Commercial Drivers License Manual - 2005

Commercial Drivers License Manual - 2005
Appendix A: Section 10 of the 2004 Model
Commercial Driver’s License Manual
2004 Model Commercial Driver's License Manual
S Endorsement
Version 08090
May 6, 2005
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 1
“S” Endorsement Knowledge Exam Study Materials
Attached is Section 10 of the 2004 Model Commercial Driver’s License Manual (version 080904). This section
contains all of the federal school bus operational standards.
All of the questions that will appear on the school bus “S” endorsement written knowledge exam are based on the
information included in Section 10. You should study all the information provided prior to taking the mandatory
knowledge test.
This test is solely based on the federal standards, so answers should be based on the Section 10 study materials
provided. In cases where Massachusetts and federal standards conflict, use the federal standards in your answers.
Please note that the following federal standards included in this section conflict with Massachusetts standards:
•
Page 10-1 (figure 10-1) – The Danger Zones
The federal danger zone in front of and behind a school bus is 12 feet. The Massachusetts danger
zone in front of and behind a school bus is 10 feet.
•
Page 10-9 (section 10.4.3) – Approaching the Crossing
When a school bus is approaching a railroad crossing, federal standards require the operator to
activate hazard lamps approximately 200 feet before the crossing.
Massachusetts standards require the operator to activate hazard lamps approximately 100 feet before the
crossing.
•
Page 10-9 (section 10.4.3) – At the Crossing
When a school bus is stopped at a railroad crossing, federal standards require the operator to
“Place the transmission in Park, or if there is no Park shift point, in Neutral and press down on
the service brake or set the parking brakes.”
Massachusetts does not require this procedure.
Since the knowledge exam is based on the federal standards, you will need to learn all of the information
in Section 10, even when it conflicts with Massachusetts standards. However, when operating a school
bus in Massachusetts, you must always follow Massachusetts standards.
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 2
SECTION 10
SCHOOL BUSES
bus to obtain maximum viewing area consistent with
the vision requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standard N0. 111, “Mirror Systems”. If
necessary, have the mirrors adjusted.
This Section Covers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Figure 10.1
Danger Zones and Use of Mirrors
Loading and Unloading
Emergency Exit and Evacuation
Railroad-highway Grade Crossings
Student Management
Antilock Braking Systems
Special Safety Situation
School bus drivers must have a commercial driver’s
license if they drive a vehicle designed to transport
(seat) 16 or more persons, including the driver.
School bus drivers must have a school bus
endorsement in addition to a passenger endorsement
on their commercial driver’s license (CDL). To get the
school bus endorsement, you must pass a knowledge
test on sections 2, 4 and 10 of this manual. (If your
school bus has air brakes, you must also pass a
knowledge test on Section 5.) You must also pass the
skills test required for the class of school bus you drive
or intend to drive.
This section does NOT provide information on all the
federal and state requirements needed before you
drive a school bus. You should be thoroughly familiar
with all specific school bus procedures, laws and
regulations in your state and local school district.
10.1 - Danger Zones and Use of Mirrors
10.1.1 - Danger Zones
The danger zone is the area anywhere outside of the
bus where children are in the most danger of being
hit, either by another vehicle or their own bus. The
danger zones extend as much as 30 feet from the
front bumper, 10 feet from the left and right sides of
the bus and 10 feet behind the rear bumper of the
school bus. In addition, the area to the left of the bus
is always considered dangerous because of passing
vehicles. Figure 10.1 illustrates these danger zones.
10.1.2 - Correct Mirror Adjustment
Proper adjustment and use of all mirrors is vital to the
safe operation of the school bus in order to observe
the danger zone around the bus and look for students,
traffic, and other objects in this area. You should
always check each mirror before operating the school
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10.1.3 - Outside Left and Right Side Flat
Mirrors
These mirrors are mounted at the left and right front
corners of the bus at the side or front of the
windshield. They are used to monitor traffic, check
clearances and students on the sides and to the rear
of the bus. There is a blind spot immediately below
and in front of each mirror and directly in back of the
rear bumper. The blind spot behind the bus could
extend up to 400 feet depending on the width of the
bus.
Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you
can see:
•
•
•
200 feet or 4 bus lengths behind the bus.
Along the sides of the bus.
The rear tires touching the ground.
Figure 10.2 shows how both the outside left and right
side flat mirrors should be adjusted.
Appendix A- 3
Figure 10.2
10.1.4 - Outside Left and Right Side Convex
Mirrors
The convex mirrors are located below the outside flat
mirrors. They are used to monitor the left and right
sides at a wide angle. They provide a view of traffic,
clearances, and students at the side of the bus.
These mirrors present a view of people and objects
that does not accurately reflect their size and distance
from the bus.
Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you
can see:
•
•
•
The entire side of the bus up to the mirror mounts.
Front of the rear tires touching the ground.
At least one traffic lane on either side of the bus.
Figure 10.3 shows how both the outside left and right
side convex mirrors should be adjusted.
Figure 10.3
10.1.5 - Outside Left and Right Side Cross
View Mirrors
These mirrors are mounted on both left and right front
corners of the bus. They are used to see the “danger
zone” area directly in front of the bus that is not visible
by direct vision, and to view the “danger zone” areas
to the left side and right side of the bus, including the
service door and front wheel areas. The mirror
presents a view of people and objects that does not
accurately reflect their size and distance from the bus.
The driver must ensure that these mirrors are properly
adjusted.
Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you
can see:
•
•
•
•
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
The entire area in front of the bus from the front
bumper at ground level to a point where direct
vision is possible. Direct vision and mirror view
vision should overlap.
The right and left front tires touching the ground.
The area from the front of the bus to the service
door.
These mirrors, along with the convex and flat
mirrors, should be viewed in a logical sequence
to ensure that a child or object is not in any of the
danger zones.
Appendix A- 4
Figures 10.4a and 10.4b illustrate how the left and
right side cross view mirrors should be adjusted.
Figure 10.4a
and
Figure 10.4b
stop without written approval from the appropriate
school district official.
You must use extreme caution when approaching a
school bus stop. You are in a very demanding
situation when entering these areas. It is critical that
you understand and follow all state and local laws
and regulations regarding approaching a school bus
stop. This would involve the proper use of mirrors,
alternating flashing lamps, and when equipped, the
moveable stop signal arm and crossing control arm.
When approaching the stop, you should:
•
•
•
•
10.1.6 - Overhead Inside Rearview Mirror
This mirror is mounted directly above the windshield
on the driver’s side area of the bus. This mirror is
used to monitor passenger activity inside the bus. It
may provide limited visibility directly in back of the bus
if the bus is equipped with a glass-bottomed rear
emergency door. There is a blind spot area directly
behind the driver’s seat as well as a large blind spot
area that begins at the rear bumper and could extend
up to 400 feet or more behind the bus. You must use
the exterior side mirrors to monitor traffic that
approaches and enters this area.
Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you
can see:
•
•
The top of the rear window in the top of the mirror.
All of the students, including the heads of the
students right behind you.
10.2 - Loading and Unloading
More students are killed while getting on or off a
school bus each year than are killed as passengers
inside of a school bus. As a result, knowing what to
do before, during, and after loading or unloading
students is critical. This section will give you
procedures to help you avoid unsafe conditions which
could result in injuries and fatalities during and after
loading and unloading students.
•
•
•
•
•
•
10.2.2 - Loading Procedures
•
•
•
•
•
10.2.1 - Approaching the Stop
Each school district establishes official routes and
official school bus stops. All stops should be
approved by the school district prior to making the
stop. You should never change the location of a bus
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Approach cautiously at a slow rate of speed.
Look for pedestrians, traffic, or other objects
before, during, and after coming to a stop.
Continuously check all mirrors.
If the school bus is so equipped, activate
alternating flashing amber warning lamps before
the school bus stop in accordance with state law.
Continuously check mirrors to monitor the
danger zones for students, traffic, and other
objects.
Move as far as possible to the right on the
traveled portion of the roadway.
Bring school bus to a full stop with the front
bumper at least 10 feet away from students at the
designated stop. This forces the students to walk
to the bus so you have a better view of their
movements.
Place transmission in Park, or if there is no Park
shift point, in Neutral and set the parking brake
at each stop.
Open service door, if possible, enough to
activate alternating red lamps when traffic is a
safe distance from the school bus.
Make a final check to see that all traffic has
stopped before completely opening the door and
signaling students to approach.
•
•
Perform a safe stop as described in subsection
10.2.1.
Students should wait in a designated location for
the school bus, facing the bus as it approaches.
Students should board the bus only when
signaled by the driver.
Monitor all mirrors continuously.
Count the number of students at the bus stop and
be sure all board the bus. If possible, know
names of students at each stop. If there is a
student missing, ask the other students where
the student is.
Have the students board the school bus slowly,
in single file, and use the handrail. The dome
light should be on while loading in the dark.
Wait until students are seated and facing forward
before moving the bus.
Appendix A- 5
•
•
•
Check all mirrors. Make certain no one is
running to catch the bus.
If you cannot account for a student outside,
secure the bus, take the key, and check around
and underneath the bus.
When all students are accounted for, prepare to
leave by:







•
Closing the door.
Engaging the transmission.
Releasing the parking brake.
Turning off alternating flashing red lamps.
Turning on left turn signal.
Allowing congested traffic to disperse.
Checking all mirrors again.
•
Note. If you have missed a student’s unloading stop,
do not back up. Be sure to follow local procedures.
Additional Procedures for Students That Must
Cross the Roadway
You should understand what students should do
when exiting a school bus and crossing the street in
front of the bus. In addition, the school bus driver
should understand that students might not always do
what they are supposed to do. If a student or students
must cross the roadway, they should follow these
procedures:

When it is safe, move the bus to enter traffic flow
and continue the route.

The loading procedure is essentially the same
wherever you load students, but there are slight
differences. When students are loading at the school
campus, you should:
•
•
•
Turn off the ignition switch.
Remove key if leaving driver’s compartment.
Position yourself to supervise loading as
required or recommended by your state or local
regulations.
When it is safe, move the bus, enter the traffic
flow and continue the route.

•
When students reach the edge of the roadway,
they should:

10.2.3 - Unloading Procedures on the Route

•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Perform a safe stop at designated unloading
areas as described in subsection 10.2.1.
Have the students remain seated until told to exit.
Check all mirrors.
Count the number of students while unloading to
confirm the location of all students before pulling
away from the stop.
Tell students to exit the bus and walk at least 10
feet away from the side of the bus to a position
where the driver can plainly see all students.
Check all mirrors again. Make sure no students
are around or returning to the bus.
If you cannot account for a student outside the
bus, secure the bus, and check around and
underneath the bus.
When all students are accounted for, prepare to
leave by:







Closing the door.
Engaging transmission.
Releasing parking brake.
Turning off alternating flashing red lamps.
Turning on left turn signal.
Allowing congested traffic to disperse.
Checking all mirrors again.
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•
Walk approximately 10 feet away from the
side of the school bus to a position where
you can see them.
Walk to a location at least 10 feet in front of
the right corner of the bumper, but still
remaining away from the front of the school
bus.
Stop at the right edge of the roadway. You
should be able to see the student’s feet.
Stop and look in all directions, making sure
the roadway is clear and is safe.
Check to see if the red flashing lamps on the
bus are still flashing.
Wait for your signal before crossing the
roadway.
Upon your signal, the students should:




Cross far enough in front of the school bus
to be in your view.
Walk to the left edge of the school bus, stop,
and look again for your signal to continue to
cross the roadway.
Look for traffic in both directions, making
sure roadway is clear.
Proceed across the roadway, continuing to
look in all directions.
Notes:
1. The school bus driver should enforce any state
or local regulations or recommendations
concerning student actions outside the school
bus.
2. It is important for the driver to understand that
any hand or other signal that is given to a student
also could be misinterpreted by motorists that are
stopped in the area.
Appendix A- 6
10.2.4 - Unloading Procedures at School
State and local laws and regulations regarding
unloading students at schools, particularly in
situations where such activities take place in the
school parking lot or other location that is off the
traveled roadway, are often different than unloading
along the school bus route. It is important that the
school bus driver understands and obeys state and
local laws and regulations. The following procedures
are meant to be general guidelines.
When unloading at the school you should follow
these procedures:
•
•
Perform a safe stop at designated unloading
areas as described in subsection 10.2.1.
Secure the bus by:

Turning off the ignition switch.
 Removing
key
if
leaving
driver’s
compartment.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Have the students remain seated until told to exit.
Position yourself to supervise unloading as
required or recommended by your state or local
regulations.
Have students exit in orderly fashion.
Observe students as they step from bus to see
that all move promptly away from the unloading
area.
Walk through the bus and check for
hiding/sleeping students and items left by
students.
Check all mirrors. Make certain no students are
returning to the bus.
If you cannot account for a student outside the
bus and the bus is secure, check around and
underneath the bus.
When all students are accounted for, prepare to
leave by:









•
Closing the door.
Fastening safety belt.
Starting engine.
Engaging the transmission.
Releasing the parking brake.
Turning off alternating flashing red lamps.
Turning on left turn signal.
Allowing congested traffic to disperse.
Checking all mirrors again.
When it is safe, pull away from the unloading
area.
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
10.2.5 - Special Dangers of Loading and
Unloading
Dropped or Forgotten Objects. Always focus on
students as they approach the bus and watch for any
who disappear from sight.
Students may drop an object near the bus during
loading and unloading. Stopping to pick up the
object, or returning to pick up the object, may cause
the student to disappear from the driver’s sight at a
very dangerous moment.
Students should be told to leave any dropped object
and move to a point of safety out of the danger zones
and attempt to get the driver’s attention to retrieve the
object.
Handrail Hang-ups. Students have been injured or
killed when clothing, accessories, or even parts of
their body get caught in the handrail or door as they
exited the bus. You should closely observe all
students exiting the bus to confirm that they are in a
safe location prior to moving the bus.
10.2.6 - Post-trip Inspection
When your route or school activity trip is finished, you
should conduct a post-trip inspection of the bus.
You should walk through the bus and around the bus
looking for the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Articles left on the bus.
Sleeping students.
Open windows and doors.
Mechanical/operational problems with the bus,
with special attention to items that are unique to
school buses – mirror systems, flashing warning
lamps and stop signal arms.
Damage or vandalism.
Any problems or special situations should be
reported immediately to your supervisor or school
authorities.
10.3 - Emergency Exit and Evacuation
An emergency situation can happen to anyone,
anytime, anywhere. It could be a crash, a stalled
school bus on a railroad-highway crossing or in a
high-speed intersection, an electrical fire in the engine
compartment, a medical emergency to a student on
the school bus, etc. Knowing what to do in an
emergency–before, during and after an evacuation–
can mean the difference between life and death.
Appendix A- 7
10.3.1 - Planning for Emergencies
Determine Need to Evacuate Bus
The first and most important consideration is for
you to recognize the hazard. If time permits,
school bus drivers should contact their dispatcher
to explain the situation before making a decision to
evacuate the school bus.
the time of the emergency. Therefore, emergency
evacuation procedures must be explained to all
students. This includes ensuring that they know the
location of and operation of the various emergency
exits, and the importance of listening to and following
all instructions given by you.
Some tips to determine a safe place:
•
As a general rule, student safety and control is best
maintained by keeping students on the bus during an
emergency and/or impending crisis situation, if so
doing does not expose them to unnecessary risk or
injury. Remember, the decision to evacuate the bus
must be a timely one.
A decision to evacuate should include consideration
of the following conditions:
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Is there a fire or danger of fire?
Is there a smell of leaking fuel?
Is there a chance the bus could be hit by other
vehicles?
Is the bus in the path of a sighted tornado or rising
waters?
Are there downed power lines?
Would removing students expose them to
speeding traffic, severe weather, or a dangerous
environment such as downed power lines?
Would moving students complicate injuries such
as neck and back injuries and fractures?
Is there a hazardous spill involved? Sometimes,
it may be safer to remain on the bus and not come
in contact with the material.
Mandatory Evacuations. The driver must evacuate
the bus when:
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•
•
•
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The bus is on fire or there is a threat of a fire.
The bus is stalled on or adjacent to a railroadhighway crossing.
The position of the bus may change and increase
the danger.
There is an imminent danger of collision.
There is a need to quickly evacuate because of a
hazardous materials spill.
10.3.2 - Evacuation Procedures
•
•
•
•
General Procedures. Determine if evacuation is in
the best interest of safety.
•
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Determine the best type of evacuation:
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
•
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
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
•
•
•
•
Front, rear or side door evacuation, or some
combination of doors.
Roof or window evacuation.
Secure the bus by:

•
Be Prepared and Plan Ahead. When possible,
assign two responsible, older student assistants to
each emergency exit. Teach them how to assist the
other students off the bus. Assign another student
assistant to lead the students to a “safe place” after
evacuation. However, you must recognize that there
may not be older, responsible students on the bus at
A safe place for the students will be at least 100
feet off the road in the direction of oncoming
traffic. This will keep them from being hit by
debris if another vehicle collides with the bus.
Lead students upwind of the bus if fire is present.
Lead students as far away from railroad tracks as
possible and in the direction of any oncoming
train.
Lead students upwind of the bus at least 300 feet
if there is a risk from spilled hazardous materials.
If the bus is in the direct path of a sighted tornado
and evacuation is ordered, escort students to a
nearby ditch or culvert if shelter in a building is not
readily available, and direct them to lie face down,
hands covering their head. They should be far
enough away so the bus cannot topple on them.
Avoid areas that are subject to flash floods.
Placing transmission in Park, or if there is no
shift point, in Neutral.
Setting parking brakes.
Shutting off the engine.
Removing ignition key.
Activating hazard-warning lamps.
If time allows, notify dispatch office of evacuation
location, conditions, and type of assistance
needed.
Dangle radio microphone or telephone out of
driver’s window for later use, if operable.
If no radio, or radio is inoperable, dispatch a
passing motorist or area resident to call for help.
As a last resort, dispatch two older, responsible
students to go for help.
Order the evacuation.
Evacuate students from the bus.
Appendix A- 8


•
•
•
•
•
Do not move a student you believe may have
suffered a neck or spinal injury unless his or
her life is in immediate danger.
Special procedures must be used to move
neck spinal injury victims to prevent further
injury.
Figure 10.5
Direct a student assistant to lead students to the
nearest safe place.
Walk through the bus to ensure no students
remain on the bus.
Retrieve emergency
equipment.
Join waiting students. Account for all students
and check for their safety.
Protect the scene. Set out emergency warning
devices as necessary and appropriate.
Prepare information for emergency responders.
10.4 - Railroad-highway Crossings
10.4.1 - Types of Crossings
Passive Crossings. This type of crossing does
not have any type of traffic control device. You
must stop at these crossings and follow proper
procedures. However, the decision to proceed
rests entirely in your hands. Passive crossings
require you to recognize the crossing, search for
any train using the tracks and decide if there is
sufficient clear space to cross safely. Passive
crossings have yellow circular advance warning
signs, pavement markings and crossbucks to
assist you in recognizing a crossing.
Pavement Markings. Pavement markings mean the
same as the advance warning sign. They consist of
an “X” with the letters “”RR” and a no-passing
marking on two-lane roads. See Figure 10.6.
There is also a no passing zone sign on two-lane
roads. There may be a white stop line painted on the
pavement before the railroad tracks. The front of the
school bus must remain behind this line while
stopped at the crossing.
Active Crossings. This type of crossing has a
traffic control device installed at the crossing to
regulate traffic. These active devices can include
flashing red lights, flashing red lights with bells and
flashing red lights with bells and gates.
10.4.2 - Warning Signs and Devices
Advance Warning Signs. The round, black-onyellow warning sign is placed ahead of a public
railroad-highway crossing. The advance warning
sign tells you to slow down, look and listen for the
train, and be prepared to stop at the tracks if a train
is coming. See Figure 10.5.
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 9
Figure 10.6
Crossbuck Signs. This sign marks a passive
crossing. It requires you to yield the right-of-way to
the train. When the road crosses over more than
one set of tracks, a sign below the crossbuck
indicates the number of tracks. See Figure 10.7.
Figure 10.7
Figure 10.8
Flashing Red Light Signals. At many active
highway-rail grade crossings, the crossbuck sign has
flashing red lights and bells. When the lights begin to
flash, stop! A train is approaching. You are required
to yield the right-of-way to the train. If there is more
than one track, make sure all tracks are clear before
crossing. See Figure 10.8.
Gates. Many active railroad-highway crossings have
gates with flashing red lights and bells. Stop when
the lights begin to flash and before the gate lowers
across the road lane. Remain stopped until the gates
go up and the lights have stopped flashing. Proceed
when it is safe. If the gate stays down after the train
passes, do not drive around the gate. Instead,
contact your dispatcher. See Figure 10.8.
10.4.3 - Recommended Procedures
Each state has laws and regulations governing how
school buses must operate at railroad-highway
crossings. It is important for you to understand and
obey these state laws and regulations. In general,
school buses must stop at all crossings, and ensure
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 10
it is safe before proceeding across the tracks. The
specific procedures required in each state vary.
A school bus is one of the safest vehicles on the
highway. However, a school bus does not have the
slightest edge when involved in a crash with a train.
Because of a train’s size and weight it cannot stop
quickly. An emergency escape route does not exist
for a train. You can prevent school bus/train crashes
by following these recommended procedures.
•
Approaching the Crossing:





•
At the Crossing:




•
Slow down, including shifting to a lower
gear in a manual transmission bus, and test
your brakes.
Activate hazard lamps approximately 200
feet before the crossing. Make sure your
intentions are known.
Scan your surroundings and check for
traffic behind you.
Stay to the right of the roadway if possible.
Choose an escape route in the event of a
brake failure or problems behind you.
Stop no closer than 15 feet and no farther
than 50 feet from the nearest rail, where you
have the best view of the tracks.
Place the transmission in Park, or if there is
no Park shift point, in Neutral and press
down on the service brake or set the
parking brakes.
Turn off all radios and noisy equipment, and
silence the passengers.
Open the service door and driver’s window.
Look and listen for an approaching train.
Crossing the Track:




Check the crossing signals again before
proceeding.
At a multiple-track crossing, stop only
before the first set of tracks. When you are
sure no train is approaching on any track,
proceed across all of the tracks until you
have completely cleared them.
Cross the tracks in a low gear. Do not
change gears while crossing.
If the gate comes down after you have
started across, drive through it even if it
means you will break the gate.
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
10.4.4 - Special Situations
Bus Stalls or Trapped on Tracks. If your bus
stalls or is trapped on the tracks, get everyone out
of the bus and off the tracks immediately. Move
everyone far from the bus at an angle, which is both
away from the tracks and toward the train.
Police Officer at the Crossing. If a police officer
is at the crossing, obey directions. If there is no
police officer, and you believe the signal is
malfunctioning, contact your dispatcher to report the
situation and ask for instructions on how to proceed.
Obstructed View of Tracks. Plan your route so it
provides maximum sight distance at highway-rail
grade crossings. Do not attempt to cross the tracks
unless you can see far enough down the track to
know for certain that no trains are approaching. Be
especially careful at “passive” crossings. Even if
there are active railroad signals that indicate the
tracks are clear, you must look and listen to be sure
it is safe to proceed.
Containment or Storage Areas. If it won’t fit, don’t
commit! Know the length of your bus and the size
of the containment area at highway-rail crossings on
the school bus route, as well as any crossing you
encounter in the course of a school activity trip.
When approaching a crossing with a signal or stop
sign on the opposite side, pay attention to the
amount of room there. Be certain the bus has
enough containment or storage area to completely
clear the railroad tracks on the other side if there is
a need to stop. As a general rule, add 15 feet to the
length of the school bus to determine an acceptable
amount of containment or storage area.
10.5 - Student Management
10.5.1 - Don’t Deal With On-bus Problems
When Loading and Unloading
In order to get students to and from school safely
and on time, you need to be able to concentrate on
the driving task.
Loading and unloading requires all of your
concentration. Don’t take your eyes off what is
happening outside the bus.
If there is a behavior problem on the bus, wait until
the students unloading are safely off the bus and
have moved away. If necessary, pull the bus over
to handle the problem.
Appendix A- 11
10.5.2 - Handling Serious Problems
Tips on handling serious problems:
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•
•
•
•
•
Follow your school’s procedures for discipline or
refusal of rights to ride the bus.
Stop the bus. Park in a safe location off the
road, perhaps a parking lot or a driveway.
Secure the bus. Take the ignition key with you
if you leave your seat.
Stand up and speak respectfully to the offender
or offenders. Speak in a courteous manner with
a firm voice. Remind the offender of the
expected behavior. Do not show anger, but do
show that you mean business.
If a change of seating is needed, request that
the student move to a seat near you.
Never put a student off the bus except at school
or at his or her designated school bus stop. If
you feel that the offense is serious enough that
you cannot safely drive the bus, calling for a
school administrator or the police to come and
remove the student may be appropriate.
Always follow you state or local procedures for
requesting assistance.
10.6 – Antilock Braking Systems
10.6.1 - Vehicles Required to have Antilock
Braking Systems
The Department of Transportation requires that
antilock braking systems be on:
•
•
Air brakes vehicles, (trucks, buses, trailers and
converter dollies) built on or after March 1, 1998.
Hydraulically braked trucks and buses with a
gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 lbs or more
built on or after March 1, 1999.
Many buses built before these dates have been
voluntarily equipped with ABS.
ABS helps you avoid wheel lock up and maintain
control. You may or may not be able to stop faster
with ABS, but you should be able to steer around an
obstacle while braking, and avoid skids caused by
over braking.
10.6.3 - Braking With ABS
When you drive a vehicle with ABS, you should
brake as you always have. In other words:
•
•
•
Use only the braking force necessary to stop
safely and stay in control.
Brake the same way, regardless of whether you
have ABS on the bus. However, in emergency
braking, do not pump the brakes on a bus with
ABS.
As you slow down, monitor your bus and back
off the brakes (if it is safe to do so) to stay in
control.
10.6.4 - Braking if ABS is Not Working
Without ABS, you still have normal brake functions.
Drive and brake as you always have.
Vehicles with ABS have yellow malfunction lamps to
tell you if something is not working. The yellow ABS
malfunction lamp is on the bus’s instrument panel.
As a system check on newer vehicles, the
malfunction lamp comes on at start-up for a bulb
check and then goes out quickly. On older systems,
the lamp could stay on until you are driving over five
mph.
If the lamp stays on after the bulb check, or goes on
once you are under way, you may have lost ABS
control at one or more wheels.
Remember, if your ABS malfunctions, you still have
regular brakes. Drive normally, but get the system
serviced soon.
Your school bus will have a yellow ABS malfunction
lamp on the instrument panel if it is equipped with
ABS.
10.6.2 - How ABS Helps You
When you brake hard on slippery surfaces in a
vehicle without ABS, your wheels may lock up.
When your steering wheels lock up, you lose
steering control. When your other wheels lock up,
you may skid or even spin the vehicle.
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 12
10.6.5 - Safety Reminders
•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ABS does not compensate for bad driving
habits, such as driving too fast, following too
closely, or driving less carefully.
ABS won’t prevent power or turning skids–ABS
should prevent brake-induced skids but not
those caused by spinning the drive wheels or
going too fast in a turn.
ABS won’t necessarily shorten stopping
distance.
ABS will help maintain vehicle
control, but not always shorten stopping
distance.
ABS won’t increase or decrease ultimate
stopping power–ABS is an “add-on” to your
normal brakes, not a replacement for them.
ABS won’t change the way you normally brake.
Under normal brake conditions, your vehicle will
stop as it always stopped. ABS only comes into
play when a wheel would normally have locked
up because of over braking.
ABS won’t compensate for bad brakes or poor
brake maintenance.
Remember: The best vehicle safety feature is
still a safe driver.
Remember: Drive so you never need to use
your ABS.
Remember: If you need it, ABS could help to
prevent a serious crash.
•
Keep a strong grip on the steering wheel. Try to
anticipate gusts.
You should slow down to lessen the effect of the
wind, or pull off the roadway and wait.
Contact your dispatcher to get more information
on how to proceed.
10.7.3 - Backing
Backing a school bus is strongly discouraged. You
should back your bus only when you have no other
safe way to move the vehicle. You should never
back a school bus when students are outside of the
bus. Backing is dangerous and increases your risk
of a collision.
If you have no choice and you must back your bus,
follow these procedures:
•
•
•
•
•
Post a lookout, preferably inside the school bus
looking out the rear window. The purpose of the
lookout is to warn you about obstacles,
approaching persons, and other vehicles. The
lookout should not give directions on how to back
the bus.
Signal for quiet on the bus.
Constantly check all mirrors and rear windows.
Back slowly and smoothly.
If no lookout is available:
10.7 - Special Safety Considerations


10.7.1 - Strobe Lights

Some school buses are equipped with roofmounted, white strobe lights. If your bus is so
equipped, the overhead strobe light should be used
when you have limited visibility. This means that
you cannot easily see around you – in front, behind,
or beside the school bus. Your visibility could be
only slightly limited or it could be so bad that you can
see nothing at all. In all instances, understand and
obey your state or local regulations concerning the
use of these lights.
10.7.2 - Driving in High Winds
Strong winds affect the handling of the school bus!
The side of a school bus acts like a sail on a
sailboat. Strong winds can push the school bus
sideways. They can even move the school bus off
the road or, in extreme conditions, tip it over.
•
•
•
Set the parking brake.
Turn off the motor and take the keys with
you.
Walk to the rear of the bus to determine
whether the way is clear.
If you must back-up at a student pick-up point,
be sure to pick up students before backing and
watch for late comers at all times.
Be sure that all students are in the bus before
backing.
If you must back-up at a student drop-off point,
be sure to unload students after backing.
10.7.4 - Tail Swing
A school bus can have up to a three-foot tail swing.
You need to check your mirrors before and during
any turning movements to monitor the tail swing.
If you are caught in strong winds:
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 13
Section 10
Test Your Knowledge
1. Define the danger zone. How far does the
danger zone extend around the bus?
2. What should you be able to see if the outside flat
mirrors are adjusted properly? The outside
convex mirrors? The cross view mirrors?
3. You are loading students along the route. When
should you activate your alternating flashing
amber warning lamps?
4. You are unloading students along your route.
Where should students walk to after exiting the
bus?
5. After unloading at school, why should you walk
through the bus?
6. What position should students be in front of the
bus before they cross the roadway?
7. Under what conditions must you evacuate the
bus?
8. How far from the nearest rail should you stop at
a highway-rail crossing?
9. What is a passive highway-rail crossing? Why
should you be extra cautious at this type of
crossing?
10. How should you use your brakes if your vehicle
is equipped with antilock brakes (ABS)?
If you can’t answer these questions, re-read Section
10.
Commercial Driver’s Manual/2.0
Appendix A- 14
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