ON THE STUDY OF THE ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF THE SEMINAR HALLS NURUL HAMIZAH BINTI MOHAMED UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA i ON THE STUDY OF THE ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF THE SEMINAR HALLS NURUL HAMIZAH BINTI MOHAMED This report is submitted in fullfillment of the requirement for the award Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering ( Design & Innovation) Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka DISEMBER 2014 ii DECLARATION “I hereby declare that the work in this report is my own except for summaries and quotations which have been duly acknowledged.” Signature: ................................... Author: Nurul Hamizah Mohamed Date: ................................... iii SUPERVISOR DECLARATION “I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Design & Innovation)” Signature: ................................... Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr Azma Putra Date: ................................... iv For my left shoulders: Mohamed Mahat Nor’ashikin Kasbi Nurul Hasyimah Mohamed Nurul Hazwani Mohamed Muhammad Ammar Ashraf Mohamed and the right shoulder v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Assoc Prof. Dr Azma Putra. Without fail, he has provided me details guidance and encourages me throughout the project. He has always been enthusiastic in solving, reflecting, responding and advising my problems. I appreciate for the countless time he had spent having discussion with me regarding my final year project and offering numerous suggestion to improve my work. Secondly, I would like to acknowledge and give appreciation to a senior, Dg Hafizah Kassim, for giving suggestions, sharing knowledge and provide guidance throughout the project, mostly on modelling and analyzing using CATT Software. Her knowledge has helped me a lot on completing this project. Special thanks go to my parents and families for their good-natured forbearance with the process and for their pride in this accomplishment. My gratitude is for their understandings of my busy life and pack schedules. My gratitude are also go to The Saujanas: Siti Masyita Noraziman, Nabilah Zafirah Jantan, Amira Khalida Mohd Nasir, Noor Asekin Md Yasukin, Nur Haziqah Mohd Ruzmi, Nurul Asyilah Zakaria and Nurul Jannah Baharuddin, who always dedicate me moral support and ideas on solving problems and sharing knowledge. Their kindness has built me up to be a strong and dedicated person. Nevertheless, thanks to my course-mates and friends for their support, patience, encouragement and useful suggestions. vi ABSTRACT A seminar is generally, a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. While listening to a speech, a clear sound is a very important. Clear sound will directly affect the listener’s attention. A person who develops skills in poor acoustic environment may develop long-term speech comprehension problems. Loud and noisy environment will tend to make the audience loss focus and the interest to learn. The noise and reverberation is also can inhibit the reading and spelling ability, behavior, attention, concentration and academic performance. In this research, the study of the acoustic performance of halls will be the main part of the projects. To narrowing the research, two Seminar Halls in UTeM have been chose to be the examples. The halls are Dewan UTeM 1 and Dewan Besar UTeM. This is because the reflection and refraction of sounds can be influenced by the materials used. Reinforcement system brings so much outputs of humming, buzzing, vibration and echoes. This study will helps on giving result of good acoustic performance in the way to give best decision for the architects to either choose the correct materials in building or else, allocate absorbers in the right position. vii ABSTRAK Seminar umumnya merupakan satu bentuk pengajaran akademik , sama ada di institusi akademik atau ditawarkan oleh organisasi komersial atau profesional . Semasa mendengar ucapan seminar, bunyi yang jelas adalah sangat penting . Bunyi yang jelas secara langsung boleh menjejaskan perhatian pendengar . Seseorang yang berada dalam persekitaran akustik yang lemah boleh meningkatkan masalah pertuturan kefahaman. Persekitaran yang kuat dan bising akan cenderung kepada pendengar untuk hilang tumpuan dan minat untuk belajar. Bunyi dan gema juga boleh menghalang bacaan dan kebolehan ejaan, tingkah laku, perhatian, tumpuan dan prestasi akademik . Dalam kajian ini , prestasi akustik dewan akan menjadi bahagian utama projek . Sebagai bahan penyelidikan , dua Dewan Seminar di UTeM telah dipilih iaitu Dewan UTeM 1 dan Dewan Besar UTeM . Bahan-bahan dinding , lantai dan siling dewan merupakan subjek utama yang akan dikaji dalam kajian ini . Ini kerana pantulan dan pembiasan bunyi boleh dipengaruhi oleh bahan-bahan yang digunakan. Sistem yang biasa digunakan membawa begitu banyak output bersenandung, bergetar dan bergema . Kajian ini akan membantu dalam kajian memberikan hasil prestasi akustik yang baik dengan cara yang memberi keputusan terbaik bagi arkitek untuk memilih bahan-bahan yang betul dalam pembinaan bangunan atau dalam pemasangan penyerap bunyi di kedudukan yang betul. viii TABLE OF CONTENT TOPIC CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 PAGE TITLE PAGE i DECLARATION ii SUPERVISOR DECLARATION iii DEDICATION iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v ABSTRACT vi ABSTRAK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS viii LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF SYMBOLS xiii INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Problem Statement 2 1.3 Objectives 3 1.4 Scope 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 4 2.2 Sound Absorption 5 2.3 Reverberation Time 6 2.4 Speech Intelligibility 9 2.5 Rapid Speech Transmission Index 10 2.6 Early Decay Time 11 2.7 Clarity 12 2.8 Early Energy Fraction 13 ix CHAPTER 3 METHADOLOGY 3.1 Flow Chart 14 3.2 Seminar Halls 15 3.3 Modeling 3.3.1 CATT Acoustic 17 3.3.2 Point Declaration 18 3.3.3 Planes Production 19 3.3.4 Coefficient of Absorption 20 3.4 Analyzing 3.4.1 Source and Receiver 3.5 Validation Experiment 21 3.5.1 Sound Level Meter 23 3.5.2 Experimental Source and Receiver 23 3.6 Summary CHAPTER 4 20 24 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Dewan UTeM 1 25 4.1.1 Reverberation Time 27 4.1.2 Clarity 29 4.1.3 Early Energy Fraction 31 4.2 Dewan Besar 32 4.2.1 Reverberation Time 32 4.2.2 Clarity 36 4.2.3 Early Energy Fraction 37 4.3 Suggestion on Improving The Acoustic Performance CHAPTER 5 4.3.1 Dewan UTeM 1 38 4.3.2 Dewan Besar 41 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDICES x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE 2.1 Frequency Range of Typical Sound Source (Everest & PAGE 5 Pohlman, 2009) 2.2 2.3 The Ray Path of the Reflection and Absorption of Sound (Crandall, 1926) Graph of Reverberation Time by Taking Sound Level versus 6 8 Time (Grade et al, 2001) 2.4 The Variation of Optimum Reverberation Time with Volume 9 (Noise Pollution and Its Control, 1989) 2.5 Qualitative Interpretation of RASTI (Sound System 11 Equipment Part 16). 3.1 The Flow Chart of Methodology 14 3.2 Interior Part of Dewan UTeM 1 16 3.3 Interior Part of Dewan Besar 17 (a) Views from right (b) Views from left (c) Views fom back 3.4 Logo of CATT Acoustic 18 3.5 The management of Point from Each Axis 18 3.6 Declaration of each point for Dewan UTeM by using CATT 19 Software 3.7 Declaration of Planes of Dewan UTeM 1 by using CATT 19 Software. 3.8 Declaration of Coefficient of Material Absorption of Dewan 20 UTeM 1 by using CATT Software 3.9 Declaration of the Sources for Dewan UTeM 1 by using CATT Software. 21 xi 3.10 Declaration of the Receivers for Dewan UTeM 1 by using 21 CATT Software 3.11 Measurement setup for the Validation Experiment 22 3.12 SLM set in the experiment: 23 (a) SLM is calibrated before used. (b) SLM being put on 1.2m tripod stand 3.13 The points of Reverberation Time in Experiment 24 4.1 The Model of Dewan UTeM 1: 26 (a) views from sides of the hall (b) views from the floor of the hall 4.2 The Reverberation Time of Receivers in Dewan UTeM 1 27 4.3 27 4.4 The Optimum Reverberation Time Graph Depends on The Room Volume for 500Hz Octave Sound.  The Experimental Reverberation Time of Dewan UTeM 1 4.5 The Clarity of Dewan UTeM 1 30 4.6 The Division of the Receivers in Dewan UTeM 1 30 4.7 The Early Energy Fraction of Dewan UTeM 1 31 4.8 Model of Dewan Besar UTeM: 33 29 (a) views from the side of the hall (b) views from the below of the hall 4.9 The Reverberation Time of Dewan Besar 34 4.10 The Reverberation Time for The Receiver That Be Sitting on 35 Stage 4.11 The Distribution of Early Energy Fraction of Receiver That 36 Sit on Stage 4.12 Figure 4.12: The Distribution of Clarity in Dewan Besar 36 4.13 Figure 4.13: The Distribution of Early Energy Fraction in 37 Dewan Besar. xii 4.14 Soundboard Set on Dewan UTeM 1 Ceiling 38 4.15 The Acoustic Performance of Dewan Utem 1 with 39 Soundboard as Absorber 4.16 Graph of Difference RT Before and After Soundboard 39 Installation 4.17 Carpet is attached on Dewan UTeM 1 Floor 40 4.18 The Acoustic Performance of Dewan UTeM 1 with Carpet as 40 Absorber 4.19 Graph of Difference RT Before and After Carpet Installation 41 4.20 Nylon Cloth attached to hall ceiling 42 4.21 Result of attaching Nylon Cloth at the hall ceiling. 42 4.22 Figure 4.22: Glass Fence Attached on the Stage 43 4.23 Result of attaching Glass Fence on stage 43 xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS FIGURE TITLE RT Reverberation Time V Volume of Rooms in m3 S Total surface area of room in m2 Α Average of Coefficient of Material Absorption of the room surfaces E(t) Early Decay Time (EDT) p Impulse response τ Early Limit of Sound C Clarity D Early Energy Fraction CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND A speech is a method of delivering messages, knowledge or lectures. In delivering a speech, most all the activities involve speech between the source (deliver) and the receivers. While listening to a speech, a clear sound is a very important. Clear sound will directly affect the listener’s attention. According to Smaldino & Crandell (1999), a person who develops skills in poor acoustic environment may develop long-term speech comprehension problems. In a classroom, as example, loud and noisy environment will tend to make the students loss focus and the interest to learn. The noise and reverberation is also can inhibit the reading and spelling ability, behavior, attention, concentration and academic performance. Hence, classrooms and lecture halls are also important, often neglected, to have a perfect acoustic performance to make sure the speech can be delivered smoothly and correctly. 2 In this research, the study of the acoustic performance of lecture halls will be the main part of the projects. To narrowing the research, two Seminar Halls in UTeM have been chose to be the specimens. The halls are Dewan UTeM 1 and Dewan Besar UTeM. The materials of the walls, floors and tops of the halls are the main subject to be examined in this study. This is because the reflection and refraction of sounds can be influenced by the materials used. On the same time, most of the lecture halls, in huge or small size, are using reinforcement system. Reinforcement system is where combination of tools used to make the sound can be heard in every side of the hall. Addition of tools like microphones, signal processors, amplifiers and loudspeakers will help to make the voice louder. Sometimes, connection of too many reinforcement tools will bring the outputs of humming, buzzing, vibration and echoes. Hence, the factor of getting the clear sound is neglected. This study will helps on giving result of good acoustic performance in the way to give best decision for the architects to either choose the correct materials in building or else, allocate absorbers in the right position. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENTS Audience of a speech cannot give full commitment when listening to the presenter as the sound is having echoes and humming. This problem is actually plays a big role on distracting them to start ignoring and neglecting the speaker. In Dewan UTeM 1 and Dewan Besar UTeM, the reinforcement system brings the echoes and humming during speaker is giving the speech. In Dewan Besar moreover, audiences that sit on the stage are having problem to listen to the speech. Thus, the audience feels uncomfortable with the noisy situations. 3 1.3 OBJECTIVES 1. To model and simulate the acoustic performance of Dewan UTeM 1 and Dewan Besar UTeM using CATT software. 2. To suggest the solutions on improving the acoustic quality of the halls. 1.4 SCOPE This research will only focus on the experimental of acoustic performance of the Seminar Hall by using CATT software. Modelling the shape of the hall will be done as the first step before any analyzing works take place. Measurement of the perimeter of the hall and the material used is noted on modelling the hall inside the software. The project also intends to find the result of the clarity of speech and the reverberation time of the sound waves. The audience area will be set on the floor, and will be labelled in 5 different coordinates. This is to make sure that the performance of the sound will be tested in different points of the hall. Source will be located at where the microphone is always set. The results will then being interpreted and finding solution on how to improve the acoustic quality will be doing. These solutions will be suggested to make sure the sound can be heard clearly and the performance can increase the audience interest. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION Every day we are exposed to sound either is not required, necessary or beneficial for almost twenty-four hours a day, seven day a week. Sound is a vibration that propagates as a typical audible mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through a medium such as air or water. Sound wave that travels through air is the resulting of the physical disturbance of air molecules such when tapping a tuning fork and the waves will combine to reach the listener direct or indirectly (Crandall, 1926). In a general way, the sound wave is any disturbance that transmitted in an elastic medium consisting of gas, liquid or solid (Tong & Wong, 2001). In physical way, there was no different between sound and noise. Actually, sound is sensory perception by human (Mechel et al, 2002) which it is can be detected by the human ears (Everest & Pohlman, 2009). 5 Although sound travels and can be heard but not all sound is audible. Limits of audibility for humans are only between 20Hz to 20 kHz (Charles, 1998). Sound below 20Hz is infrasonic and sound greater than 20 kHz is called an ultrasonic sound. Figure 2.1: Frequency Range of Typical Sound Source (Everest & Pohlman, 2009). Decibel or dB is the most common unit of sound measurement (Charles, 1998). The threshold of hearing is considered to be 0dB and the range sound for normal human experience is 0dB to140dB. 2.2 SOUND ABSORPTION Sound absorption refers to a material, structure or object absorbing sound energy when sound waves collide with it, as opposed to reflecting the energy. Every material has its own ability to absorb sound energy. Materials that have low absorption ability tend to reflect most of the acoustical energy. Sound absorption is a capability of a material to convert sound energy into other energy. Sound energy usually converted to heat energy. Part of the absorbed energy is 6 transformed into heat and part is transmitted. The energy transformed into heat is said to be lost. The property of material absorbing ability is called Sound Absorption Coefficient. To find the coefficient, architect usually used the Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC). If the scale of NRC is 1.0, that mean that the material is perfectly absorptive and if it is 0.0, it is a reflective materials (Crandall, 1926). This coefficient helps the work on choosing the right material for each building walls. Figure 2.2: The Ray Path of the Reflection and Absorption of Sound (Crandall, 1926) 2.3 REVERBERATION TIME When a sound is triggered or generated in a room, many things will happen in a blink of eye. The reflecting boundaries of the room will result repeated reflections which determine the rapid establishment of more or less uniform sound field. And this field then decays as the sound energy is absorbed by the bounding materials. The reflecting surface with its absorptive ability will determine the rate of the sound energy decays. And time taken for the sound intensity to decays for 60 dB is called the “Reverberation Time” (Grade et al, 2001). The Reverberation Time is an important part as a quantity for characterizing the acoustic properties of a room. When building a room, the first step in architectural 7 acoustic design is to identify the good values of the reverberation time depends on the function of the room. Furthermore, we can specify the materials that to be used in the construction which will achieve the desired value of the Reverberation Time. For an example, a classroom should have the reverberation time in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 seconds. But in reality, many did not manage to achieve the suitable reverberation time and having reverberation time of 1 second and more. In such reality cases, teachers have to compete against the lingering reflection of his or her own voice to get the student’s attention. The result is a chaotic jumble of sound (Goelzer & Hansen). In 1922, a pioneer in the study of room acoustics, Wallace Sabine came up with the formula which is defined as Eq. (1) below, RT 0.16m 1 V S (1) The equation above show that the RT is the reverberation time, where V is for the room volume in m 3 , S will be the total surface area in m 2 , and is the average of the absorption coefficient of room surfaces. The formula is based on the volume of space and the total amount of absorption within a space. The total amount of absorption within a space is referred as “Sabins” where the product of S is the total absorption in Sabins. 8 Figure 2.3: Graph of Reverberation Time by Taking Sound Level versus Time (Grade et al, 2001) The graph above show of RT60 where T is defined as the duration required for the space-averaged sound energy density in an enclosure to decrease by 60 dB after the source emission has stopped (Grade et al, 2001). Things that will be effect reverberation are size of space and the amount of reflective or absorptive surface within space (Goelzer & Hansen). A space with high absorptive surface will absorb the sound and stop it from reflecting back into the space (Grade et al, 2001). Reflective surfaces will reflect sound and increase the reverberation time within space. Therefore, a large space will need more absorption instead of reflection in the way to achieve the same reverberation time as a smaller space. In general, the best reverberation times are less than 1 second for speech and longer than 1 second for music. Short reverberation times are necessary for clarity of speech; otherwise, the continuing presence of reverberant sound will mask the following sound and cause the speech to be blurred. Longer reverberation times are considered to enhance the quality of music, which will give “dead” environment if the reverberation time is too short. Larger rooms are judged to require longer reverberation times, as is also the case with lower frequencies of sound. According to Berg and Stork on their research in 1995, the best RT for a speech should be less than 1 second at frequency band of 500Hz and below (Bies & Hansen, 9 1996). The reverberation time of a room must be suitable to the function and volume of the room, should apply for sound frequency from 125Hz to 4,000Hz. Figure 2.4: The Variation of Optimum Reverberation Time with Volume (Noise Pollution and Its Control, 1989) 2.4 SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY Speech intelligibility is defined as a percentage of speech or words heard correctly by the listeners. It is a vital element of human communication. Without outstanding speech intelligibility, communication is hampered. Good intelligibility is influenced by reverberation time (RT), background noise and distance of the listener from the speaker. From the three elements, RT and background noise are influenced by the architecture of the room; therefore, they should be given greater attention at the design stage. However, the quality of speech is also dependent on vocal strength or power, dialect and clarity of the spoken words. From Noxon in his research in 2002 highlighted that in the draft version of the new ISO 9921 standard on the “Assessment of Speech Communication” defined speech intelligibility as “a measure of effectiveness of understanding speech”. The measurement is usually expressed as a percentage of a message that is understood correctly. Speech intelligibility does not imply speech quality. Speech intelligibility is related to the amount of speech items that are recognized correctly, while speech quality is related to 10 the quality of a reproduce speech signal with respect to the amount of audible distortions. Thus, a message that lacks quality may still be intelligible. Speech intelligibility in the hall is a crucial aspect when talk or lecture is given. The non-uniform distribution of the intelligible speech was due to the impaired direct path of the sound from the speaker (Amasuomo, 2013). Echoes experienced in the lecture halls were as a result of the time delay between the arrivals of the initial sound from the speaker and then reflected sound from the parallel walls. The presence of echoes in the halls during speech or seminar is a nuisance. Thus, echoes should be avoided. 2.5 RAPID SPEECH TRANMISSION INDEX (RASTI) RASTI method is an objective method for rating the transmission quality of speech with respect to intelligibility (Sound System Equipment Part 16). The method is intended for rating speech transmission in auditorium, halls and room with or without the sound reinforcement system. It is economical, and time saving for each station can be evaluated either in eight, sixteen or thirty two seconds. Rapid speech transmission index (RASTI) is a simplified version of speech transmission index (STI). A modulated test signal is fed to a loudspeaker at the talker’s location. The receiver’s microphone is positioned at the receiver location. The system gives an accurate read out of the measured RASTI value at the receiver position. RASTI can also take account of the effects of reverberation, as well as background noise (Sound System Equipment Part 16). It tests in only two frequency band with the assumption that the response of the sound system is more than 100Hz to 8 kHz or higher with a flat frequency response. Poor designed systems often tend to show a too optimistic measurement. The measured values were represented by the properly flat systems with the frequency spectrum.