Using Grid Tools in the RockWorks Utilities to Modify a

Using Grid Tools in the RockWorks Utilities to Modify a
Using Grid Tools in the RockWorks Utilities to Modify
a Borehole Manager Stratigraphy Model
Before
After
Summary
Creating a geological model with RockWorks can be tricky with certain datasets. When a
Stratigraphy Model is created in the Borehole Manager, the program creates a top and base grid
for each unit listed in the Stratigraphy Table. After model generation, you can view these grids,
stored in the Project Directory, in the RockWorks Project Manager. The following steps
demonstrate how you can use Grid Math and the Polygon Filter to modify the grids for the uppermost unit (the A-Horizon, displayed in green) so that they look more realistic.
Table of Contents
Summary........................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................................................. 1
Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Step 1: Using Grid Math to Create an Isopach (Thickness) Grid..................................................................................... 3
Step 2: Digitizing a Polygon Table in RockPlot2D.......................................................................................................... 4
Step 3: Clipped an Isopach Grid with a Polygon ............................................................................................................. 4
Step 4: Using the New Isopach to create a New A-Horizon_Base.grd file ...................................................................... 6
Step 5: Rebuilding the Stratigraphy Model Using the New Grids ................................................................................... 6
Discussion: Other Tools that can be used for Stratigraphic Modeling ............................................................................. 6
The Grid Editor ............................................................................................................................................................ 7
The Range Filter........................................................................................................................................................... 9
Table of Figures
Figure 1: RockWorks14 Project Manager displaying GRD file names............................................................................. 2
Figure 2: Isopach contour map resulting from a Grid Math subtraction operation ........................................................... 3
Figure 3: Isopach Map with digitized polyline ................................................................................................................. 4
Figure 4: Sample Polygon Table....................................................................................................................................... 4
Figure 5: Polygon-clipped Isopach Map ........................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 6: Rebuilt stratigraphy model using customized A-Horizon grids......................................................................... 6
Figure 7: RockWorks Grid Editor..................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 8: Enlargement of “bull’s eye” in isopach map ..................................................................................................... 8
Figure 9: Isopach contours before and after grid editing................................................................................................... 8
Figure 10: Isopach contours before and after smoothing .................................................................................................. 9
Figure 11: Isopach map before and after application of a range filter............................................................................. 10
Figure 12: Rebuilt stratigraphy model using customized Spergen Fm grids................................................................... 10
Introduction
Often, stratigraphy models created in the Borehole Manager do not display pinched-out units
properly. The “Hide Thin Zones” option available under the Stratigraphy Modeling Options
helps with this problem by allowing the user to specify a minimum thickness cutoff, below which
the units appear transparent. However, this option does not work in all cases, nor does it fix the
problem for fence diagrams, cross-sections or profiles cutting through the solid model. The
exercise below describes some techniques that take advantage of the Grid tools in the RockWorks
Utilities to modify grids created in the Borehole Manager.
Note that this exercise has been performed with the Samples dataset included with RockWorks14.
You should be able to follow along once you have created a Stratigraphy model in the Borehole
Manager. Once a Stratigraphy model is created, you can use the Project Manager window to
display the GRD files that make up the model.
Figure 1: RockWorks14 Project Manager displaying GRD file names
Step 1: Using Grid Math to Create an Isopach (Thickness) Grid
Before you start a project such as this with your own model, it is strongly suggested that
you backup all of the Stratigraphy grids in your project folder!
After you have created a Stratigraphy model in the Borehole Manager, click on the “Utilities” tab
on the left side of the screen, so that the RockWorks Utilities portion of the program is displayed.
Go to Grid Æ Math Æ Grid & Grid Math. In the options window, specify the following input:
Model “A”:
A-Horizon_Top.grd
Model “B”:
A-Horizon_Base.grd
Operation:
Subtract (C=A-B)
Model “C”:
A-Horizon_Isopach_1.grd
(you will have to type this
name in since you are
assigning this name to a new
GRD file)
Figure 2: Isopach contour map resulting from a Grid Math subtraction operation
You may want to adjust your 2D Grid display options so that you can view bore locations,
measured thicknesses for the unit, and color contours in a map. You also may want to adjust the
contour level to show smaller values (in the example above, we chose a contour interval of 1).
This will help you visually determine where you think the A-Horizon unit should pinch out.
Step 2: Digitizing a Polygon Table in RockPlot2D
In RockPlot2D, go to Digitize Æ Polyline. Next, use your mouse to draw a polyline around the
area where you would like to A-Horizon unit to exist. Notice that as you digitize the polyline,
data should be added to the data window in the bottom left hand corner of the RockPlot window.
To finish digitizing, double click on the last point in the polyline.
Figure 3: Isopach Map with digitized polyline
Next, you should click on the
“Copy only numeric data into the Windows clipboard” button,
which is located just above the digitized data window on the right side of the RockPlot window.
This copies the XY values in the polyline to the Windows Clipboard in a format that can be
pasted into a Polygon Table.
Go back to the RockWorks program, and click
on the “Tables” tab on the left side of the
screen. This window displays a list of different
auxiliary files that can be used in RockWorks
(other types of files include custom contours,
custom colors, etc). Click on the “Polygon”
option. A new window titled “Polygon Table”
should appear. In this window, go to File Æ
New, and then Edit Æ Paste. You should now
see the XY values from the digitized polyline
in the data matrix. Save this file as a TAB file
by going to File Æ Save. Store the table in the
Sample project directory and name it “AHorizon polygon.tab”.
Figure 4: Sample Polygon Table
Step 3: Clipping an Isopach Grid with a Polygon
Return to the RockWorks Utilities by clicking on the Utilities tab on the left side of the window.
Go to Grid Æ Filter Æ Polygon Clip. In the Grid Polygon Filter Options window, specify the
following input:
Input (Grid) Model:
A-Horizon_Isopach_1.grd
Output (Grid) Model:
A-Horizon_Isopach_2.grd
Polygon Vertex Table:
A-Horizon polygon.tab
Filter Type: Exterior
New Exterior Value: 0
Figure 5: Polygon-clipped Isopach Map
The resulting diagram should look similar to the diagram above. Note that all of the grid values
outside of the polygon now have a value of 0.
Step 4: Using the New Isopach to create a New A-Horizon_Base.grd file
In the Utilities, go to Grid Æ Math Æ Grid and Grid Math. Specify the following input:
Model “A”: A-Horizon_Top.grd (This is the original A-Horizon top surface.)
Model “B”: A-Horizon_Isopach_2.grd (This is the clipped A-Horizon isopach model.)
Operation: Subtract (C=A-B)
Model “C”: A-Horizon_Base.grd (Here you are overwriting the original AHorizon_Base.grd file in the project folder. Why? By subtracting the constrained thickness
model from the original A-Horizon top, this now pinches out the A-Horizon base in the zerothickness areas.)
Rerun the Grid Æ Math Æ Grid and Grid Math step, this time overwriting the top of the
Spergen Formation:
Model “A”: A-Horizon_Top.grd (Again, this is the original A-Horizon top surface.)
Model “B”: A-Horizon_Isopach_2.grd (Again, this is the clipped A-Horizon isopach
model.)
Operation: Subtract (C=A-B)
Model “C”: Spergen Fm._Top.grd
In this second step, you are overwriting the grid for the top of the Spergen Fm., which is the unit
directly below the A-Horizon. This is an important step so that the Spergen top directly underlies
the base of A-Horizon.
Step 5: Rebuilding the Stratigraphy Model Using the New Grids
In the Borehole Manager, go to Stratigraphy Æ Model. Make sure that “Interpolate Surfaces” is
NOT checked. Also, check ON “Hide Thin Zones”, and specify a thickness cutoff of 0. The
resulting model should reflect the changes that you just made to the A-Horizon grid files.
Figure 6: Rebuilt stratigraphy model using customized A-Horizon grids
Discussion: Other Tools that can be used for Stratigraphic Modeling
The Grid Editor
The RockWorks Utilities grid editor is used to edit the node values stored in a RockWorks grid
model, or to create from scratch a new grid with user declared dimensions and node values.
You can open the grid editor by going to Grid Æ Edit in the RockWorks Utilities. The Grid
Editor is composed of 4 main parts:
•
The main part of the Grid Editor is the "Grid Map." This is where the node values for the
new grid model or the existing grid model will be displayed.
•
The Grid Editor tools are found in the menus and toolbar buttons along the top of the
window.
•
The Grid Editor options, which adjust how the data is displayed in the Grid Map, are
displayed along the left side of the window.
•
The Reference area is located at the very top of the window. This lists the X, Y, and Z
values where the cursor is currently pointing.
X, Y and Z values
for the node where
your cursor is
pointing
Grid Editor Options
Figure 7: RockWorks Grid Editor
In this example, we want to address the “bull’s eye” thickness depression that is modeled around
borehole DH-02 in the A-Horizon isopach grid. Note that the thickness for the A-Horizon near
borehole 2 is 0.98. The model honors this thickness, but the thickness then increases towards the
edge of unit before it goes to 0 thickness.
Thickness of unit should
decrease rather than increase
towards the edge of the unit.
Figure 8: Enlargement of “bull’s eye” in isopach map
Thickness contours around the DH-02 point are displayed below – before and after tools in the
grid editor were used to modify the values in the grid cells surrounding the point.
Initial Isopach Contours
Isopach Contours After Grid Editing
Figure 9: Isopach contours before and after grid editing
You can use the grid editor to change values at individual grid nodes, as in the example above, or
you can use it to selectively smooth a very specific area within a grid (for example, a jagged edge
along the boundary of a sand lens). The images below show contours before and after the grid
editor “smoothing” tool was used along the boundary of the A-Horizon unit.
Before Smoothing
After Smoothing
Figure 10: Isopach contours before and after smoothing
Once you have modified your isopach grid using the grid editor, you can use the same steps
described above to subtract it from the top GRD surface of the unit to create a new base surface
(see step 4 above).
The Range Filter
The RockWorks Utilities Grid Range Filter deletes high or low Z-values from a grid file,
reassigning them a user-specified constant. You can find the Range Filter tool under the Grid Æ
Filters menu in the RockWorks Utilities.
In the images below, an initial isopach thickness map is displayed on the left, along with
measured thickness values. The map on the right shows the map after it was run through a Range
Filter. The following input was specified in the Range Filter options window:
Input (Grid) Model: Spergen Isopach 1.grd
Output (Grid) Model: Spergen Isopach 2.grd
Filter Type: Low-Stop/High-Pass Filter
Threshold: 10
Replacement Value: 0
As you can see, all of the grid nodes on the outer edges of the map (which originally had values
between 0 and 10) now have a value of 0.
Spergen Unit Isopach
before range filter
Spergen Unit Isopach
after Low-Stop/High
Pass Range Filter
Figure 11: Isopach map before and after application of a range filter
Once you’ve used the Range Filter, you may want to use the Grid Editor described above to
smooth out the boundaries along the edges of the unit. You can then, as mentioned before, use
grid math to subtract the new isopach grid from the top of the unit, creating a new base grid for
the unit.
Figure 12: Rebuilt stratigraphy model using customized Spergen Fm grids
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