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UP TI.. 6 WATTS
POWER OUTPUT
"HOT" SOLO... and as he dips low, then soars high, the
excitement mounts Capturing the realism of a thrilling musical experience
truly tests any high -quality audio amplifier you design. Meet the challenge
with ease by designing around the RCA -7027-A. Two of these "star
performers", in Class AB, push-pull service, for example, can deliver up
to 76 watts of audio power with only 2% distortion!
Structural features which make such performance possible include heavy
copper -core stem leads, low -thermal -resistance plate material, metal -base
sleeve, radiating fins on control grid, and double base -pin connections for
both control grid and screen grid.
So for high power and low distortion in your quality audio
-amplifier designs,
consider the RCA -7027-A. Check the data at right, then, for further
information, ask your RCA Field Representative or write RCA Commercial
Engineering, Section (; 9 I) I-: Harrison, New Jersey.
!
:
-7027-A beam power tube offers
new high -power capabilities in high RCA
quality audio amplifiers:
Design -Maximum Ratings:
Plate Volts
Grid -No. 2 Volts
Plate Dissipation (Watts)
Grid -No. 2 Input (Watts)
Typical Operation in Class AB:
Push-Pull Service:
Plate Volts
..._ _
Peak AF Grid -No.
to
Grid No.
Volts
Total Harmonic Distortion (%)
Max, -Sig. Power Output (Watts)
leak
RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA
Electron Tube Division
Harrison, N. J.
35
5
540
1
76
1
EAST:
__
2
76
FIELD OFF CES
744 Broad Street
Newark 2, New Jersey
HUmboldt 5-3900
1
eeili
600
500
MIDWEST:
Suite 1154, Merchandise Mort Plaza,
Chicago 54, Illinois
WHitehall 4-2900
WEST: 6355 E. Washington Blvd.
Los Angeles 22, Calif.
RAymond 3-lä-361
THE
i
BRITISH
INDUSTRIES
eil,E
What snakes
Garrard Record Players the
finest in the world?
One could say it is the patient attention to
detail so apparent in any Garrard design ...or,
the painstaking quality control techniques
followed in the manufacture of all Garrard
products ...but, an equally significant factor
would be the matter of Garrard service and
spare parts!
Like all other record players, Garrard models
are mechanical devices, ultimately requiring
some form of service or adjustment. But,
unlike all other record players...a Garrard
lasts longer before needing service... and
GIJVa...exia.41
is.c.m.c-r
.A1 v _r
a"138`3;1.5C_&1 e^11'.wl_S'1SJsY
when the time comes, Garrard owners are
taken care of magnificently. There is a
nationwide network of authorized spare parts
and service stations ready to serve at all times.
Moreover, an all-inclusive storehouse of
Garrard parts covering all models is rigorously maintained. Never has a Garrard owner
failed to realize continued satisfaction from
the Garrard player he purchased. Proof of
this is contained in the files of our Service
Department ...a department with its own
reputation in direct parallel to that of the
Garrard product.
We are pleased to reproduce here excerpts
from a few of the unsolicited letters sent to
us...
sss
"Last Monday I telephoned your office to request
a selector arm extension cap to replace the one
had become displaced or lost on my
Garrard changer. It arrived in the mail this morning, and to my additional pleasure, I see that you
have supplied it without charge. This letter is to
let you know how much I appreciate your sending it along so promptly. Such responsible servicing is unusual nowadays, and all the more satisfying when encountered. With Sincere Thanks."
W.N.J., New York
which
sss
"/
sincerely at a loss for words in thanking
you for the work and parts put into my Garrard
changer #98 (purchased three years ago) sent in
for examination. You have just inherited a living,
breathing, walking testimonial and goodwill ambassador... for life."
anz
sss
E.J.B., Chicago
"Please accept my belated, but most sincere
thanks for sending me a replacement for my
speed control on my Garrard RC -98. This was a
most unexpected pleasure. It shows that when one
buys the best that one also gets better than best
service. The Garrard player now works perfectly,
thanks to you...and I love it."
K.F.B., Severna Pk., Md.
sss
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
"I
have received and installed the Garrard RC -80
motor and Irish to report that it is in fine working condition. it is very rare nowadays that one
finds a company such as yours that is willing to
stand behind their product to the extent that you
have and when one does, I Hurst express sincere
appreciation. When my friends discuss high fidelity equipment and the various components, I
shall remember the fine treatment and personal
service that the Garrard Sales Corporation has
given me. Thanks again, not only for a fine product but for an equally fine company."
R.D.E., Ann Arbor, Mich.
***
"lt is a pleasure to do business with a firm such
as yours that is ready to stand back of any service
needs, and we would certainly recommend
Garrard to anyone assembling their own record
playing equipment."
W.E.C., Oak Park, Ill.
***
"Your organization is to be highly complimented
for the ,manner in which you handled my problem, and you can rest assured Garrard products
are tops as far as I an concerned and in my
discussions with !hi-fi users."
***
F.P., Anderson, Ind.
..The RC -80 turntable you shipped out to me
transcription table.... Before
closing may I add that you, your service and
will
Garrard
always remain high in my estimais almost as true as a
tion. Thanking you again."
***
A.S., Brooklyn, N. Y.
"We wish to express our appreciation of the
prompt and very satisfactory service given to us
by Garrard in repairing and returning our record
player."
H.L.H., Camp Hill, Pa.
***
"This letter is in regard to all of our correspondence. I should like to express my appreciation for
the service which you gave me and your cooperation in this matter. It has been a pleasure doing
business with your company."
F.A.O., Galesburg, ill.
*5*
"...May I thank you again for your personal
attention to this matter and for your extra kindness in
invoicing the material rather than holding
up delivery to
rte."
*5*
C.W., Brooklyn, N.Y.
..I should like you to know that 1 an grateful
to you for your kindness. When the opportunity
arises you may he assured that 1 shall always have
a praiseworthy word to say on behalf of
GARRARD."
R.S.V., Brockville, Ontario
*5*
../ am very happy with your handling of this
matter, and 1 shall not hesitate to recommend
your company to any of my friends who want a
reliable concern."
*5*
D.H., Yoder, Ind.
..1 wish to express nny sincere appreciation for
your kind and prompt response in my behalf.
Your effort to maintain good customer relationship will certainly he ,made known to all of my
many audiophile friends."
V.R.M., San Rafael. Calif.
***
"1 am completely satisfied as to your handling
of this matter. Just last week (as a result of my
own treatment) I persuaded a fellow officer to
purchase your RC -98. I plan a similar purchase
in June. i remain 'a hearty endorser of
GARRARD'."
Lt. W.B.R., APO, New York, N. Y.
It may interest, you to know that almost all
of the units referred to in the letters are three
or more years old. As a matter of fact, the
Garrard Service Department often handles
models that have seen as much as two decades of play. For example, the aristocratic
RC30's and RC65's of the 78 rpm days. still
in daily use, are brought in for checkups and
adjustment from time to time. Convenient
service and replacement of parts is. of course.
the guarantee of continued satisfaction with
any fine mechanism, and Garrard record players hold their pre-eminent position through
the finest service facilities and spare parts
stocks in the high fidelity industry... the facilities of British Industries Corporation.
For your free
Garrard Comparator Guide
:,,o
-
Address Dept. GG 19
GARRARD SALES
CORPORATION,
Port Washington,
N.
Y.
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
VOL. 43, No.
7
Discover for yourself why Sherwood
is the most honored line of high fidelity components in the field. Sherwood
Tuners (the first ever to achieve sensitivity under 0.95 microvolts) feature:
Inter -Channel Hush, a noise muting
system which makes FM tuning easier
than ever
FM Multiplex Output
Automatic
"Feather -Ray" Tuning Eye
Flywheel Tuning.
Frequency Control
Combine these tuners with either of
Sherwood's "mated" stereo amplifier
Successor to RADIO, Est. 1917.
AUDIO
ENGINEERING
MUSIC
choices; 20+20 watts or 36+36
SOUND REPRODUCTION
watts. And only Sherwood offers all
these features: Single/Dual Bass &
Mid-Range Presence
Treble Controls
Rise
Stereo-Mono Function Indicator
Lights
Phase -Reverse Switch
Damping Factor selection. Sherwood
also offers either 36 or 60 watt monaural amplifiers, FM Multiplex Adapters
and a complete decorator -styled line of
cabinetry and 3 -way speaker systemsThe Finest in High Fidelity. Sherwood
Electronic Laboratories, Inc., 4300 N.
California Avenue, Chicago 18, Illinois.
C. G. McProud, Editor and Publisher
Henry A. Schober, Business Manager
Harrie K. Richardson, Associate Editor
Linda Sueskind, Assistant Editor
Janet M. Durgin, Production Manager
Edgar E. Newman, Circulation Director
Sanford L. Cahn, Advertising Director
Midwest Representative-
MEMBER
0
.1111/1111 01
MA
Model S-5000. 20
and Associates
161 East Grand Ave., Chicago 11, Ill.
W. A. Cook
.,
G
+
20W Stereo Dual
Await
West Coast RepresentativeJames C. Galloway
6535 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 48, Calif.
-4
INC -
Model S-3000 H, FM Tuner -5105.50
......._......
CONTENTS
s
Audioclinic-Joseph Giorrn,r 110
New Literature
2
36W Amp.
Model 1-4400, Stereo
4
Letters
Audio
Amplifier --$189.50
1111
6
ETC-Edward Tatnall
Ca id,
Editor's Report
FM -Band Reception in Fringe-Areas-W. N. Coffey
A Continuously Variable Stereo Dimension Control-Peter A. Stark
Audio Oscillator Circuits, Old and New-Norman H. Crowhurst
Radio Interference in Audio Equipment-John C. Rice
Loudspeaker Distortion Due to the Doppler Effect-Virginia Rettinger
Tape Guide-What Kind of Record -Level Indicator?-Herman Burstein
Equipment Profile-Ampex Model 960 recorder, Model 2010 amplifier speaker,
#880 stereo microphone kit, #881 stereo headphone kit; Precise Mark
XXIV stereo amplifier; LESA record changer
Record Revue-Edward Tatnall Canby
Jazz and All That-Charles A. Robertson
New Products
About Music-Harold Lawrence
Industry Notes & People
Advertising Index
10
16
19
22
Model S-2000
ll. IM -AM
Tuner -5145 50
ellE111111111111111111fe
23
27
28
Model S-100013, 36W Monaural Amplifier -5109 50
only for those who want the ultimate:
30
40
48
STEREO
52
56
60
65
66
COVER PHOTO: Convenience and flexibility are offered by the cabinet arrangement in
an installation by Kierulff Sound Corporation, Los Angeles. The three Bryson cabinet
sections may be rearranged as desired. As shown, the first section houses the loudspeaker system; second section houses amplifier, tuner, and records; third section
accommodates Garrard changer and more records. This installation is in the home of
Mr. and Mrs. Steve Buseley.
(title registered U. S. Pat. Off.) is published monthly by Radio Magazines, Inc., Henry A. Schober, President;
O. McProud, Secretary. Executive and Editorial O®ces, 204 Front St., Mineola, N. Y. Subscription rates-U. S.
Poeaesione, Canada and Mexico, $4.00 for one year, $7.00 for two years, all other countries, $5.00 per year. Single
copies 500. Printed in U.S.A. at Lancaster, Pa. All rights reserved. Entire contents copyrighted 1959 by Radio Magazines.
Inc. Entered
Second Class Matter February 9, 1950 at the Post Office, Lancaster, Pa. under the act of March 3, 1879.
AUDIO
C.
u
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC., P. O. Box 629, MINEOLA, N. Y.
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to AUDIO, P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
AUDIO
JULY, 1959
For complete technical details write Dept.
Ai.
1
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
GRADO
AUDIOCLI N IC??
JOSEPH
GIOVANELLI'
For Your Information Again
Earlier readers of
...
takes pride in announcing
a new Custom Series Stereo
Cartridge. The Grado "Custom" was designed for the
selective audiophile who desires excellent reproduction
at a moderate cost. With its
excellent tracking ability and
extremely low distortion, the
new Custom Stereo Cartridge
becomes a perfect companion to the widely acclaimed
Grado "Master" Stereo Cartridge. Because of small moving masses and low tracking
forces, stylus wear is virtually
nonexistent. Grado Laboratories now guarantees all of
the stereo diamond stylii for
a period of 5 years from date
of manufacture.
A greatly improved Grado
Tone Arm is now available. It
is dynamically balanced and
features a new micrometer
tracking force adjustment.
Stylus force accuracy of
tenths of grams may now be
achieved with complete simplicity. Also new is a stainless
steel arm rest lock. All present
Grado Tone Arms can be
Master Stereo Cartridge
$49.50
Custom Stereo Cartridge
$32.50
Micrometer Stereo Tone Arm $29.95
.
.
.
.
For further details write to:
GRADO LABORATORIES,
4614 7th Avenue
INC.
Brooklyn 20, New York
Export-Simontrice, 25 Warren St., N.Y.
Amplifier Ground Systems
Q. For stereo I wish to construct two
identical power amplifiers on one chassis.
I use a bus bar for the ground lead in all
units I build, and ground it on the chassis
at one point only. If I use one bus bar as
a common ground for both units, would
that be a hum hazard when this one -point
chassis ground is used? Would it be better
to use a bus bar for each unit and ground
them both at one common chassis point?
A. In regard to the use of bus bars, I
recommend that you use two separate
ground systems-one for each stereo unit.
As a matter of fact, you can do a cleaner
job by not using a bus bar system at all.
It would be advisable to ground the wire
to one point on the chassis, but rather than
run it in the form of a bus, use insulated
wire and run it along the chassis. Ground
points may then be brought from this wire
and connected to insulated tie lugs-which,
in turn, can be mounted in the proper
location with respect to the circuit elements.
modified.
.
have read
these words before. Because of our many
new readers, however, a restatement of
these ideas seems in order.
It is the policy of AUDIOCLINIC that all
letters to this column should receive individual answers regardless of the suitability
of the material for inclusion in the column
itself. Because of the increasing volume of
this correspondence, a quick response is not
always possible. Please be patient; an
answer will come unless, as sometimes happens, no reply is possible because of incorrect address, handwriting which cannot
be read, and so on.
Enclosure of a stamped, self-addressed
envelope will facilitate answering. Please
address all mail directly to the writer at
the address below instead of to AUDIO.
The following questions were submitted
by Mr. D. M. Anglin, Seattle, Washington.
AUDIOCLINIC
C.
Automatic Loudness Control
Q. Would an automatic loudness control
be of value in either a stereophonic or a
monophonic system?
A. I do not recommend automatic loudness controls. At a live concert, the listener
has no means of automatic loudness compensation with changes in musical dynamics. Therefore, when such a device is
introduced into a home music system, the
results are artificial. This is true regardless
of whether the material being listened to
is monophonic or stereophonic.
Ganged Potentiometers
ganged volume control be used
successfully with a preamplifier whose
balance is adjusted by means of the power
amplifier's volume controls? May the bass
and treble controls be ganged or should
Q. Can a
*
3420 Newkirk Ave., Brooklyn 3, N. Y.
2
they be separate? Is there really so much
difference in the bass and treble channels
that a ganged control will fail to adjust it?
A. Commercially available ganged controls rarely track properly. This means that
the change of resistance in one section of
ganged potentiometer with a given amount
of shaft rotation will not be equal to the
change of resistance of the other section
of the potentiometer with the same amount
of rotation. This holds for volume as well
as tone -control circuits. It is the reason
why Marantz and others have resorted to
the use of ganged step switches in their
equipment. Ampex uses potentiometers
fitted with taps from which resistors are
shunted to ground. These cause the potentiometer to track more uniformly. Therefore, if you wish to gang your tone controls, bear in mind that some compensation
for tracking error may be required.
An added disadvantage of ganged
volume controls stems from an inability to
balance the two stereo channels with each
other. A balance which is correct for ono
stereo tape or disc may not be correct for
the next one played. I therefore recommend
the use of either separate volume controls
or a special balance control. An interesting
balance circuit can be found in AUDIO CLINIC
for June, 1959.
45-45 Stereo
Q. Since the vertical channel seems to
have less frequency response than does the
horizontal channel, I am using my 12 -inch
speaker and a tweeter for that channel and
my 15 -inch woofer and a tweeter for the
other. Will I be able to get some sort of
match with that combination?
A. Stereo discs are recorded with each
channel 45 degrees from a horizontal line
or, to put it another way, at 45 degrees
from a vertical line. Therefore, each channel is identical, rather than one being
vertically oriented and the other horizontally oriented. Since the two channels
are identical, their frequency responses are
identical. For this reason, you need no
more frequency correction for one channel
than you do for the other. Hence, your
speakers should be matched as closely as
possible. Your tone controls should be set
to the same equalization point. The degree
to which the sound in each channel can be
matched depends partly upon the similarity
of the speakers. For instance, when the two
speakers are manufactured by the same
firm there is often a family resemblance in
their sound qualities regardless of their
variation of operating parameters. When
the speakers are dissimilar, sometimes a
fair match may be achieved by varying the
equalization of one channel or the other.
3 -Pin Stereo
Cartridge
Would a two -conductor shielded cable
be useful when used with a 3-pin stereo
Q.
cartridge?
A. When using stereo cartridges employing three terminals, it is common practice to employ two -conductor shielded
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
Cartridge
in
GARRARD SHELL
"Complaints from Garrard
Users? Practically Zero!"
"Nothing Short of Superb,"
says Raymond E. Ward,
Dstributor-Sales Mgr., Shure Brothers, Inc.
"That's our unanimous verdict on the results we have
says Joseph Pickert,
Mgr., Service Dept., Shure Brothers, Inc.
had with the Garrards used for laboratory testing of
our new Stereo Dynetic Cartridges. Because we
can rely on Garrard's precision construction and
consistently accurate performance, we have been able
to concentrate fully on developing the exceptional scund
reprocuction Garrard and Shure users expect ...and get. Now,
our sales records show that more of our new cartridges are
being installed in Garrard Record Changers than in any other
changsr or turntable. This is only natural, because they
work so well together."
"That's right! Garrard owners who install the new
Shure Stereo Dynetic Cartridge get such perfect sound
reproduction that we rarely get a complaint. The exact
fit of the cartridge in the Garrard shell, the precision mounting
of the tone arm, the controlled arm action and tracking at
the lightest specified weight mean longer life for cartridge
and records...along with the finest audio for
stereo and monaural."
What Mr. Ward and Mr. Pickert say about the Garrard Changer-for stereo-is typical of its
universal acceptance by component manufacturers and high fidelity enthusiasts.
In fact, more Garrard Changers are sold today as components for stereo-than all other turntables
That's why-before you buy-you should see and hear stereo records
and
played on a Garrard Changer such as the incomparable RCS.
For the best in Stereo...
Insist on a
The same reasons why Garrard Changers perform so well
wish Shure Dynetic Stereo Cartridges account for Garrard's
popularity with all other manufacturers of fine stereo
cartridges--Electro-Voice, Fairchild, General Electric,
Pickering, etc.
ration -free turntable.
Vertical and lateral rumble completely inaudible. Wow
and flutter far below exacting "broadcast tolerance" stcndards.
Exclusive Aluminum tone arm precision -mounted at
engineering works for optimum tracking angle, perfect sound
reproduction.
Unrestricted choice of stereo cartridges-any of them will
tra_k at the manufacturer's lightest specified weight.
Record handling gentler than the surest human hand.
The important convenience of manual play plus completely
automatic operation without compromise in performance..
These are the FACTS, no one can deny them with authorityand they are backed by the 36 years of experience that have
V it
CHANGER
THE WORLD'S FINEST!
Send
Your
for free
Address
created Garrard's unique reputation for unsurpassed quality.
Stale
City
Moil
re's a
Garr.
Garrord Comparator Guide.
Nome
to
Dept. GG -19 0t address
TPA/12
JHr
a01
h
Stereo
TranacrlGtion
Manual Piay,r
s[riDtiun
trrntaele
Tone arm
$59.50
$89.00
Division of British Industries Corporation,
Canodion inquiries tc Chu,. W. Poinlon, Ltd.,
Territories other thon U.S.A.
and Canada
\
naural records.
idel
GARRARD SALES CORPORATION,
below.
to
6
PORT WASHINGTON,
Alcino Ave., Toronto
Garrard Engineering & Nfg. Co., Ltd., Swindon, Wills., England
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
\7E
N. Y.
Manual
Ptayer
Tr6
cable with the shield serving as ground
for both channels. It would be better,
however, to use three -conductor shielded
wire with one of the conductors serving
as ground for both channels with the
shield grounded only at one preamplifier
input. However, if this cable is too thick,
the freedom of the tone arm to move will
be impaired with a consequent increase in
distortion and possible damage to dises.
About Transformers
Q. 1. In power transformer specifications does the phrase, "50 volts CT" mean
50 volts across the outside connections of
that particular winding and 25 volts from
centertap to either of the outside windings?
2. When the impedance of the primary
of a coupling transformer is 100 ohms CT,
does this mean 100 ohms across the complete winding or 100 ohms on either side of
the centertap?
3. What is meant by the term given in
coupling transformer specifications: "maximum unbalanced d.c. ma in the primary?"
F. C. F., Aberdeen, Md.
A. 1. When a power transformer is
rated as being 50 volts centertapped, it
means that this transformer gives 25 v.
each side of center, and the full 50 volts
appear across the winding.
2. The same situation holds for the primary impedance of a coupling transformer.
If this impedance is 100 ohms centertapped, 25 ohms will appear between each end
of the winding and its eentertap. You
might at first suspect that this impedance
is 50 ohms each side of center, but this is
risky?
Not for the lion. And the wrong P.A.
speaker can swallow your profits just
as fast. But you take no risks with
University, because you can choose
the one right speaker for the job. The
world's most comprehensive lion of
P.A. speakers is described in University's new product catalog. It's FREE.
Also, invest $1 in the all -new 64 -page
University Technilog, the authoritative reference book for planning P.A.
speaker installations. See your local
distributor, or write Desk R-3,
University Loudspeakers, Inc., 80 So.
Kensico Avenue, White Plains, N. Y.
eitewie
THE WORLD'S MOST COMPLETE LINE
RADIAL
HIGH FIDELITY WEATHERPROOF
PAGING
WIDE-ANGLE
SUPER -POWER
SUBMERGENCE -PROOF
DIRECTIONAL EXPLOSION -PROOF TALK -BACK
not the ease, because the impedance is equal
to the square of the turns. This means that
when the number of turns is doubled
(which is the case of the complete winding
in relation to one end of it and the center tap) the impedance goes up by a factor of
4.
3. The unbalanced current in the primary or secondary of a coupling transformer refers to the maximum d.c. which is
passed through the winding of a single ended circuit without saturating the iron
core magnetically. The balanced current is
always higher than the unbalanced current
because the current in a push-pull circuit
is oppositely polarized in each half of the
winding. This cancels the magnetizing
force to a considerable extent, allowing a
higher current to be passed through the
transformer winding without undesirable
saturation.
Erratum
The March, 1959 installment of this
column contains a discussion of loudspeaker
efficiency in which it is stated that the
efficiency of any device is equal to the
power fed into it divided by its power
yield. One of our readers pointed out that
this word formula should read the other
way around: Efficiency is equal to the
power yield of a device divided by the
power fed into it. He's quite correct, and
we thank him for his observation. If there
are others among you who wish to comment
-good or bad-we will be sincerely interested in hearing from you. J.G.
NEW LITERATURE
Jensen Manufacturing Company, 6601 S.
Laramie Ave., Chicago 38, Ill., will mail
Brochure KK, an illustrated sheet covering the new DF-1 Duette speaker system,
without cost or obligation. This latest
Duette model is an economically priced
full two-way system featuring wide frequency range with clean bass response
down to 36 cps. It is well illustrated and
thoroughly described in the brochure. G-1
Unimaa Switch Division, The W. L.
Maxson Corporation, Ives Road, Wallingford, Conn., introduces an extensive line
of subminiature switches which meet
Military Specifications for a wide variety
of rigorous services in Catalog No. 159.
Convenient pictorial index shows where
to find dimensional drawings, descriptions, force and movement specification
tables, and electrical ratings for each
Unimax switch listed. Data on bases, terminals, circuit arrangements and NEMA
standard definitions of sensitive switch
terms are also included. Requests for
copies should be directed to the attention
of Mr. J. Martinez.
G-2
Atlas Sound Corporation, 1449 39th St.,
Brooklyn 18, N. Y., illustrates and describes its complete line of commercial
sound equipment in a 16 -page two-color
catalog which is now available. The catalog also commemorates the company's
twenty-fifth anniversary as an industry
leader in its field. Included in the publication are explanatory technical diagrams
and full specifications on all Atlas loudspeakers, transformers, driver units, and
speaker and microphone mounting accessories. Among new models introduced for
the first time this year is a Decor speaker
for attractive interior installation. Catalog No. 559 may be obtained without cost
by writing to the address shown above.
G-3
4
Lippe, Inc., a division of Lipps Engineering, 1513 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica,
Calif., announces the publication and
availability of a 4 -page brochure describing a new replacement and repair service
now available to owners and users of
Ampex professional and instrumentation
recording equipment. Requests for copies
should specify Bulletin AM -22.
G-4
Electro-Voice, Inc., Buchanan, Mich., is
now releasing Bulletin 258A, a new sales
folder describing the E -V line of publicaddress equipment. This publication gives
full information on compound diffraction
projectors, paging units, outdoor speaker
systems, accessories, and microphones. A
copy of Bulletin 258A will be mailed upon
written request.
G-5
Telectrosonic Corporation, 35-16 37th
St., Long Island City 1, N.Y., describes
and illustrates its new line of tape recorders in a 12 -page consumer brochure
which has just been published. The booklet is divided into two sections, the first
of which is devoted to the enjoyment and
advantages found In tape recording. Section Two is concerned with the five consumer models now made by Telectro. The
brochure is amply illustrated with photographs and descriptive line drawings
showing the units and the operation of
their various features. Available free upon
written request.
G-6
The Tape Recorder Club, 73 Grand
Parade, Harringway, London, N.4, England, has published the latest issue of its
Club Bulletin. A large number of the
Club's members are "very keen to make
contact with American tape recorder owners," and with this thought in mind D. V.
Lane, Principal, has asked that we bring
the matter to the attention of our readers. Letters of inquiry should be addressed to Mr. Lane at the address shown
above.
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
the all -new
VR -22
stereo
cartridge.
.5 mil diamond stylus. For professional -type tone arms, $27.95.
VR -225
VR -227
.7 mil diamond stylus. For
record changer or turntable, $24.95.
Now, outstanding in all four critical areas of stereo cartridge
performance--Compliance-Tracks
precisely, not a trace of stiffness. Channel Separation-Up to 30 db for maximum stereo effect.
Nothing higher on the market! Response-Smooth and flat for superior sound from 20 to 20,000
cycles (VR -225), 20 to 11,000 cycles (VR -227). Virtually hum-free-triple shielded against stray
currents. This is our masterpiece. We urge you to hear it.
GENERAL
ELECTRIC
Audio Components Section, Auburn, N. Y.
AUDIO
JULY, 1959
5
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
LETTERS
for less work and more play
GET THE TURNTABLE
Stereo Thoughts and Queries
SIR:
THAT CHANGES RECORDS!
Herewith a few long -repressed notes on
a variety of topics, mostly stereophonic.
1. I won't buy compatibility with AM -
FM stereo as an argument for left -right
FM stereo because I won't buy AM -FM
stereo at all. If one of your earlier letter
writers has problems, as mentioned in last
December's issue, I have several. Of an
even dozen "good music" or educational
FM stations I listen to with fair regularity, no less than five schedule AM -FM
stereo. Not one of the corresponding AM
stations is receivable with usable quality
on good equipment in this area. Pure frus-
MIRACORD XS -200
No turntable and no record player,
in the history of high fidelity, gives
you more quality and more features
than the famous MIRACORD XS -200!
heavyweight, professional -type turntable-and a fully -automatic changer!
plays both stereo and monophonic!
push-button controlled throughout!
Magic Wand spindles eliminate
pusher platforms and stabilizing
arms!
intermixes 10" and 12"; plays all
4 speeds; has a 4 -pole motor!
even as a turntable it shuts off
automatically when record is
finished and tone arm returns to
rest position.
-yet it costs only $675Oaudiophile net
STEREOTWIN 200
the stereo cartridge that
ELIMINATES HUM!
STEREOTWIN is
the perfect magnetic
hi-fi cartridge for stereo and monaural! It fits all record changers and
standard tone arms. And thanks to
special construction and MuMetal
shielding, it eliminates hum! Instant
stylus replacement, too.
NOW
e
$4450 audiophile net
W
FAR
AHEAD)THE FINEST
BY FAR
Available at selected dealers.
Far Free ,atalopse, please write Dept. A
AUDIOGERSH CORP.
514 Broadway, New York 12, N.Y.
WORTH
6-0800
tration.
2. WJBR in Wilmington, Del., carried
experimental Crosby -system stereo for
several months. I have heard them regularly
for about two months on a home-grown
adapter (courtesy of a couple of your
articles). Quality, both monophonically and
stereophonically, has been excellent.
3. Some time ago, WASH in Washington, D. C., began experimental multiplex
stereo broadcasts, with the right channel
on 67 kc. They have also done AM -FM of
the same programming with WDON (AM)
of Wheaton, Md., which I can't receive.
The broadband adapter gets only noise for
them yet, but appropriate modifications are
planned.
4. On the basis of lots of forced listening to only one side of stereo transmissions,
I must admit that to this one set of ears
one -channel -only does not sound bad. However, where both have been available, the
mixture of the two channels has been found
far preferable to either one alone for
monophonic listening.
5. I have some slight qualms about the
action of the "Dimension" control on the
Crosby -system adapters. S ± D undoubtedly
gives 2L + 2R and S +1/2D would appear
to give 11/2L ± 1/2R and 11/2R + 1/2L, which
would be expected to give "reduced separation," as would the use of a "blend" control. I'm not too clear on the effect of
adding too much difference channel, i.e.,
S ±2D to give 3L -R and 3R - L. (See
page 22, however. En.) Without taking a
stand on the mechanism of stereo orientation, it would seem that information corresponding to increased mike spacing would
be missing. The relative intensities of
various voices in the two channels are the
same for S+2D as for S+1/2D, (3 to 1),
but with a phase reversal of the off -channel component. The simple phase reversal
is not equivalent to the complex frequency -dependent phase shifts that would
result from increasing mike spacing. There
might be some sense of increased speaker
separation due to essentially out -of -phase
signals, a partial case of the last word in
augmented separation schemes, deliberately throwing the speakers out of phase.
One expert, (ETC, November, 1958) has
branded this approach as musically false.
Also, it would seem that in -phase components in the L + R channels would be partially cancelled, tending to cause a loss of
low -frequency content. Am I missing a
point?
6. Along the same line, what happens
when a signal from a stereo cartridge
connected out of phase to allow use of a
"Two-Way Stereophonic Amplifier" (October, 1958) is fed into a control unit with
"blend" control? (Guess you don't have to
use it.) (Or an argument for four -pin
cartridges-flexibility at the expense of
simplicity.)
7. When taping multiplex signals off the
air, it pays to be sure the subcarrier gets
well -filtered out before the end of the recording amplifier. If treble pre -emphasis
doesn't cause overloading, the subcarrier
may probably beat with the bias frequency.
J.
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
DYKSTRA,
Plater St.,
Aberdeen, Md.
(Mr. Dykstra's letter indicates that he does
some serious thinking on this subject. Perhaps some other equally or ± serious thinker
can exchange ideas with him-preferably
through this column for the edification of
all our readers. Actually, the reason for
the engineering tests of the various stereo
broadcasting systems is to determine how
they work out in practice, which is not
always in accordance with how they work
on paper. We are interested in other comments on the various stereo broadcasting
systems. ED.)
We Never Expected This
Sm:
My husband renewed his subscription for
two years through your representative at
the Los Angeles High Fidelity Show in
February.
May I take this opportunity to express
our enjoyment of your excellent magazine?
Yes-I, too, enjoy AUDIO though I am not
a member of the engineering profession. I
find it helps me understand the many projects my husband undertakes with his audio
equipment. Your magazine has been of
truly inestimable value to him.
JANE M. HALL,
(Mrs. Donald Q. Hall)
438 S. Falson St.,
Anaheim, California
(Gentlemen: We submit that this is the
kind of a wife a man should have-one
who will read a technical magazine so she
can understand her husband's hobby better.
We take our hat off to her. En.)
"Isn't it wonderful! Sounds just like our
hi-fi set".
AUDIO
6
DAVID
677
JULY, 1959
HEATHKIT
style
performance
quality
STEREO EQUIPMENT CABINET KIT
co31d
MODEL SE -1 (center unit)
yet
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MODEL SC -1 (speaker enclosure)
Shpg. Wt. 42 lbs.
$3995 each
Superbly designed cabinetry to house your complete stereo system.
Delivered with pre-cut panels to fit Heathkit AM -FM tuner (PT -1),
stereo preamplifier (SP-I & 2) and record changer (RP -3). Blank
panels also supplied to cut out for any other equipment you may now
own. Adequate space also provided for tape deck, speakers, record
storage and amplifiers. Speaker wings will hold Heathkit SS -2 or
other speaker units Df similar size. Available in unfinished birch or
nahogany plywood.
MONAURAL -STEREO PREAMPLIFIER
KIT (Two Channel Mixer)
World's largest manufacturer of
electronic instruments in kit form
MODEL SP -2 (stereo) $56.95 Shpg. Wt. 15 lbs.
MODELSP-1 (monaural) $37.95Shpg. Wt,131bs.
MODEL C -SP -1 (converts SP -1 to SP -2) $21.95
Shpg Wt. 5 lbs.
HEATH
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Special "building block" design allows you to
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switch on the SP-2 provides two channel mixing.
A 20' remote balance control is provided.
HIGH FIDELITY
RECORD CHANGER KIT
MODEL RP -3
PROFESSIONAL STEREO -MONAURAL
AM -FM TUNER KIT
$8995
MODEL PT -1
The 10 -tube FM circuit features AFC (automatic
frequency control) as well as AGC. An accurate
tuning meter operates on both AM and FM while
a 3-position switch selects meter functions without
disturbing stereo or monaural listening. Individual flywheel tuning on both AM and FM. FM
sensitivity is three microvolts for 30 db of quieting.
The 3-;ube FM front end is prewired and pre aligned, and the entire AM circuit is on one printed
circuit board for ease of construction. Shpg. Wt.
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AUDIO
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Turntable quality with fully automatic
features! A unique "turntable pause" allows
record to fall gently into place while turntable is stopped. The tone
atm engages the motionless record, and a friction clutch assures
snooth start. Automatic speed selector plays mixed 333i and 45
RPM records regardless of sequence. Four speeds available: 16, 33';3,
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gauge and 45 RPM spindle. Shpg. Wt. 19 lbs.
"EXTRA PERFORMANCE" 55
WATT HI -Fl AMPLIFIER KIT
A real work horse packed with top quality
features, this hi-fi amplifier represents a
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damping is a true 55 watts from 20 CPS
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distortion throughout the entire range.
Featuring famous "bas -bal" circuit, pushpull EL34 tubes and new modern styling.
Shpg. Wt. 28 lbs.
JULY, 1959
MODEL W7 -M
$5495
7
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
HIGH FIDELITY AM TUNER KIT
MODEL BC -1A
Designed especially for high fidelity applications
this AM tuner will give you reception close to
FM. A special detector is incorporated and the
IF circuits are "broadbanded" for low signal
distortion. Sensitivity and selectivity are excellent
and quiet performance is assured by a high
signal-to-noise ratio. All tunable components
are prealigned before shipment. Your "best buy"
in an AM tuner. Shpg. Wt. 9 lbs.
$2695
NOTE THESE OUTSTANDING SPECIFICATIONS: HARMONIC
DISTORTION, less than 2% (20 cps -20 kc) at 14 watts. I.M. DISTORTION,
less than 1% (60 and 6,000 cps, 4:1) at 14 watts. FREQUENCY RESPONSE,
cps -20 kc,
db at 14 watts. HUM & NOISE, mag. phono input, 47 db
below 14 watts, tuner and xtal phono input, 63 db below 14 watts. A truly
remarkable buy for the beginning or advanced audiophile.
t1
20
14
-WATT HI-FI ECONOMY AMPLIFIER
MODEL EA -3
$2995
...
New
From HEATHKIT audio labs comes an exciting new kit
Styling, New Features, Brilliant Performance! Designed to function
as the "heart" of your hi-fi system, the EA -3 combines the preamplifier and amplifier into one compact package. Providing a full
14 watts of high fidelity power, more than adequate for operating the
average system, the EA -3 provides all the controls necessary for
precise blending of musical reproduction to your individual taste.
Clearly marked controls give you finger-tip command of bass and
treble "boost" and "cut" action, switch selection of three separate
inputs, "on -off" and volume control. A hum balance control is also
provided. The convenient neon pilot light on the front panel shows
when instrument is on. Styled to blend harmoniously into any room
surroundings, the handsome cover is of black vinyl coated steel with
gold design and features the new "eyebrow" effect over the front panel
to match the other new Heathkit hi-fi instruments. The panel is satin
black with brush -gold trim strip, while the control knobs are black
with gold inserts. Shpg. Wt. 15 lbs.
$1975
(Not Illustrated):
back with fast forward and rewind
functions. Shpg. Wt. 24 lbs.
HIGH FIDELITY FM TUNER KIT (FM -4)
The all new model FM -4 incorporates the latest
advancement in circuit design. Features include
better than 2.5 microvolt sensitivity for 20 db
of quieting, automatic frequency control (afc)
with defeat switch, flywheel tuning and prewired,
prealigned and pretested tuning unit. Prealigned
IF transformers and prewired tuning unit assure
easy assembly with no further need of alignment
after unit is completed. The five tube circuit features a generous power supply utilizing a silicon
diode rectifier. Shpg. Wt. 8 lbs.
MODEL UA -1
All the controls you need to master a complete high fidelity system
are incorporated in this versatile instrument. Features 5 switch selected inputs each with level control. Provides tape recorder and
cathode-follower outputs. Full frequency response is obtained within
± 11/2 db from 15 to 35,000 CPS and will do full justice to the finest
available program sources. Equalization is provided for LP, RIAA,
AES, and early 78 records. Shpg. Wt. 7 lbs.
MODEL TR -1A: Monophonic half-track record/play-
$3496
"UNIVERSAL" 12 WATT
AMPLIFIER KIT
"MASTER CONTROL" PREAMPLIFIER KIT
MODEL WA -P2
MODEL FM -4
$2195
Ideal for stereo or monaural applications, this
12 -watt power package features less than 2%
total harmonic distortion throughout the entire
audio range (20 to 20,000 CPS) at full I2 -watt
output. Use with preamplifier models WA -P2
or SP -I & 2. Taps for 4, 8 and.16 ohm speakers.
Shpg. Wt. 13 lbs.
NEW!
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MODEL TR -IAH: Half-track monophonic and stereo
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$1
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4995
NOW! TWO NEW STEREO -MONO TAPE
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Offering complete versatility, the model TR -1A series tape recorders
enable you to plan your hi-fi system to include the functions you want.
Buy the new half-track (TR-1AH) or quarter -track (TR -I AQ) versions
which record and playback stereo and monophonic programming,
or the half-track monophonic record -playback version (TR -IA).
Precision parts hold flutter and wow to less than 0.35'; Four -pole,
fan cooled motor. One control lever selects all tape handling functions.
Each tape preamplifier features NARTB playback equalization, separate record and playback gain controls, cathode follower output,
mike or line input, and two circuit boards for easy construction and
high stability. Complete instructions guide assembly.
Heathkit hi-fi systems are designed for maximum flexibility. Simple conversion from tetsic to complex systems
or from monaural to stereo l easily accomplished by
adding to already existing unrts. Heathkit engineering
skill is your guarantee againet obsolescence. Expand
and, if you like,
your hi-fi as your budget parings
spread the payments over easy monthly installments
with the Heath Time PaymentPlan.
.
...
AUDIO
8
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
CONTEMPORARY
CHAIRSIDE ENCLOSURE KIT
Model CE -1B Birch
Model CE -1M Mahogany
MODEL CE -1
No Woodworking Experience
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Parts Precut
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TRADITIONAL
Maximum Overall Dimensions:
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IT'S EASY
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"BASIC RANGE" HI-FI SPEAKER SYSTEM KIT
IT'S FUN
The modest cost of this basic speaker system makes it a spectacular buy for any
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woofer and a compression -type tweeter to
cover the frequency range of 50 to 12,000
CPS. Crossover circuit is built
in with balance control. Impedance is 16 ohms. Power rating 25 watts. Tweeter horn rotates so that the speaker may
be used in either an upright or
horizontal position. Cabinet is
made of veneer -surfaced furniture -grade plywood suitable
for light or dark finish. All wood
parts are precut and predrilled
for easy assembly. Shpg. Wt.
AND YOU SAVE UP TO
WITH DO-IT-YOURSELF HEATHKITS
Putting together your own Heathkit can be one of the mcst
exciting hobbies you ever enjoyed. Simple step-by-step instructions and large pictorial diagrams show you where
every part goes. You can't possibly go wrong. No previous
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$3995
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DIAMOND STYLUS HI-FI
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"RANGE EXTENDING" HI-FI
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The SS-IB employs a 15" woofer and super
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SS -2 speaker from 35 to 16,000 CPS ±5 db.
Crossover circuit is built in. Impedance is 16
ohms, power rating 35 watts. Constructed of
;/" veneer-surfaced plywood suitable for light
or dark finish. Shpg. Wt. 80 lbs.
$29995
COMPANY
pioneer in
"do-it-yourself'
Enclosed find 5
Please enclose postage
BENTON HARBOR 25, MICH.
bsidiary of Daystrom, Inc.
i
O Please send the Free Heathkit catalog.
electronics
for parcel post-express
orders are shipped delivery charges collect.
All prices F.O.B. Benton
Harbor, Mich. A 20% deposit is required on all
C.O.D. orders. Prices
subject to change without notice.
name
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Describing over 100 easy -to -build
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26 lbs.
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MODEL HH -1
The startling realism of sound reproduction by the Legato is achieved
through the use of two 15" Altec
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with high frequency driver. The special
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25 to 20,000 CPS within ± 5 db. Power
rating 50 watts. Cabinet is constructed
of 3/q" veneer-surfaced plywood in
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HEATH
$9995
3
LEGATO HI-FI SPEAKER SYSTEM KIT
MODEL MF-1 $21695
Replace your present pickup with the MF -1
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available today. Nominally flat response from
20 to 20,000 CPS. Shpg. Wt. 1 lb.
MODEL SS -1B
$4395 each
Control your complete home hi-fi system right from
your easy chair with this handsome chairside enclosure in either traditional or contemporary models. It is designed to house the Heathkit AM and
FM tuners (BC -1A and FM -3A) and the WA -P2
preamplifier, along with the RP-3 or majority of
record changers which will fit in the space provided.
Well ventilated space is provided in the rear of t he
enclosure for any of the Heathkit amplifiers designed to operate with the WA -P2. The tilt -out
shelf can be installed on either right or left side as
desired during the construction, and the lift -top
lid in front can also be reversed. All parts are precut and predrilled for easy assembly. The contemporary cabinet is available in either mahogany
or birch, and the traditional cabinet is available in
mahogany suitable for the finish of your choice.
All hardware supplied. Shpg. Wt. 46 lbs.
QUANTITY
ITEM
MODEL NO.
PRICE
matics.
AUDIO
9
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
U
I
I
award ratnall Canby
QUARTER -TRACK
1.
I'm still waiting. Waiting, that is, for
the RCA Victor tape cartridge, a year old
and not yet born. Here it is the first anniversary of my enthusiastic article on the
subject and it might seem, as of now, that
my direct alternative guess had come true
-"the RCA cartridge will pop onto the
market-in the middle of a sea of stereo
discs-fizzle awhile and die with a wet
plop."
It didn't
even get to fizzle; it hasn't had
the opportunity. "Maybe its coming was
timed unfortunately," I continued, and was
I right. It was timed so that if the stereo
disc succeeded, it wouldn't have a chance.
Last I heard, RCA was going to make a
big pronouncement on the cartridge during
May. Not a peep yet and May is departed.
Before that, it was to be out for the Xmas
rush, 1958. It wasn't. But, as mentioned
before, the spark of life is still aglow;
RCA engineers have been actively demon-
strating their cartridge right through this
spring in various hi-fi clubs, engineering
gatherings, and the like.
Nope, I don't expect the RCA cartridge
is dead yet, in spite of the 100 per cent
official silence, up to this writing. And I
still think it's good. Having read over my
remarks of last July (Atinso ETC) I find
them still convincing and don't feel inclined to take back a single word of the
basic argument.
Moreover, though the cartridge itself is
incommunicado these days, the technical
development in tape recording that made
it possible is very much alive-the quartertrack tape system, as it is now called.
Things aren't standing still at all in
quarter -track. Indeed, RCA aside, the developments have been quite fast and furious. To begin with, most of the 1959 home
tape recorders came out with provision included for playing quarter -track tapes, and
for recording the same, mono or even in
stereo. Though RCA got the cold shoulder,
the quarter -track system itself didn't.
Quarter -track recorded stereo tapes are
out, too, on ordinary reels.
The smaller quarter -track heads-the
main technical revolution involved-are
being used dual-purpose, to play the older
half-track tapes as well as their own kind,
via mechanical adjustments that are relatively clumsy but, for the time being, effective enough. In some situations, the
opposite is being promoted, i.e. the playing
of quarter -track recordings by existing
half-track heads-a poor idea since a halftrack head scans too much blank tape and
thereby produces an uncomfortable quantity of background hiss. (This from a
helpful correspondent who tried it. He also
says that one track plays at a lower level
than the other, making for more hiss in the
balancing.) Anyhow-the quarter -track
system has invaded the home machine field
in force and it's there to stay.
We've only seen the beginning. I feel
now, as I did a year ago, that we are in
for another complete revolution here and
I suspect that in a few years quarter -track
tape will entirely replace half-track for
home use, whether in an automatic magazine or on plain old fashioned reels or, perchance in some other arrangement still to
be launched.
Our present standard half-track tape,
along with its counterpart in two -track
stereo, will gradually become less and less
"standard", more and more secondary, like
the 78 record and the 3 -mil stylus. We'll
have both systems for quite awhile, and
maybe both magazine and plain reels in
one machine, later on-but the quarter track equipment will gradually take over
until, one fine day, there'll be a rash of new
home tape recorders that won't even play
half-track tapes at all. Not too far off.
I'm about to acquire a quarter -track
home recorder for experiment and expect
to report on it, for whatever interest it may
prove to have, later in the year. Meanwhile,
though, I'm off on a prophesying hingeand I haven't eren used a quarter -track
machine. But the signs and circumstances
are multiplying and I don't need to wait,
in order to see fundamental sense in time
new quarter -track standard, whether it is
via magazines or the thread -it -by -hand
system.
First, it obviously was not a public failure that held up the RCA quarter -track
stereo tape cartridge. The public never got
to try it, and few have ever heard it. A
few hi-fi demonstrations, here and there,
are hardly going to make or break such a
development. Clearly, something didn't pan
out as anticipated, and the only thing that
matters, as I see it, is that the change in
RCA plans should not be construed as affecting quarter -track tape's value, generally. Far from it..
Maybe RCA did hope to get its stereo
cartridge in ahead of the then -doubtful
stereo disc and so decided to launch the
two at once in 1958 (the press got it in
June, 1958), to cover any eventuality.
Maybe the tape machine makers did put a
crimp in the big plan by refusing to a man
to rush forth with magazine tape players
for 1959 (i.e., autumn, 1958). They declined (though they had the RCA specs
back in January of 1958) and instead came
out with the quarter -track heads, minus the
magazine. It hardly seems as if this is
what RCA had hoped for, to put it mildly.
In any case, all this is now water under the
bridge, tape past the capstan, and the tape
cartridge, as of This writing, enters its sec -
and year in the deep freeze. It can still be
of immense importance, just the same, and
with quarter -track itself gaining ground,
RCA's position is improving day by day.
Now howcome I'm so positive about all
this? I bared a good deal of my thinking
on the new system last July (look up your
back copy) but it seems a proper time
now, in the interim present, to point out
again wny quarter -track remains a good
bet.
The biggest reason is simply that it represents a basic improvement in tape quality-that is, in quality relative to the
amount of tape used. In this sense, quality
has been virtually doubled, and doubled
again, via the jump from two tracks to
four along with the reduction of tape speed
to 3% ips from 71/2. This change relates to
the similar change that occurred about five
years ago with Ampex's narrow -gap heads.
Yes, I know that right now there's a big
storm going on over the merits of 71/2 vs.
33/4 ips in quarter track, but I'll wait until
later for my own decision on that-the
subject is still too half-baked. I'm more
interested in the longer -range implications
of quarter track, both as to width of track
and speed.
Upward Revamping
What this amounts to, then, is another
revamping upward in the whole tape hierarchy of speeds and qualities, a sort of
slipping of a cog in the basic ratio, towards
better performance. I don't need to bother
with the technical details except to mention
the ultra -narrow -gap quarter -track head
that is the prime ingredient. (Better tape,
better transport mechanisms, more knowhow in the mechanical configurations of
tape heads, are other factors that come to
minci.)
In effect, the basic quality of the older
tape now is available at half
the speed and on double the tracks. Maybe
it isn't quite equal, yet-and the groans of
many a hobbyist are to be heard throughout the land. But the solid work is already
accomplished and a good deal of quarter track sound is already equal to the run of
half-track tape sound during the last few
years.
Remember that when tape first came out
for the home around 1948, the practical
limit for the upper frequencies on 71/2-ips
tape was generally at from 7000 to 8000
cps. We all know how indefinite such terminology can be; but we all can remember,
too, if we're old enough, the muffled sound
of those first home 71/ -ips tapes. Even the
original Magnecorder, a pioneer home instrument though designed for professional
use, didn't bother to claim much more than
the usual 8000 cps top for its seven -and -a 71/2-ips home
half speed.
Then came Ampex's narrower gap, with
the 400 and later the 600 line, and all at
once we had sound at 71/2-ips that was very
nearly equivalent to that at 15, the professional standard. For the last few years,
the speeds have been realigning themselves
on this newer basis. In the home, 71/2 ips
is the high -quality, wide -range tape speed
and 3% ips is the economy, not -so-hi-fi
speed, taking the old 8000 -cps limit over
for itself. The original 3% speed, which I
remember as unbearably muddy in the
early clays (and unsteady, too) with a top
of around 4000 cps at best, is now the secondary speed that to all intents and purposes equals the original 71/2. At the bottom, the lowly 17/s ips is the minimum
practicality, "voice frequency" speed.
-
AUDIO
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And now-quarter-track and another
jump. Just as 71/2 was hiked up to approximate the hi-fi sound of fifteen-inch professional tape, so 33/4 is now hiked up to
approximate the now-standard hi-fi 71/2. As
far as I can judge, the jump is just as extensive as that earlier jump.
The bugs aren't gone yet by any means
and quarter -track perhaps isn't yet as reliable as standard 71/2. The background
noise may sometimes be too high, the distortion level not as satisfactory, the frequency
range a bit restricted, the alignnient not
always solid and sure. (Cross -talk is generally not a problem, since it occurs mostly
in the heads themselves and quarter -track
heads are spaced further apart-by one
intervening track-than standard halftrack heads.) These are all problems-of the -moment. They've
existed before.
They'll be ironed out-they have been
ironed out already in many new machines
Newer and Better
In the long run, then, what with constant
improvement, there's every reason to suppose that quarter -track 3% ips sound may
soon generally equal present standard halftrack 71/2 sound, right down the line. I
can't see how it will be otherwise. There are
inherent disadvantages to slower speeds
and narrower tracks, but we must prove
that they are insurmountable in practice
before we condemn the new system as unworkable. I don't think they are.
Indeed, one of the most persuasive arguments in favor of quarter -track tape was
suggested to me by the maker of some of
the new quarter -track recorded stereo tapes
and confirmed by an AUDIO correspondent
who had bought one to try and had heard
it played via Ampex quarter -track equipment. "The qualify seemed to me to be just
as high as the best of the conventional
stereo tapes, and a good deal higher than
some I have heard-and own! The tape
hiss is very low ...", he writes, and there
you have it in a nutshell. As the tape's
producer puts it, the best argument of all
in favor of quarter -track is simply that it
is new.
The very factor of newness tends to put
it ahead of older half-track sound, in
spite of theoretical disadvantages. Newer,
in these fast-moving days, means more advanced, even in the face of seemingly huge
problems. It happens all the time. Engineering ingenuity being what it is, disadvantageous products one after the other
tend to end up even better than their more
favorable predecessors.
It happened with the LP, whose difficulties were so overwhelming back in 1948
that many engineers proved to themselves
and all who would listen that it was unworkable and inferior. It was-just as
they said. But it also had enormous potential advantages, notably in its musical and
sales aspects, and its faults were soon
overcome to the point where in practice it
was far superior to the old 78. So, too, with
the stereo disc, already. It isn't technically
superior yet, but the much -groaned -over
complexities of last fall already seem years
back, and the best stereo discs are now
pretty much equal to the best monos even
though ideally the mono record is still the
simpler, better product. Mind you, the 78 rpm disc (particularly microgroove) is
still ideally better than any LP, in its basic
potentialities. Practically, it's a very dead
duck.
The stereo cartridge is perhaps a classic
example. With four terminals instead of
two, a double element, single stylus, a twoway response instead of one-dimensional,
it presented appalling complications as
12
compared to the relatively simple mono
cartridge. Inherently, the stereo cartridge
is a lulu of a problem; inherently, the mono
cartridge is "better" by far. Yet already,
in actual practice, our best stereo cartridges are as good as the best monos of a
few years back-perhaps better. Inevitably,
the stereo cartridge will end up well ahead.
So will quarter -track tape, for all its
present faults and its inherent inferiorities. Just wait and see. It's bound to win
even if RCA's tape magazine never gets
launched at all. It'll win, first, because it
is fundamentally "better", speed for speed,
tape for tape, with sound quality to match
standard two -track tape at a quarter the
cost.
Secondly, it'll win because its inherent
faults are inherently reducible-perfectible, if you wish. It'll get better and better;
it can get better and better.
And thirdly, quarter -track tape brings
all this and stereo too. It is the first tape
development to equate stereo tape with
stereo dise in terms of cost for the home.
And it keeps the advantage of home recording, adds the new possibility of stereo
recording as well.
We'll see. I may run into practical
trouble when I myself get directly involved in quarter-track-who knows. I may
curse and groan and wish I'd never tried
it; but even a lot of trouble will leave me
still convinced that this is the home tape
system of the future. The bugs, when and
if, are merely temporary, incidental, unim-
portant.
Let's hope I don't have to say that too
often.
2.
SUCCESS STORY
One of the headaches for us record collectors during the first seven or eight
months of stereo disc was the obvious hassle going on within company after eompany as to what recorded material should
be issued in stereo form, and when.
As everybody knows, there was a huge
backlog of accumulated stereo material
ready to go and virtually all new recording
was being done both in stereo and mono
form-to be sure. But how much stereo
could be absorbed by the public, if released on disc? That was the BIG question.
And there were complications, too, in the
fact that a large part of the backlog had
been already issued in mono form (or on
stereo tape) and thus was technically "old"
stuff. How would the public take to these
seeming re -issues of oldies, long familiar?
And what was to be done about the brand
new releases-would the stereo market take
stereos one for one along with mono? Obviously not at the beginning. But when?
And what should be done with the unreleased stereo versions that would keep
piling up higher and higher, like surplus
corn and wheat in the farm belt? More
backlog with every day that passed.
Well, it was a matter for gray hairs. A
few companies brashly jumped straight at
the beginning into one -for -one dual releases-and surely lived to regret it, what
with the sour stereo dise lemons that were
squeezed painfully out of the presses during those first hectic months!
A few companies, London in particular
and most notably, threw everything they
had into a stereo -or-nothing policy, practically shelving the mono business right
from the start. It could be managed-for
awhile, at least, if stereo turned out a success.
But most record companies moseyed
along with a variety of compromise policies, tinkering with every combination
AUDIO
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imaginable between the poles of no stereo month. Every recording is listed with two
and all -stereo. Only a few outfits dared columns of record numbers off to its left,
come straight out with stereo -mono dual headed Monophonic and Stereophonicand the catalogue numbers, incidentally,
releases as a regular thing; the rest kept
are the same, as with RCA Victor and a
us wildly guessing-would there be a stereo
few others. Better still, though, the notaversion later on? Probably the company ittion Previously Released is put under the
self didn't know, hadn't decided; didn't
want to decide-yet. If the market would mono column when the stereo is a re -issue
bear it, maybe in a few months. . . And, -and no shilly-shallying about it. Capitol
'tother way around, many a stereo disc has faith in its older recordings (and so
spectacular was launched on its own, to do I).
If there is no stereo version, for one
see what might happen, with the mono
version (if any) trailing far in the back- reason or another, the notation none is put
down, plainly for all to see. After all,
ground, on a maybe basis.
there's still a lot of top-notch mono maAll this time, mind you, and still as of
this moment, there has been the continuing terial being issued.
I've just been through my own card
question, what shall we do with the earlier
stereo master material, the big backlog? catalogue and am gratified to find that a
It has been coming out in driblets, or in number of the April, 1959, Capitol stereo
releases were out in mono form as far back
small batches and, I'm forced to observe,
as 1956. Some of the best records in the
the announcements haven't always been
quite clear as to whether the stuff is new Capitol catalogue, at that.
Why, somebody may be asking me, don't
or "old." To tell the truth, it doesn't really
matter, so long as the original tape was a you mention the other companies that do
good one and the disc is up to par too. Only the same thing in their announcements?
the record reviewers tear their hair seri- Vox, for example, or RCA Victor. Both of
ously about such matters. (Now, is this the these companies have listed mono and
stereo releases side by side for quite awhile.
one I reviewed in mono two years ago and
Well, you see, it's significant to me that
said it stank? Or is it a new recording?)
It's only natural, I guess, for the genial Capitol didn't-and now does. It indicates
sales people to cover their tracks a bit a very important development in Capitol's
here, just in case, playing hotus pocus with thinking and, by reflection, an even more
numbers and cover art so you really can't important development in stereo dise itself, these last crucial months.
tell the new releases from the re-releases.
Stereo, my friends, is a success.
It does indicate a certain lack of confidence
in the wary record buyer, who may decide
that anything older than three months must 3. SENATORS ON LIMB
be utterly unplayable. Just don't tell him,
Seems even the New York Times agrees
then, and he'll never know.
Yet the fact is that many of the older with me about the publicity barrage in the
stereo master tapes stand up extremely mail, as described here in the April issue.
A nice little news article with the above
well to later competition, even on a mere
title appeared recently. Utterly dead -pan,
two tracks. They can pass for brand new,
strictly on their own merits. But a much it described something called the KeatingJavits press -release machine (the two
more important thought is simply that if
the original mono versions are still avail- Senators from New York). This monster,
able in the catalogue, then the stereo al- "long feared and respected as the fiercest
ternative should most certainly be there on Capitol Hill, finally stripped its gears
too-since it brings with it a decided mu- today and began racing wildly ahead of
the news." All it did was to announce that
sical improvement in the impact of the
the President had nominated a certain
recording.
If you'll look at it in this light, I am judge "today" but, alas, the date was still
sure you'll be delighted to rush out and a week off and the President hadn't done a
buy up the stereo re-releases of as many of thing about it yet.
Ah, how easily this can happen, as we
your favorite monos as appear in that
form. A bargain! After all, most record all know, in a fast-moving press release
buyers get to know their favorite items system! But ordinarily one doesn't involve
Ike in such matters, if one can manage not
like familiar friends. Imagine being able
to. Won't do at all. Frantic inquiries at the
to replace that Number One, top -rated
war horse you bought years ago, the one White House produced only one of those
"we have no knowledge" statements that
you've played so many times it practically
(suggests The Times) mean the W.H.
wheezes, with a brand new disc of the selfdoesn't want to say anything for the
same performance, as familiar as ever, but
moment. (I.e. until it figures out what went
now in stereo. Terrific.
I recommend this line of thought to the wrong.)
Things were presently untangled via a
record companies' public relations people.
phone call from a "harried operator" of
And with that thought I come to the
item that started all this, the new policy the Keating-Javits machine-which had
at Capitol, which embodies all I have said gone all-out in praise of the judge -nomiin a highly satisfactory re -vamping of its nee. Yes, the man would indeed be nomiformer system of releases. Formerly, Capi- nated "early next week," said the White
House, upon hearing this, but would the
tol (and Angel too) released stereo and
machine please hold onto itself until time
mono discs more or less separately, as the
developing market seemed to allow. New caught up with it.
The Times didn't quite feel like stopping
stereo discs for each month were listed
apart from new monos you weren't always at this point and neither do I. It went on
to say that "close observers of Keatingsure whether both versions were being reJavits press releases were stunned to find
leased together even when in fact they
genuine news among them, but there was
were. All a part of the inevitable hotus
pocus mentioned above, and what with a little surprise npon hearing that the machine had slipped its governors.
mono and a stereo release list, popuhr and
"Since Congress' opening in January it
classical (and some other categories too),
for each of three labels every month. things has been turning out releases by the ton.
The volume and variety of its productions,
were getting really pretty complicated.
(Fortunately, the stereo tape releases of out -stripping the most prolix other Senators' by 5 -to-1, made it inevitable that
some of the same material slacked off as
overhauls would be needed by spring." End
the discs increased.)
of The Times comment, with no further
Now, Capitol puts all its "cards" straight
comment needed.
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promptly by return mail, POSTPAID.
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To be published July 15th at $2.00, the 1st Volume of "the best of AUDIO"
is scheduled for shipment to bookstores September 1st, 1959 ...order your..
volume now and receive shipment at least one full month early
' City
and, SAVE 25%!
Remit only
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EDITOR'S REVIEW
TAPE TO THE FORE-AGAIN
SEVERAL YEARS AGO, magnetic tape was the only
satisfactory means by which we could have stereo
reproduction in our homes, and tape peopleboth those who made equipment and those who made
recordings-prospered. Then came the stereo disc, and
the tape industry went into a lean year. Fortunately
this happened just about the same time that TV tape
recording boomed so strongly, so at least some of the
equipment manufacturers went merrily on. But the
market for recorded tapes dropped badly, as we all
know.
Now it is a well known fact that tapes at 71/2 ips
can be of better listening quality than LP records, but
the investment required for playing them is certainly
more than is needed for the less expensive discs. The
dual -track monophonic tape on a good tape machine
offered better quality than the average disc, but the
cost of the tape was greater. Four -track tape at 33/4
ips has it all over discs for cost, but this observer, at
least, has not heard any that were considered comparable from a quality standpoint to the LP. Four -track
71/2 tape of today is easily comparable to two -track
71/2 of two years ago, and better than single-track 71/2
of six or eight years ago. Maybe-and that's as far as
we will go maybe four -track 33/4 will get up there,
but the disc manufacturers are not going to stand still
-they too will make improvements.
As we see it, it is likely that the four -track 71/2 tape
will end up as of slightly better quality than the disc
-particularly for stereo-and the cost should be
about the same, minute for minute. As a matter of
fact, that is about the way the economics of the subject
will force it to be. If the reproducing equipment is of
the highest grade, the tape will undoubtedly be much
superior.
But where does all this get us ? Certainly a Rolls
Royce gives a better ride, a more luxurious one, than
any of the "lowest priced three," but does that mean
that everyone is going to buy a Rolls ? Not for a minute-not all of us can afford the difference even though
we realize the advantages. Many others just don't
think the extra cost is worth it for the results to be
gained.
We don't think for a minute that a $75 tape player
is going to compare with a $950 one-which is about
the same percentage difference as between the automobiles mentioned. We believe that there will always be
some who think that the extra expense is justified for
the better quality just as there are those who prefer to
be filled up on a six -dollar porterhouse instead of 85
cents worth of hamburger.
However, now that the tape industry has rolled
with the punches, it has come up with a high -quality
product-four-track 71/2 recorded tapes-and a new
division of Ampex Audio has been formed to distribute
nationally the products of the many tape producers.
This division-United Stereo Tapes-will put tapes
back on the dealers' shelves, and tape will again become the leading medium for top quality of reproduction.
And just as a reminder of our interest in the best in
sound reproduction, please note that we established a
new section-THE TAPE GUIDE-beginning with the
May issue this year. This section has for its principal
aim the improvement of tape usage in the home, and
any serious tape user will find something of interest in
the GUIDE. And many will continue to offer their own
experiences and suggestions for the help they may be
to others-incidentally receiving some loot for their
trouble, which same can be plowed back into more and
better tape equipment in their own installations, or
even in more recorded tapes.
We look forward to the tape industry's best year in
the next twelve months.
JAZZ FROM KJAZ
Don't try to pronounce that-even though some
New Yorkers try a phonetic pronounciation of WQXR,
resulting in something like "kewkser." KJAZ is a
radio station in the San Francisco Bay area that
finally got tired of the conventional "top 40" programming common to today's AM station, local and
network alike, and decided to devote itself to jazz.
From noon to midnight every day, the schedule shows
some real ingenuity-with such programs as "Jazz for
Housewives" in the afternoon with a medley of jazz
vocalists and low-pressure swinging; "Dinner Jazz,"
with "oh so polite, yet swinging" background to evening meals; "Jazz Conversations" with visiting artists; and even "Jazz Goes to Church," featuring
spirituals and gospel songs. Pat Henry and Dave
Larsen, the originators of this idea, are to be complimented on their brainchild. Maybe some other AM
broadcasters will think up some innovations to set
them apart from the usual programming-the kind
where you can't tell what station you are listening to
until they announce the call letters because they all
sound alike.
We even miss the several hours of radio whodunits
that the networks used to carry in the evening hourswe just aren't interested enough to stare at TV programs several hours a week.
AUDIO
16
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JULY, 1959
The
responsibility of being the finest...
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FLUXVALVE AND T.GUARD ARE TRADEMARKS USED TO DENOTE THE QUALITY OF PICKERING & COMPANY INVENTIONS.
Truly the finest stereo pickup ever made...
the STANTON Stereo FLUXVALVE is
hermetically sealed in lifetime polystyrene with
all of the precision that has made Pickering
a quality leader in the field of high fidelity
for more than a dozen years.
For instance...only the
STANTON Stereo FLUXVALVE has the
"T -GUARD" stylus assembly-so safe and easy
to handle...so obedient and responsive
to every musical nuance in the stereo groove.
Only the
STANTON Stereo FLUXVALVE has
the parallel reproducing element contained in the
"T-GUARD"...assuring the proper angle of
EWLY
"
correspondence between recording and playback
styli for maximum Vertical Tracking Accuracy.
A
And...because of
this the STANTON
Stereo FLUXVALVE reproduces music
with magnificent sound quality...from both
stereophonic and monophonic records...with
negligible wear on record and stylus.
In plain truth...the STANTON
Stereo FLUXVALVE is by far the finest stereo
pickup made... backed by a Lifetime Warranty'',
assur ng you a lifetime of uninterrupted,
trouble -free performance-with a quality of
reproduction no other pickup can equal.
We suggest you
REVISED-"IT
'Excluding wear and tear of the diamond stylus tip and parts
of the related moving system in the "T.GUARD" assembly.
AUDIO
237!
visit your Pickering Dealer soon
-drop in and ask for
personal demonstration.
TAKES TWO TO STEREO"-ADDRESS DEPT. B-79 FOR YOUR FREE COPY.
.,R. o...,rr RICH .,ea..rr PRODUCTS ..
COMPANY. INC., Plainview. N. V.
foi those who con4heoiI the o',/k,ence
PICKERING
JULY, 1959
a
&
17
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"PACKAGING" MICROWAVES
FOR MOUNTAIN TOPS
In Arizona, the telephone company faced a problem. How
could it supply more telephone service between Phoenix
and Flagstaff-through 135 miles of difficult mountain
territory?
Radio offered the economical answer: a new microwave radio -relay system recently created at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Operating at 11,000 megacycles, it
was just right for the distance, and the number of conversations that had to be carried.
But first other problems had to be solved: how to
house the complex electronic equipment; how to assemble
and test it at hard -to-reach relay stations way up in the
mountains; and how to do it economically.
On -the -spot telephone company engineers had some
ideas. They worked them out with engineers at the
American Telephone and Telegraph Company and at
Bell Telephone Laboratories. The result: a packaged unit.
The electronic equipment was assembled in trailer like containers at convenient locations and thoroughly
checked out. The complete units were then trucked up
the mountains and lifted into position.
The system, now operating, keeps a watch on itself.
When equipment falters, a relay station switches in standby equipment, then calls for help over its own beam.
The new Phoenix -Flagstaff link illustrates again how
Bell System engineers work together to improve telephone service. Back of their efforts is the constant development of new communications systems at Bell
Telephone Laboratories.
BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES World center of communications research and development
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FM -Band Reception in
Fringe -Areas
W. N. COFFEY
When the best antenna installation you can make is still not sufficient to bring in those distant FM stations, try this booster unit
which is designed for low -noise amplification at signal frequency.
FM listener
with cosmopolitan tastes? Do you
draw on program material from a
number of stations? If you are fortunate
in living in or near a metropolitan
area, you probably are satisfied in this
respect. However, if you are located
beyond the primary service area of many
stations, and are limited to listening to
just a few stations, this article will be
of interest. In fact, this article is addressed specifically to the "fringe area"
listener, the individual who lives, say,
100 miles or more from the nearest FM
stations. The principal concern of this
type of listener may be to improve the
efficiency of his receiving equipment.
Let us consider now what an effective
fringe -area receiving station should include.
ARE YOU A CONSISTENT
Fig.
1.
External
appearance of
the author's FM
booster amplifier.
Antenna System
First, one should take utmost advantage of the antenna system to provide maximum signal voltage delivered
to the antenna terminals of the tuner.
In order to accomplish this at FM -band
frequencies, the antenna should be
placed in the clear and at a sufficient
height above the ground. A minimum
height of 20 feet should be maintained,
and a continuing improvement with increasing height up to 40-50 feet may
be realized, depending on local topography.
A single six -element Yagi antenna designed for the FM band should give
around 7-10 db gain over a single onehalf wavelength dipole. A pair of such
antennas fed in phase and stacked with
1/2-1 wavelength vertical separation
should provide around 10-14 db gain
over the dipole. Several antennas of
this type are available in radio parts
stores. When it is remembered that 10
db of antenna gain means that, in effect,
the power of all stations received would
be increased by 10 times, one can appreciate the advantage of using high gain antennas.
Then, too, the added directivity
*9
Cortland Drive, Ballston Lake, N. Ir.
AUDIO
characteristic which goes hand -in -hand
with higher gain is an effective aid in
reducing co -channel interference provided the interfering stations do not lie
in the same direction with respect to
the receiving antenna. When using such
an antenna, the optimum heading to a
particular station can be found by rotating the antenna until maximum signal strength is obtained, as evidenced
by the signal strength indicator on the
receiver, or by the point of maximum
quieting. Even a short treatment on
optimum antenna design is beyond the
intent of this article; however, several
excellent sources' are available for those
who may care to pursue the subject
more thoroughly.
Transmission Line
The transmission line which connects
the antenna to the receiver is an important link in the equipment chain.
To insure that the signal suffers minimum attenuation in finding its way to
the receiver, a low -loss line should be
used. Tubular 300-ohm line is excellent
in this respect and is inexpensive.
Where a long line must be run, a 300-
ohm open -wire line is preferred because
of its extremely low attenuation constant. Although even less expensive than
the tubular variety, it may be more difficult to install. It is important to keep all
parts of the 300-ohm line at least 6
inches away from metallic objects such
as roof gutters, down spouts, water
pipes, heating duets, and so on. Coaxial
cable has the advantage that since it is
a shielded line, it can be run anywhere,
even buried in the ground, or carried
along a water pipe. However, it is more
expensive than 300 -ohm line, and in
sizes 1/2 inch in diameter or smaller it
has more loss.
Since most FM antennas and receivers
are designed to work in conjunction
with a balanced 300 -ohm line, special
impedance -changing transformers called
baluns (balanced -to-unbalanced transformers) should be used when connecting a balanced 300 -ohm line (or
antenna, or receiver) to an unbalanced
75 -ohm line (or antenna, or receiver).
For the protection of your equipment,
your dwelling, and yourself, the antenna system including the mast should
be grounded properly. However, make
19
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
receiver by adding another amplifier/ -
Fig. 2.
Internal arrangement of parts
for the booster amplifier.
certain that the lightning nrrestor does
not by-pass some of the FM signal to
ground, thus reducing the effectiveness
of the antenna system.
The Tuner
One of the requirements of the tuner
that it should have sufficient amplification to bring the desired (and
usually weak) signal up to full limiting.
Most of this amplification is ordinarily
obtained in the intermediate frequency
is
(i.f.) amplifiers and amplifier/limiter
stages operating at 10.7 me. The amplifier should also provide the necessary
adjacent-channel rejection by virtue of
its selectivity (or band-pass) characteristic. Some readers may have improved
the performance of their gain-starved
turn by the i.f. system. Because frequency converters and mixers are inherently noisier than amplifiers, the first
limiter stage.
This type of improvement can be carried only so far. Eventually a point may
be reached where the over-all i.f. gain
has become so great that positive feedback from the last stage back to the
front end of the amplifier (over feedback paths wholly unsuspected) becomes comparable to the magnitude of
the input signal. If this occurs, either
the amplifier tends to oscillate on a permanent basis, or if this feedback is
somewhat milder in nature, it will tend
to distort the over-all band-pass characteristic of the i.f. amplifier. Methods of
preventing this type of feedback include stage -to -stage shielding, adequate
decoupling of those circuits common to
all i.f. stages (such as heater and d.c.
supply leads), or employing a second
frequency converter in the i.f. system
(double -conversion receiver).
stage must provide a large signal amplification so that the amplified signal
overcomes the noise generated in the
mixer. Obviously the r.f. amplifier itself
should generate a minimum of noise.
Earlier it was stated that the i.f. gain
should be high enough to allow full
limiting even on weak signals. Therefore
the smaller the amount of noise generated by the tuner, the smaller the
signal can be before it is lost in this
noise. Actually the i.f. gain should be
sufficient to produce limiting on this
noise.
One may well ask now, "What generates this noise?" Some of this noise
is generated thermally in the effective
generator resistance of the device (in
this case the antenna) driving the first
stage. Some of the noise may enter the
antenna from extra -terrestrial sources,
such as galactic, cosmic, and solar noise.
Man-made electrical noise from such
sources as motors, lamps, automobile
ignition systems, and the like, may also
Limitation Due to Tube Noise
Nevertheless, as still higher i.f. gain
is realized without instability due to
undesirable feedback, another limitation
is eventually reached, i.e., the level of
noise generated in the tubes preceding
the i.f. amplifier. It is true that all the
amplifier stages generate noise. However in any stage, following the first, the
signal has been brought up to a level so
high compared to the noise generated
in that stage, that the contribution of
noise from that stage is insignificant.
Most FM receivers consist of an r.f.
amplifier, followed by a frequency converter or a mixer, which is followed in
be present depending upon the particular situation. In the usual case the
main component of noise is generated
within the amplifier tubes, and in a well
designed tuner, within the tube immediately following the antenna circuit.
In the frequency range of interest,
88-108 mc, tube noise, in triodes, consists of shot noise and induced -grid
noise. In pentode and other multigrid
tubes an additional component called
partition noise is generated. It is for
140 V, 30me
7200
2200
1000
00
6922
L3
RFC
0.5MH
q
680
500
MICA
500
T
INPUT
TO 75 -OHM
WOO
1000
MICA
ij
SOURCE
510
LI
IC
-11.-
OUTPUT
TO 75 -OHM
K
LOAD
C3
(IRC TYPE HER PREFERRED)
500
TO PIN
STANCOR
PST
1/2A.
PS
6.3V
5
OF
ALL RESISTORS 1/2 WATT UNLESS OTHERWISE
NOTED
6922
ALL CAPACITANCES IN ppf AND CERAMIC
TYPE UNLESS
OTHERWISE NOTED
(GROUND PINS 4, 8, 8 9)
-8416
CI -1-8ppf
5328 SET AT ABOUT 61.0
VARIABLE TUNING CAPACITOR,
E. F. JOHNSON TYPE 15M11
C3 -MICA PADDER EL-MENCO 302M, 10-15014
ERIE TYPE
C2-15ppf AIR
UTC R-14
+140 V
SET
AT ABOUT 125 NNf
C4-20NF/250V ELECTROLYTIC.
117 V
C5-40pf/250V ELECTROLYTIC.
60.,.
DI -FEDERAL SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE, TYPE
1159 MA20.
K1
-FEMALE COAX CONNECTOR SUCH AS BNC
TYPE.
Fig. 3. Over-all schematic of the FM 000ster, together with its power supply.
20
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
the net apparent increase in power of
all stations would be four times.
The author has never measured the
noise figure of a representative cross
section of FM tuners. What few have
been observed range from 7 to 20 db. In
other words, after the user has installed a first-class antenna system he
probably still has a good chance of im
proving his tuner sensitivity by improving its noise figure.
FEMALE COAX CONNECTOR
SUCH AS BNC
TYPE\
75 -OHM
300
-OHM
BALANCED
TERMINALS
T
-::i.ri
UNBALANCED
TERMINAL
LB-si
P
LA
-39 IN.
CABLE.
RG -59 COAX
MAY
BE
COILED.
LB- LENGTH NOT CRIT.
USE RG
-59 CABLE.
ENCLOSED IN COMPLETELY
SHIELDED BOX
Fig. 4. Coaxial -type Balun-an impedance transformer from balanced to un-
balanced lines.
this reason that triodes are preferred
as first -stage amplifiers since they are,
at this frequency, less noisy. A description of the physical processes that
underlie the several types of noise generated within vacuum tubes is beyond
the scope of this article. However
several excellent references2 are available which cover the field quite completely.
The usual method of describing the
relative noisiness of an amplifier is by
means of the noise figure, F.
F=P,y+PT-1+
PT
P2
where Ps= that portion of available
output noise power from the
amplifier due to thermal
noise in the source resist-
Ps
ance.
PT= that portion of available output noise power from the
amplifier due to noise generated within the tube or
tubes.
Thus F is a dimensionless quantity, a
power ratio that is usually expressed in
decibel-. If one has a perfect (ideal)
amplifier that generated no noise itself,
then PT= O and F= 1 or F =0 db. Suppose one uses a more practical example
for the amplifier. If at the output
terminals of this amplifier there is 1
nuerowatt of noise power due to the
thermal noise of the source resistance
for every 9 microwatts of noise power
due to tube noise, then F =1+ 9/1.10
or F = 10 db. The lower F can be made,
the less tube noise there is to "smother"
the weak signals until (neglecting extraterrestrial and man-made noise) antenna noise finally sets the limit on
tuner sensitivity. FM tuner A is better
than FM tuner B if, all other things being equal, A has the lower noise figure.
For example, suppose A has F = 3 db
and B has F =9 db; then A can detect
a signal with 1/4 the power that B can
detect. Likewise, if one can improve the
noise figure of his own tuner by 6 db,
AUDIO
shunt feeding of d.c. to the plate of the
first tube. The output impedance of the
grounded-grid stage is transformed
down to a level of 75 ohms by means
of the pi network consisting of C2i L4,
and Cs. If it is desired to work the preamplifier into a 300 -ohm line, a second
balun will be required at the output. As
the capacitance of C3 is increased, the
bandwidth of the output network decreases and the gain of the amplifier
increases so that the gain bandwidth
product remains about constant. With
C3 set at about 125 µµf the over-all gain
is about 30 db and the bandwidth about
7 mc. Coil winding data is shown in
Description of Preamplifier
To be described is a single -tube preamplifier operating at signal frequency
to be used ahead of the FM receiver. It
employs the new 6922 tube in a cascode3 circuit. It has a measured noise
figure of 3.5 db at band center, a gain of
about 30 db, and has improved the sensitivity of several tuners with which
it has been used. More about performance later.
Its construction is straightforward
and should be no problem for the audiofan who has had some experience in
building his own equipment. Use only
rosin core solder and, because it is a
high-frequency amplifier keep connecting leads as short as possible. The
completed amplifier is shown in Fig. 1.
The amplifier is built on a 4" X 5" copper
panel, and this mounted on a 3" X 4" x 5"
crackle -finished steel box. A self-contained power supply mounted in the
box provides the necessary heater and
plate voltages. It is not feasible to get
this power from the FM receiver.
It is suggested that the arrangement
of components shown in Fig 2 be followed. The circuit schematic is shown
in Fig. 3. It will be observed that the
preamplifier is designed to work from
and into an impedance of 75 ohms unbalanced. If, as in the usual case, the
line impedance is 300 ohms balanced, a
balun must be used to provide the
necessary impedance transformation. A
coil balun such as the TACO Model
1570 is quite satisfactory, or one can
make a coaxial line balun as described
in Fig. 4. In the interest of simplicity
an L-type network, comprising C, and
L1 is used to couple a 75 -ohm source
to the input of the first tube. For minimum noise figure C1 should be around
6 µµf. Coil L3 resonates at mid -band
with the grid -to-plate capacitance of
the grounded -cathode stage. L3 permit,
justed by means of the slug so that
signals at both the low and high ends
of the band can be peaked by means
of C3.
Once the signal is peaked again at 98
mc disconnect the plate supply voltage
to the first tube by lifting the 2200 -ohm
dropping resistor from the B+ supply.
Adjust the slug in L2 until minimum
output signal is obtained. Reconnect the
(Continued on page 59)
TABLE
L1
L
L3
L4
0-5
Table 1.
Initial Tests and Alignment Procedure
The preamplifier should be turned on
in order to check operating voltages.
The power -supply voltage after filtering
should run around 130 to 140 volts
positive with respect to ground, and the
voltage at each plate should be about
100 to 110 volts positive with respect
to ground. The cathode voltage on each
tube should be in the vicinity of 10 to
11 volts positive with respect to ground.
In order to adjust the tuned circuits,
a signal generator is set to the mid band frequency, 98 mc. Although not
preferred, an FM station in the vicinity
of this frequency can be used. The generator should be equipped with a 75 ohm source resistance. Once a strong
enough signal is available at 98 mc,
turn Cs all the way in (maximum capacitance) and back off a turn or two.
Adjust C3 for maximum output. This
can be determined by observing the rectified voltage from a diode detector connected at the output terminals if a
signal generator is used. If an FM signal
is the source, one can use the signal
strength indicator on an FM tuner connected to the output of the preamplifier.
The inductance of L4 should be ad-
I
COIL WINDING DATA
0.2
turns No. 15 AWG copper wire 0.395 in. I. D., with turns spaced to give
a winding length of 0.4 in., and self supporting. Tune by
lengthening or shortening
coil.
1.2 µh-133 turns No. 23 AWG enameled wire, copper close
wound on Millen
69043 ceramic form. Tune by Ferrite slug.
0.3 µf-7 turns No. 18 AWG enameled copper wire, close wound on 0.31 -in.
diameter form. Use Ohmite 1-megohm, 2 -watt resistor. Untuned.
0.4 µh-63/4 turns No. 18 AWG enameled copper wire, close wound on Millen
69043 ceramic form. Tune by Ferrite slug.
JULY, 1959
21
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A Continuously Variable Stereo
Dimension Control
PETER A. STARK'
Surpassing the conventional "blend" control in versatility, the "dimension" control permits both decreasing and increasing the stereo effect of a record or tape.
DESPITE
CLAIMS
stereo is
TO THE
CONTRARY,
not perfect-yet. There
are astounding differences between
different records and tapes, even those
from one company. This is the reason
behind the Phasing, Channel Reversal,
and Blend controls on many of the best
stereo amplifiers. The first two, Phasing
and Channel Reversal, can be dispensed
with once all tapes and discs are properly standardized since both are simple
right -or -wrong propositions; however
stereo blend is a matter of taste and
depends on many factors.
Blend controls were originally introduced to combat the "ping-pong" or
"hole -in -the -middle" effect present in
many of the first stereo records and
tapes due to the record companies' attempts to overemphasize the stereo effect. These were simple potentiometers
bridging the two channels to permit
mixing of the signals of the two channels.1 As such, they could destroy the
stereo effect, but could not increase it.
Yet many discs could obviously profit
by an increase in their stereo effect. This
prompted the design of the dimension
control.
A glance at the diagram reveals a
striking similarity to the matrixing cir-
cuits which would be used in a multiplex converter for receiving FM stereo
broadcasts using the Crosby multiplex
system. Basically, the left and right
channel inputs are applied to Vla and
Vib respectively. Since Vrb is a split load phase inverter, its outputs are 180
deg. out of phase. The four 100k resistors mix (matrix) the signals to provide a "sum" signal and a "difference"
signal. This difference signal stands for
the difference between the left and right
channels and therefore contains all the
stereo information. The "dimension" potentiometer acts as a level control for
the difference information and therefore controls the over-all stereo effect.
A voltage divider in the grid of V
slightly attenuates the sum signal thus
519 E. 86th St., New York 28, N. Y.
D'Errico, "A Variable Stereo Steppression Control," AUDIO, August 1958.
*
1
permitting a relative increase in the difference level at high settings of the
dimension potentiometer.
The variable dimension control is designed to be used between the preamplifier and amplifier of a stereo system. It is essential, however, that the
input levels of both channels be exactly
equal; if the left and right channels are
not of the same level, additional volume
controls may have to be inserted to
equalize the channel volumes. Likewise,
all components in the circuitry associated with V, should be matched within
very close tolerances to assure exactly
equal levels at the matrixing network.
Adjustment is very easy. Feeding a
signal into the left input, adjust the
dimension pot for zero output from the
right speaker. If very careful matching
o.l
was done in choosing the components,
this should be possible. Otherwise, a
very sharp null will be observed. Now
check that a signal in the right input
produces no sound in the left speaker,
at the same control setting. Mark the
position of the control. This is the
neutral setting which does not change
the stereo effect either way. A lower
setting of the potentiometer will produce stereo suppression until, at a zero
setting, a complete mixing of channels
takes place. A higher setting of the
control increases apparent depth and
separation within reasonable limits.
Needless to say, even this control can't
make something out of nothing monophonic discs will still be . . . monoÆ
phonie.
:
soK
100 K
12AÚ7
LEFT INPUT
VIA
0.1
100 K
0.1
100 K
RIGHT INPUT
C
V1B
0.1
DIMENSION CONTROL
Fig.
1.
Schematic of variable stereo dimension control, affording versatile control of
stereo separation both sides of normal
AUDIO
22
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JULY, 1959
Audio Oscillator Circuits,
Old and New
NORMAN H. CROWHURST
A discussion of various types of audio oscillators which were explored in a
search for an extremely stable unit intended for very low frequency applications.
THis INVESTIGATION was instigated by
the need for rather -low -frequency
audio oscillators for two particular
applications, both of which required descending below 20 cps, down into the
region of 1 cps. The requirements for
both applications were similar, so an
investigation was carried out into the
properties of different circuits for this
purpose. A sinusoidal output of variable
frequency is required, preferably with
push-pull balanced output. While the
development work carried out in connection with this investigation was
specifically directed toward an oscillator
for the very -low -frequency range, there
is no reason why the results should not
he applied to conventional oscillators
covering the more normal audio-frequency range.
The first thing obvious for the very low -frequency range, however, is that
the frequency control must be a variable
resistor, or ganged variable resistors,
rather than variable capacitors, because
the reactance of variable capacitors in
available sizes at the very low frequencies becomes prohibitive.
The first possibility investigated was
that of a phase shift oscillator using the
circuit of (A) in Fig. 1. It is not practical to vary more than two of the resistors as a maximum for two reasons.
One is the limitation in availability of
multigang resistors. The more important
one is that variation of more of the
resistors would drastically vary the loop
*
216-18 40th
_
I
..
Bayside 61, N. Y.
gain of the arrangement due to the impedance variation of the whole circuit.
The best possibility of obtaining
variable frequency proved to be using
a stepped, or tapered R/C arrangement,
in which the successive values of R and
C are stepped up in impedance. Using
this arrangement, preliminary calculations showed a change in frequency approaching the change in resistance
value can be achieved. However, even
with this arrangement the loop gain
changes drastically with resistance setting and some means is required to
maintain uniform gain so that the waveform is reasonably consistent.
An ingenious possibility in this direction utilizes a fixed component of
resistance that modifies the gain in a
manner inverse to the change in loop
gain due to the relationship between
phase shift and attenuation. This is
shown at (B) in Fig. 1. Choice of circuit parameters makes the attenuation
accompanying the requisite 180-deg.
phase shift the same at both extremes
of resistance control. This is achieved
as follows:
When the attenuation is a maximum
due to the resistance divider action, the
attenuation accompanying the phaseshif t network is made a minimum by
making all of the R/C elements of
identical time constant. Increasing the
frequency -control-resistance value reduces the attenuation of the resistance
divider and at the same time shifts the
phase/attenuation relationship of the
Fig. 2. Basic positive/negative feedback
circuit, using the twin -T for frequency
selection in the negative feedback.
successive networks so there is greater
attenuation at the 180 -deg. point. The
fixed portions of the resistance divider
are adjusted so the attenuation is the
same at 180 -deg. phase shift for both
extreme settings of the control.
The disadvantage is that this method
allows the attenuation to be equalized at
only two points. While the frequency
analysis of such a network assumes that
individual frequencies are transmitted
around the loop, the actual behavior is
one determined by the instant-to -instant
changes in electrical charge in individual stages of the network. As a result,
the nonlinearity of the tube characteristic can become quite exaggerated and
the frequency shifted because the circuit
does not behave as a frequency -analytical device but as a differentiator or integrator network according to which way
the R/C combinations are arranged.
Twin -T Feedback
The next type to be considered was
the twin -feedback type using a twin-T
in the negative feedback and resistance
elements only in the positive feedback.
Use of a large forward gain enables
the twin -T to apply very considerable
Fig.
(B),
1.
One version of the simple phase -shift oscillator circuit: (A) in basic form, and
so change in loop gain with varying frequency setting can be compensated.
arranged
AUDIO
JULY, 1959
feedback at harmonic frequencies and
to give a good null at the oscillation
frequency. The positive feedback is then
used to maintain oscillation at this frequency (Fig.2).
23
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half Wien bridge type of Fig. 3. This
again uses a lamp as the automatic adjustment feature but in a different
configuration. Here the positive feedback uses the frequency selective elements while the negative feedback uses
a lamp to control the amount of feedback. While this circuit could be made
to work, it too suffers from the disadvantage that the lamp shows cyclic
variation of resistance when the fre-
Fig. 3. Basic positive/negative feedback
circuit, using a half Wien bridge in the
positive feedback for frequency selection.
As is well known the positive feedback requires automatic control using
a lamp filament in order to make it
self-adjusting so that the circuit maintains itself at the correct amplitude of
oscillation to avoid clipping. Operating
at very low frequencies this circuit suffers from the disadvantage that the
lamp filament changes temperature
cyclically during the waveform. This results in considerable waveform distortion in the positive feedback. This
gives the negative feedback an almost
impossible task of cleaning up the waveform.
Acquisition of adequately high gain
without phase shift also becomes somewhat difficult at these low frequencies.
Only one stage, of triode type, can be
used with a cathode follower and direct
coupling in the cathode circuit for the
positive feedback, along with direct
coupling from the plate of the gain
stage to the cathode -follower grid and
feedback from the cathode follower
through the twin -T to the grid of the
gain stage. Use of more stages than this
involves us in additional phase shifts
due to coupling capacitors.
The practical difficulty in achieving
high gain with this arrangement occurs
due to the problem of achieving high
voltage gain in the gain stage and at
the same time having sufficient current
output from the cathode follower to
operate the filament lamps over a useful part of their characteristic. The degeneration available for harmonic reduction is dependent upon the gain
obtainable in the gain stage, since the
twin -T can only give 100 per cent feedback as a maximum and this does not
occur for second or third harmonics.
The defective gain might conceivably
be increased by the twin -T itself at oscillation frequency by using values
other than the conventional 2 to 1, so
there is positive feedback at the critical
frequency instead of a null. However,
this still leaves the objection that a
limited negative feedback is available
for harmonic reduction.
The next circuit investigated was the
quency gets much below 20 cycles. As
the lamp is in the negative feedback,
the intention of which is to clean up
waveform, cyclic variation of resistance
results in waveform distortion.
The Author's Circuits
Some years ago the author wanted a
very simple, single -tube oscillator with
stable output and good waveform and
developed the circuit of Fig. 4. This
utilizes a pentode diode tube in which
the "triode" portion of the pentode, consisting of the cathode, grid and screen
grid, acts as an oscillator circuit using
Fig. 4. An L/C circuit developed some
years ago by the author, with d.c. feed-
back for stabilizing.
a tuned grid LC arrangement with small
coupling from the screen. In this way
the screen voltage is almost constant,
having only a slight fluctuation due to
the voltage drop across the few turns
necessary to maintain oscillation. So the
rest of the tube functions like a pentode
amplifier.
Output is taken from the plate which
merely uses a tuned circuit as an additional means of securing a very pure
waveform. In the particular application
for which this circuit was developed,
further coupling was incorporated between the plate circuit and the following
stage, to achieve a positive feedback arrangement that produced a virtual -infinite -impedance source.
The useful feature of this circuit for
the present application was that a
pentode amplifier with appreciable gain
provided a large output from which to
control the bias so as to maintain steady
oscillation in the "triode" portion without running to clipping. This was obtained by utilizing the diode as a means
of biasing, deriving the signal for the
diode to rectify from the plate circuit.
This circuit achieved very steady oscillation conditions and an extremely
sinusoidal waveform.
To apply this to very low frequency,
obviously inductors are not practical.
They would have to be iron cored with
a very small air gap and this would
mean the inductance would be nonlinear throughout the oscillatory cycle,
which would result in distortion. So
another arrangement utilizing an adaptation of the half Wien bridge principle
was built around a twin triode. This is
shown at Fig. 5.
The circuit looks deceptively simple
but its operation provides quite a stable
waveform and good control of both frequency and amplitude. In this case we
have both positive and negative feedback as well as a means of controlling
the bias of the gain tube for maintaining
oscillation.
The gain and phase inverter halves
of the oscillator are R/C coupled. But,
because the phase inverter is of the
split -load type, the effective grid input
resistance is extremely high and consequently a very long time constant can
be achieved in this coupling without the
necessity for a very large capacitor.
Bias for the phase inverter is
achieved by grid current. This means
the bias will be strictly proportional to
signal magnitude. Consequently, the d.c.
voltages appearing at the cathode and
plate of the phase inverter will vary
with signal amplitude. Fortunately, the
half Wien bridge which takes the feed
from cathode and plate circuit of this
tube back to the grid of the gain tube
has a d.c. return path through the coupling from cathode.
Assuming the first half tube had infinite gain, so a hypothetical condition
can be considered as a design starting
5. This circuit combines positive,
negative, and d.c. feedback in the same
elements, and gives balanced push-pull
output as a bonus.
Fig.
AUDIO
24
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JULY, 1959
is that both positive and negative feedback utilize the same circuit elements
and, consequently, do not impose excessive loading upon the output stage of
the arrangement. The previous Wien
work uses a fixed resistor of 100k ohms
and a ganged variable resistor of 1
meg, it is possible to achieve 10 to 1
frequency change with negligible loading
on the phase inverter to throw this out
of balance. So far so good.
bridge circuit, where the negative feedback was applied to the cathode of the
gain stage, invariably necessitated an Transistorization
extremely low impedance value loading
Now came the difficult question, a
on the output stage and an inordinately transistor version. For both the applilarge capacitor for coupling it if very cations mentioned it was desirable that
low frequencies were required.
the possibility of transistorization be
In this new arrangement each capaci- considered.
tor has a useful function in the operaMost of the foregoing circuits can be
tion of the circuit. The capacitor converted to transistor operation, at
coupling from phase-inverter plate to least for one frequency. The difficulty
grid of the gain stage is part of the fre- encountered for transistorizing the veryquency selective arrangement. The ca- low -frequency type oscillator is due to
pacitor shunting from grid of the gain the fact that the variable control has to
stage to the tap of the cathode load is be a resistance rather than a capacitance.
also a part of the frequency -determining In a tube circuit the variation in imFig. 6. A variation of the circuit of Fig.
network.. The coupling capacitor from pedance at oscillation frequency is taken
5, to give bigger output at slight sacriplate of the gain stage to grid of the care of quite conveniently by making
fice of purity and stability.
phase inverter serves as a bias storage the frequency-selective network of quite
basic
relationwe
point,
can evolve some
of the phase in- high value relative to the source reships. If identical R's and C's are used element for the grid
direct
coupling through sistances from which it feeds. The grid
verter,
which
by
and
the
posiin the frequency network,
cathode
the bias point of the gain stage is always operated in
the
load
controls
tive feedback is taken directly from the
so
as
to maintain negative region, so voltage division only
of
the
gain
stage
plate, the negative feedback can be
has to be considered.
level.
oscillation
at
a
steady
taken from half way up an equal
In a transistor circuit this does not
an
extremely
stable
these
values
With
cathode resistor and a null should approve
to be quite so easy. The output
oscillation can be attained at quite low
pear at the grid of the gain tube.
loading
of any feedback circuit is
a
few
volts)
using
of
(of
the
order
level
By sliding the tapping point a little
basically
a current loading. This fact
bit further down the cathode resistor, whatever high voltage supply happens
promoted
quite considerable thought to
easily
possiis
quite
be
available.
It
to
the residual feedback appearing at the
the
possibility
of changing circuit paranull point of the series parallel ca- ble to increase the output from this armeters
so as to use a current operation
down
both
by
tapping
rangement
pacitance/resistance arrangement at the
instead of a voltage operation.
grid of the first tube has a residual cathode and plate portions for the take- base
However
this is figured, the position of
selective
network,
off
of
the
frequency
positive component whose frequency is
C's
and
R's
seems to be difficult for the
determined by the resistance/capacitance as shown at Fig. 6. This means the outpurpose
of
producing a variable ara
larger
amplitude
builds
up
to
put
combination. This tapping point is
rangement
a change of R values
using
chosen so the positive feedback residual before the necessary negative bias is
to
control
frequency.
to
the
balanced
reduce
gain
achieved
to
at the grid of the gain tube is just
Using current division in place of
slightly more than that necessary to operation point.
voltage
division as the basis for design,
far
This
enough
to
can
be
carried
start and maintain oscillation with a
the logical thing would be to couple a
small negative bias on the grid of the produce an output in the region of 50
volts, peak -to -peak, at plate and cathode collector of a stage into the tapping of
gain tube.
a series/parallel circuit and take the
This small negative bias condition is of the phase inverter, using a supply
output from the top end. (Fig. 7). Howof
250
volts.
voltage
in
the
region
Howachieved by use of cathode biasing in
ever, this has two unsatisfactory aspects.
conjunction with the d.c. feedback from ever, the effective positive and negative
(1) If the variable resistance in
reduced
by
feedbacks
are
considerably
the phase inverter under zero -signal
parallel at the input is used to control
conditions. The cathode bias is achieved this modification so that operation is
frequency, this will vary the collector
by means of a resistance potentiometer somewhat snore critical and slight deviaload of the input stage, and
across the plate supply, using values tion from correct values can more
(2) The series capacitor at the outor
complete
result
in
distortion
readily
low enough to avoid excessive degeneraput
end is not particularly desirable
tion in the gain stage itself. This does cessation of oscillation, than is the case since
it blocks the d.c. connection to the
for
lower
output.
the
in
circuit
intended
not require a very high dissipation if a
base of the stage to which the circuit
An important feature in designing
low -current tube such as a 12AX7 is
feeds and necessitates some provision
used for this service. A working gain such a circuit for variable oscillation is for bias by other means.
of the order of 30 to 35 with the de- that the positive and negative feedback
generation can quite readily be achieved elements should not introduce appreciaand this allows ample reserve for ade- ble loading across the phase -inverter
1
quate feedback to clean up the wave- loads, or the portions across which they
Imvw
are applied. This is relatively easy to
form.
1
Alternatively, by making the R's and achieve because fairly low resistance
C's in a 2:1 relationship so the junc- values can be used in the plate and
tion is a center tap between positive and cathode circuit of the phase inverter
negative feedback, the cathode load without materially interfering with the
tapping can be nearer 100 per cent, phase inversion function. It is quite Fig. 7. A logical transposition of the
possible to use a 12AX7 with cathode frequency -selective elements, when the
yielding a bigger d.c. bias control.
The advantage of this arrangement, and plate resistors in the order of 10,000 design is based on current division rather than voltage division.
whichever value combinations are used, ohms. If the frequency-selective net-
'
F--
11
AUDIO
25
JULY, 1959
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
the phase inverte r. This cannot he
achieved convenier tly by use of the
phase inverter's internal characteristics,
as in the case of a triode tube. The
natural return poin for a bias resistance
from the base of a transistor is not
the emitter, but tome point negative
(using the convent onal PNP types).
The phase invert er stage was set up
with a biasing arrangement incorporating a diode, shown in Fig. 9. By biasing
the base so that, without signal, the
phase-inverter transistor is passing a
maximum current with a margin to operate as a phase inverter, and phasing
the diode so that signal biases the base
more positive, so as to reduce the transistor current, a s.etisfactory d.c. component can be o stained. Utilizing a
bias point for the other side of the diode
suitable for this p-urpose, the phase -inverter current swings quite conveniently
in proportion to the signal amplitude
being handled.
One thing more is necessary at this
point. When this iE. coupled to the gain
stage, the diode current introduces distortion in the form of clipping on one
side of the waveforms. To obviate this, the
diode needs feeding from an emitter
follower through a capacitor.
The other emitter follower, shown at
the extreme left of Fig. 8, is needed to
avoid the change in impedance due to
:
ALL TRANSISTORS 2N109
(BUT TYPE NOT CRITICAL)
Fig. 8. A complete transistor version of the circuit of Fig. 5. For method of develop ment see text. Values not indicated on this and other circuits are those that will depend on operational frequency, or frequency range.
Undoubtedly the complete dual equivalent of the tube circuit, utilizing inductors in place of capacitors, as well
as the other conversions, could be derived and such a circuit might conceivably work, except for one important
limitation : linear inductances for use at
very low frequencies are much harder
to come by than are linear capacitors.
So, nice as the idea might be to change
our thinking from the conventional
voltage sou ree basis we have used with
CHECK
OUTPUT
INPUT
WAVEFORM
MEASURE
CHARGE
D.C.
namic curve at various collector loads
showed there were two areas of curvature. One at saturation and the other at
cutoff.
The curvature in the region of saturation is such that, whatever collector load
is used, the voltage output in the curvature region must always be very small.
The curvature in the region of cutoff is
quite small under most normal operating conditions, so as to look like
clipping. However, by reducing the
emitter resistance to a low value, this
curvature can be considerably extended
and appreciable swing can be utilized
in the curved region. This is achieved
by operating the gain stage with virtually zero external emitter resistance.
Then internal emitter resistance degeneration being non-linear is what results
in the curvature.
Having determined that we want to
bias the transistor toward cutoff when
the signal builds up, we know which
way we want to produce the bias from
frequency adjustment from materially
affecting the loop gain. This emitter
follower has the effect of transforming
the impedance on )oth sides of it by a
ratio proportional to the current gain
of the stage.
Now we come to the difficult part.
How to operate the gain stage with zero
external emitter z esistance f The first
method tried was to reduce this resistance to a very low value, by using
a potentiometer biasing on the emitter,
similar to that shown in Fig. 5 for the
tube version. Values down to 8 ohms be (Continued on page 58)
-12V
Fig. 9. How the phase-splitter stage was
set up to obtain the required d.c. feed-
back component.
tubes to a current source basis more
suitable for transistor application, it
does not seem to work out for this particular application. To transistorize
this oscillator circuit we must think in
terms of adapting the arrangement we
have deduced for tubes. This is achieved
by the circuit of Fig. 8, which works
quite well.
The first step in making the circuit
work was to discover how the transistor's
curvature might be utilized to provide
an adjustable gain to permit the circuit
to use automatic control so it will just
oscillate. Taking the transistor's dy-
ALL TRANSISTORS 2N109
NOT CRITICAL)
(RUT TYPE
4-6-8V
Fig. 10. An alternative version of the circuit, to utilize two separate supplies, instead of the common resistor method of Fig. 8.
26
AUDIO
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JULY, 1959
Radio Interference in
Audio Equipment
JOHN C. RICE
The author describes some sources and effects of radio -frequency disturbance in audio circuitry and suggests methods by which these effects may be eliminated or reduced.
higher, and second, because the lower
amplification it will receive in the fewer
remaining stages will reduce its ap-
uPON THE RECENT ADDITION Of a new
preamplifier and low-level magnetic
cartridge to a stereo system, an annoying buzz was noticed. In this particular case, the cause was traced to
radio -frequency interference from a
nearby television station. These experiences and hints are intended for those
who are troubled by radio -frequency
disturbance in their music systems.
Sources of Interference
To understand the following it is necessary to realize that interference is introduced to the amplifier or other audio
equipment as an r.f. signal. In the equipment the signal is demodulated into an
audio -frequency noise.
The first two obvious sources are that
of radio and television. Interference of
this type is found in strong-signal areas,
usually in cities or around transmitting
towers. Broadcast stations (and local
amateurs) can be recognized by their
program content, although sometimes
more than one station will be heard
simultaneously. In cases of TV interference, the amplitude -modulated TV
picture transmission is heard, after demodulation, as buzz. The cable placement in the audio equipment is critical
and a person's position near the equipment may have an effect on the buzz. In
fact the input cable behaves in much the
same manner as a pair of TV rabbit
ears in its placement.
A second source of interference is
spurious radiation. Generators of this
noise would be electrical equipment,
motors, switches, (including the phonograph switch), and neon and fluorescent lamps. Fluorescent lamps are radiators of r.f. which carries a modulation
of hum or buzz at the power frequency.
Additional generators of this type would
be ignition systems, including oil burners.
The origin of still other problems
lies in external electronic equipment.
For instance random oscillation of one
stage in a neighbors TV or radio set
may have surprising effects. His set may
radiate a tone or perhaps an electrical
noise present in his area. His equip*
55 Vassar St., Rochester 7, N. Y.
AUDIO
parent level.
ADDED RESISTOR (5 K-100 K)
OR CHOKE (5Nh-100ph).
Elimination of Interference
To remedy the annoyance, the troublesome amplifier stage must first be located. This can be done by simply start-
Fig.
1.
Location of grid filter in
stage of preamplifier.
first
nient may even receive, detect, and retransmit the entire program content at
another frequency.
Injection of Interference
To become an audio disturbance, the
r.f. signal must get into the equipment
and be detected. Signal introduction
can occur in a number of ways. One
path is through the shielded low-level
input lead, which acts as a VHF antenna. If this is the case, the signal level
at the first tube must reach a voltage
greater than the bias grid rectification
(and subsequent detection) to occur.
After detection the noise will appear at
every following stage.
However, interference need not be introduced at the first stage. Other leads
may introduce a signal to a later tube.
An unshielded tube may receive the
radiated noise directly; or perhaps the
filament line itself may carry the signal.
If the signal is injected at a stage other
than the first it will generally have to
be at a very high level to begin with.
First, because bias on successive stages is
Fig. 2. Method of adding r.f.
filtering to
filament circuits.
ing at the output and removing tubes
until the interference stops. The r.f.
signal, once located, is then removed
with shielding or a filter of some sort.
An r.f. signal present on the grid of
a tube may be removed by an r.f. choke
or a resistor (Fig. 1) which, in combination with wiring and input capacitance of the tube, forms a low-pass
filter for the removal of the r.f. The
value of the added component is chosen
to provide, with the capacitance of the
tube, the necessary filter action for the
frequency you desire to attenuate. An
additional small -value capacitor could
be connected between the grid and
ground to provide a lower filter cutoff
frequency. There is usually no harm in
the addition of a resistor, because whatever grid current there is flowing is
exceedingly small. However the series
combination of filter and grid resistor
should not exceed the manufacturer's
maximum specified grid resistance. A
small value r.f. choke in place of the
resistor might result in an oscillation
which, although inaudible, could cause
distortion at that amplifier stage. Caution should be used when adding components to avoid affecting audio response.
Filament radiation may be corrected
by the addition of r.f. chokes and/or
capacitors to the filament line in the
manner of Fig. 2. Most r.f. interference
on the power line will not pass a good
electrostatically shielded power transformer. However under -chassis lead capacitance may effectively bypass the
shielding. In these cases a power line
interference filter could reduce the noise
problems considerably.
If the annoyance is caused by television synchronization buzz coming in
(Continued on page 64)
27
JULY, 1959
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Loudspeaker Distortion Due to
the Doppler Effect
VIRGINIA RETTINGER
Why does
a two- or three-way loudspeaker system usually
sound better than
single -unit radiator? The authoress shows how the action of a loudspeaker
cone carrying two frequencies simultaneously results in a form of
distorion.
a
THE ACTION
of a loudspeaker cone
at the modulating, or low, fre- sound generator and a listener are apthat of a flat,
quency.
proaching each othor, as in the case of
weightless circular piston vibrating
f5 = modulated, or high, frequency
a train coming tow ards one, the noted
in an infinite baffle, or to that of a pulThe derivation of the equation, given pitch is higher than the actual frequency
sating sphere whose radius periodically
in
the noted reference, is rather long of the sound source. Similarly, when
increases and decreases, or to that of an
and
complicated, and cannot be repeated generator and observer separate, the oboscillating sphere whose radius remains
served pitch becomes lower.
here.
Suffice to say that it is based on
constant while the sphere moves forward
Mathematically the Doppler effect
the
concept
of
the
Doppler
effect
and
and backward. None of these concepts
may
be expressed b:
the
well
known
analysis
of
frequency
coincides accurately with existing conmodulation.
A
frequency
-modulated
ditions as far as the movement of the
-- vo
paper cone of a direct -radiator loud- wave can be considered to consist of
a
carrier
and
an
f
infinite
V
number
v 8 f$
of
side
speaker is concerned. Hence, while in
bands. The carrier has a constant am- where
the following the concept of a vibrating
piston in an infinite baffle will be em- plitude, and the side -bands are located
y = velocity of sound in medium
ployed, it must be understood that there symmetrically about the carrier and are vo=velocity of observer (assumed to be
are limitations to the applied theory, spaced at intervals equal to the modulatzero for this came)
and that calculations may or may not ing frequency. Depending on the degree v8 = velocity of source
of modulation, however, the amplitude
coincide precisely with corresponding
= Kf8 cos 2n f8t
of the carrier is less than that of the K =
physical measurements.
constant
Under the excitation of a low-fre- original wave. The distortion factor is f8 = frequency of source, or modulating
quency electrical current, a woofer cone defined as the ratio of the square root of
frequency
moves, more or less, as a unit. Under the side -band power to the square root
f2 = modulated frequency
the excitation of a high -frequency cur- of the total power.
f = observed frequency
The Doppler effect is also well known,
rent, however, it is generally the cenSubstituting these values in the above
tral portions of the diaphragm which and is characterized by a change in equation, we obtain
sound
pitch
due
to
the
relative
motion
vibrate most intensely. But what happens when a low -and a high-frequency of the source and observer. When a
vf2
signal are simultaneously actuating the
f v-Kf; cos 2z f8t
PISTON DIAMETER
speaker 7 The answer is that the high WATT OUTPUT
f4
frequency radiator (central part of
cone) is moving back and forth in space
1- hf"- cos 21c f8t
at the rate determined by the low -frequency signal. This phenomenon, con__iv
sidered a form of distortion, has been
f
K
termed frequency -modulation distor1cos 2n f8t \
8
tion, and was first examined by G. L.
.1
Beers and H. Belar.1
The relationship for the amplitude of
ú
This type of distortion is directly proz
a vibrating piston in an infinite baffle is
portional to the excursion required by
given by
the speaker cone to execute its low -freóD
equency travel for a given power input,
1.185X105 VWd=
(inches)
and to the modulated, or high, fref2D4
quency. Mathematically this relationwhere
.0
ship is given by
D = piston diameter, inches
D.F.=.033df2
W = acoustic power, watts
where
f = frequency
D. F. = distortion factor
Figure 1 shows this relationship
d= amplitude of cone motion (each
graphically, for one acoustic watt out.001
side of mean position) in inches
put on part of the piston.
10
100
1000
To appreciate what large cone deflecFREQUENCY
5007 Haskell Ave., Encino, Calif.
tions
are involved in the case of the really
1 G. L. Beers and H. Belar,
"Frequency
modulation distortion in loudspeakers," Fig. 1. Amplitude of vibrating piston for low frequencies, consider a 16 -in. diamJSMPTE, April, 1943; p. 207.
one -watt acoustic output.
eter piston radiating 0.25 watts of acousis sometimes likened to
1
Ä,y
-
1
1
28
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
TIE
STEREOMASTER !!
The "Small-car" of the audio world
A
car doesn't have to have 200 or 300 horsepower to
Witness the popularity of small low -
function adequately.
powered imported cars.
In much the same way, an amplifier
will still provide ample volume for home systems even though
it may produce less power than most amplifiers now on the
market. From PIONEER of Japan comes the STEREOMASTER,
a stereo amplifier with an output of 15 watts. It incorporates on a single compact chassis a sensitive FM -AM -short
wave medium wave and stereo preamplifier and power
amplifier, thus providing unequalled versatility and simplicity
in assembling a stereo system for the home.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES
:
Low distortion, low noise and unexcelled high sensitivity
tuned circuit
Provides tape playback directly from tape playback head
More than enough power for home applications
May be used as channel amplifiers for HI -LO two -channel
system
SPECIFICATIONS
AM 535 to 1,605 kilocycles
3.8 to 12 megacycles
FM 80 to 108 megacycles
Rated Power : 15 watts (7.5 watts X 2)
Frequency Response
within 0.5 db from 20 to 20,000 cps
Crossover Frequency: 3,500 cps (6db per octave attenuation)
Range
:
:
5M-R150
FM -R301
FM- P300
15 WATTS STEREO AMPLIFIER
AM -FM TUNER AMPLIFIER
15 WATTS AM -FM TUNER AMPLIFIER
5 Otowacho 6-chome,
Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo
AUDIO
FUKUIN ELECTRIC, TOKYO, JAPAN
JULY, 1959
31
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NO
NORMAL
PEAK
RECORDING
RECORDING
RECORDING
SIGNAL
SIGNAL
SIGNAL
LITTLE OR
GREEN
FLOURESCENCE
00
SHADOW
(B)
(C)
Fig. 2. Magic eye indicator.
allowance has to be made for the difference between the meter indication
and the actual (higher) level of the
transients.
The Magic Eye Tube
While there are several versions of
the magic eye tube, the most common
type employed in tape recorders is that
represented in Fig. 2. With no signal
applied to the tube (grid), a green
AMPLIFICATION
RECORD
STAGE
EQUALIZATION
to spare in any machine, much less one
of the home type.
To some extent, the permissible recording level will vary with the nature
of the program material. Ordinarily,
more distortion is tolerable on speech
than on music. And on certain kinds of
music a given amount of distortion is
less offensive than on others. This is
where experience and skill in recording
dication is tied in with the signal going
to the record head and thence onto the
tape. At a suitable point in the record
amplifier, the audio signal is tapped off
and fed to the magic eye tube. This
signal goes through a voltage divider,
which supplies the proper proportion
of the signal required to drive the indicator. This proportion is experimentally determined by the manufacturer of
the tape machine. It is more the exception than the rule to find a variable
voltage divider in home machines so
that one can adjust the amount of signal
fed to the record -level indicator. However, a few home machines do contain
a control-usually accessible internally
-which permits the service technician
or any other person equipped with the
necessary instruments and knowledge to
adjust the signal going to the magic eye
tube so that its indication will correspond with maximum permissible distortion on the tape.
enter into the picture.
As mentioned before, a prime advantage of the electronic indicator is
that it responds instantaneously to
transients (usually responsible for the
peak audio levels), so that one obtains
a correct indication of how much signal
is going onto the tape. On the other
hand this immediate response is not
only an advantage but can also be a
source of difficulty. When the transients
are strong and frequent, the magic eye
will fluctuate so rapidly that the operator finds it difficult to discern its
meaning and to set recording level properly. The extent of this difficulty, depends of course upon the nature of the
program material being recorded. A
fiery composition is apt to offer much
more of a problem than quiet, relaxed
RECORD HEAD
DRIVER
music.
To minimize the problem, a number
of tape recorders, as indicated in Fig. 4,
incorporate a "floating action" circuit
which maintains the eye for a brief
period at the maximum degree of closure. This circuit may be described as a
"one way street." It permits the eye to
respond (to close) very quickly when a
transient comes along. But it does not
permit the eye to open with the same
degree of rapidity. Thus the high reading is maintained for a short while. A
RECORD
HEAD
VOLTAGE
DIVIDER
Fig. 3. Feeding the audio signal to the magic eye indicator.
fluorescent glow suffuses about three
quarters of the face of the tube, as at
(A) . The remaining quarter is in shadow ;
in other words, the eye is open. As audio
signal is applied to the tube, the shadow
narrows, as indicated at (B). If sufficient signal is applied, the eye closes
completely, as at (C), or even overlaps.
The problem-of the manufacturer or
service technician-is to correlate the
amount of signal fed to the magic eye
tube with the amount of signal impressed on the tape so that when the
eye barely closes this corresponds to
maximum permissible recording level.
On home recorders, the maximum level
is usually between 3 and 5 per cent
distortion,
corresponding
harmonic
roughly to 30 per cent or more of intermodulation distortion. This is a tremendous amount of IM distortion, but
occurs only-or is supposed to occur
only-on peaks. At normal levels, which
are typically 10 to 20 db below peaks
on audio material, intermodulation distortion will drop to levels consistent
with fidelity standards.
Figure 3 shows how the magic eye in -
typical floating action circuit may allow
the eye to close in about one -thousandth
of a second, but may not allow it to
open for about one -twentieth of a second. Although one -twentieth of a second
may seem extremely brief, yet it is long
enough to increase substantially the facility with which the magic eye can be
read. If the persistence time were increased greatly, it would become difficult
to judge the frequency of transients and
make a corresponding adjustment of recording level, bearing in mind that this
adjustment depends not only upon how
great the signal peaks are but also how
(Continued on page 35)
Assuming that the magic eye tube is
properly calibrated, optimum results
are obtained if the operator allows the
eye to close just barely on audio peaks.
If the eye overlaps once in a great while,
there is probably no significant harm.
But if the eye completely closes or overlaps many times a minute, then the recorded signal is apt to take on the
roughness and mushiness symptomatic
of excessive distortion. On the other
hand, if the eye seldom or never quite
closes, the chances are that the recording level is too low, which means
an unnecessary sacrifice in signal-tonoise ratio ; and there is none of this
AMPLIFICATION
STAGE
RECORDING
STAGES7...-
ALLOWS THE EYE
TO CLOSE RAPIDLY
BUT PERMITS IT TO
OPEN SLOWLY.
FLOATING
ACTION
VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT
DIVIDER
Fig. 4. Use of a floating action circuit to
facilitate reading the magic eye indicator.
AUDIO
32
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JULY, 1959
from Ilitinfosh...
PERFECTION in Stereo Control
MODE SELECTOR
'NUANCE
PHASE
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RIGHT
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INPUT SELECTOR
PHONO
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TUNER
RECORD COMPENSATOR
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FACILITIES
SPECIFICATIONS
6 positions including Stereo, Stereo
Reverse, Left channel on left speaker
only, Right channel on right speaker
only. Left channel on both speakers,
and Right channel on both speakers.
Internally parallels and decouples a
stereo phono cartridge to offer best
quality reproduction from monophonic records.
Treble: boost 13 db at 20.000 cycles
attenuate 18 db at 2Ó.000
cycles
Bass: boost 16 db at 20 cycles
attenuate 20 db at 20 cycles
Mode Selector:
Monophonic:
Tone Controls:
Power Requirements:. 117 VAC; 35 watts
Input Sensitivity
Frequency Response: ±0.5 db 20 to 20,000 cycles
Separate channel back panel con=
trols to balance the frequency response of the system independent of
front panel controls.
Separate bass and treble 6 position
switches, including NAB tape and
flat for mike or any other low level
Trim Controls:
Equalization:
flat source.
Aural Compensator: Fletcher-Munsen compensation, con-
High Frequency
Cutoff:
Distortion:
Less than 0.2% at rated output, 20
to 20,000 cycles
Hum and Noise:
High level inputs: 85 db below rated
output
Low level inputs: less than 2 microvolts at input terminals ( 115 dbm)
Outputs:
Main: 2.5 V with rated input
Tape: 0.25 V with rated input
Gain:
tinuously variable.
Rolloff to reject low frequency disturbances such as rumble.
Two positions, 9 KC and 5 KC to
suppress high frequency hiss and
Rumble Filter:
Auxiliary, Tape, and 2 Tuner 0.25 V
at 470K
2 Phono, Low: 2.5 MV at 47K
High: 12.5 MV at 47K
XTal: 0.1 V, very high
2 Tape Head, Low: 1.25 MV at 47K
High: 6.25 MV at 270K
Tape Monitor: 0.25 V at 130K
and Impedance:
Low level inputs: 1000-1 Main Out-
put
Low level inputs: 100-1 Tape Out-
put
High level inputs:
put
High level inputs:
put
noise.
180° phase reversal to compensate
for out of phase speakers or source
Phase:
material.
Attenuates alternate sides of center
fU db each channel to balance for
unequal source material.
Front panel jacks, push button
switch controlled, to permit the addition of a portable tape recorder
without disrupting the equipment
permanently installed.
To permit instantaneous monitoring
of tape before and after recording.
Balance:
Tape:
Tape Monitor:
BASS
COMPENSATION
NNW
10-1
Main Out-
1-1
Tape Out-
A.C. Aux. Outlets:
unswitched for tape machine or
turntable and 3 switched
Size:
Chassis: 14x2 inches wide; 41/4 inches
high; 12 inches deep
Front panel: 143/4 inches wide; 41/4
inches high
Weight:
17
1
pounds
COMPENSATION
ANILAL COMPENSATOR
Nu TARE
Odb
046
IAA
1AA
100
20
100
]00
500
INC
TOME
INC
RC
CONTROLS
5NC
IO(C
2AA
200
500
INC
2NC
INC
SOC
IOCC
20TC
20NC
TROILF
TRIM CONTROLS
BA
RUMBLE FILTER
RF
OR
PUT
oA
Odb
Adb
JA
Odb
Mb
1AA
1AA
-AA
2AA
2AA
IOA
2A
a2A
70
50
100
200
SOO
INC
INC
flHnto&ih
2(C
SNC
IpNC
30
100
200
NC
2X
SRC
IOIC
2Oü
100
200
20(C
LABORATORY INC., 4 Chambers St., Binghamton, N. Y.
IN CANADA, MANUFACTURED
BY
McCURDY RADIO INDUSTRIES, LTD.; 22 FRONT STREET WEST, TORONTO
500
INC
RECORDING STAGES
SIGNAL VOLTAGES
ABOUT 6-10 db
HIGHER THAN AT
AMPLIFICATION
STAGE
Fig 5.
"DISTORT" LAMP
"NORMAL"
NEON
"DISTORT"
LAMP
LAMP
NEON
of two neon lamps as record -level indicators.
point. The objective for the operator is
to try to adjust the recording level so
that the normal lamp is ignited most of
the time but the distort lamp is ignited
as seldom as possible. Again, the nature
of the program material must affect the
operator's decision concerning recording
level.
The neon lamp has inherent floating
action. That is, the signal required to
fire the lamp is appreciably greater than
the voltage at which the lamp goes out.
Accordingly, the glow produced by a
3600 -OHM
EXTERNAL RES STOR----4\
600 -OHM
OUTPUT
TRANSFORMER
TO OUTPUT STAGE
The Neon Lamp
Least expensive of all record -level indicators is the neon lamp. This is an on off device, with no intermediate indication. It produces an indication only when
the recording level is at or above a
certain point. If the recording level is
too low (with signal-to-noise ratio unnecessarily reduced), the lamp does not
indicate how much too low. Even the
magic eye tube, with its varying shadow,
provides some indication of the extent
to which the recording level is below
normal. If the recording level is too
high, the neon lamp fails to indicate by
how much. The magic eye tube provides
a little information in this respect, as
indicated by eye overlap. The only indication of over -recording in the case
of the neon lamp is how frequently it
ignites.
The greatest flaw is the failure to
provide an indication when recording
level is too low. However, this is corrected in some machines by using two
neon lamps, as in Fig. 5. One, called
the "distort" lamp (or similar term),
ignites at the maximum permissible recording level. The other, called the
"normal" lamp (or similar term), ignites at a lower level-usually about 6
to 10 db below the acceptable distortion
Fig. 6. The VU meter, Type A scale.
AUDIO
OUTPUT TERMINALS
OF TAPE MACHINE
OF
PLAYBACK AMPLIFIER
transient lasts longer than the transient.
Fig. 7. Standard method of connecting a
The VU Meter
It must respond
quickly to audio signals; the standard
requirement is that when a sine wave
of 2.5 milliwatts power is suddenly introduced in the line, the pointer should
reach 99 on the percentage scale within
0.3 seconds. On the other hand, sudden
application of power should not cause
the meter to overshoot and give a false
indication ; here the requirement is that
sudden application of the same signal
should cause overshot of no more than
1.5 per cent. The meter, furthermore,
must be a hardy device. It should be
able to withstand continuously five times
the voltage that produces a 0 VU indication, and it should be able to withstand for one-half second a ten -fold
voltage overload.
VU meter.
Use
(Continued from page 32)
they
often
occur. In other words, increased persistence time would cause the
transients, as they appear on the magic
eye tube, to become a blur.
VU
METER
35 and 16,000 cps.
The VU meter-or a similar type of
meter-is most commonly found in semiprofessional and professional tape recorders, although on occasion it also appears in the so-called home machine. As
a matter of fact, there has been an increasing trend toward use of meters in
home -grade machines, and some familiarity with the operation and characteristics of meters as record -level indicators is therefore all the more likely
to be useful to the home recordist.
Characteristics of the VU Meter
VU means volume units. These units
are simply decibels. The zero point on
the scale (see Fig. 6) is an arbitrary
reference level; when the VU meter is
connected in the standard manner-with
a 3600 -ohm series resistor across a 600 ohm line (See Fig. 7)-a 0 reading
denotes 1.23 volts of signal at the source
(or 2.5 milliwatts of power in the line).
All other readings on the VU scale are
simply in terms of decibels above or
below the 0 reference level. For recording purposes, the reference level is significant only in relative terms, denoting
that maximum permissible recording
level has been reached, after which point
tape distortion becomes excessive. The
absolute meaning of the reference level
1.23 volts-is of no consequences for recording purposes.
As may be seen in Fig. 6, the VU
meter also contains a 0 to 100 (per cent
of maximum permissible voltage) scale,
which some users may find more convenient for recording purposes. In fact,
in some VU meters the positions of the
two scales are reversed, as shown in
Fig. 8.1
The VU meter has been designed not
only to have a certain sensitivity but,
much more important, to have certain
characteristics that facilitate the operator's understanding of the nature of
the audio signal. For one thing, the
standard VU meter must have a fre-
-
quency response within ± 0.2 db between
' Both are "Standard ;" Type A is usually
employed where levels are being read in db.
Most recording and radio studios choose
Type B, which then shows "percentage
utilization" of the channel. ED.
Advantages of the VU Meter
Compared with electronic record -level
indicators, the VU meter has the following advantages for tape recording
purposes.
1. It provides a quantitative indication of the extent to which the recording
level is above or below that corresponding to maximum permissible distortion.
Thus the recordist can vary the recording level by a desired amount. To
illustrate, he may know from experience
that he should record a certain type of
program material about 4 db below the
usual level in order to keep distortion
satisfactorily low. With the aid of a
meter indicator, he can achieve a db
8. Type B VU meter scale, which
features units showing percentage of
maximum permissible voltage.
Fig.
35
JULY, 1959
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RECORD
AMPLIFIER
RECORD
HEAD
RECORD
LEVEL
BIAS LEVEL
PLAYBACK
LEVEL
PLAYBACK
HEAD
OUTPUT
Fig. 9. Use of the VU meter to measure
bias current and playback level, in ad dition to normal use in measuring recording level.
reduction quite closely. With an electronic indicator, however, he could not
be sure whether the reduction is of the
correct amount.
2. The VU meter, if made by a reputable manufacturer, is a standard and
relatively uniform product, so that one
meter provides essentially the same indications as another. If the meter must
be replaced (much more likely due to
accident than normal usage), the new
one will provide very nearly the same
indications as its predecessor. This is
not nearly as true of electronic indicators, where the tolerances are such that
significantly different readings may be
obtained between two magic eye tubes
or two neon lamps for the same signal.
Thus one neon lamp may fire at a voltage
3 db higher or lower than another neon
lamp of the same kind.
3. The characteristics of the VU meter
remain stable with use and the passage
of time.
4. If one insists upon top quality recording in terms of low distortion and
wide frequency response, accompanied
by a high signal-to-noise ratio, and if
at the same time one wishes to record
at speeds below 15 ips, the value of bias
current supplied to the record head is
quite critical. It is very important then
to adjust bias current to the correct
value as indicated by the tape recorder
manufacturer or as determined by the
recordist equipped with the instruments
for checking frequency response and
distortion. Assuming that the correct
bias current is known, it is highly desirable to be able to check quickly and
easily whether the actual value corresponds to the desired value. In many
high-quality machines containing a
meter, a switching arrangement is incorporated that permits one to use the
meter to measure bias, as illustrated in
Fig. 9. The machine will also have a
control (usually on the rear panel or
internal) that permits bias current to
be adjusted if its value proves to be
incorrect. (However, enough warmup
time -15 minutes or more-should be
allowed for bias current to stabilize.)
The electron -ray tube and the neon
lamp are not sufficiently accurate in
their characteristics to enable them to
be used for measuring bias current with
the necessary precision. If bias current
is too great, high -frequency response
will suffer, although distortion usually
will decrease at the same time. If bias
current is too low, there will be considerably better high -frequency response, but at the expense of more distortion. Thus the correct value of bias
represents a fairly critical compromise
point.
5. In some situations, as in a recording or broadcast studio or in other
instances where professional equipment
is employed, it is necessary to know the
level of the tape playback signal to insure that the following equipment is
being neither overloaded nor supplied
too little signal for proper operation.
Therefore in semi-professional and professional tape machines it is the practice
to have a switching arrangement that
enables the meter to measure the playback level, also shown in Fig. 9.
On the other side of the coin, there
are also disadvantages to the use of a
meter as a record -level indicator. One
is that the meter is relatively expensive
compared with electronic indicators.
Another is that the meter requires
special circuitry to drive it properly
and to isolate it from the recording
signal (a low impedance source is required), which further raises the cost.
A third, as already mentioned is that
the meter does not follow transients but
lags behind them; this important problem is discussed at greater length in the
next section.
Calibration of the VU Meter
Due to mechanical inertia, the meter
pointer cannot follow very sudden and
strong impulses. Thus one may obtain a
meter indication as much as 10 db, and
on some occasions as much as 20 db, below the true signal level, as illustrated
in Fig. 10. Therefore in calibrating the
VU meter so that its indication corresponds to maximum permissible recording level, a different procedure may
be in order than for electronic indicators. In the case of the meter, it is
desirable to make an allowance for the
difference between the pointer indication
and the actual level.
Accordingly, a number of manufacturers of tape recorders adjust the
calibration so that the meter will read
0 VU when a sine wave (usually 400
cycles) is being recorded at a level substantially less than that which causes
maximum permissible distortion on the
tape. The safety margin is usually between 6 db and 10 db, depending upon
the tape recorder in question. In other
words, the meter is "set ahead," so that
on a steady signal it indicates distortion
"too soon." But on program material,
where the meter fails to keep up with
transients, the amount by which the
meter is set ahead more or less compensates for the amount that it lags
behind.
It is not absolutely necessary that
the meter be set ahead in the manner
described. In fact, some tape recorders
fail to do so at all. It then becomes
necessary for the recordist to make full
allowance for the lagging nature of the
meter. This means that he should not
allow the pointer to exceed approximately the -10 VU mark. However, this
crowds the operating range of the meter
into a relatively small part of the scale.
It should be clear from the above
discussion that if one acquires a tape
recorder with a meter type of indicator,
it is important to the user to find out
if the meter is set ahead and by how
much. To illustrate the point, a recent
review of a tape machine employing a
meter emphasized that clean recordings
could be obtained with this unit only if
the pointer were kept below the -10
VU mark.
Whether or not the meter is set ahead,
the adjustment of recording level is
far from a mechanical operation. Instead, experience and judgment must be
brought to bear. The relationship between average levels, as indicated by
the meter, and peak levels, which the
meter cannot follow, will change in accordance with the material being recorded. As previously indicated, peaks
may be as much as 20 db higher than the
program average. Or they may be only
6 db higher. Thus in some cases the
recordist may allow the VU meter to
hit 0 VU or even higher without incurring audible distortion. For other
program material, he may find it necessary to hold the pointer well below
0 VU in order to keep distortion inaudible.
Other Meters
Not all meters found in tape recorders are VU meters. In some instances, particularly machines of the
home variety, the manufacturer has incorporated an inexpensive meter that
simulates professional appearance without professional performance. Its main
virtue is that it wriggles. The writer has
AUDIO WAVEFORM INITIATED
BY A STRONG TRANSIENT
PE.=K
LEVEL READ
BY VU METER
LEV::
Fig. 10. Difference between
actual signal level and VU meter indication.
AUDIO
36
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JULY, 1959
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AUDIO
37
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Recording the pizzicato movement of
the Bartók after a long, grueling session
to determine recording techniques most
suitable for the special problems involved.
It is 3:00 A.M. the day of the concert.
LIVE r13. RECORDED CONCERT at CARNEGIE
RECITAL HALL
On January 10th, 1959, a "Live vs. Recorded" concert was given
in New York City; protagonists were the internationally famous
Fine Arts Quartet and a pair of AR-3 speaker systems in stereo,
driven by Dynakit preamplifiers and Mark III amplifiers.
At pre -determined intervals the members of the Quartet would lay
down their bows, allowing reproduced sound to substitute for the
live music. After a minute or so they would take over again live"
without interrupting the musical continuity. (A carefully
synchronized stereo tape had been made the night before in the same
hall by Concertapes, Inc., for whom the Fine Arts Quartet records
exclusively.)
Excerpts from reviews of this concert appear on the facing page.
Leonard Sorkin, first violinist of the Fine
Arts Quartet, listens critically to trial
recording.
The formal concert, during one of the "live" portions
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meter from the
playback circuit to minimize distortion.
come across instances of this kind where
not only was the meaning of the meter
reading open to serious question, but
the meter was connected to the circuit
in a manner seriously deleterious to operation of the record amplifier. The user
would have been far better served by a
magic eye tube or neon lamp indicator.
On the other hand, a meter does not
have to be a VU meter in order to
render equivalent service. In some tape
recorders, a meter of moderate sensitivity
is driven by a vacuum tube amplifier in
order to achieve the same sensitivity as
a true VU meter. And the meter movement, obtained on special order, is designed to have the same characteristics
as a VU meter with respect to frequency
response, speed of response, overshoot,
and so on.
Fig. 11. Isolating the VU
Loading Distortion
A meter is a non-linear device. That is,
depending upon the voltage of the audio
signal at a given instant and whether
the voltage is positive or negative at this
instant, the effective resistance of the
meter changes. When placed across the
audio signal, the VU meter presents a
changing load, which results in distortion. That is why it is necessary to
have a 3600 -ohm resistor in series with
the VU meter, as was shown in Fig. 7;
this resistor helps keep the loading distortion suitably low. One of the standard requirements of a VU meter is that
when connected in the manner of Fig. 5,
it shall cause not in excess of 0.2 per
cent harmonic distortion.
In some tape recorders, as an extra
precaution, the VU meter is isolated
Irom the audio signal by an extra tube
stage, usually a cathode follower, as
shown in Fig. II.
Recording on the Basis of Playback Level
In some tape recorders, either through
the operator's choice or through the design of the machine, the recording level
is determined on the basis of the signal
coming off the tape rather than on the
basis of the signal going to the record
head. As illustrated in Fig. 12, the VU
meter is connected to the playback amplifier; a suitable proportion of the
playback signal, obtained through a
voltage divider, is fed to the meter so
that the latter gives the proper reading. At the saine time, the gain control
of the playback amplifier is placed in a
predetermined position so that the
meter reading may correctly indicate
recording level.
Through the above technique, one is
judging recording level on the basis of
the signal that actually gets onto the
tape. When using different brands of
tape or different lots of the same brand,
there may be differences of a few db
in tape efficiency; that is, for the same
signal presented to the tape there may
be different amounts of signal recorded
on the tape. But the amount of distortion
tends to vary with the signal recorded
on the tape. Therefore it may be more
desirable to set recording level in terms
of the amount of signal on the tape
rather than in terms of the signal presented to the tape. Furthermore, in a
recording or broadcast studio there may
be operational advantages in leaving
the meter always connected to the playback amplifier (except when checking
bias current).
On the other hand, there is at least
one disadvantage to the above procedure.
The level of the program material cannot be checked unless the tape is in
motion and being recorded; otherwise
there is no playback signal. Many recordists, however, will wish to evaluate
first the level of the program material,
adjust the recording gain control accordingly, and then put the tape into
Æ
motion.
rom reviews of the
LAVE r'. R.EC(OÌRDEI
T
t'ONC-
Record Guide
(Larry Zide)
"When I wasn't looking I was never quite
Directly after
sure which was which
[the movement from the Bartók quartet]
the audience was informed that except for
the whole had been
the first eight bars
recorded. I must confess that I was completely fooled."
....
...
AUDIO
(C. G. McProud)
"The program notes for the concert suggest
if the audience cannot detect the
that
switchovers, the demonstration would be
successful. By this criterion we would have
to say that it achieved at least 90 per cent
of success."
...
high fidelity
"The [listeners] up front were able to discern an occasional difference during transitions from live to recorded sound, while the
deception was essentially complete for the
But during the pizziman farther back
source
cato movement from the Bartók
location seemed to make no difference; the
recording fooled just about everyone."
...
...
etrgen c uening netorò
(Stuart Davis)
"Only by observing the musicians was it
The repropossible to detect the switch
duced sound was so like the original it was
difficult to believe."
...
The ultimate test of sound reproducing
equipment, we believe, is its ability to
stand up under an "A-B" test in which
"A" is the real thing. The influence of
dramatic but unnatural coloration is
automatically eliminated, and faithfulness to the original sound becomes the
sole standard.
OUTPUT
ADJUSTED TO PERMIT READING
RECORDING LEVEL CORRECTLY
ON THE BASIS OF PLAYBACK
LEVEL.
PLAYBACK
AMPLIFIER
The speaker systems and amplifiers
used in this concert were designed for
the highest quality possible, limited
only by the present state of the art.
Descriptive literature is available for
the asking from:
PLAYBAC K
LEVEL
o
BIAS
LEVEL
RECORD
LEVEL
Fig. 12. Reading recording level on the basis of playback level.
AUDIO
e
DYNACO, INC.
617 41st. St.
Phila., Pa.
Mark III amplifier kit
Preamplifier kit
Stereo Control kit
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH. INC.
24 Thornlike St.
AR -3
Cambridge 41, Mass.
system
$79.95
$34.95
$12.95
speaker
$216.00
39
JULY, 1959
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EQUI PMEtI'r
l000000
.4)O
O
O
(Do
O
PROFIlI
AMPEX 960 TAPE RECORDER
AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT
liy virtue of appearance, size, and sim-
plicity of operation, the Ampex 960 is in
the "home tape recorder" class. In performance it is professional. It is a highly versatile stereo machine capable of meeting almost any desired mode of operation. It
operates at either 7.5 ips or 3.75 ips. It
can operate monophonically or stereophonically. It can play either two -track or four track stereo tapes. It has separate record
and playback heads, desirable not only for
monitoring purposes to ascertain whether
the recording is a faithful imitation of the
original signal, but also desirable to achieve
various special effects that will be discussed
later. It permits mixing of low-level and
high-level signals that are being recorded.
And so forth. About the only thing of consequence that it cannot do is to record
four -track stereo tapes.
As a complete stereo machine the 960
contains four separate amplifiers, two for
recording the left and right channels and
two for playing the left and right channels.
These amplifiers can be used in various
combinations, depending upon the positions
of a recording selector switch and a playback selector switch. For recording, there
are altogether four gain controls. Two are
for high-level input signals, one being for
the left channel and the other for the
right channel. These controls are coaxially
mounted, and while they may be operated
individually, they may also be operated as
a single ganged control because there is
sufficient friction between the shafts so
that turning one will turn the other. Simi-
larly, there are two coaxial gain controls
for left and right microphone inputs. And
there are two coaxial gain controls for
playback, one for the left channel and the
other for the right channel.
The playback selector switch has four
positions: OFF (entire machine shut off),
MONITOR, SINGLE, STEREO. In the OFF position the incoming signal from a high-level
source is routed to the output jack; this is
true for each channel. Frequently a tape
recorder is connected to a control amplifier
so that the recorder interrupts the path of
signals going through the amplifier; instead, these signals are routed to the tape
machine for recording purposes. At the
same time, the only signal that can go
through the control amplifier is that which
comes from the output jack of the tape
machine. Accordingly, in the OFF position
the Ampex 960 provides for continuation
of the signal path.
Exactly the same thing happens in the
MONITOR position of the playback selector
switch; also, the 960 is turned on in this
and subsequent positions of the switch. By
alternating between one of the subsequent
playback positions and the monitor position, one can compare the quality of the
playback signal, as heard through one's
audio system or through headphones, with
the original signal that is being recorded.
The next position of the playback selector switch, called SINGLE, is intended for
monophonic playback. This routes the signal from the left channel into both output
jacks, so that one may hear the sound on
both speakers. The last position, STEREO,
routes the playback signal from the left
channel to the left output jack, and the
Fig. 1. The Ampex
960, shown with
the Ampex Stereo Graph, described
in the text.
40
signal from the right channel to the right
output jack.
The recording selector switch has three
positions, two for stereo and one for mono.
There are two stereo positions, marked R
and L. In either position, both channels
are recording, provided one has pushed
down the record button when turning the
play -record knob to set the transport in
motion. With the switch set to R, the record level meter reads the signal fed to the
right channel; with the switch set to L, it
reads the signal fed to the left channel.
When the switch is set to single (mono),
recording takes place only on the left channel. This prevents erasure of materials on
the right channel.
The three heads-erase, record, and playback-are of the stacked two -track stereo
type. However, for playing four -track
stereo tapes, the playback head can be
moved up slightly so that the two gaps
will correspond to the tracks on a four track tape. The head is moved by a small
lever protruding from behind the head
housing.
The record -level indicator is of the meter
type. It is not a VU meter (although its
action is similar) but is driven by a vacuum tube amplifier and rectifier. The dial
is divided into two sections. About twothirds of the area to the left is labeled
normal, while the remainder at the right
is called high. The recordist should adjust
recording level so that at maximum excursion the pointer hits the limit of the normal
area but does not exceed it; of course this
will vary somewhat in accordance with the
type of material being recorded. When the
machine is set to RECORD, the meter is
illuminated. This not only facilitates reading the meter but, more important, serves
as a warning that the tape is being recorded and thereby guards against accidental erasure of a tape.
Like most professional machines, the 960
does not employ pressure pads to maintain
close contact between the tape and the
heads but depends upon the guide path and
tape tension to maintain such contact.
Avoidance of pressure pads helps minimize
wow and flutter, particularly high frequency flutter, which is more objectionable
and a greater deterrent to clean recording
than low frequency flutter. The 960 routes
the tape around a spring arm, which,
when suddenly released as the result of the
tape running out, stops the reels.
The recorder has internal adjustments
for bias level, for varying the record -level
indication, and for minimizing noise due to
the bias frequency (by balancing the two
halves of the dual -triode oscillator). These
are all important adjustments which may
be necessary when replacing the oscillator
tube, the tube that drives the record -level
meter, or the record head. The bias and
record -level adjustments may also prove
useful if one employs a tape with substantially different characteristics than the
tapes commonly used, for example a high output tape.
Equalization, contrary to the practice of
many professional machines, is fixed. On
the other hand, 5 per cent components are
used in both the record and playback
equalization networks to assure close conformity with the required curves.
In recording, the 960 produces about 1
per cent harmonic distortion at 400 cps
when the meter pointer is at maximum
normal position. At a level about 6 db
greater-well into the high area-about 3
per cent harmonic distortion is generated,
which nowadays is generally considered the
maximum permissible recording level.
(Some professional machines treat 1 or 2
percent as the allowable maximum; on the
other hand, many home machines, including
AUDIO
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
Years Ahead
New Bogen stereo receiver is years
ahead in price and in performance
NO ONE BUT BOGEN,
builder of over one
million high-fidelity and sound distribution components, could have
engineered this new high-fidelity
stereo receiver, the SRB 20. A superb
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highly sensitive FM -AM stereo tuner,
it's a versatile stereo audio control
center, it's a magnificent 20 watt (10
per channel) stereo amplifier, and it's yours for only $199.50
-a price you'd expect to pay for a comparable tuner alone!
BOGEN'S ENGINEERING STAFF,
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largest
of any sound -equipment maker, designed each circuit stage of the SRB
20 as an individual unit. By concentrating on each stage separately,
they can pack more value, more clean
performance in less space than is
otherwise possible. The separate
stages are then carefully,
arranged in an overall circuit of proven superiority.
Bogen concept eliminates wiring clutter, prevents
distortion, provides savings which are passed on to
logically
This new
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Bogen's engineering excellence, crystallized during 25 years
of building specialized sound systems for schools, theatres,
industrial plants and offices, is yours to enjoy in the new
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easily). Ask your Bogen dealer to show it to you today.
kiyt\1,tt\ns:tc¢` ! eve
:
Selector, FM Tuning. AM Tuning. Separate Bass
and Treble for each channel (lock for simultaneous control
of both). Volume for each channel (correct imbalance, then
lock for simultaneous control). Separate On -Off Power. FM
On -Off and AFC. AM On -Off. Multiplex.
CONTROLS:
!t
u
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tltp,
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Send for illustrated booklet, "Understanding High Fidelity."
64 -page explanation of hi-fi and stereo. Enclose 25c please.
BOGEN -PRESTO
AUDIO
co., Dept. A79, P. 0. Box 500, Paramus,
JULY, 1959
N. J. A division of the
Siegler Corporation
41
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If the difficulty is characteristic rather than confined to a single
machine, it seems the manufacturer could
readily solve it by including an additional
guide to prevent the belt from looping
excessively. Of course, one shouldn't put
any tape recorder in the play or record
mode while the reels are moving, but it
could be done by inadvertence.
and is a nuisance.
Fig. 2. The Ampex
880 stereo micro-
phone
and
kit (left),
the 881
stereo headset kit
(right).
several of very high quality, treat 5 per
cent as the allowable maximum.) Accordingly, the meter provides some 6 db margin,
based on a 3 per cent distortion level, for
the fact that the pointer lags behind
transients. In other words, the pointer
shows maximum permissible level when a
steady-state signal is actually 6 db below
that level. This is a reasonable margin of
safety to prevent over -recording due to the
inability of the meter to keep up with the
signal.
Based on a 400 -cps signal recorded at a
level producing 3 per cent harmonic distortion, this observer measured a signal to
noise ratio of 57 db in playback at 7.5 ips.
Needless to say, this is remarkably good.
The user will not have to worry about noise
and hum marring his enjoyment, as is so
often the ease with home tape recorders.
Even at very loud playback levels, and
during quiet passages, noise and hum from
the 960 are nonobtrusive; tape hiss is the
dominating noise.
Frequency response was measured both
by ear and by instrument. The ear is a
better test. A high -quality mono phonograph record was simultaneously recorded
and played back at 7.5 ips on the left
(mono) channel. Monitoring the original
signal against the tape playback signal, the
writer could perceive only extremely slight
differences from time to time, and when
there was a noticeable difference he could
not be sure whether he was listening directly to the record or to the tape playback,
except for the telltale position of the playback selector switch. With someone else operating this switch, he was left in a quandary. In sum, the recording was close to a
perfect facsimile of the original.
However, when recording on the right
channel, there was a slight veiling of the
high end. An instrument check revealed
that frequency response was down 2 db at
10,000 cps and 12 db at 15,000 cps on the
right channel at 7.5 ips, whereas response
was but 2.5 db down at 15,000 cps on the
left channel. The latter is very close to the
Ampex specification of 2 db down at 15,000
cps. When operating at 3.75 ips on the left
channel, there was a similar slight veiling
of the sound. Nonetheless, the quality of
reproduction could still be considered very
good by all except highly critical ears.
When recording and playing back at 3.75
ips on the right channel, the veiling effect
became more definite. At 3.75 ips, response
at 10,000 cps measured only 2 db down on
the left channel and 9 db down on the
right channel.
It is possible that the discrepancy between the left and right channels with re
-
speet to high -frequency response in the unit
tested by the writer lies in the azimuth
alignment of the lower and upper gaps
with respect to each other in either the
record or the playback head. Accurate
azimuth alignment of the gaps relative to
each other is very difficult to achieve, and
it is to be expected that an occasional head
will fail to measure up to the desired acuracy.
Sensitivity of the 960 appears to be
nuite adequate for microphones. However,
it appears marginal for high level inputs
inasmuch as 0.3 volt is required at 400 cps
to enable one to record at a level sufficiently high to produce 3 per cent harmonic
distortion. Playing a record with an ESL
C-60 cartridge through a Dynakit control
amplifier and feeding the 960 from the
tape output jack of the Dynakit, the writer
found it necessary to turn the high-level
gain control of the 960 almost full on to
obtain adequate recording level. It seems
possible that on low-level records or weak
radio or TV signals one might not be able
to record at a satisfactorily high level.
Motion of the transport mechanism is
very good, as checked by ear on steady
signals and as observed on an oscilloscope.
Speed is quite accurate for a machine not
using a hysteresis motor. The writer measured speed as being about 4 seconds fast
in a 10 minute run of a test tape. This is
about % of 1 per cent error in pitch, which
extremely few of us can detect.
On the whole the 960 handles well in
terms of transporting the tape at operating
speed and in terms of rapid wind and rewind. The writer found it virtually impossible to break the tape by changing
quickly from one mode of operation to
another, even when the motor is shut off
during rapid wind or rewind, a difficult
test to pass. However, he did find one
mechanical difficulty of serious proportions,
which may or may not be an aberration
unique to the unit that was tested. If the
machine were put into fast wind position,
the stop button pushed, and-before the
reels had comae to a halt-the play -record
knob actuated to move the tape at normal
speed, this would cause a rubber belt in
the drive mechanism to jam. The belt is
the one that drives an idler wheel which in
turn drives the takeup reel. When the
takeup reel moves faster than the idler
wheel and the two are brought together (by
the play -record knob), this causes the belt
to throw a loop to the right side, jamming
it between the flywheel and the support for
the record level meter. Extricating the belt
is simple, but first one must remove the
top -plate, which requires several minutes
Some difficulty was also noted concerning the speed selector knob. The knob
causes a rubber belt between the motor
shaft and the capstan to move up and
down, thereby riding either a large diameter (up) or small diameter (down) portion
of the shaft. The "owners manual" supplied
with the 960 has a note stating "Equipment
must be on when changing speeds." This
does not appear adequate for two reasons.
First, the note is not displayed prominently
enough; it appears nowhere in the instruction booklet or the "stereo -graph" accompanying the 960. Second, it is difficult to
change from the 3.75 ips speed to the 7.5
ips speed (from down to up) if the equipment is on but the tape is in motion. One
should attempt this speed change only
when the equipment is on and the transport mechanism is in the idle position. If
one attempts to change from 3.75 ips to
7.5 ips under other circumstances, there is
danger of jamming the capstan drive belt.
In fact, even when making the change
properly, one will occasionally hear a protesting sound from the belt, signifying that
it is not moving as intended. The thing to
do is to push the speed change knob clown
again, then try once more, using a sure,
quick motion to bring it up.
There is an interesting point worth
mentioning in connection with the two
knobs used for wind -rewind or setting the
transport into the play -record modes. These
are of flimsy construction, and deliberately
so. They are intended as shear knobs that
will break in the event the operator tries
to force the transport into a mode of operation for which it is not intended-for
example, if one attempts to turn the play record knob when the transport is in the
fast wind mode. This is characteristic of
the intelligent design that is apparent
when one looks "under the hood" of the 960
to inspect its mechanical operation.
Electronics
The record and playback amplifiers in
the 960 are of simple, straightforward design. In recording, two triode stages are
employed for amplification of high-level
signals, the second triode serving as the
record -head driver. All recording equalization-treble boost-is achieved by what is
practically a standard circuit, consisting of
a large cathode resistor which is bypassed
easy to learn
language with the instructor on one
track and your own phrases cri the other,
facilitating home pract;ce end providing
immediate and direct comparisons.
Fig. 3. With the 960, it is
a
AUDIO
42
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e
JULY, 1959
Big or Little
Every Bozak speaker system, from the magnificent
B -310A
and B-400 to the competent little
new "SPINET" Series offers the very best sound in its class
components-have the same capacity for Systematic Growth
others for outstanding musical quality
All are made from the same
- and are distinguished above all
Even where space is sharply limited yet musical
standards are high, the new Bozak two-way B-500 and the three-way B-502 out- perform any
other small speaker system
Only 141/2"x 231/2"x 111/2"
they combine modest price and
size with an unmuffled bass, balanced midrange, sweet, musical highs, and clean transients.
From the largest to the smallest, your Best Buy is BOZAK
AUDIO
a
DARIEN
CONNECTICUT
43
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
by a series resonant coil and capacitor
tuned to about 15,000 cps. When recording
from a microphone, two additional triode
stages are used.
In playback, one dual triode provides all
the amplification (for one channel). This
is succeeded by a cathode follower to produce a low output impedance. Peak output
is about 0.5 volt, which should be sufficient
to drive virtually any home audio system.
Playback bass boost is produced by plate to -cathode negative feedback (from the
second triode to the first), using a turnover
frequency of about 3000 cps at 7.5 ips,
which for practical purposes is NARTB
equalization (the precise NARTB turnover
is 3180 cps). For high gain and simplicity,
the equalization circuit does not incorporate a turnover point at 50 cps, per NARTB
requirements, but depends upon the characteristic "sloppiness" of the feedback curve
at very low frequencies to level out the bass
boost in the manner required by NARTB.
The writer measured response down 2 db
at 50 cps, which agrees with the Ampex
specifications; the NARTB standard permits response to be down as much as 4 db
at
50 cps.
At 3.75 ips, Ampex uses bass boost with
a turnover of approximately 1500 cps,
which is interesting to know in view of the
industry's tendency to follow Ampex's lead.
As stated earlier, the 960 is a very versatile instrument. In addition to the variety
of recording and playback modes already
mentioned, it permits several special functions, such as echo -chamber effects, sound on -sound recording, and language instruction, where instructor and student record
on separate tracks and the results are
compared.
The 960 is an attractive package and,
considering all that it contains, a compact
one, measuring about 17" wide (bear in
mind that the distance across two 7" reels
is 14"), 14" deep, and 9" high in the case.
In closing, it should be noted that the
960 is accompanied by extensive instructions in the form of a booklet that lists
the various modes of operation and details
the setting of each control for each mode.
For the operator's convenience, these listings are also supplied in the form of a
slide rule that Ampex calls a stereo -graph.
Ampex 2010 Amplifier -Speaker
The 2010 comprises a speaker and amplifier in a single case of the same dimensions and appearance as the 960 tape recorder. The speaker is about 8" in diameter.
The amplifier is essentially the Mullard 520
circuit, employing an EF86 pentode at the
front end directly coupled to a long tailed
phase splitter, a 12AU7, driving a pair of
6V6's operated as tetrodes. Negative feedback from the secondary of the output
transformer to the cathode of the EF86 is
frequency discriminating to compensate the
losses of the speaker at the bass and treble
ends of the audio spectrum. Ampex refers
to this arrangement as an "electro-acousric
transducer." In addition, there is provision
for varying the feedback network to provide either bass boost or treble boost by
means of a single tone control on the front
panel.
The front panel also contains a gain control and a selector switch, which turns the
amplifier on and off and selects one of the
following inputs: TAPE, TUNER, PHONO, and
TV. Hence the amplifier can serve as a
control center in conjunction with a tape
machine, tuner, and other signal sources.
The phono input is not intended for magnetic pickups inasmuch as the 2010 does
not contain a preamplification and equalization stage. On the other hand, there
would be some difficulty in accommodating
piezoelectric cartridges inasmuch as these
typically require a load impedance between
1 and 3 megohms, whereas the input impedance of the 2010 is only 0.25 megohm.
By advancing the tone control toward the
bass -boost position, one might obtain passable bass response from a piezoelectric
cartridge.
The 2010 has a tape output jack for
feeding incoming signals to a tape recorder. In any selector position but tape,
the incoming signal is fed to the tape output jack. Thus the 2010 is a complete
companion to the 960.
Performance of the 2010 at the bass end
is surprisingly good. This is partly due to
the bass boost incorporated in the amplifier to balance the speaker characteristics. It is also due to the acoustic loading
of the speaker. About half -way between the
front and rear panels is a thick rectangular
pad of felt or felt -like material that partitions the enclosure. This serves to damp
the speaker and prevent a substantial resonant peak from developing well up in
the bass region due to the limited size of
the enclosure.
Over-all the 2010 sounds well-balanced
and pleasing on music, with the tone control at mid -position. To the extent there is
a deficiency, this appears to be more at the
high end than at the low end. On speech,
the 2010 sounds definitely bassy. However,
the tone control is available for correction.
The writer played several stereo tapes
of good quality on the 960 in conjunction
with two 2010's, and the results were highly
satisfactory. One of the tapes was a violin
concerto, and in the passages for full
orchestra the sound had a breadth and
depth that made it difficult to believe it
was emanating from two relatively tiny
speaker systems. The sound was completely
disassociated from the speakers. It was
true stereo.
There was no information in any of the
materials accompanying the 2010 as to its
power rating and other specifications. The
writer wanted to make measurements, but
found it very difficult to remove the amplifier from its case because of a tight fit, and
gave up the attempt. This raises a question
as to what the owner will do when he wishes
to test and/or replace tubes.
Ampex 880 Stereo Microphones
The 880 is a set of two microphones, each
with an 8 -foot cable. They appear to be
Electro-Voice 623 microphones, which are
high -impedance dynamic units with a rated
response of 60 to 12,000 cps. The cable is
limited to 8 feet in order to prevent significant treble loss. The cable has about 500
µµf capacitance, which is about 60 µµf per
foot. Should the user need to work at a
greater distance than 8 feet from the tape
recorder, he can substitute microphone cable with a capacitance of 25 to 30 µµf per
foot, which makes a 15 -foot length feasible.
The microphone does a very good job,
consistent with the quality of the 960 tape
recorder. When a tape was made with one
of these microphones as the source, reproduction was quite life -like upon playback
through a high -quality speaker system
(although bassy when played through the
2010). The 880 microphone was compared
with a more expensive Electro-Voice microphone that is very well regarded in audio
circles, and there was not much to choose
between the two. Some listeners preferred
one and some the other. (Incidentally, this
points up the fact that microphones, somewhat like speakers and cartridges, are better evaluated subjectively than objectively.)
44
Ampex 881 Ste:eo iiecidphoncs
The 881 consists of headphones with
provision for feeding the left signal to one
ear and the right signal to the other ear.
It has a 5 -foot cable and comes with an
adapter having a 91/2 -foot cable, so that it
may be used at distances up to 141/2 feet
from the tape machine. At one end of the
adapter are two phone plugs that fit into
the output jacks of the 960. At the other
end is a small box with two jacks, in
parallel. Each jack carries both the left
and right signals and is designed to accept
a 3 -conductor phone plug. The cable of the
headphones terminates in such a plug. The
purpose of the extra output jack of the
adapter is to accommodate a second pair
of phones.
The Ampex 881 is the only item of Ampex's home stereo equipment that proved a
disappointment to the writer, possibly because the unit tested was defective. The
sound was tinny and not pleasant, in no
way comparable with the quality of the
2010. The writer was reminded of some of
the speakers he has encountered at outdoor
movies. Moreover, wearing the headphones
more than a few minutes proved oppressive
and uncomfortable. Given a choice between
speakers and headphones, the only reason
that the writer can find for using the headphones would be for monitoring purposes
or language instruction.
On the other hand, if circumstances compel one to listen through headphones, the
Ampex 881 definitely proves a point: that
stereo listening is far superior to mono
listening.
When listening to a properly -made
stereo tape, having good center fill, the
results are much more acceptable than when
listening to a "fake stereo" or "ping pong"
tape having extreme separation between
sounds on the left and on the right. The
writer listened to a "ping pong" tape of a
Broadway musical, and it was irritating to
hear a soloist in one ear and orchestra in
the other, or a duet with each singer in a
different ear. On the other hand, when
listening to a stereo tape with good left right fusion, the results were much better
-hut still tinny.
G-25
PRECISE MARK XXIV
STEREO AMPLIFIER
Combining many attractive and normally luxurious features into an economically priced stereo amplifier is somewhat
of a manufacturing chore these days, but
Precise seems to have done just that with
the new "Integra" stereo amplifier, Mark
XXIV. This unit incorporates two individual amplifier-preamps in a single compact unit, with each one capable of 20 watts
output, or when paralleled, a total of 40
watts on the resulting single channel.
This amplifier, shown in Fig. 4, is built
with an unusual layout -each section being
essentially separate. The left three knobs
in the top row pertain to the channel 1
amplifier, while the right three pertain to
channel 2, with bass, treble, and volume
controls. The lower left knob is a master
loudness control affecting both channels,
thus permitting independent adjustment
of levels yet providing for a ganged control for convenience in operation. The
lower right knob is the selector, with positions for stereo phono, stereo tuner, tuner
with TV, TV alone, and tape amplifier. The
slide switches, from left to right, are:
power on and off, with a third position controlling panel illuminating lamps ; contour, with normal, -10, and -20 positions;
function, with positions for stereo, multiplex, monophonic, and mute-which silences the amplifier while you answer the
"INTEGRA"
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
,
FM 88
AM
55
90 82 94 96
60
65 70
99
80
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.
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102
90_100
04 J06
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140
108
mc
kc
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:
ravoa
ananan
There are two
ways to design a piece of equipment: One is to fix
the cost and design around it. The other is the
Pilot way: produce the finest unit possible and
then price it accordingly. If we knew of another
useful feature to add to our Pilot 690-A, you
would find it in the list below. Not cost for cost's
" "
sake, but for performance's sake.
PILOT 690-A STEREOPHONIC
FM -AM TUNER -DUAL PREAMP:
(50
G
Tuner Section: A deluxe, professional stereo unit offering
the ultimate in reception, even in difficult fringe areas. Its
independent FM and AM sections may be used individually
for FM or AM alone, or simultaneously for FM -AM stereophonic broadcasts. With an external Multiplex demodulator,
the 690-A will provide FM Multiplex stereo reception. FM
tuner features include 1 microvolt sensitivity for 20 db of
quieting: low -noise, dual -triode golden -grid cascode RF amplifier with accurately tracked antenna and interstage circuit
tuning. Freedom from drift is assured by means of a temperature compensated oscillator. Wide -band detector (1,000
kc wide) makes tuning completely non -critical. Audio output
constant and independent of signal level. 3 I.F. stages and
2 limiters, dynamic gated beam and saturation type. Inter station noise suppression (muting) with control for optional
muting defeat. Independent FM tuning meter for true center of -channel tuning and precise station selection. Built-in FM
power -line -cord antenna, and facilities for 300 -ohm twin lead
and 72 -ohm coaxial cable included. AM Section: Sensitivity,
2 microvolts; employs germanium diode detector for maximum efficiency, lowest distortion. Features high -gain pentode RF amplifier, 2 steep -skirted I.F. stages with front
panel bandwidth control and 10 kc whistle filter. I.F. interference rejection trap. Separate AM tuning meter. Built -In
ferrite -core antenna. Dual cathode follower outputs permit
long cables without signal loss.
Preamplifier Section The preamplifier has two identical
channels. Unique automatic shutoff enables record changer
to optionally turn off entire system after last record
has played. DC heater supply; feedback tone control circuits; audio and tape outputs. 4 independent tone controls
with Pilot TroLoK for optional ganging. 14 inputs. 3 pairs of
high level inputs for permanent simultaneous connection of
FM -AM tuner, Multiplex adapter and tape recorder. 4 pairs
of low level inputs for tape head, microphone and permanent
connection of record changer and turntable. All inputs non shorting to permit tape recording and playback without
short-circuiting tape recording signal or changing of plugs.
Electronic crossover for monophonic operation. Mono position on Mode switch automatically cancels out undesired
vertical stereo cartridge response when playing monophonic
records. 18 tubes, 5 diodes, plus rectifier. Size: 145/s" wide
51/2" high x 141/2" deep. Weight: 25 pounds. Complete with
enclosure. $289.50.
Write far
Brochure describing in detail the Pilot 40th
Anniversary Stereophonic Component Series: Stereophonic
Tuners -$179.50 to $289.50. Stereophonic Preamplifiers
$89.50 to $199.50. Stereophonic Amplifiers-$89.50 to
$139.50. Stereophonic Preamplifier -Amplifiers -$129.50 to
$199.50. All prices slightly higher in the West.
-
ur
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PILOT RADIO CORP., 37-04 36th St.. Long Island City 1, N. Y.
AUDIO
e
-15
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
âr7diffl
telephone-; and
a channel reversing
switch.
The chassis is arranged to accommodate
a multiplex adapter inside the case, it being necessary only to make a number of
connections after the adapter is installed
physically. Thus no external devices must
he added to make it possible to add multiplex operation to the amplifier.
On the rear panel are provided a phase
reversing switch and a hunt balance control, together with the inputs and outputs
and an a.c. outlet. The phono preamp has
inputs for magnetic or ceramic/crystal
cartridges, and dual outputs are provided
to feed a tape recorder.
Each amplifier channel employs two
6BQ5's (EL84's) (EL84A's), half of a
12A1.37, and one and a half 12AX7's. Plate
power is supplied by a 6AC4 (EZ81), while
bias for the output stages is furnished by
a germanium diode working in conjunction
with a neon regulator tube to maintain a
constant bias voltage. The effectiveness of
this circuit shows up in the output figures.
Pe. formante
The unit tested measured 3 per cent IM
distortion at 19 watts, but up to 12 watts
the figure was below 1 per cent. The two
channels were well balanced, both as to, output and frequency response. The phono
channels were within 3 (lb of the exact
RIAA curve, and on the high-level inputs
the response was flat within 1 db from 20
to 17,000 cps, according to our measurements. Sensitivity was sufficient to accommodate all but the extremely -low -output
magnetic cartridges, and quite adequate for
the ceramics. Hum and noise measured 48
db below 1 watt on the phono inputs, and
59 db below 1 watt on the high-level inputs.
One advantage of the completely separate volume controls in the two channels
is that once the levels arc set, the master
loudness control operates on both channels
simultaneously, avoiding the problem of
non -tracking controls which has been
encountered in some observed. Many users
will find that the separate tone controls are
somewhat of an advantage, although we
would prefer to have them ganged if, and
only if, they were closely matched. Undoubtedly there is more flexibility to be
obtained from the separate controls than
from any ganging combination, although
for our own purposes, we have noted that
we very seldom use a tone control at all.
But that is why there are so many different
"system philosophies" in the various amplifiers on the market-some like them one
way and seine prefer them another.
The 20 -watt outputs of the Mark XXIV
would not be considered sufficient for some
of the low efficiency speakers, since the
amplifier would be working up into the
higher distortion areas much more of the
time, but with speakers of reasonable
efficiency this unit would serve quite well.
G-26
prevented from dropping completely by the
insertion of a card, for example, near its
axis to hold it above its resting point.
change cycle operates through a set
Fig. 4. Precise of The
Nylon gears completely independent
Mark XXIV stereo from the rubber idler, which accounts for
amplifier, the "In- the constant cycle time, and this feature
tegra."
also removes the cycling drive pressure
from the turntable idler. The motor is a
heavy four -pole type; the turntable itself
is quite heavy; the arm, metal, apparently
has no resonances-at least, none in the
important audio ranges.
One example of simplified construction is
the method by which the stylus force is
changed. The arm is spring -counterbalanced, the adjustment being made by positioning a small removable metal punching into one or another of a number of
LESA RECORD CHANGER
slots molded into the underside of the arm.
MODEL CD2/21
The spring is removed from the punching,
One of the newest record changers to
and the latter is pulled out of one groove
reach these shores-meaning that it is an and put into another by means of a pair of
imported model-is the LESA CD2/21. long -nose pliers. Admittedly not as quick as
This unit is made in Italy, and while it is a screw or nut type of adjustment, but who
not equipped with a host of features, it changes stylus forces daily, or even weekly?
does a remarkably efficient job of record
Once the user has decided what cartridge
changing. However, while somewhat simpli- he is going to use, he adjusts the stylus
fied, the LESA is fully automatic, runs at
force and then leaves it alone, probably
four speeds, intermixes 7-, 10-, and 12 -inch for mouths at a time. But the total cost of
records, can be operated manually, and
such a device is considerably less then
works through its change cycle in six secsome other types of adjustment, and this is
onds regardless of the turntable speed. In
reflected in the cost of the unit. The range
addition, it has a four -terminal plug-in of adjustment with a GE VE -22 cartridge
head and two output cables, and the out- is from well over 15 grams stylus force to
puts are shorted when the last record is less than zero, which indicates that the
played and the arm returns to the rest, range will accommodate both heavier and
stopping the motor and retracting the idler lighter cartridges than the GE model.
wheel.
Rumble level of the LESA measured at
The changer is finished in two tones of -32 db, in accordance with NARTB stangray, and has only two controls-the dards, and this is only 3 db below the
speed -change knob, and the on/reject or
standard for broadcast reproducing turnstop knob. The latter retracts the idler
tables. Actually, the figure seems relatively
whenever the unit is shut off, although if low, but the method of measuring specified
it is permitted to shut itself off at the end
uses a stylus velocity of 7 cm/sec as the
of the last record it retracts its own idler. reference (1.4 cm/sec at 100 cps) whereas
The mechanism which determines the set the normal maximum stylus velocity is
down point consists of a feeler arm which
nearer 20 cm/sec, so the signal-to-noise
raises from its housing alongside the arm ratio is actually 10 db higher.
pivot (luring the change cycle. When a 7 We would consider the LESA as a high inch record drops, it misses the feeler comquality medium-priced changer which
pletely so the arm sets down at 7 inches. would be particularly ideal in an installaA 10 -in. record pushes the feeler down just
tion where the user had both a single -play
a little, and a 12 -in. record pushes it all
turntable and a changer-primarily using
the way down, thus setting the mechanism
the latter for background-type music or
to make the arm set down at the correct
for those applications where a changer was
point. At the conclusion of the change especially desired. It works smoothly and
cycle, the feeler arm retracts. The record
quickly, and with never a jam in 297 actual
balance guide drops to its lowest position cyclings. In other words, it is an effective
when no more records are on the spindle,
work horse of a changer which does its
which causes the unit to shut off after the
basic job of changing records well. No
last record is played-thus it will play 7 -in. tricks, perhaps, but a consistent performer.
records indefinitely if the balance arm is
G-27
Fig. 5. The
LESA
CD2/21-anew
record changer
from Italy.
46
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
o
JULY, 1959
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47
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
EDWARD TATNALL CANBY*
BIC NAMES
1.
Scarlatti: Tetide in Sciro (Thetis in
Skyros). Soloists, Angelicum Orch. of Milan, Janes.
Westminster OPW 1305 (3)
This quite lengthy classical opera is a fine
lesson in music appreciation, new -style, especially for those who have dabbled in that
somewhat old-fashioned kind of music history.
You always hear about the "old" or classical
opera but you seldom, if ever, get to listen to
an actual example. The piquant aspect of this
one is that it is by Domenico Scarlatti, he of
the hundreds of harpsichord sonatas, rather
than by Allesandro Scarlatti the great master
of "old" opera! This opera was rediscovered
only a few years ago and it is the only such
work of Domenico S. that is still extant.
Westminster, it seems to me, could have
used a bit more imagination in packaging this
music for home use. The opera, like others of
its type, consists of a large number of single
arias, each preceded by a stretch of recitative
to the harpsichord. Each recitative Introduces
a new bit of the story, takes things forward a
bit, makes clear another slice of complication
-and the arias furnish the musical commentary on the situation. Without an understanding of what is going on at the moment, you'll
find yourself listening to what amounts to an
extended concert of Italian classical "songs."
(Most of the old Italian music sung in solo
voice recitals today originates in such operas.)
Very nice, but too much of a muchness, what
with six entire LP sides of the stuff Even
Scarlatti would have been horrified at the idea.
The libretto, of course, is what keeps you on
the operatic track. With its help, you can enjoy the opera in its proper sense. (No opera
was ever composed, remember, to be heard and
not understood.) Westminster gives us the
complete libretto in Italian and English side
by side. The only trouble is that though the
printed text is complete, the recorded opera
is extensively cut in order to scale it down
from the original evening -long entertainment
to a mere three-record LP album. And each
cut is its own booby trap.
To be sure, the cuts are studiously marked
in the libretto by an X at the beginning and a
very unobtrusive O at the end. But as you follow the music by ear and eye together, you are
bound to be derailed at each X. The music
jumps in a flash, while you flounder down the
columns of the text trying frantically to locate the end of the cut-and if you don't work
fast, you'll be lost, since the music doesn't
D.
!
wait.
I did my best, but I found that the pay-off
was that you must necessarily read through
the cut-out parts of the text if you are to
make sense of the story. Some cuts are whole
scenes long.
This, you see, is a problem that needs an
ingenious solution, which it doesn't get here.
Not easy, and I can only suggest that Westminster could have done something simple
such as print the cut portions in Italics, for
instant visibility. That's what I mean by
imagination. Sure, It might cost a bit more,
but why put the opera on records in the first
place? Yes, It's a fine cultural monument on
records and all that. Let's give Westminster
all credit for making it available. But I'm the
sort who insists (as you will) that this sort
of recording be practical, as well as cultural.
The story isn't easy, at that, what with a
passel of disguises-the hero, Thetis, dressed
as a woman and named Arminda and oppositely, a lady named Antiope who is disguised as a man named Filarte Everybody
falls in love with everybody else, usually of
the wrong sex, and the band of fate and destiny takes a devious route before all is untangled and the right people pair off. And yet
this ultra -serious plot, zany by itself for us
today, is given dignity by the music and becomes beautiful along with it. That's why the
libretto is so vital for a modern listener.
The music itself is lovely and will cause
you no trouble at all, except in its quantity.
Tuneful, dignified, expressive, it is sung here
by a dedicated group, with good pitch and
diction and only a suggestion of the Verdi style operatic bellowing that is the natural
style of Italian singers today. A small orchestra plays a pleasing orchestral backdrop
in excellent style.
!
Gesualdo: Canzonetta, Madrigals, Gail liards, Sacrae Cantiones, Psalms (Vol. 2).
Conducted by Robert Craft.
Columbia MS 6048 stereo
This second volume of music by the famed
Italian eccentric nobleman of the early 17th
century (he was a fine murderer) continues a
movement towards a new kind of professional
singing of today, that might almost be called
anti -operatic. It is, as you hear it on these
records, a kind of vocal chamber music, sung
by perfectly matched, semi -anonymous voices
that blend as smoothly as a string quartet,
the individual singers barely maintaining any
personality at all-indeed, they are listed
only in the small type on the record's back
side. The singers alternate with a string quartet, for variety in the listening.
Though I enormously admire the finesse of
these performances, the perfect blend, the absolute pitch accuracy, the careful diction, I
still do not feel that they represent the sense
of the music very well. They sing dead -pan,
these people, where to me the music is almost violently, explosively eloquent. They
stress a gentle, steady beat, in the modern
way, whereas there should be no beat, but
only the dynamic shape of the actual words
themselves.
You'll pardon me this opinion-I conduct
my own group of singers in music of this
sort and we do it quite differently. With all
deference to Mr. Craft, who is one of the
most brilliant conductors of contemporary
music now alive and an extraordinary musician as well as scholar and writer, I feel that
he reads a twentieth century instrumental
neo-classicism into this music that is simply
not there. It sounds like Stravinsky-which
isn't at all surprising since Craft has been an
outstanding interpreter of Stravinsky and a
close associate of that master.
Ah But the vocal tone quality, the perfection of blend, the organ -like harmonies
It's an experience to hear this group in Gesualdo's amazingly daring music, if only for the
!
!
*
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accuracy with which its actual pitch is reproduced for the listening ear.
The string quartet plays some unexpected
instrumental bits by Gesualdo and does it
poorly, in a choppy, unsteady fashion, without style. Not a very happy contrast.
Brahms: Symphony #4. Boston Symphony, Munch.
RCA Victor LSC 2297 stereo
Did I warm up to this record as it went
along? Or does it begin with less impact than
it ends? To be sure, the first movement opens
quietly-but throughout it I felt that the restrained classicism of Brahms was something
else again than this careful, held -in production, the high, double-octave string passages
almost inaudible in contrast to many an oldfashioned performance where they almost
squeal, all out of tune! The top impact of
this recording comes in that most formal
of structures, the great chaconne of the last
movement based on an eight -note rising chromatic theme. There, it really hits.
The Boston strings never play out of tune,
anyhow, no matter how h'gh they must
screetch ; but I really think old Brahms
would have liked a first movement with more
warmth than this one. No guts, no freshness.
(But how could there be, after thousands of
playings? That's always the big question.)
Maybe it's right that this music should now
lack freshness for American musicians, even
though in Germany Brahms reigns forever,
alongside of Bruckner. Could be that we have
more progressive, less traditional ears. Could
be that our musicians really do prefer something newer, more indigenous, more of the
present. Just a thought in passing.
Brahms: Piano Concerto
cago Symphony, Reiner.
RCA Victor LSC 2219 stereo
splendid combo here, as in other cases
where the steely Reiner has lent his fine
discipline to a soloist with romantically
poetic expressiveness.
By himself, Reiner tends to screw up the
tension in Brahma to an unheard-of tautness, to stylize the warm, relaxed passages
and pile on the climaxes until it hurts. But
the Russian school of performance hasn't got
to this stage yet (though their composers
have)-the Russian playitg of Romantic
music is still remarkably lush and expressive.
That's what Gilels brings to this huge concerto, an authoritative playing that Is utterly
disciplined and shaped in the largest mould,
yet still remains easily warm where warmth
and a sense of relaxation is the requirement.
It's a dying art, this, and the fact that It
has died sooner over here than in Russia
might, perhaps, indicate faster "progress"
here, towards newer musical expressions.
Again, just a passing thought, in retrospect.
A
Mahler: Symphony # 10.
Walton: Partita for Orchestra (1957). The
Cleveland Orch., Szell.
Epic BC 1024 stereo
I had never heard the Mahler Tenth before-two movements salvaged from his last,
unfinished symphony. This recording (not the
AUDIO
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
#2. Gilels; Chi-
I
JULY, 1959
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49
JULY, 1959
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
first) simply bowled me over. If that man
wasn't a top genius of musical expression,
then I'm an idiot.
In experiences of the sort you'll have in
listening to this music, nobody can say for
you what your feeling will be. Either you
hear what Mah'-er writes, or you don't. The
tremendously poignant, moving, expressive
lines of melody, the almost hysterically eloquent dissonance, that never resolves yet
never becomes harsh. rather-somehowmore and more personal, the extraordinary
"line" of these complex melodic shapes,
leaving tones hanging. untnished, in the
mind, weaving a complex web of emotional
tension through melody itself, the marvelously
simple harmonies, so endlessly fresh-all this
is the sort of thing that is felt, without
words, if your ear can take it in.
What more is there to say? Try it and see.
If your musical sense is experienced enough
to catch onto Mahler's language, you'll never
forget this piece. If not-then, I say, come
back to it and try again later. I don't know
what possessed the Cleveland orchestra and
Mr. Szell here but to me they sound positively angelic ; it is a superb performance and
worthy to stand beside any recorded Mahler
by such as the more famous Bruno Walter.
Extraordinary team work, of a sort you
rarely hear today.
The recent Partita by the Britisher, William
Walton. is perhaps an unfortunate team-mate
on this record. It's a nice, bright, beautifully
orchestrated piece, full of pep and color and
not a little triteness, perhaps out of Sir
William's extensive experience in writing
movie music. By itself it is just fine, but
after Mahler's soul-tearing music, it seems
utterly flat and almost a desecration. Better
play it first
-
!
Dvorak: Violin Concerto.
Glazounov: Violin Concarto. Millstein;
Pittsburgh Symphony, Steinberg.
Capitol SP 8382 stereo
Here are two big Romantic concertos, in
a recording re-released for its stero debut out
of earlier Capitol material, and though the
Dvorak is probably the most enduring work
It is the Glazounov that makes the easiest
listening.
It isn't that Glazounov is superficial so
much as that he was a natural concerto man,
whereas Dvorak was one of those composers
who somehow flounder in immensity when
they get down to concerto writing-they try
to make their music lofty and timeless in the
grand manner, where it would be better off
in a simpler style. Oddly, it is in Dvorak's
symphonies that he achieved the direct orchestral style that makes him so accessible
to us today. For him, evidently the symphony
was a less formal, more congenial medium
than the concerto-which had to wear full
dress, so to speak, as he conceived lt.
You'll find plenty of good Dvorak lilt and
melody here, but it won't hit you first -off,
then. But perhaps after the tenth playing
you'll be utterly bored with the more sensuous and colorful Glazounov, and delighted
with Dvorak. Could be.
I almost left the performance and recording unmentioned ; in truth, you can take It
for granted as tops with these musical forces
and Capitol's big, natural Pittsburgh stereo
sound.
Chopin: Mazurkas (Complete). Nadia
Reisenberg, piano.
Westminster XWN 18830/31/32
Reisenberg is one of those big, forthright
lady pianists who manage to combine the
feminine attributes of sensitivity and allure,
pianistically speaking, with the masculine
virtues of strength, authority, massivenessalso speaking pianistically. (You won't have
to worry whether she weighs 110 or 210 ;
you can't see her.) This is her second big
set for Westminister, the complete Nocturnes
having been already released.
I expected, somehow, to find these a bit
on the hard side but I was delightfully surprised. Without sacrificing any part of her
authoritative strength, Miss Reisenberg here
plays with a bewitching and lovely tone,
poetic, alive, lyric. There is give, elasticity,
where too many newer pianistic virtuosos
bang and whang away; there is songfulness
but well -styled and controlled.
This set of records made me remember
again that Chopin himself is said to have
played in a fairly gentle style, all things
considered, and I can't help remembering,
too, that his music is always more for the
salon than for the huge concert hall. It is
styled that way by Reisenberg, though with
all the strength you can want in the louder
passages.
Westminster's recording is superb, though
it does not produce the effect, noted in Westminster's standard blurb, of the listener's
chair being "in the most favored seat, acoustically, in the concert hall." Instead, it is
close-up, fairly dry in sound but wonderfully
natural and, in the big moments, astonishingly clean. A fine recorded effect any way
you look at it, and right in your own home
salon.
Bach: Brandenburg Concertos (Complete).
Members of the Cento Soli Orch. of Paris,
Scherchen.
Omega OML 1039/40/41
These three discs (available separately)
are the first non -stereo Omegas I've received
and I assume that stereo Is also availablesince all the other recent and excellent
Omegas with this French orchestra have been
recorded in stereo.
Here, in the umpteenth-umptteth, I
should say-recording of the six Bach Concertos, we have an odd combo, an all French orchestra and a noted. if somewhat
eccentric, German conductor. The results are
erratic if, on the whole, very listenable.
Scherchen is most likely to be noticeable in
his often violently eccentric tempi and dy-
namics. Here, the Scherchen touch, which I
would in this case call the kiss of death,
comes in the last Concerto, Number Six. It
is done in abysmally slow time, straight
through-even the normally bouyant movement at the end-and without the slightest
trace of expression or phrasing, absolutely
dead-pan. Is he serious? Undoubtedly. But
then, that's Scherchen, All or nothing.
Most of the other works play along at
normal -sounding speeds and in fairly natural
stylings, the orchestration modern and relatively authentic, with harpsichord continuo,
high trumpet and the rest. In listening to
these works we ought to remember, I think,
that they are essentially chamber music for
a large "chamber" and do not really require
the services of n conductor; a group of good
musicians can play the stuff beautifully without external help. Indeed, the only "conductor" envisioned in the original would have
been the man at the harpsichord, who would
have merely given a helpful nod now and
again at points of change. (Since the music
was never played in Bach's time, he didn't
get a chance to accompany it himself at the
keyboard.)
The French touch is evident here in two
ways. First, there is a somewhat brittle,
bright quality to the sound that comes in
part from French ways of playing, as contrasted to the thicker, sweeter German approach. Second, the French instruments
themselves contribute a rather typical sound,
especially the wind instruments, the more
nasal oboes, for example. And, of course,
there are the French horns, which in France
are played with a vibrato and sound like
saxophones. Odd-but who knows whether
Bach's own didn't do the same?
2.
ANYTHING
GOES
Music and Song cf Italy. Collected by
Alan Lomax.
Tradition TPL 1030
If you like your folk music styled for nightclub and restaurant, stay away. This is real`
country stuff, from one of the most primitive
parts of existing Europe-racey, raw, often
ugly. The men yell and the women scream
sometimes, though they'd call it singing ; the
harmony varies from none to the sound of
the thirteenth century, plus suggestions of
every age since then, preserved ever since in
these outlaying and Isolated areas of Southern Italy and Sicily.
I gather that this is material more or less
left over from the huge Columbia series of
folk recordings done by Lomax. It seems to
fit in with that material, anyhow, and of
50
course Lomax made hundreds of hours of
tape for each bit that found its way onto
the final discs. This, in any case, is fascinating stuff and my only complaint is one
that can't be answered-how to put enough
of each item down, and yet cover the ground.
Too many fade-outs just as timings get interesting. But some of these items would be
good to hear the long night straight through,
as they were probably heard mn the original!
Musica Flamenca. Nino Ricardo, guitar.
Epic LC 3556
Flamenco Espana. Bernabé de Morón
(with other guitars, mandolin, dancers).
Hifirecord 8811 stereo
These two came in together and I was intrigued to note that the second man was a
student of the first. Not being a flamenco
expert, I can't tell you which of them plays
the better music-but the two records are
interestingly different.
The Epic recording of Niflo Ricardo is
made close-up, with no liveness at all-it is
in effect an absolute recording, the instrument
itself without acoustic room coloration. The
single guitarist plays alone, minus singing
(though at this close range be can be heard
producing a slight wheeze or groan along
with his playing). For my en c, there's an uncomfortable feeling of restraint. We are much
too close for pleasure and the man seems
somehow to be out of his element, playing
not for dancers and listeners but for the
impartial microphone in some dead and
formal studio.
Flamenco experts won't ru nd this a bit
and I expect the music itself is spontaneous
enough. But the rest of us w,11 find this Epic
recording easiest to listen to at a distancein another room or around the corner, rather
than face to face. That adds at least a bit
of atmosphere and space to the sound, even
if it is only our own home -style acoustics.
You have here a fine demonstration of absolute recording itself (I coined the term for
my own convenience a long while back) but,
even more important, a good illustration of
our universal need for non -absolute recording-i.e., some species of liveness or atmosphere built into the recorded sound and
reproduced along with it. Absolute recording
is clinically revealing but strangely unconvincing.
The Hifirecord stereo adds just this element, in a number of useful ways. First, it
is clearly made within an r.udible space, as
you listen, and stereo helps to strengthen
the effect. Second, the extra guitars (spaced
out in stereo) plus the contrasted metallic
sound of the mandolin every so often, make
for the excitement of musical teamwork, a
vital part of this type of music. Finally, a
group of dancers is heard in time background,
sometimes as a loud castanet accompaniment,
sometimes in the actual foot work ; the excitement of their actions is beautifully conveyed in the recorded sound
Exact coordination of dancers and instruments in many of the shifting flameco
rhythms shows us, too, how these dance-and music patterns are known traditions, shared
by all the performers.
Both records are of excellent quality. The
Hifirecord is one of the best stereos I've
heard in sheer sound perfection, with superb
string and footwork transients and a phenomenally quiet, rumblefree background.
African Jazz.
Baxter & His Orch.
Capitol T-1117
If Les Baxter is African, then I guess this
is African music, but it sure wasn't recorded
in the jungle. More likely In the Capitol
Tower, Hollywood & Vine.
You see, I got this one by accident ; it was
resting demurely inside an album cover labelled "Five Centuries of Spanish Music"
with Victoria de los Angeles. Imagine my
surprise. But I'm always ready to take
Capitol up, surprise or no. .
Anyhow (am I right, Mr. Robertson?),
this is moderately cool and sophisticated jazz
of a mildly progressive sort, replete with a
number of exotic instruments and sound -effects which, I suppose, might be termed
African. Very nice recording and I wish
Capitol had tricked me in stereo, instead of
mono. Very nice music, come to think of it.
Les
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
a
JULY, 1959
Five Centuries of Spanish Song. Victoria
Capitol -EMI G7155
de los Angeles.
I wrote right back to Capitol and got them
to send me another Five Centuries' worth,
this time with the right disc inside. If I am
right, this is a reissue of the recording that
was once available on RCA Victor (from
before the demise of the RCA -EMI hook-up),
refurbished and improved in sound.
De los A. is not only a superbly musical
singer but also an unusually widely versed
musician, interested in more than the mere
sound of her own voice. This collection is
done in a somewhat old-fashioned way (with
a neutrally modern accompaniment and a good
deal of arranging) but it doesn't matter;
what counts is the superb quality, the gentle
accuracy, of this voice. This was a collectors'
item at RCA and it surely will be again,
Just as soon as it goes out of print-when
and if. Better grab it, anyway.
than ever
Now
..
"THE BEST BUY IN HI-FI"
Anything Goes. (Hi-fi on the Harpsichord).
Bruce Prince -Joseph and His Group.
RCA Camden CAL 416
I only mention this one because (a) the
guy with the funny name, Prince -Joseph, happens to be one of the best Baroque-style organists around and has presided at numerous important concerts in Carnegie Hall and
the like (he's the only man who can make
Carnegie Hall's organ sound like Bach's) ;
(b) he has an organ recording on the Hifirecord (Hifitape) label that goes through Just
about every professional organists' trick on
a strictly non -Baroque church -style organ
and (c) he plays-improvises, more or less
species of modern Jazz, as herewith.
Multiple threat. like so many younger musicians, breaking down the old barriers.
.
Cool (?), sophisticated stuff again, elaborating old favorites, including "Anything
Goes" as well as "Thou Swell" and "Surrey
with the Fringe on Top."' Some organist
Betcha he could do a Giant Wurlitzer recording, if you wanted him to, or maybe the
entire works of J. S. Bach.
-a
!
Music far Frustrated C_nc'uctors. (Baton
RCA Victor LSC 2325 stereo
included).
Pops Stoppers. Boston Pops, Fiedler.
RCA Victor LM 2270
RCA Victor stops at nothing when it comes
to figuring ways of using the same old pieces
and the same fine recordings over and over
again. Old wine in new bottles The Boston
Pops in particular has practically run out of
titles for its dozens and dozens of ever -fresh,
ever -best-selling records, and this one must
have won a prize in the RCA main office.
Let's hope it doesn't stop the Pops-fat
chance.
I won't even bother to list the Pops Stoppers items ; you know what the Pops sounds
like and you'll go for this, in brand-new
hi-fi, if you go for the rest. (I do.) As for
the Frustrated Conductors item, it must have
been the outcome of an especially turgid
repertory discussion. The idea is fine in theory
but slightly dizzy in practice. It won't get
you far on the way to being a conductor.
Of course RCA didn't know that I am a
conductor, at least of choral music, and that
I was Just dying to try out a baton on my
small choral group. I got two-one for stereo
and one for mono-and the very next singing
session we had, I practically poked out the
eyes of my front row of singers with my
new baton. Lovely white, plastic coated grip
on one end-you won't drop It even in a
Toscanini tantrum.
As for you, well, you can beat away to
your heart's content as this record plays, but
even with Deems Taylor's amiable and slightly
vague helping footnotes, you won't get far.
Sure, he tells you how to beat threes and
twos and fours (with pictures) and writes a
running comment on each piece ; but if I
know you, it'll take more than Deems Taylor
to put you on the beat in these excerpts.
Diabolically tough, several of them.
I expect you'll settle quickly for Deems'
emergency beat, the "one . . . one
. one"
system, when things get complicated ; but
even this is going to be hard, for RCA and
Mr. Taylor forget that most of us tend to
(Continued on page 58)
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JULY, 1959
City
State
51
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
composer and arranger makes him an acknowledged leader. Included '.s Stablemates,
one of his first tunes to attract attention,
along with two of more recent vintage which
offer proof positive that hib star is continuing to rise. They are the warm and eloquent Blues On My Mind, and Thursday's
Theme. The presence of bassist Percy Heath
prompts an arrangement of John Lewis' Afternoon in Paris. Pianist Ray Bryant contributes Calgary, in a setting by Gigi Gryce
who also adds You're Not The Kind. The
drummer, to be sure, is Philly Joe Jones
Golson can speak with the lingering tenderness of Coleman Hawkins or the brisk
urgency of John Coltrane. He does both here
and his perfect foil is trumpeter Less Morgan.
Because his last appearance on this label,
under Art Farmer, was credited some months
ago as containing the "most" attributes of any
LP of the year, not much is left to be said
for this album. But it is at least as good,
and considerably better in stereo.
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON*
STEREOPHONIC
Bud Shank: Holiday In Brazil
World Pacific Stereo 1018
The Mastersounds: Ballads & Blues
World Pacific Stereo 1019
time when
A hot summer evening is one
West Coast jazz definitely deserves a place
in the living room. Its cooling influence is
most agreeable and relaxing under such circumstances. The two newest items in this
label's current batch of six stereo releases
contain these elements in varying degrees of
intensity. Laurinda Almeida provides a sheaf
of Brazilian themes for Bud Shank and
they work them over together with considerable skill. The result is an intriguing
concoction, a combination of jazz improvization and written passages of folk and
classical descent. The most successful bit is
Mood Antigua, on which Shank plays flute
instead of alto sax and drummer Chuck
Flores distributes the rhythm of tabla drums
between two channels. The standards are
Rodgers and Hart's 1 Didn't Know What
Time It Was, and Little Girl Blue. The bassist
is Gary Peacock, and Almeida's guitar is
both unamplified and unechoed.
The Mastersounds move closer to the area
occupied by the Modern Jazz Quartet in this
outing, playing Milt Jackson's Bluesology,
and John Lewis' Fontessa. The usual comparison between two groups of like instrumentation becomes even more inevitable. But
Monk Montgomery, playing Fender electric
bass, gives them things of their own to say
on his originals Little Stevie, and Monk's
Ballad. Pianist Richie Crabtree contributes
Heidi. Vibist Buddy Montgomery usually is
centered in stereo, as the other soloists move
to the front in turn. Drummer Benny Barth
stirs up a comfortable breeze on Gillespie's
The Champ, and Miles Davis' Solar.
"The King and I" (World Pacific Stereo
1017) the first venture into the field of show
tunes by the Mastersounds, is still one of
their best. The Siamese feeling of the dances,
the beauty of the ballads, and the gaiety of
the production are all splendidly conveyed,
and the recording is excellent.
"Annie Ross Sings a Song with Mulligan"
(World Pacific Stereo 1020), our purely personal nomination as the most satisfying jazz
vocal album in years, sounds even greater in
stereo. It also confirms a conviction that of
the two sessions required, the one attended
by Art Farmer and Bill Crow turns out more
cording. Crow's bass seems better placed than
favorably, both musically and in the re that played by Henry Grimes.
"Ellington Suite" (World Pacific Stereo
1016), a rewarding examination of eleven
middle -period Ellington compositions, involves
the original Chico Hamilton Quintet, plus
Paul Horn. The arrangements by Carson
Smith offer subtle and colorful ensemble
work and allow ample solo space.
"The Sound of Big Band Jazz in Hi-Fi"
(World Pacific Stereo 1015) a gathering from
previously released albums, samples the large
studio groups in the label's catalog. The
73.2
The Parkway, Mamaroneck, N. Y.
stereo effect varies from track to track. Most
are picked for a dancing beat, and the leaders
are Gil Evans, Johnny Mandel Gerry Mulligan, Chet Baker, Bill Holman, Bud Shank,
Art Pepper, Bill Perkins, and Cy Touff.
The Thelonious Monk Orchestra At Town
Hall
Riverside RLP1138
This February Thelonious Monk made his
entry into Town Hall in a concert divided
between his regular quartet and a ten -piece
orchestra. The portions preserved here consist of originals reworked by the composer,
in collaboration with Hall Overton, for the
larger group. Always a figure of controversy,
Monk enters a new stage in his career to the
familiar chorus of voices in dissent. From
some published reactions, even the modern
side jazz seems to have traditionalists who
resent change. Be that as it may, an important consideration is that the step was
taken before an audience in lieu of Monk's
personal preference for a darkened studio.
The entire program was too much to absorb
in an evening, especially from the confines of
a theatre seat, and a sense of strain could
easily develop. The recording permits a more
leisurely approach and clearly defined stereo
reveals all the parts for lengthy persusal.
Of six tunes, the most extended is Friday
the 13th, with a long and characteristic Monk
piano passage. Among the soloists are Donald
Byrd, Charlie Rouse, Phil Woods, Eddie
Bert, and Pepper Adams.
Mundell Lowe: TV Action Jazz!
Camden CAS522
The second low-priced stereo production by
Mundell Lowe and assembled All Stars brings
the musical backgrounds of seven television
whodunits into sharp focus. Besides giving a
fresh voicing to "Peter Gunn" themes, the
guitarist enlarges upon the less substantial
motifs which serve to identify "Mike Hammer," "Perry Mason," "The Thin Man," and
"Naked City." His most skillful feat of detection is tracking down jazz elements in the
"77 Sunset Strip" score. That hackneyed
opus, booted off by a Tony Scott chorus on
baritone sax, receives its best performance
yet. The octet's operatives find an open-andshut case in "M Squad," played on TV by
Count Basie's crew, and Eddie Costa wraps
it up with an arresting piano interlude.
Costa is heard also on vibes and marimba,
while Scott plays clarinet and an unnamed
flutist, probably Herbie Mann, doubles on
tenor sax. Variety is added to the instrumentation thereby, without impeding the free
flow of ideas. Jimmy Cleveland, Donald Byrd,
Don Payne and Ed Shaughnessy pursue their
quarry on a straight jazz course, an ideal way
to handle such material. That their fee fits
most budgets is another inducement to employ
their services.
Benny Golson And The Philadelphians
United Artists UAS5020
As the title indicates, all members of the
quintet are former residents of Philadelphia
united briefly under the banner of Benny
Golson, a brilliant tenor saxist whose skill as
Ellington Jazz Party
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Stereo
Columbia CS8127
Duke Ellington: At His Very Best
RCA Victor LMP1715
Since the success of Ellington's Newport
1957 jazz festival album, someone at Columbia
seems convinced that the applause between
tracks sells the Duke. Although portions of
his 1958 Newport concert were remade in a
studio, crowd noises are retained via dubbing.
Now, on the pretext of taking you to a jazz
party, the same procedure encroaches on the
close of each number and the beginning of
some. The festival aura extends to the program, calling to mind Hodge Podge, the title
of a tune Johnny Hodges recorded in 1938.
He must have sensed the comparison; at least
one of the saving graces is his alto -sax solo
on All of Me.
Where stereo is concerned, the other is the
nine -man percussion section added on two of
the leader's new works, introduced last summer at Lewisohn Stadium. Finding the composer in a gay mood, they strike a happy
medium between some of the serious contemporary writing in the field and the supercharged improvisations of Art Blakey. Two
vibraphones, two xylophones, a glockenspiel,
and a marimba occupy the center, with the
full band on one side and tympani on the
other. Stereo works less well on Toot Suite,
where inner-groove distortion sets in during
Paul Gonsalves' multichorus ride out.
Guests invited to participate musically are
DIzzy Gillispie, Jimmy Jones, and Jimmy
Rushing. But why Gillespie and no solo space
for Clark Terry? Jones is pianist behind
Rushing on Hello Little Girl, where the most
exciting sound comes from the baritone sax
of Harry Carney. And why has no one thought
of bringing him together with the blues
shouter before?
The reissue set from Victor lives up to its
title, and ranges from a 1927 Creole Love Call,
with Adelaide Hall and Bubber Miley, to a
1946 Transblucency, with vocalese from Kay
Davis. Included are Concerts for Cootie, Jack
the Bear, Harlem Air Shaft, and the original
recording of Black, Brown, and Beige. No
stereo, but the playing time totals more than
fifty minutes.
Shearing On Stage
Capitol ST1187
Don Shirley
Audio Fidelity AFSD5897
A concert held at Clamemont College in
Southern California shows the George Shearing Quintet in rare form. The first live performance from the group, it reflects the
pianist's ability to entertain and deliver some
respectable jazz at the same time. Several
standards long identified with his ballad
style catch fire in this reading, perhaps the
best they have received. His friendly impression of Erroll Garner, imparted by On The
Street Where You Live, is accurate and
amusing. With Armando Peraza added on
conga and bongo drums, he allows his cohorts to wander at will through Nothing
But De Best and Caravan. On the latter,
guitarist Jean Theilmans switches to harmonica, an instrument he maneuvers like no
one else. The stereo is well staged, giving a
full view of the unit whsle maintaining its
fine ensemble sound. Comments from the
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AUDIO
53
JULY, 1959
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leader introduce the numbers, and the large
crowd is good mannered.
Don Shirley is another pianist who knows
not to underestimate the intelligence of his
audience. Shearing's listeners proved to be
highly receptive of Randy Weston's Little
Niles, a waltz undoubtedly unfamiliar to
most, because they were meeting the pianist
at his own level. In like manner, Shirley employs a very personal style to burnish undisclosed facets of Satin Doll, Easy Living,
and Dites Moi. While his sound is equally
subdued, he avoids some of the obvious
trickery of Ahmad Jamal. Here the stereo
effect is more intimate.
Eubie Blake: Wizard of Ragtime
20th -Fox 3003
Del Wood: Rags To Riches
RCA Victor LSP1633
When this recording was made, Eubie Blake
was living in retirement in Brooklyn on
his royalties and enjoying a ripe old age at
seventy-five. Now he is back before the public,
filling an engagement at a cafe with his
partner Noble Sissle, and New Yorkers are
Paying to hear authentic ragtime for the first
time in many years. Separated in 1927, the
team is reunited here and Sissle, besides lending encouragement, sings Ragtime Millionaire,
My Gal 18 A High Born Lady, and Good Morning Carrie. Living up to his reputation, the
pianist lays down an infectious beat and
proves his feeling for the idiom is still strong.
Accompanied by drummer Panama Francis, he
revives Mobile Rag, Maple Leaf, and Mississippi Rag. Buster Bailey joins in occasionally
and his clarinet is superb on Sunflower Slow
Drag. This new label is undergoing growing
pains and a promised stereo version is still in
the works, but the monophonic seems adequate for most purposes.
Del Wood represents an area where ragtime
was always lucrative. A protege of Chet Atkins, she adapts popular tunes to the genre
and her original, Whirl -A -Way, might be from
the pen of Zez Confrey. But her piano is un gimmicked and blends well with the guitar
in stereo.
The Weavers: Travelling On
Vanguard VSD2022
Ralph Hunter Choir: The Wild Wild West
RCA Victor LSP1968
The Weavers journey far and wide on their
current trip, from Humbaya, a lovely African
lullaby, to Hopsha-Diri, a vigorous Yugoslav
dance. On some songs, I'ete Seeger is replaced
by Erik Darling, the newest member of the
quartet who is credited with adding to its repertoire, You Made Me A Pallet On The Floor,
which becomes a grateful letter of thanks in
a revised version. Seeger joins Fred Hellerman on a story of Greenland Whale Fisheries,
and is around for Gotta Travel On, a tune
now enjoying hit parade status. Ronnie Gilbert has a touching solo on House Of The
Rising Sun, and Lee Hays returns to native
ground on State of Arkansas.
The closest they come to cowboys and the
Wild West is Mi Caballa, a Chilean gaucho's
tribute to his white horse. In defining on the
liner what is meant by a "Weavers' song,"
they dismiss as not suitable one copied for
nearly every western drama on television. It
is High Noon, of course, and it might be
pleasant to hear the Weavers upset this formula. Not much effort would be required on
their part to elevate the medium, if given the
chance.
The Ralph Hunter choir, in cataloging aspects of the territory with high spirits and
rollicking humor, points the way in the right
direction. Two soloists are exceptional and
should be heard from again. They are Bob
Harter, who makes a doleful plaint of Rot
Gut, while Elmarie Wendel leads him to the
light with I'll Remember You In My Prayers.
Erik Darling reappears here as banjoist,
joined by Tony Mottola, guitar, and Eddy
Manson, harmonica.. During the interludes,
a third channel helps transport galloping
horses or a thundering herd of cattle from
speaker to speaker. The wide panorama of a
square dance also unfolds, but such gimmicks
are put aside when the full chorus breaks
into song. Let's hope both recordings land on
the turntables of a few television producers.
Les Baxter: Jungle Jazz
Capitol ST1184
Markko Polo Adventurers: Orienta
RCA Victor LSP1919
Off for South America on his latest stereo
exploration of exotic sounds, Les Baxter stops
over at Caribbean ports on the way. His companion and featured soloist is Plas Johnson,
the dauntless adventurer on tenor sax and
alto flute who also made the "African Jazz"
journey. This time a full complement of
strings escorts them through the torrential
downpour encountered in Rain Forest, around
the rushing waters of Amazon Falls, and leads
finally to the caroling of One Thousand Cockatoos. On the remainder, Johnson is backed by
the usual reeds and brass, plus a percussion
section which is augmented for the rhythms
of Carnival Meringue, Go Chango, and Voodoo
Dreams. Liner diagrams show how each group
is seated to achieve optimum depth as well
as breadth.
The Markko Polo Adventurers also set up
in a Hollywood studio and follow close upon
the footprints left by Baxter in his "Ports Of
Call" album. Conducted by Gerald Fried, they
cross the Pacific with a total of twenty-five
percussion instruments to visit Madame Sloe
Gin's, and Girl Friend of a Whirling Dervish.
Here the thunder resounds on Rain in Rangoon, written for the group by Vernon Duke,
while Leon Pober provides Yokahama Ferryboat, and Runaway Rickshaw. In addition to
arranging, Fried composed Train to Ranchipur, and revives Raymond Scott's Mountain
High, Valley Low. There are stereo effects galore, many humorous and some more serious.
Mark Murphy: The Start Of Something
Capitol ST1177
Jack Smith: You Asked For It
Bel Canto SR1015
Two personable young Californians, backed
by contrasting studio groups, convey considerable charm in making LP debuts. Mark Murphy worked out lightly swinging arrangements
with Bill Holman
is spotlighted on one side, along with the trumpet -
playing Candoli brothers, while conga drums
fill out the rhythm section on the reverse. The
singer is gifted with the sure sense of timing
which permits him to appear to be an extra
member of the band on Just in Time, Lucky
in Love, and Jersey Bounce. But he also treats
songs of sentiment in the same cavalier fashion, dealing quite brusquely with Falling in
Love With Love, and Cheek to Cheek.
Jack Smith's album carries the same title
as his television show and is dedicated to an
audience which wrote in to help select the
tunes. Russ Garcia casts his accompaniments
along popular channels, both of which are occasionally filled to overflowing in stereo by a
complement of strings and female chorus. The
Most Beautiful Girl in the World, Early Autumn, and other romantic tunes show Smith
at his best, but he does almost as well on
Coanto La Gusta, and Have You Ever Been
Lonely? Perhaps the fortunes of recording will
find him exchanging roles and arrangers with
Murphy at a future session. Both voices occupy the center of the stereo stage.
with Betty Comden and Adolph
Green
Capitol SWA01197
Pat Suzuki's Broadway '59
RCA Victor LSP1965
Seldom do all seven New York critics indulge in the unmitigated praise bestowed on
this production last December when it opened
at the Golden Theatre. Brought there by the
Theatre Guild after a trial run at Greenwich
Village's Cherry Lane, it affords audiences an
intimate view of a joint career which has
lasted more than fifteen years. As show business teams go, Betty Comden and Adolph
Green might be called the Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Prima of the intellectuals. The exuberance of
the two men, at least, is such that it can be
controlled only by women of ready wit and
firm disposition. Both are fortunate in their
partners and, as it is, they are likely to get
out of hand once in awhile.
Recorded at an actual performance, the enthusiastic response to sketches written for
"The Revuers" in the early 40's indicates that
the Comden and Green brand of humor wears
A Party
54
well. As part of their art is to stand in front
of a backdrop and conjure up scenes from lit-
tle more than words and music, less of the
original effect is lost than in most transfers
from Broadway to discs, especially when
stereo seats you front row center. It is an album to bring out of the files for a reprise in
years to come.
Pat Suzuki assembles hit tunes from seven
of this season's musicals in one convenient
package. A standup belter of songs, she includes three from her own "Flower Drum
Song" and could do with less artificial echo.
Despite the popularity of original cast performance, complete run-thrcughs eventually
pall and the stylus is shifted to favorite
bands, soon causing materia damage to the
grooves. No need for that here, and George
Siravo conducts what sounds like a pit orchestra on a busman's holiday.
Stereophonic Demonstration And Sound
Effects Record Audio Fidelity ASFD5890
This Is Stereo
RCA Camden SP3322
What's New In Stereo?, Vol.
Capitol, May, 1959
Advances made in recording techniques during the past six months make many of the
early stereo demonstration discs seem dated.
Audio Fidelity wisely delayad its sound effects offering until a number of preliminary
wrinkles were ironed out. It precedes the
First Components Series, however, and all
the musical excerpts are in the popular vein.
The high point is a visit to the Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, where
ricocheting bullets scream past the microphones and a 35 -ton tank moves into action.
Other stops are : a meeting of the Sports Car
Club at Bridgehampton, L. I., the East 67th
Street fire house in New York, the IRT subway station at Grand Central, and the Hell
Driver's show. A power saw gnaws through
a Douglas Fir tree and the crowd roars in
Mexico City's Plaza de Toros.
The $1.98 price tags on the other two releases indicate the healthy determination of
the large companies to make the public stereo conscious. Robert Oakes Jordan Associates,
Inc. helped prepare the RCA disc, a pleasing
combination of sound effects and musical passages from Camden classical, popular, and
jazz productions. As in the case of the Audio
Fidelity production, a narrator explains the
principles of stereo sound. When Ralph Camargo introduces the ascent of an ICBM, all
early demonstrations pale by comparison. It
is highly recommended to all dealers who are
anxious to prove that stereo need not be an
expensive proposition.
The Capitol promotion is a plain and simple bargain. For several years, the label has
sent monthly samplers of popular releases to
radio stations and other interested parties. To
aid in introducing stereo, a similar compilation is being placed in the hands of dealers,
starting with the May issue, for sale to all
comers. Each promises to be a honey,-don't
miss any.
1
Johnny Pineapple: Hawaii
Audio Fidelity AFSD5850
Webley Edwards: Hawa ian Strings
Capitol ST1152
A steel guitar is far from being our favorite instrument, but when freed from distortion and nestled among others of its ilk, as in
both these fine stereo recordings, its appeal is
undeniable. Johnny Pineapple leads his Islanders in the romantic style that assures
their welcome as entertainers in top hotels
across the country. A light mixture of melodies straight from his native Hawaii, leavened
by popular themes from Broadway, comprise
his program. Beyond The Reef, Little Brown
Gal, and Hawaiian War Chant are included.
Flute and mellow woodwinds fill out the
sound when necessary, and the rhythms are
meant for dancing.
Webley Edwards, for the third in his "Hawaii Calls" series, chooses a similar instrumentation and arrangements. In his first
stereo attempt, he brings Al Kealoha Perry
to the front and center, after spreading a vocal chorus across the background. On Hawiian
Vamp, his one original, he assembles the guitar key changes common to the hula, and
summery breezes blow softly through both
AUDIO
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JULY, 1959
albums. Surprisingly, none of the titles is duplicated, not even Aloha Oe, as Edwards concludes with an old Polynesian farewell song
from Tahiti.
Ron Goodwin: Music In
Orbit
Capitol ST10188
Esquivel: Exploring New Sounds In Stereo
RCA Victor LSP1978
Stereo space is utilized in opposite ways on
these two entertaining examples of music in
motion. Ron Goodwin, who leads nearly fifty
musicians in EMI's London studios, examines
the broader aspects in a dozen celestial
sketches inspired by the quieter portions of
Holst's The Planets. Contrary to the impression conveyed by the soaring rocket on the
cover, there are few sensational noises inside.
A melodious waltz is dedicated to Venus, instead, and the composer launches witty exchanges between sections on Sally the Satellite. Those earthbound mortals who enjoy
light mood music on a high plane will be suitably transported.
Esquivel runs the gamut of instrumental
sound, from ankle bells to theremin and back
by way of jew's-harp and buzzimba, a singular
animal which emits low, resonant tones when
struck with mallets. The quixotic Mexican
piano wizard may focus on the intimate tinkle
of a harpsichord, an agile Latin-American
percussion section, or the powerful blast of
nine brasses. These last not only bounce wall
to wall but from floor to ceiling as well. It all
could turn out bottomside up, if his arrangements were less clever. Standouts in any language are Oscar Straus' La Ronde and The
Third Man Theme. His own original joins
Mexican rhythms and the ondioline, a French
pedal -piano that is similar in sound to a highpitched organ.
CONNOISSEUR MODEL B
TRANSCRIPTION TURNTABLE
MADE IN ENGLAND
Be sure and zee (and hear) the new
Connoisseur Stereo Arm and Pickup with
<ensational features. One demonstration and
you will be convinced.
MONOPHONIC
Claude Hopkins: Music Of The Early Jazz
Dances
20th Fox 3009
The idea for this enlightening program originated in the survey of jazz dance given by
Albert Minns and Leon James. The hit of the
1958 Newport Jazz Festival, their demonstration was repeated on television and is currently scheduled for other concerts. But where
the dancers perform steps first made popular
in the 20's and after, Claude Hopkins concludes his researches with Original Black Bottom, a Perry Bradford composition of 1919
which illustrates an early incidence of what
is now generally referred to as shuffle rhythm.
The pianist takes as his point of departure
The Alabama Walkaround, written in 1891 to
accompany the minstrel tableau which evolved
into the cakewalk, and embarks on an engrossing resume of three decades of dance history.
Julia Steel sings those tunes with descriptive lyrics, offering Rules and Regulations,
and giving instructions for Scratchin' the
Gravel, Walkin' the Dog, and Messin' Around.
Those written after the dances gained wide acceptance are apt to show the refining influence
of Tin Pan Alley. Musicians sat behind potted
palms and dancers reigned supreme in those
days. Thus varied rhythmic patterns supply
most of the interest, although the band includes Charlie Shavers. Red Allen, Tyree
Glenn, and Vic Dickenson. They play tastefully even on such titles as When I Do the
Hoochy Coochy in the Sky, and Wiggle-Dee Wow! There is an amusing contrast between
the primness of Buster Bailey's ragtime clarinet and the hotter style he adopts later. Valuable as the first investigation of this era
since the series Tony Parenti made for Circle,
it is the only one available on LP and the fact
that Milt Hinton would hardly pluck a bass
viol in the 1890's in no way impairs its authenticity.
I3ob Scobey: The Scobey Story, Vols.
and
ERCONA CORPORATION
16 W. 46
Electronic Division)
New York 36, N. Y.
Street, Dept. 39
Circle 55A
For quality, the majors choose condenser microphones.
For condenser microphones, the majors choose Neumann quality.
Gotham Audio Sales Co. Inc.
N. Y. 36, N.Y.
West 46 St.
2
1
Good Time Jazz L12032, L12033
Some clay these recordings will take their
place in the archives as an important part
of the San Francisco jazz revival. Among the
most danceable sides ever made, they are
still fresh and too much alive to stay on the
shelf for long. The twenty-four selections
trace Bob Scobey's career during the three
years after he left Lu Watters in 1950, and
(Continued on page 64)
2
AUDIO
0
Circle 55B
55
JULY, 1959
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NEW PRODUCTS
"Surround -Sound" Speaker System. This
system has an 8 -in. driver mounted in the
bottom of the cabinet and a matching 4 -in.
tweeter mounted in the top, distributing
sound in a 360-degree pattern. In addition
to providing realistic sound reproduction,
the system also provides the answer to
the problem of "what to do with the
cabinets"-they double as handsome end
tables. With stereo, the listener benefits
from the stereo directional effect without.
consciousness of speaker placement. Cabinets are made of heavy wood, laminated
with Formica, and are available in walnut,
mahogany or blond finish. Further information and literature are available from
the manufacturer, ALPHA -sonic Manufacturing Company, 256 Fourth Ave., S.E.,
Osseo, Minn.
G-7
K -K Stereo Amplifier. Priced essentially
for the budget -conscious user, this new
Harman-Kardon amplifier incorporates
many of the features normally found
only in units which cost considerably
more. Known as the Lute, Model A220, it
is a 20 -watt stereo amplifier with dual
preamps and two 10 -watt output channels
all on a single chassis. It is supplied com-
plete with cage without extra cost. At
normal listening levels, the frequency
response of the Lute is 20 to 20,000 cps.
Four Type 7408 output tubes are employed to insure minimum distortion. Inputs are provided for both magnetic and
ceramic cartridges. A highly effective full range balance control will compensate for
any speaker system, regardless of variations in efficiency. There are also separate
ganged bass and treble controls, and a
ganged loudness control. For full description of the Lute, write Harman-Kardon,
Inc., 520 Main St., Westbury, N. Y. G-8
G -E Stereo Cartridges. Major improvements in the essential areas of stereo
performance-response, separation, compliance, and freedom from hum-have
been achieved with the new VR -22 series
of stereo cartridges recently announced
by General Electric. The VR -22 series
comprises the VR -225 with a 0.5 -mil
diamond stylus for professional turntable
systems, and the VR -227 with a 0.7 -mil
diamond for record changers and other
turntables. While both units are similar
in appearance and basic design, the VR -225
is superior in some performance areas.
The VR -225 has 20 -to -20,000 -cps frequency
response within 3.0 db, up to 30 -db channel separation, and recommended tracking
force of 2 to 4 grams. The VR -227 has a
frequency range of 20 to 17,000 cps within
harmonizes pleasingly with a handsome
charcoal grey case.
G-11
Koss Stereo Keadset. The SP -3 Stereophone headset is unique is that it reproduces the full frequency range of 30 to
15,000 cps by means of 31/2 -in. dynamic reproducers incorporated in each earphone.
Specially constructed to overcome the
constricted sound so often associated
with headphone listening, it preserves the
full dimensional effect of stereo. Since
3.0 db, up to 30 -db channel separation,
and recommended tracking force of 5 to
7 grams. Replacement styli for the VR -22
series are not interchangeable with previous G -E stereo cartridges. In addition to
the new series, G -E will continue to market its "Golden Classic" stereo cartridges,
as well as the VR -II monophonic models.
General Electric, Specialty Electronic
Components Department, West Genesee
St., Auburn, N. Y.
G-9
Sherwood Amplifier. This latest Sherwood development, Model S-4400, is a 36 watt add-on basic amplifier and stereo
preamp on a single chassis, for converting
monophonic music systems to stereo.
Matching all other Sherwood units in
style, its 10 -in. depth permits bookshelf
mounting. To make a dual 36 -watt stereo
combination, the S-4400 can be used in
conjunction with the Sherwood S-360, a
small basic 36 -watt amplifier. When used
in this fashion, only the S-4400 need be
accessible. The S-4400 offers the important
control features essential to stereo operation. These include dual loudness control,
stereo normal/reverse switch, and phase -
reversal switch. The four modes of operation-stereo, stereo -reverse, mono 1, mono
2, mono 1 and 2 (for use in operating a
stereo pickup on a monophonic record
with the vertical rumble and scratch components balanced out)-are selected by the
function switch, which also operates a
corresponding group of indicator lights.
In addition the unit incorporates the controls found on all Sherwood amplifiers.
Frequency response is 20 to 20,000 cps
within ± 1.5 db at full rated output, with
1.5 per cent intermodulation. Preamp filaments are d.c. powered. For complete
technical specifications, write Sherwood
Electronic Laboratories, Inc., 4300 N. California Ave., Chicago 18, Ill.
G-10
Precise AM PM Tuner. A newly -developed dual -limiter circuit designed to improve selectivity is featured in the Perfecta, an AM -FM tuner recently added to
the line of high-fidelity equipment manufactured by Precise Development Corp.,
Oceanside, N. Y. Also featured in the
tuner is variable automatic frequency
control. Coupled with the dual -limiter
circuit, the a.f.c. affords unusual sensitivity, an ability to bring in even weak
stations and "lock" them. An output meter
assists in tuning by giving visual indication on both FM and AM. Other features
include a cathode -follower output, FosterSeely discriminator, flywheel tuning, ferri loop antenna, and 3 -gang variable capacitor. A rich white -and -gold front panel
the Stereophone headset has an impedance of 4 ohms, it can be connected directly across an amplifier output or
speaker voice coil with no internal wiring
changes. Adapters are available for 600 and 12,000-ohm impedance to enable the
phones to be used for monitoring. Only
one simple connection is necessary if the
phones are to be used monophonically.
Full descriptive inform--ttion is available
from Koss Incorporated, Electronic Manufacturing Division, 2227 N. 31st St., Milwaukee 8, Wis.
G-12
Tape Conditioner. A convenient, compact attachment which applies a newly developed tape conditioning fluid to tape
in any player or recorder is now being
marketed by the Electr:cal Chemical Specialty Company, St. Paul, Minn. Built to
fit all tape machines, the Tower applicator applies a measured amount of Long
Life tape conditioning fluid to magnetic
tape as it is run through the recorder.
The conditioner removes dirt and other
contaminants from the tape and reduces
friction on heads and guides. The applicator is included as part of a new Master
kit, containing Long -Life cleaner, lubricant and conditioner, packed in 2-ounce
squeeze -feed plastic bottles.
G-13
Lowther Speaker Systems. Two new
speaker systems, engineered by the Lowther Manufacturing Company of England,
are now available to music lovers of this
country. The Model TP -1, illustrated, is a
corner enclosure utilizing dual horns.
Middle and treble tones are dispersed uniformly by a reflective horn of unique design. In the bass range, the driver unit is
efficiently coupled to the air by means of
a folded horn utilizing the corner of the
room as a prolongation of the horn structure. The PM3 driver system contained in
the TP -1 is an unusual 8 -in, twin -cone
unit with a large magnetic structure
which provides a gap flux of 22,000 gauss.
Developed specifically for the TP -1 enclosure, the PM3 has a frequency range of
AUDIO
56
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JULY, 1959
Scott
Stereo Amplifier has
features never before
offered at $139.9''
New
to 22,000 cps and will handle 25 watts
of integrated program material. The other
system introduced is the Acousta, a moderate -size system-conventional in appearance-which performs outstandingly.
20
H.1--1.
The new H.H. Scott 24 watt stereophonic amplifier, Model 222,
puts top quality within the reach of all. This new amplifier has many
features never before available for less than $200. It
is
backed by
H.H. Scott's fine reputation. Check the features below and you'll
see why you should build your new stereo system around the
H.H. Scott Model 222.
Frequency range is 20 to 18,000 ei-, gap
flux is 17,500 gauss, and power rating is
25 watts. Complete descriptive material
on both the TP -1 and the Acousta will be
mailed upon request to Lowther Sales
Company, 880 Bergen Ave., Jersey City,
G-14
N. J.
Straight -Line Mixer Control. Intended
for demanding professional application,
the 1001-A mixer is exceptionally low in
contact noise, is extremely smooth sliding, and incorporates a resistance element
which can easily be replaced. Special controls may be made up with ganged elements for stereophonic mixing. Frequency
response is within ± 0.5 db from 0 to 20,000
you choose between
RIAA compensation for
monophonic and stereo
records; NARTB, for
tape
Separate Bass and
Treble
controls on
each channel let you
adjust for differences
in room acoustics and
different speaker systems.
Effective scratch filter
improves performance
on older worn records
and improves reception on noisy radio
broadcasts.
switch positions for accurate balancing, for playing
stereo, reverse stereo
and for using mono-
This position lets you
play a
monophonic
source such as an FM
tuner or a tape recorder through both
Exclusive center
power
extension
Equalization switch lets
Special
phonic
records
with
/
trol adjusts for different speaker efficiencies and brings
channel volumes into
balance quickly and
easily.
Master volume control
adjusts volume of both
channels simultaneously. Also functions as
automatic loudness
control whenever desired.
-
channel output lets you
use your present amplifier for 3 -channel
stereo or for driving
stages and
speakers.
Separate stereo tape recorder outputs.
speakers.
your stereo pickup.
Channel balance con-
SPECiFICATIONS: Dual 12 watt channels; 0.3% IM dis20 to 30.000 cps; extremely low hum level (-80db); DC operated preamplifiers heaters; Inputs for
stereo or monophonic recorders, tuners, phono cartridges and tape heads.
Phono sensitivity 3 mv. Sub -sonic rumble filter prevents overload from noisy
Price $139.95*
changers or turntables.
tortion; 0.8% harmonic distortion; frequency response
cps. Maximum input level is 1.0 watt, or
26 volts rms. Insertion loss is 6.0 db. Impedance is 600/600 ohms. Slider pressure
is 20 grams, with friction-adjusting screw
provided for adding more drag if desired.
This is an excellent instrument for mixing
H.H. SCOTT INC.
Dept.
A-7,
111
Powdermill Road, Maynard, Mass.
Export : Telesco International Corp., 36 W. 40th St., N.Y.C.
Insist on genuine H. H. Scott components.
signals from several sources, such as
microphones and other low-level devices,
with application in music scoring and rerecording systems. For full technical
specifications write Electrodyne Corporation, 503 S. McClay St., Santa Ana, Calif.
*West of Rockies $143.25. Accessory case extra.
G-15
Test Record. Performance of stereo and
monophonic music systems, from stylus
to speaker, may be tested in the home
with the Audiotester test record. The
stereo side includes metronome -balance,
pickup -alignment, channel -separation, frequency -response, and turntable -rumble
tests. Monophonic systems may be
checked for stylus wear, frequency response, intermodulation, rumble, and tone arm resonance. Further information on
the Audiotester test record may be obtained by writing Audiotex Mfg. Co., Dept.
FR,
18,
3225
Calif.
AUDIO
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FREE HI-FI GUIDE
7.
AND CATALOG
Exposition Place, Los Angeles
G-16
JULY, 1959
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Rush me complete details on your new Model 222 and
your complete 1959 Hi Fi Guide and Catalog. Dept. A-7
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NOW.. , enjoy your HI-FI OUTDOORS
PATIO, GARDEN, TERRACE, PORCH
with the new WT -6
ATLAS
HI-FI
COAX -PROJECTOR
all-weather construction...install it, forget it!...
or take it with you wherever you listen.
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True HIGH FIDELITY TWO-WAY system -not
just a "compromise" of two horns coupled to
a single diaphragm. The WT-6 comprises a
weather-proof cone type driver (with 6 -inch
throat) coupled to its individual woofer horn;
a separate pressure -type driver loaded to its
separate tweeter horn. The built-in crossover
electronic filter supplements the electromechanical frlequency-limiting characteristics
of the 2 individual reproducers
providing
for smooth frequency division as each
speaker functions within its engineered
range of frequencies.
All-weather
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ATLAS SOUND CORP.
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18, N. Y.
Circle 58A
LIMIT AUDIO BAND WIDTHS...IMPROVE FIDELITY WITH THE
ULTIMATE IN RECORDING FILTERS,
THE StudioSound S-305...
A
variable band pass
filter that meets all requirements for
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similar applications. Generally used in dubbing and re-recording. Close
spacing of cut-off frequencies at each end of the spectrum permits limitless choice of settings for optimum range.
Furnished on complete panel with separate in and out keys for each section. In and out jacks normaled to terminal strip in rear of assembly.
CONTROLS: Low frequency -15 positions; "off" and cut-off frequencies
from 30 to 200 cps. High frequency-15 positions; cut-off frequencies 2 to
15 kc and "off." "Off" positions provide flat response. Two key switches
permit independent insertion of either filter in and out of the line.
For further information on this and other quality StudioSound components
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STUDIO SUPPLY CO.
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Hifirecord R817 stereo
This umpteenth recording of the great
steel drum phenomenon is a whangeroo, made
on -the -spot in the best recording tradition
with assorted ultra -native singers doing solos
off-mike here and there, plus assorted shouts
and exclamations in the background suggesting the proper crowd of local folk,
clustered around. Good, and superhlfi, my
only question being WHO ARE THEY? What
name? What Island?
I'm just wondering why a steel band
should have to be anonymous, even as to
geography. Maybe the musician's union has
got around to oil drums.
jg
(from page 26)
'
39th
Steel Drums.
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
net
$34.50
140-15,000 cps
IMPEDANCE 8 ohms. DISPERSION 120°
DIMENSIONS bell opening 15", overall depth 12"
See the WT -6 at your local distributor. Send for catalog A-7
FREQ. RESP.
beat-double speed-when 'we're
asked to "keep time" with any music. Just
watch any handy foot tapper. At double
speed you'll turn purple and gasp for air
long before the music ends.
If you ask me, you'd better forget the
whole thing and go buy the original discs
from which these assorted excerpts were
taken. Just listen ; it's easier.
do a jazz
..
universally adjustable "U" -type rugged steel
mounting
finished in high temperature
baked modern beige enamel.
POWER RATING 15 watts continuous
RECORDS
(from page 51)
Burbank, California.
Circle 52.3
Box FW- 7-59
from emitter to negative supply were
tried. Some improvement was evident,
but the circuit was still zoo critical for
comfort.
The next step was to use a positive
supply. This would be good if a separate
positive supply were available and can
be used quite readily with the circuit
at Fig. 10. But it was appreciated that
such a positive supply might not always
be available as a separate entity. Consequently another possibility was considered, that of using a portion of the
main supply and bucking out the effective external resistance in the emitter
of the gain stage.
This was achieved by making the collector resistance of the gain stage equal
to both collector and emitter resistance
of the phase -inversion stage. To avoid
the emitter follower currents interfering, their resistors were returned to supply positive so that their current did not
pass through the common resistor. This
gave the additional feature of allowing
the emitter followers to operate at a
snore realistic current value so as to
achieve their full current amplification,
which was particularly difficult in the
case of the first one, when the emitterto -ground voltage was cnly of the order
of one or two volts.
By making the fluctuating component
of current in the gain stage and the
phase inverter equal, due to the fact
that the voltage swing on both is the
same, results in virtually zero swing at
the negative end of the dropper resistor, which is the bottom end of the
emitter coupling resistor of the phase
inverter and the emitter itself of the
gain stage. This point also becomes the
AUDIO
58
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JULY, 1959
ground reference for the whole oscillator. This arrangement slightly improves the spread of curvature in the
gain stage due to the existence of a
small amount of positive feedback from
the phase inverter to the gain stage.
Now the bias on the base of the gain
stage starts (in the absence of oscillation) with about 2 volts negative, taken
from the tapping on the emitter load of
the phase inverter through the emitter
follower to a resistance divider down to
a point approximately 6 volts positive.
This provides the base with a small
negative bias, putting it in the region
of maximum gain. When oscillation
starts the phase -inverter current drops
due to diode action, thereby reducing
the negative voltage fed back through
the emitter follower, so the gain stage
tends to approach cutoff.
By adjusting the values correctly the
bias which is fed through the 3300 -ohm
resistance from the intervening emitter
follower just controls oscillation to a
conveniently steady value and maintains
a uniform waveform. This complete circuit was set up and tried with a bunch
of resistors taken from stock. It was
found to be reasonably independent of
individual transistor inserted in the
gain stage as regards output and waveform and also the most critical resistors
could be varied over a reasonable tolerance range without running into distortion in one direction or failure to
.1£
oscillate in the other.
FM -BAND RECEPTION
(from page 21
d.c. plate voltage to the first tube. Com-
press or expand L, to get maximum
signal at the output. Then compress L,
to reduce the output voltage by about
20 per cent. This completes the alignment. The correct adjustment of 0, and
which is necessary to get the lowest
possible value of noise figure, can be
made more rapidly with a noise generator, quite a rare item among most
experimenters. Details on using a noise
generator are given in chapter 14 of
reference 2b. However, good results can
be realized using the method outlined
above. As Fig. 1 illustrates, the knob
which controls Cs is provided with a
paper scale calibrated in megacycles
(88-108) and glued to the panel.
L
Performance
The pre -amplifier has been in use at
the author's home (north of Schenectady, N. Y., elevation 400 feet) now for
over eight months and has been most
helpful in increasing the enjoyment of
FM listening. During this period of
time 58 stations have been logged. Consistent reception of stations 150 to 200
miles away has been the reward for ix stalling this little gem. Stations have
been heard using the preamplifier that
were literally buried in the noise otherwise. The greatest distance logged while
using it was close to 300 miles. Almost
any time, day or night, 20-30 stations
can be tuned in that are of listenable
quality. The antenna used is a six element Yagi, mounted about 25 feet
above the ground. The tuner is one of
outstanding reputation and of excellent
design. The preamplifier has been used
with several other dissimilar receivers
with a variety of antenna systems, and
located in diverse places. Not in one
instance did the preamplifier fail to
show either some or marked improve-
AUDIO
o
)
ment. The improvement was most impressive when the preamplifier was used
in conjunction with tuners of poor noise
figure or marginal over-all gain.
Because of the lack of high selectivity
preceding the first stage of the preamplifier, there may be some ghost signals of "birdies" from a local FM station. Should this be the case, a trap
tuned to the local station and inserted
in the transmission line from the antenna as close to the preamplifier as
possible may help minimize this difficulty. Some receivers have no tuned
circuit preceding the first r.f. amplifier
stage (often the grounded -grid type)
and a local FM or TV station may
cause similar trouble. In this case best
rejection of the ghosts may be accomplished by inserting the trap between the
preamplifier and the tuner. This latter
method of providing extra selectivity
prior to the tuner may minimize ghosts
due to too high a signal level being delivered to the FM set from the local
station.
The author would like to thank Henry
W. Griffin, Jr., for his help in the design and testing of the preamplifier. Æ
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REFERENCES
a) A. B. Bailey, "TV and other receiving -type antennas." J. F. Rider Publisher, Inc., New York, 1950.
b) J. D. Kraus, "Antennas." McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1950.
1.
c) S. Uda, and Y. Mushiake, "YagiUfa Antenna." Sasaki Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd., Sendai, Japan. (In English)
2. a) A. Vander Ziel, "Noise." Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
1956.
b) G. Valley, Jr., and H. Wallman,
"Vacuum Tube Amplifiers." Vol. 18, Radiation Laboratory Series, McGraw-Hill Book
Co., New York, 1948.
3. H. Wallman, A. B. Macnce, C. 1'.
Gadsden, "Low noise amplifier." Proc.
I.R.E., Vol. 36, 1948, pp. 700-708.
OUTPUT TRANSFORMERS
OUTPUT
The performance of your amplifier will depend
on the quality of the transformer used.
"Since quality was the first consideration" the
British made Partridge Ps000 transformer was
specified in the stereo amplifier design featured
in the August, 1958 issue of "Audio".
Write now for free brochure and name of nearest dealer
258
M.
S W E D G A L
Broadway, New York 7, N.Y.
Sole U.S. Rep.
59
JULY, 1959
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As The Expression Goes
25%
HAROLD LAWRENCE
of Louis Philippe, an
amateur choral society founded by
the Prince de la Moskowa gave some
eccentric performances of the works of
Palestrina. "It was their custom," wrote
Saint-Saëns, "to sing the greater parts of
these pieces pianissimo and with extreme
slowness, so that in the long -held passages
the singers had to be divided, some of them
carrying on the sound when others had
exhausted their breath." Although a few
musicians grumbled at the absurd treatment, the mid -19th century public as a
whole accepted it complacently. Palestrina,
after all, had left nothing to guide future
interpreters but the notes themselves; and
the Prince, detained by no indications of
pace, dynamics, and phrasing, gave free
reign to his "imagination."
Had Palestrina been born half a century later, the Prince might not have dared
to turn the Italian composer's music into a
breathing marathon. But it was not until
the middle of the 17th century that the
expression mark became
universally
adopted. The verbal notations which musicians employed constituted a simple language: speed was indicated then as now by
such terms as
allegro,
volume by piano, forte, etc. Italian won out
over French and English as the language
of "expression" due to the wide distribution of Italian madrigals in the early part
of the century.
There was no reason for the Baroque
composer to sprinkle his music with additional expression marks. Apart from the
essentials of tempo and intensity, his music
clearly dictated its own expressive course.
Expression marks were therefore utilized
only to avoid possible ambiguity. (Bach
dispensed with them altogether in the
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Well -Tempered Clavier.) Even tempo markings were often omitted when the composer
felt their inclusion superfluous. The modern
interpreter need only follow J. C. Bach's
sound advice in his book, Essay on the
True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, to do the right thing by the Baroque
repertoire: "The pace of a composition
is based on its general content as well as
the fastest notes and passages contained in
it. Due consideration of these factors will
prevent an allegro from being rushed and
an adagio from being dragged." Choice of
tempo is also dictated by the place in which
the work is performed-and this applies
obviously to all forms and periods of music.
To secure the utmost clarity, one must
adjust the speed to the hall's acoustical
properties. One of the reasons church performances are generally unsatisfactory is
that the performer rarely takes into consideration the long reverberation period.
The vocabulary of "expression" grew
along with the development of instrumental
and orchestral music. Where, for example,
a page of a keyboard work by Bach might
contain such indications as Allegro, piano
and forte, a page of Beethoven might be
filled with the following markings: Vivace
ma non troppo, sempre legato, p dolce,
...
*
26 W. Ninth St., New York 11, N. Y.
60
Adagio espressivo, and a liberal assortment
of pianos, fortes, crescendos and diminuendos. Note the embellishment of certain
basic designations: viva ce ma non troppo;
p dolce; adagio espressivo. In a letter written in 1817, Beethoven spoke of those
"headings, inherited from times of musical
barbarism, by which we describe the tempo
of a movement. What, for example, can be
more absurd than 'allegro' which, once and
for all, means 'cheerful', How far removed
we often are from the meaning! How often
a piece of music expresses the very opposite of its heading!
.
I have often
thought of giving up those absurd words
allegro, andante, adagio, presto."
Beethoven never carried out his threat to
abandon Italian terms, though he amplified
the headings with such words as appassionato, molto cantabile, espressivo, and so
on. The linguistic revolution he hoped for
was brought about instead by the Romantic
composers who, spurred on by nationalistic
impulses, reverted to their native tongues.
An outcome of this movement was greater
freedom of vocabulary and more detailed
indications.
In more recent times, one of the most
colorful advocates of the "national" expression mark is Percy Grainger. Virtually
all of Grainger's indications are written in
a sort of open-air English that turns the
standard Italian markings into vapid symbols. Here is a partial list of Grainger's
expressions with their traditional counter-
parts:
Grainger
Italian
louden
feelingly
soften and slacken
louden lots
louden hugely j
crsseendo
espressivo
dim. e rit.
molto crescendo
non dim.
rit.
molto rit.
mezzo staccato
accelerando
don't soften
slow off
slow off lots
shortish
quicken
Not content to substitute his own expressions marks for the Italian, Grainger has
also focused his attention on the names of
instruments. In his orchestral scores, violins are "fiddles," violas "middle -fiddles,"
cellos "bass -fiddles," and percussion instruments of definite pitch "tuneful percussion."
There are only remote Italian translations for the following Grainger instructions: "With Healthy and somewhat fierce
'go' ", and "wrenched forte."
Few composers have displayed as much
consideration for the lowly instrumentalist
as did Grainger in his Lincolnshire Posy.
At the bottom of one page he wrote, "The
flügelhorn or soprano saxophone soloist
may, if he likes, use his own expression
marks, in place of those printed."
Along with the flowering of the Romantic
Era came a certain verbal extravagance,
which often confronts the performer with
some rather interesting musical challenges.
A case in point is Moussorgsky's Pictures
at an Exhibition. One particular phrase is
AUDIO
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JULY, 1959
marked poco ritard con dolore. As R. W.
Wood pointed out in his article on expression (Music 4- Letters, Oet. 1930), "If the
pianist duly regards the poco ritard, the
piano, the <>, the sf and the slurs it is
virtually impossible for him to do anything
further . . . If con dolore (dolefully) results, well and good, if not, the performer
is not to blame." Other examples mentioned
by Mr. Wood include Holbrooke's "Moving
exorably, grim, and prodded," Debussy's
"this rhythm must have the sonic value of
a sad and frozen landscape," Wagner's
many zarts (tender), and Elgar's nobilmentes (nobly). "All they actually convey,"
concludes Mr. Wood, "is how the passage
in question always sounds to the composer
himself."
But is it that simple? According to this
line of reasoning, of what possible value
to the player is the unscientific nobilmente?
Would the conductor approach the score
any differently if it were not there? What
specific ingredient does it call for? Logically speaking, it is a superfluous marking.
Can we dismiss it however because it fails
to concern itself with isolated points of
tempo, dynamics, touch, phrasing, bowing,
and other technical details? It is true, of
course, that a sensitive performer will probably ferret out the expression inherent in
a given musical work, with or without the
"fringe markings. But what Mr. AV'cud
calls the "loose -thinking" expression mark
nevertheless serves a thoughtful and far
front loose purpose. The appearance of a
zart or a nobilmente at a certain point in
the score, perhaps underlining a cello
theme or accompanying a sudden shift in
dynamic values, should alert the performer
and suggest to him that the composer attaches a special meaning to the passage in
question, one that could not be conveyed by
the traditional marking. In plain words, the
composer hopes to put the performer in the
mood. No one blames the conductor who
supplements his stick technique with a large
repertoire of facial expressions, gestures,
and even choreography of a sort, so long as
the ultimate result is a great performance.
Why then should not the composer employ
unusual verbal means to obtain a deeper
understanding of his intentions?
The inevitable outcome of the growth of
the expression mark in the 19th century
was its abuse, not only by composers, but
by publishers of older music. Editions of
Bach, Beethoven and Mozart appeared in
print containing markings in such profusion that it was sometimes difficult to see
the notes for the marks. Early 20th -century
Erik Satie satirized the "over -expressive"
score in his own music by filling his pages
with such whimsical instructions as:
Ne tournez pas (Don't turn)
1,rattez (Scratch)
Sou riez (Smile)
Ne parlez pas (Don't speak)
Igor Stravinsky, whose own scores are
models of clarity, has some cogent thoughts
to offer on the subject of the expression
mark "No matter how scrupulously a piece
of music may be notated, no matter how
carefully it may be insured against every
possible ambiguity through the indications
of tempo, shading, phrasing, accentuation,
and so on, it always contains hidden elements that defy definition, because verbal
dialectic is powerless to define musical dialectic in its totality."
This, of course, is where the interpreter
takes over; it is his task to respond to the
directions implied in a musical work, using
the expression mark merely as a valuable
guidepost.
D SSTER.EO
STEREO SYSTEM
achieves the full, true potential of stereophonic sound.
Roberts superbly designed transport mechanism, with its hysteresis
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Complete Stereo System
ROBERTS ELECTRONICS Inc.
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AN IMPORTANT MESSAGE To audio engineers, music enthusiasts, and students interested in the science of
Acoustics and Musical Instruments.
From the distinguished Acoustiçal Instrumental Studio in Gravesano,
t
Switzerland comes
the-
GRAVESANER &LATTER /GRAVESANO iKEVIEW
(English/German Edition) Edited by Hermann Scherchen
...dedicated to the contribution toward the more perfect reproduction of music through the
science of acoustics and musical instruments. The GRAVESANO "REVIEW is edited by
Professor Hermann Scherchen, noted European conductor and musicologist. It begins
its third year with Volume IX, reporting the meetings of the Acoustical Experimental
Stt:dio in Gravesano, Switzerland. Issued quarterly, subscription is now available in the
United States by special arrangement with Radio Magazines, Inc., publishers of Audio.
You may begin your subscription with Volume IX of the GRAVESANO REVIEW
which is combined with the GRAVESANO SCIENTIFIC"RECORD, a 331/3 rpm LP
demonstration record.
'
i
i
re
r
_
Partial list of contents in Volume IX:
(al_ articles appear in both English and German )
The Modulor, Concentration instead of Expansion, Acoustics and Large Orchestral
R A D I C
Studios and Concert Halls, Psychoacoustical Phenomena accompanying natural and
MAGAZINES
synthetic sounds. The Ear-a time measuring instrument,Experience with a new high
/ INC., SJBSCRIP
quality loudspeaker for control booths. Tuning the Oboe. Accompanying Volume
TION DEPT. GBI
IX THE GRAVESANO SCIENTIFIC RECORD contains a demonstration of
P. O . B O X 6 2 9
the Frequency Regulator of Anton Springer of Telefon-Und Apparatebau AG.,
MINEOLA, N. Y
Frankfurt/Main.
;
.
:
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Issued quarterly, THE" GRAVESANO REVIEW is accompanied with
GRAVESANO SCIENTIFIC DEMONSTRATION RECORD.
Single copies not far sole, by subscription only, $6.00 per year, postpaid.
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JULY, 1959
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January -December 1957
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No. 110
HANDBOOK OF SOUND REPRODUCTION
by Edgar M. Villchur
Right up to date, a complete course on sound reproduction.
Covers everything from the basic elements to individual
chapters of each of the important components of a high fidelity
system. $6.50 Postpaid.
JEW!
Jo. 120
'HE 4th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY
$2.95 Postpaid
'his is the biggest Audio Anthology ever!
:ontains a wealth of essential high fidelity
now -how in 144 pages of complete arti les by world-famous authors.
No. 112
TAPE RECORDERS AND TAPE RECORDING
by Harold D. Weiler
A complete book on home recording by the author of
High Fidelity Simplified. Easy to read and learn the
techniques required for professional results with home
recorders. Covers room acoustics, microphone techniques, sound effects, editing and splicing, etc. Invaluable to recording enthusiasts.
Paper Cover $2.95 Postpaid.
No. 115
McPROUD HIGH FIDELITY OMNIBOOK
Prepared and edited by C. G. McProud,
publisher of Audio and noted authority
and pioneer in the field of high fidelity.
Contains a wealth of ideas, how to's,
what to's and when to's, written so
plainly that both engineer and layman
can appreciate its valuable context.
Covers planning, problems with decoration, cabinets and building hi-fi fumi:ure. A perfect guide. $2.50 Postpaid.
NEW!
No. 119
HIGH FIDELITY AND THE MUSIC LOVER
by Edward Tatnall Canby
An up-to-the-minute guide that shows you how to get the
best out of your hi-fi records and tape recorder. Mr. Canby
discusses in detail the speaker, the amplifier, the radio tuner,
the record player and the tape recorder. He shows you how
to save time and money, and get the hi-fi equipment that suits
your particular needs. Illustrated with line drawings. ;4.95
HIGH
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CANI3`'
Care and repair of 81-FI
No. 118
NEW? How-to Book on Hi-Fi Repair
CARE AND REPAIR OF
HI-FI-Volume
I
by Leonard Feldman
AUDIO Bookshelf
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Latest information on hi-fi components for efficient repair and maintenance. Complete, down-to-earth information that is not punctuated with complicated mathematics. Helpful to the hi-fi enthusiast,
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illustrated. $2.50 Postpaid.
rte,
r^ ç
,<e
OO
LOUDSPEAKER DISTORTION
(f rom page 28)
tic power at 40 cps on one side of the
baffle. The cone deflection required comes
to 0.145 in. An 8 -in. diameter cone radiating the same amount of power would
require a cone travel four times as large,
or 0.58 in. By considering the expression
for the frequency -modulation distortion
factor, we learn that this type of distortion is four times as high for the small
speaker as it is for the larger one.
Minimizing the Distortion
The question arises now as to what
can be done to reduce this type of distortion. Fortunately there are several
relatively simple means to minimize the
condition. The most effective is to em-
ploy a two- or three-way speaker system. Examination of the distortion factor equation shows that the distortion
is a function of the modulated frequency. Therefore, instead of employing
a single speaker to generate both 40 and
10,000 cps, it is advisable to employ two
emitters and a cross -over network designed for, say, 250 cps. In this case,
then, the highest modulated frequency
would be 250 cps. instead of 10,000 cps,
and the resulting distortion would be approximately 1/40 as large.
To gain some idea of the amount of
distortion involved in the case of a single speaker emitting both 40 and 10,000
cps, simultaneously, consider a 16 -in.
speaker radiating 1 watt at both these
frequencies. The cone amplitude at 40
cps, as shown on Fig. 1, comes to 0.289
in. The distortion factor, then, amounts
to
D.
F...033 X
.289
X
10000
per cent.
Figure 2 shows this graphically.
In the case of the two-way speaker
= 95
system with the 250 -cps cross -over,
which radiates 40 and 250 cps simul-
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Acoustical Labyrinth Quarter
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Revolutionary design brings you
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for 8", 12" and 15" speakers.
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taneously at 1 watt, the frequency modulation distortion will be only 1/40, or
approximately 2.4 per cent.
Another means for still further lowering this type of distortion consists in
using more than one large woofer. The
reason for this, of course, is that the
distortion is dependent on the travel required by the cone in emitting the low
frequencies. This travel, for a given
sound output, is in turn dependent on
the cone diameter (actually the projected area of the cone, which is a function of the cone diameter).
Still another means of distortion minimization consists of employing a horn
for the low-frequency speaker, because
this device assists in reducing cone travel
for a given acoustic output power requirement.
The writer has made many qualitative
evaluations of this type of distortion. It
should be noted that the distortion is
not dependent on the amplitude of the
modulated frequency, but on the amplitude of the modulating, or low, frequency. In the absence of other forms of
distortion, frequency -modulation distortion appears in the form of a flutter, and
is most easily recognized during the reproduction of sustained and strong low frequency piano tones, while a high frequency note, possibly from another
instrument, is also being reproduced. As
noted above, however, other forms of
distortion, especially intermodulation
distortion, should be at a minimum when
such a listening test is made. Possibly
the best way to conduct a test of this
type is to make an A -B test, using a
single speaker and a two-way speaker
system during the reproduction of sustained music tones, switching quickly
from one to the other system, so as to
be able to hear the same signal from
both types of emitters.
â
r-
N
01
See your Stromberg -Carlson
dealer. He's in the Yellow Pages
under "High Fidelity."
STROMBERG-CARLSON
DIVISION
GENERAL DYNAMICS
A
CORPORATION
OF
1418 N. GOODMAN STREET
ROCHESTER 3, NEW YORK
d=f1 CONE MOTION-INCHES
SÇ
W
Circle 63B
AUDIO
JULY, 1959
63
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
gt
0
CLASSIFIIED
(from page 55)
Wide -Band Ribbon Microphones
FOR
SMOOTHEST
STEREO
RESPONSE
AND
PRECISE
FIGURE 8
MONO
PATTERN
FOR PRO-
FESSIONAL
AND HOME
USE
STEREO SPACER
for consistently
superior stereo
recordings
i
Complete Data
Available
on Request
DYNACO,
INCORPORATED
617 No. 41st St., Philadelphia 4, Pa.
Circle 64A
ideal companions at a mountain resort or
shore as an antidote for rock and roll.
first set, with clarinetists Albert Nicholas
Darnell Howard, is recommended as a
starter. Hearing the leader's trumpet and
Clancy Hayes sing Sailing Down Chesapeake
Bay, if you can be counted among those not
so favored before, should make the second irresistible. Good to begin with, the sound benefit, from the remaster.ng.
New Jazz 8206
Steve Lacy: Reflections
Launched by Prestige to introduce newer
artists and for reissues, this label is priced
below the parent line. Quite a few changes
have occurred in the record business since
the advent of stereo and this is one of the
indirect benefits passed on to the listener. The
death of Sidney Bechet left only one jazz
musician whose main instrument is the soprano sax. Its mastery is a perfect preparation for the work of Thelonious Monk, as
both present difficulties insurmountable by
anything less than a disciplined and unafraid
spirit. In accepting the challenge, Steve Lacy
plays seven of his pieces from the early 50's,
only one of which was recorded before by anyone but the composer. Zoot Sims did Bye -pa,
and the others have drawn no more than respect, despite the increased attention they are
receiving since Monk's rise to favor.
In transferring the pianist's style to soprano
sax, Lacy retains its important qualities and
proves to have a deeper insight than some of
the tenor men associated with it. By assuming many of Monk's thematic duties in the
quartet, he clears the decks for his own pianist Mal Waldron, who is left with considerable freedom for individual comment. Buell
Neidlinger, bass, and drummer Elvin Jones
round out the group. A young man to watch,
Lacy is to be congratulated for keeping the
distinctive sound of the soprano sax alive in
modern jazz.
JE
Carlos Montoya: Presents Porrina De
RCA Victor LPM1878
Badajoz
are
the
The
and
Macareno's: Flamenco!
Capitol T10146
Two imports from Spain offer different ap
proaches to the flamenco tradition. During his
search for new talent last year, Carlos Montoya came upon one personality he believes to
be outstanding in the field of cante flamenco.
They met in Madrid for the intimate collaboration which occurs when a great guitarist improvises beside a singer who is also a master
of the art. Porrina de Badajoz, a fellow gypsy
from the company of Conchita Picquer, is
gifted with a masculine voice that is flexible
Los
settle for ordinary
THE
tape when Sonoramic
gives you
many
exclusive extrasCASE brilliant
reproduction,
permanent plastic
container,
FOR
indexing system
pressure
BETTE sensitive
labels
and -slot self
Selection
SOUND threadingFinder
reel.
Why
so
3 -way
Rwith
V
enough to encompass the dynamic range demanded of it. His heartfelt cries are intense
and full of manly vigor, yet finely shaded.
The recording is close and defines each detail.
Los Macarenos live and perform at Sacre
Monte, in the hills and caves of Granada, but
went to a Barcelona studio to present a
group example of their fiery music. It comes
complete with castanets, rhythmic healls, and
spontaneous outbursts from the singers. Joining them all together are the continuing
patterns set by the guitarists. Here a more
distant recording accommodates the entire
Panorama.
1E
INTERFERENCE
rOPES
LINE PRECIOUS BOOMS
(trOni j)(4 fir 27)
on the input cable, a physical position
of the cable can usually be found which
will eliminate pickup of the r.f. signal.
Perhaps moving it away front power
leads, or running it under a corner of
ruler:
FREE
recording time
footage
reel.
T.'
and
on
Cives you.=
Write
Dept.
'dadi iCó CORPORATION,
LODI, NEW JERSEY
Circle 64B
the amplifier will remove the signal.
In some cases an earth ground for the
amplifier will remedy the disturbance.
One of the above suggestions, or a
combination of them should prove effective in the reduction or removal of
1E
radio frequency interference.
100 per word per Insertion for noncommercial
advertisements; 250 per word for commercial advertisements. Rates are net, and no discounts will be
allowed. Copy must he accompanies by remittance In
full, and must reach the New "ork oflIce by the
first of the month preceding the date of issue.
Rates:
TRADE UP TO STEREO Largest selection
of new, used Hi-Fi components. Professional
:
service facilities available. Write Audio Exchange Dept. AE, for trading information.
153-21 Hillside Ave., Jamaica 32, N. Y.
Branches in Brooklyn, White Plains, Manhasset.
HIGH FIDELITY SPEAKERS REPAIRED
Amprite Speaker Service
70 Vesey St. New York 7, N. Y.
BA 7-2580
ENJOY PLEASANT SURPRISES? Then
write us before you purchase any hi-fi. You'll
be glad you did. Unusual savings. Key Electronics, 120 Liberty St., New York 6, N. Y.
Evergreen 4-6071.
WRITE for confidential money-saving prices
on your Hi -Fidelity amplifiers tuners, speak-
ers, tape recorders. Individual quotations
only ; no catalogs. Classified Hi-Fi Exchange,
AR, 2375 E. 65th St., Brooklyn 34, N. Y.
UNUSUAL VALUES. Hi-fi components,
tapes and tape recorders. Send for package
quotations. Stereo Center, 18 W. 37th St.,
N. Y. C.
INDUCTORS for crossover networks. 118
types in types in stock. Send for brochure.
C & M Coils, 3016 Holmes Avenue, N. W.,
Huntsville, Ala.
AND
TRANSISTORIZED AMPLIFIER
PREAMP combination, 30 watts. Beautifully
styled, compact case, just 5 x 7 x 6 inches. The
ultimate in hi-fi. $200. R. Kissner, P. O. Box
214, Canton, Conn. Owen 3-8093.
SEALED CARTONS. Gray 212, $24 ; Karl son 15U, $60 ; Fisher 400, $127 ; 125AX, $161;
Catalog Free, HiFi, Roslyn, Pa.
MAKE OFFER : Bogen PR -100 preamp ;
Heath WA -P1 preamp ; 2 Western Electric 555
drivers ; 12" monophonic Rek-O-Kut arm ESL
diamond monophonic cartridge plus transformer ; Viking PB -60 tape preamp ; Truvox
tape record/play amplifier. Write Paul Harri;
son, 1106 S. Union, Roswell, New Mexico.
SELL CROWN ROYAL stereo recorder in
portable case. Has hysteresis sync motor, automatic stop, solenoid start and stop, and 2
20 -watt amplifiers built in. New condition.
$750. D. B. Jones, 421 W. 18th St., New York
City.
SELL Fisher 80-C preamplifier with cabinet; Brociner Mark 30A bas.c amplifier. Louis
Moore, Chicken Valley Rd., Locust Valley,
:
L. I., N. Y.
FOR SALE 1 brand new Ampex Model 385
three-channel microphone mixer-preamp. Cost
$435, best offer takes it. Michael Peterhans
3175 Emerson, Palo Alto, California.
RECORDS, toasters, pressings, and tapes
(stereo and monophonic) duplicated from your
tapes and discs. (Also professional high speed
tape duplicating.) Write-Merle Enterprise
:
Box 145, Lombard, Illinois.
CROSSOVER NETWORK KITS. Custom
and contract coil winding. Write Watson
Industries, 110 Mildred, Venice, California.
SUPPORT
YOUR
MENTAL
HEALTH.
p55004
=°[M,°
g.e474T
ASSOCIATION
ai
AUDIO
64
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e
JULY, 1959
PROFESSIONAL
DIRECTORY
special
recording tape
$1.19
1200
ft.; 7"-guaranteed
splice -free
1800 ft.; 7" . . . $1.89. Enclose 10¢ for
each reel to cover postage and handling.
kieruiff
SOUND CORPORATION
820 W. OLYMPIC BLVD., LOS ANGELES 15, CALIF.
Circle 65C
FM/Q
ANTENNAE
Get more FM stations with the world's most
powerful FM Yagi Antenna systems.
Send 250 for
booklet "Theme And VarlO.
tions" containing F M Station Directory.
APPARATUS
DEVELOPMENT CO,
Wethersfield 9, Connecticut
Circle 65D
CANADA
High Fidelity Equipment
Complete Lines
Complete Service
HI -Fi Records
Components
and Accessories
-
F;LECTROi)O1cE
SOUND SYSTEMS
126 DUNDAS ST. WEST, TORONTO, CANADA
Circle 65E
LOOK
no further . . If you're
searching for hi -fl
Writ. us your requirements now..
Key Electronics Company
120-K Liberty ft, N.Y. 6, N.Y.
EV
4-6071
Circle 65F
n
J
LING ACQUIRES UNIVERSITY. Acquisition of University Loudspeakers, Inc.,
was recently announced in a joint statement by James J. Ling, board chairman of
Ling Electronics, Inc., and Sidney Levy,
president of University. The company was
purchased for a total consideration of
$2,300,000-$1,650,000 of which was in
cash. University will become a wholly owned subsidiary of Ling Electronics, Inc.,
and its products will complement those of
Altec Companies, Inc., also a Ling subsidiary. University will continue to operate through the same distribution and
marketing channels as in the past, and no
changes are contemplated In product and
brand identification.
RANK ACQUIRES WHARFEDALE. The
Rank Organisation, Ltd., London, England, lias taken over Wharfedale Wireless
Works, Ltd., Bradford, Yorks. G. A. Briggs
remains as managing director of the firm
which manufactures and markets Wharfedale loudspeakers on a world-wide basis.
Wharfedale speakers and systems will
continue to be distributed in this country
by British Industries Corporation.
MRIA ELECTS OFFICERS. Herbert L.
Brown, vice-president of Ampex Audio, is
the newly elected president of the Magnetic Recording Industry Association.
Other officers newly chosen are: vicepresident, Ken Bishop, general manager of
Bell Sound Systems, Inc.; treasurer,
Charles Murphy, president of Michigan
Magnetics, Inc.; treasurer, Herman Kornbrodt, sales manager of Audio Devices,
Inc. EIected to serve as members of the
board of directors are: Hugh Daly, general manager of Magnecord, Inc.; Victor
A. Miller, president of V -M Corporation;
Russ Malloy, vice-president of Bel Canto
Magnetic Tapes; J. Herbert Orr, president
of ORRadio Industries, Inc.; Irving Ross man, president of Pentron Corporation,
and Harry Sussman, president of Telectro
Corporation.
RIGO FALL SHOW SCHEDULE. Eight
cities will play host this fall to high fidelity shows promoted by Rigo Enterprises,
Inc. Places and dates are as follows: Milwaukee, September 11-13; Rochester, September 25-27; Detroit, October 16-18;
Buffalo, October 30-November 1; Seattle,
November 6-8; Portland, Ore., November
13-15; Philadelphia, November 20-22; Los
Angeles, October 30 -November 1.
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO ROOM. A
unique display of audio equipment strictly
for the professional user was opened recently in New York by Harvey Radio
Company. Intended as a facility for engineers who wish to evaluate equipment
prior to purchase, the Professional Audio
Room will house a Permanent operating
exhibit of such specialized items as the
Ampex 3 -track recorder, Puttee program
eoualizers, microphone booms, and the
like. All equipment is wired -in, terminated
at multiple strips, and may be matched in
assemblies to suit the customer's desire.
Dire. .f ion of the Professional Audio Room
is in the hands of Harvey E. Sampson, Jr.
AUDIO DEVICES PROMOTION. A special tape recording of "Blood and Thunder
Classics" is being featured in a new sales
promotional program by Audio Devices,
Inc. Retail buyers of Audiotape Type
1251
are being offered two reels of tape, one
unrecorded and the other recorded with
classical excerpts, for the regular price
plus one dollar. Because of increased tape
sales. Audio Devices recently has doubled
its administrative office space at 444 Madison
IF YOU ARE
.A,ii' York.
MOVING
notify our Circulation Department
at least 5 weeks in advance. The Post Office
Please
does not forward magazines sent to wrong
destinations unless you pay additional postage, and we can NOT duplicate copies sent
to you once. To save yourself, us, and the
your old address and your new address.
Post Office a headache, won't you please
cooperate? When notifying us, please give
Circulation Department
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
AUDIO
.A
9«4«44 pe°12
Oliver Berliner, author and sound systems authority, has been named a director of Studio Electronics Corporation, Burbank, Calif., where he will serve as sales
and advertising manager
.
Off on a
combination vacation and business trip to
the capitals of Free Europe is Harry R.
Ashley, president of Electronic Instrument
Co., Inc., makers of EICO hi-fi equipment
A. J. Romano has been appointed sales
manager iif the Ilectifier Division of Audio
Devices, Inc.
Jovial Harold Weinberg
is buyer for the new E. J. Korvette & Company hi-fi store in midtown New York.
ARKAY
STEREO
CS -28
AMP/PRE-AMP
COMPLETE
-410.LCONTROL
CENTER
Full 28 watts stereo or monaural. 60 watts peak
14 watts each
channel
reverse stereo
balance control
two-channel gain
control
full range bass and treble controls
IM distortion, 4
to 1
harmonic distortion, 1% 30-20,000 cps dual pre -amp 2V
output jacks
speaker outputs. 4, 8, 16, 32 ohms
response.
20-20,000 cps
push-pull EL84 Williamson circuit.
Wired and tested $99.95
Easy-to -build Kit
ARKAY
ST -11
$6495
AM -FM
STEREO TUNER
Here, for the first time, is an AM.
FM STEREO Tuner within the reach
of every audiophile. Unmatched by
units costing twice the price, the
ST -11 is
two distinct receivers in
one featuring 4 08. for 20 rib quieting. Variable AEC. Single front
panel switch controls AM, FM or STEREO selection.
Wired and tested $74.50
Easy -to -build Kit
(
,t
$419.95
;` '
ARKAY SP -6 STEREO
CONTROL CENTER
ARKAY SPA -55
STEREO AMP
Two 271/2 watt distortion -free
hi -fl amplifiers for stereo. Or
use as 55 watt monaural am.
p
tif le r.
Easy -to -build
Versatile stereo pre -amp with
dual inputs and outputs. Ni -lo
filters, reverse position, bal.
ance control. Less cover.s
Kit$6495
Easy-to-build Kit$3995
Wired and tested $62.95
Wired and tested 579.95
See and hear ARKAY Kits at your dealer.
Stereo booklet and catalog. Write Dept. A
FREE!
All
prices 5% hlgner west el
88.06 Van Wyck Expressway
Richmond Hill 18, N.Y.
Circle 65A
who said all brands
of recording tape
are alike?
obviously someone
who has not
tried
irish
ferro -sheen
rvD
.
.
.
JULY, 1959
Available wherever quality tape is sold.
Circle 65B
65
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
NewTra n s Flywve ight*
DYNACO
Super
Fidelity
OUTPUT
TRANSFORMERS
Advanced pulse techniques and Dynaco's
windings
and
para -coupled
patented
massive grain -oriented cores insure superior square wave performance and
near -perfect transients. All transformers
handle full rated power from 20 cps to
20 KC, and are conservatively rated and
guaranteed to handle double nominal
power from 30 cps to 15 KC.
SPECIFICATIONS
Response: Plus or minus
db 6 cps to 60 KC.
Power Curve: Within 1 db 20 cps to 20 KC.
Square Wave Response: No ringing or distortion from 20 cps to 20 KC
Permissible Feedback: 30 db
MODELS
15 watts
EL -84, 6V6, 6AQ5
14.95
A-410
19.95
A-420
30 watts 5881, EL -34, KT -66
A-430
60 watts KT -88, EL -34
29.95
39.95
A-440 120 watts KT -88, 6550
-88,
Et
-34
A-450 120 watts pp par KT
39.95
1
(all with tapped primaries except A-440 which
has tertiary for screen or cathode feedback)
Write for complete data on Dynaco transformers including suggested circuits and modernization of Williamson -type amplifiers to 50
watts output.
TLC
0
617, N.
0
save on
Stereohifi
13
18
14, 15
41
Best of Audio
Bogen -Presto Company
Bozak
43
British Industries
Corporation
facing p.
Classifier
Connoisseur
Dynaco,
1,
3
SEND FOR
55
Inc.
64, 66
EICO
I
l
59
63
Coy. IV
65
55
Ferrodynamics Corporation
Fisher Radio Corporation
Fukuin Electric (Pioneer)
31
General Electric
Gotham Audio Sales Co., Inc.
Grado Laboratories
5
55
2
64
37
7-9
47
Key Electronics
65
Kierulff Sound Corporation
65
KLH Research G Development Corporation 12
Lansing, James B. Sound,
os
free
ORRadio Industries,
Save most
recommended complete systems,
KNIGHT quality Stereo components, and KNIGHT -KIT build -
29
Inc.
McIntosh Laboratory Inc.
BIGGEST VALUES EVER!
Weight:
8 lbs.; Size: 51/2
features:
x9 x12 inches.
Exceeds NARTB Broadcast Standards.
Newest Noise -Free Motor; No Microphonics.
Low Noise Input Stage (0.25 microvolts).
v
v
v
Overall Gain 110 db.
Dry Rechargeable or Replaceable Batteries.
Selected Transistors Usei.
Meter for VU, Amplifier and Motor Batteries.
Battery Life: Amplifier 125 hrs., Motor 40 hrs.
10
Modular plug-in construction.
v
v
High Speed Rewind (3 minutes).
Choice of
5
Single -Speed Models.
Full unconditional Two Year Guarantee.
Jensen Manufacturing Company
BARGAIN
SUPPLEMENT
Check These Unusual
v
64
Heath Company
ALLIED'S
a..rsso
Belden
Bell Telephone Laboratories
Pa.
Circle 66A
p1.LtE9.
5
estrus_
PORTABLE FIELD RECORDER
Acoustic Research, Inc.
38, 39
Allied Radio Corp.
66
Amplifier Corp. of America
66
Apparatus Development Corporation
65
Arkay
65
Atlas Sound Corp.
58
Audio Bookshelf
62
Audio Fidelity, Inc.
49
Audiogersh Corp.
6
Electrodyne Corporation
Elettro -Sonic Laboratories
Elettro -Voice Inc.
Elettro -Voice Sound Systems
Ercona Corporation
INC.
41st St., Philadelphia 4,
Professional Transistorized
Electric -Motor Battery -Operated
ADVERTISING
INDEX
Prices from $386. to $446.
Write for complete information to Dept. A:
AMPLIFIER CORP.
397 Broadway. N.
of
Y.
'T.M.
j
AMERICA
13, N. Y.
Í
Circle 66C
SMALLER THAN
WEBSTER'S...
UNBELIEVABLE
FULL RANGE
SOUND!
33, 34
Inc.
65
on Stereo hi-fi. See top buys in Allied -
your -own Stereo. Hundreds of values
in famous name amplifiers, tuners,
changers, speakers, accessories-as
well as recorders, P.A. systems, test
instruments and electronic supplies.
Send for your FREE Allied Supplement packed with bargains and new
products. Save as never before!
FREE.,
Precision Electronics, Inc.
Professional Directory
51
17
45
65
Coy. II
53
61
Coy. III
Scott, H. H., Inc.
Sherwood Electronic Laboratories
Stromberg -Carlson, A Division of
General Dynamics Corporation
Studio Supply Co.
SUPPLEMENT
ALLIED RADIO, Dept. 146-09
100 N. Western Ave., Chicago 80, III.
FREE
59
Radio Corporation of America
Radio Shack Corporation
Roberts Electronics Inc.
Rockbar Corporation
ALLIED RADIO
Send
Partridge Transformers
Pickering Er Company
Pilot Radio Corporation
Allied Supplement No. 185
57
63
58
WEATHERS Harmony Stereo Speaker
Actual measurements: 11" x 91/4" x 355/a"
Frequency Response: 70 to 15,)00 cps
Designed like a book, to be placed inconspicuously
on shelf, table or tucked away in your library. Use
singly, in pairs or with hideaway bass.
Send today for FREE brochure
Name
University Loudspeakers, Inc.
4
Address
LCity
DIVISION OF ADVANCE INDUSTRIES,
7one
State
J
Weathers
Industries
66
to
WEATHERS INDUSTRIES
66
E.
INC.
Gloucester Pike, Barrington, N.J.
Export: Jos. Plasencia, Inc., 401 Broadway, N.Y.
13.
N.Y.
Circle 66D
Circle 66B
AUDIO
66
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JULY, 1959
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