null  User manual

Massachusetts Port Authority

Logan International Airport

Air Quality Monitoring Study

Active Monitoring Program

Final Quality Assurance Project

Plan

September

2007

(REVISED February 2008)

Final QAPP

Contents

Executive Summary

Section 1 Project Management

1.1 Background ...............................................................................................................1-1

1.4

1.5

1.6

Section 2

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data .....................................1-7

Project Training Requirements ...............................................................................1-8

Documentation and Records...................................................................................1-8

Data Generation and Acquisition

Monitoring and Sampling Method Requirements...............................................2-1

Sample Handling and Custody ..............................................................................2-1

Analytical Methods and Requirements.................................................................2-2

Quality Control Requirements................................................................................2-3

Section 3

3.1

3.2

Section 4

4.1

Assessment and Oversight

Assessment and Response Actions ........................................................................3-1

Reports to Massport .................................................................................................3-1

Data Validation

Data Review and Verification.................................................................................4-1

Appendices

Appendix A

Shelter Drawing

Appendix B

Standard Operating Procedures

Appendix C

Sample Identification Scheme

A

Document Code i

Table of Contents

Figures

1-2

1-3

Tables

CDM Project Team Organizational Chart .................................................................1-4

Recommended Monitoring Sites ................................................................................1-5

1-1

3-1

Active Monitoring Methods ........................................................................................1-4

Desert Research Institute Technical Contacts ...........................................................3-1

A ii

Executive Summary

As part of the Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) Certificate on the

Final Environmental Impact Report

(EIR) for the Logan Airside Improvements Project

(LAIP

)

, the Secretary of the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) has called for an air quality study (the

Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring

Study

) (Study). The purpose of the Study is to monitor air quality conditions (with a focus on “air toxics”) in the vicinity of Logan International Airport (Logan) in advance of, and following, the implementation the new Centerfield Taxiway. The Centerfield

Taxiway is one of the primary components of the LAIP.

The overall technical approach for conducting the Study is provided in the

Massport

Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring Study Final Air Quality Work Plan,

June 2007

. This document contains the Draft Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for conducting the “active” monitoring component of the Study. “Active” monitoring methods are those that need electrical power, and typically involve pumps or samplers. A separate Draft QAPP has been developed for conducting the passive monitoring program. (“Passive” methods are those that do not need electrical power, and typically operate by diffusion.) The Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) is responsible for overall implementation and completion of the Study. The technical aspects of the Study are being managed by CDM. The active monitoring program is under the direction of Dr. John Watson of the Desert Research Institute (DRI).

The QAPP presents the field and laboratory procedures and methods for conducting the active monitoring program. The primary components of the QAPP comprise of the following:

„

Project Management;

„

Sampler Analysis;

„

Data Generation and Acquisition

„

Assessment and Oversight; and

„

Data Validation.

A

ES

-

1

A

Document Code

Section 1

Project Management

1.1 Background

Logan International Airport (Logan) is New England’s largest transportation center and occupies approximately 2,400 acres in East Boston, Massachusetts (see

Figure 1-

1

). In 2005, Logan ranked as the 20 th

busiest airport in the U.S. based on volume of over 27 million passengers. The airfield contains six runways (i.e., 4R/22L, 4L/22R,

15R/33L, 15L/33R, 9/27 and 14/32); associated taxiways, aprons and terminal facilities, and is surrounded by Boston Harbor and the communities of East Boston,

South Boston, and Winthrop.

On June 15, 2001, the Secretary of the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs

(EOEA) issued a Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) Certificate on the

Logan Airside Improvements Project (LAIP)

Final Environmental Impact Report

(EIR).

The LAIP serves as the blueprint for a series of improvements to Logan over several years. One important component of the LAIP is the Centerfield Taxiway, a new 9,300foot taxiway to be constructed between existing runways 4R/22L and 4L/22R. As part of the MEPA Certificate, the EOEA Secretary called for an air quality study (the

Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring Study

). The purpose of the Study is to monitor air quality conditions (with a focus on “air toxics”) in the vicinity of Logan in advance of, and following, the implementation the new Centerfield Taxiway. The

Centerfield Taxiway is one of the primary components of the LAIP.

Massport anticipates that the Study will take place over the next five years (2007-2011) and air monitoring will be performed over two distinct periods: an approximate 12month baseline period and an approximate 12-month follow-up period. Massport also expects that the data will be used for future studies by the Massachusetts

Departments of Public Health (MADPH) and Environmental Protection (MADEP), or others. Importantly, in its current design the Study does not include any health effects or risk analyses, nor does it evaluate the interpretation of airport and non-airport emissions. Massport will implement a program to present the results of the Study and to help engage local stakeholders in issues related to air quality around Logan.

1.2 Project Organization

Massport is responsible for overall implementation and completion of the Study.

Within Massport, the work is being managed by Keith Beasley, P.E. with oversight by

Catherine Wetherell, Director of Environmental Programs. Other key roles taken by

Massport staff include Agency Coordination by Betty Derosiers, and the EDR/ESPR

Coordination by Jacki Wilkins.

The technical aspects of the Study are being managed by CDM under the direction of

Marc Wallace, QEP with oversight by Cynthia Hibbard. Other key contributors include:

1-1

Project Management

Background/Introduction

„

Dr. P. Barry Ryan, Emory University is responsible for managing and implementing the passive monitoring program;

„

Dr. John G. Watson, Desert Research Institute is responsible for managing and implementing the active monitoring program;

„

George W. Siple, QEP, CDM and Mr. Michael A. Kenney, CHMM, QEP, CIH of KB

Environmental Sciences, Inc are responsible for managing the field monitoring program, QA/QC of monitoring data and preparation of reports and presentations.

Figure 1-2

presents the CDM Project Team organizational chart.

The staffs of MADPH and MADEP will be responsible for reviewing the QAPP.

1.3 Project Description

The overall technical approach for conducting the Study is provided in the

Massport

Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring Study Final Air Quality Work Plan,

September 2007

. The technical approach was based on several important criteria, such as the choice and locations of air monitoring sites, the selection of the pollutants analyzed and the monitoring or sampling methods to be used. Notably, the development of this approach relied heavily on input from MADEP/MADPH, the prior experiences of the Project Team in this highly specialized field as well as the outcomes of similar air monitoring programs conducted at other airports both in the

U.S. and abroad.

A

The air quality monitoring program will be conducted at three “primary” sites that will comprise both “active” and “passive” air monitoring methods specifically selected for this Study. In addition, Massport has elected to add up to eight “satellite” sites located nearby that will use only passive samplers. One of the satellite sites will be located at the MADEP Harrison Avenue site to represent a background site. This approach enables the collection of appropriate data in a scientifically-acceptable and cost-effective manner over an extended Study Area.

Figure 1-3

shows the recommended monitoring locations. This QAPP focuses on procedures for the “active” monitoring locations. They are shown on Figure 1-3 as

Sites N, A and S (in light blue circles).

Air toxics (also known as hazardous air pollutants or “HAPs”) are emitted from a variety of emission sources, both natural and man-made. Therefore, the Target

Pollutants for this Study are specifically selected as they represent the primary forms of combustion products or evaporative emissions from airport related sources. They include:

„

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs);

1-3

Project Management

Background/Introduction

A

Figure 1-2

CDM Project Team Organizational Chart

1-4

O

Jeffries

Cove

B

Bayswater St.

T

Court

Road

S

C

Coughlin

Park

I

Q

South Boston

Yacht Club

Figure

1-3

Recommended Monitoring Sites

L E G E N D

Monitoring Sites

I

= Primary

Q

= Satellite

K

= Backgound

=

Odor Complaints

Massport—Logan Air Monitoring Study

A

Project Management

Background/Introduction

„

„

„

„

Carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde);

Semi-volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) / Polynuclear Aromatic

Hydrocarbons (PAHs);

Particulate matter; and

Black Carbon.

Although not classifiable as HAPs by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

(EPA), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) serve as indicators (or

“surrogates”) to the presence of fuel combustion products. Moreover, both PM and

BC are pollutants of concern to MADEP/MADPH and the general public, alike.

As mentioned above, the air monitoring methods for this Study are subdivided into two general categories: active and passive. Both continuous (“real-time”) and timeintegrated techniques are included. This combined (“hybrid”) approach to the Study blends together the benefits of all these monitoring methods, thus allowing for expanded coverage both spatially and temporally.

The primary sites will utilize monitoring methods that have been compiled by EPA as representing the best elements of peer-reviewed, standardized methods for the determination of toxic organic compounds in ambient air.

This QAPP focuses on the following “active” sampling methods.

1-6

Project Management

Background/Introduction

A

Table 1-1

Active Monitoring Methods

Pollutant and Method Technique

Meteorology (wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity)

PM

2.5

mass using beta attenuation monitor (BAM) with very sharp cut cyclone

Black carbon using seven-wavelength aethalometer

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) using

Summa canister with GC/MS

1

analysis

2

Averaging Time

Active Continuous

Active Integrated

PM

2.5

Federal Reference Method (FRM) Active Integrated

PM

2.5

Integrated

Carbonyl compounds using DNPH

3 adsorber with HPLC

4

analysis

5

Active Integrated

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

(PAH) using sequential sampler with

Teflon-coated glass-fiber filter and XAD

®6 cartridge with GC/MS analysis

7

Active Integrated

1

GC/MS = gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

2

Target VOCs include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene.

3

DNPH = diphenylhydrazine.

4

HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography.

5

6

Target carbonyl compounds include acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, and propionaldehyde.

PUF/XAD

®

= a “sandwich” of polyurethane foam and proprietary resin XAD sorbent.

7

Target PAHs include naphthalene, 1-methyl naphthalene, and 2-methyl naphthalene.

1.4 Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement

Data

Data quality objectives (DQOs) have been established by U.S. EPA (1994, 2006) for the

NAMS/SLAMS PM

2.5

monitoring. The DQO process is a strategic planning approach used to ensure that an environmental data collection effort will obtain data of sufficient quality to meet the needs of decision makers. For all of the measurements in this project the following DQO categories and values are specified:

„

Precision: Precision is the degree of mutual agreement among individual measurements under prescribed conditions (Watson et al., 2001). For integrated samples with subsequent laboratory analysis, precision is determined by periodic replicate analyses. For continuous measurements, it is determined by periodic presentation of transfer standards to the measurement system. The project goal for overall precision will be ±10 percent expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) for values that exceed ten times the lower quantifiable limit (LQL). LQLs are

1-7

Project Management

Background/Introduction

A determined by some multiple of the standard deviation of field blanks for continuous instrument response to air that does not contain the measured pollutant.

„

Accuracy: Accuracy is the correctness of data and refers to the degree of difference between observed and known, or true values. Lacking commonly accepted standards (as is the case for many organic compounds and black carbon), accuracy is estimated by comparisons with standard references materials or between different analysis methods. A ±10 percent accuracy is sought for this project.

„

Representativeness: Representativeness is the extent to which data accurately and precisely represent a characteristic of a population, parameter variations at a sampling location, or an environmental condition. It is usually determined by assessing whether a monitoring location meets certain specified criteria for human exposure in space and time. The long-term monitoring periods and multiple monitoring sites included in this study have been selected to represent different source emissions, transport conditions, and potential community exposures, within resource constraints.

„

Completeness: Completeness is the percentage of valid data compared to the total expected data. Completeness will be determined by site by reporting period, calendar quarter, and calendar year. Completeness will be measured as a percentage of valid data for a given time period. At least 75 percent of the scheduled sampling days for each quarter should have valid data to estimate a quarterly average. In practice, actual completeness has generally been greater than

90 percent quarterly and annually in studies of this type.

1.5 Project Training Requirements

All field and laboratory technicians have academic degrees and training appropriate to their assigned tasks. Job descriptions describe the duties of each person. Field technicians who will be changing samples and maintaining instruments have undergone initial instruction at the beginning of the project and been supplied operating manuals and standard operating procedures. Laboratory technicians have been performing their assigned duties for several years and are subject to periodic refresher instructions and annual evaluations.

1.6 Documentation and Records

Each project participant maintains records that include sufficient information to reconstruct final reported measurements from the variables originally gathered in the measurement process. This includes but is not limited to information (raw data, electronic files, and/or hard copy printouts) related to media preparation, sampler

1-8

A

Project Management

Background/Introduction

calibration, sample collection, sample handling (Chain-of-Custody and processing activities), measurement instrument calibration, quality control checks of sampling or measurement equipment, "as collected" measurement values, an audit trail for any modifications made to the "as collected" measurement values and traceability documentation for reference standards.

Difficulties encountered during sampling or analysis are documented in narratives that indicate the affected measurements. Electronic versions of data sets reflect the limitations associated with individual measurement values.

The following electronic or hard copy documents are maintained by the analysts (e.g.,

Chain-of-Custody forms in the laboratory with final data), field operators (e.g., activity logs), or data managers (e.g., electronic logs).

„

Sampling information and chain-of-custody forms

„

Instrument calibration data forms

„

Field data log books

„

Electronic run logs

„

Electronic and/or manual daily activity logs

„

Electronic and/or manual preventative maintenance records

„

Electronic and/or manual data processing and validation logs

„

Electronic and/or manual data management activity logs

„

Records of assessment, such as performance evaluation records

Electronic data are stored on a networked computer that is backed up every day. All previous versions of data sets are retained along with the final validated data set that is delivered to the sponsor.

1-9

A

Section 2

Data Generation and Acquisition

2.1 Sampling Design

Primary sampling sites were selected with the intent to measure maximum impacts from airport operations and community exposures to mixtures of pollutants from the airport and other emitters. The three primary sites are: Saratoga Street at Annavoy

(01); 2) Bremen Street (02); and 3) Court Road (03). The alphanumeric site codes are noted in parentheses. These are supplemented by seven satellite sites and one background site at which passive monitors will be located to determine spatial distributions around, and zones of representation for, the primary sites.

The sampling schedule has been selected to obtain hourly measurements of PM

2.5 with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM) and black carbon (BC) with an aethalometer. These short-term measurements will cover every day and every hour of sampling and can be analyzed along with meteorological measurements to determine the directionality of elevated concentrations. PM

2.5 will also be collected on filters with a Federal

Reference Method (FRM) sampler every sixth day at one of the primary sites

(Annavoy site) for comparison with the other measurements. Active samples for PM

2.5

(collected using a minivol), VOC, carbonyls, and PAH will be collected over 24-hour periods every 12 days. Collocated passive samplers at these sites will allow comparison of long-term averages for the year among the different sampling methods.

2.2 Monitoring and Sampling Method Requirements

Several common quality control activities take place for all analyses: 1) acceptance testing for contamination of substrates, reagents, extraction vials prior to use; 2) field and laboratory blank designation and analysis to determine blank levels and variability; 3) periodic performance tests of flow rates for field samplers and of zero and span values for laboratory instruments to determine reproducibility and calibration drift; and 4) data validation flags for field and laboratory operations that indicate deviations from procedures. Results from these common quality control activities are compiled into a separate data base and used to develop the data qualifications statement.

2.3 Sample Handling and Custody

Sample handling, chain-of-custody, and archiving are specifically treated in SOPs.

The Beta Attenuation Monitor (BAM) and aethalometer measurements are in situ, with instruments located in environmentally controlled shelters. To minimize sampling losses or changes and to promote comparability among these instruments:

1) sample inlet lines are as short as possible by locating instruments close to the shelter ceiling; 2) inlets are at a common height above rooftop level (~1.5 m), equivalent to the height of FRM inlets; 3) sample lines are of conducting material with straight or gently curving entries to instruments to minimize particle losses; and 4)

2-1

A

Section 2

Data Generation and Acquisition

sample line diameters are as small as possible to minimize residence time that might cause changes in temperature and humidity.

Filter, denuder, and absorber sections from particle monitors are prepared in clean laboratories and shipped to and from the field by overnight transport in cooled (<4°C) containers containing temperature indicators. Samples are stored in on-site refrigerators before and after sampling. Shipments are coordinated between the field and laboratory. Sample identifiers are bar-coded to indicate sample type, analysis type, and sampling time and location. These identifiers are entered into field and laboratory data acquisition systems to track sample status at any time during the project. The QA Manager will review chain-of-custody processes and data throughout the project and recommend improvements. A sample identification coding system is explained in Appendix C.

2.4 Analytical Methods Requirements

Field and laboratory operations are described in standard operating procedures

(SOPs) that are attached in Appendix B. These SOPs codify the actions which are taken to implement a measurement process over a specified time period. State-of-theart scientific information is incorporated into the SOP with each revision. SOPs include the following elements:

1. A brief summary of the measurement method, its principles of operation, its expected accuracy and precision, and the assumptions which must be met for it to be valid.

2. A list of materials, equipment, reagents, and suppliers. Specifications are given for each expendable item and its storage location.

3. A general traceability path, the designation of primary standards or reference materials, tolerances for transfer standards, and a schedule for transfer standard verification.

4. Start-up, routine maintenance, and shut-down operating procedures and an abbreviated checklist.

5. Copies of data forms with examples of filled out forms.

6. Routine maintenance schedules, maintenance procedures, and troubleshooting tips.

7. Internal calibration and performance testing procedures and schedules.

8. External performance auditing schedules.

9. References to relevant literature and related standard operating procedures.

2-2

Section 2

Data Generation and Acquisition

SOPs specify ongoing quality assurance procedures that include instrument calibrations, minimum detection limit (MDL) for measured species, monitoring operations, regular performance checks, maintenance, documentation, chain-ofcustody accounting, audit procedures, data validation, and precision and accuracy calculations. Each monitoring site will include a site log that will be used to document the time and activities involved with each operator visit. A field sampling checklist

SOP has been created specifically for this project and is included in Appendix B.

2.5 Quality Control Requirements

Several types of standards are needed for calibration, auditing, and performance tests.

Primary standards are well characterized and protected, with stable concentrations to which all other standards are traceable. Transfer standards are often more easily produced or commonly available and are traceable to primary standards; these are used for calibration, performance testing, and auditing. The same standards can be used for calibration and performance testing, but audit standards should be independently traceable to primary standards. Performance tests may measure instrument electronic response rather than response to a specific value of an observable when transfer standards for the primary observable are lacking.

Methods for presenting these standards to instruments depend on the instrument audited. Flow rates are relatively simple to verify using rotometers, but evaluating continuous monitor response to particle size is impractical under field conditions.

Certification documentation for rotometers and dry gas meters will be kept at CDM’s office including certification results and dates of certifications.

In addition to the field calibration and auditing of the active monitoring equipment performed by field technicians on a regular basis, a quality assurance performance and systems audit will be conducted by an independent auditor within the first month of all of three Primary sites being in full operation.

Calibration, performance testing, and auditing methods for laboratory operations are largely based on the preparation of standard solutions from mineral salts. NIST does not provide these types of standards. Standard solutions in a large range of concentrations are available commercially for inorganic monoatomic and polyatomic ions.

A

Inter-laboratory comparisons will operate on the exchange of portions of the same filters or sample extract. Mass, elemental, ion, and carbon analysis can all be performed on portions of the same filter. DRI routinely conducts interlaboratory comparisons with other national laboratories.

2.6 Data Management

Data from the primary and satellite sites will be compiled into an electronic project database setup by DRI. CDM field technicians will download data from continuous monitoring equipment every 12 days after each scheduled 24-hour real-time

2-3

A

Section 2

Data Generation and Acquisition

integrated sampling day to ensure minimal data loss. The following types of tables will be included in the project database:

„

Measurement locations: Each measurement location is identified with a unique alphanumeric site ID accompanied by its name and address, its primary operator, and a summary of measurements taken at the site for different monitoring periods.

„

Variable definitions: Each variable is assigned a unique code that is accompanied by its definition, units, averaging time, measurement method, applicable temperature and pressure adjustments, and data reporting format.

„

Data validation flags: Flags specific to each measurement are translated into a common set of validation flags that are carried with each data point. These are currently being defined by EPA for its speciation program, and this will be a starting point for data validation flags.

„

Data tables: Basic data tables are constructed in normalized formats that have the same structure for different types of data. Each record contains the site code, sample date (MMDDYYYY), variable code, measurement value, measurement precision, validity code, and validation level. These files will be transparent to most users and can be easily manipulated into convenient data analysis forms.

Missing or invalid measurements contain a “NULL” value. Modern data management software permits this in place of the –99 (and variants) previously used. Separate tables are produced for different averaging times and for nonuniform data sets.

„

Validation tables: Detailed information on specific samples indicating the nature of the data qualification will be prepared. These tables also contain the validation level assigned to each data item.

2-4

A

Section 3

Assessment and Oversight

3.1 Assessment and Response Actions

The project manager will oversee day-to-day operations at the sampling sites. A need for corrective action can be triggered by assessments of precision, accuracy, or completeness. The most important triggers are standards (flow rates in the field, calibration standards in the laboratory) that differ from specified values by more than the amounts specified in the procedures. Other triggers can include an instrument not meeting basic performance criteria, observations by any laboratory personnel of unusual performance by an instrument, or error messages displayed by the controlling computers or the LIMS system.

Once a need for corrective action has been identified, two basic steps follow: identification of the problem, and correction of the problem. Exactly what action is taken depends on what is determined to be wrong; actions can include: replacement of a defective part, correction of an incorrect flow, resetting or adjusting of tuning parameters, and contacting manufacturer service personnel.

DRI will provide spare parts to CDM and will respond within 24-hours to provide parts and technical guidance in the maintenance and repair of equipment. Presented in

Table 3-1

is a list of technical contacts at DRI including their telephone numbers.

Table 3-1

Desert Research Institute Technical Contacts

Technical Contacts Telephone Numbers

John Watson, Principal Investigator (775) 674-7046

Larry Sheetz, Field Equipment

David Campbell, Field Equipment

David Sodeman, Field Equipment

Stephen Kohl, Field Equipment

Barbara Zielinska, Laboratory

(775) 674-7139

(775) 674-7080

(775) 674-7078

(775) 674-7056

(775) 674-7066

3

-

1

Section 3

Assessment and Oversight

3.2 Reports to Massport

Air monitoring will be conducted over two separate one-year periods. Combined with the meteorological and other supporting data, a vast amount of information will be collected and assessed. To distill this material into meaningful information, the data will be assimilated into summary statistics that are intended to give the reviewers a comprehensive, yet concise, interpretation of the findings. The air monitoring data will be compared to applicable guidelines and standards, as appropriate. In addition, the air monitoring data will be compared to measurements obtained from nearby MADEP monitoring sites.

Upon completion of the data quality review and data analyses, quarterly and summary reports to Massport will be prepared covering each 12-month monitoring period. These reports will be made available to MADEP, MADPH and the public through the annual EDR/ESPR process.

A

3-2

A

Section 4

Data Validation

4.1 Data Review and Verification

The QA program is organized around providing continuing internal quality control checks. This begins with proper training of the laboratory technicians so that they can identify problems with analyses and point these out to the Laboratory Operations or

Laboratory Manager for resolution. Other internal quality control checks include blank checks, certification of sampling media, and the data analysis system. For example, the ability of DRI’s data analysis system to merge multiple samples into a single database allows for rapid and accurate cross-comparisons among the samples.

SOP quality control checks include the calibration procedures, the regular calibration checks, and the duplicate analyses. Duplicate analyses are essential for determining precision of analyses and provide information about the stability of the system over time.

4.2 Data Validation

Data validity levels are designated in the validation tables for different stages of data acquisition and interpretation. Level 0 designates data sets downloaded from a field instrument that have not been examined. These measurements are used to evaluate instrument performance and to forecast conditions for special experiments. Level 0 data are not used for interpretive purposes.

Level 1 data has been evaluated by the measurement investigator prior to submission to the data base. Values are removed for instrument downtime and performance tests, adjustments for calibration deviations are applied, extreme values are investigated, internal comparisons are made, blanks are subtracted, precisions are estimated and propagated, and appropriate data qualification flags are assigned.

These are submitted to the Data Manager who applies several additional tests. For sequential measurements, jump tests, standard deviation tests, and extreme value tests often identify values that need to be investigated.

Level 2 data have completed intercomparison tests between data sets. These tests often result in the investigation of several samples that do not follow the same pattern as other measurements. These samples are investigated, sometimes re-analyzed, and re-designated as valid, invalid, or suspect as a result of the investigation.

Level 3 validation occurs after measurements are used to test hypotheses and values that are found contradictory to other values have been investigated. The quality of these measurements is especially important as they often indicate large deviations from conventional wisdom that should not be confused with measurement error. The first assumption upon finding a measurement inconsistent with physical expectations is that the unusual value is due to a measurement error. If, upon tracing the path of the measurement, nothing unusual is found, the value can be assumed to be a valid result of an environmental cause. Unusual values are identified during the data

4-1

Section 4

Data Validation

interpretation process as the following: 1) extreme values; 2) values that would normally track the values of other variables in a time series; and 3) values for observables that would normally follow a qualitatively predictable spatial or temporal pattern.

A

4-2

Appendices

Appendix A

Updates to the Active Monitoring Program

Final Quality Assurance Project Plan

Appendix B - Standard Operating Procedures

Section 1-3:

Field Sampling Checklist updated on January 25, 2008. The checklist is more in-depth than the original checklist, providing step-by-step instruction for each sampling equipment.

Section 4-10:

Minivol SOP updated on January 25, 2008. This section was edited to reflect the change in minivol samplers from the samplers rented from DRI to the purchased samplers. The figures were replaced with those found in the Air Metrics manual for the new samplers.

The mounting procedure and the description of the filters packs were also updated.

Section 27-33:

Aethalometer SOP updated on January 25, 2008. New aethalometers with flash memory card recording medium were installed in October, 2007. The update reflects the change from floppy disks to flash memory cards.

Section 39-42:

VOC canister sample SOP updated on January 25, 2008. A valid initial canister pressure range was added to the sample canister description. Also canister shipment procedure was updated to reflect the change in laboratories from DRI to Alpha Analytical.

Section 43-45:

Carbonyl sampler SOP updated on January 25, 2008. The sample cartridge description and figure were updated. Also media shipment was updated to reflect the change in laboratories from DRI to Alpha Analytical.

Section 62-69:

VOC GC/MS analysis SOP updated on January 25, 2008. VOCs analyzed by Alpha

Analytical and their reporting limits were added.

Section 70-77:

Carbonyl HPLC analysis SOP updated on January 25, 2008. Carbonyl compounds analyzed by Air Toxics (subcontracted by Alpha Analytical) and their reporting limits were added.

Section 78-86:

SVOC GC/MS analysis SOP updated on January 25, 2008. SVOCs analyzed by Alpha

Analytical and their reporting limits were added.

Appendix B

Contents

Sections 1 - 3 Massport Field Sampling Checklist

Sections 4 – 10 Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler Field Operations

Sections 11 - 18 Andersen Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS) 2.5 – 100: Operation and

Maintenance

Sections 19 – 26 Met One BAM 1020 Operation, Maintenance and Field Calibration

Sections 27 – 33 Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance

Sections 34 – 38 Canister Cleaning and Certification

Sections 39 – 42 Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler

Sections 43 – 45 DRI Carbonyl Sampler Operations

Sections 46 – 53 Four-Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Sections 54 – 61 PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis

Sections 62 – 69 Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas Chromatography with Cryogenic

Concentration (DRI & Alpha Analytical)

Sections 70 – 77 Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid

Chromatography (DRI & Alpha Analytical)

Sections 78 – 86 Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic Compound by GC/MS (DRI & Alpha

Analytical)

Sections 87 – 95 Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

MASSPORT Field Sampling Checklist

Customized Procedure No. MASSPORT 1

July 10, 2007 (Revised October 25, 2007)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

1.

1.1

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Purpose of Procedure

This procedure summarizes field activities for measurements at the primary monitoring for the Massachusetts Port Authority Logan International Airport air quality monitoring study.

These apply to: 1) VOC canister samplers; 2) Carbonyl DNPH samplers; 3) SVOC XAD samplers; 4) Federal Reference Method PM

2.5

sampler; 5) Minivol samplers; and aethalometers.

2.

2.1

2.1.1

2.1.2

CHECKLIST FOR DAY PRIOR TO SAMPLING

VOC Canister Sampler

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed.

2.1.3

2.1.4

2.1.5

Remove cap from threaded port on top of fresh VOC canister.

Remove plug from end of stainless steel sampling line.

Insert canister into sampler case so that sampling line is close to, and level with, threaded port on top (use foam pads and/or cardboard sheets to adjust level).

Screw compression nut on end of sampling line tightly onto threaded port on top of canister (be careful not to bend can neck or strip threads)

Open canister valve until vacuum is shown on lower pressure gauge. 2.1.6

2.1.7

Close canister valve and observe vacuum for about 5 minutes. If it changes by more than

2” Hg, there is a leak in the line.

Open canister valve again. 2.1.8

2.1.9

Record site, date, initial pressure (lower gauge), and initial elapsed time on field data sheet.

2.1.10

Program controller for next sample

2.1.10.1

Artisan 4950H:

2.1.10.1.1

input start sequence day (Monday = 1, Sunday = 7)

#D1000115*

where D is the number of the sampling

2.1.10.1.2

2.1.10.1.3

input stop sequence #D2235900*

check programs

#0D*

display should show the following, in sequence (example for Tuesday):

d2-1

(day 2, program 1)

0001

(start time 00:01)

--15

(turn on relays 1 and 2)

d2-2

(day2, program 2)

2359

(end time 23:59)

--00

(turn off relays 1 and 2)

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.1.10.1.4

clear programs for following days (these are automatically created for the rest of the week)

#0(D+1)0*, #0(D+1)0*

, etc.

2.1.10.2

Grasslin G56-72: (Annavoy site)

2.1.10.2.1

press button for sample day (e.g. Tu) below display on off I O

I O on off

AM –

PM --

- - : - -

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.1.10.2.2

press

h+

button once on off I O I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : - -

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.1.10.2.3

press

m+

button once on off I O

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.1.10.2.4

press I/O button to change indicators to On (I) on top of display

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.1.10.2.5

press

Write

button on off I O I O on off

AM –

PM --

- - : - -

2.1.10.2.6

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su to check programs press

Read

button repeatedly shutoff program (do not change) start sample program

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

11 : 59

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 23

2.2

Carbonyl (DNPH) Sampler

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.2.1

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet)

2.2.2

2.2.3

Open DNPH cartridge foil packet and remove plastic caps on both ends

Remove one short piece of white plastic tubing from channel 1 and insert cartridge as indicated.

2.2.4

Turn on channel 1 using override button and observe mass-flow controller until it stabilizes (if not within 5% of 1000 cc/min, adjust flow set screw using tool). On 3channel sampler you must also turn on channel 4 to turn on pump.

2.2.5

2.2.6

Turn off Channel 1 (and 4) using override.

Reset channel 1 elapsed timer to zero if necessary.

2.2.7

2.2.8

Apply matching bar code stickers to both field data sheet and foil bag.

Program controller for next sample

2.2.8.1

Grasslin G56-72: (Annavoy and Court Rd sites)

2.2.8.1.1

press button for sample day (e.g. Tu) below display on off I O I O on off

AM –

PM --

- - : - -

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.1.2

press

h

+ button once on off I O

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : - -

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.2.8.1.3

press

m

+ button once on off I O

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.1.4

press I/O button to change Ch 1 indicator to On (I) on top of display

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.1.5

press

Write

button on off I O I O on off

AM –

PM --

- - : - -

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.2.8.1.6

to check programs press

Read

button repeatedly shutoff program (do not change) start sample program

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

11 : 59

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.2

Grasslin Digi-322: (Bremen St.site)

2.2.8.2.1

press

h+

button once

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

0

00

00:- -

AM

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.2.2

press

m+

button once

3

4

2

1

0

00

00:00

AM

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

3

4

2

1

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.2.8.2.3

press buttons below display to turn off all other days except next sample day

(e.g. Tu)

0

00

AM

00:00

3

4

2

1

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.2.4

press small I/O buttons (top row) to change Ch 1 and Ch 4 indicators to On (I) on top of display

0

00

AM

00:00

2.2.8.2.5

press

S

button

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

I

I

3

4

2

1

0

00

--:--

3

4

2

1

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.2.8.2.6

to check programs press

R

button repeatedly shutoff program (do not change) start sample program

0

00

PM

11:59

0

0

3

4

2

1

0

00

AM

00:00

I

I

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.2.7

after programming, the display should look something like this (e.g. Tues,

Sept. 22, 10:45am). If not, press oblong I/O buttons until it does

3

4

2

1

07

AM

09.22

10:45

FIX

FIX

3

4

2

1

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.2.8.2.8 record site, date, programmed start and end times, initial flow rate, and initial elapsed time on field data sheet

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 23

2.3

SVOC (PAH) sampler (Harrison site)

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.3.1

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet).

2.3.2

2.3.3

2.3.1.1

2.3.1.2

Use arrow keys to move down from title screen to display “PLC time” and date

See instruction manual to change time or date.

Remove quick-release hose connector from base of left fall column

Loosen three thumbwheels around top of filter holder and remove assembly to clean location (close sampler door to keep dust out).

2.3.4

Install filter and XAD cartridge

2.3.4.1

2.3.4.2

2.3.4.3

2.3.4.4

2.3.4.5

2.3.4.6

2.3.4.7

2.3.4.8

2.3.4.9

2.3.4.10

2.3.4.11

2.3.4.12

2.3.4.13

2.3.4.14

2.3.4.15

2.3.4.16

Unscrew lower section of assembly and place halves on clean surface.

Open anti-static bag containing foil packet and field data sheet.

Put on clean plastic gloves.

Open foil packet and set near filter holder

Place filter holder part of assembly upright and remove top section.

Using clean forceps (tweezers) separate Teflon gasket rings and set on anti-static bag.

Remove filter from foil packet using forceps and place on top of one Teflon gasket ring with smoothest side up.

Place other gasket on top of filter. Center as much as possible.

Place filter and gaskets on top of screen of filter holder

Replace top section carefully so that there are no gaps visible between filter edge and gaskets.

Close foil packet and place in anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

Remove glass XAD cartridge from anti-static bag and insert into lower section of assembly, making sure that lower red silicone gasket is inside holder.

Screw XAD cartridge holder into base of filter holder, keeping vertical and return to sampler.

Reattach assembly to fall column using 3 thumbwheel screws, making sure that washers are in place below thumbwheels.

Connect quick-release hose fitting to base of assembly, making sure that collar locks on.

Loosen nut holding inlet assembly to side of cabinet and remove.

2.3.5

2.3.6

Adjust flow rate

Turn on sampler

2.3.6.1

2.3.6.2

2.3.6.3

2.3.6.4

2.3.6.5

2.3.6.6

Use arrow keys to display channel 1 page.

Use arrow key to go down one page to sampler start page

Press 0 and Enter

Use arrow keys to move cursor to ON/OFF position

Press 1 and Enter

Move down to Pump start page and repeat last 3 steps

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 23

2.3.7

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

Connect rotameter to inlet port. Adjust flow to ~113 lpm (225-245 scfh) and record on field data sheet. If initial flow reading is <100 lpm (210 scfh) check for leaks!

2.3.8

2.3.9

Turn off pump and sampler.

Remove rotameter and reconnect inlet.

2.3.10

Update controller program

2.3.10.1

2.3.10.2

2.3.10.3

2.3.10.4

2.3.10.5

2.3.10.6

Press right arrow key --> to show channel 1

Press down arrow key to reach sample start program page

Press 0 and Enter

Use arrow keys to move cursor to correct day of week

Change 0 to 1

Press Enter

2.3.11

Record site and date on field data sheet.

2.4

SVOC (PAH) sampler (Annavoy and Court Rd Sites)

2.4.1

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet).

2.4.1.1

2.4.2

See instruction manual to change time or date.

Remove quick-release hose connector from base of left fall column

2.4.3

Loosen three thumbwheels around top of filter holder and remove assembly to clean location (close sampler door to keep dust out).

2.4.4

Install filter and XAD cartridge

2.4.4.1

2.4.4.2

2.4.4.3

2.4.4.4

2.4.4.5

2.4.4.6

2.4.4.7

2.4.4.8

2.4.4.9

2.4.4.10

2.4.4.11

2.4.4.12

2.4.4.13

Unscrew lower section of assembly and place halves on clean surface

Open anti-static bag containing foil packet and field data sheet.

Put on clean plastic gloves.

Open foil packet and set near filter holder

Place filter holder part of assembly upright and remove top section.

Using clean forceps (tweezers) separate Teflon gasket rings and set on anti-static bag.

Remove filter from foil packet using forceps and place on top of one Teflon gasket ring with smoothest side up.

Place other gasket on top of filter. Center as much as possible.

Place filter and gaskets on top of screen of filter holder

Replace top section carefully so that there are no gaps visible between filter edge and gaskets.

Close foil packet and place in anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

Remove glass XAD cartridge from anti-static bag and insert into lower section of assembly, making sure that lower red silicone gasket is inside holder.

Screw XAD cartridge holder into base of filter holder, keeping vertical and return to sampler.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 12 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.4.4.14

Reattach assembly to fall column using 3 thumbwheel screws, making sure that washers are in place below thumbwheels.

2.4.4.15

2.4.4.16

Connect quick-release hose fitting to base of assembly, making sure that collar locks on.

Loosen nut holding inlet assembly to side of cabinet and remove.

2.4.5

Set flow rate

2.4.5.1

2.4.5.2

2.4.5.3

Turn on sampler by pressing the Ch 1 I/O key on the controller (you must also press Ch 3 I/O key to turn on the pump of the sampler at Court Rd).

Connect rotameter to inlet port.

Adjust flow to ~113 lpm (225-245 scfh on the rotameter) using manual valve below filter holder and record on field data sheet.

2.4.5.3.1

if initial flow reading is <100 lpm (210 scfh) check for leaks!

2.4.5.4

Turn off pump and sampler

2.4.5.4.1

Grasslin G56-72 controller (Annavoy): Press ch 1 I/O button once.

2.4.5.4.2

Digi-322 controller (Court Rd): Press ch 1 I/O button (oblong button) 3 times until a small clock icon

Ÿ

and a

0

appear next to number 1 on right side of display. Repeat for ch 3 to turn off pump.

2.4.5.5

2.4.6

Remove rotameter and reconnect inlet.

Update controller program

2.4.6.1

Grasslin Digi-322: (Court Rd. site)

2.4.6.1.1

press

h+

button once

0

00

00:- -

AM

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

3

4

2

1

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 13 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.4.6.1.2

press

m+

button once

0

00

AM

00:00

3

4

2

1

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.4.6.1.3

press buttons below display to turn off all other days except next sample day

(e.g. Tu)

0

00

AM

00:00

3

4

2

1

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.4.6.1.4

press small I/O buttons (top row) to change Ch 1 and Ch 3 indicators to On (I) on top of display

0

00

AM

00:00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

I

I

3

4

2

1

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 14 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.4.6.1.5

press

S

button

0

00

--:--

3

4

2

1

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.4.6.1.6

to check programs press

R

button repeatedly shutoff program (do not change) start sample program

0

00

PM

11:59

0

0

3

4

2

1

0

00

AM

00:00

I

I

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.4.6.1.7

after programming, the display should look something like this (e.g. Tues,

Sept. 22, 10:45am). If not, press oblong I/O buttons until it does:

3

4

2

1

07

09.22

10:45

AM

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

FIX

FIX

3

4

2

1

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 15 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.4.6.2

Grasslin G56-72: (Annavoy site)

2.4.6.2.1

press button for sample day (e.g. Tu) below display on off I O I O on off

AM –

PM --

- - : - -

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

2.4.6.2.2

press

h+

button once on off I O

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : - -

2.4.6.2.3

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su press

m+

button once on off I O

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 16 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

2.4.6.2.4

press I/O button to change Ch 1 indicator to On (I) on top of display

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

2.4.6.2.5

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su press

Write

button on off I O I O on off

AM –

PM --

- - : - -

2.4.6.2.6

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su shutoff program (do not change) to check programs press

Read

button repeatedly start sample program

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

11 : 59

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 17 of 23

2.4.7

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

Record site, date, programmed start and end times, initial flow rate, and initial elapsed time on field data sheet.

2.5

2.5.1

FRM PM

2.5

Sampler

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet).

2.5.2

2.5.3

2.5.4

2.5.5

2.6

2.6.1

2.6.2

Select

Setup Run

from the main menu.

Record site, date, elapsed time, etc on log sheet from display.

Turn wheel to lower filter stage until cartridge can be removed.

Place filter cartridge on stage and raise until snug.

MiniVol PM

2.5

Sampler

Set sampler on flat surface and unscrew on side of handle.

Attach clean filter cartridge to quick-disconnect fitting on top of sampler. Make sure brass collar is up all the way.

2.6.3

Check and record initial flow rate.

2.6.3.1

2.6.3.2

2.6.3.3

2.6.3.4

2.6.3.5

2.6.3.6

2.6.4

Lift lid and press ON/OFF/AUTO button to turn sampler on.

Wait for flow to stabilize, as indicated on internal rotameter, then replace lid.

Remove rain cap from filter cartridge and slip small rotameter cap over cartridge

Hold rotameter vertical and observe flow (center of ball).

Adjust flow to 5.0 ± 0.2 lpm if necessary using potentiometer on sampler face plate.

Record flow rate and elapsed timer reading on field data sheet.

Replace rain cap, remove filter cartridge, and place in plastic bag.

2.6.5

2.6.6

Lift sampler lid again and press ON/OFF/AUTO button to turn sampler to Auto.

Check time and day indicated on controller clock. Correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet).

2.6.7

Update program in controller clock for next sample.

2.6.7.1

2.6.7.2

Press PROG until 1

ON

displays near lower left corner.

Press WEEK button until correct sample day is indicated on display.

2.6.8

2.6.9

Record site, date, etc on field data sheet and replace in plastic bag.

Re-verify that the programmer is on AUTO.

2.6.10

Put lid back on sampler and re-attach handle.

3.

3.1

3.1.1

3.1.2

3.1.3

CHECKLIST FOR DAY AFTER SAMPLING

VOC Canister Sampler

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet).

Record site, date, final pressure (lower gauge), and elapsed time on field data sheet.

Close canister valve and disconnect from sampler.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 18 of 23

3.1.4

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

Screw cap snugly onto threaded port on top of canister (be careful not to bend can neck)

3.1.5

3.1.6

Screw plug into end of steel sampling line.

Clear moisture from system as follows.

3.1.6.1

3.1.6.2

Remove plug from compression nut at end of plastic drain hose below panel.

Turn sampler on.

3.1.6.2.1

Artisan 4950H (Bremen St and Court Rd sites): press and hold 2 buttons located on either side of controller.

3.1.6.2.2

clock.

Grasslin G56-72 (Annavoy site): press Override button on controller

3.1.6.3

3.1.6.4

3.1.6.5

3.1.6.6

3.1.6.7

3.1.6.8

3.1.7

Hold finger over end of drain hose until back pressure reaches maximum.

Release finger.

Repeat until no moisture is ejected from drain hose.

Cap drain hose tightly.

Adjust back pressure to 15-20” Hg, if needed.

Turn off sampler.

Clear program from controller:

3.1.7.1

3.1.7.2

Artisan 4950H (Bremen St and Court Rd sites): input “clear all” sequence (#0*),

Grasslin G56-72 (Annavoy site)

3.1.7.2.1

press Read button until sample start program appears shutoff program (do not erase) start sample program

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

AM –

PM --

11 : 59

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

3.1.7.2.2

press

Cancel

button

3.1.8

Complete field data sheet.

3.1.9

Mark sample date on canister tag.

3.1.10

Pack canister and field data sheet in box and ship back to DRI.

3.2

3.2.1

Carbonyl (DNPH) Sampler

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet).

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 19 of 23

3.2.2

Record site, date, and elapsed time on field data sheet.

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

Remove DNPH cartridge from sampler.

Replace plastic caps on both ends and return to foil envelope.

Insert short piece of white plastic tubing in place of cartridge.

3.2.6

3.2.7

Reset elapsed timer to zero.

Clear start program from controller.

3.2.7.1

Grasslin Digi-322: (Bremen St. site)

3.2.7.1.1

press

R

button until start sample program appears, shutoff program (do not erase) start sample program

0

00

PM

11:59

0

0

3

4

2

1

0

00

AM

00:00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

3.2.7.1.2 press

CL

button

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

3.2.7.2

Grasslin G56-72: (Annavoy and Court Rd sites):

3.2.7.2.1

press Read button until start sample program appears, shutoff program (do not erase) start sample program

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

Ch 1 on off I O

Ch 2

I O on off

I

I

3

4

2

1

AM –

PM --

11 : 59

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

3.2.7.2.2 press Cancel button

AM –

PM --

00 : 00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 20 of 23

3.3

SVOC (PAH) Sampler (Harrison site)

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

3.3.1

3.3.2

Record site and date on field data sheet.

Check elapsed time

3.3.2.1

3.3.2.2

3.3.2.3

3.3.2.4

3.3.2.5

3.3.2.6

3.3.2.7

3.3.2.8

3.3.2.9

Press right arrow key --> to show channel 1

Press down arrow key to reach elapsed time page

Record elapsed time on logsheet

If ET is not 1440 ± 10 minutes, check for malfunction, programming error, or power outage.

Use arrow key to go down one page.

Press 0 and Enter

Press 1 and Enter

Press 0 and Enter

Use arrow key to go up one page and verify that ET is now zero.

3.3.3

Check flow rate

3.3.3.1

Turn on sampler

3.3.3.1.1

use arrow keys to display channel 1 page.

3.3.3.1.2

3.3.3.1.3

use arrow key to go down one page to sampler start page press 0 and Enter

3.3.3.1.4

use arrow keys to move cursor to ON/OFF position

3.3.3.1.5

3.3.3.1.6

press 1 and Enter move down to Pump start page and repeat last 3 steps

3.3.4

3.3.5

3.3.3.2

3.3.3.3

3.3.3.4

3.3.3.5

Connect rotameter to inlet port

Record final flow rate on field data sheet

Turn off pump and sampler

Remove rotameter and reconnect inlet

Remove quick-release hose connector from base of left fall column

Loosen three thumbwheels around top of filter holder and remove assembly to clean location (close sampler door to keep dust out).

3.3.6

Remove filter and XAD cartridge

3.3.6.1

3.3.6.2

3.3.6.3

3.3.6.4

3.3.6.5

3.3.6.6

Place assembly on clean surface

Open anti-static bag containing foil packet and field data sheet.

Put on clean plastic gloves.

Open foil packet and set near filter holder

Hold filter holder assembly upright and remove top section to expose filter.

Using clean forceps (tweezers) remove upper Teflon gasket ring and set on antistatic bag.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 21 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

3.3.6.7

Gently pry filter loose from lower Teflon gasket ring using forceps and place filter in foil packet.

Replace top gasket and upper section of filter holder 3.3.6.8

3.3.6.9

3.3.6.10

3.3.6.11

Close foil packet and place in anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

Unscrew lower section of assembly, keeping upright.

Set down upper section on clean surface, and tip glass XAD cartridge out of lower section into gloved hand.

3.3.6.12

3.3.6.13

3.3.6.14

Place cartridge into anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

Complete field data sheet and place filter, cartridge, and sheet in same bag.

Store in refrigerator until shipped back to DRI (must ship with ice).

3.3.7

3.3.8

Screw sections of assembly back together and reinstall in sampler.

Disable controller program

3.3.8.1

3.3.8.2

3.3.8.3

3.3.8.4

3.3.8.5

3.3.8.6

press right arrow key --> to show channel 1 press down arrow key to reach sample start program page press 0 and Enter use arrow keys to move cursor to currently indicated day of week (day with a 1) change 1 to 0 press Enter

3.4

3.4.1

SVOC (PAH) Sampler (Annavoy and Court Rd)

Record elapsed time on field data sheet

3.4.2

Check flow rate

3.4.2.1

3.4.2.2

3.4.2.3

3.4.2.4

Turn on sampler by pressing the Ch 1 I/O key on the controller (you must also press Ch 3 I/O key to turn on the pump of the sampler at Court Rd).

Connect rotameter to inlet port.

Record final flow rate on field data sheet.

Turn off pump and sampler

3.4.2.4.1

Grasslin G56-72 controller (Annavoy): Press ch 1 I/O button once.

3.4.2.4.2

Digi-322 controller (Court Rd): Press ch 1 I/O button (oblong button) 3 times until a small clock icon

Ÿ

and a

0

appear next to number 1 on right side of display. Repeat for ch 3 to turn off pump.

3.4.2.5

3.4.3

Remove rotameter and reconnect inlet.

Remove quick-release hose connector from base of left fall column

3.4.4

Loosen three thumbwheels around top of filter holder and remove assembly to clean location (close sampler door to keep dust out).

3.4.5

Remove filter and XAD cartridge

3.4.5.1

3.4.5.2

3.4.5.3

Place assembly on clean surface

Open anti-static bag containing foil packet and field data sheet.

Put on clean plastic gloves.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 22 of 23

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

3.4.5.4

3.4.5.5

Open foil packet and set near filter holder

Hold filter holder assembly upright and remove top section to expose filter.

3.4.5.6

Using clean forceps (tweezers) remove upper Teflon gasket ring and set on antistatic bag.

3.4.5.7

Gently pry filter loose from lower Teflon gasket ring using forceps and place filter in foil packet.

3.4.5.8

3.4.5.9

3.4.5.10

3.4.5.11

3.4.5.12

3.4.5.13

3.4.5.14

3.4.5.15

Replace top gasket and upper section of filter holder

Close foil packet and place in anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

Unscrew lower section of assembly, keeping upright.

Set down upper section on clean surface, and tip glass XAD cartridge out of lower section into gloved hand.

Place cartridge into anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

Complete field data sheet and place filter, cartridge, and sheet in same bag.

Store in refrigerator until shipped back to DRI (must ship with ice).

Screw sections of assembly back together and reinstall in sampler.

3.4.6

Clear start program from controller

3.4.6.1

View program by pressing

R

button repeatedly shutoff program (do not change) start sample program

0

00

PM

11:59

3.4.6.2

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

Press

CL

button

0

0

3

4

2

1

0

00

AM

00:00

I I I I I I I

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su

I

I

3

4

2

1

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 23 of 23

3.5

FRM PM

2.5

Sampler

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 2__________

3.5.1

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet)

3.5.2

3.5.3

3.5.4

Select

Select

View Sample

Last Sample

from the main menu

Record site, date, elapsed time, etc on log sheet from display

Turn wheel to lower filter stage until cartridge can be removed 3.5.5

3.5.6

3.5.7

3.6

3.6.1

Place dummy filter cartridge on stage and raise until snug

Place filter cartridge in empty sample bag with field data sheet and return to DRI.

MiniVol PM

2.5

Sampler

Set sampler on flat surface and unscrew on side of handle.

3.6.2

Check and record final flow rate.

3.6.2.1

3.6.2.2

3.6.2.3

3.6.2.4

Lift lid and press ON/OFF/AUTO button to turn sampler on.

Wait for flow to stabilize, as indicated on internal rotameter, then replace lid

Remove rain cap from filter cartridge and slip small rotameter cap over cartridge

Hold rotameter vertical and record flow (center of ball) on field data sheet.

3.6.3

3.6.4

3.6.5

Replace rain cap, remove filter cartridge, and place in plastic bag.

Lift sampler lid again and press ON/OFF/AUTO button to turn sampler off.

Check time and day indicated on controller clock. Correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet)

Record site, date, elapsed time, etc on log sheet from display 3.6.6

3.7

3.7.1

3.7.2

Aethalometer

Check display for normal operation indicators

3.7.3

3.7.4

3.7.5

After next reading is displayed open front panel door

Remove flash memory disk and copy files into .zip file with sampler serial number in name

Place disk back into instrument immediately

3.7.6

3.7.7

Check tape condition and supply. If tape supply is low, change tape following instructions given in instrument menu item.

Close door.

Replace impactor on top of inlet tube with clean one and return used impactor assembly to DRI.

Email .zip file to DRI. Do not combine files from more than one site!! 3.7.8

_______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 11

Title: MASSPORT Field Sampling Checklist

Date: 7/10/07

Number: MASSPORT 1

Revision: 1 __________

ATTACHMENT A

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler Field Operations

DRI SOP #2-114r3

June 17, 2007 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

4.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

4.1

Purpose of Procedure

This procedure describes the operation of the Airmetrics MiniVol Tactical Air Sampler for the collection of suspended particulate matter in PM

2.5

size fraction on substrates that are amenable to laboratory analyses. The sampler is powered by a rechargeable battery and can be programmed to begin and end sampling at predetermined times.

4.2

Measurement Principle

The Minivol sampler draws ambient air at 5 L/min through greased impactors followed by a filter. Assurance of this flow rate is achieved by calibrating the internal rotameter against a transfer standard rotameter, accounting for average ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure at the monitoring site. The sampler is attached to a charged battery pack prior to field sampling, making the sampler siting independent of external power. Each sampler has two battery packs to allow for 'continuous' field sampling; while the sampler is operating on one battery (up to

24 sampling hours on a single charge), the other battery is charged using an AC power adaptor.

The battery pack can also be continuously charged at the sampling site with an 18V DC step down transformer. The sampler can also be directly connected to a 12V step down transformer, but not with the 18V charging transformer as this will damage the electronics.

The Minivol’s inlet contains greased PM

10 precedes the PM

2.5

and PM

2.5

inlet to reduce overloading of the PM

2.5

inlets in series. The PM

10

inlet

impactor with coarse particles. Air is drawn through the inlet, filter pack, and an internal rotameter filter by a twin cylinder diaphragm pump. The internal rotameter does not read the appropriate L/min, but its reading can be correlated with the reading from the transfer rotameter that is put over the filter pack. An elapsed time meter totalizes the sampler operating time, and the difference between its reading before and after sampling is the total sampling time. Total sampled volume is flow rate (5

L/min) times sampling time (typically 1440 min for a 24-hour sample). The sampler turns off prior to the designated off time when the battery voltage falls below 13.0 volts. A pressure sensor determines when the filter overloads, thereby decreasing the flow rate to below 10% of the set flow rate. If this situation occurs, a "low-battery" or "low flow" indicator light remains lit until the circuit is reset and action should be taken to service the sampler and/or battery pack.

Samples are collected on numbered filter packs in Nuclepore polycarbonate filter holders

(with an extender section). For mass, elemental, light transmission, and possibly ion laboratory measurements, the filter pack is loaded with a pre-weighed 47 mm diameter Gelman PTFE

Teflon membrane filter (Gelman #R2PJ047). A quartz fiber filter may be used instead or in a separate Minivol for laboratory carbon, ion, and organic compound measurements. These filter packs will be identified by their ID codes, usually beginning with a T for the Teflon and a Q for

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________ the quartz filter. Chemically-impregnated backup filters may also be part of the filter pack to absorb gases passing through the front filter, thereby adding stages to the filter pack.

The reading from the sampler rotameter is recorded at the beginning and end of each sampling period and related to the external transfer rotameter. The sample volume is calculated from the average of the beginning and ending flow rates and the sample duration. A programmable timer can be set to run up to six on/off-cycles (i.e., 12 programming steps) within a 24-hour period or a 24-hour on/off-cycle beginning and ending on any day of the week for up to six days. The sampler may be mounted on a variety of structures (e.g., telephone, power, light poles) using the sampler's universal mounting bracket. Typical sampling heights are ~3 m above ground level to avoid locally raised dust. Figure 1 illustrates the portable PM

2.5

sampler mounted on a pole.

4.3

4.3.1

Measurement Interferences

Passive Deposition

Passive deposition occurs when particles and gases deposit on filters prior to and after sampling. Field blanks are used to quantify this bias, which is usually less than 30 μ g of mass per 47 mm diameter filter over a 24- to 48-hour passive period. One out of ten filters is a field blank that goes through all of the same processes as a sample, except that no air is drawn through it.

4.3.2

Particle Bounce off the Impactor Plate

Particles larger than 10 μ m can become re-entrained in the air flow after bouncing off the impactor plate. This situation is minimized by cleaning and greasing the impactor plate after every 5 th

sample. The cleaning frequency can be increased or decreased depending on the ambient loadings and degree of soiling observed on the impactors.

4.3.3

Gaseous Absorption and Particle Volatilization

Nitric acid and organic gases may be absorbed by particles on the filter. Organic vapors adsorb onto quartz fiber filters. Conversely, ammonium nitrate can dissociate and the particulate nitrate and ammonium can escape as nitric acid and ammonia gas. Filters should be unloaded and refrigerated immediately after sampling to minimize long-term volatilization. Quartz filters should be baked and acceptance tested for carbon levels prior to sampling to minimized adsorbed organic gases.

4.3.4

Filter Integrity and Contamination

Filter integrity is compromised by improper handling which causes pieces of the filter to be lost after the pre-exposure weighing. Filter contamination results from material other than sampled aerosol being deposited on the filter (e.g., fingerprints, dirt). The effects of filter

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________ material losses are minimized by performing gravimetric analysis on Teflon membrane filters which are less friable than the quartz- fiber filters. Filter material losses and contamination are minimized by the placement and removal of filters to and from filter cassettes in controlled laboratory conditions. Gloved hands and forceps are used in this filter processing. Spare loaded filter cassettes are provided in the field to minimize the need for filter loading and unloading in the field. Each filter cassette is separately sealed prior to and after sampling. Batches of filters are inspected and submitted to chemical analysis prior to use to assure that they meet minimal blank concentration levels when received from the manufacturer.

4.3.5

Particle Loss During Transport

Particles have been found to be dislodged from filters during transport of coarse (greater than 2.5 microns) particles which are heavily loaded on the filter. The low flow rate (5 liters/minute) of the portable sampler minimizes overloading of filters for the specified ( 24 hour) sample duration. Samples are also stored under refrigeration and transported with minimal handling.

4.3.6

Transmission Losses

Particles passing through a size-selective inlet could result in particle losses.

Calculations show that diffusion and impaction losses are less than 1% for particles less than 10

μ m in aerodynamic diameter.

4.4

Ranges and Typical Values

The range of concentrations measured by this method is limited by the sensitivity of the analytical instruments and the standard deviation of the values obtained by the dynamic blank.

For 24-hour average mass concentrations, the range is approximately 6 to 300 μ g/m

3

.

4.5

Typical Lower Quantifiable Limits, Precision, and Accuracy

For mass concentrations, the typical lower quantifiable limit is approximately 3 to 6

μ g/m

3

for the flow rates and 24-hour sample durations used in this project. The precision is calculated from replicate laboratory analysis and flow rate performance tests. This precision is between 6 and 9 μ g/filter or between approximately 1 and 2 μ g/m

3 representing a sample volume of 7.2 m

3

for a 24-hour sampler

. Accuracy is generally within the measurement precision.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Figure 1 Sample Mounting Bracket

Figure 2 Sampler Layout

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

4.6 Responsibilities

The site operator is responsible for carrying out this standard operating procedure and for the completion and submission of all documents. The field operations supervisor is responsible for scheduling the site operator visits, identifying and correcting deficiencies, and coordinating sample transfer with the laboratory. The laboratory supervisor is responsible for preparing samples, transmitting them to the field, receiving them from the field, reviewing documentation and sample integrity, and communicating deficiencies and remedial action to the field operations supervisor.

4.6

Definitions

The Minivol portable PM

2.5

sampler is the entire sampling unit.

The shipping boxes are insulated carrying cases which contain loaded filters.

4.8 Related

DRI SOP # 2-102, Gravimetric Analysis Procedure

DRI SOP # 2-107, Procedure for Light Transmission Analysis

DRI SOP # 2-203, Analysis of Filter Extracts and Precipitation Samples by Ion

Chromatography

DRI SOP # 2-205, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Aerosol Filter Samples

DRI SOP # 2-206, Analysis of Filter Extracts and Precipitation Samples by Atomic

Absorption Spectroscopy

DRI SOP # 2-207, Analysis of Filter Extracts and Precipitation Samples by Automated

Colorimetric Analysis

DRI SOP # 2-208, Filter Pack Assembly, Disassembly, and Cleaning Procedure

DRI SOP # 2-209.2, Sample Shipping, Receiving, and Chain-of-Custody

5.

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, SUPPLIES, AND FORMS

5.1

5.1.1

Instrumentation

Minivol Sampler

Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the control panel and the interior hardware for the Minivol.

There may be some deviations from this figure owing to changes in configuration with different manufacturing batches.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

5.1.2

Universal Mounting Bracket

The universal mounting bracket is illustrated in Figure 1 and can be mounted vertically or horizontally. The bracket is equipped with stainless steel u-bolts and plastic vee blocks for 2”

OD or smaller pipe, fence posting, or other metal tubing. These can also be removed to strap the bracket to a larger diameter object using ratchet straps or hose clamps. The bracket extension is attached to the base of the minivol and can be detached from the pole via a quick-release.

5.1.3

Nuclepore Filter Holders and Impactor Assembly

Figure 4 illustrates the impactor and filter pack assembly. The filters cassettes are individually packaged in a plastic case. Adhesive bar-coded ID labels are affixed to each filter case. The first three digits designate the site ID (i.e., BOS for Boston), the fourth digit specifies the sampler type (i.e., P for portable sampler), and the fifth digit specifies filter substrate type

(i.e, T for Teflon-membrane). The remaining three digits are the numerical ID numbers which are unique to each filter pack. Each filter cassette and the accompanying field data sheet are sealed in a separate ziplock bag with sampling site and date recorded on the field data sheet and marked on the ziplock bag.

5.1.4

Calibration Rotameter, Test Filter Pack, and Filter Adapter

The calibration rotameter should have a mark at the 5 L/min level based on a laboratory calibration and adjustment to the temperature and pressure of the sampling location. This will not necessarily be at the 5 L/min reading of the rotameter. The calibration rotameter is placed over the test filter pack mounted on the sampler and the flow is adjusted to the 5 L/min mark. A mark should then be placed on the internal sampler rotameter, which may not read 5 L/min. This mark should be periodically verified throughout the project. A Gillibrator bubble meter, which is more precise but more difficult to use, may also be applied.

5.1.5

Leak Testing Vacuum Gauge with Quick Disconnect Barb

This gauge is inserted in the sampler to determine the vacuum which can be drawn. Less than 12 inches Hg vacuum indicates leaks in the system.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Figure 3 Sampler Interior Hardware

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Figure 4 PM

2.5

Impactor/Filter Holder Assembly

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

5.2

Supplies

The following supplies are needed for impactor cleaning and re-greasing.

Soap and water

Low vapor pressure grease (Airmetrics 903-004)

Semi-rigid straight edge (ex. small stainless steel ruler) to apply grease

Paper towel or Kim Wipe to wipe excess grease from non-impactor surfaces.

The following supplies are needed if filters are to be loaded and unloaded in the field.

This will normally take place in the laboratory.

47 mm Petrislides. Filters are placed into these slides for mass determination before loading and exposed filters are transferred from the filter holder with identical ID to the

Petri slide after sampling.

Blank ID Labels. If the original ID label becomes damaged or will not stick, the ID is copied onto a blank label, with ball point pen, and placed on the filter pack or Petri slide.

Disposable gloves. Gloves are worn whenever filters are loaded or unloaded from filter packs. Gloves are discarded when they have come into contact with any contaminant and after each loading or unloading session.

Forceps, to move filters between Petrislides and filter holders. Filters should never be touched with bare hands.

18 x 24 inch laboratory bench cover. The bench cover is the work surface used to unload filters from the holders and into their slides in the laboratory. It should be replaced for each filter processing session.

5.3

Data Sheets

Figure 5 illustrates a field data sheet that comes with the samples. A photocopy of the data sheet is kept by the field technician, and the original data sheet is returned to the laboratory with the exposed filters.

6.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

The transfer standard for sampler flow rates is a calibrated rotameter or the Gilibrator bubble meter which has been calibrated against a Roots meter prior to the beginning of the sampling program.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

7.

SAMPLER OPERATION

7.1

Flow Diagram

Figure 6 summarizes the routine field operating procedure for the portable PM

10

sampler operation. Filter changing and flow rate performance tests are performed between each sampling period and require approximately 5 to 10 minutes per sampler. Impactor cleaning and greasing is carried out after every 24-hour sample run if it is not an integral part of the filter pack.

7.2

Start Up

7.2.1

Clean the PM

10

and PM

2.5

Impactors

The PM

10

and PM

2.5

impactors should be cleaned and greased after every 5 th

sample run to minimize particle bouncing and re-entrainment. Impactor cleaning should be performed in a well ventilated area by the following procedure:

1.

Separate the sections of the filter holder assembly. Remove the EMT from the impactor by pulling on it with your fingers and set aside.

2.

Clean the impactor/filter holder assembly with soapy water and rinse thoroughly. Let impactor assembly air dry.

3.

Apply a thin coat of low vapor pressure grease to the o-rings on the impactor and the o-rings in the filter holder outlet and louvered inlet.

4.

Wipe the Easy Maintenance Target (EMT) impactor with a clean lint-free cloth or paper towel.

5.

Apply a small amount of low vapor pressure grease to the EMT in a spreading motion using a semi-rigid straight edge (stainless steel ruler). Remove excess grease using a clean lint free cloth or paper towel.

6.

Reinsert the EMT into the impactor

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 12 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Figure 5. Example of Field Data Sheet Before Sampling.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 13 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Figure 6. Flow Diagram for Routine Operation.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 14 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

7.2.2

Prepare the Battery Pack:

If the Minivol is running independently of electrical power and batteries must be recharged, do the following:

1.

Charge the battery for at least 5 hours by connecting the charging plug of the 18V

AC/DC adaptor to the uncharged battery and plugging the adaptor into an AC receptacle. Disconnect AC/DC adaptor from battery pack after charging. After a 24hour sample run, remove the used battery from the sampler and store in a cool environment until it needs to be recharged.

2.

The voltage on each charged battery should be checked with a volt-ohm meter

(VOM) or preferably, a test circuit with 3 12-volt flashlight bulbs in series prior to going to the field. Insert the VOM probe/test circuit into the odd color socket on the battery pack and in the socket closest to the battery recharger jack. The voltage reading should be 13 volts or higher. If the battery cannot be adequately charged, record the battery ID number and do not use the battery pack.

4.3 Routine

The sampler is positioned with the intake upward. It should be located in an unobstructed area at least 30 cm from any obstacle to air flow. The sampler mounting bracket may be attached to a power pole and the bracket extension may be attached via the quick-release. To begin sampling:

1.

Inspect the filters and data sheets. Data sheets similar to Figure 5 accompany the prelabeled unexposed filter packs. Write the sampling site and date for each filter pack on the ziplock bag. Be sure each filter pack in the shipping case is clean (no obvious foreign material on the filter). The data sheets should contain filter IDs for each site and sample date. Be sure the filter pack ID number matches the number on the field data sheet. If it is not the same, change the field data sheet. Replace filters which do not pass inspection and make a note on the data sheet.

2.

Open the pelican case.

3.

Program the timer clock as follows: a.

Press and hold the "CLOCK" key (lower left hand corner of the Programmer

Timer in Figure 2) for the next four steps: b.

Press the "WEEK" key until the correct day of the week is displayed. c.

Press the "HOUR" key until the correct hour of the day is displayed. Note that there are 12 am and 12 pm hours. d.

Press the "MIN" key until the correct minute of the day is displayed. e.

Verify the displayed clock time and release the "CLOCK" key.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 15 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________ f.

Example of the clock reading for Thursday at 10:55 am:

4.

AM

Th

10:55

32

To start the first period of sampling (Programming Step 1 with "1

ON

"): a.

Timer display indicates "1

ON

" (lower left hand corner of the display) and begin programming start sampling day and time. b.

Press the "WEEK" key to select the day of the week for sampling. There are 10 consecutive steps for this key. Steps 1 to 7: Sampling on any day of the week

(display shows Mo, Tu, Ws, Th, or Fr as the "WEEK" key is pressed each time).

Step 8: Sampling daily on weekdays with the same power on or off time (display shows all five days: Mo Tu Ws Th Fr). Step 9: Sampling on weekends with the same power on or off time (display shows: Sa Su). Step 10: Sampling on every day of the week with the same on or off time (display shows all 7 days of the week).

If you missed the selection, you need to cycle through all 10 steps and start with step 1 again. Select "Fr" on step 5 to begin sampling on Friday. c.

Press the "HOUR" key to select the start sampling hour. The "HOUR" key is incremented by one hour as the key is pressed from 1 to 12 AM and 1 to 12 PM.

Select "AM 12" to start sampling at midnight for a 24-hour sampling schedule.

Press the "MIN" key to select the start sampling minute. The "MIN" key is incremented by one minute as the key is pressed each time from minute :01 to :59.

Select ":00" to start sampling at midnight. The display should read as follows to start sampling at midnight (12:01 AM) on Friday:

AM

Fr

1

ON

12:01

5.

To stop first period of sampling: a.

Press the "PROG" key and display shows "1 sampling time.

OFF

". Start to program end of b.

Repeat the steps above to select the day of the week and stop sampling time at

11:59 PM on Friday. The display should appear as follows to stop sampling at midnight (11:59 PM) on the same day (i.e., Friday). Note that an hour before midnight is used to minimize confusion.

PM

Fr

1

OFF

11:59

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 16 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________ c.

Continue to program next sampling date and time of press "RST/RCL"

(reset/recall) key to clear the LCD to read as follows for the remaining programming steps (steps 3

ON

to 6

OFF

). d.

Push the "CLOCK" to resume the current time. c.

Place the "ON/AUTO/OFF" key in the "AUTO" mode. A bar appears at the lower edge of the LCD

6.

Install Charged Battery Pack in Sampler: Place a charged battery pack inside the sampler. Press the "ON/AUTO/OFF" switch from "AUTO" to "ON" mode and pump will be turned on. Leave the pump running for 2 minutes to ensure battery has adequate voltage to start the pump and check the pump flow. Press the

"ON/AUTO/OFF" key to turn pump "OFF".

7.

Install the clean impactor if it is not already part of the filter pack. Disconnect the impactor section from the filter assembly and remove the rain cap (see Figure 4).

Pushing with thumb from the bottom, remove the impactor through the top of the tube into palm of free hand. Inspect the O-rings on the impactor assembly for fitness and replace if necessary. Remove any extraneous material from the impactor assembly.

Carefully re-insert the clean impactor assembly into the tube (from the top) until the top of the impactor is even with the top of the tube.

8.

Install the unexposed filter into the filter cassette unless it has been preloaded in the laboratory. The filter packs should be stored in an enclosure to avoid contaminating the filter. Install the filter cassette into the impactor assembly. Make sure the new filter ID corresponds to the ID on the data sheet for that site and date. Slide the filter assembly onto the telescop

9.

Attach the filter pack and inlet assembly to the sampler using the quick disconnect push down on the sleeve of the receptacle, insert the barb of the filter holder, and pull up on the sleeve until it snaps into place. Record the sampler ID.

10.

Check the beginning flow rate. Turn the pump "ON" manually by switching

"ON/AUTO/OFF" key to "ON". Attach the quick disconnect plug to the inlet to perform the leak check. If the rotameter indicates more than 0.2 L/min, there is a leak. Check all filter holder joints. A set-point for 5 L/min will have been determined during calibration of each sampler. This set-point will correspond to an actual flow rate of 5 L/min. Adjust the pump speed with the "Sampling Flow

Adjustment" (see Figure 2) until the rotameter reads the set-point value to the nearest

0.1 L/min, taking the reading at the center of the ball. The sampler must warm up for at least one minute for the flow to stabilize. When the flow rate stabilizes at the set point, press "ON/AUTO/OFF" key to turn "OFF" and then "AUTO" to stop the pump.

Enter the "Initial" flow rate and "Start" the elapsed time meter reading (located on the

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 17 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________ top of the programmable timer, see Figure 2) on the pre-assigned field data sheet.

(The elapsed time meter is comprised of a six digit readout: the first four digits (in white) represent number in hours; the last two digits (in red) represent numbers in 0.1 and 0.01 of an hour.)

11.

Record the initial elapsed time for the new sample on its data sheet.

12.

Verify the "Programmable Timer" is in the "AUTO" mode.

This is very important, as the sampler will not start unless it is in the AUTO mode.

13.

Return the pump and timer assembly to the sampler housing. Reassemble the handle.

Use the extension hook to place sampler on mounting bracket, making certain that it is securely resting on the bracket hooks. Get underneath the sampler to hold it vertically to avoid breaking the inlet assembly and position the handle in the bracket holder.

14.

Often the prior sample will be removed at the time the sampler is taken down to put in a new filter pack. When this is the case, follow these steps: a.

Record the sample end elapsed time on the data sheet. b.

Before removing the sample, turn the pump "ON" by pressing the

"ON/AUTO/OFF" key. Let the pump warm up for 1 minute to get a stable flow reading. Record the final flow rate indicated on the rotameter to the nearest 0.1 unit on the field data sheet (take the reading at center of the ball). Final flow rate should not vary more than 10% of the initial flow rate over a 24-hour sampling period. c.

Remove the exposed filter pack from the sampler using the quick disconnect.

Unscrew the inlet assembly from the filter pack. Remove the inlet and screw the filter pack cap (red plastic cap with Nuclepore cap section) onto the exposed filter pack and store in the labeled ziplock bag with the completed field data sheet. d.

Remove discharged battery pack and install charged battery pack. Follow the instructions above to prepare for a new sample.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 18 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Brief summary of routine operating procedures (copy and tape on sampler housing).

1. Install unexposed filter pack. Be sure that the sample ID corresponds to the appropriate sampling site and date on the field data sheet. Verify

Programmable Timer Clock Time with current day and time. Verify program "ON/OFF" date and time.

2. Turn pump "ON", measure "Initial" Flow Rate, record on field data sheet, turn pump "OFF".

3. Record "Start" Elapsed Time on field data sheet.

4.

Place "ON/AUTO/OFF" key in "AUTO" mode. Verify this before mounting sampler. Check sampler again if you can’t remember if you did it.

5. Verify that the exposed filter pack sampled correctly. Note if Low Battery or Low Flow light is "ON".

2. Record the "End" Elapsed Time and verify that it was sampled for 24 hours.

3. Turn pump "ON", record "Final Flow Rate on field data sheet, and turn the pump "OFF".

4. Place the exposed filter cassette into the original case.

5. Place exposed filter cassette and completed field data sheet into the labeled ziplock bag.

6. Remove used impactor and install clean impactor if needed.

7.3

Shutdown

At the end of each month, perform one set of leak and performance tests. Record the condition of the sampler in the station logbook.

8.

QUANTIFICATION

8.1

Calibration Procedures

1.

Mark Rotameter Scales with Set-point Readings: The actual flow rate through each rotameter is:

Q act

= (aQ i

+b)((760/P

2

)(T

2

/298))

0.5

where

Q act

= actual flow rate at temperature T

2

and pressure P

2

in liters per minute

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 19 of 20

Title: Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler

Field Operations.

Date: 6/17/2007

Number:

Revision:

1-210.4

5__________

Q i

= a = indicated rotameter reading in standard liters per minute linear regression slope for relationship between rotame true flow rate at standard conditions ter reading and b = linear regression intercept for relationship between rotameter reading and true flow at standard conditions

The 5 L/min set-point is obtained from the above equation by substituting 5 for

Q act

and solving for Q i

. The set-point is located on a piece of tape applied to the rotameter scale for typical temperatures and pressures in the sampling area.

9.

2.

The pump is turned "ON" using "ON/AUTO/OFF" key. The flow rate is adjusted to the set-point value with the "Flow Rate Adjustment" key (see Figure 2).

QU ALITY CONTROL

9.1

Leak Checks

A leak check is perform ed every 30 days as described in Section 5.1.5.

9.2

10.

Calibration Checks

The flow rate measurem ent is checked monthly against a transfer standard.

QUALITY AUDITING

Audits of flow rates are performed by an independent auditor with independent standards on a se mi-annual basis.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Andersen Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS) 2.5-100: Operation and Maintenance

DRI SOP #1-233r2

July 7, 2007

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Sciences

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 1 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

11.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

11.1

Purpose of Procedure

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

The purpose of this procedure is to familiarize the user with how to operate and care for the

Andersen Instruments Incorporated Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS) 2.5-100. It is recommended that the manual be used in conjunction with this document during installation, operation or calibration.

11.2

Measurement Principle

The RAAS products are specifically designed to perform all the functions required or designated in the instrument specification portion of the EPA FRM PM

2.5

standard (40 CFR, Part 50). The RAAS

2.5-100 system performs many similar functions as required or recommended in the equipment specification part of the standard. However, the standard provides only specific details for 2.5-micron particulate collection with a fixed flow rate sampler, using a specified inlet, tubing, and secondary sizeselective device. The RAAS 2.5-100 inlet has a PM

10

cutpoint and provides wind speed/direction independent sampling.

The connecting tube is a 12-inch length of anodized aluminum tubing with an inner sampling tube through which the sample travels. The size-selective inlet, 24 liters per minute (l/min) WINS (Well

Impactor Ninety Six) reduces the passed particulate to exclude particles larger than 2.5

μ m. The particulate is collected on specified filter media, such as a Teflon-membrane filter. A steady and exact flow rate must be maintained.

Table 1 provides the specifications for the RAAS 2.5-100.

Table 1

.

Specifications for the RAAS 2.5-100

Parameter

Environmental

Sampling

Flow Rate

Pressure Sensor

Temperature Sensor

11.3

Value

-30 °C to +45 °C; 600 MM Hg to 800 MM Hg; 0-100% Humidity; rain and snow resistant.

Sampling Time: 1 minute to 99 hours 99 minutes.

24 l/min per cyclone position

Accuracy: 10 mm Hg; Resolution: 1 mm Hg

Accuracy: 2 °C; Resolution: 0.1 DEG C

Measurement Interferences and their Minimization

The instrument manual does not specifically list sampling interferences. Potential interferences to the sampling unit and method include:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

11.3.1

Allowing excessive particulate accumulation in the sample inlet and cyclones. Sample inlet and impactors should be cleaned at least once a month. This frequency should be increased depending on location. Follow instrument manual for cleaning instructions.

11.3.2

Allowing the filter packs to become excessively warm, before or after, sampling. Filter packs are maintained in a cool environment (shipped in ice chest with blue ice or stored in freezer), before and after, sampling.

11.3.3

The filter packs should be carefully handled, particularly after sampling, to prevent potential contamination.

11.4

Ranges and Typical Values of Measurements Obtained by this Procedure

Not applicable.

11.5

Typical Lower Quantifiable Limits, Precision, and Accuracy

Not applicable.

11.6

Responsibilities of Personnel for Carrying Out Portions of this Procedure

The site operator technician is responsible for carrying out this standard operating procedure and for the completion and submission of all documents. Prior education/work experience in electronics, hands-on air-quality equipment operation/maintenance, and air-quality data analyses/review is preferred.

The field operations coordinator is responsible for overseeing the site operator visits, identifying and correcting deficiencies, and coordinating field records transfer with the laboratory.

The data retrieval/validation supervisor is responsible for ensuring appropriate data download, reviewing data completeness, performing Level I and Level II review, initiating potential equipment troubleshooting investigations resulting from data review and other post-processing data-analysis activities.

11.7

Definition

Not applicable.

11.8

Related Procedures

Not applicable.

12.

12.1

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, REAGENTS, AND FORMS

Apparatus and Instrumentation

The RAAS system consists of the Andersen Instruments Incorporated Reference Ambient Air

Sampler (RAAS) 2.5-100, as well as the filters placed in the filter holders.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

12.1.1

Description

12.1.1.1

12.1.1.2

12.1.1.3

12.1.1.4

RAAS2.5-100 Main Housing

RAAS-S-Inlet Assembly

Inlet Downtube

Vacuum Pump/Stand Assembly

12.1.1.5

12.1.1.6

12.1.1.7

12.1.1.8

12.1.1.9

WINS impactor assembly

Filter Holders

Ambient Temperature Solar Radiation Shield

Leak Check Adapter

Operators Manual

12.1.1.10

Special Assembly Instructions

12.1.1.11

RAAS2.5-100 Accessories Kit

12.1.2

Characterization

Not applicable.

12.1.3

Maintenance

Described in procedures.

12.1.4

Spare parts list

Not applicable.

12.1.5

Reagents (purity grade, supplier, storage, when to reorder)

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

The only reagent/gas required for normal operation of the sampler is the ambient air sample, which is drawn through the inlet into the sampler.

12.1.6

Forms

Described below.

13.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

13.1

Preparation of Working Standards, Ranges of Standard Values, and Traceability to

Primary Standards

Flow rate standards are used to verify sample volumes.

14.

PROCEDURES

14.1

General Flow Diagram

Not Available.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

14.2

Start-Up

14.2.1

Initial startup

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

The RAAS 2.5-100 has a user friendly menu aiding the user in setting up the sampling events, calibrating the various sensors, collecting stored data and assuring the unit is operating correctly. There are also a number of user-configurable options A general program to initiate sampling is shown below:

14.2.1.1

14.2.1.2

14.2.1.3

14.2.1.4

14.2.1.5

14.2.1.6

Select the Setup Run Menu from the Main Menu to display the event setup screen.

Enter sample Start Date (format depends on the format selected in the Configuration

Submenu of the Maintenance Menu.

Enter sample duration in hours.

The event is programmed and scheduled.

To review the programmed event, select the Setup Run Menu from the Main Menu to display the event setup screen. The Up and Down Arrow keys are used to review the programmed event.

A Sample Pending screen is displayed when an event is programmed, but not when it is completed or in progress. A Sample In Progress screen is displayed when the event is in progress. A Sample Completed screen is displayed when the event is completed.

14.2.2

Power and space

The RAAS2.5-100 is shipped for 100-120 volt and approximately 50/60 Hz (15-amp maximum,

0.25-amp standby, 8-amp) operation. The vacuum pump is also wired to operate at the same voltage.

The fully assembled unit size is 78.75” tall x 16” wide and 19” deep. The base unit is 41” tall x 23” wide and 16” deep. The stand/pump unit is 16” tall x 20.25” wide x 14” deep. It is l recommended that the unit be bolted to the structure on which it is to be mounted using the mounting holes provided by the stand support.

14.2.3

Probe assembly

The RAAS 2.5-100 inlet has a PM

10

cutpoint and provides wind speed/direction independent sampling. The connecting tube is a 12-inch length of anodized aluminum tubing with an inner sampling tube for the sample to follow. Inside the sampler housing is a size selective inlet, 24 liter per minute

(l/min) WINS impactor, which reduces the passed-through particulate to exclude particles larger than

2.5

μ m. The flow stream is collected across a filter. Flow through the system is controlled utilizing an integrated dry gas meter.

14.3

Routine Operation

14.3.1

Sample collection

The RAAS 2.5-100 is a single channel sampler that can collect one filter at a time. It does not have any sampling magazine, so filters must be collected from the sampler and new media installed after each sampling event.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

14.3.2

Handling and preservation

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

Sample filters arrive in a filter pack that has identification for installation at predesignated sample date. During shipping to and from the site, the filter packs are packed in insulated containers with sufficient blue ice to maintain low temperatures within the containers. Once at the site, the filter packs are stored in a refrigerator during the time before and after installation on the RAAS 2.5-100.

Filters should be removed from the sampler as soon as possible after sampling, but must be collected within 96 hours.

14.3.3

Sample preparation and analysis

Sample filters are prepared and analyzed in accordance with the Desert Research Institute laboratory protocol. The Teflon membrane filter is preweighed and loaded into the filter holder. The holder is sent to the site operator in a storage container with a field data sheet.

14.3.4

Data acquisition system

The relative humidity, barometric pressure, ambient temperature, manifold pressure, meter temperature, and cabinet temperature are measured by the control system. The control system uses a graphic display, and microprocessor to control the various aspects of system operation. The user interacts with the system through menus. The system menus allow events to be programmed and reviewed, calibration of the system’s measurement devices and various other options. The RAAS 2.5-

100 data logger stores four different types of data: summaries, interval average, power failure and calibration. The summary data contains information on each sampling event (including average flow rate, sampled volume, minimum/maximum/average (min/max/avg) sensor data, and other important values. The interval-average data log contains averaged values for the different measurements made by the system at the interval set by the user. The power fail data log records the time and duration of power failures. The calibration data log contains the calibration value and the date and time of calibration. An

RS-232C serial port is provided to allow for the easy retrieval of sampling data using a personal computer, laptop or other data-storage device.

14.3.5

Troubleshooting

Data for many operational parameters are monitored and recorded by the data logging system during a sampling period. The data are presented in a sample summary, data log, power fail log, and calibration log. This information can be reviewed and used as a tool for troubleshooting the RAAS 2.5-

100 system performance.

14.4

Shut-Down

Turn off the pump and note the time. Remove the filters and place them back into the filter containers.

Ship the filters back to DRI for analysis.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

14.5

Checklist

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

14.5.1

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet)

14.5.2

Record site, date, elapsed time, etc on log sheet from display

14.5.3

Turn wheel to lower filter stage until cartridge can be removed.

14.5.4

Place filter cartridge in empty sample bag with field data sheet and return to DRI.

15.

QUANTIFICATION

15.1

Calibration Procedures

15.1.1

Instrument or method calibration

Various components and sensors in the RAAS 2.5-100 system require periodic calibration. The temperature and pressure sensors and flow systems require calibrations. The various calibration equipment is described below.

15.1.1.1

15.1.1.2

a.

c.

b.

Temperature: a.

b.

c.

The temperature sensors can be calibrated using a thermocouple calibrator or reference thermometer. The thermocouple calibrator provides the operator with a quick and accurate calibration and is to be recommended for field applications. The reference temperature method allows for slightly increased accuracy, but takes longer.

The thermocouple calibration method uses: 1) A digital thermocouple calibrator for

Type K thermocouples. NIST-traceable and accurate to +/- 2% over the expected range of use (-30 to 45 °C); 2) A calibration cable to connect the RAAS and the thermocouple calibrator to the RAAS; and, 3) A NIST-traceable thermometer with units in Centigrade and accuracy of +/- 2% over –30 to 45 °C range. The thermometer is used as an independent check on the temperature check system. The Andersen Thermocouple

Calibration Kit (Part # RAAS-CAL-T1) can be used for this purpose.

The temperature reference method uses: 1) A cold temperature source capable of holding a constant temperature between 0 to 5 °C for about 10 minutes/per temperature channel; 2) A hot temperature source capable of holding a constant temperature between 35 to 45 °C for about 10 minutes/per temperature channel; and, 3) A NISTtraceable thermometer with units in Centigrade and accuracy of +/- 2% in a –30 to 45

°C range.

Barometer pressure sensor calibration standards include:

A NIST-traceable pressure-measuring device with a range of at least 500 to 900 mm Hg absolute with a readability of 1 mm Hg and an accuracy of +/- 5 mm Hg.

A method to change the pressure applied to the system and a pressure measurement device.

The pressure generation system should be able to generate pressures in the range of 500 to

900 mm Hg absolute. Syringes and hand pumps can be used to generate this pressure.

A tee connection is required between the RAAS, pressure measurement device and pressure changing device. The pressure attachment port is designed to accept a 1/8” ID tubing.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance d.

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

The Anderson Pressure Calibration Kit (part # RAAS-CAL-P2 or RAAS-CAL-p2) meet these requirements.

15.1.1.3

a.

Flow calibration standards include: b.

c.

d.

e.

A NIST-traceable reference dry-gas meter (or equivalent) with 0.0002 cubic meters increments

A NIST-traceable thermometer with units in Centigrade and accuracy of +/- 2% within a –

30 to 45 °C range.

A leak check adapter included with the system to connect the calibration equipment with the RAAS 2.5-100 system.

A tubing connection between the leak check adapter and the dry-gas meter. The Anderson leak check adapter accepts tubing with an ID of ¼” and 3/8”.

The Andersen RAAS Flow Calibration Kit (RAAS-CAL-F) meets these requirements.

15.1.1.4

1.

2.

Calibration

Temperature

: The RAAS 2.5-100 system uses an epoxy-coated bead thermocouple to measure the temperature of the ambient, dry-gas meter, active sample manifold, and cabinet sample manifolds. All thermocouples require a two-point calibration and a third point check.

Pressure

: The RAAS2.5-100 system uses a pressure transducers to measure the ambient

3.

pressure.

Flows

: Flows can be calibrated using the dry-gas meter system. A NIST-traceable calibrated flow measurement device with 0.01 cubic meters increments can also be used.

15.2

Calculation

The RAAS 2.5-100 displays flows for each channel during each programmed sampling event.

Calculations are not necessary for sampling events, as all pertinent information is monitored/calculated/recorded. Flow through the system is monitored by a dry gas meter. Calculations are needed to determine particulate concentrations.

Knowing the final and initial filter weights in micrograms and the ambient sample volume in cubic meters, the mass concentration can be calculated using the following equation: where

16.

PM

2.5

= (W f

– W i

)/V a

PM

2.5

=

W f

, =

W i

V a

=

= mass concentration of PM

2.5 in

μ g/m

3 final filter weight in

μ g initial filter weight in

μ g ambient volume (m

3

)

QUALITY CONTROL

16.1

Performance Testing

Field blank samples will be sent to the site operator on a monthly basis. These samples will be identified as field blanks on their corresponding field data sheets. The field blank should be handled exactly as a regular sample with the exception that no air will be drawn through this filter. The field blank should be loaded into the sampler momentarily and then put back in its container and shipped back to the laboratory with the scheduled samples.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

16.1.1

Routine service checks

16.1.1.1

General information

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

The data logger monitors and records sampling parameters. These parameters can be reviewed

and used as part of quality-control strategy to monitor sampler performance. Figure illustrates a blank

example of a Site Operator Field Form.

16.1.1.2

1.

Frequency of quality control checks

Checks Recorded at Each Filter Change (record all required checks on the Site Operator

Field Form): a.

b.

Verify next scheduled sample date. Sample exchange should occur prior to this date.

Put the sampler into sample mode. This will turn on the sample pump. Verify that the c.

pump is operating correctly. Record the flow from the front panel display for each channel with an exposed filter on the filter field data sheet.

Turn off the sample mode. Select the View Run Menu from the Main Menu. Select

Last Sample to examine the last sampling event. View the sampler program to verify

2.

d.

e.

that the sampler operated on the correct sample date, had correct flows etc.. Record all appropriate information on the filter field data sheet.

Remove exposed filter. Place filter packs into filter pack transport container. Place filter field data sheet in package with filters.

Install unexposed filters. Turn on the sample mode. Record the flow from the front panel display for each channel with an unexposed filter on the filter field data sheet. f.

Turn off the sample mode after the flow has been recorded on the field data sheet.

Select Setup Run Menu from the Main Menu. Use the Up and Down Arrow keys to g.

h.

review the programmed manifolds.

Record system date and time.

Select the Maintenance Menu from the Main Menu. Select the Monitor Menu and record the real-time pressure and temperatures of the unit on the site operator field data i.

j.

Check for flags in the sampling program.

Check supplies (filters etc.). Contact DRI if insufficient supply.

Monthly Checks (record all required checks on the site field form): a.

Inspect and clean the sample inlet. b.

c.

Remove, inspect and clean WINS impactor.

Perform flow check. d.

e.

sheet.

Record ambient temperature/pressure during flow check.

Copy completed field forms. Keep one copy at the site and send one copy back to the

main laboratory. See Figure 1 for a copy of the Checklists.

16.1.2

Detailed maintenance procedures

1.

2.

At each site visit, review the operational parameters stored for the previous sample run.

Once a month, inspect and clean the inside of the sample system using a damp cloth. The frequency of inspection/cleaning may have to increase based on the tendency for dust accumulation at each site.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

3.

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

The WINS impactor should be cleaned at least monthly when sampling on a one in six sampling schedule. The impactor is friction fitted with an o-ring seal into the sampler above the filter pack. It is easily removed by lowering the filter pack holder to its lowest position and then gently pulling the entire WINS impactor assembly downward. The impactor can be separated into two halves by gently pulling the two ends apart. An o-

4.

ring seal is hold the two halves together. The impactor contains a 37mm quartz fiber filter that has been wetted with mineral oil, this provides the impaction surface. When cleaning, the dirty filter should be removed and discarded, the impactor wiped clean and a new clean filter installed. Remove the top of the impactor to gain access to the filter.

The top is friction fitted with an o-ring seal. Wet the new filter with 2-3 drops of mineral oil and reassemble the impactor assembly.

Once a month inspect the exhaust air filter on the back side of the sampler. This filter is a standard 12 x 24 x 1 inch home furnace air filter. Replace the filter as needed.

16.1.3

Acceptance Testing Procedures

16.1.3.1

General Information

Acceptance testing is performed upon receipt of a new RAAS2.5-100 unit or after the unit has been returned to the factory for maintenance or repair.

16.1.3.2

1.

Physical inspection

2.

3.

Review physical appearance of the unit. Note that all components are in satisfactory operating condition and located in correct position/location.

Compare all items in shipping box with items listed on the packing list. Note that all specified components are present and unbroken.

If any components are damaged or are not present, notify internal shipping dept., shipping company, and sender of package.

16.1.3.3

1.

2.

Operational tests

Only appropriately trained personnel should operate the system. All operators should thoroughly review the system instrument manual prior to equipment setup and testing.

The unit should be placed on a stable/secure location near a power source. Power up the unit, verify flows, operation of temperature/pressure sensors, program the unit for a 24 hour sample sequence, install filter packs and allow to operate for at least one complete sample period. Review sample program, note any failure messages.

If any operational checks fail contact manufacturer. 3.

16.1.3.4

Final review

If all operational checks are completed satisfactorily, record date, time, and name of operator in the equipment log. Note that the equipment satisfactorily completed final review.

16.2

Data Validation Feedback

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

Figure 1.

RAAS Site Operator Field Form

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

FILTER MASS EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE CHECKS

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

Project:

Site Name:

DATE

TIME

OPERATOR INITIALS

*Checks Below Are Only Performed With Filter Pack Installation or Removal

Year:

Operator Name:

RASS Speciation Sampler

Serial #

VISUAL

Instrument - Check for Flags in Program

CHECKS

Pump Operating Properly

System Date and Time

DATA

LOGS

Pre/Post Run Front Display Flow (Channel 1- Channel 6)

Are Recorded on FDS

Exposed Filter Packs Are Removed

Unexposed Filter Packs Are Installed.

Sample Inlet Inspected/Cleaned (monthly)

Cyclones Inspected/Cleaned (monthly)

Denuders Replaced When Provided in Filter Pack Supply

Instrument Temperature Display

Instrument Temperature Display

Flow Checked (monthly) (Channel 1 thru Channel 6)

Ambient Temperature (Deg C) During Flow Check

Ambient Barometric Pressure (mm Hg) During Flow Check

Flow Leak Check (monthly)

Check Supplies (Filters etc.). Enough for next run date?

Contact DRI if insufficient supply.

Comments and Supplies Needed:

Figure 1.

Checklist for the RAAS instrument.

17.

17.1

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Performance Audit Schedule

Flow performance audits are conducted by use of a calibrated NIST-traceable flow measurement device, which reads in ambient liters per minute. The device should have a readability of 0.01 cubic meters. The RAAS system temperature and pressure sensors should also be audited. Audit equipment must meet the specifications listed in the Calibration Standards section of this document. It is preferable that the audit is performed on a quarterly basis.

17.2

Systems Audit Schedule

Systems audits are performed to verify that equipment meets criteria goals. It is also used to verify that calibrations, filter tracking and retrieval, quality control checks, maintenance etc. are ensuring that data quality is meeting project goals. Systems audits should be performed on an annual basis.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 12 of 13

Title: Anderson Reference Ambient Air Sampler (RAAS)

Operation and Maintenance

17.3

Data Validation Procedure Summary

Number:

Revision:

1-233r2

1_________________

Sample data is stored in the system data logger. It is transferred to the field data sheets for each sample and when returned to the laboratory, the data are then entered into an electronic field data file.

The retrieved data is stored in preparation for Level 1 and Level II review and other post processing data analysis activities.

18.

REFERENCES

Andersen Instruments Inc. (now Thermo Electron Corp.). (1998

). RAAS Operator’s Manual Model:

RAAS2.5-100

. Thermo Electron Corporation, 81 Wyman St., Waltham, MA 02454.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

MET ONE BAM 1020 Operation, Maintenance and Field Calibration

DRI SOP #1-250r3

September 24, 2007

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

19.1

Purpose of Procedure

This procedure describes the operation of the Met One BAM 1020 sampler. The BAM 1020 automatically measures PM

2.5

concentrations. This document is intended to supplement the Met

One BAM 1020 Operation Manual. It is recommended that the manual be used in conjunction with this document during the installation, operation and calibration.

19.2 Summary of Method

The principle objective of these samplers is to determine the mass concentration of particulates in units of ug/m

3

on an hourly basis with the use of a C

14

element (<60

μ

Ci). This element emits a constant source of high-energy electrons, also known as beta particles

.

The beta rays in the BAM 1020 are attenuated as they collide with particles collected on a filter.

The decrease in signal detected by the BAM 1020 scintillation counter is inversely proportional to the mass loading on the filter tape.

Although the BAM 1020, outfitted with a PM

2.5

inlet, is not designated by the US EPA as an equivalent or reference method, it can be used as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) replacement with one year of acceptable correlated data. Otherwise, the data from this instrument is used for real time and PM

2.5

mapping applications. The BAM 1020 operates for 24 one-hour measurements with a filter change frequency of one hour utilizing a glass fiber filter tape.

The BAM 1020 consists of three basic components:

1.

The detector/data logger.

2.

3.

The pump.

The sampling inlet.

Each component is self-contained and may be easily disconnected for servicing and replacement.

20. SITING, INSTALLATION and INITIALIZATION of EQUIPMENT

20.1 Siting of Sampler

The BAM 1020 is designed to mount in an environmentally controlled enclosure, such as those traditionally employed for multi-parameter ambient air quality monitoring stations. The BAM

1020 requires its own access to the ambient air through a hollow aluminum tube (5 or 9 feet in length depending on the application.) mounted directly on top of the instrument which penetrating the ceiling and roof of the shelter. The BAM 1020 can also be installed in special miniature environmentally controlled shelters for roof top and stand alone applications.

Siting criteria that must be considered when situating the sampler includes:

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Inlet Clearance: The instrument must be sited in accordance with the requirements of 40

CFR 58, APP. E. In summary, the sampler must be placed so as to avoid obstacles that would interfere with the free flow of air to the inlet probe. The BAM inlet must be located at least 2 meters from any active FRM PM2.5 sampler inlet. Because the inlet probe must be directly mounted on the instrument and extended through the roof of the shelter, only locations with available bench space directly beneath the sample intake should be considered.

Inlet Height: The inlet height should conform to USEPA guidance relative to PM samplers (2 to 15 meters above the ground), but should be equivalent to other PM (2.5 or

10) reference method samplers installed at the site. The intake must be at least 2 meters above the roof surface.

Bench Placement: The BAM 1020 is capable of rack mounting. The instrument has an area footprint of 19 inches wide by 15.5 inches deep, with a height of about 12 inches.

Room must be allowed for access to the instrument wiring and plumbing and access for probe and instrument separation and removal for service. The pump can easily be installed on a floor but is connected to the instrument with tubing and wiring.

Electrical: The BAM 1020 requires two electrical outlets, one for the main instrument, and the other for the pump. The main instrument needs to be plugged in to a protected, stable source of 120 VAC electric power. An Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) should be used, if necessary. Since the instrument is directly connected to a metal inlet tube protruding above the shelter, the instrument should be separately and firmly grounded to a grounded metal part of the shelter.

Probe Heater: The probe heater is a 4-inch wide heating coil held in place with set screws used for controlling relative humidity in the sample. It should be mounted a minimum of 2 inches away from the instrument or ceiling.

Temperature Probe: The BAM 1020 requires an externally mounted ambient temperature probe to properly adjust volumetric flow measurements. The probe is enclosed in a louvered shield mounted on a cross arm on the external portion of the sampling probe.

The required wiring for this probe may require the creation of a second smaller hole in the roof/wall, for its connection to the back of the instrument.

20.3 Probe Installation

A hole must be drilled in the roof of the shelter to accommodate the probe and associated hardware. It is essential that the hole be aligned with the inlet coupling on the top of the

BAM 1020, placed on the instrument bench below. It is also essential to ensure that the hole (plus the smaller temperature probe hole), can be sealed to prevent water leakage into the shelter. Arrangements for a roof contractor may need to be made if a hole will pose

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________ special problems or the roof is under warranty. The following are detailed directions for installing the probe.

1.

In the appropriate location inside of the shelter, drill a 1 3/8” hole vertically through

2.

the ceiling directly above the instrument inlet coupling. Stop drilling as soon as the guide bit penetrates the roof. A plumb bob is helpful for determining the proper location to drill once the bench location is established.

Using the hole from the guide bit, drill downward from the roof until the hole is sufficiently deep to fit the roof mounting plate. To prevent future leaks, place a copious amount of silicone sealant on the underside of the mounting plate.

3.

Bolt down the mounting plate with four lag bolts. Attach coupler with gasket and nut, to the mounting plate. Slide sampling tube through the hole and attach to BAM

1020 (discussed below). Tighten nut to secure probe.

Attach cross arm to the probe (outside) using an appropriately sized hex wrench.

4.

Hang the sheltered temperature probe on the cross arm using the supplied plastic attachments.

Drill a small hole in the side wall (or use an existing hole) to feed the cable into the

5.

shelter to the back of the instrument. The supplied cable is sufficiently long to use with an existing hole, if one exists.

6.

7.

Seal up all roof joints and holes with roof tar or caulking and check for leaks.

Fit sharp cut cyclone and PM

2.5

inlet/rain hat on top of probe.

20.4 Instrument Installation

The BAM 1020 must be placed on the bench at a location meeting the specifications described above. Two protected 110 VAC outlets are required for the instrument and the pump.

1.

Loosen hex nuts at inlet coupling collar. Line up and lower probe (it must be loose at the roof level) through probe heater into collar. The probe must appear straight and move all the way down into the collar. After probe is fitted properly in the collar, tighten hex nuts to secure sampling tube to instrument. Mark location of instrument on bench top with tape to ensure that unit stays properly aligned during operation.

2.

3.

Attach ambient temperature probe wires to appropriate connections on back of BAM

1020 (see Appendix E of Revision E of the Met One manual).

Attach pump control wires from the pump to appropriately marked terminals on the

4.

back of the BAM 1020.

Install the heating coil unit around the probe, at least two (2) inches above the BAM

1020 inlet and at least two (2) inches below the shelter ceiling. Hold in place by tightening the hex screws. Attach the heater control cable to the screw-in connection

5.

on the back of the BAM 1020. The purpose of this heater is to prevent excessively humid air from biasing the measurements.

A plastic hose connects the pump to the back of the BAM 1020. This connection is secured by pushing the hose into the connection at each end. To release the tubing, push the collar ‘in’ while pulling the tubing ‘out’.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

6.

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

Data logger terminals are located on the back of the BAM 1020 and are marked

“Voltage Out”. Voltage/Concentration ranges and Time must be coordinated between the BAM 1020 and the data logger to output correct data for the correct time period.

21 Initialization of BAM 1020.

After external connections have been made the instrument can be initialized, the tape loaded and the flow rate checked.

21.1 Initialization

Instrument measurement parameters are factory set and must not be changed without direction from a Met One engineer. However, certain parameters and quality assurance measurements must be checked and adjusted at initialization and periodically during operation. True measurements can only be checked through comparison with collocated instruments or FRM measurements made during the same time period.

1.

Most parameters can be checked and adjusted through the Setup Menu. Most of the

2.

3.

items on this menu require a password for access. The factory default password is

“F1F2F3F4”

, entered through the buttons on the front panel.

Time and date can be adjusted on the Clock screen. The time and date must be checked (and adjusted when necessary) during each visit. Time has been observed to drift on BAM 1020s in the field and the instrument time must be coordinated to that in the data logger. After the time is corrected on this screen, it is important to save the new settings using the

SAVE

command prior to exiting.

The

SAMPLE

screen contains several important adjustable parameters. The communication baud rate, as well as sampling and analysis time periods are displayed on this screen and should not be adjusted. The

Station #

should be changed, based on the number assigned by AAB to the site (ex. Annavoy= 01;

Breman = 02, and Court Road = 03). The

Range

should be set at 0.500 mg (the factory default value is 1.0 mg) and the

Offset

should be set at –0.005 mg/m

3

. Again,

SAVE

should be selected before exiting.

The

EXTRA 1

screen contains the ‘

e1 parameter’

, which sets the lower limit on

4.

measured concentrations. The default is –0.005, which enables negative instrument readings, when real concentrations approach zero.

21.2 Flow Set-Up, Tape Installation & Leak Check

Flow Set-up, Tape installation and Leak Check procedures are covered in

Sections 23.2, 23.3, &

23.4

.

22. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES of BAM 1020

22.1 General

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

The BAM 1020 is designed to operate on a one-hour cycle and to yield an hourly average concentration of PM

2.5

. The BAM 1020 data firmware can also produce 24-hour averages for comparison with PM

2.5

FRM results.

22.2 Operational Tools/Modes

1.

2.

Operate Mode

– The Operate Mode is accessed from the Main Menu and is employed to monitor and change the operating status of the BAM 1020. Selecting this mode will display whether the instrument is currently operating or not and allows the operator to start and stop the instrument’s operation through the

“ON”

and

“OFF”

toggle selections. When initially installed and powered up, the BAM 1020 should start collecting a sample automatically during the next hour. However, this status should be confirmed and turned on if necessary, on this screen. The

“NORMAL”

selection from this menu allows the operator to review the previous hour concentration and flow values, as well as confirm the flow calibration method

(should be

ACTUAL

). The

“INST”

(Instantaneous) selection allows the operator to monitor instantaneous voltage outputs, as well as concentration and flow concentration values.

Soft Keys

- The soft keys on the front faceplate can be used to monitor various instrument parameters (in addition to Password submittal).

F1

– Pressing F1 will yield instantaneous concentration and flow values as well as external sensor outputs (ambient temperature). There is a

VOLT/ENG

option to allow the operator to view voltages. F1 outputs would be useful to troubleshoot data logger disagreements and temperature sensor difficulties. temperature sensor readings for the last hour. This information can be use to assess the reasonability of those values and to demonstrate the instruments operation for site visitors. previous instrument errors. days.

3.

external dedicated storage device.

Internal Data Logger

– The BAM 1020 contains an internal data logger which records hourly concentrations, flow rates and other parameters. This record can be downloaded on to a lap top computer using the RS232 port. Monthly (and other intervals when needed) data downloading for quality control is a standard required procedure and is discussed below in further detail.

23. QUALITY CONTROL & MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

23.1 Mandatory Checks for Each Site Visit

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

The following checks

must

be performed upon each visit to the site with a logbook entry required of findings found.

1.

a.

Physically inspect the instrument.

b.

c.

Make sure menu is at the Main Menu display.

Open front face plate and check tape for proper operation. Tape should be properly threaded and grey to black spots should appear at regular intervals on

2.

3.

d.

e.

tape on take up side.

Check unused portion and estimate remaining tape supply.

Check probe and inlets for any missing or mis-installed components.

Check time and date. Modify if necessary.

4.

a. b.

c.

d.

Press

Press

OPERATE

Make sure that the

NORMAL

on the Main Menu.

OPERATION & STATUS MODES

to view last hourly average

.

are both on.

Confirm that concentration, air volume and flow are reasonable and that

ACTUAL

is displayed next to the flow indication.

Document activities at site electronic logbook or at log book at another prescribed location. Include all actions performed on the BAM 1020, the times they were performed, as well as any other observations and comments, which are relevant to the instrument operation or the collected data.

23.2 Leak Check Procedures

The BAM 1020

must be

leak checked

every 2 weeks

following the below procedure. Document the results of the unadjusted flow response and any adjustments made in the logbook entry.

Failed leak checks must be investigated, repaired and documented. Failed leak checks will cause the data to be questionable back to the last successful leak check.

See Section

19.6.3.3.2

for Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedures for leak check failures troubleshooting.

Upon repair, a follow-up leak check must be performed.

Note:

If the leak cannot be repaired by the field technician,

DRI must be

notified immediately.

The leak check is performed as follows:

1.

Remove the inlet and place closed leak check/flow check adapter on the sharp cut cyclone.

2.

Select

TEST

from the main menu, followed by

TAPE

. Select

ADVANCE

once.

Sampling will stop. Plan on starting and completing work between ten (10) past

3.

4.

the hour and the start of the next hour to limit data loss to only one (1) hour.

Exit to the

TEST

menu again and select

PUMP

and

PUMP ON

.

Observe for about 30 seconds. The indicated flow rate should be 1.5 LPM or less.

If the flow rate is > 1.5 LPM, clean the nozzle/stage (See Section 14.5.3.2) and retest.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

Note:

Blocking flow for extended time period could strain the pump.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Turn the pump off by selecting

PUMP OFF.

Gently open leak check valve and remove adapter.

Reinstall the inlet and sharp cut cyclone.

Exit back out to the Main Screen.

Make a log entry of the results.

23.3 Flow Rate Quality Control Checks and Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedures

23.3.1 Flow Rate Quality Control (Q.C.) Check Procedure

The Flow Rate Quality Control check

must be

performed

once a month

following the below procedure. The results of the check must be documented in a log entry.

The flow rate Q.C. procedure is as follows:

Verify the flow rate measurement mode by selecting the

SETUP/CALIBRATE

screen.

1.

The three (3) choices are

ACTUAL

,

METERED

and

STD

.

ACTUAL

should be chosen and saved (if not present on the screen).

2.

3.

4.

5.

This will enable the calibration of the instrument using a one point volumetric measurement (at 16.7 liters/minute) using a BGI Delta Cal or equivalent flow calibrator and ensure that data is expressed in milligrams per actual cubic meters.

Once the

ACTUAL

mode has been confirmed, proceed to the

TEST

category on the main menu for flow rate verification and adjustment.

a)

Select

TEST

from the Main Menu.

Note:

This will suspend ambient sampling. Note the time down in the log entry.

b)

Then select

FLOW

. This screen will present prompts to verify Ambient

Temperature and Barometric Pressure as well as Volumetric Flow Rate. The Delta

Cal measures those parameters, in addition to flow rate.

a)

Remove inlet, including PM

2.5

inlet and sharp cut cyclone.

b)

Place Delta Cal adapter on the instrument down tube, after ensuring that the BAM

1020’s pump is off so that the Delta Cal can establish a zero flow baseline. Allow the

Delta Cal to equilibrate for 5 to 10 minutes so that steady and accurate baseline flow rate, ambient temperature and barometric pressure measurements are established.

Turn on the pump by selecting the

PUMP ON

choice. (The screen indicator will immediately offer the

PUMP OFF

choice.) The BAM flow rate, temperature and pressure will now be indicated in the

BAM

column.

a)

Let the pump run for 5 to 10 minutes to obtain a steady flow rate. Note the Delta Cal

b)

and initial BAM 1020 flow rates, temperature and pressure readings. These are the data validation values.

If the temperature and/or pressure exceed the acceptable difference (

±

4.0

o

C and

±

10.0 mm/Hg) an adjustment will be needed. To adjust the temperature or pressure

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________ readings, the pump

must be

turned

off

. While in the

Flow Test Screen

, move the cursor to

‘Reference Value’

for temperature or pressure, and adjust the values to the

c)

values reported by the Delta Cal. Select ‘

Adjust/Save’

and

Exit

from the screen.

After the temperature and pressure have been adjusted and saved, if necessary, adjust the

REFERENCE

flow rate to that of the Delta Cal measurement. This is done by turning the pump on and letting the flow rate settle out. A greater than 3% variance from 16.7 LPM (

±

0.5 liters/minute), would require adjustment. The flow rate on the

6.

7.

8.

Delta Cal should then settle down to 16.7 LPM.

Select

Adjust/Save

and exit from the screen.

If the flow rate is unadjustable or grossly different by 0.3 LPM from the reference flow rate, then a mechanical or electronic malfunction can be suspected and repair is necessary.

Notify the support personnel.

Proper heater operation should also be checked by selecting

TEST>HEATER>HEATER ON

. The heater should warm up. This procedure may be bi-passed if the heater already feels warm to the touch. Once heater operation is confirmed, select

HEATER OFF

.

23.3.2 Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedures

The Nozzle/Stage Cleaning

must

be performed prior to a tape change

and/or

if a biweekly leak check fails. A log entry

must be

documented.

The Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedure is a follows:

1.

2.

Nozzle/Stage should be cleaned

To remove the tape, from the

only

after the tape has been removed.

Main Menu

, press

TAPE

and then

TENSION

to

3.

4.

5.

verify that nozzle is in the

"UP"

position.

Remove both rolls of tape on the clear plastic spool covers by unscrewing the captive knobs and sliding the tape from under the nozzle/stage. You can break the tape, but it will need to be rethreaded onto an empty take-up spool.

From the

Main Menu

, select

TEST> PUMP

.

On that screen, select

MOVE NOZZLE

, if the Nozzle status (on the screen) does not indicate that it is pointing down.

6.

7.

8.

Lift up the nozzle (against the spring) and insert a folded over alcohol pad beneath it. Relax the nozzle and rotate the nozzle with fingers for several revolutions to wipe the nozzle clean.

Raise the nozzle using

MOVE NOZZLE

. Wipe the stage area with a new alcohol pad. Use dental pick to gently remove filter tape residue from stage and target area. Re-wipe the area with alcohol pad. If residue is found, make note in the log entry.

Reload the tape following the procedure in

19.6.4.

23.4 Tape Change Procedure

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

The tape in the BAM 1020 should be changed every 60 days. The tape spools only hold a day or so beyond 60 so it is imperative that change dates are kept track of. Log entries must also be made for extra service to the instrument or in the event of an instrument change.

Note: Do not change tape prematurely.

Return tape remnants to the DRI for testing purposes.

Discard old tape to prevent accidental reloading.

This procedure is also covered in Section 4.7 of the

Met One Instruments BAM 1020 Particulate

Monitor Operation Manual, Rev. E.

Leak and Flow Q.C. checks

must be

performed

immediately prior to

a tape change and a log entry

must be

documented.

The procedure for loading the tape is as follows:

1.

From the

Main Menu,

press

TAPE

and then

TENSION

to verify that nozzle is in the

"UP"

position.

2.

Remove both of the clear plastic spool covers by unscrewing the captive knobs.

3.

An empty core tube must be installed on the hub of the take-up spool, or filter tape edge damage will occur.

4.

Lift the end of roller shaft to unload pinch rollers from capstan shaft. Latch in "UP" position by swinging the spring-loaded latch to the right.

Note

: Special care should be taken when handling unused filter tape. Clean lint-free gloves should be worn to avoid contamination of sample material. Gentle handling during filter tape loading will reduce filter tape breakage.

5.

Place full roll of filter tape on supply (right) spool, with tape feeding upward and counterclockwise.

6.

Pass filter tape clockwise over supply tension roller, then counter-clockwise over right end roller. See

Figure 12: Filter Tape Loading Procedure

in Section 4.7 of the

Met

One Instruments BAM 1020 Particulate Monitor Operation Manual, Rev. E

7.

Thread filter tape through sampling/measuring area.

8.

Feed filter tape counter-clockwise over left end roller. Wrap it clockwise around take-up tension roller.

9.

Feed end of filter tape so that it enters the take-up spool in a counter-clockwise direction.

Using any available adhesive tape, attach the leading end of the filter tape to the core tube.

10.

By hand, gently tension tape to initial point of slack removal.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________

11.

Install both spool covers. The clamping force of the covers prevents tape slippage on spool hubs.

12.

Gently lower capstan pinch-rollers by releasing latch to left while supporting end of pinch roller shaft.

13.

Under

TEST>TAPE

Menu, select

ADVANCE TAPE

(6) positions. That will ensure that the tape is secured in position and is advancing properly.

14.

Tension the Tape by pressing

TAPE

and then

TENSION

, after the Tape is tensioned then press

SELF TEST

. This will test the mechanical function of the instrument. After the instrument passes this test, return to the main menu by pushing the

EXIT

command.

15.

Perform a leak check and flow rate check upon completion of the tape change and document all results in the log entry.

23.5 PM

2.5

Inlet & Sharp Cut Cyclone Requirements and Cleaning Procedures

The PM

2.5

inlet and sharp cut cyclone

must be

cleaned

every two months

and documented in a log entry.

The cleaning procedure is as follows:

1.

a)

Inspect PM

2.5

inlet and drop out jar for damage and gross dirt or contamination.

b)

Unscrew top of inlet and wipe both halves including inlet fins, down tube pathway, baffles and impingers with Kimwipes or equivalent. Use water if necessary. Alcohol wipes may also be used.

2.

Carefully disassemble sharp cut cyclone and wipe down all surfaces. Use alcohol wipes or water, if necessary, but remember to dry thoroughly. When finished, reassemble carefully, making sure that all o-rings are in place, all components are put together properly and in a leak-free manner.

3.

Place inlet and cyclone snugly back on the down tube, with the cyclone over the down tube and the PM2.5 inlet over the cyclone.

24. DATA DOWNLOAD PROCEDURE

The data download procedure will be performed by the BAM Support personnel on a once every

12 day basis. The procedure is a follows:

1.

Lap top with MS Windows 2000 and Hyperterminal are required. A male nine pin to nine pin cable is needed to connect the computer with the instrument. At the site, the cable should be connected between the appropriate port on the computer and the higher

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 12 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________ of the two nine pin ports on the back of the BAM 1020. The lower port is used for a

2.

3.

4.

printer.

Turn on computer and select Hyperterminal (from

Programs> Accessories>

Communications

). The program will prompt you to “Name” the session (i.e. file name).

After you designate the session, the Window for entering the data communication conditions will come up. The appropriate selections for the BAM 1020 communications are

9600 baud rate, 8 bit, no parity, one stop and no devices

.

After checking OK, the blank session screen will appear. After pushing

Enter

one or more times, an asterisk * should appear on the screen, which indicates a successful connection. Following the asterisk, a “h” should be entered, which will reveal the BAM

1020 data System Menu.

Under

Transfer

on the Hyperterminal Menu Bar, select Capture Text. That will prompt the operator for a name, which should indicate the site and the date (such as

NEND12903). The file should be directed to a dedicated directory on the laptop or to a

5.

floppy disk. Once the path has been selected, select

Start

.

Depending on the purpose of the data download, enter the number of the menu selection from the BAM 1020 Data System Menu. (2 - Display All Data or 3 – Display New Data).

Display All Data will yield all of the data in the instrument, which could be months.

Display New Data will only yield the data since the last down load, which may not result in the complete month. Usually, Display New Data is selected. It may take several Enter keys, the asterisk and entering 2 again to begin the data display iteration.

6.

Once all of the data is displayed, a text file should exist in the designated directory, which contains the downloaded data. Open this file in Notepad to confirm the data. At this time, the data prior to the beginning of the target month can be deleted and the file can be saved to the original name. All Windows can be closed, the computer Shut down and the cable disconnected.

25. DATA HANDLING and QUALITY ASSURANCE

BAM 1020 hourly PM

2.5

data must undergo quality assurance review. Since there are no direct ways to assess instrument accuracy, other comparisons must be made to ensure the submission of reasonable data.Data from the Met One BAM 1020 internal data logger is downloaded from the instrument after the conclusion of each 12-day sample period, using a lap top computer. The following checks should be made between the ESC data logger record and the instrument down load.

1.

One hour from each 24-hour period and the 24-hour daily average concentration for each day should be compared between the monthly data logger record and the

2.

instrument down load. Anomalous high and low values should also be examined and compared.

Review all entrees from the site logbook including the time and nature of visits, service, problems, observations, miscellaneous instrument down time and quality control measures which may affect the validity of the data as a whole or for

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 13 of 13

Title: BAM Met One 1020: Operation,

Maintenance, and Field Calibration

Number:

Revision:

1-250r2

4________ individual hours. Make sure all routine maintenance and other actions described by this SOP have been completed and documented.

3.

Instrument down load files should be reviewed for hours containing letter error indications such as “L” for power loss or “F” for flow problems. A full set of error codes can be found in the manual.

4.

An overall cursory comparison should be made between data from the subject site and data from the other two monitoring sites or a collocated instrument. PM

2.5 concentration fluctuations tend to be regional in nature so overall concentration magnitudes should be similar between the sites in the network, even if located in different cities. Certain electronic malfunctions in the BAM 1020 can be manifested by very low, but not necessarily zero concentrations over extended time periods.

26.

REFERENCES

Met One Instruments BAM 1020 Particulate Monitor Operation manual, Rev. E.

.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance

DRI SOP #1-406r4

July 10, 2007 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

27.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

27.1

Purpose of Procedure

This standard operating procedure is intended to:

• provide a basic understanding of the principles behind the aethalometer for the determination of light absorption measurements. describe the routine procedure for set-up, calibration, operation and takedown detail the concerns and procedures which will insure valid light absorption measurements.

27.2

Underlying Principle

The aethalometer was developed as a real time analyzer for measuring particle light absorption (b abs

), which is usually reported as black carbon (BC or soot) concentration. The aethalometer measures attenuation of a beam of light transmitted through a quartz-fiber filter while the filter is continually collecting the aerosol sample (Magee Scientific Mfg. Co., 1993).

The rate of accumulation of black carbon is proportional to both the black carbon concentration in the air stream and to the flow rate. A sample stream drawn through a 1.13 cm

2

area of a quartz-fiber filter tape (i.e., exposed) where the black carbon is collected. A separate portion of the filter tape outside of the sample stream (i.e., unexposed or referenced) is used as an optical reference. The two parts of the filter, exposed and referenced, are illuminated by a stabilized lamp which provides a diffuse lighting. The light passing through the exposed and referenced portions of the filter is captured by two matched photodiodes. The optical signals from the diodes are converted to voltages and digitized. The voltages are compared and converted to optical attenuation values which are proportional to the quantity of aerosol black carbon collected on the filter. The rate of increase of the black carbon loading yields the black carbon concentration in the sampled air stream when the air flow in the sampling stream is known.

The optics and electronics of the aethalometer allow the instrument to operate in the range of 1 ng/cm

2

to a maximum of 8

μ g/cm

2

of black carbon on the filter. The minimum time resolution of the instrument is the time required to collect 1 nanogram/cm

2

. At a standard sample flow rate of 5 L/min. and a mean concentration of 1

μ g/m

3

, the minimum time resolution is on the order of a fraction of a minute. An internal calibration coefficient converts the light attenuation measurement to the units of ng/m

3

. An approximation of b interval can be obtained by multiplying the mass concentration (ng/m

3 abs

for each measurement

) by the mass absorption coefficient for black carbon which is reported as

10

-8

m

2

/ng (Clarke et al., 1987). However, a given mass of elemental carbon (EC) aerosol can yield significantly different optical properties depending on the geometric mass mean diameter, the shape of the particles, the complex refractive index, and the presence of particle coatings or condensates (Clarke et al., 1987).

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

Liousse et al. (1993) report a range of between 5 to 20 m

2

/g for the specific attenuation coefficient which they related to differences in the nature of the combustion source and the aging of the particles during transport.

27.3

Method Interferences and Their Minimization

The aethalometer measurement process involves the mechanical transfer of a quartz-fiber filter across the sensing region, the activation of a diaphragm pump as well as sensitive electronic sensors for measuring light attenuation. Each of these actions as well as the installation and handling of the quartz-fiber filters is subject to potential biases from:

Careless handling of samples. Improper cleaning of the stainless steel filter support screen between filter changes may lead to contamination of samples from previous samples or from the cleaning process itself. The cleaning procedures described in this SOP must be followed diligently to avoid contamination problems. Despite the fact that the operator may be working within a dusty environment, an effort must be made to keep the instrument clean. No object must touch the center area of the filters at any time; filters which are contaminated by contact with fingers, tweezers, gloves, or table tops must be replaced.

Too much deposit material. Because the aethalometer is designed to automatically advance at a pre-set concentration level, precautions should be taken to ensure that the pre-set limit reflects the potential loading in the sampling environment over the time averaging period that is used to derive concentration measurements.

Color of the filter tape. The filter tape should be as nearly transparent to light as possible.

Stray light. The light measured by the detector should be only that generated by the internal lamp which has been transmitted through the filter tape. Light entering the detector by other routes will not be attenuated by the aerosol deposit and will bias the measurement.

Changes in light intensity or detector response. Changes in the intensity of the lamp or detector response during the sampling period will bias the readings.

Analog output voltage settings. The proper scaling between analog output voltage and concentration of black carbon must be determined so as to maximize the sensitivity of the instrument to the environment in which it will be used. Scaling between voltage and concentration of black carbon is a linear relationship. The

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________ settings allow the voltage output to relate to different ranges of expected BC concentrations. For an environment with high concentration levels it would be appropriate to scale the output voltage as 10 volts represents 100

μ g/m

3

this would allow the instrument to fully range the voltage over concentrations from 0 to 100

μ g/m

3

. If the concentrations are high and the scaling is set low the analog voltage will continually overload the signal. For example if the scaling 10 volts represents 5

μ g/m

3

was chosen, but the concentrations were greater than 5

μ g/m

3

then the analog output would always read 10 volts. Conversely, if the actual concentrations in the environment are low, but the scaling is set high there will be a resultant loss of sensitivity as the voltage fluctuations associated with low concentrations will result in voltage measurements with lower precision and accuracy.

27.4

Ranges and Typical Values of Measurements

Typical measurements of BC loadings range from less than 1

μ g/m

3

for remote areas to

20

μ g/m

3

for suburban areas (Liousse et al., 1993). These concentrations would result in light absorption measurements in the range of approximately 10 to 200 Mm

-1

.

27.5

Typical Lower Quantifiable Limits, Precision, and Accuracy

The lower quantifiable limit according to the manufacturer’s specifications is 1 ng/m

3

.

According to Liousse et al. (1993) if filter attenuation is confined to less than 150 which corresponds to a BC content of the order of 8

μ g the maximum attenuation error may be estimated as 0.1% and the black carbon content (BC) is given with an accuracy of 0.003

μ g.

According to Molenar (pers. comm., 1995), the filter attenuation level should be set to 25% as he found that at levels greater than 22% the calculation of b abs

is compromised. The optical path is obtained from the ratio of the filtered air volume to the sampled filter area. The measurement error in the optical path is primarily due to volume uncertainty and is estimated to be of the order of 0.5% (Liousse et al., 1993). This uncertainty results in an error in the calculation of b abs

of approximately 0.6% using the Beer-Lambert law.

27.6

Personnel Responsibilities

Field technicians and data analysts should read and understand the entire standard operating procedure prior to deployment of the aethalometer. Familiarity with maintenance, programming, data downloading and the structure of the output data files is necessary for obtaining valid measurements. In addition the data analyst must be able to perform data validation and a performance audit.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

It is the responsibility of the Laboratory Supervisor to ensure the aethalometer procedures are properly followed, to examine and document all documentation, to arrange for maintenance and repair, to maintain the supplies necessary to insure uninterrupted measurements, and to deliver the data in dBase format to the project manager within the specified time period.

The quality assurance (QA) officer of DRI's Energy and Environmental Engineering

Center is responsible to determine the extent and methods of quality assurance to be applied to each project, to estimate the level of effort involved in this quality assurance, to update this procedure periodically, and to ascertain that these tasks are budgeted and carried out as part of the performance on each contract.

27.7

Definitions

The following terms are used in this document: measured attenuation of light through a quartz-fiber filter caused by the deposition of particles onto and into the filter. The air sample is drawn into the instrument and through the filter by a diaphragm pump. Flow is controlled internally by a mass flow meter.

27.8

SOPs related to use of the aethalometer which should be reviewed in conjunction with this document are:

28.

DRI SOP #6-009.1 Field and Laboratory Safety Procedures.

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, REAGENTS, AND FORMS

28.1

Apparatus and Instrumentation

28.1.1

Description

The aethalometer consists of 5 major components: the carbon sensing area, the tape drive system, the pump, pump relay and mass flow controller. The following sections provide additional information on each of these components.

28.1.1.1

The Sensing Area

In this part of the instrument the sample stream is drawn through a 1.13 cm

2

area of the filter, while another portion of the filter is used as an optical reference. Both parts of the filter

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________ are illuminated by a stabilized lamp providing diffuse light through the transparent inlet. This component also holds the matched photodiodes which measure the light attenuation and the signal converter which changes the optical signals to voltages.

28.1.1.2

The Tape Transport System

The tape is advanced by a shaft controlled by a servo motor. To provide sufficient grip, a spring-loaded pressure roller presses the tape against the driving shaft. The spring pressure is removed when the tape transport is inactive, to avoid breaking the fragile tape.

28.1.1.3

The Pump

The pump unit is a diaphragm type which contains a rubber compound membrane which provides the suction. A length of PVC tubing is attached between the pump and the inlet on the aethalometer. A length of Tygon tubing is attached to the exhaust fitting to carry the exhausted air outside the environmentally controlled housing. The pump unit is operated on 110 V AC and it obtains its power from an external relay linked to the aethalometer.

28.1.1.4

The Pump Relay

The pump relay activates the pump upon a signal from the aethalometer. The pump relay is plugged into the mains and connected to the aethalometer via a communication cable.

28.1.1.5

The Mass Flow Controller

Within the aethalometer is a mass flow controller which regulates the air flow generated by the external pump to a constant 5 L/min for aerosol sampling.

28.1.2

Instrument Characterization

To meet the performance specifications, the following ambient conditions have to be met:

1) ambient temperature: 5-35

°

C, 2) relative humidity: 0-90%, with no condensation. The aethalometer must be placed in a temperature-controlled environment for operation in ambient conditions that exceed these ranges.

28.1.3

Maintenance

Regular maintenance for the aethalometer includes:

Checking the filter advance and replace as necessary (refer to Section 30.2.2).

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

For each tape change, ensure that the stainless steel filter support mesh screen above the optical sensor is cleaned. Remove the locking screws attaching the top of the inlet cylinder to the lifting plate, and carefully lift it up and away from the base. Clean any accumulation of quartz-fiber from the top of the mesh screen. When replacing the inlet cylinder, check carefully that it is properly seated on the base.

Check all tubing and connections between the aethalometer and the pump and the aethalometer and the aerosol sampling tube at each site visit. Replace defective items immediately.

Perform a simple leak test after each tape change. This involves: i) removing the sample inlet tube from the aerosol inlet fitting, ii) cursor to and highlight the

Service

window of the main menu. Select

Signals

and then press the

Pump

key to turn on the vacuum pump. The sample air flow rate is displayed on the screen. Block the inlet by placing a finger over it: the flow rate should drop below 1 L/min.

Reconnect the inlet

tubing if the leak test is passed. Check all connections if the leak test fails and repeat.

Check the pump diaphragm for wear at each site visit. Remove the top plate of the pump and visually inspect the diaphragm for wear. The top plate is fixed with four 3/16" hex cap screws which are removed with a 3/16" Allen wrench. Wear will be apparent if the diaphragm shows excessive cracking, evidence of rubber residue and wear around the circumference.

Check that the light is operational via the

Service

Remove and replace the data collection disk.

window and replace if necessary.

Check the inlet orifice for blockage by debris and insects.

28.1.4

Spare Parts and Supplies

The following spare parts and supplies should be kept on hand to insure minimal interruptions in analysis:

Lamp (Magee Scientific)

Quartz-fiber filter tapes (Pallflex, size 1"

×

30", type 2500QAT-UP) vinyl gloves (Fisher Scientific, #11-393-26) small Philips screwdriver regular Philips screwdriver

3/16" Allen wrench small adjustable wrench small camel-hair brush

0-10 L/min calibrated rotameter

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

28.2

Forms and Paperwork

A laboratory notebook is used to record the date of each site visit and the activity, maintenance and performance tests that are carried out on the aethalometer and other monitors at the sampling site. The filter status should be reported (how much is left) and a dated sticker placed on the exposed filter to mark the visit. This will help to track the sample dots in case further analysis of filter samples are required. If the filter tape is near the end the tape should be changed following the procedures detailed in Section 30.2.2.

29.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

29.1

Preparation, Ranges, and Traceability of Standards

The manufacturer of the aethalometer does not provide calibration standards to verify the precision and accuracy of this instrument. The precision and accuracy of this method are functions of the air flow rate, filtration efficiency and the optical system. To check flows through the system a calibrated rotameter is used every site visit to check the flows through the critical orifices. This rotameter is calibrated against a positive displacement Roots Meter (model

1.5M, SN 603274) in DRI's Quality Assurance Laboratory. A linear calibration curve is developed and plotted.

29.2

Use of Standards

The calibrated rotameter is used at the beginning of each deployment, at each site visit, before and after the installation of a new filter tape and at the ending of each project to check the flows through the critical orifices. A special adaptor is used to connect the rotameter outlet to the aerosol sampling inlet.

29.3

Typical Accuracy of Calibration Standards

Flows are checked primarily to insure the internal mass flow meter performs as expected, and barometric pressure and temperature corrections are not usually made. The rotameter is read to the nearest 0.5 unit, and precision is ±0.5 unit. Accuracy of the flows measured by the calibrated rotameter readings is therefore ±5% (0.5 L/min).

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

30.

PROCEDURES

30.1

General Flow Diagram

Not applicable.

30.2

Routine Operation

30.2.1

Instrument Set-Up

To prepare the aethalometer for measurement operation the following set-up procedure steps should be taken.

Place the aethalometer on a sturdy stand or bench and if required a temperature controlled environment.

Connect the AC power cord to the AC line input found at the lower left on the back of the instrument.

Connect the pump power cord to the pump relay.

Connect the gray colored power output cord to the socket on the back of the aethalometer

(beside the AC power input).

Connect the both the aethalometer and the pump relay power cords to the mains.

Connect the black PVC aerosol sampling hose to the aerosol input connector on the aethalometer (marked with a red A).

Connect the white/opaque PVC hose between the pump and the pump connection on the aethalometer (marked with a red P). The pump to aethalometer hose length maybe up to 5 meters.

Run the black aerosol sampling line to the chosen exterior sampling location avoiding sharp bends in the hose. The sampling position may be up to 10 meters away. The aerosol inlet should be a rigid vertical inlet, facing downwards, with a cover to exclude rain and spray, and a mesh screen to exclude insects if necessary.

Place a flash memory disk into the drive

Turn the instrument on by turning the keyed switch to the vertical position. It will go through a series of self-checks.

Check the status of the tape and replace if necessary, or mark the take-up side with a sticker to note the date and time of deployment or a site visit.

If the analog voltage output is to be recorded by a data logger it is necessary to check the response of the analog output. Go to the

Service

window and highlight

Analog Output

, press

Enter

. Attach a voltmeter to the lines that are originating from pin number 2

(positive) and pin number 4 (negative). Monitor the voltage output and increase and

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________ decrease the voltage via the keypad

Up

and

Down

arrows. Note the response of the voltmeter. If the voltage tracks correctly it indicates the analog output is working properly.

ESC

to return to the main menu.

30.2.2

Loading the Filters:

The quartz-fiber filters are loaded into the instrument with the front control panel setting in the SERVICE/FILTER mode. The keys to be used and their respective functions are:

Cursor Up

: lift inlet cylinder (release tape)

Cursor Down

: lower inlet cylinder (clamp tape)

Cursor Left

: advance tape through drive rollers (press to start, press escape or cursor right to stop)

Pump

: Turn pump on/off

ESC

: return to main menu

Shift and Escape

: press simultaneously to continue measurements

To change the tape, proceed as follows:

Remove the knurled screws holding the tape spool plates. Insert a new roll of tape onto the right-hand hub center. Make sure the tape is loaded so that the tape enters the sensing region with the smooth side facing upwards.

Use the

Cursor Up

key to lift the inlet cylinder.

Thread the tape through under the white guide roller and through the gap under the inlet cylinder.

Press down on the lower pinch roller shaft end to make a small gap between the two drive rollers, feed a bit of the tape between the rollers and release the lower pinch roller so that the tape is gripped between the two rollers.

Use the

Cursor Left

key to advance the tape, providing sufficient length to reach the takeup hub on the left. Use

ESC

or

Cursor Right

key to stop the tape advance.

Make sure that the tape passes correctly between the optical sensors.

Clip the take-up end into the spring clip on the left-hand hub.

Replace the spool plates and the knurled screws.

Use the

Cursor Down

30.2.3

Programming

key to lower the inlet head.

Programming of the aethalometer involves setting the time averaging function, the filter attenuation setting for automatic advance and if desired the filter advance set for a discrete time interval. For measuring the analog output signal for data logging the analog output and its scaling must also be set. The scaling factor chosen will be dependent upon the environment being sampled. The greater the expected concentration of black carbon aerosol the greater

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________ should be the scaling factor (refer to Section 27.3). Programming is done via the front panel keypad in the

Set-Up

window. The following steps are taken:

Cursor to the

Set-Up

menu and press

Enter

.

Cursor down and highlight

Timebase

and press

Enter

. Select the time averaging interval and press

Enter

.

Cursor to

Filter Change

to set the parameters for the automatic tape advance. The first window selects the "attenuation level" (filter optical density) at which a tape advance is required. One value from 25, 50 and 75 'units' can be selected. For maximum tape life select 75.

Press

ESC

to proceed to the second level to set the

Filter Change

. With this setting an automatic tape advance can be set to a clock interval. Intervals from 1 minute to 168 hours are possible. Selecting

NO

causes the tape advance to be determined only by filter saturation.

ESC

from the

Timing

menu and highlight

Output.

Within the

Output

sub-menu highlight

Analog Output

and press

Enter

. This field allows voltage to be recorded with a data logger via the rear pin-out. Use the

Cursor-Up

button to select the appropriate scaling parameter, highlight and press

Enter

. Press

ESC

twice to back out.

Highlight

Date

/

Time

. Enter the correct date in the format MM/DD/YR, press

Enter

.

Enter the time in 24 hr format, Hr/Min/sec. Press

Enter

. The screen returns the date and times for a check. A second

Enter

command accepts the date and time and backs out of this window.

To save the program and store it in memory highlight

Save

and press

Enter

.

To review the current settings cursor to

File

, press

Enter

, cursor to

View

CF and press

Enter

. The number of files will be displayed. Press

Enter

a second time and the current status of the set-up configurations will be displayed. If an error is noted repeat the necessary steps and re-save. Check the configuration file. If the new configuration is not changed from the old settings consult the manufacturer.

30.3

Aethalometer Shut-Down

Upon completion of a field project the following steps are taken to shut down the aethalometer.

Press

ESC

to halt the sampling sequence

Mark the filter tape on the take up side with a data and time sticker.

Cursor to

Service

, press

Enter

, highlight

Flow

, measure and record the flow with the calibrated rotameter.

Press

ESC

to stop the pump.

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 12 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

Shut off the power with the keyed switch.

Disconnect the aerosol sampling and pump hoses.

Disconnect all the power cords and communications cables.

Pack the unit for transport.

30.4

31.

Abbreviated Operational Checklist

Connect all power cords.

Connect hoses for aerosol sampling and to pump.

Turn on the instrument (one quarter clockwise turn to a vertical position).

Allow the instrument to go through its self-check and press any key as the machine indicates to stop the automatic measurements to begin.

Check the tape status, replace if necessary.

Check disk is in front drive.

Check the configuration file, adjust if required.

Check the flow, internal flow meter versus rotameter.

Leak test, check hose fittings if necessary.

Check date and time on front panel, adjust if necessary.

Initiate sampling. Press

Shift / ESC

simultaneously.

Note

, start the device synchronized to a clock time. The instrument does not synchronize filter changes with a set time but with elapsed time from initial start.

Turn the key another quarter turn to the right. This locks out the keypad so it can not be changed accidentally.

QUANTIFICATION

31.1

Calibration procedures

Not applicable.

31.2

Data Acquisition

Data acquisition includes retrieving the daily data generated by the aethalometer and stored on a flash memory drive. The data will be copied from the flash memory drive into a .zip file with sampler serial number in the file name and email to DRI every 12-days, which coincides with the every 12-day sampling program of VOCs and carbonyls. The time averaged measurements are expressed in inverse megameters (Mm

-1

).

32.

QUALITY CONTROL

Quality control for the aethalometer consists of checking the following:

______________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 13 of 13

Title: Magee Aethalometer: Operation and Maintenance Number: 1-406r4

______________________________________________________________________________

Consecutive flow checks should differ by no more than ± 0.5 units on the calibrated rotameter. Large differences must be investigated on the assumption that leaks are responsible for the discrepancy.

32.1

Data Validation and Feedback

Contact the field supervisor for instructions if difficulties are found.

33.

REFERENCES

Clarke, A.D, K.J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S.G. Warren and D.S. Scott (1987). Aerosol Light

Absorption Measurement Techniques: Analysis and Intercomparisons.

Atmospheric

Environment

21 (6), 1455-1465.

Liousse, C., H. Cachier, and S.G. Jennings (1993). Optical and Thermal Measurements of Black

Carbon Aerosol Content in Different Environments: Variation of the Specfic Attenuation

Cross-Section, Sigma (

σ

).

Atmospheric Environment

27A (8), 1203-1211.

Magee Scientific. (1998).

User's Manual Aethalometer AE-31

. Magee Scientific Mfg. Co., 1829

Francisco St., Berkely, CA 94703.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Canister Cleaning and Certification

DRI SOP #1-406r4

July 10, 2007

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

Note: Canisters provided by Alpha Analytical are fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Page : 2 of 8

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-701r4

34.

PURPOSE/APPLICABILITY

This method describes the cleaning of stainless steel SUMMA-polished canisters used for

VOC sampling and analysis. The sampling is described in DRI SOP number 1-230.1 and analysis is described in DRI SOP number 2-211.1. All canisters are to be cleaned by this method before being used for sampling in any DRI project.

This method follows the procedure described in the EPA document "Technical

Assistance Document for Sampling and Analysis of Ozone Precursors" (October 1991,

EPA/600-8-91/215). The exception is that the DRI procedure uses heat during the cleaning cycle as it has been reported in the literature that heat is important for complete cleaning

(Rasmussen, 1991; 1992).

35.

MATERIALS/APPARATUS

35.1

Ovens

The ovens must be capable of maintaining 167

°

C temperatures. The ovens are equipped with a manifold connected to the automated canister cleaner. One oven is capable of holding four 6 L cans, while the other may hold two 6 L cans.

35.2

Automated Canister Cleaner

The automated canister cleaner is a timer-controlled series of valves and tubing. The timer is programmed to switch between the vacuum system and the humidified air system shown in Figure 1.

35.3

Vacuum System

The vacuum system is equipped with both a low vacuum (for initial removal of canister contents) and a high vacuum pump capable of evacuating canisters to ~ 0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure. The high vacuum pump must have a cold trap followed by a desiccant between it and the canisters to prevent any contamination from backing up the lines into the canisters. The cold trap is to be filled with liquid nitrogen when the system is in use.

CAUTION: Liquid nitrogen is a cryogenic liquid that can cause severe frostbite burns if it comes into contact with skin. Wear appropriate gloves and eye protection at all times when working with liquid nitrogen.

35.4

Humidified Zero Air System

The humidified zero air system must be capable of supplying humidified zero air at a pressure of at least 20 psig. The system consists of a tank of ultra zero air (Sierra Airgas) connected to a two-stage regulator with a stainless steel diaphragm, followed by a hydrocarbon

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Page : 3 of 8

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-701r4 trap, humidifying container and then the oven manifold system. The water used for humidification must be HPLC grade and should be purged with ultra zero air overnight before the first use to ensure it is clean.

36.

36.1

CLEANING PROCEDURE

Attaching Canisters

Remove the tags from the canister. Load two canisters into oven 1 and four canisters into oven 2. (Eight canisters may be loaded if they are 3 L rather than 6 L.) Fill the cryo trap with liquid nitrogen.

36.2

Leak Check

Open channel 1 on the timer to start the vacuum pump. Open channel 4 on the timer to open the vacuum valve. Open the toggle valve for oven 1 and let the pressure decrease to about -

26 in. Hg. Close channel 4 on the timer. If there is a change in pressure to the oven, there is a leak, and all the fittings should be tightened. Restart the leak check procedure. If there is no change in pressure, close the toggle valve to oven 1.

Open channel 4 on the timer to open the vacuum valve, then open the toggle valve to oven 2. Let pressure decrease to about –26 in. Hg. Close channel 4 on the timer. If there is a change in pressure to the oven, there is a leak, and all the fittings should be tightened. Restart the leak check procedure. If there is no change in pressure, close the toggle valve to oven 2.

36.3

Cleaning Cycle

36.3.1

Vacuum Pumping

Open the valves on all canisters. Turn on the ovens: oven 1 to 167

°

C and oven 2 to high heat. Adjust the timer to 7:58 a.m. and make sure all valves are in the timer position (not FIX).

Open the toggle valves for ovens 1 and 2. Adjust pressure on the ultra zero air regulator to 20 psi. Ensure that the high vacuum pump cold trap is full of liquid nitrogen. See

caution

under section 2.2 with regard to liquid nitrogen. Evacuate the canisters first with the low vacuum pump, then the high vacuum pump to ~0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure. Maintain the high vacuum condition for at least twenty minutes.

36.3.2

Zero Air Filling

Fill the canisters with humidified zero air to 10 to 15 psig, and allow to stand for 13 minutes.

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Page : 4 of 8

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-701r4

36.3.3

Complete Cycle

Repeat steps 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 six more times for a total of seven cycles, leaving on the last high vacuum condition for at least 45 minutes. At the end of the last cycle before refilling the canisters, remove them. To remove the canisters, first turn both ovens off, then open them to allow the canisters to cool. Wearing protective gloves, shut the canister valves, close the toggle valves for both ovens, turn off the vacuum system, then remove the canisters. Label the canisters with the lot number. Take one of the canisters and fill it with humidified zero air as per step

3.3.2. This canister will be used for certification of the lot.

36.4

Record Keeping

The canister number, the last project it was assigned to, date of cleaning and name of the technician performing the cleaning procedure shall be recorded in the canister cleaning database maintained in the atmospheric chemistry laboratory.

37.

CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE

The clean canister full of humidified zero air from step 3.3.3 is analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection/electron capture detection as per DRI SOP 2-

211.1. The canisters are considered clean if the total non-methane organic gas (NMOG) concentration in the canister is less than 10 ppbC and individual compounds less than 1 ppbC or if the concentration of targeted VOC is less then 0.2 ppbv. If the NMOG concentration is greater than 10 ppbC or 0.2 ppbv, or individual compounds are measured greater than 1 ppbC, the entire lot of canisters is recleaned.

38.

REFERENCES

U. S. EPA "Technical Assistance Document for Sampling and Analysis of Ozone

Precursors" (October 1991, EPA/600-8-91/215).

. Rasmussen, R.A., and M.A.K. Khalil (1991). "The Stability of Trace Gases Stored in

Stainless Steel Cans and Tanks With and Without Electropolishing." Presented at International

Symposium on Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants, Durham, NC. Cosponsored by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, and Air & Waste

Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA.

. Rasmussen, R.A. (1992). "The ABCs of Stainless Steel Canister Clean-up and

Certification." Presented at International Symposium on Measurement of Toxic and Related Air

Pollutants, Durham, NC. Cosponsored by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research

Triangle Park, NC, and Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA.

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Appendix A — Automated Canister Cleaning Procedure

Page :

Number:

5 of 8

Date: 7/1/97

1-701.4

For automated canister cleaning, the following procedure is used.

1.

Turn both ovens off.

2.

Let cans cool down.

3.

Close all valves on the canisters

4.

Close the two toggle vacuum switches on the front of the oven.

5.

Go to the automatic timers: Change all channels to Fix 0 by pressing all the top oval buttons (with symbols above them). The channels are:

#1

#2

#3

#4

High Vacuum Pump Only

Lower Vacuum Valve

Zero Air Valve

High Vacuum Valve

6. Take all canisters out of the oven and:

Cap all canisters and label each can.

Set one canister aside for filling with zero air for QA

Prepare a lot to be cleaned — fill out the database with the canister numbers

7. Load both ovens with cans.

8. Fill cryo trap with liquid nitrogen.

9. Before opening the canister valves, check for leaks:

Turn Channel 1 to “on” (to turn on pump)

Turn Channel 4 to manual by pressing its oval button ( ) twice

Open toggle valve for the oven

Check pressure — it should be -26 psi (at least)

Turn Channel 4 off and observe pressure — it should be steady

Repeat this procedure for the second oven.

10.

Press the clock button ( ) and h+ button and set the clock to 7:55 a.m. and turn all channels to automatic ( ).

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Appendix A — Automated Canister Cleaning Procedure

Page :

Number:

11. Open all canister valves

(DO NOT FORGET!)

12. Turn ovens on (set oven #1 to 300°F).

(DO NOT FORGET!)

13. Open vacuum toggles.

14. Fill QA can with air:

6 of 8

Date: 7/1/97

1-701.4

Use ultra zero air tank used for GC blanks.

Set pressure to 11 psi on tank pressure regulator when air is flowing

Hook the can to the air line (when air is flowing)

Open canister valve

VERY SLOWLY

and wait until the canister fills (~10 mins.)

Close the can valve.

Test the QA can for pressure — put sticker with date and time on can

NOTES The Canister Cleaning Program, Version 4, is shown on Table 1.

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Appendix A — Automated Canister Cleaning Procedure

Page :

Number:

7 of 8

Date: 7/1/97

1-701.4

Auto Canister Cleaning Program

R u n

Start-Up

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

A c t t i i o n

CH - 1 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 2 - Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2 - Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2 - Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2 - Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2 - Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2 - Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2- Off

CH - 4 - Off

CH - 3 - Off

CH - 2 - Off

A c t t i i o n

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

CH - 3 - On

CH - 2 - On

CH - 4 - On

Channel 1 = High vacuum pump only, Channel 2 = low vacuum valve, Channel 3 = ultra zero air valve, Channel 4 = high vacuum valve.

T i i m e

7:55 AM

8:00 AM

8:05 AM

8:25 AM

8:55 AM

9:00 AM

9:25 AM

9:55 AM

10:00 AM

10:25 AM

10:55 AM

11:00 AM

11:25 AM

11:55 AM

12:00 PM

12:25 PM

12:55 PM

1:00 PM

1:25 PM

1:55 PM

2:00 PM

2:25 PM

2:55 PM

3:00 PM

DRI Standard Operating Procedure

Title: Canister Cleaning and Certification

Appendix A — Automated Canister Cleaning Procedure

E

B vent

C exhaust

G

Page : 8 of 8

Date: 7/1/97

Number: 1-701.4

D

A

F

H exhaust

J

I

L

K

A – ultra zero air tank

B – regulator

C – hydrocarbon trap

D – humidifier

E – low vacuum pump

F – auto can cleaner

G – toggle valves

H – oven 2

I – oven 1

J – desiccant

K – loop immersed in N

2(l)

L – high vacuum pump

Figure 1. Canister cleaning apparatus.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler

DRI SOP #1-702br5

August 28, 2007 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

39.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

The DRI Canister Sampler takes air from the sample inlet and injects it into a canister or bag at a constant flow rate for a preset time. The excess air is released through the bypass exhaust. The sample is pumped through a 12 V.D.C. pump which develops sufficient pressure to control the flow with a Variflo regulator. The pump also samples the air at a flow rate sufficient to keep any long sampling lines flushed. A small, constant flow of sampled air is pumped into the sample container.

NOTE: If the pressure is set too high, the sampled air flow will be too low to flush the sample line.

The sampler is automatically purged for one minute at the beginning of each run. The timer turns on the pump for one minute before the solenoid is turned on. The sampler runs for one minute after shut-off to make up for this one-minute loss of sample. Following sampling, the solenoid is shut off to seal the canister until an operator can shut off the canister valve. The canister should also be sealed with a Swagelok cap.

40.

SAMPLING EQUIPMENT

The DRI multi-event sampling system configuration is presented in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the canister sampler flow schematic. The sampler includes the following primary components.

Sample Pump

-- a 12 V.D.C. stainless steel Viton® pump, capable of 2 atmospheres output pressure. The pump must be free of leaks and determined to be nonbiasing. The pump can deliver up to its maximum pressure (~ 40 psig). A needle valve is located in the exhaust stream of the pump. The pressure gauge is located just upstream of the valve. By throttling the valve, the pressure is increased.

Although it is not necessary to maintain a constant exhaust flow rate or pressure, it is necessary to keep the pressure above 20 psig in order for the flow regulator to function properly. It is also necessary to keep the exhaust flow rate relatively high to allow sufficient sample to be drawn in the sample line. At higher pressures, less sample will be drawn into the sample line. A setting of 5 psig above the final sample pressure provides the best operation.

Sample Inlet Line

-- chromatographic-grade stainless steel tubing used to connect the sampler to the sample probe and manifold assembly.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

Figure 1. Sampling System Configuration.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

Back Pressure

Sample

Inlet

Pump

(1)

Regulator

(2)

3-Canister

Pressure Gages

Valve to Adjust

Back-Pressure

3-Canister

Outputs

(3)

On-Off Solenoid

Valves

Figure 2. Canister Sampler Flow Schematic.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

Sample Canister

-- a fused-silica lined (FSL) passivated leak-free stainless steel sample containment vessel of desired internal volume with a bellows valve attached at the inlet. The initial canister pressure should be between -28 and -

30”Hg.

Stainless Steel Vacuum/Pressure Gauge

-- capable of measuring vacuum (0-30 in Hg) and pressure (0-30 pounds per square inch gauge). Gauge should be leakfree and shown to be non-biasing.

Adjustable Micrometering Valve

-- The Veriflo Regulator measures and controls the flow of gases. It eliminates the need for continuous monitoring and readjustment of gas pressures to provide a stable gas flow. The regulator is capable of maintaining a constant flow rate (± 10%) over a specific sampling period under conditions of changing temperature (20-40

°

C) and humidity (0-

100% relative).

Particulate Filter

-- Teflon impregnated glass-fiber in-line filter.

Electronic Timer

-- to allow unattended operation (activation and deactivation) of the collection system. The timer is a 24 V.D.C. DIGI 322 Grasslin 4-channel programmable event controller. Instructions are written for each project's special use and placed in the operations book, along with the user's handbook for this timer.

Solenoid Valve

-- electric-operated, stainless steel solenoid valve, with Viton® plunger seat and o-rings.

Chromatographic-Grade Stainless Steel Tubing and 316 Grade Stainless

Steel Fittings

-- used for system interconnections (all tubing in contact with the sample prior to analysis should be chromatographic grade stainless steel and all fittings should be 316 grade stainless steel).

Elapsed Time Indicator

-- measures the duration of the sampling episode.

Three-Port Output

-- The 3-port output is used when more than one sample is needed. Three canisters can be installed. Control is accomplished by the timer and 4-channel output. Instructions for operation of the 3-port output sampler are written individually for each project and are placed in an operations book inside the sampler box.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

41.

41.1

CLEANING AND CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE

Cleaning Sampling System Components

Sampler components are disassembled and cleaned before the sampler is assembled.

Nonmetallic parts are rinsed with methanol followed by HPLC grade deionized water and dried in a vacuum oven at 50 C. Stainless steel parts and fittings are cleaned by placing them in a beaker of methanol in a ultrasonic bath for 15 min. This procedure is repeated with hexane as the solvent. The parts are then rinsed with HPLC grade water and dried in a vacuum oven at 100

C for 12 to 24 hours. After the sampler is assembled, the entire system is purged with humid zero air for 24 hours.

41.2

Humid Zero Air Certification

The cleanliness of the sampling system is determined by testing the sampler with humid zero air, as follows. The sampler (without a canister) is connected to the GC/MS analytical system through the gas inlet system (see Figures 1, 2 and 3 from the SOP "Analysis of VOC in

Ambient Air by Gas Chromatography with Cryogenic Concentration"). The humid zero air is connected to the sampler inlet and the air stream passes through the sampling system and through the cryogenic trap. After the air sample (~400 ml) is preconcentrated on the trap, the trap is heated and the VOC are thermally desorbed onto the head of capillary column and analyzed. The analytical system should not detect more than 0.2 ppbv of targeted VOC in order for the sampling system to pass humid zero air certification test.

41.3

Sampler System Certification with Humid Calibration Gas Standards

For this test, a sample dilution system (containing two mass flow controllers of 0 - 50 ml and 1 - 5 L range, respectively, and a mixing chamber) is used and the test is performed as follows:

41.3.1

The sample dilution system is certified clean (less then 0.2 ppbv of targeted VOC) by sampling humid zero air through this system into the GC/MS analytical system.

41.3.2

The calibration gas cylinder, containing selected VOC standards at nominal concentration of ~ 10 ppmv is attached to the dilution system and mixed with humid zero air to obtain ppbv level of standards. This mixture is sampled into an evacuated, certified canister first (to provide reference concentration of the generated VOC), and then is passed through the sampling system to be certified and collected into another clean, evacuated canister attached to the sampler.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

41.3.3

The reference canister is analyzed by the GC/MS system in order to verify the concentration of generated VOC standards.

41.3.4

At the end of the sampling period (typically the same sampling period which will be used for anticipated sampling) the sampling system canister is analyzed and compared to the reference canister to determined if the concentration of the targeted VOC was increased or decreased by the sampling system.

41.3.5

A recovery between 90% and 110% is considered acceptable. If the recovery does not fall into this range, a sampler should be cleaned and recertified.

42.

42.1

SAMPLING PROCEDURE

General Discussion

The sample is collected in a canister using a pump and flow control device. A flow control device is used to maintain a constant sample flow rate into the canister over a specific sampling period. The flow rate used is a function of the final desired sample pressure and the specified sampling period and assumes that the canisters start at a pressure of 5 mm Hg absolute.

The flow rate can be calculated by:

P x V where

60

F

P

V

T

=

=

=

=

=

T x 60 flow rate (mL/min) final canister pressure, atmospheres absolute volume of the canister (mL) sample period (hours) minutes in an hour

For example, if a 6-L canister is to be filled to 2 atmospheres absolute pressure in three hours, the flow rate can be calculated by:

2 x 6000

3 x 60

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

For automatic operation, the timer is programmed to activate and deactivate the sample collection system at specified times, consistent with the beginning and end of a sample collection period.

42.2

Detailed Procedures

system:

The following provides specific details for operating a typical multi-event sampling

42.2.1

Verify the correct sample flow rate using a calibrated mass flow meter or rotameter. The flow can be measured by turning on only one channel to which a canister is attached and reading its flow at the point where the canister would be attached. The calibrated mass flow meter or rotameter is attached to the sample inlet line, prior to the particulate filter.

The sampling system is activated and the reading obtained is compared to the desired collection flow rate. The values should agree within ±10%.

42.2.2

Deactivate the sampler and reset the elapsed time indicator to show no elapsed time.

42.2.3

Disconnect the calibrated mass flow meter or rotameter and attach a clean canister(s) to the sampling system.

42.2.4

Open the canister bellows valve(s).

42.2.5

Record the initial vacuum in the canister(s), as indicated by the sampling system vacuum gauge, onto the canister sampling field data sheet.

42.2.6

Record the time of day and elapsed time indicator reading onto the canister sampling field data sheet.

42.2.7

Set the electronic timer to begin and stop sampling at the appropriate times. NOTE: The sampler will purge the sampler line for one minute after being turned on and will sample for an additional one minute after it is turned off.

42.2.8

After sample collection, record the final sample pressure on the sampling field data sheet.

Final sample pressure should be close to the desired calculated final pressure. Time of day and elapsed time indicator readings should also be recorded.

42.2.9

Close the canister bellows valve(s). Disconnect and remove the canister(s) from the sampling system.

42.2.10Attach an identification tag to the canister. Canister serial number, sample number, location, and data should be recorded on the tag.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 9

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

42.3

Sampling Shutdown

When the sampler is to be shut down, the pump and power must be shut off. The operator must install the caps on the sampler inlet, outlet, and exhaust ports to keep the system clean.

42.4

Canister Storage/Shipment

The canister samples do not require any special condition for storage - they are usually stored at room temperature. The canisters in their original boxes are picked up by Alpha

Analytical’s courier upon request.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 10

Date: 8/28/07

Title: Operation of DRI 3-Canister Sampler Number: 1-702br5

Revision:

42.3

Sampling Shutdown

When the sampler is to be shut down, the pump and power must be shut off. The operator must install the caps on the sampler inlet, outlet, and exhaust ports to keep the system clean.

42.4

Canister Storage/Shipment

The canister samples do not require any special condition for storage - they are usually stored at room temperature. The canisters are shipped back to the DRI laboratory in their original boxes by the overnight mail. The sampling data sheets can be either mailed separately or attached to the canisters.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

DRI Carbonyl Sampler Operations

DRI SOP #1-710r4

July 20, 2007 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: DRI Carbonyl Sampler

Page: 2 of 7

Number: 1-710r4

43.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Aldehydes and ketones belong to a class of compounds called carbonyl compounds. The most common carbonyls in air include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone. Carbonyls in air are collected by drawing air through a cartridge impregnated with acidified 2,4dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), which is very reactive toward carbonyls. The resulting products (hydrazones) in the cartridge are measured in the laboratory using high performance liquid chromatography to determine the levels of the carbonyl compounds originally present in air. Using DRI's standard carbonyl sampler with one channel, a cartridges can be exposed on a predetermined schedule.

Since the reagent is extremely reactive, a cartridge left open will continue to absorb carbonyl compounds from the air until all the reagent is completely consumed. Thus the cartridges are plugged at both ends and placed inside a resealable packet. Cartridges are best stored inside a refrigerator.

Cartridges installed in the sampler are protected by a check valve upstream, and a solenoid valve downstream. They are only exposed to the air stream during the period of sampling. When the exposed cartridges are removed, they should be immediately plugged. The exposed cartridges should be stored inside a refrigerator and returned to the laboratory in a cooler.

44.

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, REAGENTS, AND FORMS

The sampler consists of check valves, solenoid valves and pump. Timers are located in the unit. These samplers are designed to be used indoors or out. A temperature-controlled environment is recommended. Follow the appropriate instructions below for the type of sampler to be installed.

44.1

Apparatus and Instrumentation

The DRI single-event sampling system configuration includes the following primary components (Figure 1):

Sample Pump

-- a 120 V.A.C. vacuum pump, capable of drawing air through the cartridges at up to 5 liters per minute. The pump must be free of leaks.

Sample Inlet Line

-- chromatographic-grade stainless steel tubing used to connect the sampler to the sample probe and manifold assembly.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: DRI Carbonyl Sampler

Page: 3 of 7

Number: 1-710r4

Figure 1. DRI Aldehyde Sampling System Configuration.

Figure 2 DNPH-coated TO-11A Cartridge provided by Air Toxics

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: DRI Carbonyl Sampler

Sample Cartridge

(Figure 2)

Page: 4 of 7

Number: 1-710r4

-- a 7.4 cm DNPH-impregnated cartridge (Supelco S10)

Adjustable Micrometering Valve Solenoid and Manifold

adjusted by the needle valve on the front panel.

-- The flow can be

Electronic Timer

-- to allow unattended operation (activation and deactivation) of the solenoid in the collection system. The timer is a 120 V.A.C. Grasslin 56-72 seven-day, fifty-six event programmable controller. Instructions are written for each project's special use and placed in the operations book, along with the user's handbook for this timer.

Chromatographic-Grade Stainless Steel Tubing and 316 Grade Stainless

Steel Fittings

-- used for system interconnections (all tubing in contact with the sample prior to analysis should be chromatographic grade stainless steel and all fittings should be 316 grade stainless steel).

Total Time Indicator

-- for measuring the duration of the sampling episode.

This timer is attached to the vacuum switch and will not count if flow stops for any reason. This is a confirmation of flow in the system.

Vacuum Switch

-- The vacuum switch monitors the flow in the system. If flow is interrupted for any reason the total timer will stop, indicating that a problem occurred.

45.

OPERATING PROCEDURES

45.1

Instrument Set-UP

45.1.1

In the sampler, find the following items:

45.1.1.1

45.1.1.2

45.1.1.3

45.1.1.4

45.1.1.5

45.1.1.6

Teflon sampling line, ¼-inch O.D. tubing, 20-ft,

Vacuum pump line, ¼-inch tubing, 6-ft,

Power cord for the main unit,

A filter holder preloaded with charcoal,

A copy of this SOP, and

Instructions on how to program and operate the timer.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: DRI Carbonyl Sampler

Page: 5 of 7

Number: 1-710r4

45.1.2

Locate the sampler in the shelter where the stainless steel sampling line can lead to the outside. Strap the line to a pole or similar object to raise the inlet of the line several feet above the roof of the structure.

45.1.3

Install the charcoal filter holder in the pump outlet. Remove the plastic plugs and caps from the sampler fittings. Place the plugs and caps into the Zip-loc bag for safe keeping in the pump box. You will need these items when you pack the sampler at the end of the program.

45.1.4

Loosen the Teflon nut and insert the sampling line fully into the inlet fitting. Fingertighten the fitting. If the line does not slip from the fitting by a tug on the line, the connection is good. Otherwise, loosen the cap nut slightly, push the line back in, and tighten the fitting until the line is snug. All Teflon and plastic fittings are to be connected in such manner.

45.1.5

The timers now should display the current time and day of the week. If there is no display on both timers, either there is no power reaching the unit (a dead AC outlet, bad power cord, or loose connection), or a blown fuse. Unplug the unit before attempting to check the fuse.

45.1.6

Uncouple the line leading from the manifold solenoid valve (black line) from the short blue tubing stub (the blue stub is installed in place of a sample collection cartridge).

Control is accomplished by the timer and Guardian Roto-Stepper switch. Instructions for the single-channel manifold are written individually for each project. Instructions are placed in an operation book inside each sampler box.

45.1.7

In the event of sampling, the cartridge will replace the tubing stub. The stub keeps dust from entering the system and contaminating the sample.

45.2

SAMPLE COLLECTION

45.2.1

Disconnect the clear fitting from the tubing stub. Leave the stub in the tray for later use.

Connect the male luer fitting end of a cartridge to the clear fitting of the black line

(vacuum or solenoid valve side). The other end of the cartridge should be connected to the fitting of the Teflon line (inlet or check valve side).

45.2.2

Do not lose the plug or vial for the cartridge. Place the plug into the vial and leave them on the tray.

45.2.3

Verify the correct sample flow rate using a calibrated mass flow meter or rotameter.

Attach the flow meter to the end of the cartridge so that flow is being measured through the cartridge. This will correct for any restriction by the cartridge. Step through all cartridges setting flows on each individually.

45.2.4

Disconnect the calibrated mass flow meter or rotameter and attach the check valve/sample inlet line to the cartridge.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: DRI Carbonyl Sampler

Page: 6 of 7

Number: 1-710r4

45.2.5

Record the time of day and elapsed time indicator reading onto the sampling field data sheet.

45.2.6

Set the electronic timer to begin and stop sampling at the appropriate times.

45.2.7

After sample collection, record the time of day and elapsed time indicator readings.

Record any problems in sample collection. Fill in the sampling log sheet (Figure 1). Do not skip any lines. Also record any remarks that you may have, such as power, outages, etc. The information to be recorded includes:

45.2.7.1

45.2.7.2

45.2.7.3

45.2.7.4

45.2.7.5

45.2.7.6

45.2.7.7

Site

Date the cartridges are installed,

Sampling date (presumably the day following installation),

Sampler number,

Cartridge numbers in each channel,

Starting flowrates, and

Initial reading of the elapsed time indicator.

45.2.8

When sampling is finished the next day, record the elapsed time indicator reading and the cartridge collection date. The flow rate is checked for each individual cartridge as described above. If the flow rates at the beginning and end of the sampling period differ by more than 15%, the sample should be marked as suspect. Remove the cartridge and plug the ends tightly. Put it into the vial and screw on the cap. Put a label with the site name on the outside of the vial. This will help you to distinguish an exposed cartridge from a new one at a glance. A new cartridge does not have a label on the vial.

45.2.9

If sampling continues the following day, install a fresh cartridge and continue sampling as described previously. After using the sampler, unplug the power cord from the AC outlet.

45.2.10Put the exposed cartridges back into the resealable pack. Samples should be returned to the laboratory immediately as they are only valid for 14 days after sampling.

45.2.11Return the cartridges to an Alpha Laboratory courier.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Four-Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

DRI SOP #1-750r5

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 1 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

46.

46.1

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Purpose of Procedure

This standard operating procedure describes the routine procedure for set-up, calibration, and operation of the four-channel FP/SVOC sampler. SVOC refers to semi-volatile organic compounds which can exist in the atmosphere in both the gas and vapor phases. The use of an

XAD absorber behind the filter collects vapor that is present in the atmosphere as well as particles that have evaporated during sampling.

47.

47.1

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, REAGENTS, AND FORMS

Apparatus and Instrumentation

The Fine Particulate/Semi Volatile Organic Compound (FPSVOC) sampling system is

DRI’s sequential sampler (see Figure 1) for collecting particulate and semi-volatile gaseous polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. This is a multi-event sampler, allowing unattended collection of up to four samples. The air sample is drawn through a cyclone separator with a cut-off diameter of 2.5

μ m, operating at 113 lpm. Downstream of the cyclone, a

½-inch copper manifold leads to four momentum diffuser chambers. Each chamber is followed by a filter/PUF/XAD/PUF cartridge holder and is connected to a vacuum pump through a needle valve and solenoid valve. When one of the solenoid valves is opened and three others are closed, the air stream enters only this one chamber which is connected to the pump. The sampling time is controlled by a four-channel Grasslin timer, which automatically opens and closes the solenoid valves at the appropriate times. The sampling time for each channel is recorded by an independent elapsed time meter. The flow is set using a calibrated rotameter on the inlet side of the copper sampling line, and is maintained at a constant 113 lpm during sampling by a mass flow controller. The sampler is also equipped with a magnehelic gauge to monitor the vacuum pressure both before and after the sampling cartridge. The pressure upstream from the sampling cartridge serves as a surrogate for sample flow, and the difference in the gauge readings indicates the extent of sample loading. The sampler runs on 120 V AC and draws 15 amps to start and 9 amps during regular operation. The sampler is 26 inches wide, 20 inches deep and 48 inches high.

The sampling manifold assembly consists of the inlet manifold, four diffuser chambers, four PUF sampling heads, and a magnehelic gauge. The sampling module is commercially available and consists of a glass sampling cartridge and an air-tight metal cartridge filter holder

(see Figure 2). The adsorbent (XAD-2 or PUF) is retained in the glass sampling cartridge. The entire assembly is housed in a blue metal carrying case. The case also contains a Dwyer RMC-

104 rotameter (Serial No. PUF-3A), a 2.5

μ m cyclone sampling head assembly, 25 feet of copper tubing, and fastening screws for attaching the inlet manifold to the sampler control box. The rotameter serves as the flow rate transfer standard.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 2 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

Figure 1. DRI SVOC 4 Channel Sequential Sampler.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 3 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

Figure 2. PUF Sampling Head.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 4 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

The sampler control unit consists of a Series 988 GAST vacuum pump model 1022-

V103-G272X with a Waters exhaust filter, four resettable elapsed time meters, a four-channel

Grasslin programmable timer, four quick disconnects for attaching the sampling heads to the vacuum manifold, and a 110 V power cord.

48.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

The flow rate Transfer Standard (rotameter) is used for calibration of the modified high volume air sampler. This flow rate transfer standard must be certified in the laboratory against a positive displacement rootsmeter. Recertification of the rotameter is performed once per year by the DRI Air Quality Standards Laboratory, according to appropriate SOP.

49.

49.1

PROCEDURES

General Flow Diagram

Not applicable.

49.2

Instrument Set-Up

49.2.1

Remove the top of the case containing the pump, flow control and timer, and remove foam packing material.

49.2.2

Open the case containing the sampling manifold assembly, and remove the manifold and the Phillips head ¼ / 20 bolts that are contained in a plastic bag inside the case.

49.2.3

Place the sampling manifold assembly on the attachment brackets of the sampler control unit, line up the matching holes, and fasten bolts. The magnehelic gauge should be facing the front of the sampler control unit.

49.2.4

Attach the magnehelic tube to the stainless steel three-way valve located on the right side of the sampling manifold assembly, and attach one side of the valve to the ¼-inch copper tubing to the right of the channel four elapsed time meter and the other side to the tap on the sampling manifold.

49.2.5

Attach the four quick disconnects to the PUF sampling heads. The FPSVOC sampler will be shipped with filters and PUF cartridges in the four PUF heads which are to be used for testing and calibration. These will be replaced with sampling cartridges during actual sampling.

49.2.6

Attach a ½-inch OD copper sampling line to either end of the sampling inlet manifold, whichever is most convenient, by removing the brass cap. Check the brass cap on the other end to ensure that it is secure.

49.2.7

Run copper tubing to sample inlet location (not to exceed 25 feet), and attach the other end to the PM

2.5

cyclone assembly. The sampling line should be as straight as possible.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 5 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

49.2.8

During take-down, replace all components in their proper case and secure loose items with the packing material that is provided.

49.3

Routine Operation

49.3.1

After the sampling system has been assembled and flow checked as described in Section

48.0, it can be used to collect air samples.

49.3.2

The sampler should be located in an unobstructed area, at least 2 m from any obstacle to air flow. The exhaust hose should be stretched out in the downwind direction to prevent recycling of air into the sample head.

49.3.3

Detach the lower chamber of the sampling module. While wearing disposable, clean lintfree nylon or powder-free surgical gloves, remove a clean glass cartridge/sorbent from its container and unwrap its aluminum foil covering. The foil should be replaced after the sample has been collected.

49.3.4

Insert the cartridge into the lower chamber and tightly reattach it to the module.

49.3.5

Using clean Teflon

®

- tipped forceps, carefully place a clean fiber filter atop the filter holder and secure it in place by clamping the filter holder ring over the filter using the three screw clamps. Insure that all module connections are tightly assembled. [Note:

Failure to do so could result in air flow leaks which could affect sample representativeness]. Ideally, sample module loading and unloading should be conducted in a controlled environment or at least a centralized sample processing area so that the sample handling variables can be minimized.

49.3.6

Repeat this procedure for all remaining channels.

49.3.7

Turn the sampler on, as described in Section 49.3 above, wait 2-3 minutes for the flow to stabilize and record the magnehelic gauge reading (both position) on the Field Data

Sheet. Repeat this procedure for all channels.

49.3.8

Turn the sampler off and check the programs on the Grasslin timer, as described in the

Grasslin manual (included with the sampler). The short description of the programs used for this project is included in the Section 49.4.7, below.

49.3.9

Ambient temperature, barometric pressure, elapsed time meter setting, sampler serial number, filter number, and adsorbent sample number are recorded in a field book at the beginning and end of the sampling period.

49.3.10At the end of the desired sampling period, the power is turned off automatically.

Carefully remove the sampling heads containing the filter and adsorbent cartridge to a clean area.

49.3.11While wearing disposable lint-free nylon or surgical gloves, remove the sorbent cartridge from the lower module chamber and lay it on the retained aluminum foil in which the sample was originally wrapped.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 6 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

49.3.12Carefully remove the glass fiber filter from the upper chamber using clean Teflon

®

tipped forceps.

49.3.13Fold the filter in half twice (sample side inward) and place it in the glass cartridge atop the sorbent.

49.3.14Wrap the combined samples in aluminum foil and place them in their original glass sample container. A sample label should be completed and affixed to the sample container. Chain-of-custody should be maintained for all samples.

49.3.15The glass containers should be stored in ice and protected from light to prevent possible photo-decomposition of collected analytes. If the time span between sample collection and laboratory analysis is to exceed 24 hours, the sample must be kept refrigerated.

49.3.16At least one field filter/adsorbent blank will be returned to the laboratory with each group of samples. A field blank is treated exactly as a sample except that no air is drawn through the filter/adsorbent cartridge assembly.

49.3.17Samples are stored at 0

°

C in an ice chest until they are received at the analytical laboratory, after which they are refrigerated at 4

°

C.

49.4

Day Before Sampling Checklist and Timer Programming

49.4.1

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet). A) use arrow keys to move down from title screen to display “PLC time” and date, b) see instruction manual to change time or date.

49.4.2

Remove quick-release hose connector from base of left fall column

49.4.3

Loosen three thumbwheels around top of filter holder and remove assembly to clean location (close sampler door to keep dust out).

49.4.4

Install filter and XAD cartridge

49.4.4.1

49.4.4.2

49.4.4.3

49.4.4.4

49.4.4.5

49.4.4.6

49.4.4.7

49.4.4.8

49.4.4.9

Unscrew lower section of assembly and place halves on clean surface.

Open anti-static bag containing foil packet and field data sheet.

Put on clean plastic gloves.

Open foil packet and set near filter holder

Place filter holder part of assembly upright and remove top section.

Using clean forceps (tweezers) separate Teflon gasket rings and set on anti-static bag.

Remove filter from foil packet using forceps and place on top of one Teflon gasket ring with smoothest side up.

Place other gasket on top of filter. Center as much as possible.

Place filter and gaskets on top of screen of filter holder

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 7 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

49.4.4.10

Replace top section carefully so that there are no gaps visible between filter edge and gaskets.

49.4.4.11

Close foil packet and place in anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

49.4.4.12

Remove glass XAD cartridge from anti-static bag and insert into lower section of assembly, making sure that lower red silicone gasket is inside holder.

49.4.4.13

Screw XAD cartridge holder into base of filter holder, keeping vertical and return to sampler.

49.4.4.14

Reattach assembly to fall column using 3 thumbwheel screws, making sure that washers are in place below thumbwheels.

49.4.5

Connect quick-release hose fitting to base of assembly, making sure that collar locks on.

49.4.6

Loosen nut holding inlet assembly to side of cabinet and remove.

49.4.7

Turn on sampler

49.4.7.1

49.4.7.2

49.4.7.3

49.4.7.4

49.4.7.5

49.4.7.6

Use arrow keys to display channel 1 page.

Use arrow key to go down one page to sampler start page

Press 0 and Enter

Use arrow keys to move cursor to ON/OFF position

Press 1 and Enter

Move down to Pump start page and repeat last 3 steps

49.4.8

Connect rotameter to inlet port. Adjust flow to ~113 lpm and record on field data sheet.

If initial flow reading is <100 lpm check for leaks!

49.4.9

Turn off pump and sampler.

49.4.10Remove rotameter and reconnect inlet.

49.4.11Update controller program

49.4.11.1

press right arrow key --> to show channel 1

49.4.11.2

press down arrow key to reach sample start program page

49.4.11.3

press 0 and Enter

49.4.11.4

use arrow keys to move cursor to correct day of week

49.4.11.5

change 0 to 1

49.4.11.6

press Enter

49.4.12Record site and date on field data sheet.

49.5

Day After Sampling Checklist and Timer Programming

49.5.1

Record site and date on field data sheet.

49.5.2

Check elapsed time

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 8 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

49.5.2.1

49.5.2.2

49.5.2.3

49.5.2.4

49.5.2.5

49.5.2.6

49.5.2.7

49.5.2.8

49.5.2.9

press right arrow key --> to show channel 1 press down arrow key to reach elapsed time page record elapsed time on logsheet if ET is not 1440 ± 10 minutes, check for malfunction, programming error, or power outage. use arrow key to go down one page. press 0 and Enter press 1 and Enter press 0 and Enter use arrow key to go up one page and verify that ET is now zero.

49.5.3

Remove quick-release hose connector from base of left fall column

49.5.4

Loosen three thumbwheels around top of filter holder and remove assembly to clean location (close sampler door to keep dust out).

49.5.5

Remove filter and XAD cartridge

49.5.5.1

49.5.5.2

49.5.5.3

49.5.5.4

49.5.5.5

49.5.5.6

Place assembly on clean surface

Open anti-static bag containing foil packet and field data sheet.

Put on clean plastic gloves.

Open foil packet and set near filter holder

Hold filter holder assembly upright and remove top section to expose filter.

Using clean forceps (tweezers) remove upper Teflon gasket ring and set on antistatic bag.

49.5.5.7

Gently pry filter loose from lower Teflon gasket ring using forceps and place filter in foil packet.

49.5.5.8

49.5.5.9

Replace top gasket and upper section of filter holder

Close foil packet and place in anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

49.5.5.10

Unscrew lower section of assembly, keeping upright.

49.5.5.11

Set down upper section on clean surface, and tip glass XAD cartridge out of lower section into gloved hand.

49.5.5.12

Place cartridge into anti-static bag with bar code sticker on it.

49.5.5.13

Complete field data sheet and place filter, cartridge, and sheet in same bag.

49.5.5.14

Store in refrigerator until shipped back to DRI (must ship with ice).

49.5.6

Screw sections of assembly back together and reinstall in sampler.

49.5.7

Disable controller program

49.5.7.1

49.5.7.2

press right arrow key --> to show channel 1 press down arrow key to reach sample start program page

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 9 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

49.6

49.5.7.3

49.5.7.4

49.5.7.5

49.5.7.6

press 0 and Enter use arrow keys to move cursor to currently indicated day of week (day with a 1) change 1 to 0 press Enter

Sample Handling and Shipment

49.6.1

The samples (filter and adsorbent pairs) are shipped to the laboratory in a glass container in an ice chest.

49.6.2

The samples are logged in the laboratory logbook according to sample location, filter and adsorbent cartridge number identification and total air volume sampled (uncorrected).

49.6.3

If the time span between sample registration and analysis is greater than 24 hours, then the samples must be kept refrigerated. Minimize exposure of samples to fluorescent light. All samples should be extracted within one week after sampling.

50.

50.1

QUANTIFICATION

Calibration Procedures

Each sampler is to be calibrated: 1) when new; 2) after major repairs or maintenance; 3) whenever any audit point deviates from the calibration curve by more than 7%; 4) when a different sample collection medium, other than that which the sampler was originally calibrated to, will be used for sampling; or 5) at the frequency specified in the user Standard Operating

Procedure (SOP). The 6 - point calibration of the FPSVOC sampler is performed in the DRI laboratory, prior to sending the sampler to the field. The calibration procedure is described below.

50.1.1

Prior to initial multi-point calibration, place a "dummy" adsorbent cartridge and filter in the sampling head and activate the sampling motor. Open the flow control valve fully opened and adjust the voltage variator so that a sample flow rate corresponding to 110% of the desired flow rate (typically 0.20 - 0.28 m

3

/min) is indicated on the magnehelic gauge (based on the previously obtained multi-point calibration curve). Allow the motor to warm up for 10 minutes and then adjust the flow control valve to achieve the desired flow rate. Then turn the sampler off. The ambient temperature and barometric pressure should be recorded on the Field Calibration Data Sheet.

50.1.2

Place the rotameter on the inlet end of the copper sampling line, replacing the cyclone assembly. Set flow to a reading of 245 SCFH on the rotameter by adjusting the flow setting on the needle valve for this channel.

50.1.3

Adjust the needle valve reading for temperature and pressure using the following equation:

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 10 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

X =

Δ

H

P

P a std

T std

T a where: X = adjusted manometer reading to standard temperature and pressure (in. water)

Δ

P a

P std

T a

H =

=

=

= observed manometer reading (in. water) current barometric pressure (mm Hg)

760 mm Hg current temperature (°K), (°K = °C + 273)

T std

= standard temperature (298 °K)

50.1.4

Calculate the standard flow rate for each corrected manometer reading by the following equation:

Q std

=

X- b

M

where:

M

X

=

= standard flow rate (m

3

/min) slope of flow rate transfer standard calibration curve

= corrected manometer reading from the equation in Section

50.1.3 (in. water) b = intercept of flow rate transfer standard calibration curve

50.1.5

Adjust the magnehelic gauge readings to standard temperature and pressure using the following equation:

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 11 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

M std

=

P std

T std

T a std

M

P a

P std

T a

T std

=

=

=

=

=

= adjusted magnehelic reading to standard temperature and pressure (inches of water) observed magnehelic reading (inches of water) ambient atmospheric pressure (mm Hg) standard pressure (760 mm Hg) ambient temperature (°K), (°K = °C + 273) standard temperature (298 °K)

50.1.6

Plot each M std

value (y-axis) versus its associated Q std

standard (x-axis) on arithmetic graph paper. Draw a line of best fit between the individual plotted points. This is the calibration curve for the Venturi. Retain with sampler.

50.1.7

Record the corresponding Q std

for each M std

under Q std

column on Field Calibration Data

Sheet.

51.

QUALITY CONTROL

51.1

Single-Point Performance Test

51.1.1

A single point flow audit check is performed before and after each sampling period utilizing the Calibration Flow Rate Transfer Standard (rotameter).

51.1.2

Prior to single point audit, place "dummy" adsorbent cartridges and filters in all sampling heads, if not present there (the sampler is shipped with “dummy” cartridges and filters installed in the heads). Connect the rotameter to the sampling inlet and make sure the magnehelic gauge is connected. Activate the sampling motor by turning on the main power switch and pushing on the main fuse, located on the flow controller box. Allow the motor to warm up for approximately 5 minutes. Activate the first channel by pushing on the “on-off” button on the appropriate channel of the Grasslin timer.

51.1.3

The flow is controlled by the needle valve, located on each channel before the solenoid valve. To change the flow, turn the knob on the valve. Wait 2-3 minutes for the flow to stabilize. Read the flow on the rotameter and record it on the Field Data Sheet.

51.1.4

To check the flow on the next channel, switch the first “on-off” button on the Grasslin timer off and switch the next one on. The active channel is indicated by the orange light located on the front panel. Wait until flow stabilizes and record it on the Field Data

Sheet.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: 4 Channel Sequential FP/SVOC Sampler

Page: 12 of 13

Date: 7/10/07

Number: 1-750r5

Revision: 5

51.1.5

Switch off the pump and remove Flow Rate Transfer Standard and dummy adsorbent cartridge and filter assembly.

NOTE: Be sure that the pump is switched off before disconnecting any hoses or removing filte

rs.

52.

QUALITY AUDITING

Independent audits are performed as specified in the program plan.

53.

REFERENCES

Not Applicable

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis

DRI SOP #2-114r3

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING Page: 1 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114r3

54.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

54.1

Purpose of Procedure

This procedure provides the methods for performing gravimetric analysis of 46.2 mm nominal diameter polymethylpentane ring mounted Teflon membrane filters for PM

2.5

Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampling and analysis for SLAMS/NAMS. It also covers the assignment of IDs to Teflon filters.

54.2

Measurement Principle

The Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance is used to weigh filters to the nearest 0.001 milligram. The separation of the weighing cell and evaluation unit ensures maximum precision – disturbing thermal influences are practically eliminated. The weighing cell and evaluation unit are interfaced together and also interfaced with a power supply unit. A weighing pan is mounted in the circular glass draft shield of the weighing cell and a glass cover is mounted on the draft shield for total enclosure. Automatic door functions on the glass draft shield facilitate operation and prevent vibrations. The Mettler Toledo MT5

Microbalance contains a fully automatic, temperature-controlled internal calibration and linearization feature which automatically calibrates the balance when necessary.

In operation, a filter is placed on the weighing pan and the door of the glass draft shield is automatically closed. After approximately 20 to 30 seconds, the filter weight is registered on the digital display of the evaluation unit.

54.3

Measurement Interferences and Their Minimization

Humidity changes affect the mass of filters and their deposits by changing the amount of absorbed water on the sample. To minimize this effect, filters are equilibrated and weighed in a temperature and humidity controlled environment (20 to 23 °C and 30% to 40%

RH acceptable, 21.5 ± 2 °C and 35% ± 5% RH preferred).

Contamination from airborne particles or from particles that have accumulated on instrument and workbench surfaces is possible. Cross contamination from one sample to another is also possible. A sample can be significantly contaminated without any visible indication. The balance resides in a laminar flow hood and filters are handled only with clean tweezers to reduce the likelihood of contamination.

The microbalance is extremely sensitive to static electricity, from effects of accumulated static charge on the pan and balance beam as well as from interaction of electrically charged samples with parts of the balance. Static electrical charge on the filters, which may be significant after air is pulled through the filters during sampling, is dissipated by placing the filters over a radioactive

210

Po ionizing radiation source for 30 to 60 seconds prior to weighing. Static charge accumulations in the balance itself are reduced by

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 2 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 electrically grounding the balance and periodically cleaning the weighing chamber with antistatic wipes.

Some Teflon filters exhibit a loss of weight for a period of time after they are removed from the manufacturer’s containers. Weight loss of up to 150 µg has been observed. The magnitude of weight loss varies from batch to batch and may be due to loss of volatile components from the polymethylpentane support ring. New filters are removed from their sealed packages and equilibrated in a clean, open atmosphere for a sufficient time to allow the filter weights to stabilize before use (typically 3 to 6 weeks).

54.4

Ranges and Typical Values of Measurements

Unexposed filters may vary considerably in mass with 46.2 mm diameter filters generally weighing between 110 and 160 mg.

Deposit mass depends on the air-borne particle concentration, air flow rate through the filter, sample collection time, and the particle size cut device employed. All of these factors are considered and adjusted during the development of program plans to yield optimal loading for mass measurement and subsequent chemical analyses. Most deposits range from

0 to 5 mg. Deposits greater than about 1 mg/cm

2

tend to be physically unstable. The upper limit for the FRM is 200 µg/m

3

, which corresponds to 4.8 mg/filter for a 24-hour sample at a nominal flow rate of 16.67 L/min.

54.5

Typical Lower Quantifiable Limits, Precision, and Accuracy

The sensitivity of the Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance is 1 µg in the 0 - 250 mg range. The 0 - 25 mg range sensitivity is 0.1 µg, but this more sensitive range is not routinely used for filter measurements.

The precision of mass measurements for unsampled filters based on replicate weighings is typically 3 to 8 µg/filter. The precision on sampled filters is typically 5 to 10

µg/filter. Precision on filters with deposits heavier than 1 mg/cm

2

may approach ± 2% of the deposit mass. Deposit mass precision is the square root of the sum of the squares of the pre and post sampling precision (typically 6 - 9 µg/filter).

The lower quantifiable limit is determined as the standard deviation of field blank deposit weights. In the absence of field blanks, lower quantifiable limit can be estimated as the deposit mass precision.

Measurement accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the calibration weight and the linearity of the balance. Balance linearity is 1 µg, or 0.0001% of the load on the weighing pan. The accuracy of the 200 mg Class 1.1 calibration weight is ±5 µg. Since deposit mass

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 3 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 is determined by difference, the maximum error introduced from the calibration weight error is 5 µg/200 mg x 0.001 mg/µg x deposit weight (µg). In effect, accuracy is 1 µg.

54.6

Personnel Responsibilities

All analysts in the laboratory should read and understand this entire standard operating procedure prior to performing filter weighing.

The laboratory manager is responsible for insuring that the weighing procedures are properly followed, maintaining the supplies necessary to insure uninterrupted weighing, and insuring proper chain-of-custody documentation.

The quality assurance (QA) officer of DRI's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has the following responsibilities: 1) to determine the extent and methods of quality assurance applied to each project; 2) to estimate the level of effort involved in the quality assurance; 3) to update this procedure periodically; and 4) to verify that the budgeted tasks are carried out as specified in each contract.

54.7

Definitions

The following terms are used in this document:

54.7.1

Weighing Cell:

The unit of the Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance which encompasses the circular glass draft shield with glass cover, the weighing chamber plate and weighing pan, and the connection for the evaluation unit.

54.7.2

Evaluation Unit:

The unit of the Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance which encompasses the digital display, the keypad illustrating the function keys, and the connections for the personal computer interface, weighing cell, and AC adapter.

54.7.3

Weighing Pan:

A four prong pan, approximately 50 mm in diameter, mounted in the glass draft shield in the center of the weighing chamber plate.

54.8

Related Procedures

54.8.1

PM

2.5

FRM Sample Shipping, Receiving, and Chain-of-Custody (DRI SOP 2-113.1)

54.8.2

PM

2.5

FRM Data Processing and Data Validation (DRI SOP 3-004.1)

54.8.3

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Aerosol Filter Samples (DRI SOP 2-205.3)

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 4 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

55.

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, AND FORMS

55.1

Apparatus and Supplies

55.1.1

Description

The Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance is depicted in Figure 1. This microbalance is designed to measure weights ranging from 0.1 µg to 3.5 grams. It resides in the Division of

Atmospheric Sciences’ Environmental Analysis Facility clean room, which provides a temperature and humidity controlled environment. The balance sits inside a laminar flow hood on a large block of marble providing vibration isolation.

Static charge on samples is removed using

210

Po ionizing radiation sources mounted inside a small plastic box (6 cm H x 7 cm W x 8 cm D). Three sources are mounted on both the top and bottom, and one on each side, all facing towards the center of the box. The front of the box is open and the back is covered with aluminum foil. Filters are placed inside the box before weighing. A

210

Po source in the weighing chamber minimizes accumulation of static charges in the balance as samples are processed.

The balance is connected to an Intel 86 compatible computer using the balance’s built in serial interface. The Microsoft Access based program has been programmed to record sample IDs from the keyboard or barcode reader, automatically record the sample weight after a stable reading is obtained, and control movement of the balance weighing chamber doors. It records sample flags and comments entered by the operator as well as weights for initial, final, replicate and re-analysis weighings. The data ultimately reside in the Microsoft

Access database, EAFDataProc.

55.1.2

Characterization

The Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance has an average response time of 20 to 30 seconds. However, static electricity effects, humidity changes, and loss of volatile species from particle deposits may extend the time by several additional seconds. The mass reading goes directly into the database at the end of the weighing process.

55.1.3

Maintenance

Maintenance on the Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance consists of periodically cleaning the weighing chamber with isopropanol impregnated anti-static wipes to remove accumulated dust and static charge. Only trained personnel should perform this maintenance since the parts of the weighing chamber must be removed and special precautions must be taken to avoid damaging these parts. Compressed air should never be used to clean the chamber because dust and dirt particles may be forced into the torque motor and electronics.

The

210

Po source has a half life of 138 days. Change sources every six months and dispose of old sources according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Annual cleaning and calibration

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 5 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 1. Overview of Mettler Toledo MT5 microbalance.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 6 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 and operation checks are performed by QA Services. Any additional maintenance that is required is completed at this time. All maintenance and calibration activities are logged into the DRI Weighing Logbook (Figure 2). For additional maintenance procedures, refer to the

Instruction Manual for the Mettler Toledo MT5 Microbalance.

Weighing Cell and Evaluation Unit

55.1.4

Parts List

55.1.4.1

55.1.4.2

Two Class 1 (formerly Class M) stainless steel 200 mg calibration weights , one for use as a primary standard and one for use as a working standard during routine analysis.

One Class 1 stainless steel 100 mg calibration weight, used for calibration verification checks.

Figure 2. Example page from Filter Weighing Logbook.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 7 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

55.1.4.3

One Class 1 stainless steel 50 mg calibration weight, used for calibration verification checks.

55.1.4.4

Two flat-tipped stainless steel non-serrated tweezers, one for calibration and one for routine weighing (Millipore, #62-00006).

55.1.4.5

55.1.4.6

55.1.4.7

55.1.4.8

Teflon filters: 46.2 mm, 2 µm pore size (Whatman, cat. no. 7592-004).

Deionizers (StaticMaster - VWR cat. no. 58580-041).

Vinyl gloves, non-powdered (Fisher, #11-393-25).

Kimwipes (VWR, #21905-025).

55.1.4.9

Anti-Static Wipes (Global, #C8165).

55.1.4.10

Glass Petri dishes, 15 mm x 150 mm (Fisher, Falcon #2045).

55.1.4.11

Disposable Petri slides (Millipore, #PD15-047-00).

55.1.4.12

Light table.

55.1.4.13

Equilibration trays: two stainless steel trays hinged along one edge. Holes are drilled in the bottom tray and short rubber legs are attached to the outside of the bottom tray to provide air circulation.

55.1.4.14

Grounding wires having alligator clips on one end to attach to the equilibration trays and banana clips on the other end to insert into a grounded electrical outlet.

55.1.4.15

Cole-Parmer Digital Hydrometer/Thermometer (Cole-Parmer, #P-03316-66).

55.1.4.16

Rubber bulb to blow foreign particles off of the filters (VWR, #56341-406).

55.2

Reagents

55.2.1

Methanol in squeeze bottle

2.3 Forms

55.2.1.1

Filter Weighing Logbook (Figure 2).

55.2.1.2

55.2.1.3

Filter Assignment Logbook (Figure 3).

Data Sheet for Filter Weight (Figure 4).

55.2.1.4

55.2.1.5

Data Sheet for Replicate Weights (Figure 5).

Data Sheet for Filter Re-weight (Figure 6).

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 8 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 3. Filter Assignment Logsheet.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 9 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 4. Data sheet for filter weight.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 10 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 5. Data sheet for replicate weights.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 11 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 6. Data sheet for filter reweight.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 12 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

56.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

56.1

Traceability of Standards

Calibration standards are 200 mg Class 1 calibration weights. Traceability to primary standards is maintained by the calibration weight manufacturer. An annual external calibration check makes use of standards traceable to primary standards. Two separate calibration weights are used at DRI. The primary calibration standard is used semi-annually to check the working standard. A working calibration standard is used for routine filter weighing. The weight of the working calibration standard as measured against the primary calibration standard is posted next to the balance and is used to calibrate the balance.

56.2

Use of the Standards

Every valid weighing session begins, continues, and terminates with calibration verification checks. NIST-traceable 200-mg, 100-mg, and 50-mg standards are used for this purpose. All three calibration denominations must be weighed at the beginning and at the end of the weighing session. During the session, the 200-mg calibration standard, the working standard, must be re-weighed after every ten filters. Each calibration standard measurement must be compared to the historical true mass of the standard. The calibration measurements must be within 3 µg of its historical true value. Failure of any calibration check requires re-analysis of all filters since the last successful calibration check. Standard weight measurements will be monitored by QC charts throughout the year to determine whether any bias has developed in the weights or the balance.

An internal calibration is performed on the balance at the beginning of each weighing session. The span of the balance is set with the working standard in the weighing chamber, using the working standard’s most recently determined weight. The balance zero and span are set before and after each set of 10 filters are weighed.

The standards are handled only with a pair of tweezers that has been permanently labeled “CAL”. These tweezers are not used for any other purpose. The working standard is kept next to the balance in a Petri dish that has been lined with aluminum foil. The primary standard is stored in a plastic vial and used only semi-annually to calibrate the working standard.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 13 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

57.

PROCEDURES

57.1

General Flow Diagram

A general flow diagram for this procedure is shown in Figure 7.

Storage

Teflon

Document Lot

Box Number

XRF

Acceptance

Equilibration

Initial

Weights

Replicate

Weights

(100%)

Pass

Field

Sampling

Equilibration

Final

Weights

Replicate

Weights

(30%)

Pass

Fail

Fail

Analysis

Figure 7. Filter weighing flow diagram.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 14 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

57.2

Filter Equilibration

This section provides procedures for equilibrating pre-sampling and post-sampling filters. The pair of tweezers to be used for routine measurements should be permanently marked “FILTER” so that it is not switched with the calibration tweezers that have been marked “CAL”.

57.2.1

Equilibration of Unexposed Filters

57.2.1.1

57.2.1.2

57.2.1.3

Equilibrate filters for weighing only after they pass acceptance testing by

XRF. When boxes are received from the manufacturer or sponsor, one filter is removed and labeled for XRF acceptance testing. The rest of the box is kept in the weighing room until needed. Before performing initial weights, equilibrate Whatman filters for a minimum of four weeks, unless replicate weighings of lot blanks over time periods of days to weeks indicate that weight stability has already been achieved.

Wearing gloves, clean an equilibration tray with methanol-moistened

Kimwipes. Also clean a 15 mm x 150 mm glass Petri dishes for each lot.

Label each dish with the manufacturer’s lot/box number using a small gummed label. Be sure that all particles or fingerprints are removed from all surfaces.

Open a box of filters that have passed XRF acceptance testing. Using the flat tipped tweezers that have been labeled for filter use, hold the filters one by one over the light table, examining each for holes or filter defects. If there are any foreign particles on the filter, remove them by blowing the surface of the filter with a rubber bulb. Filter defects include the following: pinholes, separation of the Teflon from the support ring, particles that cannot be blown off with the rubber bulb, chaff or flashing on the ring or heat seal area that would prevent proper sealing during sampling, obvious discoloration that might indicate contamination, drastic variations in density across the surface of the Teflon membrane (Note that some variation in density of the Teflon membrane is normal; reject only those that would result in non-uniform deposits.)

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 15 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

57.2.1.4

Place rejected filters into a container marked “Rejects”.

57.2.1.5

Place filters not rejected in an overlapping circular pattern in the Petri dish creating a rosette design. Place approximately 50 filters in each Petri dish.

Set the full dish in the equilibration tray. Ground the equilibration tray by attaching the alligator clip to the tray and putting the jack in the ground hole of a 3 prong wall plug socket.

57.2.1.6

Record the lot number and date of equilibration in the proper section of the

Filter Assignment Logbook (Figure 4). The date weighed will be recorded when the filters are first used for a project. This will provide a record of the equilibration time and help determine an actual minimum equilibration time.

57.2.2

Equilibration of Exposed Filters

57.2.2.1

57.2.2.2

57.2.2.3

57.2.2.4

57.2.2.5

57.2.2.6

Confirm that the samples have been properly logged in (DRI SOP 2-113.2).

Equilibrate exposed filters for a minimum of 24 hours before weighing.

Before proceeding, verify that the equilibration temperature and relative humidity conditions (20 to 23 °C and 30% to 40% RH acceptable, 21.5 ± 2 °C and 35% ± 5% RH preferred) were met.

Wearing gloves, clean the work surface of the laminar flow hood (or an equilibration tray if the laminar flow hood if full) with methanol moistened

Kimwipes.

Place the Petri slides containing the exposed filters on the counter of the laminar flow hood or in the equilibration tray. Arrange them sequentially in rows of ten. This arrangement allows the technician to more easily estimate the time required for weighing a batch of filters, since the calibration checks are performed after each set of ten. Place the first row about two inches from the back of the laminar flow hood. To prevent any cross contamination; do not equilibrate or set both exposed and unexposed filters in the same area or tray.

Open the lids and set them slightly ajar on the bottom half of the slide so that the filters can come to equilibrium with the temperature and humidity controlled air in the room. Take care that the lid is not so far ajar that it can tip and contact the filter. The Petri slides have a tweezers access opening in the front of the holder, so that the lid does not have to be opened very far.

Post a note indicating the project, date, and time equilibrated on each set of equilibrating filters. If the filters are in a tray, the end of the tray should be labeled with the same information using a permanent marker. Do not weigh filters until 24 hours of equilibration time has elapsed and the temperature and relative humidity conditions have been satisfied.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 16 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

57.2.2.7

Close the lids of the equilibration trays, if used, and attach the grounding wires.

57.3

Routine Operation

57.3.1

General Remarks

57.3.1.1

57.3.1.2

57.3.1.3

57.3.1.4

57.3.1.5

No food is allowed in the clean room. Drinks are allowed in order to prevent dehydration and drowsiness; keep them away from the computer and do not put them inside of the laminar flow hood.

Use black ball-point pen for all recording purposes. Blue pen does not copy well. Red pen is used for validation and correction. Pencil is erasable and felt tip pens can smear so neither of these can be used when a permanent record is necessary.

Make corrections by drawing a single line through the entry and then posting the correction in the Comments column. Do not use white-out.

Do not begin weighing unless there is enough time to complete a set of ten filters and two sets of calibrations.

If the tweezers ever touch the exposed area of the filter, clean them with the anti-static wipes. Stringently avoid cross contamination.

57.3.2

Assigning IDs to Unexposed Filters

57.3.2.1

57.3.2.2

57.3.2.3

57.3.2.4

Obtain a Filter Weigh Sheet (Figure 5) for the project. For ongoing projects, check the weighing binder to determine if additional entries can be made to a previous sheet or if a new sheet is required.

Obtain labels for the Petri slides. The labels for ongoing projects are filed in the weighing room. Use “Bar Tender”, a commercially available software program, to generate the labels for a new project.

Obtain the Filter Assignment Logbook (Figure 4) located to the left of the weighing platform. Record the size of the filters and corresponding IDs assigned to each DRI lot number.

Occasionally, it is necessary to reassign filters from one project to another.

This occurs if the scope of work for a project changes and too many filters have already been weighed. Ideally, all reassigned filters should be reweighed. If time does not allow this, perform the 30% replicate weighing.

For reassignment without re-weighing, use the sheet with the original IDs and record new IDs next to the old in RED pen. Place the new barcode label over the top of the old in case there is any question about reassignment.

57.3.3

Weighing Unexposed Filters

57.3.3.1

Verify that filters to be weighed have been equilibrated for at least four weeks or that replicate weights of laboratory blanks over a period of days to weeks indicate stable weights before proceeding.

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 17 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

57.3.3.2

Wear gloves while performing all weighing procedures.

57.3.3.3

Clean the top of the balance, the marble support, and the work surface of the laminar flow hood near the balance with methanol moistened Kimwipes.

Clean the deionizer box by blowing it out with the rubber bulb. Clean the

CAL and FILTER tweezers with anti-static wipes.

57.3.3.4

Remove a Petri dish containing equilibrated filters from the equilibration tray and place it on the weighing platform. Assemble the Petri slides and the barcode labels that are needed.

57.3.3.5

Use the following step-by-step instructions for the Microsoft Access program to weigh filters:

Click on the icon ‘Run local’. Type in Name and Password. Choose the object Forms.

Select Forms, WeightsDE. The weighing form will appear on the screen

(Figure 8).

-

-

-

-

Provide the following pertinent information:

Project

Site

Year

Equilibration Date/Time

Weighing Type

Click on the Start button. At the beginning of a weighing session, a Tare and

Calibration weight check will be performed. A Tare check is a weight with the weighing chamber empty and the weight should be zero. A calibration check is a weight with the standard calibration weight in the weighing chamber.

A small box will appear with the message:

Taring. Please empty pan OK .

When the weighing chamber is empty, click on the OK button. The weighing chamber will close and the weighing process will begin. At the end of the tare weighing a beep will sound. Enter the tare weight on the weighing sheet

(Figure 5).

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 18 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 8. Microsoft Access data entry screen for filter weighing.

After the tare weighing is completed, a small box will appear with the message:

Calibrating. Please place 200 mg calibration standard on pan OK

Place the standard calibration weight in the weighing chamber with the CAL tweezers and then click on the OK button. The weighing process will start again. If the calibration weight is within specification, a beep will sound.

Enter the calibration weight on the weighing sheet (Figure 5). Return the calibration standard to it’s container. If the calibration weight is not within specification, a message will appear which reads:

The 200 mg standard precision has been exceeded. Please tare and calibrate (Tare/Cal) again and reweigh the last 10 filters OK

Click on OK. Notice that the Start button has changed to a Tare/Cal button.

The Start button exists only at the beginning of the weighing session. Click

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 19 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 on the Tare/Cal button and prepare to perform a beginning Tare (T) and

Calibration (C) check again. Enter the calibration weight on the weighing sheet (Figure 5). Return the calibration standard to it’s container. Now the weighing process for the filters is ready to begin.

While the calibration weight is being weighed, remove a filter from the glass

Petri dish and put it in the deionizer box. Put a Petri slide with a barcode label on it in front of the box.

While the calibration weighing is proceeding, also fill out the top section of the weighing sheet (Figure 5) with the required project and filter media information. Record data, time, humidity, temperature, and technician information in the Initial Weight section.

If there is unusual instability or if the T and C values seem unusually high, it is likely that the weighing chamber has particulate matter suspended in it.

Notify the supervisor who will clean the weighing chamber using the following procedure. Carefully remove the glass top of the weighing chamber. Carefully remove the pan with tweezers and place the pan on the

Kimwipe. Clean inside of the weighing chamber with an anti-static wipe.

Do not use compressed air in the chamber because particles could be forced into the torque mechanism. Using the rubber bulb, blow gently on the weighing pan to remove dust. Carefully replace the pan and the glass top of the weighing chamber using the same technique.

Move the filter from the deionizing box and place it on the sample pan, centering it carefully. Scan the barcode label attached to the slide. Verify that the ID displayed on the computer screen is the correct ID. If it is not, click on the window where the ID appears and rescan the ID with the barcode reader. If the barcode is not scanned correctly, manually enter the

ID in the window labeled ‘FilterID’. Place the slide corresponding to this filter in front of the weighing chamber.

Place the next filter into the deionizer box. Put its corresponding slide in front of the chamber. By having only two slides and two filters on the weighing platform, there will be little chance of switching filters.

Click on WEIGH. This will automatically close the weighing chamber door.

During the weighing process, record the first 3 digits of the filter weight on the Filter Weigh Sheet. At the end of the weighing process, which is about

20 seconds, record the last 3 digits of the weight. The manual entry of the

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 20 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 mass is meant to be a check on the computer determination. DO NOT simply copy the digits from the screen display.

Remove the filter and put it in the prepared slide and place the slide in the laminar flow hood. Leave the lid ajar, proceed to the next filter, and arrange the weighed filters in rows of ten for replicate weighing.

Periodically check both the temperature and relative humidity. If the temperature has changed by more than a few tenths of a degree Centigrade or the relative humidity has changed by about 1% RH or more, enter the new value(s) onto the weight sheet.

Tare and calibration checks are performed after each set of ten samples. The

Microsoft Access weight form, WeightsDE, will automatically prompt for a

Tare and Calibration check as it did at the beginning of the weighing session.

Post the values in the “T” or “C” row on the weighing sheet. If the calibration weight differs by more than ± 0.005 mg from it’s true value, the previous set of ten filters must be re-weighed after re-taring and recalibration. See

Section 59.2 for the re-weighing procedure.

As each filter or T and C weight are weighed, the weight information is displayed in the lower half of the WeightsDE form. See Figure 8. After a set of 10 filters have been weighed and shown in the lower half of the form, click on Commit . This will save the weight data into the Access database,

EAFdataProc. If this step is not taken and the user quit from the form at the completion of the weighing session, the weight data would not be in the database and the user would have to reweigh the filters.

Click on Quit to exit the form at the completion of the weighing session.

57.3.4

Weighing Exposed Filters

57.3.4.1

Follow the cleaning, project directory access, recording and calibrating procedures described in Section 57.3.3, and then proceed with the following instructions:

While the machine is weighing the calibration standard, open the Petri slide containing the first exposed filter to be weighed. Take care that any static electricity that may have built up in the slide does not cause the filter to jump out. Examine the filter. If there is anything strange about the deposit or the

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 21 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 appearance of the filter, note it on the weighing sheet with the correct flag(s) and/or comments columns (see Section 59.3). Any loose foreign particles should be removed by using the rubber bulb or tweezers. Do not blow on resuspension samples, however, because the deposits are not well fixed on the filter. After the visual examination, place the filter in the deionization box.

When the tare and calibration are completed, the exposed filters can be weighed. Remove the filter from the deionization box and place it on the sample pan, being careful to center it. Scan the barcode label attached to the slide. Verify that the ID displayed on the computer screen is the correct ID. If it is not, click on the window where the ID appears and rescan the ID with the barcode reader. If the barcode is not scanned correctly, manually enter the ID in the window labeled ‘FilterID’. Place the slide corresponding to this filter in front of the weighing chamber.

Place the next filter into the deionizer box. Put its corresponding slide in front of the chamber. By having only two slides and two filters on the weighing platform, there will be little chance of switching filters.

Prior to the weighing process, enter analysis flags that may apply to the exposed filter in the windows labeled ‘Flag1’ and/or ‘Flag2’. There are drop down windows for these categories which list the all the appropriate flags. If there are any comments not covered by the flag (e.g., the location of a hole or scrape, whether or not a particle was removed before weighing, etc.), enter these in the window labeled ‘Comment’. Now begin the weighing process.

Click on WEIGH. This will automatically close the weighing chamber door.

During the weighing process, record the first 3 digits of the filter weight on the Filter Weigh Sheet. At the end of the weighing process, which is about

20 seconds, record the last 3 digits of the weight. The manual entry of the mass is meant to be a check on the computer determination. DO NOT simply copy the digits from the screen display.

Periodically check both the temperature and relative humidity. If the temperature has changed by more than a few tenths of a degree Centigrade or the relative humidity has changed by about 1% RH or more, enter the new value(s) onto the weight sheet.

Tare and calibration checks are performed after each set of ten samples. Post the values in the “T” or “C” row on the weighing sheet. If the tare is not

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 22 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 zero, the program will prompt the user to retare immediately. The tare will always be zero prior to the calibration. If the calibration value is within

±0.005 mg, proceed to weigh the next set of filters. If the calibration weight differs by more than ± 0.005 mg from it’s true value, than the previous set of ten filters must be re-weighed after re-taring and recalibration. See Section

59.2 for the re-weighing procedure.

As each filter or T and C weight are weighed, the weight information is displayed in the lower half of the WeightsDE form. See Figure 8. After a set of 10 filters have been weighed and shown in the lower half of the form, click on Commit . This will save the weight data into the Access database,

EAFdataProc. If this step is not taken and the user quit from the form at the completion of the weighing session, the weight data would not be in the database and the user would have to reweigh the filters.

Click on Quit to exit the form at the completion of the weighing session.

After weighing, the filters are returned to the equilibration area with the lids ajar, awaiting replicate testing (see Section 59).

57.3.5

Replicate Weighing and Re-weight Weighing

57.3.5.1

Replicate initial and final weights are collected by a second technician according to the following procedure:

Wearing gloves, tare and calibrate the machine as described in Section

57.3.3.

For replicate initial weights, reweigh all ten filters in each set of ten weighed filters. For replicate final weights, select three filters at random from each set of ten weighed filters.

Turn to the Replicate Weigh Sheet (Figure 6) which is on the back of the

Weigh Sheet and record the first selected filter ID in the first column. Note whether the weights measured are initial or final replicates in the fourth column.

Weigh the filters as described in Section 57.3. Record the weights in the column marked Check Weight. Record the original and net weights in the appropriate columns. Fill in the technician and date columns.

In the case of initial weights, if the ten replicate weights are within ± 0.010 mg, the set of ten has passed; mark “OK” in the “Comments” column. In the

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 23 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 case of final weights, if the three replicate weights are within ± 0.015 mg, the set of ten has passed; mark "OK" in the “Comments” column.

If the replicate weights are outside of the appropriate criteria, the corresponding set of ten filters must be re-weighed. Cross out the initial weights with two diagonal lines, forming an X through the data, but not obliterating it. Obtain a Reweigh Sheet (Figure 8) and staple it to the back of the Weigh and Replicate Weigh Sheet. Reweigh the set of ten, making sure that the new values are recorded in the same area of the reweigh sheet as on the original weight sheet. Place them in the hood, with the lids ajar, for replicate weights. Be sure that the headings of the form are completed because these re-weights become the active weights and will replace the original weights when they are stored in the access database, EAFdataProc.

Notify the Laboratory Supervisor that there were samples to be re-weighed and that another replicate weighing is required.

When unexposed filters are being weighed, if there is a consistent negative replication (> 0.010 mg), it is usually a sign that the filters have not equilibrated long enough. In this case, notify the Laboratory Supervisor.

If the set has passed, replace the container lids, being careful not to bend or tear the filters. Put these filters in a tray marked with the project and the ID range and place them in the designated storage area

Record all activities in the DRI Weighing Logbook.

57.4

Shut-Down

After weighing is completed, click on Quit to exit the Access from, WeightsDE.

Be sure that all maintenance activities and weighing activities are recorded in the proper books.

File the weight sheets in alphabetical order according to project name in the appropriate binders located in the weight room.

57.5

Abbreviated Checklist

Equilibration of unexposed filters

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 24 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Verify acceptance testing results.

Clean equilibration trays and large glass Petri dishes.

Label Petri dishes.

Light check and arrange filters in Petri dishes.

Place in equilibration trays.

Attach alligator clips.

Label tray with filter size and date of equilibration.

Record information in the Filter Assignment Logbook.

Routine Weighing

Clean area.

Use the Microsoft Access form, WeightsDE, to access the correct mass weighing database entry form.

Obtain weighing sheet.

Indicate ‘Weighing Type’ on WeightsDE form to select option for initial, final, or replicate weighing (see Figure 5).

Replicate weighing performed by another technician.

On WeightsDE from, Commit data to database.

Record information in the proper logbooks.

58.

QUANTIFICATION

58.1

Calibration Procedures

Routine calibration checks are performed before and after each set of ten filters as described in Section 57.3.

The working calibration standard is checked against a second Class 1.1 primary calibration standard every six months by the Laboratory Supervisor. This check consists of ten replicate weighings of the working standard after the balance is calibrated against the primary standard using a calibration value of 200.000 mg. The average and standard deviation of these multiple weighings are calculated, and the posted calibration value is updated if necessary. It is best to perform the calibration check procedure after a project has ended and before a new one begins, since the validation procedures (see Section 58.2) would be affected by the difference in the calibration weight.

58.2

Calculations

The weights are integrated into the Access database, EAFDataProc, through the use of form WeightsDE. See DRI SOP 3-004, “PM

Validation”, for further details.

2.5

FRM Data processing and Data

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 25 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

59.

QUALITY CONTROL

59.1

Performance Testing

PM

2.5

FRM filters have 11-digit alphanumeric filter IDs in the form:

NNSSSTFnnnn where NN = network or project ID

SSS = site ID

T = identifier for 46.2 mm PM

2.5

FRM Teflon filter

F = sampling frequency for site (e.g., 1 = 1/1, 3 = 1/3, 6 = 1/6, C = collocated) nnnn = sequential number for filter

If spare filters are used, then the spare filters have IDs of the form

NNXXXTFnnnn where XXX = pseudo site ID

F = pseudo sampling frequency =1 nnnn = sequential number for spare filter and other digits are as specified previously.

Field blanks are normally supplied and collected at the rate of about 10% or more of the total number of samples for each project or network site. The actual frequency may vary somewhat depending on the shipping schedule and frequency of sampling at a given site. In addition, some networks may use field blanks as emergency spare filters. Field blanks are weighed to provide background levels present in the field during sampling and check for potential contamination during transport and handling.

Laboratory blanks are retained from each box of 50 or each lot number and weighed with each PM

2.5

FRM shipment and again 3 months later. Laboratory blanks are removed from storage and weighed when the range of samples returned includes the archived filter

IDs. The use of lab blanks provides a measure of filter mass stability, uniformity of weighing room conditions, and weighing room cleanliness. While weighing laboratory blanks, the technician should calculate the difference between the initial and final weights. If the resulting lab blank weights are >± 0.015mg, the supervisor should be notified.

59.2

Reproducibility Testing

Replicate weighings are performed on 100% of the filters weighed before sampling

(initial weights or pre-weights), and on 30% of the filters weighed after sampling (final weights or post-weights).

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 26 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Replicate pre-sampling (initial) weights must be within ± 0.010 mg of the original weights. Replicate post-sampling (final) weights on ambient samples must be within ± 0.015 mg; post-sampling weights on heavily loaded (i.e., greater than 1 mg) samples must be within 2% of the net weight.

59.3

Control Charts

All calibration (zero and span) and replicate data points are checked. If any measurement is not within specified limits, samples are re-weighed as described in Section

57.3. Similarly, 24-hour and current temperature and humidity conditions are checked prior to starting weighing procedures. Control charts are produced from data in the Access database to periodically document the weighing room conditions.

Control charts are prepared daily for 24-hour mean and maximum values for weighing room temperature and relative humidity as shown in Figure 9.

59.4

Flags for Non-Standard Procedures

The technician should record any unusual deposit appearances or filter damage in the comments sections of the weigh sheets and the Microsoft Access WeightsDE form. Flags are applied during weighing and follow the current DRI analysis flags definitions.

The most commonly used flags are: f6 i1 i2 i3 f2 f3 f4 f5 i4 i6 i8 w1 w2 filter damaged, inside analysis area*

Teflon membrane substrate separated from the support ring filter loaded in Petri slide deposit side down filter dropped during handling filter stuck to Petri slide inhomogeneous filter deposit deposit smeared or scraped after sampling* deposit appears to have fallen off foreign particles on the filter* particles larger than the inlet device allows deposit on back of filter pre-weight is questionable post-weight is questionable

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 27 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3

Figure 9. Example of chart for weighing room temperature and relative humidity control.

When the flags with an asterisk (*) are applied, an explanation of the damage or particle type should be made in the comments section as well as whether or not the particles were successfully removed. A complete list of validation flags can be found in EAFMAIN

X:\EafDataProc\Flags\ under the filenames FRMChemFlags.doc and FRMFldFlags.doc.

59.5

Validation

After the project file is created (Section 58.2), it must be validated. Check all mass concentrations and verify any large outliers by using the computer printouts and written data.

If the data is verified and there is still a large outlier, check for possible switches of filters or use of replacement filters. Discuss any changes with the Laboratory Supervisor before taking action. It may be necessary to reweigh the filter. If the filter is re-weighed, use the proper validation flag to indicate whether the weight has changed. (See Section 59.4). If all attempts at reconciling the data fail, the mass data is flagged suspect and all supporting evidence is listed and given to the Project Manager. Supporting evidence includes, but is not limited to, re-weights, damage to the filter, foreign particles on the filter, or evidence of air

____________________________________________________________________________

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Page: 28 of 28

Title: PM

2.5

FRM Gravimetric Analysis Number: 2-114.3 leaks. Final disposition of the data will be made in Level II Validation. See DRI SOP 3-004,

“PM

2.5

FRM Data processing and Data Validation”, for further details.

60.

QUALITY AUDITING

Audits are performed by an independent auditor with independent standards as specified in the measurement plan.

61.

REFERENCES

"Operating Instructions METTLER TOLEDO MT/UMT balances", Mettler-Toledo

GmbH, Laboratory & Weighing Technologies, Internet: http://www.mt.com

, Switzerland,

1998.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas Chromatography with Cryogenic Concentration

DRI SOP #2-703r7

August 27, 2007 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

Note: DRI and Alpha Analytical provide organic laboratory services. Target analyte reporting limits list provided by

Alpha Analytical are included in section 68.2 (Table 2).

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

2 of 9

2-703r7

7

62.

GENERAL DISCUSSION

This is a modified TO-15 method intended for analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds

(VOC) in ambient air. VOC include the C

2

-C

12

hydrocarbons (HC) and other compounds of vapor pressures greater than 0.1 torr at 25

°

C and 760 mm Hg which can be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method's minimum detection limit (MDL) is 0.01-0.05 ppb volume (ppbv). Mass spectrometry provides definitive identification of VOCs.

62.1

Summary of Method

A known volume of gaseous sample is passed through a cryogenically cooled trap, cooled with liquid nitrogen, cryogenically trapping out C

2

and heavier VOCs without trapping methane, oxygen, or nitrogen. The trap containing the condensed VOC is heated to

~80

°

C and its contents injected into a gas chromatographic (GC) capillary column where separation of the VOCs takes place. Detection of the hydrocarbons is by mass spectrometry, and the resultant peaks are quantified and recorded on a computer system.

Some hydrocarbons have such low molecular weight that they are impractical or impossible to analyze by mass spectrometry and these are separated on line and detected by FID.

This SOP is broken up into sections. Sections 63 through 65 cover general material, while sections 66 and 68 discuss the analysis technique for the VOCs.

63.

DEFINITIONS

63.1

Accuracy

The degree of agreement of the measurements with the true value of the Standard

Reference Material (SRM) or SRM-traceable standard measured for hydrocarbons.

63.2

Precision

The reproducibility of measurements from the same canister under essentially the same conditions.

64.

PERSONNEL AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

The researcher using this procedure is expected to be familiar with basic laboratory practice and the Varian GC/MS system and controlling computers. Specific requirements for these instruments are found in the appropriate manuals.

No special laboratory facilities are required.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

3 of 9

2-703r7

7

65.

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

The calibration standards, collected sample, and most laboratory reagents used in this method pose no hazard to the researcher if normal laboratory safety practices are followed. Eye and hand protections are required when using liquid nitrogen and argon or other cryogens.

Adherence to the American Chemical Society (ACS) guideline regarding the safe handling of chemicals used in this method is required.

65.1

Heated Surfaces

The GC injection ports, column, column oven, and detectors are maintained at temperatures high enough to cause burns. The researcher should exercise caution to avoid contact with these surfaces.

65.2

Cryogenic Liquids. - Liquid Nitrogen

WARNING: Cryogenic fluid may cause severe frostbite. Wear eye and hand protection.

Use with adequate room ventilation. Keep contact with air to a minimum to avoid buildup of liquid oxygen (see above).

66.

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION AND SUPPLIES

This section describes the instrument requirements for this method.

66.1

GC/MS

The chromatographic system consists of a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph coupled to a

Varian Saturn 2000 Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (MS). The ion trap is different in both theory and operation from quadrupole or magnetic sector instruments, thus ion ratios and other performance measures are different. The mass spectrometer is mass calibrated by

FC-43, as most mass spectrometers use. The system employs an electron energy of 70 eV and a mass range of 20 – 650 amu. In addition to an electron impact (EI) ion source, the

MS is equipped with a chemical ionization (CI) ion source, but this is generally not employed in this method. .

66.1.1

Gas Chromatograph Columns

Three gas chromatographic columns are employed. This allowed simultaneous detection using both the FID and MS. The sample is injected to the head of a poly methyl siloxane

(DB-1 type) column (60 m long 0.32 mm i.d., 1 µm film thickness) at 30 C. The effluent from this column passes through a column switching valve and to a 30 m long x 0.32 mm

GasPro column (J&W Scientific) to the FID for the first 7 minutes of the run. At 7

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

4 of 9

2-703r7

7 minutes the valve switches and the first column effluent passes through a second polymethyl siloxane column (15m) to the MS. The columns stay in this configuration for the rest of the run.

66.1.2

Trap

Gaseous samples are preconcentrated on the three stages of an Entech Model 7100 cryogenic preconcentrator. The three stages are for water control, CO2 control and final focus. The trapping and focusing process consisted of a first trap of 50% glass beads/50%

Tenax, which trap the sample at –100 C. The sample is then desorbed from this trap at 10

C and transferred to a trap of 100% Tenax held at –40 C. This trap is desorbed at 200 C and transferred to a final focusing trap at –180 C. This trap is desorbed at approximately

70 C to a transfer line heated to 110 C and connected to the head of the first column listed above. The objective of the three-stage trapping process is first to manage water and limit the amount of water entering the column by the relatively low desorption temperature.

The second trap is to eliminate CO2 since it will not trap on Tenax and stays gaseous even at –40 C. The third trap is to focus the sample so that the injection is made as small as possible to limit band broadening.

66.2

Tubing and Connectors

All tubing is chromatographic-grade stainless steel. All connectors are stainless steel compression tube fittings (Swagelok

TM

or equivalent).

66.3

Regulators for Compressed Gases

The carrier gas, helium, is controlled by a two-stage regulator mounted at the tank. All gases are ultra-high purity grade. The instrument requires He, N2, Air, H2 and liquid nitrogen (not high purity).

CAUTION: Due to the possibility of contamination by organic materials, only regulators with stainless steel diaphragms should be used.

66.4

Reagents/Materials

All gases used to operate the GC system are high quality grade and may vary in specifications with manufacture. Instrument calibration gases are obtained from the

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and are referred to as Standard

Reference Materials (SRM). Use of reagent-grade chemicals for all dilutions and standards materials is recommended.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

5 of 9

2-703r7

7

66.5

Gases and Cryogens

The following are recommended for use with this method.

66.5.1

Helium Carrier Gas

Ultra High Purity (99.995 %), followed by a water/oxygen/hydrocarbon trap.

66.5.2

Nitrogen Compressed Gas – For FID makeup and operating valve

Ultra High Purity Grade

66.5.3

Liquid Nitrogen (for GC oven cooling and cyrofocusing)

Commercial grade is acceptable.

66.5.4

Hydrogen – for FID fuel

Ultra High Purity Grade

66.5.5

Air for FID

Ultra High Purity Grade

67.

ANALYSIS

67.1

Instrument Method

The samples are analyzed by the electron impact (EI) GC/MS technique, using a Varian

3800 GC interfaced to a model Saturn 2000 Ion Trap MS.

67.2

Calibration.

Calibration curves are made by the molecular ion peaks of the VOC using the external calibration method.

Calibration calculations use the force zero method and must be better than 0.95 r

2

.

Calibration sources are dependent upon project. For TO-15, use 58 component mixture,

Table 1, (Air Environmental, Inc., Denver, CO) in the 1.0 ppm range of concentrations, traceable to the NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRM). This standard is diluted to the low ppb range (5 to 15 ppb) prior to use. Dilutions are used for up to 4 months before they have to be remade. For other projects, use the appropriate source for the compounds of interest.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

6 of 9

2-703r7

7

The GC/FID and GC/MS response is calibrated in ppbv using a three level calibration for each compound of interest. The calibration check (using a median calibration standard) is analyzed every day to check for accuracy of analyses. If the relative accuracy of measurement (defined as a percent difference from the standard value) is more than 30%, the instrument is recalibrated. Blanks are performed once daily. Our analysis plan and data processing standards call for the replicate analysis of approximately 10% of the samples. The replicate analyses are flagged in our database and the programs we have for data processing extract these replicates and determine a replicate precision. These are then converted into an absolute precision for each measurement which can be reported if required.

Table 1. 58 Component Calibration Mixture

Dichlorodifluoromethane Bromodichloromethane

Chloromethane Trichloroethylene

Vinyl Chloride

1,3-Butadiene

Bromomethane cis -1,3 - Dichloropropene

Methyl Isobutyl Ketone trans - 1,3 - Dichloropropene

Acetonitrile Toluene

Trichlorofluoromethane Dibromochloromethane

Acrylonitrile 1,2-Dibromoethane

1,1-Dichloroethene n-Octane

Methylene Chloride Tetrachloroethylene

Trichlorotrifluoroethane Chlorobenzene trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene Ethylbenzene

1,1 - Dichloroethane

Methyl tert-Butyl Ether

Methyl Ethyl Ketone m,p - Xylene

Bromoform

Styrene

Bromochloromethane 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene

Chloroform 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether

1,2 - Dichloroethane

1,1,1 - Trichloroethane m - Dichlorobenzene

Chloromethylbenzene p - Dichlorobenzene

Carbon Tetrachloride tert-Amyl Methyl Ether

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

Hexachloro-1,3-Butadiene

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

7 of 9

2-703r7

7

68.

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

The analysis procedure is divided into two stages: instrument preparation and sample concentration and analysis.

68.1

Preparation Stage

A.

The instrument (GC/MS) preparation steps are as follows:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

Check for air and water in the system (a total ion current (TIC) below 1000 is preferred).

Check high mass noise (TIC less than 10,000 is preferred).

Adjust calibration gas pressure if necessary (75% preferred).

Turn on calibration gas (FC-43)

Turn on ion trap.

Perform mass calibration.

B. Column and Valve Temperatures

1)

2)

3)

Detector = 300

°

C

Initial Oven Temperature = -30

°

C

Switching valve Temperature = 250 C.

68.2

Analysis Stage

For the analysis of all VOC, a 2D-chromatography method is employed. Gaseous sample is preconcentrated on the three stages of the Entech preconcentrator (glass beads with

Tenax, Tenax and capillary tube) and injected into the head of a DB-1 type column (60 m long 0.32 mm i.d., 1 µm film thickness) at room temperature. This column is connected through a three-way valve with two other columns: a 15 m DB-1 type column (0.32 mm i.d., 0.5 µm film thickness), leading to the MS and a 30 m x 0.32 mm i.d. GasPro column

(a PLOT type column, J&W Scientific) leading to the FID. During the first few minutes after injection, the sample is eluted through the 60 m DB-1 and 30 m GasPro column and peaks are detected by the FID. After suitable time (approximately 6 – 10 min), the valve is switched and the sample is directed through the 15 m DB-1 column to the MS detector.

This way, the very light hydrocarbons (C2 and C3) are clearly separated on the Gas-Pro column and detected by the FID, and the heavier hydrocarbons (C4 up to C12), are unequivocally identified and quantified by the ion trap MS.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page: 8 of 9

Number:

Revision:

2-703r7

7

Table 2. Alpha Analytical TO-14A / TO-15 Full Scan Reporting Limits

COMPOUND CAS # ppbV ug/m

3

COMPOUND CAS # ppbV ug/m

3

1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 0.5 3.4 dibromochloromethane 124-48-1 0.5 4.3

1,2,4-trichlorobenzene 120-82-1 0.5

1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 0.5

2.0 acetate

100-41-4 0.5 2.2

76-13-1 0.5 3.8

1,3,5-trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 0.5 75-15-0 0.5 1.6

2,2,4-trimethylpentane 540-84-1 0.5 75-09-2 1.0 3.5

108-10-1 2.0

1634-04-4 1.8

108-38-3

106-42-3 1.0 4.3 benzene 71-43-2 propylene

Benzyl Chloride 100-44-7 0.5 bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 0.5

2.6 styrene 100-42-5 0.5 2.1

127-18-4 0.5 3.4

2.0 carbon disulfide carbon tetrachloride

75-15-0

56-23-5

0.5

0.5

1.6

3.1 trans-1,2-dichloroethene trans-1,3-

156-60-5 0.5

75-01-4 0.5 1.3 cis-1,3-dichloropropene

10061-

01-5 0.5 2.3

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of VOC in Ambient Air by Gas

Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Page:

Number:

Revision:

9 of 9

2-703r7

7

68.3

Data Acquisition System

The gas chromatograph is connected to a data acquisition system. The software performs data acquisition, peak integration and identification, hardcopy output, post-run calculations, calibrations, peak re-integration, and user program interfacing. Acquired data are automatically and permanently stored on a hard disk.

69.

REFERENCE

1.

U.S. EPA,

Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic

Compounds in Ambient Air

, “Compendium Method TO-15: Determination of

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Air Collected in Specially-Prepared

Canisters and Analyzed by Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS),”

EPA/625/R-96/010b.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

DRI SOP #1-710r5

April 11, 2005 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

Note: DRI and Alpha Analytical provide organic laboratory services. Target analyte reporting limit s

list provided by

Alpha Analytical are included in section 74.3 (Table 3)

.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 2 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

70.

70.1

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Purpose of Procedure

This analytical method applies to dinitrophenylhydrazine-impregnated cartridges through which air samples have been passed for the collection of carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl compounds react rapidly with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in acidic media to form yellow to orange-colored hydrazones. The color depends on the type of carbonyl compound, and the amount of the product formed is dependent on the quantity of carbonyl compound provided to the reagent.

70.2

Measurement Principle

Samples are collected by drawing a known volume of air through the DNPH-impregnated cartridges. These exposed cartridges are then returned to the laboratory for isolation, separation, and quantification of the hydrazone products by high-performance liquid chromatography

(HPLC). The ambient air concentration of various carbonyl compounds is determined from the quantity of the associated hydrazones found in the exposed cartridges and the volume of air samples. Typically C

1

-C

6

carbonyl compounds, including benzaldehyde, are measured effectively by this technique, with a detection limit of ~ 0.1 ppbv.

Aldehydes collected in the cartridge (as the hydrazones) are eluted with acetonitrile and the eluent is analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)

(Fung and Grosjean, 1981). Gradient elution is used with a sufficiently polar mobile phase for the separation of acetone, acrolein, and propanal. The mobile phase polarity is then decreased steadily to allow the elution of the higher aldehydes.

70.3

Related Procedures

This method follows the procedure described in EPA Method TO-11A (January 1997,

EPA/625/R-96/010b).

71.

APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, REAGENTS, AND FORMS

2.1 Description

71.1.1

Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure Aldehyde Samplers are purchased from Waters (WAT047205) and sampled directly from the manufacturer without need for laboratory preparation.

71.1.2

Waters 2695 Alliance Separation Module with a photo diode array (PDA) detector with

Empower software.

72.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

Described with quantification procedures below.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 3 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

73.

73.1

PROCEDURES

Procedural Flow Diagram

Not applicable.

73.2

Start-Up

73.2.1

The HPLC instrument is a Waters 2695 Alliance Separation Module with a photo diode array (PDA) detector with Empower software. Data are collected between a wavelength range of 190-450 nm.

73.2.2

The cartridges are returned to the laboratory in secondary aluminum envelopes provided by the manufacturing, labeled with unique Project Media Identification (PMI) numbers, in a cooler at 4°C. In the laboratory, they are stored in a refrigerator until analysis. The time between sampling and extraction should not exceed two weeks. Sample elutes are stable at 4

°

C for up to one month.

73.2.3

Set the Water Alliance 2695 Gradient Acquisition Method for Carbonyls instrument conditions as follows:

Solvent A:

Solvent B:

Solvent C:

Column:

Detector:

100% HPLC Water

100% Optima Acetonitrile

100% Optima Methanol

Polaris C18-A, 4.6x15, 3um

PDA, extracted at 360 nm

Table 1. Gradient elution solvent conditions.

Time (min) Flow (mL) %A %B

0.01 1.50 70.0 30.0

1.00 1.50 70.0 30.0

20.00 1.50 60.0 40.0

32.00 1.50 55.0 45.0

41.00 1.50 37.0 63.0

45.00 1.50 37.0 63.0

50.00 1.50 30.0 70.0

55.00 1.50 70.0 30.0

The column is conditioned with 50:50 water/methanol for 10 minutes at the end of each sequence.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 4 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

3.2 Sample

Uncap the cartridge and place it in a small test tube holder. Elute the cartridges with 2 ml of acetonitrile into a volumetric flask and transfer into a septum vial. Cap the vial and write the cartridge number on the side using a permanent marker. If not analyzed the same day, place the extracts in a clean refrigerator.

74.

QUANTIFICATION

74.1

Calibration Procedures

74.1.1

Prepare stock solutions of the hydrazone standards provided by AccuStandard in acetonitrile at carbonyl concentration of 5

μ g/mL.

74.1.2

Dilute the stock standards to obtain working solutions in the range of 0.1 to 10

μ g/mL concentrations for most applications. Higher concentrations may be needed occasionally if the air carbonyl concentrations exceed ~20 ppb during sampling. At least three concentrations of working standards bracketing the sample concentrations should be prepared for the calibration.

74.1.3

A secondary standard from Restek is used to verity the calibration.

74.1.4

Following the Millennium

32

3.20 PDA document, five calibration standards are analyzed using concentrations in Table 2 (see Figures 2 for example of calibration curve). The curve is forced through zero and is acceptable with a R

2

≥ 0.95. A secondary standard from Restek is used to verify the calibration.

74.1.5

Once the linear response factor has been documented, an intermediate concentration standard near the anticipated level of each component (but at least ten times the detection limit) is used for a daily calibration check standard. A sample chromatogram is shown in

Figure 1.

74.1.6

The calibration equation below is used to determine the amount of carbonyls in the samples (this step is performed by the HPLC baseline data system).

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 5 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

Table 2. Calibration Levels

Level 1

Carbonyl Conc. (ug/mL) 1

Level 2

0.5

Level 3

0.25

Aldehyde DNPH Derivative (ug/mL)

Formaldehyde

Acetaldehyde

Acetone

Level 4

0.1

Level 5

0.025

7.036 3.518 1.759 0.703 0.351

5.13 2.565 1.282 0.513 0.256

4.1 2.05 1.025 0.41 0.205

Acrolein

Propionaldehyde

Crotonaldehyde

4.366 2.183 1.091 0.436 0.218

4.113 2.056 1.028 0.411 0.2055

3.57 1.785 0.892 0.357 0.178

Methacrolein n-Butyraldehyde

Benzaldehyde

Valeraldehyde

Glyoxal m-Tolualdehyde

Hexaldehyde

3.57 1.785 0.892 0.357 0.178

3.51 1.755 0.877 0.351 0.1755

2.7 1.35 0.675 0.27 0.135

3.122 1.561 0.78 0.312 0.156

0.92 0.46 0.23 0.046 0.023

2.506 1.253 0.626 0.25 0.125

3.116 1.558 0.779 0.311 0.155

74.2

Calculations

W d

C

A

= __________ x 1000

V m

(or V s

)

where:

C

A

=

W d

= concentration of analyte (ng/L) in the original sample total quantity of analyte (

μ g) in sample, blank corrected

where:

W d

= W x V

E

W = Concentration of analyte in the cartridge (

μ g)

V

E

V m

= final volume (ml) of sample extract

V s

= total sample volume (L) under ambient conditions

= total sample volume (L) at 25

°

C and 760 mm Hg

The analyte concentrations can be converted to ppbv using the following equation:

24.4

C

A

(ppbv) = C

A

(ng/L) x _____

MW

A

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 6 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

where:

C

A

(ppbv)

C

A

(ng/L)

MW

A

74.3

= concentration of analyte in parts per billion by volume is calculated using V s

= molecular weight of analyte.

Alpha Analytical Specifications

Table 3. TO-11A Target Analytes and Reporting Limits

Compound

Rpt. Limit, ug/cartridge

Formaldehyde 0.05

Acetaldehyde 0.1

Propanal (propionaldehyde) 0.25

Acetone 0.25

Crotonaldehyde 0.25

Methyl Ethyl Ketone/Butyraldehydes 0.25

Benzaldehyde 0.25

Isopentanal 0.25

Pentanal (valeraldehyde) 0.25 o-Tolualdehyde 0.25 m,p-Tolualdehyde 0.25

Hexanal (hexaldehyde) 0.25

75.

QUALITY CONTROL

After calibration, an intermediate concentration calibration check standard is analyzed every 10 samples with a ±10% recovery.

At least one field blank or 10% of the field samples, whichever is larger, should be shipped and analyzed with each group of samples. The field blank is treated identically to the samples except that no air is drawn through the cartridge.

Instrument blanks are analyzed after high concentrations.

±10%.

10% of the samples are analyzed twice for replicate precision which typically falls within

76.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Independent systems audits and interlaboratory comparisons are carried out as specified in the program plan.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 7 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

77.

REFERENCES

Fung, K., and D. Grosjean (1981). "Determination of Nanogram Amounts of Carbonyls as 2,4, dinitrophenylhydrazones by High Performance Liquid Chromatography."

Analy. Chem

., 53,

168.

U.S. EPA, “Method TO-11A: Determination of Formaldehyde in Ambient Air Using Adsorbent

Cartridge Followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) [Active Sampling

Methodology],” EPA/625/R-96/010b, in

Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic

Organic Compounds in Ambient Air

.

Winberry, W.T., Jr., N.T. Murphy, and R.M. Riggan (1988).

Method TO11 in Compendium of

Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air

. EPA/600/4-

89/017, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 8 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

Figure 1a. Chromatograph of Level 2 standard.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 9 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

Figure 1b. Chromatograph of Level 2 standard.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Page: 10 of 10

Number:

Revision:

2-710r5

5

Figure 2. Calibration curve for formaldehyde.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Analysis of Semi-Volatile OrganicCompounds by GC/MS

DRI SOP #1-750r6

July 10, 2007 (Revised January 25, 2008)

Prepared by:

Desert Research Institute

Division of Atmospheric Science

2215 Raggio Parkway

Reno, NV 89512

Note: DRI and Air Toxics (subcontracted to Alpha Analytical) provide organic laboratory services. Target analyte reporting limit s

list provided by Alpha Analytical are included in section 78.4 (Table 1)

.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:2 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

78.

78.1

GENERAL DISCUSSION

Purpose of Procedure

This method describes the analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in air.

The SVOCs include non-polar analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Aliphatic

Hydrocarbon Analysis (Alkanes), Hopanes and Steranes, and Polar analysis.

78.2

Measurement Principle

The method uses a sampling train consisting of a Teflon-impregnated glass fiber (TIGF) filter backed up by a PUF/XAD/PUF sandwich solid adsorbent. The separate portions of the sampling train are extracted and combined dependent on analyses. The analysis method is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Mass spectrometry provides definitive identification of SVOCs.

78.3

Responsibilities

This SOP assumes that personnel performing the procedures are familiar with basic laboratory practice and operation of Dionex Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE), rotary evaporators, and the Varian GC/MS system and Saturn Workstation 5.2 computer software.

Specific requirements for these instruments are found in the appropriate manuals.

78.4

Method Detection Limits (MDLs)

Method detection limits are 0.01-0.03 ng/

μ l for PAH, hopane and sterane, and alkane compounds, and 0.03-0.04 ng/

μ l for polar compounds.

Table 1 lists the reporting limits for samples analyzed by Air Toxics.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:3 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Table 1. Air Toxics TO-13A Target Analyte List and Reporting Limits

Target Analyte List

Acenaphthene

Fluoranthene

Naphthalene

Benzo(a)anthracene

Benzo(a)pyrene

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

Chrysene

Acenaphthylene

Anthracene

Benzo(ghi)perylene

Fluorene

Phenanthrene

Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)Pyrene

Pyrene

Perylene

Benzo(e)Pyrene

1-Methylnaphthalene (available upon request)

2-Methylnaphthalene (available upon request)

Extraction Surrogates

2-Fluorobiphenyl

4-Terphenyl-d14

Field Surrogates

Fluoranthene-d10

Benzo(a)pyrene-d12

Reporting Limit, ug/cartridge

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

QC Criteria

60-120%

60-120%

QC Criteria

60-120%

60-120%

78.5

Related Procedures

This method follows the procedure described in EPA Method TO-13 (June 1988,

EPA/600-4-89/017). The exceptions are that 1) the DRI procedure uses a XAD-4 sandwich adsorbent trap where TO-13 recommends either PUF or XAD-2, and 2) the DRI procedure calls for more rigorous cleaning than the EPA method.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:4 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

79.

79.1

MATERIALS/APPARATUS

Apparatus and Instrumentation

The chromatographic system consists of a Varian CP-3800 gas chromatograph equipped with an 8200 CX Autosampler and interfaced to a Vairan Saturn 2000 Ion Trap Mass

Spectrometer. The alternative system consists of a Varian CP-3800 gas chromatograph with a model CP-8400 Autosampler and interfaced to a Saturn 2000 Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

Column is a CP-Sil8 30mx0.25 mmX025XX (Chrompack).

79.2

Reagents and Supplies

100 mm TIGF filters (Pall Gellman, ultrapure quality), PUF, and XAD-4 (Fisher

Scientific) are obtained. Cleaning is described below. All solvents are Fisher Scientific Opitma or HPLC grade.

80.

CALIBRATION STANDARDS

Standards and their preparation are described below.

81.

PROCEDURES

81.1

Start-Up

81.1.1

Substrate Preparation

81.1.1.1

81.1.1.2

81.1.1.3

Teflon-impregnated glass fiber (TIGF) filters (Pall Life Sciences, Type T60A20) are cleaned by sonication for 10 minutes in dichloromethane (CH

2

Cl

2

) twice, with the solvent replaced and drained, and sonicated for 10 minutes in methanol twice with the solvent replaced. Filters are then dried in a vacuum oven at –15 to –20 in

Hg, 50

°

C for minimum of 24 hours, weighed (if necessary), placed in foil packages that have been fired at 500

°

C for 4 hours, placed in Uline metallic

ZipTop static shielding bags, and stored at room temperature. If quartz filters

(Pall Gellman, ultrapure quality), are used, they are baked at 900

°

C for 4 hr before use.

PUF plugs are cleaned by first washing with distilled water, followed by Dionex

ASE extraction for 15min/cell with ~170 mL acetone at 1500 psi and 80

°

C, followed by Dionex ASE extraction for 15min/cell with ~170 mL of 10% diethyl ether in hexane under the same conditions. The extracted PUF plugs are dried in a vacuum oven at -15 to –20 in Hg, 50

°

C for approximately 3 days or until no solvent odor is detected . If storage is necessary, PUF plugs are stored in clean 1L glass jars with Teflon lined lids wrapped in aluminum foil. Powder-free nitrile gloves are worn at all times when handling PUF plugs.

New XAD-4 is washed with Liquinox

soap and hot water, followed by DI water. It is then placed in a Buchner funnel under vacuum, then transferred to the

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:5 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Dionex ASE and extracted for 15min/cell with ~170 mL of methanol at 1500 psi and 80

°

C, followed by dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), then acetone under the same instrument conditions. The XAD-4 is then dried in a vacuum oven at –15 to –20 in Hg and 50

°

C. The cleaned XAD-4 is then transferred to a clean 1L glass jars with an air tight teflon-lined lid. The jar is wrapped with aluminum foil to protect the XAD-4 from light, and stored in a clean room at room temperature.

81.1.2

Certification of Substrate

81.1.2.1

An aliquot of each batch of cleaned XAD-4 (20g) and TIGF filters are extracted same as samples. Deuterated standards are added to the sample prior to extraction in the Dionex ASE with ~170 mL dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) for 15 min/cell at

1500 psi and 80

°

C, followed by ~170 mL acetone extraction under the same conditions. The extract is then concentrated to 1ml and analyzed by GC/MS.

Any batch determined to have excessive impurities (more than 10 ng/ul of naphthalene and other compounds in method) will be re-cleaned and checked again for purity.

81.1.3

Assembly of XAD and PUF/XAD/PUF Cartridge

81.1.3.1

The glass cartridges and screen assemblies are washed with Liquinox

soap and hot water followed by DI water and oven dried. Powder-free nitrile gloves are worn at all times during the cartridge assembly. For XAD-4 cartridges, one assembly of spring, o-ring and screen is placed at the bottom of a clean glass cartridge followed by 20g of XAD-4 and another assembly of screen, o-ring and spring. The XAD cartridge is then placed in Uline ZipTop metallic static shielding bags and stored in ca clean room at room temperature.

81.1.3.2

For PUF/XAD-4/PUF cartridges, one PUF plug is put at the bottom of a clean glass cartridge followed by 10 g of XAD-4 and a second PUF plug. The

PUF/XAD/PUF cartridge is then placed in Uline ZipTop metallic static shielding bags and stored at room temperature.

81.1.4

Sample Shipping, Receipt, and Storage

81.1.4.1

81.1.4.2

XAD-4 cartridge and filter sets are assigned a unique Project Media Identification

(PMI) number and logged (date stamped) into the Laboratory Information

Management System (LIMS) when assembled and shipped. Cartridges are packed in a tin can with field data sheets with the same unique PMI number and shipped in coolers on blue ice prior overnight.

In the field, exposed samples are stored at 0-4

°

C in a refrigerator or freezer and shipped to DRI priority overnight in ice chest (DRI’s original shipping containers) with blue ice. Upon receipt by the laboratory, the samples are logged into the LIMS by PMI number, and field data is recorded (sampling location, date, and start and stop time, elapse timer, and flow rate). If the time span

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:6 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________ between sample login and extraction is greater than 24 hours, the samples must be kept cold at 0-4

°

C in a freezer or refrigerator. The exposure of the sample media to ultraviolet light emitted by fluorescent lights must be minimized.

81.1.5

GC/MS Preparation

81.1.5.1

81.1.5.2

81.1.5.3

81.1.5.4

81.1.5.5

81.1.5.6

Check for air and water in the system (Ion Time = 100, a total ion current (TIC) below 700 is preferred).

Adjust calibration gas pressure for Ion Trap instrument (75% preferred).

Check calibration gas pressure ~ 75%.

Perform autotune for electron multiplier setting, mass calibration, and RF ramp.

Identification and quantification of the analytes are made by Selected Ion Storage

(SIS), by monitoring the molecular ions of each analyte and each deuterated analyte.

81.2

Routine Operations

81.2.1

Sample Extraction

Internal Standards are added for each group of SVOCs measured.

81.2.1.1

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), non-polar internal Standards

Prior to extraction, the following deuterated internal standards are added to each sample

(filter, PUF/XAD/PUF):

naphthalene-d

8

biphenyl-d

10 acenaphthene-d

10

phenanthrene-d

10

5.997

5.991

μ

μ l l

anthracene-d

10

pyrene-d

12 benz(a)anthracene-d

12 ng/

μ l

2.004 ng/

μ l

chrysene-d

12

1.997

benzo[k]fluoranthene-d

12 ng/

μ l

1.000

μ l

benzo[e]pyrene-d

12

0.700

μ l

0.703

μ l benzo[a]pyrene-d

12

benzo[g,h,i]perylene-d

12

0.600

μ l

coronene-d

12 ng/

μ l

The amount of internal standards added should correspond to the expected range of concentrations found in real samples and the final volume of extracts during analysis.

81.2.1.2

Hopane and Sterane, non-polar internal standards

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:7 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Prior to extraction, the following deuterated internal standards are added to each sample

(filter, PUF/XAD/PUF): cholestane- d

6 ng/

μ l

The amount of internal standards added should correspond to the expected range of concentrations found in real samples.

81.2.1.3

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Analysis (Alkanes), non-polar internal standards

Prior to extraction, the following deuterated internal standards are added to each sample

(filter, PUF/XAD/PUF): dodecane-d

26 hexadecane-d

34 ng/

2.36

μ

μ l l eicosane-d

42

1.88 l ng/

μ l octacosane-d

58

4.9 tetracosane-d

50

1.89 l hexatriacontane-d

74

10.2 ng/

μ l

The amount of internal standards added should correspond to the expected range of concentrations found in real samples.

81.2.1.4

Polar Organic Compounds, polar internal standards

Prior to extraction, the following deuterated internal standards are added to each sample

(filter-sorbent pair): cholesterol-2,2,3,4,4,6-d

6

9.85

μ l levoglucosan-u-13C hexanoic-d

11

acid

6

31.25 ng/

μ l

4.5 ng/

μ l benzoic-d palmitic-d

myristic-d

succinic-d

3 decanoic-d

4

acid

19

31

27

acid-

acid

heptadecanoic-d

acid

acid

33

3,4,5,6-d

4

acid

acid

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.4

3.3

2.55

4.6 ng/

μ l ng/

μ l ng/

μ l ng/

μ l ng/

μ l ng/

μ l ng/

μ l

The amount of internal standards added should correspond to the expected range of concentrations found in real samples and the final volume of extracts during analysis.

81.2.2

Extraction of PUF, XAD-4, and Filter

Depending on analyses, PUF, XAD-4 and Filter will be extracted in the following combinations. Solvents are selected to optimize the polarity range desired for analyses.

81.2.2.1

Non-Polar Analysis Only

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:8 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Filters and XAD-4 are extracted twice with approximately ~170 mL of dichloromethane

(CH

2

Cl

2

) using the Dionex ASE for 15 min/cell at 1500 psi and 80

°

C.

Since PUF media degrades when extracted with dichloromethane, the PUFs are extracted twice with ~170 mL of acetone using the Dionex ASE for 15 min/cell at 1500 psi and 80

°

C.

This method gives good recovery for PAH, aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes), and hopanes and steranes.

81.2.2.2

Polar and Non-Polar Analyses

Filters and XAD-4 are extracted with ~170 mL dichloromethane (CH

2

Cl

2

) using the

Dionex ASE for 15 min/cell at 1500 psi and 80

°

C followed by ~170 mL acetone extraction under the same conditions.

Since PUF media degrades when extracted with dichloromethane, the PUFs are extracted twice with ~170 mL of acetone using the Dionex ASE for 15 min/cell at 1500 psi and 80

°

C.

This method gives good recovery for PAH, aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes), hopanes and steranes, and polar organic compounds.

81.2.3

Treatment of Extracts

81.2.3.1

Non-Polar Analysis Only

Extracts are concentrated to ~1ml by rotary evaporation at 35

°

C under gentle vacuum, and filtered through a 0.2 µm Anotop

TM

10 Whatman leur-lock filter on 4 mL glass syringe), rinsing the flask 3 times with 1 ml dichloromethane and acetone (50/50 by volume) each time.

Filtrate is collected in a 4 mL amber glass vial for a total volume of ~4 mL.

Approximately 200 µl of acetonitrile is added at this time and the extract is split into two fractions. Each fraction is then concentrated using a Pierce Reacti-Therm under a gentle stream of ultra-high purity (UHP) nitrogen with a water trap (Chrompack CP-Gas-Clean moisture filter

17971) to 100-200 µL. The final extract volume is adjusted to 100 µL with acetonitrile.

81.2.3.2

Polar and Non-Polar Analyses

Extracts are concentrated to ~1ml by rotary evaporation at 35

°

C under gentle vacuum, and filtered through a 0.2 µm PTFE disposable filter device (Whatman Pura disc

TM

25TF), rinsing the flask 3 times with 1 ml dichloromethane and acetone (50/50 by volume) each time.

Filtrate is collected in a 4 mL amber glass vial for a total volume of ~4 mL.

Approximately 200 µl of acetonitrile is added at this time and the extract is split into two fractions. Each fraction is then concentrated under a gentle stream of ultra-high purity (UHP) nitrogen with hydrocarbon and water traps to 100-200 µL. The final extract volume is adjusted to 100 µL with acetonitrile.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:9 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

81.2.4

Cleanup of Extracts (non-polar analysis)

For complex samples that contain analytical interference, the following method is used to clean up the sample using silica gel semi-prep Solid Phase Extraction (SPE 6-mL 0.5-g LC-SI,

Supelco Silica).

81.2.4.1

81.2.4.2

81.2.4.3

81.2.4.4

81.2.4.5

81.2.4.6

81.2.4.7

Assuming SVOC in 100 µL acetonitrile, concentrate to 25 µL and add 25µL dichloromethane and 150 µL hexane.

Condition SPE-Silica cartridge with 1.5 mL hexane/benzene (1:1), followed by

1.5 mL hexane.

Transfer sample into the SPE-Silica cartridge.

Elute sample with 1.5 mL hexane, followed by 3 mL hexane/benzene (1:1) in separate 4 mL vials.

Concentrate to 100 µL (only hexane should remain) and transfer to GC vial insert and concentrate to 20 µL.

Rinse original vial with 100 µL dichloromethane and concentrate to 40 µL

(hexane/DCM (1:1)) and dilute to total volume of 100 µL with acetonitrile.

The hexane fraction contains the non-polar aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes), and hopanes and steranes, and the hexane/benzene fraction contains the PAH and N-

PAH.

81.2.5

Silylation of Polar Organic Compounds (polar analysis)

If extracts have been split for polar and non-polar analysis, the fraction for the polar analysis is derivatized using a mixture of bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and pyridine to convert the polar compounds into their trimethylsilyl derivatives for analysis of organic acids, cholesterol, sitosterol, and levoglucosan. Depending upon the expected range of analytes, it is recommended to split the second fraction into two equal fractions, thus providing a second opportunity for a clean silylation reaction.

81.2.5.1

81.2.5.2

81.2.5.3

81.2.5.4

81.2.5.5

The extract is reduced to a volume of 50 µL using a Pierce Reacti-Therm under a gentle stream of ultra-high purity (UHP) nitrogen with a water trap (Chrompack

CP-Gas-Clean moisture filter 17971.

50 µL of silylation grade pyridine is added to vial.

150 µL of bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide is added slowly to each vial and immediately capped.

The sample is then placed into thermal plates (custom) containing individual vial wells with the temperature maintained at 70

°

C for 3 hours.

The samples are then analyzed by GC/MS within18 hours.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:10 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

81.3

82.

82.1

GC/MS Analysis of Extracts

The samples are analyzed by the electron impact (EI) GC/MS technique, using a Varian

CP-3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a 8200 CX Autosampler and interfaced to a

Vairan Saturn 2000 Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer or Varian CP-3400 gas chromatograph with a model CP-8400 Autosampler and interfaced to a Saturn 2000 Ion Trap Mass

Spectrometer

Injections are 1 µl in size in the splitless mode onto a 30m long 5% phenylmethylsilicone fused silica capillary column (J&W Scientific type DB-5ms): CP-Sil8 Chrompack (30m x 0.25mm x 0.25 mm) for PAH, hopanes and steranes, alkanes and polars; and CP-Sil24

Chrompack (30m x 0.25mm x 0.25 mm) for N-PAH.

Identification and quantification of the analytes are made by Selected Ion Storage (SIS), by monitoring the molecular ions of each analyte and each deuterated analyte.

QUANTIFICATION

Calibration Procedures

Calibration curves are made by the molecular ion peaks of the analytes using the corresponding deuterated species as internal standards. If there is no corresponding deuterated species, the one most closely matching in volatility and retention characteristics is used.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material

(SRM) 1647 (certified PAH), with the addition of the internal standards listed in Section 6.1.1-

6.1.4 and the targeted PAH not present in this mixture, is used to make calibration solutions. Six concentration levels for each analyte of interest are employed. Table 2 lists the concentration levels of standard compounds in calibration solutions. The calibration curve for each calibrated compound is constructed; Figures 1 through 6 show examples of acceptable calibration curves.

After the calibration is completed, a standard solution is injected to perform calibration checks.

If deviations from the true values exceed

±

20%, the calibration procedure is repeated or new calibration levels must be prepared. One replicate analysis and one calibration chick is performed for every 10 injections of samples. If difference between true and measured concentrations exceeds

±

20%, the system is recalibrated. During batch processing, calibration is performed before each batch.

Table 2. Calibration Levels for PAH analysis (bold compounds co-elute and are quantified together)

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6

1-ethylnaphthalene 0.359

1,2-dimethylnaphthalene 0.361

1,4-chrysenequinone 0.240

1,6 + 1,3 dimethylnaphthalene 0.719

0.718

0.722

0.479

1.438

1.436

1.444

0.958

2.876

1.917

5.753 23.012 92.047

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:11 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

1,8-dimethylnaphthalene 0.240

1-methylfluorene 0.298

1-methylphenanthrene 0.200

1-methylpyrene 0.240

1-phenylnaphthalene 0.199

2-ethylnaphthalene 0.357

1,4+1,5+2,3-dimenaphlene 1.078

2,6-dimethylnaphthalene 0.352

2-methylbiphenyl 0.360

2-methylphenanthrene 0.246

2-phenylnaphthalene 0.358

0.481

0.596

0.400

0.481

0.398

0.714

2.156

0.704

0.720

0.492

0.716

0.962

1.192

0.799

0.961

0.796

1.428

4.313

1.408

1.441

0.983

1.433

1.924

2.383

1.598

1.922

1.591

1.967

3,6-dimethylphenanthrene 0.203

3-methylbiphenyl 0.361

4H-cyclopenta(def)phenanthrene 0.000

4-methylbiphenyl 0.369

4-methylpyrene 0.240

5+6 methylchrysene 0.559

7-methylbenz(a)anthracene 0.279

7-methylbenzo(a)pyrene 0.290

0.406

0.721

0.000

0.738

0.479

1.119

0.558

0.579

0.813

1.442

0.000

1.475

0.958

2.237

1.117

1.158

1.625

0.000

1.917

4.475 17.899 71.595

2.233

2.317

9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)one 0.281

9-anthraldehyde 0.371

9-fluorenone 0.280

9-methylanthracene 0.239

acenaphthene* 0.201

acenaphthenequinone 0.202

acenaphthylene 0.200

0.561

0.742

0.560

0.479

0.402

0.404

0.400

1.122

1.483

1.120

0.958

0.804

0.808

0.800

2.244

2.240

1.916

1.609

1.617

1.600

anthrone 0.277

BaP* 0.160

benz(a)anthracene* 0.200

benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione 0.279

0.554

0.321

0.400

0.558

1.108

0.642

0.799

1.117

2.217

1.283

1.599

2.233

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 benzanthrone 0.360

anthracene* 0.159

anthraquinone 0.280

benzo(k*+b+j)fluoranthene 0.397

benzo(g,h,i)perylene* 0.200

benzo(c)phenanthrene 0.200

0.720

0.319

0.559

0.794

0.400

0.400

1.440

0.638

1.119

1.587

0.800

0.800

1.276

2.237

1.600

1.601

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:12 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________ benzonaphthothiophene 0.240

BeP* 0.202

chrysene* 0.190

coronene* 0.160

dibenz(ah+ac)anthracene 0.323

dibenzofuran 0.278

fluorene 0.241

fluoranthene 0.252

indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 0.161

perinaphthenone 0.279

perylene 0.200

phenanthrene* 0.201

pyrene* 0.196

retene 0.277

2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene 0.199

2,4,5-trimethylnaphthalene 0.277

1,4,5-trimethylnaphthalene 0.239

xanthone 0.240

1-methylnaphthalene 0.361

0.479

0.403

0.379

0.320

0.645

0.556

0.481

0.503

0.321

0.558

0.400

0.401

0.392

0.555

0.399

0.554

0.478

0.481

0.723

0.958

0.807

0.758

0.640

1.291

1.111

0.963

1.006

0.642

1.116

0.800

0.802

0.783

1.109

0.797

1.108

0.957

0.961

1.446

1.917

1.613

1.517

1.280

2.223

1.925

2.013

1.284

2.232

1.600

1.604

1.567

2.219

1.594

2.217

1.914

1.923

2,7-dimethylnaphthalene 0.300

bphenyl* 0.360

bibenzyl 0.362

2-methylnaphthalene 0.430

0.599

0.720

0.724

0.860

1.198

1.440

1.448

1.720

nphthalene* 0.359

0.717

1.435

*deuterated forms of these compounds are added to samples prior to extraction as surrogate for quantitation

82.1.1

Table 3. Calibration Levels for Hopanes and Steranes Analysis

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

17

α

-21

β

(H) Hopane (19) 0.250

17

β

(H)-30-Norhopane (17a) 0.250

17

β

(H)-21

β

(H) Hopane (23) 0.250

0.500 1.000

0.500 1.000

0.500 1.000

2.000

2.000

2.000

4.000

4.000

4.000

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:13 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

*deuterated forms of these compounds are added to samples prior to extraction as surrogate for quantitation

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:14 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Table 4. Calibration Levels for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Analysis

(Alkanes), bold compounds co-elute and are quantified together n-heptylcyclohexane

2,6,10trimethyldodecane_(farnesane) n-tetradecane n-pentadecane

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8

Compound ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL

2,6,10trimethylundecane_(norfarnesane) 0.050

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

n-octylcyclohexane n-nonylcyclohexane

n-heptadecane + 2,6,10,14tetramethylpentadecane_ pristane

0.050

0.050

0.050

n-hexadecane 0.050

2,6,10trimethylpentadecane_norpristane 0.050

n-decylcyclohexane n-undecylcyclohexane n-nonadecane n-octadecane

2,6,10,14tetramethylhexadecane_phytane

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

0.050

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8

Compound n-dodecylcyclohexane ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL ug/uL

0.050

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

n-tridecylcyclohexane n-tetradecylcyclohexane n-heneicosane n-eicosane n-pentadecylcyclohexane n-docosane n-tricosane n-tetracosane-d50*

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:15 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________ n-heptadecylcyclohexane n-octadecylcyclohexane

n-tetracosane* + nhexadecylcyclohexane

n-pentacosane n-nonadecylcyclohexane n-heptacosane n-eicosylcyclohexane n-hexacosane

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.050

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

n-octacosane 0.050

0.500

1.000 100.000 200.000 2.500 5.000 10.000

*deuterated forms of these compounds are added to samples prior to extraction as surrogate for quantitation

82.1.2

Table 5. Calibration Levels for Polar Organic Compounds Analysis

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 hexanoic acid 0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

benzoic acid 0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

maleic succinic acid methylsuccinic acid picolinic acid

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6

0.328 2.620

0.300 2.400

7.860 13.100 18.340 21.615

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

adipic acid cis-pinoic acid undecanoic pimelic acid lauric acid phthalic acid tridecanoic acid suberic acid isophthalic acid azelaic acid myristic acid

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

7.896

9.588

Page:16 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

6.450 10.750 15.050 17.738

glutaric acid n-decanoic acid

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

6.240 10.400 14.560 17.160

0.300 2.400

6.300 10.500 14.700 17.325

6.150 10.250 14.350 16.913

6.516 10.860 15.204 17.919

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

6.460 10.767 15.073 17.765

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.315 2.523

7.570 12.617 17.663 20.818

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS pentadecanoic acid 0.300 2.400

7.685

9.332

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

5.493

7.691

9.339

0.300 2.400

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

0.165 1.099

3.296

5.493

7.691

9.339

palmitic acid dodecanedioic acid

1,11oleic acid elaidic acid stearic acid nonadecanoic acid dehydroabietic acid eicosanoic acid pentadecanedioic acid abietic acid heneicosanoic acid docosanoic acid tricosanoic acid tetracosanoic acid

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.166 1.105

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

0.300 2.400

3.424

5.707

7.989

9.701

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

3.315

5.525

7.735

9.393

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

3.315

5.525

7.735

9.393

7.199 12.960 18.144 21.384

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

7.199 12.960 17.820 21.060

Page:17 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

82.2

Calculations

Each sample is reported initially in terms of mass per sample (µg/sample). Ambient concentrations in terms of mass per volume (i.e., ng/m

3

or other units if requested) are reported based upon the sample volume adjusted for ambient temperature and pressure, or reported as

“standard” volume.

All information for the sample is recorded and combined into both a printed report and an

Excel file for inclusion in the database (see Appendix A).

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:18 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

83.

83.1

QUALITY CONTROL

Reproducibility

Measurement uncertainty is reported as one-sigma standard deviation between replicate tests (when 3 tests conducted under same conditions) or the combined root mean square of the analytical measurement uncertainty, which is defined by the following equation:

(replicate precision * analyte concentrat ion)

2

+

(analyte detection limit)

2

This equation incorporates the analyte detection limit for each compound so when concentrations approach zero the error is reported as the analyte detection limit. When multiple samples are pooled the difference between samples is typically greater than the precision of any of the analytical techniques employed. Most data has relatively small reported measurement uncertainty’s which shows the reproducibility of the samples. When larger errors (>30% of reported concentration) are observed, it is typically because the concentrations of the analyte were close to the detection limit of the measurements.

84.

85.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Independent systems audits and interlaboratory comparisons are carried out as specified in the program plan.

REFERENCES

Not applicable.

86.

APPENDIX A

86.1

SVOC Program Information

86.1.1

Before Running

86.1.1.1

Each project must be listed in the database “H:\db_prg\oalproj.dbf.”. Fill in the following columns:

Column Value

NUM Use the next number in sequence

PROJ_NAME

PROJ_CODE

ROOT_DIR

STATUS

SVOC

A short description you will recognize

The two-digit project code MUST be unique

The directory where the project data are stored

“c” for current, or “o” for old enter 1 to run the SVOC programs, 0 otherwise.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:19 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

86.1.1.2

For each project, there is a list of target compounds for analysis. This list is in the directory “H:\db_calib\svoc\” and it is called AAcmpd.dbf, where AA is the project code in the oalproj.dbf database. In this same directory is a database called “Template.dbf” which is a template you can copy to make the new ones.

The fields you must fill in are:

Column Description

Field_Name The mnemonic for the PAH or PAH uncert.

Compound The long name for the compounds only, enter nothing for uncert. This MUST exactly match the way it is in the mass spec calibration file.

Enter “c” for a compound, nothing for uncert. Type

86.1.1.3

To import GCMS data, attach the GC/MS computer’s c: (hard) drive to a drive on the local machine.

86.2

Supplementary Procedures

86.2.1

Run the genbatch program and follow inputs.

86.2.2

If this is the run for this project, first run the option “N” which creates a new set of files.

This will make the files you will need.

86.2.3

Quit the programs and enter samples into the ‘lab’ database. This is the database the import program uses to determine what to import.

86.2.4

f the sample is run diluted, that file name and process status are also noted. When there is no diluted sample, just leave the name blank and set the dil_f_proc bit to zero. After the samples are imported, the program automatically enters a 2 for the proc bit.

Column Description

XMSFLAG

F_NAME

F_PROC

DIL_F_NAME

DIL_F_PROC

Mass Spec flag

Mass Spec file name for main analysis

Process bit for main (0=do nothing, 1= import normally, 2=import done).

Mass Spec file name for diluted analysis (if done)

Process bit for diluted (0=do nothing, 1= import normally, 2=import done).

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:20 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

ANALDATE Date of analysis

COMMENTS Notes

86.2.5

Once the import is done, AND the field data have been entered, you may continue with the rest of the processing, simply by following the sequence.

86.2.6

For the first batch of any project, the menu looks like:

** FILE CREATING FOR BATH 1 ONLY **

N FOR Creating New Project Files

6 FOR Importing XMS data.

** Copying files from current Batch \data to \report

3 FOR Copying Field data.

4 FOR Copying analysis (xms) data.

** Continue Processing Field

5 FOR Processing Field data file.

** Continue Processing Analysis (xms) file.

7 FOR Running REP.

8 FOR Merge FLD and XMS files to CHM file.

9 FOR Calculate blank values and blank uncertainty.

10 FOR Convert chm file to con file (ug/m

3

).

Follow the sequence through. Note, before going to Step 3 and beyond, you must first make sure the field and xms data are all input.

86.3

Continuing a Project: Batch 2 and Following.

86.3.1

The menu for batch 2 and following looks like:

** Copying files from previous Batch \report to current \data directories

1 FOR Copying Field data from Batch (prev) to (current).

2 FOR Copying analysis (xms) and LAB data from Batch (prev) to (current).

6 FOR Importing XMS data.

** Copying files from current Batch \data to \report

3 FOR Copying Field data.

4 FOR Copying analysis (xms) data.

** Continue Processing Field

5 FOR Processing Field data file.

** Continue Processing Analysis (xms) file.

7 FOR Running REP.

8 FOR Merge FLD and XMS files to CHM file.

9 FOR Calculate blank values and blank uncertainty.

10 FOR Convert chm file to con file (ug/m

3

).

This is basically the same as before, except you simply want to copy the previous Field, lab and xms files.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:21 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

86.4

Additional SVOCS from the Same Analyses

The second SVOC program uses the same lab and field files as the regular program and thus these need to be finished at the same time. The option exists in this program to define which compounds will be imported from the regular samples and which from diluted ones. This must be the same for all compounds in a project, although some adjustments can be made if necessary. In any case, all compounds must be imported the first pass through and then a subgroup can be imported from a second (called diluted) on file. Everything is case sensitive, especially the compound names.

86.4.1

Additional SVOC Procedure

86.4.1.1

Inform the Data Processing Manager which projects need this so the OALProj database and the other necessary files can be updated.

86.4.1.2

86.4.1.4

Update the compound list file. This file is project-specific and it is located in the

H:\db_calib\svoc\ directory in the general form xx2cmpd.dbf, where xx is the project code. The template is nf2cmpd.dbf. This needs to be filled out in the following format:

Field_name

This is the mnemonic that will become the field name. Each compound must be followed by its associated uncertainty, just as in the example.

Field_type

Leave

Field_len

Leave

Field_dec

Leave

Compound

For the compound only (not the uncert.), insert the compound name EXACTLY as it is in the HP GC/MS calibration file. If this is not spelled

EXACTLY as it is in the calibration file on the HP GC/MS nothing will work. Do not put in anything for the uncertainties.

86.4.1.3

Type Put in “c” for compounds, nothing for uncertainties. EVERY compound in the list MUST have a “c” in this field.

Dil Put in “d” for compounds that will be imported from diluted files, nothing otherwise.

86.4.1.5

Update the Lab database. There are five new fields in the lab database for the second SVOC files. These are:

F2_name

F2_proc

Dil_f2_nam

Dil_f2_pro

Mass spec file name for primary analysis

Process status for above (1= ready to import, 2= done)

MS file name for diluted run

Process status for above (1= ready to import, 2= done)

Date2 Analysis date for second compound list.

This should follow the conventions used in the normal data processing for PAH species.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:22 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

86.4.1.6

Do genbatch and follow the instructions. When you select a project you will be prompted to select either SVOC or Additional SVOC compounds. Selecting the latter (option 7) will take you to the SVOC2 programs. First use the “N” option to build new files and then continue by importing the mass spec data and continuing the processing. This will create XM2 (the raw mass spec data), the

CH2 file, and the CN2 (ng/m3) file.

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:23 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Figure 1

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:24 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Figure 2

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:25 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Figure 3

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:26 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Figure 4

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:27 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Figure 5

DRI STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Analysis of Semi-Volatile Organic

Compound by GC/MS

Page:28 of 26

Date: 07/10/07

Number:2-750r6

Revision:6_________

Figure 6

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Prepared by:

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

50 Hampshire Street

Cambridge, MA 02139

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 2 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

87.0

Introduction

87.1

Purpose

Monitoring air quality often requires the use of a meteorological station and datalogger to measure and record weather conditions during a monitoring study.

Weather data is often an integral part of analyzing results from a monitoring study.

87.2

Scope

This document will define the installation, calibration, operation, maintenance, and dissassembly of the Campbell Scientific meteorological station in the field.

88.0

Materials

88.1

Sensor Crossarm with one CM220 Mounting Kit (4foot)

88.2

03001-LS12-LD12 - RM Young Wind Sentry Set with 12-foot cable per sensor

(speed and direction)

88.3

CS215-L9 - Temperature and Relative Humidity Probe with 9-foot cable

88.4

41303-5A- RM Young 6-Plate Gill Solar Radiation Shield

88.5

CR200- Data Logger

88.6

Wall Charger 18Vdc 1A Output with 7 ft cable

88.7

CR200 12V 7Ahr Sealed Rechargeable Battery

88.8

Right Angle Mounting Kit

88.9

Universal Tower Grounding Kit

88.10(2) 4-Foot Long Galvanized Steel Pipes and Connector

89.0

Sensors Specifications

The wind speed and direction sensors and relative humidity and air temperature probes manufacturer’s specifications are presented in the table below.

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 3 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

Wind Speed

Wind Direction

Air Temperature

Relative Humidity

0 to 50 m/s (112 mph), gust survival of 60 m/s (134 mph)

360 o

mechanical, 355 electrical (5 o

open) o

-40 o

C to +70 o

C

0 to 100% RH over -20 o

C to

+60 o

C

Accuracy

±0.5 m/s (1.1 mph)

±5 o

±0.3

o

C at 25 o

C, ±0.4

over +5 to +40 o o

C

C, ±0.9

o

C over -40 o

C to +70 o

C

±2% over 10-90%, ±4% over 0-100%

90.0

Assembly and Mounting

90.1

Set up of mast and data logger

90.1.1

Connect the two 4-foot 1.25 inch galvanized steel pipes with a Bushing connector to construct mast.

90.1.2

Mount lighting rod at the top of the mast using the U-bolt clamp included with the meteorological station.

90.1.3

Mount CM200 cross arm approximately 6-inches from the top of the mast using the cross arm U-Bolt assembly and orient sensor cross arm northsouth. Mount wind sensors and temperature and humidity probe per the steps provided in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

90.1.4

With a least two people, lift 8-foot high mast and insert into one of the corner support railing supports on the trailer. Drill hole through the support railing and steel pipe and secure with 2-inch bolt and nut assembly. Caulk small gap between support railing and steel mast.

90.1.5

Place data logger in the trailer. Run cables through notch between air conditioning unit and trailer mounting opening. Mount data logger to interior trailer wall and plug into nearest outlet. Connect back-up battery pack into data logger per the Campbell Scientific Data Logger manual and place on the work bench.

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 4 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

90.2

Wind Speed and Direction Sensors

90.2.1

Sensors should be located away from obstructions (e.g., trees and buildings). Height of the sensors should be at least 8 feet above the roof of the trailer.

90.2.2

Install cupwheel to the anemometer shaft using the provided Allen

`wrench.

90.2.3

Mount and clamp the RM Young Wind Sentry to the provided 12 inch long mounting pipe provided with the unit using screw collar bracket.

90.2.4

Attach mounting pipe to one end of the CM200 cross arm using CM220 bracket.

90.2.5

Solder, shrink wrap and electric tape the 9-foot cable with an extension cable.

90.2.6

Secure cable to steel mast and railing of the trailer using Zip-lock ties.

90.2.7

Run cable through notch between air conditioning unit and trailer mounting opening and connect to CR200 data logger following the procedures set forth in the wiring diagram included in the free Windows software program.

90.2.8

Align wind vane to true north using a compass and procedures set forth in the RM Young Wind Sentry manual (magnetic declination in the vicinity of Logan International Airport is approximately15 degrees West).

90.3

Relative Humidity/Air Temperature Probe Installation

90.3.1

Sensors should be located over open level terrain. The surface should be covered by short grass or natural earth surface. Sensors should be protected from thermal radiation and adequately ventilated.

90.3.2

Attach the RM Young 6-plate Gill solar radiation shield to the CM200 cross arm using the U-bolt included with the radiation shield.

90.3.3

Solder, shrink wrap and electric tape the 9-foot cable with an extension cable.

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 5 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

90.3.4

Insert the probe into the radiation shield by following the procedures set forth in the manufacturer’s manual.

90.3.5

Secure cable to the crossarm, extension pole and railing of the trailer using

Zip-lock ties.

90.3.6

Run cable through notch between air conditioning unit and trailer mounting opening and connect to CR200 data logger following the procedures set forth in the wiring diagram included in the free Windows software program.

91.0

Data Logger Setup and Operations

91.1

Download the PC200W Starter software from Campbell Scientific’s website ( http://www.campbellsci.com/index.cfm

91.2

Follow data logger wire connections per the Campbell Scientific sensors and data logger manuals.

91.3

Connect laptop to the data logger with RS232 9-pin cable.

91.4

Program data logger to collect 15-minute measurements, set data logger clock to local standard time and record battery voltage data.

92.0

91.5

Wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and humidity data will be collected in chronological order and tabulated according to the observation time. The observation time is defined as the time at the beginning of the specified averaging period. Hourly data will be collected based on averaging a group of 15-minute samples.

91.6

Data will be downloaded manually to a laptop computer at least every 12 days and monthly files will be archived on compact diskette.

Routine Service Checks

92.1

Bi-Monthy Checks

92.1.1

Review datalogger data for correct operations of the sensor during each site visit (approximately every 12 days).

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 6 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

92.1.2

Perform a visual inspection of the sensors to assure that the sensors have not been damaged and are operating properly.

92.1.3

Use a hand-held thermometer and anemometer to check readings from the temperature and wind speed sensors. Readings may be slightly off due to difference in height of measurement. Compare results to concurrent Logan

International Airport meteorological data (available at http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/box/).

93.0

Maintenance, Calibration and Audits

93.1

Wind Sensors

93.1.1

Conduct a visual and audio inspection of anemometer at low wind speeds every site visit. Verify that the cup assembly and wind vane rotate freely.

Inspect the sensor for physical damage.

93.1.2

Replace anemometer bearings when they become noisy, or wind speed threshold increases above an acceptable level. The condition of the bearings can be checked with a paper clip as described in the RM Young manual.

93.1.3

An independent performance audit of the anemometer and wind vane will be conducted once for every 12 months of field use.

93.2

Relative Humidity and Temperature Probe

93.2.1

Check monthly to make sure that radiation shield is free from dust and debris.

93.2.2

Every six months check the white filter on the end of the sensor of similar debris. If dirt or salt is ingrained into the filter, it should be cleaned with distilled water or replaced.

93.2.3

Manufacturer recommends replacing the sensor after several years rather than conducting factory calibration due to its low cost.

93.2.4

An independent performance audit of the relative humidity and temperature probe will be conducted once for every 12 months of field use.

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 7 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

94.0

Troubleshooting

94.1

Before starting any troubleshooting procedure, refer to the sensor operating manual for specific information pertaining to troubleshooting. Record malfunctions and repairs in study field notebook.

94.2

Troubleshooting should attempt to isolate the source of the malfunction and reduce the maintenance time. The following should be checked if a problem exists:

94.2.1

Visually inspect sensor.

94.2.1.1

94.2.1.2

Check for signs of damage.

Verify that the sensor assembly is turning freely.

94.2.2

Check for loss of voltage supply by reviewing battery voltage data collected by the CM200 data logger.

94.2.3

Check for proper operation of the sensor bearings. Bad bearings may affect the starting threshold.

94.2.4

Verify that the cable connections are secure.

95.0

94.2.5

Verify proper data logger initialization.

Disassembling Meteorological Station

95.1

Disconnect cables from the data logger and remove data logger from the trailer wall.

95.2

Disconnect backup battery supply from data logger. Place data logger and battery supply in a protective box.

95.3

Remove support ties securing cables to the steel mast and crossarm and disconnect cables from sensors.

95.4

Disassemble steel mast to level just above railing of the trailer.

95.5

Remove crossarm assembly from steel mast.

95.6

Disconnect and remove grounding kit assembly from trailer.

CDM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE

Title: Campbell Scientific Meteorological Station

Page: 8 of 8

Date: 9/07/07

Revision: 3

95.7

Carefully remove each sensor, disassemble as necessary and place in protective box.

95.8

Store equipment, steel mast and crossarm at the CDM warehouse.

Appendix C

Sample Identification Scheme for

Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring Study

As of 07/06/07

All samples collected during the Study will be labeled using a 15-character alphanumeric identification code, in the following sequence:

Character Position Data

Values for the codes are as follows:

(1) Study:

(2) Type of sample:

BOS

(3) Site location:

(a) Primary sites:

01

Bremen site: 02

(iii) Road

(iv) Harrison Avenue (Roxbury) site: 04

(i) Cottage Park Yacht Club site: 05

Constitution 06

(4) Parameter:

(iv) South Boston Yacht Club site: 08

09

Bayswater 11

(iii) ABC

(5) Start date: Example, the date for July 1, 2007 is 070107.

Example sample IDs:

(I) BOS-A-02-AVC-070507 = Logan Study, ambient sample of active VOCs from

Bremen site, taken beginning on July 5, 2007.

(II) BOS-D-07-PCA-080607 = Logan Study, duplicate sample of passive carbonyls from

Jeffries Cove site, taken beginning on August 6, 2007.

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement