 Automated Process Equalizers plus 8 A.P.
quad panners. Also custom installed
illuminated muting system. 18 months
old. $28,000.
Contact:
OVIE SPARKS
CAPRICORN SOUND STUDIOS
548 BROADWAY
MACON, GA. 31208
(912) 745 -8516
BUILD YOUR OWN highest quality
microphone mixers, consoles, phono
preamps, crossovers, equalizers, or voltage controlled devices, using modules.
Free catalog. BURWEN LABS., 209
MIDDLESEX TURNPIKE, BURLINGTON, MASS. 01803.
FOR SALE: MCI JH -416 MASTER
RECORDING CONSOLE 16 CHANNELS INPUT 16 CHANNELS OUTPUT. MINT CONDITION. ORIGINAL
COST $19,500 . . . MUST SELL
.
.
.
SELLING FOR $16,000 OR
MAKE OFFER. CONTACT WILLIAM
WATERS (614) 663 -2544
FOR SALE DUE TO EXPANSION
Custom Recording Console 12 in /4
out. Switchable "mic /off/line" on all
12 inputs, pan pots, 260 station patch
bay, mic loss pads, three echo send
& receive w /EQ, remote transport
controls, etc.
Other related equipment available.
KINTEL PROD., 1200 SPRING ST
NW, ATLANTA, GA. 30309
WANTED TO BUY: Used 4 -track recording console; Tascam, Langevin,
I.C. COMBINING AMPLIFIERS from
$40.00. Fully tested and guaranteed
for 10 years. Distribution amps, line
amps, mic preamps, xfmr cards. Card
files, power supplies. Electronix crossovers. Equalizers. DIRECT FROM
MFG., NO DISTRIBUTOR MARK-UP
IXTLAN ENGINEERING, Box 323,
LOMBARD, ILL. 60148
FOR SALE: Dolby A's, Model 360,
$1,150 pr. Wired prokits with rack ears: 2 SM -6, $350 ea.; EK -6, $200;
EQ-6, $175; use together as 12/4/2
mixer with echo EQ. Ampex 350
case (will hold above), $40. Two
Shure M67 mixers $100 each. Two
Advent spkrs., $175 pr. Sony MX12
mixer, $70. Acoustech IV Preamp,
$15. (203) 866 -9339
Don't have a "NAKED STUDIO".
Buy your own new 1974 MISS & MR
NUDE AMERICA & MISS NUDE
WORLD CALENDAR! $3.00 each (2
for $5.00).
DICK DROST'S NAKED CITY, ROSELAWN, INDIANA 46372
Quantum, Stevenson, or equivalent.
Also, used Revox tape machine. Phone
(813) 688 -4265.
FOR SALE: Model 1204 Electrodyne
Console, 16 in, 4 out, mixdown remote controls, many extras. $10,500.
Immediate availability. SOUND RECORDERS, 206 SOUTH 44th ST.,
OMAHA, NB. 68131
FOR SALE: AG 350 -2 Ampex recorder. Please call for complete description Scott Kent, BKM Assoc.,
(617) 658 -6565.
Universal Audio 24 in 12 out tube
console, sub-mix, solo's, EQ on inputs
and echo, spare modules, limiters,
aux EQ etc. $10,000. Phone (213)
472 -7772 or 472 -9402.
FOR SALE: Late Model Scully 100,
16 track recorder with meter panel
and custom remote. As new condition
$12,700. SOUND RECORDERS, 206
SO. 44th ST., OMAHA, NB. 68131
FOR SALE: COMPLETE STUDIO
4 track Scully 2 track Ampex 300
32 in 4 out custom board with echo
EQ, mikes, stands, 604E Altec, tools,
cables, etc. $9,000.
CONWAY RECORDERS, 655 NO.
ST. ANDREWS PL., HOLLYWOOD,
CA., (213) 463 -2175
Recording Studio -16 track + disc cutting. Low overhead. Convenient to
Phili., Balto. & D.C. $70,000. Financing Avail. Principals only. BOX BM
R -E /P BOX 2287, HOLLYWOOD,
CA. 90028
EMPLOYMENT
Young, experienced Recording Engineer
familiar with 16 Track recording. Able to
work independently with American and
European customers. Ready to come to
Israel and join KOLINOR RECORDING
STUDIOS. Experience with 'rock' and light
music, and ability to get along with all
kinds of people. APPLY TO:
KOLINOR RECORDING STUDIOS, 18,
HaArba'a STREET, TEL AVIV., ISRAEL
HELP WANTED: Large midwest Recording Studio (16 track), wishes to
interview mature professional engineer
between 25 and 35 yrs. of age. Must
be take charge man, with good business sense and technically competent.
Career position for right man. Send
full particulars listing qualifications.
BOX MRS R -E /P BOX 2287, HOLLYWOOD, CA. 90028
Studio design, acoustical, technical and
operational consulting. 20 years experience
in music mixing in Chicago and the mid west.
have nothing to sell except knowledge in the music audio field. Free -lance
mixing in the Chicago and midwest area.
BRUCE F. SWEDIEN, 705 HERMITAGE
DRIVE, DEERFIELD, ILLINOIS 60015
(312) 945 -8629
I
MIXER WANTED
Modern Hollywood studio seeking
mixer - producer - manager with commercial and music experience. Ownership opportunity for right man.
BOX CH R-E /P BOX 2287, HOLLYWOOD, CA. 90028
Re/p 53
magnetism that may be present in cornponents.
It is indeed fortunate that magnetic
Fairly long iron or steel members
which may be oriented somewhat parallel residuals can be removed from steel
with the direction of the earth's magnetic components in several different ways.
field, will become magnetized due to the In other words, they can be demagfact that their high magnetic "conduc- netized.
One very effective method is to heat
tivity" tends to concentrate the earth's
magnetic field in that area. Rather strong the steel red hot then slowly cool in a
magnetic poles will appear at the ends low magnetic field area. This, however, is
A Los Angeles based console manuof such iron or steel members. Steel obviously not a very practical method for
facturer is looking for a girl or boy
components brought near such poles will, most requirements. A second method is
Friday. Jobs will include console conin turn, become magnetized, the same as to expose the steel to a carefully construction, basic design assistance, and
when exposed to any other magnetic trolled magnetic field of opposite polarmixing. A basic knowledge of pro field source. Very little consideration is ity, but oriented in exactly the same
audio recording systems, wiring, D.C.
usually given to such a possibility. In direction as the original magnetizing
and A.C. electronics is desirable. Defother words, don't place your recorder field. The intensity of this oppositely
inite chance for advancement. Please
too close to the ends of steel pipes, bars polarized field must be an accurately
/P
BOX
TR
R
-E
resume
to
BOX
send
or structures oriented either vertically or determined fraction of the original mag2287, HOLLYWOOD, CA. 90028
in a generally north and south direction. netizing field. This fraction will vary
It is also well to be alert to the pos- depending on the type of steel, its heat
NATIONAL SALES MANAGER
sibility of picking up magnetism from a treatment or work hardening, etc. DeEQUIPAUDIO
PROFESSIONAL
myriad of electro- magnetic or permanent termination of such a precise fraction is
MENT
magnet devices that may have extensive practically a laboratory procedure and
manuRapidly expanding electronics
fields. For instance, some meter therefore is not a very suitable process
stray
facturer seeks experienced manager to
and many transistor either.
photometers
type
direct sales program for professional
A third, relatively simple demagnetradios contain very strong unshielded
diversification.
division
audio products
izing method is to expose the steel to a
magnets.
permanent
Experience working with commercial
An instrument known as a pocket magnetic field of cyclically reversing posound contractors desirable. Write:
can be used to discover or larity which must have an initial intenmagnetometer
L.J. LYNN, DIRECTOR OF MARand polarity of sity higher than the fraction mentioned
magnitude
the
determine
KETING & SALES, SUNN MUSICAL
fields or resi- in the above described laboratory promagnetic
disturbing
such
EQUIPMENT COMPANY, AMBURN
magnetometer is cedure. This cyclically reversing field is
The
calibrated
duals.
INDUSTRIAL PARK, TUALATIN,
quick and handy to use, giving an instant then reduced in intensity so that each
OREGON 97062
indication of any dangerous levels of succeeding half-cycle, of opposite polarity, is slightly less than the preceding
half-cycle but more than the critical
minimum "fraction" as dictated by the
type of steel involved.
The intensity of such a cyclically
alternating demagnetizing field can be
reduced to near zero by means of a
rheostat or a variable transformer, or
much more simply by progressively separating the steel and the source of alterAmpex, located on the San Francisco pennating demagnetizing field to such a
deinsula, is expanding its' product design and
distance that the field induced in the
velopment programs in professional audio prosteel is essentially zero. This is not
ducts and systems.
difficult, nor is the separation distance
Due to this expansion, we have an immediate
involved too great because such induced
opportunity for an Engineering Manager to direct
magnetism very nearly follows the inthe design efforts for professional audio recordverse square law, where doubling the
ers and related products for our Audio-Video
distance apart will reduce induction to
Systems Division.
one quarter the initial amount and doubTo qualify for this position, you must possess
ling again, to one sixteenth, etc.
strong technical and management experience. You
One of the most important points to
will be responsible for the technical direction of
in cyclical demagnetizing is
remember
several design teams and these responsibilities
demagnetizing is accomplishactual
that
will include supervision of control budgets, cost
ed only during the incremental reduction
analyses and schedules.
of successive half -cycles of the demagFor immediate consideration for this oppornetizing field, or only during that time
tunity to join the World Leader in Professional
when the work and the demagnetizer are
Audio -Video Product Design and Marketing, plbeing separated. Leaving steel to "cook"
ease send your resume confidentially to:
in an alternating demagnetizing field is
R. DENISON, AMPEX CORP., 401 BROADWAY,
of little value unless one might consider
REDWOOD CITY, CA. 94063. An Equal Opporthe secondary effect of heat being gentunity Employer M/F
erated in the work due to losses from
induced eddy currents.
HELP WANTED: Competent, experienced operating engineer for growing
tape duplication operation near New
York City. Intelligence and take charge ability essential. State experience
and salary requirements.
BOX H, CROTON -ON- HUDSON, N.
Y. 10520
continued from page 13
ENGINEERING MANAGER
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO
AMPEX
Re/p 54
part two will appear in the
Nov/Dec issue
W ERET -E BOOK E \DS
STDO SDPLY
EXPER E\CE
BEO\S
-
wrought from extenEXPERIENCE
sive years of hard work by many
people participating in all phases of
recording. People now brought together to serve you.
-
gained from long
KNOWLEDGE
successful involvement in mixing,
studio management, maintenance,
equipment design, accoustical consultations, and turn -key studio construction that uniquely qualifies us to mold
an unlimited selection of the world's
finest recording gear into a facility
that fits you.
WISDOM
-
dictating that our de-
signs and specifications are generated
after careful consultations as to your
style of recording, personal room and
equipment preferences, and your fiscal requirements.
STUDIO SUPPLY designs and equips
rooms that feel good, sound good,
and work good. After all, isn't that
what a good studio is all about?
a
..
....
STUDIO SUPPLY HAS ACCESS TO
MANY LEASING PLANS AND
OTHER SOURCES . . .
*t,
CALL DAVE, STEVE,
CLAUDE TODAY . . .
(615) 327 -3075
studio
SUPPLY COMPANY
P.O. BOX 280
NASHVILLE, TENN. 37202
Circle No. 149
EMIL
OR
The Wollmcin... A howling fucceff rtory.
The hottest radio happening since multiplex! He's Wolfman Jack, a personality extraordinaire
and an independent production company. From his home /studio in Beverly Hills, California,
Wolfman Jack pre- records his widely syndicated daily radio show almost entirely with Shure
audio componentry. For vocal pickup, the Wolfman uses two of the finest Shure studio
microphones: the "workhorse" SM53 unidirectional dynamic and the smoother -than -silk
SM33 unidirectional ribbon. (His "outrigger" production console is a Shure M675 Broadcast
Production Master used in conjunction with a Shure M67 Mixer.) A Shure M688 Stereo Mixer
is used for stereo recording. Even in disc playback, Shure plays a vital role with a precision engineered Shure -M232 professional tone arm and M44E Cartridge. Shure professional
products doing their thing help the Wolfman do his thing. For your copy of our Professional
Products Catalog, drop us a note
and see what we mean.
-
Shure Brothers Inc.
222 Hartrey Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60204
In Canada: A. C. Simmonds & Sons Ltd.
Circle No. 150
1--I
V 1=R E
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