HCV Deliverable Report D2500.1 - HCV

HCV Deliverable Report D2500.1 - HCV
Responsible (Name, Organisation)
Damir Horvat, AVL
Issuer
(Name, Organisation)
Dr. Susanna Neuhold, AVL
Page
DELIVERABLE REPORT
1(25)
Date
WP No
Report No
June 2013
2500
D2500.1
Subject:
Dissem. Level
Decision Matrix (AVL)
PU
HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV)
DELIVERABLE D2500.1
DECISION MATRIX
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 1 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Summary
This document describes the work performed in the HCV task T2510. In this task a decision matrix including details about the investigated
electrified auxiliaries and the implementation effort has been collected. In order to create this decision matrix the results of the previous work
packages WP2100 to WP2400 have been used. In these work packages a market analysis of different available components for electrified
auxiliary sub systems was done in order to choose the most suitable ones for the implementation in the demonstrator vehicles in the HCV
project. The decisions on which components to use were based on CO2 reduction (fuel consumption), cost, packaging requirement and
implementation effort for the individual auxiliary.
The decision matrix shows all the available components and the selected components for implementation marked with green background. The
details about the selected auxiliaries and implementation effort have been collected in the deliverable D2500.2 [2].
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 2 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Table of contents
Summary ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................2
Table of contents ...................................................................................................................................................................................................3
List of Tables .........................................................................................................................................................................................................4
Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................5
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................6
Technical progress ................................................................................................................................................................................................6
Electrical A/C Compressors ...............................................................................................................................................................................7
Electrical Air Compressors ................................................................................................................................................................................9
Electrical Heating System ................................................................................................................................................................................11
Electrical Mechanical Braking System .............................................................................................................................................................13
Power Steering System ...................................................................................................................................................................................16
High Power Generator .....................................................................................................................................................................................18
Electrical Fan...................................................................................................................................................................................................19
Electrified Diesel Particle Filter Systems ..........................................................................................................................................................20
Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................24
References ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................25
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 3 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
List of Tables
Table 1: Comparison of the different A/C compressors (green: chosen compound DENSO 27) .......................................................... 7
Table 2: Properties of the different electrical air compressors (green: selected component - the Hydrovane V6T vane compressor)10
Table 3: Electrical heating system ...................................................................................................................................................... 11
Table 4: Evaluation of the different braking systems and components (green: chosen Brembo system) .......................................... 14
Table 5: Properties of the different power steering systems (green: chosen system) ........................................................................ 16
Table 6: Details for the Vanner high power generator ........................................................................................................................ 18
Table 7: Properties of chosen the electrical EBM-Papst fan. This fan was chosen because of its good price/performance ratio....... 19
Table 8: Properties of different investigated DPF Systems 1/3........................................................................................................... 21
Table 9: Properties of different investigated DPF Systems 2/3 ........................................................................................................... 22
Table 10: Properties of different investigated DPF Systems 3/3 ......................................................................................................... 23
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 4 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Abbreviations
AT
Aluminum Titanate
ESC
Electronic Stability Control
e-A/C
electric Air Conditioning
ESP
Electronic Stability Program
BSM
Brake System Module
FC
Fuel Consumption
CAN
Controller Area Network
HVAC
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
CS
Combustion System
HEV
Hybrid Electrical Vehicle
DPF
Diesel Particulate Filter
NEDC
New European Driving Cycle
EBD
Electronic Breaking Distribution (EBD)
NP
Normal Production
ECU
Electronic Control Unit
RH
Relative Humidity
EM
Electro-Mechanical
TRW
Company name
EMB
Electro-Mechanical Brake
EPB
Electronic Parking Braking
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 5 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Available electrified auxiliary components or systems were investigated based on their possible implementation and performance advantages.
The possibility of fuel consumption reduction and therefore CO2 emission decrease was assessed, to select the component which is
ecologically most profitable. Sometimes the costs could be estimated based on existing systems or similar components but in other cases no
reliable information on that was available. This is due to the fact that many components were just prototypes and not yet available on the
market. In such cases the cost estimation is not possible because the price strongly depends on the possible market volume, additional
suppliers, manufacturing costs and so on. In these cases just general guesses about the maintenance and operating costs of the components
could have been performed.
Another important factor for the decision which component to select for implementation is their weight. This is also related to their packaging
requirement and implementation effort. The best system is not helpful if a proper positioning cannot be performed. Based on these data, the
availability of the components and further considerations, the most suitable components or systems were chosen for the implementation.
The information on the available components has been collected from the reports delivered in the work packages WP2100 to WP2400. These
reports are listed in the reference chapter.
Technical progress
For each of the investigated electrified auxiliaries a short description of the component and a decision matrix in form of a table will be presented.
The selected system to be implemented in the HCV project is marked with green background color. The information in the presented tables was
collected from the individual reports from the work packages WP2200 to WP2400 or provided directly by the partner responsible for a specific
deliverable.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 6 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Electrical A/C Compressors
In general an electrical A/C compressor has just three connection points compared to a standard one: a mechanical (hydraulic), a control and a
high power electrical one. The component isn't driven by a belt leading to the fact that the location of the compressor could be chosen without
the engine constrain (more freedom of implementation). This leads to reduced pipe length by placing the compressor exactly next to the
component, which needs it. Finally the complete e-A/C layout becomes more compact. The investigated systems are presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Comparison of the different A/C compressors (green: chosen compound DENSO 27)
Type
Masterflux
Sierra060982Y3
SANDEN
F655
(prototype)
CO2 Reduction
It has the same potential as the
others. The major advantage is the
independence of the engine’s rpm:
can improve the CO2 reduction.
70% higher electrical consumption
than the SIERRA one
Costs
about 800 €
(compressor +
inverter)
Prototype - not
produced. No
Cost indications
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
Weight
Packaging and
Implementation Effort
Additional Information
6.5 kg
Inverter is not integrated - The
compressor isn't an automotive
component so the layout,
packaging and technical
specifications don't fit with the
automotive requirements.
This compressor was a prototype in
2010 it can not be considered
anymore, because it never went
into production for automotive
application.
Integrated Inverter
For passenger car application, was
prototype in 2010 and never went
into production and is therefore not
considered. This compressor has a
cooling power curve positioned
between the two DENSO
compressors.
7.6 kg
page 7 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
DENSO ES34
The fuel consumption of this A/C
compressor depends significantly
on the control strategy.
DENSO ES27
The fuel consumption of this
compressor depends significantly
on the control strategy. Energy
consumption reduced by 40 %
compared to mechanical one.
Possibility to reduce discharge
pressure and radiator fan
activation.
DENSO ES14
Same considerations as for the
other DENSO models.
DELPHI
No data --> No baseline available
1000 € for CRF
prototype
1000 € for CRF
prototype
1000 € for CRF
prototype
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
6.7 kg
Easy - independent on the
engine’s position - mounting →
more degrees of freedom and
decreased pipe length;
integrated inverter; reduced
connection points
For Minibus application this
compressor has the most
comparable properties to the
SANDEN at medium rotational
speed and therefore the best
choice; it has higher power than the
DENSO ES27 and therefore higher
power consumption.
5.9 kg
Easy - independent on the
engine’s position - mounting →
more degrees of freedom and
decreased pipe length;
integrated inverter; reduced
connection points
For passenger car application this
A/C compressor has the most
comparable properties to the
SANDEN one and therefore the best
choice; high performance.
4.7 kg
Easy - independent on the
engine’s position - mounting →
more degrees of freedom and
decreased pipe length;
reduced connection points
For Small Car Applications (A
segment).
less than
160 kg
roof mounted
Note: Total different system; weight
not comparable to the other ones.
page 8 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Electrical Air Compressors
For the electrical air compressors three different main working systems were compared as shown in Table 2. These are the reciprocating
compressor, vane compressor and screw compressor. After comparing the three compressor type it was found that the vane compressor is the
most suitable for the HCV project requirements. The selected model is a Hydrovane V6T vane compressor. For more details concerning these
systems refer to the reports of work package WP2200 [3].
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 9 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Table 2: Properties of the different electrical air compressors (green: selected component - the Hydrovane V6T vane compressor)
System
Reciprocating
compressors
Vane
compressors
Screw
compressors
Type
Wabco
912 518
205 0
CO2 Reduction
SOLARIS estimated
a fuel consumption
potential of 10 %
using electric
compressors
Hydrovane
V6T vane –
compressor
SOLARIS estimated
a fuel consumption
potential of 10%
using electric
compressors
No
supplier
SOLARIS estimated
a fuel consumption
potential of 10%
using electric
compressors
Costs
1,100
€
1,640
€
-
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
Packaging and Implementation Effort
Additional
information
Considerations
25 kg
(powered
by diesel
engine)
built in e-motor
Standard
solution
delivered with
the
combustion
engine.
Not chosen - not
possible to use this
solution in electric
and hybrid vehicles
where electric
engines are
assembled.
32 kg
(with eengine)
very compact and simple (direct
transmission ratio of power and the
flexible clutch -->possibility of positioning
the compressor at the air inlet location in
the direct vicinity of the work stands - no
expensive pipes - reduced length); built in
e-motor - SIEMENS three-phase engine
Weight
-
built in e-motor
page 10 of 25
blade durability
> 100 000 hrs, Chosen - When hybrid
no repairs just
bus drives on the
typical
electric motor then einspections;
compressor is
lowest
necessary to provide
maintenance
air to the bus systems.
costs
This is a very
popular
solution for
commercial
applications.
Not chosen – No
supplier of screw
compressors for
hybrid buses has been
found
__________________________________________________________________________
Electrical Heating System
Concerning the electrical heating two different systems were compared. Implementing a fully electrical system in a bus with a diesel engine can
be performed using the PEDRO SANZ Frontbox plus an electric heater. A comparison between the two electric heating systems (GRAYSON
and SPHEROS) and the combustion heating system also from SPHEROS has been performed in the work package WP2200. Some details on
the comparison can be found in report D2200.2 [3] and on the implementation in report D2500.2 [2]. The different systems/components are
presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Electrical heating system
Component
Manufacturer
CO2 Reduction Costs Weight
Pedro Sanz - For
combustion
heater system
Powered by
Spheros
Thermo 300 (4
kg/h)
Frontbox
(variable air
duct system)
PEDRO SANZ –
For electrical
heater system
100% emission
free. Powered
by electric
energy.
303 €
1,096
€
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
19 kg
16 kg
Packaging and
Implementation
Effort
Additional Information
Considerations
Mounted under the
driver cabin. There is
the air intake duct from
the outside (it works in
closed / opened loop)
Brushless frontbox with
variable speed control
Reference unit
Brushless frontbox with
variable speed control
with additional heating
function.
This is a prototype device.
Fully functionally
compatible with standard
frontbox. Doesn’t require
changes in the bus
construction.
Front mounted; inbuilt
heat exchanger
page 11 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Component
Packaging and
Implementation
Effort
Additional Information
Considerations
19 kg
Fueled heater.
Assembled in the
engine compartment
The standard device used
in the non-hybrid buses
Reference unit
13.5 kg
Installation in the
engine compartment.
The special workspace
preparation is required
to apply this device.
Easy to install and use.
Not chosen: This unit
requires structural changes
in the bus construction.
AC/DC powered unit.
Assembled in the
engine compartment
Maintenance and life
cycle costs are minimal;
no odour nuisance from
exhaust fumes, no noise
disturbance; high level of
reliability and efficiency
(98%) - can be operated
at very low ambient
temperatures
Chosen: Mechanical
installation 100%
compatible with the
standard one (Thermo 300)
and without a change in the
bus construction. Without
risk of damaging other
components. Without fuel
supply.
Manufacturer
CO2 Reduction Costs Weight
Combustion
heater Spheros
Thermo 300
Fuel
consumption of
4 kg/h
Thermal Resistor
GRAYSON
convert electric
energy to heat
energy - no fuel
energy needed
728 €
1,115
€
Heater
Electric heater
SPHEROS
Thermo AC/DC
100% emission
free. Powered
by electric
energy.
1,950
€
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
16 kg
page 12 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Electrical Mechanical Braking System
To get closer to an electrification of the braking system an Electrified Vacuum Pump is necessary. This pump just operates on demand if the
vacuum level in the braking system is too low. This system enables independence of the combustion engine’s operation (for more details refer
to the reports from WP2300 [4]).
The systems for electrification of the braking operation provided by suppliers and compared in Table 4 can be divided in these categories:
 Electro-Hydraulic Brake – EHB
 Electro-Pneumatic Brake
 Electro-Mechanical Booster
 Electro-Mechanical Brake – EMB
An electrified vacuum pump is necessary to be independent on the combustion engine’s operation and achieve additional control by activating
the pump only when necessary. For implementation in the HCV project the Hybrid Electro-Mechanical Braking system was chosen. This system
still includes the standard hydraulic braking circuit for the front axle while two electro mechanical brakes shall be installed on the rear axle
replacing the conventional circuit for rear axle.
The standard architecture on the front axle guarantees to fulfill the safety requirements without excessively increasing the system redundancy,
whereas the rear electro-mechanical brakes allow having many advantages, with respect to the standard architecture, in terms of layout,
functionalities, comfort, performances… These benefits can not be expressed in terms of fuel consumption reduction, but the electrification of
the rear braking system has many benefits:
 Possibility to integrate the EPB on the rear axle on the electro-mechanical actuators
 Hydraulics pipes from ABS/ESP module to the rear axle callipers and, in case of EPB integration, the hand brake cable and lever are
totally removed
 Improvement of the total system safety by virtue of two hydraulic separate circuits on front axle (in case of X architecture)
 Possibility to downsize the pneumatic vacuum booster, the tandem MC pump and the ABS/ESC hydraulic circuit by virtue of the
reduction of the hydraulic circuit absorptions.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 13 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Table 4: Evaluation of the different braking systems and components (green: chosen Brembo system)
Type
ElectroHydraulic
Brake
Component
Packaging and Implementation Effort
Additional information
Bosch Hydraulic
Apply System
(HAS)
Replaces pneumatic booster with a hydraulic
accumulator, a pump and a master cylinder; the size of
the Brake Operating Unit is similar to a normal
production master cylinder plus a pneumatic booster, but
the Actuated Control Module is added.
In case of failure the brake pedal can push directly the
master cylinder
TRW ESC-R
The size of the ESC-R is slightly larger than a normal ESC;
In ESC a simulator unit is introduced to decouple the
pedal from the brake circuit, valves are modified; External
stroke sensor on the brake pedal required.
TRW Slip Control
Boost (SCB)
Complete turnkey braking architecture (Master Cylinder +
Electro-Hydraulic Control Unit); every regeneration
strategy is possible.
In case of failure the simulator is disconnected and the
driver directly brakes the wheels
ADVICS
Similar to SCB
in case of failure the driver can brake directly only the
front wheels
BOSCH ESP
Intended for vehicles with electric motor on rear axle;
substitutes the NP ESP / a stroke sensor is introduced on
the brake pedal / modified valves in the module
to decouple only the rear axle pressure from the brake
pedal
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 14 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Type
Component
Packaging and Implementation Effort
Additional information
ElectroPneumatic
Brake
Continental –
Regenerative
Braking System
(RBS)
This architecture is quite complicated, and in any case it
doesn’t permit the split of the front and rear axle
pressure.
In case of failure the brake pedal rod presses directly on
the master cylinder
Bosch – Pressure
Controlled
Actuation (PCA)
Very similar to RBS, but a modified ESP is introduced.
ElectroMechanical
Booster
Electro
Mechanical
Brake (EMB)
Bosch iBooster
Dimensions are similar to a normal booster, with
removed crankshaft driven pump; electric motor, a worm
gear and a stroke sensor on the pedal needed.
Hitachi Electrically-Driven
Intelligent Brake
(EDIB)
Similar to iBooster
Brembo
A hydraulic accumulator, a pump and a master cylinder
needed; size of the Brake Operating Unit is similar to a NP
master cylinder plus a pneumatic booster, but the
Actuated Control Module is added.
Siemens VDO
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
maximum clamping force of 13kN
wedge principle that exploits the kinetic energy of the car
to amplify the clamping force
page 15 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Power Steering System
Three different available power steering systems were compared in the work package WP2300. The main outcome is presented in Table 5. For
implementation in the HCV project the electro-hydraulic powered steering system was chosen. It includes the hydraulic pump BOSCHREXROTH PGF2-2X/008RE01VE4 (output 11 l/min; weight 3 kg) driven by a 3x400 VAC three phase asynchronous motor. This motor can be
powered from the hybrid batteries using a “600 VDC / 3x400 VAC” converter (this is the case for the TAMEL 4 SLg100L-4A-IE2; 1415 rpm/min)
or from the on board 24V supply using an appropriate “24 VDC / 3x400 VAC” converter.
Table 5: Properties of the different power steering systems (green: chosen system)
System
Hydraulic power
steering system
Type
Bosch / LUK
CO2
Reduction
no decrease
in Power
Consumption
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
Costs
835 €
Weight
Packaging and
Implementation
Effort
57 kg
hydraulic hoses
must travel
through the
vehicle,
because the
engine is in the
back and the
steering gear in
front of the bus
page 16 of 25
Additional
Information
Considerations
Are operated via
combustion
engine and only
work when
combustion
engine is running.
Reference unit:
The simplest and
cheapest solution
to the classic drive
buses with diesel
engine. Not
applicable for
hybrid and electric
buses.
__________________________________________________________________________
System
Electrohydraulic
powered
steering
system
Electric
power
steering
system
Type
CO2
Reduction
Tamel +
Bosch
decreased fuel
consumption of
about 1
l/100km in
urban area, 0.3
to 0.4 l/100km
outside
No
Supplier
for this
solution
up to 0.33
l/100 km,
decrease in
CO2 emission
of about 8
g/km
Costs
1,380 €
significantly
lower
operating and
maintenance
costs
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
Weight
Packaging and
Implementation
Effort
Additional
Information
Considerations
73 kg (electric
engine weight:
22kg)
All components are
located near the
left front wheel
arch; less
problematic, no
hydraulic hoses
through the total
length of the bus
Used system:
BOSCH-REXROTH
pump driven by a
TAMEL electric
engine, ZF
steering gear.
Chosen: Preferable solution
for hybrid and electric buses,
where engine is not present
or not working all the time
while in motion.
Already used for
passenger cars,
for trucks TRW is
developing a
prototype
Not chosen: This solution has
many advantages such as no
hydraulics, greater driving
precision, easier servicing
then others. Unfortunately
there is no solution for buses
/truck due to a heavy electric
motor. The size of this
solution will have to be so
large to provide adequate
power assistance.
> 73 kg due to
an electric
motor weight
problematic due to
large sizes of
electric motors
page 17 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
High Power Generator
These main criteria were considered for choosing the Vanner high power generator: Efficiency; reliability; reduced maintenance costs; possible
direct replacement of belt driven alternator or in parallel for additional low voltage loads. The investigations on this component have been
performed in the work package WP2400. Details about the technical specification can be found in deliverable D2400.2 [5]. The main information
on the components is presented in Table 6. Further advantages compared to a system of four alternators:






25-30% efficiency improvement
stable DC power for all temperatures and engine speeds
precise and maintenance-free integrated voltage regulation
rugged, reliable performance - constructed to last at least until the bus mid-life
innovative design and installation location eliminates safety concerns and maintenance problems
eliminating some maintenance intensive parts"
Table 6: Details for the Vanner high power generator
Component
CO2 Reduction
Vanner high
power
generator
(HVDC)
Potential to reduce
power
consumption by
30-60 % compared
to mechanical one
Costs
3,400 €
Weight
Packaging and Implementation Effort
Considerations
34 kg
roof mounted, decoupled from engine - no risk of
thermal events, more flexibility and efficiency;
mounting on a flat horizontal surface not in a zeroclearance compartment (overheating); min 4 inches
distance to fan inlet and outlet. Special cable for
connection with existing electrics needed.
Chosen: Device recommended by hybrid
system supplier. Supplier Statement:
"Allison has only validated the VANNER
DC/DC converter. Therefore VANNER is,
at this point, the only supplier allowed
in combination with the Allison Hybrid"
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 18 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Electrical Fan
In the work package WP2400 the possibility to replace the mechanical radiator fan with electrical fans has been investigated. Details about this
components can be found in deliverable D2400.2 [5]. For this investigation the standard hydraulic driven fan system consuming about 14.4 kW
was replaced by a unit with six smaller electrical fans located on a common cooling plate (6 x 335 W) leading to a maximum power consumption
of 2.01 kW. The main characteristics of the component are presented in Table 7.
Table 7: Properties of chosen the electrical EBM-Papst fan. This fan was chosen because of its good price/performance ratio.
System
Component
CO2 Reduction
Electric
Fan
ebm-papst
W3G 300 - ER
38 - 45
(Cummins
ISB 6.7 285H
+ Vossloh
Kiepe)
CO2 emission decreased
by 4 %; fuel
consumption was 4.6 %
lower in test; ev. leading
to 1.2 - 5 % FC reduction
for real load conditions
Costs
-
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
Weight
Packaging and Implementation
Effort
Additional Information
2.5 kg per unit
(18 kg for six
units compared
to 40 kg of the
hydrostatic fan)
A higher amount of smaller electrical
fans can be packaged easier and allow
much more flexibility in size and
packaging; No mounting limitations,
integrated brushless electric motor.
Smaller size and lower weight than
hydrostatic fan.
Rotational speed of the fan is
independent from the one of
the engine; No hydraulic
drive assembly (hydraulic
lines, fluid storage)--> weight
saving ; lower operating
costs;
page 19 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Electrified Diesel Particle Filter Systems
Various different systems for diesel particulate filters have been investigated as presented in Tables 8 to 10. The chosen system for testing in
the HCV project is the BEKIPOR® ST DPF 803 product of Bekaert N.V. employing the metallic fiber fleece material as the filter substrate.
The system consists of 6-8 filter modules (for packaging reasons most likely rectangular ones) and is able to fulfill all requirements concerning
soot mass and limits for particle numbers. The filter was investigated in course of the works of the work package WP2400. Further details on the
system can be found in the deliverable 2400.6 [6]. The interaction with the hybrid system and the possibility of controlling the regeneration by
the usage of the recuperative braking energy and the energy at idle conditions leads to a 50 % energy reduction compared to non-electrical
systems.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 20 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Table 8: Properties of different investigated DPF Systems 1/3
Ceramic
Wall-Flow
Filters
Type
CO2 Reduction
Costs
Silicon
Carbide
Baseline. Higher DPF thermal
mass than other wall-flow (so
more energy for regeneration).
Partly offset by higher thermal
conductivity and refractory
qualities which allow higher
soot mass limit.
Low capital cost
and (application
dependent)
operating costs;
very low
maintenance
costs
Cordierite
Baseline. Lower thermal mass
makes DPF heat up faster but
lower soot load must be
maintained due to danger for
material thermal damage.
Very low capital
and maintenace
costs and
Weight
Additional Information
Decision
3 kg material
weight for a
light truck DPF.
Relatively high filtration efficiency. Useful
life determined by ash accumulation. A
semiconductor material (electrical resistivity
decreases with temperature.) Good overall
robustness relative to ceramic wall-flow
monolith materials, hoever high coef.
thermal expansion forces use of segmented
design i.e. more cost.
Potentially compatible with direct
electrification but ceramic-to-metal
electrical interfacing is challenging /
unproven for on-board. Need relatively
high (50 - 200 V) and variable voltage and
tight control due to negative resistance
coefficient of SiC with temperature.
2.0 kg material
weight for a
light truck DPF.
Lightest of the materials. More sensitive to
excessive soot load which may cause
thermal runaway. Relatively high filtration
efficiency.
Not directly compatible with
electrification. Lower thermal mass than
other wall-flow monolith materials and so
faster to heat up. Most suitable of the
ceramic wall-flow for shore-power
electrical regeneration or with manifold
DPF and exhaust diversion valves.
Not directly compatible with
electrification. Production facilities for
the Airify™ filters were closed and
product stopped (during HCV project
runtime).
Mullite
Potentially a slight benefit in
regeneration due to higher
porosity lower thermal mass.
Very low
maintenance and
low capital and
operating costs
2.0 kg material
weight for a
light truck DPF.
Material owned by Dow Corporation.
Extruded as monolithic DPF. Very unique
needle-like (acicular mullite) microstructure.
Relatively high filtration efficiency. Some reentrainment of soot (blow-off) has been
observed in bench tests.
Aluminiu
m
Titanate
Potentially significant
advantage due to combination
of low heat capacity and high
thermal conductivity.
Very low
maintenance and
low capital and
operating costs
2.5 kg material
weight for a
light truck DPF.
Most robust to thermal shock due to low
thermal expansion coefficient and specific
heat capacity similar to SiC. Relatively high
filtration efficiency.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 21 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Table 9: Properties of different investigated DPF Systems 2/3
Metal
filters
Type
CO2 Reduction
Costs
Weight
Additional Information
Decision
Sintered
metal
powder
(granular)
on a wire
mesh
If electrified directly, potential
reduction in regeneration energy
by 50% due to direct thermal
energy deposition through soot
contact. Some disadvantage
versus metal fibre fleece due to
high thermal mass.
The most expensive
of the metal filters
but cost
acceptability proven
by non-powertrain
commercial
applications.
Approx. 5 kg
material weight
for a light truck
DPF system.
(estimated 6 - 7 kg
with electrification
packaging)
Stainless steel alloy wire mesh and
interstitial sintered powder - would
need relatively low voltages / high
current for use as electrical resistance
heating element.
Filtration efficiency is not on par with
latest formulations of non-woven metallic
fleece. Older formulations had better
filtration efficiency but approx. double
2
the weight (over 3kg per m of filtration
area). Higher thermal mass than metal
fiber fleece.
sintered
metal
felt/fleece
(fibrous)
If electrified directly, potential
50% reduction in regeneration
energy due to direct thermal
energy deposition through tight
soot contact. Low thermal mass
DPF wall allows the use of short
(5 - 50 sec.) pulses for
regeneration.
Very good
operating costs,
good maintenance
cost. Acceptability
of capital costs
proven by small
scale commercial
deployment.
High intrinsic
density of metal
but high porosity
wall. Material and
module packaging
weight of 4 kg for
a light truck DPF
system.
Available fleece strip (resistance)
values easilly compatible with 24-48 V
and currents available on-board light
truck or heavy duty hybrids. Modular
concept is exploited to allow reduce
electrical energy needed for
regeneration.
Feasibility of regeneration by direct
electrification already proven. Fibrous
structures are closer to filtration
efficiency vs. pressure drop optimum.
Advanced formulation of DPF-targetted
metal fiber fleece available and in
production. Proof-of-concept with older
formulation (HiCEPs Project) showed very
low energy requirement for regeneration.
Sintered
metal foam
(partial
filters)
Can improve performance of
downstream DPF by acting as
flow distributor and by partial
soot reduction, thereby reducing
regeneration frequency by ≈20%
if sufficient NOx / temperature
available in exhaust. However,
can exhibit high pressure drop at
high exhaust volume flow.
Acceptable cost as
an auxiliary
component of
integral DPF system.
Higher capital cost
than ceramic foam.
Less than 0.5 kg
added weight for a
light truck DPF
system.
For its continuous self-cleaning,
requires NOx levels which are less
frequently found in contemporary
engines' raw exhaust. Would be
primarilly considered only as (flowdistributing) replacement of existing
flow-through honeycomb DOC.
Partial soot capture function is desirable
to assist DPF function. Hoewever, not
really compatible in combination with
modular electrified DPF where flow nonuniformity is less critical and which is
anyway exploited for reducing
regeneration energy expenditure.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 22 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Table 10: Properties of different investigated DPF Systems 3/3
Type
CO2 Reduction
Costs
Ceramic
Fiber
Filters
Cartridge
s
(ceramic
fiber
wound
over
metal
support
tubes heating
elements
)
Thermal energy deposited
downstream of soot layer
with indirect thermal contact.
Can only regenerate in low
exhaust flow otherwise power
and energy needed equals or
exceeds fuel post-injection
regeneration.
More expensive
than the other
systems but cost
could be
acceptable if the
electrification
brings added
value.
Ceramic
Foam
Filters
Cylindric
al or oval
wafers of
10 - 20
pores per
inch
(partial
soot
reductio
n / prefilter)
Can improve performance of
downstream DPF by acting as
flow distributor and by partial
soot reduction, thereby
reducing regeneration
frequency by ≈20% if
sufficient NOx / temperature
available in exhaust.
However, can exhibit high
pressure drop at high exhaust
volume flow.
Acceptable cost
as an auxiliary
component of
integral DPF
system. Has
been
commercially
applied pre2010.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
Additional Information
Decision
Approx. 5 kg
weight
(cartridge
holders and
ceramic) for a
light truck
DPF.
Wound fiber layer microstructure
less optimal for filtration than nonwoven fleece - susceptible to blowoff.
Compatible with electrification.
Wound fibers microstructure and
lower filtration area macrostructure
potentially not compatible with very
high filtration efficiency requirements
of new regulations. Regeneration
energy requirement higher than
electrified sintered metal due to
indirect contact between soot and
heating element.
Less than 0.5
kg added
weight for a
light truck
DPF system.
Auxiliary component that can be
included in a DPF system. Cannot be
the filtration medium standalone.
Cylindrical or oval wafers (short
monoliths) used as oxidation catalyst
support, flow distributor and partial
soot filter. Probably, required NOx
levels for its self-cleaning are no
longer available in raw exhaust.
Considered as candidate pre-filter to
enhance function of downstream
metal DPF (flow uniformity enhances
main DPF filtration and partial soot
capture gives longer regeneration
interval). However, NOT chosen
because of incompatibility with low
NOx levels of contemporary engines.
Also, partial incompatibility with nonround exhaust sections.
Weight
page 23 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion
For each of the electrified auxiliary which needed to be developed in the HCV project a corresponding hardware component is available on the
market. For some components there were more appropriate solutions identified by the corresponding partners. From these available solutions
the one suitable for the requirements of the HCV project was selected.
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 24 of 25
__________________________________________________________________________
References
[1]
HCV Report; HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV) DELIVERABLE D2500.1, DECISION MATRIX (AVL), June 2013
[2]
HCV Report; HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV) DELIVERABLE D2500.2, IMPLEMENTATION REPORT (AVL, CRF, ALTRA,
VOLVO), June 2013
[3]
HCV Report; HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV) DELIVERABLE D2200.2, DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS OF AUXILIARIES FOR
E-A/C (CRF), E-COMPRESSOR AND E-HEATING (SOLARIS), May 2013
[4]
HCV Report; HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV) DELIVERABLE D2300.2, DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS OF AUXILIARIES FOR
ELECTRICALLY POWERED STEERING SERVO (SOLARIS) AND ELECTRICAL ACTUATED MECHANICAL BRAKES (CRF), April
2013
[5]
HCV Report; HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV) DELIVERABLE D2400.2, DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS OF AUXILIARIES FOR
ELECTRICAL FAN, HIGH POWER GENERATOR (SOLARIS), April 2013
[6]
HCV Report; HYBRID COMMERCIAL VEHICLE (HCV) DELIVERABLE D2400.6, DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE
AFTERTREATMENT SYSTEM (CERTH), May 2013
HCV Hybrid Commercial Vehicle – D2500.1, Rev_0
page 25 of 25
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising