Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 Technical Overview

Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 Technical Overview
Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 Technical
Overview
Published: October 2010
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Table of Contents
®
Introduction to Windows Server 2008 R2 .......................................................................... 1
Overview .......................................................................................................................... 1
Using this Guide ............................................................................................................... 1
Virtualization ....................................................................................................................... 2
Server Virtualization with Hyper-V ................................................................................... 2
Increased Availability for Moving Virtual Machines ...................................................... 3
Increased Availability for Addition and Removal of Virtual Machine Storage ............ 12
Improved Management of Virtual Datacenters .......................................................... 12
Simplified Method for Physical and Virtual Computer Deployments ......................... 14
Hyper-V Processor Compatibility Mode for Live Migration ........................................ 14
Improved Virtual Networking Performance ................................................................ 16
Improved Virtual Machine Memory Management...................................................... 16
Terminal Services Becomes Remote Desktop Services for Improved Presentation
Virtualization............................................................................................................... 18
Remote Desktop Services and Virtual Desktop Infrastructure .................................... 19
Improved User Experience When Accessing Media Rich Content .............................. 25
Management ..................................................................................................................... 28
Improved Data Center Power Consumption Management ............................................ 29
Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers .................................................... 29
Processor Power Management ................................................................................... 30
Storage Power Management ...................................................................................... 31
Additional Power Saving Features .............................................................................. 32
Measure and Manage Power Usage Across the Organization .................................... 32
Remote Manageability of Power Policy ...................................................................... 33
In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting .................................................................... 33
New Additional Qualifier for the Designed for Windows Server 2008 R2 Logo
Program .................................................................................................................. 34
Remote Administration .................................................................................................. 35
Reduced Administrative Effort for Interactive Administrative Tasks ............................... 35
Command-line and Automated Management ............................................................... 36
Remote Management ................................................................................................. 37
Improved Security for Management Data .................................................................. 38
Enhanced Graphical User Interfaces ........................................................................... 38
Extended Scripting Functionality ................................................................................ 39
Portability of Windows PowerShell Scripts and Cmdlets ............................................ 39
Improved Identity Management .................................................................................... 40
Improvements for All Active Directory Server Roles ................................................... 40
Improvements in Active Directory Domain Services ................................................... 40
Improvements in Active Directory Federated Services ............................................... 42
Improved Compliance with Established Standards and Best Practices .......................... 42
Web ................................................................................................................................... 42
Reduced Effort to Administer and Support Web-based Applications ............................ 43
Reduced Support and Troubleshooting Effort ............................................................ 46
Improved FTP Services ................................................................................................... 47
Ability to Extend Functionality and Features .................................................................. 48
Improved .NET Support .................................................................................................. 49
Improved Application Pool Security ............................................................................... 49
IIS.NET Community Portal .............................................................................................. 49
Solid Foundation for Enterprise Workloads ....................................................................... 50
Improved Scalability, Reliability, and Security ................................................................ 50
Increased Processor Performance and Memory Capacity ........................................... 50
Improved Application Platform Security ..................................................................... 51
Availability and Scalability for Applications and Services ........................................... 52
Improved Performance and Scalability for Applications and Services ........................ 54
Improved Storage Solutions ....................................................................................... 56
Improved Protection of Intranet Resources ................................................................ 59
Improved Management of File Services ..................................................................... 60
Improvements in Backup and Recovery ...................................................................... 63
Improved Security for DNS Services ........................................................................... 67
Better Together with Windows 7.................................................................................... 67
Simplified Remote Connectivity for Corporate Computers ........................................ 68
Secured Remote Connectivity for Private and Public Computers ............................... 86
Improved Performance for Branch Offices .................................................................. 88
Improved Security for Branch Offices ......................................................................... 90
Improved Efficiency for Power Management .............................................................. 91
Virtualized Desktop Integration .................................................................................. 91
Higher Fault Tolerance for Connectivity Between Sites and Locations ....................... 92
Protection for Removable Drives ................................................................................ 92
Prevention of Data Loss for Mobile Users .................................................................. 93
Summary ........................................................................................................................... 93
Introduction to Windows Server® 2008 R2
Overview
Windows Server 2008 R2 is the latest version of the Windows Server operating system from
Microsoft. Building on the features and capabilities of the Windows Server 2008 release
version, Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to create solution organizations that are easier
to plan, deploy, and manage than previous versions of Windows Server.
Building upon the increased security, reliability, and performance provided by Windows
Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2 extends connectivity and control to local and remote
resources. This means your organizations can benefit from reduced costs and increased
efficiencies gained through enhanced management and control over resources across the
enterprise.
Using this Guide
This guide is designed to provide you with a technical overview of the new and improved
features in Windows Server 2008 R2. The guide is divided into the following key technical
investments that are provided in Windows Server 2008 R2:

Virtualization. With its server virtualization technology, Windows Server 2008 R2
enables you to reduce costs, increase hardware utilization, optimize your infrastructure,
and improve server availability.

Management. Windows Server 2008 R2 reduces the amount of effort you expend
managing your physical and virtual data centers by providing enhanced management
consoles and automation for repetitive day-to-day administrative tasks.

Web. Windows Server 2008 R2 gives you the ability to deliver rich Web-based
experiences efficiently and effectively, with improved administration and diagnostics,
development and application tools, and lower infrastructure costs.

Scalability and Reliability. Windows Server 2008 R2 has been specifically designed to
support increased workloads with less resource utilization on server computers. Windows
Server 2008 R2 supports these increased workloads while enhancing reliability and
security.

Better Together With Windows® 7. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes technology
improvements designed with Windows 7 enterprise users in mind, augmenting the
network experience, security, and manageability.
As you read each section, you can identify which Windows Server 2008 R2 features and
capabilities will help you create solutions for your organization. You can also see how
Windows Server 2008 R2 can help you manage and protect your existing solutions.
Virtualization
Virtualization is a huge part of today‘s data centers. The operating efficiencies offered by
virtualization allow organizations to dramatically reduce the operations effort and power
consumption.
Windows Server® 2008 R2 provides the following virtualization:

Server and desktop virtualization provided by Hyper-V™ in Windows Server 2008
R2. Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 is a micro-kernelized hypervisor which manages
a server‘s system resources when hosting virtualized guests. Server virtualization allows
you to provide a virtualized environment for operating systems and applications. When
used alone, Hyper-V is typically used for server virtualization. When Hyper-V is used in
conjunction with Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), Hyper-V is used for desktop
virtualization.

Session virtualization. Virtualizes a processing environment and isolates the processing
from the graphics and IO, making it possible to run an application in one location but
have it be controlled in another. Session virtualization may allow you to remotely access
only a single application, or it may present you with a complete desktop offering
multiple applications.
Note: There are other types of virtualization which are not discussed in this guide, such as
application virtualization provided by Microsoft Application Virtualization version 4.5. For
more information on all Microsoft virtualization products and technologies, see ―Microsoft
Virtualization: Home‖ at http://www.microsoft.com/virtualization/default.mspx.
Server and Desktop Virtualization with Hyper-V
Beginning with Windows Server 2008, server virtualization via Hyper-V technology has been
an integral part of the operating system. A new version of Hyper-V, is included as a part of
Windows Server 2008 R2.
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Microsoft® Hyper-V in R2 supports single and multi-core x64 processors and requires 64-bit
machines with AMD-V- or Intel Virtualization Technology-enabled processors. For a
complete list of supported guest operating systems please see:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;954958.
There are two manifestations of the Hyper-V technology: Hyper-V is the hypervisor-based
virtualization feature of Windows Server 2008. Microsoft Hyper-V Server is the hypervisorbased server virtualization product that allows customers to consolidate workloads onto a
single physical server.
Hyper-V includes numerous improvements for creating dynamic virtual data centers,
including:

Increased availability for moving virtual machines within virtual data centers.

Increased availability for adding and removing virtual machine storage.

Improved management of virtual data centers.

Simplified method for physical and virtual computer deployments by using .vhd files.
Increased Availability for Moving Virtual Machines
One of the most important aspects of any data center is providing the highest possible
availability for systems and applications. Virtual data centers are no exception to the need for
high availability.
Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the much-anticipated Live Migration feature,
which allows you to move a virtual machine between two computers running Hyper-V
without any interruption of service.
Comparison of Live Migration and Quick Migration
Quick Migration is a feature found in both Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V and Windows
Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V. By contrast, Live Migration is only in Windows Server 2008 R2. The
primary difference between Live Migration and Quick Migration is that a Live Migration
moves virtual machines without any perceived downtime or service interruption. The
requirements for Live Migration and Quick Migration are very similar.
Both Live Migration and Quick Migration can be initiated by:

The System Center Virtual Machine Manager console, if Virtual Machine Manager is
managing the cluster nodes that are configured to support Live Migration or Quick
Migration.
Note: Support for Live Migration will be included in System Center Virtual Machine
Manager 2008 R2.
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
The Failover Cluster Management console, where an administrator can initiate a live
migration.

A Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) script.
Integration of Live Migration and Failover Clustering
Live Migration has two core requirements: First it requires failover clustering in Windows
Server 2008 R2; and second, it needs shared disk storage between cluster nodes. The shared
disk storage can be provided by a vendor-based solution or by using the Cluster Shared
Volumes feature in failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information on
Cluster Shared Volumes, see ―Improvements for Virtual Machine Management‖ in ―Improved
Availability for Applications and Services‖ later in this guide.
The following are the requirements for performing Live Migration with a failover cluster:

Live Migration can only be performed between cluster nodes within the same failover
cluster (virtual machines can only be moved between cluster nodes).

Hyper-V must be running on the cluster nodes in the failover cluster and have access to
the same shared disk storage, such as provided by Cluster Shared Volumes or vendorbased solutions.

The .vhd files for the virtual machines to be moved by Live Migration must be stored on
the same shared disk storage.
The following figure illustrates a typical Hyper-V and failover cluster configuration for
supporting Live Migration.
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Figure 1: Typical configuration to support Live Migration
Live Migration Process
The Live Migration process is performed in the following steps:
1.
A Hyper-V administrator initiates a Live Migration between the source and target cluster
node.
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2.
A duplicate virtual machine is created on the target cluster node, as illustrated in the
following figure.
The source cluster node creates a TCP connection with the target cluster node. This
connection is used to transfer the virtual machine configuration data to the target cluster
node. A skeletal virtual machine VM is created on the target cluster node and memory is
allocated for the destination virtual machine.
Figure 2: Creation of target virtual machine on target cluster node
3.
All of the current memory in the source virtual machine is copied to the target virtual
machine.
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The memory assigned to the source virtual machine is copied over the network to the
target virtual machine. This memory is referred to as the working set of the source virtual
machine. A page of memory is 4 kilobytes in size.
Figure 3: Initial copy of memory from source to target virtual machine
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4.
Clients connected to the source virtual machine continue to run on the source virtual
machine and create memory pages.
5.
Hyper-V tracks the memory pages and continues an iterative copy of those pages until
all memory pages are copied to the target virtual machine, as illustrated in the following
figure.
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Figure 4: Iterative copy of memory from source to target virtual machine
6.
When the working set of the source virtual machine is copied, the source virtual machine
is paused and the remaining memory pages are copied.
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Note: The live migration process may be cancelled at any point before this stage of the
migration.
During this stage of the migration, the network bandwidth available between the source
and target cluster nodes is critical to the speed of the migration. Live Migration requires
a minimum 1 Gb/E network between cluster nodes and can take advantage of 10 Gb/E
networks for even faster migrations. The faster the transmission speed between the
cluster nodes, the more quickly the migration will complete.
7.
The storage handles to the .vhd files or pass-through disks are transferred from the
source cluster node to the target cluster node.
8.
When all memory pages are copied to the target virtual machine and the storage
handles are moved, the target machine is started and the clients are automatically redirected to the target virtual machine and the source virtual machine is deleted, as
illustrated in the following figure.
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Figure 5: Final configuration after Live Migration completes
9.
Force physical network switches to re-learn location of migrated virtual machine.
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The Live Migration process will complete in less time than the TCP timeout interval for the
virtual machine being migrated. While TCP timeout intervals vary based on network
topology and other factors, most migrations will complete within a few seconds. The
following variable may affect migration speed:

Network available bandwidth between source and destination hosts

Hardware configuration of source and destination hosts

Load on source and destination hosts

Network available bandwidth between Hyper-V hosts and shared storage
Increased Availability for Addition and Removal of Virtual
Machine Storage
Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V supports hot plug-in and hot removal of virtual machine
storage. By supporting the addition or removal of Virtual Hard Drive (VHD) files and passthrough disks while a virtual machine is running, Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V makes it
possible to quickly reconfigure virtual machines to meet changing requirements. This feature
allows the addition and removal of both VHD files and pass-through disks to existing SCSI
controllers of virtual machines running the following guest operating systems:

Windows Server 2003 x86 and x64 editions

Windows® XP x64 edition

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 x86 and x64 editions

Windows Vista® x86 and x64 editions

Windows 7® x86 and x64 editions
Note: Hot addition and removal of storage requires the guest operating system to run the
Hyper-V Integration Services that is supplied with Windows Server 2008 R2.
Improved Management of Virtual Datacenters
Even with all the efficiency gains with virtualization, virtual machines still need to be
managed. The number of virtual machines tends to proliferate much faster than physical
computers because machines typically do not require a hardware acquisition. So,
management of virtual data centers is even more imperative than ever before.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements that will help you manage
your virtual data center:
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
Reduced effort for performing day-to-day Hyper-V administrative tasks by using
management consoles.

Improved management of multiple Hyper-V servers in a virtual data center environment
by using System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008.
Reduced Administrative Effort
The Hyper-V Management console and Failover Cluster Management can be used to
manage Live Migrations out of the box. But for data centers intent on leveraging the real
power behind Hyper-V in R2 and Live Migration, the Microsoft System Center Virtual
Machine Manager (SCVMM) adds significant value in terms of reducing overall
administrative effort.
VMM can manage both Quick Migrations as well as Live Migrations and has tools that make
managing disparate Hyper-V hosts easier as well. This combination gives administrators a
one-stop shop when it comes to managing a dynamically changing data center. Additionally,
VMM can output Windows PowerShell scripts for all console tasks, which means
administrators will also be able utilize the automation advantages of PowerShell without
eating a steep learning curve or being programming aficionados.
Last, SCVMM also contains an advanced reporting tool that administrators can use in dense
virtualization environments to streamline decision making across the breadth of VM
management, including performance, placement and purchasing.
Improved Management with System Center Virtual Machine Manager
2008 R2
Hyper-V includes the necessary management tools to manage individual server computers
running Hyper-V and the virtual machines running on those computers. System Center
Virtual Manager 2008 helps you manage your entire virtual data center as an administrative
unit.
Some of the improved Hyper-V management features provided by System Center Virtual
Machine Manager 2008 include:

Extended Support for Hyper-V. System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 2008
supports all Hyper-V functionality while providing VMM-specific functions, such as the
Intelligent Placement, the Self-Service Portal, and the Integrated Library.

Automated responses to virtual machine performance problems and failures. The
Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO) feature in VMM 2008 can dynamically
respond to failure scenarios or poorly configured components that are identified in
hardware, operating systems, or applications. When combined with PRO-enabled
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Management Packs and System Center Operations Manager 2007, you can receive
automatic notifications if a virtual machine, operating system, or application is unhealthy.

Improved availability for virtual machines. VMM 2008 includes expanded support for
failover clusters that improves the high-availability capabilities for managing missioncritical virtual machines. VMM 2008 is now fully cluster-aware, meaning it can detect and
manage Hyper-V host clusters as a single unit. New user-friendly features, such as
automatic detection of added or removed virtual hosts and designating high-availability
virtual machine with one click, which helps reduce your administrative effort.

Quick Storage Migration. Quick Storage Migration enables migration of a VM’s storage
both within the same host and across hosts while the VM is running with a minimum of
downtime,
Simplified Method for Physical and Virtual Computer
Deployments
Historically, deploying operating systems and applications to physical and virtual computers
has used different methods. For virtual computers, the .vhd file format has become a de facto
standard for deploying and interchanging pre-configured operating systems and
applications.
Windows Server 2008 R2 also supports the ability to boot a computer from a .vhd file stored
on a local hard disk. This allows you to use pre-configured .vhd files for deploying virtual and
physical computers. This helps reduce the number of images that you need to manage and
provides an easier method for your testing deployment prior to deployment in your
production environment.
Hyper-V Processor Compatibility Mode for Live Migration
As the scope of virtualization increases rapidly in today‘s enterprise, customers have been
chafing against hardware restrictions when performing VM migrations across physical hosts.
With previous versions of Hyper-V, such migrations could essentially be performed only
across hosts with an identical CPU architecture. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V, however,
introduces a new capability, dubbed processor compatibility mode for live migration.
Processor compatibility mode enables IT administrators to freely migrate VMs across physical
hosts with differing CPU architectures as long as those architectures are support hardware
assisted virtualization and within the same CPU product family, meaning Intel-to-Intel or
AMD-to-AMD, but not Intel-to-AMD or vice versa. Processor compatibility mode was
developed to address three basic customer scenarios:
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1.
A virtual machine running on Host A must be moved to Host B for effective load
balancing across the physical hosts.
2.
In a host cluster of identical processors, one has a hardware failure. The systems
administrator purchases another server and adds it to the cluster; however the new
server is using newer CPU technology than the original cluster members, yet must
still support VM migrations.
3.
A virtual machine running on Host A is saved. Later, the systems administrator needs
to restore that VM to active memory on another Hyper-V host, which may not have
the identical CPU configuration as the original host.
How Processor compatibility mode works
When a Virtual Machine (VM) is started on a host, the Hypervisor exposes the set of
supported processor features available on the underlying hardware of that host to the VM.
These sets of processor features are called the guest visible processor features. This set of
processor features is available to the VM until the VM is restarted. When a running VM is
migrated to another host, Hyper-V first compares verifies processor features currently
available to the VM are also available on the destination host. If the destination processor
does support all of the features available to the VM, the migration will fail.
With processor compatibility mode enabled, Hyper-V only exposes the guest VM to
processor features that are available across all processors of the same processor architecture,
i.e. AMD-to-AMD or Intel-to-Intel. This allows the VM to be migrated to any hardware
platform of the same processor architecture. Processor features are ―hidden‖ by the
Hypervisor by intercepting a VM‘s CPUID instruction and clearing the returned bits
corresponding to the hidden features.
When a VM in a processor compatibility mode is started, the following processor features are
hidden from the VM:
Host running AMD based processor
SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.A, SSE5,
POPCNT, LZCNT, Misaligned SSE,
AMD 3DNow!, Extended AMD
3DNow!
Host running Intel based processor
SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, POPCNT,
Misaligned SSE, XSAVE, AVX
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Improved Virtual Networking Performance
The new Hyper-V leverages several new networking technologies contained in Windows
Server 2008 R2 to improve overall VM networking performance. Two key examples are
support for Jumbo Frames and new support for the Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ).
Support for Jumbo Frames was also introduced with Windows Server 2008. Hyper-V in
Windows Server 2008 R2 simply extends this capability to VMs. So just like in physical
network scenarios, Jumbo Frames add the same basic performance enhancements to virtual
networking. That includes up to 6 times larger payloads per packet, which improves not only
overall throughput but also reduces CPU utilization for large file transfers.
VMQ allows the host‘s network interface card (NIC) to DMA packets directly into individual
VM memory stacks. Each VM device buffer is assigned a VMQ, which avoids needless packet
copies and route lookups in the virtual switch. Essentially, VMQ allows the host‘s single NIC
card to appear as multiple NICs to the VMs, allowing each VM its own dedicated NIC. The
result is less data in the host‘s buffers and an overall performance improvement to I/O
operations.
Improved Virtual Machine Memory Management
Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 introduces Hyper-V Dynamic Memory. Dynamic memory is a
memory management enhancement for Hyper-V that enables customers to increase the
efficiency of memory usage. By dynamically and securely adjusting the distribution of
memory among virtual machines, Dynamic Memory helps enable the potential for higher
consolidation ratios per physical host server.
Dynamic memory dynamically increases and decreases the memory allocated to VMs based
on usage. This results in more efficient utilization of memory and facilitates greater
consolidation ratios of virtual machines. Dynamic memory is designed for production use
and enables customers to obtain benefits on their servers with predictable performance and
consistent scalability for their production deployment environments.
Dynamic Memory has requirements on both the host side and the guest operating system
side. The following sections summarize these requirements for the beta release of Service
Pack 1.
Host Requirements for Dynamic Memory
In order to be able to use the Dynamic Memory feature on a Hyper-V host, Service Pack 1
must be applied to one of the following virtualization platforms:

Windows Server 2008 R2 with the Hyper-V server role installed
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
Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
Guest Requirements for Dynamic Memory
The following Windows server operating systems support Dynamic Memory when installed
as the guest operating system on a virtual machine:

Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard Edition SP1*

Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise Edition SP1

Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter Edition SP1

Windows Server 2008 R2 Web Edition SP1*

Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition SP2*

Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition SP2

Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition SP2

Windows Server 2008 Web Edition SP2*

Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard Edition SP2 or higher*

Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition SP2 or higher

Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter Edition SP2 or higher

Windows Server 2003 R2 Web Edition SP2 or higher*

Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition SP2 or higher*

Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition SP2 or higher

Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition SP2 or higher

Windows Server 2003 Web Edition SP2 or higher*
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Note: The Beta release of Service Pack 1 does not support Dynamic Memory for the
operating systems marked with an asterisk (*) above. However, support for Dynamic Memory
for these operating systems will be added in a future release of SP1.
Note: Dynamic Memory is supported for both the x86 and x64 architectures of Windows
Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2 and Windows Server 2008.
The following Windows client operating systems for both x86 and x64 architecture also
support Dynamic Memory when installed as the guest operating system on a virtual
machine:

Windows® 7 Enterprise Edition

Windows 7 Ultimate Edition

Windows Vista® Enterprise Edition SP2

Windows Vista Ultimate Edition SP2
Terminal Services Becomes Remote Desktop
Services Session Virtualization
Terminal Services is one of the most widely used features in previous versions of Windows
Server. Terminal Services makes it possible to remotely run an application or an entire
desktop in one location but have it be controlled and managed in another. Microsoft has
evolved this concept considerably in Windows Server 2008 R2, so we‘ve decided to rename
Terminal Services to Remote Desktop Services (RDS) to better reflect these exciting new
features and capabilities. The goal of RDS is to provide both users and administrators with
both the features and the flexibility necessary to build the most robust access experience in
any deployment scenario.
In addition to enabling a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI), Remote Desktop Services in
Windows Server 2008 R2 covers the same basic technology features as did Terminal Services,
which is now referred to as session virtualization. The table below summarizes the new
names for TS-to-RDS technologies in R2.
Table 1: New Remote Desktop Services Names for Corresponding Terminal Services
Names
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Terminal Services name
Remote Desktop Services name
Terminal Services
RDS Session Virtualization
Terminal Services RemoteApp
RemoteApp
Terminal Services Gateway
Remote Desktop Gateway
Terminal Services Session Broker
Remote Desktop Connection Broker
Terminal Services Web Access
Remote Desktop Web Access
Terminal Services CAL
Remote Desktop Services CAL
Terminal Services Easy Print
Remote Desktop Easy Print
Remote Desktop Services and Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
To expand the Remote Desktop Services feature set, Microsoft has been investing in the
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure, also known as VDI, in collaboration with our software and
hardware partners. VDI is a centralized desktop delivery architecture, which allows customers
to centralize the storage, execution and management of a Windows desktop in the data
center. It enables Windows 7 Enterprise and other desktop environments to run and be
managed in virtual machines on a centralized server.
Increasingly businesses aim to enable their employees and contractors to work from home or
from an offshore, outsourced facility. These new work environments provide better flexibility,
cost control and lower environmental footprint but increase demand for security and
compliance so that precious Corporate data is not at risk.
To answer these challenges, Microsoft has updated the Terminal Services Connection Broker,
now called Remote Desktop Connection Broker. The new Remote Desktop Connection
Broker extends the Session Broker capabilities already found in Windows Server 2008, and
creates a unified admin experience for traditional session-based remote desktops and new
virtual machine-based remote desktops.
The two key deployment scenarios supported by the Remote Desktop Connection Broker are
persistent (permanent) VMs and pooled VMs. In the case of a persistent VM, there is a oneto-one mapping of VMs to users; each user is assigned a dedicated VM which can be
personalized and customized, and which preserves any changes made by the user. Today,
most early adopters of VDI deploy persistent VMs as they provide the greatest flexibility to
the end user. In the case of a pooled VM, a single image is replicated as needed for users;
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user state can be stored via profiles and folder redirection, but will not persist on the VM
once the user logs off. In either case, the in-box solution supports storage of the image(s) on
the Hyper-V host.
The Remote Desktop Connection Broker has been designed as an extensible platform for
partners; it includes extensive APIs for partner value-add around manageability and
scalability of the brokering solution. Specifically, extensibility points include the ability for
partners to create policy plug-ins (e.g. for determining the appropriate VM or VM pool), filter
plug-ins (e.g. for preparing a VM to accept RDP connections) and resource plug-ins (e.g. for
placing a VM on the proper host based on the host‘s load). RDS addresses all these
challenges by incorporating the following features:
Improved User Experience
For both VDI and traditional session virtualization (formerly know as Terminal Services) the
quality of user experience is more important than ever before. Windows Server 2008 R2
greatly improves the end user experience for VDI and session virtualization through new
Remote Desktop Protocol capabilities. New capabilities enabled with Windows Server 2008
R2 SP1 and Microsoft RemoteFX help create a local-like user experience for remote users
from any client device, rich or thin.
Improved RemoteApp and Desktop Connections
New RemoteApp & Desktop Connection (RAD) feeds provide a set of resources, such as
RemoteApp programs and Remote Desktops. These feeds are presented to Windows 7 users
via the new RemoteApp & Desktop Connection control panel, and resources are tightly
integrated into both the Start menu and the system tray.
The improved RemoteApp and Desktop Connections features in Windows Server 2008 R2
and Windows 7 provide the following improvements:

Extends Remote Desktop Services to enable a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI).
The in-box Remote Desktop Services capability is targeted at low-complexity
deployments and as a platform for partner solutions, which can extend scalability and
manageability to address the needs of more demanding enterprise deployments. The
scope of the VDI architecture can include the following technologies and licenses to
provide a comprehensive solution:

Hyper-V

Live Migration

System Center Virtual Machine Manager

Microsoft Application Virtualization in Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack (MDOP).
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
Microsoft RemoteFX

Windows Virtual Desktop Access (VDA) licensing

Provides simplified publishing of, and access to, remote desktops and applications.
The feeds described above provide access in Windows 7, but using the new RemoteApp
& Desktop Web Access, users will also be able connect to these resources from Windows
Vista and Windows XP using a web page.

Improved integration with Windows 7 user interface. Once accessed, RAD-delivered
programs and desktops show up in the Start Menu of Windows 7 with the same look
and feel of locally installed applications. A new System Tray icon shows connectivity
status to all the remote desktop and RemoteApp connections to which the user is
currently subscribed. The experience is designed so that many users won‘t be able to tell
the difference between a local and remote application.
Page 21
Figure 6: Updates to the Remote Desktop Services Connection Broker
Improved User Experience Through New Remote Desktop Protocol
Capabilities
These new capabilities, enabled with Windows Server 2008 R2 in combination with
Windows 7, improve significantly the experience of remote users, making it more similar to
the experience enjoyed by users accessing local computing resources. These improvements
include:

Multimedia Redirection: Provides high-quality multimedia by redirecting multimedia
files and streams so that audio and video content is sent in its original format from the
server to the client and rendered using the client‘s local media playback capabilities.

True multiple monitor support: Enables support for up to 10 monitors in almost any
size, resolution or layout with RemoteApp and remote desktops; applications will behave
just like they do when running locally in multi-monitor configurations.

Audio Input & Recording: VDI supports any microphone connected to a user‘s local
machine, enables audio recording support for RemoteApp and Remote Desktop.

Aero® Glass support: VDI provides users with the ability to use the AeroGlass UI for
client desktops; ensuring that remote desktop sessions look and feel like local desktop
sessions.

Enhanced bitmap acceleration: 3D and other rich media applications such as Flash or
Silverlight™ will render on the server and will be remoted using bitmaps.

Improved audio/video synchronization: RDP improvements in Windows Server 2008
R2 are designed to provide closer synchronization of audio and video in most scenarios.

Language Bar Redirection: Users can easily and seamlessly control the language setting
(e.g. right to left) for RemoteApp programs using the local language bar.

Task Scheduler: This adds the ability in Task Scheduler to ensure that scheduled
applications never appear to users connecting with RemoteApp. This reduces user
confusion.

NEW in Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1: Microsoft RemoteFX (see page 28)
While RAD improves the end-user experience, RAD also reduces the desktop and application
management effort by providing a dedicated management interface that lets IT managers
assign remote resources to users quickly and dynamically. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes
the following RAD management capabilities to help reduce administrative effort:
Page 22

RemoteApp & Desktop Connections control panel applet. Users can easily connect to
RemoteApp programs and Remote Desktops using the RemoteApp & Desktop
Connections control panel applet in Windows 7.

Single administrative infrastructure. Both RemoteApp & Desktop connections and
RemoteApp and Desktop Web Access are managed from a single management console.
This ensures that connections can still be used from Windows XP and Vista by using a
Web page.

Designed for computers that are domain members and standalone computers: The
RemoteApp & Desktop feature is easy to configure and use for computers that are
members of Active Directory domains and for standalone computers.

Always up to date. Once a workspace is configured, that workspace keeps itself up to
date until it is removed from the user‘s desktop. When an admin adds an application or
update it automatically appears on users‘ Start menu and via that user‘s Web Access
page.

Single sign-on experience within a workspace. Ensures that only a single logon is
required to access all applications and resources with a RAD connection.

RemoteApp & Desktop Web Access. This capability provides full integration with
RemoteApp & Desktop Connections to ensure a consistent list of applications is
available to the user at all times, no matter the desktop OS used. The default web page
provides a fresh and inviting look and feel and includes a new Web-based login with
integrated single sign-on.
Figure 7: Remote Desktop Services Web Access expands RDS features cross-OS
Page 23
Administrators faced with larger RAD deployment scenarios will also find additional
management features in Windows Server 2008 R2‘s Remote Desktop Services aimed at
improving the management experience for all existing scenarios previously addressed by
Terminal Services as well as the exciting new scenarios available via RAD. These improved
management features include:

Windows PowerShell Provider. Easily manage multiple servers and repetitive tasks almost all Remote Desktop Services administrative tasks can now be scripted; view and
edit configuration settings for the Remote Desktop Gateway, Remote Desktop Server
and more.

Profile Improvements. The user profile cache quota removes the need to delete
profiles at logoff, speeding up user logon. Group policy caching can now be performed
across an RDS farm to speed up group policy processing during logon

Microsoft Installer (MSI) compatibility. Microsoft has fixed multiple MSI-related issues
with Windows Server 2008‘s Terminal Services to ensure that MSI install packages can be
installed normally and that per-user install settings are correctly propagated. The
updates also remove the need to put the server in ‗install mode‘, meaning users no
longer need to be logged off during RAD management operations.

Remote Desktop Gateway. RDG securely provides access to RAD resources from the
Internet without the need for opening additional ports or the use of a VPN. RDG
provides this by tunneling RDP over HTTPS and incorporating several new security
features:

Silent Session Re-authentication. The Gateway administrator can now configure
the RDG to run periodic user authentication and authorization on all live
connections. This ensures that any changes to user profiles are enforced. For users
whose profiles haven‘t changed, the experience is seamless.

Secure device redirection. The Gateway administrator can be assured that device
redirection settings are always enforced even from unmanaged clients like kiosks.

Pluggable Authentication. For corporations that have specific need to implement
their own authentication and authorization technologies, these customers now have
the flexibility to plug-in their preferred authentication/authorization mechanisms.

Idle & session timeout. Administrators now have the flexibility of disconnecting idle
sessions or limiting how long users can be connected.
Consent Signing. If your business demands that remote users adhere to legal terms
& conditions before accessing corporate resources, the consent signing feature
helps you do just that.
Page 24


Administrative messaging. The Gateway also provides the flexibility to provide
broadcast messages to users before launching any administration activities such as
maintenance or upgrades.
Partners and Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) also get tools with the new service to
more easily enable third-party software manufacturers to build RAD-optimized products.
These tools include:

RemoteApp & Desktop Web Access Customization. It is now possible to easily extend
the look and feel of web access by both customers and partners using support for
cascading style sheets. Developers can also create custom Web sites that consume the
RAD connection XML feed and transform these with XSLT.

RemoteApp & Desktop Connection. Though RAD connections are currently only used
for Remote Desktop Services, it is possible to extend both the server-side infrastructure
and Windows 7 client shell to add support for any type of application or service – even
ones that don‘t use RDP or remoting protocols. This provides a single UI and point of
discoverability for any service.

Session broker extensibility. The session broker offers broad extensibility to enable
customers and ISVs to take advantage of the built-in RDP redirection features while
providing significant additional unique value through the various types of plug-ins; for
example:

Policy (policy plug-in), which determines the proper farm or VM for a connection,

Load Balancing (filter plug-in), which chooses the proper endpoint based on load,
and

Orchestration (filter plug-in), which prepares a VM to accept RDP connections.
Improved User Experience When Accessing Media Rich
Content and hardware-accelerated graphics applications
Trends in current IT environments include faster network speeds, massively parallel
processors, and an increasing diversity of client devices. The user experience for today’s
user includes increased richness in graphics, including 3D user interfaces, video,
animations, and other rich media content. Also, hardware acceleration for these user
experiences, especially of 3D business applications such as Office 2010 or Bing3D maps, is
becoming common place.
Microsoft RemoteFX is a feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 Remote Desktop Services
that enables connected users to access media-rich virtual and session-based desktops over
the network from a broad range of client devices. RemoteFX helps the user experience for
Page 25
remote session in Remote Desktop Services more closely mirror the user experience on a
local computer running Windows.
RemoteFX delivers value in the following areas:
3D Graphical support for VDI (RDVH) solutions using Virtual GPU. The enhanced
features in RemoteFX allow remote users to have access to all the user experience features
in all Windows operating systems, especially Windows 7. This includes the 3D aspects of
Aero Glass and other DirectX/Direct3D applications.
The following figure illustrates the user experience in Remote Desktop Services in
Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 for a Windows 7 guest operating system in VDI. Remote
users are able to use all the graphical features that Windows 7 provides.
Figure 8: User experience in Windows 7 VDI with Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1
The server running Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 renders the graphics content locally
using its graphic processing unit (GPU) for the Windows 7 Enterprise or Ultimate VDI
instances and then sends the rendered bitmap content to the client. Ultra-thin clients or
Page 26
even LCD panels can be used to display RemoteFX-based content because the client is
only displaying the content and not performing the rendering itself.



Improved efficiency over RDP for demanding remote workloads. The server-side
encode of the graphical content can be performed more efficiently by the RemoteFX
codec within RDP and handled in three ways:

Software-based encode codec (Both RDSH and RDVH). The processors in the
server encodes the graphics by running a software-implementation of the RemoteFX
codec. This method is the most demanding on the server processor resources.

Graphics processor-based encode codec (RDVH only). The graphics processor
on a graphics adapter in the server encodes the RemoteFX codec. This method
reduces the demands on the server processor resources, but increases the
demands on the graphics processor. This can only be done in a VDI (RDVH)
environment, not RDSH.

RemoteFX ASIC-based encode codec (Both RDSH and RDVH).. A RemoteFX
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is a hardware implementation of the
RemoteFX codec. This method is the least demanding on the server processor
resources and the graphic processor resources. This will enable a similar benefit to
the server that TCP offload provides today for TCP/IP networking.
Improved support for a broader range of devices. Because of the reduced hardware
requirements at the endpoint, RemoteFX provides support for a broader range of
devices, including Windows-based computers, traditional thin clients, ultra-light thin
clients, mobile devices, and dedicated access devices (such as an LCD display).

Software-based decode codec. Like the server protocol encode, RemoteFX also
provides a decode codec. This will result in an updated MSTSC client and available
on all versions of Windows 7 as RDP 7.1

RemoteFX ASIC-based decode codec. A RemoteFX Application-Specific
Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is a hardware implementation of the RemoteFX decode
codec. This method is also useful when wanting to create ultra-light solid state thin
clients or specialized RemoteFX-enabled devices
Generic USB Redirection for VDI (RDVH only). RemoteFX enables generic redirection
of nearly any USB device in a Windows 7 Enterprise or Ultimate VDI session which can
enable support for multifunction printers and other mainstream USB devices.
RemoteFX can provide enhanced features for VDI solutions and for session virtualization. In
VDI (RDVH) solutions, RemoteFX provides an improved user experience for users running
Page 27
Windows 7 and applications in virtualized environments on Hyper-V. In remote session
(RDSH) solutions, RemoteFX provides an improved user experience for remote desktop
sessions.
Note: Session Virtualization with RemoteFX supports all content types except for 3D content.
Management
The ongoing management of servers in the data center is one of most time consuming task
facing IT professionals today. Today‘s combination of virtual and physical management
needs can make this an even more daunting task without proper planning and tools, because
management strategies must support the management of both physical and virtual
environments. Additionally, these management strategies must address and track power
consumption and green IT policies.
Because of these customer challenges, a key design goal for Windows Server® 2008 R2 is to
reduce the day-to-day management chores of Windows Server 2008 R2 as well as to ease
the administrative effort for common day-to-day operational tasks. A final but critical design
component was that administrative tasks should be doable either on the server locally or
remotely.
Thus, the overall management improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include the
following:

Improved data center power consumption management

Improved remote administration

Reduced administrative effort for administrative tasks performed interactively

Enhanced command-line and automated management by using Windows PowerShell™
version 2.0

Improved identity management provided by Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS)
and Active Directory Federated Services

Improved compliance with established standards and best practices
Page 28
Improved Data Center Power Consumption
Management
With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers, power consumption is of
paramount importance. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power
consumption, many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can
support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. Therefore
reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers while
using the same amount of power, or less power, than before.
Window Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements for reducing power
consumption:


Reduced power usage of individual servers
o
A new PPM engine
o
Storage power management
o
Additional incremental power saving features
The ability to measure, manage, and budget power usage across the system
Microsoft has also added an additional, optional qualifier to the Designated for Windows
Server 2008 R2 qualification logo to indicate enhanced power management support.
Through use of the qualifier, OEMs can alert customers to servers that work in collaboration
with Windows Server 2008 R2 power capabilities to provide optimal power efficiency.
Improve the Power Efficiency of Individual Servers
Windows Server 2008 R2 helps improve the power efficiency of individual servers through a
variety of incremental improvements. To quantify the power savings, Microsoft measured
power consumption of Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008 R2 using a
representative online transaction processing (OLTP) workload. Throughput was gradually
throttled up across the utilization range of the systems, from idle up to 100 percent
utilization.
Measuring power usage only when hardware is fully utilized does not reflect real-world
usage; average utilization for many servers is 5 to 15 percent. Figure 15 shows the results,
which demonstrate that the many servers that operate in a range of utilization levels will
benefit from improved power efficiency of Windows Server 2008 R2.
Page 29
Figure 9: Power savings with Windows Server 2008 R2
Processor Power Management
The PPM engine in Windows Server 2008 R2 has been re-written and improved. It now
provides the ability to fine-tune the processor‘s speed and power consumption to match
current demands. New parameters for PPM—which are configurable by administrators—
further improve power efficiency.
Core parking is a feature that enables Windows Server 2008 R2 to reduce multi-core
processor power consumption by consolidating processing onto fewer processor cores and
suspending the inactive cores. The workloads of every logical core in a server are tracked
relative to all the others. The workloads of cores that are not being fully utilized can be
suspended, and their workloads are then shifted to alternate cores. Keeping the unutilized
cores in an idle state reduces the system power consumption. When additional processing
power is required, the system activates the idle processor cores to handle the increased
processing requirements.
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Storage Power Management
Another strategy for reducing power used by individual servers is to centralize their storage
by using a Storage Area Network (SAN), which has a higher storage-capacity-to-powerconsumption ratio than a typical server. A SAN also makes more efficient use of the available
disk space, because any server can have access to the available storage on the SAN.
Windows Server 2008 R2 greatly improves access to storage on SANs, and also adds the
following enhancements:

ATA Slumber feature—This feature is integrated with the power management
framework to use the new power states (partial and active).

Optimized link power management for SATA disks—This feature helps reduce
power usage for managing the communication bus link between the hard disk and
the chipset.

Asynchronous notification of media change for optical devices—Windows
Server 2008 R2 provides asynchronous notification of drive media changes. This
means that commands are not repeatedly being sent to check for media changes;
less communication with the drive means less power is drawn.

Support for “remove on delete”—Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for
storage devices that work with solid state drives that can power down unused RAM
when a file system deletes files, thus saving power.
Windows Server 2008 R2 also supports the ability to boot from a SAN, which eliminates the
need for local hard disks (local storage) in the individual server computers and decreases
power consumption as a result (see the following figure).
Page 31
Figure 10: Each server without local storage, and each consuming less power
Additional Power Saving Features
Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (or Tick Skipping). This
feature extends processor idle or deep C-states (processor sleep states within the ACPI
specification, with C3 set as the deepest-sleep state and C0 as the operating state) by not
activating the CPU unnecessarily, thus saving power. One processor handles the periodic
system timer tick; other processors are signaled only as necessary. (Non-timer interrupts,
however, will still activate sleeping processors.)
The amount of background work that is performed by the operating system has also been
reduced in Windows Server 2008 R2. This also allows processors to better utilize the deep Cstates, in which the processor consumes very little energy but requires time to return to an
operational state.
Most of these technologies can also be leveraged in virtualization scenarios, letting you
maximize the power efficiency of your virtualized environments as well as your physical
systems.
Measure and Manage Power Usage Across the Organization
Windows Server 2008 R2 also helps provide businesses with the capability to better measure
and manage power consumption, both locally and remotely across the enterprise. In
Page 32
conjunction with server OEMs, Microsoft is pursuing an ACPI standards-based approach to
the features that provide these capabilities.
Remote Manageability of Power Policy
Key in Windows Server 2008 R2 is the greatly enhanced ability to measure, manage, and
budget energy usage for individual servers and across the entire server environment.
For centralized power policy management, there are new features in Group Policy for
Windows Server 2008 R2, including an improved user interface, additional policy settings,
and Windows PowerShell™ cmdlets for Group Policy, which provide the ability to manage
Group Policy from the Windows PowerShell command line and to run Windows PowerShell
scripts during logon and startup.
Windows Server 2008 R2 supports the configuration of power policy, both locally and
remotely, through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), providing a powerful and
convenient way to capture and report information about power consumption, and in turn
making power consumption data an actionable metric.
WMI, the infrastructure for management data and operations on Windows-based operating
systems, exposes the data that is gathered to users, scripts, or management tools in a
manner that is compliant with the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) management
profiles, ensuring interoperability across the entire IT environment.
Windows Server 2008 R2 provides a new power namespace, root\cimv2\power, which
enables code and scripts to query power data on compliant systems. This is useful for IT
administrators who use WMI queries in scripts to monitor and administer their infrastructure.
IT workers responsible for power management can control power policies and receive power
condition events, providing them with the data they need to make informed and timely
power management decisions.
Power metering and budgeting in Windows Server 2008 R2 require no additional drivers or
hardware changes, only hardware platform support.
In-Band Power Metering and Budgeting
The new power features introduce new opportunities for managing power consumption. An
administrator can use the performance monitor on a server to view the moment-by-moment
power consumption, or, in a more likely scenario, the IT administrator can write a script or
use Microsoft® System Center to centrally collect and monitor power consumption data
Page 33
across the datacenter. Now that power consumption is measurable, it becomes an actionable
metric for IT staff when appropriate hardware support is available.
Microsoft recommends a collaborative model between the server platform and the operating
system for power metering and budgeting (the process that lets administrators set power
limits, or caps, on datacenter components as small as a single server). The server platform
reports information in-band to the Windows Server 2008 R2 through the use of ACPI. The
WMI namespace additions for power meters and supplies mean that the user mode power
service can provide data to the WMI namespace, and this means power data can be queried
by Microsoft System Center and other management tools to budget and monitor power
usage across the entire IT environment. An administrator can set power budgets for the
servers and the system, and can configure the system so that it automatically takes action
when the budget is exceeded.
Another set of metrics can be used for virtualization and consolidation. Based on the
information gathered, the workloads of underutilized servers can be consolidated onto a
smaller number of better-utilized physical machines using live migration (the ability to move
virtual machines between servers with virtually no downtime) with Hyper-V™. Fewer physical
machines can lead to reduced costs through lower hardware and energy costs and through
reduced management overhead.
New Additional Qualifier for the Designed for Windows
Server 2008 R2 Logo Program
To help identify servers that have power-saving hardware capabilities, Microsoft has
introduced an additional qualification for enhanced power management, the Enhanced
Power Management Additional Qualifier (AQ) for the Windows Server logo.
The Windows Server Logo Program provides a way for OEMs, along with Microsoft, to help
customers identify Windows-compatible products that are designed for ease of use, better
performance, and enhanced security.
The Enhanced Power Management AQ ensures that power-saving features such as PPM,
power metering and budgeting, and power on/power off via WS-Management (known as
SMASH) capabilities are present on a server. Customers who want assurance that the
hardware they are purchasing supports the additional power-saving features can look for the
Enhanced Power Management AQ.
Page 34
Remote Administration
Remote administration of server computers is essential to any efficient data center. It is very
rare that server computers are administered locally. Windows Server 2008 R2 has a number
of improvements in remote administration, including the following:

Remote management through graphical management consoles. Server Manager has
been updated to allow remote administration of servers. In addition, many of the
management consoles have improved integration with Server Manager and as a result,
support remote management scenarios. For more detailed information about each
management console, see ―Management Console Improvements‖ later in this guide.

Improved remote management from command-line and automated scripts.
Windows PowerShell version 2.0 has a number of improvements for remote
management scenarios. These improvements allow you to run scripts on one or more
remote computers or allow multiple IT professionals to simultaneously run scripts on a
single computer. For more detailed information about these remote management
scenarios, see ―Enhanced Remote PowerShell Scenarios‖ later in this guide.
Reduced Administrative Effort for Interactive
Administrative Tasks
Many of the management consoles used to manage Windows Server 2008 R2 have been
updated or completely redesigned to help reduce administrative effort. Some of the
prominent updated and redesigned management consoles are listed in the following table
with a description of the improvements.
Page 35
Table 2: Updated or Redesigned Management Consoles in Windows Server 2008 R2
Management console
Improvements
Server Manager

Provides support for remote management for computers.

Improves integration with many role and role services
management console.

Based on administrative capabilities provided by Windows
PowerShell cmdlets.

Task driven user interface.

Based on administrative capabilities provided by Windows
PowerShell cmdlets.

Task driven user interface.

Improved tools for day-to-day tasks

Tight integration with System Center Virtual Machine
Manager for managing multiple Hyper-V servers.
Active Directory
Administrative Center
Internet Information
Service
Hyper-V Management
Console
Command-line and Automated Management
The Windows PowerShell version 1.0 scripting environment was shipped with Windows
Server 2008. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes Windows PowerShell version 2.0, which has a
number of improvements over version 1.0, including the following:

Improved remote management

Improved security for management data including state and configuration information

Enhanced graphical user interfaces for creating Windows PowerShell scripts, debugging
them, and viewing Windows PowerShell script output

Extended scripting functionality supports the creation of more powerful scripts with less
development effort.

Improved portability of Windows PowerShell scripts and cmdlets between multiple
computers.
Page 36
Remote Management
One of the key benefits in Windows PowerShell version 2.0 is the ability to run scripts
remotely with remote management by using the PowerShell Remoting feature. PowerShell
Remoting allows you to automate many repetitive administrative tasks and then run those
tasks on multiple computers. Running remote scripts is now implicit in Windows PowerShell
version 2.0.
Windows PowerShell Remote Management Requirements
The PowerShell Remoting feature relies on Windows Remote Management (WSManagement) service. In order for PowerShell Remoting to work, the WS-Management
service must be installed and running on the remote computer. You can verify that the WSManagement service is running by running the following Windows PowerShell cmdlet:
PS> get-service winrm
You can configure the Windows Remote Management (WS-Management) service settings,
by running the following Windows PowerShell script:
& $pshome\Configure-Wsman.ps1
Note: This script does not start or stop the WS-Management service. So you will need to
restart the WS-Management service for the configuration settings to take effect.
Windows PowerShell Remote Management Scenarios
Windows PowerShell version 2.0 supports the following remote management scenarios:

Many IT professionals running scripts on a single computer. This scenario is also
known as the fan-in scenario. In this scenario, each IT professional could have a
customized level of access based on their credentials.

One IT professional running scripts on multiple computers from a single console.
This scenario is also known as the fan-out scenario. In this scenario, the IT professional
could have different levels of access based on their credentials.

One IT professional interactively running scripts on a single remote computer. This
scenario is also known as the one-to-one scenario.

Run PowerShell scripts as a background job. This scenario allows you to run a
Windows PowerShell command or expression asynchronously (in the background)
without interacting with the console. The command prompt returns immediately and you
can query for the job results interactively. You can run background jobs on a local or
remote computer.
Page 37
Improved Security for Management Data
You can limit the access to management data and the ability to run commands, scripts, and
other language elements by using Constrained Runspaces. Constrained Runspaces allow
creation of Windows PowerShell Runspaces with a set of Constraints. Constraints allow you
to specify the restrictions for each PowerShell Runspace.
Constrained Runspaces allow you to grant lower privileged IT professionals, such as tier 1 or
tier 2 help desk personnel, the ability to examine operational state or configuration but not
change operational state or configuration.
Enhanced Graphical User Interfaces
Another key improvement in Windows PowerShell version 2.0 is the new graphical user
interfaces. These graphical user interfaces allow you to:

Create and debug Windows PowerShell scripts by using Graphical PowerShell.

View Windows PowerShell script output by using the Out-GridView cmdlet.
Create and Debug PowerShell Scripts with Graphical PowerShell
Graphical PowerShell provides a graphical user interface that allows you to interactively
create and debug Windows PowerShell scripts within an integrated development
environment similar to Visual Studio®.
Graphical PowerShell includes the following features:

Syntax coloring for Windows PowerShell scripts (similar to syntax coloring in Visual
Studio)

Support for Unicode characters

Support for composing and debugging multiple Windows PowerShell scripts in a multitabbed interface

Ability to run an entire script, or a portion a script, within the integrated development
environment

Support for up to eight PowerShell Runspaces within the integrated development
environment
Note: Graphical PowerShell feature requires Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0.
View Windows PowerShell Scripts Output with Out-GridView Cmdlet
The new Out-GridView cmdlet displays the results of other commands in an interactive table,
where you can search, sort, and group the results. For example, you can send the results of a
Page 38
get-process, get-wmiobject, or get-eventlog command to out-gridview and use the table
features to examine the data.
Note: Out-gridview cmdlet feature requires Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0.
Extended Scripting Functionality
Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes the ability to extend PowerShell scripts functionality by
using the following features:

Create advanced functions. Advanced functions allow you to write wrappers around
existing cmdlets. Windows PowerShell 2.0 searches for functions first and then cmdlets.
This allows advanced functions to take precedence over cmdlets.

Call .NET application programming interfaces (APIs). This feature allows you to
extend your Windows PowerShell with the features provided by any .NET API.

Improved script debugging. Windows PowerShell 2.0 allows you to set breakpoints on
lines, columns, functions, variables, and commands. You can also specify actions to run
when the breakpoint is hit. The debugging environment supports stepping into, over, or
out of functions. You can also get the call stack information (breakpoints).

Subscription-based interface to Windows Event System. This feature allows your
Windows PowerShell scripts to respond to specific events in event logs.

Write cmdlets in PowerShell script. This feature allows you to write cmdlets in
Windows PowerShell instead of compiled C# or VB.NET.

Script Internationalization. This new feature allows Windows PowerShell script authors
to write scripts that can be translated to any language supported by Windows.

New and updated cmdlets. Windows PowerShell 2.0 includes over 240 new cmdlets out
of the box. Get more information on these at the PowerShell Community Web site.
Portability of Windows PowerShell Scripts and Cmdlets
Another area of improvement for Windows PowerShell 2.0 is in the area of portability. The
improved portability in Windows PowerShell 2.0 allows you to easily move PowerShell scripts
and cmdlets between computers.
The features that help improve the portability of Windows PowerShell scripts and cmdlets
include:

New module architecture. This architecture allows the packaging of cmdlets, which
includes the definition and packaging of scripts. You can send these packaged modules
to other administrators.
Page 39

New method of storing configuration information. In Windows PowerShell version
1.0 some of the configuration was put in the registry. In Windows PowerShell version 2.0
the configuration is stored in an .xml file. The .xml file allows the configuration
information to be more easily moved from one computer to another.
Note: Although you must uninstall PowerShell 1.0 before installing Windows PowerShell
2.0, the registry settings are automatically migrated to the .xml file.
Improved Identity Management
Identity management has always been one of the critical management tasks for Windowsbased networks. The implications of a poorly managed identity management system are one
of the largest security concerns for any organization.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes identity management improvements in the
Active Directory Domain Services and Active Directory Federated Services server roles.
Improvements for All Active Directory Server Roles
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following identity management improvements that
affect all Active Directory server roles:

New forest functional level. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new Active Directory
forest functional level. Many of the new features in the Active Directory server roles
require the Active Directory forest to be configured with this new functional level.

Enhanced command line and automated management. Windows PowerShell cmdlets
provide the ability to fully manage Active Directory server roles. The Windows
PowerShell cmdlets augment the graphical management tools and help automate
repetitive management tasks.
Improvements in Active Directory Domain Services
The Active Directory Domain Service server role in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the
following improvements:

Recovery of deleted objects. Active Directory domains now have a Recycle Bin feature
that allows you to recover deleted objects. If an Active Directory object is inadvertently
deleted, you can restore the object from the Recycle Bin.

Improved process for joining domains. Computers can now join a domain without
being connected to the domain during the deployment process, also known as an offline
domain join. This process allows you to fully automate the joining of a domain during
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deployment. Domain administrators create a file that can be included as a part of the
automated deployment process. The file includes all the information necessary for the
target computer to join the domain.

Improved management of user accounts used as identity for services. One of the
time consuming management tasks is to maintain passwords for user accounts that are
used as identities for services, also known as service accounts. When the password for a
service account changes, the services using that identity must also be updated with the
new password. To address this problem, Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new feature
called managed service accounts. In Windows Server 2008 R2, when the password for a
service account changes, the managed service account feature automatically updates the
password for all the services that use the service account.

Reduced effort to perform common administrative tasks. Windows Server 2008 R2
includes a new Active Directory Domain Services management console, Active Directory
Administrative Center (as illustrated in the following figure).
Figure 11: Active Directory Administrative Center management console
Active Directory Administrative Center is a task-based management console that is
based on the new Windows PowerShell cmdlets in Windows Server 2008 R2.
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Active Directory Administrative Center is designed to help reduce the administrative
effort for performing common administrative tasks.
Improvements in Active Directory Federated Services
Active Directory Federated Services in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new feature called
authentication assurance. Authentication assurance allows you to establish authentication
policies for accounts that are authenticated in federated domains. For example, you might
require smart card authentication, or other biometric authentication, for any users in
federated domains.
Improved Compliance with Established
Standards and Best Practices
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes an integrated Best Practices Analyzer for each of the server
roles. You can run the Best Practices Analyzer to provide you with a set of configuration
recommendations for the server role. The Best Practices Analyzer creates a checklist within
Server Manager for the role that you can use to help you perform all the configuration tasks.
The following figure illustrates a sample of the recommendations from the Best Practices
Analyzer for the Active Directory Domain Services server role.
Web
Windows Server® 2008 R2 includes many enhancements that make this release the most
robust Windows Server Web application platform yet. It offers an updated Web server role –
Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.5– and greater support for .NET on Server Core. Design
goals for IIS 7.5 concentrated on improvements that enable Web administrators to more
easily deploy and manage Web applications, and that increase both reliability and scalability.
Additionally, IIS 7.5 has streamlined management capabilities and provides more ways than
ever to customize your Web serving environment.
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Reduced Effort to Administer and Support Webbased Applications
Reducing the effort required to administer and support Web-based applications is a key
differentiator for IIS 7.5. Included with this release is support for increased automation, new
remote administration scenarios, and improved content publishing for developers and
authors. A short list of these features includes:

Expanding the capabilities of IIS Manager through new management modules;

Automating common administrative tasks through the Windows PowerShell™
Provider for IIS;

Support for .NET on Server Core, enabling ASP.NET and remote management
through IIS Manager.
Automation of Common Tasks Through the PowerShell Provider
The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you to
perform IIS administrative tasks, and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. In
addition, a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage Web sites,
Web applications and Web servers.
Using Windows PowerShell allows administrators to take advantage of several important
features:



Simplifying the administration by scripting common management tasks;
Executing repetitive tasks automatically;
Consolidating key Web metrics from all Web servers in real-time.
On a more granular level, the IIS-specific cmdlets included with Windows Server 2008 R2
ease the administrative burden for many low-level day-to-day tasks. For example, these
cmdlets allow administrators to add and change configuration properties of Web sites and
Web-based applications as well as virtual directories and application pools. Users more
familiar with Windows PowerShell will be able to execute advanced configuration tasks and
even integrate existing Windows PowerShell scripts with other Windows PowerShell
providers across different Windows Server 2008 R2 feature areas. A few common scenarios
for Windows PowerShell within IIS 7.5 management might include:



Adding/modifying/deleting sites and applications;
Migrating site settings;
Configuring SSL and other security settings;
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

Restricting access by IP address;
Backing up IIS configuration and content.
Enhancements to IIS Manager
New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7.5 release that make it possible to
manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP.NET applications or adding
and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface.
Configuration Editor
Configuration Editor (illustrated in the following figure) allows you to manage any
configuration section available in the configuration system. Configuration Editor exposes
several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager.
Figure 12: Configuration Editor user interface
IIS Manager UI Extensions
Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7.0, the new IIS 7.5
integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and
customizations in the future. The FastCGI module, for example, allows management of
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FastCGI settings while the ASP.NET module allows management of authorization and custom
error settings.
Request Filtering
The Request Filter module in Windows Server 2008 R2 will include the filtering features
previously found in URLScan 3.1. By blocking specific HTTP requests, the Request Filter
module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web
applications on the server. The Request Filtering user interface (illustrated in the following
figure) provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module.
Figure 13: Request Filtering user interface
Managed Service Accounts
Windows Server 2008 R2 allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords that are
managed by Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS). These new type of accounts reduce
the recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running with
these accounts. IIS 7.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for application pool
identities.
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Hostable Web Core
Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the
hostable Web core feature. Available through a set of APIs, this feature lets the core IIS Web
engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications, allowing those apps to service HTTP
requests directly. The hostable Web core feature is useful for enabling basic Web server
capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications.
Reduced Support and Troubleshooting Effort
Windows Server 2008 R2 reduces support and troubleshooting effort in the following ways:

Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7.5 and application configuration. The new
Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS
and application configuration, which allows you to track the configuration changes made
to your test and production environments. This provides logging of both reads and
writes as well as logon attempts, changes to path mappings, file creations and more.

Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. In IIS 7.5, PHP developers can use the FastCGI
module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. This reduces the effort required for
debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after
deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing.

Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). The BPA for IIS 7.5 is a management tool that can help
you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7.5 Web server and reporting on
potential configuration issues found. You can access the BPA through Server Manager
and Windows PowerShell.
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Improved FTP Services
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of FTP Server services. These new FTP server
services offer the following improvements:

Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services. The new FTP server is fully
integrated with the IIS 7.5 administration interface and configuration store, as shown in
the following figure. This allows administrators to perform common administrative tasks
within one common administration console.
Figure 14: Integration of the FTP server administration in Internet Information Service
Manager

Extended support for new Internet standards. The new FTP server includes support
for emerging standards, including:

Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL);
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
Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support;

Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6.

Improved integration with web-based applications and services. With the new FTP
server, you can specify a, virtual host name for an FTP site. This allows you to create
multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address, but are differentiated by using unique
virtual host names. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the same Web
site simply by binding an FTP site to a Web site.

Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. Improved
logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic, unique tracking for FTP sessions, FTP
sub statuses, an additional detail field in FTP logs, and more.
Ability to Extend Functionality and Features
One of the design goals for IIS 7.5 was to make it easy for you to extend the base
functionality and features in IIS 7.5 IIS Extensions allow you to build or buy software that can
be integrated into IIS 7.5 in such a way that the software appears to be an integral part of IIS
7.5. The following figure illustrates the placement of IIS Extensions in the IIS 7.5 architecture.
Figure 15: Architecture of IIS Extensions in IIS 7.5 in Windows Server 2008 R2
Extensions can be created by Microsoft, partners, independent software vendors, and your
organization. Microsoft has developed IIS Extensions since the RTM version of Windows
Server 2008. These IIS Extensions are available for download from
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http://www.iis.net/extensions. Many of the IIS Extensions developed by Microsoft will be
shipped as a part of Windows Server 2008 R2, including:

IIS WebDAV;

Integrated and enhanced Administration Pack;

Windows PowerShell Snap-In for IIS.
Improved .NET Support
The .NET Framework (versions 2.0, 3.0, 3.5.1 and 4.0) is now available on Server Core as an
installation option. By taking advantage of this feature, administrators can enable ASP.NET
on Server Core which affords them full use of Windows PowerShell cmdlets. Additionally,
.NET support means the ability to perform remote management tasks from IIS manager and
host ASP.NET Web applications on Server Core as well.
Improved Application Pool Security
Building on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7.0 that increased
security and reliability, every IIS 7.5 application pool now runs with a unique, less-privileged
identity. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on IIS 7.5.
IIS.NET Community Portal
To stay current with new additions to IIS in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008
R2, make sure to visit the IIS.NET community portal (http://www.iis.net). The site includes
update news, in-depth instructional articles, a download center for new IIS solutions and free
advice via blogs and technical forums.
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Solid Foundation for Enterprise Workloads
Windows Server® 2008 R2 has been designed as an enterprise-class operating system,
capable of scaling to the largest data center workloads, while helping to ensure strong
security and high-availability. Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to create solutions that
can solve your most demanding technical requirements. Specifically, Windows Server 2008
R2 provides enterprise-class foundation for workloads by providing:

Improved scaling, reliability, and security for all your solutions.

A platform with future growth potential that will allow you to take advantage of future
operating systems, such as Windows® 7.
Improved Scalability, Reliability, and Security
Every application is mission critical to the users that depend on the application for
performing their day-to-day job functions. Any outages of services, slow performance, or
compromise in security results in loss in productivity and potential damage to your
organization.
Windows Server 2008 R2 helps you create solutions that are able to support your mission
critical applications, while helping to also ensure that you can manage your solutions with
less effort than with previous operating system platforms.
Windows Server 2008 R2 helps improve the scalability, reliability, and security of your
solutions with the following features:

Increased processor performance and memory capacity for applications.

Improved application platform security for all applications running on Windows
Server 2008 R2.

Improved availability and scalability for applications and services.

Improved security for Domain Name System (DNS) services by using the DNSSEC
feature.
Increased Processor Performance and Memory Capacity
The improvements in computer design have resulted in modern server computers that
support ever increasing number of processors and increased memory capacity. Current
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server computers are only shipping with 64-bit processors, with multiple processors, and
higher memory capacity than ever before.
These improvements allow you to create application platforms that are able to support larger
workloads, reduce rack space in your data center, reduce power consumption, provide
improved reliability, and reduce your overall administrative effort.
Improved Physical Processor and Memory Resources
32-bit processors impose system resource limitations that restrict your ability to handle
increased workloads without investing in additional server computers. 64-bit processors
allow you to support larger workloads, while minimizing the number of physical computers
in your data center. Also, server consolidation by using virtualization requires 64-bit
processors to provide the processing and memory resources to support higher ratios of
server consolidation.
To support the increased processor performance and memory capacity provided by 64-bit
processors, Windows Server 2008 R2 is only available for 64-bit processor architectures.
Windows Server 2008 R2 supports up to 256 logical processor cores for a single operating
system instance.
Increased Logical Processor Support
Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V™ supports up to 64 logical processors.. This increased
processor support makes it possible to run even more demanding workloads on a single
computer, or scale workloads to greater extremes to match changing demand.
Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V also supports Second-Level Address Translation (SLAT)
and CPU Core Parking. SLAT uses special processor functionality available in recent Intel and
AMD processors to carry out some virtual machine memory management functions,
significantly reducing hypervisor processor time and saving about 1MB of memory per
virtual machine. CPU Core Parking enables power savings by scheduling virtual machine
execution on only some processor cores and placing the remaining processor cores in a
sleep state.
Improved Application Platform Security
Windows Server operating systems have included the concept of server roles for a number of
versions. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes even more granular definition of server roles than
in previous Windows Server operating systems. This finer granularity allows you to install
only the operating system components and features that you need to support your
applications and services, which reduces the attack surface of your solution.
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In addition, the Windows Server 2008 R2 Server Core installation option now supports more
server roles, such as .NET application support, than in Windows Server 2008 RTM. The Server
Core installation option further reduces the attack surface of your solution by eliminating the
graphical user interface on Windows Server 2008. Additional management features for the
Server Core installation option, such as improvements in Windows PowerShell™ v2.0 and
PowerShell Remoting, help reduce the administrative effort for supporting solutions with the
Server Core installation option.
Availability and Scalability for Applications and Services
Availability is a key element in every solution in your enterprise. Today most mission critical
applications are running on Windows Server and those applications require high availability.
Failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2 has many improvements that can help overall
application and operating system availability, including the following:

Enhanced cluster validation tool. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a best practice
analyzer test which examines the best practices configuration settings for a cluster and
cluster nodes. The test runs only on computers that are currently cluster nodes.

Enhanced command line and automated management. Windows PowerShell cmdlets
provide the ability to fully manage failover clusters and the applications running on the
cluster. The Windows PowerShell cmdlets replace cluster.exe, which provided a
command-line and scriptable interface for managing failover clusters in previous
versions of Windows Server.

Improved performance for intermittent or slow secured network connections.
There are improvements in Internet Protocol security (IPsec) reconnection time that is
achieved by eliminating some of the initial handshaking when reconnecting due to
intermittent or slow connections.

Improved network resiliency between cluster nodes. The connectivity between cluster
nodes has been revised to give clusters the ability to recover from intermittent or slow
connections between cluster nodes without affecting cluster node status.

Improving the monitoring of clusters, cluster nodes, and applications. Failover
clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements that help in
failover cluster monitoring:

New performance counters that help reduce the support and troubleshooting effort
for cluster-based applications.

New logging channel that helps clearly identify failover clustering-related events.

New support issue solutions that can be accessed directly while viewing the events
for the top support issues.
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
Secure access to cluster monitoring and configuration information. The failover
clustering Windows PowerShell provider leverages the delegated permissions available
in PowerShell 2.0 to provide read-only access to cluster monitoring and configuration
information. This allows you to allow less privileged IT professionals read-only access,
while allowing high privileged IT professionals read and write access. For more
information on delegate permissions in Windows PowerShell 2.0, see ―Improved Security
for Management Data‖ in ―Management‖ earlier in this guide.

Improved migration of supported cluster workloads. You can migrate cluster
workloads currently running on Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008 to
Windows Server 2008 R2. The migration process supports:

Every workload currently supported on Windows Server 2003 and Windows
Server 2008, including Distributed File System Namespace (DFS-N), Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP), DTC, File Server, Generic Application, Generic Script,
Generic Service, Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS), Network File System (NFS),
Other Server, Remote Desktop Session Broker, and Windows Internet Naming
Service (WINS).

Supports most common network configuration.

Does not support rolling upgrades of clusters (cluster workloads must be migrated
to a new cluster running Windows Server 2008 R2).

Includes new high availability roles for failover clustering. Failover clustering in
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes new high availability roles, including DFS-Replication,
Hyper-V, and Terminal Services Session Broker.

Improvements in cluster node connectivity fault tolerance. If a cluster node loses:


Connectivity to a shared disk, the cluster node can write to the shared disk through
other cluster nodes (also known as dynamic I/O redirection).

Network connectivity through the primary network adapter, the cluster node can
access the network through the primary network adapter of other cluster nodes.
Improvements for virtual machine management. The Live Migration feature in HyperV version 2.0 allows virtual machines to be moved between failover cluster nodes
without interruption of services provided by the virtual machines. The Live Migration
feature requires shared disk storage between the cluster nodes. The shared disk storage
can be provided by any vendor-based solution or by the new Cluster Shared Volumes
feature in failover clustering. The Cluster Shared Volumes feature supports a file system
that is shared between cluster nodes. This feature is implemented as a filter driver in
Windows Server 2008 R2. It is manually enabled by configuring a cluster wide property in
Windows PowerShell (%{$_.EnableSharedVolumes=1}). It is not supported with cluster
Page 53
nodes in multiple sites. This feature leverages other failover cluster features, such as
dynamic I/O redirection to maintain connectivity to disks. The Cluster Shared Volumes
feature has no:

Special hardware requirements.

Special application requirements.

File type restrictions.

Directory structure or depth limitations.

Special agents or additional installations.

Proprietary file system (uses NTFS).
For more information on the Live Migration feature, see ―Improved Management of
Virtual Datacenters‖ in ―Virtualization‖ earlier in this guide.
Improved Performance and Scalability for Applications and
Services
Another key design goal was to provide higher performance for Windows Server 2008 R2
running on the same system resources as previous versions of Windows Server. In addition,
Windows Server 2008 R2 supports increased scaling capabilities that allow you to support
greater workloads than ever before. The Windows Server 2008 R2 features that improve
performance and scalability for applications and services include:

Support for larger workloads by adding additional servers to a workload (scaling out).

Support for larger workloads by utilizing or increasing system resources (scaling up).
Increased Workload Support by Scaling Out
The Network Load Balancing feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to combine two
or more computers in to a cluster. You can use Network Load Balancing to distribute
workloads across the cluster nodes to support larger number of simultaneous users. The
Network Load Balancing feature improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Improved support for applications and services that require persistent connections.

Enhanced command line and automated management for Network Load Balancing
clusters.

Improved health monitoring and awareness for applications and services running on
Network Load Balancing clusters.
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Improved Support for Applications and Services that Require Persistent Connections
The IP Stickiness feature in Network Load Balancing allows you to configure longer affinity
between client and cluster nodes. By default, Network Load Balancing distributes each
request to different nodes in the clusters. Some applications and services, such as a shopping
cart application, require that a persistent connection is maintained with a specific cluster
node.
You can configure a timeout setting for connection state to a range of hours or even weeks
in length. Examples of applications and services that can utilize this feature include:

Universal Access Gateway (UAG) that uses a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)-based virtual
private network (VPN).

Web-based applications that maintain user information, such as an ASP.NET shopping
cart application.
Enhanced Command line and Automated Management
Windows PowerShell cmdlets provide the ability to fully manage Network Load Balancing
clusters and the applications running on the cluster. The Windows PowerShell cmdlets
replace nlb.exe, which provided a command-line and scriptable interface for managing
Network Load Balancing clusters in previous versions of Windows Server. These Windows
PowerShell cmdlets allow you to:

Create and destroy clusters.

Add, remove, and control cluster nodes.

Add, edit, and remove cluster virtual IP addresses and dedicated IP addresses.

Provide support for local and remote management.
Improved Health Monitoring and Awareness for Applications and Services
The Network Load Balancing Management Pack for Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to
monitor the health of applications and services running in Network Load Balancing clusters.
This allows you to identify when applications on cluster nodes or entire cluster nodes have
failed and requires attention.
Increased Workload Support by Scaling Up
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes features that also allow you to support larger workloads
on individual computers. Scaling up allows you to reduce the number of servers in your data
center and be more power efficient. The features that support scaling up include:

Increased number of logical processors supported. Windows Server 2008 R2
Datacenter Edition supports up to 256 logical processors.
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
Reduced operating system overhead for graphical user interface. In addition to
reducing the attack surface of the operating system, the Server Core installation option
eliminates the graphical user interface, which reduces the amount of processor
utilization. The reduction in processor utilization allows more of the processing power to
be used for running workloads.

Improved performance for storage devices. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a
number of performance improvements for storage devices connected locally, through
Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI), and other remote storage solutions.
For more information on these improvements in storage device performance, see
―Improved Storage Solutions‖ later in this section.
Improved Storage Solutions
The ability to quickly access information is more critical today than ever before. The
foundation for this high-speed access is based on file services and network attached storage.
Microsoft storage solutions are at the core of providing high-performance and highlyavailable file services and network attached storage.
The release version of Windows Server 2008 had many improvements in storage
technologies. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes additional improvements that help the
performance, availability, and manageability of storage solutions.
Improved Storage Solution Performance
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a number of performance improvements in storage
solutions, including:

Reduction in processor utilization to achieve “wire speed” storage performance.
Wire speed (or wire speed) refers to the hypothetical maximum data transmission rate of
a cable or other transmission medium. Wire speed is dependent on the physical and
electrical properties of the cable, combined with the lowest level of the connection
protocols. Windows Server 2008 RTM is able to access storage at wire speed, but at a
higher processor utilization than Windows Server 2008 R2.

Improved storage input and output process performance. One the primary
contributors to the storage performance improvements for Windows Server 2008 R2 is
the improvement in the storage input and output process, known as NTIO. The NTIO
process has been optimized to reduce the overhead in performing storage operations.
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
Improved performance when multiple paths exist between servers and storage.
When multiple paths exist to storage, you can load-balance storage operations by loadbalancing the storage requests. Windows Server 2008 R2 supports up to 32 paths to
storage devices, while Windows Server 2008 RTM only supported two paths. You can
configure load-balancing policies to optimize the performance for your storage solution.

Improved connection performance for iSCSI attached storage. The iSCSI client in
Windows Server 2008 R2 has been optimized to improve the performance for iSCSI
attached storage. These improvements include:

Offload iSCSI digest. This includes offloading of iSCSI initiator CRC (header and
data digests) to hardware, which can result in a 20 percent reduction in processor
utilization for iSCSI. The iSCSI digest offload is supported by Intel Nehalem/I7
processors.

Support for NUMA IO. This allows the processing of disk IO request to be
completed on the same processor on which the request was initiated.

Reduction in lock contention. The core IO path for Windows Server 2008 R2 has
been optimized to reduce contention for multiple IO threads running concurrently.

Improved support for virtual machines. Many of the same optimizations provided
for Windows Server 2008 R2 running on a physical computer are available for virtual
machines. These improvements affect the network interfaces and iSCSI initiators for
virtual machines. This includes support for TCP Chimney, Large Send Offload (LSO)
v2, and Jumbo Frames. Each of these improvements can help increase the
performance for virtual machines using the iSCSI initiator.

Improved support for optimization of storage subsystem. The storage system has
been designed to allow hardware vendors to optimize their storage mini-driver. For
example, a vendor could optimize the disk cache for their storage mini-driver.

Reduced length of time for operating system start. Chkdsk is run during the
operating system start when an administrator has scheduled a scan of a disk volume or
when volumes are not shutdown properly. Chkdsk performance has been optimized to
reduce the length of time required to start the operating system. This allows you to
recover faster in the event of an abnormal shutdown of the operating system (such as a
power loss).
Improved Storage Solution Availability
Availability of storage is essential to all mission critical applications in your organization.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements to storage solution
availability:
Page 57

Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. When multiple paths exist
between servers and storage, Windows Server 2008 R2 can failover to an alternate path if
the primary path fails. You can select the failover priority by configuring the loadbalancing policies for your storage solution.

Improved recovery from configuration errors. An error in the configuration of the
storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. Windows Server 2008 R2
allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example, the
iSCSI configuration). In the event of a subsequent configuration failure, you can quickly
restore the configuration to a previous version.
Improved Storage Solution Manageability
Management of the storage subsystem is another design goal for Windows Server 2008 R2.
Some of the manageability improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Automated deployment of storage subsystem configuration settings. You can
automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Server 2008 R2 by
customizing the Unattend.xml file.

Improved monitoring of storage subsystem. The storage subsystem in Windows
Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements that help in monitoring:

New performance counters that help reduce the support and troubleshooting effort
for storage subsystem-related issues. Extended logging for the storage subsystem,
including storage drivers.

Health-based monitoring of the entire storage subsystem.

Improved version control of storage system configuration settings. Windows
Server 2008 R2 allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem.
This allows you to perform version control of configuration settings and allows you to
quickly restore to a previous version in the event of a configuration error.

Reduction in complexity for connecting iSCSI. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the
ability to discover and log on to a target using the DNS name or IP address of the target.
This dramatically reduces the effort required to discover and log on to iSCSI targets.

Reduction in iSCSI configuration effort on Server Core installation options. There is
a graphical interface for configuring iSCSI which can be started from a command line in
Server Core installation options.

Reduction in iSCSI remote management. You can remotely manage iSCSI by using the
Windows Remote Shell or by using the Psexec. For more information on iSCSI remote
management by using:
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
Windows Remote Shell, see http://msdn.microsoft.com/enus/library/aa384426(VS.85).aspx.

Psexec, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx.
Improved Protection of Intranet Resources
The Network Policy Server (NPS) is a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
server and proxy and Network Access Protection (NAP) health policy server. NPS evaluates
system health for NAP clients, provides RADIUS authentication, authorization, and
accounting (AAA), and provides RADIUS proxy functionality.
NAP is a platform that includes both client and server components to enable fully extensible
system health evaluation and authorization for a number of network access and
communication technologies, including:

Internet Protocol security (IPsec)-protected communication

802.1X-authenticated access for wireless and wired connections

Remote access virtual private network (VPN) connections

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) address allocation

Terminal Service (TS) Gateway access
The improvements to NPS in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Automated NPS SQL logging setup. This new feature automatically configures a SQL
database, required tables, and store procedure for NPS accounting data, which
significantly reduces the NPS deployment effort.

NPS logging improvements. The logging improvements enable NPS to simultaneously
log accounting data to both a file and a SQL database, support failover from SQL
database logging to file logging, and support logging with an additional file format that
is structured similar to SQL logging.

NAP multiple configurations of a system health validator (SHV). When you
configure a health policy, you can select an SHV in a specific configuration. This allows
you to specify different sets of health requirements based on a specific configuration of
the SHV. For example, you can create a network policy that specifies that intranetconnected computers must have their antivirus software enabled and a different network
policy that specifies that VPN-connected computers must have their anti-virus software
enabled and anti-malware installed.
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
NPS templates. NPS templates separate common RADIUS configuration elements such
as RADIUS shared secrets, IP filters, RADIUS clients, and others from the configuration
that is running on the server. When referenced, the NPS setting inherits the values
configured in the specified template. A change in the template changes the
corresponding value in all of the places in which the template is referenced. For example,
a single RADIUS shared secret template can be referenced for multiple RADIUS clients
and servers. When you change the RADIUS shared secret template, the change is
inherited by all of the RADIUS clients and servers in which that RADIUS shared secret
template is referenced. NPS template settings can easily synchronized across multiple
NPS servers running Windows Server 2008 R2.

Migration of Windows Server 2003 Internet Authentication Service (IAS) servers.
This feature allows you to migrate the configuration settings of an IAS server running on
Windows Server 2003 to an NPS server running on Windows Server 2008 R2.
Improved Management of File Services
Managing data stored on file services is usually challenging because of the sheer number of
files being stored on network shared folders. Because users store files on network shared
with little or no restrictions, the user storing the files is the only individual who has any
knowledge of the information being stored in the file and other characteristics about the file,
such as sensitivity or criticality of the information in the file.
Even with this knowledge, you cannot rely on the user to properly determine the proper
classification of information, data archival schedule, and other common IT operations tasks.
You need to be able to centrally categorize these files and then perform IT file operations
based on the classification of the files.
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure (FCI) in Windows Server 2008 R2 provides
insight into your data to help you manage your data more effectively, reduce costs, and
mitigate risks. The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to establish policies
for classifying files and then performing common administrative tasks based on the
classification.
You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:

Contain sensitive information and are located on servers with lower security and move
the files to servers with higher security.

Contain sensitive information and encrypt those files.

Are no longer essential and automatically remove the files from servers.

Are not accessed frequently and move the files to slower, more affordable storage
solutions.
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
Require different backup schedules and backup the files accordingly.

Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the files.
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:

Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet.

Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define, rather
than on only simple information such as the location, size, or date of the file.

Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet.

Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on their
content.

Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File
Classification Infrastructure.
Improved Policy-based Classification of Files
One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability to
centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies. This
centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their intervention.
You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to:

Define classification properties and values, which can be assigned to files on a per-server
basis by running classification rules. Property types can include Boolean, date, numbered,
ordered lists, and string values.

Create, update, and run classification rules. Each rule assigns a single predefined
property and value to files within a specified directory, based on installed classification
plug-ins.

When running a classification rule, optionally re-evaluate files that are already classified.
You can choose to overwrite existing classification values, or add the value to properties
that support multiple values.
Improved File Management Tasks
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management tasks
based on the classifications that you define. You can use the Windows File Classification
Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks, including:

Grooming of data. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on data
age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently reduce
storage demand growth.
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
Custom Tasks. Execute custom commands based on age, location or other
classification categories. For example, IT administrators are able to automatically move
data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or for moving
data to a less expensive storage resource.
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file management
task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization.
Improved Reporting on Information Stored in Files
Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of files
that are stored and managed. Without classification of the files, there is minimal information
that can be used to help identify the usage of the files, the sensitivity of the files, and other
relevant information about the files.
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple
formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server. You
can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by another
application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be imported into
Microsoft® Excel®).
Improved File Owner Notification of File Management Tasks
Another feature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure that reduces your
administrative effort is the ability to send notifications to content owners when an
automated file management task runs. For example, when files become old enough to be
automatically expired, the content owners can be notified in advance and given the
opportunity to prevent the files from being archived or deleted.
You can also select the method for notification based on the type of file management task
being performed. And the extensible nature of the Windows File Classification Infrastructure
allows you to integrate with existing messaging systems or information portals.
Improved Development of File Management Tasks
You can extend the file management features of the Windows File Classification
Infrastructure by creating your own custom file management solution or purchasing a file
management solution from an independent software vendor. The architecture of the
Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows the use of any supported development
environments for Windows Server 2008 R2, including Windows PowerShell and VBScript.
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This architecture allows you to select the level of programming sophistication required to
automate your file management tasks. For example, you could write Windows PowerShell
scripts to manage files based on the classifications you define for your organization.
Improvements in Backup and Recovery
Backup and recovery features are very important for the continued operation of the services
and applications running on Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a
number of improvements that are related to backup and recovery, including improvements
in:

The Windows Server Backup utility.

Recovering from total failures of disk volumes by using LUN synchronization.

Integration with System Center Data Protection Manager 2007.
Improvements in Windows Server Backup
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of the Windows Server Backup utility. This
new version of Windows Server Backup allows you to:

Backup specific files and folders. In Windows Server 2008 RTM you had to backup and
entire volume. In Windows Server 2008 R2, you can include or exclude folders or
individual files. You can also exclude files based on the file types.

Perform incremental backup of system state. Previously, you could only perform a full
backup of the system state by using the wbadmin.exe utility. Now you can perform
incremental backups of the system state by using Windows Server Backup utility, the
wbadmin.exe utility, or from a Windows PowerShell cmdlet.

Perform scheduled backups to volumes. You can perform a scheduled backup to
existing volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. In Windows Server 2008, you had to
dedicate an entire physical disk to the backup (the target physical disk was partitioned
and a new volume was created previously).

Perform scheduled backups to network shared folders. You can now perform
scheduled backups to a network shared folder, which was not possible in the previous
version.

Manage backups by using Windows PowerShell. You can manage backup and restore
tasks by using Windows PowerShell (including all PowerShell remoting scenarios). This
includes the management of on-demand and scheduled backups.
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Improvements in Full Volume Recovery
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN
resynch or LUN revert). LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies that
allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume.
LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that leverages the
capabilities of storage arrays (such as SANs). This allows you to create shadow copies of
entire LUNs and then restore from those shadow copies (using the inherent snapshot or
copying features in the storage array). You can use LUN resynchronization to help you
recover from data loss or to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in a
storage environment.
Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service
Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features
provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. LUN
resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used by
the Volume Shadow Copy Service.
The following table lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current features
in Volume Shadow Copy Service.
Table 3: Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy
Service
LUN Resynchronization
Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service
Recovers entire LUN (which may
contain multiple volumes).
Recovers only a volume.
Performed by storage array hardware.
Performed by server computer.
Typically takes less time than restoring
by using traditional Volume Shadow
Copy Service.
Typically takes more time than restoring by
using LUN resynchronization.
Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap
LUN Swap is a fast volume recovery scenario that has supported since Windows
Server 2003 Service Pack 1. In LUN swap, a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged
with the active
The following table lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and LUN Swap.
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Table 4: Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap
LUN Resynchronization
LUN Swap
Source (shadow copy) LUN remains
unmodified after the resynchronization
completes.
Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the
active LUN and is modified.
Destination LUN contains the same
information as the source LUN, but
also any information written during the
resynchronization.
Contains only the information on the source
LUN.
Source LUN can be used for recovery
again.
Must create another shadow copy to perform
recovery.
Requires the destination LUN exists
and is usable.
Destination LUN does not have to exist or can
be unusable.
Source LUN can exist on slower, less
expensive storage.
Source LUN must have the same performance
as the production LUN.
Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization
The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:

Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. After the recovery
of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated, users can continue to access data
on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Although there may be a
reduction in performance, users and applications are still able to access their data.

Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. Because the hardware storage array
is performing the resynchronization, the server hardware resources are only minimally
affected. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads with the same
performance while the LUN resynchronization process is completing.

Integration with existing volume recovery methods. The APIs used to perform LUN
resynchronization are the same APIs that are used to perform traditional Volume
Shadow Copy Service recovery. This helps ensure that you can the same tools and
processes that you are currently using for traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service
recovery.
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
Compatibility with future improvements. Because LUN resynchronization uses
published, supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2, future versions of Windows
Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization.
Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization
Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization, you need to have
a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. You can make full or differential shadow
copies of the LUN.
The following is the sequence of events when performing a full volume restore using LUN
synchronization:
1.
The source and destination LUNs are identified.
2.
The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and
destination LUNs.
3.
During the LUN resynchronization users are able to access the volume being accessed by
the following methods:

For read operations, volume requests are directed to the source LUN.

For write operations, volume requests are directed to the destination LUN.
4.
The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the source
(shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN.
5.
The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from the
destination LUN.
Note: At the end of the LUN resynchronization process, the source LUN is unmodified and
the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN plus any data that was
written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process.
You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the Volume
Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN® and on the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK)
for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.
Improvements in Data Protection Manager Integration
Service Pack 1 for Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 provides
continuous data protection for Windows application and file servers using seamlessly
integrated disk and tape media and includes the following expanded capabilities:

Protection of files, configuration, and other information stored on Windows Server 2008
R2.
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
Protection of Hyper-V virtualization platforms, including both Windows Server 2008 R2
Hyper-V and the Microsoft Hyper-V Server, has been added to the existing set of
protected workloads.
Improved Security for DNS Services
One common issue with DNS name resolution is that clients can‘t tell the difference between
legitimate and illegitimate DNS information and are this vulnerable to spoofing and Man in
the Middle attacks.
The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7
allows the DNS servers to verify authenticity of a DNS record obtained from a signed zone,
and allows clients to establish a trust relationship with the DNS server.
The DNS records in a protected DNS zone include a set of public keys that are sent as DNS
resource records from the DNS server services on Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7.
Through the use of pre-configured Trust Anchors, the DNS server can obtain the public keys
of the key pair used to sign the zone and validate the authenticity of the data obtained from
the zone. This method prevents interception of DNS queries and returning of illegitimate
DNS responses from an untrusted DNS server.
Better Together with Windows 7
Windows Server 2008 R2 has many features that are designed to specifically work with client
computers running Windows 7, the next version of client operating systems from Microsoft.
The features that are only available with running Windows 7 client computers with server
computers running Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Simplified remote connectivity for corporate computers by using the DirectAccess
feature.

Secured remote connectivity for private and public computers by using a combination of
the Remote Workspace, Presentation Virtualization, and Remote Desktop Services
Gateway features.

Improved performance for branch offices by using the Branch Caching feature.

Improved security for branch offices by using the read-only DFS feature.

More efficient power management by using the new power management Group Policy
settings for Windows 7 clients.
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
Improved virtualized presentation integration by using the new desktop and application
feeds feature.

Higher fault tolerance for connectivity between sites by using the Agile VPN feature.

Increased protection for removable drives by using the BitLocker™ Drive Encryption
(BitLocker) feature to encrypt removable drives.

Improved prevention of data loss for mobile users by using the Offline Folders feature.
Simplified Remote Connectivity for Corporate Computers
One of the common problems facing most organizations is remote connectivity for their
mobile users. One of the most common solutions for remote connectivity is for mobile users
to connect by using a VPN connection. Depending on the type of VPN, users may install VPN
client software on their mobile computer and then establish the VPN connection over public
Internet connections.
The DirectAccess feature allows Windows 7 client computer to directly connect to intranetbased resources without the complexity of establishing a VPN connection. The remote
connection to the intranet is transparently established for the user. From the user‘s
perspective, they are unaware they are remotely connecting to intranet resources.
Overview of DirectAccess
DirectAccess clients use IPv6 to communicate with the enterprise network. DirectAccess
provides IPv6 addresses and connectivity to DirectAccess clients over existing IPv4 networks
by using IPv4 to IPv6 transition technologies. Some of these technologies includes Teredo,
6to4, IP-HTTPS and ISATAP. Native IPv6 connectivity is also supported if the client is
assigned a native IPv6 address.
The following figure illustrates an overview of a typical DirectAccess solution.
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Figure 16: Overview of a typical DirectAccess solution
The components in a DirectAccess solution are listed in the following table.
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Table 5: Components in a DirectAccess Solution
Component
Description
DirectAccess
Client
This is a computer running Windows 7 that connects remotely to your
intranet-based resources.
DirectAccess
Server
This is a computer running Windows Server 2008 R2 that provides
DirectAccess edge services for your organization. In addition to running
DirectAccess services, this computer could also run IPv6 transition
technologies as well for some deployment models.
IPv6
IPv6 is an Internet Protocol designed to solve many of the problems of
the current version of IP (known as IPv4) such as address depletion, autoconfiguration, and extensibility. For more information on IPv6, see
www.microsoft.com/ipv6
Internet
Protocol
Security
Internet Protocol security (IPsec) is a framework of open standards for
ensuring private, secure communications over IP networks through the
use of cryptographic security services. The Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) IPsec working group defines the IPsec standards.
DirectAccess uses IPsec transport mode to secure IP traffic between the
DirectAcess client and your network resources by using the
authentication and encryption features in IPsec. For more information on
IPsec, see www.microsoft.com/ipsec
Teredo
Teredo is an IPv6 transition technology that provides IPv6 connectivity to
hosts behind a network address translation (NAT) device. For more
information on Teredo, see www.microsoft.com/ipv6
6to4
6to4 is an IPv6 transition technology that provides IPv6 connectivity to
hosts that have a public IPv4 address. For more information on 6to4, see
www.microsoft.com/ipv6
ISATAP
ISATAP is an address assignment and automatic tunneling technology
that is used to provide IPv6 connectivity between IPv6/IPv4 hosts across
an IPv4 intranet. In DirectAccess, ISATAP is used to allow enterprise
resources to use and route IPv6 without requiring infrastructure
upgrades. For more information on ISATAP, see www.microsoft.com/ipv6
IP-HTTPS
IP-HTTPS is a new protocol for Windows 7 that allows hosts behind a
proxy or firewall to establish connectivity by tunneling IP data inside of
an HTTPS tunnel. HTTPS is used instead of HTTP so that proxy servers
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will not attempt to look inside of the data stream and terminate the
connection if traffic looks anomalous. HTTPS is not providing security in
any way; security is provided by IPsec.
Since the data is double-encrypted by default (IPsec and HTTPS), IPHTTPS may not be as performant as other protocols. Additional IP-HTTPS
servers can be added and load-balanced if performance is problematic.
Microsoft is looking at ways to improve the performance of this protocol
in the future.
Name
Resolution
Policy Table
Windows 7 introduces a new feature called Name Resolution Policy Table
(NRPT) is a new feature in Windows 7 that performs the following
functions:

Clients can query different DNS servers for different DNS
namespaces

Optionally, DNS queries for specific namespaces can be secured
using IPsec (and other actions can be specified, as well)
The NRPT stores a list of namespaces and configuration settings that
define the DNS client‘s behavior specific to that namespace. Name
resolution requests are matched against the namespaces stored in the
NRPT and are processed according to the configuration specified. In
DirectAccess, when a name resolution request matches a namespace
listed in the NRPT, the NRPT settings determine whether that query will
be encrypted (to protect from packet sniffing and other man-in-themiddle attacks) and which DNS servers to send that query to.
DirectAccess Connectivity Models
DirectAccess supports a number of models for connecting remote users to your intranetbased resources. These models include:

Full Intranet Access

Selected Server Access

End-to-end Access
Full Intranet Access
The Full Intranet Access model, as illustrated in the following figure, allows DirectAccess
clients to connect into all resources inside your intranet. This model provides IPsec-based
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end-to-edge authentication and encryption which terminate at the IPsec gateway or
DirectAccess™ server.
Figure 17: Full Intranet Access model
This model does not require application servers that are running Windows Server 2008 or
IPsec-authenticated traffic in the enterprise network. This model most closely resembles
current VPN architecture. This model is typically easier to deploy in the short term, but
usually needs re-architecting long term.
The following table lists the benefits and limitations of the Full Intranet Access Model.
Table 6: Benefits and Limitations of the Full Intranet Access Model
Benefits
Limitations
Architecture similar to current VPN
deployments.
Cannot secure resources based on end-toend policies.
Does not require IPsec traffic in the
enterprise network.
Might place extra load on DirectAccess
Server, which can be mitigated by IPsec
offload network adapters.
Works with any IPv6 capable application
servers.
Selected Server Access
The Selected Server Access model, as illustrated in the following figure, allows remote
DirectAccess clients to access selected internal resources only. By leveraging IPsec, the
communication between the remote client and the DirectAccess Server can be encrypted,
and communication between the client and the application server can be authenticated. This
allows you to define policies that restrict certain users or computers from accessing
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particular application servers, or even specifying certain applications that won‘t be able to
access intranet resources while accessing the resources remotely.
Figure 18: Selected Server Access model
The following table lists the benefits and limitations of the Selected Server Access model.
Table 7: Benefits and Limitations of the Selected Server Access Model
Benefits
Limitations
Fine grain control over which resources are
available.
Application servers must be running
Windows Server 2008 or later.
You can quickly realize the benefits of
simplified edge policies and secure
resources based on end-to-end policies.
You must be familiar with IPsec and
prepared to allow this traffic inside the
network.
End-to-end Access
The End-to-end Access model, as illustrated in the following figure, allows remote
DirectAccess clients to access directly any intranet-based resources. The connections
between the DirectAccess client, the DirectAccess Server, and the intranet-based resources
are authenticated and encrypted by using IPsec, This allows you to define policies that
restrict certain users or computers from accessing particular application servers, or even
specifying certain applications that won‘t be able to access intranet resources while accessing
the resources remotely.
Note: This model requires all intranet-based resources to support IPv6 and IPsec.
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Figure 19: End to End Access Model
The following table lists the benefits and limitations of the End to End Access Model.
Table 8: Benefits and Limitations of the End to End Access Model
Benefits
Limitations
Provides end-to-end encryption of data
between DirectAccess Client and intranetbased resources.
Requires IPv6 on all intranet-based
resources.
No IPv6 translations services are required,
which reduces the workload on
DirectAccess Server(s).
Requires IPsec on all intranet-based
resources
DirectAccess Requirements
Depending on the DirectAccess model selected, the requirements for deploying DirectAccess
may vary. The following tables list the DirectAccess network, infrastructure, software, and
hardware requirements.
Table 9: DirectAccess Network Requirements
Requirement
Description
IPv6 addressing
DirectAccess uses the IPv6 protocol to provide end-to-end
connectivity between client computers and enterprise resources.
This means that DirectAccess clients will have access only to those
servers in your intranet that have a reachable IPv6 address. Those
servers can obtain IPv6 connectivity from native IPv6 or an IPv6
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transition technology. Although IPv6 is a requirement for
DirectAccess, IPv6 does not have to be enabled on network
infrastructure (such as routers), only on the client and server
operating systems.
Note: A DirectAccess client can still access an Internet resource
using the IPv4 protocol. IPv6 is only required when the
DirectAccess client connects to your intranet resources.
IPv6 blocking
IPv6 and IPv4 protocol 41 (which is used by ISATAP and 6to4
transition technologies) must be allowed to pass through your
outward facing firewalls.
Internet Protocol
Security
DirectAccess uses IPsec to provide mutual authentication and
encryption between the DirectAccess Client, the DirectAccess
Server, and intranet-based resources (depending on the access
model).
Note: Only Windows Server 2008 and later server operating systems
support the termination of IPsec connections over IPv6.
For more information, see www.microsoft.com/ipsec.
Teredo blocking
Teredo, which uses IPv4 UDP port 3544, must be allowed to pass
through your outward facing firewalls.
ICMPv6
In order for IPv6 to work properly, ICMPv6 must be allowed to pass
through your outward facing firewalls.
NAT-PT devices
Network Address Translation – Protocol Translation (NAT-PT)
devices can be deployed to provide DirectAccess clients access to
you intranet resources that only support IPv4. NAT-PT is generally
configured to provide coverage for a particular DNS namespace,
and once implemented, will make the necessary translations
allowing DirectAccess clients to access any IPv4 resources located
within that namespace.
ISATAP
The ISATAP protocol allows direct client-to-client and client-toserver IPv6 connectivity over an IPv4 infrastructure. When
DirectAccess is installed, the ISATAP server registers its name in
DNS. In addition, after DirectAccess is installed all Windows-based
hosts running Windows Vista® or Windows Server 2008 or later
automatically obtain an ISATAP/IPv6 address from the ISATAP
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server. Since IPv6 addresses are preferred over IPv4, this means
that when DirectAccess is installed, all Windows Vista, Windows
Server 2008, and later operating systems in your domain will to
communicate with each other using IPv6. This may have an impact
on monitoring and firewall configurations.
Table 10: DirectAccess Infrastructure Requirements
Requirement
Description
Active Directory®
Domain Services
(AD DS)
At least one Active Directory domain is required. Workgroup-based
networks and computers are not supported. At least one domain
controller in the domain containing user accounts must be running
Windows Server 2008 R2.
Group Policy
Group Policy can be used to deploy DirectAccess client policies and
is strongly recommended.
Public Key
Infrastructure
A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is required to issue the certificates
that are required by DirectAcess and IPsec. However, external
certificates (or public certificates) are not required. For more
information about deploying a PKI, see
http://www.microsoft.com/pki.
IPsec policies
DirectAccess uses IPsec policies, so the appropriate infrastructure
must exist to manage IPsec policies. For more information, see
www.microsoft.com/ipsec.
IPv6 transition
technologies
ISATAP, Teredo, 6to4, and IPv6 must be available for use on the
DirectAccess server.
DNS and ISATAP
DirectAccess clients query DNS for the name ‗isatap‘ to locate
ISATAP routers. DirectAccess clients also query DNS using the
ISATAP protocol. In order to facilitate these requests, all DNS
servers must be able to resolve the ISATAP name (‗isatap‘) and at
least some DNS servers must be listening on the ISATAP interface.
You can enable these capabilities by:
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
Ensuring some DNS servers run Windows Server 2008 SP2 or
Windows Server 2008 R2

Unblocking ISATAP name resolution on all DNS servers
Table 11: DirectAccess Software Requirements
Requirement
Description
DirectAccess
Server
DirectAccess Server is an optional component of Windows Server
2008 R2 that manages DirectAccess connections, The DirectAccess
Server may either terminate or pass IPsec connections.
DirectAccess Client
DirectAccess Client is an optional component of Windows 7 that
allows remote users to connect to DirectAccess Servers.
Note: Computers running Windows Vista or earlier operating
system versions do not support DirectAccess
Table 12: DirectAccess Hardware Requirements
Requirement
Description
DirectAccess
Server
The hardware requirements for DirectAccess Server are the same as
those for Windows Server 2008 R2. However, all DirectAccess
servers must have at least two physical network adapters installed.
DirectAccess Client
The hardware requirements for DirectAccess Server are the same as
those for Windows 7.
DirectAccess Firewall Placement and Rules
Because DirectAccess allows Internet-based clients access to intranet-based resources,
placement of firewalls and configuration of firewall rules is important. The following figure
illustrates the placement of DirectAccess components in relationship to a typical firewall
configuration.
Note: The following figure does not represent a design requirement, but rather
recommended best practices. Depending on your firewall configuration, placement of
DirectAccess components may differ.
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Figure 20: Recommended placement of firewalls for DirectAccess solution
The following table lists the recommended DirectAccess firewall rules for the DirectAccess
solution illustrated in the previous figure. If the firewall configuration for your organization is
different, then adjust the firewall rules accordingly.
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Table 13: Recommended DirectAccess Firewall Rules
Firewall
Port or Protocol
Direction
Outer
IPv6
Inbound and
outbound
Outer
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) on (IP
protocol 50)
Inbound and
outbound
Outer
Teredo (UDP port 3544)
Inbound
Outer
ISATAP (IP protocol 41)
Inbound and
outbound
Outer
Secure HTTP (TCP port 443)
Inbound
Inner
Internet Key Exchange (UDP port 500)
Inbound and
outbound
Inner
ESP (IP protocol 50)
Inbound and
outbound
DirectAccess Simultaneous Internet and Intranet Access
By default, remote DirectAccess Clients are able to simultaneously access the Internet, your
organization‘s intranet, and the local IP subnet. DirectAccess Clients are configured to send
all DNS name resolution requests for intranet-based resources to DNS servers in the intranet.
DirectAccess Clients send all other DNS name resolution requests to the ISP‘s DNS server(s).
This feature is known as split tunneling.
You can disable split tunneling through by using Group Policy at Computer Configuration \
Administrative Templates \ Network \ Network connections \ Default value: disabled. You
can also use Group Policy to configure Windows Firewall for advanced configuration options
such as per-application control of split tunneling. This allows you to configure which
applications are allowed to access the intranet-based resources while accessing the intranet
remotely.
When split tunneling is disabled, all traffic from the DirectAccess Client will be routed to the
enterprise network over an IP-HTTPS tunnel. DirectAccess Clients who have had split
tunneling disabled are able to access any resources on their local link (such as network
printers) but any network traffic that must cross a network router will be forwarded to the
DirectAccess Server.
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The IP-HTTPS protocol is always used when split tunneling has been disabled. To reduce
load on the DirectAccess Server, packets which are destined for your intranet are encrypted,
while packets that are destined outside your intranet are unencrypted.
DirectAccess Optional Security Components
As an additional level of security protection, you may want to deploy:

NAP IPsec enforcement. This prevents unhealthy computers from being able to
establish an IPsec connection. NAP IPsec enforcement provides the strongest and most
flexible method for maintaining client computer compliance with network health
requirements. For more information on NAP IPsec enforcement, see ―Understanding NAP
IPsec Enforcement‖ at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc726008.aspx.

Server and domain isolation. Isolates your domain and server resources by limiting
access to authenticated and authorized computers. For example, you can create a logical
network consisting of computers that share a common Windows-based security
framework and a set of requirements for secure communication. Each computer on the
logically isolated network can provide authentication credentials to the other computers
on the isolated network to prove membership. Requests for communication that
originate from computers that are not part of the isolated network are ignored. For more
information on server and domain isolation, see ―Server and Domain Isolation‖ at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/network/bb545651.aspx.

Smartcard enforcement. You can user smartcard authentication to provide the
following enforcement:

User enforcement. Always require smartcard authentication, regardless of which
computer the user logs on to or if the user is connecting locally or remotely, always
require Smartcard for login. This feature is enabled by configuring the Smart card
required for interactive logon option for each user.

Machine enforcement. Always require smartcard authentication, regardless who
logs onto the computer or if the computer is connecting locally or remotely. This
feature is enabled by configuring the Machine Settings | Local Policies | Security
Options |Interactive Logon: Require Smart Card Group Policy.

Gateway enforcement. The IPsec gateway requires smartcard authentication before
allowing connectivity. This option may be combined with user or machine
enforcement to provide a second layer of checking that the user has logged on with
a smart card. Alternatively, this option can be used without option user or machine
enforcement, which means that users are be able to log onto their computer and
access the Internet without a smartcard (assuming split tunneling is not disabled) but
would need to insert a smart card to access any intranet-based resources.
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DirectAccess Deployment Scenarios
You can deploy DirectAccess solutions to support any number of simultaneous DirectAccess
clients. In addition, you can deploy DirectAccess solutions that provide higher-availability
and fault tolerance to help avoid any outages. You can improve the scaling and fault
tolerance of your DirectAcess clients by using one of the following deployment scenario:

Single server

Multiple servers with multiple roles

Multiple servers with identical roles
Use these deployment scenarios as templates for creating your own DirectAccess solution.
These deployment scenarios represent best practice recommendations that can be applied
to your organization.
Single Server
In the Single Server deployment scenario, as illustrated in the following figure, all
DirectAccess server-side components are running on one computer.
Figure 21: Single Server deployment scenario
The following table lists the benefits and limitations of the Single Server deployment
scenario.
Table 14: Benefits and Limitations of the Single Server Deployment Scenario
Benefits
Limitations
Relatively simple deployment scenario,
which requires a single computer running
Susceptible to a single point of failure.
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DirectAccess Server.
Server performance bottlenecks can limit
the maximum number of concurrent
connections.
Multiple Servers with Multiple Roles
In the Multiple Servers with Multiple Roles deployment scenario, as illustrated in the
following figure, the DirectAccess server-side components are running on more than one
computer. This scenario provides improvements in scaling, but does not provide additional
fault tolerance or help prevent single point of failure for DirectAccess server-side
components.
Figure 22: Multiple Servers with Multiple Roles deployment scenario
The following table lists the benefits and limitations of the Multiple Servers with Multiple
Roles deployment scenario.
Table 15: Benefits and Limitations of the Multiple Servers with Multiple Roles
Deployment Scenario
Benefits
Limitations
Improves scalability to support larger
number of concurrent connections.
Susceptible to a single point of failure for
each component.
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Requires additional hardware.
Requires routing reconfiguration.
Multiple Servers with Identical Roles
In the Multiple Servers with Identical Roles deployment scenario, as illustrated in the
following figure, all DirectAccess server-side components are running on multiple computers.
This scenario provides improvements in scaling and fault tolerance. Unlike the other
deployment scenarios, this scenario helps eliminate single point of failure for DirectAccess
server-side components.
Figure 23: Multiple Servers with Identical Roles deployment scenario
The following table lists the benefits and limitations of the Multiple Servers with Identical
Roles deployment scenario.
Table 16: Benefits and Limitations of the Multiple Servers with Identical Roles
Deployment Scenario
Benefits
Limitations
Improves scalability to support larger
number of concurrent connections.
Requires additional hardware.
Improves fault-tolerances to help eliminate
single point of failure.
Requires routing reconfiguration.
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DirectAccess and Failover Clustering
You can use Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2008 to improve the availability of
DirectAccess Servers. You can use Failover Clustering in conjunction with or in place of the
inherent fault tolerance in DirectAccess, such as provided by the Multiple Servers with
Identical Roles deployment scenario.
The following DirectAccess Server components can be run as workloads in a Failover Cluster:
•
6to4 Servers
•
IPsec DoSP Server
•
IPsec Gateway
For more information on creating a failover cluster, see
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/clustering-resources.aspx
Sequence for Establishing a DirectAccess Connection
The followings steps describe the sequence for establishing a DirectAccess connection
between a DirectAccess client running Windows 7, the DirectAccess server, and resources on
an intranet:
1.
Deploy Windows 7 and DirectAccess Client connectivity policies.
2.
Determine connectivity requirements between DirectAccess Client and application and
resources in the intranet.
3.
Establish the required connections to the DirectAccess Servers.
4.
Validate the connection between the DirectAccess Client and the DirectAccess Servers.
5.
Forward traffic to intranet resources.
Step 1: Deploy Windows 7 and DirectAccess Client Policy
Windows 7 needs to be deployed on the mobile computer. In addition, the DirectAccess
Client policies need to be deployed. The DirectAccess Client policies can be deployed as a
part of the Windows 7 image or in a subsequent deployment. The policies allow you to allow
grant access to specific applications or resources to specific user while preventing access to
other users. The policies control:

The connectivity for an application, resource, or namespace thorough DirectAccess
Servers.

A schedule that limits the periods of time when remote connectivity is allowed or denied
in the policy.
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In addition, the DirectAccess Client needs to do name resolution for the DirectAccess Servers
specified in the policy and the resources within your intranet, typically performed by DNS.
Step 2: Determine Connectivity Requirements Between Client and Intranet
The DirectAccess Client can transparently initiate the network connection between the client
and the resources and applications in your organizations intranet. If an application references
a computer name within the intranet, the DirectAccess client determines if the server
computer must be accessed with, or without, a tunneled connection. After the DirectAccess
Client determines the type of connection required, the client establishes the connection
directly, through a tunnel, or both as required to access the resource.
Step 3: Establish Required Connections
The DirectAccess client connects to the DirectAccess Servers based on policy and the current
connectivity available. The connection to the DirectAccess Servers is used to connect to your
intranet services and resources, including DNS services, Active Directory services, and
application-related resources.
Step 4: Validate Connection
The DirectAccess Server validates all incoming connections by using IPsec authentication in
the ―Seamless VPN‖ deployment scenario. After the connection is validated, the appropriate
IP addresses are assigned to the DirectAccess Client. The DirectAccess Server is configured to
filter out all traffic except Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and Encapsulating Security Payload
(ESP) packets.
Step 5: Forward Traffic to Intranet
After the DirectAccess Client connection is validated, the DirectAccess Server creates a
connection between the DirectAccess Client and resources on the intranet. If the address of
the resource is published as an address provided by IPv6 Transition services, then IPv6
Transition is required.
If your organization has deployed a dual-stack IPv6, then no IPv6 to IPv4 translation is
required. Otherwise, traffic between the DirectAccess Client and your intranet resources need
to be translated by ISATAP or 6to4. 6to4 allows IPv6 packets to be transmitted over an IPv4
network without the need to configure explicit tunnels. 6to4 does not facilitate
interoperation between IPv4-only hosts and IPv6-only hosts, but tunnels IPv6 packets
through an IPv4 network, such as the Internet.
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Secured Remote Connectivity for Private and Public
Computers
Another common problem for remote users is the ability to access intranet-based resources
from computers that are not owned by their organization, such as public computers or
Internet kiosks. Without a mobile computer provided by their organization, most users are
unable to access intranet-based resources.
A combination of the Remote Workspace, presentation virtualization, and Remote Desktop
Services Gateway features allows users on Windows 7 clients to remotely access the intranetbased resources without requiring any additional software to be installed on the Windows 7
client. This allows the users to remotely access their desktop as though they were working
from their computer on the intranet, as illustrated in the following figure.
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Figure 24: Remote user connected to an intranet by using Remote Workspace,
presentation virtualization, and Remote Desktop Services Gateway
From the user‘s perspective, the desktop on the remote Windows 7 client transforms the
look of the user‘s desktop on the intranet, including icons, Start menu items, and installed
applications are identical to the user experience on their computer on the intranet. When the
remote user closes the remote session, the remote Windows 7 client desktop environment
reverts to the previous configuration.
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Improved Performance for Branch Offices
One of the largest problems facing branch offices is how to improve the performance of
accessing intranet resources in other locations, such as the headquarters or regional data
centers. Typically branch offices are connected by wide area networks (WANs) which usually
have slower data rates than your intranet. Reducing the network utilization on the WAN
network segments provides available network bandwidth for applications and services.
The BranchCache feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 reduces the network
utilization on WAN segments that connect branch offices by locally caching frequently used
files on computers in the branch office. The type of content that is cached is content
returned by Server Message Block (SMB) requests and HTTP requests.
The following figure contrasts branch office network utilization with and without the
BranchCache feature.
Figure 25: The branch office problem
BranchCache Modes
BranchCache supports the following operational modes:

Distributed Mode

Hosted caching
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Distributed Mode
In distributed mode, content is cached on the branch on client computers running
Windows 7. The disadvantage to this solution is that content is cached on client computers,
so if the computer containing the cached content is unavailable, the content must be
retrieved over the WAN connection, as illustrated in the following figure.
The following sequence reflects how the distributed mode caches content:
1.
A client computer downloads content from a BranchCache enabled server in the main
office. It adds this content to a cache stored on its hard disk.
2.
A second client computer accesses the same content. The server returns identifiers that
describe the piece of desired content. The computer searches the local network for
other computers that have already downloaded the content.
3.
The second computer discovers the piece of content in the cache of the first computer.
The second computer downloads the content from the first machine.
If a client computer cannot locate a piece of content on the local network, it will return to the
server and request a full download.
Hosted Caching Mode
In the hosted caching mode, content is cached on the branch on client computers running
Windows Server 2008 R2. The advantage to this mode is that the server is always available,
so the cached content is always available. The unavailability of any client computer running
Windows 7 does not affect the availability of the content cache, as illustrated in the following
figure.
The following sequence reflects how the hosted caching mode caches content:
1.
A client computer downloads content from a BranchCache enabled server in the main
office. It adds this content to a cache stored on its hard disk.
2.
A second client computer accesses the same content. The server returns identifiers that
describe the piece of desired content. The computer searches the local network for
other computers that have already downloaded the content.
3.
The second computer discovers the piece of content in the cache of the first computer.
The second client downloads the content from the first computer.
If a client computer cannot locate a piece of content on the local network, the client
computer will return to the server and request a full download
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BranchCache Management
BranchCache behavior can be configured by using Group Policy. Windows Server 2008 R2
includes a Group Policy administrative template that can be used to administer the
BranchCache configuration settings.
You can also manage BranchCache by using the NetSH command. For more information
configuring BranchCache by using the NetSH command, see ―NetSH Command Index‖ in
Windows Branch Cache Deployment Guide.
Improved Security for Branch Offices
Windows Server 2008 RTM introduced the Read-only Domain Controller feature, which
allows a read-only copy of AD DS to be placed in less secured environments, like branch
offices. Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces support for read-only copies of information
stored in Distributed File System (DFS), as illustrated in the following figure.
Figure 26: Read-only DFS in a branch office scenario
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Read-only DFS helps protect your digital assets by allowing branch offices read-only access
to information that you replicate to them by using DFS. Because the information is read-only,
users are unable to modify the content stored in read-only DFS replicated content and no
content changes are replicated to other DFS replica copies in other locations.
Improved Efficiency for Power Management
Windows 7 includes a number of power management features that allow you to control
power utilization in your organization with a finer degree of granularity than in previous
operating systems. Windows 7 allows you to take advantages of the latest hardware
developments for reducing power consumption in desktop and laptop computers.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a number of Group Policy settings that allow you to
centrally manage the power consumption of computers running Windows 7.
Virtualized Desktop Integration
Windows 7 introduces the desktop and applications feed feature, which helps integrate
desktops and applications virtualized by using Remote Desktop Services with the Windows 7
user interface. This integration makes the user experience for running virtualized applications
or desktops the same as running the applications locally.
Windows 7 can be configured to subscribe to desktop and application feeds provided by
Remote Desktops and RemoteApp programs. These feeds are presented to Windows 7 users
using the new RemoteApp and Desktop Connection control panel applet. The RemoteApp
and Desktop Web Access control panel applet provides the ability to connect to resources
from Windows Vista and Windows XP in addition to Windows 7.
The desktop and applications feeds feature includes the following capabilities:

Users can subscribe to RemoteApp programs and Remote Desktops by using the
RemoteApp and Desktop Connections control panel applet.

User experience is seamlessly integrated with Windows 7 because:

The RemoteApp programs desktops are added to the Start Menu.

A new System Tray icon shows connectivity status to all of the connections to feeds.

The administration for RemoteApp, Remote Desktop, and RemoteApp and Desktop Web
Access is performed through a unified infrastructure.

RemoteApp and Desktop Web Access provide access to RemoteApp and Remote
Desktops to previous Windows operating systems by using a Web-based interface.
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
Provides supports for managed computers (member computers in an Active Directory
domain) and unmanaged computers (standalone computers).

User interface always reflects applications and desktops in the Start Menu and in the
web-based interface as they are added by the administrator.

Access to all desktops and applications requires a single sign-on.
Higher Fault Tolerance for Connectivity Between Sites and
Locations
One of the most common scenarios facing organizations today is connectivity between sites
and locations. Many organizations connect their sites and locations by using VPN tunnels
over public networks, such as the Internet.
One of the problems with existing VPN solutions is they are not resilient to connection
failures or device outages. When any outage occurs, the VPN tunnel is terminated and the
VPN tunnel must be re-established, resulting in momentary outages in connectivity.
The Agile VPN feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 allows a VPN to have multiple network
paths between points in the VPN tunnel. In the event of a failure, Agile VPN automatically
uses another network path to maintain the existing VPN tunnel, without interruption of
connectivity.
Protection for Removable Drives
In Windows Server 2008 and prior operating systems, BitLocker Drive Encryption (BitLocker)
was primarily used to protect the operating system volume. Information stored on other
volumes, including removable media, was encrypted by using Encrypted File System (EFS).
In Windows 7, you can use BitLocker to encrypt removable drives, such as eSATA hard disks,
USB hard disks, USB thumb drivers, or compact flash drives. This allows you to protect
information stored on removable media with the same level of protection as the operating
system volume.
BitLocker requires the use of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) device or physical key to
access information encrypted by BitLocker. You can also require a personal identification
number (PIN) in addition to the TPM device or physical key.
The keys for BitLocker can also be archived in AD DS, which provide an extra level of
protection in the event the physical key is lost or the TPM device fails. This integration
between Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to protect sensitive
information without worrying about users losing their physical key.
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Prevention of Data Loss for Mobile Users
The Offline Files feature allows you to designate files and folders stored on network shared
folders for use even when the network shared folders are unavailable (offline). For example, a
mobile user disconnects a laptop computer from your intranet and works from a remote
location.
The Offline Files feature has the following operation modes:

Online mode. The user is working in online mode when they are connected to the server
and most file requests are sent to the server.

Offline mode. The user is working in offline mode when they are not connected to the
server and all file requests are satisfied from the Offline Files cache stored locally on the
computer.
In Windows Server 2008 RTM and Windows Vista, the Offline Files feature was configured for
online mode by default. In Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, the Offline Files feature
supports transitioning to offline mode when on a slow network by default. This helps reduce
the network traffic while connected to your intranet because the users are modifying locally
cached copies of the information stored in the Offline Files local cache. However, the
information stored in the Offline Files local cache is still protected from loss because the
information is synchronized with the network shared folder.
Summary
Microsoft Windows Server® 2008 R2 gives IT Professionals more control over their server
and network infrastructure, and provides an enterprise-class foundation for business
workloads. Microsoft enables organizations to deliver rich Web-based experiences efficiently
and effectively, by reducing the amount of effort required to administer and support your
Web-based applications. The powerful Virtualization technologies in Windows Server 2008
R2 enable you to increase your server consolidation ratios, while reducing the amount of
administrative effort required for managing the infrastructure. Through increased
automation and improved remote administration, Windows Server 2008 R2 helps
organizations save money and time, by reducing travel expenses, decreasing energy
consumption, and automating repetitive IT tasks. When combined with Windows 7 client
operating system, the Virtual Desktop Infrastructure in Windows Server 2008 enables you to
provide your employees with anywhere access to corporate data and resources, while
helping to maintain the security of your enterprise systems.
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