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Power Factor Correction
Guide for the Design and
Production of LV Power Factor
Correction Cubicles
Panel Builder Guide
2015
Panel Builder
Guide 2015
Contents
General design rules
Applicable standards and definitions
Reactive Energy Guidelines
Benefits of reactive energy management
Calculation of reactive energy
Selection of compensation mode
Effects of Harmonics
Component Selection Guide
3
12
Capacitor12
Rated Voltage and Current of Capacitor
Capacitors selection based on operating conditions
Offer overview – EasyCan, VarPlus Can & VarPlus Box
Safety features in Capacitors
Detuned Reactors23
Detuned reactors overview
Capacitor Rated Voltage with Detuned Reactors
Choice of Detuned Reactor Tuning Frequency
Offer overview- Detuned reactors
Contactors 27
Switching and Protection Devices
30
Offer overview – TeSys D Contactors
Parallel Operation of Capacitors and Inrush Current Limiting
Power Factor Controller32
Offer Overview - Varlogic power factor controller
Physical and Electrical control of PFC relay
CT and Protection Devices 37
Current Transformer
Protection Devices in APFC Panels
Switchgear selection
Installation Rules 41
Capacitor 41
Detuned Reactors 43
Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC) banks
44
Maximum kvar per step in APFC Panels
Installation rules - APFC Panels
Thermal safety in APFC panels
Protection of panels
Cable selection
Assembly, Inspection and Testing Handling 59
Installation, Commissioning and
Maintenance 62
Pre-Commissioning check lists
Installation guidelines for APFC Panels
Commissioning of APFC Panel
Periodic maintenance
52
ANNEXURE65
Annexure 1: Trouble shooting in capacitor
Annexure 2: Important analysis formulas
Design of LV compensation
cubicle
In addition to the rules and standards,
production of electrical switchboards
for the LV compensation requires
consideration of specific constraints.
1- The compensation modules
The VarPlus and EasyCan capacitors
Their positioning must ensure proper
ventilation.
Their sizing must take into account ambient
conditions (harmonics, temperature, etc…)
The Contactors
They must be suited to capacitor control.
Schneider Electric has designed and tested
specific contactors for this application.Their
control voltage must be monitored in order
to prevent rapid reclosing.
2- The Detuned Reactors (DR)
They must be chosen according to
harmonic stresses and installed in order
to avoid, as far as possible, capacitor
temperature rise.
The DR temperature sensor must be connected so
that the step can be disconnected if the temperature
is too high
Key points discussed in the
document
3- Ventilation
It must be efficient in order to keep
operating temperature lower than
maximum permissible temperature of
components.
4- The power factor controller
Its functions must be adapted to the
capacitor bank characteristics: number
and power of steps, sequence, etc. The
time delay must be adapted to capacitor
discharge time.
5- Step protection with circuit breakers
It is mandatory to use MCCB or MCB for
the individual step against over current and
short circuit protection.
Make sure to set the thermal setting of the
MCCB according to the kvar rating.
6- Low voltage network
Network characteristics, and in particular
network harmonic distortion, must
absolutely be taken into account when
choosing capacitors and detuned reactors
(if any).
7- Tests to be done after production of
the bank
At the end of the manufacturing process,
a LV switchboard must undergo various
routine inspections and tests in the factory,
following an established programme.
The switchboard must comply with :
●●the appropriate standards
●●the design file (drawings, diagrams and
specific requirements)
●●manufacturer mounting instructions
●●in-house instructions.
8- Maintenance must be done every year
One month after energising, check
all contactor terminal tightening torques.
Annual checks
●●General cleanliness of the equipment
●●Filters and ventilation system
●●Terminal tightening torques
●●Proper working order of switching and
protective devices
●●Temperature in the premises:
-5 °C to +40 °c max - for normal designs
●●Capacitor capacitance: Consult us if the
capacitance value has changed by more
than 10 %.
General Design
Rules
Applicable standards and
definitions
Applicable Standards
●●IEC 61921: (Power Capacitors- Low voltage power factor
correction banks) is the international standard applicable for Low
Voltage Power Factor Correction Banks and Automatic Power
Factor Correction (APFC) equipments intended to be used for
power factor correction purposes, equipped with built in switch
gears and control gears. The guidelines for design, installation,
operation and safety of APFC panels are followed based on this
international standard.
●●IEC 60831: Part 1 & 2-Shunt power capacitors of the self healing
type for a.c systems having rated voltage up to and including 1kV.
●●IEC 61439-1: Low voltage switchgear and control gear
assemblies. Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear
and control gear assemblies intended to be installed in places
where unskilled persons have access for their use-Distribution
boards.
●●IEC 60947: Low Voltage Switchgear
Part 2: Molded Case Circuit Breakers & Air circuit Breakers
Part 4: Power Contactors
Part 4-3: Thyristor Switch
●●IEC 60076-6: Reactors.
●●IEC 60529: Degree of protection provided by enclosure (IP
code).
●●IEC 60664-1 / IEC 61326: Power Factor Controller.
●●IEC 62208: Empty enclosures for low-voltage switchgear and
controlgear assemblies – General requirements.
Definitions
The design of the APFC equipment involves the following major
parts and the selection of these depends very much on the above
system conditions.
Enclosure: protects the APFC system components against the
external solid or liquid particles and also provide protection for
human beings.
PFC Controller: Is the brain of the APFC system, which
switches ON / OFF the steps depending on the kvar required in
order to maintain the PF close to unity.
Bus bars: Bus bar is the electrical conducting path, to which all
the components in the APFC system are connected.
Switchgears: Switchgears are the devices which control the
circuit under faulty and normal conditions. Switchgears protect the
APFC system against faulty conditions.
Cables: Cables are used to connect various components
in the steps. Proper cable sizing has to be considered for a
particular step depending on the rated current and the operating
temperature in order to link the various components of the system.
Cables loop the power circuit & control circuit in the system.
Protection devices: Protection has to be provided to
safeguard the capacitors and other components due to
abnormalities in the system. The incoming switchgear of the APFC
system should be tripped by protective devices.
3
General Design
Rules
Reactors: Reactors are used in steps as detuned filters and
are connected in series with capacitors. It must be designed to
withstand fundamental and harmonic currents.
Capacitors: Capacitors forms the core component in APFC
equipment and plays a vital role in power factor correction. Proper
selection of capacitors is very much necessary to comply with the
applications.
Note: The above components are explained further in details
Glossary
ACB
MCCB HRC SMC
DMC
: Air Circuit Breaker
: Molded Case Circuit Breaker
: High Rupture Capacity Fuse
: Sheet Molding Compound
: Dough Molding Compound
4
Reactive Energy Guidelines
General Design
Rules
DE90087.eps
Principle of reactive energy management
All AC electrical networks consume two types of power: active
power (kW) and reactive power (kvar):
●●The active power P (in kW) is the real power transmitted to
loads such as motors, lamps, heaters, computers … The electrical
active power is transformed into mechanical power, heat or light.
●●The reactive power Q (in kvar) is used only to supply the
magnetic circuits of machines, motors and transformers.
●●The apparent power S (in kVA) is the vector combination of
active and reactive power.
In this representation, the Power Factor (P/S) is equal to cosφ.
The circulation of reactive power in the electrical network has
major technical and economic consequences. For the same active
power P, a higher reactive power means a higher apparent power
and thus, a higher current must be supplied.
- The circulation of active power over time is resulting in active
energy (in kWh).
DE90071_r.eps
- The circulation of reactive power over time is resulting in reactive
energy (kvarh).
- In an electrical circuit, the reactive energy is supplied in addition
to the active energy.
Power
generation
Active energy
Reactive energy
Transmission
network
Active energy
Motor
Reactive energy
Reactive energy supplied and billed by the energy supplier
DE90088.eps
Power
generation
Active energy
Q
Motor
Reactive energy
Capacitors
Qc
Power
generation
DE90071_r.eps
Transmission
network
Active energy
Power
generation
Active energy
Reactive energy
Active energy
Transmission
network
Transmission
network
Active energy
Motor
Reactive energy
Active energy
Motor
Reactive energy
Capacitors
Due to this higher supplied current, circulation of reactive energy
on distribution networks results in:
●●Overload of transformers,
●●Higher temperature rise of the supply cables,
●●Additional losses,
●●Large voltage drops,
●●Higher energy consumption and cost,
●●Less distributed active power.
For these reasons, there is a great advantage to generate reactive
energy at the load level in order to prevent the unnecessary
circulation of current in the network. This is what is known as
“Power Factor Correction”.
This is obtained by the connection of capacitors, which produce
reactive energy in opposition to the energy absorbed by loads
such as motors.
The result is a reduced apparent power, and an improved power
factor P/S’ as illustrated on the diagram on the left.
The power generation and transmission networks are partially
relieved, reducing power losses and making additional
transmission capability available.
The reactive power is supplied by capacitors.
No billing of reactive power by the energy supplier.
5
Benefits of reactive energy
management
General Design
Rules
Optimized management of reactive energy brings economic and
technical advantages.
Savings on the electricity bill:
●●Eliminating penalties on reactive energy and decreasing kVA
demand,
●●Reducing power losses generated in the transformers and
conductors of the installation.
Example:
Loss reduction in a 630 kVA transformer
PW = 6,500 W with an initial Power Factor = 0.7.
With power factor correction, we obtain a final Power Factor =
0.98
The losses become: 3,316 W, i.e. a reduction of 49%.
Increasing available power:
Power factor Increased available power
0.7
0%
0.8
+14%
0.85
+21%
0.90
+28%
0.95
+36%
1 +43%
Power factor
Cable cross-section multiplying factor
1
1
0.80
1.25
0.60
1.67
0.40
2.50
A high power factor optimizes an electrical installation by allowing
a better usage of the components.
The power available at the secondary of an MV/LV transformer
can therefore be increased by fitting power factor correction
equipment at the low voltage side.
The table shows the increased available power at the transformer
output by improvement of Power Factor from 0.7 to 1.
Reducing the installation size
Installing power factor correction equipment allows the conductors
cross-section to be reduced, since less current is absorbed by the
compensated installation for the same active power.
The table in the left shows the multiplying factor for the conductor
cross-section according to the different values of power factor.
Reducing the voltage drops on installation
Installing capacitors allows the voltage drops to be reduced
upstream of the point where the power factor correction device is
connected. It avoids the overload of the network and allows the
diminution of harmonics so that no overrating of the installation is
necessary.
Reduction in electricity bill
Reduction in kvar Demand
Reduction in kVA Demand
Reduction in Line Current
Reduction
in Transformer
Rating
Reduced Loading
on Transformer
Reduction in Switchgear rating
Reduction in Line losses / Cable losses
Improvement in voltage regulations
6
General Design
Rules
Power Factor Correction guidelines
The selection of the Power Factor Correction equipment can
follow a 4-step process:
1. Calculation of the requested reactive energy,
2. Selection of the compensation mode:
●●Global, for the complete installation,
●●By sectors,
●●For individual loads, such as large motors.
3. Selection of the compensation type:
●●Fixed, by connection of a fixed-value capacitor bank,
●●Automatic, by connection of different number of steps, allowing
the adjustment of the reactive energy to the requested value,
●●Dynamic, for compensation of highly fluctuating loads.
4. Taking account of operating conditions and
harmonics
7
Calculation of Reactive Energy Based on
the Application
General Design
Rules
Leakage reactance
reactive power
= Z % x Transformer rating
Transformer
Xo1
Xo
Ro
Ro1
Load
No Load reactive
Power = 2% of
Transformer rating
The transformer works on the principle of Mutual Induction. The
transformer will consume reactive power for magnetizing purpose.
Following equivalent circuit of transformer provides the details of
reactive power demand inside the transformer:
kVA rating of Transformer
kvar required for No-Load compensation
Up to and including 2000 kVA
2% of kVA rating
Power Factor Correction where Load and present
Power Factor is Known
The objective is to determine the requested reactive power QC
(kvar) to be installed, in order to improve the power factor cosφ
and reduce the apparent power S.
DE90088.eps
Q
Power Factor Correction for Transformer no-load
compensation
Qc
For φ’ < φ, we’ll get: cosφ’ > cosφ and tanφ’ < tanφ.
This is illustrated on the diagram in the left.
QC can be determined from the formula: QC = P. (tanφ - tanφ‘),
which is deduced from the diagram.
QC :
power of the capacitor bank, in kvar
P :
active power, in kW
tanφ: tangent of the phase angle - before compensation,
tanφ‘: tangent of the phase angle - after compensation
The parameters φ and tanφ can be obtained from the billing data,
or from direct measurement in the installation.
The following table can be used for direct determination.
Before compensation
tanφ
cosφ
Note: It is widely accepted to use a thumb rule
that Motor compensation required in kvar is equal
to 33% of the Motor Rating in HP.
But it is always suggested to check the name
plate of a motor and find out the kvar required
using the above mentioned method (using the
above table) for accurate compensation.
Reactive power (kvar) to be installed per kW of load,
in order to get the requested tanφ’ or cosφ’
tanφ’ 0.75
0.62 0.48
0.41
0.33 0.23
0.00
cosφ’ 0.8
0.85 0.9
0.925 0.95 0.975 1.00
1.73
0.5
0.98
1.11
1.25
1.32
1.40
1.50
1.73
1.02
0.7
0.27
0.40
0.54
0.61
0.69
0.79
1.02
0.96
0.72
0.21
0.34
0.48
0.55
0.64
0.74
0.96
0.91
0.74
0.16
0.29
0.42
0.50
0.58
0.68
0.91
0.86
0.76
0.11
0.24
0.37
0.44
0.53
0.63
0.86
0.80
0.78
0.05
0.18
0.32
0.39
0.47
0.57
0.80
0.75
0.8
0.13
0.27
0.34
0.42
0.52
0.75
0.70
0.82
0.08
0.21
0.29
0.37
0.47
0.70
0.65
0.84
0.03
0.16
0.24
0.32
0.42
0.65
0.59
0.86
0.11
0.18
0.26
0.37
0.59
0.54
0.88
0.06
0.13
0.21
0.31
0.54
0.48
0.9
0.07
0.16
0.26
0.48
Example:
Consider one 1000kW motor with cosφ 0.8 (tanφ = 0.75).
In order to get cosφ’= 0.95, it is necessary to install a capacitor
bank with a reactive power equal to
k x P, i.e. : Qc = 0.42 x 1000 = 420 kvar
8
Selection of the compensation mode
General Design
Rules
The location of low-voltage capacitors in an installation constitutes
the mode of compensation, which may be global (one location
for the entire installation), by sectors (section-by-section), at load
level, or some combination of the latter two. In principle, the ideal
compensation is applied at a point of consumption and at the level
required at any instant.
Supply Bus
Transformer
In practice, technical and economic factors govern the choice.
Circuit breaker
The place for connection of capacitor banks in the electrical
network is determined by:
CC
GC
GC
IC
IC
M
IC
M
CC : Central Compensation
GC : Group Compensation
IC : Individual Compensation
M : Motor Load
IC
M
M
●●Global objective (avoid penalties on reactive energy, relieve of
transformer or cables, avoid voltage drops and sags),
●●Operating mode (stable or fluctuating loads),
●●Foreseeable influence of capacitors on the network
characteristics,
●●Installation cost.
Global compensation
The capacitor bank is connected at the head of the installation
to be compensated in order to provide reactive energy for the
whole installation. This configuration is convenient for stable and
continuous load factor.
Compensation by sectors
The capacitor bank is connected at the head of the feeders
supplying one particular sector to be compensated. This
configuration is convenient for a wide installation, with workshops
having different load factors.
Compensation of individual loads
The capacitor bank is connected right at the inductive load
terminals (especially large motors). This configuration is well
adapted when the load power is significant compared to the
subscribed power. This is the technical ideal configuration, as
the reactive energy is produced exactly where it is needed, and
adjusted to the demand.
9
General Design
Rules
Selection of the compensation type
Different types of compensation shall be adopted depending on
the performance requirements and complexity of control:
●●Fixed, by connection of a fixed-value capacitor bank,
●●Automatic, by connection of different number of steps, allowing
the adjustment of the reactive energy to the requested value,
●●Dynamic, for compensation of highly fluctuating loads.
Fixed compensation
This arrangement uses one or more capacitor(s) to provide a
constant level of compensation. Control may be:
●●Manual: by circuit-breaker or load-break switch,
●●Semi-automatic: by contactor,
●●Direct connection to an appliance and switched with it.
These capacitors are applied:
●●At the terminals of inductive loads (mainly motors),
●●At bus bars supplying numerous small motors and inductive
appliances for which individual compensation would be too costly,
●●In cases where the load factor is reasonably constant.
Automatic compensation
This kind of compensation provides automatic control and adapts
the quantity of reactive power to the variations of the installation
in order to maintain the targeted cos φ. The equipment is applied
at points in an installation where the active-power and/or reactivepower variations are relatively large, for example:
●●At the busbars of a main distribution switch-board,
●●At the terminals of a heavily-loaded feeder cable.
Where the kvar rating of the capacitors is less than, or equal
to 15% of the supply transformer rating, a fixed value of
compensation is appropriate. Above the 15% level, it is advisable
to install an automatically-controlled bank of capacitors.
Control is usually provided by contactors. For compensation of
highly fluctuating loads, fast and highly repetitive connection of
capacitors is necessary, and static switches must be used.
Dynamic compensation
This kind of compensation is requested when fluctuating loads are
present, and voltage fluctuations should be avoided. The principle
of dynamic compensation is to associate a fixed capacitor bank
and an electronic var compensator, providing either leading or
lagging reactive currents.
The result is a continuously varying and fast compensation,
perfectly suitable for loads such as lifts, crushers, spot welding …
10
Effects of Harmonics
General Design
Rules
Harmonics in electrical installations
The presence of harmonics in electrical systems means that
current and voltage are distorted and deviate from sinusoidal
waveforms.
Harmonic currents are currents circulating in the networks and
which frequency is an integer multiple of the supply frequency.
Harmonic currents are caused by non-linear loads connected
to the distribution system. A load is said to be non-linear when
the current it draws does not have the same waveform as the
supply voltage. The flow of harmonic currents through system
impedances in turn creates voltage harmonics, which distort the
supply voltage.
The most common non-linear loads generating harmonic currents
are using power electronics, such as variable speed drives,
rectifiers, inverters, etc…. Loads such as saturable reactors,
welding equipment, arc furnaces, also generate harmonics.
Other loads such as inductors, resistors and capacitors are linear
loads and do not generate harmonics.
Influence of Harmonics in Capacitors
Capacitors are particularly sensitive to harmonic currents since
their impedance decreases proportionally to the order of the
harmonics present. This can result in a capacitor overload,
shortening steadily its operating life. In some extreme situations,
resonance can occur, resulting in an amplification of harmonic
currents and a very high voltage distortion.
Amplification of Harmonic currents is very high when the natural
resonance frequency of the capacitor and the network combined
happens to be close to any of the harmonic frequencies present.
This situation could result in severe over voltages and overloads
which will lead to premature failure of capacitors
To ensure a good and proper operation of the electrical
installation, the harmonic level must be taken into account in the
selection of the power factor correction equipment. A significant
parameter is the cumulated power of the non-linear loads
generating harmonic currents.
Equipment
Effect of Harmonics
Motor
Over heating, production of non-uniform torque,increased vibration
Over heating and insulation failure, noise
Transformer
Switch gear and cables
Capacitors
Life reduces drastically due to harmonic overloading
Protective Relays
Malfunction and nuisance tripping
Power electronic equipment
Misfiring of Thyristors and failure of semiconductor devices
Control & instrumentation
Electronic equipment
Erratic operation followed by nuisance tripping and breakdowns
Communication equipment /
PC’s
Neutral cable
Telecommunication equipment
11
Neutral link failure, increased losses due to skin effect and over
heating of cables
Interference
Higher Neutral current with 3rd harmonic frequency, Neutral over
heating and or open neutral condition
Telephonic interference, malfunction of sensitive electronics used,
failure of telecom hardware
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
Rated voltage and current of
Capacitor
According to IEC 60831-1 standard, the rated voltage (UN) of a
capacitor is defined as the continuously admissible operating
voltage.
The rated current (IN) of a capacitor is the current flowing through
the capacitor when the rated voltage (UN) is applied at its
terminals, supposing a purely sinusoidal voltage and the exact
value of reactive power (kvar) generated.
Capacitor units shall be suitable for continuous operation at an
r.m.s. current of (1.3 x IN).
In order to accept system voltage fluctuations, capacitors
are designed to sustain over-voltages of limited duration. For
compliance to the standard, capacitors are for example requested
to sustain over-voltages equal to 1.1 times UN, 8h per 24h.
VarPlus range of capacitors have been designed and tested
extensively to operate safely on industrial networks. The design
margin allows operation on networks including voltage fluctuations
and common disturbances. Capacitors can be selected with their
rated voltage corresponding to the network voltage. For different
levels of expected disturbances, different technologies are
proposed, with larger design margin for capacitors adapted to the
most stringent working conditions.
CAUTION: the life expectancy will be reduced if capacitors are used at the
maximum level of the working conditions.
Admissible voltage levels in service as per IEC 60831
(Edition 2:1996 consolidated with amendment 1:2002)
Voltage factor x UN r.m.s.
Maximum duration
Observations
1,00 Continuous Highest average value during any period of capacitor energisation. For energization periods less than 24h, exeptions apply as indicated below (see clause 29).
1,10 8h in every 24h System voltage regulation and fluctuations
1,15 30min in every 24h System voltage regulation and fluctuations
1,20 5min 1,30 1 min
Voltage rise at light load (see clause 29)
12
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
Capacitor Selection Based on
operating conditions
The operating conditions have a great influence on the life
expectancy of capacitors. For this reason, different categories
of capacitors, with different withstand levels, must be selected
according to operating conditions.
Capacitors must be selected in function of the following
parameters:
●●Ambient Temperature (°C),
●●Expected over-current, related to voltage disturbances, including
maximum sustained over voltage,
●●Maximum number of switching operations/year,
●●Requested life expectancy.
Capacitors are particularly sensitive to harmonics. Depending on
the magnitude of harmonics in the network, different configurations
shall be adopted.
Different ranges with different levels of ruggedness are proposed:
EasyCan: Standard duty capacitors for standard operating
conditions, and when no significant non-linear loads are present.
VarPlus: Heavy duty capacitors for difficult operating conditions,
particularly voltage disturbances, or when a few non-linear loads
are present. The rated current of capacitors must be increased in
order to cope with the circulation of harmonic currents.
VarPlus Box Energy: Specially designed capacitors, for harsh
operating conditions, particularly high temperature.
DB121413.eps
Capacitors with detuned reactors: applicable when a significant
number of non-linear loads are present.
Tuned filters: when non-linear loads are predominant, requesting
harmonic mitigation. A special design is generally necessary,
based on on-site measurements and computer simulations of the
network.
Since the harmonics are caused by non-linear loads, an indicator
for the magnitude of harmonics is the ratio of the total power of
non-linear loads to the supply transformer rating.
This ratio is noted NLL, and is also known as Gh/Sn:
NLL =
Total power of non-linear loads (Gh)
Installed transformer rating (Sn)
Example:
Supply transformer rating: Sn = 630 kVA
Total power of non-linear loads: Gh = 150 kVA
NLL= (150/630) x 100 = 24%
13
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
DE90182.eps
Capacitor selection taking account of harmonics
The percentage of non-linear loads NLL is a first indicator for the
magnitude of harmonics. The proposed selection of capacitors
depending on the value of NLL is given in the diagram below.
Supply
transformer
Measure
THDi, THDu
NLL (%)
10
20
25
50
EasyCan
VarPlus
Linear loads
Non-linear
loads
VarPlus
with Detuned Reactor
A more detailed estimation of the magnitude of harmonics can
be made with measurements. Significant indicators are current
harmonic distortion THDi and voltage harmonic distortion THDu,
measured at the transformer secondary, with no capacitors
connected. According to the measured distortion, different
technologies of capacitors shall be selected:
THDi (%)
5
8
3
5
10
20
EasyCan
VarPlus
VarPlus
with Detuned Reactor
THDu (%)
6
8
EasyCan
VarPlus
VarPlus
with Detuned Reactor
Note:
The capacitor technology has to be selected according to the most restrictive
measurement. Example, a measurement is giving the following results :
- THDi = 15 % Harmonic solution.
- THDu = 3.5 % HDuty / Energy solution.
VarPlus with Detuned Reactor has to be selected.
User Tip:
All the above given values are indicative. It is highly recommended to do a
harmonic study and detailed load study before selecting the compensation type.
Please contact Schneider Electric for support.
14
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
Solution
Description
Recommended use for
Max. condition
EasyCan
Standard capacitor
●● Networks with non significant non-linear loads
●● Standard over-current
●● Standard operating temperature
●● Normal switching frequency
●● Standard life expectancy
NLL ≤ 10%
1.5 IN
55°C (class D)
5,000/year
Up to 100,000 h*
VarPlus Can
Heavy-duty
capacitor
●● Few non-linear loads
●● Significant over-current
●● Standard operating temperature
●● Significant switching frequency
●● Long life expectancy
NLL ≤ 20%
1.8 IN
55°C (class D)
7,000/year
Up to 130,000 h*
●● Significant number of non-linear loads (up to 25%)
●● Significant over-current
●● Extreme temperature conditions
●● Very frequent switching
●● Extra long life expectancy
NLL ≤ 25%
1.5 IN
70°C
10,000/year
Up to 160,000 h*
●● High level of non-linear loads (up to 30%)
●● Significant over-current
●● Standard operating temperature
●● Significant switching frequency
●● Long life expectancy
NLL ≤ 30%
1.8 IN
55°C (class D)
7,000/year
Up to 130,000 h*
●● High level of non-linear loads (up to 30%)
●● Significant over-current
●● Extreme temperature conditions
●● Very frequent switching
●● Extra long life expectancy
NLL ≤ 30%
2.5 IN
70°C (class D)
10,000/year
Up to 160,000 h*
or Box
VarPlus Box
Energy
Capacitor for
special conditions
VarPlus +
Detuned
Reactor
Heavy-duty,
harmonic rated
capacitor +
detuned reactor
Energy,
VarPlus Energy + harmonic rated
Detuned Reactor
capacitor +
detuned reactor
*The maximum life expectancy is given considering standard operating conditions:
service voltage(UN), service current(IN), 35°C ambient temperature.
WARNING: The life expectancy will be reduced if capacitors are used in maximum
working conditions.
15
EasyCan
An easy choice for savings which is optimized
to deliver the performance you need. Suitable
for standard operating conditions to deliver safe
and reliable performance.
Operating conditions
Group of 2 EC Caps.jpg
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
●● For networks with insignificant non-linear loads: (NLL ≤ 10 %).
●● Standard voltage disturbances.
●● Standard operating temperature up to 55 °C.
●● Normal switching frequency up to 5 000 /year.
●● Maximum current (including harmonics) is 1.5 x IN.
Easy installation & maintenance
●● Optimized design for low weight, compactness and reliability to ensure easy
installation and up to 20% space savings in cubicles.
●● New CLAMPTITE terminals that allows maintained tightness.
●● Non accessaile in-built discharge resistors to ensure safety.
●● 1 point for mounting and earthing.
●● 3 phase simultaneous safe disconnection at end of life.
●● Stacked design and resin filled technology for better cooling.
Safety
●● Self-healing.
●● Pressure-sensitive disconnector on all three phases.
●● Discharge resistors fitted - non removable.
●● Finger-proof CLAMPTITE terminals to reduce risk of accidental contact and to
ensure firm termination (10 to 30 kvar).
Technology
Constructed internally with three single-phase capacitor elements assembled in
an optimized design. Each capacitor element is manufactured with metallized
polypropylene film.
The active capacitor elements are encapsulated in a specially formulated
biodegradable, non-PCB, polyurethane soft resin which ensures thermal stability
and heat removal from inside the capacitor.
EasyCan
The unique finger-proof CLAMPTITE termination is fully integrated with discharge
resistors and allows suitable access to tightening and allows cable termination
without any loose connections.
For lower ratings, double fast-on terminals with wires are provided.
Benefits
●● Easy installation
●● Easy for reliablity and safe usage.
●● Easy for quality assurance.
●● Easy choice for building your solutions with other Schneider Electric
components.
●● Easy choice for savings.
16
EasyCan03_Back.eps
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
EasyCan
Technical specifications
General characteristics
Standards
IEC 60831-1/2
Voltage range
230 to 525 V
Frequency
50 / 60 Hz
Power range
1 to 30 kvar
Losses (dielectric)
< 0.2 W / kvar
Losses (total)
< 0.5 W / kvar
Capacitance tolerance
Voltage test
-5 %, +10 %
Between terminals
2.15 x UN (AC), 10 s
Between terminal
& container
3 kV (AC), 10 s or
3.66 kV (AC), 2 s
Impulse voltage
8 kV
Discharge resistor
Working conditions
Fitted, standard discharge time 60 s
Ambient temperature
-25 / 55 °C (Class D)
Humidity
95 %
Altitude
2,000 m above sea level
Overvoltage
1.1 x UN 8 h in every 24 h
Overcurrent
Up to 1.5 x IN
Peak inrush current
200 x IN
Switching operations (max.)
Up to 5 ,000 switching operations per year
Mean Life expectancy
Up to 100,000 hrs
Harmonic content withstand
NLL ≤ 10 %
Installation characteristics
Mounting position
Indoor, upright
Fastening
Threaded M12 stud at the bottom
Earthing
Terminals
Safety features
CLAMPTITE - three-way terminal with electric shock
protection (finger-proof) & double fast-on terminal in
lower kvar
Safety
Self-healing + Pressure-sensitive
disconnector + Discharge device
Protection
IP20 (for fast-on and clamptite)
Construction
Casing
Extruded Aluminium Can
Dielectric
Metallized polypropylene film with Zn/Al alloy
Impregnation
Biodegradable, Non-PCB, poly urethane soft resin
WARNING
HAZARD OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK
Wait 5 minutes after isolating supply before handling
Failure to follow these instructions can result in injury or
equipment damage
17
VarPlus Can
A safe, reliable, high-performance and flexible
solution for power factor correction in stringent
operating conditions to maximise your savings
Operating conditions
Group of 3 Caps.jpg
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
●● For networks with insignificant non-linear loads: (NLL < 20 %).
●● Significant voltage disturbances.
●● Standard operating temperature up to 55 °C.
●● Normal switching frequency up to 7 000 /year.
●● Over current handling(including harmonics) up to 1.8 x IN.
High performance and flexibility with VarPlus Can
●● Power ratings up to 50kvar in single can and compactness across the range to
reduce your cubicle space up to 40%.
●● Build your type tested Schneider electric solution with VarPlus Can – Prisma,
Blokset and Okken.
●● In-built user assistance and warnings on the product for a delight user
experience.
●● Flexibility in Vertical and horizontal mounting.
●● 3 Phase disconnection of Pressure sensitive disconnector at the end of life which
is independent of mechanical assembly for safety and reliability.
●● Use of special conductors in stacked design impregnated in resin to ensure
better cooling and enhanced life.
●● Metallized polypropylene with wave cut and heavy edge technology to handle
over current conditions in harsh environments.
●● Specially formulated sticky resin to increase the mechanical stability of capacitor
elements for higher rating capacitors to ensure better cooling and extended life.
●● Designed for high performance in harsh environment to ensure 30% extended
life compared to standard capacitors.
VarPlus Can
Safety
●● Self-healing.
●● Pressure-sensitive disconnector on all three phases independent of mechanical
assembly.
●● Tamper resistant non-assessible in-built discharge resistors.
●● Unique Finger-proof New CLAMPTITE terminals to reduce risk of accidental
contact and to ensure firm termination (10 to 30 kvar) and maintained tightness.
●● Special film resistivity and metallization profile for higher thermal efficiency, lower
temperature rise and enhanced life expectancy.
Technology
VarPlus Can capacitors are constructed internally with three single-phase capacitor
elements. Each capacitor element is manufactured with metallized polypropylene
film as the dielectric, having features such as heavy edge, slope metallization
and wave-cut profile to ensure increased current handling capacity and reduced
temperature rise.
Sticky resign which give good thermal conductivity and mechanical stability allows
the capacitor to carry higher overloads.
Stud type terminals are designed for handling higher currents for capacitors more
than 30kvar.
The unique finger-proof CLAMPTITE termination is fully integrated with discharge
resistors, allowing suitable access for tightening and ensuring cable termination
without any loose connections.
For lower ratings, double fast-on terminals with wires are provided.
Benefits
●● Save panel space due to its compact design and range.
●● High Performance & Long life.
●● High over current handling.
●● Unique disconnection system and in-built discharge device.
●● Flexibility in installation - upright and horizontal.
18
VarPlusCan02_Back.eps
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
VarPlus Can
Technical specifications
General characteristics
Standards
IEC 60831-1/2
Voltage range
230 to 830 V
Frequency
50 / 60 Hz
Power range
1 to 50 kvar
Losses (dielectric)
< 0.2 W / kvar
Losses (total)
< 0.5 W / kvar
Capacitance tolerance
Voltage test
-5 %, +10 %
Between terminals
2.15 x UN (AC), 10 s
Between terminal
& container
≤ 525 V: 3 kV (AC), 10 s or 3.66 kV (AC), 2 s
> 525 V: 3.66 kV (AC), 10 s or 4.4 kV (AC), 2 s
Impulse voltage
≤ 690 V: 8 kV
> 690 V: 12 kV
Discharge resistor
Working conditions
Fitted, standard discharge time 60 s
Ambient temperature
-25 / 55 °C (Class D)
Humidity
95 %
Altitude
2,000 m above sea level
Overvoltage
1.1 x UN 8 h in every 24 h
Overcurrent
Up to 1.8 x IN
Peak inrush current
250 x IN
Switching operations (max.)
Up to 7 ,000 switching operations per year
Mean Life expectancy
Up to 130,000 hrs
Harmonic content withstand
NLL ≤ 20 %
Installation characteristics
Mounting position
Indoor, upright & horizontal
Fastening
Threaded M12 stud at the bottom
Earthing
Terminals
Safety features
CLAMPTITE - three-way terminal with electric shock
protection (finger-proof) and, double fast-on terminal in
lower kvar and stud type above 30kvar
Safety
Self-healing + Pressure-sensitive disconnector +
Discharge device
Protection
IP20 (for fast-on and clamptite terminal)
Construction
Casing
Extruded Aluminium Can
Dielectric
Metallized polypropylene film with Zn/Al alloy.
Special resistivity & profile, special edge (wave-cut)
Impregnation
Non-PCB, polyurethene sticky resin (Dry)
WARNING
HAZARD OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK
Wait 5 minutes after isolating supply before handling
Failure to follow these instructions can result in injury or
equipment damage
19
VarPlus Box
A robust, safe, reliable and high-performance
solution for power factor correction in standard
operating conditions.
Operating conditions
PE90134_L28_r.eps
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
●● Optimum solution for stand alone PF compensation
●● For networks with significant non-linear loads (NLL ≤ 20 %).
●● Standard operating temperature up to 55 °C.
●● Significant number of switching operations up to 7,000/year.
●● Long life expectancy up to 130,000 hours.
VarPlus Box – Answer for high performance with robustness
Robustness
●● Double metallic protection.
●● Mechanically well suited for “stand-alone” installations.
Safety
●● Its unique safety feature electrically disconnects the capacitors safely at the end
of their useful life.
●● The disconnectors are installed on each phase, which makes the capacitors very
safe, in addition to the protective steel enclosure.
●● Use of Aluminum inside the steel enclosure eliminates the risk of any fire
hazards unlike with plastic cells.
High performance
●● Heavy edge metallization/wave-cut edge to ensure high inrush current
capabilities and high current handling.
●● Special resistivity and profile metallization for better self-healing & enhanced life.
Technology
Constructed internally with three single-phase capacitor elements.
VarPlus Can
The design is specially adapted for mechanical stability. The enclosures of the
units are designed to ensure that the capacitors operate reliably in hot and humid
tropical conditions, without the need of any additional ventilation louvres (see
technical specifications).
Special attention is paid to equalization of temperatures within the capacitor
enclosures since this gives better overall performance.
Benefits
●● Robustness with double metal protection (Aluminum cans inside steel box)
●● Suitable for individual compensation with stand alone installation.
□□ Direct connection to a machine, in harsh environmental conditions.
●● Dual safety
□□ Pressure Sensitive Disconnector(PSD) in aluminum cans with metal enclosure
20
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
VarPlus Box
Technical specifications
General characteristics
Standards
IEC 60831-1/2
Voltage range
400 to 830 V
Frequency
50 / 60 Hz
Power range
5 to 60 kvar
Losses (dielectric)
< 0.2 W / kvar
Losses (total)
< 0.5 W / kvar
Capacitance tolerance
Voltage test
-5 %, +10 %
Between terminals
2.15 x UN (AC), 10 s
Between terminal
& container
≤ 525 V: 3 kV (AC), 10 s or 3.66 kV (AC), 2 s
> 525 V: 3.66 kV (AC), 10 s or 4.4 kV (AC), 2 s
Impulse voltage
≤ 690 V: 8 kV
> 690 V: 12 kV
Discharge resistor
Working conditions
Fitted, standard discharge time 60 s
Ambient temperature
-25 / 55 °C (Class D)
Humidity
95 %
Altitude
2,000 m above sea level
Overvoltage
1.1 x UN 8h in every 24 h
Overcurrent
Up to 1.8 x IN
Peak inrush current
250 x IN
Switching operations (max.)
Up to 7,000 switching operations per year
Mean Life expectancy
Up to 130,000 hrs
Harmonic content withstand
NLL ≤ 20 %
Installation characteristics
Mounting position
Indoor, upright
Fastening
Mounting cleats
Earthing
Terminals
Safety features
Bushing terminals designed for large cable termination
Safety
Self-healing + Pressure-sensitive
disconnector for each phase + Discharge device
Protection
IP20
Construction
Casing
Sheet steel enclosure
Dielectric
Metallized polypropylene film with Zn/Al alloy.
special resistivity & profile. Special edge (wave-cut)
Impregnation
Non-PCB, polyurethene sticky resin.
WARNING
HAZARD OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK
Wait 5 minutes after isolating supply before handling
Failure to follow these instructions can result in injury or
equipment damage
21
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Capacitors
Safety features in Capacitors
T+12+2
DB403285
DB403284
T
Pressure Sensitive Disconnector (PSD)
Three phase Pressure Sensitive Disconnector is provided to
disconnect all three phases simultaneously at the end of life
of every capacitor. This unique technology ensures the safe
disconnection of capacitor at the end of its service life.
Repeated self healing process over a period of time or
instantaneous due to faults, generates gases inside the capacitor
which will lead the pressure sensitive disconnector to operate.
Pressure can lead to vertical expansion of pressure sensitive
disconnector by bending the lid outwards. Connecting wires break
at intended spots to ensure safe disconnection of all three phases.
Once the PSD operates capacitors will be disconnected
irreversibly.
(a)
(b)
Figure 1 - (a) Metal layer - (b) Polypropylene film
Self Healing
An electric breakdown is possible in the capacitor films due to
electric or mechanical over stress. Due to this a small area of
metallization will get evaporated and the capacitor will continue to
be in service. Continuation of these phenomena will reduce the
capacitance value as well as life of the capacitor over a period of
time.
Self-healing is a process by which the capacitor restores itself in
the event of a fault in the dielectric which can happen during high
overloads, voltage transients, etc.
Figure 2
When insulation breaks down, a short duration arc is formed
(figure 1).
The intense heat generated by this arc causes the metallization in
the vicinity of the arc to vaporise (figure 2).
Simultaneously it re-insulates the electrodes and maintains the
operation and integrity of the capacitor (figure 3).
Figure 3
Discharge Resistors
A charged Capacitor must be discharged before re-switching, to
prevent premature failure. Built-in discharge resistors are used for
discharging the capacitor with a delay of one minute as discharge
time.
Caution!
Do not touch the Capacitor Terminals before Discharging.
22
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Detuned Reactors
Detuned Reactors Overview
Reactors have to be associated to capacitor banks for Power
Factor Correction in systems with significant non-linear loads,
generating harmonics.
Capacitors and reactors are configured in a series resonant circuit,
tuned so that the series resonant frequency is below the lowest
harmonic frequency present in the system. For this reason, this
configuration is usually called “Detuned Capacitor Bank”, and the
reactors referred as “Detuned Reactors”.
The use of detuned reactors thus prevents harmonic resonance
problems, avoids the risk of overloading the capacitors and
contributes to reducing voltage harmonic distortion in the network.
The tuning frequency can be expressed by the relative impedance
of the reactor (in %), or by the tuning order, or directly in Hz.
The most common values of relative impedance are 5.7, 7 and
14%. (14% is used with high level of 3rd harmonic voltages).
Relative Tuning order
impedance (%)
Tuning frequency
@50Hz (Hz)
Tuning frequency
@60Hz (Hz)
5.7
4.2
210
250
7
3.8
190
230
14
2.7
135
160
The selection of the tuning frequency of the reactor capacitor
depends on multiple factors:
●●Presence of zero-sequence harmonics (3, 9, …),
●●Need for reduction of the harmonic distortion level,
●●Optimization of the capacitor and reactor components.
●●Frequency of ripple control system if any.
To prevent disturbances of the remote control installation, the
tuning frequency is to be selected at a lower value than the ripple
control frequency.
In a detuned filter application, the voltage across the capacitors is
higher than the nominal system voltage. Then, capacitors must be
designed to withstand higher voltages.
Depending on the selected tuning frequency, part of the harmonic
currents is absorbed by the detuned capacitor bank. Then,
capacitors must be designed to withstand higher currents,
combining fundamental and harmonic currents.
Working limits
In order to avoid any overload of detuned reactors and capacitors,
maximum values of voltage distortion have to be respected.
Harmonic voltages and THDu have to be measured at the
transformer secondary, with the capacitors connected. The current
through the capacitors has to be compared to the rated value.
Imp/IN is the ratio of the maximum permissible current to the rated
current of the capacitor.
The maximum permissible current limit values are given in the
page no. 26.
23
Capacitors rated voltage with
Detuned Reactor
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Detuned Reactors
VarPlus or EasyCan capacitors when used along with detuned
reactors have to be selected with a rated voltage higher than
network service voltage (US).
Supply network
US, QS
B
A
C
UN , QN
Load
Refer to the picture above and consider the
following:
Us: system voltage (V), QS: requested reactive power (kvar)
UN: capacitor rated voltage (V)
QN: capacitor rated power (kvar)
User Tip:
Use VarSelect V1.0 software to select components
for given step size
The recommended rated voltage of capacitors to be used in
detuned filter applications with respect to different network service
voltage (US) and relative impedance is given in the table below.
These values ensure a safe operation in the most stringent
operating conditions.
Less conservative values may be adopted, but a case by case
analysis is necessary.
Capacitor Rated Voltage (UN) V
Network Service Voltage (US) V
50Hz
400690400 480 600
Relative Impedance (%)
5.7%
7%
14%
480
830
480
60Hz
480
575
690
480
Example of Capacitor Selection with a Detuned
Reactor
Case: For a 400V 50Hz system, It is required to connect a VarPlus
Can of 25kvar reactive power with a detuned reactor with 7%
relative impedance P (Tuning factor = 3.8 ).
QS = 25kvar,
US = 400V,
P = 0.07
Step 1: Calculation of the capacitor rated voltage
The voltage applied to the capacitor is given by the formula:
UC = US / (1 – P)
UC = 400 / (1 - 0.07) = 430.1 V
The Capacitor will be choosen with UN = 480V. ( Less Stringent
values can be adopted based on the network conditions )
Step 2: Calculation of capacitor reactive power
1. Reactive power delivered by the capacitor in the capacitor
reactor combination at system voltage is(QC) is
QC = (1-P) X QS
= (1-0.07) x 25
= 23.25kvar
at the network voltage (UN) the capacitor will deliver 23.25kvar.
2. Rated power of capacitor at rated capacitor voltage (QN)
Rated capacitor voltage (UN) = 480V
Capacitor delivered power at Network voltage (Us) = 23.25kvar
Capacitor power at capacitor rated voltage (QN)
QN = QC x (UN/US)^2 = 23.25 x (480/400)^2 = 33.5kvar
The capacitor will be choosen for 33.5 kvar at 480V for delivering
25kvar with a 7% reactor in a 400V 50Hz system. Use Reference
number BLRCH339A407B48
Combination of capacitor with part number BLRCH339A407B48
and detuned reactor with part number LVR07250A40T will give
25kvar at Point B (Refer picture above).
24
DB121412
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Detuned Reactors
Choice of detuned reactor
tuning frequency
General
The detuned reactors (DR) are designed to protect the capacitors
by preventing amplification of the harmonics present on the
network. They must be connected in series with the capacitors.
The detuned reactors generate an overvoltage at the capacitor
terminals. The rated voltage of capacitors has to be increased
accordingly.
Technical data
Choice of tuning: The tuning frequency fr corresponds to the
resonance frequency of the L-C assembly.
DB121411
fr =
1
———
2 π √LC
We also speak of tuning order n.
For a 50 Hz network:
n=
fr
———
50 Hz
DB121408
The tuning frequency chosen must ensure that the harmonic
current spectrum range is outside the resonance frequency.
It is essential to ensure that no remote control frequencies are
disturbed.
The most common tuning orders are 3.8 or 4.3 (2.7 is used for 3rd
order harmonics).
The tuning factor (P)
The tuning factor (P) is the ratio of Inductor Impedance to the
capacitor Impedance
Curve: impedance module at point A
XL
P = —— = (2 π f)2 LC = (2 π √LC)2 f 2
XC
f2
P = —— fr 2
f
fr = —— √P
25
Detuned reactors
The detuned reactors (DR) are designed
to protect the capacitors by preventing
amplification of the harmonics present on the
network.
Operating conditions
PE90154.eps
Component
General
Design
Rules
Selection
guide
Detuned Reactors
●● Use: indoor.
●● Storage temperature: -40 °C, +60 °C.
●● Relative humidity in operation: 20-80 % .
●● Salt spray withstand: 250 hours (for 400 V - 50 Hz range).
●● Operating temperature:
□□ altitude: ≤ 1000 m: Min = 0 °C, Max = 55 °C, highest average over 1 year =
40 °C, 24 hours = 50 °C.
□□ altitude: ≤ 2000 m: Min = 0 °C, Max = 50°C, highest average over 1 year =
35 °C, 24 hours = 45°C.
Installation guidelines
●● Forced ventilation required.
●● Vertical detuned reactor winding for better heat dissipation.
As the detuned reactor is provided with thermal protection, the normally closed dry
contact must be used to disconnect the step in the event of overheating.
Technical specifications
General characteristics
Description
Three-phase, dry, magnetic circuit,
Degree of protection
Rated voltage
IP00
impregnated
400 to 690 V - 50 Hz
400 to 600 V - 60 Hz
Other voltages on request
Inductance tolerance per phase
Insulation level
Dielectric test 50/60 Hz between
windings and windings/earth
Thermal protection
-5, +5 %
1.1 kV
4 kV, 1 min
Restored on terminal block 250 V AC, 2 A
Let’s define the service current (IS) as the current absorbed by
the capacitor and detuned reactor assembly, when a purely sinusoidal voltage is
applied, equal to the network service voltage (V).
IS = Q (kvar) / (√3 x US)
H
W1
D1
W
D
DB114156
For dimensions and more details, please consult us.
In order to operate safely in real conditions, a detuned reactor must be designed
to accept a maximum permanent current (IMP) taking account of harmonic currents
and voltage fluctuations.
The following table gives the typical percentage of harmonic currents considered
for the different tuning orders.
(%)
Tuning order
/ Relative
Impedance
Harmonic currents
i5
i7
i3
i11
2.7 / 14%
3.8 / 7%
4.2 / 5.7%
5
3
2
2
5
5
15
40
63
5
12
17
Detuned reactor has to be protected from over currents with MCCB. A 1.1 factor
is applied in order to allow long-term operation at a supply voltage up to (1.1 x US).
The maximum permanent current (IMP) is given in the following table:
Tuning order
IMP (times IS)
2.7 / 14%
1.12
3.8 / 7%
1.2
4.2 / 5.7%
1.3
WARNING
Normally closed dry contact for thermal protection of
detuned reactor - Inbuilt with detuned reactor.
Force ventilation is mandatory while installing detuned reactors.
It is mandatory to connect thermal protection contact to trip the breaker while
connecting detuned reactors.
26
Component
Selection guide
Contactors
TeSys contactors
For switching 3-phase capacitor banks,
used for power factor correction
Direct connection without choke inductors
Special contactors LC1 D•K are designed
for switching 3-phase, single- or multiplestep capacitor banks. They comply with
standards IEC 60070 and 60831, NFC 54100, VDE 0560, UL and CSA.
Special contactors
Special contactors LC1 D●K are designed for switching 3-phase, single or
multiple-step capacitor banks (up to 6 steps). Over 6 steps, it is recommanded
to use chokes in order to limit the inrush current and thus improve the lifetime
of the installation. The contactors are conform to standards IEC 60070 and 60831,
UL and CSA.
Contactor applications
PF511556.eps
Specification
Contactors fitted with a block of early make poles and damping resistors, limiting
the value of the current on closing to 60 In max.
This current limitation increases the life of all the components of the installation,
in particular that of the fuses and capacitors.
The patented design of the add-on block (n° 90 119-20) ensures safety and long life
of the installation.
Operating conditions
There is no need to use choke inductors for either single or multiple-step capacitor
banks. Short-circuit protection must be provided by gI type fuses rated at 1.7…2
In.
Maximum operational power
The power values given in the selection table below are for the following
operating conditions:
LC1 DPK12●●
Prospective peak current
at switch-on
Maximum operating rate
DB109701
Electrical durability at
nominal load
LC1 D●K
200 In
LC1 DBK, DCK, DLK, DMK, DPK
LC1 DTK, DWK
All contactor ratings
400 V
690 V
240 operating cycles/hour
100 operating cycles/hour
100 000 operating cycles
100 000 operating cycles
Instantaneous Tightening
auxiliary
torque on
contacts
cable end
Operational power
at 50/60 Hz (1)
q ≤ 55 °C (2)
Basic reference,
to be completed
by adding
the voltage code (3)
Weight
220 V
240 V
kvar
6.7
400 V
440 V
kvar
12.5
660 V
690 V
kvar
18
N/O
1
N/C
2
N.m
1.7
LC1 DBK●●
kg
0.430
8.5
16.7
24
1
2
1.7
LC1 DCK●●
0.450
10
20
30
1
2
2.5
LC1 DLK●●
0.600
15
25
36
1
2
2.5
LC1 DMK●●
0.630
20
33.3
48
1
2
5
LC1 DPK●●
1.300
25
40
58
1
2
5
LC1 DTK●●
1.300
40
60
92
1
2
9
LC1 DWK12●●
1.650
Switching of multiple-step capacitor banks (with equal or different power ratings)
The correct contactor for each step is selected from the above table, according to the power
rating of the step to be switched.
Example: 50 kvar 3-step capacitor bank. Temperature: 50 °C and U = 400 V or 440 V.
One 25 kvar step: contactor LC1 DMK, one 15 kvar step: contactor LC1 DGK,
and one 10 kvar step: contactor LC1 DBK.
(1)Operational power of the contactor according to the scheme on the page opposite.
(2)The average temperature over a 24-hour period, in accordance with standards IEC 60070
and 60831 is 45°C.
(3)Standard control circuit voltages (the delivery time is variable, please consult your Regional
Sales Office):
Volts
50/60 Hz
27
24
B7
48
E7
120
G7
220
M7
230
P7
240
U7
380
Q7
400
V7
415
N7
440
R7
TeSys contactors
Component
Selection guide
Contactors
For switching 3-phase capacitor banks,
used for power factor correction
Dimensions
121
45
77
103
77
91
DB402405R.eps
LC1 DLK, DMK
DB402404R.eps
LC1 DFK, DGK
127
127
180
113
166
DB402407.eps
LC1 DWK
DB402406.eps
LC1 DPK, DTK
45
55
156
154
85
Schemes
LC1 D●K
5/L3
22
3/L2
14
6/T3
A2
4/T2
A1
1/L1
13 21
NO NC
2/T1
DB402403.eps
-R
31
NC
-R
32
R = Pre-wired resistor connections.
28
Parallel operation of capacitor
and inrush current limiting
contactors in APFC panels
Component
Selection guide
Contactors
Power supply
Power supply
Conventional
Switching
Contactor
Conventional
Switching
Contactor
Inrush
Capacitors
Before Switching
Capacitor
After Switching
Conventional single stage capacitor switching
Power supply
Power supply
Conventional
Switching
Contactor
Capacitors already on
Capacitors to
be switched
on
Before Switching
Conventional
Switching
Contactor
Inrush
Capacitors
switched on
Capacitors already on
After Switching
Conventional multi stage capacitor switching with normal power contactor
Power supply
Power supply
Capacitor
Switching
Contactor
Capacitors already on
Capacitors to
be switched
on
Before Switching
Capacitor
Switching
Contactor
Capacitors already on
Limited Inrush
Capacitor
switched on
After Switching Stage 1
Multi Stage Capacitor Switching with Capacitor Duty Contactor
Stage 1 - Capacitor is switched through a inrush current limiter
Power supply
Power supply
Capacitor
Switching
Contactor
Capacitors already on
After Switching Stage 2
Limited Inrush
Capacitors
switched on
Capacitor
Switching
Contactor
Capacitors already on
Normal Current
Capacitors
switched on
After Switching Stage 3
Stage 2 - Capacitor is switched through Contactor and inrush current limiter
Stage 3 - inrush current limiter is removed from the circuit and Capacitor is
completely switched on
29
At capacitor switching while one or
more capacitors are connected to the
system, the switching capacitor will see
a high inrush current. This is due to the
current flow from the already connected
capacitor(s) (which will act as a source)
through the least impedance path set
by the switched capacitor along with the
current from the main source. This means
that when the number of capacitors in
parallel increases, the amount of inrush
current also increases. Inrush current
will damage the capacitor as well as the
switching device.
In order to prevent inrush current, it is
required to use current limiting devices
such as capacitor duty contactors or
inductor coil. Pictorial illustration of the
conventional switching and switching using
a special capacitor duty contactor is shown
in the left.
Component
Selection guide
Switching and
protection devices
User Tip:
User can connect normal power contactor (AC3
duty) to switch the capacitor bank with detuned
reactor as detuned reactor acts as a inrush current
limiter.
Selection of Capacitor Switching
and Protection Devices
Use switching and protection devices designed for capacitor
switching duty.
After switching off a capacitor, a delay of at least 1 minute must
be allowed before switching on again to ensure the discharge
of individual capacitor step/unit before reconnection. Solid State
switching (Thyristor Switches) can be used when fast switching in
APFC Panels is needed.
Short Circuit Protection Device
MCCB or MCBs must be used with the capacitor for Short Circuit
Protection. This device has to be rated for 1.5 times the rated
current of the capacitor. It is recommended to Use Compact NSX/
CVS range of MCCBs.
Contactors
Contactors shall be used to switch capacitors in or out of service
of each individual step. The contactors shall prevent inrush current
to a safe level when the capacitor steps are switched on.
There are two types of contactors used for switching each step:
●●Capacitor Duty Contactor
●●Power Contactor
Capacitor duty contactors are recommended in APFC equipment
to minimize inrush currents experienced during the switching of
capacitors. These contactors have special early make contacts
with series resistances which dampens the inrush currents.
However, when normal Power contactors are used, and when
there are no reactors in series, a suitable inductor coil has to
be connected in series with the contactor for limiting the inrush
currents.
Contactors will have to be chosen with care, keeping in mind the
following factors which can influence their performance:
●●Contactor shall be re- strike free and adapted for capacitors
●●The rated voltage of the contactor shall be equal to or higher
than the maximum network voltage with the power factor
correction installation.
●●The contactor shall be designed for continuous current (including
harmonics) which can pass the power factor correction installation
and/or filter at maximum source voltage, maximum frequency and
extreme tolerances of the components, especially capacitors and
reactors.
●●Capacitor duty contactors are rated based on nominal reactive
power and Power contactors are rated based on the rated
operational current.
It is recommended to use Special Contactors LC1 D.K which are
designed for switching 3 phase Single or Multiple step Capacitor
Banks.
Capacitor duty contactors are normally rated up to 60kvar. When
higher rated steps exist such as 75kvar, 100kvar and above, the
following methods can be adopted.
30
Component
Selection guide
Switching and
protection devices
Method 1: for steps up to 120kvar
APFC
Relay
S/P
K1
Capacitor Duty Contactors can be used in parallel to switch the
Steps.
Example:
To switch 100kvar step, using capacitor duty contactor, there are
two alternatives.
●●Provide two steps of 50kvar each, (having 50kvar switch, and
50kvar reactor and 50kvar capacitors) and the connection of relay
in such a way to operate both together. ( refer Fig A)
●●Provide single step using two capacitor duty contactors in
parallel with one 100kvar reactor and one 100kvar capacitor
(4x25kvar / 2x50kvar) (refer Fig B)
KN
Capacitors
Fig A
APFC
Relay
S/P
In option B, if one contactor malfunctions, the other contactor
gets over loaded and there is possibility for damage in second
contactor also. However if both contactors are in good conditions
and operate exactly at the same moment, theoretically there will
be no problem. But the contactor switching may not occur exactly
at the same time, and a very small time difference may cause over
loading of contactors.
Method 2: for steps more than 120kvar
Contactors of AC3 Duty can be used in this case but capacitors
need to be put in series with inductor coil.
K1
KN
Example:
To switch 120 kvar step, using AC3 Duty contactor, provide four
steps of 30kvar VarplusCan capacitor connected to a inductor coil
in series. (see Fig C).
Note :
The above mentioned configurations are for the use of capacitors without detuned
reactors .
While using detuned reactors user can use normal power contactor (AC3 Duty) for
capacitor switching.
Capacitors
Fig B
APFC
Relay
S/P
K1
IC
Capacitors
Fig C
31
Component
Selection guide
PF Controller
Power Factor Controller
PF controllers are microprocessor based, which takes real time
inputs from the network, calculate the kvar required and switch
on /off capacitors. The microprocessor analyzes the current input
signal from the load current transformer and the Voltage tapped
from the Bus to produce switching commands to control the
contactor ON/OFF of the capacitor steps. Intelligent control by
PFC controllers ensures an even utilization of capacitor steps,
minimized number of switching operations and optimized life
cycle.
Feasibility for Four quadrant operation for sensing the energy flow
direction becomes necessary for certain applications based on
system conditions.
The controller placed inside the panel shall have the reliability to
withstand the operating temperature of at least 50 °C or more.
C/k setting:
C/k value is used in the setting of old generation Power Factor
Controllers, however it is found rarely to be used in panels now.
C/k value is a threshold value for switching On/Off the capacitor
steps by the controller. C/k is the value obtained by dividing first
step capacitor power “Q” to the current transformer ratio”K”. This
setting shall be automatic or can be set manually.
The main features of the PF controller must include the following:
●●Automatic C/k- value setting, Connection of different capacitor
steps.
●●Automatic detection and usage of optimum capacitor steps.
●●Current measuring 10mA-5A, suitable for connecting CT x/1A
and x/5A.
●●Programmable capacitor switching delay
●●Indication for over current
●●Indication for low power factor
●●Fan contact
Modern day APFC controllers provide various additional functions
like electrical data logging, self diagnostics and system health
features and are capable of communication using standard
protocols. Additional features can be chosen based on specific
requirements of end user which are as follows:
●●Four Quadrant operation
●●Automatic phase reversal correction
●●Various automatic trip conditions can be programmed – over
current, over voltage
●●Single phase measurement
●●Various metering parameters like V, I, THD-V, Hz, kvar, temp,
PF etc.,
32
Component
Selection guide
PF Controller
Offer overview - Varlogic
power factor controller
Technical data
PE90161
General data
Varlogic NR6/NR12
●● operating temperature: 0…60 °C
●● storage temperature: -20° C…60 °C
●● colour: RAL 7016
●● standard:
● EMC: IEC 61326
● electrical: IEC/EN 61010-1.
●● panel mounting
●● mounting on 35 mm DIN rail (EN 50022)
● protection class in panel mounting:
● front face: IP41
● rear face: IP20.
●● display
● NR6, NR12 type: backlighted screen 65 x 21 mm
● NRC12 type: backlighted graphic screen 55 x 28 mm.
● languages: English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish
●● alarm contact
●● temperature internal probe
●● separate contact to control fan inside the power factor correction bank
●● access to the history of alarm.
PE90156
Inputs
●● phase to phase or phase to neutral connection
●● insensitive to CT polarity
●● insensitive to phase rotation polarity
●● current input:
● NR6, NR12 type: CT… X/5 A
● NRC12 type: CT… X/5 A et X/1 A.
Outputs
●● potential free output contacts:
● AC : 1 A/400 V, 2 A/250 V, 5 A/120 V
● DC : 0,3 A/110 V, 0,6 A/60 V, 2 A/24 V.
Settings and parameters
PE90155.eps
Varlogic NRC12
●● target cos φ setting: 0.85 ind…0.9 cap
●● possibility of a dual cos φ target (type NRC12)
●● manual or automatic parameter setting of the power factor controller
●● choice of different stepping programs:
● linear
● normal
● circular
● optimal.
●● main step sequences:
● 1.1.1.1.1.1 ● 1.2.3.3.3.3
● 1.2.2.2.2.2 ● 1.2.4.4.4.4
● 1.2.3.4.4.4 ● 1.1.2.3.3.3
● 1.1.2.2.2.2 ● 1.2.4.8.8.8
●● personalized sequences for NRC12 type
●● delay between 2 successive switch on of a same step:
●● NR6, NR12 type: 10 … 600 s
●● NRC12 type: 10 … 900 s
●● step confi guration programming (fi xed/auto/disconnected) (NRC12 type)
●● 4 quadrant operation for generator application (NRC12 type)
●● manual control for operating test.
Range
Type Number of step output contacts NR6 6 NR12 12 NRC12 12 RT6 6 RT8 8 RT12 12 Accessories
Communication RS485 Modbus set for NRC12 Temperature external probe for NRC12 type in addition
to internal probe allows measurement at the hottest point
inside the capacitor
33
Part number
52448
52449
52450
51207
51209
51213
52451
52452
Component
Selection guide
PF Controller
Varlogic - Technical characteristics
General characteristics
Output relays AC 5 A / 120 V 2 A / 250 V DC 0.3 A / 110 V 0.6 A / 60 V Protection Index
Front panel IP41
Rear IP20
Measuring current 0 to 5 A
Specific features RT6 NR-6/12 Number of steps 6 6 / 12 Supply voltage (V AC)
88 to 130 50 / 60 Hz
185 to 265 185 to 265 320 to 460 320 to 460 Display
4 digit 7 segment LEDs ●
65 x 21 mm backlit screen
●
55 x 28 mm backlit screen
Dimensions 143 x 143 x 67 155 x 158 x 70 Flush panel mounting
●
●
35 mm DIN rail mounting ●
(EN 50022)
Operating temperature 0 °C - 55 °C 0 °C - 60 °C Alarm contact
Internal temperature probe
Separate fan relay contact
Alarm history Last 5 alarms Type of connection
Phase-to-neutral
●
Phase-to-phase
●
●
Current input
CT… 10000/5 A ●
CT 25/5 A … 6000/5 A
●
CT 25/1 A … 6000/5 A
Target cosφ setting
0.85 ind. … 1
●
0.85 ind. …0.9 cap.
●
Possibility of a dual cosφ
target
Accuracy ±2 % ±5 % Response delay time 10 to 1800 s 10 to 120 s Reconnection delay time
10 to 1800 s ●
10 to 600 s ●
10 to 900 s 4-quadrant operation
for generator application
Communication protocol 1 A / 400 V
2 A / 24 V
NRC12
12
88 to 130
185 to 265
320 to 460
●
155 x 158 x 80
●
●
0 °C - 60 °C
Last 5 alarms
●
●
●
●
●
●
±2 %
10 to 180 s
●
●
Modbus
34
Component
Selection guide
PF Controller
Physical and Electrical Control
of PFC Relay
The Varlogic power factor controllers continually measure the
reactive power of the system and switch the capacitor steps
ON and OFF to obtain the required power factor. Their ten step
combinations enable them to control capacitors of different
powers.
Step combinations
1.1.1.1.1.1 1.2.3.3.3.3
1.1.2.2.2.2 1.2.3.4.4.4
1.1.2.3.3.3 1.2.3.6.6.6
1.1.2.4.4.4 1.2.4.4.4.4
1.2.2.2.2.2 1.2.4.8.8.8
These combinations ensure accurate control by reducing
●●the number of power factor correction modules
●●reduce workmanship for panel assembly
Optimising the control in this way generates considerable financial
benefits.
Explanations
Q1 = Power of the first step
Q2 = Power of the second step
------------------Qn = Power of the nth step (maximum 12)
Examples:
1.1.1.1.1.1: 1.1.2.2.2.2: 1.2.3.4.4.4: 1.2.4.8.8.8: Q2 = Q1, Q3 = Q1, …, Qn = Q1
Q2 = Q1, Q3 = 2Q1, Q4 = 2Q1, …, Qn = 2Q1
Q2 =2Q1, Q3 = 3Q1, Q4= 4Q1, …, Qn = 4Q1
Q2 = 2Q1, Q3 = 4Q1, Q4= 8 Q1, …, Qn = 8 Q1
Calculating the number of electrical steps depends on:
●●the number of controller outputs used (e.g. 7)
●●the chosen combination, according to the power of the various
steps (e.g. 1.2.2.2).
35
Combinations
Number of controller outputs used
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12
1.1.1.1.1.1… 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12
1.1.2.2.2.2… 1
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22
1.2.2.2.2.2… 1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1.1.2.3.3.3… 1
2
4
7
10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31
1.2.3.3.3.3… 1
3
6
9
12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33
1.1.2.4.4.4… 1
2
4
8
12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
1.2.3.4.4.4… 1
3
6
10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42
1.2.4.4.4.4… 1
3
7
11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43
1.2.3.6.6.6… 1
3
6
12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
1.2.4.8.8.8… 1
3
7
15 23 31 39 47 55 63 71 79
Component
Selection guide
PF Controller
User Tip:
Optimising the step sizes in the APFC panel can
reduce watt loss in the panel and you can save
energy.
Practical Example:
Consider an APFC System of 250 kvar
Solution 1: Electrical control 10 x 25 kvar
25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 ;
sequence : 1.1.1.1.1.1
10 physical steps
10 contactors – Refer Contactor Selection
12-step controller – ( Varlogic – NR12 ) Refer PFC relays- Varlogic
Selection
Capacitors- VarPlusCan – 10 x 25kvar
Conclusion
High Labor, high cost: non-optimised solution.
Possible Power levels (kvar) : 25,50,75,100,125,150,175, 200, 225, 250
Solution 2: Electrical control 10 x 25 kvar
25 + 50 + 75 +100 = 10 x 25 kvar electrical;
sequence: 1.2.3.4:4
4 physical steps allowing for 10 different power levels
4 contactors (refer contactor selection)
6-step controller ( Varlogic NR6 - refer PFC relays- Varlogic
selection)
Capacitors - VarPlusCan - 2 x 25kvar + 2 x 50kvar + 1 x 100kvar
Conclusion
Optimised Solution.
Optimisation of compensation cubicle - Possible power levels
(kvar)
The symbol “●” shows the physical step is On for obtaining the
Possible power levels.
Possible power levels (kvar)
Physical Steps
2550 75100
25
●
50
●
75
●
100
●
125
●
●
150
●
●
175
●
●
200 ●
●
●
225
●
●
●
250
●
●
●
●
36
Current Transformer
Component
Selection guide
CT and Protection Devices
DB121445
Current transformer (CT) is used in APFC panels for measurement
purposes. It steps down load current to a low value (5A) output.
The VA rating of CT shall be 5VA or 10VA as the maximum.
The following aspects shall be considered while
selecting CTs:
●●Resin Cast CTs or Moulded case CTs are sealed units and have
better life than the ordinary tape insulated CTs. Moulded case CTs
are usually preferred for lower current ratings and resin cast for
higher ratings.
●●Primary current of the CT has to be selected based on the total
kvar of the panel.
●●Since CTs and relays are provided in the same panel, the lead
wire length will be very short and hence use of 5A secondary is
preferred.
●●Ammeter is the only load and considering short distance of
wires, 5 to 10VA is selected as a maximum burden.
●●It is recommended to use Class 1 CTs for Commercial
measurements
DB121443
Where to connect CT
Current Transformer- Installation recommendations
●●current transformer must be installed upstream of the installation
to be compensated
●●the controller voltage should be set between L2 and L3 and the
CT to phase L1
●●the capacitor bank wiring diagram should be designed to ensure
that the time required to discharge the capacitors is observed
(minimum 1 minute), for example in the event of a loss of
contactor auxiliary voltage
●●if the installation comprises two or more supply transformers,
a summing CT that will take all the energy consumed by the
installation into account must be provided. The ratio to be used to
calculate the C/k is the sum of the ratios of the various measuring
CTs
●●if the installation includes a generator set, a contact will
disconnect the capacitor bank in the event of generator set
operation.The best method in this case is to use it to cut off the
supply to the controller
DB121446
How to connect Controller
DB121444
Connecting controller when summing CT is
used
CTA
CTB
CTC
CTE
CTD
CTF
Connecting CTs when more than one supply Transformer is used
37
Component
Selection guide
CT and Protection Devices
Protection Devices in Automatic
Power Factor Correction (APFC)
capacitor bank
The following are the protection schemes provided for APFC
panels:
Over voltage
In the event of an over voltage, electrical stress on the capacitor
dielectric and the current drawn by the capacitors will increase.
The APFC equipment must be switched off in the event of over
voltage with suitable over voltage relay.
Under voltage
In the event of under voltage, electrical stress on the capacitor
dielectric and the current drawn by the capacitors will decrease.
This condition is not harmful. But protection is provided based on
customer request to protect system from under voltage.
Over Current
Over current condition is very harmful to all current carrying
components. All the switchgears are selected on a higher
maximum current carrying capacity. However suitable over current
relays with alarm can be used for over current protection.
Short circuit protection
At the incomer level short circuit protection is provided by devices
such as MCCB, ACB. At the step protection level, only MCB,
MCCB has to be used.
Thermal Overload
It is taken care by thermal overload relay. The APFC controller
must be tripped in cases where internal ambient temperature
exceeds the limits. Reactors are also provided with thermal
switches, to trip in the case of temperature increase.
Earthing
Two earthing points are provided in the APFC panel for connecting
to the earth bus. This will ensure the overall safety of operating
personnel and equipment protection in case of earth faults.
Earth Leakage Relay
It has to be connected at power incoming side of the panel, Earth
leakage relay is provided to safeguard the operator by tripping the
incomer.
Timers
Capacitors require a minimum discharge time of approximately 60
seconds after they are switched off before they can be switched
on again. This is to be set in the APFC controller. Capacitors are
provided with discharge resistors.
Over Temperature trip mechanism
Temperatures sensors (two thermostats ) to be connected
●●for operating the fans/industrial air conditioners above 35°C
and
●●to disconnect main incomer of APFC if the temperature exceeds 55°C inside the panel.
38
Component
Selection guide
CT and Protection Devices
Switchgear Selection
Main incomer is used to disconnect the APFC system in case of
short circuit, over load and earth fault. The rating of the incomer
switchgear will vary depending on rating of the APFC equipment
and the required fault current handling capacity. MCCB or ACB
can be used as incomer switchgear depending on the current
rating of the APFC equipment and the required fault level.
Outgoing protection is provided to protect the individual capacitor
step in the APFC equipment. The outgoing protection may
be MCB and MCCB depending on the rating of the individual
capacitor steps, required fault level & customer requirement too.
●●Factor of 1.5 for over loads
The factor of 1.5 has arrived by taking into account the combined
effects of harmonics, Over Voltage and capacitance tolerance as
per standard IEC 60831.
1.5= (1.3 x 1.15 = 1.495) ~ 1.5 where
1.3 - Factor of maximum permissible current of capacitors at rated
sinusoidal voltage and rated frequency excluding transients.
1.15- Capacitance tolerance.
As per IEC 61921, capacitor current should not be allowed to
exceed the above value of 1.5 times hence there is no possibility
of increasing the factor. There is no need for reducing the factor
since the factors 1.3 and 1.15 are applicable to all types of
capacitors.
Therefore the safety factor of (1.5 x In) is used for selecting all
switchgear.
User Tip:
Other than selecting the rating of the circuit breaker, it is essential to protect the
capacitor bank by selecting proper thermal magnetic release setting
39
Component
Selection guide
CT and Protection Devices
Thermal and Magnetic setting of a Circuit breaker
The rating must be chosen to allow the thermal protection to be
set to:
●●1.5 In for EasyCan/VarPlus Capacitors
●●1.31×In for EasyCan/VarPlus with 5.6% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 4.3)
●●1.19×In for EasyCan/VarPlus with 7% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 3.8)
●●1.12×In for EasyCan/VarPlus with 14% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 2.7)
Example 1: Capacitor alone
Note: Restrictions in Thermal settings of system with Detuned reactors are due to
limitation of IMP (Maximum Permissible current ) of the Detuned reactor.
Example 1:
150kvar/400v – 50Hz Capacitor
US = 400V; QS = 150kvar
UN = 400V; QN = 150kvar
IS = 150000/(400√3) = 216A
Circuit Breaker Rating = 216 x 1.5 = 324A Select a 400A Circuit Breaker.
Circuit Breaker thermal setting = 216 x 1.5 = 324
Conclusion:- Select a Circuit Breaker of 400A with
Thermal Setting at 324A and
Individual capacitor protection by circuit breaker
Magnetic Setting ( Short Circuit ) at 3240A
Example 2: Capacitor with detuned reactors
Example 2:
20kvar/400v – 50Hz Harmonic Range with 7% Detuned Reactor
US = 400V; QS = 20kvar
UN = 440V; QN = 22.51kvar
Refer: Selection of capacitor with detuned reactor
In = 22510/(440√3) = 29.9A
Circuit Breaker Rating = 29.9 x 1.5 = 45A
Circuit Breaker thermal setting = 29.9 x 1.19 = 35.6A
Conclusion:- Select a Circuit Breaker of 45A ( or next available
appropriate range) with
Thermal Setting at 35.6A and
Magnetic Setting ( Short Circuit ) at 356A
Individual capacitor protection by circuit breaker
Capacitor bank protection by means of a circuit
breaker
40
General Installation Rules
Installation rules
Capacitors
General
DB121445
●●Indoor installation on firm support in a correctly ventilated
local or envelope.
●●Ambient temperature around capacitors must not exceed 35°C
over one year, 45°C over 24hours and 55°C max (according to
IEC 60831 for -25/D temperature category).
●●Maintain a gap of min. 30mm between capacitor units and min.
30mm between capacitors and panel enclosure for better air
circulation
●●Electrical clearance between phases shall be 30mm.
●●For 3ph capacitors keep min. 30mm gap above the top of the
capacitor
●●Use capacitor duty contactor or inductor coil in series with two
phases in order to limit the inrush current when capacitors are
switched in parallel with other energized capacitor units.
●●Please ensure that there is no force by any means on the
Pressure Sensitive Disconnector (PSD) in such a way to affect the
operation of PSD when it is required to operate.
Terminals
Double Fast-On +
Cable
Clamptite
Stud Type
Double Fast-On + Cable
For lower ratings Double fast-on terminals with cables are
provided ( for rating <=10kvar )
CLAMPTITE terminals
The unique finger-proof CLAMPTITE termination is fully integrated
with discharge resistors and allows suitable access to tightening
and ensures cable termination without any loose connections.
Once tightened, the design guarantees that the tightening torque
is always maintained. (for rating >10kvar , up to 30kvar)
STUD type terminals
This type of terminals are used for proper current handling
capabilities in capacitors of 40&50kvar
WARNING
It is recommended to go through the installation guidelines manual provided with
each and every Schneider Electric capacitor, and follow the instructions carefully.
41
Installation rules
Capacitors
Electrical connection
●Select
●
the cable cross section depending on the kvar & voltage
rating –see cable Selection
●User
●
is recommended to use a cable of minimum temperature
withstand capacity of 90°C. (recommended is 105°C)
●Remove
●
conductor insulation of the cable only 10mm for
connection.
●Suitable
●
size lugs have to be used with connecting cable to
capacitor terminals in order to avoid heat generation due to
improper contacts, in case of VarplusBox or Stud type VarplusCan.
●Insert
●
conductor fully inside without connecting lugs in the
CLAMPTITE, no single strand to come out from the slot, in case of
CLAMPTITE terminals.
●Use
●
pneumatic gun to tighten the screw from top of the
CLAMPTITE terminal cover. If not possible, please ensure proper
tightness when a screw driver is used to avoid loose termination.
Apply a torque of 2.5Nm to tighten
●For
●
Stud type terminals use a pressure of 20Nm to tighten the
Terminals after connecting cable using proper sized lugs.
●For
●
tightening the VarplusBox terminal studs apply a torque of
for M6 studs - 4 Nm
for M8 studs - 8 Nm
for M10 studs - 12 Nm
CONTACTOR
Wrong!
CONTACTOR
Right!
Mounting
●●Varplus capacitors can be mounted alone or in row.
●●Position:
● SDuty & Energy : upright
● HDuty
: upright or horizontal
●●Capacitor body shall be earthed at bottom.
●●Capacitor shall be installed in dry place away from heat
generating source & avoid dusty atmosphere
●●Proved proper cross ventilation for heat conduction
●●Apply a tightening torque of 8Nm to fix the VarplusBox capacitor
on the mounting plates.
●●Tightening torque of 10Nm to be applied on Hexagonal
mounting nut for VarplusCan(see picture in the left).
Support
plate
* All dimensions are in mm
Cable cross section to be used to connect the capacitors
Removable screws
Removable Terminal
Nuts and Washers
Top cover
Sliding cover
Installation step1
Installation step2
Cable Size in mm2
230V/240V
Fixed Washer
and Plate
Cable entry hole
VarPlus Box
kvar
Rating
400 to 480 V
>600V
Al
Cu
Al
Cu
Al
Cu
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
7.5
10
12.5
15
20
25
30
40
50
10
6
6
6
6
6
16
10
6
6
6
6
10
6
6
6
10
6
6
6
16
10
10
6
25
16
16
10
-
25
16
10
-
35
25
16
-
35
35
25
42
DB121436
Installation rules
Detuned Reactors
Detuned reactors
Temperature rise stresses
The preferred architecture of a PFC switch board with detuned
reactors is with a separate column, specifically reserved for the
reactors. (See picture)
Detuned reactors require forced ventilation.
Note: under no circumstances may the detuned reactors be fitted beneath the
capacitors.
Location of the detuned reactors
To ensure proper ventilation, the DR windings must be vertical.
DB121437
DB121427
DB121428
Example of capacitor banks with Detuned Reactors
43
Installation distance
The minimum distances illustrated opposite must be observed for
insulation purposes and to prevent overheating.
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Maximum kvar per step in
Automatic power factor
correction (APFC) capacitor bank
For Capacitors
There are no restrictions in number of capacitors to be put on
parallel; the following points have to be taken care before deciding
the maximum kvar per step
a) Contactor rating.
b) VA burden of the relay.
c)Ventilation
d) Minimum clearances
e) Installation rules for paralleling of capacitors (see page: 42)
a) Contactor Rating
Capacitor duty contactors are normally rated up to 60kvar.
Whenever higher rated steps exist such as 75kvar, 100kvar
or 120kvar, the contactors are connected in such a way to be
operateed by a single contact of the relay.
However for rating 120kvar and above AC3 duty contactors can be
used along with the suitable inductor coils in series with capacitors
in two phases for suppressing the inrush current. (refer to selection
of capacitor switching and protection devices - Contactors )
b) VA burden of the relay
The maximum kvar per step also depends on the VA burden of
each output contact of the power factor relay. The coil rating of all
the contactors in the step should not exceed the VA burden of the
relay contact.
c) Ventilation
The maximum ambient temperature on the capacitors is +55˚C.
The capacitors have to be placed in the rack in such a way that
temperature should not exceed this limit. So, proper ventilation is
very much required.
d) Minimum clearances
For better air circulation, a minimum clearance of 30mm between
capacitor units and panel enclosure need to be kept. Also maintain
a 30mm gap above the top of the capacitor. These are the points
to be considered while deciding the number of capacitors in a
rack.
44
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Installation rules Automatic
Power Factor Correction (APFC)
capacitor banks
Enclosure
Enclosure provides protection for the components used in the
APFC panel against ingress of external solid or liquid particles.
Enclosures are made up of CRCA (Cold Rolled Close Annealed)
high carbon steel. The enclosures shall be thoroughly degreased
and cleaned and phosphate coated before primer coats & powder
coating.
Enclosure design shall comply to allow easy access of
components inside the APFC Panel. Proper electrical clearances
must be maintained inside the panel to ensure safety and ease
of maintenance. Utmost care shall be taken for the design of
enclosure and layout of all the parts and components in such a
manner that it gives easy access for maintenance (Especially the
components on the front door for aesthetic appearance).
Enclosure must be designed to ensure proper ventilation;
necessary louvers shall be made at the required area for proper
ventilation. These louvers shall be closed with wire mesh or
perforated sheets of required size from inside to achieve the
specified IP levels.
Size of enclosure
Selecting the enclosure size is an important aspect, which
accommodates most of the components in it and the size of
the enclosure should be selected properly after a proper layout
of components is made, in order to maintain the electrical
clearances, ventilation and safety. The heat generating
components should be located in such a manner that the heat
generated does not come in contact with other components,
especially which are sensitive to heat. A proper air flow has to be
planned. Size of the enclosure depends on the following points.
●● Total kvar rating of the APFC system.
●● Type of APFC Panel, normal or harmonic filter panel.
●● Number of physical steps.
●● Type of incomer protection (SDF, MCCB or ACB).
●● Type of outgoing protection (HRC Fuses, MCB or MCCB)
●● Type of capacitors (application & construction based) and number of capacitors in the panel.
●● Cable entry - Bottom or Top.
●● Installation type - Outdoor or Indoor.
●● Bus bar sizing and positioning in panels
PFC Bank design consideration
The failure of capacitor banks can be due to non compliance with
any of the following design considerations.
●● Discharge time (Clause 22, IEC 60831 - 75V in 3 minutes)
●● Temperature (Clause 4.1, IEC 60831 – Class D, 55°C ambient)
●● Temperature de-rating
●● Ventilation requirement
●● Overvoltage condition (Clause 5.3.5 IEC 61921)
●● Resonance condition
●● Over Load (Clause 5.3.7 IEC 61921 - continuous current - 1.3 times)
●● IP (Clause 5.3.8 IEC 61921 - IP 20 for indoor application)
●● Physical location of components and accessibility (Clause 5.3.9 IEC 61921)
●● Protection & alarms (Clause 5.5.3 / 5.5.4, IEC 61921 - Fire Hazard)
45
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Thermal safety in Automatic
Power Factor Correction (APFC)
capacitor banks
Ventilation inside the APFC Panel
Proper ventilation is essential to ensure good performance of the
installed components in the APFC panel. Care must be taken to
ensure that unimpeded airflow is maintained inside the panel.
The accumulation of heat in an enclosure will potentially damage
the electrical equipments. Overheating can shorten the life
expectancy of components, especially the capacitors, which are
highly sensitive to temperature and leads to catastrophic failure.
Since adequate ventilation is required, sufficient louvers shall be
provided at the bottom portion of the panel as inlet for air, and at
top portion for exhaust. This gives a natural air flow from bottom
to top inside the panel. For high kvar rated panels, this natural air
flow has to be assisted by forced ventilation using exhaust fans at
the top to have quicker replacement of hot air inside with cool air
from outside and maintain the internal ambient temperature of the
panel at the desired level.
Note: Providing louvers throughout the height of the panel is not recommended
since it doesn’t give the ducting effect for air flow.
Selection of fan and installation of thermal switch
It is recommended to use fans with thermal switches. In this case
the positioning of the fans should be taken care so as to not place
the fan's thermal switch close to heat dissipating devices so as to
avoid any malfunctioning of thermal switch.
Recommendations: Install two thermostats on the top section of the capacitor bank
away from the heat dissipating devices.
●●First thermostat to switch on the fans , when the internal temperature exceeds 35°C.
●●Second thermostat to trip the capacitor bank if the internal temperature exceeds 55°C.
●●Ensure that the detuned reactors are placed in a separate column as per our recommendations and the temperature sensed
by the thermostat are not influenced by the detuned reactors.
The selection of fans shall be based on several parameters:
●●Total watt loss including all components in the panel
●●IP level of the panel
●●Total volume of the enclosure
●●Outside ambient temperature
●●Desired internal ambient temperature
Typical control wiring for thermostat connection
adopted in Schneider electric make capacitor bank
VarSet.
The cubic meter per hour capacity of the fan and the ambient
temperature at which the fan can continuously operate are also to
be taken into account for deciding the number of fans.
The following are the conditions considered for fan calculation,
and applicable only for this design. The design conditions are
taken in such a way to take care of even extreme temperature of
50°C inside the panel (As the design is for higher temperature,
safety factor will be very high)
●●External temperature - (ambient) - 40°C
●●Enclosure dimension (see table)
Note: User can see the recommended practices for Ventilation in following pages
with respect to the application.
46
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Ventilation for capacitor banks
Ventilation Practices
Normal operating conditions according to IEC61439-1
●●Maximum temperature in the electrical room: ≤ 40˚C
●●Average temperature over 24hrs in the electrical room: ≤ 35˚C
●●Average annual temperature in the electrical room: ≤ 25˚C
●●Minimum temperature: ≥ 5˚C
●●Maximum altitude: ≤ 2000m
Other conditions, contact us
The following rules apply to capacitor
banks without reactor
Ventilation rules Capacitors without detuned reactors
Capacitors, contactors, fuses and electrical connections dissipate
heat. These losses are roughly 2.5W/kvar. Calculate the losses
roughly and use the table mentioned in the next page.
The following ventilation rules must therefore be complied with:
●●The air within the cubicle must flow upwards.
●●It is recommended that extractor fans be fitted on top of the
cubicle.
●●The bottom air inlet must be as low as possible for better
ventilation
●●The cross-section of the top air outlet must be more than the
cross-section of the bottom air inlet
●●The openings must be compatible with the safety rating (IP)
●●There should be at least 100 mm between the fan and the
modules or components
●●The air inlet at the bottom air intake grille must not be obstructed
or restricted by a component or module
●●Always let a gap of minimum 600 mm between the back of the
panel and the wall for a front open panel and a minimum gap
of 1000 mm for the rear opened panel. It allows to have a good
ventilation
●●Take into account the pressure drops of the air inlet and outlet.
●●As an indication, the real airflow is 0.6 to 0.75 time the airflow
announced by the fan manufacturer
Air Inlet
●●Up to a power of 100 kvar panel need to have air inlet of
100cm2.
●●From 100-200kvar panel need to have air inlet of 200cm2.
47
Installation rules
APFC Panels
DB114165
The following rules apply to Capacitor
banks with reactors
Ventilation for capacitor banks with detuned
reactors
Capacitors, detuned reactors, contactors and electrical
connections dissipate heat:
These Losses are roughly 9W/kvar. Calculate the losses roughly
and use the table below with respect to Watt losses.
This equipment must always include a forced ventilation
system.
●●The detuned reactors must be installed: in a separate enclosure
or in the same enclosure as the capacitors, but in a separate
compartment, or possibly above the capacitors.
●●The part of the enclosure containing the capacitors must be
ventilated according to the standard capacitor bank rules.
●●The part of the enclosure containing the detuned reactors must
be ventilated according to the dissipated power.
The ventilation rules in the previous page are applicable here
also. Ventilation fans are required with respect to Watt losses.
(The designs is made based on the assumption of the system as
described above. Any special system conditions need consultation
of Schneider Electric. It is always preferred to do thermal study
before fixing the ventilation in the panel)
Selection of Fans
User can make use of the following thumb rule for estimating the
through put required by the fan for a given capacitor bank.
However it is recommended to do a detailed thermal modeling to
ensure the temperature rise inside the enclosure is with in limits.
Recommended calculations for fan selection
Maximum throughput of fans required for a capacitor panel(*) = 0.3 x Total power dissipated by the panel
Example 1:
200kvar panel with out detuned reactors
Total Power dissipated by panel = 200 x 2.5w/kvar = 500W / Panel
Maximum through put of Fan required = 0.3 x 500 = 150 M3/h
User can use one fan of 160 M3/h for this panel.
Example 2:
200kvar panel with detuned reactors
Total Power dissipated by panel = 200 x 9.0w/kvar = 1800W /
Panel
Maximum through put of Fan required = 0.3 x 1800 = 540 M3/h
User can use two fans, of 300 M3/h
(*) - Considering the normal operating temperature as per IEC 61439-1
48
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Minimum number of fans required in the panel
without detuned reactors
kvar Rating Watt loss
100
250
Fan through
put required
75
Number of fans*
1
Through put per fan
85 M3/h
200
500
150
1
165 M3/h
300
750
225
2
165 M3/h
400
1000
300
2
165 M3/h
500
1250
375
3
165 M3/h
600
1500
450
3
165 M3/h
kvar Rating Watt loss
100
900
Fan through
put required
270
Number of fans*
2
Through put per fan
165 M3/h
200
1800
540
2
300 M3/h
300
2700
810
3
300 M3/h
400
3600
1080
4
300 M3/h
500
4500
1350
2
560 M3/h
600
5400
1620
2
560 M3/h
PB501052-19
with detuned reactors
ClimaSys CV - Forced ventilation product range
Cut out Dimension Air Flow
125 x 125
85 M /h
3
Voltage
Reference
230V
115V
NSYCVF85M230PF
NSYCVF85M115PF
223 x 223
165 M3/h 230VNSYCVF165M230PF
115V
NSYCVF165M115PF
223 x 223
302 m3/h 230VNSYCVF300M230PF
115V
NSYCVF300M115PF
291 x 291
562 m3/h 230VNSYCVF560M230PF
115V
NSYCVF560M115PF
291 x 291
850 m3/h
230V
115V
NSYCVF850M230PF
NSYCVF850M115PF
Recommended Enclosure sizes
The following table gives the examples for the panel dimensions
for better Ventilation
kvar rating
Total no. of steps
Panel dimension (H x L x W)mm
With reactor Without reactor 100
4
1800 x 800 x 800
1800 x 800 x 600
150
6
1800 x 800 x 800
1800 x 800 x 600
200
6
1800 x 800 x 800
1800 x 800 x 600
250
7
2000 x 800 x 800
2000 x 800 x 600
300
8
2000 x 800 x 800
2000 x 800 x 600
350
8
2000 x 800 x 800
2000 x 800 x 600
400
8
2000 x 800 x 800
2000 x 800 x 800
The number of fans recommended can be followed only if proper ventilation of all
the components as per the design rules of the components are implemented with
the recommended enclosure sizes and also ensure the recommended mounting
distance from the wall.
(1)
49
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Protection of panels
Protection of panel is to protect both the enclosure and the
equipment inside the enclosure, against external influences or
conditions such as
●●Mechanical impacts,
●●Corrosion
●●Corrosive solvents
●●Fungus
●●Vermin
●●Solar radiation
●●Icing
●●Moisture (for example, produced by condensation)
●●Explosive atmospheres
●●Protection against contact with hazardous moving parts external
to the enclosure (such as fans)
Degree of protection
Degree of protection (IP) is represented by two numerals and two
optional characters
IP 0-6 0-8 A-D H M S W
See standard IEC 60529
Acceptable degree of protection is IP 4X for most of the APFC
panels. For dusty environment, a higher level of ingress protection
is recommended. A higher IP level gives reduction in cooling
and hence special cooling system should be designed (i.e.
air conditioning) and better ventilation. When some degree of
protection against ingress of water is required, we usually go to
IP42. The recommended IP is: IP42
Earthing
Earthing or grounding means literally to make an electrical
connection between the ground and a metallic body. The main
reason for doing this is safety. The term ground is often used to
mean a part of the circuit which has zero volts on it.
The main objectives are as follows
●●Provide an alternative path for the fault current to flow so that it
will not endanger the user.
●●Ensure that all exposed conductive parts do not reach a
dangerous potential.
Earthing safety points to be adhered for panels are as follows:
●●Interconnect all earthing points of door mounted metallic
components and all non-current carrying parts of control wiring.
Connect finally to panel earth bus with suitable cable.
●●Interconnect all earthing points of power circuit components
(capacitors, reactors, switches etc).
●●Provide coupling links for connecting the earth bus sections at
site.
●●As per standards two earth terminals must be provided for
panels.
●●The earth must be designed based on the system fault level at
the location.
50
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Temperature grade of cables
Power and control cables in the capacitor bank
need to be selected according to the ambient
temperature, application and the heat dissipation
characteristic of components used.
For a normal operating conditions according to
IEC61439-1 (Maximum temperature in the electrical
room: ≤ 40°C) user could use 105°C grade cables
for the power cable selection.
Cable Selection
Cables are used for power circuit and control circuit in APFC
system. Choosing a proper and adequate cable is of very much
importance. The selection of cable depends on the following
points.
●●Voltage Rating.
●●Ampere Capacity.
●●Heating Conditions.
Voltage Rating
The type and thickness of insulation is determined by the voltage
grade. It also helps in determining the minimum size of conductor
that is suitable for loads.
Ampere Capacity
Current carrying capacity of the cable is selected based on the
maximum current rating of each step.
Heating conditions
Include the external thermal conditions which are responsible for
determining the temperature increment of a cable.
Some important factors to be considered during selection of
cables are
●●Ambient temperature
●●Presence of artificial cooling
●●Proximity to heating elements.
Step Power cable selection
Flexible, rigid or semi rigid copper cables are generally used
inside the Panel.
●●It shall have a voltage class of 1100V grade.
For a working voltage that is less than half the insulation voltage of
the cable , i.e < 550V, these cables are considered to be class 2.
Therefore they can be flanged directly to metal supports without
use of any additional insulating material.
The Cable cross section must be compatible with:
●●The current to be carried
●●The ambient temperature around the conductors.
Dimensional Rules:
●●The ambient temperature in the electrical room must not exceed
40˚C
●●The Cables must be appropriate for a current of at least 1.5
times the capacitor current at a temperature of 50˚C
●●The ambient temperature of the electrical room must not exceed
50˚C
51
Installation rules
APFC Panels
Auxiliary Circuit cable selection
Unless otherwise stated in specifications, the following cable cross
sections are recommended for auxiliary wirings.
●●1.5 mm² copper wires for the auxiliary voltage circuits
●●2.5 mm² copper wires for current circuits- CT secondary
connection and for earthing
●●It should have a voltage class of 1100/660V grade or more.
●●The cables must be multi strand, single core and PVC insulated.
Note: For CT connection the lug used should be ring type.
Capacitor Bank connection Cable Selection
●●Power conductors and chosen to carry continuous current of 1.5
times the rated current
●●Power cables are used for interconnection between bus bar,
step protection, switches, reactors and capacitors.
●●The cables shall be multi strand, single core and PVC insulated.
●●Minimum of 4 mm² power cable is considered for connection
capacitor step up to 10kvar
●●Maximum of 35 mm² cable is considered for 50 kvar step.
●● And for higher rated steps of 75 or 100kvar, 2 numbers of 35
mm² cable are generally used in parallel.
Various manufacturers of cables distinguish cables based on cable
diameter, current carrying capacity and type. Hence it is necessary
to select cables suitably to meet the needs in APFC panels
Note: selection of suitable lugs is very much important in order to achieve a proper
joint. Proper crimping of these lugs to the cables should also be ensured. Only 2
lugs are permitted in one hole for termination (i.e. at either sides of the hole and not
one above the other).
Recommended size of cables and lugs for
contactors and switchgear connection
User Tip:
Conductor sizes and connecting methods for
capacitors are detailed in the capacitor installation
rules in this guide.
kvar rating
Cable Size in mm2
230V/240V
400 to 480V
>600V
Al
Cu Al
Cu
Al
Cu
2.5
1.5
1
1.5
1
1.5
1
5
4
2.5
1.5
1
1.5
1
7.5
10
6
4
2.5
1.5
1
10
16
10
6
4
2.5
1.5
12.5
10
6
4
2.5
15 10664
20
16 10106
25
25 161610
30
35 251610
40
50 352516
50
50 353525
75
2×50
2×35
2×25
2×16
100
2×50
2×50
2×35
2×25
Lug Size
M5/M6/M8
Pin type,
fork type or
ring type
based on
the terminal
of the
components
M5/M6/M8
fork type or
Ring based
**The above details/specifications will vary from manufacture to manufacture.
Calculations are based on standard operating conditions.
52
Assembly,
Inspection
and Testing
Assembly and Inspection
Layout of various components in APFC panels
Components layout is prepared based on the arrangements of
switchgears, capacitors, reactors and other components to be
installed in the APFC panel. The others also include Bus bars,
incomer cable entry whether at bottom or top, fans, etc.
Usually capacitors, switch gears and reactors are provided at
separate locations, however between capacitors and reactors a
complete partition should be provided. Capacitors are mounted
vertically on a separate metal channel, tightened by the mounting
screw to avoid dislocation. Capacitors are transposed and placed
when arranged one below the other in racks. This arrangement
gives better cooling to all capacitors equally. Capacitors are
sensitive to high temperature and hence proper care will have to
be taken while locating them.
Reactors operate at much higher temperature than capacitors.
Placing reactors adjacent to capacitors or below them will harm
capacitors. Capacitors will be subjected to reactors heat and the
operating performance will be affected. Hence capacitors and
rectors are not assembled together and a complete partition is
required between them.
The cables connecting the components run in cable alleys,
properly numbered for respective steps.
Inspection- Applicable tests and procedure for
conducting in APFC panels
Tests according to IEC 61921 to validate the APFC design is
conducted
A. Type Tests
B. Routine Test
A. Verificaton of type tests
●●Temperature rise test
●●Dielectric properties
●●Short circuit withstand strength
●●Effectiveness of the protection circuit
●●Clearance and creepage distances
●●Mechanical operation
●●Degree of protection
B. Routine Test
●●Inspection of assembly including inspection of wiring and if
necessary electrical operation test
●●Dielectric test
●●Checking of protective measures and of the electrical continuity
of protective circuit
●●Verification of insulation resistance
53
Assembly,
Inspection
and Testing
The means
Principle
Practical rules
At the end of the manufacturing process, a LV switchboard must
undergo various routine inspections and tests in the factory,
following an established programme.
The switchboard must comply with:
the appropriate standards
the design file (drawings, diagrams and specific requirements)
manufacturer mounting instructions
in-house instructions.
DD382359-65
Test conditions
Tests must be carried out in a clearly defined area, in compliance
with applicable legislation or regulations, by qualified personnel.
Inspection is carried out in a special area refered to as the test
platform which is set aside for final testing. All inspectors must first
attend a special training course and must be qualified for working
in the proximity of live parts.
Inspection means
The necessary parts should be suitable for the purpose, correctly
calibrated and in good working order:
●●dielectric test station
●●megohmmeter
●●multimeter
●●capacitance meter
●●torque wrench
●●controller test bench…
Megohmmeter.
The reference documents
The main international standards are:
IEC 60439-1, IEC 60529, IEC 60831-1&2 and IEC 61921.
In addition to those items which are specific to the switchboard:
drawings, diagrams and specific specifications, quality inspectors
should refer to up-to-date documents, integrating revisions and
updates:
●●to technical files
●●to in-house rules, etc
●●keeping track of changes in standards in order to have the most
recent version at all times
54
Assembly,
Inspection
and Testing
The tests
Inspections and tests - Standards:IEC 60439
Practical rules
Carry out all the compulsory inspections and tests and in particular
the three routine tests specified by the IEC 60439-1 standards.
They complement any type tests which may have been carried out
previously by the manufacturer.
Standard IEC 60439-1 defines 10 tests to be carried out on
electrical switchboards:
●●7 type tests
●●3 routine tests.
The 7 type tests must be carried out in laboratories and test
platforms on cubicles, using real working configurations: complete
cubicles fitted with standard components and equipped with
VarplusCan and VarplusBox capacitors.
The assembly instructions and the 3 routine tests (described
below) provide the necessary proof that the switchboard is of the
Type Tested Assembly (TTA) or Partially Tested Assembly (PTA)
type, and in compliance with standards.
1st routine test
Inspection of the assembly, including inspection of wiring and, if
necessary, an electrical operation test.
Conformity
●●conformity of the finished switchboard to the drawings, part lists
and diagrams:
●●number, type and rating of devices
●●conformity of cabling: auxiliary and power circuit connections
●●quality of cables: conductor cross-section, crimping and
tightness
●●marking of conductors and devices.
Visual inspection
●●check clearances and creepage distances at connections or part
of busbars
●●check the degree of protection. Presence of protective elements,
according to requirements (canopy, gasket, front plate, etc.).
No enclosure infractions (cut-outs, holes, etc.) that might
compromise the original degree of protection
●●check the presence of a name plate or technical documentation
showing the manufacturer’s name, the project identity number
and all the technical specifications relevant to the LV correction
switchboard (kvar, voltage, frequency, etc.)
Electrical operation
●●Inspect the cables and check the proper operation of the LV
correction switchboard, preferably using a “controller test bench”
(attached diagram).
●●Capacitance measurement : Check the capacitance of each
step. One measurement between two capacitor terminals is
sufficient:
Refer annexure 2, formula 4 for Q value (in kvar) analysis from
capacitance measured.
55
DD382356-69
Assembly,
Inspection
and Testing
2nd routing test : Insulation testing
Dielectric test:
All devices must be connected, with the exception of those
incapable of withstanding the test voltage (disconnect the
controller). Tests must be done with all the contactors closed. For
a switchboard with voltage rated up 690 V, apply a test voltage of
2500 V - 50 Hz for 1 second minimum, between all the live parts
and the interconnected frames of the assembly.
Note: due to capacitor presence, the test must be performed between the 3 shortcircuited phases and the earth.
DD382361-69
Dielectrometer
The tests are satisfactory if there is neither puncture nor flashover
between the various parts being tested.
Alternative solution:
If the switchboard is not subjected to a dielectric test, an insulation
measurement must be taken using an insulation tester, with a
voltage of at least 500 V (DC). The minimum insulation resistance
value must be higher than 1000 ohms/V.
3rd routine test : Protective measures
Check for the presence of barriers to protect against direct and
indirect contacts with live parts.
Multimeter
Visually check that:
●●Contact washers have been used on all assemblies
●●Earthing wires have been fitted to doors
●●The PE conductor is present and must be connected.
Finishing
Clean the inside of the switchboard
Check presence of switchboard identification markers
Check external appearance: scratches, paintwork, etc.
Reports
Create a non quality input document used to quantify faults,
evaluate their importance and assign them to relevant department
that must take the necessary action to ensure conformity of the
electrical switchboard.
Practical rules
Conformity of production:
●●Draw up a list of missing items
●●Draw up a list of equipment which will be dispatched separately
from the switchboard.
Conformity of operation:
●●Issue a test report
●●This report notes any anomalies detected and the required
corrective measures
●●Establish with the customer, a check list of all the points to be
checked (example enclosed)
●●Issue a test report that remains in the panel-builder’s possession
but that can be supplied on request
●●this report certifies that all the tests have been carried out and
avoids repeating all tests a second time once on site.
Each panel-builder has his own test documents.
56
Pre despatch factory inspections report
model
Assembly,
Inspection
and Testing
Customer: .................................. Project no: ..................................
Cust. order no: .................................. Workpost: .............................
Inspection performed by: .......................................... Signatures: .................................. Q.I: ........................................................................
Device: ..............................................................................................................................
kvar V
Hz
Inspection operations
Comments Q.I
1- dielectric test
test 2500 V - 50 Hz - 1 second minimum
insulation measurement at 500 V CC
2a- conformity
Capacitor (kvar)
□conform
□not conform
Fuse (A)
□conform
□not conform
Contactor (type)
□conform
□not conform
DR (mH)
□conform
□not conform
DR (A)
□conform
□not conform
Cable cross-section
□conform
□not conform
Busbar cross-section
□conform
□not conform
Connection pads
□conform
□not conform
Earth circuit
□conform
□not conform
Component identification
□conform
□not conform
Conductor identification
□conform
□not conform
Rating plate
□conform
□not conform
Documentation
□conform
□not conform
Frame continuity
□conform
□not conform
Degree of protection
□conform
□not conform
Locking
□conform
□not conform
Presentation, appearance
□conform
□not conform
Inspection Steps no. Comments Q.I no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
no :
operations
12345678910
11
12
2b- operation
Contactor
□ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK
Controller
□ conform □ not conform
Indication
□ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK □ OK
2c- capacitance measurement C between Ø (mF)
Capacitor no. reading
Observations : ...................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
57
Assembly,
Inspection
and Testing
Final inspection report model
Customer: ............................................................................................... Customer order no: ..........................................................................
Project no: ...............................................................................................
List of equipment
Workpost number: ...................................................................................Description: ......................................................................................
Inspection performed
1- Conformity inspection
●● Enclosures
: ..........................................................................................................................................................................
□
●● Switchgear
: ........................................................................................................................................................................... □
●● Conductors
: ...........................................................................................................................................................................
□
2- Mechanical checks :.............................................................................................................................................................................. □
3- Electrical continuity of mechanical frames
Resistance value : ...................................................... mΩ Visual : ........................... □
Electrical : ...................... □
4- Dielectric tests (2500 V - 50 Hz - 1 second minimum) : ......................................................................................................................... □
5- Insulation resistance monitoring (500 V DC) : ..................................................................................................................................... □
Resistance value : ...................................................... mΩ
6- Electrical operating tests : ..................................................................................................................................................................... □
Observations : ..................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Conclusion :
□ equipment accepted without reservations.
□ equipment refused, to be presented for re-inspection.
□ equipment accepted with reservations.
Customer inspection
Acceptance test organisation
Date: .........................................Date: ......................................... Inspector
Q.I manager
Date: .........................................
Signature: ................................. Signature: ...................................Signature: ...................................
58
Handling
Packaging and Transport
Packing design is carried out with due consideration to the mode
of transport.
The packing design shall be based on the following
●●The panel outer dimension.
●●Total weight of the panel.
●●Position of components/ equipments mounted on the front
Panel
●●Position of heavy components placed inside the enclosure
●●Place of delivery
●●Mode of transport
●●Type of loading and unloading
●●Storage conditions at site
The panels are provided with the following
●●Proper lifting arrangement - for the panel and the complete
assembly
●●Protection against rain, spillage of water or liquids by properly
covering the entire enclosure.
●●Protection for meters display and instruments on the front panel
●●Desiccants to ensure removal of moisture during transportation
and storage.
Packing Sequence
●●Application of Hessian cloth against shocks
●●Thermo Cole to protect instruments , meters - refer Fig 1
●●Application of stretch film & bubble film on the panel
●●Placement of kurlon spacer on the panel to act as spacer
between panel and side/top /rear shocks
●●Inclusion of silica gel bags
●●Printing / labels / Signs to indicate upright position - refer Fig 2
Fig 1
Handling of packed Panels
Road Transport
During Transport it is necessary to protect the panel from vibration
& jolting by proper anchoring in the truck bed.
Fig 2
●●While loading and unloading the panel onto or from the truck,
use a crane or fork lift, depending on the weight and size of the
panel, especially a loading platform is preferable
●●DO not push the panel up or down a ramp.
●●Alternatively, the crate can be lifted vertically by sling and pulley
hook, to ensure safety to the panel and personnel.
It is also necessary to instruct the site/ commissioning personnel
to handle the packing for movement of the panel to erection site
by using crane/ trolley truck to avoid physical damage.
Sea Transport
●●Steps should be taken to protect the equipment from corrosion,
humidity and rain.
●●Suitable marks and indications should be given on the crate for
applying slings for lifting on to the ship deck.
●●While shipping, it is necessary for the shipping agency to
properly anchor the panel package to prevent roll over during
transit
59
Handling
The following are the figures referring to Do’s and Don’ts
Wrong!

Wrong!

Right!

60
Handling
Storage and Handling
The Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC) capacitor bank
builder must, in all contracts, provide the user with a manual
on proper procedures to be adopted during the stages of
installation, commissioning and maintenance. This is particularly
important when customers own staff undertakes erection and
commissioning.
The manual covers, as a minimum, the following subjects:●●Unloading, inspection and storage of packed panels.
●●Unpacking and visual inspection of panel.
●●Installation and cabling at final location.
●●Setting of APFC relay.
●●Live checks and observations to be made with supply ‘ON’,
precautions needed during this phase.
●●Recommendation for routine checks to be made after
commissioning.
In all cases, copies of operating instruction manual of major
components, such as APFC controller and protective relays,
published by the respective manufacturers, should be provided to
the user for use during installation.
Unpacking
●●While unpacking, care should be taken to see that no sharp
tools hits / hampers the surface of the panel and creates dents
and damage the powder coated finish of the enclosure.
●●A copy of this Instruction Manual along with a copy of the
schematic drawing of the panel is also put in the panel. The
same shall be read carefully and followed for the installation,
commissioning, and operation of the equipment by the concerned
officials at site.
●●If any damage in transit or loss of components is observed
during unpacking, this has to be intimated immediately to the
concerned.
●●Two panel keys are also supplied along with the panel.
Handling
●●Attach ropes to the lifting hooks of the panel for handling. Never
use hard tools like crowbars which can damage the panel while
handling. As far as possible cranes should be used to lift and
move the panels. Do not push and give jerks to the panel, and
thereby jerks to the internal components.
●●Keep the panel on a flat, firm, surface in the normal upright
position. Do not keep it on side wise or upside down.
●●Do not use the operating handles of MCCB, Switches, etc; for
holding while handling.
Storage
●●Do not store the panel uncovered even for a short period. Keep
it covered at least with a polyethylene sheet.
●●If it is not to be erected / commissioned for a longer period, keep
the panel with the polyethylene sheet and store in a cool, dry,
well ventilated, place, well protected from dust and corrosion, wet
61
Installation,
Commissioning
and Maintenance
Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance
atmosphere.
Installation and Commissioning
The panel can be grouted directly on the floor of the switchboard
room, provided that proper trench for cabling has been made and
the floor is leveled properly. No specific foundation is required.
Pre-commissioning check lists
Check list - 1
The following points should be verified before charging capacitor
banks installed in Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC)
capacitor bank .
●●Capacitor voltage rating is equal to or more than the maximum
voltage recorded in the installation
●●Capacitor is mounted and installed as per mounting and
installation guidelines in this document
●●The plant has the facility to trip the capacitor under over voltage
conditions.(10%)
●●Ensure each capacitor bank is provided with suitable protection
devices.
●●Suitable inrush current device is connected in series with
contactor to limit the inrush current or capacitor duty contactor is
connected.
●●Capacitor is installed in the area free from entry of dust,
chemical fumes and rain water.
●●PF Controller provided in the panel should be set for 60 seconds
On-delay. (Not applicable for capacitors used with the fast
switching devices - Static Switched )
●●The capacitor with detuned reactor banks are provided with
MCCB for protection apart from above points. Use the switchgear
selection guidelines for selection of breaker
Check list - 2
Following points are required to be verified before charging APFC
panel.
●●All the electrical connection is checked for loose termination in
the panel.
●●The CT is located before the cable connection of APFC panel
towards source / main breaker of installation. Ensure the CTs are
connected to the PF Controller.
●●It is suggested to mount measurement C.T of the APFC Relay
on the Highest current carrying phase ( Eg: R ) and the Voltage
input for the relay is taken from other two phases ( Eg: YB ) . This
is not applicable for a three phase sensing APFC relays.
●●Neutral cable is connected to the panel.
●●Current carrying capacity of cable in the APFC panel is rated
equal to incomer switch current rating.
●●Capacitor terminals are checked for any loose connection.
●●Earthing bus is connected to the panel.
●●All the control fuses are intact.
●●If MCBs are used for step protection make sure they are
switched on.
62
Installation,
Commissioning
and Maintenance
●●Emergency push button is released.
●●Panel are installed in the area free from entry of dust, chemical
fumes and rain water.
Check list - 3
Verify the following points in the installation before commissioning
capacitor with detuned reactor banks.
●●Capacitor banks without reactor should not be permitted on the
secondary side of transformer circuit which is having capacitor
+ Detuned reactor banks connected. In this case please remove
capacitors without reactors from the same network.
●●Capacitors used with reactors are always of higher voltage than
network voltage. Please do not use normal capacitor rated for
network voltage.
●●Earthing should be done at capacitors and reactors separately.
●●Make sure all the cable and termination guidelines are followed.
●●Forced cross ventilation should be provided in the installation
area. If the filter banks are installed inside the panel the fans need
to be provided.
●●Detuned reactors are provided with thermal protection, the
Normally Closed (NC) dry contact must be used to disconnect the
step in the event of overheating.
Installation guidelines for APFC panel
●●Shift the panel to the location where it is required to be installed.
a.Position the panel on the foundation and lock the panel base
frame with the foundation bolts for free standing panels, by
using spirit level and plumber block for achieving horizontal
and vertical leveling.
b.Position the panel on the wall or structure and fix with wall
mounting brackets provided along with the panel. Leveling
should be done here also as explained above.
●●Connect the earth conductor to the panel terminal provided on
either side of the panel.
●●Use the key provided to open the door of the panel and make
sure that electrical connection of all equipments are intact. This is
particularly important since vibration in transportation sometimes
may have resulted in loose connections.
●●The cable rated for current capacity equivalent to main incomer
of panel should be used. Use suitable size lugs for connecting the
power cables.
●●Connect the cable to the terminals provided for the power
supply. Make sure that the correct phase identification is
maintained while connecting the incoming terminals to the panel
with respect to phases of supply line, as any mistake will lead to
the malfunctioning of relay.
●●Connect the APFC relay as mentioned in the checklists.
●●Check the preset values of the CT secondary current of the
relay. It should match with the CT used.
Commissioning of APFC panel
●●Connect the 3-phase incoming cable to the Incoming terminal of
the Incomer Switch / Circuit breaker of the APFC panel.
●●If the APFC controller / relay are programmable type, program
the various settings as per instructions given in the respective
63
Installation,
Commissioning
and Maintenance
instruction manual.
●●Ensure that the CT shorting links are removed after the CT
secondary connections are made properly.
●●Keep the Auto /off / Manual selector switch in the Auto position.
●●Ensure that the power supply to the Incomer switch is ‘ON’ from
the glowing of the indicating lamps ‘R’, ‘Y’, and ‘B’. Cross check
the system voltage.
●●Switch “ON” the Incomer MCCB / ACB of the APFC Panel.
●●The APFC relay will be energized and displays the present
power factor, when R-Phase load CT connections and phase
sequence of voltage (Y & B) are correct.
Note: Before interchanging the C.T. secondary wires, ensure that the terminals of
the C.T. are shorted by a small wire, which should be removed after the inter change.
Periodic Maintenance
The following periodic checks are recommended to be conducted
●●Visual check of components and current carrying parts,
especially bus bar.
●●Check tightness of all electrical connections.
●●Check current drawn by the individual capacitor steps.
●●Check the operation of contactors manually by switching of the
APFC equipment
●●Visually check for rust and corrosions in bolts, nuts and other
accessories
●●Visually check for the sparks and burn outs in the panels.
64
Annexures
Annexure I
Trouble Shooting in Capacitor
65
Symptoms
Cause
Remedial Action
Capacitor terminal
over heating
1. Proper size for lug is not
used
2. Loose connection
3. Rating of cable is not
adequate
4. Capacitor drawing over
current
1. Check the size of lugs
used and replace with
suitable size
2. Tighten the loose
connections
3. Check the cable current
carrying capacity and
change if required
4. Check the harmonics in
Supply voltage
Over heating of
capacitor unit
1. Poor ventilation
2. Drawing excessive
current
3. Over voltage
1. Ensure the ventilation for
the installation area
2. Check for the harmonic
presence
3. Check the system voltage
and capacitor rated voltage.
If required replace with
capacitor of proper rated
voltage
Capacitor drawing
less current
1. Low voltage
2. Failure of capacitor
elements
1. Voltage to be maintained
2. Should be checked if
the capacitors are installed
and operated as per the
guideline given
3. Incase of elements failure
due to excessive harmonic
currents, capacitor should
be replaced with reactor and
higher rated capacitor.
Power factor is not
improved
1. Capacitor installed is not
operated.
2. Supply transformer
fixed compensation is not
provided
3. Capacitors are not
selected properly
1. Check the connections of
the capacitors
2. Transformer should
be provided with fixed
compensation
3. Do the proper selection
of capacitor as per the
guidelines given.
Short circuit
device operating
frequently
1. Short circuit rating/setting
is improper
2. Harmonic over loading
1. Do proper selection/
setting of short circuit device
2. Use special capacitor
duty contactors for inrush
current limiting in case of
parallel switching
3. if it is harmonic overload,
capacitor should be replaced
with reactor and suitable
capacitor.
Annexures
Annexure II
Important analysis formulas
Formula -1
The kvar of capacitor will not be same if voltage applied to the
capacitor and frequency changes. The example given below
shows how to calculate capacitor power in kvar from the
measured values at site and name plate details.
QM =( fM / fN ) × ( UM / UN )2 × QN
UN = Rated Voltage
fN = Rated Frequency
QN = Rated power
UM = Measured voltage
fM = Measured frequency
QM = Available power in kvar
Example:
1. Name plate details – 15kvar, 3 phases, 440V, 50Hz capacitor.
Measured voltage - 425V
Measured frequency - 48.5Hz
QM =( fM / fN ) × ( UM / UN )2 × QN
QM = (48.5/50) × (425 / 440 )2 × 15 = 13.57kvar.
2. Name plate details – 25kvar, 3 phases, 480V, 60Hz capacitor.
Measured voltage - 464V
Measured frequency - 59.5Hz
QM =( fM / fN ) × ( UM / UN )2 × QN
QM = (59.5/60) x (464/480 )2 x 15 = 23.16kvar.
Formula - 2
The current of capacitor will not be same if voltage applied to
the capacitor and frequency changes. The example given below
shows how to calculate capacitor current from the measured value
at site.
( )
IM = IR
U M x fM
U R x fR
UN = Rated Voltage
fN = Rated Frequency
IN = Rated Current
UM = Measured Voltage
fM = Measured frequency
IM = Capacitor Current
Example:
Consider a capacitor of 15 kvar, 440V, 50 Hz, 3 Phase Capacitor
Rated Current from name plate = 19.68A
Measured Values are: Voltage : 425V , Frequency : 49.5 Hz,
IM = 19.68
(
= 18.43A
)
425 x 48.5
440 x 50
Note:Please ensure that the measurement is done using true RMS clamp meter
66
Annexures
Formula - 3
Formula for calculating rated current of capacitor with rated supply
voltage and frequency.
IN = kvar x 103 / (√3 x UN)
Example
1. 50 kvar , 3 phase, 400V, 50Hz capacitor.
IN = kvar x 103 / (√3 x UN)
IN = (50 × 1000) / (1.732 × 400)
IN = 72.16 A
2. 37.7 kvar, 3 phases, 525V, 50Hz capacitor.
IN = kvar × 103 / (√3 × UN)
IN= (37.7 × 1000) / (1.732 × 525)
IN = 41.45 A
Formula - 4
The capacitance value of a capacitor can be calculated using
following formulae for delta connected 3ph capacitor.
Assume that capacitance of the three delta connected capacitors
are C as shown in the figure.
C
C
C
C = (2/3) x QN × 109 / (4πfNUN2) for 3 phase capacitor.
Example
1. 15 kvar, 3 phases, 415V, 50Hz capacitor
C = (2/3) x 15 x 109 / (4 x 3.142 x 50 × (415 x 415)) = 92.41μF
2. 15 kvar, 3 phases, 440V, 50Hz capacitor
C = (2/3) x 15 x 109 / ( 4 x 3.142 x 50 x (440 x440)) = 82.2μF
Formula - 5
kvar calculation from the measured capacitance value of a
capacitor.
QM = 2/3 x (Ca + Cb + Cc) x UN2 x (2πfN )/ 109 - for three phase
capacitor
Example
1: Consider you have measured a capacitor rated for 440volts,
50Hz where in measured capacitance value is as follows.
1. 197μf ( between R & Y phase ) -Ca
2. 196μf ( between B & Y phase ) -Cb
3. 200μf ( between R & B phase ) -Cc
QM = 2/3 x (Ca + Cb + Cc) x UN2 x (2πfN )/ 109
QM = 2/3 x(197+196+200)x(4402 )x 2 x 3.14×50 / 109 = 24.04kvar
2: Consider you have measured a capacitor rated for 480V ,60Hz
where in measured capacitance value is as follows.
4. 236μf ( between R & Y phase ) - Ca
5. 238μf ( between B & Y phase ) - Cb
5. 237μf ( between R & B phase ) - Cc
QM = 2/3 x (Ca + Cb + Cc) x UN2 x (2πfN )/ 109
QM = 2/3 x(236+238+237)x(4802) x 2 x 3.14 x 60/109 = 41.19kvar
The tolerance of capacitance of a capacitor is -5% t0 +10% of capacitor as
specified in the IEC Standards.
67
Notes
Head Office
35, rue Joseph Monier
CS 3032392506 Rueil-Malmaison
www.schneider-electric.com
PFCED111008EN
As standards, specifications and designs change from time to time, please ask for confirmation of
the information given in this publication.
This document has been printed
on ecological paper.
Design: Schneider Electric
Photos: Schneider Electric
01/2015
© 2015 - Schneider Electric Industries SAS - All rights reserved
Schneider Electric Industries SAS
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